Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1995

Page 1






Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air poliution & drinking water treatment

Canada's top award-winning environmental magazine

Greenpeace battles In Atlantic and Pacific Milton chooses trenchless for rehabilitation

Wetland wastewater treatment systems Corrosion prevention in sewers Clear air market stiii struggles Elimination of l&i overflows

WEFTEC'95 preview

September 1995

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The Growcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates witfi Growcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

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August/September '95 Vol. 8 No. 4

ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY


Issued September, 1995

Editor and Pubiisher TOM DAVEY Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905)727-4052 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Interpretation of Laboratory Quality Control Information


New lAETL study highlights Canadian environmental testing industry


The progress of thermal desorptlon In soil remediation


What is water worth?


The dean air market still struggles


Trenchless technology gives 12" watermain new lease on life in Milton


Jim Bisfrop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumier

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeiiow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Protective coatings prevent corrosion in sanitary sewers Unprecedented challenge In Inspection of20 km underwater tunnei in Peru


Integrating maintenance management and health & safety In a computerized multi-media solution


Greenpeace is stronger than ever after new Atlantic and Pacific battles


Performance characteristics of the Stormceptor water

quality inlet


Wetland wastewater treatment systems across Canada


Environmental liability insurance - what it costs what it could cost


Due diligence now requires more vigilance

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monttiiy business publication publishied

Elimination of l&l overflows in the Greater Trail Region -

by Environmental Science & Engineering

a unique climate-based approach to risk management

Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ESSiE's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors.


52 57

Western hemisphere's iargest water quality show comes to

Miami- WEFTEC '95 preview


Cold lime softening and cone settling used in Cochrane's new water treatment piant Run-off probiems may be helped by "Fossil" technology

67 78

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Product Review

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Industry Update

Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00for one year,$80.00 for two years,$25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders,copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: (905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.


Literature Reviews

Reader Service Card

71, 72, 73 65 - 78 35

15, 65

Cover Story (page 40) — New battles of the Atlantic and Pacific are being fought by Greenpeace, resulting in world-wide media cover

age. Spectacuiar stunts were empioyed to oppose the disposai of an oid oii rig in the Atiantic and French nuciear tests in the Pacific. Photo credits: Greenpeace/Guiley, cover and page 40; Greenpeace/ lain MacLeod, page 41. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Letters to the editor on September 22, 1994. Both the members of the Steering Committee and I appreci ated the opportunity to inform you of our activities and to receive your input on the needs in the water industry. As agreed, the Advisory Panel will meet in mid September, 1995. One of the outcomes of the Steering

Dear Sir:

I am writing in regard to your recent edito rial of May 1995. Your call for an integration of the terms "engineer" and "environmental ist" comes about 50 years too late. If engi neers are indeed environmentalists as you sug gest, why are we so busy at present with toxic waste clean-ups and site remediations, etc? Wasn't it the actions of environmentally in sensitive engineers and scientists in the serv ice of big business who got us into this mess in the first place? Here in BC, the pulp and paper industry was quite happy to dump dioxins and furans directly into our shellfish until ordered to stop by a govemment spurred on by an outraged public. It is that same public concern with pol lution that has contributed to the growing involvement of govemment in environmen tal issues. Engineers are the service pro viders here, not the leaders as you seem to suggest. While it may be true that engi neers are not well-liked in certain areas of

our society, nothing is to be gained by focussing attention on the literary and the artistic, regardless of how many "whiners" may take refuge among them. Your claim that environmental scientists


Committee discussion was that there should

be a Chair newsletter distributed every six months, perhaps in association with some

other publication which members of the water industry receive. Dr. P.M. Huck, Professor and NSERC Chairholder,

University of Waterloo to popularize science than any other Cana dian. Anyone attempting to treat him with contempt would place their own credibility seriously at risk, much the same as you have done with your ill-considered article. Geoff Prescott, Industrial Equipment Co. Ltd., Delta, B.C.

Dear Sir, Re: "OWMC incinerator"

treatment processes that Dr. Suzuki has developed so we may share this infor

I don't know who described the two speak ers on the OWMC debate(ES&E April 94) as articulate, but I do thank you for adding the proactive reply by Richard Szudy (Laidlaw). John Jackson stated that: "The IJC sees incinerators as something we look to phase out. I don't think any of us hope that we can ever achieve a zero discharge

mation with our readers.


Editor's note: I would be grateful if Mr. Prescott could list the environmental

are treated with suspicion fails to convince. This claim falls flat when we consider the

Dear Tom:

widespread popularity of respected scien tist, author, and environmentalist David

I am writing to thank you for attending the Advisory Panel meeting of the NSERC In

Suzuki. This talented man has done more

dustrial Research Chair in Water Treatment

Zero discharge incinerators are not a pipedream, but a working reality. Britain and Germany both have zero discharge in cinerators already in operation. One was recently highlighted on a recent CBC news-



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Letters to the editor cast. OWMC's incinerator technology may be 10 years out of date, but don't condemn the concept because our civil servants are behind the times. Give the job to the private sector even if they have to import technology to build a state of the art project. Peter Broad, P.Eng., Enviro-Met Engineering

Too busy to stay constantly up-to-date? Searching for

Dear Mr. Davey: I read with interest your May editorial where you illuminated the path between the language and the politics of the environmental sciences. I am happy to see that the legacy of C.P. Snow has not been abandoned.

My company, which is active in the United States, has recently started to develop projects in Canada. Our business is to design, manu facture and install vapour-tight covers for tanks and pits in municipal

elusive research results or new



Cuttting back on


and industrial wastewater treatment facilities.

I wonder if I could ask you for some advice? In the United States we have made ourselves aware of the Federal and State legislation and regulations governing "clean air" and "clear water" as they apply to wastewater facilities. Could you tell me where I could find the sources for similar information in Canada?

Norman M. Hinerfeld, Secretary-Treasurer Thermacon Enviro Systems 111 West 40th Street, New York, N.Y., 10018

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Dear Tom:

I enjoyed your piece on noise pollution in the Toronto Sun. While I would never take issue with you on a matter of engineer ing, I will challenge you on your Shakespeare. Isn't the bard's description of sleep: "Nature's sweet restorer, that knits up the

You no longer have to search for, buy or read all the literature In your field to stay current.

ravelled sleave of care"?

InfoAlert does it for you.

I got most of my Shakespeare from reading P.O. Wodehouse. I still get almost all of my environmental engineering advertising exposure from Environmental Science & Engineering! With best regards, Peter Overtoil, Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Thanks Peter, for the notation and kind words. A word of warning however; you will be far safer walking under struc tures, or drinking water, that is not provided as a result of

any engineering of mine. I also note that you get your Shake speare from that great humorist P.G. Wodehouse - but what if he was joking, Peter? Tom Davey Dear Tom:

Your editorial, "Art, language and the environmental sciences should not hie in conflict" was great! I liked it so much I've had it laminated! Thanks for taking a stand against "politically cor rect" language. Also, please give Penny my congratulations on her appoint ment as president of OPCEA. Linda S. Snoddon, Clayton Environmental Consultants

How does InfoAlert work? Each week (or month) you receive a list of newly published Information, with ABSTRACTS, TAILORED PRECISELY TO YOUR FIELD


You can then choose the complete articles or reports that Interest you most, and order them from CISTI.



Dear Sir:

Re: Calgary'sWater&WastewaterChallenges,(ES&EMay 1995) This article was based on a luncheon address made by myself at Associated Engineering's Technology Transfer Forum, held in Calgary in March 1994. My speech was prepared with input from a number of individuals who work for The City of Calgary. In particular, the portion of this presentation dealing with The City of Calgary's water system was based on material prepared by Mr. Jim Bouck,P.Eng. and Mr. Paul Fesko,P.Eng. of The City of Calgary's Waterworks Division. Mr. Bouck subsequently pre sented this material at the American Water Works Association Research Foundation's Satellite Teleconference on Distribution

System Rehabilitation held in May 1994. I would like to take this oppportunity to credit Mr. Bouck and Mr. Fesko for the ma terial I used in my address.

OA.Lamb,P.Eng., Executive Assistant to the City Engineer Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

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1-800-668-1222 • Fax: (613) 952-8244 E-mail: clstl.lnfoalert@nrc.ca


NfCCNfC For more information, Circle reply card No. 134


Industry Update Lung cancer reduced if uranium miners quit smoking An Ontario Ministry of Labour study has determined that the risk of lung cancer due to radioactive dust among uranium miners can be reduced by up to 50 per cent if they quit smoking. An earlier study of uranium miners by

The Ontario study also confirms other research findings that reducing the amount of smoking lowers the risk of getting lung cancer when exposed to cancer-causing dust.

The Mcllvaine Company. With regard to end user segments,drink ing water and wastewater treatment account

From coffee to sewage,

lion investment. Healthcare and food re

filtration costs $72 billion

that exposure to radioactive radon gas in uranium mines is a definite cause of lung cancer. Workers at uranium mines in 11

tion of mines in the farthest reaches of the

different locations around the world took

globe to the most common everyday tasks including purifying the water we drink, eliminating the grounds from our coffee and cleaning the oil in our cars. Municipal and industrial wastewaters are treated with both separation and filtra tion processes. Hospitals, restaurants, dry cleaners and many commercial establish

part in the study, including approximately 16,000 Ontario miners. In the Ministry's study. Dr. Murray Finkelstein and Bob Kusiak of the Health

and Safety Studies Unit, traced the health history of about 800 uranium miners be tween 1974 and 1992. Their study revealed that those who had quit smoking prior to 1974 developed cancer at one half the rate of those who continued to smoke.

"Exposure to radioactive dust is a proven cause of lung cancer and the danger is compounded by cigarette smoking," Dr. Finkelstein said. "Completely breaking the smoking habit is the only known method of sharply reducing the risk of lung cancer in present and former uranium miners who have been exposed to cancer-causing dust."

lated applications generate a world invest ment of over $5 billion.

The separation of solids from liquids is one of the world's largest businesses. Filtra tion and separation processing is essential to the success of many human endeavours, from travelling in outer space and opera

the US National Institutes of Health found

for $50 billion of the total annual $72 bil

Mercury recovery amalgamation Am-Re Services, Inc., and Mercury Recov ery Services, Inc.(MRS)of New Brighton, PA have formed a strategic alliance to pro mote MRS' patented technology for the re covery of mercury from soils, batteries, sludges and industrial process components. The MRS process has applications as both a remediation and a pollution prevention technology. Mercury contamination is a significant global problem. In the US alone, mercury bearing wastes have been found at more than

ments invest considerable sums on filtra

200,000 sites. The EPA has declared mer

tion and separation processes. The food and beverage, pharmaceutical and microelec tronics industries filter incoming water and also utilize filtration and separation proc esses in production operations. The wide spread usage in retail, commercial and in

cury as the environment's most harmful heavy metal. According to William Sutton, President of MRS, the technology reduces the cost and liabilities associated with past, present and future contamination from mer cury. The mercury captured in the process is 99 per cent pure and can be recycled. Since less than one part per million of mer cury typically remains in the treated mate rial, it too, can frequently be used again.

dustrial sectors, results in a worldwide an nual investment of over $US 72 billion. This

is the conclusion of a new study in "Clear Solutions," a continually updated report of

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

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The system stores 130 pre programmed methods and interactive software quickly guides the user through an anaiysis. The DR/4000 can also store up to 200 usergenerated calibrations.

Choice of Models

The DR/4000 U Spectrophotometer has UV and visible spectrum capa Multi-Language capability Step-by-step instructions are shown on the display screen. Choose from a list of languages. Instrument

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Industry Update nadian Wildlife Service of Environment

Wastewater and stormwater

applications of wetlands in Canada The Secretariat to the North American

Wetlands Conservation Council (Canada) has recently released its latest paper in the Sustaining Wetlands Issues Series. This re port, entitled "Wastewater and Stormwater Applications of Wetlands in Canada" has been produced in partnership with the Ca

Canada in Ottawa and CH2M Hill Engineer ing Ltd. of Waterloo, Ontario. The application of wastewater technology using constructed wetlands is a relatively new field which emerged during the 1980s. How ever, little documentation has existed on the applications and acceptance ofsuch wastewater technology in Canada's northern climate. The paper now released presents the results of a national survey of operational or pending projects involving constructed and natural wetlands across Canada used for treating

WEF breaks new ground in Toronto r

wastewater and stormwater from urban, agri cultural and industrial sources. It presents de tails on 67 sites in all of the nation's provinces and territories.

Indian contract for RVA The Municipal Corporation of Greater Bom bay recently awarded the firm of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited a $3 million

contract to upgrade the corporation's sew erage operation and maintenance services. The contract will raise the capability and efficiency of Bombay's Water Supply and Sewerage Division staff to operate, manage and maintain the sewage collection system. Through these improvements,significant re ductions in maintenance and operating costs are anticipated, along with overall improve ment in the health and safety of the staff involved in the operations of these facili ties. When the project is completed the re duced risk of adverse environmental impact will benefit all residents of the Bombay area. A partnership, formed in 1993 between Bombay-based PHE Consultants and R.V. Anderson Associates played a major role in securing this contract and will be instrumen tal in the completion of the work. For this project, Anderson enlisted the assistance of a number of Ontario partners. These include: The Ontario Clean Water

Left to right: Session Chair Steve Davey with H.C. Lai of Hong Kong Sewage Works and Dan Lynch, Harza Environmental Services. Report by Brian Evans, of R.V. Anderson Associates, who also organized the conference with Gore & Storrie's Peter Nicol.

WEF outside the United States and was an

Germany, Hong Kong, the US and Canada, all agreed that there was a rosy future for the field but that funding for research and development in the current tough financial times is essential if the field is to be pre vented from sinking into mediocrity. When money supply is tight, innovation tends to get stifled and this must be prevented if we

unqualified success. Almost 200 people

are to grow.

The Water Environment Federation(WEF) held its first International Specialty Confer ence in Toronto from June 4- 7, 1995, at the Sheraton Hotel. The conference was co-

sponsored by WEF and the Water Environ ment Association of Ontario.

The conference was the first foray by

from 22 countries attended and were ex

The two concurrent main sessions were

Agency, which will play a role in develop ing personnel organization and management information systems; Envirotrain Interna tional, a consortium of six Canadian com munity colleges which will provide train ing and human resources development as sistance; and the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, which will provide train ing through practical attachments and ex changes.

Calgary Environmental Tradeshowand

Conference predicted to grow

posed to a wide variety of speakers and tech nologies from around the world. Entitled "New and Emerging Technolo gies in Wastewater Collection and Treat ment", the conference represented an op portunity for professionals in the wastewater field to present their views and approaches to solving problems in a timely fashion.

remarkably well attended throughout the three hot and sunny days and covered top ics such as collection systems and storm water treatment(which was the most popu lar topic), specialized technologies, liquid treatment, solids handling and nutrient re

Traditional methods of information dissemi

forded attendees the opportunity to expose and be exposed to leading edge develop

ference can be seen by the fact that most attendees requested that a follow-up con ference be held in two to three years time. Three volunteer organizers came forward from Cambridge, England, Paris, France, and Hong Kong. At the moment, it appears that Cambridge will be the likely location. On the first night, the attendees were


treated to a sundowner cruise on Lake On

The plenary session covered topics about funding for applied research, the direction of future technologies and the overall fu

tario sponsored by Metro Toronto. With spectacular weather, calm water and an un forgettable sunset, the attendees will have fond memories of this unique event in

registration, contact Lois McCaffrey at Canawest Meeting Planners Inc.(403)4492090. To exhibit, call Tom McCaffrey at CEMI in Edmonton, (403) 469-2400, or Peter Schreurs at CEMI in Calgary,(403)



nation require a significant timelag before being accepted and presented in the techni cal media. With today's rapidly evolving technologies, many may be obsolete by the time this occurs, and this conference af

ture of the environmental field.


panelists who hailed from the UK, France,

moval. The measure of the success of this con

Organizers expect the 1995 Calgary Envi ronmental Tradeshow and Conference

(CETC), being held October 30 - Novem ber 1 at the Calgary Convention Centre, to surpass last year's record attendance. Those changes will be highlighted at the 1-day Conference, held on November 1, which features a plenary-session panel dis cussion on deregulation. "We're seeing a combination of deregulation at the provin cial level and the introduction of new envi

ronmental legislation at the federal level," says conference organizer Lois McCaffrey. For further conference information/

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Industry Update Simcoe wins top computer imaging award

Third place went to Ms.Tracey Nicholls Taylor, a CGA student from New Westmin ster, British Columbia, for her essay on "Auctioning Our Oceans: How the capital ist pigs could have saved the northern cod."

Norway still hunting whales

Images ofthe future An Ontario consulting firm, Simcoe Engi neering Group Ltd. of Pickering, has been awarded First Place in the 1995 CADDIE

awards,an annual international competition organized by CADalyst, one of the world's most prestigious magazines in the field of computer applications. In conjunction with the A/E/C SYSTEMS

After years of defending the accuracy oftheir minke whale population count, and years ofcriticizing Greenpeace for questioning the count, the Norwegian government admitted in April that their numbers were wrong. Then they started hunting whales again. Blaming computer error, Norway reduced

its population estimate from 86,700 to 69,000 minke whales in the North Sea and dropped the commercial whale quota from 301 to 232. Demanding an end to the hunt, Greenpeace pointed out that the new count was calculated by the same scientists who gave the wrong number in the first place. The whale killing began on May2nd,and was roundly condemned by Greenpeace offices around the world. On May 3, Greenpeace launched a direct action in protest of the commercial kill, which Norway is conducting in defiance of the Inter national Whaling Commission. The offices of the Norwegian Fisheries Ministry, which over sees the hunt,were blockaded by 14Greenpeace activists from six countries.


Convention held in Atlanta in June,five com

puter generated images showing the future Ajax Water Supply Plant were chosen as the winner in the Practising Professionals cat egory,for architects, engineers and scientists presenting actual projects produced in the course of professional endeavours. These photo-realistic images were cre ated by Simcoe Engineering architect Fernando L. Rodriguez, O.A.A., to facili tate the visualization and understanding of the project by the general public as required by the client, the Regional Municipality of

The environmental demands, which are

currently being placed on corporations and municipalities to control B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) dis charges and reduce in-plant treatment costs, hove created a tremendous need Derrick Model 58 Flo-Line unit process ing woste water application handling 1,800 U.S.G.P.M. and recovering solids at 80 mesh.


with over 40 years of fine screening experience, is now capable of offering this equipment technology to the waste water industry worldwide. Through uti lizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening

Students solve Four winners have been selected in The

Eraser Institute's Student Essay Competi

equipment to reduce waste water solids concentrations. Derrick Corporation,

Although it has completed buildings for many uses and functions, Simcoe is best known for civil engineering projects and municipal servicing facilities of which the 36 MGPD Ajax Water Supply Plant is the most recent example.

environmental problems

for efficient, reliable and cost effective

unit design, high fluid capacities can be Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick ure-

effectively handled at very fine screen

thane screen deck.

mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher

tion on "Market-based Solutions to Envi

ronmental Problems." The competition of

solids/particulate removal.

fered a first prize of $1,000, second prize of $500, and a third prize of $250. Ms. Heidi Gjersten, of Waterloo, On tario, an economics student at the Univer


sity of Waterloo, won first place with her submission on "Road Pricing as a Solution


to Urban Air Pollution."

590 Duke Road Buffalo, New York 14225

Second place was awarded jointly to Norman Groot, of Don Mills, Ontario, an

Typical screen oversize recovery of organic solids from processing waste

economics student at Wilfrid Laurier Uni

urethone screen deck.

water slurry, using a .45 mm patented

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versity, for his entry on "A Case for Mar ket-based Solutions to Environmental Prob


lems" and to Pierre Desrochers of St-

Eustache, Quebec, an urban studies student at the National School for Scientific Re

search, for his french language entry "Con demning Innovation."






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Environment Canada,(819) 953-9368, fax (819) 953-7253. October 5 - 6, 1995. Penn State Wastewater Biology Courses. Toronto, Ontario.

tional Joint Commission's Biennial Meet

Contact: Nancy McCord,Pennsylvania State University (814) 863-1738, fax (814) 865-

ing on Great Lakes Water Quality. Duluth,


Minnesota. Contact: Rita Kemer,IJC, 1250

October 17 - 20, 1995. Western Canada

23rd Street N.W., Suite 100, Washington,

Water & Wastewater Association Annual

Congress. Vancouver, BC. Contact: Peter Chapman,(604)986-4331,fax(604)662-8548. November 6 - 11, 1995. Aquatic Ecosys tem Stewardship. 15th Intemational Sym posium of the North American Lake Man agement Society. Toronto, ON. Contact: Murray Charlton, Environment Canada, (905) 336-4758, fax (905) 336-6430. November 14 - 16, 1995. 18th Intema tional Symposium on Wastewater Treatment

DC 20440.

Conference. Edmonton,AB. Contact: Janice

October 1-6,1995. The Intemational So ciety for Measurement and Control (ISA)

Taylor(403)259-4041,fax(403)258-1631. October 23 - 25, 1995. Water Environ

and the 7th Workshop on Drinking Water.

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ment Federation 68th Annual Conference


Louisiana. Contact: ISA (919) 549-8411, fax (919) 549-8288. October 2,1995. Small Community Issues.

January 29 - 31,1996. Environmental Is sues Workshop and Tradeshow, for Federal Govemment Departments, Agencies and Crown Corporations operating in Ontario. Ottawa, ON. Contact: Taylor & Associates (613) 747-0262, fax (613) 745-1846. March 5 - 7, 1996. Sixth Intemational

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tion Seminar. Rossland, B.C. Contact: BCWWA (604) 936-4982, fax (604) 931-

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Industry Update



UK noise vandals are

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In southern England, council noise investi gators have taken to wearing stab-proofjack ets as the war on nuisance-neighbours be


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Johnsons Cultural Award in Aurora for his

work on Environmental Science & Engi neering. CTV National Editor, Tom Clark, told the audience that the magazine was

Cut micro-flock

launched in 1988 on Steve's initiative.

sizing time by

Denver-based American Water Works

He said: "In 1994, the 115 year old

Association presented the magazine with this citation: The leading environmental publication in Canada serving the water supply and environmental protection in dustry with informed and searching com

90%... Two high-performance microscopes configured for wastewater analysis are

mentaries. ES&E articles have also won three national awards since 1988. One was

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from the Canadian Business Press; two were

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Before launching the magazine, Steve had been editor of three national magazines serving the environmental and process in dustries, winning a Southam Award of Ex cellence for his writing and graphics. Mr. Clark noted that Steve's work on the maga zine had achieved tangible recognition from


readers. He was elected President of the

contrast microscopy.

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 193

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Laboratory focus

By Rob W. Deverair

Interpretation of Laboratory Quality ^ Controi information

Qualityas uranceand quality con

trol (QA/QC) efforts in analyti cal measurements are becoming increasingly important and com mon in today's environmental

laboratory. Credibility of the laboratory is the primary driving force requiring most laboratories to now seek formal certifica tion and/or accreditation from external bod

ies. However, despite all the efforts of the laboratory industry, much of the quality data generated is often misinterpreted by its users.

tion and/or provide background correction used in calibration (CAEAL, 1994). Laboratory Sample Replicate - An identi cal sample which undergoes identical sam

ment of these uncertainties that is the un

derlying goal of all quality control labora tory measurements.

in the same batch (Downie, 1995).

Sample Spike - The analyte of interest is Continued overleaf

Where your Concerns


are our Concerns



All scientific measurements have inher ent uncertainties. Since these can be asso

ciated with each step from sampling through analysis their additive effect can produce a significant uncertainty. These uncertainties are influenced by factors both internal (eg. instrument response) and external(eg. sam ple non-homogeneity) to the measurement process. It is the prediction and measure

ple processing to that performed on the origi nal sample. Used to assess analytical pre cision, when replicate analysis is carried out

processing identical to that of the sample. Blank results are used to assess contamina

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and the appropriate use of quality control measures by laboratories. As no universal standard exists for all stakeholders to refer

to, laboratories are often left to interpret the definitions to best meet their particular needs. Therefore, laboratory professionals



need to play a more prominent role in the use of their data than is presently the case. Definitions

Most reputable laboratories have qual ity systems that include the analysis of method quality control samples. These measures are designed to demonstrate the ongoing control of contamination and to define the precision and accuracy of the method for the parameter and type of sam ple under investigation. Some of the more common quality control definitions include: Precision - The agreement or repeatability of a set of replicate results among them selves or the agreement among repeated


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observations made under the same condi

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Accuracy - The closeness of a result or of

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the arithmetic mean of a set of results to the

true, expected, or accepted value (AOAC, 1991).

Quality Control Sample - A sample (ie, test sample or control sample/standard)used either singly or in replicate, as appropriate, to monitor method performance character istics (CAEAL, 1994). Method Blank - All reagents used in the test method that undergoes analytical


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

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Laboratory focus, cont'd. added at a known concentration to a sample which then undergoes sample processing identical to that carried out on the original sample. Used to determine matrix effects and sample preparation losses (Downie, 1995). Clean Matrix Spike - The analyte of inter est is added at a fixed concentration to a

clean matrix similar to the sample which then undergoes sample processing identical to that carried out on the original sample. Used to determine matrix effects and sam

ple preparation losses (Downie, 1995). Reference Material - A material or sub

stance, one or more properties of which are sufficiently well established for it to be used

for the calibration of an apparatus, the as sessment of a measurement method, or for

assigning values to materials(AOAC,1991). All, or a number of the above quality control samples can be incorporated into an analytical batch. The objective of these quality control measures therefore is to finetune and maintain a measurement system within a desired state of stability and reproducibility (Taylor, 1987).

ASL's Trace Metals lab.

Reference Materials

It is important to expand discussion on reference materials (RM) used in analyti cal measurements as they are often the most misunderstood of the quality control meas ures. All laboratories now use RMs, some

Environmental, Health and Safety




Reference Materials(Standard, Certified or In-house) are used by laboratories as one component of validating and monitoring the performance of analytical methods. These RMs are analyzed as samples with the re sulting data compared to the expected value. The chemist then determines whether the

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contracts insist on their use and a great deal of research and effort is required for their development.

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for all chemical parameters in every con ceivable type of sample, they must hie used with this limitation in mind. Incorporating other information produced during an ana lytical process should also he considered when determining the validity of the data. Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) or Standard Reference Materials(SRM)are usually developed by agencies using stateof-the-art technologies(often more than one) and multiple measurements of each param eter to he certified. The certification proc ess often takes years to complete. The goal of the certification agency is to estimate, to the best of their ability, what they believe to he the "true" concentration value for that

Metals A Semivolatiles a PAHs

parameter in that particular material. The certifying agencies are not necessarily stat ing that all laboratories should obtain the same result using their in-house technology. This raises the often asked question - What is an acceptable result for a lab to achieve when analyzing a particular CRM/SRM?

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When interpreting CRM/SRM data it is important to consider all relevant analyti cal information before commenting on the resulting data. This requires expertise in analytical chemistry,otherwise the interpre tation is reduced to simple comparison of "found" verses "certified" values for each

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parameter. As laboratories are increasingly being asked to report their QA/QC data, the latter approach is becoming the norm. This causes significant problems with interpret ing sample data as often the CRM/SRM data Continued overleaf


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

A Winning Equation Two Schreyer award winners become one — and form a winning equation Gore & Storrie and CH2M Hill Engineering have joined forces to better serve Canadians through a country-wide network of 11 regional offices. Combining their depth and range of environmental engineering expertise wiU position CH2M Gore & Storrie as the national environmental engineering company of choice. With leadership from its Toronto headquarters, Gore & Storrie has been operating for 76 years through regional offices in Canada. This organization of the company offers corporate commitment to effective environmental solutions as well as specific centres of environmental speciahzation. CH2M Hill Engineering started up in Calgary in February, 1978 to serve a rapidly expanding economy in westem Canada. It has grown to some 150 people located in Calgary and two regional offices, Waterloo and Vancouver. Its affihation with CH2M Hill Companies,Ltd. of Denver, Colorado, has contributed to its reputation for innovative, cost-effective engineering. In British Columbia, Kerr Wood Leidal Gore & Storrie and CH2M Hill

Engineering (Vancouver) have joined forces to form a new environmental engineering consultancy for B.C. and the Yukon.

Access to a broader range of relevant North American experience will allow CH2M Gore & Storrie to effectively address Canadian environmental and infrastmcture challenges. The introduction of new process and design technologies will help maintain the cost advantage that Canadian chents expect. And the more than 450 employees of the two merging companies will gain access to a larger, intemational market.

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Laboratory focus, cont'd. does not always reflect the method perform ance for the client's samples. This is espe cially true where the available RM is not a good match for the sample(s) being tested. Additionally, methods used for a given project may in fact differ from those meth ods used to verify the RM thereby compli cating comparison with the certified values. For this reason, a knowledgable representa tive from the laboratory performing the analyses should be involved in the interpre tation of complex data sets. Literature

Upon reviewing literature on the subject of statistical techniques and quality control in the laboratory, we find one of the most respected authors on the subject of labora tory measurement uncertainties is John Keenan Taylor. Dr. Taylor is renowned for

his work with the statistical analysis of measurement processes as well as the use and interpretation ofCRM/SRM data. Some of Dr. Taylor's notable quotes on the sub ject of data quality include: • On the subject of CRM measurement tol erance: "The values measured by a user for an analyte or a parameter will rarely agree fully with the certified value due to uncer tainties in each. The question naturally arises as to how large a difference is sig nificant. This will depend on the uncertainty of the measurement by the user and the cer tification limits for the SRM."


"Rarely will a user's uncertainty be less than that of the NBS measurements which are

done with state-of-the-art techniques." • On the subject of applicability of CRMs:

"It is obvious that the measurement of one

reference sample will not evaluate the per formance of the measurement system throughout a concentration range unless sup

plemented by other information." •On the subject of measurement uncertainty: "The inevitability of variability complicates the evaluation and use of data. It must be

recognized that many uses require data qual ity that may be difficult to achieve." Data Quality Objectives As one understands and appreciates the relevance of each of the quality control measures, it becomes much easier to dis cuss the intent of and interpretation of the resulting data. Individual laboratories are faced with a wide range of available tech nologies, staff expertise, client demands, and the physical and chemical composition of the samples they analyze. These facts make it extremely difficult to have a uni versal standard that all laboratories can use.

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cases (Taylor, 1990). Developing DQOs for specific projects is encouraged providing both the laboratory and other project personnel (users of the data) are involved. All parties can establish what they require from the resulting data whose quality is affected not only by the labo ratory but also by how the samples are col lected and managed. From the laboratories perspective, key elements requiring discus sion during project planning stages include: • sampling, handling and holding times, • analytical methods available for eaeh pa rameter including their strengths/weak nesses,


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Instead,laboratories typically establish their own performance guidelines or data quality objectives(DQO)from which to gauge their routine operating performance. Addition ally,DQOs are often developed to meet spe cific requirements on a project by project basis. With the appropriate amount of qual ity control data, every analytical batch or project can be reviewed to ensure that the DQO's are indeed met and all measurements are within an acceptable control level. Data quality objectives(DQOs) consist of quantitative specifications for the mini mum quality of data that will permit its use in a specific investigation. They must be realistic with respect to what is needed and what is possible to achieve. Cost and ben













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• limits of detection required for the project, • level of quality control and what accept ance criteria should be established for

blanks, replicates/duplicates, spikes and reference materials, • available budget,

• sample submission schedule, • turnaround time required, • reporting requirements. If all of the above points are addressed during planning stages, it will directly ben efit the success of the project. The labora tory professional(s) can, through their in volvement, ensure that the analytical data is ideally suited and properly interpreted for the desired use.

References available upon written request. For more Information,


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Focus on Labs

New lAETL study highlights Canadian environmental testing industry

The International Association of

Environmental Testing Laborato ries (lAETL), Canadian Chapter, has published a comprehensive survey of the Canadian environmental test ing and analysis business. The detailed fi nancial and operational survey group com prised some C$60 million in annual rev enues, or an estimated 60% of the total na tional industry. The environmental testing industry in Canada has suffered through an extended period ofexcess capacity and declining rates of demand. During the past several years this has led to competitive pricing pressures which are reflected in the financial perform ance of most companies. Although this sur vey covered only the most recent two fiscal years, a distinct downward trend in many financial performance measures was clear. As the environmental testing business con tinues to mature, the efforts of most compa nies are focused on cost reduction,improved sales and marketing, more professional busi ness management, and the identification of new market sectors.

Environmental testing labs draw their business from three primary sources:

- Government clients, including federal, provincial, and local sources; in recent years, work from this category of clients has rep resented about 20% of total revenue for the

industry. - Direct industrial work;from private manu facturing and industrial corporations; this source of work, often the most profitable, currently represents 31% of total revenues. - Work contracted through various environ mental service companies, primarily the Canadian Environmental Testing Markets Industry

Individual statistics vary quite widely, but the average Canadian environmental testing laboratory employs 46 people, and generates sales revenues of just over C$3 million per year, producing an average pre tax income of C$200,000. The report also contains detailed statistical data on gross and operating margin statistics, profitabil ity measures, overhead rates, revenue and

earnings on a per employee basis, return on equity and net assets, and a range of other operational and financial data. The report finds that most Canadian en vironmental testing labs have financed their growth with internally generated cash flow. Several firms have utilized capital injections from parent organizations or from commer


cial banks. However, most firms are not

engineering and consulting companies, but also the solid and hazardous waste

remediation companies. This has typically been the largest source of directly contracted work for the environmental testing indus try, representing 49% of total revenues.

heavily leveraged, with long-term debt as a percentage of shareholders equity averag ing 20% for the typical firm. However, tough market conditions during the recent few years have made it difficult to generate a reasonable return; in the latest year, aver age return on equity for the industry was 16%, down from 22% the year before. Re turn on assets has also declined sharply dur ing that time period.

Advanced Spray Nozzles for Pollution and Environmental Uses. Aeration

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 123

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Focus on Labs Another section of the report reviews the outlook for the future of the environmental

testing business in Canada. Alternative growth strategies are discussed, market sec tors offering the most growth potential are identified, and the proper role of govern ment in the industry is debated. The future challenges that most firms cited included the raising of additional capital to survive through this tough period of maturation and consolidation,the maintenance ofregulatory compliance, cost reduction through greater automation, and improved marketing and customer service capabilities. The general sense offuture requirements for success can be summed up as follows: Greater efficiency will inevitably lead to lower costs, and the only way to survive and thrive in a consolidating and highly com petitive industry is to produce the service at a lower cost than one's competitors are able to do. In turn, more efficient operations tend to provide better levels of service and lead to a higher percentage of happy customers. The survey can be ordered from lAETL Canada,4180 Dundas St. West, Suite 3,To ronto, Ontario, M8X 1X8. For more details

contact: John Stanley, lAETL President, Chemex Labs Alberta Inc.,(403)291-3077.

Excerpts from outgoing lAETL President's message From my perspective, there are only two fundamental requirements to restore health to our beleaguered industry. The first is to increase the amount of work available to the

private sector and the second is to restore some sense to the pricing in the marketplace. To date, we have focused on the former and

made substantial progress. Convincing government to require ac creditation for all data generated in support of regulations forces the "make-buy" deci sion on municipal and industrial labs. Lob bying to have federal and provincial labs focus on method development and quality control with routine testing done in the pri vate labs as the most effective alternative, promoting the passage ofenvironmental leg islation, all will contribute to increased work

The environmental lab business is not

easy and will not magically become so over night, but through lAETL we will be able to work with the federal and provincial gov ernments to our benefit in this positive po

in the private sector. Indirectly, increased workload promotes increased pricing. Busy labs are more likely

litical climate.

management buyout,say:"We will continue to develop the business areas of mineral processing, environmental, hydrometallurgical, mineralogical and custom analyti

which provide laboratory and pilot plant testing facilities to mining companies world

cal services."

Morocco order for Nortech

to demand surcharges for rush work and bid higher on upcoming jobs. Unfortunately,despite our efforts, consolidations and downsizing, overcapacity still remains and pricing has declined precipitously since 1992. The major test of the maturity of our in dustry will be to see if we can restore ra tionality to the pricing in the marketplace. In short, we have made good progress toward our goals but we still have a long way to go. We look forward to major suc cesses building on the pro-business politi cal climate now prevalent in Canada.

Founded in 1941, Lakefield Research operates custom research facilities at Lakefield, Ontario and Santiago, Chile,

Barry Loescher,Zenon Laboratories, Outgoing lAETL President

wide. Lakefield Research Division cur

rently employs over 140 people, including 75 professional engineers and scientists. Lakefield Research provides services to cli ents in these areas of industry and govern ment in over 75 countries around the world.

The Kingdom of Morocco, in conjunction with the Canadian International Develop ment Agency, is establishing an Environ mental Department (Laboratoire Public D'Essais et D'Etudes) and is procuring

some $2,000,000 Cdn.in lab equipment,in strumentation, trailers, computers, software and training. They are setting up various sites and laboratories for water, ambient air and stack emission monitoring and sam pling. Nortech Control Equipment, Inc. of Mississauga,Ontario will be responsible for $497,000 Cdn. of the total contract value and are led to understand they are the larg est single equipment supplier for this con tract.

Mining lab buyout Falconbridge Limited has announced it has signed a preliminary agreement to sell its Lakefield Research Division through a man agement buyout. Falconbridge President



Regulatory & Investigative Testing ERCB Regulations

Toxicity Testing/Assessment Drilling Waste, Sump Fluids Soils, Sediments & Sludge


Water & Wastewater

Contaminated Site

Leachate & Runoff


Multitropfiic Bioassays Battery

Fertilizer Requirements

Pre-/Post-Testing Advice Data Evaluation &

Results Interpretation

Bacteria (MIcrotox) Fish (Rainbow Trout) Water Flea (Daphnio)

and Chief Executive Officer, Frank Pickard

said, "The senior management team lead ing this buyout has the experience and com mitment to help Lakefield Research grow into one of the premier metallurgical test ing and research facilities in the world. Falconbridge decided to sell the division

Accredited by ttie Standards Council of Canada and Certified by the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories Inc. for specific tests. EDMONTON (403)438-5522 24 HR. EMERGENCY SERVICE

because of a commitment to focus on our

CALGARY (403)291-2022

core nickel, copper, zinc and custom feed

LETHBRIDGE (403)329-9266 LANGLEY (604)530-4344 WINNIPEG (204)982-8630


Lakefield Research President Larry Seeley and Vice-President Chris Fleming,

FAX (403)434-8586 EDMONTON (403)491-8294 FAX (403)291-2021 FAX (403)327-8527 FAX (604)534-9996 FAX (204)275-6019

two of the senior executives involved in the

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 124


Soil Remediation

The progress of thermal desorptlon In soil remediation ecently, on-site treatment of pe trations of up to several thousands parts per ing: soil gradation, moisture content, soil/ troleum hydrocarbon contami million(ppm)of Total Petroleum Hydrocar ambient temperature, and the contaminant's nated soils by Low Temperature bons(TPH), were remediated to <100 ppm. boiling points. For example, for light hy Thermal Desorption(L1TD)has This is well below most Federal and Pro drocarbons,a temperature range up to 350°C been progressing impressively against other vincial cleanup criteria. is sufficient to handle soils with less than soil remediation alternatives. Particularly, 3% TPH (or <10% total organic) content Process Description LTTD technology offers the com Typically, the contaminated soil is exca- and less than 30% moisture. Medium and bined advantages of being effec high temperature thermal Table A: On-slle Soli Remediation Projects Completed by LTTD in Canada tive, rapid, economically com desorption conditions are also Projects Completed Companies with LTTD petitive, and providing perma used for higher chained hydrocar


nent contaminant removal and



bons or semi-volatile molecules.


However, higher fuel costs and equipment compatibility at such temperatures will reduce the vi ability of LTTD over other alter


These advantages are signifi cant and respond directly to sev

Canada Soil Exchange inc

eral current issues such as: ris

ing public concern over both abandoned and operating indus trial sites; increasing government controls over management of contaminated soils; demand for on-site recycling and reuse of excavated soil, and dwindling landfill resources. In this docu



CFB Toronto, Ontario CFB North Bay, Ontario





CFB Ottawa, Ontario



natives such as bioremediation, Deisan Env. Group Ltd.

CFB Vaicartier, Quebec



S.S. Marie Airport, Ontario



Laidlaw Env. Services Ltd.

BASF. Cornwall, Ontario



Enco. Tech. Systems Ltd.

Grand Fails, N.B. Moncton, N.B. CFB Chatham, N.B.







Kindersley, Saskatchewan



Green Pian Env. Corp.

soil washing, vapour extraction, or disposal. The length ofthe rotary drum, slope angle, and its variable speed (4-7 rpm)are the variables which determine the soil's reten

ment, a detailed process descrip tion, the different types of proc ess mechanisms, as well as the

CFB Borden, Ontario

Enviro Desorption Ltd.

tion time during the desorption process (between 4 to 10 min utes) for each type of soil mix ture. The maximum desorption (removal) efficiency is greatly influenced by the soil's grain

current progress of LTTD in soil * = on-going project, PAHs contaminants are also successfully treated . remediation have been explored. During the last decade, hundreds of vated, blended, and then fed into a rotary size, moisture content, and the contami remediation projects involving LTTD have dryer(similar to an asphalt kiln process) via nant's boiling point. been completed on both government and a vibrating screen and conveyor system. In Typically, the desorption process can privately owned sites in the U.S.A. and the dryer, the soil is heated by a fuel fired occur in two stages, and for each stage two Canada. The largest on-site project com burner/blower system. The hot air forces different process mechanisms are used: pleted to date (between 1993-1994) was in produced under an anaerobic condition, Stage 1. The desorption process inside the the Port of Los Angeles,where over 270,000 drive off the volatile and some semi-vola rotating dryer is known to occur in two dif tonnes of soil, contaminated with marine

tile contaminants from the soil mass. In the

ferent mechanisms: the "counter current"

diesel, bunker fuel and other petroleum dis

dryer, the soil is aerated, agitated and mixed by combination of air forces and internal

fashion and the "co-current" fashion. The

tillates, was treated with LTTD and subse

quently backfilled. Table A lists most of the on-site remediation

projects involving LTTD that have been completed



current versus co-current



- cold feed travels towards the

•fine material containing highest contamination level gets contacted with hottest temperature at the flame


In the counter current


•discharged soil contain more fine fraction than the counter •can handle higher moisture and organic content in soil than co-

current system

fashion, the cold feed en fl ters the dryer at the oppo |

site end of the burner/


blower, and travels to

•can operate at higher

wards the flame as the

temperatures than co^^urent

volatiles and moisture are Disadvantages

-tine material containing highest contamination level blows out of the drum with minimum contact with heat

ment and subsequently re turning it to its original site for backfilling. Exam ples are the Drummond and Millerton projects in

• fine material captured at the iMghouse may be returned to the dryer lor further treatment

New Brunswick under the


-discharged soil from the dryer contain lesser fine fraction than co-

National Contaminated

gradually removed and pushed away into the gas •sudden volaiifization of contaminants at the burner can cause ignition 1 treatment systems (Stage inside the drum and tire at the baghouse | 2). The hot and dried soil - high temperature limitation due to the ignition problem mentioned 1 above g drops out of the drum at •cold feed travels away from the hottest temperature minimizing


contact for residual hydrocarbons


-during feeding a dust curtain can be produced around the flame which can ctKXk the flame or produce incomplete comt>ustion products

B 1 H

■ high moistufe and organic content Rnvts the desorption efficiency


Sites Remediation Pro

gram (CCME 1993-1994 Annual Report), and the recent Shell Toronto Marketing Plant project in Ontario. In all of the above projects, light petro leum hydrocarbon contaminants (i.e avia tion fuel, diesel, gasoline, etc.), at concen 20

mechanisms are summa rized in Table B.

heal source maximizing contact for reskJual hydrocartxjns

In addition to these on-

LTTD facilities for treat

Counter Current


in Canada to date.

site projects, other projects have involved transporting contaminated soil to off-site stationary

advantages and disadvantages of counter

Table B: Counter Current vs Co-Current mechanism In LTTD process

flights. The flights are specifically designed to prevent the soil from agglomerating and to protect the dryer's shell from overheat ing. The fuel (normally natural gas) con sumption for effective temperature is ad justed according to several factors includ-





burner/blower and into the

remoisturization unit for

cooling and dust quench ing prior to conveying to stockpile (see Figure A). In the co-current fashion, the cold feed

enters the dryer at the front of the burner/ blower and travels away to exits at the chute entering the remoisturization chamber. The dust and exhaust gases also move away to

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

By Michael Shiralian, Ph.D., C.Chem.* the opposite end of the flame entering the gas treatment units (see Figure B). In general, at low temperatures, low

Low Temperature Thermal Desorption

Screen and

Process Flow Diagram


moisture and low organic content, both

Contaminated Sou

^Co o o o b)

counter current and co-current mechanisms


can produce similar results. However, at higher temperatures, moisture and organic content, the counter current provides greater flexibility. The co-current mechanism, on

Son RemoHturliadon

the other hand, is more attractive in treat

ing highly contaminated finer particles. Stage 2. The second stage of the LTTD technology is the treatment ofexhaust gases. This involves capturing the dust and fine particulates from the gas stream carrying the




mnnii Heat

Exchanger BaghouM


stack alack


VOCs and exiting the dryer. There are two different mechanisms for

handling the exhaust material. These are known as"cold configuration" and "hot con figuration". In the cold configuration the exhaust material from the dryer enters a high efficiency baghouse where solid particles are discharged before the VOCs are routed to an afterburner for combustion, and final emission at the stack (Figure A). In the hot

•Mictiael Shiralian is an independent practi tioner specializing In site remediation. He is a pioneer scientist in obtaining Certificates ofAp proval and implementing the first mobile LTTD In Ontario. He has been project manager for the design and construction of a LTTD unit, and several remediation projects Involving LTTD in Ontario since 1991.

FIGUREA: Counter current dryer with cold configuration exhaust treatment

FIGURE B: Co-current dryer with hot configuration exhaust treatment system.


configuration, the exhaust material from the dryer enters the afterburner first and then is routed into the baghouse for dust filtration and final emission (Figure B). In this con figuration the fine particles undergo expo sure to high temperatures (>870°C) under an oxygen rich atmosphere. This combus tion condition can effectively remove and/ or destroy the residual organics. Regardless of the type of exhaust treat ment configurations, both dryer and baghouse are operated under slight negative

pressure by the exhaust fan blower in order to prevent leaking and also to facilitate ex haust transport through the system and exit at the stack.

The major disadvantage of hot configu ration, is the cost of cooling down the ex

haust gases exiting the afterburner prior to entry into the baghouse. The afterburner temperature is usually above 870°C. This temperature can destroy all types of known filter material used inside the house

Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

For more Information, Gircie reply card No. 125


Soil Remediation, cont'd. decomposition of humic material above 300°C in a pyrolytic environment has been observed. However, the LTTD treated soil can make an excellent top soil (weed free) providing no other contamination (e.g met als) remain, and selective nutrients are reintroduced. The LTTD process does not pro duce any solid waste or effluent (unless water scrubbers are used), while the stack gases are only carbon dioxide and steam.

(Nomex, fibreglass, etc.). The most com mon exhaust cooling system used is the airto-air heat exchanger, but other systems, such as water spray towers, are also used. The latter method generates effluent, but it can also act as a wet scrubber when exhaust

is carrying hazardous or corrosive gases. Typically, the cold configuration with the counter current mechanism (Figure A)of the

dryer is most commonly used for lighter hy

Regulatory Requirements In general, thermal desorption technolo gies are well accepted by regulatory bodies throughout Canada. However, every Prov ince sets different requirements. In Ontario (the first Province permitting a mobile LTTD),the Air approval requires a compre hensive "Source Testing"ofthe stack within 60 days of start of the first project, and sub sequent continuous monitoring of the stack for combustion products. Here, two other Certificates of Approval are also required: a Waste Management System (Processing) and a Waste Disposal Site. In other Prov inces such as B.C and Quebec permit-inprinciples are not issued, but instead a sitespecific demonstration is required prior to any approval. The soil clean-up and air emission cri teria are more or less similar in most juris dictions across Canada. In general, depend ing on the site characteristics and uses, three cleanup criteria are used: agricultural, resi dential/parkland, and commercial/indus-

drocarbons that can easily be desorbed. Whereas, the hot configuration with the cocurrent mechanism (Figure B)is most com monly used for desorption of persistent hy drocarbons and/or where the concentration

of contaminants is highest in the finer frac tion of the soil mixture.

The hot configuration systems involving water spray (scrubber) or vapour condensa tion systems are used for desorption of haz ardous contaminants such as PCBs, pesti cides, PAHs, and chlorinated hydrocarbons from soil. These pollutants have higher boiling points than petroleum hydrocarbons, are more persistent with fine porous soil particles. Therefore, higher temperature, careful exhaust handling(enclosed or negative pres sure system), and volatile removal by con densers or scrubbers are required when such pollutants are to be desorbed. The LTTD treated soil usually retains all its natural composition and can be reused at the site for its original purpose. Partial

In Ultrasonic LeveUi/leasuremenf The MultiRanger Plus' versatility, reliability and ease of use make it

monly required to be continuously moni tored. Their allowable emission levels are

similar in all Provinces, and are very sitespecific dependent. To achieve a complete combustion in the afterburner, most juris

dictions require >95% destruction efficiency of volatilized contaminants at 870°C for a minimum of one second retention time. In

addition, a dispersion modelling or point of impingement measurement is normally re quired on each site to determine the mini mum separation distance of the stack from the nearest sensitive receptor in the adja cent area.


The currently available (commercial) LTTD units are basically limited to remediation of light petroleum hydrocar bons. The LTTD is not suitable for non-vola-

tile organics and heavy metals (inorganics) decontamination. It is also limited to soil

containing less than 10% organic, less than 30% moisture, and gradation of less than 25% passing 200 mesh. However, these limitations can be eliminated by incorpo rating additional control systems or equip ment or simply applying pre-treatment meth ods on the contaminated soil.

The U.S. Environmental Protection

the most widely installed ultrasonic level device

of its kind.

▲ Advanced ultrasonic echo

processing technology

flow and volume, as well as solids level and volume, at

ensures accurate, reliable

ranges up to 15 m.

and consistent operation.

, Current and relay outputs provide for control and cycling of up to 5 pumps.

NOx, COj, Oj and particulates are com

Development In the USA, thermal desorption is cur rently under extensive development to treat soil containing hazardous pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons,PCBs,PAHs and pesticides. The development features in clude higher temperature ranges, and ad vanced emission control systems in order to ensure complete decontamination of soil and re-collection ofevaporated contaminants for disposal.

Technology Works!

. Measurement of liquid level,

trial. For example, the levels of Total Pe troleum Hydrocarbons for backfilling the LTTD treated soil are 100 ppm for residential/parklands and 1000 ppm for industrial sites. The stack parameters such as CO,

▲ Installation, set up and oper ation of the MultiRanger Plus require no special tools or training.

^MILLTRONICS 730 The Kingsway Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B1 705/745-2431 • Fax: 705/745-0414

Agency(EPA)study has shown that the use of mobile thermal desorption at hazardous waste sites has doubled in recent years, while mobile incineration appears to have lost popularity, probably due to negative public image on incineration. As thermal desorption is based on the separation of con taminants from the soil without burning the matrix to ash, it avoids much of the adverse stigma associated with incineration. Summary The key features of thermal desorption technology are its flexibility, its mobility, and its integrated design. Although com mercially available in Canada, it has only been used for decontamination of soils laden

with light petroleum hydrocarbons. The system can be modified to handle semivolatile and/or chlorinated organic com pounds such as heavier hydrocarbons,TCE, PCBs and pesticides. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 156 22

For more information, Circle reply card No. 126

Environmental Science & Engineering, Septemberl995


FLANGED FIHINGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 30", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, TO.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES, faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22y2° and '\Vk° configurations. As well, TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'TC.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

Make the Right Connection...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available in both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special"'TC! FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks installation requirements.

IRON WORKS LTD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (804) 253-6365

For more information. Circle reply card No. 127

By V.G. Borch*

Water treatment

\Nhat is water worth?

Certainly most people would agree

tainly expenditures on water and sewer sys tems will continue and probably rise as a result of more stringent regulations, cus tomer demands and required renewal. Se

nicipal Councils having in the past no qualms about raising taxes 5% to 10%, yet often have great difficulty raising the water rates by $0.50 per month.

such as availability and proximity of sup ply and degree of treatment desired or re quired. While this table shows significant vari ation of the unit price of water within Canada,Table 2 shows that on average, Ca nadian unit prices of water are low in com parison to other first world countries. The low unit price for water in Canada is some-

However, if water and sewer expendi tures are only considered along with other lump sum expenditures for other compet-




that water is very valuable, but for some reason it is taken for granted and they don't expect to pay very

much for it. We are all familiar with Mu




$/1000 litres


Cost (25 m^)



*excluding waste treatment 1992 Cdn Country


6.29 9.05






0.46 0.54













1.01 1.18 1.30











water use as shown in Table 3. Table 4com

pares water costs to other beverages. Table 5 outlines expenditures for water Table 4 TYPICAL PRICES FOR POPULAR BEVERAGES

$/1000 litres


• The human body is about 75% water. • 7000 years ago water was used for crop irrigation. • Over 4000 years ago cities developed and this was concurrent with man's ability to supply and drain water(Environmental Citi zenship, 1993, p. 1). The examples which show how vital water is are almost endless. Keeping these examples and others in mind, one tends to prefer the following dictionary definitions: • Worth - of substantial or significant merit

Beverage Tap water (only beverage


with delivery)

* $0.82





Bottled water Beer Wine

150 135

ing priorities, the status quo will probably prevail. I believe it would be helpful for us to be aware of the importance, the neces sity, the worth, the value of water in the context of being of inestimable value, of being priceless. Let us not think that it doesn't cost much, therefore it isn't worth much.


Tate, D.M. 1989 Municipal Water Rates in Canada: Current Practices and Prices. Social Science Series No. 27.

Ecosystem Sciences and Evaluation Di rectorate, Economics and Conservation Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1992: p.17.


* includes waste treatment

(Environmental Citizenship, 1993, p. 11) and sewer(sewer 30%)in Canada compared to expenditures for other necessities. What can we make of such data? Cor

Environmental Citizenship. Freshwater Series A-4, Environment Canada, De cember 1993:pp. 1, 9-11. Statistics Canada - Cat. no. 62-555,

Family Expenditure In Canada, 1990: pp. 58-60.


or excellence.

Service / Item Water & Sewer

• Value - something intrinsically valuable or desirable.

• Invaluable - valuable beyond estimation, priceless. Table 1 outlines the monthly mean price of water, by province, to residential users. There is a significant variation in price which is determined by a number of factors

France Israel

worth and value.

1,500.00 2,500.00 9,000.00


200 200

There is no question that in comparison with other countries and in comparison with other necessities in this country, the price of water can move up a bit, provide the funds for necessary improvements and be of more

tant is water?

3. As the people who operate, maintain, manage,conceptualize,design and construct water and wastewater systems, what are we going to do about this? Consider how important or vital water is to life and living. We can go many days without food but a fraction as long without

UK Sweden

(Environmental Citizenship, 1993, p. 10)

Germany 1.72 5.50 Japan (Environmental Citizenship, 1993, p. 9)

to other necessities in Canada?


340(5% for cooking and drinking)


what counterbalanced by a higher average

2. How does the price of water compare across Canada; how does it compare to other countries, and finally, how does it compare



(Tate, 1989, p. 17.)

I am going to discuss briefly three as pects of this subject: 1. How valuable, or perhaps, how impor

rious attention to conservation measures could offset some of these costs.


(rounded) Regina Saskatoon Edmonton






























Property Tax Cigarettes & Alcohol



68 94



68 87












549 816













(Statistics Canada, 1990, pp. 58-60) •President, Associated Engineering 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

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Environmental Business

By Brian Wanless*

The clean air market still struggles

Theclean air marketin Canadacon

gies (products, not including services) in

dian Papermaker,suggest that annual spend ing on clean air technologies should be in the range of $6 million to $12 million an nually over the next five years. In the absence of new government regu lations to drive market demand, voluntary programs, such as ARET (Accelerated Re duction/Elimination of Toxics), offer the in dustry some hope for increased growth. ARET has identified a wide range of haz ardous air emissions that are targeted for

Canada may be in the area of$100 to $ 150

reduction or elimination. In addition, ISO

million per year. The same study indicated that Canadian companies may be exporting an equal amount ofequipment,for total sales

14000 promises to provide a level playing field for companies with respect to environ mental management, and that should create

of somewhere in the area of $300 million.

some initiatives to deal with air emissions.

By comparison,the Environmental Busi ness Journal reports that the US market for clean air technologies is in the area of $3.7 billion annually, and consulting revenues

Companies such as Dofasco provide an excellent example of how voluntary initia tives can drive the market. The company has identified a range of emissions, includ ing benzene, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, PAHs, and cyanides for reduction. At the same time, a careful analysis of the types of actions that Dofasco has under taken provide good insight into why the clean air market has difficulty growing. Many of the solutions implemented by Dofasco have involved energy efficiency, process change, and equipment modifica tions. For example, Dofasco removes sul

tinues to struggle. While estimates of the market's size vary consider ably, there is little doubt among those in the industry that there has been lit tle real growth in the market over the past few years. In a study for Environment Canada, KPMG Peat Marwick estimated that the market for clean air environmental technolo

were another $1.6 billion. The ratio of the US market size to the Canadian market is

24:1,far higher than the usual 10:1 ratio we commonly use when comparing markets in the two countries. Unfortunately, all the evidence we have suggests that this is ex actly the case. While the US market contin ues to expand because of new clean air regu lations, the Canadian market is sluggish. While there were no estimates of the

phur from coke oven gas before burning to

reduce SO^ emissions. Trees and ground cover were planted around dock areas to reduce wind blown dust.

Similarly, many companies will first try energy reduction, more efficient burners, and other changes to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and NOx. Consequently,the growing areas in the clean air market are typi cally not for end of pipe solutions, but for process technologies or pollution prevention programs that help customers to reduce their expenditures on environmental technologies. In all of these instances, the willingness of companies to invest in environmental technologies or services will depend upon economic growth and their ability to pay. Still, Canadian companies in the clean air sector may be better advised to look into export markets if they are looking for growth opportunities. This advice may not be as grim as it sounds. Many Canadian compa nies have been very successful in market ing their products in the US,southeast Asia, and other markets. Albarrie Canada, for

example, sells almost 50% of its products in export markets to a variety of countries. RWDI is another company that has had simi lar success abroad, and has grown consid erably with projects around the world.

market for Canadian clean air services such

as lab testing and consulting, if we use the


same ratios for the US market, then clean

air consulting services would be in the range

of $50 to $75 million per year. Lab and field testing services in Canada are prob ably in the range of $10 to $20 million. Despite the lethargy of past market per formance, there are reasons to believe that

the outlook for the clean air market may be improving. While there are no all encom passing regulatory changes expected, such as those in the US, we may expect some increase in activity both as a result of vol untary actions by companies coupled with some regulatory changes. The pulp and paper industry represents one of the more promising market segments in Canada. Quebec has implemented new regulations on TRS (total reduced sulphur) and particulates from pulp and paper mills and some industry experts expect other prov inces to follow suit. Ontario has recognized that TRS and particulates are both problems

in the province and, as a result, there may be more effort to deal with these problems. If so, new regulations could create strong demand for technologies such as electro static precipitators, low NOx burners, and related consulting services. Spending forecasts for the pulp and pa per industry, from a 1993 survey by Cana-





Since 1962 FAI3CO has pro duced high quality chemical processing and pollution control eciuipment for the pulp and paper, chemical and mining industries. •THERMOPLASTICS- PVC, CP\'C. pp. PVDF, PEP, TEFLON, UHMW, NYLON





*Vice President,


Ontario Centre for Environmental

3TORONTO - 2175 Teston Road, Maple (Toronto), Ontario Canada L6A 1T3 Phone (905) 832-8161, Fox (905) 832-2111 /

Technology Advancement

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 188


Watermain rehabilitation

Trenchless technology gives 12" watermain new lease of life in Miiton

Trenchlessrenewal of3km ofbreak

prone 12" watermain near Milton, Ontario successfully challenged

the common



project's very substantial savings showed that trenchless technology can be cost-com petitive outside of congested downtown ar eas. Both Phase I, completed in 1993, and Phase II in 1994 turned in a significant cost advantage over dig and replace despite the rural location.

Leaking Cast Iron The old 12" cast iron watermain's leak

history, which was severe and growing worse, dictated either a complete replace ment or a structural solution. A trenchless

solution was chosen using a mini-annulus structural liner of HDPE (high density polyethylene). Stand alone design means the liner is rated for full operating pressure of 690 kPa (100 psi) regardless of the old watermain's condition. Successful instal

cept. For Phase I, detail design was pro vided by Congas Engineering and for Phase II by Trenchless Design Engineering Ltd. Project Designed as Trenchless The existing 12" watermain had plenty of capacity and reduced inside diameter af^ ter lining would still handle the flow re quirements. Phase I of the project would start at Bronte Street and go West along Derry Rd. to Tremaine Rd, approximately 1.5 km. Phase II picked up at Tremaine Rd., continuing West for another 1.5 km to Bell

17 HDPE pipe to ASTM F-714 was used for the liner. The same pipe was also used for a 131 meter section of new watermain

installed by directional drilling where the existing watermain alignment needed to be changed. Fittings: For service connections 75 mm and smaller, electrofusion tapping tees (allow ing pressure tapping) were used. Larger services and hydrant leads were installed using flanged cast iron tees attached to the liner, using electrofusion couplers and HDPE stub flange assemblies. Anchoring the Liner: HDPE pipe, espe cially in a liner application, is prone to

School Line. Other than two road cross

ings, the pipeline is located on the shoulder or grassy areas of the road allowance, mak ing dig and replace economical. The reha bilitation included transfer or new installa

tion of 12 services, 4 hydrants and 5 line valves.

Considerable design input was made by Halton operations and construction staff. Incorporating this input into the design pro

movement and this must be addressed.

Movement comes about primarily due to thermal expansion/contraction, but relaxa tion of insertion pulling forces may also cause problems. Electrofusion couplers and saddles were used to anchor the liner at all

duced smoother installation while eliminat

exits from the cast iron. This anchoring sys tem was effective, inexpensive and easy to

ing potential operational difficulties.


lation and operation of Phase I led the Re gion of Halton to continue the trenchless liner approach for Phase II in 1994. Each phase was approximately 1.5 km long. Catastrophic Joint Faiiures The diagnosis of the leak problem and the steps leading to the trenchless solution are interesting. Numerous pavement cuts along Derry Rd. attest to the frequency and severity of the failures, nearly always splits

line from heavier class cast iron and PVC

drants; direction of liner insertions and sur

in the cast iron starting at the bell. Large sections of the pipe would split out. Install ing a surge pressure relief station proved

repair sections resulting in sporadic ID re ductions. This would cause sizing and in stallation difficulties with a tight-fit liner.

ineffective. An Environmental Science <&

2) A mini-annulus liner could use standard HDPE pipe, in this case a metric size. The

face stringing of liner; maximum lengths for CCTV inspection and cleaning. Opening up the cast iron was immedi ately followed by CCTV inspection to iden tify any unknowns. Cleaning by wire brush pigging turned out to be minimal, helped out by the choice of a mini-annulus design. The liner strings were butt fused above ground and pulled into the cast iron using a cable winch. A fairly sophisticated inser-

Engineering article by Mike Mansfield, City Engineer for Etobicoke, was instrumental in identifying the problem. Information Exchange Plus Timely Industry Seminars Mansfield wrote about a watermain

jointing compound that had been in use in the 1950s. This "Leadite" compound had a self-expanding property that expedited in stallation. Unfortunately, the expansion process would be continuous, fully capable ofcracking the pipe bell. Greg Ellis(Halton Operations) followed up Mansfield's arti cle with laboratory testing, confirming the jointing material as the culprit. Knowing that breaks would continue with increasing frequency, replacement of the watermain along Derry Rd. became a priority. In early 1993, AWWA and University of Toronto sponsored seminars on trenchless technology were attended by Halton opera tions and engineering staff. Different tech nologies to address the Derry Rd. problem were discussed and the cost looked very promising. Halton's Steve Piper led the ap proach to a successful trenchless solution by establishing the fundamental design con 28

HDPE Liner Details

Installation Procedures

Although first consideration was for a tight-fitting liner, several factors pointed to wards a mini-annulus design to eliminate difficulties. These factors, typical for many watermain rehabilitations, included: 1) Varying inside diameter along the pipe

Small access excavations were dug to expose the 12" cast iron. Considerable thought was given to the location of the ex

standard OD simplified attachments, con nections and fittings allowing sourcing of off the shelf electrofusion fittings. Fitting and connection costs were reduced.

Liner Pipe: Standard metric 280 mm SDR

cavations so that their number and size was minimized. Factors considered included:

Location of existing services, valve and hy




I Service: 1'

j 1+448

Service: 1"

0+197 i

Service: 1* .1 +305


Existing Liner

Service: 1*



1+464 I ! Vaive New Valve


" ^ IV" "! = I 1+ 455 1+331


I Tie-in




Existino 12' C! WM 0+801

I Hydrant


0+222 •

I Valve

Service: 1"




Service: 1" New

0+784 Service: 1'


1+455IT) Weet limit

O+OOOm East Limit

• New 280 HDPE structural liner in existing Ci watermain. • New 280 mm HDPE watermain by directional drilling.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

By Ian Doherty, P.Eng.* tion guide roller assembly was used to pre vent damage to the liner and to reduce the size of the excavations by maximizing the amount of bend safely applied to the HDPE. Liner insertion pulling forces were quite reasonable and well below maximum guide

Phase 1 Trenchless 1460 m



Engineering &Administration Total

lines set in the contract documents.

After relaxation and prior to attachment of any service or fittings, the liner anchors were installed. With the liner firmly anchored in position, existing services, hy drants and valves were transferred without

concern for any movement after transfer. Pressure testing at 1,034 kPa (150 psi) and chlorination followed. After the test, the

tapping tees were cut in and the service transfers inspected for any leakage. The fi nal step before disconnecting temporary water supply and putting the line into serv-

Total per M Savings $ Savings%

$211,539 $34,806 $246,346 $168.73/M

1460 m

1456 m

1456 m

$437,500 $87,500 $525,000 $359.59/M

$276,771 $44,029 $320,800 $220.32/M

$224,800 41%

overlooked. Trenchless solutions often

have, and should have, a considerable soft


see D2-008

Dig & Replace


How Did the Cost Compare? The table shows savings were substan tial - 40 to 50%. Straight construction con tract costs may not tell the whole story. Projects have considerable soft costs (engi neering, administration, etc.) which may be

To hydrant

Phase II Trenchless


Approx 3 meters

Liner Stop A

Phase i

uner Stop A see D2-008

Phase II

Dig & Replace

$454,700 $90,900 $545,600 $374.73/M

Construction Contract:

$157 per meter(86.3%) ConstnjotionAdministration:

$11 per meter(6.2%) Engineering Design:$14 per meter(7.5%) Total Project Cost:$182 per meter(100%) Steve Piper comments "the decision to use the HDPE structural liner was made

early in the process and all other aspects of the design and tender were based upon only this type of liner. Having a single design for the project resulted in substantial sav ings in the soft costs." Trenchless Technology, Watermains and the Future Trenchless rehabilitation of water dis


Stainifls.s .Stfifli nuts and hoit.s ren'd fnr fiannft.s

1 Cast iron pipe, 12' with iiner instaiied.

10" fiange: 6" by 7/8" boils (c/w 3" of thread), 12 per fiange. 6" fiange: 31/2' by 3/4' biots, 8 per fiange

2 Spacer

3 Electrofusion coupier(no iiner joint). 4 Uner pipe, 280 mm,sdrl7

5 Eiectrofusion coupier (iiner joint) 6 Stub Range Adaptor: 10x280 - 024)11 7 10x10x6 cast iron tee, fianged

Phase I and Phase II with the same crew.

Lessons learned on the first phase were put

to good use on the second. Both installa tions were done in winter conditions, so we

would anticipate further savings in more

and epoxy lining provide very cost-effective solutions to increasing C factors and solv ing water quality problems. Where breaks and leakage are the issue, a structural (i.e. full pressure rated) liner is

Cathodic Protection reo'd (or cast iron tee instaii anode

ice was obtaining and checking water sam ples for purity. Peter van Dyk of Cliffside comments. "Cliffside Utility Contractors installed both

tribution systems is growing in two dis tinctly different categories: structural and non-structural. Where the existing pipeline is structurally sound, cement mortar lining

cost advantage. Not only is the "hole in the ground" being re-used but so is much of its original engineering. Phase II included 131 meters by direc tional drilling which accomplished two road crossings and a 45° bend in one pass, arriv ing within 0.6 meters of target. Removing the 131 meters of directional drilling gives average costs for 2,785 meters of liner as:

called for. An HDPE structural liner com

bined with electrofusion fittings keeps costs

down by minimizing excavation size and speeding installation. Engineering design and contract documents focused on the

trenchless issues are the key to achieving economical results. The growing experience and expertise in structural watermain lin

ers is expanding their range of applications.

favourable weather."

CCTV Inspection, Unknowns and Contract Documents

Because a CCTV inspection is not fea sible before tendering a watermain, un

knowns play a much bigger role than in sewer rehabilitations. However, careful

Sydio is pleased to introduce their new Automated Activated Sludge Tertiary Treatment Process

structuring of the tender documents over came this potential problem. No only were the bids well priced, but the relatively small spread between bids was unusual for trenchless projects. On Phase II, TV inspec

(to be patented)

The system will incluide all necessai7

tion revealed a section of ductile iron with several 45° bends which came as a com

pre-treatment steps followed by continuous

plete surprise. However, the contract pro

flow aerobic sludge digestion.

vided a mechanism for handling exactly this

kind of surprise. In Phase I, some difficulty was encountered with a 6"service and again the contract mechanism provided for a smooth and timely resolution. The contract mechanism for unknowns included having enough separate work items and several well defined provisional items.

Capital and operating cost will be about 40% less than that of conventional technology.

Please address inquiries by FAX to (905) 273-3815 (include your fax no.) 'Trenchless Design Engineering Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 189


Corrosion control

By Fred Hazen*

Protective coatings prevent corrosion in sanitary sewer structures

There are two major causes of in

ternal corrosion in sanitary sewer structures. One is conventional

acid attack caused by low pH in dustrial waste discharged directly into the sewer system; the other goes by several

maintain their position on the surface. The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (Districts) in the early 1980s developed an accelerated test to evaluate protective coatings/linings for cor

application of spray, roll, or brush applied coating materials for concrete structures that will be exposed to corrosive immersion and vapor service conditions. The filling of sur face voids is best accomplished by polymer

roded and uncorroded concrete in sulfuric

modified cementitious or epoxy patching

terms: sulfide corrosion, hydrogen sulfide corrosion

repair mortars. Rapid cure strength repair prod

or sulfide attack.

ucts such as silica fume

When hydrogen sul

concrete have been devel

oped and are receiving wide acceptance for the rapid repair and protection of existing sewer collec tion facility structures. For major projects in volving the repair and pro

fide does occur in sewer

age systems, it is a result of either poorly treated industrial



charge,or the reduction of sulfates by anaerobic bac teria. Sulfide corrosion

occurs above the sewage surface, while low pH sewage will cause corro

tection of several hundred

sion below the waterline.

Sulfide corrosion starts when sulfate in the sew

age is converted to sulfide. Several conditions must be met in a sewer if

sulfides are to be gener ated by anaerobic bacteria,

The interior coating (lining) ofprecast concrete pipe and manholes atprecast manu facturer's plants, or off-site before field construction, is receiving wide acceptance.

diffused into the waste-

water stream and ultimately released into the air space above the liquid surface. First, biological slimes must develop on the sewer structure walls, and the slime layers must be thick enough that oxygen cannot pen etrate them completely. Anaerobic bacte ria within the unoxygenated portion of this slime layer will reduce sulfates to sulfides.

If successful in the field, they would form the basis of a list of suitable coatings for

acid service. Coatings that passed the test would be field tested to evaluate perform ance under anaerobic bacteria conditions.

new construction and the rehabilitation of

existing structures. Several articles have been published on the performance of pro

Bacteria on the walls convert the H^S to

tective barrier materials tested under this

sulfuric acid H,SO„ which reduces wall 2 4'

test program.

moisture pH values to the 1-2 range. The

Since the test program was started in the early 1980s, over 70 products have been tested. Twenty one protective coatings and lining systems have successfully completed the L.A. County test program.

acid then corrodes the structure wall above the flow line.

HjS production is generally associated with either long, flat, low velocity gravity sewers, carrying high BOD wastewater un der high ambient temperature conditions, or sewage force mains and pumping stations. Protection methods

The focus of this article is to review some

of the steps taken to improve the quality of application and performance offluid applied protective coatings since the Districts test

While the majority of sewer systems re

program was started. These steps include:

quire no protection from H^S related corro

a) Improved Surface Preparation and Repair TechniquesfMethods Abrasive blasting of concrete surfaces is the most effective and accepted method of preparation. In addition to removing con

sion, very effective means are available to protect those systems and structures which are susceptible. Protective barrier methods and materials used for structures include:

"fluid" applied protective coatings that are spray, roll, or brush applied; trowel applied linings with and without reinforcement fab ric or cloth; and sheet lining materials with and without mechanical anchor locking to *Corrosion Control Specialist, Ceilcote Corrosion Control Products Group of Master Builders inc. 30

tamination, it removes the weak lime ce

ment (laitance) surface layer, provides a suitable texture and opens surface voids. Sweep blast cleaning is usually sufficient to remove weak surface layer, open surface voids, and to achieve a profile or surface tex ture of medium or 40 - 60 grit sandpaper. Holes and voids in the surface after abra

sive blast preparation must be filled before

manholes in existing sewer systems,high speed robotic centrifugal spin casting application of silica fume concrete repair liner is now being used. Other options include low pressure shotcrete and hand trowel application of protective barrier coating systems in aggressive

HjS/sulfuric acid service. b) Holiday Testing Many engineers and owner-user utilities are now incorporating holiday or spark test ing of protective coatings/linings into their specifications, along with the requirements for repair of pinholes or other defects. Holi day testing of fluid applied protective coat ings is best accomplished through the use of a conductive primer in accordance with ASTM D4787 Method/Practice.

c) Precoating of large diameter precast concrete pipe and manholes The interior coating (lining) of precast concrete pipe and manholes at precast manu facturer's plants,or off-site before field con struction, is receiving wide acceptance. They provide a dual benefit of a more con trolled application of products, while avoid ing a "confined space" entry requirement. Since the original L.A. County test pro gram was started, several miles of large di ameter precast concrete pipe and manholes have been lined in manufacturers' plants in

Horida and Fhierto Rico for aggressive H^S/ sulfuric acid service.

Fluid applied protective coating systems that bond to concrete and provide protection from microbial sulfuric acid can have wide

application in the sanitary sewer and wastewater industry by following some ofthe methods and practices for quality applications and performance which have been reviewed. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 212

Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1995



At the municipal wastewater treatment plant In Sherbrooke, Quebec, four (4) Densadeg" High Rate Primary Clarlfler/ Thickeners treat an average dally flow of 80,000 nf/day (21.1 USMGD). Thickened sludge goes directly to a dewatering system eliminating the need for a separate sludge thickener.

The Densadeg® is a cost-effective, high-rate clarifier/ thickener that combines mixing, clarification and thick ening in one compact unit requiring 50% less space than comparable conventional solids contact clarifiers.

5. Clarified water outlet

1. Raw water inlet 2. Reactor 3. IVIodules

4. Clarified water troughs

6. Picket-type rake 7. Sludge reclrculation 8. Sludge draw-off


Lamellar Clarification Rate m/h




the Densadeg®'s unique features include:

Municipal wastewater • primary clarifwalion • phosphorous removal

• Mixing of influent with recycled sludge in the reactor results in enhanced flocculation with chemical savings of up to 30%;

Chemical precipitation (carbonate removal, heavy metal, fume gas scrubbing)


300 - 550

• Lamellar settling tubes in the clarifying zone ensure excellent effluent quality at high flow rates;

Other applications: • Sludge thickening offilter washwater and clarifier blowdown • Industrial effluent treatment

Employing both internal and external solids reclrculation,

• Sludge densification occurs in a separate thickening zone.



surface treatment, lime softening, chemical precipitation

To inquire about adapting the Densadeg® high-rate clarification system to your requirements, call our

of phosphorous, and heavy metals removal.

offices today.

The Densadeg® is ideal for wastewater reuse, reclamation,


Infiico ltd.

200-4145 N. Service Rd., Burlington, ON L7L 6A3 160-D St-Joseph Blvd., Lachine, QC HSS 2L3 Tel: (905) 332-2322 • Fax: (905) 332-3007 Tel: (514) 634-8011 • Fax: (514) 634-3102 For more information, Circle reply card No. 112

Under water inspection Unprecedented challenge in inspection of 20 km tunnei in Peru no intermediate access points "presents a major challenge unprecedented in the his tory of flooded tunnel inspections. This project will thrust Canada into the forefront of the worldwide robotic inspection indus try." The firm successfully competed against organizations from the US, the UK and



ASI plans to complete the inspection this summer using a purpose-built, fibre optic telemetry, computer controlled, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) constructed by Deep Ocean Engineering of San Leandro,


Genlral Andes, Peru



Aquatic Sciences Inc. (ASI), an environmen tal consulting firm based in St. Catharines, Ontario, has been awarded a $3M contract to inspect one of the longest flooded hydro

facility is a major engineering feat in itself. The headrace tunnel servicing the plant (4.8 m or 15 ft. diameter) has been bored through

electric tunnels in the world.

extraordinary distance of 19.8 kilometres (66,000 feet). Since its construction in the early 1970s, this facility has experienced a gradual de crease in generating capacity due to a loss of head pressure. The purpose of the in spection is to determine the cause of this problem and to identify possible solutions. ASI President Carmen Sferrazza says that inspecting a tunnel of this length with

Located in the central Andes mountains

of Peru, the 900 megawatt CH Antunez de Mayolo hydroelectric facility (Mantaro) gen erates approximately 70% of the power re quirements of the region, which includes the capital city of Lima (population 7 million). In a remote region approximately 350 kilometres east of Lima, at an altitude of 3,500 metres above sea level, the Mantaro

the Andes mountains and extends for an

The ROV named 'The ASI

Mantaro' will be equipped with 35,(X)0 feet of multi-conductor fibre optic cable, dual sonars (rotational profiling and collision avoidance), a multiple video camera suite (ultra low light monochrome and full col our modules), NDT probes, five function manipulator, custom hydraulic sampling probes and variable intensity lights. Monenco Agra has been retained as a subcontractor to interpret findings and pro vide geotechnical consulting. ASI has been active across North America and in the Gulf of Mexico. This is their first contract in South America.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 157



FAX: 506-684-1915


Turnkey Projects & Equipment Leasing

Lagoons • Digestors

8 mud cats • 8 mud cat booster stations

belt press • centrifuges • muffin monsters 14" conv. dredge • special dredging equipment


Pulp & Paper • Municipalities Mining & Smelting • Marinas

Dredging dolphin

f M.C. dredges



Opers • Montreal • Timmins • Nassau, Bahamas • Charlo Wc have completed in 1994—95 dredging & deivatering of approx. 10,000 (ODT) of sludge and have dredged and relocated approx. 3M nf of sand, sludges and tailings.

3NIT3dld«Sdnnd«aNn3dld>SclNncl*3Nn3clld*SdNnd*3Nn3dlcl«SdV\ind*3Nll3dlcl«SdNnd«3Nll3dld*Sdrand 32

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

A Report Card on Sludge Dewatering Alternatives. Hi solids

Belt filter

Plate & frame




A comparison of dewatering technologies proves Centrico's Westfalia decanters deliver drier solids at lower costs.









It's time to take a fresh look at all sludge

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

dewatering alternatives. Advances in centrifugal technolog)' have made Westfalia Separator high solids decanters the most efficient and cost

effective dewatering process available today. But don't take our word for it. Compare the benefits of competing systems for yourself. Evaluate all costs, from operation to handling to disposal. And take a look at how easy and safe our equipment is to operate. With automatic, continuous operation and optional pressure discharge, these compact, fully enclosed machines require little operator attention.

✓ ✓ ✓ Centrico CA 505 with patented 2-gear drive.



To find out more about Centrico's sludge

dewatering and thickening centrifuges, for both industry and municipalities, call P Richard Seaburg, Manager, Tnvironmental Technology at our Northvale headquarters; (201) 767-3900. FAX: (201) 767-3416.

l^Or contact any of our Ibranch offices listed below.

Cciiirico l leaclquai ic: 100 Fairway Ooiiri Norilu-alc. NJ 07()47

(Ifiitrico Wcsl:

(201) 767-3000

Centrico (lanada;

Centrico Southwest:

Centrico Midwest:

Centrico South:

3400 Third .Avcmie

10077 Crogan s Mill Rcl.

Fo.sicr City. CA 04404

723 Tollgate Road Elgin. 11. 60123

360 Sixth Street S.W.

The Woodlands, FX 773H0

Winter Haven. Fl. 33880

Biirlingtotn ON L71.6B2

(413) 340-H000

(713) 202-3800

(708) 712-0800

(813) 200-3000

(003) 310-3000

For more information, Circie reply card No.101

1100 Biirloak Drive


By Michael Elling

Integrating maintenance management and health & safety File







ronments lack formalized SOPs, and rely mostly on oral operator training, leading to potential inconsistencies, especially in situ ations with high turn-over rates. Further more, oral training does not ensure that rel evant health and safety issues are commu

mrndoms rapfi ui

Buii'ord, Ontario

nicated to the workers.

The MSS solution contains CAD layout drawings of all production lines, which serves as a navigation tool to find relevant information in the database. Small "per son" icons were added to these drawings to represent each of the job positions on the production floor, and subsequently active buttons were defined to access the SOPs for each work station. To ensure that each SOP

Print Menu

reflects the real job on the plant floor, peri

^^y S/S/TAAfScmri-^^ri? Lonsqlti^^

odic reviews are now scheduled with one£a$s5 Rerosol Line Detail s


Chemical Case Packer


year intervals, and these work orders will automatically appear in the systems work book annually. Implementing SOPs into the MSS solu tion enables each employee to walk up to a computer on the plant floor and access his/ her SOP,as well as review safety issues and recommended work positions. The ration













March 31,1^


StaitiJp • Tunadswtcheson

- Tien on conveyor leading to casepadcer •

U 'B

ale is that this initiative will lead to reduced

- Pushpowa'buttonandtim dial to home and push manual button • •


Turn on codM^

- Push start tor coder conveyer - Push start on t<4>or - Turn on main power to paHetcer

B f

work related injuries and long-term disabili

Turn di^ to automatic For case o'ector-f no boxes on fine

ties, in addition to a well informed work


External pressures pose increasing Example of The MSS Interface.

challenges for companies who face complex commercial and produc tion problems, as well as health and safety Issues. Pressures arise from external sources,

such as regulatory demands, changing cus tomer needs, and certification requirements, as well as from internal sources. These in

clude cost control measures, the need for

operational consistency and occupational health and safety directives. Compliance with these new demands can be greatly facilitated through the implemen tation of computerized solutions. Within production facilities increased attention is directed at the maintenance function, as

many of the new demands affect the daily maintenance routines, and subsequently ini tiatives are launched to implement Compu terized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). The maintenance function is tradition

ally focused around tangible assets, based on the premise that proper maintenance of machinery and equipment will minimize equipment downtime,improve product qual ity and enhance the health and safety of the workers on the production floor. However, health and safety issues are only addressed indirectly through a limited focus on the functional design and reliability of produc tion equipment. At Home Hardware Paint & Chemical 34


Division (Home Hardware) rapid growth and the introduction ofa new production line had brought about a situation which required a support system to ensure the continued controlled growth of its manufacturing fa cilities. Early in 1994 the maintenance de partment was given a mandate to find a CMMS,that would support the new direc tion of the maintenance function. In addition to the traditional functional

requirements of a CMMS, the company wanted a software solution with multime

dia capabilities which would convey infor mation in a graphical manner. The com pany sought an interface that would provide ease of use to its employees, yet with enough flexibility to incorporate the company's hu man resources as part of the maintenance solution. Home Hardware chose a solution named

Maintenance Support System® (MSS)pro vided by SISTEAM Software & Consulting, of Richmond Hill, Ontario. The first im

plementation phase was completed by late 1994, and in cooperation with the systems provider,some human resource management aspects were defined, with the objective of incorporating these aspects into the MSS solution, and ultimately to enhance the health and safety on the production floor. Formalized Standard Operating Proce dures(SOPs) were the first human resource

management aspect to be incorporated into the MSS solution. Many production envi

The MSS solution maintains history records of all activities relating to each SOP. It is now possible to trace and document the historic development of individual operat ing procedures, and to determine if any SOPs cause above average ergonomic prob lems for the operators. In Ontario, this as pect is becoming increasingly relevant, given the growing unfunded liabilities ofthe Workers' Compensation Board, reinforced by the recent changes to the Workers' Com pensation Act and the Occupational Health and Safety Act (through Bill 165). These regulatory developments effec tively shift a greater portion of the financial burden of worker disabilities onto the pri vate sector, and has introduced the notion

of mandatory "Return to Work" programs for individual employers. These regulatory changes primarily affect the way employers deal with vocational disabilities after they have occurred, while the MSS solution

builds on a proactive approach to reduce the frequency of work related disabilities. At Home Hardware a foundation has now been

established for presenting and collecting relevant information, that serves to improve the organization's ability to make informed decisions on how to improve operating pro cedures in their pursuit of operational ef fectiveness.

Other aspects of human resource man agement currently under consideration to be incorporated into the MSS solution are:

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

OH&S, cont'd.

"Big Scale" ph Meter For Lab or Plant Model 707, large 7",0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged portable shock proof case. Practically unbreak able polyethylene shielded electrode.

• Job specific training videos on a select number ofcomplicated tasks, to facilitate the teaming process,and to improve consistency between the manner in which different em

ployees carry out similar operational tasks. • Ergonomic videos to illustrate appropriate working positions and lifting techniques. The "Emergency Response Plan" has been made readily available to all person nel, as it has been incorporated into the MSS solution where it can be accessed by click ing on an active button on the overview pho tograph of the production facilities. An ad ditional benefit to the MSS solution includes

the possibility of utilizing hand-held comput ers to issue work orders and to capture infor mation on the production floor. This ena bles the maintenance department to estab lish a paperless environment in the future, if the paper-based workorder administration becomes too labour intensive.

One year after the MSS project was initi ated,"we feel the MSS solution is a definite

asset that gives us a better overview", says Lloyd Rutherford, Maintenance Supervisor at Home Hardware.

The organization is now better equipped to meet the increasing external demands, which in their situation involves an ISO 9002

Certification,and managementfeels that their new asset management tool is integral to op

Ideal for unskilled users. Economical, Includes probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH and ORP Indicator-Controllers available.

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pH/Temperature Recorder

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Cordless Simultaneous recording of pH and tem perature on the same miniature chart.

A crystal-controlied chart motor provides accurate chart timing. A time sharing system with one galvanometer is used to record pH on a scale of 2-12 pH or 0-14 scale is available, and temperature of 0-100c.


The Meter is enclosed in a glass re inforced portable polyester NEMA case, with a swing out clear cover. The unit operates from a eV rechargeable bat tery, or AC model available.

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erational excellence.

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Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever addi tional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains olarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete Information, contact


Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water Division, Oakville, Ontario, (905) 827-9821;

« Calgary, Alberta, (403)255-9797


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 118


R&D News Organochlorine Contaminants

volatilization of high-volatility compounds

a significant decrease in MCLR concentra

In Waterbirds

from water into air follows first-order ki

A paper published by D.V. Weseloh and

netics with respect to the chemical concen tration in the water-bulk phase. The volatilization rate constant is proportional

tion was observed after ten days. The MCLR transformation products, unlike the

Canadian Wildlife Service colleagues in the Journal ofGreat Lakes Research reports on the levels of organochlorine contaminants detected between 1981 and 1992 in eggs and tissues of waterbird species nesting on the shores of Hamilton Harbour. PCBs, DDE and mirex were present at the highest con centrations of the 29 organochlorines meas ured. Most contaminants in the various spe cies tested showed a declining temporal

pattern during that period. The concentra tions of contaminants detected were among

some of the highest in the Great Lakes but, when compared to other sites on Lake Ontario, the levels in Hamilton Harbour were generally equal or lower.

Volatilization of Organic Compounds Volatilization of selected organic com

to the surface area:volume ratio.

Biodegradation of Hepatotoxins Microcystin-LR(MCLR)is a cyclic hepatotoxin and tumor promoter produced by some freshwater cyanobacteria. The occurrence

' CAWQ ACQE R&D News:edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

sity of Saskatchewan scientist J. Peng, and J.K. Bewtra and N. Biswas of the Univer

sity of Windsor who propose a model based on an idealized surface renewal process. As described in a paper published in Water Environment Research, the derived model

was calibrated and verified with the experi mental results. The results confirm that the

Nitrogen Availability in irradiated Sewage Sludge A two-year experiment was conducted by University of Guelph scientists G.Wen,T.E. Bates and R.P. Voroney to determine plant availability oforganic nitrogen from organic wastes and the effects of gamma irradiation on organic nitrogen availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated included digested dewatered sludge, irradiated sew age sludge, irradiated composted sewage sludge, and composted livestock manure. These were applied to agricultural lands growing lettuce, petunias and beans. Crop yields and plant nitrogen concentrations

Association Canadienne sur la

were measured. As described in the Jour

Qualite de I'Eau

nal of Environmental Quality, crop yields were lower with irradiated sludge than with non-irradiated sludge suggesting that the availability of organic nitrogen in digested sludge may have been reduced after irra

pounds, with Henry's law constant larger than 10'^ atm-m'/mole, from water under turbulent conditions was studied by Univer

parent toxin, did not inhibit phosphatase activity.

of microcystin-containing blooms in fresh water has been implicated in animal and human poisonings worldwide. To assess the fate of MCLR in a heterotrophic microbial population. University of Alberta scientists A.K.Y. Lam,P.M. Fedorak and E.B. Prepas incubated purified MCLR with a microbial community originating from the Edmonton wastewater treatment plant. As described in Environmental Science and Technology,


Methanogenic Phenol Degradation P.M. Fedorak and colleagues from the Uni versity of Alberta conducted serum bottle experiments to investigate the roles that activated carbon and two ion-exchange res-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

R&D News, cont'd. ins performed as supporting material in methanogenic phenol-degrading consortia. The results published inWater Environment Research indicated that the consortium as sociated with activated carbon was able to

degrade phenol that had been adsorbed to the carbon demonstrating biodegeneration. The cation-exchange resin did not serve as a suitable support material for microbial colonization. The anion-exchange resin possessed the largest pore volume and shel tered surface area accessible to a microbial

population. Its phenol degrading activity continued to increase throughout the 85-day incubation period. Purification of BOTMP/TMP Effluent A study undertaken by R.J. Stephenson and S.J.B. Duff at the University of British Co lumbia examined the effects of metal co

agulant concentration, effluent dilution and pH on the removal of total carbon, colour and turbidity from a combined bleached chemithermomechanical/thermomechanical

effluent. As described in a paper accepted

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quaiity,Technoiogy Deveiopment Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

for publication in Water Research, both chloride and sulfate salts of iron and

aluminum were effective in treating the mechanical pulping effluent in batch jar screening tests. The optimum pH levels for removing total carbon, colour and turbidity depended on the coagulant used and resulted in removals of 88%,90% and 98% respec tively. Model for Nitrate Concentration

A distributed area model to predict nitrate concentration and load from agricultural watersheds has been developed by Univer sity of Laval scientists R. Bouchina and R. Lagace, and G. Morin of INRS-Eau. The nitrogen budget in the model includes leach ing of nitrate, plant uptake, denitrification, mineralization of organic nitrogen, immo bilization, nitrification, and input by ferti lizer and precipitation. Nitrogen dynamics were simulated as first-order kinetic reac

tions, and the influence of soil temperature and moisture was included. The calibrated

model, which is described in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, was able to reproduce the seasonal nitrate fluc tuations accurately.

Arctic Tailing Pond Remediation

Remediation of abandoned tailing ponds creates extremely difficult problems when the ponds are located at remote Arctic sites.

NASCO's Swing Sampler And Sludge Judge* Go To Great Lengths!

SWING SAMPLER-lf you need to collect a sample from a horizontal flowing stream, such as a sewer, the new NASCO Swing Sampler is just what you need! The end of the sampler swings, allowing collection of liquids, powders, or small solids from differ ent angles, including 90°. The pole extends up to 12 feet.

In a paper given at the 30th Central Cana dian Symposium on Water Pollution Re search,Conestoga-Rovers & Associates sci entists J. Kochany and A.Lugowski, and V. Menkal of Vista Engineering presented the results of their work on the remediation of

a nickel mine tailing pond at Rankin Inlet. During extensive laboratory studies simu lating Rankin Inlet conditions, different treatment alternatives were tested and

optimized. It was found that the most im portant factors for nickel removal were ef ficient mixing of treated water with lime and appropriate pH adjustment. On the basis of the laboratory studies, successful full-scale remediation was accomplished.

Copper Toxiclty to Algae Scientists at the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi have demonstrated long term copper toxicity in Scenedesmus quadricauda. As described in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, D. Bussieres and coworkers continuously exposed the algae to 250 pg/L of copper ions. The al gae responded by a sharp increase in the synthesis of complexing polypeptides to chelate the copper. These gradually de creased over a one month period suggesting that this effect is the prime mechanism of acclimation or of adaptation of the algae to heavy metal contamination in the environContinued overleaf

Find It Before They Do!

MicrotDx® Measures Chronic Toxicity The new 24-hour Microtox Chronic Toxicity Test detects effluent toxicity at the level of the most sensitive compliance tests, letting you find and fix small problems before they become big and expensive. This sensitive new test complements the 15-minute Microtox Acute Toxicity Test, the world's most frequently run toxicity test, already at work for Limit (High) government and industry Limit(Low) in more than

fifty countries. SLUDGE JUDGE*—NASCO's Sludge Judge helps you obtain accurate samples of suspended solids, providing a visual sample, level by level, of the whole tank. It comes in 5 foot sections (with a 2'A foot top section also available) for taking readings at any depth. For more information and to receive a FREE 1995-96

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R&D News, cont'd. Effluent

effluent was markedly reduced by precipitation with optimal Microtox ECj,, values

University of British Columbia scientists R.J. Stephenson and S.J.B. Duff used batch jar screening tests to demonstrate that iron and aluminum coagulating agents were ef fective in removing toxic compounds from a CTMP/BCTMP pulping effluent. As de scribed in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, toxicity of full strength

of approximately 20% being recorded. Dilution of the effluent, followed by pre cipitation, further improved toxicity re moval. Complete detoxification of one quar ter strength effluent was observed using fer ric chloride as the precipitant. At higher than optimal levels of addition, iron and aluminum salts contributed to toxicity.

Removal of Toxics from Pulping

Area Code





the design factors that influence the perform ance. These University of Alberta research ers found that controlled discharge lagoons are capable of producing effluent of supe rior quality compared with most mechani cal plant altematives. RBC Blofilm Performance








□ Municipal & Govt. Official □ Provincial Government □ Federal Government

The operation of lagoon treatment facilities in areas that experience seasonal ice cover requires controlled discharge to avoid poor quality effluents from being discharged to ice-covered receiving environments. The purpose of a paper published by D.S. Price, D.W. Smith and S.J. Stanley in Water En vironment Research is to provide a factual evaluation of actual municipal sewage lagoon performance in a region that experi ences seasonal ice cover and to determine

FAX (905) 841-7271 for quick response Company

Lagoon Performance in Winter

□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)


In a paper presented at the 30th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, University of Toronto scientists W.M. Zahid and J.J. Ganczarczyk showed that the presence of organic particles in the feed to an RBC unit adversely influenced the physical and attachment properties of the RBC biofilms as well as the unit per formance. Biofilms, especially those in the initial compartments of the RBC module, exhibited a fluffy, loose filamentous struc ture which was continually eroding. It is believed that the entrapment of the particulate organics by the biofilm matrix causes a subsequent development of oxy gen-depleted zones and structural flaws within the biofilm.

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this issue that interest you. 101





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Phosphorus Release from Deciduous Leaves

In a paper published in the Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, McGill Uni versity scientists H. Culbert and R. France describe their research undertaken to pre dict phosphorus release from deciduous leaves in urban runoff. To simulate the proc ess, birch and trembling aspen leaves were leached with distilled water in laboratory flasks. An empirical equation developed from the results and the knowledge of the

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that the leaves yielded from 11 to 45 mg






171 183 195 207 219 231 243 255



TP/m^ of a forested watershed. This amount

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172 184 196 208 220 232 244 256



represents up to 5% of the entire export of total phosphorus from urban catchments.

litter fall rates for southern Canada indicated

For more information about products, services and articies in this issue (Sept. '95), you can

A Mall In the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mall this If faxing Is not convenient) Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 38

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quality, Technoiogy Deveiopment Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Protecting Creeks, Rivers & Lakes From Pollution.

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Tel: 514-334-6721 Fax: 514-332-1775

Greenpeace is stronger than ever after new Atlantic and Pacific battles member, Philip Morgan, now an oil analyst, said: "Even one fire bombing of a gas station was probably more pol luting than if the Brent Spar had been sunk...."

It is rather ironic that the most mili

tant protests came from Germany, whose U-boats sent millions of tons of

shipping - many of them oil tankers to the bottom of the Atlantic during World War II. Then there was the bat

tleship Graf Spee which sought refuge in Uruguay's River Plate, following a protracted battle with three much lighter Royal Navy cruisers. (Ajax,just east of Metro Toronto, was so named in hon

our of one of the cruisers.) When forced to leave neutral waters

by international conventions, the Graf Spee sailed from Montevideo - almost certainly with her bunkers filled with


Shell's retreat from at empts to

fuel-to be scuttled on the direct orders

would have to take into consideration


the alternatives to deep sea disposal. A

storage rig in the Atlantic Ocean was a major triumph for Greenpeace. By comparison, the bru

flotilla of tugs would bum hundreds of tonnes offuel oil as they towed the mas

sink its obsolete Brent

tal seizure of Rainbow Warrior II


the Pacific is proving a disaster for French President Jacques Chirac. While disposal of the Brent Spar in the Atlantic posed many environmen tal complexities, originally there were only two options. The owners. Shell UK Ltd, could sink the rig two and a half kilometres deep in the second larg est ocean on the planet; or they could tow it back for disposal in their own heavily populated country which has a surface area barely the size of the Great Lakes. Scientific opinion was divided over which method would have the least

environmental impact. It was disturbing to learn that the rig was to be sunk while still containing 100 tons of toxic sludges. Could not these sludges have been off-loaded for treatment over the years, instead of building up what is the equivalent of an ecological deficit? If Shell could rou tinely store, then off-load oil from the rig, surely they should have been able to decant the sludges also, rather than leave a macabre legacy for future gen erations?

But any environmental assessment 40

sive rig on a long journey on a notori ously stormy ocean. Then consider the massive quantities of energy required to break up, then dispose of the huge oil rig in an environmentally safe fash ion on land.

But these days, perception is reality.

of the German High Command. The captain, whose seamanship had earned the respect of the Royal Navy,commit ted suicide as his ship joined thousands of American,British, German and Japa nese ships and planes beneath the At lantic and Pacific Oceans. But almost

all of these vessels were sunk in action, unlike the Graf Spee which was scut

tled, a fate denied to the Brent Spar. Wrecks are surprisingly abundant in our Great Lakes. Dr. Joe Macinnis, a world renowned Canadian underwater

Truth sometimes really does imitate fiction. It reminded me of those James Bond

movies where, in the final reel, evil villains, also on

oil rigs, vainly blast away at rescuing helicopters flown by heroes. The Greenpeace view-enthusiastically endorsed by the media - was that the Atlantic was being used like a landfill site. Now no one wants to see our

oceans become garbage dumps but re action, especially in Germany, was vio lent and ecologically damaging. A Shell service station was fire bombed

and a manager narrowly escaped injury from a letter bomb. Greenpeace disa vowed the violent actions but a former

explorer and IMAX filmmaker, who has

degrees in medicine and law, recently told the Water Environment Associa tion of Ontario:"The Great Lakes alone

contain some six thousand wrecks,one,

the Edmund Fitzgerald, is only 25 feet shorter than the Titanic.

More omi

nously, there are at least five wrecked nuclear vessels along with fifty nuclear missiles lying at the bottom of our oceans." Against facts like these, the Brent Spar furore is revealed as a very minor ecological incident which still achieved global media coverage. But a generation raised on violent

action movies must have been capti vated by media footage of Shell's staff blasting away with water cannons at activists as they boarded the rig from 'copters. Truth sometimes really does imitate fiction. It reminded me of those

James Bond movies where, in the final

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

A column by Tom Davey

When fourteen activists were expeiied from the Brent Spar, nine journalists were also ejected, a quite astonishing ratio....perhaps activists wiii soon bring along their own individual Journalists, Just as film stars have personal fitness trainers. reel,evil villains, also on oil rigs, vainly blast away at rescuing helicopters flown by heroes.

Norway, which built the Brent Spar in 1976,has allowed the rig to be towed to a deep fjord for storage and later dismantling. Long a leading proponent of sustainable development, Norway had its own pristine environmental image tarnished in recent years over whaling quotas. After criticizing Greenpeace for questioning the accu racy of its minke whale population estimates, Norway conceded its scien

ther nuclear weapons tests. The French, who had blown up Rainbow Warrior I in New Zealand almost ten years to the day, brutally seized the Rainbow War rior II, provoking outrage from Aus tralia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and political capitals around the world. Spectacular stunts which attract the media are at the core of Greenpeace's success. When fourteen activists were

expelled from the Brenf Spar during the skirmishes, nine journalists were also ejected,a quite astonishing ratio. If this trend persists, perhaps activists will

tists had overestimated North Sea whale

soon bring along their own individual

populations. The whale quota was

journalists, much like today's film stars have personal fitness trainers. It may

revised downwards from 301 to 232. In

my view this is still 232 too many for the country which gave us the Bruntland commission, a name synonymous with sustainable development. Greenpeace again demonstrated a power structure which rivals national governments when Chancellor Helmut

have already come to this. The French

When the Bourbons were restored to the

French throne, Talleyrand summed up their arrogance with his now famous quote: "They know nothing, and they have learned nothing." The European Community could also say the same thing about the arrogance of the new President of France. Has he forgotten the odium of the world when France

illegally sank the original Rainbow Warrior in Auckland Harbour, killing Greenpeace photographer Fernando Pereira?

Few Europeans realize that Canada

invented UN peacekeeping which later

actions were reported live by a BBC

won a Nobel Prize for formerPM Lester

reporter on board Rainbow Warrior II.

B. Pearson. Fewer still realize that

approval to sink the rig. Meanwhile,

This lent dignity and credibility to Greenpeace by the most respected voice in international broadcasting and fur ther tarnished France's reputation. Meanwhile, a French professor, Pierre Vincent, writing in Le Monde,

Shell encountered widespread boycotts of its products in Europe, especially in Germany. But when Shell gave in, British Prime Minister, John Major, reportedly made livid by the corporate capitulation, described company officials as 'wimps', an adjective more usually directed against himself. By

has pointed out that the Mururoa Atol is actually an extinct volcano. He raises some serious doubts about the stability of the Atol which has already endured 138 nuclear explosions since 1975,add ing credence to Greenpeace's concerns. Jacques Chirac should have learned the lessons of history from that master

Kohl asked the British to rescind their

of intrigue, Talleyrand, who had served Napoleon as well as French royalty.

Canada also invented Greenpeace activism when Vancouver's David

McTaggart led the first protests against French nuclear testing in the Pacific in 1972 and later in 1985.

This time he

was accompanying the Rainbow II in the 12 metre sailboat Vega. If Presi dent Chirac persists in his planetary vandalism,he may yet unwittingly earn another Nobel prize - for Canadian Green-peacekeeping — for, unquestion ably, Greenpeace has been far more

effective in achieving its goals than current UN efforts in Bosnia.

press time, the British Government had stiffened its opposition to landfill disposal of the rig in favour of deep sea dumping. Meanwhile, the ill fated Brent Spar had become an industrial ized Flying Dutchman,forced to cruise with its oil burning tugs while facing rejection on land and sea. But is is worthy of note that an ac tivist group, totally devoid of any elec toral mandate,or business responsibili

ties, had reached out to shape the political policies of two of the most powerful countries in the world. It was to score even greater success in politi cal public policies on the other side of


the world. With its Atlantic media battle deci

sively won, the Greenpeace vessel. Rainbow Warrior II, sailed to confront

the French Navy in the Pacific in what is probably the most worthy environ mental cause of all, the stoppage offur Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995


Oil & Water Separation

By D. G. Weatherbe\ G. Bryant^ and W.Snodgrass^

Performance characteristics of the

Stormceptor water quaiity iniet

The Stormceptor is a new type of

oil and sediment separator which can be used in a variety of applica tions in stormwater management. The device has many potential applications, including: a water quality inlet installed in new developments; an oil and grit separa tor for industrial and commercial develop ments; a pre-treatment device to protect in filtration ponds or trenches; and, as a retro fitted best management practice in existing developed areas where land is not available

Figure 1. Stormceptor Plan and Profile

with the sediment and oil is diverted to the

treatment chamber by the diversion weir. Oil rises above the exit elevation and sedi

ment can settle to the bottom. During higher flows, a proportion of the flow bypasses the


Laboratory evaluation of performance The National Water Research Institute

of laboratory studies to assess the perform ance of the Stormceptor and to optimize its hydraulic configuration (Marsalek, 1993;

The paper presents results of a three tiered assessment of performance character ematical modelling. Previous Experience Stormwater systems typically have some means for preventing sediments from en tering the sewer system. Catch basin sumps (North American term) or gully pots (Great Britain) are usually employed at every inlet to the storm sewer system. However these are effective in the long term only for large particles. "Efficiencies are shown to fall off very rapidly for sizes below about 200 pm, and for silts (sub 60 pm) it is antici pated that the retention performance will only exceed 25% for very low flows. Over all performance for these size particles may be even lower due to the possibility of reerosion under moderate flows." (Butler and Karunaratne, 1995). In order to improve upon the sediment capture characteristics and also to trap pe troleum products, oil/grit separators(OGS) have been used in some jurisdictions in the United States. Oil/grit separators, also known as water quality inlets, are modified versions of oil interceptors used in the oil refining industry. They consist of two or three rectangular settling chambers, baffled

treatment chamber and overflows the weir.

of Environment Canada carried out a series

for other BMPs.

istics - bench scale, full scale and math

pending on the flow into the system. At low to medium flows, all of the flow, along

The Stormceptor is significantly differ ent in shape and operation compared to the conventional rectangular OGS described above. The device is cylindrical in shape, and divided into an upper diversion cham ber and a lower treatment chamber (Figure 1). Water is directed by a diversion weir into an inlet down-pipe which discharges into the lower treatment chamber. Water

exits the treatment chamber through an out let riser pipe. Inlet and outlet pipes are set to the same elevation, thus providing for an oil storage volume above the inlet/outlet el evation, and sedimentation below. Sedi

ment and oil may be removed through an access hole provided through the centre of the diversion structure. The Stormceptor comes in different sizes and may be con structed entirely out of fibreglass, or with the body out of concrete and the diversion structure out of a fibreglass insert. The system operates in two modes de

Marsalek et at, 1994). The tests were car ried out using a 1:4 scale model made out of plexiglass for ease of observation. The prototype (full scale equivalent) of the

model tested (3.1 m^)is slightly smaller than the holding capacity of the smallest Storm ceptor available commercially(3.4 m'). The maximum flow rate into the treatment cham

ber in the prototype without overtopping the weir was 13 17s compared to the commer cial version at 18 I7s (which was adjusted upwards as a result of this study). Tests were done to assess the hydraulic operation, sedimentation performance, and oil separation performance. In addition, modifications to the downpipe size and lo cation, and weir height were tested to optimize the design. Hydraulic Performance The flow diversion proportion is govemed by the height of the weir. Up to the level of the weir, 100% of the flow is diContlnued overleaf

to allow sedimentation in one chamber and

floatable and oil removal in another (Galli,

1992). In a study of sediment accumula tion in OGSs, it was noted that over 80% of the trapped sediments were coarse grained grit and organic matter (Schueler et at., 1992). Since sediment accumulation did not increase with age, it was concluded that resuspension of sediments during large storm events was a problem.

Stormceptor is a trademark, and the system is patented. Both the trademark and patent are owned by Stormceptor Canada Inc. Stormceptors are manufactured under licence to Stormceptor Canada Inc. 'Donald G. Weatherbe Associates Inc.

^Stormceptor Canada Inc. 'Ontario Ministry of Transportation 42

Installation ot two iitormceptor Manholes was recently completed by BYZ Construction of Medi cine Hat on an existing storm line at Canadian Forces Base(CFB), Suffleld, Alberta. Lafarge Construction Materials and BYZ Construction collectively submitted a precastalternative to the Department of National Defence for approval. The final design allowed for manhole sections to be produced complete with proper openings. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995


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Oil & Water Separation, cont'd. verted to the treatment chamber. As flow

This whirlpool effect appeared to drag the

increases, the weir is overtopped. At the same time, the head over the inlet down-

oil into the treatment chamber. In tests at

maximum flow capture at the onset of by pass at 18 L/s in the smaller sizes of the

higher flows, none of the oil that had been commercial version of Stormceptor. captured was able to escape. However, if Predicted Performance sult in continued increase in flow. How spills occurred during high flow conditions, Model Setup ever, in the Stormceptor design, the in the oil is expected to bypass the chamber in The Storm Water Management Model proportion to the amount of water bypass (SWMM)(USEPA, 1988) was set up to creased flow over the weir also results in an increased head over the outlet riser pipe. ing the system. determine the influent flows and suspended As a consequence, as the flow increased, Sediment Removal sediment loadings to the separator from the flow diverted to the treatment chamber Detention time for flow in the lower catchments of various areas. Three years only increased by 10% and then decreased treatment chamber of the prototype is cal of 5 minute interval precipitation data from with further increases in flow. This feature culated at approximately four minutes at the a Toronto station were simulated including prevents the resuspension and scouring of flow rate of 13 L/s. With this flow, under snowmelt conditions. Toronto experiences trapped sediments. ideal settling conditions, sand like particles approximately 800 mm of annual precipita Head losses for the system were meas 0.06 mm or larger would settle out. During tion, with approximately 650 mm in about ured in the laboratory model under pressure smaller events and for the contents during 100 rainfall events. Results were calculated flow conditions. Head loss in sewers is the storm interevent time with no flow for 4 different parking lot sizes (0.5 ha, 1 expressed as follows: through the separator, smaller size particles ha, 3 ha, and 5 ha) and various sizes of would settle, down to silt and clay sizes Stormceptor separators (7 m^ to 25 m^). A AE = K(vV2g) FORTRAN program,POND,(Ontario Min where AE is the head loss(m),K is the head {Marsalek, 1993). istry ofEnvironment and Energy,1994)was loss coefficient (dimensionless), v is the Initial tests with medium to coarse sand applied to assess the real time dy flow velocity (m/s) and g is the ac Table I Particle Size Distribution in Storm Water(US EPA, 1983) namic and quiescent settling of the celeration due to gravity (m/s^). % ofParticle Mass Size Fraction Particle Size Average v,(m/s) suspended solids to determine the Values of K were measured for dif (micrometre) removal efficiency of the separators. ferent weir settings, with higher val 0-20 0.00000254 1 20 Dynamic conditions were defined to ues for higher weir configurations. 0.00001300 2 20-30 40 occur when the influent flow volume Values ranged from 1.83 to 2.5. The 30-40 0.00002540 3 60 to the separator for a 20 minute pe lower end of the range is compara 4 0.00012700 40-60 130 riod, was equal to, or greater than, ble to the K value measured for a 90 1% of the water contained in the 5 60-80 400 0.00059267 degree bend at a sewer manhole separator at that time. Completely 6 80-100 {Marsalek and Greek, 1988). 4000 0.00550333

pipe is increased which would normally re

Oil Separation The American Petroleum Insti

mixed conditions were assumed. Table IT Percentage of Annual Flow Volume Treated by the Stormceptor System

Impervious Drainage Area(ha)

Treatment Flow

Treatment Flow

Treatment Flow

The removal ofsolids in the sepa rator depends on the particle size dis

tute (API) specifies a standard oil 18 L/s 50 Us 30 Us tribution in stormwater. A modified separator design used by the petro 90% 94% 97% 0.5 distribution based on the EPA Na leum manufacturing industry. Be 1.0 83 % 93% 88% tional Urban Runoff Program (EPA cause of the difference in operating 64% 74% 3.0 82% 1983) was used as given in Table I. principles, "the API criteria do not 5.0 55% 68% 78% It should be recognized that the ac apply to the Stormceptor and it is tual distribution of particle sizes for the site indicated that sediment removal was effec difficult to compare these two different de will govern the operational removal effi tive, and that the sediment was not mobi signs. However,assuming the API oil glob ciency of the facility. lized during higher flow events. Real ma ule (0.15 mm in diameter) rise velocity of All flow rates up to the inlet capacity of 1.47 mm/s and the separator detention time terial collected from existing installations of 4 minutes (ie. for plug-flow discharge of was also tested for scouring after allowing the interceptor were modelled as being 13 L/s), these globules would rise in the 24 hours for consolidation. Some scouring routed through the treatment chamber. Flows in excess of the interceptor inlet ca separation chamber by 0.35 m and that from the surficial layer of very fine mate rial occurred. "Once this surficial layer, pacity were by-passed around the treatment would be more than adequate for their en trapment. Under these assumptions, the comprising very fine material and possibly chamber. It was assumed that there was no increase in influent flow rate to the treat some organic materials, is removed, practi Stormceptor appears to meet the API crite ment chamber for flows in excess of the cally no scouring occurs," {Marsalek et al, ria," (Marsalek, 1993, p. 13). treatment chamber inlet capacity. During test runs using the model,oil was 1994,p 24). However, tests with real parti For flows in excess of the treatment spilled into a dry pipe leading to the cles in a scale model are qualitative only, Stormceptor. Oil was captured behind the since the conditions of hydraulic similitude chamber inlet rate, the influent load was are not met. segregated according to the ratio offlow rate weir in the inlet chamber and flowed into the treatment chamber through the downTo obtain quantitative results that can into the interceptor versus the flow rate by pipe, where it rose to the surface and was be transferred from the scale model to the passing the treatment chamber. Flows and trapped. A significant amount of oil re prototype, a synthetic sediment was then suspended solids loads that by-passed the mained in the downpipe. Next a low flow tested. An ABS plastic resin was used with treatment chamber were accumulated and condition was simulated with flow in the a density of 1,089 girn? and with 90% of the used in the determination of long term per system well below the level causing bypass. particles between 250 and 1000 pm. When formance. Under these conditions some oil was car considering hydrauiic similarities of settling Model Results ried into the treatment chamber by the down velocities, in the prototype this sediment The percentage flow diverted to the treat ward velocity of the water in the downpipe. represents sizes of 80 to 330 pm, or fine to ment chamber is governed by the weir height This oil was also effectively captured. As medium sand {Marsalek et al, 1994). Re and diameter of the downpipe and not the Rale



flows were increased, a threshold flow of 7

moval efficiencies measured for various

treatment chamber volume. Table II shows

L/s was noted that effectively purged the oil from the downpipe in a short time. A vor

flows in the recommended configuration

the different percentage of total annual flow

were 95% at 6 IVs, 77% at 13 L/s, 68 % at

diverted to the treatment chambers of the

tex was observed at the entrance to the

18 L/s, and just 6% at 47 L/s. These data were used to revise the design and set the

available. The treatment flow rate shown

downpipe extending into the downpipe. 44

different sized Stormceptors commercially

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Oil & Water Separation, cont'd. is the maximum flow just prior to the onset of bypassing. Sizes range from 3.4 m' at the lower flow rate, to 22.7 m^ at the high est. These results are based on the rainfall

pattern experienced in Toronto, and would be different for other locations.

The average suspended solids loading rate used was 289 mg/1 which is within the range of monitored suspended solids loadings for Ontario {Marshall Macklin Monaghan, 1993). Figure 2 shows the re lationship between the long term

Runoff volume was estimated from the

increases with time, although the relation ship is not strong. Site specific variations in land use, soil types, and amount of con struction activity account for the high vari ation in results. The specific gravity of the sediments was consistent for all sites, rang ing from 2.372 to 2.653. Assuming a 75% voids ratio, the annual mass removal by the interceptors of approximately 750 kg/ha is within the range of suspended solids loadings in stormwater (672 kg/ha Marsalek, 1978; 1200 kg/ha, EPA 1983).

impervious drainage area and average pre cipitation over the period prior to the accu mulation measurements, accounting for av erage abstractions due to depression storage. This resulted in an annual estimated runoff

depth of 701 mm. Suspended solids loadings were based on an event mean concentration

(EMC) of 185 mg/1 {USEPA, 1983) for all sites, and the estimated runoff volume.

The annual weight of sediment influent to the Stormceptor would be 1295 kg/ha

(7010 m%a x 0.185 kg/m'). As suming a specific gravity of 2510 kg/m^ (from the grain size analy

suspended solids removals and Figure 2. Long Term Sediment Removal

the catchment areas. The long term removal efficiency for the Stormceptor oil/grit separators increases as the storage volume increases, as would be expected. Based on the USEPA-based sedi

sis) and a voids ratio of 75%, ap proximately 2.1 mVha of sediment is delivered to each Stormceptor. > 40

This load estimate can then be



compared to the measured accu mulated volume given in Figure

ment distribution, the removal

efficiencies range from 30% to ap proximately 50% for a 0.5 ha parking lot, 20% to 40% for a 1 ha parking lot, and 10% to 20% for a 3 ha parking lot.

4. Two sites were discarded from

the analysis as being anomalies in the data (the highest point and the lowest point). Figure 5 shows the estimated

Field Performance _J_

removal calculated for each site

Sediment Accumulation Drainage Area(ha)

Field monitoring of 21 Stormceptor separators within the Greater 'Tforonto Area(GTA)was

6.81m3 Stormceptor 10.44m3 Stormceptor 1d.16m3 Stormceptor 25.42m3 Stormceptor

Figure 3 Particle Size Distribution in Captured Sediment

undertaken in 1994 to determine the rate of sediment accumulation

—#=tM t-*

in the interceptor, the grain size distribution of particles trapped by the interceptor, and contami nant concentrations in the trapped

estimated solids removal and in

sediment. Contaminant results

were not available when this pa per was prepared. Sediment depths in the treat

♦ ■ Group 1: Commercial Parkino Lot; Low / High


Density Residential; Street Allowance


ment chamber were estimated

Group 2: Industrial; Service Stations


terceptor storage per hectare of upstream impervious drainage area (correlation coefficient, r' = 0.61). This performance estimate should be considered preliminary, since it is based on a number of

based on water clarity using a sludge detector equipped with a light source and intensity meter.




assumptions regarding the load to the system. Also note that the re gression line is extended to the ICQ % efficiency level, which ob viously could not be achieved.


Particle Size(mm)

Figure 4 Rate of Sediment Accumulation

The bottom sediments were satu

rated,and therefore soft and could not be accurately measured using

a "dipstick" method. Two sedi ment samples were extracted at each Stormceptor site using an Ekman dredge. Particles in the clay and silt range account for approximately

normalized by the upstream drain age area (i.e. mVha). The sedi ment storage capacity (storage below the inlet and outlet pipes) was used as the storage capacity of the interceptor (excludes oil storage). The regression indicates a linear relationship between the

^ 5.00

Plots of sedimentation based re


€ (O

.§■ 4.00

y s 0.1 f17x. 0.2097

R* «0.39!3

86% of the sediment removed

from the Stormceptor units. Fifty percent of the particles by mass were smaller than 10 pm. Figure 3 illustrates the average grain size distribution of particles trapped by the Stormceptor separators aggregated into two main groups. Note that these dis tributions have significantly more fine par ticles than the distributions tested in the

laboratory and modelled. The average annual Stormceptor sedi


sociated with it. Additional field

t ♦ *



Many of the monitored sites were recently constructed as part of new urban developments suggesting that the constmction period may have influenced the sediment loading. Sediment Removal Efficiency Estimate

were monitored was 1.2 m' per hectare.

An estimate of sediment removal efficiency was developed using the measured results from Figure 4. Since actual runoff loadings

Figure 4 shows the rate of accumulation for

are not known for each site, first an estimate

the different sites based on land use. Note that the amount of sediment accumulated

was made for both the mnoff volume and in

ment accumulation rate for the sites that

fluent suspended solids concentrations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

moval performance for ponds typi cally are non linear and do not ap proach 100 % performance.' Con sequently, the higher performance estimate has more uncertainty as performance evaluations are underway, in which actual loads into and out of the systems will be measured directly. Sizing guidelines will be updated when this data is available.

Given a drainage area, and a performance objective, the number and size of Stormceptor units can be determined. The performance objective is different, depending on whether the system is to be sized as a stand alone unit, or as a pretreatment device for other stormwater control measures such as an in

filtration system or a water quality control pond. In addition, if the primary concern is Continued overleaf 45

Oil & Water Separation, cont'd. oil spill interception during dry weather, re duced performance for sediment removal might be acceptable to regulatory agencies.

Stormceptor is removing a significant per centage of the influent suspended solids loading. It is notable that the particle size

Discussion and Conclusions

distribution of sediment collected from the

sediment mass. The performance estimates using the modelling results are somewhat more conservative. Additional field data needs to be col

Laboratory tests were performed on the interceptors is largely fine-grained material lected to assess performance during individual storm events. Par Stormceptor to test its hy Figure 5. Stormceptor Suspended Solids Removal ticle size distributions and draulic performance, and 100 bulk density measure oil and sediment removal ments need to be collected features. The Stormceptor as part of the field study hydraulic performance to assess the sediment mass. The additional field data will be used to refine

was shown to divert all

flows up to a capacity set by the diversion weir height and inlet pipe di ameter, with little increase in diverted flow rate as flows further increased. Sediment and oil removal were also demonstrated in

01 > o


the performance esti




Acknowledgements o

Field work for the GTA


in 1994 was undertaken by Mr. Frank Misa. Aspects of

XJ lU x>

the laboratory to occur at

the work described in this

low to medium flow rates

paper were supported by a grant from the National Re

prior to overtopping of the W diversion weir. During higher flow events, when the flow going over the weir bypasses the treat ment chamber,retained sediment and oil are not scoured or flushed from the treatment chamber.

Model studies of performance indicate that performance can be estimated using sedimentation theory and assumptions about

search Council of Canada 2




and a research endowment


from the Industrial Re

Stormceptor Storage (m3/ha) (50% < 10pm). The capture offine-grained material is important since these particles are thought to transport a significant por tion of pollution associated with stormwater runoff.

Stormceptor sediment removal efficiency

the characteristics of solids in runoff.

estimates are based on the field results,

Although the field results are by no means definitive, they suggest that the

along with a number of assumptions about the runoff loading rate and accumulated

search Assistance Pro

gram. Laboratory tests were performed at the iaboratory of the Ontario Ministry otlransportation. The conclusions presented in this pa per are the opinions of the authors,and do not constitute endorsement by the government agencies invoived. References available on request For more Information,

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Wastewater treatment

Wetland wastewater treatment

systems across Canada -Part I

Municipalities and industries

face many challenges to com ply with environmental regu lations,including increasingly stringent surface water discharge effluent limitations. Because of the diversity and magnitude of waste streams

to the surface. Marshes and swamps stay wet for much of the year and are what most people think of when the term "wetlands" is used.

Wetlands provide a number of functions that meet ecological and human needs. They

from domestic wastewater

treatment facilities, multiple technologies must be evaluated to provide cost-effective and reliable effluent management.

iiKt'ii. s

As effluent limitations become

wastewater and stormwater treatment alter

native. This technology can potentially be applied to a wide spectrum of wastewater and stormwater sources: municipal and in dustrial wastewater,farm feedlot ranoff, ag ricultural stormwater runoff, airport stormwater, national/provincial parks. First Nation lands, north ern communities, municipal stormwater, pulp and paper fa cilities, sludge drying/biosolids management, and acid mine drainage. Federal and provin

more restrictive, innovative

cial lands could benefit consid

technologies may offer new and affordable methods of compli

erably from this technology since it is a low-cost altemative

compared with more conven


Constructed wetlands pro vide one innovative approach to meet these growing chal lenges. Constructed wetlands effectively reduce many typical pollutants in industrial and mu nicipal effluents, such as bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, and nutrients.

tional forms of wastewater and stormwater treatment.

Cold climate operation In Canada, the perceived problem associated with wetland technology is operation at cold temperatures. It seems logical that treatment processes will slow or stop at cold temperatures, as they do in conventional treat ment plant operations. Wetlands, however, are far more complex


wetlands rely on the naturally Essex Region ConservationAuthoritysinuous wetlandsystem treats stock occurring energies of the sun yard runoff. provide life support (climatic regulation, than conventional wastewater treatment facili and wind. Compared with many conven toxics absorption, stabilization of biosphere ties and they perform many treatment func tional technologies that rely on inputs ofcon processes, water storage, cleansing, nutri centrated fossil fuels, the naturally occur tions efficiently in winter. ring energies are diffused over larger land ent cycling, food chain support, habitat, Treatment does not have to rely on slow biomass storage, and genetic and biological winter processes. Many northern systems areas. diversity), social and cultural opportunities store water for the duration of the non-grow Many Canadian municipalities and in (research specimens, viewing, photography, ing season and then discharge to the wetland dustries are investigating the use of con birdwatching, hiking, canoeing, and com structed wetlands to meet their effluent during the warm spring, summer, and fall munity,religious,or cultural traditions), and months. The advantage of this approach is management responsibilities. Many indus production functions (natural production of the availability of warm weather design in tries, regulating authorities, and municipali birds, plants, fish, fibre, and soil supple ties are holding workshops and training ses formation; the disadvantage is the cost of sions to gain more knowledge of wetland ments)(Conserving Wetlands in Managed the storage lagoons. treatment capabilities and are piloting the Forests, 1993). The importance of wetland Challenges for wetland wastewater treat conservation, restoration, and protection in wetlands treatment altemative. More than ment in northern communities in the Yukon

45 full-scale constructed wetland treatment

Canada has been documented in "The Fed

systems have been installed.

and costs. Interviews held with over 100

eral Policy on Wetland Conservation"(Gov ernment of Canada, 1991). Wetland treatment systems are low-tech, solar driven systems that are user-friendly. They do not require a skilled operator, which is a great advantage to a remote community

Canadians provided the basis of this infor

with limited financial resources. The main


economical disadvantage of wetland treat

This article summarizes the status ofcon structed wetlands in Canada and includes

descriptions of the types of constructed wetlands, their applications, performance,

Introduction to constructed wetlands

Wetlands are land types commonly re ferred to as swamps, fens, mires, marshes, bogs, sloughs, and peatlands. They occur intermittently across the Canadian land scape along lakes, rivers, and streams, and in other areas where the water table is close

*CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Waterloo, Ontario 48

ment is the cost of land for this land-inten

sive process. Land costs, however, may not be an issue to a remote community with extensive land resources, especially if large tracts of the land are already wetland. Op erating costs are generally very low.

and Northwest Territories include perma frost (damage to berms), low precipitation, extreme temperatures, 24 hours of sunshine during the summer, and 24 hours of dark ness during the winter that can lead to sep tic conditions.

Information pertaining to winter opera tion is now significant and increasing rap idly. Canadian research has contributed valuable knowledge. Pioneering work on surface flow wetlands was conducted at

Listowel, Ontario, in 1980 to 1984. Five wetlands were continuously operated

throughout the winter by controlling the in sulation in a way unique to wetland ecosys

Wetlands treatment applications

tems. Water levels were raised at freeze-

The intent of this article is to provide municipal planners, industry, and the farm ing community with sufficient information

The water level was then lowered to pro vide an insulating air gap above the water.

to consider wetlands treatment as a

Continued overleaf

up, and a layer of ice was allowed to form.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, September 1995

By John Pries* but below the ice. The stems of the dense

stand ofemergent cattails served as supports to keep the ice layer elevated. The stand ing dead cattails trapped snow and added an insulating snow blanket (Hershkowitz, 1986). Temperature effects were significant

for nitrogen reduction, slight for phospho rus, and nonexistent for BOD and total sus

pended solids (TSS). Many northern peatlands exhibit this behaviour, with unfrozen water below a snow blanket

trapped by the plants. A subsequent project at Cobalt, Ontario, reinforced much of the knowledge gained at Listowel (Miller, 1989). Research on subsurface flow wetlands in winter opera tion is now in progress at Niagara-on-the-


and Sorplion (BOD. TSS. N. P)





Lake, Ontario.

Capital, operation, and maintenance costs Wetland construction costs are deter

mined by the cumulative cost ofland, earth work, planting, design, monitoring, and maintenance. Surface flow constructed

The high cost of gravel fill can raise the price per hectare of subsurface flow con structed wetlands to as much as four to eight

wetlands typically cost between $10,000 and

times the cost of a surface flow wetlands.

$50,000 per hectare, depending upon sys tem size. Costs outside this range include those wetlands where a liner was required, special attention was given to the removal and replacement of the topsoil, economy of scale was lost due to the small size of the

installation, and special architectural fea tures were incorporated into the wetland design to create aesthetic appeal.

However, subsurface flow wetlands can

handle greater contaminant loading rates than surface flow wetlands, reducing the land requirements.

Operation and maintenance costs depend upon the extent of monitoring data collec

Space requirements Area required for wetlands depends upon the goal of wetland construction and is de

scribed in more detail in recently published design documents including Kadlec and Knight, in preparation. Part 2 of this article will focus

tion, exotic plant control, burrowing animal

on: permitting, concerns and Canada's viewpoint It will

activity into the berms, and water manage

appear in ES&E's October Issue.




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Environmental Insurance

By Brian Benn*

Environmental liability Insurance - what It costs - what It could cost

Twoofthe mostcommon questions that I am asked regarding environ mental insurance are: "Can my risk

be insured?" and "What would it

cost?" Since the inception of environmen tal insurance as a separate line of coverage with the first Environmental Impairment Liability policy in 1979, it has often been perceived as either too expensive or una vailable. Changes in recent years, however, have largely dispelled such perceptions among those who have investigated envi ronmental insurance. I am pleased to say that there are now easy answers to such questions: Very likely and About the cost ofa car. To those of us who see environmental

problems regularly, the presence of liabili ties is well understood. Another question I am asked, surprisingly frequently, is "How could I have any environmental liabilities?" Since perception of risk starts with identi

fication and understanding of what could go wrong, businesses that have not performed an environmental risk analysis of their op erations are unlikely to fully appreciate their risks. At a minimum, all businesses should be able to identify their environmental ex

Today, environmental liabilities, to be properly addressed, need to be handled by separate environmental liability policies. You may be wondering at this point, what type of car was I referring to? There are now many different types of environmental policies available, and mini mum premiums typically range from $5,000

to $20,000. Broadly grouping the coverages, there are policies for fixed facilities, con tractors, consultants, and even owners of contaminated sites.

For fixed facilities, applicants can de sign a program suitable for their facilities by selecting their own combination of envi ronmental coverage components under a Pollution Legal Liability (PLL) policy. Options include on-site and off-site cover age for property damage or bodily injury to others, cleanup costs for either pre-existing or new pollution conditions, coverage for generator liability arising from non-owned disposal sites, and more. Whether the fa cility is commercial office space or a haz ardous waste treatment facility, the cover-

grams. Asbestos abatement and lead abate ment contractors can also be covered under

policies specially tailored for their long-term liabilities. Prime contractors at a multi-tiered con

tractor project are litigation targets, and ac cordingly need General Contractors Pollu tion Liability insurance to cover claims al leging improper supervision of subcontrac tors against the named insured, as well as the pollution liability arising from the op erations of the general contractor or its sub contractors.

Engineers and consultants who provide professional environmental services and render professional opinions need Profes sional Services Environmental insurance, which provides both environmental and tra

ditional professional coverage to protect against errors or omissions. For fullservice environmental firms that perform field operations as well as professional serv

ices, there is coverage under one policy form. Contractors Operations and Profes sional Services insurance.

Virtually all businesses today

have some environmental In many companies, there may be an exposures, and an environmental management department, but increasing number are It is often a separate function from insur choosing to protect ance and risk management departments, reporting through channels that may leave themselves with full the traditional risk manager and insurance environmental coverage. purchaser unaware of key issues. Con versely, insurance managers may leave en age selections can be chosen to treat the vironmental staff unaware of ways to con trol the financial impacts of environmental unique and individual risks of insureds. Fuel retailers and distributors can pur risk. Environmental managementj/jomW be integrated with traditional insurance and chase Storage Tank Third Party Liability and Cleanup insurance, covering both under risk management functions. A key question that should be asked is ground and aboveground tanks. With mini "What coverage is currently in place for my mum premiums as low as $1,500 this in firm's environmental risks?" You may find surance can be a cost effective way for tank you have some coverage under your current owners and operators to protect themselves general insurance, but read your policies from the well-known environmental liabili ties of leaking tanks. carefully, and discuss them with your insur Other types of fixed facility coverage ance broker. Historically, general liability include Hospital Pollution Legal Liability policies did not exclude environmental li insurance, in which the exposures for the ability, but in the past decade there has typi medical waste stream,low-level radioactive cally been some sort of limitation or exclu sion for environmental liability on general materials, and on-site bodily injury to third parties are addressed. liability policies. For example, some gen The Contractors Pollution Liability eral liability policies may cover damages (CPL) policy protects environmental and from pollution only if it results from a fire, or only if it is discovered within 120 hours industrial contractors against claims ofthirdafter its commencement, or may offer no party bodily injury and property damage arising from pollution conditions caused environmental coverage at all. while working at customers' sites. Cover age applies to sudden and gradual pollution events and responds to cleanup costs, both 'Manager, Environmental Risks,Commerce on and off the worksite. This coverage helps and Industry Company posures.

of Canada

exclusions in some general liability pro

fill in the gap that may be left by pollution

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Owners of sites with known contamina

tion have several options with regard to in surance. The Cleanup Cost Cap policy in demnifies the insured for financial losses

that arise when the anticipated cost of a remediation project is exceeded. The policy is designed to address the risk and uncer tainty associated with beginning an environ mental remediation project by providing pro tection for the insured against cost over-runs. Property owners(and prime contractors) have become increasingly aware of the need for insurance dedicated to their project. Without project-specific insurance, most contractors and consultants will show evi dence of insurance that covers all their work

in the course of a year. Owners may not get adequate protection for their exposure since the contractors' and consultants' insurance

could be eroded by losses at other projects. Additionally, many large projects with many contractors and consultants may lead to differences in coverage,and possible gaps in the owner's protection. Rather, property owners can design an Owner Controlled Insurance Program to cover an entire project with consistent coverage for all contractors and consultants on the environmental

remediation project. Virtually all businesses today have some environmental exposures, and an increas ing number are choosing to protect them selves with full environmental coverage. Your insurance broker can provide you with more information and can help design the best solution for you. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 115 51

Spills management

Due diligence now requires more vigilance rC- dCDUrtniCnt , j J\()^ [

I slWy a disaster. Despite many now working in the hazmat fieldwhat would believe, the differences can be major and must be recognized in training, planning and re sponse for hazmat incidents. An initial responder at the scene may need a different set of skills and knowledge than one who arrives from the outside.

While some may say it is over-simplifying the issue, an initial responder's first role is usually to take steps to control an incident involving hazardous materials and prevent it from becoming an emergency. An emer gency will require a different level of sup plies, equipment and specialized resources as well as increased personnel. Effective initial response can often re sult from a combination of training, aware ness and common sense on the part of the

Greater environmental awareness,

Firefighters need to know whether or not they face a true emergency.

stricter regulatory requirements and the need to establish "due

diligence" legal defences to deal with increased accountability at the senior levels of an organization have all resulted in more and more emphasis on proper re

sponse to incidents involving hazardous materials.

One issue that still has not been satis

factorily resolved, however,is the difference between the levels of"initial response", be ginning with the discovery of an incident, and ranging up to a true emergency and pos-

initial responder, who may be an employee spotting an incident or potential emergency. TTie responder's actions could include mak ing the call, securing the area or safely mop ping up a small chemical spill, doing basic dyking and containment, securing a site or initiating the emergency response plan. For industries, this type of awareness and knowledge for employees and initial re sponse personnel can be imparted through site-specific training. For other outside serv-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

By Cliff Holland* ices that may be called to the scene of an

industrial incident, it may require training in all-risk and all-hazard situations.

There are many stages of initial response; the duties, equipment needs and knowledge change with the situation and whether it is an incident that can be brought under con trol, a disaster that requires major resources, or dealing with the aftermath and cleanup of a release of toxic materials.

Personnel who respond to the various stages of an incident or emergency are, in their own right, initial responders, because they are the first to respond at each stage. They include the employee identifying an incident; local emergency organizations, such as municipal fire departments; special ized clean-up services; and specialists such as chemical-handling teams sent by a chemi cal manufacturer.

The differences in approaches, training, knowledge and awareness needs can be seen in situations at industrial sites within met

ropolitan areas. Here, the industries may have their own fire departments or emer gency response teams. There are strong parallels in the type of work these groups do with the services performed by munici pal fire departments, ranging from emer gency rescue work to true firefighting. Industrial response teams,however, must

•President, Spill Management Inc., Stoney Creek, ON.

tie aware of all of the complexities within a plant,including materials handling and stor age. Their skills and knowledge must tie finely tuned to permit them to quickly as sess and deal with unexpected incidents. No matter how thoroughly they plan or train, there will be surprises. They may have to improvise control pro cedures and countermeasures during the initial stages of a spill or test, identify and verify both known and unknown products for classification and stability. This includes both substances and products involved in the incident, as well as others which may be affected if the incident grows. When municipal firefighters arrive at a site, it is likely they were called because an incident is escalating beyond what the inhouse responders believe is their capability to control. The fire department's arrival heralds the beginning of an emergency re sponse plan going into effect, with the dedi cation of all necessary resources from both inside and outside the industry to bringing the situation under control.

Municipal firefighters are, of course, the initial response team in many types of inci dents and emergencies. They often cannot be sure what awaits them in a burning build ing or at a vehicle collision. These firefighters should have the knowledge to decide whether they face a true emergency that threatens health, property or the environment, or simply an incident

that can be quickly and safely controlled. At times, they will follow an approach that can best be described as "if it looks bad and

smells bad, it must be bad", without any real sense of what they are dealing with. The firefighters may (or may not) put emer gency procedures in place because of their uncertainty and unfamiliarity with the ma terials in question. Again,in-house response teams have the advantage in that they basically pre-plan and practice procedures that eliminate wasting time in gathering manpower,equipment and

manuals of operating procedures before re acting to an incident. This type of training and practice can give in-house responders a very high level of competence, self-aware ness and knowledge of what they are deal ing with and how to deal with it. Equally important, the knowledge and increased awareness goes beyond knowing only what to do; it also includes knowing what not to do, and when a situation has grown beyond their ability to deal with it. Until the mid-1980s, experience was the great teacher for emergency response teams. This was the era before mandatory label ling, placarding and material safety data sheets, when training was often based on experienced individuals sharing their know ledge at in-house sessions. The basic pro cedure for approaching unknown chemicals was to use a high degree ofcaution and large doses ofcommon sense.




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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

The Callander Water Treatment Plant was recently com missioned as Ontario's first municipal design-buiid water pro ject. The team of R. V. Anderson Associates Limited and Kenaidan Contracting Ltd. brought the project in on time and on budget for the Township of North Himsworth. The RVA team wasied by Hershei Guttman(insert top)and Doug Waiker. For more information, Circle reply card No. 154


Spills management, cont'd. That has changed, or is changing, as so ciety demands a higher level of accountabil

ity from everyone responsible for hazard ous materials management. The changes are also due, at least in part, to increased use of highly sensational and disasteroriented materials in training sessions where practical experience gets little attention. Responding on the high side of caution is now turning into responding on the high side of ignorance. The end result is that some people tend to believe that hazardous mate rials immediately present a personal danger, without learning why and when danger may actually exist and the extent of the danger. By the same token, they may not recog nize danger, either. For example, a recent incident involved a cargo of cashew nut shells in a tractor trailer in Mississauga,Ont. There was no sign of ignition from the trailer, but the ground-up shells generated so much heat that the trailer frame melted

and the front end dropped to the ground. Proper training, knowledge and experi ence can allow response teams to make ac curate judgements on situations such as va pour emissions. The team may be able to determine the danger from assessing the location of the material, whether outdoors

or in an enclosed space, and the quantity. Similarly, when faced with flammable sub stances, a trained response team can assess the flash point and the vapour pressure and

whether or not the material can create dan

gerous conditions. These factors will be crucial in deciding if the team faces an inci dent or a true emergency. The information available today from sources such as MSD sheets is excellent. It

can be vital to a response team, such as a municipal fire department, when the team is uncertain of exactly what it faces. But this printed information is not al ways the ultimate answer, because there is always the chance that it is wrong. Initial response teams cannot afford to act on the basis of information they assume is correct. Even the best printed information should only be regarded as an indicator of proper ties of substances until it can be verified.

There is no room for assumptions, or for the attitude,"if it smells okay and looks okay, it must be okay", in making decisions on hu man health and safety and the environment. Initial response is an area where experi ence must still play a large role. In-house responders not only have the advantage of knowing their sites and substances, but they can also talk to workers who deal with ma

terials on a day-to-day basis. In doing their size-up, or assessment of an incident, they may leam more from other workers about the properties of a substance and its effect on health, safety and the environment in terms of their surroundings than a printed

The resource represented by day-to-day experience is sometimes ignored by outside emergency response organizations, such as fire departments. There have been instances where workers have mocked firefighters as they donned their "Level A" suits and set up decontamination areas to deal with a chemical spill. The workers may not have understood where the firefighters were com ing from in terms of emergency response, but they probably did understand the chemi cals in question. Outside emergency response organiza tions must pay close attention to the in-house response personnel. Generally speaking, they will know about new processes, new equipment, product lines and material stor age and handling procedures. Inspections by in-house safety personnel will identify potentially unsafe situations such as im proper storage of materials or inoperative safety equipment so that the situation can be corrected before an incident occurs. If

the situation has not been rectified,they will likely know that, too. Obviously,a successful hazmat response strategy is a combination of many factors. It must include training for initial respond ers that allows them to recognize a problem and quickly take appropriate action to keep an incident from becoming an emergency. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 262

sheet will tell them.


Consulting Engineers & Architect ANNOUNCEMENT

Don Cane, P.Eng., President of Simcoe Engineering Group Limited, is pleased to announce the Board's appointment of two additional Directors of Simcoe Engineering Group Limited. Joe Stephenson The

Allen LI, P.Eng., has been appointed Director-in-Charge of Municipal Engi neering and Quality Control (ISO 9000) for the company. Alien has over 15 years of consulting engineering experi

Larry Manley, P.Eng., has been ap pointed Director-in-Charge of Construc tion and Safety. Larry has over 22 years experience in consulting engineering

ence and has been with Simcoe since

His responsibilities will also include co ordination of the firm's Design/Build ac tivities. Larry is a 1973 Civil Engineer ing graduate from the University of

1989. Allen is a 1980 Civil Engineering graduate from the University of Ottawa, and he also has a Master's Degree in Civil Engineering from Queen's Univer sity (1988). Allen is a Designated Con sulting Engineer in Ontario. 54

and has been with Simcoe since 1982.






Hydromantis, Inc. is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Joe Stephenson as Managing Director. Mr. Stephenson joins Hydromantis with more than 20 years of experi ence in water and wastewater engi neering. A graduate from the Uni versity of Waterloo (B.Eng.) and from McMaster University (M.Eng.), Joe Stephenson is recognized as one of the leading process engineering ex perts in Canada. Hydromantis is a Hamilton-based consulting engineer ing company specializing in the development and application of innovative solutions in the water and

wastewater industry. Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1995


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I & I overflows

By Kim Stephen?, Chris Johnston and Chris Baisiey*

Elimination of i&i overflows in the Greater

Trail Region -a unique climate-based approach to risk management

The Columbia Pollution Control System collects and treats domes tic wastewater from the munici

palities of Rossland, Trail and Warfield, the communities of Oasis and Rivervale, and the Cominco industrial com plex in the southeast cor ner


on a waterway that flows from Canada into the USA.

Long-term strategy for system improvements After more than two decades of service,

the regional system is showing its age, and


Columbia. The system in cludes five pump stations, two of which are major fa cilities. The study area is generally referred to as the Greater Trail Region. This regional system has been operational since the early 1970's, and cov ers a distance of almost 12

km, from the City of Rossland high in the mountains, down to the wastewater


plant located in the valley below in the City of Trail. The plant is situated on

namics under a wide range of operating con ditions, thereby facilitating computer simu lation of system operation. Overview on the inflow/infiltration

(I&I) issue Municipal sewage collection systems in Rossland, Warfield, and the original Trail townsite were installed early in this century. Historically, lo calized drainage problems have apparently been solved by unauthorized connections to the sanitary sewer system. Drainage problems on the mountainside are often

due to disruption of groundwater flowpaths. Prior to 1994, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) had occurred halfway down the mountainside at the Rossland Golf Course

virtually every spring, commencing in the first River less than 12 km In 1991, charges were laid after a series of prolonged overflows into the year of regional system from the U.S. border. Fig operation. Typically, raw Columbia River. ure 1 illustrates the system sewage had to be bypassed layout. is in need of major rehabilitation and up to the Columbia River via Trail Creek for Discharge of raw sewage to the grading to meet the performance standards about one month each year. And unsuccess Columbia River of the 1990s. Over the past four years, a ful attempts to resolve the overflow prob In 1991, a series of prolonged overflows long-term strategy has been evolving for lem had resulted in a legacy of political con into the Columbia River due to pump sta restoring the operational effectiveness ofthe troversy. tion failures caused an "international inci system. It addresses inflow/ infiltration, Technical issues became intertwined dent," and culminated in the Regional Dis pump station reliability, and wastewater with political issues, with the result that the trict of Kootenay Boundary two major partners in the re (RDKB)being charged by the gional system (i.e. the Cities B.C. Ministry ofEnvironment of Rossland and Trail) were PUM P STATION (TYP.) under the Waste Management at loggerheads for almost 20 Act. The resulting furore pro years over this question: Was vided the trigger for a com the regional interceptor sewer prehensive study of system undersized, or was the I&I in adequacy. Rossland's collection system The pump station failures far greater than could have have drawn the attention of been reasonably anticipated? American environmental In 1994,the golfcourse sec KEY PLAN FOR agencies and citizen groups. tion was upsized, thereby COLUMBIA POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM Thus, pressure from the State eliminating the possibility of of Washington has been a fac future overflows at that loca Figure 1 tor in developing a long-term tion. However, the I&I prob strategy for system improvements. treatment issues. The focus of this paper is lem in Rossland is so great concerns have been Furthermore, and as a result of the 1991 on the Inflow and Inflltration (I&I) Issue. raised about transferring the overflow prob discharges, a govemment-to-govemment Of relevance, a $5 million construction pro lem to downstream locations. These concerns protocol is now in place, under which gram is presently underway to improve the have provided the driving force for develop British Columbia must now immediately treatment plant and pump stations. ment of a "risk management strategy". A flow monitoring program has been the notify Washington State any time a signifi Integrated Regional Strategy for cant sewage spill occurs which will impact key to resolving the I&I Issue. The pro I&I reduction gram has enabled the impact of I&I on re Given the magnitude of the I&I prob gional system performance to be quantified. lem in Rossland and the other two munici*Kerr Wood Leidal Gore & Storrie Inc. North Vancouver, British Columbia It has also provided a picture of system dy Continued overleaf the bank of the Columbia

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995




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i & I overflows, cont'd. Table 1 Level 1

Flow Monitoring Network: Regional flow monitoring program to characterize flow contribu tions from each municipality: and to identify priorities for targeted investigation programs within each municipality.

Level 2

Targeted Investigation Program: Manhole-by manhole flow measurements during the peak of the snowmelt period, are within targeted sub-areas of the collection systems, in order to narrow l&l sources down to critical sections

toring of real-time data meant that flow pat terns could be assessed quickly, thereby enabling field Investigations to be organized and undertaken before the event passed. Layered approach to I&I identification A distinction must be made between an

of sewer.

Level 3

Dye/Smoke/Camera Investigations: The final step is to pinpoint the exact locations within the previ ously identified critical sections of sewer. Inflow sources are identified through dye/ smoke testing, whereas infiltration identification relies on TV camera inspection during the peak of the snowmelt period.

palities, the critical question is this: Is it rea sonable to size regional interceptor sewers

provements. To this end, two fundamental questions must be addressed:

to handle an extreme snowmelt/runoff

• From the Regional District's Perspective: What level of capital invest ment is affordable in order to considerably

event? This question has provided the start ing point for development of a risk man agement approach for assessing the cost of interceptor upsizing versus the reduced probability of future overflows. A reality is that SSOs overflows are inevitable. Thus, the challenge is to economically reduce the frequency of occurrence. To this end, the basic alternatives are summarized as fol lows:

•Regional System: Successively upsize the "weak links" so that the interceptor sewers and pump stations can convey more flow. • Municipal Systems: Systematically iden tify and eliminate I&I sources in the tribu tary collection systems, thereby offsetting the need to upsize the regional system. A combination of the two alternatives

forms the basis for an Integrated Regional Strategy. This term refers to the optimum strategy for I&I reduction from both the re gional and municipal perspectives. Upgrading of municipal collection systems

For each member municipality, the goal is to establish a cost-effective basis for a

Sanitary Sewer Upgrading and Storm Sewer Separation Program. This involves costbenefit analyses as follows:

• From an Individual Municipal Perspective: Determine whether M/elimi nation within each municipal system costs less than the potential municipal financial contribution to expansion of the regional system.

• Within a Regional Context: Determine whether there is "better value for the dol

lar" in eliminating I&I in one municipality rather than another, in order to reduce the

total system flow to an acceptable level. In summary,the objective in developing an integrated strategy is to ensure optimum capital expenditures in implementing an inter-municipal approach to I&I reduction. Framework for decision-making The purpose of a risk analysis is to de termine whether the paybacks justify the cost of each successive level of system im

reduce the frequency of SSOs? • From the Ministry of Environment's Perspective: What level of risk is associ ated with the integrated strategy (i.e. in terms of a frequency of occurrence for SSOs, and the potential for environmental im pacts)? A risk management approach should re

flect reality and the reality is that the "law of diminishing returns" is an important con sideration in assessing the cost-effectiveness of an I&I reduction program. Thus, a ma jor breakthrough has been the Ministry's agreement that selection of an appropriate strategy for system improvements can be based on a cost-benefit analysis. Description of flow monitoring program Data logging and communications tech nology as applied to flow monitoring pro grams are advancing at a rapid pace. The technology that was commonly used in the late 1980s, for example, now seems crude by comparison with the technology of the 1990s. Also, the hardware is becoming more affordable which further encourages its use.

Given the 20-year controversy over sew age overflows, it was vital to obtain defen sible data. Thus, considerable effort was invested in setting up a state-of-the-art flow monitoring network that has yielded a reli able database, and in developing an inno vative approach to computerized data col lection and analysis. Data downloading was by remote telemetry. The availability of real-time data is the key to identifying trends and consequences as wastewater flows move through the regional system. The Greater Trail study is a leading-edge application of modem technology to an I&I investigation in the B.C. context.

Significance of Remote Data Retrieval Peak flows in the Greater Trail Region are event-driven during the spring snowmelt period, with the worst case scenario being a coincident rainstorm. Thus,remote moni

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Infiltration Investigation that is dependent on snowmelt, and an InfiowlInfiltration In vestigation that is dependent on rainfall (i.e. known as RDI&I). For the latter, parts of the work are usually carried out during a rainstorm event in order to capture a record ofRDI&I sources(both direct and indirect). By definition, RDI&I (rainfall dependent inflow and infiltration) = RII (rainfall in duced infiltration) -t- SWI (stormwater in flow). Snowmelt dependent infiltration, on the other hand, is sustained over an extended period of time. In addition, peak flow rates tend to be fairly consistent throughout the day, especially when night-time tempera tures are above zero. These factors facili

tate the investigative process because they result in flexibility in being able to under take flow measurements over a period of days or even weeks (versus hours for an RDI&I investigation). Identifying I&I Sources A key consideration in identifying I&I sources is being systematic. Thus, the ob jective in developing a risk management strategy was to progressively zoom In on the critical areas by going to increasingly more detail in the investigative process. This has involved a Layered Approach as described in Table 1.

Basis for a targeted investigation program

The flowchart in Figure 2 illustrates the investigative process which was keyed to manhole-by-manhole flow measurements in the tributary municipal systems. The start ing point for a Targeted Investigation Pro gram in each of the three member munici palities was to assess the magnitude of the branch flows where they enter a trunk or interceptor sewer. The objective was to identify those branches which had abnor mally high flows. Continued overleaf









Figure 2 59

I & I overflows, cont'd. The next step was to systematically work upstream in taking flow measurements at manholes. The objective was to identify critical sections of sewer where there was a










sudden and/or unexplained increase in flow. Interceptor sewer overflows in the Greater Trail Region are mainly a conse quence of infiltration during the snowmelt period. Thus, the final step in the investi gative process was to follow up with a TV camera inspection program at the peak of the I&I period for each previously identi fied pipe section in the municipal systems, in order to determine whether infiltration


is widespread because entire pipe lengths are in a deteriorated condition, or whether problems are isolated.

Figure 3

Impact of rainfall during snowmelt period Over the past four years, the flow moni toring program has enabled identification of trends and consequences as wastewater flows move through the regional system. Key findings are highlighted below: • The annual snowmelt-induced Infiltration Event is triggered by the spring warming trend, and generally has a duration of 8



• A threshold snowpack depth is required for peak infiltration, with the maximum value being in the order of 100 litres per second.

• A typical spring-type storm with 24-hour rainfall of at least 20 mm is required to cause a significant Inflow Event. The Peak I&I Event is defined as the

34^M 31-Jan07-F«b ILFsb 2t-f»b SS-Fab OS-Uv 13-Mar20-l>Ur27-MM-0)^ tO-Afir t7-Apr 24^0t-M*y0e.May1S-Uay33.May2»-May

Figure 4 Table 2

General Climate Conditions

Peak Rate of

During the Period February through April

Infiltration (Lps)




Average snowfall initially, but record high temperatures In February and IVIaroh leading to record low snowpack by late winter.


Average snowfall, average snowpack,and average


Slightly higher than normal snowfall, average snowpack, and slightly warmer than average temperatures In March and April.



The Infiltration Event as described in this paper is defined as the snowmelt-in duced rise in interceptor sewer flows that

occurs in the springtime. The processes by which melted snow reaches the sewer sys tem are a combination of groundwater flow, overland flow, and inflow through roof lead ers and household sumps or other local drainage connections. These sources are illustrated in Figure 3.


Sustained daily temperatures above the freezing point are required to trigger the

No. of years significant rainfall events occurred during those weeks(1900-1990)

Return period for significant rainfall occurring at least once during those weeks(Years) 33

water that snowmelt makes available for


infiltration is depleted, and the system re


3 6 8




5 6


7 5

No. of weeks spanning

peak Infiltration* 1 2


16 16



* corresponds to a pipe section's period ofsensitivityto Inflow 60

made it possible to answer the above ques tion with reasonable certainty. Definition of the infiltration event

temperatures. 1994

combination of a major rainstorm and the maximum infiltration (i.e. which occurs midway through the infiltration period). This raised the question: What are the prob abilities of major storms occurring on any day during the S-weeklnfiltration Window? The availability of daily rainfall and tem perature records dating back to 1900 has


5 4

snowmelt condition as illustrated in Figure 4. After a period of about 8 weeks, the

turns to normal.

Magnitude of the typical infiltration event

In order to assess the impact that the yearly infiltration event may have on the sewer system, it is necessary to define an average, or typical, infiltration event. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

I & I overflows, cont'd. Table 2 summarizes the climatic conditions

ceptor sewer. To this end, the rated capac

Table 3.

for the three years for which flow data are

ity for each pipe section was superimposed


on the I&I Template Hydrograph for the 8week infiltration period. The objective was to determine the number of weeks that pipe capacity could be exceeded (i.e. the period of sensitivity). The final step was to estab lish a return period rating based on the re sults of the climate analysis. This involved relating the "number of weeks" back to the frequency of occurrence as established in

Replacement and upsizing of the golf course section of the regional interceptor sewer in late 1993 has resulted in a quan tum improvement in system capacity to han

Of relevance, 1993 and 1994 had essen

tially average potential for infiltration. Fur thermore, the record temperatures of 1992 did not result in an infiltration event that

varied significantly from the 1993 and 1994 events, which leads to the conclusion that the

infiltration event will be generally the same every year, regardless of climate conditions. Analysis of historical data is the first

step in developing return period ratings for any type of event or parameter. The most direct method of determining the frequency of occurrence of potential in terceptor sewer overflow events would be to examine historical flow records. How

ever, these are not available. Instead, the climatic behaviour that causes overflow

dle the Peak I&I Event. The likelihood of an overflow at the Columbia River has been

reduced from an annual event at the golf course, to a l-in-5-year occurrence at the next downstream weak link above the Vil

lage of Warfield.

Continued overleaf

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events was examined, and a synthetic record of system performance was gen erated.

The availability of long term climate data held the answer to the following question: How often has the rainfall dur ing snowmelt event occurred in the past 94 years? The answer was the key to de termining a return period rating for each section of the regional interceptor sewer. The procedure for a computer search of the temperature and rainfall database is summarized as follows:

•Identify the infiltration window for each year of record (i.e. based on daily tem perature). • Determine whether any critical rain storms occurred during that period. • Narrow the search to establish the fre

quency of occurrence within shorter and shorter timeframes centered on the mid

point of the infiltration period (i.e. 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, etc.). Table 3 summarizes the results of the

climate analysis.The probability of sig nificant rainfall occurring sometime dur ing the entire eight week duration of the infiltration period is fairly high...on av erage approximately once every four years. In contrast, the probability of sig nificant rainfall occurring during the peak week of the infiltration event is quite low...on average approximately once every 33 years. The concept of relating the occurrence of significant rainfall to the timing of the infiltration event is well illustrated by ex amining the rainfall and flow records for the period 1992 through 1995. The re sults are summarized in Table 4. This illustrates that the 1993 event has



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Sales, service and immediate rentals from stock anywhere. GODWIN DRI-PRIME® centrifugal pump models from 2 thru 12 Inch, cast Iron and 316 stainless steel, diesel and electric. Flows to 5,500 gpm, solids to 3.5 inches and discharge heads to 485 feet t.d.h. Pumps, hose and piping systems can be shipped anywhere the same day ordered. Ask how rental recapture can be applied towards purchase price.

a return period of approximately 5 years...and that it could have been worse if the April 3rd storm had occurred 2 weeks later, at the peak of the infiltra tion period. Of significance, an SSO oc curred in 1993 as a result of extreme /<&/, but not in the other three years. The next step was to assess the sensi tivity to inflow for each section of inter

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995


456 Alliance Avenue

2200 - 46ieme Avenue

Toronto, ON, MSN 2J2 TEL:(416) 766-7471 FAX:(416) 766-7399

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I & I overflows, cont'd. agement Plan (LWMP). A LWMP is a legal document that in corporates the results of the technical in vestigations into a three-stage approval proc ess that also includes formal public partici

Table 4

Date of Major

Number of Weeks After Start

Rainstorm Event

of Infiltration Period


April 18th


no significant rainfall during infiltration period


April 3rd

2(six weeks

approximately a 1 in 5 year return period

pation at each stage. This process will pro vide an opportunity for American environ mental agencies to contribute input because


May 15th


no significant rainfall during infiltration period

the Columbia River is an international




no significant rainfall during infiltration period


spanning peak Infiltration)

Overflows occurred annually because infiltration exceeded the original pipe ca pacity for the full 8-week duration of the Infiltration Window. Looking downstream to the next "weak link", an overflow would

have occurred only once in the last four years (i.e. the timeframe for our monitoring pro gram). This is consistent with the long-term historical findings. Of importance, the ma jor rainstorms in the three other years hap pened after the infiltration period had ended. The frequency of overflows can be fur ther reduced by either upsizing the regional interceptor system,or eliminating I&I in the municipal collection systems. The founda tion for an Integrated Regional Strategy is a cost-benefit analysis that identifies opti mum capital expenditures for/<6/reduction and overflow elimination. (At the time of

preparing this article in June 1995, the analysis was still ongoing.) A practical consideration shaping the



A LWMP is comprehensive in that it looks decades into the future to address the

risk management strategy is that it is not acceptable to transfer the overflow problem to the downtown area of Trail. Furthermore,

it is not feasible to completely eliminate sanitary sewer overflows(SSOs). For these

reasons, the focus is on identifying a suit able location outside the urban area for con

trolled discharge of SSOs, probably with some form of preliminary treatment. The objective is to minimize potential environ mental impacts. Implementation of a risk management strategy Overflows are inevitable. Under the

existing regulatory framework, this means that the RDKB would periodically be in vio lation of the Waste Management Act. Thus, implementation of a risk management strat egy for pollution prevention requires the approval of the Ministry of Environment. The RDKB is therefore moving forward with development of a Liquid Waste Man

complete spectrum of wastewater issues. The goal is to build in flexibility to adjust to changing circumstances. At the conclu sion of Stage 3, the final LWMP is adopted by bylaw, after which it is approved by the Minister for implementation.

Given the cost to completely eliminate sanitary sewer overflows, the B.C.Ministry of Environment has accepted the reality that I&I overflows are inevitable. Furthermore, the Ministry has determined that "due dili gence","cost-effectiveness", and "environ mental impact" will shape the implementa tion strategy for sewer system improvements and controlled overflows to a major tribu tary ofthe Columbia River. Of significance, the risk management and regulatory philoso phy that has evolved over a 2-year period broke new ground when first proposed in 1993.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 155

COSTER ENGINEERING Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Systems g a a

|Âť a p


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Coster Engineering's Reverse Os mosis Water Treatment Systems In corporate the latest developments in water treatment technologies. We tailor our systems Individually to specifically address each water need. Whether your problem is high TDS, suifates, chlorides, nitrates, sodium ,

Modular, Microprocessor Controlled Municipal R.O. Systems up to 5 Million GPD

or radium there is a Coster Reverse

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Coster Engineering P.O. Box 3407

Airport Road Mankato, MN USA 56002

Compact, Skid Mounted Industrial/Municipal R.O. Systems 25,000 GPD-350,000 GPD


Industrial R.O. Systems up to 25,000 GPD

For more information, Circle reply card No. 131

(507) 625-6621 FAX (507)625-5883

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Get Your Share of the Sales Action -

Book Your Exhibit Space Now!



include leading manufacturers

and suppliers of : environmental instrumentation,

equipment and services.


OCTOBER 31-NOVEMBER 1,1995 Forfurther information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240,4936 • 87 Street, Edmonton, AB T6E 5W3 Edmonton; (403)469-2400• Fax:(403) 469-1398

Calgary: (403)258-0705• Fax:(403) 258-0745

For more information, Circle reply card No. 132

WEF Conferences

Western hemisphere's largest water quality show comes to Miami WEFTEC '95, the largest annual water qual ity and pollution control conference and expo sition in the Western Hemisphere, takes place October 21 - 25, 1995, at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida.

The latest and greatest products and services in the water environment will be on display.

As ES&E went to press, the show was aheady the Water Environment Federation's second

laigest in terms of square-feet booked. As the 68th edition of the Federation's an

nual meeting, WEFTEC is expected to draw nearly 14,000 water quality experts and 600 exhibiting companies to South Rorida for five days of technical education, information ex change,and networking opportunities with col leagues from around the world. There is al ways a strong Canadian contingent at these shows.

In keeping with the conference's interna tional flavour, the Opening General Session's invited keynote speakers on October 22 will include Carol Browner, Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency; Sheila Copps, Deputy Prime Minister of Canada and Minister ofthe Environment; and Julia Carabias

Lillo, Secretary of Environment, Natural Re sources and Fisheries for the Government of Mexico.

Noted water quality professionals will speak at WEFTEC '95, including Dr. Eugene Odum, Callaway Professor Emeritus ofEcology at the University of Georgia,at the Scientists' Lunch

The unique Everglades will be a tour feature of WEFTEC'95. ES&E photo by Tom Davey. between North America and I.atin America; a Removal ftoject is included. International visitors lounge. International full range of industrial sessions covering water visitors can relax and meet with friends and environment issues; a workshop for South associates in the International visitors lounge, Florida teachers, and selected sessions trans where staff members will be available to pro lated simultaneously into Spanish. vide assistance. The lounge will be open daily Highlights Three water treatment plants - the Hialeah, from Sunday,October 21,to Wednesday,Octo John E. Preston, and Alexander Orr, Jr.- have

ber 24.

eon on October 23; Richard Underwood,a re

a total treatment capacity in excess of 450 mil lion US gallons fter day. As the largest water and sewer utility in the southeastern US, it is

Lifestyle Program. Once again,WEF's Life style Program will provide a range of activities for spouses. Lifestyle Program registration in

tired NASA official known for his expertise in space photography, at the Federation Lunch

the South Florida Water and Sewer District's

job to tap additional resources.

cludes admittance to the Lifestyle Center, un limited use of the WEF shuttle bus, a special gift from the Local Arrangements Committee, registration credentials, and admission to the exposition. Coffee will be provided in the Life style Center each morning. Lifestyle Center Activities this year include a welcome to Mi ami Beach,a skin care and make-up seminar,a financial seminar, and a nutrition seminar. Additional activities which may be pur

eon on October 24;and Col.Terrence Salt,com

mander of the US Army Coips of Engineers Jacksonville (Fla.) District, at the Water Qual ity 2000 Luncheon on October 25. Eighty sessions featuring 450-plus original technical presentations will offer the most upto-date information in the water quality field.

North District Waste Water Treatment Plant.

This state-of-the-art plant has a current rated capacity of 100 US mgd. and uses a pure oxy gen activated sludge process for secondary treat ment.

The 4th Street Pump Station Central Dis trict Waste Water Treatment Plant. This pump

As the 68th edition of the Federation's annual meeting, WEFTEC is expected to draw nearly 14,000 water quality experts and 600 exhibiting companies... Topics will cover wastewater treatment re search; municipal wastewater treatment; residuals and biosolids management; soil and groundwater remediation; collection systems; industrial wastes; surface water quality and ecology; management;facility operations;regu latory issues and federal facilities; public edu cation; and international issues. In addition to the extensive technical pro gram, the conference will feature workshops

for training and professional development, fa cility tours. Water Environment Research Foun dation(WERFO activities, poster presentations, student activities, special events, and more. Special events for 1995 include a two-day preconference workshop on promoting business 64

chased include a luncheon and fashion show,

and several tours: Everglades Safari, Fairchild Tropical Gardens, Cruise to Bayside, Tours of Villa Vizcaya, Museum & Gardens, and Art

station is the largest within the water depart ment with a capacity of 150 US mgd. Water is pumped from this station to the Central Dis trict WWTP, which has a capacity of 133 US mgd and uses two separate and indeptendent process trains. Flow to Plant I is treated in open high rate activated sludge tanks. Plant 2 uses a pure oxygen activated sludge process, in which the oxygen is generated cryogenically

Conference workshops. Ten one- and twoday conference workshops take place on Satirrday, October 21, and Sunday, October 22, and enable WEFTEC attendees to get in-depth in formation on subjects ranging from sanitary


sewer overflow abatement to wastewater micro

Everglades. This all-day tour is designed to introduce attendees to the ecological history of the Everglades and to view the impact of

biology. For more information on WEFTEC'95,call

man and the dedicated efforts to revive the

Everglades. A tour of the South Florida Water Management District's Everglades Nutrient


Operations Challenge '95. Canadians will challenge the best in the US in this hands-on contest.

the Water Environment Federation toll-free at

1 (800)666-0206 or 1 (703)684-2452,or write WEF,601 Wythe St., Alexandria, VA 223141994 USA.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995





HLC' ^—-"^


^tV^i4C^ O? ^


Metro Toronto Convention Centre

October 31, November 1 - 2 1995

Register now to ensure you receive aii that EECO 95 and Toronto have to offer!

Limited booth space and sponsorship opportunities are stiii avaiiabie. Contact: Kirsten Mania

(416)327-8072 Roger Scott (416) 327-8073

Join more than 900 leading professionals facing the future at Ontario's largest and most comprehensive environment and energy

Two plenary and 42 other verbal sessions, numerous

exhibits, displays and other events will all be part of this leading edge forum.


Whatever your role In business and Industry, EECO 95 will EECO 95 promises three days of Intensive discussion, equip you with the advice challenging Insights and and practical tools to meet the challenges of a changing extensive networking oppor environment and energy sec tunities to help you reach your greening and business tor. Make It the one event of the year that you do not miss. objectives.

Do You Need LEAD Removal, ASBESTOS Removal or

Contaminated DUST Cleanup? If so,... Call Us. RESTORATION Environmental Contractors

Q. When is a Filter Press notjust a Filter Press?

The Experts in Plant Decontamination

A. When It's a J-PRESS^ of course!

Pharmaceutical Contamination

For aimost 25 years JWi® has been developing quaiity prod

Chemicals(Mercury, Cadium,Lead,PCB,Arsenic, Silica, Chromium, etc.) Pesticides - Fungicides

Histoplasnosis (Pigeon, Seagull - Bird - Bat Cleanups) Dust Collectors - Removal/Cleaning Containment Specialists Removal of Lead and Hazardous Coatings Lead Abatement and Lead Paint Removal

Asbestos Encapsulation and Repairs When you need Professional, Confidential and Quality Service for your Environmental Cleanups, call

Don Bremner, Project Manager DIRECT LINE:(905)477-4359 RESTORATION Environmental Contractors Head Office:(416)543-4719 FAX:(905) 477-6295 Ottawa (613) 769-5420 Kingston (613)541-9282 Thunder Bay (807)473-6905 London (519)668-9666 Barrie (705) 734-7350 Florida (813)866-7606 EMERGENCY RESPONSE -24 HOURS(416)543-4719

For more information. Circle reply card No.194

ucts that serve the surface fin

ishing industry. J-Press® fiiter presses and J-Mate® siudge 800mm J-PRESS dryers are manufactured to Things to consider: exacting standards. When you • Compiete range of fiiter press sizes. are considering your options for • Volume capacity flexibility. waste reduction, you owe it to • too and 225 psi operating pressures. yourself to discuss your needs • Extensive variety of automatic controls. with a JWi representative. • Reduces volume and disposal costs. •Technical laboratory assistance. • Extensive spare parts inventory.

You provide the problem... We provide the solution.

Call or Fax for Brochures and Information

DAGEX, INC. 9030 Leslie Street, Unit 5 Rictimond Hill, Ontario, Canada L4B 1G2 Phone: 905-771-8400 / Fax: 905-771-8911

For more information. Circle reply card No. 195 65

Product Review Materials selection chart

and easy servicing, Vanton Flex-i-liner®

pumps have no stuffing boxes, glands, shaft seals, check valves or other leak-prone de vices. Vanton Pump & Equipment For more information, Circle reply card No. 198


Enhanced coagulation

New Stresswave Sensor Milltronics' new non-invasive Senaco Plus

Stresswave Sensor provides process and equipment protection. Operating in frequen cies from 100 kHz to 600 kHz, the sensor

quickly provides early warning of plugged chutes and equipment failure by sensing stress waves caused by impacts and friction. The highly sensitive sensor combined with

the control unit, provides a voltage output


(DBSS An updated version of the Vanton flexible

liner rotary pump catalogue contains a ma terials selection chart for the dependable transfer and metering of more than 100 difficult-to-pump fluids, including acids, caustics, salts, chlorides, abrasive slurries,

solvents and polymers. Catalogue 10.01 describes and illustrates various models of this sealless, self-

priming, all-plastic rotary line of pumps which can run dry without damage and can operate in either direction without loss of efficiency. Designed for low maintenance

A With stricter regulations for organic remov als on the horizon, now is the time to ex

plore the benefits of enhanced coagulation with iron salts. Eaglebrook's fast-reacting iron salts demonstrate superiority for re moval of precursor organics while provid ing clear water and a more manageable sludge. Eaglebrook Inc. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 225

Circle reply card No. 222



range of 0-1OV and is immune to low fre quency vibration associated with plant en vironments. The reliable, simple bolt-on mounting and 316 S.S. unit is versatile in temperatures from -40 to -t-85C. Milltronics For more Information,

45 HANNOVER DR.. PC BOX 2205, ST CATHARINES. ON. CANADA L2M 6P6. PH 905-641-0941





\A6nJ\, A\X\ VO^




CALL 1-800-26^^^^8 • Advanced Product

Design • S.A.1VI.IVI.

• C.A.^e^

D-Load; Hydrostatic and Vacuum


< Educational A Seminars Plant Tours


• L.C.A.


• Take - off

R.R.#2, Cambridge, Ontario N1R5S3

Waterloo Concrete Products

Telephone(519)622-7574 Fax(519)621-8233 1-800-265-8624


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 196

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 197

Water treatment

By Hershel Guttman, P.Eng.*

Cold lime softening and cone settling used in Cochrane's new water treatment plant CLARtFlER #1

the groundwater such as hydrogen sulphide, which is only partially removed with prechlorination.


The clarifiers and recarbonation tanks RESERVOIR

high UFT

are followed by declining rate dual media filters. The declining rate operation was selected in harmony with the design theme for the plant, based on an uncomplicated operation with only part-time operator




maintain a constant head above the clarifi-

In line with this design theme, but keep ing the works suitable for the harsh northem winter climate, the residuals manage ment for the plant was based on lagooning. The sludge is basically spent lime which readily settles and is self-thickening. As a result, three on site concrete lined lagoons designed to facilitate a drag-line removal and manual supemating were built. At this time, arrangements have been made for the thickened sludge to be tmcked to landfill, although space is available on site for fu ture landfill possibilities. The plant has been in operation since May. Over the summer,plant staff have been conducting optimization experiments with combinations of coagulant aids and dosages in an effort to optimize the process. For more information,

ers as well as to remove dissolved gases in

Circle reply card No. 223



CochranePublic Utilities Commis

sion recently started up a new

8,000 mVday water treatment plant to replace a plant built in the 1940s. Although served by well water, the plant is required to remove the high iron, manganese and hardness present in the wa ter. The process selected had to meet con flicting needs of residential and key indus trial users in the Town. All required a re duction in iron and manganese to meet On tario Drinking Water Objectives. While a wood-waste co-generation plant would pre fer highly softened water, a bottling plant actually prefers medium hard water. As a result, Cochrane is the first Ontario town to use the cold lime softening process, which is effective in removing the iron and man ganese, and which can also control the de gree of softening in the water. The plant was built for a capital cost of

signed to restart at full flow with a mini mum of carry over to the filters. In order to prevent recarbonation in the filters with the resulting "cementing" of the filter media, the plant includes a recarbon ation tank. Carbon dioxide gas was selected as the acidifying agent, primarily because of its ease of use and safety. The carbon dioxide gas is stored on site in a large stor age tank built into the plant. Another key feature ofthe plant is a head tank which immediately precedes the clari fication process. The tank is necessary to

Ainley and



$7.8M and will be operated along with the water pollution control plant by a staff of only four. This low complement of trained and certified staff will be sufficient to at

tend the plant's two shifts per day. As a result, the plant incorporates several fea tures to meet this criteria, namely on-off operation, settling cone technology, declin ing rate filters, and lagooning for residuals





280 Pretty River Parkway

48 Higti Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Fax (705) 445-0968

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

Waste Management solutions


The on-off mode of operation kept the chemical feed and control systems relatively simple with associated cost savings. The plant uses hydrated lime stored in a plant silo, a coagulant aid, carbon dioxide for recarbonation,chlorine for disinfection,and

hydrofluosilicic acid. The key feature allowing the on-off mode, was the use of cone settling technol ogy, the first water treatment plant in Canada to use this technology. The cones

to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiliowdaie, Ontario M2N 1N2

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

consulting engineers antj technology management

selected were CBI Walker's Claricones,

Water Pollution Control

which act like a combined coagulation/ flocculation/upflow clarifier. They are de-

Water Supply Water Resources WELLAND

(416)497-8600 (416)735-3659




•Princlpal, R.V.Anderson Associates Limited and a Past Chair,

(416) 226-0148

' Waste Management ' Transportation ' Municipal Services ' Land Development OSHAWA SUDBURY

' Tunnels and Shafts ' Structures ' Architecture

(416)434-2544 (705)560-5555(Dennis Consultants)

Ontario Waterworks Association

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995


Product Review Fluid purification system recycles industrial fluids and wash liquids Manufacturing industries spend large amounts of money and time to dispose of and replace contaminated industrial fluids such as coolants, wash liquids, quenching oils, lube oils, and hydraulic fluids. The Alfa Laval Fluid Fhirification Sys tem (FPS) offers an alternative to the old standard operating procedure of using flu ids until contaminated and then paying for their disposal and replacement. The FPS products are fully equipped modules which


utilize a centrifugal separator to remove contaminants such as tramp oils, bacteria, and solids from process fluids. The centri fuge can extend the life of these service flu ids many times over by purifying them to a "good as new" state. Plants can benefit from the Fluid Purifi

cation System by realizing reduced fluid consumption, lower disposal costs, reduced downtime associated with fluid changeover, better product quality, and an enhanced, healthier environment for plant personnel on the manufacturing floor. The system purifies by generating cen trifugal force on contaminated fluid which




P.O. Box 1373,

Biosolids and Waste Utilization


• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

Ontario K9J 7H6 Phone/Fax: 1-705-749-3276

Internal Video Inspection of Piping and Mechanical Systems. For more information, Circle reply card No. 268

Mail — P.O. Box 60069

Oakville, Ontario L6M 3H2 Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5


For more information, Circle reply card No. 269


Environmental Specialists

has been pumped into the centrifuge bowl. Because of differences in the specific gravities of the fluid and contaminates, the centrifugal force on the fluid causes a liq uid/liquid/solids separation to occur. Alfa Laval has engineered the Fluid Pu rification System into single modular units consisting of pumps, controls, and other components mounted on a platform. The compact system can be easily installed in any plant. Designed to operate virtually unattended, the module can purify up to 5 gpm either in a dedicated installation or as a portable batch platform that can be moved to various locations in the plant. The FPS can also be installed in a continuous bypass arrangement on a central fluid system up to 10,000 (US) gallons in capacity. Larger units can handle systems up to 100,000(US) gallons. Because the Fluid Purification System reduces the cost of fluid replacement and disposal, it offers excellent payback on in vestment. The modular concept permits rapid, low-cost installation. All piping and wiring of Alfa Laval supplied components on the platform are completed at the factory before shipment. Components are chosen for minimum operator attention and mainte nance. Floor space requirements are mini mal - only 10 sq.ft.for the FFS-303X model. Alfa Laval Separation, Inc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 274

Flowmeter for partially full pipelines

Wastewaler Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity INSTRUMENTS LTD.

Suspended Solids, O2, DO, Conductivity

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7, Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588

For more information. Circle reply card No. 270 77 ORCHARD ROAD CORP.

High Pressure Water Jetting ting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

A m


TEL:(905)619-3009 FAX:(905)619-3638 Bailey-Fischer & Porter's new electromag netic flowmeter, Parti-MAG, can be used for partially full pipelines. The flowmeter

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cieaning


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 271




environmental remediation full service zebra mussel control


Environmental Inc.

Industrial diving & underwater video excavating & mechanical contracting wastewater treatment

Tel: (905) 357-1735

181 University Avenue Suite 1101, Box 11 Toronto, Ontario M5H 3M7 Tel: (416)594-1155

Fax:(905) 357-7256

Fax;(416) 594-0711

6970 Oakwood Drive

Niagara Falls, Ontario L2E 635




For more information. Circle reply card No. 272


nthrafilter ^ Media & Coal Ltd.

Ttie Environmental


isso SHARP ROAD.RR.«.BRANtFCH®.ONTABO Njtas < SM 7S1-1080 FAX <619) 761-0417^!

For more information. Circle reply card No. 273

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Product Review


can be installed in the inlet and outlet lines

from a sewage treatment plant or in the out flow line of a storm overflow reservoir. The

Parti-MAG can be used for billing and con

'Environmental professionals working with Industry to Improve water quality'

Atfu^tic SciencesInc.

trol because the flow measurements are

made continuously even when the pipeline is partially full. Bailey-Fischer & Porter For more information, Circie reply card No. 275

Detectors for GC water


Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Byiow Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxicity Testing

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B. St. Catharines. Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905)641-0941 (Branch Office)PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519)383-7822





Three GC detectors, noted for their appli cation to water analysis, are available from Varian Chromatography Systems The Model 4430 Photoionization Detec

tor has a UV-lamp window sweep to pre vent fouling, plus a lampsaver circuit. This unit is highly sensitive to many unsaturated hydrocarbons for analysis of vinyl chloride,



Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

BTEXs and halogenated aromatics. The Model 5220 Electrolytic Conductiv


■ focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

450PhilllpSt., Unit#11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L5J2 Phone:{519} 746-8973 Fax;(519)746-1222

ity Detector uses signal processing to im prove detection levels; it is both selective and sensitive to halogen-containing chemi cals for analysis of a wide range of VOCs commonly monitored in water.

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

The Model 5240 Tandem PID/ELCD Detector eliminates the need for transfer

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

lines, minimizes dead volume and requires only one detector base position to allow one adjacent detector. Varian Canada For more information,

115 Hurontorio Sireef, Suite 201, Collingwood, Onfario L9Y 2L9


Circie reply card No. 164


RO treatment systems




• Wastewater Collection & Treatment • Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management - Environmental WATERLOO


Environmental Planning

-Analytical Testing - Field Sampling & Flow


Reverse osmosis water treatment systems from Coster Engineering can be tailored to specifically address all water needs, whether the problem is high TDS, sulphates, chlo rides, nitrates, sodium or radium. Modular, microprocessor controlled municipal reverse osmosis(RO)systems are available up to 5 million GPD, industrial RO systems up to 25,000 GPD. Compact, skid-mounted industrial/municipal RO sys

• Water Supply Strategies -Water Resources &


Measurement VANCOUVER


(519)579-3500 (403)237-9300 (604)684-3282 (416)675-7170




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tems are available from 25,000 to 350,000


GPD. Coster Engineering For more information,


Pacific Region Vancouver

Tel: [604] 525-9333

Fax: (604] 525-9458

Circie reply card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995


Product Review Portable wash pad

a Microto)^ testing detailed Items may not be exactly as shown.

New compound eliminates

The Latimat® Portable Containment Pad is

odours A breakthrough odour eliminator product. Sharpshooter, chemically binds offensive odour molecules. This compound eliminates organic odours and some inorganic odours including hydrogen sulphide. The product is environmentally safe, free of ozone de pleting chemicals, masking agents,enzymes

an environmentally-safe method of contain ing wash water from cleaning small parts or equipment, vehicles, aircraft and build ings. After containment, the liquid can be treated and recycled, or safely moved. Each Latimat® is designed with a pe rimeter berm. "Drive-on" models include

secondary berms for containment as vehi cles or aircraft enter or exit the pad. A "railside" model is available for heavy ap

in booklet Microbics Corporation has produced a 12page booklet titled How To Run an In-House TRE, Using Microtox Toxicity Tests. The booklet shows, step-by-step, how to estab lish the toxicity baseline, perform routine monitoring, and interpret test results. Microbics has developed a simple, in

expensive procedure for evaluation of WWTP effectiveness in reducing toxicity. With Microtox acute and chronic toxicity

testing, technicians can measure changes in the toxicity of wastewater influent, process

and VOCs. It is water based, safe on skin and biodegradable.

ing streams, and effluent, pinpointing its

Extensive testing has been completed;

sources. Most toxicity problems can be identified while they are still small, allow

plications. The pad can be customized to

just 8 ounces of Sharpshooter,intermittently

accommodate various site conditions, from

released over an hour into the air by an au

ing managers to take corrective action be

concrete slab to course gravel. It can also be installed as part of an existing perma

tomatic fogging device, controls the odour

fore effluent toxicity exceeds regulatory lim-

from 20,000 tons of garbage at a resource


nent wash area.

Environmental Cleaning Systems For more Information,

recovery centre. Addtek Environmental Products

. ^ Microbics Corporation For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 170

Circle reply card No. 172

Circle reply card No. 166


(loisE cflnTRDi nm.svstehis

I Interventions

11-7895 Tranmere Drive, Misslssauga, Ontario, L5S-1V9.

EXPERIENCE: Our staff has over 20 yearsi

design, supply, and instaila anodic corrosion control sy:

SERVICES: • Design and installation of

systems for specjg^pplications. ECKOUSTIC FUNCTIONAL PANELS...the

• Surveyin

practical efficient solution to noise reduction needs. High Performance Combined with Economy • Outstanding sound absorption • Reduction of reverberation & background noise • Simple installation

• Easy maintenance & durability

ECKEL INDUSTRIES OF CANADA LIMITED 100 Allison Ave., Morrisburg, Ontario KOC 1X0

Tel.: (613) 543-2967 Fax:(613) 543-4173 1-800-563-3574 CAN./USA


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 167

Find out how to control your corrosion costs. Call 1 -800-567-2432 For more Information. Circle reply card No. 169

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905)727-4666. GODWIN Dri-Prlme®

centrifugals can do what no other pump can...

/"kLAilM SiAl

25" Hg. vacuum = Auto self-prime to 28 feet and reprime on demand. Mechanical seal Is located away from effects of flow = Run dry continuous operation - unattended. Unlike submersibles, fits into tight holes without digging and cranes. Sewage bypass, petro-chem transfer, dewatering, major spills, lagoons, API and corrosive sludges, wellpolnt.

Single point stand-alone gas alarm system The complete alarm system with the built-in advantages and field selec table choices that provide on-going solutions to tomorrow's problems. The Complete System: long-life stabilized sensors; three field settable alarm

setpoints; alarm acknowledge built-in; two field selectable instrument meas

uring ranges; four 15 amp normally energized failsafe relays; large 3.5 digit LCD readout; 101 dB audible or visual alarms. Guaranteed perform ance: 2 year, non-prorated warranty.

Solids to 3.5 In., heads to 485 ft. tdh.

Pumps to 12 In. hose, piping can be shipped rush for rental or purchase.


Circle reply card No. 209

R.M.S. Enviro Solv

Circle reply card No. 213 Handar 555 data collection

products The new 555 Datalogger from Handar uses Windows-like PC software for easy, quick system set-up. Create custom pro grams using pre-built modules in min utes. Non-volatile memory allows pro gramming in the comfort of your office. Hundreds of sensor configurations, for mulas and algorithms are built Into the library. Networking solutions for modem,



VHP radio and GOES satellite are avail

able. The 555 dataloggers are built rug ged for extreme environmental condi

tions, -40° to -r55°C. Five year warrantyl Hoskin Scientific

a>cvc=i_ii= -ra>c'T'c=i_ip=» Zero Mel'iionanco Persona! Monliors

Motionless Mixers tihiit^ new cttuenoy <iiHt costsavinps It) tlio proccs.'i inriustrics.

Circle reply card No.211


The Statiflo motionless mixer is a

vital component of any inline mix ing/control system. Incorporation of the Statiflo mixer allows rapid sampling and efficient as well as minimum use of dosing chemicals. Statiflo motionless mixers are com

monly used in coagulation/flocculation, flash mixing of dilute polyelectrolyte, alum, caustic, etc., ph con

monitors A revolution in Personal Monitors,the Clips provide ONE full year of protection 24 hours a day,7 days a week with absolutely NO MAINTENANCE required. Unneces sary: calibration, recharging, and battery or sensor replacements. Advanced:lead ing edge electronics combined with Cilicei sensors ensure accurate, dependable performance. Inexpensive: one full year (8800 hours) of protection at minimal cost. Alarms: audible and visual with user speci fied - factory set alarm level. Response: under 3seconds. Pocket-sized: weighs a mere 3.5 oz., clips onto your pocket. Electro-Meters

Circle reply card No. 210

Tlie pfi?«n niolioptess mixei thai

Zero maintenance personal





DIglflow FLS Paddle Wheel Flowmeters Chemline Plastics introduces the new DIGIFLOW FLS line of "all

plastic" paddle wheel flowmeters and instruments for pipe sizes 1/2" up. The units are designed for long life and high accuracy in corrosive applications. The Halar rotor with ceramic shaft and bearings ensure long life. Instruments include local

dation/ozonation and other dilution

and remote rate / total indication, transmitters, no-flow switches.

and dispersion applications.

Chemline Plastics Limited

Statiflo inc.

Circle reply card No. 176

trol, disinfection/chlorination/fluori-

Circle reply card No. 175

Low-Cost Solution to

cleanup of urban runoff Fossil Filter™ (patent pending) is a trough apparatus which utilizes fil ter paks containing EPA-approved absorbents, installed in water drain age inlets to collect hydro-carbons and other contaminants, while per mitting the undisturbed passage of water. Fossil Filter™ adapts to any size or shape of drainage inlet. XSORB® is the filter medium con

tained in the filter paks. XSORB® was designed specifically to absorb petroleum-based contaminants. M.J. International

Circle reply card No. 177

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Remediation Systems IWR designs, builds and installs remedi ation systems for the treatment of contami nated groundwater and soils. These sys tems are custom-designed tor each indi vidual project and are guaranteed to meet their specifications. A partial list of these systems includes: Air Stripping Systems; Oil/Water Separators; Activated Carbon Vessels; Soil Vapour Extraction; Air Sparging Systems; Thermal/Catalytic Oxidizers; Installation & Commissioning. Superior product quality and cost-etticiency are ensured by IWR's experienced team of design engineers, shop staff and installation crew.You can rely on IWR sys tems to operate as specified: we guaran tee it!

Industrial Waste Recovery Circle reply card No.178


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666. High Efficiency Oil-Water Separator


Engineering Clear Solutions for Environmental Clean-up CcMlcving llilrs MPakv'

The Facet Patented MPak coalesc

ing plate separators can reduce oil contamination to 10 ppm. Efficient for removal of solids, their unique multi ple angle plates are virtually self cleaning. Available In pre-englneered steel and concrete configurations for above and below ground,their modu lar construction allows retrofitting of existing API separators. Proprietary computer simulation program of ap plications gives customer guaranteed performance with the MPak design.

INTERTEC brings mobile computer technology to your door Busy? Then give Mobile Direct a call. Mobile Direct serves busi

ness people on the move. Fea turing notebook computers and accessories, they deliver brand name solution paks with over night delivery and low prices. Call today for your free catalog 1-800-258-9632. Intertec

Circle reply card No. 180

Canlon Limited

Circle reply card No.179


Armtec takes you to new heights in retaining wall technology Since first entering the retaining wall market In 1934, with Bin-Wall, Armtec

has continued to foster its presence In the Canadian retaining wall market place. By modifying existing systems and adding new ones, Armtec is able to provide numerous steel and geosynthetic soil retention solutions to meet your site specific requirements.

0. When is a Filler Press not just a Filter Press? A. When it's a J-PRESS° of course! For atmosi 25 year? AVI- has been developing qcaMy prMucU that serve the surface frv

IShing industry. d-Press* (Jler presses and J-Maie'sludge (tryers aio manulactured to eiacting standards IVhen you


are canskJerTig you'c(«>rB k*

• V,-Iuree

waste leduclkm, yeuowoil 10


• 100 end 225 psj eoeratng piessurss • vaiWy ot alAwruie contrtfs • Rcojcec voL«n« aru OKoet casts • Eiiensrrs scare pa.ns i.-irc<iIoiy.

DAGEX, INC. 903U li-sllo bUuci. Un.l S

Richmord Hili, Onlatic, Canada L4B 1G2 Phone. 905-771-3400/ Fax 905-771-8911

containment area which allows Its users

to contain any liquid that the pad catches. The contained polluted liquid can then be extracted and treated or removed for treatment with no environmental dam

age. This "Drive on" - "Drive off" model allows the user to enter and exit the pad while the berm is inflated. A secondary berm prevents fluids from exiting the pad


as the vehicle drives over the berm.

Circle reply card No. 181

Environmental Cleaning Systems Circle reply card No. 182

High quality filter presses and sludge dryers

Fluorescent Lamp Recycling

J-Press filter presses and J-Mate sludge dryers are manufactured to exacting standards. Features include: • Complete range of filter press sizes. • Volume capacity flexibility. • 100 and 225 psi operating pressures.

• Extensive variety of automatic controls.

• Reduces volume and disposal costs.

Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers Inc. (FLR) has developed a process for the safe recycling of fluorescent lamps. These lamps contain hazard ous amounts of mercury and mercury vapour and regulations restrict mer cury from entering landfill. FLR sepa rates and recycles the glass, mercury, phosphor, aluminum and brass com ponents. Flexible arrangements can be made for the removal of lamps from your location.

• Technical laboratory assistance. • Extensive spare parts inventory. Dagex Inc. Circle reply card No. 183

Circle reply card No. 184

High speed dry screening Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are

Stormceptor^" System Stormceptor™ Is a patented pol lution prevention device that effi


available with either 1800 or

ciently removes oil & sediment

3600 RPM vibrators and in sizes

from stormwater flows, and stores

ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" x 120". Machines can be supplied with open hopper configurations or complete dust enclosures with flexible motor seals, gasketed side access doors and

them for safe and easy removal. Stormceptor™ Is unique in the

removable covers.

Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 185


Portable Containment Pad This award winning, patents pending, containment pad Is ingenious in its sim plicity. Simple to use, simple to main tain. The LATIMAT^" provides a portable

market because it will not release

trapped pollutants between serv icing, even In periods of peak water flow. Applications Include parking lots, residential subdivi sions, highways and industrial properties. Available in fibreglass and precast concrete. Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 186

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at (905) 727-4666. Process Monitoring and

Continuous seif-cieaning


bar/filter screen-head The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter is a continuous, self-cleaning device which utilizes a uniquely designed

The Process Monitoring and Con Process IVIonitonng

trol brochure discusses PC-based

and Control

data acquisition and control solu tions using National Instruments hardware and software products. The brochure introduces concepts of PC-based data acquisition,

fllter-rake combination to automati

overviews National Instruments

extensive line of PC-based hard


ware and software products, and describes process monitoring and control applications developed us ing these products.

Aqua Guard Screen

selected mesh size. It then mechani ii I'ARxsaNcuaronATiON


National Instruments


Circle reply card No. 200

No processing on site -

excellence and extensive experience in PCS removal and disposal, PROEGO Corporation, in affiliation

Water Leak Detection & Conservation Services

• Water leak detection, audits, demand analysis, computer modeling • Products: correlators, pipe & cable

with Custom Environmental Services

VYLON» SUPLINER PIPE Now flvoiloble in Smaller Sizes*

1*- m 11* IN 9/9S 12- tN 10/91

Umtofl Vyien Pip* now hM t Sllplinor pip* lor •fn«U*r dlwTNttr pip*. Thli Mw Sllpliiwr pip* ut*« lolld will pip* wftl) I unlqt»* vneoth inttrlof and axtarlor folm.'

•Ho Oypwt ou^onQ! no itivic* OiMpilont.

• SO Sy WO ewMCIO'i unrq touomoni •Hoa*inc. nonKdnc. no inn ooryHHnHnjico*.*"* ««•/


Ltd., operates the first fully approved facility to import PCB lamp ballasts across Canada to Alberta for recycling and disposal. With no processing on your site and immediate removal, PROECO provides cost-effective means of disposing and recycling all PCB waste types.


Waste Water Management

• Sewer flow monitoring, and infiltration studies

• Products: flow meters, wastewater

samplers, data loggers


Heath Consultants

Circle reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 203

Vyion® Slipliner Pipe now

Water Hammer - Solutions

by Hydro Dynamics

available in smaller sizes Lamson VyIon Pipe now has a Slipliner pipe for smaller diameter pipe. This new Slipliner pipe uses solid wall pipe with a unique smooth interior and exterior joint. The advantages are: New PVC system within original pipe; structural liner with "stand alone" strength of 46 psi.; cost ef fectiveness over cured-in-plaoe, HDPE and fibreglass lining systems; no bypass pumping; no service disruptions; com petitively bid by local contractors using existing equipment; no curing, no weld ing, no thin polyester linings to worry

Fluid Kinetics Corporation can provide a computer aided design basis for creative solutions to water hammer

problems. Fluid Kinetics surge arresters provide protective control in the pipeline flow of water or sewage. By using a hydropneumatic tank with specially designed energy-dissipating internals. It provides water to and ac cepts water from the pipeline, allow ing gradual deceleration of the fluid column and reduction of return surge. Hydro Dynamics Ltd. Circle reply card No. 205


Lamson VyIon Pipe Circle reply card No. 204

Self Guided Accident

investigation Kit

mm Mmimim KIT aft#

cally cleans itself. Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 201

Heath Consultants Limited Heath Consultants offers a complete range of products and services for the water industry:

immediate RGB removal With over 10 years of environmental

Call today: 1-800-661-5792

cally remove a wide range of floating and suspended materials from a mov ing liquid stream. Identical fllter-rake elements are mounted horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts, to form an endless moving belt which collects, conveys and dis charges all solids greater than the



Double Dts< Pumps

Self Guided Accident Investigation Kit is designed to be used by both expe rienced and inexperienced investiga tors. The "Kit" will take any investiga tor, slep-by-step, through the accident investigation process. With each "In vestigation Kit" Is a full set of Instruc tions and an Accident/Incident Report Form which, when completed, con

Pump Monufocturon To TTie Proceu Indutfry

tains all the Information needed for

your Company's records. Save on costly, time consuming seminars. Canwit's "Investigation Kit" gets the job done, quickly and effectively. Canwit Consulting Corporation Circle reply card No. 206

i, fAAd Industn*!

New Concept For Pumping Ciean Liquids, Siurries and Soiids in Suspension The Double Disc pump combines the performance features of posi tive displacement pumps and the principle of "Induced Flow" to pro vide superior versatility in fluids handling. Two flexible discs, driven by eccentrics and connect ing rods, work In opposition of each other to create suction, dis charge and "induced flow" of the fluid through the pump. Equipompe Inc. Circle reply card No. 207


Product Review The plastic alternative

Street-level insertion tool With American Sigma's Model 9500 Street Level Insertion Tool, a worker simply in serts a flow sensor mounting ring from street level. The tool then expands the ring in the pipe. The worker need not enter the man hole during the entire procedure.



The Model 9500 Street Level Insertion

Tool is designed for installation of 6", 8", 10", 12", 15" and 18" mounting rings at a

wide variety of locations. The handle col lapses to T for easy transport and extends to 14'. All standard mounting rings have been redesigned by American Sigma to ac

While chemical inertness is the major rea son for specifying a non-metallic pump, there are a number of other advantages, in cluding extended service life, superior abra sion resistance, freedom from contamina tion, low maintenance, and light weight.

commodate the Insertion Tool. The new Insertion Tool allows sensor

mounting rings to be inserted without the need for specialized crews and procedures, substantially reducing or eliminating expo sure to potential hazards while permitting marked savings. Can-Am Instruments

A new technical bulletin. The Plastic

Alternative, discusses these advantages in detail and provides basic data on those ther moplastics, thermosets and elastomeric materials most frequently used. The bulle tin also presents some difficult pumping applications which required the selective use of a combination of various nonmetallics in order to achieve the most eco nomical solution.

Vanton Pump & Equipment For more information,

Circle reply card No. 138

Size not performance counts Westates granulated activated carbon sys tems outperform bigger, older units for sev eral reasons:

a) Vessels do not use false bottoms which

can corrode or plastic screen nozzles which have little open area and can break easily. b) The entire vessel is used for activated carbon.

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 143

Water Level Meter. Offering the best of both worlds, the C4 turns this sturdy, everyday water level meter into a direct reading profiler whenever needed. Depth is read from the accurate, perma nently marked tape and conductivity from an analog readout which plugs into the Wa ter Level Meter faceplate. The range is 080,000 p/cm; lengths to 1,500 ft. (450 m); probe diameter 3/4" (19 mm). Tempera ture profiling is also available. The C4 Sleeve is very easy to calibrate and has a low maintenance design. Solinst Canada For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140

air gases which attack conventional sam plers with floor-level compressors. The self contained sampler also features a tough, chemical resistant coating and totally sealed controller. It guarantees a constant 4° C in ternal temperature. Can-Am Instruments For more information.

Circle reply card No. 141

"AA" size centrifugal pump

Sampler now available with non-CFC refrigerant

c) Flows are collected with stainless steel, plug-resistant screen septa.

d) Sampling ports are in the vessel wall so you can easily monitor carbon bed condi

Responding to the demand for an efficient thermoplastic pump for flows to 115 GPM

tions. Wheelabrator

at heads to 150 feet, Vanton Pump has in

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 139

troduced the Model CGA 1-1/2x1x6,

Conductivity Profiler

new model is available with 4.5" to 6.5"

meeting ANSI B73.1 designation AA. The

semi-open impeller for use with 1750 or 3450 rpm motors. The CGA-ANSI process pumps are available in a wide range of solid molded engineered virgin thermoplastics including

polypropylene, PVC, PVDF (Kynar) and American Sigma has introduced its 900 All Weather Refrigerated Sampler with R134A non-CFC refrigerant. R134A, a hydrofluorocarbon, is the most commonly used EPA-approved substitute refrigerant for new products at this time. It is not, however, a direct replacement for existing R12(CFC) The new C4 Conductivity Sleeve allows down-hole profiling of conductivity in a well when fitted onto the Solinst Model #101 74


The unit features a unique top-mounted compressor to avoid corrosive,heavier-than-

ECTFE (Halan). The full size range now includes ANSI AA, A-10, A-60, A-70 and A-80 for flows to 1450 GPM at heads to

280 feet. These chemically inert thermo

plastic pumps are ideal for installations in volving acids, caustics, and other corrosive, abrasive, hazardous and toxic fluids at tem

peratures to 275°. Vanton Pump & Equipment For more Information, Circle reply card No. 142

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Product Review


Clamp-on flowmeter

SIILL©ini Professional Consulting Services • Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Vancouver • Yellowknife • International

100 Sheppard

Controlotron's field programmable 190N Spectra Fourier Flowmeter offers precision, non-intrusive ultrasonic flow detection,fea turing state-of-the-art Fast Fourier Trans form (FFT) signal processing technology. FFT offers significant performance advan tages over conventional Doppler flowmeters. Achieving accuracy of up to 1% of flow rate. Spectra can be operated on pipes ranging from 3/8" to 255" in diameter, con stantly maintaining optimal operation, even under changing application conditions. The microprocessor-based Spectra is field-programmable by use of an integral or hand-held 195T Terminal, or by internal switch-selected flow rate ranging. Data outputs are available in all standard formats, analog 0 to 10 Vdc and 4 to 20 mA, pulse rate and RS-232 digital data output, provid ing flow rate,flow total and relay flow status alarms for recording and control purposes.



M2N 6N5

(4 16) 229-4646

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits

»Environmental Engineering 'Training programs • Legal corripllance/deslgnated substances • Ventilation assessment/design • Air monitoring ' Air emission control •Indoor air quality 'Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control 'WHMiS • Asbestos

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301

Telex; 06-218242

MIssissauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(905) 858-4424

Fax:(905) 858-4426

Gopb S Stiorpie Limited Water • Wastewater • Water Resources• Air• Waste

Mariagement• Energy Recovery • Environmental Planning • Drainage • Laboratory Sen/ices—Analytical and Process R&D 255 Consumers Road

North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6 (416) 499-9000

(416) 499-0090-t-ext. (416) 499-4687 fax

Ottawa• Thorold • Barrie• Cambridge Mississauga• Kingston • London

For more information,


New remote monitoring

Toronto, Ontario

Consulting Engineers

Circle reply card No. 144

Westech Industrial


Noise Vibration Acoustics


Envifonmental Noise and Vibration Assessments

Design and Specification of Mitigation Measures Audit Measurements

HOWE GASTMEIER CHAPNIK LIMITED 2000 Argentia Road, Plaza I, Suite 203, Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1P7 Phone:(905)826-4044 Fax;(905) 826-4940



1 -67 Watson Rd. S., Gueiph, Ontario N1H 6H8

CNViRONMetrrni. RescnncH coNSULTRtrrs

TEL:(519) 822-2608 • FAX:(619)822-3076


Designed for use by industrial plants,

Impact Assessments habitat surveys,fisheries, wetlands

Bioengineering air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation

Environmental Diving spill inve.stigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Laboratory Testing microbiology,toxicity,chemistry, biodegradation and respiration studies

water treatment plants, and utilities, the

Model CB-4 Chatterbox Automatic Dialing Remote Monitoring System from RACO Manufacturing and Engineering, continu ously monitors the operation of a remote facility. If an alarm condition occurs, it di

als up to 8 field programmable phone num bers and identifies the specific problem in plain English. The CB-4 can also be called at any time for a complete status report. The Chatterbox is easily programmable by the user and features microprocessor-






Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 415

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138 75


Product Review

ISIJagger Hims mm

controlled electronics, modular upgradability, and rugged design for use in out door environments. The CB-4 operates on a standard telephone line with connection through an industry standard 4-pin modular jack. Analog input,computer interfaces,and remote supervisory control functions may tie added as desired. Summa Engineering For more information, Circle reply card No. 145


Environmental Consulting Engineers • Waste Management • Water Supply

• Industrial Minerals and Afigregate Resources

• Environmental Property Assessment Remediation

• Geo-Environmental Engineering

• Waste Water Disposal




Toil Free (800) 263-7419

Toll Free (800)668-2598

Toll Free fflOO) 545-5406

Sludge Judge goes to great lengths

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener (519) 743-6111 (519)743-3330 Cobalt (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5




The Sludge Judge helps you obtain accu rate samples of suspended solids, provid ing a visual sample, level by level, of the















P.O. Bag 4300. Lakcficld, Oniario CanacJa KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax. 705-652-6365











whole tank. It comes in 5 ft. sections, with a 2 1/2 ft. top section also available. NASCO also offers a new spiral clean ing brush designed for the Sludge Judge. NASCO Plastics

For more information, Circle reply card No. 146

Cooling water controller tm

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue,3rd. Floor, Marktiam, Ontario L3R4B9 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994

m I'-'jgg'r



•Waste management •Engineering geoiogy

As a dual function cooling water controller. Great Lakes Instruments' Model CW300fea

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Environmental audits

tures a conductivity analyzer that maintains

•Site decommissioning

a desired concentration of total dissolved

& rehabiiitation

solids in recirculating cooling water. The instrument also has a microprocessor-based hiocide timer that controls the addition oftwo

separate hiocides to the system. The CW300 continuously controls the conductivity of cooling water by bleeding

Marshall Macklin

the system of recirculation water with ex


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, h-iydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, MIssissauga, Whitby


80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhlll, Ontario L3T 7N4 (905) 882-1100 Fax:(905) 882-0055

cessive impurities and adding fresh makeup water. This reduces water consumption, chemical waste and cooling tower mainte nance. The controller allows addition of

chemicals such as inhibitors and dispersants which can be fed in proportion to system bleed or initiated by the optional water me ter time. A feed limit timer prevents chemi-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

Product Review


cal overfeed.

The CW300's dual-biocide timer offers

daily, weekly and 28-day programming cy cles for addition of two separate biocides to prevent microbiological growth from foul ing the cooling tower components. Summa Engineering For more information, Circle reply card No. 147



Consulting Engineers & Architect

Labcor's new Waterproof pH tester offers the versatility and reliability of a portable pH tester in a waterproof housing that floats. The tester has a replaceable sensor. The same electronic components can be used over and over, or replacement sensors will avoid contamination in important experiments. Built-in Ag/Ag CI reference is ideal for routine measurements. Clog-resistant Kynarjunction is recessed to protect against breakage. Optional ATC is available for those experiments where varying tempera

1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. LIW 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531



Consulting Engineers •Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply


ture readings are critical. Labcor

Tel.:(905)875-2144 Tel.: i905 643-8166

Fax:(905)875-2145 Fax:(905)643-8171

Tel.: 613 247-0111


For more information, Circle reply card No. 148 engineers

Hydraulic atomizing




COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Soiid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t O 11 e n sIms hubickl associates

TEL:(905)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (905) 668-0221 COBOURG •TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO


UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE PLANNING & ENGINEERING BEX C-Series Hydraulic Atomizing spray nozzles operate on relatively high liquid


pressures to produce a hollow-cone spray

with small particle sizes. They are used for humidification, disinfection, pollution con

Innovative Consulting in

trol, etc. Standard materials of construc tion are brass,303SS,and 316SS. The cores and orifice inserts are all 316SS. Standard

pipe connection is 1/4 MPT male or female. They are also stocked with 1/4BSPT threads. BEX Engineering For more information.

Environmental Services XCG Environmental Servit^s Inc.


IVIississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

Circle reply card No. 149 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

• Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater 'Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

'Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment 'Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization 'Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. • Hydrogeologi'and Groundwater Investigations


Product Review

Modern problems may be helped by "Fossil" technology To keep tap water safe for Canadians to storm drains, and primary health concerns pollution. It is designed to provide the ben drink, millions of dollars a year may have are the bacteria and viruses in run off. efits of unattended cleanup and maintenance to be spent on cutting edge technology as a • For the first time in 20 years, Canadians of the catch basins and storm sewers. response to agricultural and urban polluted may witness an overall decline in water qual The Filter is a trough apparatus which ity, because ofcontinued urban development, utilizes filter paks containing loose hydrorun off. The culprits are not foaming in dustrial outfalls or smelly sewage treatment unless polluted run off is controlled. phobic absortjent material which, once in plants; real progress has been made in these Because all run off cannot be captured stalled in water drainage inlets, underneath areas. Quite often, the pollutants the gratings, collects, absorbs and of greatest concern are those that retains the hydrocarbons and other INLET GRATING wash offfrom city streets and front hazardous contaminants, while FOSS L F LTER™ lawns, harvested forests and farms. permitting the unrestricted passage While tourism is a billion dol

of the urban run off water. It func

lar business in Canada,fears about

tions as a water purifying system at the point ofentry of urban storm water drainage systems. As the run off enters the installed drainage in

the pollution coming out of storm drains keep thousands away from recreational facilities.


warnings urge people to limit the fish they eat and, in some cases, pregnant women and children are

let, it falls into the Fossil Filter and

flows through a replaceable filter pak, which should remove over 99% of the petroleum-based con

told not to eat fish at all. And that's the fish that are left. In Lake On



tario alone, where a multi-million

dollar sport and commercial fish ing industry is declining, storm af ter storm washes garden and DRA N AGE NLET household pesticides into streams at concentrations high enough to kill off the food supply for fish. like sewage, and few communities can af The troubling realities of polluted run ford elaborate treatment works, the best off have been overlooked in a public debate prospect for cleaner water is to prevent run offfrom becoming polluted in the first place. preoccupied with more visible environmen Effective prevention requires a combination tal concerns. But a closer look reveals that disasters can occur one molecule of pollu of technical solutions and public action. It tion at a time: requires holding all polluters in a watershed • Polluted runoff from urban centres across responsible, rethinking how neighbourhoods the country shares the blame for the broad are designed and reviving community creeks decline in fish and wildlife.

and marshes.

• Many of the country's most unhealthy

A proposed new device called a Fossil Filler is an attempt to respond to run off

beaches are next to outfalls from urban

Gorman Rupp

AD INDEX Acuflow Diag Addtek

68 Consolidated GIroux... 32 58 Contech 72 70 35 Corrosion Intervent

Analytical Meas. ... RV Anderson .52,53 Coster Eng A nth rafliter 68 Dagex-JWI Aquablast 68 Davidson Env. Aquatic Sciences 66 Deep Shaft 56 Degremont Armtec BEX Brian Controls Can Am Ins Can. Ex. Man

Cancoppas Canlon Canwit

Carsen Group Centrico CH2M Hill/G&S Chemline Plast


18 16 68 63 2 72 73 12 33 15 71

62 65

Greenwood Env. GTI - Canada Hach Hartford Heath Hoskin Sc

The unit will easily adapt to any size or shape of a typical drainage inlet; it will fit under the steel or

cast iron grating and will collect hy drocarbons and other contaminants

from daily run offs without imped ing the catch basin capacity. It can also catch contaminants entering through both the grated and curb openings. The Filter will fit any new installation or serve as a "retrofit" on an existing installation. It is estimated that, under normal usage, the useful life of an absorbent filter pak will be about six months. Heavily used streets or parking lots may require more frequent replacements. MJ. International For more Information, Circle reply card No. 150

26 OCPA 68 Parkson 6 PROECO 7 Restoration Cons 50 RMS Envirosolv 73 R&R Labs 71 Schlumberger

47 73 73 65 71 14

79 54


Hydro Dynamics 12 Hydromantis

73 Simcoe Eng 54 Sisteam


71 72 10


Stormceptor Sydio 73 T. City Iron Wks

39 29 23




37 22 71 37 73 19 5

Trojan Vanton Pump

43 55


17 49 14 66 4

Industrial Waste Derrick 9 Intertec Eaglebrook 36 LaidlawEnv. Eckel 70 Lamson Vyion Ecodyne 35,46 Master Builders Eimco 80 Microbics Electrometers 71 Milltronics Env. Cleaning 72 MJ Int'l Equipompe 73 Nasco Fabricated Plastics 27 National Inst General Carbon 4 Norwest Labs GL&V 11 NRC

Victaulic Walker Labs Waterloo Concrete WTC

21 71

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1995

MAPS'" Total Integrated Communications

\(i€^ RF Radio


&!<»' OS

.Rf"^' > Pi*


■^ *



Schlumberger developed

MAPS to match metering technologies to your unique requirements. Water, gas, and electric utilities can increase productivity and optimize efficiency with this integrated and modular set of meter communication products and market-driven communica tion technologies. You can lower overhead

while improving service to your residential, commercial and industrial customers.

MAPS can provide a complete system approach utilizing your existing communi cations infrastructure.

Your investment in MAPS solutions is protected by Schlumberger's dedication to

providing your utility with a successful migration from current to new tech

No other company in the

nologies that will perform to your exact


world can deliver comparable

be sure your needs are met with MAPS lead ing-edge open architecture under a com

metering-based research.

As your requirements evolve, you can

mon host software platform. Applications range from handheld computers to tele

phone systems to radio frequency fixed networks developed by Schlumberger and our joint-venture partner. Motorola.

engineering, and manufac

Contact your local Schlumberger

turing expertise to your utility

Sales Representative for more information on products, systems & services and to request a MAPS system demonstration.

when and where you need it.

For more information call: 1-800-956-MAPS (6277) Schlumberger Industries

7275 West Credit Avenue

Mississauga, Ontario L5N 3J6

'nformation, Circle reply card No. 151

maps is a trademark of Schlumberger Industries, Inc.

Tel" tSOOt 303 3fi3-7aRfi- FAX. FAY- mnnt AR"? rqh'J © Motorola Is a1995 registered trademark of Motorola, lei. ^auu) (800) 463-6383 copyright Schlumberger Industries, Inc.Inc. Internet; esposito @ tallassee.wm.316.com

8-95 mcsi 64

,IVIAP^ Leading Meter Communications"

IS, Until now, all low-head filters had one thing in common, a travelling bridge transport arrangement for the back wash hood and pumping equipment. Travelling bridges work well enough, but they add to the capital and operating costs of a filter and are the focus of mainte

Partition Plate Partition Plate

Media Supprart Panels Partition Support

nance attention on most. Convinced there must be a

better solution, EIMCO engineers have taken the travelling bridge back to the drawing board. The result? A bridgeless low-head filter using ElMCO's corrosion-resistant underdrain and a revolutionary new drive mechanism for the hood.

tugged, Corrosion-Resistant Underdrain System


We took a little off the top and lowered your bottom line The filter shown here features self-propelled back wash hood driven by the Trac-Vac™ pneumatic traction system. Trac-Vac drives use pairs of sliding pneumatic clamps to transport the hood and pump across the filter along a fixed guide rail. Transport bridges, gear motors, drive shafts, sprockets, bear ings, pillow blocks and bridge alignment problems have all been eliminated, reducing both capital and maintenance costs substantially.

The Trac-Vac system is widely used to transport suction sludge collectors in potable water clarifiers. With over 600 units installed they've earned a sterling reputation for mechanical reliability and control flexibility.

To find out more about reducing filtration expense with Travelling Hood and Travelling Bridge Filters, contact your local EIMCO sales representative.

EIMCO Process Equipment A Division of Baker Hughes Canada Inc. 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2

(905) 625-6070 FAX (905)625-3519

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 152