Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1995

Page 1







Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

November 1995


& %



The future of consulting engineering in Canada Wetland wastewater treatment systems across Canada - Part 11

Cold weather protection for elevated water storage tanks Mapping out the wide range of meter reading options Biological nutrient removai for Whistler, B.C. Occupational health and safety

FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

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terface level in tanks.

Numerically displays interface depth in

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Parts Per Million

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• fvlining

either milligrams per liter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that include

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Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features sucfi as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and

sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 in-line sensor is for

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Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable instrumentation for pH,

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ORP, 88, Interface Level and DO

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The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4")

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Automatic Liquid 8ampiing

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8ludge 8ampler

Wherever it's Needed The EPS 1021 Effluent

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• Raw sludge EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler

• Most industrial effluents

To IVtiSA Specifications

Wide Range of Applications

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is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flow

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mable portable wastewater sampler provides

the tank wall. The machine

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sampling to assist in monitoring municipal

basis and is unique in its abil ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo

and industrial waste-

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially

into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

geneous suspended solids.

Typical Applications: • Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs • Mechanical dewatering device feeds

EPS 1030

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• Road tanker loading/dis charge terminals

• Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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October/November '95 Vol. 8



No. 5

Issued November, 1995

Editor and Pubiistier TOM DAVEY Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Special Report

Saies Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4052 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (804) 274-3849


Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumler

NOVAMANN (Ontario) inc. Aian Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng., M.A.Sc. CH2M Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Goodfeiiow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-mcnthiy business pubiicaticn published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

The future ofconsulting engineering in Canada Executives from several of Canada's largest consulting firms give their views on the future role of the consultant in Canada

65 - 76

Wise and witty words on low bidding from three artistic giants of the past WCGR and UW play major role in research to clean up chlorinated pollutants AWWA Teleconference highlights groundwater contamination and watershed protection Mapping out the wide range of meter reading options Wetland wastewater treatment systems across

...9 . 11

. 13 .26

Canada - Part II


Biological nutrient removal for Whistler, B.C Political expediency has become more Important than


environmental science


Pilot-scale testing of tertiary nitrification reveals large potential savings Understanding the effects of lightning and power surges on submersible pumps and other equipment Cold weather protection for elevated water storage tanks Canadian designed research vessel bound for Venezuela lake


.50 .52 .54

Occupational health and safety focus Collaboration of field and laboratory professlonalsdn ilndustrial 9 hygiene monitoring: a laboratory perspective Control of health risks from Legionellosis: a proactive approach: Sick Building Syndrome - emissions from mold and fungus may be culprits in indoor air problems Workplace training - a vital component in environmental compliance

. 18 . 19



ProductAgreement No.18197


Second Class Mall

Registration No.7750

Ad Index


Literature Reviews....

Printed in Canada, by Webb Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may Lie reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subecription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year,$80.00 for two years,$25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra)



Product Review

Date Pad


R&D News

AN advertising space orders,copy,artwork, film, proofs, etc., should tse sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 industrial Pkwy. 8., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tei: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

Industry Update


Reader Service Card.

.55, 56 .57, 62 35

. 17, 65

Cover Story: A major expansion of the Belleville, Ontario water treat ment piant is under way. CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited is heading up this $40 miliion capitai works project, the first major expansion since 1957. It will provide the popuiation of Beileviiie and surrounding townships with an additional 20 mL of potable water. Plant upgrades will provide dissoived air flow flotation and activated carbon and wiil repiace the existing method of filtration through microstrainers. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to

■Blsacpiirate and ddm||etejiE$^i!MliriPt;be^ hdtd;;fdii|?rfsiBjeiitt ■■ Pivu


the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification, f^aterial in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Industry Update connections close

Report. The publication quotes Philip Kerkitsos, of the University of Aegean, as saying that life cannot be sustained for three

Moncton park

sewage outfall. He further observed that

Sewage cross-

to five kilometres on each side of the main

Moncton, NB officials have determined that close to 100 homes in the basin of a creek

flowing into Centennial Park have cross con nections in their sanitary and stormwater sewer systems. The discovery resulted from an investigation to trace high levels of fecal conforms in the city's busiest recreational area. The body of water in Centennial Park

the seabed is covered with a thick layer of sludge containing heavy metals. Athens has been constructing a sewage treatment plant for more than 10 years, lo cated on an islet in the Gulf of Saronicos.

in full compliance during 1994. The environmental award is sponsored

by Environmental Information Ltd., a USbased publication which observes and analyzes the North American hazardous waste management industry. Of the more than 400 sites eligible for the award, only 54 were recipients this year. "Given the strict regulations that gov

ern our industry, it is very difficult to achieve a perfect compliance record," said Laidlaw

Once the plant is completed, it is estimated that the gulf will need about 10 years to re

Environmental President Kenneth W.



has been closed to recreational users since

high levels of bacteria were detected. The city has agreed to pay homeowners up to $500 towards the cost of having their sew age systems reconnected. Critics of this decision claim that the city should pay the

Laldlaw Environmental

Sounds of today

facilities honoured for

Brian Martin of North Carolina demon

compliance records

sound can have when blasted out of a dozen

strated the effect that 4,600 watts of stereo

full cost of reconnection, which could be as

Thirteen Laidlaw Environmental Services

high as $850 for some homes. Since the problem is not expected to be resolved un til late Fall, Centennial Park's boating area will be closed until next year.

facilities, including nine in Canada, have won an international compliance award, given to commercial treatment, storage and disposal operations with perfect operating records under applicable government waste management regulations. The El Environmental Compliance Award was recently presented to Laidlaw Environ-

Zeus would not be


15-inch speakers in his truck. Sonic waves triggered car alarms across Atlanta's Northlake Festival parking lot. His blast "made two people throw up," he boasted. A string quartet premiered a new com

position by German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. Playing their instruments in separate helicopters hovering over Amster dam harbour, music and noise were mixed

uid wastes from 1250 industries and 50

tre locations), Thorold, Guelph and London, Ontario and Ryley, Alberta, along with four

and relayed to a concert hall audience. The Salzburg music festival had planned to pre mier Stockhausen's piece but dropped the idea after environmentalists protested. What next, garden tractors with boom

urban centres, says the International Water

of the company's US facilities, for operating


The marine environment around Greece is

polluted by daily discharges of more than one million cubic metres of sewage, and 500,000 cubic metres of semi-treated liq

Security Insurance

mental's facilities in Debert, Nova Scotia, Ville Ste.-Catherine and Mercier, Quebec,

Mississauga(paint recycling and service cen

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Company of Hartford

has become a Fact of Life Represented by Pro-Form Insurance Services Inc., Security Insurance Company of Hartford's Environmental Insurance Program offers: • extensive risk management education • aggressive loss prevention measures

• a liberal premium credit program • a variety of coverage enfiancements designed to fit tfie unique insurance needs of your firm • the most knowledgeable independent brokers in the business. For more Information about our

Whether you conduct preliminary site assessments, test for air or water

services please contact:

quality or look for lead paint, we believe Security Insurance Company

Mr. Peter R. Matson (President)

of Hartford's Environmental Insurance Program for Design Professionals is the best value in the industry.

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For more information, Circie repiy card No. 191 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Industry Update

equipment for Exxon USA Inc., Baytown, Texas. The plant will produce over 4,000

licenses to export bulk shipments of water, while allowing five existing, small licenses to run for their 15-year terms. According to a report in The Economist, the export ban grew from a fear by govern ment officials that they would lose control of the province's water under the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA).

gallons per minute of demineralized boiler

Considerable concern was voiced over a

ties as a Vice Presi


possibility that, if bulk water shipments were considered a commodity subject to NAFTA's "equal national treatment",

dent of the Ameri

Six million dollar order

for Ecodyne Ecodyne Limited's Graver Water Division has been awarded a contract worth $6 mil lion to design and supply water treatment

Equipment will include three large steel gravity filters, a three train demineralizer, using Ecodyne's proprietary air hold-down counter current regenerated ion exchange process, and two vacuum deaerators. The equipment will be designed in

American and Mexican consumers could

President begins duties Rod Flolme, Vice President, Water &

Wastewater with the consulting firm ofProc tor & Redfem Limited, commenced his du

can Water Works Association at its annual Conference

demand the same access to water supplies

in June this year.

as British Columbia residents.

This follows his

Oakville, Ontario and manufactured in

$48M earmarked for

Canada and the U.S. The order won against strong competition and will be shipped in

North Saskatchewan


American Water Works Association's Vice

River cleanup

election to the po sition by the Board of Directors


January. AWWA has 55,000 mem bers throughout North America, and is the world's foremost drinking water association. As a Vice President of AWWA,Rod will represent the Association at Section meet ings and serve on the Executive Committee.

BC government bans bulk water exports

Edmonton will spend $48 million this year

British Columbia's government has taken steps to ban all bulk water exports from the province. The Water Protection Act also

grade of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treat ment Plant. A report on the city's initia

tives to fight water pollution was requested

In addition to his duties as an AWWA

effectively confirms provincial ownership of all surface and groundwater, and prohibits large diversions between major watersheds.

by a city alderman, who believes that the city needs to do more. The alderman has made specific refer

Vice President, Rod represents the Ontario Board of Directors, and he is a past Direc

The export ban does not include bottled

ence to storm water contamination and com

tor of the Canadian Water & Wastewater


bined sewer overflows. City staff have re sponded that they are doing all that they can with the money available.

Advisory Board of Environmental Science & Engineering.

In recent years, British Columbia offi cials have turned down 14 applications for

to help clean up the North Saskatchewan River. The biggest chunk is a $20M up

Water Works Association on the AWWA

Association. He is also on the Editorial

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fludizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning, sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 60 years.


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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, November 1995

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 192 (See page 17)

Industry Update Water meter study underway for GVRD The Greater Vancouver Regional District's

(GVRD)$100,000 water meter study was declared a good move during mid-July's heat wave when the region's water consumption reached nearly 1.8 billion litres, the high est since 1990.

The study is focusing on the value of water metering in reducing water consump tion. The study will also identify capital and operating costs for a full metering pro gram. The consultant's study is to be com pleted by the end of the year.

Sewage system upgrade urged for London,Ontario London's City Engineer has made an "im passioned plea" for money to undertake an immense overhaul of the city's sewer sys tem. He warned that the province would likely slap a freeze on development, citing in particular the regular overflow at six of the city's seven sewage plants during storm and flooding conditions. Most of the overflow finds its way into the Thames River but some ends up in resi dential basements. Other problems include collapsing, cracked and plugged sewers and combined sanitary/storm sewers.

Pulp and paper - commitment,Investments pay dividends The recent Government of Canada decision

to reopen most non-commercial shellfish

closures on the BC coast is the latest chap ter in a remarkable success story,says Presi dent and Chief Executive Officer of the

Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Lise Lachapelle.

The BC fisheries reopening is one ex ample of the environmental benefits result

ing from investments totalling $3.6 billion Canada wide between 1989 and 1994 by Canadian pulp and paper companies to im prove air and water quality. This was ac complished by reducing discharges and emissions from mills through process changes and the construction of wastewater treatment facilities. For 1995 alone invest

ment forecast for environmental improve ments exceeds one billion dollars.

It is noteworthy that recent reopenings were based on analyses of the 1994 data, which also show a continued decline in

dioxin and furan deposits from previous The sewage system upgrade funding pro posal is based on applying a surcharge of 103% on water bills, equivalent to an esti mated annual increase of $141.00 for the

typical residence. The surcharge would be

years. The analyses of 1995 data are ex pected to result in even further improve ments and reopenings. The Canadian pulp and paper industry made important public commitments soon after the presence of small quantities of dioxins and furans in pulp mill effluents was discovered in 1987. The industry commit ted to making changes necessary to correct the situation.

"The industry, through The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) conducted research to deter mine how those substances were formed and

what needed to be done to prevent their for mation. Then, companies modified their processes,changed some of their sources of supply, and built new effluent treatment fa cilities. A large portion of those investments were committed and implemented even be fore the Federal regulation was adopted," concluded Lise Lachapelle. phased in over three years. Commercial and industrial surcharges would be 6% and 71% respectively, phased in over five years. General tax money would no longer be used to fund the system. The utility fee restructuring would also see a 3.8% reduction in residential water

rates, but industrial bulk rates would in

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If approved, the surcharge would likely apply at the first of the new year.

Study links paints and glues to Parkinson's Seniors with Parkinson's disease were ex

posed to more resins and gas in their jobs and hobbies, says a recent study on aging. The fmdings, published in the Canadian Journal ofNeurological Sciences, were based on a survey of 87 patients with Parkinson's and 2,070 elderly people without the degen erative disease. They were asked about past exposure to certain substances in their occu pations or through hobbies. Elderly Canadians with Parkinson's dis ease have had greater exposure to such sub stances as glues, paints and gasoline than seniors who are free of the disease.

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Investigators found that the Parkinson's patients were almost nine times more likely to have been exposed to plastic resins, and almost seven times more likely to have had contact with epoxy resins. Exposure to plas


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


picture Is worth

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Editorial comment

By Tom Davey

Wise and witty words on iow bidding from three artistic giants of the past It's unwise to pay too much, but it's unwise to pay too iittie too. When you pay too much, you lose a iittie money. that is aii. When you pay too iittie, you sometimes lose every thing because the thing you bought was incapable of doing the thing it was bought to do. The Common Law of business balance prohibits paying a iittie and getting a lot...it can't be done, if you deal with the lowest bidder, it is well to add something for the risk you run, and if you do that, you will have enough to pay for something better. John Ruskin

John Ruskin was a legendary art critic,

whose biting wit led to one of the most famous libel suits in British jurispru dence. The suit was brought by the American painter, James McNeil Whistler following his unconventional portrayal of the River Thames during a fireworks dis play. In a critique, Ruskin had written that Whistler had been Impudent to ask 1,000 guineas for 'flinging a pot of paint in the public's face.' Whistler responded with a libel suit.

But during cross-examination. Whistler delivered an ironic riposte to Ruskin's dic tum on values. Asked by the defense how long he had taken to paint his 'Nocturne in black and gold: The failing rocket', Whis tler replied that the painting had taken only a 'few hours.' Seeking advantage, Ruskin's lawyer said: "You asked 1,000 guineas for a few hours work?" Whistler: "No, 1 asked it for the knowledge of a lifetime." There is a supreme irony in this scenario. On the one hand, Ruskin points out the dif

ference between price and value. On the other hand. Whistler makes a most telling case against Ruskin's attack by pointing out the intrinsic value of talent and experience. More fiscal ironies were to follow.

Whistler won his case but the jury contemp tuously awarded him damages of one far thing, the lowest coin of the Realm, equal to one cent in our inflated currency. The case bankrupted Whistler who had to sell his house, while the independently wealthy Ruskin ultimately became a professor of art at Oxford.

But perhaps Whistler had the last laugh. Ruskin, in spite of wealth, and literary fame, based on a love of art and beauty, never con summated his marriage, later annulled. Whistler, forced to sell his unique house in Chelsea, took off with a mistress to Venice

where his work achieved widespread ac claim.(His father incidently was a civil en gineer.) But Ruskin's low bid warning remains as valid now as it was in the last century, while Whistler's reply on the value of ex perience is equally memorable. These les sons should be re-stated today for the low bid ethos has reached plague proportions in the municipal and government buying sec tors.

Ironically, the private sector, supposedly driven by the profit motive, is much more concerned with reliability, service and value engineering than the public sector. A plant manager buying pumps or other process equipment, for example, knows only too well that profits go down when the pumps do. Morever, private sector managers often place a real value on quality ofservice. They know that some firms will send repairmen out day or night, weekends or holidays; that some firms back up their equipment with a dedication seldom reflected in the purchase price. One valve manufacturer lost a local bid

by one half of one percent to a foundry thou sands of miles away. As valves usually last decades, amortising this picayune price per centage over the life of the valves would

ice station tariffs. This is more than a dis

graceful state of affairs, it is the prelude to the dismantling of a viable Canadian envi ronmental export industry. Why should young men and women study the arduous engineering and chemistry courses - only to work in intellectual sweat shops? Buyers selecting consulting or laboratory services quite often fail to realize the price differential of various suppliers- when am ortized over the life of the project - is in finitesimal. Even a design bill for a million dollars dissolves into what is virtually petty

cash as projects designed with quality engi neering keep on serving our communities with economy and reliability for decades. If nothing else the O.J. Simpson case has highlighted the value of quality data and the vital necessity of strict custodial protocols. Laboratory and consulting professionals need increasingly high standards for these protocols from field sampling right to the laboratory bench. It's ironical that as our analytical laboratory equipment becomes more sophisticated, the human element in interpreting the data becomes ever more important. Considering the value of analytical data, often used for construction projects which will cost hundreds of millions, it is amaz-

Buyers selecting consulting or laboratory services quite often fail to realize the price differential of various suppliers - when amor tized over the life of the project - is infinitesimal. amount to pennies. Morever,as valves play a role in fire fighting, protecting both life and property, equipment reliability and service are paramount. Any equipment malfunctioning could cost lives as well as huge sums of money in fire losses. When the need for service, spares or other maintenance requirements arises, what are the chances of getting service in two decades, or four decades for that mat ter? Did the buyers even consider that the

local foundry was pumping millions into that municipality in wages and taxes? Doubt ful. Quality not mere price, should be the determining factor. The low bid mindset has developed into economic lunacy, often blended with envi ronmental chaos which is ravaging many quality consulting firms and analytical laboratories. This mindset remains the big gest disincentive for firms to evolve with the technology and staff to match the new challenges. I've met with environmental en gineers and chemists who are developing space age capabilities yet are reduced to flogging their professional services at charge-out rates more comparable to serv

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

ing that price is so often the major criterion in selecting laboratory services. Like Whistler, some consultants and laboratories offer the 'knowledge of a life time' with their services. And as his ad

versary Ruskin said: 'When you pay too lit tle, you sometimes lose everything because the thing you bought was incapable of doing the thing it was bought to do.' Pur chasing agents should note these wise words.

The final word should go to Oscar Wilde, a devotee of Ruskin's aesthetic theories who

echoed Ruskin's warnings on values. He said: " Nowadays, people know the price of everything and the value of nothing." Ironically, like Whistler, he was bankrupted by an unsuccessful libel suit. Are we now going to intellectually bank

rupt our high tech environmental industry with low bid mindsets that dwell upon price to evaluate the value of complex systems? Buyers should choose wisely. Welldesigned equipment will continue to pro vide reliability and service, after the price - and the buyer - are long forgotten.

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Cleaning up groundwater

By Dr. John A. Cherry*

WCGR and UW play major role In research to clean up chlorinated pollutants

Chlorinated solvents are the most

comparable attention or the allocation of re

common industrial groundwater contaminants in Europe and the United States and are being dis covered, increasingly, in groundwater in Canada. They may soon be considered the single most common industrial contaminant in groundwater in many parts of this coun try. These solvents are a type of chemical known as DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid); DNAPLs can sink below the

sources - our governments have provided excellent support to UCSGRP. Today, UCSGRP is the largest univer sity-based research program in North America directed specifically at chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. It now involves

four principal universities: Waterloo, Queen's, Colorado State University's De partment of Agricultural and Chemical En gineering and Oregon Graduate Institute's

water table.

Department of Environmental Science and

Chlorinated solvents were first produced in Germany at the end of the last century and were first imported into the United States about 1906. They began to be pro duced there shortly thereafter. These chemi cals were not widely used until after World War II when they came into extensive ap plication as grease removers (from metals) and in dry cleaning. At this time they be gan to be produced in Canada, at Samia,

Engineering. Current collaborating institutions in clude Environment Canada, through its National Hydrology Research Institute at Saskatoon, and the National Water Research Institute at Burlington, Ontario; the Univer


Usage peaked in the mid-'80s and in recent years has decreased by approximately 25 per cent. In the meantime they have en tered the subsurface environment and this

is causing problems because:(a)a very small quantity of these solvents can contaminate a very large body of water, and (b)the con tamination can persist over many decades,

than through WCGR, but the research pro gram receives considerable infrastructure support from WCGR. UCSGRP's major sponsors include sev eral large US companies: Boeing, CibaGeigy,General Electric, Eastman Kodak and Mitre Corporation. PPG Industries, Laidlaw Environmental Systems and very recently. United Technologies Corporation, are new sponsors. Laidlaw, in Canada and Dow, in both the US and Canada, were formerly long-term sponsors. Sponsorship is at more than $1 million annually, of which about $600,000 goes to Canadian universities.

sity of Stuttgart's Institut fur Wasserbau,and its VEGAS project in Germany, and the Danish Geological Survey. Waterloo's accomplishments to date have attracted keen international interest. This

success is due not only to the strength of its research team but, as well, to a unique field resource available to them - notably an ex perimental site at Canadian Forces Base Borden, near Alliston, Ontario. Through Borden, Canada's federal government has provided an opportunity to acquire fieldscale experimental experience not generally

or even centuries.

Subsurface con tamination exists at thousands of sites

To date few, If any, of the sites known to be contaminated have been permanently restored, though many attempts at

across the continent.

In its August 1994 issue, the US publication Engineering News-Record reported groundwater con tamination exists "at up to 400,000 sites" in the US. To date few, if any, of the sites known to be contaminated have been per manently restored, though many attempts at remediation have been made.

Back in the early '80s a colleague, Stan Feenstra, and I began to realize that solvent contamination was going to become an im portant issue in Canada in the future, as well as in the United States and Europe, and we set out to develop a research program and acquire funding. This led to the establish ment ofthe University Consortium Solventsin-Groundwater Research Program (UCSGRP,or the Solvent Program)in 1988,

remediation have been made. In the early years of UCSGRP,two Ca nadian universities, the University of Wa terloo and the University of Western On tario, at London, Ontario, were involved. Queen's University is now a major player (principal institution), and a groundwater research program associated with the Sol vent Program has been set up at the Uni versity of Toronto. Government funding was obtained only

available to research ers elsewhere. Sev eral universities in

Canada and the US, and government agencies, have par

ticipated with Waterloo in experiments at this site.

Canada,though it may not have allocated funds comparable to the US to monitoring and cleanup of DNAPL contamination, nonetheless faces the same problems. For example, the monitoring of a dry cleaning establishment in Angus, Ontario, a kilome tre from the Borden Base, identified a con

Research Incentive Fund). The federal and

taminant perchlorethylene(PCE)plume that extends to a nearby river. Some PCE is entering the river; the degree of impact is being investigated. The existence of a further PCE plume near a dry cleaning operation in Manotick, in the Ottawa area, suggests that wherever there has been a dry cleaning establishment of any size, in the past, there may be some

Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research

provincial governments have sponsored the

risk of PCE contamination.

(WCGR). Waterloo's participation in UCSGRP is through the University rather

research to the tune of more than $ 1 million

coincident with the establishment of the

"Director, University Consortium

after firm commitments had been received

from the corporate sector. Large financial assistance was provided during the first six years from the federal govemment's Natu ral Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), as well as the Ontario provincial govemment's URIF (University

Who knows how many of these sites


exist across Canada? We know that in the

While Canada's regulatory framework for groundwater cleanup and protection lags

agencies commissioned inventories of creo

late '80s, provincial and federal government

Solvents-in-Groundwater Research

behind that of the United States- the moni

sote and coal tar sites which indicated sub

Program and member of Waterloo

toring and remediation of solvent-contami nated sites in Canada have yet to receive

surface contamination at 37 creosote and

Centre for Groundwater Research

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Continued overleaf 11

Cleaning up groundwater 150 coal tar sites, most in Ontario. DNAPLs

the use of potassium permanganate.

have been found to be of concern at indus

5. Metal-enhanced reductive dechlorination.

trial sites such as Bristol Aerospace in Win nipeg, Uniroyal in Elmira, and at waste dis

Testing is continuing. The steel sheet piling with scalable joints, used in the fun nel-and-gate system has been applied (con tainment application), on a commercial ba

posal sites in Ville Mercier, near Montreal, and Smithville, near St. Catharines. Yet to date, large-scale remediation of this con

tamination has been attempted at only a small fraction of the known sites. A recent

survey by the University of Waterloo indi cates far more chlorinated solvent contami nation sites in Canada than creosote or coal tar sites.

Research by the Consortium has led to important advances in our scientific knowl edge ofthe behaviour of chlorinated solvents in the subsurface, to new site monitoring techniques, advances and new assessments of existing remedial technologies, and new passive and semi-passive remedial technolo gies. Several patents have been acquired. New technologies that promise better ways to deal with DNAPL problems include: Monitoring 1. Development of a new drive point sam pling device, the Waterloo Profiler, to de lineate contaminant plumes in the soil. ' 2. Site evaluation - detection of solvents in

groundwater (geophysical imaging includ ing the use of ground-penetrating radar). Remediation

3. A funnel-and-gate system for groundwater plume containment and treatment. 4. In-situ oxidation ofTCE and PCE through

Students "clean up'

sis at five sites - four in the US and one in

Canada. The most recent project involved a petrochemical facility (Shell Canada) in Toronto where 18,000 square feet of Water loo Barrier'''" were installed along the site perimeter to depths ranging from 18 to 20 feet, as part of a site remediation program. The Barrier assisted with site dewatering and excavation for source zone removal.

This was completed in November, 1994. A recent project involves a landfill site in Kitchener, Ontario, owned by the Re gional Municipality of Waterloo. This en tails the installation of 38,000 square feet

of Waterloo Barrier™ at depths of up to 30 feet, to halt the migration of methane gas from the site.

Finally, the degradation of chlorinated organic compounds using zero-valent met als (iron)appears to be a promising and sig nificant advancement in the remediation of

contaminated groundwater. This area of research was initiated by Dr. Robert Gillham and colleagues at Waterloo and is now un der investigation at several major universi ties in the US. The technology has provided the basis of a spinoffcompany,EnviroMetal Technologies Inc. Circle #190

Photo - from left to right: Dr. John Dixon, Prof. Geological Sciences; Chloe Stuart, Environmen tal Student; John Day, Environmental Student; Carl Deyell, Environmental Student; Dr. Robert Dalrymple,Associate Prof. Geological Sciences.

Spring Convocation 1995 included the first graduating class of the Environmental Sci ence program at Queen's University. De gree recipients included three students who graduated with special honours. Kingston, Ontario resident Chloe Stuart received a BScH Environmental Science in

Chemistry and a medal in Chemistry; Cari Deyell of Calgary, Alberta received a BScH Environmental Science for Geological Sci ences and a medal for Geological Sciences; and John Day of Caledon, Ontario received a BScH Environmental Science for Geog raphy and a medal in Environmental Sci ence.

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 184 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Drinking Water AWWA Teleconference highlights groundwater contamination and watershed protection

Source water protection is the first bar ier in the multiple

barrier approach to protecting consumers from water contaminants," said Jack Hoffbuhr, AWWA deputy executive director at a national teleconference on water

protection sponsored by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Water pollution comes from many sources, not only land-based sources such as industrial, urban, and agricultural

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runoff, but also from air-bome contaminants. Dr. Daniel Okun,

professor emeritus of environmental engineering from the University of North Carolina, pointed out a major gap: "There are no regulations for watershed protection." Without mandated protections, the question has always been: How can we stop water pollution? Since it comes from practi

the subscription service that gives you new environmental

cally everywhere, no one entity has jurisdiction over the causes

information from AROUND THE WORLD,

of contamination. Planning commissions,economic development agencies, parks and recreation districts, city councils,federal agen cies, home owners,agricultural operations,environmental groups, and others all have some responsibility - but not all of it. Given this lack of coordinated jurisdiction over water sources, experts said that voluntary partnerships were needed on the political,com mercial, and community levels. Douglas Hall, environmental protection manager for the City of Dayton, Ohio has created a unique "zoning overlay district" to regulate the types and amounts of hazardous materials allowed near its wells. The core of the effort is the agreement forged among jurisdictional groups. These partners include elected offi cials, administrators, planning commissions, and the local US Air Force base. Partially funded by water customers, the Dayton water protection program uses a variety of methods, including economic incentives and actively courts "groundwater-friendly" businesses to locate in Dayton. Professor Okun highlighted North Carolina's innovative wa tershed protection program. He said that North Carolina has passed legislation that requires all local authorities who have jurisdiction over water supplies to send land use plans to the state for approval. "States need to be educated to their responsibilities for water pro tection."

Susan Seacrest, president of the Groundwater Foundation, presented a different model for voluntary partnerships. The Groundwater Guardian Program is centered around community action carried out by diverse teams who join together to protect

groundwater. Teams must include representatives from local gov ernments, citizens' groups,educational institutions, business, and agriculture. Corporations have also discovered that partnerships are nec essary to being a good corporate citizen and that their operations must be water-friendly. Coors Brewing Company encourages farming practices for barley that use less fertilizer. Dr. Craig Hedman from International Paper explained that his company has instituted several forest harvesting practices that stop soil ero sion, a major source of water pollution. Both corporations have partnerships with local community agencies and environmental groups.

Not all communities are able to protect their drinking water sources. Jack DeMarco, superintendent of Water Quality and

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Treatment, Cincinnati Water Works, outlined Cincinnati's elabo

rate water monitoring program on the Ohio River. He said that, given the industrial uses of the river, their best option was to build the largest Granular Activated Carbon water treatment plant in the world - at about $60 million. It cleans the water at an

added cost of about $20 per family, per year. Clearly, protection is cheaper than remediation, but it can be a complex process because it requires political, commercial, and community cooperation. Many groups offer assistance in part nership processes. The AWWA teleconference was downlinked to 140 sites across the US and Canada to audiences of more than 5,000.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


NfCCNtC For more Information, Circle reply card No. 185 (See page 17)


Pulp & Paper highlights

Technology Improves Ink removal from recycled paper with existing equipment

Recycled paper has a brighter fu

ture thanks to a patented tech nology for removing ink and la ser printer toner from recycled


Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are applying a direct current electric field to recycled fibre slurry, remov ing more ink, reducing chemical use and making the resulting fibres brighter than

traditional de-inking processes do. "The Georgia Tech process is especially effective for dirts (dark specks) reduction on laserprinted waste paper like that produced in most offices," said Dr. Jeffery Hsieh, direc tor of Fhilp and Paper Engineering. "The process can be applied to all kinds of paper - lightweight coated paper, news print and other kinds of fibres," said Hsieh, professor of chemical engineering. "How ever,the most significant aspect of the proc ess is that it gets ink out of office waste by almost reversing the activity of a laser printer." In 1993, 8.4 million tons of printing and writing paper were recovered for recycling, according to the American Forest and Paper Association. The uniformity, avail

ability and higher profits associated with this waste stream put it in high demand for tis sue paper, new printing and writing paper, and exports. E>e-inking is one of the key operations performed in recycling such

that de-inks fibres in fewer stages, to re


ode, which can be retrofitted to existing re-

The de-inking process developed at Georgia Tech is based on a reactor compris ing a central anode and a perimetal cath

...the most significant aspect of the process is that it gets ink out of office waste by almost reversing the activity of a laser printer. However, much office paper has been laser printed. The heat used in laser process ing makes ink particularly hard to remove because it electronically deposits ink parti cles on the fibres.

Traditional recycling processes rely on chemical and mechanical actions to remove ink from such fibres and include several

dispersion, flotation and washing steps. They reduce fibre strength, which must be compensated for with the addition of forti fying chemicals. "These operations add to the cost of recycling and make it less economical,com pared to virgin paper-making," Hsieh ex plained. "There is a need for technology

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cycled paper processing equipment. Ink particles carry charges ranging from high positive to weak negative; paper fibres usually carry a weak negative charge. Ap plying the direct current field to a reactor full of fibre slurry attracts the ink particles away from the fibres and causes the ink to coagulate. The massed particles float to the surface of the slurry with some help from gas bubbles generated by the electric field. The coagulated ink is then skimmed off the top of the slurry using rotation scoops, con tinuous conveyors, or other means. This process removes twice as many of the ink specks from office paper, compared to traditional de-inking without the electric field. Paper made from the treated fibres has a significantly lower number of ink specks per recycled handsheet, when com pared to a control sheet. The electric current also helps to remove dust particles from the fibre and creates oxy gen in the reactor - both actions improve fibre brightness and whiteness. Brightness evaluations showed an increase of two to

six points on samples of paper ranging from newsprint to offset printing. Finally, test results of tear, tensile and burst show that the strength of paper made from the Georgia Tech de-inked fibres is at least equal to that of control sheets. This results from the use of fewer mechanical


steps and chemical additions that are known

Simultaneous recording of pH and tem perature on the same miniature chart. A crystal-controlled chart motor provides accurate chart timing. A time sharing system with one galvanometer Is used to record pH on a scale of 2-12 pH or 0-14 scale Is available, and temperature

to weaken fibres.

If a reactor operator chose to use chemi cals in the de-inking process, smaller amounts could be used because the electric


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duce fibre destruction and cost."

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 211 (See page 17)

current dissociates them through the reac tor, increasing their efficiency, Hsieh says. The operator also could turn off the de-inking cell if he did not want to use the current on a particular batch of paper. This process specifically addresses deinking, while other patented electric proc esses focus on different objectives. The patent was issued on August 24, 1993 and a presentation on the work appears in the 1992 AlChe Forest Products Symposium Proceed ings. Future research could address how the charge affects the metallurgy of reactor shafts, Hsieh says, as well as pilot plant tri als and mill scale ups.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

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Gas sampling system monitors iandfiii

Bamsley Metropolitan Borough

Council (MEG) has installed a state-of-the-art gas monitoring system at a local waste site af fected by low levels of methane and carbon dioxide

In addition to having a long history of being used for landfill, the site and the sur rounding area have been worked for coal for many years. There was also talk of waste

materials being deposited in the old coal mine workings, although there is no evi dence to confirm this.

The site is now designated as playing fields, and concern has been expressed about the possibility of gas affecting houses on ad jacent land. Consequently,the pollution control team might wish to monitor the site seven days per week, all year round. Using manual

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monitoring, staff would have to visit 24 boreholes in turn, taking readings with port able gas detectors. This system would be labour intensive and time consuming. An alternative means of monitoring the site was required which would improve on current methods, ensure accurate records

and free staff for other work. The gas sam pling system chosen meets all these criteria. The system is based on an eight-point sequential gas sampling module, each equipped with infra-red methane and car bon





electrochemical oxygen detector. These modules are linked together to provide cover for the whole site.

An industrial PC provides flexibility of control and measurement. For example, the system can be configured so that adjacent sampling points are monitored by different modules - and therefore by independent groups of analysers - to ensure high reli ability. During normal operation, the system scans the detection points, logs gas read ings and checks for alarm values. The length of time it takes for gas samples to travel from each borehole to the detectors is es

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- Process Gas Mass Plow

- Natural Gas Fuel Flow

- Flare Gas Metering

- VOC Stack Mass Flow

After each measurement, the sam

pling line is turned off so that the gas con centration in each borehole is not artificially reduced by the sampling system. Sensors are purged with fresh air between each sample. The gas sampling system cubicle is housed in a building on site which was originally in tended to be changing facilities for the play ing fields. Analogue gas measurements are displayed on site to aid calibration. In general terms, this fixed sampling system improves safety by providing roundthe-clock monitoring of gas levals. Because the system is fully alarmed, council staff are given early warning should a gas hazard arise. Recording and collating gas data is also easier and less labour intensive.

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 182 (See page 17)

During working hours, staff can call up gas data using computers situated in the Council's offices. Alternatively, authorized users can access the system using a telephone modem and remote PC, meaning, in effect, that immediate remote access to gas data is available anywhere and at any time. Remote access can be used simply to upload logged data for analysis and archiv ing. In addition, scanning sequences can be altered to focus on areas of concern, alarm

levels can be modified and monitoring rates changed. Powerful analysis tools also al low data to be manipulated, or imported into a spreadsheet for research, prediction and reporting. Crowcon subsequently won or ders to supply a further three systems of this type to Bamsley MBC. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 214


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By James P. Johnson, Ph.D.*

Collaboration of field and laboratory professionals In Industrial hygiene monitoring: a laboratory perspective

The collaboration of field and

laboratory professionals can provide an extra level of assurance when monitoring personal exposure to airborne contaminants of workers. The monitoring of workers for potential chemical exposure is a serious responsibility. Industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals develop and implement field assess ments to monitor potential worker exposure to chemicals. These pro grams typically include the collection of samples of potential airborne

hygiene analyses can offer an additional level of quality assurance by participation in the Analytical Quality Assurance Program (AQAP)proficiency testing program. Many laboratories participate in this quarterly pro gram which requires analyses of basic or ganic solvents, metals and inorganics. The Association of the Chemical Profession of

(OSHA), and

tection Agency (USEPA). Canadian laboratory methods, scientific litera

ture and published vali dated methods should be evaluated to determine ac

ceptable alternate meth ods for Designated Sub stances. The Ministry has not approved or validated any of these alternate

breathing zones of workers. During the work day the samples are collected using personal monitoring samplers.

methods for the monitor

ing of potential worker ex posure in Ontario for Des ignated Substances. In many cases these nonMinistry approved meth ods offer equivalent or superior collection effi ciency, are subject to

Additional bulk or air

samples may be used to evaluate the workspace environment.

These personal and en vironmental collection de

vices vary, but typically

fewer chemical interfer

include the use of a tradi

multi-media sorbent tubes, filters or

impingers which trap airborne chemical con taminants. These collection media are sub

mitted to a laboratory to determine the level and identity of the chemical contaminants. The Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario(OHAO)develops and promotes the profession of occupational hygiene and is concerned with health and safety in the workplace. Many of the members of the OHAO are Registered Occupational Hygi enists (ROH) and/or Certified Industrial Hygienists (CIH). Health and safety pro fessionals require accurate, defensible, ana lytical data of the highest quality to make decisions which affect the health and safety of workers. Erroneous identification or

quantitation of airborne contaminants may lead to continued exposure of workers to chemical hazards or inappropriate controls. The following topics may be considered for the development ofa sampling and analy sis program for industrial hygiene samples. Laboratory Professionals Laboratories which perform industrial

Ontario (ACPO), Occupational Health Chemistry Section, in conjunction with the Ministry of Labour (MOL), monitors the performance of laboratories which partici pate in the AQAP proficiency testing pro gram. The demonstration of proficiency over four consecutive performance rounds by a laboratory is recognized by the award ing of a certificate of performance. The active participation of laboratories in the AQAP proficiency testing program

ences and afford lower detection limits.

demonstrates the commitment of laborato

considerable collaboration between field

ries to the demanding profession of indus trial hygiene analysis. Selection of Field Sampling and Laboratory Analysis Methods The Ontario Ministry of Labour(MOL) requires the monitoring of specific hazard ous substances known as Designated Sub stances and regulates both their sampling and analysis. Analytical methods for many Designated Substances such as arsenic, lead, ethylene oxide, isocyanates, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride and benzene need to be up dated by the Ministry in light of recent ad vancements in sampling and analytical

health and safety professionals and the ana lytical expertise of the professional chem ist performing the analysis.


•ManagerAnalytical Services, ORTECH Corporation


States Environmental Pro

contaminants from the

tional sampling pump and combinations of

chemicals, using passive dosimeters, ther mal desorption tubes, treated sorbent tubes or filters, along with alternate instrumental analysis techniques, have been developed and validated by other regulatory agencies such as the National Institute for Occupa tional Safety and Health (NIOSH), Occu pational Safety and Health Administration

Many alternate non-Ministry approved sampling and analysis methods for these

Currently the Ontario Ministry of Labour has identified over 600 chemicals that may be monitored in the workplace. Industrial hygiene laboratories normally provide tech nical advice and/or consultation on the se

lection of appropriate sampling and analy sis methods. Additional information on the

preservation and shipment of samples can be requested. The development of an ef fective workplace assessment may involve

Because of the enormous number of chemicals found in the commercial and in

dustrial workplace, professionals must care fully evaluate and utilize a wide range of sampling and analysis methods. Generic sampling guides should be used with cau tion when not provided by the laboratory se lected to perform your analysis. Your labo ratories may not perform the selected method of analysis on the media, or by the analytical method presented, in an external sampling guide. Many chemicals may be collected on the same media. However,consideration needs Continued overleaf



By Mark Hodgson* and William M. Thomas**

Control of health risks from Legionellosis: a proactive approach

Health risks as ociated with vari

ous bioaerosois have been high lighted recently in North America by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in public hearings on its proposed Indoor Air Quality (lAQ) rule. In continental Eu rope and the United Kingdom, public health

concerns about indoor air quality have fo cused primarily on Legionellosis, a collec tion of respiratory illnesses caused by aero sols contaminated with Legionella bacteria. Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease, a pneumonic form of Legionellosis that re

cently occurred at Stafford Hospitah" and the British Broadcasting Corporation'^' re sulted in a total of 30 fatalities and exem

plified the serious consequences of expo sure of personnel to bioaerosois in the work ing environment. In 1991,the United King dom's Health and Safety Executive issued revised guidelines as well as an Approved Code of Practice for controlling and prevent ing Legionellosis'^'. It recommends adop tion of a risk management approach that closely parallels both OSHA's proposed lAQ rule and guidelines advocated by the pro posed revision to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers(ASHRAE) Standard 62. Clayton's experience in North America and Europe has shown that health risks aris ing from Legionella can be best controlled by adopting a proactive management strat egy. This not only provides an effective framework for ensuring regulatory compli ance but also enables building owners or managers to effectively manage operations and maintenance resources.

What causes Legionellosis? Legionellosis manifests itself as Pontiac Fever and Legionnaires' Disease. Pontiac Fever was named after an epidemic of flu like illness which occurred in a county health department building in Pontiac,

Michigan. Subsequent analysis revealed the causal agent to be Legionella pneumophila^'". Another species of Legionella, L. micdadei, was found to be responsible for an outbreak of a type of Pontiac fever,

often results in a progressive, severe pneu monia which is fatal in up to 15% of cases. To date, 39 species of the family of Legionellaceae have been isolated and named. TTie most virulent to man is L.

pneuniophila Serogroup I, which has been responsible for over 90% of all major out breaks.

Several factors affect the growth and re production rates of Legionella. For L. pneuniophila Serogroup 1, a temperature range of 34 to 38 Degrees C (93.2 to 100.4 Degrees F) is optimum for growth. How-

Corrosion ofplant and pipework mechanisms can provide a ready source ofiron, an essentiai

requirement for the growth of Legioneiia. Deposits ofscaie and accumuiated soiids can....

provide "hideout" where microorganisms can survive and proiiferate. ever, some species and serogroups can sur vive and grow outside these temperature ranges. Legionella is known to be particu larly fastidious, with two absolute nutri tional requirements: iron and the amino acid cystelne. It also prefers a slightly reduced dissolved oxygen level. Experiments have shown that Legionella can grow within biofilm and is able to survive undigested within other aquatic microorganisms such as amoebae and pseudomonae. Legionella can also be consumed by macrophages in the body, but remain undigested and then multiply within the macrophage to reemerge in larger numbers, thereby increas ing the risk of Infection. Many building water systems such as cooling towers, humidifiers, whirlpool baths, and domestic hot and cold water sup plies harbor Legionella. During operation,

ignated control officer; a written description of the building systems, including schemat ics; written operating procedures, including seasonal adjustments; a written mainte nance program defining frequency of tasks

and performance requirements; records of completion of all the maintenance tasks; regular system monitoring for temperature and humidity; and documentation for test ing reports, treatment logs, and operator training. A proactive strategy A responsible building owner or man ager should adopt a proactive program for preventing health hazards from Legionella or other infective agents carried in aerosols. Clayton recommends a four-part approach: 1. Conduct a review of Legionella sources and associated health hazards. Where a sig nificant health risk is identified, conduct a

risk assessment that considers the potential

for amplification and dissemination of in fective agents as well as the susceptibility of the population that may be exposed to any bioaerosois. 2. Develop a corrective action and preventative maintenance program to control or pre vent the growth and dispersion of microor ganisms. 3. Provide detailed specifications for mini mum performance criteria for critical opera tions. Designate a responsible person, de velop a record-keeping system,and develop a staff training program. 4. Conduct periodic audits to monitor per formance and to update the program as nec essary.

Cost-effective solutions

The conditions which promote the

growth of Legionella and associated micro organisms are also those which affect the operating efficiency of air handling and water systems. Corrosion of plant and pipework mechanisms can provide a ready souce of iron, an essential requirement for the growth of Legionella. Deposits of scale and accumulated solids can drastically re duce heat transfer efficiency and give rise to blockages that provide "hideouts" where

these systems can also provide a means of

microorganisms can survive and proliferate. Corrosion found in poorly-maintained sys

first identified in 1976 at the 58th Ameri

disseminating the bacteria as aerosolized water droplets which may infect building

can Legion Convention held in Philadelphia.


biofilms that harbour microbial growth.

All three infections are caused by inhala tion of aerosol water droplets containing

Proposed OSHA regulations In the US, proposed OSHA lAQ regula tions identify bioaerosois and, specifically, Legionella as a potential health hazard. The approach for control of Legionellosis adopted by OSHA closely reflects the codes, practices, and guidelines recommended by the regulatory bodies in the UK and conti nental Europe, with a requirement for a des-

Properly managed treatment programs that Identify and correct operating systems prob

Lochgoilhead Fever, which occurred in Scot land in 1987'". Legionnaires' Disease was

Legionella bacteria. Legionnaires' Disease •L.R.S.C., MIWSoc.,Senior Consultant,

Clayton Environmental Consultants •"Ph.D., Director,

Clayton Environmental Consultants, UK Operations

Environmental Science <& Engineering, November 1995

tems may lead to rapid development of

lems will reduce health risks and help con

trol maintenance problems without incur ring significant costs'"'. For references for this article, call Kristie

Springer at (810) 344-8577. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 137 19

Industrial Hygiene, cont'd, from pg. i8

ideal sampling conditions. Most methods require the analysis of

cal separation of the front and back section after sampling. In some cases this separa tion may be impractical in the field. When breakthrough exceeds 25 percent, the sam pling and storage conditions need to be

both the front and back sections. Sometimes

evaluated and resampling under new con

samples received in laboratories are re quested to be analysed for the front section

ditions is generally recommended because of the potential for underestimation of the

to be given to which chemicals can be rou tinely analyzed on the same media in the laboratory. Failure to consider compatibil ity of chemicals that can be sampled and analyzed on the same media can lead to unnecessary sampling, or resampling in the

smaller amount. Sampling protocols are

field. In some cases laboratories may be

able to provide these non-routine analyses

designed to collect 90 percent or more of the contaminant on the front section under

actual airborne concentration.

at an additional cost to recover in-house vali

dation studies to establish method perform ance in their laboratory. Field Blanks

The use of field blanks is sometimes

neglected in submission of samples to the laboratory. Most industrial hygiene meth

Currently the Ontario Ministry of Labour has identified over 600 chemicals

that may be monitored in the workplace.

ods recommend both field and laboratory blanks. Media blanks are essential in the evaluation of low levels of contaminants

typically found in industrial hygiene analy sis. Most analytical methods require field blank corrections of sample results to pre vent over-estimation of airborne concentra

tion levels. The absence of field blanks may lead to erroneous data and undue implemen tation of controls in the workplace. Field blanks can also be used to evaluate contami

nation of samples during transit or storage. Sample Analyses Industrial hygiene samples (media or sampling trains) generally consist of a front and back section. Typically, the back sec tion is composed of the same sorbent mate rial as the front section but is present in a

only. This can lead to underestimation of airborne concentration, particularly when the media used in sampling is inadvertently connected back to front on the sampling pump or mislabeled. Data from the back of the sample is used to evaluate breakthrough during field sampling. Common causes of breakthrough are high humidity or exceed ing the capacity of the sampling media due to the presence of unsuspected airborne con taminants in the sampling area. Break through can also occur after sampling due to contaminant migration from the front to the back of the sampling media. Migration can occur due to improper storage and shipment ofsamples to the labo ratory. Migration can be prevented by physi-

Confirmational Analyses

When laboratory data reviewed by a health and safety professional indicates that a chemical hazard exists in the workplace, confirmational laboratory analysis should be considered. In many cases confirmation can be provided by the laboratory on the same sample. Laboratory analytical methods and field sampling methods are typically sub

ject to positive interferences. The chemist performing the analysis should be consulted on alternate sampling and analysis methods. For example, positive confirmation of many organic compounds can be achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Arrangements for confirmational analysis should be made at the time of submission

of the samples to the laboratory. Many sam ples have very limited shelf life after initial laboratory analysis. Duplicate Samples Duplicate industrial hygiene samples are typically not submitted to laboratories. Duplicate analysis can be performed on some media combinations in the laboratory.

In many cases true field duplicates cannot

Supelco Air Sampling Pumps &... (see page 24)

be collected. However side by side sam

pling would provide evaluation data on method performance. There may be signifi cant benefits associated with the implemen

tation of additional field quality assurance/ quality control(QA/QC). The collaboration of field and laboratory

professionals can provide an extra level of assurance when developing an effective in dustrial hygiene analysis program. There is an opportunity for ACPO chemists,ROH industrial hygienists and Ontario Ministry of Labour officials to collaborate and focus

on replacement of certain industrial hygiene sampling and analysis methods, quality as surance, and specific research and develop ment required in industrial hygiene labora tories in Ontario.

Many sampling and analysis methods for industrial hygiene are subject to interfer ences. All relevant information such as tem

From simple low/high flow sampling to sequential sampling, Supeico has the pump necessary for your air sampling needs. Request our air sampling literature packet or call our Technical Service Department at 800-268-5063. SUPELCO CANADA Ltd./Ltee Division of SIGMA-ALDBICH CANADA LTD.

1300 Aimco Blvd., Mississauga, ON L4W 5H5 Tel: (905) 624-5552 or 800-268-5063 Fax: (905) 624-0108 or 800-265-3858

perature, humidity and material safety data sheets (MSDS), along with field informa tion including potential contaminants in the sampling area should be assessed prior to sampling. The laboratory may be able to provide alternate sampling and analysis methodologies. Potential positive and nega tive interferences in proposed sampling and analysis strategy should be considered prior to sampling to ensure reliable, accurate re sults of sample analysis. For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 212 20

For more information, Circie reply card No. 208 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

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Identification and Characterization • Project Supervision • Corporate Sites Program • Compliance Support • Specialized Storage • Preprinted Manifests and Labels • Insite^" Program • Analytical Services • Liabi l ity Protection ♦ COLLECTION • Inventory Management • Gas Cylinder Management • Lab Pack Services • Household Hazardous Waste Programs • Lab Pack Consolidation • Small Quantity Pickups • Bulking/Blending • Truck/Rail Transportation Services • Service Centre Network • Parts Washer Service ♦ RECYCLING • Solvent Recovery • Fuels Blending • Paint Processing and Recycling • Ash Management • Batteries-Oil/Oi l Filter-Fluorescent Tube-Metals Drums ♦ TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL •

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Services ♦ ON SITE SERVICES • Mobile Dewatering • Thermal Drying • Detoxification • Site and Remediation Cleanup • Asbestos Removal • Tank Management •

Emergency Response • Pipeline Remediation • Industrial Services • Confined Space Entry ♦ MONITORING • Air Monitoring • Industrial Hygiene Monitoring • Computerized Waste Tracking • Environmental Audits • Monitoring Wells


Laidlaw Enviromental Services • Localized Service Across Canada • 1-800-265-5130 or 1-800-361-2209 For more information, Circle reply card No. 138(See page 17)

Sick Building Syndrome

Emissions from moid and fungus may be cuiprits

Metabolic gases emitted from molds and fungi growing in side buildings may be a sig

and adhesives - was extremely high," said Bayer,"but no source of the hexane could be found. The microbiological contamina

the problems with ventilation systems be come. In larger office buildings, fibreglass-

nificant source of airborne

tion could have been the source of the

trol, says Bayer. The fibres tend to trap dirt, and that provides a rich nutrient base for

volatile organic compounds(VOCs)that can cause indoor air quality problems known collectively as the "Sick Building Syn drome," a new study suggests. Indoor air quality problems have long been blamed on a variety of causes, includ ing emissions from particleboard partitions, paints, carpets and cleaning supplies. The new research suggests that control measures prescribed for sick buildings may need to be altered to address microbial problems as well as building materials. "As molds and fungi grow,they give off metabolic gases that contain VOC emis sions," said Dr. Charlene Bayer, principal research scientist and director of the Georgia Institute of Technology's Indoor Environ ment Research Program. "Some of the volatile compounds that we are finding are primary solvents,


Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus are among the host of commonly oc curring microbes that can infest homes, schools, and offices. Usually, the first indi cation of their presence is a foul, musty odor. When growth runs rampant, then the head aches, itchy eyes, rashes, and respiratory problems begin. Conditions favorable for microbial

growth include heat and moisture, says Bayer. In the US Southeast's semi-tropical climate, buildings are prime targets for mi crobial contamination. Molds and fungi are

Preventive maintenance in

volves proper filtration, correct moisture control, and periodic cleaning of the entire ventilation system - including the humidi fier assembly on residential fur

be incorrect."


not particular about what they eat. They will happily devour just about any organic material, including the dirt and dust trapped within ventilation systems. What can be done to lessen the risk of

microbial contamination? First of all, look

from the microbial broths were collected and

for ways to reduce the necessary nutrient

identified. These VOCs were then com


pared to those detected in the ambient air within the buildings. "Many of the volatile compounds pro duced by the cultured fungi are identical to those originating from solvent-based build ing materials and cleaning supplies," Bayer explained. "These VOCs included hexane, methylene chloride, benzene, and acetone." The microbial VOCs may contribute heavily to the overall level ofambient VOCs in buildings, Bayer says. In one building the researchers investigated, for example, the microbial contamination was clearly evident on the walls, the carpets, and other

"Under ideal conditions, a building's ventilation system should filter out both the microbes and the dirt they feed upon," added Bayer. "Unfortunately, however, many homes, schools, and small office buildings use cheap, throwaway filters in their venti lation systems." Cheap furnace filters are merely "boul der catchers," Bayer notes. "They only catch the big stuff- they don't catch the fine dust particles and they don't catch the microbes. So, they really don't do anything to help

commonly used in cleaning fluids, paints. 22

"Add a little moisture, and you can have a mold garden growing in your ductwork," Bayer explained. "The microbes grow and multiply, and then get blown all over the building to infest other areas." Moisture control is extremely important in preventing microbial contamination,says Bayer. When the humidity goes up, micro bial growth can skyrocket. "Many buildings erected in the South east simply were not designed to handle the heavy humidity loads we have, particularly during our hot, muggy summers," Bayer noted. "And most build ing owners don't run their venti lation systems continuously." Schools typically turn their systems off during the summer months, and most office build

facturers are being blamed for emissions from their products when the emissions may actually be coming from the microbes. Because the VOCs have usually been attributed to other types of sources, the source control may

locations. "The concentration of hexane - a solvent


ings cycle their systems over nights and weekends, often re sulting in an unpleasant "Mon day morning cocktail" for the workers. Such intermittent opera tion allows the humidity to in crease and the molds to multiply.

and we think some of the manu

In research funded by the Georgia Environmental Technol ogy Consortium - a division of the Georgia Research Alliance Bayer and biologist Sidney Crow at Georgia State University investigated a number of "sick" buildings in the South east US, collecting fungi samples from buildings afflicted with microbial contami nation. The samples were allowed to grow in the laboratory, and the VOCs released

lined duct work is often used for noise con

human health."

Bayer's advice: simply throw away the cheap filters and replace them with more efficient, ableit more expensive, filters. But, the bigger the building, the bigger

"Typical reservoir humidifiers are little mold factories," says Bayer. "They are just pools of standing, stagnant water through out much of the year that allow mold to grow and infiltrate the ducts. They should be cleaned regularly." A great deal of research remains to be done,including identifying individual meta bolic gases and their respective odors, and acquiring a better understanding of the mi crobes that are producing them. Once a knowledge base is developed in these ar eas, the human response to molds and fungi and the sources of complaints in buildings can be better understood.

"Ultimately, we want to identify the mi crobial contamination on the basis of the

odors which are present," says Bayer. "That way, we will be able to identify the source much more quickly and accurately, and deal with the problem faster and more effectively...before it becomes a major prob lem requiring expensive remediation." For more information, Circle reply card No. 139

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995






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By Jan Chymyck, CIM, CHRP, ORSP*

Workplace training - a vital component

Workplace training produces

skilled, knowledgeable em ployees who do a good job and enjoy doing it. Training means "to make or become prepared or

exactly what you need. When outside train ing is attended, very little focus can be given to individual needs. However,the attendees can learn about the problems and activities of other companies and share ideas and so



Workplace training allows people to learn how to do a quality job, safely; how to supervise and manage workers; how to con duct meetings that produce results; how to inspect the workplace and investigate un

Then we have the "do it yourself" courses. When you have a very small number of people to train, or feel you can't take groups of people away from work at

wanted occurrences.

Self study courses work very well, when they are comprehensive, easy to understand and where the person does not have the feeling of being set adrift to manage alone. There needs to be a follow-up to ensure all the material has been covered and the person does not have any unanswered questions. As an occupational health and safety trainer I have, over the past ten years, spent

There are a number of ways occupational health and safety training in the workplace can be accomplished. The most conven tional way is to bring a group of people to gether with a trainer who with any kind of luck starts at the beginning and ends at the end. This training can be done in-house with only people from your firm attending, or by your employees attending outside seminars and courses. There are advantages and dis advantages to both. When conducted in-house, the training can focus specifically on your own compa ny's activities and needs. Sometimes this is 'President, Canwit Consulting Corporation London, Ontario

the same time, these courses are the answer.

a lot of time at the front of a classroom. I

have also spent my share of time on the re ceiving end of training and presentations. A lot of the things I try not to do, are the result of sitting through some rather bad training sessions. I have spent days where I could hardly hear the trainer. I spent a day on the edge of my seat while the trainer stood in one place, rocking back and forth while

....Supeico Air Sampling Products (see page 20)

speaking-1 kept waiting for him to fall over. I have endured presenters who constantly flicked the microphone cord around their feet, who stood with their back to me and

talked to the flip chart they were writing on, and those who constantly removed and replaced the top of a white board marker. Then, of course, we all have waited while

the speaker shuffled through the pile of over heads trying to find the next one up. These experiences can, at best, be uncomfortable for participants and at worst, be traumatiz ing. Here are some of the things that consti tute good training to achieve the desired results.

First of all, know the desired result.

What exactly do you expect the participants to know or be able to do when the training is over? If you conduct a training needs analysis, this will become clear. To train for the sake of training is costly and inef fective.

You need to know your audience. Who are these people? What do they do? Once you know who you will be training and what is expected of them, you can get down to how you actually do the job of training. I can't stress enough that you know your subject. No "winging it". At the same time you don't want to pretend to know every thing. There is no quicker way to loose cred ibility than to pretend you know something and have someone let you know you're wrong.

Training works best when everyone gets involved. Invite participation from all mem bers of the group. It gradually makes the participants more comfortable and receptive and it makes your job a lot easier. It allows you to answer questions and satisfy concerns the people may have and lets you know whether you are going in the right direction. It is extremely important to speak clearly, using simple language that everyone can hear and understand. No buzz words or ac

ronyms unless they specifically relate to your business and everyone knows what they mean. So much of this was done when

Unsure of what adsorbent or filter you need for air monitoring or how to use it? Request Supeico Bulletin 769, Monitoring Airborne Contaminants in Industrial Atmospheres, for answers to all your air sampling questions. Or call ourTechnical Service Department at 800-268-5063. SUPELCO CANADA Ltd./Ltee Division of SIGMA-ALDRICH CANADA LTD.

1300 Aimco Blvd., Mississauga, ON L4W 5H5 Tel: (905) 624-5552 or 800-268-5063 Fax: (905) 624-0108 or 800-265-3858

WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) training was first be gun and now we know that there are still people who don't know what MSDS(Mate rial Safety Data Sheet) means. I could go on much longer but I'm going to stop here with one last thought. Have fun! People like to laugh; to have a chuckle about something you do or say or a funny story someone in the group decides to share. Let this happen. Encourage it, within rea son. Everyone will enjoy your training ses sion while learning and go away with some new skill or knowledge. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 141 24

For more information, circle reply card No. 230 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


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For more information, Circie repiy card No. 116 (See page 17)

Metering and instrumentation

Mapping out the wide range of meter reading options

There are several meter reading

technologies currently being used or emerging in the market place today. Telephone Inbound, Telephone Outbound, Fixed Network Radio, Mobile Radio, Power Line Carrier

(PLC) and Handheld systems are all tech nologies currently being used in North America. Each has its advantages but there is no one technology that will give a utility 100% coverage. Combining technologies allows utilities to develop a hybrid meter reading system in the most effective way possible. Information is an important part of man aging any business and software plays a key role in the management of resources. The software administers the whole reading process and provides utilities with measure ment and analysis tools. As well, the soft ware should be flexible enough to interface with other software being used. Schlumberger offers a turnkey supply, install, implementation and support pack age for meters and systems. Everything from

In this type of system radio transmitters at the meter site communicate with Motorola

concentrators (MOSCADS). The MOSCADS accept reads from meters within at least a 1 km range. The MOSCAD is a Motorola SCADA device that performs sev eral utility applications - meter reading is just one of them. The area covered between the concentrator and a given population of

the register of the meter and to the telephone line at the customer's premises. (Diagram 2). The read is sent through the phone line to the host software at the utility office. The MIU will never interfere with the custom

meters is called the local area network

er's telephone and will cease operation if someone picks up the phone. The MIU holds a preset reading schedule in its memory and automatically calls in the read when required. If the line is not available

(LAN). The MOSCADS then transmit the data back to the utility using any technol ogy -RF,Telephone or PLC. (Diagram 1).

or the call is interrupted by the customer, the MIU will enter a re-try mode which ensures the utility will get the read when

This area is referred to as the wide area

the line is available. Demand reads and

AMR System Using Motorola Network lO)



Diagram 1

the base meter to the communication tech

nology to the host software to the project management required to implement the complete system can be provided. Here is a review of some of the options available from Schlumberger. Handheld

computer widely used for meter reading in Canada. A receptacle is wired to the meter register and mounted on the outside of a building. The meter reader captures the read by touching the receptacle with an adaptor. downloaded to the utility PC electronically. The handheld also accepts radio reads which allows the utility to read some meters elec tronically and others through radio fre quency. The handheld is a good step to wards an Automatic Meter Reading(AMR) system and can be used throughout the deployment of AMR. Radio frequency Utilities can use radio frequency (RF) for meter reading in three ways: walk-by, drive-by and fixed network. In a walk-by system, radio transmitters are installed on the outside of buildings. The meter reader gathers reads with the use of the Advance handheld. In a drive-by system, an antenna on the rooftop of a vehicle attached to a PC receives the reads. These represent good intermediate steps to AMR but lack the benefits of a true AMR system like demand reads, frequent reads and real-time tamper notification. Traditionally these two sys tems have been most commonly used by utilities but fixed network RF is emerging. 26


AMR Software I


The Advance Handheld is a DOS-based

The handheld stores all the reads which are

llt'll i




Diagram 2 Controller Host Software

Analog Phone Other instruments

answering machine modem

network (WAN). The MAPS RF system is a two-way, licensed system. Two-way communication allows the utility to perform demand reads, tamper detection and consumption profil ing. The utility is licensed as a primary user on a frequency which eliminates any chance of interference that may hinder system per formance. Fixed network radio frequency is most cost-effective in densely populated areas.

Telephone The biggest advantage to using a dial inbound system is that a reliable network already exists and no involvement from the telephone company (telco) is required. The MIU (meter interface unit) is connected to

real-time tamper detection are also features of a dial-inbound system. In a hybrid situation, telephone-dial inbound is used to access areas not covered

by radio or it can be used to target indus trial/commercial meters. A good example of this is The Region of Durham, Ontario, who read their large industrial customers with Schlumberger's TI system. A large per centage of a utility's revenue is generated from a small percentage of meters. Moni toring these meters, billing more frequently and detecting tamper or leaks will add to the efficiency of a meter reading system. Dial-outbound technology has not been a viable option in most parts of Canada but the telephone companies are now becom-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Metering and Instrumentation Two-way communication aiiows the utiiity to perform demand reads, tamper detection and consumption profiiing. ing interested in working with utilities to offer this type of system. The host compu ter calls out to the MIU and the MIU

responds with a read. There is a lot of in volvement from the telephone companies because utilities need to use telco equipment and in turn the telcos charge a per read tar iff. There have been several enhancements

to the telco equipment making it easier to administer this system. A telephone-dial outbound system is most effective in fully developed areas of the utility service area. Hybrid systems Groups of meters have different appli cations and different geographical locations. Telephone can support radio in sparselypopulated areas, in fringe areas or where shadowing prohibits radio coverage. Radio supports telephone where there is no access to a telephone line and in densely populated areas. Handhelds may be used until AMR technology is installed system wide. AMR system deployment reveals that not all of the customer meters are accessible using one technology. A hybrid solution in the LAN

user access, communication routing capa bilities and vendor commitments for updates and support. (Diagram 4). System training and support Automatic meter reading systems are very complex and require the commitment of system personnel and training not nor mally required with off-site meter reading systems. A detailed comprehensive train ing program is available at Schlumberger's office in Atlanta as well as at the utility office. A designated knowledgeable, welltrained system operator is key to the success of the system. Schlumberger also


essential that the same host software is

Central Office

Hybrid central meter

Diagram 3


Telephone Outbound

provides the

highest system

efficiency MOSCAD Handheld

Utility Office


Software for Hybrid AMR Systems Customer Needs (Water, Gas, Electric, Heat, or Combo) (Residential, Commercial, Industrial)

Moines Water Works in Iowa, which uses dial-inbound and dial-outbound technology to provide the benefits of AMR. A mix of

technologies will provide the most efficient meter reading system. (Diagram 3). It is

installed at each residence or business in

populated areas. In either case,a mix oftech nologies will be required and the mix will dif fer for every utility. Starting out with a handheld and slowly deploying the AMR sys tem is a cost-effective way to move to AMR. Partnerships MAPS is a truly open system. With an open architecture design, other systems can be integrated into the metering system. Companies or utilities can be provided with an interface code and training so that they

Hybrid Central Meter Reading Solutions

is needed to communicate with hard-to-

access locations rather than using the pri mary communications technology chosen for the WAN. A combination of telephone tech nologies can also be effective. A good example of this application is the Des

through a fixed network. Or if the utility prefers an outbound system, MIUs can be






•Meier Reading rt or

•Windov.'Sil er •W.nttov.5 NT a or

•Demand ManagemenI A or


•Distribution Automation << v

■Load Analysis a or •Facilities Management .4 or •Other Vendor Systems a or •Utility-Developed Systems

•Unix Network <i w •LAN or WAN

capable of managing all the technologies employed and all the meters in the service

Diagram 4


Software Schlumberger

The host software is the brains of the

entire meter reading system. It must com municate with multiple meters simultane ously while generating reports, performing demand reads and reporting alarms. The software must communicate in real-time unlike in a handheld or mobile radio

system where reads are downloaded at a specific time. In addition,the software must have the ability to manage and communi cate with concentrators such as telephone central office equipment and radio concen trators or broadband concentrator interface

units. The MAPS software was developed with an open architecture. Utilizing a Stand ard Query Language (SQL) database and object-oriented language, the utility has the utmost in flexibility. An interface can be designed to communicate with any applica tion because only standard protocols are used. Large-scale AMR host systems should offer multitasking capabilities, multiple-


offers support to customers for simple prob lems or major disasters requiring full data base replacement and backup procedures implemented in a few hours. Migration Funds to deploy a full-scale AMR system are rarely available at one time. Utilities usually need to spread out instal lations over several years. Utilities may migrate cost-effectively from a handheld to a fixed network system. The utility could start by reading all residential meters with a handheld and large commercial/industrial users with telephone-dial inbound. Over time the receptacles can be replaced with with the handheld. Eventually, when

are able to develop software under MAPS. Schlumberger will also work with third par ties to provide an interface for In-home com munications, as an example. MAPS system The MAPS system represents a solution for utilities. Utilizing a hybrid of technolo gies and a step by step migration to AMR allows utilities to deploy an effective meter reading system in a cost-effective and timely manner. The open architecture of the soft ware allows utilities the flexibility to inter face with other applications and manage their resources efficiently. AMR is a sys tem that can benefit everyone if it is man aged properly. For more information,

MOSCADS are installed, meters are read

Circle reply card No. 173

radio transmitters and could still be read

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


Wastewater treatment

Wetland wastewater treatment systems across Canada -Part II

Treatment and disposal of waste-

waters is regulated by provincial and local regulations. Each pro vincial environment ministry sets treatment and discharge policies and most directly affect the permitting and implemen

though more knowledge is still being gained and more data need to be collected and

analyzed, sufficient design criteria exist to properly engineer a wetland treatment sys tem.

Q: Will it work in winter?

tation of wetland wastewater

treatment systems. A provin cial Certificate of Approval is required for almost all point discharges of treated water

life expectancy will be related to the type and strength of effluent being treated. Spe cific wetlands treating low-strength munici pal wastewater have been estimated to have a life expectancy of centuries if properly maintained. However, the life expectancy of systems treating highstrength industrial wastewaters may be less, possibly a decade.

and wastewater into Cana

Q: Will the accumulated con taminants wash out of the

dian surface waters. Relevant

stormwater wetland treat

regulations include


ment system during rain

Canada Environmental Pro


tection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, and Fisher

A: If the wetland is designed properly, the sediment should remain in the wetland. Ap propriate wetland designs in clude trapping and retaining sediments in the wetland sys

ies Act.

Construction of mitigation and enhancement wetlands

may be connected to the dredge-and-fill permitting process. Regulatory accept ance of the proposed project should be investigated during the feasibility analysis prior to wetland de sign. Questions and concerns

Over the years, numerous questions and concerns have surfaced regarding the effects of wetlands on wildlife and local residents.

Questions and the responses from wetland engineers are presented below: Q; Will it generate odours? A: If the wetland has been designed cor rectly, odours should not occur. Wetland experts who have visited wetland sites around the world indicate that odour gen


Q-. What about metals accu


mulation in the soil and


A: Wetlands continue to perform many of their treatment functions very efficiently in winter. The first two years of operation of a system in Norway showed a winter perform

A: Studies have shown that the accumula

tion of metals in the soil and plants varies. Sites with no contaminated water flow

A: Wetlands in cold climates have success

showed levels of metals in plants that were greater than those in a contaminated water stream. Investigations continue to deter mine impacts of metals accumulation. Q; Will wildlife be adversely affected by

fully met effluent criteria across Canada as

the accumulated contaminants?

ance almost at the same level as the sum

mer performance. Q: Will it work in the far north?

far north as the Yukon and the Northwest

A: Based on current scientific knowledge,


the risk to wildlife is remote.

Q: Will it work for all nutrient and chemi cal types?

bioaccumulation or wildlife exposure poses potential problems, measures can be incor porated into the design to minimize these


eration in constructed or natural wetlands

A: Wetlands have been used to treat a wide

has not occurred.

range of municipal and industrial effluents. Each waste stream requires careful, indi


vidual consideration. Concentrations and

An intensive telephone investigation was carried out in early 1994 to determine the

Q: What about mosquitos? A: Although wetlands provide a greater water surface area for mosquitos to breed, this potential can be controlled. The most effective method is the use of mosquito fish that eat the mosquito larvae before they reach the adult stage. Nesting boxes can be set up for martins and swallows, which con sume adult mosquitos as they emerge from the wetland. Maintaining the design water level will reduce the formation of stagnant, mosquito hatching sites. Q: Do we know enough about this technol ogy? A: Wetlands have been intentionally incor porated into wastewater and stormwater treatment systems for more than 25 years. Volumes of literature have been written on

the subject, based on experience gained from hundreds of pilot- and full-scale wetland systems around the world. Al *CH2M Gore & Storrie

Waterloo, Ontario 28

chemicals that have not been tested in a bio

logical wastewater treatment system should be treated as cautiously as they would in a conventional wastewater treatment system. Q; Will this technology be applicable to all situations?

A: Many potential wetland applications ex ist. However, experience has shown that, after carrying out an initial investigation, only about 50% of the potential sites would be considered feasible for the wetland treat

ment technology. Q: Has this technology been applied to a large-scale installation? A: At Frank Lake, Alberta, a 1246 ha sys tem has been installed to treat municipal and industrial tertiary treatment effluent. Q: How long will it continue to remove the contaminants?

A: Although the oldest treatment wetlands in operation have only been monitored for a few decades, experience indicates that the

Treatment wetlands In Canada

locations of wetlands in Canada used for stormwater and wastewater treatment and

a literature search was carried out to iden

tify Canadian literature on wetland wastewater and stormwater treatment sys tems.

Wetlands for wastewater and stormwater

treatment in Canada are primarily located in the temperate and boreal wetland regions. The high boreal region, which stretches into the central part of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, has at least 10 wetlands for wastewater treatment that are currently op erating on a seasonal basis or have been

approved for operation by the regulating authorities. The climate in this region is typified by long winters,high accumulations ofsnow,and short summers with short grow ing seasons. Of the 67 wetlands identified, 67% are

full-scale operating systems, 9% are pilot

Environmental Science

Engineering, November 1995

By John Pries* installations, 18% are proposed sites, and 6% are pilot- or full-scale systems that have "failed". "Failed" systems provide wetland designers and researchers with valuable data, experience, and knowledge that will help to develop better future design data. Since the installation of the "failed" sys tems of the late 1970s and early 1980s, wetland design criteria has changed consid

bearing characteristics which are used in

Alberta. At least five wetland sites are in

highway construction), fish hatchery wastewater treatment, and municipal wastewater treatment including two systems installed on aboriginal lands.

operation in Alberta. Regulating authori ties view the use of wetlands for stormwater

and wastewater treatment as a relatively new and untried technology that requires





erably and has evolved to a more reliable wastewater and stormwater treatment alter

P.O. Box 1373,

BlosDllds and Waste Utilization



• Liquid and Dewatered Appiication. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

Provincial Summaries Wetlands are used for wastewater and

Ontario K9J 7H6 Phone/Fax: 1-705-749-3276

stormwater treatment In all Canadian prov inces. Contacts with over 100 sources in

volved in wetlands treatment issues yielded descriptions of51 operational wetland treat ment systems and 12 systems in the plan ning and design stages. Yukon. During the past decade, the Yukon and federal governments, municipalities,

P a ra c O

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Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Internal Video Inspection of Piping and Mechanical Systems.

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2 Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

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LL .-



For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 124

and the Territorial Water Board have at

tempted to upgrade and construct high stand ard sewage treatment facilities in most com munities. This goal has been accomplished despite limited funding, necessitating the investigation and use of cost-effective and innovative treatment technologies, includ ing wetiands. Seven communities are us ing natural or constructed wetlands in con junction with pretreatment in facultative lagoons to meet their wastewater treatment needs (Grainger and Yaworsky, 1992).


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ter is unknown.

British Columhia. Full-scale or pilot-scale wetlands are being used at 12 sites. The applications include the cleanup of stormwater at a diesel fuel truck filling sta tion, coal mining wastewater and stormwater treatment, phosphorus removal from creeks entering several lakes, leachate control (including control of leachate from wood waste material in soils with poor load

a <5

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(519) 664-1422

wetlands search revealed that two natural

wetland systems are operating in the N.W.T. Operating data from these systems has not been received at the time of publication and, therefore, their performance during the win



Some of these wetlands were constructed in the mid-1960s. Most of these wetlands

receive seasonal discharge between June and September. A wetland feasibility study was carried out for the City of Whitehorse. Northwest Territories (N.W.T.). The


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Circle reply card No. 130 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 129


Wastewater treatment, cont'd. further study. The City of Calgary has set up a task force sanctioned by Alberta Envi ronment to investigate the feasibility of us ing wetlands for stormwater treatment.

Numerous potential sites have been identi fied and it is anticipated that of the eight to ten sites to be chosen, two sites will be in-

tensively monitored. A program called

wastewater treatment function. A water

"Wetlands for Tomorrow" has been estab

quality monitoring program ensures optimal system performance. Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Agricul ture and Food is the leading supporter of

lished to enhance wetlands, create habitat,

store irrigation water, and treat sewage. Because lagoon and wastewater treat ment plant effluents are required to meet the by-law objectives prior to discharge to the wetlands, wetlands are not considered

Canadian Water and

Wastewater Association announces the

Seventh National Drinking Water Conference

Prince Edward Hotel

an integral part of wastewater treatment. Monitoring of the discharge of the wetlands is not required since the discharge from the wetland is not regulated. Wetlands have been used in several pilot- and full-scale applications including the treatment of oilcontaminated water and clay-water suspen-

the use of wetlands for wastewater treat

ment in Ontario. A program initiated in 1993 allowed for the installation of eight wetlands by the end of 1994 for agricultural applications, focusing on stockyard runoff. The intent of this program is to provide a closed loop system that provides no direct discharge of the wetland effluent to a water course. The systems will rely to a large extent on evaporation for disposal of the

The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy maintains that wastewater should be treated to secondary standards at a minimum prior to discharge to the wetland.


Prince Edward Island,Canada

August 11-13,1996

Balancing Risks and Reason

sions. Wetlands are being considered for treating feedlot stormwater runoff.

polished effluent and irrigation of any ex cess, which reduces the likelihood of a re

Saskatchewan. Constructed wetlands have

quirement for a Certificate of Approval for surface water discharge. The wetland sys tems are established in differing climatic regions and will be evaluated over the next several years to determine their future ap plicability to the farming community. Other wetland treatment system appli cations include treating wastewater from a high school, sewage treatment plant outfall bypass during rain storm events, parking lot stormwater, ash and coal pile runoff at a thermal generating station, and various other

been installed in at least seven Saskatch

ewan communities over the past decade. In many cases, wetland treatment capability

First Announcement and Call for

has been inconclusive due to a lack of moni


toring data. The Saskatchewan Research Council is carrying out a pilot study with a 20 m by 40 m wetland for phosphorus and blue-green algae removal.

Themes will include:

The Town of Humbolt wetland is an ex

Agricultural impacts and source protection

Emerging guidelines and regulations Innovative treatment for

mimicipal or private supplies Monitoring and compliance Public perception,awareness and consultation

Risks,benefits and economics Treatment devices,bottled

water,and beverages . Waterborne diseases.

Abstracts of approximately 500 words should be submitted by January 15, 1996, preferably on diskette (WordPerfect).

ample of a demonstration wetland system that apparently did not meet expectations. It was commissioned in 1979 and operated for several years. It received a seasonal dis charge from a wastewater lagoon. After completion of the experimental period, the system was abandoned. An employee of the town indicated that the wetland was con sidered unsuitable for the flow rate and for

the climate. However, the data was re

viewed by a prominent wetland scientist and is comparable to that of other similar sys tems that operate well. The town may have had unreasonably high expectations for this type of system. The Town of Estevan wetland,owned by Saskatchewan Power, was constructed to treat the town's secondary lagoon effluent. The discharge is to be used for makeup water for the power plant after BOD and TSS reduction. Manitoba. The Prairie Farm Rehabilita tion Association indicated that most

The Conference will take place in English and French. Simultaneous translation wUl be provided.

wastewater treatment is provided by lagoon development. Only one wetland for wastewater treatment was found. Ducks Unlimited constructed a wetland at its Oak

For more information: contact CWWA

by tel:(613)241-5692,by fax:(613) 241-5193, by E-mail at: 102504.2442@compuserve.com, Of by mail at Suite 402,45 Rideau St., Ottawa,ON,Canada KIN 5W8

Hammock office to treat secondary lagoon effluent that meets provincial water quality standards and federal phosphorus removal requirements. This wetland reclaimed about 1600 ha of an approximate 40,500 ha former wetland that had been drained and reduced

to about 40 ha. The system has been in op eration since 1993. Observation decks have

For more information, 30

Circle reply card No. 131 (See page 17)

been built for wildlife viewing and an in terpretive centre describes the wetland's

small stormwater and wastewater sources.

The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy maintains that wastewater should be treated to secondary standards at a minimum prior to discharge to the wetland. The agency is concerned about phosphorus removal and subsequent release by the wetland in the spring and fall and the po tential of increased hydrogen sulphide con centrations across the wetland resulting in an anaerobic discharge. Seasonal discharge is considered to be more acceptable than continuous, year-round discharge. Pilot operations are being or have been monitored at several locations including the Storrington Landfill (north of Kingston)for the treatment of leachate, Niagara-on-theLake for tertiary treatment of secondary la goon effluent, and Listowel for the treatment of primary and secondary lagoon effluent. Wetlands awaiting approval from the regu lating authorities include a stormwater wetland designed for the City of Kanata. Numerous wetlands projects are in the predesign or the design phase and under re view by the clients. Quebec. Numerous wetlands in Quebec are in the preconstruction phase, have obtained all necessary approvals, or are entering the second year of operation. The projects in clude treatment of the effluent from septic tanks, lagoon effluent,municipal wastewater (tertiary), acid mine drainage, and high-strength wastewater at a zoo. Several Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


Whether you are involved in chemical processing, the transfer or metering of chemicals and polymers, the neutralizing of effluents, odor control, scrubbing noxious gases or any other difficult fluid handling operation, pump selection is very critical. That's why it is so important to consider the advantages of specify ing or installing rugged thermo plastic pumps designed and man ufactured by Vanton. Since 1950, our company has specialized in providing dependable centrifugal, sump and flexible liner rotary pumps with all wet end components of solid homogeneous thermoplastics and elastomers. Our experienced engineers can help you determine the most costeffective pump design and material selection based on your specific application. Vanton pumps are


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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 123(See page 17)

Wastewater treatment, cont'd. of these systems incorporate a vertical flow percolation unit prior to discharge to the wetland. Water quality improvement of a recreational swimming facility in Montreal is carried out using a con

Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conserva

but not for metals or toxics removal. Seg

tion Centre to gain a better understanding of the treatment processes and potential ap plications.

ties are enthusiastic about the use of wetlands for wastewater and stormwater

ments of the province's regulating authori

treatment but are not willing to give blanket approval endors ing their use. They will con sider wetlands applications on a case-by-case basis.

structed wetland.

New Brunswick. Regulating authorities are investigating natural treatment systems in cluding wetlands for tertiary

Other potential applications include a trickling filter preced ing a wetland, treating petro leum industry wastewater, the use of peat systems for small

treatment of wastewater, treat

ment of non-point source pol lution


farms, and

stormwater treatment. The

Department of Agriculture hosted a workshop in February

communities' wastewater treat

1994 on constructed wetlands

for agricultural runoff. Presen

ment, and converting former cranberry production areas into

tations were made by a U.S. firm that had designed similar systems within 20 km of the

earthwork is already in place. Nova Scotia. The Department

Canada-U.S. border over the

ofthe Environment(DOE)con

past six years. The Department of the En vironment requires lagoon

siders wetlands a medium to

ment, landfill leachate treat

constructed wetlands since the

high priority in the province. Representatives from Nova Scotia attended the workshop

wastewater treatment systems Essex Region ConservationAuthority sinuous wetiandsystem treats stock mentioned in the New Bruns meet the discharge objectives yard runoff. wick summary. A similar prior to discharge to a wetland. workshop was presented by CH2M HILL Therefore, the few wetlands in operation are The Canadian Wildlife Service indicated in August, 1994. A literature review of being used as tertiary treatment. A litera that wetlands are being viewed as a tech nology applicable to small community wetlands for wastewater and stormwater ture search of wetlands for wastewater and Continued overleaf stormwater treatment was carried out by the wastewater concerns for tertiary treatment


For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 132 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

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Toronto, Ontario, M4G 3A9

Edmonton, Alberta T6J 2Y3

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416/485-1850 FAX: 416/485-9638

403/435-0882 FAX: 408/430-9183

514/582-4266 FAX: 514/585-5464




Province of Ontario

Western Provinces

Province of Quebec

For more information, Circle reply card No. 101 (See page 17)

Wastewater treatment, cont'd. treatment has been carried out by the DOE. Wetlands treatment is being explored in this province. Ducks Unlimited is under taking the final design of a wetland system. The Canadian Wildlife Service is awaiting approval to construct a wetland to treat sec ondary lagoon effluent. A geothermal green house system for production of wetland plants using a natural heat source from the ground to provide year-round climate con trol, is being considered. As many as 29 communities may require further wastewater treatment.

Prince Edward Island (P.E.I). In 1993, the Cavendish Farms potato processing plant began using a natural wetland to provide tertiary treatment for an already high qual ity effluent. It relies on populating the wetland by natural means with native veg etation.

that a new landfill site is using a natural

flow,and floating aquatic plant wetland sys

wetland for treatment.

tems. Wastewater and stormwater treatment

Newfoundland. The Sanitary Engineering Division indicated that although no wetlands are currently being used for wastewater treatment, wetlands and peat systems show

wetland systems are in place or under de velopment in at least 67 locations, spanning all provinces and territories. These systems are being applied to municipal and indus trial wastewater and farm, agricultural, and municipal stormwater runoff. Potential ap plications include airports, parks, isolated communities, and pulp and paper facilities.

Most environmental

concerns or risks identified to date can be

dealt with through effective project design and use of current and evolving technology. potential for future application. The Atlan tic Coastal Action Program at Humber Arm noted that 28 outfalls from coastal commu

The P.E.I. Fish and Wildlife Division

recently completed a wetland inventory for the province. No wetlands for wastewater

nities are discharged to the ocean untreated. Wastewater treatment is a high priority is sue for action by the province.

Most environmental concerns or risks

identified to date can be dealt with through effective project design and use of current and evolving technology. Only 6% of the systems developed to date in Canada, spe cifically systems designed in the late 1970s and early 1980s are deemed to have "failed". However, these systems have proven to be important models providing vital informa tion relevant to improved design of recent systems. The remaining 94% of these sites are successful so far. Continued improve ments in technology and research will likely

or stormwater treatment were identified,


enhance the value of wastewater and

although some of the waste stabilization ponds in the province are becoming

This survey of Canadian agencies and jurisdictions involved in management of wastewater and stormwater treatment sys tems indicates that significant interest and acceptance of wetland technology for

stormwater constructed wetlands technology.

wetlands as a result of unchecked wetland

growth in the ponds. The P.E.I. Environ ment Ministry has had meetings with the

More details from: Secretariat, North American Wetlands Conservation Council

Canadian Wildlife Service and Ducks

wastewater and stormwater treatment ex

(Canada),Suite 200, 1750 Courtwood Cres cent, Ottawa, Ontario, K2C 2B5. References available upon written re

Unlimited regarding constructed wetlands for tertiary wastewater treatment. The

ists. These systems include use and en


hancement of natural wetlands as well as

Environment Protection Service indicated

construction of surface flow, subsurface

Part I of this article appeared in the September 1995 issue of ES&E.


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For more information, Circle reply carij No. 106 (See page 17)

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

R&D News AOC Removal in Water Treatment

In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, University of Alberta sci entists S. Zhang and P.M. Huck apply a steady-state biofilm model for modelling substrate removal by plug flow bioreactors in biological drinking water treatment. The model is used with Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) data from a previous pilot scale study to estimate the essential physi cal and kinetic parameters required for de signing biological water treatment proc esses. The successful fitting of the model to the data demonstrated the applicability of this modelling approach for water treat

The use of the ecosystem approach in plan ning, the achievements of RAPs, and the factors that determine plan progress were

• CAWQ ACQE R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

Quality. The video describes procedures for the collection, handling, transport, storage,

and manipulation of sediments for chemi cal and toxicity testing. This video has been prepared through a joint effort of Technol ogy Development and Pollution Protection Directorates of Environment Canada's En vironmental Protection Service. As mem

bers ofthe Inter-Govemmental Aquatic Tox icity Group,federal and provincial toxicologists participated actively in the develop ment of the background documents and training video.

Qualite de I'Eau

Pollution Assessment of Pulp and Paper Effluents

Review of the Remedial Action

analysed. Comprehensive technical analy sis and environmental monitoring on the basis of watersheds are the key achieve ments of the RAP program. In contrast,

A study by PH. Mattel and colleagues at the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada was undertaken to develop a labo ratory-based exposure procedure to quan tify the relative mixed function oxidase

Pian Program

RAPs show few substantive achievements.

A paper published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research by University of Toronto's A. Gurtner-Zimmerman presents the results of a mid-term review of the Remedial

The article concludes that only further de velopment of the national regulatory and policy frameworks will push Great Lakes environmental planning to a more sustain

Action Plans (RAPs) in the Great Lakes.

able level.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Associa

A training video presentation which outlines Environment Canada's recommended

tion on Water Quality, Technology Development Directorate, Environ

method for performing the 10-day acute tox icity test on sediments using marine or es-

ment Canada,Ottawa,ON K1A0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

from the Canadian Association on Water

ment and showed that AOC could be used

as a surrogate for the overall biodegradable organic matter.

Association Canadienne sur la

Sediment Toxicity Test Video


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(MFO)induction potencies of different types of pulp and paper mill effluents. The study showed that the exposure of rainbow trout in the laboratory to 10% concentration of secondary-treated effluent for 96 h caused significant increases in hepatic MFO activ ity comparable to other field and laboratory observations. The short-term exposure ap proach described in Environmental Pollu tion could be a relevant tool for assessing the ability of different types of pulp and paper mill effluents to cause MFO induc tion in fish.

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R&D News, cont'd.

Crucial for success in the waste

Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion Research by P. Fongsatitkul, D.S. Mavinic and K.V. Lo evalu ated the effectiveness of two-phase (separation acid and methanogenic phases) anaerobic digestion of simulated sewage sludge using an upflow anaerobic blanket process. Predictive models of chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency and methane gas production during loading maximization and the recovery (after failure) period were made. These University of British Colum bia scientists observed that the optimum hydraulic retention time for the A-UASB was about one day. For the M-UASB system, the optimum HRT was either two days or 2.7 days depending on the operational mode. Details of these and other results were published in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

management and recycling industry.

Prediction of Pesticide Leaching W.D. Reynolds and colleagues from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada have developed a method to predict and characterize low-level, non-point source pesticide contamination of groundwater on a watershed basis. As described in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, the methodology consisted of a numerical transport model (LEACHM) combined with geostatistical analysis (kriging) and a geographic information system (GIS). The methodology was successfully applied to the prediction of atrazine contamination of groundwater in the Grand River watershed in southern Ontario. Although these prelimi nary results are encouraging, more development and testing of the methodology is required.

If you are looking for a successful export market you will find it in Europe, to be precise in Cologne, Germany. At ENTSORGA the trade from all

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Hydrodynamic/Pollutant Transport Model

trade buyers met on an exhibition space of 1.700.000 square feet.

McMaster University scientists H. Shen and I.K. Tsanis, and M. D'Andrea of the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy have developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic/pollutant trans port model to simulate the currents and pollutant transport in

Whether you come to Cologne as an exhibitor or visitor, ENTSORGA

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Lake Ontario and its nearshore areas. As described in the Jour-

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under isothermal and stratified conditions. Predictions of lake

circulation and conductivity were in good agreement with field measured series data.


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Biomonltors of Environmental Quality To assess the potential of the epiphyton community for monitor ing spacial and temporal variations in the environmental quality of freshwater ecosystems, B. Pinel-Alloul and colleagues from the University of Montreal and the St. Lawrence Centre deter mined the response of epiphytons to ecological and toxicological factors in Lake Saint-Franqois. As described in Environmental Pollution, a size-based approach classified the test sites simi larly to taxonomic analysis, but a larger portion of variance in size could be explained indicating a stronger relationship with environmental factors. Among both taxonomy and size-based biotic indices, the slope of the normalized curve performed best in terms of total explained variance.

Stabilization of Combined Wastewater Sludges

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36 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 109 (See page 17)

As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, pi lot-scale research was conducted to quantify the effects of stabi lizing combined wastewater sludges (primary and biological nu trient removal waste activated sludges) in a common high-rate, single stage anaerobic digestion operation. B.C. Anderson (Queen's University), D.S. Mavinic (University of British Colum bia) and J.A. Oleszkiewicz (University of Manitoba) found that, depending on the sludge ratio, addition of the biological nutrient removal waste activated sludge decreased digester operational ef ficiency. This effect was attributed to the presence of the cell mem brane encapsulating the fermentable substrates of waste activated sludge maidng them less available in the digestion process. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

R&D News Contamination of Farm Wells in Nova Scotia

were at higher levels 40 years ago. Mirex was the only pesticide found in higher con centrations in 1990. Seventeen of the PCB

Scientists from the Nova Scotia Depart ments of Environment and of Agriculture and Marketing collected water samples from 102 farm wells in the most intensively farmed region in Nova Scotia and analysed them for pesticides, nitrate-N and coliform

congeners had a higher concentration in 1947-1950. Although DDT concentration has decreased significantly, its metabolites,

and O.Banton describe the AgriFlux model which may be used for the management of groundwater contamination by agricultural fertilizers. This stochastic model incorpo rates the variability resulting from field het

DDD and DDE,have increased substantially over the past 40 years.

erogeneity, measurement errors and intrin sic uncertainty related to parameter defini tion. The application of the model to an ag

bacteria. An additional 135 wells were ana

Determination of Organically

lysed for nitrate-N only. As described by D.R. Briggins and D.E. Moerman in the Water Quality Research Journal ofCanada, none of the wells contained pesticide con centrations above the maximum acceptable levels for Canadian drinking water, although very low pesticide levels were found in 41%

ricultural field located near Quebec City il lustrated its usefulness as a management tool

Bound Sulfur F.B. Lo and colleagues from the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy have developed a method to determine organi cally bound sulfur in swamp and terrestrial waters by continuous flow oxidation and ion chromatography. As described in Environ mental Science and Technology, aqueous samples were mixed with a dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide and exposed to ultra violet radiation in a continuous flow sys tem. The organosulfur compounds were oxi

of the wells. Nitrate-N and coliform bacte

ria exceeded the guidelines in 13% and 9% of the wells, respectively.

Organochlorine Contaminants in Lamprey Canadian Museum of Nature scientist C.B.

Renaud,and K.L.E. Kaiser and M.E.Comba of the National Water Research Institute

made a comparison of 22 organochlorine pesticides and 93 PCB congeners in formalin-preserved lamprey ammocoetes collected between 1947-1950 and in 1990

in the St-Fran?ois and Ste-Anne rivers. The

dized to oxalate,carbon dioxide,and sulfate.

Subsequently, the sulfate ion was separated from the other anions, including oxalate, by automated ion chromatography using anion columns, carbon eluent, and conductivity detector to provide a measurement oforgani cally bound sulfur.

Modelling Groundwater

results, described in the Canadian Journal


ofFisheries and Aquatic Sciences, showed that most of the persistent contaminants

In a paper published in Revue des sciences de I'eau, INRS-Eau scientists M. Larocque

to select altemative agricultural practices to minimize groundwater contamination.

Effect of Agriculture on Groundwater

The Ontario Ministry of Environment and

Energy has been studying the effects of pes ticides and nitrate usage on the quality of groundwater in southwestern Ontario since 1985. Results indicate that, in areas of heavy pesticide usage, shallow groundwater is continuously testing positive for nitrate and a variety of pesticides. Factors which influence the number of positive incidents for pesticides are directly related to the per sistence of the chemical, its method of ap plication, and the amounts utilized. Soil types and depth to groundwater, although influencing the time of detection, do not govern the number of detection events. These and other results were published recently by W. Lampman in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 110 (See page 17)


R&D News, cont'd. Stochastic Modelling of River Temperatures

sciences de I'eau, this stochastic model in

The purpose of a study undertaken by Uni versity of Moncton scientists N.El-Jabi and

water and air temperature residuals. The model was calibrated using data from Cata

G. El-Kourdahi, and D. Caissie of Fisher ies and Oceans Canada, was to develop and test the performance of a stochastic model to predict temperatures in rivers under natu

maran Brook,a small stream in New Bruns

ral conditions. As described in Revue des

corporates the Box and Jenkins method which relates the time series data to both

wick. The predicted water temperatures during two subsequent post-calibration years were good with root-mean-square er rors of 1.45°C and 2.10°C respectively.

Mesocosms for Subsurface Research

National Hydrology Research Institute scien tists J.R. Lawrence and M.J. Hendry have published a paper in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada which provides an overview of mesocosm research applied to investigations of subsurface processes. The nature of mesocosms and the mesocosm con

cept are defined and discussed as are the ad vantages and disadvantages of these systems.

Details are provided on the construction, fill ing and instrumentation of subsurface

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mesocosms. The paper also provides recent examples of applications of mesocosms to studies of biogeochemistry, waste disposal, and fate and transpwrt of a herbicide.





R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

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Qualite de I'Eau


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Treatment of High Ammonia Landfill Leachate The effect of ammonia loading and operat

ing temperature on the treatment of high ammonia methanogenic landfill leachate was investigated by B.D. Azevedo (B.C. Ministry of the Environment), D.S. Mavinic (University of British Columbia) and a col league from the U.K. These scientists op erated single sludge nitrification-denitrification systems at two different aerobic solids retention times: 10 days and 20 days. As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, it was found that, at an influent leachate ammonia level of up to

1500 mg/L, both systems produced an ef fluent containing less than 1 mg NH^''-N/L and approximately 170 mg NO3 -N/L. Ar 2000 mg N/L influent ammonia, nitrifica tion in both systems failed. Acidification Trends in Southeastern Canada T.A. Clair and colleagues from Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment and Energy analyzed surface wa ter for trends of acidification related vari

For more information about products, services and articies in this issue (Nov. '95), you can

A Mail in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient) Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 38

ables from 1983 to 1992 at 111 sites located

from central Ontario to eastern Newfound land. As described in the Canadian Journal

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

tion on Water Quality, Technology De velopment Directorate, Environment

Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

of Fisheries and Aquatic Chemistry, for Ontario surface water sites, only increasing or stable SO/" trends were observed, and these had both concomitant increasing and decreasing trends for pH. Despite a con siderable number of lakes showing decreas 4


ing SO/" trends in Quebec, pH also de creased. The opposite situation was ob served in Atlantic Canada lakes were, de

spite increasing SO/", the dominant trend observed for pH was increasing. Herbicide Loss in Drain Water The dissipation and loss of atrazine and metolachor from field plots and an agricul tural watershed were compared for scale factors related to dissipation and loss. The watershed and field plots, located in south western Ontario, were planted with com and cash crops associated in the watershed. National Water Research Institute scientist

H.Y.F. Ng,and colleagues from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, found that factors affecting the dissipation rates in the surface runoff and tile drainage included soil organic carbon, water table depth,soil moisture con tent, soil textures, antecedent days, and time after application. As described in Water Research, such dissipation from the field plots was faster than that from the agricul tural watershed.

Modelling Hydrological Processes INRS-Eau scientists J.P. Fortin and J.P.

Villeneuve, together with colleagues in France, have developed a distributed hydrological model which is able to use data from remote sensing and geographic information systems. The model, Hydrotel, is capable of estimating daily variation and metamorphism of the snowpack, potential evapora tion and the vertical water budget on a wa tershed basis. As described in Revue des


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sciences de I'eau, the model has been ap

plied to watersheds located in Quebec, On tario and British Columbia and to one in

southem France. Hydrotel appears to be a useful tool for understanding and manag

ing phenomena related to hydrogeological processes.

RBC Biofilm Performance

In a paper presented at the 30th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, University of Toronto scientists W.M. Zahid and J.J. Ganczarczyk showed

that the presence of organic particles in the feed to an RBC unit adversely influenced the physical and attachment properties of the RBC biofilms as well as the unit per formance. Biofilms, especially those in the initial compartments of the RBC module, exhibited a fluffy, loose filamentous struc ture which was continually eroding. It is believed that the entrapment of the particulate organics by the biofilm matrix causes a subsequent development ofoxygen-depleted zones and structural flaws within the biofilm.

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Wastewater treatment

By R. Hunter\ A.J. Gibb^ and H.G. Kelly^

Biological nutrient removal for Whistler, B.C.

TheResort Municipality ofWhistler, B.C. is a rapidly growing com munity offering summer and

winter recreational activities to both North American and a world market.

The community lies at the divide of two

Gibb (1989) and Gibb et al. (1989, 1993). The combination, FGR-SGR provides an

improved environment for biological phos phorus, carbonaceous, and nitrifying organ isms, and has been demonstrated in a pilot plant by Gibb et al. (1994) and at the full

watersheds, both of which are sensitive to

scale 2700 mVd wastewater treatment plant

nutrient loading. Even now, the municipal wastewaters are collected and treated to high standards before discharge to the Cheakamus River system. With the need for expansion combined with public pres

in Salmon Arm, B.C. (Frese and Robinson, 1993). Autothermal, thermophilic aerobic di gestion (ATAD) is presently in place at Whistler for treatment of waste sludges and the production of pasteurized biosolids. Full scale studies of the ATAD process have been

sures to do more, a new addition to the

Whistler wastewater treatment facility was selected and evaluated for either continued use of chemicals or the

use of an enhanced biological nu trient removal process. Either treatment includes a final contact

clarifier and filtration step for summer discharges. Enhanced biological nutrient

accommodate seasonal flow

changes and growth, the tanks are

removal was selected since it

avoided high costs of chemicals and sludge handling. A full Stage III buildout design to meet the needs of 52,500 people is to be constructed in two contracts; the first is to be completed in 19961997 and will include expansion

multi-channelled to allow in crease or decrease in tank volume.

Step 1 - includes pretreatment and primary sedimentation. It also includes a fermentation re BIOLOGICAL NUTRIENT REMOVAL

to the physical liquid treatment as FiQ"''ÂŽ â– >

well as the autothermal thermophilic aero bic digesters. The second is anticipated to follow the first contract consisting of the biological treat ment step for nutrient removal as well as an advanced wastewater treatment consisting of chemical flocculation with settling and final filtration. This need for the latter step is to be confirmed in receiving water studies. The significant aspect of this work is that the Whistler wastewater treatment plant uses a trickling filter as the main biological liquid treatment step. The addition of bio logical nutrient removal will incorporate the

existing trickling filter as a principal com ponent in the process for the expansion. Also, waste solids from primary settling and biological growth are digested in auto thermal, thermophilic aerobic digesters. Enhanced biological nutrient removal plants generally have used the activated sludge process in a combination of unaerated and aerated suspended growth (activated sludge) reactors. An alternative which avoids high costs of aeration and large tank age, a combination of fixed growth reactors (PGR) (trickling filters) and suspended growth reactors (SGR) was developed and is described by Kelly (1987), Kelly and 'Municipal Environmental Engineer, Resort Municipality of Whistier, B.C. ^Senior Engineer, Dayton & Knight Ltd., West Vancouver, B.C. ^Senior Engineer and partner, Dayton & Knight Ltd., West Vancouver, B.C. 40

Biological Nutrient Removal For the liquid treatment, the biological nutrient removal process follows a Univer sity of Cape Town (UCT) configuration. The significant difference is the size reduction of the suspended growth reactors and the substitution of a trickling filter (fixed growth reactor) for the aeration system. The trick ling filter not only provides cascade aera tion for the mixed liquor as it is recirculated through the cross flow modular media, but it also provides the surface area for nitrifi cation and the reduction in ammonia by the fixed or attached growth biomass on the media. Trickling filters are also less costly to operate since the aeration is undertaken by cascad ing pumped liquid and not with blower supplied diffused air. Figure 1 shows six steps to il lustrate the Whistler process. To

reported by Kelly et al. (1993), Kelly et al. (1995) and Kelly and Warren (1995). The Whistler plant currently treats sum

mer average flows of 6000 mVd and winter maximum flows of 15,000 mVd using a pretreatment process of screening, grit sedi mentation and primary sedimentation tanks. Biological treatment is undertaken with a trickling filter followed by a short deten tion contact aeration reactor and two final

clarifiers. Phosphorus reduction is currently practised by adding iron salts in the form of spent hydrochloric acid washings from a local steel processing plant. The Whistler wastewater treatment plant is currently designed to incorporate the com bination FGR-SGR process to meet phos phorus restrictions and toxicity limits for a continued river discharge. During winter

design flows of 25,000 m^/d, plant effluent orthophosphate (?) concentrations are to be below 0.75 mg/L. In conjunction with a flocculation contact clarifier and filtration

step, and during summer average design flows of 10,000 mVd, plant effluent orthophosphate (?) concentrations are to be below 0.06 mg/L. Nitrogen removal is un dertaken as a secondary objective for toxic ity reduction and as a means of controlling process oxidation state. Pilot investigations by Gibb (1994) and operating data from the Salmon Arm treat ment plant have provided design criteria for the Whistler expansion to allow selection of anaerobic anoxic and oxic reactor additions.

actor which is used to produce short chain fatty acids for the bio logical process. For Whistler, the fermentor will be heated from the excess heat available from the ATAD heat

exchangers to operate at above 35°C, mak ing the process more efficient than the tra ditional thickener styles of fermentors. Step 2 - combines the primary effluent con taining the short chain fatty acids and denitrified recycle of suspended growth biosolids to undertake the first step of bio logical treatment in the anaerobic tank. Soluble organics (soluble carbonaceous

BODj) are absorbed by the biomass and soluble phosphorus (orthophosphate) which was held by the biomass is released to the liquid bulk.

Step 3 - combines the anaerobically treated suspended growth biomass with nitrified return biological solids from the final clari fier to ensure the second step of biological treatment in the anoxic tank. Here, the ab sorbed soluble organics are consumed for energy by the biomass using nitrates as a source of oxygen for respiration. Fhosphorus is taken back up by the biomass and the nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas. The soluble organics are now largely destroyed. Step 4 - splits the anoxic treated biomass to allow part of the biomass to be recycled to the anaerobic step and the remainder to be discharged to the aerated trickling filter equalization tank. Here, it is aerated by recirculating the flow through the trickling filter media. Nitrification of ammonia is

undertaken in the fixed growth biomass and

in the equalization tank suspended growth Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

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Wastewater treatment, cont'd. ^^GLOBE 96

biomass. Additional phosphorus is further taken up by the sus

Developing the business ofthe environment

pended growth biomass.


Step 5 - promotes flocculation of the nitrified suspended growth

biomass which has now accumulated the soluble phosphorus. This final aerated step provides added time for further nitrification or additional phosphorus uptake.

Step 6 - separates the suspended growth biomass from the liquid

by settling the flocculated solids. High solids removal clarifiers promote quick removal of the suspended growth biosolids for re turn to the anoxic tank in Step 3. A portion of the recycled solids

is wasted from the system to remove excess biomass growth and the accumulated phosphorus. Biosolids Handling For the solids treatment, the wasted biological solids from the

liquid treatment are thickened and combined with primary sludge before being stabilized. The combined sludge flow will be preheated in a tube in tube, sludge/water heat exchangers and subsequently discharged into the first (primary) ATAD digester. As shown in Figure 2, four ATAD digesters are available plus one larger storage tank, which can be also used as an ATAD digester. To match sea sonal load changes and growth, the reactors can be taken off and

added on line. The first digester operates in a filling mode and

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once full, initiates transfers to storage thus ensuring the minimum time-temperature requirements for pasteurization in the final di gesters. The stabilized and pasteurized biosolids are either dewatered (during winter to allow storage) or used directly (during summer) as a liquid conditioner and fertilizer for forest or soil

amendments. The biosolids are considered Class A, meeting USERA 503 regulations for unrestricted use, since metal contents are below the required minimums. Summary and Conclusion

will no longer be required.

Street Address


Oountry Tel

Figure 2

The Resort Municipality of Whistler, Stage III Wastewater Treat ment Plant expansion will duplicate the pretreatment and primary treatment capacity, but to achieve the biological nutrient reduction objectives, will add upstream and downstream suspended growth reactors only to the biological process including one high solids handling clarifier. Addition of chemicals to the biological process




PO/Zip Fax

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11"^ FAX TO (604) 666 8123 Mail to: GLOBE Foundation of Canada, World Trade Centre 504-999 Canada Place, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6C 3E1 Telephone: (604) 775 1994

42 For more information, Circle reply card No. 113 (See page 17)

If receiving water studies confirm the need, provision for fur ther summer phosphorus reductions will be undertaken by addi tion of an advanced wastewater treatment including a contact clari fier and filtration plant to treat the secondary clarifier effluent. The biological process is intended to meet winter effluent discharge criteria for phosphorus or better. Pilot investigations show that less than O.I mg/L orthophosphate (P) is achievable in the FGRSGR process. The added advanced wastewater plant will meet a 0.05 mg/L orthophosphate (P) final effluent concentration. The Whistler FGR-SGR process will further demonstrate the

ability of trickling filters to form a principal component in a bio

logical nutrient removal facility by providing separate biological systems for enhanced organic, phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Whistler is already demonstrating the effectiveness of biosolids treat

ment in the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion process. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 114

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

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Environmental history

By Richard L Hummel, Ph.D.*

Political expediency has become more Important than environmental science

Ecology had been studied as a sci

ence in Europe for about a century when it was confronted by the American philosophies ofecology. Philosophy and religion define truth, good and evil and both have a history of oppos ing science as Galileo, Newton, Harvey and Dar win could attest. The phi losophies ofecology were more political and were easier to grasp than the science of ecology or its many parts. High school

political subtext, but their agenda was to initiate laws and to direct tax dollars to sav

ing lives by building sewage and water treat ment facilities. The laws would ensure

major engineering changes in processing food, cloth and paper. Even more impor-

Is pollution worse today than in the 19th century? There is more than sufficient evidence

to prove that pollution was very much worse in the 19th century than today. Young peo ple,however,refuse to be convinced by mere facts. They say,"I do not believe it" and ingrained belief is proof against sci entifically verified facts. Ben Stern, a reporter, found that students in Los

Angeles high schools were not bothered by the idea that what they learned was wrong. They had been taught that"we were worth listening to, that we could express ourselves and that

students have learned to fear chemicals rather than find out about them. Their

teachers were taught a pic ture of pollution like that in the graphs of Limits to an adult would listen, even Growth (published in if we were wrong". From 1972); nil in 1900, rising this and other observa in 1970 and exploding tions, Mr.Stem concluded: exponentially in the 21st Housing like this sprang up around the mines and factories of the Industrial revolu "A human being who has century. Philosophically, tion. Other than a single water tap, there were no washing facilities, a cruel Irony as not been taught to think pollution was nil in 1900, miners and factory workers usually came home In a filthy state. Butas living stand clearly is a danger in a free because it was mostly ards rose,infant mortality rates dropped. Photo:Davcom archives. society." A second grade 'natural'. By 1970 pollu class was asked,"How can tion by new substances like DDT was grow tant was Adam Smith's invisible hand of we tell if this is a boy or girl frog?" The ing. The assumption now is that Nature is self interest. Costs could be reduced and answer? "We can vote!" Young people learn benign and only man (and his industry) is profits made by recovering lost feeds and to accept majority opinions as facts which evil. selling by-products. are exempt from scrutiny. When I ask chemical engineering stu Eco activists might charge that Kirkwood We have had a recent example of 19th dents whether "pollution was worse in the was "doing it for the money". The book century style pollution and its effects. In a 19th century", the answer is a resounding could be read as a self-serving call for hir refugee camp in Rwanda, a week's delay in "No". I have been astonished how hard it ing engineers to design and build the rec providing water treatment caused an out is to argue against this opinion, and similar ommended infrastructure. But the relevant break of cholera and other gut diseases. opinions which are based on philosophy question is, did the taxpayer get value for Thousands died! People still believe that rather than facts. money? Well, Massachusetts's modest ex pollution is caused primarily by modem in Years ago, my long abiding interest in penditures produced an added 25 years of dustry but the Rwandan case illustrates that nature is quite capable of killing without water pollution caused me to read Special life expectancy for its citizens. Since ecol Report on the Pollution of River Waters, ogy became philosophy, billions have been the intervention of technology. published, I discovered to my surprise, in spent. What do we have to show for it? Pollution has declined greatly because 1875. It was edited by a civil engineer, To answer the question of whether "pol engineers have used science to reduce it. James P. Kirkwood for the Massachusetts lution was worse in the 19th century", one They have worked with the medical profes State Board of Health. The first of its four must first get agreement on the definition sion to identify the causes and persuaded sections had fold-out maps, tables and text of pollution, or face an ever changing posi politicians to build water and sewage treat which must have depicted every body of tion. The student will, for instance, shift to ment plants. They have lobbied for stiffer water and each factory in the state. The whether there is more DDT or PCBs in laws to protect the public's health. At least data was comprehensive;for example,a fac Greenland or Antarctica, the evils of indus this was tme from 1900 to about 1970. tory with 250 employees printing patterns trial pollution", the dangers inherent in A change occurred when, after a cen on calico cloth discharged 1,446,000 pounds heavy metals and/or of chlorine. You need tury of scientific investigation, ecology as a of waste matter into the water system. The agreement that the term "toxic substance" science was challenged, beginning in effluent included logwood, cow dung, includes all poisons, notjust man-made poi America. Funding for research into reduc sulfuric and muriatic acids and more than sons. How does DDT compare with the ing pollution was diverted to the media-wise 42,000 pounds of liquid arsenate of soda natural substances used by Lucrezia Borgia eco-groups which sprang up and of course which contained 833 pounds of poisonous, for guests she wished to bury? Nature has to the delighted lawyers who, as usual, col metallic arsenic.

been hard to beat or even match when it

lected fees from all sides.

The contents of Special Report on the Pollution of River Waters is free from to day's political issues. Pollution studies by the MDs and engineers of that era had a

comes to poisons. The best definition of water pollution is limited to easily meas ured effects on people's health such as their life expectancy. However esthetic effects such as smell, taste and appearance give the same answer; water is far better today.

Greenpeace has done well by doing good. Greenpeace is credited with saving the

*Professor Emeritus, University ofToronto 44

whale, but Rockefeller and Standard Oil did

far more to save the whales by reducing the cost of kerosene, thereby pricing whale oil Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995



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Environmental history, cont'd. out of the market. Forbes (11/91) gives details of Greenpeace's activities, includ ing how whales were saved. They also give Greenpeace's revenue ($157,000,000 in 1990) and sample expenditures on saving whales and also on their corporate jet. If we want our chemical engineering

pollution will diminish. Los Angeles is famous for its automo bile pollution, but much of this comes from

relatively few vehicles. The year I was in Prague,there were few vehicles on the road, but many cars and trucks emitted large amounts of black smoke. Viewed from the

graduates to be free,once more,to deal with the very real environmental challenges that

nearby hills, the city seemed to be covered

face us all, the public must understand the difference between truth and myth. Our stu

A second grade class was

dents, even though they should be scientifi cally literate, absorb belief systems rather than learn chemistry or biology. They must learn that science and technology are the solution to our problems, not the causes.

The answer? "We can vote!"

Micro Solutions for Macro Problems One area of immediate concern is with

the new man-made chemicals; then our at tention should be focused on the industrial

ized nations where they are made. Contrary to public opinion, inhabitants of the devel oped parts of the world have the longest life expectancies and they are far cleaner and less polluted than non-industrialized re gions. In between lies the old Soviet bloc which is far more polluted than the Westem industrial nations. A Czech showed me

one of its worst areas, the border region between Bohemia and Germany, the "Sudetanland" demanded of Chamberlain

by Hitler. He told me his country was,tech nologically,50 years behind us but was con fident that as their technology catches up.

asked, "How can we tell If

this Is a boy or girl frog?" by a thick blanket of black fog. But Los Angeles has made great reductions in auto motive emissions through a combination of tough legislation and technological ad vances. Wealth also plays its part as "dirty" vehicles are replaced with modem equip

populated land regions tend to be deserts or jungles or Arctic regions. The first two have little man-made pollution and few people to affect. Nature is more likely than pollu tion to kill or debilitate. Ice and snow tend

to condense volatile pollutants from else where. Where in the modem world could one

find such examples, so commonplace in Europe and New England in 1875? Eastem Europe is bad but not nearly as bad as nineteenth century New England as relative life expectancies demonstrate. The air in Mexico city is bad, but is it as bad as that of Sherlock Holmes' London and its fogs? As late as 1952, a severe incident of this fog killed four thousand people in London where smog is now only a memory. English moths evolved quickly,changing colour from black to white, while fish now swim in the Thames.

Swansea resort


The Report of the State Board of Health

Jan Morris,a contemporary travel writer,

in Massachusetts for 1875 shows that in the

writes of the Welsh seaside resort of Swan

beginning of the 19th century, the life ex

sea as it was in the nineteenth century. She describes Swansea as an old seaport which was transformed in the early nineteenth cen tury by the discovery of iron and coal in the valley of the Tawe, quickly followed by the development of copper works and tin-plate factories all along its banks. "Swansea in the 1860s,say when its Metal Exchange was the copper center of the whole world, seemed to have been visited by some hor rific plague. Visitors approaching it by train from the east, seeing for the first time the green and sulfurous glow of its smelters, finding their carriages darkened by the black of its atmosphere, above all perhaps smell ing its chemical fumes seeping and swirl ing all around, were sometimes terrified by the experience, so absolutely of another world did the place seem, and so poisoned by its own exhalations."

pectancy was around 40 years and rose to

65 as pollution was reduced. In this report, the authors wrote of English rivers which could be smelt from a mile away or which gave off gas that would bum, with flames reaching 14 feet in height. The present third world resembles the developed world in the previous century and their shorter life ex pectancy reflects the similarity. The under

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naces was reflected eerily in its clouds." "J.M. Neale, the ecclesiologist, said he could imagine no scene on earth more nearly resembling hell. George Borrow, walking this way up the valley to Castell Nedd, Neath, thought it all a fit subject for Hieronymus Bosch." In the late 1870s one English stream was so acidified from industry that iron boats could not be used upon it. One English gen tleman made a telling point when he com plained to a River Pollution Commission. He used water from the Calder River as ink!


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In his case he anticipated Marshall McLuhan by a century when he really did prove that the Medium was the message.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Column by Tom Davey

Greenpeace admits its Brent Spar toxic count was wrong

Wastedisposal at great depths in the oceans is becoming increasingly attractive, the British Association for the

mental engineers know only too well,sloppy sampling is worthless when making scien tific judgements, yet virtually impossible to counter when the 'findings' result in sensa tional media coverage. The influential Daily Telegraph of Lon-

heated water and metals into the oceans.

One estimate says metals discharges world wide could range from 700,000 to 5 million tonnes a year. To dump the oil rig near such a vent, argued Professor Nisbet, its impact

Advancement of Science (BAAS) was told by Dr. Martin Angel of the Institute for could Oceanographic Sciences. He said Shell UK was right to want to dump its oil storage rig, Brent Spar, in a deep part of the Atlantic Ocean, but they chose the wrong site. He said 1 CANADA SQUARE LONDON F.MSDTTF.L:0171 SUfl SOnOTKLF.X; 22874 the company should have selected a TRAFFORD PARK MANCHESTER M17 LSI-TF.L: Olfil 872 5939 depth of more than 15,000 feet rather than the relatively shallow depth of 6,500 feet. The issue arose during the Sep R EENPEACE'S apology this Shell. If it sued Greenpeace tliere week for dis.scininating incor would be scant liope of recouping tember meeting of BAAS in North rect Inforniatinn in ils cam mnrc than a fraction of the ÂŁ36 million east England. Dr. Angel said that paign to prevent Shell dumping llie extra which dum[)ing the Brent Spar Drcnt Spar nil platform at sea i.s an on land will cost it. Court action would Greenpeace had claimed it was un exercise in damage limitation rather also risk a public relations disaster,

Greenpeace fiasco

ethical to use the oceans for such

dumping. He stressed that it was just as unethical to pollute land and the atmosphere. However, he

than an act of contrition. I.,ord Mel

casting Shell as a vengeful Goliath

chett, the environmental pres.siire

against the Greenpeace David,

group's executive director, lias writ-


'4^enl Spar fias^ '

,^lopher Fay, chairi^ " iof the oiL

warned that contamination of coastal were the source of95% of marine resources. feet covered two-thirds of the world's sur

face. Their huge volume and slow turnover rate would ensure that contaminants re leased on the sea bed would not surface in

significant concentrations. That same week,Greenpeace UK apolo gized to Shell UK for giving out incorrect information in its campaign to prevent Shell dumping the Brent Spar oil platform. Lord Melchett, executive director of Greenpeace UK,wrote to Dr. Christopher Fay,chairman and chief executive of the oil company,say ing that, although a key 'fact' about the amount of oil contained in the rig was wrong, the basic argument was right and justified Greenpeace's vigorous media cam paign against ocean dumping. While occupying the rig, Greenpeace activists took samples of toxic wastes and concluded there were approximately 5,000 tonnes of oil and other residues on board.

This was ten times the figure given by Shell. The company faced an international uproar which included a widespread consumer boy cott plus the firebombing of a Shell station in Germany. The bombing was disavowed by Greenpeace whose activists preach non violent protests. But Shell faced political pressures from Germany. The company ca pitulated and agreed to find an alternative method of disposal. Some two months later, Greenpeace ad mitted its guerillas were more fervent than competent. While occupying the rig, they had taken their samples not from a storage tank, but from a blocked pipe. As environ

might even give the bacteria a free meal. However, it was noted that

Shell's proposal for the Brent Spar did not involve such vent areas.

Other arguments which preferred disposal on land, said Professor Nisbet, would be difficult because

heavy metals such as cadmium are toxic to most land species. The view was not universally accepted. Some scientists from Cambridge, Southampton and Lon don universities believe Professor

Nisbet is exercising too little cau tion. A cocktail of chemicals could

upset the ecological balance in spe cialized bacterial communities.

seas must be contained because they Dr. Angel said that oceans deeper than 6,500

not even be measured. Its contents

don, noted:" the Brent Spar fiasco need not be wholly regrettable, if the public learns the stark lesson it teaches: That single is sue groups are often not unimpeachable guardians of society's best interests, but highly motivated and well financed zealots who play fast and loose with the facts." The newspaper editorial went on to say, "If the green lobby behaves responsibly, it has a valuable place in society the environment must be protected. But it is vital to remem ber that heavy industry creates wealth and pressure groups do not. Greenpeace is a sophisticated organization adept at choos ing soft targets to stir widespread concern but its Brent Spar campaign has been irre sponsible - a fact which should not be for gotten the next time it solicits money or tries to whip up public outrage." Brent Spar, currently in a Norwegian fjord,consists of6,700 tonnes of steel,6,800 tonnes of iron ore ballasts and 1,000 tonnes

of equipment ranging from pumps to bat teries. It also holds other metals including much zinc,copper and cadmium,plus wood, plastics and rubber, sludges, low level ra dioactive matter, soot and seawater.

Writing in the June Issue of Nature, one of the most respected scientific journals in the world. Professor Euan Nisbet and Dr.

Murray Fowler of London University pose the argument that the quantities of heavy metals in Brent Spar were miniscule com pared to those found naturally in parts of our deep oceans. In what oceanographers called "black smokers", whole communities of highly specialized bacteria live where the earth's crust vents huge amounts of super

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

What Dr. Martin Angel proposed at the BAAS Conference on September 1, was a large scale trial to monitor whether deep sea disposal was a safe op tion for a range of materials. Many environmentalists are outraged at the seemingly "out of sight, out of mind" mentality of deep sea dumping by oil com panies that have made substantial profits out of the North Sea oil. Professor Nisbet used

a Richter Scale metaphor to establish the true environmental impact of the dumping of the Brent Spar. He said overfishing is of far greater environmental concern and, on a Richter Scale ofocean damage,fishery prob lems would rate 10 and the Brent Spar 0.1. It is interesting to note that the dumping of the Brent Spar aroused probably more media coverage than the Canada/Spain turbot dispute. Meanwhile, inspite of its un precedented media success around the world with both Brent Spar and the French nu clear testing campaign in Tahiti, Greenpeace UK at least, was reported to be facing a se vere cashflow problem. Although Green peace worldwide generates millions each year in revenues, it has huge expenses to consider and the impoundment of its ves sels in the Pacific by the French Navy could add further to its financial concems. Lord

Melchett said, in a newspaper interview, that perhaps Greenpeace staff could be cut in England. Dr. Angel said dumping materials in the deep oceans may not seem very sophisti cated, but with human populations set to

double by the middle of the next century, even with recycling and waste minimization, our waste disposal problems will increase. 47

Wastewater treatment

By Maureen O'Shaughnessy and Steve Black*

Pilot-scale testing of tertiary nitrification reveals large potential savings

Anticipating new limits on ef luent

ammonia concentrations under

the Ontario Ministry of Environ ment and Energy's (MOEE) Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program, the City of Barrie plans to provide tertiary nitrification through the addition of rotating biological contactors (RBCs)

limited to ammonia removal by nitrification. However,RBCs are often also used for BOD

removal. Residual BOD was present in the effluent (at levels below the C of A limit) so the first(upstream)stages in the test pro vided tertiary BOD removal as well as ni-

IVmVd) with an average influent ammonia concentration of 8 mg/L and an ammonia loading of 1.46 g/mVd. Note that, despite much higher HLR, the ammonia loading rates increased only slightly - from 1.29 to 1.46 (that is, flow increased, influent con centrations decreased). An ef fluent ammonia concentration

of 1.7 mg/L was achieved. Av

for treatment of their filtered

erage removal rate: 1.3 g/mVd.

effluent at the Barrie WPCC.

• 175 percent design flow, but with (artificially) increased am monia concentrations(15.9 mg/ L average influent ammonia

The US Environmental Pro

tection Agency (EPA) and the RBC supplier provide a con venient design reference for ammonia loadings on RBCs. However, we suspected that RBC performance would be ex ceptionally good at the Barrie plant and that we might achieve a better design by testing RBC performance against the design guidelines. A successful test would indicate the opportunity to save costs by reducing the

concentration) and 3.12 g/mVd ammonia loading. An effluent ammonia concentration of 3.9


mg/L was achieved. Average

removal rate: 2.4 g/m^/d. During loading periods two and three the BOD loading on the pilot test increased due to the higher flow rates. Despite the increased BOD loading on the RBC, we remained confi

number of RBCs. With the co

dent that ammonia removal

operation ofRBC manufacturer Envirex, we proposed a pilot-scale test using a full-di

trification, while the second of the two

rates would be in excess of the design guide

stages (downstream) performed primarily

lines because the BOD concentration re

ameter RBC because there are factors af

ammonia removal. The bio-film that formed on the discs

mained below 1.5 mg/L. During this pe riod,the first stage of the RBC turned mostly gray. Nevertheless, we achieved the re quired level of ammonia removal. After these periods of higher BOD loading, shaft weight declined (indicating thinner films and, therefore, a greater ratio of nitrifica tion compared to BOD removal). The film color went from mostly gray to red-brown in all test stages. Higher performance confirmed At the end of a six-month period, we

fecting RBC performance that are difficult to scale from smaller diameters. Also, with

out pilot testing, we had no way to predict the effects of predation of the nitrifying bac teria by higher life forms. High dissolved oxygen and low pH Two characteristics of the Barrie

early in the process was tinged with gray, indicating that BOD removal was taking place. In later RBC stages the film became completely red-brown, indicating nitrifica tion. The film was thickest at the begin ning of the process(about 600 pm)and thin nest at the end (about 20 microns). In ef fluent with high BOD, the film on the disc grows to a greater thickness and can become unstable (sloughing off due to the shear of the disc rotation). This might induce an upset. However, this was not a problem at Barrie because of the already high quality

WPCC's secondary effluent were important to our test design: high dissolved oxygen concentration, which, we suspected, might improve RBC performance, and low pH, which might impair performance. Effluent at the Barrie WPCC has high dis solved oxygen content due to the use of the oxygen activated sludge process, UNOX®. of the effluent. Concentrations of 12 to 20 mg/L have been Six-month test recorded, but the plant typically operates at 6 Our test was planned for a six-month to 10 mg/L. We wondered whether this high period, covering most of the seasonal varia concentration of oxygen might improve the tion that might affect the outcome. The RBC nitrification capacity of the bio-fllm since ni pilot was housed and covered from sunlight trification is an aerobic process. (to prevent algae growth). On the other hand, the UNOX® system Data were gathered at four points: influ also produces an effluent with a low pH(be ent to the RBC, after the first stage, after cause carbon-dioxide builds up in the gas- the second stage, and after the last stage tight biological reactors). Nitrifying bacte (RBC effluent). Three hydraulic loading ria seem to prefer a pH of 7 to 8, while the rates(HLRs)were applied to the test RBCs. effluent under study typically varies between (With each new loading, a period of several 6.5 and 7. We wondered if this low pH could weeks was required to allow the bio-fllm to slow down the rate of nitrification. stabilize.) The three test modes were: RBCs consist of rigid, black discs (like • 100 percent design flow (an HER of 110 10-foot, corrugated LP records on edge) on L/m^/d) and an ammonia loading of 1.29 g/ a rotating shaft suspended across the efflu mVd. Effluent ammonia concentration of ent flow. In this test the RBCs' task was 0.6 mg/L was achieved. Average removal rate: 1.2g/mVd. *GH2M Hill/Gore & Storrie • 175 percent design flow (an HLR of 195 48

were able to confirm that ammonia removal

rates at the Barrie WPCC were greater than those suggested by standard design guide lines. This allowed us to assume design values that were 33 percent higher in terms of area loading per mass of ammonia. The EPA guides predict a design ammo nia removal rate of 1.5g/mVday - we achieved up to 3.0 and are confident that 2.0 would be a practical operating target. Although 18 RBCs containing high-den sity media would provide sufficient surface area, practical considerations required 20 units arranged in stages of four. At a cost of about $200,000 per RBC,a reduction from the 28 discs(as recommended by EPA guide lines) to 20 discs represents a substantial saving. Barrie's Phase I upgrade will allow the plant to expand from an average daily inflow of 42,000 m'/d to 68,190 m^/d and easily meet stricter ammonia limitations. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 178

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Federal Regulations

New toxics policy places onus on industry

The"new" Toxic Substances Man

agement Policy was officially un veiled recently by Minister of the Environment, Sheila Copps. The policy will guide federal regulatory and non-regulatory programs dealing with:

• the introduction of new industrial chemi

cals and pesticides; • the development of controls for toxic in dustrial chemicals and contaminants;

• the implementation of ecosystem action plans for areas such as the Great Lakes, the

through a variety of existing programs, tak ing into account the risk they pose and the socio-economic factors that could affect their

management. Stakeholder consultations will be part of that process. The policy recognizes that many Track 1 and Track 2 substances are already sub ject to federal statutory management strate gies which are consistent with the policy; the Canadian Environmental Protection Act,

will be taken if a substance is already being adequately managed. In addition to the policy document itself, the Minister released two companion re ports: Towards a Toxics Substances Man agement Policy; Persistence and Bioac cumulation Criteria and Toxic Substances

Management Policy: Report on Public Con sultations.

the Pest Control Products Act,the Food and

For copies of the policy and associated reports call (819) 997-2800 or (800) 668-

Drugs Act are examples. No new action


St. Lawrence and the Eraser River, and

• the protection of the Arctic environment ecosystem from airborne toxic substances. Under the new policy, new industrial chemicals, new pesticides, new compounds produced by biotechnology and new chemi cals that mimic human hormones will be

banned unless they can satisfy rigorous sci entific criteria. The onus will not be on


Canadians or the federal government to prove that these products pose a danger. The onus will be on the manufacturers of these

new products to prove that they are safe and can be properly managed. The policy provides a two-track approach to the management of "toxic substances", i.e. substances that either conform, or are

equivalent to, the definition of"toxic"found in Section 11 of the Canadian Environmen tal Protection Act.

Track 1 substances to be virtually eliminated

Under the policy, those toxic substances determined to be persistent, bioaccumulative and resulting from human activity will be designated "Track 1" substances and tar geted for virtual elimination from the envi ronment. Companies generating or using a Track 1 substance will have to demonstrate

Superior level

that the substance will not be released into the environment in measurable concentra

measurement for

tions at any point in its life cycle. If this cannot be demonstrated, the sub stance will be targeted for phaseout. Management plans for Track 1 sub stances that are already in the environment will be based on an analysis of risks, costs and benefits, but the long-term objective of virtual elimination will apply to all Track 1 substances.

Details about persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, their numeric values

and how they will be applied are contained in a document entitled "Toxic Substances

Management Policy: Persistence and Bioaccumulation Criteria."

Track 2 substances targeted for total life cycle management Toxic substances and substances of con cern which do not meet all four criteria for

Track 1 are candidates for full life-cycle management to prevent or minimize their release into the environment.

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Protecting pumping systems

Understanding the effects of lightning and power surges on submersible pumps and other equipment

Damagecaused by lightning strikes

or power surges can occur with submersible equipment in the same manner as with any elec tric motor connected to the power line. Per haps the worst problem with lightning dam age is that the failure is often not immediate, sometimes occurring days or weeks afterwards. This, of course, makes it even more dif ficult for the submersible troubleshooter to determine the real

cause of the problem and to fur ther convince others of the real cause as well.

Most people are usually aware of the possibilities of an immedi ate failure due to lightning. How ever, with a delayed failure, it is often difficult to convince those concerned that the real cause was

tribution lines. Either condition produces a high frequency, high voltage pulse which reaches its peak value quickly in one to ten microseconds of time. TTiis high voltage pulse travels down the power line from its starting point in both directions at the speed

too fast, causing a shock wave in the sys tem.

In either case, the intensity of the volt age surge at the motor will depend on the distribution system and where the equip ment is located within the system. For those responsible for pumping equip ment, this is often not good news, since this equipment is often at the end of the line. Pumping equipment at the end of the line can be subjected to double the voltage surge due to the reflection characteristics of the traveling wave which can increase its mag nitude considerably. When the surge enters the equipment, the motor tends to act like a choke, somewhat like in an hydraulic system when a valve is quickly closed and then pressure

and flow is increased. Because the result of something that hap of the restriction caused by the pened days or weeks before. The valve, high pressure can build up ahead of problem is further compounded by the fact of light - 186,000 miles per second. the valve which causes a severe case of that the failure often occurs on a day when It doesn't take much imagination to real the sun is shining and the weather has been ize that with these credentials, the surge will waterhammer. Often the windings of the clear for the previous week. often occur so quickly as to damage the motor will resist the change in voltage and Damaging lightning surges are more equipment without event tripping circuit current, first delaying it and then reflecting it back into the system. This usually re likely to occur in suburban and rural areas breakers or blowing fuses. In fact, in many due to longer distribution lines and fewer cases the surge will jump across open switch sults in motor insulation damage to the stator users than urban areas which are heavily contacts without the slightest hesitation. It leads or the first wires ofthe windings them developed with multiple users. The maxi is interesting to note that conventional or selves. In general, a motor mum voltage of a power failure occurs when the surge caused by lightning Damaging voltage surges can be either caused by voltage potential at any depends on the intensity of lightning or the opening and closing of the circuit point in the normal con the buildup in the storm breakers, main switches or other disruptions on the ductive path is greater cloud as well as the dis than the surrounding insutances involved. Direct high voltage distribution lines. lation is designed to con hits can produce up to 15 million volts and 40 thousand amperes of recording voltmeters, connected across the tain. When the fast rising voltage surge destructive power. line, will often not register the fast moving enters the motor, it quickly exceeds the in sulation breakdown rating, sometimes caus Fortunately, it is rare that equipment is surge, which is usually past the meter be subjected to a direct strike, although if it fore it can react. ing a small arc through the insulation bar Switching surges occur when the current rier which leaves a pinhole at the point of does happen, it certainly ends the question breakdown. After the destructive surge as to what caused the failure. Usually, the flow within the high voltage distribution main cause of equipment lightning damage system is suddenly interrupted. The maxi passes, the insulation resistance at the pinmum voltage of the switching surge may be hole may still be high enough to withstand is from strikes in the vicinity of high volt from full line voltage when the switch is the normal operating voltage for a period of age power distribution lines. This can in duce voltages as high as 500,000 volts de closed, to 5.5 times the line voltage if the time without breaking down. pending on the intensity of the strike and switch is opened. An abnormally high cur This weakened area ofthe windings may its location relative to the power line. It rent flow almost always results when a continue to withstand several other surges, has been noted that a lightning strike 2.5 ground fault happens somewhere in the becoming weaker each time, until finally miles from the distribution lines will not power system. The real problem occurs af breakdown occurs under normal operating usually cause a surge in the line; however, ter the fault is corrected and the switch is voltages. In dry submersible motors which always remember that due to the awesome closed, causing a destructive surge in the contain no motor cooling oil, a breakdown potential ofthis type of natural phenomenon, line, much of which must be absorbed by of this type is often referred to as a "Dry anything is possible. Bum". In this condition the equipment is the equipment connected to it. Damaging voltage surges can be either For those with pump or hydraulic back opened for repair, no water is present and caused by lightning or the opening and clos ground, it is somewhat like the effects of the smell of burned insulation greets the ing of the circuit breakers, main switches waterhammer which occurs in a piping sys noses of those in the immediate area. or other disruptions on the high voltage dis tem when a valve slams shut and re-opens Because of the nature of all motor insu-


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Protecting pumping systems lation materials, the duration or length of time of the destructive pulse can be quite important. The class of insulation used by the motor manufacturer can also be an im

portant factor. Under normal operating con ditions, when voltage is applied to the mo tor, a small leakage current will flow through the insulation barrier. This current is usu

ally so small that it cannot be measured with most common shop instruments and has no

detrimental effect on motor operation.

resistance conductor to ground during peri ods when the voltage between the power line and ground exceeds the set value. The set value is often referred to as "the impulse spark over voltage" and, when reached, the arrester may conduct currents as high as 10,000 amperes to ground. Arresters act as pressure relief valves, bleeding off voltage peaks higher than the rated spark-over value. Most arrester de vices have a spark-over value 3 to 5 times

On the other hand, insulation deteriora

door use and must never be installed inside

tion caused by lightning or switching surges is mainly due to the heat generated within the insulation by the high voltage and ab normal current flow which results. The time

that this surge persists has a direct relation to the resulting damage. For example, volt age that would cause damage if it lasted for a second, would not necessarily cause dam age if it lasted for only a few micro sec onds. Repeated voltage surges over a pe riod of time however, will tend to have a

cumulative effect, giving the same results as a prolonged surge. ITT Flygt engineers and service person nel recommend that a log sheet be faithfully kept at each installation site as part of good preventative maintenance practice. Along with voltage and current readings they also suggest that insulation readings be taken and logged at least every three months, begin ning when the pump is first installed. These checks involve the use of a megometer which applies a 500 volt test voltage be tween the conductive circuits and ground. Always be sure that all voltage and power is off when doing this test as the test instrument will be damaged If voltage Is present. The most important thing about this procedure is to develop an insulation history which shows a trend over an ex tended period oftime. ITT Flygt equipment will usually measure infinity or extremely high values when new. A normal trend over a period of years should indicate a slow drop in insulation readings which results from normal motor aging. The effects of lightning or surge damage can often be observed by taking a megometer reading shortly after the storm has passed and comparing it with the trend formed by

damage to submersible pump motors. The expulsion type of arrester consists of an air gap and a gas generating material. During normal voltage, the air gap insulates the power lines to ground. If the line to ground voltage exceeds the arrester impulse spark over voltage, the air gap short circuits the line to ground. The resulting high current through the special material of the arrester produces a gas which blows out the arc. This type of arrester is designed strictly for out

that of the nominal voltage rating of the ar rester. If used, it is absolutely essential the units be properly installed and the ground connection be the lowest resistance possi ble. If the arrester is connected to a poor ground it can generate high voltages from the grounded motor frame to the stator windings, resulting in winding insulation damage. There are several different types of ar resters available to help reduce lightning

previous readings. In this case, look for a sudden drop from the previous readings. Note that moisture intrusion into the cable

or the motor if it occurs fast enough, may also give the same indication. Using lightning arresters can offer some degree of protection by reducing the possi bility of dangerous surges from reaching the motor windings. Although no device can offer 100% protection against lightning damage, the number of failures can be re duced if the devices are properly selected,


the equipment control panel. A valve type arrester is made of many pellets of a special material which is sepa rated by air gaps. The material has nor mally a low resistance to high voltages and a high resistance to low voltages. During a surge when the voltage exceeds the impulse spark-over rating, the internal air gaps spark-over and the pellets short circuit the power line to ground. When the normal voltage returns, the resistance of the pellets automatically increases and the air gap voltages are reduced to a level where the current to ground ceases to flow. Always remember to carefully read all instructions supplied with the arrester and be absolutely sure of a low resistance ground connection. If in doubt, consult the manufacturer of the arrester device to be sure it is the correct

type for your particular installation. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 133

Corrosion interventions

11-7895 Tranmere Drive, Misslssauga, Ontario, L5S-1V9.


Our staff has over 20 years] design, supply, and instaiia' anodic corrosion control sy

SERVICES: 'Design and installation of systems for specige^appiications. ' Surveyin

installed and maintained.

A lightning arrester is a protective de vice installed between the power lines con nected to the equipment and ground. An arrester is an insulator to normal operating voltages but automatically becomes a low Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Find out how to control your corrosion costs. Call 1-800-567-2432

For more information, Circle reply card No. 134 (See page 17)


Drinking water storage

Cold weather protection for elevated water storage tanks

Amajorconcern for elevated water

fore, with winter temperatures often at

storage tanks in northern

-16°C and lower, it was considered neces

climates is the formation of ice

sary that the design of the elevated tank in clude features to reduce the potential for the

within the tank during the winter months. In some circumstances,floating ice caps and side wail ice accumulations of up

the exact contribution of the last two proc esses could not be quantified, they were con sidered only as safety factors in the design. Heat loss calculations

Basic principles ofthermodynamics were

formation of ice in the tank.

used to determine the total heat loss from

to two metres thick have been measured in

the elevated tank for various thicknesses of

unprotected tanks. While this is an extreme condition, any accumulation of ice can contribute to or cause a variety of problems for the owner of the facility. A floating ice cap can scrape off the interior coating as it rides up and down with the water level. This could lead to premature corrosion within the tank and a need to repair or replace the coating system in advance of normal

insulation. The total insulation detail con

sisted of styrofoam, a 75 mm air gap and a protective cladding. (See Figure 3.1) The insulation used in the analysis was Styrofoam SM available in thicknesses from 50 to 125 mm. Thicker layers of insulation were not analyzed as the costs to install two layers was not considered economical. The roof of the tank was not insulated

since this would increase both the capital costs and the potential for damage when personnel walked on the roof for mainte nance purposes. As a result, evaporative


Internal components such as ladders, fit tings, cathodic protection probes, etc., are also subject to damage from falling ice that has either accumulated on the walls or from

heat loss calculations for water in a shel

an ice cap that has hung up on fittings when the water level was lowered. If break-away fittings are not used, items which are welded directly to the tank may be torn off by the weight of the ice and, in a worst case sce nario, puncture the tank or access tube at the weld point. Should a complete ice cap form, or if the air vents become plugged, a vacuum could

tered air space were included to account for the heat loss through the top of the tank. The average cold weather temperature

be created when water is withdrawn from

the tank. Should this occur during a high flow condition,(fire or broken watermain), the rapid withdrawal of water could cause an implosion of the tank. Finally, very lit tle inf^ormation is available on the effects an accumulation of ice has on the structural

loading of a steel tank structure. The cur rent design standards do not include any factors to deal with these potential internal loads. An ice slab, suspended by a ladder or fitting, could impose significant stresses which have not been included in the tank

design. Ideally, ice formation should be pre vented and this was the strategy for the new elevated storage facility in Smooth Rock Falls. In conjunction with the construction of a new water treatment plant, the Town of Smooth Rock Falls planned to constmct a

2280 m^ elevated storage tank to provide peak balancing, fire flow and emergency storage. The Town is located on Highway 11 between Kapuskasing and Cochrane, approximately 100 km north of Timmins, Ontario. Because of this location, an el evated tank would be exposed to very cold winter temperatures (and wind chill) and would therefore be subject to the potential

formation of a significant ice cap. The situ ation is also compounded by the fact that the Town's water supply is obtained from the Mattagami River which has an average winter temperature of only O.I°C. There 52

was determined to be -15.4°C from meter-

ological data. Although the water source temperature has been recorded at 0.1°C, it was assumed that the water would be heated Addition ofInsulation at Smooth Rock Falls

Elevated Tank.

Design philosophy It is well documented that many elevated tanks have survived minor ice build-up with out serious problems. These problems have been generally limited to minor abrasions on the interior coating system. However, in Smooth Rock Falls, the cold temperatures, combined with low night time flows and large fire volume, presented a situation where the volume of water could be rela

tively still for a period of time and, there fore, a significant ice cap could form. There fore, it was decided to provide some pro tection for the elevated tank.

The design objective was to prevent the formation of a significant ice cap. It was considered unrealistic and uneconomical to

prevent the formation of all ice, especially as previous experience shows that minor ice build-up can be tolerated. Therefore, the goal of the design for the Smooth Rock Falls elevated tank was to

provide a system of features which would balance the heat loss from the stored water

on the average coldest day. Below this tem perature, ice would begin to form, but ma

jor accumulations would be prevented. It was anticipated that the desired bal ance of heat loss could be accomplished by insulating the tank and by heating the water. Other methods employed included circulat ing the water and daily replenishment of

slightly during the treatment and transport process. The temperature of the water en tering the tank was assumed to be 0.5°C which was also selected as the design tem perature within the tank. From these cal culations, the total heat lost from the tank varied from 400 kW to 13.4 kW as shown below;

Total Heat Loss(kW) Insulation Thickness

Total Heat Loss

0 mm 50 mm 75 mm 100 mm

399.4 kW 17.6kW 15.4kW 14.2kW

125 mm


From these results, it was apparent that insulating the tank results in a significant reduction in the amount of total heat lost.

Based on the relative rate of heat saving, availability and cost of insulating material and labour costs, it was decided to use 100

mm of styrofoam to insulate the tank. Heating/circulation system As a means to replenish the heat lost from the tank, a water circulation system was designed to draw water from the in coming service and pass it through an im mersion heater. This heated water would

then be pumped into the tank via a 75 mm pipe located within the tank outlet riser and discharged through four eductors placed at 90 degrees spacing around the tank. (See Figure 4.1)

water to mix the contents and assist in the

Based on heater sizes available, a twoelement, 18 kW immersion heater was se

prevention of ice build-up. However, since

lected. Since the source water for the cir-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

By Jim Leppard, P.Eng.* culation system was assumed to be the same as the design temperature in the tank(0.5°C) no additional heat was required for the in coming water supply.







Circulation pump

In addition to supplying the means of delivering heated water into the tank, a cir culation system also provides a means to






mix the water. This aids in distributing the




—----dpi 1





heated water to all areas of the tank and INCOMING

agitates the water which helps to prevent






This, in effect, permits the tank volume to be replaced or "turned over" at a rate equal to the rate of pumping. With the insulation system chosen, the tank would begin to freeze within four days during the average FIGURE 4.1 CIRCULATION

cold weather conditions and therefore the

tank should be "tumed over" within this pe riod. However, since the tank would be re

filled daily with "warm" water from the plant, only the remaining volume needed to be tumed over in the four-day period. In this manner, the entire contents of the tank


systems provide much improved mixing. Heat Trace System: The inlet and outlet risers are subject to freezing within the unheated shaft between the valve room and

under a slight vacuum condition and pre vent these possibilities. Costs

The tendered costs of providing these

the water tank. To protect these pipes, heat

additional cold weather features were as

The pump selected was rated at 4.7 Us

trace cables and 75 mm of insulation were


at 32 metres Total Dynamic Head (TDH).

added to each pipe. The heat trace system consists of two cables wrapped around each

I nsulatlon and Cladding

This permitted the water to be pumped into the tank while creating a sufficient plume

pipe which are controlled by an adjustable

from the eductors to ensure total mixing of

thermostat in the valve room. One cable is

Dual Riser Total

the contents.

the primary while the second acts as a standby

Both the pump and immersion heater were equipped with individual thermostats to operate independently. As the ambient air temperature begins to drop to near the freezing point, the pump starts to initiate mixing within the tank. As the air tempera ture drops further, the heater is tumed on to provide heated water into the tank. Also,

in the event the first cable bums out. Each

would be circulated and heated to 0.5°C.

should the incoming water supply tempera

ture drop, the pump and/or heater can be initiated. A flow switch was also added to

prevent the heater from buming out if there was no flow in the system.

This system of operation provides some energy savings as the start of the heater can be delayed until absolutely necessary. As operators gain experience with the system the thermostat settings can be refined to reduce the energy costs to a minimum.

cable was designed to provide 39 watts per


11,000 33.000 $189,000

This represents approximately 12 per cent of the final contract price of$1,600,000. However, considering that the cost of re

metre on each riser.

painting the interior would be in the

Vacuum Relief Plate: Vents are provided

$50,000-$60,000 range, the inconvenience, the extra pumping costs and operational problems associated with a tank out-of-service, and the potential for significant struc tural damage to the tank, the 12 percent pre mium would appear to be a reasonable ex

at the top of the access tube to allow air to enter the tank and permit the filling and raining of the water. These vents are cov ered with screens to prevent insects from entering the tank. Under unusual tempera ture/humidity conditions, it is possible that the screens could frost over and prevent air from entering the tank. Should this occur during a draining condition, a vacuum could be created which would reduce or stop the water flow, or worse, cause an implosion of

the tank. To prevent this possibility, a vacuum relief plate has been provided on the roof. This was designed to implode

Additional features

penditure to protect this vital component of the water supply system in Smooth Rock Falls.


Elevated water storage tanks are major components of water distribution systems which play an important role in providing reliable service to the community. Unfor

tunately, elevated tanks are also one of the more costly components of a system and therefore efforts must be made to ensure

their continued service and longevity. In cold climates, the formation of ice can cre

In addition to the insulation and circula

tion system, other features, which are often incorporated into the design of cold weather tanks, were also included. These are as fol

ate problems which can reduce or eliminate a tank's operational effectiveness. In addi tion, ice can increase significantly the main tenance costs due to premature repainting, or, in the worst case scenario, cause signifi cant structural damage. Therefcwe, it was


Dual Risers: The Smooth Rock Falls el

evated tank incorporated separate inlet and outlet risers. Similar to many ground stor

age reservoirs, two risers promote mixing and the circulation of water by injecting water near the top of the tank and by re

Heating/Circulation System

considered prudent to include a series of relatively cost-effective measures to reduce


moving water near the bottom. By this proc ess, the water surface is agitated during fill ing periods while mixing is also achieved during the withdrawal of water. The daily withdrawal and fillings with the dual riser "MacViro Consultants, Markham,Ont.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

or retard the formation of ice for a new el

evated water storage tank in Smooth Rock Falls. Depending upon the circumstances of each facility, these or other features should be considered by the designers of INSULATION

tanks located in cold weather climates. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 135 53

Monitoring and Surveiiiance

By Jim McGregor*

Canadian designed research vessel bound for Venezuela lake

The Republic of Venezuela re

quested that Delcan International

Corporation explore the possibil ity of having a surveillance and monitoring research vessel built in Canada to monitor water quality and pollutants go ing into Lake Maracaibo.

sel, called "El Bergantin" is state of the art throughout. It is constructed of marine grade aluminum and Canadian designed to meet International Safety Standards. All draw ings were approved by, and fabrication in spected, by the Canadian Coast Guard. The

Delcan had earlier been

latest technology in analytical equipment. AEM Systems Inc. of Toronto, designed the laboratory layout, and supplied and installed the equipment. Working closely with both suppliers, Delcan implemented and moni tored a co-ordination program between the shipbuilder and laboratory equip ment supplier to ensure sched

awarded two projects in Ven ezuela supported by loans from the Canadian Export Develop ment Corporation. The first project consisted of the design and procurement of materials and equipment for con

ules were met.

Throughout the program, Delcan's QA/QC personnel in spected materials, equipment, and welding to ensure compli ance with codes and specifica tions.

struction of two wastewater treat

ment plants, four sewage pump ing stations and the rehabilitation ofexisting sewage collection sys tems.

A second project was for the supply of materials and equip ment for a potable water distribution sys tem, as well as the other equipment required for sampling, testing, monitoring and con trolling the clean-up of the air and water in the Lake Maracaibo Region. Based on the design of the Ministry of the Environment's Research Vessel Guard

ian II, and with help from the marine divi sion of the MOE,Delcan was able to locate

a shipbuilder. Hike Metal of Wheatley, On tario, with the capabilities to design and fabricate the vessel for the Venezuelan

project and a contract was awarded to Hike Metal in early 1994. The 22.7 metre ves *V.P. of Procurement

Delcan Corporation


research vessel Is also outfitted with the lat

est marine electronics navigational system. The research vessel's mission Is to gather information on the chemical and biological conditions in Lake Maracaibo and connect

ing channels and rivers, and to monitor the pollutant concentration in water, sediments, fish and other biological matter. To carry out its mission, the vessel is designed to stay on location 8-10 days and has complete facilities to sleep eight per sons which would include crew members, laboratory technicians and scientists. To undertake necessary tests and sampling re quired for monitoring and implementation of controls to clean up the lake,the on-board laboratory is completely equipped with the

The "El Bergantin" was launched in April 1995, under went rigid open water trials on Lake Erie supervised by the Ca nadian Coast Guard. It passed all tests successfully. The ship's crew from Venezuela spent two weeks in Wheatley during May 1995 un dergoing training in the operation and main tenance of the research vessel. The research vessel was scheduled to sail

from Wheatley this summer to Hamilton Harbour, where a thorough cleaning proc ess was to be completed to ensure no Zebra Mussels were in cooling water lines or on any other parts of the research vessel. It was then to be loaded on a freighter for ship ping to Venezuela. A global emphasis on the environment and the improvement of infrastructures has become a high priority in many countries. The "El Bergantin" is a big step forward in Venezuela's program to clean up Lake Maracaibo.

CleanSoils opens Hamilton Soil Remediation Centre for the treatment, recycling and cleaning of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

CleanSoils Limited, a soil remediation service company has opened a new hydrocarbon contaminated soil treatment facility in Hamilton, Ontario. The

small, anywhere in Ontario.

multimillion dollar facility offers thermal remediation of non-hazardous con

at a generator's property for on-site soil treatment and recycle. CleanSoils is one of the industry's leading authorities in thermal soil

taminated soils using low temperature thermal desorption - a process quickly becoming the soil remediation technology of the '90s as the pre ferred method to deal with petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants. The CleanSoils Thermal Desorber''" operates with full permits and MGEE Certificates of Approval at the Hamilton Centre which includes a large concrete staging pad, certified weigh scale, screening plant, wheel loader and other support and materials handling equipment. CleanSoils fixed base facility is conveniently located at Eastport, Ham ilton Harbour with direct access to the Queen Eiizabeth Way,just south of the Burlington skyway. Material can also be received by rail or by barge. CleanSoils Is permitted to receive soil from any site or project, large or

CleanSolls can also quickly mobilize and set up the Thermal Desorber"*

remediation, serving the U.S. market since 1989 with operations in Cali fornia, Alaska, Minnesota, Wisconsin,and Pennsylvania. Canadian-owned CleanSoils Limited brings this knowledge, experience and capability to the Ontario soil remediation market.

CleanSoils provides the ultimate in flexibility for hydrocarbon contami nated soil treatment as a final soil disposal option or treatment and recy cle service. In either case, full documentation of hydrocarbon destruction, laboratory analyses and a certificate are provided. And all at costs less than landfill disposal! CleanSolls is the soil remediation choice that lives up to its name.

Contact: Gordon M. Weis or Alex Keen at CleanSoils Limited

225 Sheppard Avenue West, North York, Ontario M2N 1N2, Tel: (416) 226-3838, Fax: (416) 226-2931 54

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 136 (See page 17)

Envirorxmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905) 727-4666.





Pumps, Filters, Liquid Handling Equipment

Pulsapak water treatment plant

This new guide contains appiication and ordering information on our compiete iine of filtration systems engineered to provide economical, efficient removal of particuiates and organic impurities from a wide range

The Degremont inflico Pulsapak pro duces a very high quality of water, uti lizing technology equivalent to that used in large instaiiations. The Pulsapak water treatment plant is the result of a combination of two proven Degremont technologies. The first is the Puisator® Ploccuiator-Ciarlfier, equipped with tube settling modules.

of chemical solutions, industrial fluids


and oils. Also offered are individual

components including pumps, filter chambers, filter media and a compiete iine of related accessories including level controls, pH instruments, heaters, etc..


The second is a sand and anthracite

dual media gravity filter. The Pulsapak is available in several standard sizes

treating flows from 35 m®/hr to 115 m^/ hr (150 to 500 Usgpm). Degremont Infiico Circle reply card No. 201

Service Filtration Of Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 200

Finally, there's a Pulp and Paper waste water treatment process that makes

ZERO DISCHARGE achievable at a reasonable cost.

Zero Discharge achievable at a reasonable cost The HCR is a modern activated sludge process which uses loop-type bubble



Since first entering the retaining wail

column technology tor optimizing mass transfer. The HCR process combines compact dimensions with excellent per formance and reduced sludge produc tion. Capital and operating costs are sig nificantly lower than other AST systems as are yearly maintenance charges. The HCR can be installed as a large main treatment facility for an existing mill operation or as a local, single stream treatment cell for a new pulping or papermaking installation. Puma Engineering Circle reply card No. 202

market in 1934, with Bin-Waii, Armtec has continued to foster its presence in the Canadian retaining wail market place. By modifying existing systems and adding new ones, Armtec is able to provide numerous steel and geosynthetic soil retention solutions to meet your site specific requirements.

A New Approach to Scientific Data Analysis

Diffused aeration products


Circle reply card No. 203

Parkson offers the widest range of dif fused aeration products available,

Analysis Advisor is a free interac tive analysis software tutorial that includes demonstrations of graphi cal and traditional programming methodologies for analysis. Using this interactive tutorial, you can in vestigate Digital signal processing. Digital filtering. Windowing, Curve fitting, Signal averaging, Simula tion, interpolation, and Descriptive

included are: Aeration Panels, a flex

ible membrane system which pro duces superfine bubbles; Fiex-ATube flexible, membrane diffusers that produce intermediate size bubbles; FineAir ceramic disc and dome diffus

ers; Endurex stainless steel coarse

bubble diffuser, and the OxyCharger Static Aerator, a unique low-head, gravity-flow device to increase dis solved oxygen levels of influent

statistics. National Instruments

water. Parkson

Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205

HAZCO Releases 1995

Rental & Repair Catalogue! This full-color catalogue displays HAZCO's collection of portable environmental equipment and details repair and maintenance services for instruments and

SCBAs. HAZCO's rental fleet, which is available on a daily, weekly or monthly basis, includes air/water monitors and samplers, respiratory protection, confined space equipment, support prod rAL «

Armtec takes you to new heights In retaining wall technology

ucts and morel HAZCO

Circle reply card No. 206 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Double Disc Pumps Pump Monufacturers To The Process Industry

New Concepts For Pumping Clean Liquids, Slurries and Solids In Suspension The Double Disc pump combines the performance features of posi tive displacement pumps and the principle of "Induced Flow" to pro vide superior versatility in fluids handling. Two flexible discs, driven by eccentrics and connecting rods, work in opposition of each other to create suction, discharge and "in duced flow" of the fluid through the pump.

Equlpump Inc. Circle reply card No. 207


Product Review Plastic pumps

Environmental Solutions

Industry Canada - Canadian Environmen

tal Solutions (CES) is an award-winning, portable, multimedia tool designed to pro vide an instantaneous response to environ mental problems. In a matter of seconds,

specific solutions to environmental prob lems can be found, along with profiles of

Ultraviolet Disinfection

A new technical bulletin describing the use of thermoplastic pumps for water and wastewater treatment is available from

Vanton Pump & Equipment Corp. Appli cation Possibilities Growfor Plastic Pumps presents comparative data on a wide choice of pump materials, various pump designs,

companies that provide those solutions The product is available on CD-ROM,diskettes,

and a review of standard and custom non-

and Internet.

Illustrations include a cut-away view of a fluoropolymer centrifugal pump, a close up of a thermoplastic sump pump with a unique seal device that prevents the escape of coiTosive or toxic fumes from pressurized tanks, and various solid plastic pump bod

CES addresses industry sector problems related to water, air, soil, research and de

velopment, and energy. It contains 500 en vironmental problems, 1000 solutions and their descriptions, along with the 600 com panies that can provide the solutions. This product will be continually updated to en sure that the information,remains accurate.

Industry Canada For more information,

metallic pump/tank systems.

ies with colour coded flexible liners of six different elastomeric materials.

Vanton Pump For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 143

Building on the modular system concept, Trojan engineers have created the Trojan System UV3000™. Some of the advances in the UV3000™ series include: electronic

ballasts for increased power efficiency; in tegrated solid-state circuitry to allow for

greater monitoring capability; operatorfriendly programmable controls to simplify operation and enhance performance. The system incorporates important fea tures for simple and trouble-free installa

tion and operation. Gravity flow brings wastewater to the UV unit. No pumps, pipe valves or fittings are necessary. The UV lamp modules are installed in an open chan nel, outdoors. The system is completely weatherproof. Trojan Technologies For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 189

Circie repiy card No. 142

HACH Products for Water

Quality Analysis - 1996 New 448-page catalog covers port able, laboratory, and on-line Instru mentation for monitoring critical wa ter quality and soil parameters, in cludes information on spectrophotometers; colorimeters; turbidimeters; test kits; eieotrochemicai, titratlon, microbiological, and immunoassay products; COD and BOD testing; chlorine analyzers; labware, reagents


and standards.


Hach Company Circle reply card No.215


■ quickly search synonyms or CAS numbers mmma

Serving the Pulp & Paper Industry This 8-page,full colour brochure pro

"hotlink" from Indexes to methods and between methods

vides a detailed look at how Praxair

industrial gases and technology pro

use electronic bookmarks & glossary

vide economical and environmental

solutions for the Pulp & Paper indus try. Some of the featured gas appli cations include oxygen/ozone bleach ing and wastewater treatment; oxy gen for chemical recovery, white and black liquor oxidation, and lime kiln

1-800-668-4284 (Toll-free US and Canada) Phone: (905)570-8094 Fax:(905)572-2206 Internet: custserv@ccohs.ca

enrichment; and nitrogen for chemi cal transfer, cleaning and purging pipelines, and blanketing chemicals. Praxair

Circle reply card No.216 56

For more information. Circle reply card No. 119 (See page 17)

Product Review 24-Hour Air Sampler

Storage and Sampling

Sequential Air Sampler


Supelco's new 24-hour air sampler is a low flow unit that provides a full day of sample collection into a thermal desorption tube or a 2-litre sample bag. This 2-litre quiet sam pler operates for up to 24 continuous hours. A see-through lid allows you to monitor the sample. A vacuum gauge and fine needle valve are used to set the desired flow rate.

Using an active vacuum-based sampler, rather than a passive canister, provides longterm flow stability in a compact unit. Supelco Canada For more information, Circie repiy card No. 188

Supelco's new TDS' storage and sampling system for thermal desorption unit (TDU) tubes securely holds a TDU in an enert hard polymer shell. The shell is sealed with a replaceable Tetlon®-faced septa, eliminat ing the need for cleaning or thermal condi tioning of the device before its next use. Removable storage endcaps can be replaced with sampling endcaps, allowing the con tainer to be attached to a personal sampling pump. The device is available for common tube sizes. Supelco Canada For more information,

Circle repiy card No. 146

The Model 1063 sequential air sampler from Supelco offers flexibility, portability, and performance. The active vacuum chamberbased sequential sampler automatically col lects air samples into thermal desorption tubes, six 1-litre bags, or one 10-litre bag. Precise low flow rates are maintained with

a critical orifice, applying a constant vacuum to the chamber. Three electronic timers pro vide a variety of sampling durations. Supelco Canada For more information, Circie repiy card No. 225




W, '-J\

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• Pulp Mills

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• Construction Sites

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"CUSTOM DESIGNED & MANUFACTURED FOR YOUR NEEDS" MEC SYSTEMS INC. 44775 Yale Road, Chllliwack, B.C. V2R 4H3 • Tel: (604) 792-7779 Fax:(604)792-7072 For more information. Circle reply card No. 218 (See page 17)

• environmental remediation

• full service zebra mussel control

Greenwood Environmental inc.

• industrial diving & underwater video • excavating & mechanical contracting • wastewater treatment

The Environmental Solution

6970 Oakwood Drive

181 University Avenue

Niagara Fails, Ontario L2E 685

Suite 1101, Box 11 Toronto, Ontario M5H 3M7

Tei: (905) 357-1735 Fax: (905) 357-7256

Tei: (416) 594-1155 Fax: (416) 594-0711

People Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

For more information. Circle reply card No. 224 /Qao

1 7\


Product Review Combo Venturi-Check Valve

New analyzer predicts maintenance and calibration needs

A new combination venturi-check valve from Victaulic eliminates turbulence and interference to measure flow more accu

rately than devices that place taps across the valve seat.

The Series 779 venturi-check valve fea

tures a hydrodynamically designed inlet that acts as a natural venturi. Drilled, tapped and plugged, the inlet is ready to receive the flow kit supplied with the valve. Twin taps on both sides of the valve make for con venient meter connection. Victaulic

For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 147

Free CD-ROM encyclopedia

Developed to measure and control pH,ORP,

The new analyzer utilizes a logbook

conductivity, resistivity and dissolved oxy gen, the new Series 63 Analyzer from Great Lakes Instruments features system diagnos tics that continuously monitor key functions. The Series 63 automatically tests the sen sor system and wiring for abnormal condi tions and failure every 1/2 second. For pH measurement, the diagnostics also check: glass impedance; reference function; foul ing potential; preamp; and automatic tem

function that maintains an active data base,

including historical and conditional data, as well as alarms. Combined with the system diagnostics, the logbook will predict sensor maintenance by determining the need to clean or calibrate the electrode system. The unit also provides warnings of existing or

potential failures. Summa Engineering For more information,

Circle repiy card No. 149

perature compensator.

Plastic Electric Actuators

Clamp-on Flowmeter


The new,free CD-ROM encyclopedia from National Instruments contains instrumenta

tion information for engineers and scientists building test and measurement and process monitoring and control applications. The

Windows-compatible Instrupedia™ features more than 60 tutorial and "how-to" applica tion notes to help users leam how to com bine hardware and software to build com

puter-based systems for instrument control and data acquisition, analysis, and presen tation.

Chemline's new Q Series electric Quarter Turn valve actuators feature plastic "Zytel" housings for light weight and corrosion re sistance. These are compact, powerful(150 in.lb. or 300 in.lb. output), competitively

Clamp-On Flowmeter System 990N from Controlotron is ideal for upgrade and retro fit applications as it requires no process or flow shutdown for installation and can be installed in minutes - often with the old

Solutions that describe how scientists and

priced, and CSA approved. Standard fea

engineers used instrumentation hardware and software to build custom, computerbased systems for real-world applications in electronics test, fiber manufacturing, aerospace, automotive,electric power,trans portation, environmental control, and edu

tures include NEMA 4X enclosure, manual

override, visual position indication, and ISO mounting. The motor is reversible, 75% duty cycle. Options include different voltages, heaterAhermostat, motor brake, positioner, fail safe power pack and others.

flowmeter left-in-line. System 990N re quires very little maintenance, since the flowmeter is completely non-intrusive and there are no moving or exposed parts to wear or be damaged by the flow stream. The patented MultiPulse measurement tech nique is entirely digital, and calibration accuracy will not degrade over time.


Chemline Plastics

Westech Industrial

Instrupedia includes more than 20 User


National Instruments

For more information.

For more information.

For more information,

Circle repiy card No. 148

Circle repiy card No. 150

Circie reply card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Product Review Air transport system

Respirator exceeds NIOSH requirements high levels of airflow that surpass NIOSH requirements. It is approved to operate with up to seven different helmets, hoods and facepieces from 3M for a wide range of particulate, gas and vapor applications. Workers can choose from a large selection of cartridges and filters that offer flexibil ity and freedom to work in a variety of in dustrial environments.

The respirator fits comfortably on the body, utilizing a waist belt and shoulder strap. A single cartridge system is more cost effective. 3M Canada

A new lightweight, belt-mounted powered air purifying respirator from 3M provides

For more information, Circle reply card No. 167

CLEAN SHOT Sohds Delivery System

reached. Alarms for toxic gases can be set to trigger when a threshold level is reached and/or when the 15 minute or 8 hour OEL

Wet, free-flowing slurries and semi-dry sol ids can be easily and effectively moved with

the CLEAN SHOT'''' pneumatic ejector sys tem from Wheelabrator.

The system uses compressed air to drive the solids or slurry from an ejector vessel through valve-controlled, abrasion-resistant

piping. By being contained within the pip ing for the entire transport time, the waste presents no odour or spillage problems. And since CLEAN SHOT has few moving parts, maintenance and downtime are substantially reduced. The CLEAN SHOT system oper ates from local or remote control panels and can also be completely customized to ac commodate land contours and existing plant equipment. Wheelabrator For more information, Circle reply card No. 165

Crowcon Detective

(TWA) are exceeded. Cancoppas For more information.

Circle reply card No. 166

Gas and fire detection system

Gasmonitor is a 19" rack mounting control panel, housing up to 16 input modules. Each gas detection module can be used with any Crowcon gas detector, and each twin zone fire module can be used with up to 20 fire detectors per zone. The system is microprocessor controlled,

giving the user total flexibility in configu

standard sizes from 9,000 to 3.5 million lb./ in.; mixer drives for concrete mixers with

drum capacities from 1 to 14 cubic yards; wheel drive units for a tremendous range of hydrostatic vehicles, from forklifts to earth

movers; track drive units with output tor ration, alarm setup and relay operation. The ques up to 525,000 lb./in.; slew drives in a design also incorporates features that allow vast range ot sizes and configurations in the operator to perform one man calibration cluding built-in negative brakes and adapt at the detector,automatic data logging, three ers for all common electric and hydraulic levels of alarm as standard, voted outputs, motors; and hydraulic winches for mobile and RS232 communications. Cancoppas cranes and other heavy equipment with pull For more information. ing forces up to 15 tons and speeds up to

Circle reply card No. 168

400 feet/min.

These drives are in operation in more

Planetary gear units BNA offers a comprehensive product range

of planetary drives, including: Multi-pur pose planetary drives and gearmotors in 12

than 50 countries worldwide.

BNA Bonfiglioli North America For more information.

Circle reply card No. 169

Crowcon Detective is a transportable gas

detecting unit which enables a multi-gas monitoring system to be set up on any po tentially hazardous site within minutes. Detective can monitor up to four gases si multaneously and it offers a peak reading hold facility and time weighted average alarms and readings. Data logging is built in as standard.

Alarms for flammable gases and oxygen

trigger as soon as the threshold level is

® u)alhei' laboratories -



Environmental Testing Laboratory • CAEAUSCC accredited • Emergency testing • Full service laboratory; air, soil, effluent testing

• Reg. 347, Decommissioning, fvllSA, packages available For more information, please call: TEL: (905) 227-1158 • FAX: (905) 680-1916

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, November 1995


Product Review ously monitors turbidity in wastewater plant

Turbidity sensor

effluent and basin overflows. The instru

ment employs 90° scattered IR light tech nology in accordance with the ISO7027 standard for turbidity measurement. The WP-302 has a user-programmable measur ing range of 0 to 1000 NTU/FTU. Integrated ambient light compensation, electronic disturbance suppression and au tomated cleaning of the probe windows guarantee accurate measurement and low maintenance requirements. A mechanical wiper at the front of the probe can be acti vated manually or at timed intervals to pre vent probe fouling. The BTG WP-302 Wiper Sensor continu

suitable for process temperatures of up to 50°C(120°F). Summa Engineering For more information, Circle reply card No. 153

Integrated sampler/flow meter

The standard version of the WP-302 is




The Btihler 1023 from Montec International

is an integrated fixed-site sampler/ flowmeter, specially designed for flow pro portional sampling in process, water and general industry. Combining sampling and flow measurement facilities in one compact aste water slurry being tea into a Derrick Flo-Line screening machine



unit, the Buhler 1023 eliminates the need

for purchasing separate systems. It can sam ple and measure flow in open channels, pro viding accurate and representative flow data. The unit's transducer can be used as a

depth only system for flow structures and ands. which are

weirs, or with twin sets of transducers for

on corporations 0; control B.O.p,

measuring flow velocity of both shallow and deep flows in open channels using the Doppler technique. The Buhler 1023 incorporates an envi ronmental cabinet to accommodate biologi cal samples requiring storage at 4°C, while an optional Teflon lined inlet hose and glass sample container ensure the sample integ rity of liquids containing trace toxic ele ments. The unit can also he supplied with a pre-wash facility to eliminate cross con tamination between successive samples. Cancoppas For more Information,

emand) discharges tment costs, ha^e eed for efficient,


iye:j.equ|pment to •prDcessed olids concentra^a.,waste3iysi|:er stream usi oration, with over 40 "tO.dSMM urcthane scree"

ng experience, is now this equipment tech;

li ^ ,


Circle reply card No. 154

Soil vapour extraction and air sparging systems proce




1586 Griffiths Place

2925 Miners Ave.

9030 Leslie St. Unit 5

Kelowna, British Columbia VIZ 2T7

Saskatoon,Saskatchewan S7K 4Z6

Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B IG2

Phone: 604-769-3848


Phone: 905-771-8400

Fax: 604-769-5859

Fax: 306-93 I-I I28

Fax: 905-771 -891 1

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 171 (See oaae 171

IWR's soil vapour extraction systems are designed to remove voiatiies from contami nated soils by applying high vacuum through reliable explosion proof blowers. Some standard features of these systems include: Ex-proof blower and starter, hour meter, inlet vacuum gauge, and air filter, all en closed in a weatherproof iockahie enclosure with full CSA approval for Class 1, Div. 1.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Product Review Other optional equipment includes moisture knock-out

vessels and olT-gas









sparging systerns offer in-situ treat

ment of hydrocar bons. These sys tems are CSA ap proved and can be either explosion proof or general purpose, i nausiruii Waste Recovery

For more information, Circie reply card No. 155

Vapor condensing system LIQUID CARBONIC NOUJTR iAl


Head Space Vapor Condensing System (HSVCS)

Liquid Carbonic's patented Head Space Vapor Con densing System (HSVCS) reduces VOC emissions by lowering reaction vessel head space temperature with liquid nitrogen. This,



turn, solvent

vapors to condense and return to the

• CD-ROM or diskettes

product as a liquid. The HSVCS is eas

ily installed to most compounding mixers and reaction vessels without interfering with other eqiuipment or processes. In addition to lowering worker exposure to toxic chemicals, the HSVCS system also increases control over compounding proc esses and product quality. Because the nitrogen u.sed in the sys tem does not make direct contact with the process vessel's atmos phere, it can be reused in other applications requiring an inert gas. Liquid Carbonic For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156

Paddle wheel flowmeters

• 1 000 solutions to more than

500 environmental problems • Great for doing business in

Latin America, Asia and Europe

• More than 1 000 000 words in English, French and Spanish

Chemline Plastics has intro duced the new DIGIFLOW

industry Canada - Canadian Environmental Solutions

FLS line of "all plastic" pad

(CES) Is an award-winning, portable, multimedia tool

dle wheel flowtueters and in

designed to provide an Instantaneous response to

struments for pipe sizes 1/2" up. The units are designed for long life and high accuracy in corrosive applications. The

environmental problems. Within seconds, CES gives you specific solutions to environmentai probiems

Halar rotor, with ceramic shaft

along with profiles of more than 600 Canadian

and bearings, ensures long

companies that can provide appropriate solutions.

life. InstrutTients include local and remote rate / total indication, transmitters, no-flow switches. Chemline Plastics

For more information. Circle reply card No. 157

Positive pressure respirators International Safety Instruments have introduced the tiew Hooded Demand Valve type "C" NIOSH approved positive pressure res pirators with and without escape. The HDV ARAP/Escape and HDV ARAP/C represent a major step forward in supplied air applications. By combining the proven performance of the ARAP with the comfort and convenience of the Hooded Demand Valve.

ISI has created the next generation of supplied air respirators. Canadian Safety Equip. For more information. Circle reply card No. 158 Environmental Science <&. Engineering. November 1995

We like to think that for every environmental problem there is a Canadian solution, and most importantly, a Canadian partner.

To order: Fax (613) 952-9564

Industry Canada Industrie Canada


For more information. Circle reply card No. 172 (See paae 17)

Product Review New BOD Measurement

graphical display on the instrument. The


BODTrak shuts off automatically after five

days. Data can be sent to a computer as it is collected or after five days.

The BODTrak Apparatus offers results with accuracy of ±5% on BOD standards the same obtained when using the traditional dilution method. Because only a physical change occurs with the Hach BOD method, the undamaged sample provides continuous readings that mimic natural waste streams. The traditional manometric apparatus uses mercury to measure BOD. The BODTrak Apparatus contains no mercury and works with pressure sensors. Hach For more information,

Circle reply card No. 159 Hach's new BODTrak'^" Apparatus for di rect BOD measurement does not require dissolved oxygen measurements, because consumed oxygen is measured continuously. The rate of BOD can be read at any time

during the five-day test by viewing the LCD

Portable Clamp-on Flowmeter Controlotron's Clamp-on System 990P Port able Flowmeter installs on virtually any pipe in minutes. No cutting of pipe or process


shutdown is required for installation. System 990P can be programmed in the field or office via a simple, menu driven, hand-held keypad. Up to 16 programmed sites can be stored. It weighs under 11 lbs. and can be used on virtually any pipe from 0.25" to 360" diameters. System 990 uses MultiPulse™ Transit-Time technology, a patented, all digital ultrasonic measurement technique. Virtually any liquid can be meas ured from potable water, to raw sewage, to sludges. Accuracy is typically within 1% of flow rate over a flow range of 1000 to 1. Multi-channel models are available for

portable flow balancing application. Also, NEMA 4 models are available for dedicated

applications. Westech Industrial


For more information.

Where your Concerns

Circle reply card No. 161

are our Concerns

pH measurements tracked


5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 (905) 890-8566 1-80G-263-9G4G Fax:(9G5) 890-8575

Environmental Analysis

Food Chemistry

Waste Characterization

Contract R&D

Air Quality Assessments

Water Quality

Field/Mobile Services

Drug Testing

Comprehensive Analytical

CanTest Ltd. 1523 West 3rd Avenue



Vancouver, B.C. Fax 604 731 2386

The RC475pH Recorder, a monitoring sys

Tel 604 734 7276 1 -800-665-8566



Accrediled for specific tests by CAEAL & SCO

■.SS-''. s'o»


tem outfitted with a NEMA-rated case, four

setpoints and four relays to provide a twoway neutralization and two alarms, tracks all the pH measurements for 30 days with pressure-sensitive paper; it requires no ink or chart replacement. A digital readout panel is also available as an accessory. The user can set the setpoints anywhere along the 2-12 pH scale, or the optional 014 scale, for treatment with acid or caustic. The system's noninductive relays, rated 7 amp, can be supplemented with a second set of relays to activate additional pumps or valves, or to connect to alarms. Analytical Measurements For more information.

Circle reply card No. 162 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


Toronto Environmental Jradeshow & Conference

1996 International Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

An ideal opportunity to showcase your latest technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental management.

hookfour exjilkitspace how! For further information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240, 4936- 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3

Edmonton Ptione: Calgary Phone:

(403) 469-2400 Fax:(403)469-1398 (403) 258-0705 Fax: (403) 258-0745

For conference/workshop details, phone (905) 727-4666 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 164(See page 17)

Environmental Problems? If your contractor does not have Environmental Insurance Coverage you are Liable! Every day in Canada,environmental remediation work is completed by so-called "professionals" operating without insurance. As the person who contracted the work to be done, you are liable. You could be sued both corporately and personally in the event of accidents or environmental repercussions resulting from the work done. General liability insurance does not cover environmental remediation work. Don't take a chance. Protect your personal and corporate assets.

We are experts in environmental remediation, asbestos abatement and lead removal. We carry the best long term asbestos and environmental insurance coverage available in Canada.

The experts in building and facility decontamination asbestos abatement and removal contractors

lead abatement and lead paint removal chemical clean-ups plant decommissioning environmental impairment occurance insurance urea formaldehyde foam (UFFI) removal, cost estimates, inspections asbestos encapsulation and repair hazardous waste spill clean-up contaminated soil remediation

power washing and steam cleaning PBC clean-ups and removal environmental clean-ups

lead and hazardous coatings removal pharmaceuhcal decontamination heavy metals decontamination (mercury, cadmium, lead, PCBs, arsenic, silica, chromium, etc.)

pesticide, herbicide, fungicide clean-ups containment and barrier construction

histoplasmosis (pigeon, seagull, bird, bat droppings) dust collectors — removal and cleaning underground storage tank (UST)removals estimates — budgets costs of removal experienced at presentation of expert opinion expert court testimony Supreme Court experience

Restoration Environmental Contractors Head office 416-543-4719 • Fax 905-477-6295

Emergency Response • 24 hours •416-543-4719 Ottawa (613) 769-5420 Barrie (705) 734-7350

Kingston (613)541-9282 Thunder Bay (807)473-6905

London (519)668-9666 Florida (813)866-7606

For more information, Circle reply card No. 152(See page 17)

Consultants In the '90s

By Kenneth J. Barlow*

The future of consulting engineering in Canada If engineering really is the invisible profession, then consultants are the most invisible sector of this

learned calling. Not long ago a Metro Toronto politician cried out during a debate that "we are spending millions on consultants, for God's sake". He was palpably

greater client expectations, increased de mand for new services and mercurial prof its. Comfortable relationships between con sulting engineers and loyal clients are be ing displaced by competitive bidding, smaller traditional contracts with lower

and wastewater treatment plants,

profit potential and larger total package projects with higher profit potential. How ever, the larger projects require larger in vestments and expose engineers to greater

the trunk sewers and water mains,

financial risks.

had been designed by consulting engineers. In point of fact, many of the roads, bridges and the skyscrapers that grace the Toronto skyline have also been designed by consultants. But environmental engineering has been a specialty of consultants since Willis Chipman formed what was almost certainly Canada's first private consulting practice over a century ago. Since then consulting engineers have served Canada well. Before governments began diverting vast sums of monies to social engineering projects, our infrastructure was amongst the best in the world. Today, while our environmental challenges remain formidable, consultants are facing problems as never before. Hun

Many engineers in the industry have their annual medical checkups, to ensure they are healthy for another year of peak performance, and to determine what action if any, they should take to keep themselves in good physical and mental condition. Now more than at any time in previous years, owners of consulting engineering companies should also make annual corporate check ups to ensure their companies are taking the action required to enhance competitiveness and increase profitability. Prescriptions for success obviously vary for each type and size of company, and will also be different depending upon the com pany's services, office locations, years in business, ownership, financial strength and current profit levels. However, many own ers will profit from considering annually the following items to ensure that their compa nies (i) operate at peak efficiency, (ii) take

unaware that most of the water

dreds of millions have been wasted

on such projects as the Interim Waste Authority, the Ontario Waste Management Corporation and many other government 'initiatives' which squandered funds while urgently needed infrastructure projects languished and consulting staff was laid off. ES&E invited promi nent figures in the consulting profession to offer their views on the new challenges facing their profession. Tom Davey

inc., Oakvllle, Ontario. He is a professional engineer, who has consulted for 26 years on management, acquisitions, mergers and sale of companies to 600 engineering and architectural companies in a dozen countries.

casual labor. Asbestos remediation in the

United States became a commodity service as soon as it appeared in the marketplace. Canadian lawyers in the late seventies and early eighties failed to hang onto the financially attractive business of incorporat ing new companies. Paralegals performed the service satisfactorily without the need for higher education, professional registra tion or supervision by lawyers. Incorporat ing companies is a service that does not need to be performed by lawyers, and it is now recognized, priced and sold as a commod ity. Paralegals outside legal firms have es tablished profitable businesses providing the service at lower costs than legal firms. Until recently many commodity services provided by professional firms were insu lated from competi tion by education re quirements, legisla tion, professional registration and

ices at lower costs

ies will be forever unfulfilled.

'Kenneth J. Bariow, heads Barlow Associates

rushing into the market faced cut-throat competition. Consulting engineers quickly discovered that they could not compete prof itably with the large number of contractors who staffed their projects with low-cost

Many previously al most impregnable professions are leak ing oil today, as en trepreneurs without professional registra tion develop efficient procedures to per form the professions' commodity type serv

and those who are yearning for the return of the markets of the eight

markets with different characteristics,

divisions to service the new market. How

ever, they quickly discovered that engineer ing degrees and professional registration were not prerequisite for success in obtain ing and completing asbestos remediation projects. Engineering and other companies

standard fee rates.

The Millennium is on the horizon

This significant reduction in contract vol ume in the consulting engineering market is not part of a traditional economic cycle. The shrinking market in the nineties is the forerunner of a new paradigm. The consulting engineering sector is be ing propelled at exponential rates into new

in schools and other buildings. Many con sulting engineering companies leapt into the market forming asbestos departments and

required action promptly to capitalize on market opportunities, and (iii) become ben eficiaries rather than victims of changes in

and for them higher profits. Professional associations cannot stop the drift of commodity services from professional companies into the open mar

the market.

ket. The market decides how and from

It is a buyers' market Consulting engineering companies pro viding commodity type services should ex pect more competition, particularly for serv ices that are easy for new companies to of fer. Consider for example the asbestos scare in the United States. Medical reports waved by environmentalists motivated hysteria among some parents who caused politicians to legislate massive funds for remedial work

whom it will purchase, and it will not pay higher prices for service from professionals when equivalent services can be purchased from non-professionals at substantially lower costs. Leaders of professional serv ice companies should review carefully all of the services they provide in order to iden tify commodity type services, because all commodity services are destined for intense

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, November 1995

price competition. Continued overleaf 65

Consultants In the '90s The volume of engineering contracts in many traditional markets has shrunk by more than 40% during the last five years, but the engineering capability to complete contracts has declined only marginally. Capital for infrastructure projects is in short supply worldwide. Most western politicians have bankrupted their countries with enti tlements and other mindless spending pro grams that have resulted in crippling debt loads. Consequently, spending on infra structure programs will continue to decline until private sector financing becomes avail able in large enough amounts. Consulting for traditional infrastructure projects is now, and will be for the foreseeable future, a

buyers' market. Clients will not beat a path to a company's door even if they are the best engineers in the country. Financial success requires a proactive and creative approach to carefully selected emerging markets. Refocus services

The volume of traditional consulting engineering services is declining, but con sulting services are increasing. Fee and profit levels for traditional consulting engi neering are falling, while fees and profits for consulting are rising. Owners and man

agers of consulting engineering companies

charged by management consultants. More focus should be directed toward solving problems for clients as management advi

the already punitive industry fee scales that result in principals in consulting engineer ing companies earning hourly rates that are less than mechanics at local gas stations charge to fix automobiles. This shift in the company's market focus may require additional skills, the assistance of other professions, and possibly require fewer existing untrainable employees. It is painful to lay off loyal employees,but if they cannot be re-trained economically for the new services clients expect, then managers don't have any choice. Some employees must be laid off to save the company and the remaining employees who can provide profitable services. One consulting engi neering company laid off more than eighty employees with obsolete skills and imme diately hired 60 different employees with

sors, with less attention directed at the de

saleable skills.

tailed engineering solutions that are re quired. Drawing attention to the engineering required will often pull fee rates down to the low industry scales. Total package so lutions should be sold for higher lump sum fees that are available, rather than selling engineering hours for discounted fees from

Managers of companies consulting only on traditional infrastructure projects should visualize most of their existing contracts as lifeboats, not ocean liners. These types of projects can be used to support the company for a short period in turbulent markets, but will not support them comfortably as they travel into the Millennium. Many tradi-

should shift their focus from traditional con

sulting engineering projects and search out the higher profit contracts that involve some engineering, but justify the higher fee rates

A profitable solution to low engineering fees requires refocusing, repackaging,

relabeling and reselling more comprehensive packages of management focused services that are recognized

by purchasers as having higher value.

Engineering and nature harmonized In wastewater treatment The potential for cost effective wastewater treatment led Proctor & Redfem to propose to build a Bio-Regenerative Wastewater Treatment System, technically known as SOLAR AQUATICS™,at the Ontario Sci ence Centre(OSC). This pilot project dem onstrates a self-contained, ecologically en gineered wastewater treatment system for on-site source wastewater treatment at the

OSC. Appropriately, OSC had launched an environmental education program including a Living Earth exhibition which consists of a tropical rain forest, marine reef environ ments, acid rain and drinking water mod ules.

A further component of the project in cludes the monitoring of similar systems which have been, or are being, constructed at the Body Shop in Don Mills and at the Boyne River School near Alliston. Invented by Dr. John Todd, a native of Hamilton, Ontario, and developed by Eco logical Engineering Associates of Marion, Massachusetts, the SOLAR AQUATICS™ System relies upon ecologically diverse aquatic environments to treat wastewater, using natural bio/geo/chemical processes common to streams, rivers, and marshes. A

greenhouse maintains the proper environ mental conditions of temperature, light.

humidity and evapotranspiration. Clear columnar tanks, used in part of the treatment, allow light to be transmitted throughout the wastewater column. A di versity of aquatic and non-aquatic plants, bacteria, zooplankton, phytoplankton (al gae), fish and mollusks, snails and fresh water clams are part of the system. Con structed marshes are used for removing nu trients, synthetic organics, and metals. Although biological processes play a role in traditional treatment, most of the conven tional wastewater treatment plants add chemicals to help promote flocculation and precipitation, to neutralize acidity, or to kill disease-causing microorganisms. The system uses aeration and mixing in treatment tanks to prevent sludge from set

tling and to keep particulates and biomass dispersed throughout the full volume of the tanks for treatment.

Large volumes of biosolids are produced with conventional sewage treatment tech nologies. Biosolids management involves additional treatment for solids stabilization

and/or dewatering, followed by disposal to landfills or incineration, or beneficial use through agricultural utilization on farmland. The quantity of biosolids produced in the system is reduced due to the relatively long retention time in the process and the lack of chemicals. Biosolids management is also simplified because the settled solids re moved from the clarifier are partially stabi lized. Both the settled clarifier solids, and

the excess plant material harvested from the

Left to right. Frank Moir, Executive VP Proctor & Redfem; Brenda Elliott, fdinister of Environ ment and Energy; and Tom Davey, Publisher Environmental Science & Engineering, at the official opening of the SOLAR AQUATICS™ Wastewater Treatment facility at the Ontario Sci

composting. Almost all the required equip

ence Centre.

ment is manufactured in Ontario.


solar tanks and marsh are well suited to

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Consultants in the '90s tional types of infrastructure contracts, at fees that allow consulting engineering com panies to survive profitably, will not exist in the Millennium.

The more general engineering a compa

ny's services are perceived to be by the mar ket, the more likely these companies will become iow-fee-iow-profit operations. Consequently, managers should select from among their existing services those that could be developed and packaged as higher value-added specialties. They should then reshape the company's organizational struc ture into client oriented divisions to provide specialized services as business experts, rather than continue as companies of very good consulting engineers who will under take almost any type of engineering project. The specialized services should then be mar keted aggressively as part of larger complete package solutions, perhaps initially by us ing some sub-consultants and/or other pro fessional companies as partners. In negotiations with clients it is impor tant to downplay the consulting engineer ing requirements of projects and highlight the management consulting and problem solving aspects of the service. It is criti cally important to re-package project pro posals before offering to provide services. Offers of service should not be packaged as traditional consulting engineering propos als, and therefore subject to the low engi neering fee scales that are so deeply em bedded into the industry psyche, but as management consulting/problem solving/ advisory services. A profitable solution to low engineering fees requires refocusing, repackaging, relabeling and reselling more comprehen sive packages of management focused serv ices that are recognized by purchasers as having higher value.

Increase financial strength Many consulting engineering companies have emerged from the recession with bat tered balance sheets and devastated profit and loss statements. The timing of this weakened financial condition couldn't be

worse. Emerging market opportunities re quire greater financial strength including more money to re-focus services, retrain key employees and compete to obtain larger more profitable total contracts. Some of the new more profitable project types available require equity, and most consulting engi neering companies have depleted their eq uities during the recession. Even when partnering to obtain larger more profitable contracts, consulting engi neering companies' marketing costs can be a substantial percentage of annual profits. Many engineering companies are unable to expend these large and necessary business development costs if they are not earning high profits, or they are not successful on one of the first few partnered projects. Engineering companies surviving on low profits are unlikely to be able to rebuild their

equities quickly from internally generated funds, so they become vulnerable to the va garies of a capricious market. Banks have not been helpful to engineering companies when they needed money for growth. Con sequently, it will take exceptional financial management, and time, to move some engi neering companies back to reasonable lev els of financial strength. Financial weakness makes life especially stressful for companies' managers. As an illustration, some very reputable decades old companies have been bumped off teams competing for lucrative projects because they were perceived to be financially weak. Owners need to review their company's bal ance sheet very carefully, then document goals and the action required to rebuild eq uities to the level required by the market. This should help ensure their company will be accepted as a partner in syndicates com peting for the most profitable projects. Rebuilding equities is unlikely to be ac

complished easily with new investment, generated internally or externally, although these are certainly alternatives. Most com panies must increase their levels of earn ings in order to attract any investment. One of several viable approaches is to squeeze more profit out of existing projects. There fore, the company's president should (1) calculate the dollar amount of overruns on

projects for the last fiscal year,(2)take 80% of this amount and establish a goal to re duce overruns in this fiscal year to 20% of the previous year's total, and (3) plan to add

80% of last year's overruns to this year's profits, by avoiding so many overruns. Establishing goals is easy; achieving goals requires carefully focused and disci plined effort. Many companies can mini mize overruns and increase profit by upgrad ing their project planning and control sys tems tofocus on profit generation. Manag ers should review carefully the company's project planning and profit control system.


Setting the standard for

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Announcement ACSE Inc. and MacViro Consultants Inc. are pleased to announce the creation of ACSE MacViro Associates(AMA) as a partnership to provide automation services to both the public and private sectors. Services offered include: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Development of system requirements & specifications System integration (including DCS, PLO & RPU) Control & instrumentation, including panei fabrication Operator-mactiine interface Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition (SCADA) and telemetry Artificial intelligence and intelligent alarm systems Computer operating system and network development Assembly robotic design and retrofit Computer Numeric Control(CMC) Machine vision inspection Software development Modelling & simulation

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

ACSE MacViro Associates For more information, Circle reply card No. 233 (See page 17)


Consultants In the '90s


Including the frequency and formats ofproject reports. An astonishing amount of potential profit is wasted in many consulting engineer ing companies through the use of inappro

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ness discipline and basic common sense. Manage owners, managers and employees expectations An assessment of owners, managers and employees'expectations should be made an nually, because many are out-of-sync with market realities. Many companies survived the recession relatively well because owners and managers took effective action early in the recession. Most companies reduced staff and many froze or cut salaries. Some companies did not cut salaries dur ing the recession and still managed to sur vive, but financially some are on the ropes. The alleged end ofthe recession did not bring the uptum many expected, but rather a new more competitive market with less profitable contracts. However, many employees in these companies expect higher salaries when owners are still losing money, or at least not earning much profit. Unfulfilled expectations among employees, even if they are ridicu lous under the circumstances, invariably demotivate them and frequently increase project cost which reduces company profit. Steering a company through difficult eco nomic periods takes a lot of effort by manag ers and should include frequent communica tion with employees. If owners and manag ers feel the pain of the recession it is a safe bet that employees are also worried. No matter how difficult the company's situation, employees will feel,cooperate and work bet ter if managers confide in them, seek their help to obtain or complete more work and recognize them as important people. The market continues to change rapidly. Many owners and senior managers continue to work long hours as they scramble to keep their companies viable. At the end of the day,some feel too tired to think about longer term problems,and the strategies to cope with them. However, many of their marketing,

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operations, emerging markets and altemative strategies should be made every year in order

to optimize competitiveness and keep the com pany moving in the most profitable direction.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Consultants in the '90s

By Stuart Angus*

Future of consulting engineering suiting and contracting. The future of consulting engineering is, in my opinion, at the crossroads. There are many paths which can be taken, several of which are healthy, and, equally true, sev

Forthe last50 years there has been

little, if any, fundamental change in the consulting engineering in dustry. In fact, over that time, do mestic markets steadily increased their de mand for traditional engineering services on a year by year basis. Then the information

engineers. Fundamental change is in the air and its anybody's guess as to where it will stop. One thing is certain, those firms that "get it right", will enjoy major success and grow very rapidly into dominant play

eral of which will lead to trouble. There

ers and lead the market in their direction.

are, I believe, several aspects of our busi ness which will be the norm in 5 - 10 years, such as risk taking. Traditionally we've ac cepted relatively little risk as to the overall project, and, equally true, relatively little reward. Successful firms in 5 - 10 years will be those which can identify, manage and accept risk, such as performance guar

For those who don't change they will face almost certain bankruptcy or at the very least a massive downsizing of their corporations to boutique scale. We are living and working at the very time when engineering has become a com modity in our clients' eyes. The informa tion revolution is upon us, and we are wit nessing first hand major changes in our so ciety. When we reflect upon the fact that the last major revolution society faced was mass production in the early 1900s, the ad age about being the last buggy whip manu

antees. I also believe that successful firms will meet clients' needs rather than deliver

drawings and specifications. Firms will of necessity become total solution providers. The industry has shrunk by 30% over the past 5 years and is expected to decline a further 25% over the next five years; the future is, therefore, a lot fewer consulting

facturer comes to mind. The '90s are si

multaneously exciting and unsettled,and we are indeed fortunate to have front row seats.

revolution took hold and contributed to a

world-wide recession. Both the public and private sectors are now scrambling to ad just to the new reality. Predicting where this will lead the consulting industry in the future is both exhilarating and dangerous. Change is still sweeping through client or ganizations and thereby, inevitably, through the consulting engineer's office. In my trav els I come across basically two views of the future from my fellow consultants. One is despondent and downward looking -"the old way just isn't working any more" attitude. The other is very upbeat and forward look ing - eager to meet the new challenges, but tempered with worry as to how to succeed.

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cialized service are more or less immune to

the shifts in our industry. They will con tinue to be called upon to provide their serv ices as required, and need only maintain a technical advantage. This is equally true for the publicly owned engineering firms which are few in number and therefore com

pete only with themselves. Again I foresee little fundamental change in this sector of our consulting industry. Clearly the sector to watch is the mid sized firm, of which there are many. Here we will see fundamental changes in the con sulting industry. Several firms have chosen to cast their lot with foreign engineering organizations, a form of horizontal enhance ment. In other words they've added more engineering skills to their engineering com pany. Others, like Proctor & Redfem, have vertically integrated by adding non-engi neering components to their company such as management consulting, risk consulting, financial consulting, human resource con-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


Consultants In the '90s

By K.A. Morrison & RJ. Laughton*

Consulting engineering: future tense

Managersexhibit their most pre

carious characteristics when

they attempt predicting the future of their businesses -

even more so when they start to believe and embrace these with zeal. Monitoring emerg ing trends however, is essential to the sur vival of any enterprise. Changing clientele Through initiatives such as privatization, and demand management, the public sector is trying to reduce its financial role in the development of infrastruc

particulate matter and soluble aluminum levels for water treatment plants. Automation, computer control and opti mization of treatment systems is aimed at reducing operating costs, and deferring new infrastructure investments. Residuals dis

posal at treatment plants, and reduction or elimination of plant bypass events and com bined sewer overflows, are potentially ex pensive issues that demand new manage ment approaches. To respond properly,con sulting engineers will have to undertake thcii o\Mi eduta-

will be critical for the execution of future

projects. Growth through geographic expansion Generally, a consulting engineering firm must grow in size and revenues, in order to maintain its competitiveness, and to retain staff. As the more junior members of the staff complement mature, they seek more responsibility, and commensurate remunera tion. New "juniors" are added to match labor costs with fee revenues, and a larger base of revenues is pursued to ensure con tinued viability.

ture. The intent is to de

Unless the local market

crease capital and operating cost exposure, while utiliz ing new sources of funds which can be generated by the private sector. Consult ing engineers who tradition ally have worked for the pub

is growing at a similar rate, the consulting engineer must seek new locations in which

to develop business. In a shrinking market, this search can take on more urgency, and when the entire domes

lic sector, will now be serv ing more private organiza

tic market is in decline, in

ternational prospects be come the next logical choice.

tions, particularly those that are able to raise capital to fi nance infrastructure develop

This is, and will continue to

be, the option of choice for most medium to large Cana dian consulting engineers.


Various types of indus tries are also emerging as more frequent users of con sulting engineering services. In the environmental disci

plines, this arises from the need to comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations and requirements. In addition, some industries that reduced their in-house

engineering resources during previous eco nomic recessions, are now choosing to con tract out more of their engineering service needs, to avoid cyclical staff build-ups. Changes in technology requirements Changing conditions will demand that consulting engineers provide more complete technological solutions. As environmental standards and regulations become more stringent, and costs increase, solutions to problems tend to be a hybrid of several, fi nite technologies or procedures, which are very complex in their own right. Sophisti cated clients will increasingly seek out con sulting engineers who can demonstrate knowledge of these specialized approaches, as well as their capability to go beyond tra ditional solutions. Nowhere is this more evident than in the water and wastewater

fields, in which we see the impacts of in creasing expectations and requirements. For example, continuing reductions are antici pated in wastewater treatment plant efflu ent discharges for BOD, suspended solids, phosphorus and nitrogen,as well as TTHMs, Kenneth A. Morrison, P. Eng., president and Peter J. Laughton, M. Eng., P. Eng., DEE,vice president, R.V. Anderson Associates Limited


However,international busi

ness development is not for the financially exhausted, or

I Morrison

tion and research

faint of heart. The costs and

Peter Laughton

of these specialties. This investment will increase overhead costs and accentuate the

shortcomings of traditional time-based guideline rates and fee structures of two times payroll, which are leftovers from the "design and construction supervision" era. Private sector clients will probably con tinue their preference for consulting engi neers that can offer a broader range of serv ices and technologies, so they can reduce their own administrative costs of dealing with too many consulting organizations. Public sector clients will probably follow this course for similar reasons, particularly if they contract with a private sector part ner to assume a wide range of capital con struction and operating responsibilities. New skills development The new service and technology require ments will challenge consulting engineers to expand the complement of skills in their staff groups either by retraining existing staff, or importing others, possibly nonengineers. In addition to the need for indi viduals who are specialists in relatively nar row technical areas, the demand for more comprehensive services and solutions will be addressed by professionals who can dem onstrate ability and a greater understanding of legislative, financial and sociological is sues, in addition to their normal engineer ing and scientific background. Skills in communication,negotiation and conciliation

risks are usually much higher than on the domestic scene. Rela tively few Canadian consulting engineers have had any kind of exposure that would properly prepare them for the challenges of finding and doing business off shore. A fu ture litmus test for a consulting engineer ing firm's survival, will likely be its ability to acquire a certain amount of international work. We must also be mindful that our busi

ness roots are founded in the provision of independent and objective advice, which is not always compatible with the various serv ice delivery mechanisms emerging. These often focus on proposing a solution, before the problems have been adequately re searched. A highly dedicated and skilled staff complement will be more important than ever. Consulting engineers must over come the tendency for increased mobility in their employees, with increased empow erment, and broadened ownership and com pensation opportunities. It is evident that consulting engineering

firms are undergoing the same type of pres sures for change, as every other part of our business world. It may be even more pro nounced for consulting engineers because they are involved with technology applica tions, the motivator of change. Rapid change has never been easy for engineers, or perhaps any trained professional. The future does therefore promise to be "tense."

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


]^L„. ^;r.tfr*>rA3*

lou need a partner whom you can trust to

change —a results oriented firm that is willing

help achieve your objectives while keeping an

to share the risk that is involved in meeting the

eye on your bottom line. Proctor & Redfern is

challenges of the future.

ideally positioned to be that partner. Over the past 83 years, P&R has gained a

An industry leader with a global outlook. Proctor & Redfern has successfully vertically

reputation for providing the technical expertise

integrated tradihonal engineering with a full

and solid consulting engineering services that

range of professional consulhng services.

you needed to achieve your objectives. But we realize that a supplier of quality

As a member of your team, we can apply this innovative approach, along with others, to

services isn't what you are looking for in the

ensure that you achieve success now —and in

90's. You also need a partner that can manage

the future.

Forfurther information on why Proctor & Redfern

is the partnerfor the '90's, contact Cathy Spark, Manager Marketing & Communications at (4:16) 445-7022 ext. 2844

PROCTOR & Redfern Limited

Professional Consulting Services For more information, Circie repiy card No. 183(See page 17)

Consultants In the '90s

By George G. Powell, P.Eng., DEE*

Consultants must face the winds

Change,for the sake ofchange,is

something that we,as engineers, try to resist. But it does and will continue to impact and shape the consulting engineering profession in Canada. It is estimated that the rate of

change in technology has increased fifteen-

fold since the beginning of this century' and is estimated,at present, to be doubling every seven years. The nature of change is no longer increasing at fairly predictable rates, but rather, in fits and starts, which makes it

difficult to manage. As engineers and sci entists, we are on the leading edge of tech nology, but the rapid change in our busi ness makes it seem that we are more on the

"bleeding edge" at times. Manitoba Premier Gary Filmon, in his address to the Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada, stressed the signifi cant yet under-recognized role of consult ing engineers in economic growth, and the importance of adapting to and managing rapid change. He cautioned:" The world gets smaller every day, and we must find new and better ways to stay competitive and improve our efficiency. Science and engi neering are the driving forces that allow a nation to introduce new technologies (to) increase its international competitiveness." This has a common ring these days as we move from an industrial-based society towards an information and knowledgebased society. We are becoming far more global in our thinking, and Canadian con sulting engineers can be found in all coun tries of the world. In 1993, Canadian con sulting engineers ranked fourth in the world *CH2M Gore & Storrie Limited

of change in international billings. Our two largest consulting engineering companies ranked in

the top twenty-five in the world^. I believe Premier Filmon's understand

ing of our industry is as good as one can find from someone looking at us from the outside. What he probably is not aware of is the in-fighting - the bloody noses and cracks on the head that today's aggressive competitiveness inflicts on consultants and others in our industry, both in the domestic and the international arenas. Profitability is at an all-time low; the need to train staff

and deal with rapid change is at an all-time high. StatsCan reported profit margins averaging only 4.2 percent in 1991. International Markets

As the consulting industry in Ontario downsized from about 13,000 in 1990 to under 10,000 in 1995 to react to the slow down in the domestic market, the need to

develop opportunities intemationally grew. Annual economic growth in the environ mental sector throughout North America was estimated to be between 3 to 5 percent, whereas intemationally, it was far better at

10 to 15 percent^. Projected growth in environmental markets in Latin America

and the Pacific Rim shows the capacity to sustain this growth rate for the foreseeable future. In China alone, the environmental market is estimated at $30 billion over the next decade''.

Consulting firms can obviously benefit from their ability to capture foreign sales, but projects are large for the most part, requiring consulting firms with substantial international experience, strong staying power, and the ability to support the much larger development costs typical of these

types of projects. To be successful, they must also have strong credentials at home and be profitable to finance the higher costs of working abroad.

International design/build/operate and finance projects, or build/own/operate/ transfer(BOOT) projects as they are often called, are becoming the norm. These projects attract very large engineering con tracting firms or consortia that bring together the resources needed to complete projects of this size and complexity. Participation in international projects requires considerable capital investment and is not for the faint at heart, as the risks are

substantial. The engineering consultant in this type of a project must take a lead role in defining the project to at least a level that can be accurately bid. Up-front design costs are in the neigh bourhood of 1 percent of the construction costs to establish the capital costs and develop operating and financing costs. On a $100 million project, at least $1 million is required to define the project. On top of this must go other development costs, and this can easily double the amount. There is no guarantee that your consortium will win the day. If you are only successful on one in five projects, it is an expensive business to be in.

We recently assisted on a wastewater project in Hong Kong. We did not agree with the conceptual design on which the bid was to be based, even though it had been prepared by two of the largest environmen tal consultants in the United States. The

design was far too advanced to allow for design innovation without having both the client and the client's consultant involved.

The consortium felt that was out of the ques tion at this stage of the project. We ran into a similar situation on a Middle East project, where an exact duplicate of a twenty-year old facility was asked for.

I believe the selection process used in the above two examples is not conducive to effective innovation that could reduce the

overall real project cost. By that, I mean the costs which encompass all project costs: design, construction,operation,and finance. This is a major drawback of design/build projects and is something that, in Canada, we have been fortunate to avoid to date be cause of our traditional client/consultant

relationship. However, as project opportu nities at home decline, the foreign market holds strong potential. We must be willing to change to be a force in this market. Domestic Market

The graceful architecture of the R.C. Harris water treatment plant in east Metro Toronto looks more like a cathedral than a tunctloning waterworks,the Interior matching the elegant exterior. Appropriately called'/he Oueen oi Water Filtration P/arrfs'when completed in 1932, it was designed by Thomas C. Pomphrey, then in-house architect ot Gore Nasmith Storrie, now CH2M Gore & Storrie. 72

Here at home, as we struggle to reduce

our deficit, design/build/operate/finance projects are being considered to reduce the

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Hatch Associates Ltd. Is a major International Consulting Engineering firm with offices in North America, Europe and South Africa. We currently have the following vacancy:


Senior Environmental Engineer

Gartner Lee

Position #HA-45 Budapest

You will be responsible for assuming project management responsibilities for wastewater and other environmental projects. You will prepare related project reports and provide direction to staff assigned to the projects. You will also be responsible for developing and maintaining effective client relations.

Consultants in the Environment

• Ecosystem Planning


• IVasfe Management

Hull. UK

• Impact Assessment

As well as being a graduate Chemical Engineer, you will have a minimum of 5 to 10 years of experience in water and wastewater treatment. Ideally, your bad<ground will both include

• Site Characterization

inorganic and industrial experience.

• Site Assessments & Audits


• Site Remediation


• Project Management

Hatch offers an opportunity for professional development in a challenging, multidisciplinary environment. The Hatch Quality Policy ensures that we exceed our clients' expectations in all our projects.


• Training

We Invite your resume, Indicating the position H, In confidence to; Jahlmnesburg Human Resources

EnvironmentalPlanning Science & Engineering i 1


Hatch Associates Ltd.

2800 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K 2R7




Toronto • Niagara Falls, NY Vancouver • Kuala Lumpur

Fax: 905-855-7628

An •qua!opportunity •mpioyor




Delcan is an employee-owned, International Project Management, En

O'Connor Associates Environmental

Inc. is pleased to announce ttiat

gineering, and Planning firm. Its worldwide success is based on the application of innovative approaches and technologies, and the devel

Dr. G. Mark Richardson has joined the company, establishing an office

opment of unique and comprehensive solutions to environmental prob lems. Some significant achievements in recent years include:

in Ottawa, Ontario. Dr. Richardson

received his Ph.D. in biology from

Ottawa, Canada - the Canadian Consulting Engineer's 1993 AWARD

the University of Ottawa and was most recently Head of the Air and

OF EXCELLENCE for the ultraviolet disinfection of storm water - first of its kind in North America.

Waste Section of Health Canada's Environmental Health Directorate.

Lake Maracalbo, Venezuela - comprehensive program for the treat

Focusing on the assessment of

ment of waste water on the east coast of Lake Maracaibo and an envi

health risks from contaminants in

ronmental rehabilitation plan for the lake.

the environment. Dr. Richardson

managed Health Canada's activities in support of the National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program and more recently conducted a detailed assessment of the risks posed by mercury exposure arising from dental amalgam. Dr. Richardson will contribute to O'Connor Associates' capabilities in the areas of risk assessment, risk management and regulatory policy development.

O'Connor Associates is a multi-disciplinary environmental consulting organization with offices throughout Canada and overseas. The company specializes in contaminated site assessments, environmental auditing, soil and groundwater remediation, human health and environmental risk assessment and risk management.

Atatiirk Dam and Reservoir, Turkey - environmental enhancement program design for the reservoir area which ranks ninth in the world. Barbados - integrated management program to protect and enhance the marine and terrestrial environment.

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For more information, please contact

water treatment.


O'Connor Associates Environmental Inc. at:

Calgary (403) 294-4200 Toronto (905) 829-3330

Ottawa (613) 729-8536 Vancouver (504) 888-6900

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 196 (See page 17)

Delcan Corporation

133 Wynford Drive, Toronto, Ontario, IVI3C 1K1 Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

For more information, Circle reply card No. 197 (See page 17)



'-'^> cT

10 :3t^

Consultants In the '90s costs to the municipality. For the home owner in Canada, costs will probably rise, as in many instances, water is an underpriced commodity,subsidized through grants from senior levels of government and from the local municipal tax base. I believe the design/build/operate approach, in specific cases, can be an effective solution for the delivery of water and wastewater services, but only if it can be accomplished in con cert with the municipality in a true partner

ship that effectively draws on the strengths of all involved.

gressive environmental regulation and im plementation. That is not the case today. The International Joint Commission and

must be prevented, or we will lose what we have gained. To be sure, we are in for change. That

the United States will put pressure on the will be a fact of life from now on. Water Environment Federation Business Plan, federal government to require harmoniza 1996. tion of environmental regulations on both sides of the border. I do not expect the more ^ Association of Consulting Engineers of Canada/industry Canada Liaison Committee, stringent U.S. regulations to become less so; preliminary paper on issues confronting the therefore, one can expect considerable dis Canadian consulting engineering sector. cussion and delay on this issue. ' Dawn Kristof, President, Water and WasteIt is important that Brenda Elliott is made water Equipment Manufacturers. aware of these concerns and the past ^Ontario's Green Industry Strategy (PIBS progress that has been made. Backsliding #3291E).

What the future will hold for these types

of projects will be interesting to monitor. Pres ently,they are moving forward in the environ mental market, requiring the client, consult ant, contractor, operator, and fmancieifs) to join together in an alliance that is new to the municipal industry in Canada. They require a change in working relationships.

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

If we look at the domestic market(and I

115 Hurontorio Street, Suite 201, Coitingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

will confine my thinking to Ontario), we have recently undergone a change of gov ernment. As one of its major platforms, Mike Harris' Conservative Party intends to reduce government spending by some $1.8 billion. This tightening of the belt strategy will affect all levels of government. The Ontario Waste Management Corpora tion and the Interim Waste Authority have been scrapped. The Canada-Ontario Infra structure program contribution has been reduced to $287 million to match the fed

eral government contribution, saving some $73 million this year. The MISA program, which was nearing completion, is now be ing reviewed by Brenda Elliott, Minister of the Environment and Energy. The govern ment is looking for ways to implement this last link in the MISA program in a non-

regulatory way; i.e., the carrot vs. the stick approach.

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programs and making less stringent those regulations which have done much to improve and protect public health and safe guard the environment. I believe this is a responsibility of the provincial government.

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How the environmental industry will fare is questionable, but as transfer payments are cut, more financial pressure will certainly be brought to bear on the municipalities, and grants and other financial assistance will be curtailed or greatly reduced. Our industry has strongly supported a "user pay" philoso phy which places a fair share of the costs on those availing themselves of the service. I believe that, for essential services such as water and wastewater, the public will be willing to change to consider non-traditional approaches and pay more, if necessary, for a service that is essential to them. They ices such as education, medical care, and welfare, which have really brought on the financial dilemma we face at the present.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995




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Consultants In the '90s

Effective, efficient, fiexibie and fair are the watchwords for new minister

The Honourable Brenda El iot was

However, I want to assure you that this

named Minister of the Environ

ment and Energy on June 26,1995, shortly after her election to the Ontario Legislature as MPP for Guelph. A founding member of Guelph's Round Table on Environment and Economy, Min ister Elliott opened Canada's first environ mental store. For Earth's Sake. She has also

served on the Speed River Land Trust and as a director of the Guelph Downtown Board of Management. The Minister is presently making a con certed effort to involve environmental pro fessionals in implementing the new govern ment's environmental agenda. In an address to the Canadian Environment Industry Association in September 1995, Minister Elliott made it clear that environmental pro fessionals from all sectors will have an im

portant role to play in safeguarding the Ontario environment.

Following are excerpts from that address; "We've come into office at a moment of

great challenge for Ontario. This province, like the rest of Canada and other industrial

nations, is facing tough economic conditions that call for severe public sector financial constraints.

will not mean a weakened commitment to

the environment. We will pursue environ mental goals in a context that fully recog nizes our other,co-equal responsibilities...to a healthy economy and the general wellbeing of the people of Ontario. We will pursue those environmental goals for with out a healthy environment there cannot be a healthy economy...a healthy anything else, for that matter. The quality of our environ ment will not be compromised. Today I would like to share with you some of my thoughts on how I believe my ministry and your Industry can build a new and stronger partnership. Let me start by telling you what I believe to be the four 'Common Sense' watchwords for good envi ronmental laws, policies and programs. They are: effective,efficient,flexible and fair. By effective, I mean that laws, policies and programs must produce the results we expect in terms of environmental quality. Efficiency, in this context, means our re sources being spent appropriately. When all is said and done, the value of the ben efits to the environment,the community and affected people should equal or exceed the actual costs of the protection measures.

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Flexibility allows us all to be keen,crea tive and innovative. We as a ministry must work with the people we regulate to design solutions that work both for them and for the environment.

Finally, fairness which means evenhanded application of regulations and a shared responsibility for maintaining and improving environmental quality. Government policies that are effective, efficient, flexible and fair will encourage industry to meet environmental protection standards that by their very nature produce important economic benefits. For example, improving industrial proc esses to meet environmental objectives not only makes more efficient use of energy and reduces waste and pollution, but it also makes good business sense. Efficient use of resources helps a company reduce costs and become more competitive. This reduction in costs can take place in all sectors, industrial and commercial, insti tutional and residential. This can free up fi nancial resources for other purposes such as consumer spending, saving and investment and can do much to stimulate the economy. Having said this, let me be clear, we will continue to be vigilant in setting and enforc ing environmental standards. We will con tinue to insist that companies be responsible and accountable for controlling and prevent ing pollution. But we want to work with them in determining the best ways of doing this. We also believe government can and should specify environmental goals without dictating the specific means by which those ends are to be achieved. We have experts for that. But we want your practical expe riences to continue to find creative solutions.

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This belief in people sticking to their own business is why one of the first steps taken in the common sense revolution was


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Authority and the end of the former govern ment's ban on incineration. We've given

back to municipalities the right to make their own decisions in this regard. And speaking of who does what, let me reinforce a basic tenet of this government. We are looking carefully to see where there is more room for the private sector. We are

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the elimination of the Interim Waste

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setting aside the previous administration's assumption that only government can run services. We are encouraged that the pri vate sector can indeed take up a greater share in funding and operating infrastructure which has traditionally been expensive for the taxpayer. One thing is sure, the environment and the economy require our full, ongoing at tention and respect. In government,just as in the private sector, this is a fact of life in the modem world and one which we must

accept and embrace if we are to survive.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

Ad Index A.C. Carbone Cda




Acuflow Diag 29 Analytical Measurements ...14 Anthrafilter



Armtec Brian Controls Can Am Ins Can. Centre for OH&S Can. Ex. Man

74 16 29 56 63

Cancoppas Carsen Group Colgate-Palmolive

2 46 32

Corrosion Intervent. CWWA Davidson Env.

51 30 29



Deican Derrick

73 60





Entsorga Equipump Fiygt

36 55 43

General Filter Globe '96

33 42

Gorman Rupp


Greenwood Env. GTI Hach Hatch Hazco Hoffman

57 37 7 73 55 5

Industry Canada KSB Pumps

61 .......17

Laidlaw Env. MacViro

21 67

MEC Systems


Microbics Milltronics MWI National Inst

35 49 39 55



O'Connor OCPA Parkson Praxair Pro-Form Insurance Proctor & Redfern Puma Restoration Cons

73 25 55 56 4 71 15 64



Sci-Tec Service Fiitration

45 55

Soil Enrichment Sys Stormceptor

35 8



Supeico T. City Iron Works

Environmentat Consulting Engineers


20, 24 23



Vanton Pump




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ST. CATHARINES OFFICE Toll Free (800) 668-2598

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Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Khchener

(519) 743-6111 (519) 743-3330


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Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270WoodbineAvenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R4B9

(905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994

• Hydrpgeology


MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel: (613) 548-3446 Fax: (613) 548-7975

• Waste management

• Engineering geDlogy • Environmental audits

• Site decommissioning & rehabilitation Marshall Mackiin


Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thorntiill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100

Fax: (905) 882-0055



DATEPAD November 6 - 11, 1995. Aquatic Ecosys tem Stewardship. 15th International Sym posium of the North American Lake Man agement Society. Toronto, ON. Contact: Murray Charlton, Environment Canada, (905) 336-4758, fax (905) 336-6430. November 9 - 10, 1995. Niagara Envi ronmental Technology Expo "The Future is R's - make every week Waste Reduction


Week". St. Catharines, ON. Contact: NETE,(905)984-8998,fax(905)984-6858. November 14 - 16, 1995. 18th Interna


tional Symposium on Wastewater Treatment and the 7th Workshop on Drinking Water. Montreal, QC. Contact: AQTE, fax (514) 270-7154.


Consulting Engineers & Architect

November 21, 1995. Canadian Standards Association Seminar "Introduction to Envi

1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10. Pickering, Ont. LIW 3W9 • Te!: 905-831 — 1715 Fax: 905—831—0531

ronmental Management". Richmond, BC. Contact: CSA,(416) 747-2475, fax (416) 747-4044.

November 30, 1995. Canadian Standards


Association Seminar "Introduction to Envi

Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

ronmental Management". Toronto, ON.

• Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply




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Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t 011 e n sims

TEL:(90S)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (90S)668-0221

hublcki associates


Contact: CSA,(416) 747-2475. January 29 - 31,1996. Environmental Is

sues Workshop and Tradeshow, for Federal Government Departments, Agencies and Crown Corporations operating in Ontario. Ottawa, ON. Contact: Taylor & Associates (613) 747-0262, fax (613) 745-1846. February 15 - 16, 1996. Canadian Water and Wastewater Association 1996 Manage ment Seminar "Evolution or Revolution -

Get Ready". Contact: CWWA,(613) 2415692, fax (613) 241-5193. March 5 - 7, 1996. Sixth International Zebra Mussel Conference. Dearborn,

Michigan. Contact: 1-800-868-8776. March 19 - 23, 1996. Entsorga '96, Inter national Trade Fair for Recycling and Waste Disposal. Cologne,Germany. Contact: Edel Wichman,(416) 598-3343, fax (416) 5981840.

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007

March 24 - 26, 1996. Water Environment Association of Ontario Technical Sympo sium and Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association Tradeshow. Toronto, ON.

Contact: WEAO,(416) 502-1440.

April 22 - 24, 1996. Health and Safety


Conference & Trade Show. Toronto, ON. Contact: 1-800-669-4939.


April 24 - 27, 1996. Can'Well '96 "Part ners in Groundwater". Winnipeg, MB.


Contact: Can'Well '96,(204)663-5289. May 7 - 8, 1996. 10th Annual Toronto Environmental Tradeshow & Conference.

Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. • Corporaie Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater Tel:(905)821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774

Kitchener, Ontario


'Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

• Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment 'Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization 'Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and tiie 3Rs. 'Hydrogeoiogy and Groundwater Investigations

Mississauga, ON. Contact: Canadian Ex hibition Management (403) 469-2400, fax (403) 469-1398, or, for conference. Envi ronmental Science & Engineering (905) 727-4666, fax (905) 841-7271. Juue 23 - 27,1996. "Taking it to Toronto" American Water Works Association Annual

Conference and Exposition. Metro Toronto Convention Centre, ON. Contact: AWWA (303) 347-6157, fax (303) 794-3951.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1995


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