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ISSN-0835-605X

June/July'95 Vol.8 No. 3

President STEVE DAVEY

CONTENTS

Issued June, 1995

Editor and Pubiistier TOM DAVEY Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4052 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumler

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem.

Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacVIro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monttily business publication publlstied by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides autfioritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat

ment plant operators and contractors. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

ProductAgreement No.18197 Second Class Mail

Registration No.7750 Printed In Canada, by Webb Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year,$80.00 for two years,$25.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) All advertising space orders, copy,artwork, film, proofs, etc., should tie sent to: Envi ronmental Science & Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Lfnit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel: {905)727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

C*n*dUrt ou«<n««* H Press

Pulp & Paper Industry Special Canada's first tertiary effluent treatment system in operation at Crestbrook B.C. Britain's puip & paper industry considers the environment State-of-the-art Thai P&P waste treatment plant passes performance tests Dioxans and furans - how dangerous are they? Cooperation leads to concrete solutions What can industry use when methyl chloroform is phased out? .. Reducing water treatment plant sewer discharges OWWA/OMWA meeting held on 50th anniversary of VE day Sustainable development and the state of the environment What criteria should measure safety? Permanent flow monitoring system improves operations Deschambauit opts for septage treatment Global environmental market to be $391 biiiion by 1998 Could fibre optics locate your valve problem? Largest automaking complex in North America uses a modified batch process to treat wastewater Turning used tires into frames for catchbasins and manholes

Water Environment Association of Ontario conference report Health & Safety Auditing Part il - practical considerations to improve effectiveness

64 66 67

68 . 18

. 19 .22 .24 .28 .29

.32 .35 .36 .38

.40 .42 .48

.50

Seeing how incinerator emissions stack up instrumentation technology keeps pace with regulatory and

.52

process control demands Research alliance pays off for Soiinst Subsurface remediation - a comparison between the

.56

Netherlands and Ontario

.59

.60

Microbiai "biofiiter" used to dean up contaminated groundwater.

.62

Controlling odours from sewers Economical weight loss program for PCB light ballasts Why there's no room on the environmental bandwagon for environmental engineers - Ontario's PCB history

.75

Departments Industry Update R&D News Product Review

Reader Service Card

8 43 77

33, 65

Classifieds Literature Reviews.. Ad Index Editorial Comment.

.83

.84

45

. 88, 89 94 5

Cover Story. The Pulp & Paper industry is a major factor in Canada's economic health and is currently enjoying a surge of prosperity. With MISA regulations now in place, the P8iP industry will require significant environmental goods and con sulting services. Once again ES&E provides a special focus on the P&P industry, beginning on page 64. Photograph courtesy Domtar Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

The utility of obiivion neers who designed improved drinking

Ottawa - An Ontario plan to prod municipalities into buying buses from a heavily subsidized bus maker has enraged rival manufacturers and prompted charges that the province is snubbing last year's much-hyped interprovincial free-trade deal - Globe & Mail May 3.

water and sanitation facilities.

But technology, and the goods and serv ices it produces,is also biodegradable. Even computers and software which aroused awe a mere decade ago are quickly overtaken by incredibly creative programs which are faster, better, more reliable and usually cheaper. Politicians, unfortunately,seem congenitally blind to the inevitability - even the desirability - of periodic industrial fluctua

Biodegradability of organic matter

is fundamental to the cycle of life in our natural environment. Eight decades ago, Ardem,Lockett and Fowler harnessed this natural process when they built the world's first activated sludge facility which became a landmark in wastewater treatment technology. Now en larged, the plant is still working and pass ing motorists can observe it as they approach Manchester from an overhead motorway. Few realize that they are viewing a work ing monument to environmental progress. Biodegradibility also has a literary side. John Updike once wrote an elegant Ode to Rot in which he examined the value of de

cay with poetic wit and scientific insight. Jean Dubuffet, once said to be the most

important French visual artist of any kind since World War II, affirmed his beliefs in

tions which make obsolescent industries

tion of communism now tragically appar ent, Schumpeter's prediction is clearly more accurate than Marx's. Moreover, many in our arts communities, as Schumpeter pre dicted, become hostile to capitalism. Schumpeter's theory of creative destmction cannot be denied. What was once

thought to be astounding conjecture a gen eration ago, is now commonplace to our children. And more than mere toys and luxuries are begat by this creative gale of destruction. Life expectancy, especially for children, rose dramatically with the devel-

his work. The Utility of Oblivion. M. Dubuffet passed into oblivion himself in 1985, but his statement, as well as his works

of art, will probably survive him. A com plex man, he also wrote eloquently on the defence of illiteracy, an area where he would have much to defend these days; but that's another story. Biodegradability also applies to busi nesses, which have natural life spans. Un less industries evolve in changing times, it is normal for them to wither and die as de

velopments such as robotics, computers, fi bre optics and biotechnology create new goods and services at ever increasing speed. But out of the wreckage emerge new markets which displace older, usually dirtier, energy intensive industries. Wooden hulls and sail,for example,gave way to steel and steam, which later yielded to titanium and jet engines.

Joseph Schumpeter once described capi talism as: A dynamic process of wealth creation and change, driven by technologi cal innovation. He argued that this would cause a perennial gale of creative destruc tion, adding that the social justification of capitalism would erode when intellectuals voiced hostility to cultural conditions in advanced capitalist societies. But Karl Marx said it would be the economic forces

which would destroy capitalism's political and social superstructure. Schumpeter was bom in Vienna in 1893, the same year that the German-bom Karl Marx died and was buried in London. With the economic and environmental devasta

Discovery, Innovation and change are the very essence

wither, while encouraging vibrant new tech nologies to develop and prosper. In ecology it is called the balance of nature; in NDP politics, it is called corporate cruelty. But the subsidized industries could in volve far more than economic waste. Com

menting on the bus company bail out, a sen ior federal official told the Globe that if

Ontario were to be consistent with the spirit of the inter-provincial trade deal - which Ontario spearheaded - Premier Rae would not be talking about giving subsidies to a dying industry. And industrial leaders have repeatedly stressed that true job security lies in a willingness to let the obsolete die. Such wise counsel is invariably un heeded. Political courage, so necessary to stop the artificial resuscitation of ailing in dustries, is a scarce commodity these days. Industries are propped up, sometimes at

of economic survival, as

$200,000 per job, often merely providing

well as being the best way of Increasing productivity, yet governments In many countries, continue to pour money Into Industrial geriatric cases.

temporary palliatives at the expense of fu ture employment. Such actions will probably give shortterm security to today's workers, while en suring long-term unemployment for their sons and daughters. The sad spectacle of 25,000 people camping overnight outside a GM plant in sub-zero temperatures in Janu ary 1995 - merely for a chance to fill out

opment of technology. It has been estimated

job applications - could be a grim precur sor of future employment patterns. Discovery,innovation and change are the

that in 1995, some 2.5 million fewer chil

dren will die from disease than perished in 1990.

But let's go back to 1665, when 6,000 people died every week during an outbreak of bubonic plague in the City of London. Millions more have died around the world

from cholera, typhus, tuberculosis and a myriad of other diseases. While two World Wars brought forth millions of casualties,

few realize that 20 million people lost their lives in the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic alone. Tiny germs, viri and parasites, nur tured by primitive sanitation and unsafe drinking water, have proved to be far more lethal than the great engines of war. While there is much to be done, much has been achieved. Polio has been curbed

and smallpox eradicated, thanks to medical science and the work of the pioneer engi

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

very essence of economic survival, as well as being the best way of increasing produc tivity, yet governments in many countries, continue to pour money into industrial geri atric cases.

Government interventions in the job market are invariably disastrous. Heroic life-support measures are taken to prop up dying industries, while high-tech ventures, the key to our future,remain starved offunds or rendered anaemic by low-bid buying pro cedures which focus on price while being blind to quality, reliability or durability. Unless we curb our mountainous debts

and unwillingness to confront economic and environmental realities, foreign banks will shortly teach us the oblivion of our political independence. Canada too, might also then become biodegradable.


Reader Feedback Dear Mr. Davey; I just wanted to take a moment to let you know how much I enjoyed the article by Adam Latawiec ("What would chemistry's historical giants think about our attitudes on chlorine and risk assessment?"), which appeared in the September, 1994 issue of ES&E. This thought-provoking discussion had the right mix of fact, opinion and hu mour to help people begin to think about the complex issues surrounding risk assess

Nations applies here - i.e. no power, etc. Do you have any contacts in OWWA, BCWWA or WHO that may be able to share info/technology? All going well (I come back alive), I will supply applicable photos and technical write up for possible publica

1994 issue.

Ronald W.Brecher,PhD, C.Chem., DABT Principal, Global Tox

ments.

Brian Stevenson

5. Your attack on grant applications was interesting. It seems to me that scientific professionals are creative as well, tailoring their research proposals to make them more marketable, more often than not these days directly to large corporations themselves.

Crestbrook Forest Industries

P.O. Box 4600, Cranbrook, BC VIC 4J7

Dear Editor:

Your editorial of the May 1995 issue of Environmental Science & Engineering was, at the very least, provocative. I respond to a number of points in turn: 1. Your title for the article was a misnomer.

While the title (Art, language and the envi ronmental sciences should not be in con

Dear Tom:

Re: Mozambique article in ES&E

As a result of numerous inquiries from your readers, including consulting firms and col leagues who had read my article in your July issue outlining the AWWA work I under took in Mozambique, I have been busy giv ing talks and slide presentations to a vari ety of service clubs, church groups and or ganizations. I must admit I was amazed at the wide readership of ES&E, not just from those who subscribe to your periodical, but from those who read the magazine in busi ness reception areas and issues passed on to friends and family members,schools,etc. The most interesting inquiry I received was from the superintendent of the Gananoque Public Utilities Commission. Gord Palmer, who offered me two diesel

standby pumps - in excellent condition,each delivering 1950 U.S. gallons per minute,for use in a Third World water project. I have the pump rating curves, installation instruc tions and other pertinent data. If any of your readers can identify a recipient for those pumps I would appreciate their contacting me so these pumps can be put to good use. I can be contacted directly at the Ministry of Environment and Energy, Investigations and Enforcement Branch, Box 820, 133 Dalton Avenue, Kingston, Ontario, K7L

4X6 or by phone at (613)546-1705. Peter Milley Dear Tom:

I have enjoyed reading your editorials over the last few years and indeed ES&E is a great help to all in industry, such as my self.

My intent with this note is to do some networking. I am taking over three weeks this summer to be part of a team of people involved in a mercy mission to Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa. My task is to come up with a cheap/effective means to treat well water for safe drinking water. As well, I am looking for means to treat domestic sew age (composting toilets come to mind). All the rules of worst case Third World

what made them Renaissance men in the

first place. The fact that you quote them, then belittle the artistic community is in effect like belittling them and their achieve

tion in ES&E.

ment. As a consultant who is involved in

the IWA process,I also enjoyed reading your Editorial Comment, also in the September,

see any great difference between the pur suit of science or the pursuit of art. This is

flict) suggests a piece that would seek to unite various disciplines (arts and sciences) in some sort of concerted effort to deal with

environmental issues, the article instead

sought to ridicule and belittle the opinions of others; opinions that just happen (coinci dence?) to be in opposition to your own. 2. Your use of certain phrases (purposely vague and imprecise?) sought to foster and perpetuate divisions between various disci plines. For example,just who are the "plac ard-carrying demonstrators", or the "idle minds of a leisured class"??

Additional

phrases such as "engineers...found cast as participants in gang rape rather than praetorian cohorts of progress", I believe were meant as support for your position underscoring the hallowed status of the En gineer. I would remind the editor, however, that the so-called praetorian cohorts he in vokes (Roman no doubt) were usually in volved in the rape and pillaging of peoples following victory on the field of battle. Is this the metaphor you were looking for?? 3. You speak of students in the humanities having a rather superior attitude vis-a-vis engineering students. In my experience it was the other way around. Engineers were the arrogant students who felt that they, by virtue of their pocket calculators, were bet ter than the so called Artsies. You also speak of snobbery, but what of your comment that "placard-carrying demonstrators...wouldn't understand what BOD means if presented in a kid's crayon book". No snobbery there? No elitism? Statements like that certainly don't serve to foster cooperation between disciplines(an aim of your paper according to your title). 4. Your discussion of the great Renaissance men of the last few centuries(of which there are precious few today)seems almost apolo getic. You present your opinion, then state that "arts are every bit as important to hu manity". This does not fit with the rest of your article. It is like you are saying "here is my opinion but, please remember that some of my best friends are artists". It sounds suspiciously prejudicial. I would doubt that the great men you quoted would

Where is the exalted scientific methodol

ogy and impartiality there? But I guess since the grants would be for technological pur suits this would be okay. This belies an additional problem which your paper is rife with: your over emphasis on technical means to solve problems. Is technology a means to an end or an end in itself? Yes, technol

ogy can do wonders, but it has also done great harm (but that would be another let ter). 6. Just what is the "real world" you men tion? I would venture to say that environ mental scientists (of which I number) and engineers have also been in their own iso lation - not from the real world (whatever that is) but from the natural world. Thank fully this is changing, despite attitudes ex pressed in your editorial. 7.1 would agree that the advancements made by technology are worthy of great praise. But to be balanced, which your paper is not, technology has had its costs as well. It is partly what has got us into the mess we are in. Implementation of 'better technologies' has been to blame, at least partially, for a great number of problems such as overfished stocks, and increased deforestation, for ex ample. Both these situations result in over simplified natural communities, the long term effects of which are unknown.

And finally, 8. Your statement that the word environment has been elevated to the level of divine is

interesting. I found it noteworthy that an other word in your piece seems to have be come hallowed and sacred. That word is

technology. Just what has been elevated to the status of divine??

Other than this particular editorial,I have enjoyed your magazine. It is usually, your piece notwithstanding, both informative and open to new ways and methodologies of dealing with environmental issues. Your article could have explored more positive aspects of other world views beyond the strictly technocratic "scientific" one. Per haps in concert with other approaches more of our problems could be solved. You do not even entertain this thought. Instead your diatribe sought to alienate and belittle other approaches fostering a negative and divi sive atmosphere. Perhaps you will do bet ter next time.

Yours Sincerely, Brian Roche, B.Sc., M.E.S.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1995


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Industry Update Purchasers warming to ISO 9000 quality series Government procurement agencies in Canada are saying yes, or at least maybe,to the ISO 9000 series of quality assurance standards, according to a survey in the win ter issue of Consensus, a quarterly maga zine published by the Standards Council of Canada.

When asked if they are "considering making ISO 9000 registration a requirement of goods or services purchased in the future", the federal government, Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and New

Brunswick said yes, while Saskatchewan answered maybe. Some governments,including the federal government,already require ISO 9000 com pliance of some purchasers. Perhaps most ambitious is the government of Quebec, which is requiring ISO 9000 compliance from a broad range of product and service providers. On the other side of the issue, some re

spondents expressed concern about the im pact ISO 9000 might have on their smaller vendors, and worried that requiring the standards would favour large Ontario and Quebec companies over small local enter prises. The survey also pointed to the need for improved education of the vendor commu nity to clear up misconceptions about the ISO 9000 series. For example, many still believe that ISO 9000 is strictly a manufac turing standard or only applicable to large organizations. The ISO 9000 series is a collection of

internationally recognized standards for quality assurance and quality management developed by the Intemational Organization for Standardization (ISO). Registration, which involves a quality audit, is the most common means of demonstrating conform ity to an ISO 9000 standard.

Call for papers for No-Dig '96

All industrial MISA regs are now in place Clean water regulations are now law in Ontario for all nine industrial sectors tar

geted under the province's Municipal-Indus trial Strategy for Abatement(MISA). Final regulations targeting the iron and steel manufacturing sector are expected to reduce discharges of toxic chemicals of con cern by almost 81 per cent. Regulations targeting the electric power generation sec tor are anticipated to produce a 26 per cent reduction.

The other seven regulated sectors are: Petroleum, pulp and paper, metal mining, metal casting, industrial minerals, organic chemical manufacturing and inorganic chemicals.

Companies in the petroleum and pulp and paper sectors must comply with the lim its beginning January 1, 1996; compliance is required from iron and steel makers and electric power generating stations on April 13, 1998.

(contaminants and conditions): Aluminum, ammonia, biological oxygen demand, iron,

The iron and steel manufacturing sector regulation targets 12 contaminants: Ammo nia, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chromium, cyanide, lead, napthalene, nickel, oil and grease, phenolics, total suspended solids,

oil and grease, phosphorus, sulphide, total suspended solids, and zinc. The number of parameters for each plant ranges from one at the Bruce Heavy Water Plant to five at nuclear power stations.

and zinc.

Final effluents from the two sectors must

Sector plants are required, through daily, weekly and quarterly monitoring, to show compliance with discharge limits for these contaminants.

dress technology in the fields of utility map ping, location, cleaning and inspecting; remediation; structural lining, coating and segmental rehabilitation methods; microtunneling, directional drilling and "moling"; boring and jacking methods, ma terial and equipment; innovative technology transfer and selecting the proper trenchless alternatives. Speakers will also present case studies and address the potential for appli cation of Trenchless Technology as a means of reducing the social costs of "open cut" methods and educating the public on trenchless needs. Intemational No-Dig '96 will present Conference and Exhibition attendees with the opportunity for viewing equipment, materials, and services related

practice of Trenchless Technology. Conference technical sessions will ad-

by a standardized specific test. As well, the discharge must fall between 6.0 and 9.5 on the pH scale. lence in Environmental Engineering, to the best entry in the competition. This award was presented to CH2M Hill (Englewood, Colorado)for their design of the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, San Fran cisco, California. CH2M Hill integrated the plant with the San Francisco Zoo,using sev eral innovative and environmentally-sensi tive features.

The unique US $220 million plant, which treats wastewater generated by the west side population of 300,000 before dis charge to the Pacific Ocean, is the first in the nation with a zoo on its roof. Located

on land intended for Zoo expansion, the fa cility is 70 percent covered by habitat de signed for the Zoo's future Mammalian Conservation Center and will soon share

habilitation and then observing this equip

prime turf with a variety of impressive neighbors. A community-based task force created by the Department of Public Works ex pressed concerns about visual aesthetics, controlling odour,dust, noise, and vibration, and protecting the Zoo's animals, person nel, resources, and visitor experience dur ing construction. By covering the plant, aesthetics were

For more information, contact: NASTT,

environmentalists to discuss the science and

not kill fish or water fleas when measured

to trenchless excavation and trenchless re ment in action at a field demonstration site.

The North American Society for Trenchless Technology(NASTT),along with the Inter national Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT), has issued an "Announcement and Call for Papers" for Intemational No-Dig '96 to be held March 31 - April 3, 1996 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The No-Dig is a conference and exhibition which will bring together government agencies, utility own ers and operators, contractors, researchers, designers, manufacturers, suppliers and

Ontario's electric power generating sta tions are now required to show compliance with maximum daily and monthly-average concentration limits for nine parameters

435 N. Michigan Ave.,Suite 1717, Chicago, IL, 60611, Tel. (312) 644-0828, Fax (312) 644-8557.

New plant shares turf with zoo The American Academy of Environmental EngineersÂŽ announced the winners of its national Excellence in Environmental En

gineeringÂŽ competition at its Annual Awards Luncheon in April. This year, for the first time, the Academy awarded an over all award, Superior Achievement for Excel

enhanced, and offsite odours were elimi

nated. Extensive supply and exhaust ducting and fans and numerous odour con trol units handle air before it is recirculated

or released. Egg-shaped digesters, unique in the US, are cleaned while closed, elimi nating odour.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, July 1995


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Mobile Sewage Pumping Unit handles emergencies quietly and efficiently. Gorman-Rupp's new portable sewage pumping system has a sound-suppressing enclosure that reduces operating noise levels below EPA 76 DBA Standard. This makes it ideal for

emergency standby and sewage by-pass jobs in heavily populated areas. The unit features a 6" T Series self-priming, centrifugal solids-handling pump. It can pump up to 1,500 gpm and handle 3" diameter solids with heads to 120 feet. Pump will cycle automatically in response to signal from submersible trans ducer liquid level control - allowing reliable, unattended opera tion. The entire unit - including controls - can be locked for extra security and safety. Meets Transport Canada regulations. Other features include: A removable coverplate for easy access to pump interior that permits fast removal of clogs

For more information,

without disconnecting piping or hoses. Centralized control panel with engine start switch, suction and discharge pressure gauges, elapsed running time meter plus other features. Steel frame with heavy-duty torsion bar suspension and hydraulic surge brakes. Removable canopy for easier servicing. Extra large capacity fuel tanks for 24-hour service. Full complement of running lights and reflectors for high road visibility. Contact us now for complimentary fully descriptive literature!

GORMAN-RUPP

Circle reply card No. 195 Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.

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GLl's model 67ID analyzer and 5340D sensor provide a low-cost system lo monitor and automati cally control dissolved oxygen levels. Tlie patented sensor design features replaceable membrane/ electrotle/electrolyte cartridges for

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cau.stic.s, acids and waste water ap plications. Combining a TEFLON-PFA lining and Hastelloy C electrodes, the model IFM 1010 is designed to give su perior installed accuracy under varying pressures and tempera tures.

ease of maintenance and fe-cali-

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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, July 1995


Industry Update

Water safety challenged at BCWWA meeting The largest conference ever held by the BC Water and Waste Association took place in the lovely mountain resort of Whistler, BC, 100 miles north of Vancouver. Some 545

delegates attended the conference and trade show with the theme "Education & Com

munication Keys to the 21st Century". BCWWA, now with 2,500 members, met

May 7-10, 1995; more than 50 papers were presented.

In President Prad Khare's opening re marks he pointed out that: "Incidents of waterbome diseases are higher in British Columbia than anywhere else in Canada, yet other provinces spend 50% more on drinking water treatment." He spoke on the challenges facing environmental profession

als, noting that it was ironic the conference was being held during "Safe Drinking Wa ter Week" in Canada and the US.

On a population basis, BCWWA has possibly the largest per capita membership of any environmental association in Canada. Selected papers from this conference will be published in subsequent issues of ES&E.

BCW&WA 1995-1996 Executive Committee: left to right: Chester Merchant, Dave Swanson, Don Enns, Linda Humenluk,

Bob Jones, Doug Neden (President), Rick Corbett, Prad Khare (Past President), and Frank Belfry. Missing from photo: Dave Thiessen and Catherine Gibson.

(Right) Back row left to right: Dr. Shaun Peck, Deputy Provincial Health Officer, BC Ministry of Health, Brian Crowe, Chair of the Drinking Water Display Committee, and students of Carlsbrook Elementary School In North Vancouver. Photos by Inder Singh

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER

WELLINGTON

Malroz Engineering is a young, dynamic company of professional engineers and scientists experiencing

LABORATORIES

strong growth in the areas of contaminant hydrogeology, waste management,and environmen tal compliance.

Environmental ContamhmntAnaiyih Analytical ReferenceStamlank

Integrity In Professional Analytical Services Specializing in the compliance analysis of potentially toxic organic compounds including: • PCDDs (dioxins), PCDFs (furans) and their precursors(HRMS) • PCBs: Aroclors, isomer/Congener-Specific and Coplanar PCBs(HRMS) • Pesticides/Herbicides • PAHs and other base/neutral extractables

• Chlorinated phenolics, phenoxyacid herbicides and other acid extractables

• Nitrosamines(HRMS) • Stack and ambient air monitoring

We have an immediate opportunity for a motivated and technically competent professional interested in a diversity of environmental projects.

Candidates must have a minimum of5 to 10 years direct work experience in remediation and/or waste management projects. Field and project manage ment experience, and advanced computer skills are strong assets. Excellent oral and written communi cation skills are essential.

The position offers excellent career growth and competitive salary. Please submit resume in confidence to:

Member of:

Malroz Engineering inc.

(GAEL) Canadian Association of Environmental Laboratories (lAETL) International Association of Environmental Testing laboratories (GIG) Ctiemical Institute of Canada (AGS) American Chemical Society (AWMA)Air and Waste fvlanagement Association (AGPO) Association of the Chemical Profession of Ontario *CAEAl - Certified for Specific Tests* 398 Laird Road,Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 3X7 (519}822-2436 Fax(519)822-2849 1-800-578-6985

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 198

Attention Human Resources

MALROZ

168 Montreal Street

Kingston, Ontario K7K 3G4

No telephone inquiries please. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 199

11


Industry Update Philip Environmentai acquires three chemical waste facilities Philip Environmental Inc. has announced that it has purchased two chemical waste treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) fa cilities and a transfer facility from Southdown Environmental Systems, Inc. The TSD facilities, which are fully permit

ted to receive and process a variety ofchemi cal and hazardous waste streams,are located

in Inglewood, California and Birmingham, Alabama. The transfer facility is located in Tijuana, Mexico.

The acquisitions expand Philip Environmental's North American network ofchemi

cal waste facilities into new strategic geo graphic areas. The TSD facilities provide a full range of chemical and hazardous waste

management services including the distil lation of solvents. The acquisitions will also enable Philip to provide new services to its existing industrial and commercial clients. The Mexican transfer facility will provide direct access to the chemical waste streams

generated by United States manufacturing companies operating in the Maquiladoras industrial border zone of Mexico.

Mercury recycling program announced Dorothy Bell, Waste Reduction Commis sioner for the Province of British Colum

bia, and L.A.Gear,Inc., a California-based

Do What No Other Centrifugal Pump Can..

developer and marketer of athletic and casual footwear, have announced the ex pansion to Canada of L.A. Gear's program to recycle mercury from two earlier mod els of its children's lighted shoes. Work ing in cooperation with Commissioner Bell, L.A. Gear has finalized details of the

extension of its collection, disposal and recycling program to Canadian consum ers and expected to have its program in place by the end of May,pending final US Government approval which is expected at that time.

SOLIDS HANDUNG MODELS

HIGH HEAD MODELS

• Run dry continuously and reliably - unattended. Self-adjusting, oil bath lubricated mechanical seal with solid silicon carbide interface, located outside affects of flow.

• Auto self-prime to 28 feet - reprime on demand. No moving parts. Air ejector priming produces 25 inches of mercury vacuum draw. Install hose, start pumping and leave.

Sales, service and immediate rentals from stock anywhere. GODWIN DRI-PRIME® centrifugal pump models from 2 thru 12 inch, cast iron and 316 stainless steel, diesel and electric. Flows to 5,500 gpm, solids to 3.5 inches and discharge heads to 485 feet t.d.h. Pumps, hose

and piping systems can be shipped anywhere the same day ordered. Ask how rental recapture can be applied towards purchase price. 456 Alliance Avenue

2200 - 46ieme Avenue

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Lachlne, QC, H8T 2P3 TEL:(514)631-3533 FAX:(514)631-8224

TEL:(416) 766-7471 FAX:(416) 766-7399 ENVIRO SOLV INC.

TOLL FREE: 1-800-563-1093

For more information. Circle reply card No. 208 12

Last summer,L.A. Gear began replac ing the motion activated switch (which contains less than one half gram of mer cury) in two earlier models, L.A. Lights® and My L'il Lights™, with a more envi ronmentally-friendly ball-bearing switch. Under the program,consumers can call a toll free number(1-800-786-7820)to re quest packaging for pre-paid shipment of the shoes containing mercury to a prop erly permitted recycler in the United States. Canada Post Corporation has ap proved the use of their services for the re cycling program.

DATEPAD August 30 - 31,1995. Bridging Markets, Media and Disciplines. A national work shop on business opportunities from envi ronmental technologies. Sponsored by Industry Canada and APRO. Ottawa, ON. Contact: Joanne Braaksma(613)692-4788, fax (613) 692-1348. September 10 -12,1995. Atlantic Canada Section AWWA Annual Conference.

St. John's, NF. Contact BlaineRooney(902) 421-6918, fax (902) 421-6408. September 11 - 14, 1995. Towards a Sus tainable Future - Waste Minimization -

New Solutions for Challenging Times. 17th Annual Canadian Waste Management Con ference. Quebec City, QC.Contact: Jennifer Adams, CEIA,(613) 723-3525, fax (613) 723-0060.

September 21 - 23, 1995. Metro Toronto Hazardous Materials Conference'95. North

York,ON.Contact: David Atwell,Etobicoke Fire Department,(416) 394-8585.

October 2 - 4, 1995. Achieving Success in Health & Safety. OSH'95 Conference and Trade Show. Toronto, ON. Contact: Conference Coordinator, (416) 442-2008,

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


EliminateThe Stress OfConcrete Cracks

CEILCOTE CeilLine Crack-Bridging

Master Builders Product and Installation.

Systems Relieve the Headaches of

Responsibility You Can Count On.

Concrete Cracks and Corrosion.

Master Builders is the leading supplier of worry-free corrosion control installations. A unique combination of excellent products, experienced contractors and strict quality control installation procedures will give you the peace of mind that only Master Builders and its applica tor network can provide.

Ceilcote CeilLine Series from Master Builders is the cure for your current, crack-bridging needs and the prescription for a worry-free future. These systems are highly corrosion resistant and capable of bridging crack rorcoAT

REINFORCEMENT

EijxsTOMERic BASECOAT I

movements i

i

that dcvelop in concrete. Master Builders

can incorporate this crack-

CEILLINE

bridging technology into any of our existing CONDUCTIVE PRIMER

corrosion protection

products to provide greater durability and performance. In addition, we offer the Ceilcote CeilLine 40 system - a stand-alone, flexible membrane that can be applied

Trouble-Free Performance

From the Industry Experts. Master Builders earned its reputation as "the corrosion experts" by doing it right the first time! With every installation you get not only quality products and proven performance, but also the knowledge and skill acquired in more than 60 years of experience in the concrete protection business. To learn more about the Master Builders Corrosion Control Crack-Bridging

with one coat on horizontal surfaces, and one or two

Products, and to find relief from the stress of concrete cracks, call Master Builders at

coats on vertical surfaces.

1-800-718-3211.

■T

Master Builders

Technologies

Master Builders Technologies, Ltd. • 3637 WestonRd. • Toronto, Ontario M9L IWl • (416) 741-3830 • FAX: (416) 741-7925 For more information, Circie reply card No. 209


Industry Update CISTI joins PRISM Document Supply Program The Canada Institute for Scientific and Tech

nical Information has begun supplying docu ments in the OCLC PRISM ILL Document

Supplier Program. This agreement provides CISTI with a ready-made mechanism for sharing its col lection worldwide through its well-estab lished document delivery service. OCLC clients will benefit by having easy access to an unparalleled STl resource, one that in cludes some unique and hard-to-fmd infor mation in science, engineering and medi cine. Located at the National Research Coun

cil of Canada in Ottawa, CISTI is Canada's

largest science and technology information

W20 Announcement

service, providing industry, educational or ganizations and government with worldwide information in all areas of science,engineer ing and medicine. The collection includes some 55,000 journal titles, over half a mil lion books, millions of technical reports, and one of the world's largest collections of sci entific conference proceedings. The collection grows by more than 1,000 items a day, and CISTI currently responds to some 1,800 requests for documents a day. Subjects include engineering,chemistry,food science and technology, and many others.

Wilmot, Ontario enters 1995 Groundwater

Guardian program Groundwater Guardian is a US program

sponsored by the Groundwater Foundation, which supports, recognizes and connects communities who are taking extraordinary care of their groundwater. Fifty-five very diverse communities from twenty-eight states and one Canadian prov ince have entered the 1995 Groundwater

Guardian program. The community populations range from under 400 in Keysville, Georgia to almost one million in

Hamilton County, Ohio. The geographical areas range from over 1,000 square miles to under one square mile. While a commu nity is often thought of as a town or city, a Groundwater Guardian community can be as small as a village, as inclusive as a cor porate entity or as large as two to three coun ties drawing from the same aquifer. Wilmot, Ontario is the Canadian community repre sented.

The diversity of the communities also comes through in the result-oriented activi ties they choose to implement. A commu nity may choose to begin the protection proc ess by building community awareness or to implement a completed Wellhead Protection plan. Whatever their groundwater protec tion need may be, the Groundwater Foun dation offers support, assistance and link ages to both local and national experts.

Variety among the individual communi ties abounds, but they have one thing in com mon,all of them depend on groundwater for a portion of their drinking water, and are working towards protecting it more effec tively. If you would like further informa tion about any of these communities and their protection efforts, please call 1-800858-4844.

Computer interface design could improve nuclear plant safety An approach to computer interface design developed by a University of Toronto indus trial engineer could lead to improved safety and reduced human error in the nuclear

George Zukovs, President of W20 is pleased to announce the appointment of Ken J. Roberts,Ph.D.as Vice-President, leading the water treatment group.

In his position with W20,Ken will pro vide services in water supply treatabllity with an emphasis on new and emerg ing contaminants, and in the plant optimisation areas, including water sup ply and distribution system documenta tion.

Ken has over 25 years experience in the water resources field, including research, plant operational trouble shooting and policy development. He was previously responsible for the On tario Ministry of Environment and En ergy drinking water and groundwater management programs. He is a Registered Professional En

gineer In Ontario and holds undergradu ate and postgraduate degrees in Chemi cal Engineering. W20 specializes in the evaluation, optimisation, planning and process de sign of water, sewage and stormwater facilities. The scope of services covers water and wastewater treatment, water

efficiency and wastewater minimization, combined sewer and stormwater man

agement, water resources/water qual ity and municipal Infrastructure studies. 14

power plant control rooms of the future. "Controlling a power plant is a very com plicated business. The interface should not contribute to the difficulty of the task," said Professor Kim Vicente, a specialist in in terface design in U of T's Department of Industrial Engineering. He developed the framework in cooperation with Professor Jens Rasmussen of Denmark.

"By incorporating 'smart instruments' that represent relevant information about the state ofcomplex systems to the control room operators who monitor them,our ecological interface design framework (EID) will re duce the opportunity for error and acci dents," he explained. A major problem with complex systems, whether they be nuclear power plants or air traffic control areas, is that what is going on throughout the system cannot be directly observed by the human eye, said Vicente. Each instrument tends to be presented indi vidually, and there is virtually no integra tion of display elements. This makes it dif ficult for the operator to perceive the over all state of the system, even if all the re quired information is in the interface, let alone decide how to respond to changes or faults in the system. Those in charge of monitoring a nuclear plant, for example, typically sit in a control room filled with different analog meters or

digital numerical displays. One instrument may indicate temperature and another may indicate fluid level but none alone can be

used to answer the high level questions with which operators are concerned, such as "is the plant in its desired state?" To obtain the answer to such questions operators must identify the relevant information for the current context, collect the information on the various meters that are sometimes lo

cated far apart from each other, and then mentally integrate the information. EID will provide the higher order infor mation needed for controllability, thereby eliminating the need for mental calculations. In addition, that information is presented in a form that exploits the power of percep tion, thereby allowing operators to quickly and effortlessly extract the higher order in formation "at a glance". Although EID is a relatively new ap proach to design, industry has become in terested. Mitsubishi of Japan has recently initiated a five-year research program solely on EID. Vicente's design framework has already been adopted by Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Laboratories in Japan as the basis to design a prototype advanced con trol room for the next generation of nuclear power plants. It has also been used by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Research and Honeywell as an example of state-ofthe-art advanced interface design. Contact; Kim Vicente, Department of Industrial Engineering,(416) 978-7399.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Hcrcff DR/aooo uv-vis speetropHotometei'

M new

of eanabiUty in water

auality All the Hach

Analytical Methods and More...

The DR/4000 combines Hach's

expertise In water quality chemistry and the preparation of single-dose, premeasured reagents with a scanning spectrophotometer that offers specifications usually found only in much higher-priced instruments, Ease or Use

The system stores 150 pre programmed methods and interactive software quickly guides the user through an analysis. The DR/4000 can also store up to 200 usergenerated calibrations,

Choice of Models

The DR/4000 U Spectrophotometer has UV and visible spectrum capa Multi-Language Capability Step-by-step instructions are shown on the display screen. Choose from a list of languages. Instrument

Reliability At power-up, the DR/4000 automatically tests wave

Unique Modular sampling Choose from manual testing,

multi-position carousels,flow cells, or sipper system. Change over takes only five seconds, Hach UV 254

Program

The instrument automatically calculates readout in ABS/cm

for any of four different flow cell path lengths.

bilities(190 to 1100 nm), The

DR4000 V has visible spectrum capabilities only(320 to 1100 nm). Bring a wider spectrum of testing capabiiityto your laboratory. Request literature no. 4605.

length calibration, lamp align ment, memory, voltage, and offset correction. ISO 9001 Certified

Data Storage and Recall

The DR4000 stores up to 200

measurements. Data is easily downloaded to a computer or printer.

HACH COMPANY

WORLD HEADOUARTERS P.O. Box 389

Loveland, Colorado 80539

Telephone: 970-669-3050 Fax: 970-669-2932

HACH EUROPE, S.A./N.V. Chaussee de Namur, 1

B-5150 Florlffoux (Namur), Belgium Telephone:(32)(S 1)44.71.71 Fax:(32)(81)44.13.00

For more information, Circle reply card No. 210


Industry Update Auto firm teams with Laidiaw on waste

minimization program CAMI Automotive Inc. has teamed with Laidiaw Environmental Services and

Laidiaw Waste Systems through a singlecontact, on-site service initiative to advance

its drive to minimize waste at its Ingersollbased auto assembly plant in Ontario. Laidiaw will assume responsibility for an in-plant team, for the next year, dedi cated to enhancing CAMI's waste minimi zation, recycling and residue management processes throughout its facility. The ini tiative also calls for the sharing of revenues

generated from the sale of recyclable mate

rials by Laidiaw Resources, the company's recyclables marketing group. One of Laidiaw's main priorities will be to assist CAMI with the ultimate goal of eliminating the need to send any plant waste to landfill, said Jerry Matwey,Environmen tal Senior Specialist for the automaker. "From the beginning ofour operation six years ago, we have been aggressive in re

ducing our solid waste to landfill output. To date, we have achieved a reduction of 95

per cent through recycling. Now with Laidiaw's expertise and resources available on a day-to-day basis, I see no reason why we can't achieve our goals," said Matwey.

"The in-plant Laidiaw team, which in volves a 26-person labour pool, will take the lead in all our daily waste management activities and systems improvements, in cluding source elimination,regulatory com pliance, records keeping and auditing and the control ofoutgoing recyclables and waste residues," noted Matwey. Matwey said CAMI is looking for both time and cost savings, as a result of its de cision to bring one company into the plant to reduce and manage its hazardous and nonhazardous wastes.

Firm fined $150,000 for confined space violation ESM Metallurgical Products Inc. of Nanticoke, Ont. was fined $150,000 in con nection with a workplace accident on June

TIRED

3, 1993 that resulted in the death of two of

its employees. The company, which manufactures chemi cals used in the iron and steel industry, pleaded guilty to a charge of failing to en sure that a confined space was tested for safety by a competent person before a worker

RESULTS YOU NEED?

entered it.

The environmental demands, which are

On the day ofthe accident,Robert Bishop, 32, and Robert John Gilbert, 30, along with

currently being placed on corporations

three co-workers and a foreman, were check

and municipalities to control B.O.D.

ing to see why coal dust was flowing slowly from a holding tank to a mixer that blends it with magnesium and calcium carbide. Dur ing the process, nitrogen is introduced into the tank to prevent moisture from creating an explosive acetylene gas. The workers had disconnected the nitrogen line from the tank, but had not purged the tank of nitrogen. Bishop climbed down into the tank and Gilbert was standing by the entry hatch when

(Biological Oxygen Demand) dis charges and reduce in-plant treatment costs, have created a tremendous need Derrick Model 58 Flo-Li ne unit process ing waste water application handling 1,800 U.S.G.P.M. and recovering solids at 80 mesh.

for efficient, reliable and cost effective

equipment to reduce waste water solids concentrations. Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years of fine screening

a thud was heard inside the tank. It was

experience, is now capable of offering

feared that Bishop had fallen and hurt him

this equipment technology to the waste

Recovery of processed carrots from o waste water stream using Derrick urethane screen deck.

water industry worldwide. Through uti

self. Gilbert remained at the hatch while the other three workers and the foreman ran to

lizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening

get rescue equipment and call an ambulance. When they returned, they discovered Gilbert

unit design, high fluid capacities can be effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/particulate removal.

had also entered the tank.

Wearing makeshift breathing apparatus, they pulled Bishop and Gilbert out of the tank. Both workers had been overcome by nitrogen gas and died of asphyxiation. The court was told that none of the work ers had been trained in the hazards of con

fined spaces or ofnitrogen gas and there were no set procedures for testing a coal tank be fore a worker entered it. In addition, none of

DERRICK

the workers had appropriate protective equip ment. However, they were not required to enter coal tanks as part of their duties. In passing sentence. Justice of the Peace Lena Mills accepted a joint submission by the

CORPORATION

590 Duke Road Buffalo, New York 14225

Typical screen oversize recovery of organic solids from processing waste water slurry, using a .45 mm patented urethane screen deck.

Tel;[716]683-9010 Fax:[716]683-4991

defendant and the Crown for a fine of

$150,000. Among the facts that supported the IN CANADA:

16

TORONTO:

BRITISH COLUMBIA:

DAG EX INC.

THURSTON MACHINE INC.

SASKATCHEWAN:

COLLETTE MINING LTD.

TEL:[905] 771-8400 FAX:[905] 771-8911

TEL:[604] 769-3848 FAX:[604] 769-5859

TEL:[306] 683-1966 FAX:[306] 931-1128

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 211

joint submission were that the threat of harm was extremely severe; the defendant had no prior convictions under the Occupational Health and Safety Act; and the defendant had made substantial efforts to improve its safety training and procedures since the accident.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


lo

*

Money Down the Drain Today's tough economic conditions call for Engineers to review every decision. Even a "straightforward" one ■ such as which material to specify for storm sewers - can significantly effect development costs. Introducing Armtec's Ultra Flo®Spiral Rib Pipe for today's storm sewer systems.

Ultra Flo® spiral rib pipe is an innovative, flexible

metal pipe which has been proven highly reliable in thousands of installations.

•77m; Construction Products

It's unique rib design has a low manning's "n" coefficient similar to rigid pipe materials. Ultra Flo is light weight, inexpensive, easy to get and easy to handle. Available in long lengths (12m) and

diameters of up to 2600 mm. It is available in

galvanized steel for normal conditions or Aluminized

Type II for more corrosive environments.

For more information, contact the Armtec office near you. Sales Offices: Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Reglna, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Guelph, Toronto, Ottawa, Quebec City, Montreal, Dartmouth, Sackvllle, St. John's, Bishop's Falls and Fresno, California.

Solving the needs of Canadian Engineersfor over80 years. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 173


Infrastructure

By Jon Behneyworth and Drew Black*

Cooperation leads to concrete solutions Rim

accept an incoming drop connection. These factory manufactured fittings were utilized

Flev.

Monhole Frame

45tmm Adjuslment

at intersections where smaller storm lines

intercepted the 2100 mm diameter trunk sewer in lieu of cast in place structures. By utilizing these precast structures Dur ham Region realized time savings,therefore, traffic flow interruption was minimized and

1320mm Cone

residents continued to have access to their

610mm Riser

Safety Grating

neighbourhood. The second portion of the Winchester Road Project involved the installation of the trunk sanitary sewer consisting of 570 m of 675 mm and 605 m of 600 mm concrete

1219mm

pipe. The pipe was designed as lOOD rein forced concrete pipe and was installed to depths of 6.0 m using a Class B bedding. According to Region of Durham specifi cations, the pipe had to be manufactured at a plant prequalified by the Prequalification Committee of the Ontario Concrete Pipe As sociation. The sanitary pipe met all the re quirements of the prequalification program

Riser

375mm Concre e Pipe Wye

Inv, Elev. 160.122

1219mm

Riser

375mm Concrele 45^ Bend

and in addition, each piece of pipe was vacuum tested. Each pipe was stamped with the prequalification logo and marked

375mm Concrete Drop Pip 609mm

R ser

Vacuum tested. 408mm

Etobicoke rolls out the

375mm Concrete Tee Pre-Manufactured

barrel

L

The City of Etobicoke has given away rain barrels to 100 residents. The innova

Drop Structure As Per

S~107 Type B (Modified) Install 15M rebar into riser

wall on

eocti side

of drop to tie into

tive project is part of a pilot project aimed

2100mm Concrete Pipe

at promoting rain water for use on lawns,

CLASS 140-D

for washing cars and windows, or for just about anything needing water in the garden. Over the course of a year, participating resi dents will be asked to help evaluate the rain

Manhoe Tee

concrete encasement.

barrels in terms of effectiveness,ease of use

55.373

and other criteria developed by the City. Etobicoke is the first municipality in The C.M. DiPede Group of Toronto was the general contractor for the project. The contract for the project was awarded at a cost of approximately $2.0 million. Their expertise in constructing difficult projects using innovative and cost effective solutions was a value added asset to the

project. Proctor & Redfern Limited was the consulting engineer for this local improvement project. Waterloo Concrete Products of Cambridge produced the concrete sanitary and storm

Solutions to overcome dif icult site

sewer pipe as well as the precast concrete mh and catchbasins.

conditions encountered on a project in the Winchester Road area of

Whitby, Ont., demonstrate the ben efits of proactive communications and partnering between the owner, designer, contractor, and supplier. This collective co operation resulted in a system engineered underground infrastructure system that will benefit the municipality well into the next century.

The Regional Municipality of Durham called tenders for the Winchester Road area

of Whitby in July of 1994. Included in the 'Waterloo Concrete Products -

Member of the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association 18

tender were trunk storm sewers, trunk sani

Metro Toronto to launch such an initiative.

Staff have been investigating the use of rain barrels to convey the message to the public that storm water should be managed as a resource. According to John Tran, Manager Storm Drainage, who helped launch the ini tiative, "The use of rain water for watering

tary sewer, watermains, and roadways. Because of the depth required for the bur ied services, unique design alternatives were considered and approved. The trunk storm sewer totalled approxi mately 300 m of 2100 mm diameter pipe consisting of 232 m straight pipe, 5 pieces

lawns and the like is a better alternative than

of 18.6" bends, 47.5 m of radius pipe, and 2 pieces of precast 1200 x 2100 mm mh tees

be reduced," he added.

complete with 375 mm secondary tee to re ceive the drop connection. The storm sewer pipe was designed as lOOD reinforced con crete pipe with maximum depth of bury of

discharging to storm sewers where it mixes with polluted runoff." "In fact, in areas of combined sewers, it is possible that by disconnecting downspouts and redirecting the flow to rain barrels, the volume of overflow to lakes and rivers may

The project is being funded by Environ ment Canada's Cleanup Fund, a component of the $150 million Great Lakes 2000 Pro

5.8 m.

gram. The design and production of the prototype rain barrel were conceived in part nership with Stormceptor Inc., a local

The design altematives agreed to by the Region and the consultant included precast concrete mh tees with a secondary tee to

the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy.

Etobicoke firm. Environment Canada and

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Air Pollution

By Bernard Made*

\Nhat can industry use when methyl chloroform Is phased out? choosing an alternative. If you use MCF as a cleaner or a

degreaser, and need to replace it with an other cleaner,examine the following aspects

of your operation: the necessary degree of cleanliness, the source and type of soiling and the potential for eliminating or reduc ing solvent use, the nature of the materials being cleaned, and space limitations. For any potential substitute,consider the

:

following factors:

• occupational health and safety concerns, and how to address them

• environmental concerns, such as VOC

emissions or wastewater disposal, and how to remedy them • all associated costs (capital, energy, oper ating, waste management, training).

ss!afeSS|i|i

MethylChloroform(MCF),also

known as 1,1,1-trichloro-

ethane, is a great chemical for cleaning metal and electronic components, and as a solvent in adhesives and coatings. However, like CFCs, it dam ages the ozone layer and is being phased

Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternative Systems a) Aqueous Cleaning Aqueous cleaning involves washing,

Before seeking a replacement for MCF, determine whether your current process can be changed so that the use of a solvent is no longer necessary. For example, the use of protective packaging may eliminate the need to clean. If the process cannot be changed,

rinsing and drying stages. Although water is the primary solvent in the aqueous clean ing process, water conditioners, detergents, surfactants, rust inhibitors and other agents

there are a number of factors to consider in

Continued overleaf

out by January 1, 1996 by all signatories of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that

POND

Deplete the Ozone Layer. The signatories include Canada, the United States and 140 other countries. As a result of the phaseout, many companies are having to change

IINERS

MIS

their processes or formulations.

i■-»

Regulations on the Phase-out

La*, t ■

r

of MCF Canadian federal regulations state that,

as of January 1, 1995, no one can manufac ture or import MCF in an amount exceed ing 15 percent of that manufactured or im ported in 1989. In fact, the manufacture of MCF has already stopped in Canada. As of January 1, 1996, no one will be allowed to import or export MCF unless it is recov ered, recycled or reclaimed MCF. These regulations do not apply if the MCF is pro duced incidentally or as a by-product in the manufacture of other chemicals, nor do they

apply to MCF that is a component ofa manu factured product. Solvent mixtures are not considered to be a manufactured product and

they are, therefore, regulated. So far, nine provinces have adopted regu lations governing the use of MCF—British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Mani toba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. These regulations establish dates by which the use of MCF is prohibited.

*A/Head, Ozone Protection Programs

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Air Pollution can be added to improve the cleaning per

acceptable alternative to MCF from an en

formance.

vironmental perspective.

bility issue and VOC problem can be solved with proper equipment design.

Aqueous cleaning has several advantages over organic solvent cleaning. The sub stances used are not flammable or explo sive. Aqueous systems can clean particles and films better than solvents, and are par ticularly useful for cleaning inorganic or polar materials. They can also effectively remove organic films, oils and greases. Depending on the specific cleaning ap plications, there may also be disadvantages.

b) Semi-aqueous Cleaning

c)Non-halogenated Organic Solvents

Semi-aqueous cleaning systems involve the use of an organic cleaning formulation, followed by water washing and drying. A surfactant is sometimes added to the organic formulation to improve wetting, emulsification and rinsing properties. It is a liquid cleaning process,either at ambient tempera

These solvents - petroleum distillates, synthetic hydrocarbon formulations, alcohols, ketones, esters, glycol ethers, Nmethyl pyrollidone - have good cleaning ability for a wide variety of soils, especially heavy grease, tar, waxes and hard-to-remove soils. These organic solvents are compat ible with most rubbers, plastics and metals, and they can be used for cleaning watersensitive parts. There is no wastewater stream to manage, and the solvents are re cyclable by distillation. Flammability is a concern but it can be mitigated with proper equipment design. Dry ing times are slower than with chlorinated solvents, and VOC control may be required.

Parts with blind holes and small crevices

may be difficult to clean, and some aque ous cleaner residues can be difficult to rinse.

Drying certain part geometries with crev ices and blind holes may also be a challenge; drying equipment is often required. In some instances, aqueous cleaning equipment re quires more floor space. The presence of metal ions in the aque ous system can cause corrosion or scaling of metal parts. Deionized water may have to be used in the final rinse stages and thor ough drying may be required. In some ap plications, expensive high-purity water is needed. Energy consumption is probably higher than solvent cleaning in applications that require heated rinse and diy stages, and wastewater treatment may be required prior to discharge, but the associated costs may be offset by the savings from not having to buy an organic solvent. Aqueous cleaning is generally the most

ture or heated.

Semi-aqueous systems provide good cleaning ability, especially for heavy grease, tar, waxes and hard-to-remove soils. They are compatible with most metals and plas tics. The non-alkalinity of the process pre vents etching of metals, and a rust inhibitor can be included in the formulation to pro tect parts from rusting. With semi-aqueous systems, rinsability problems may occur and drying equipment may be required. A semi-aqueous system can be a costly process because of recycling or disposing of wastewater. Flammability is a concern with semiaqueous cleaning products that have a low flash point because these products become extremely volatile when sprayed in a con centrated form. Some cleaners are "vola

tile organic compounds"(VOCs),which can contribute to the formation of smog; emis sions of VOCs to the environment may, therefore, be subject to regulatory control in your region. However, both the fiamma-

d) Halogenated Solvents The halogenated solvents - trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride, perfluorocarbons and HCFCs have good cleaning ability for a wide vari ety of soils and are compatible with most substrates. The capital costs to switch from MCF are low; some halogenated solvents are"drop in"replacements for MCF,requir ing no new equipment. They can clean water-sensitive parts, and there is no waste water. Halogenated solvents can be recy cled by distillation. Trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and methylene chloride have been declared "toxic" under the Canadian Environmental

Protection Act(CEPA),and controls may be implemented on their use in the future. If you are considering switching to one ofthese substances, ensure that you minimize emis sions through recovery devices. Some halo genated solvents have low Occupational Exposure Limits and will require more de manding standards to be met. Trichloro ethylene and perchloroethylene are currently identified by Environment Canada as VOCs and some type of control may be required. HCFCs have been suggested as possible substitutes for CFCs. They are less ozonedepleting, but they are not acceptable long-

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some HCFCs is also a concern. HCFCs

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should only be considered as alternatives to MCF if no other technically and economi cally feasible options exist because they of fer no advantages over MCF with respect to ozone depletion potential. Environment Canada has published a comprehensive booklet, a pamphlet and two updating newsletters that contain informa tion on regulations, suppliers of alternatives, case studies and sources of assistance and

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advice. To obtain these documents, send

your request to the following, and specify whether you would like the information in English or French: Ms.Kathy Deeg,Energy Pathways Inc., 251 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 500, Ottawa, Ontario, KIP 5J6, Tel; (613) 235-8086, Fax: (613) 235-2190.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Air Pollution $US12 billion world FGD orders in next five years Over the next five years, the Americas will continue to operate more coal-fired boilers without flue gas desulphurization equipment than any other area of the world. At the sarrie time, the United States will spend more money for flue gas desulphurization systems than any other area of the world. This phenomenon is explained in a new re port entitled World FGD Status and Fore cast 1995-2000. In this report, the

Mcllvaine Company predicts that $US12 billion will be spent for flue gas desulphuri zation systems. These are systems which remove the sulphur from power plant stack gases and generate products ranging from gypsum to ammonium sulphate. The new worldwide forecast predicts that the Americas segment will only purchase 12% of the FGD systems this year. This

contrast, the assumption is made that many

chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)recovery products

of the Asian countries will continue with

and reclamation services into their CFC

their very substantial retrofit plans. In the United States, utilities have the option to either switch coals or install flue gas desul phurization equipment to meet the acid rain reduction requirements. This forecast as sumes that most of the compliance in the United States will be made by coal switch ing rather than flue gas desulphurization. On the other hand,the report points out that, if EPA and the US Congress truly want to achieve the particulate and air toxics as well as acid rain goals and do so at the least cost, then a much larger flue gas desulphurization program would be warranted. Mcllvaine Company predicts that most of the orders placed for FGD systems in the next five years worldwide will be for sys tems that make wall board quality gypsum as an end product. However, there will be significant numbers of systems purchased which will result In other end products.

management practices.

purchase agreement for Halozone's contain ment products and reclamation services. Doug Saunders, York's National Service Manager said he expects that CFC refriger ant will become increasingly difficult to come by in 1996. "We are confident that Halozone will be able to provide us with the quantity and quality of reclaimed refrig erant we will need to continue to service our customers and that this is the best avail

able technology" he said. Such national contractors as Black &

McDonald, Johnson Controls, and Stannair

Conditioning Inc. are now using Halozone's products to offer building owners and man agers containment programs to eliminate CFC emissions. Production of CFCs will cease Decem

number will rise to 54% in 1998. Asia will

purchase 46% of the systems this year and will continue to be a major purchaser throughout the five year forecast. Over the five years, the West European market will only be half as large as the Asian

York International, a major manufacturer of air conditioning equipment has signed a

Halozone wins

international agreements Halozone Technologies Inc. of Mississauga, Ontario has signed agreements expected to

produce revenues exceeding $1 million an

market. The forecast is based on the as

nually with key manufacturers, distributors

sumption that the United States, Russia, China and the United Kingdom do not mount major retrofit FGD programs. In

frigeration and air conditioning sector. These companies are introducing Halozone

and national service contractors in the re

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Water treatment

By Ken Mains*

Treating process solids from water treatment plants

Drinking water treatment proc

esses produce a variety of waste

streams. The nature of the waste

stream depends on the contami nants in the source water and the treatment

process used. Until the late 1970s, these process wastes were usually discharged back to the source. This practice is no longer al lowed in Ontario. Currently, about half of all water plant process waste is treated. Perhaps the simplest approach to the treatment of these wastes is to let the near

est wastewater treatment plant handle the problem. The impact of these wastes on the sanitary system can be substantial and depends on two sets of factors: the waste type and the method used to add the waste to the sanitary system. Waste types vary widely Most water plants in Ontario use aluminum sulphate as a coagulant. How

wastewater treatment plant's incoming ef fluent, its efficiency, when it is applied in this manner, varies with the water plant waste characteristics and will usually be low. Both chemical and

disposal costs might be reduced An alternative approach is to equalize and thicken the process waste at the water plant and to haul or pump the waste to the wastewater plant for application in the aera tion tank effluent for phosphorus precipita tion.

The potential benefits of this technique are appealing. The total amount of chemi cal coagulant used for treating water and wastewater will be reduced along with the total volume of solids discharged to the en vironment. This will reduce both chemical

and disposal costs. On the operational side, however, there

ever, the volume and characteristics of the

are a number of issues that need to be re

process wastes vary widely. Great Lakes plants often use an alum dosage of 8-10 mg/L and produce a waste with good thickening characteristics. Plants that treat colored water often require alum dosages of 30-50 mg/L. These process wastes are high in organics and are difficult

solved. For example, there may not be enough usable aluminum available for phos phorus precipitation, compared to the total waste plant requirement. As a means of comparison, a typical wastewater plant could use 75 mg/L of alum to precipitate phosphorus to meet Provincial guidelines.

to thicken and dewater. Other colored

The annual volumes of wastewater treated

waters, with turbidity and high alkalinity, require dosages up to 100 mg/L and also

than 10:1 due to variations in the source

and drinking water produced are usually within 20 percent of each other. If the wa ter treatment process wastes contribute only 10 percent of the coagulant required for phosphorus precipitation,the added compli cations of two coagulant feed systems may

water quality.

not be worth the small benefit.

have wastes that are difficult to dewater.

Thus, the volume of waste solids generated in treating drinking water may vary by more

The benefits and costs of transporting, storing and feeding the water plant sludge at the wastewater plant may be outweighed by the benefits and costs of alternatives such as discharging to the sewer system, or dewatering to a landfillable solid. The impact of the sludge on the dewatering processes at the wastewater plant may not be desirable, particularly when compared with the effects on dewatering of ferric chloride. Also, the sol ids volume at the wastewater plant that re sults from the inerts and organics in the wa ter process waste may upset the wastewater treatment process.

Given the wide variety of process waste characteristics, each case needs to be evalu

ated individually. The economics improve with larger alum users and municipalities whose water and waste plants are close to gether. One final factor to consider is the degree ofcooperation that would be required between the water and wastewater systems to realize a reduction in total costs. Bench-scale trials at an Ontario

wastewater plant compared the use of colored water process wastes with commereial alum to precipitate phosphorus. These trials indicated that about half of the

aluminum used in the water treatment proc ess was usable in phosphorus precipitation. Chemical costs and solids discharge re ductions are possible. The treatment of wa ter plant process waste by wastewater sys tems should be reviewed individually to minimize the costs attributable to both treat

ment processes.

How should the waste be added to the

sanitary system? The simplest approach to the problem is to equalize the process waste flows at the water plant and discharge the waste into the nearest sanitary sewer of adequate capac ity. This approach has both regulatory as well as process implications. On the regulatory side, the water plant waste will exceed the sewer by-law in sol ids concentration and in aluminum concen

tration, and probably also in iron and other compounds. In addition, the municipality may need compensation if the receiving sewer is subject to combined sewer over flows.

As far as the wastewater process is con cerned, most of the water plant waste sol ids will end up as primary sludge. The nega tive impact on digestion and dewatering

processes will depend on the type and vol ume of the water plant waste. Further, although the aluminum in the water treatment process waste will precipi tate some of the phosphorous in the *Gore & Storrie Limited 22

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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Conference Report

By Tom Kelly

OWWA/OMWA meeting held on 50th anniversary of VE Day

The Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario Municipal

Water Association Joint Annual

by tax increases and, subsequently, by defi cit borrowing. Now that both taxes and defi cits have gone too high we have gone to non

well field from hazardous chemicals.

Conference attracted some 600

delegates at Toronto's Colony Hotel, May

That both of them were successful in

winning support is due to effective commu nications programs, as both men explained in their papers.

7-9, 1995.

Larry Grossman, a former Ontario cabi net minister, gave the keynote address im mediately after the awards presentations. He said the fact that the public did not worry

Their actions demonstrated the benefits

of the improved communications that Karl Kohlhoff, president-elect of the AWWA,

about our water and wastewater infrastruc

said the water works community urgently needs. "We have not done a good job," he said in a luncheon address, and warned that

ture was a measure of the success of the

professionals in the audience. Referring to the award winners, he said that water pro fessionals were seldom recognized, except in the odd instance when something goes wrong. He said that people in the audience

poor communications can result in the im position of regulations based on public misperceptions of water quality.

cared deeply about their work, with public safety taking precedence over knocking off after eight hours on the job. Noting that it was the 50th anniversary of VE Day, he outlined developments since

that year, beginning with the massive in creases in population and demands for all kinds of manufactured goods and services; this sparked a construction boom which con tinued for decades. Then,in the 60s and 70s, while these booms continued, we had the social entitlement boom when programs were built and extended beyond our capabilities. Then came the government regulatory boom.

While these regulations were put in for the right reasons, he said, they required massive capital investment with not enough thought as to their cost-effectiveness.

All of these booms - capital infrastruc ture, social entitlement and regulatory were fed, initially and easily, by increasing government revenue. Then they were fed

Confusion around the Environmental

Dr. Ken Roberts

tax revenue such as licence fees, regulatory fees, applications fees and other sources. For the first time none of the politicians seeking election in 1995 were saying they will build bigger and better projects. These days politicians were saying, I can give you more and better sooner, only if it is possible to maintain public services with no tax in creases. No longer can Canadians afford the best of everything. Chris Webb, of the Meaford, Ontario,

Bill of Rights Following a paper on Options for the Expansion of Municipal Groundwater Sup plies, it became clear that confusion exists surrounding exemptions from the Environ mental Bill of Rights of the Ontario Minis try of the Environment and Energy. John A. Harris and Gary A. Kuehl, of Interna tional Water Supply Ltd., Barrie, Ont., who presented the paper, referred to the need for a municipality planning a new well to pro vide information to the Environmental Bill

of Rights at the time that an application is made to take water. Ed Gill, who heads up

Public Utilities Commission, had some

the office of the Environmental Bill of

tough questions to answer when the com mission proposed to install water metering at customers' expense,even though the town

supply in Georgian Bay. What he faced,

Rights, told Environmental Science & En gineering that the application and informa tion "must go on the Environmental Regis try for a minimum of 30 days for public comment. After the public comment period

though, was mild compared to the anger

Continued overleaf

draws its water from an almost limitless

Pipe tapping excitement at Toronto City Hall. Ottawa was the winning team. ES&Ephoto. 24

Douglas Dusty Hall endured from local in dustries in Dayton, Ohio, when he was launching a program to protect the city's

Rod Holme, left, AWWA Director with AWWA President-Elect Karl Kohlhoff. ES&Ephoto. Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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OWWA/OMWA Report, cont'd. has expired, the Ministry looks at the pub lic comments that were received and places the decision on the Environmental Registry telling the public how many comments were received and how they impacted on the fi

tion and innovative incentives have changed the minds of industry leaders who were an gered by a well field protection program proposed seven years ago. The city is to tally dependent on a well field spanning 23

nal decision, and that information remains

acres of the city's most built-up area, con taining many plants using hazardous mate

on the Registry for a further 60 days." Some delegates at the conference sug gested that this causes unnecessary delays, since, as Harris described in his paper, a municipality applying for a permit for a new well must go through an environmental as sessment process which includes public meetings. Patricia Lachmaniuk, drinking water program specialist with the ministry, clarified the situation by explaining that, as was confirmed by Gill to ES&E after the conference, exemptions can be provided under the Environmental Bill of Rights Act so that public participation processes car

rials.

From Hall's experience, he said the first step in the development of such a program is to survey not only the sources of contami nation, but the experience with those sources. One important lesson he learned was that "engineering people (in industrial plants) cannot be relied upon to provide unequivocal protection where public drink ing water is involved." A paint manufac turing facility which had been engineered to give a minimum of three hours of protec tion against fire was entirely engulfed in 20

ried out under an environmental assessment

minutes, "because of an incident that no-

are not duplicated under the Environmen tal Bill of Rights. The conflicting perceptions among del egates suggested that there is a need for more communication from the ministry so that municipalities, or any organization in volved in any activity with an impact on the environment, will know the requirements and the possible exemptions. Financial incentives help protect a

one envisioned could possibly happen," Hall said. He advised anyone protecting a well field to "assume that the engineering will

well field

In Dayton, said Douglas Hall, the city's environmental protection manager, educa

fail."

The next stage is to hold a meeting with all the people affected - "the people who can help you make decisions...and the peo ple whose ox is going to get gored by the regulations. You get everybody around a table to talk about what makes sense...to

protect your public drinking water supply. Despite the complexity, some of the sim plest methods are most effective."

In Dayton's program,risks from new in dustries are controlled by land use zones, but opportunities are limited because the land is already 94% occupied. A new zon

ing approach tightly regulates the amount and types of hazardous materials that can be employed for new uses. Inventories of hazardous materials for existing uses can not be expanded and all inventories must be reported so that the city can track chemi cal uses and implement the zoning, and manage emergencies at industrial facilities. The protection area extends beyond Dayton, but there was little problem in get ting adjacent jurisdictions and a U.S. fed eral military installation to join the program. The stickiest problem was to convince in dustry. Dayton is offering grants and inter est-free loans to encourage "groundwaterfriendly" businesses to acquire and build on land presently occupied by industries pos ing a groundwater risk. As for the hazard ous industries,"we don't want to shut them down but have them move within the juris

diction to a location outside the protection area," Hall said. The long-term view is to keep existing business and attract new ones so that "Well field protection becomes in the next few years the single greatest eco nomic development factor in our commu nity." Existing businesses can contract with certified auditors to assess the hazards they pose, and can apply for grants to address

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


hazardous conditions and train staff in

WTC holds open house

groundwater protection. The results of the audits do not need to be made public. Hail has set up communication with emergency response authorities, so that a groundwater-knowledgeable person can,for example, help a fire department decide whether to flush a chemical spill into the ground or remove it with absorbents. Moni toring sites have been installed throughout the area so that State authorities can be given an early waming of contamination. When it was launched, there were dire predictions of loss of jobs and exodus of industries but the reality has been differ

Wastewater Technology Centre

Centre Technique des Eaux Usees

Watff & Waslg Ptdnt

ent. Some 115 new businesses have moved

in and existing businesses have reinvested

$200 million in spite of the regulations. The industries which hated the scheme

at first now sing a different tune. Said Hall: "You'll be amazed at how little griping you hear from businesses regulated by this pro gram when there are people from the out side trying to buy their buildings from them constantly, because there's an incentivebased program." Water metering in a small system

The Wastewater Technology Centre held an open house in Burlington In May to show off its range of pollution prevention,control and remediation services. Left to right, Stuart Smith, Presi dent, Philip Utilities Management Corporation, Dr. Bruce Jank and John Neate of WTC. Webb, general manager of the Public Utili ties Commission, said, was "to implement a user pay system" which would provide "a fairer approach to billing customers."

In Meaford, there did not seem to be

The PUC mounted a publicity campaign

compelling reasons for water metering. Georgian Bay had no apparent limitation, the water treatment plant was far from ca pacity, there were no major distribution problems, and no plans to expand the sys tem. The major reason for metering, Chris

through the local media, advertisements, inserts with the electricity bills and direct letters, explaining the fairer method of bill ing and the advantages of water conserva tion, environmental benefits and potential reductions in long-term capital costs. Rates

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were based on an anticipated reduction in water consumption of30% over three years. Consumers were convinced to the extent

that about half of them chose to pay for their meters in a lump sum of $195.00 each, rather than make monthly payments. The money raised from the lump sum payments eliminated the need for the PUC to borrow.

Since metering, average day flows and to tal annual flows have fallen by 37%, and maximum day flow average by 54%. Loss of water through leaks can now be moni tored, and dropped from 32 to 18%. Lawnwatering by-laws had been enforced mainly by the honour system but from a reduction in peak flows "it appears that the custom er's bottom line on the billing is mightier than honour," Webb commented.

"If water utilities are to operate in a fiscally and environmentally responsible manner as well as provide service with a fairer and more business like approach, we have no choice but to meter water," Webb

stated. The challenges that a small system will meet in metering are "many and impos ing," he added, "but not insurmountable." The biggest challenge in any water con servation and protection is perhaps public opinion, but experience in Dayton and Meaford shows how support can be won. As Webb commented: "It ultimately comes down to what the consumer believes is of

by UV absorption No reagent, low operational cost Range: 0- 200 mg /1 Result in 15 seconds, optimum control Output: 6 relays, 4-20niA, 2x RS-232 Alarm transmission by modem Fixed or portable Minimum maintenance

benefit to him or her." Award winners

The Section's highest honour. The Fuller Award was presented to Dr. Ken Roberts, who recently left the MOEE to join W20 as a 3/P. The Norman J. Howard Award was

presented to Ken Wallenius, Sault Ste. Marie; the Dr. Albert E. Berry Fellowship Award, presented for outstanding perform ances in studies emphasizing water works went to Riccardo Di Scipio; the Operator's Meritorious Service award went to Don

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Campbell, Barrie; and the Dr. Albert E. Berry Membership Award went to Lloyd E. Murray, Whitby. 27


AWMA Conference Report

By Carole D. Burnham*

Sustainable development and the state of

When the Air & Waste Man

the environment

agement Association On

tario Section held its Annual

Meeting in Hamilton, the program departed from its traditional focus on technical topics in air and solid waste management. Instead the Con

an overview by Vic Buxton, Director, In dustrial Sectors Branch, Environment Canada, on how to go from rhetoric to re

sults with sustainable development. Eliza beth May of the Sierra Club persuasively presented several concems about the effec-

ference discussed the state of the art in assessment and measure

ment of environmental quality and presented practical examples of how sustainable development can contribute to the improve ment of environmental quality. The Conference included a trade show with 15 exhibits as

well as workshops for science teachers, and a Student Poster Contest. Unlike other confer

w

Remembering its technical roots, the Conference included one session on vari

ous innovative technical approaches to SOE monitoring. The closing plenary consisted of a lively debate on the subject: Sustainable develop ment:saviour orscam? The panel was ably refereed by Jon Grant, Chair, Ontario Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. The discussion was kicked off by Claude Andre Lachance, Dow, who noted the need for integrated resource planning and societal choices as important ingredients for achieving sustainable develop ment.

Beatrice Olivastri from Friends of the Earth followed

with a vision of sustainable de ences addressing these subjects at velopment as a journey requiring a policy level, concrete, working solid commitments, a strong examples of sustainable develop value base and a clear idea of ment in action in government and industry were presented. objectives. Bob Slater, ADM, Environ From the opening session Carole Bumham and Peter Brand, Hatch Associates, at the AWMA table top exhibit. ES&Ephoto. ment Canada, presented a mov through to the close, the level of ing plea for sustainable development as the discussion by the speakers and intervention tiveness of voluntary programs. from the audience was animated, construc hope for preventing a wider and deeper foot Other sessions addressed state of the print of homo sapiens' activities as we grow tive and stimulating. environment reporting at the global, na Of particular note were plans by Xerox tional, provincial and municipal levels and from a global population of 5.7 billion to 10 to have waste free products and waste free the use of indicators for measuring state of billion by the year 2025 and as the develop ing world industrializes. streams by 1997 and the EPA's 'Common the environment and sustainable develop Sense Initiative' to make environmental ment. These included human health and Jim Higgins, Environmental Technolo rules less burdensome on business. Steve industrial indicators, as well as current glo gies Development Corporation, ended the Hart, President of the Canadian Environ introductory comments with a resounding bal trends in indicator development and ment Industry Association then discussed application. There were presentations and criticism of voluntary programs as the 'scam the role of Canada's Environment Industry discussions on corporate annual environ of sustainable development',expressing the Sector in global sustainability, highlighting view that lack of a strong regulatory regime mental reports; the role of full-cost account the substantial opportunities in the US, ing; the development and implementation would result in the demise of Canada's en Mexico, South America, the Asian coun of environmental management systems vironmental industry. tries, Taiwan, Mainland China, South Ko within corporations, many emphasizing the One of the most important issues that rea and Eastern Europe. importance of commitment from senior emerged from the Conference was the dif The theme of opportunities for Canada management and of partnerships for effec fering views over the role and value of vol in intemational projects was continued over tive implementation. untary programs in achieving environmen lunch with a presentation from Michael One session addressed effective ecosys tal objectives. 'Voluntarism' is clearly a Gundy of Gundy and Associates, Limited tem approaches including an explanation of highly controversial subject, which merits on the strengths and weaknesses of Cana ecosystem management, inclusion of eco further definition and discussion. Some in dians in the intemational marketplace. The nomics and modelling; and examples related dustries and government representatives see point made by Steve Hart on the need for voluntarism as a preferred and valuable to Hamilton: natural gas-powered buses and Canadian businesses to develop consortia the Hamilton Harbour remediation and res approach to achieving environmental objec and for government jurisdictions to harmo toration plan. tives in a cost-effective manner. Some nize their intemational activities was rein A session on global trade, competitive nongovernment representatives and indeed forced by Mr. Gundy. ness & sustainable development demon industries favour command and control ap Following the opening plenary, regis strated the competitive value ofenvironmen proaches as the best way ofensuring progress trants had a choice of attending one of three tal and sustainable development initiatives on meeting environmental objectives. parallel sessions. One session included; a in the global marketplace. 'Voluntarism' and a definition ofthe prin discussion of specific voluntary sustainable A single case study was the subject of ciples that should be followed in the devel development initiatives underway at Ontario opment of voluntary programs deserve to be Hydro; the pollution prevention initiatives one entire session. This included presenta tions on the experiences of an industry rep the topic of an entire workshop or confer underway at company members of the Mo resentative, a facilitator and a panelist, of a ence. Judging from the level of lively dis tor Vehicle Manufacturers Association; and multistakeholder process to develop a cussion in the sessions and comments on sustainability measure for different product feedback forms, the conference was a re 'Dr. Bumham of Hatch Associates Ltd., sounding success. lines at Shell Chemical Canada. was Conference Chair. 28

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Australian Water and Wastewater Association Report

\NhaX criteria shouid measure safety? How dean is dean enough?

The 16th Federal Convention ofthe

Australian Water and Wastewater

Association was held in Darling Harbour, Sydney, NSW, April 26, 1995 with the theme Delivering the Vi sion for the Next Century. Some 980 del egates from eighteen countries attended the five days of technical sessions, workshops and tours, together with social events de signed to meet the wide variety of interests of the delegates and their guests. While the majority of delegates were Australian, the representation demonstrated broad interna tional interest in this conference, particu larly in the Asia-Pacific Rim. Canada was represented by Brian Walker from BC, and Peter Laughton and Geoff Scott from Ontario. Geoff had previously visited Australia when president of the

t

Water Environment Federation while Peter,

a past president of WEAO, had helped to develop the curriculum at a new school of Environmental Engineering at Griffith Uni versity, Queensland, on previous visits. Keynote Speaker was Margaret N. Maxey, Ph.D., Director, Murchison Chair of Free Enterprise and Professor, Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Texas. A diminutive but dy namic speaker. Dr. Maxey's erudite view points have been previously featured in ES&E (Jan/94). She told her Down Under audience:"The

ancient belief that human beings have a

privileged place in nature as creatures with intrinsic value has been dismissed as

anthropocentrism and replaced with ecocentrism." According to this belief. Earth is central, everything is equally valu-

Videos available The Living Water of Life - Global Water have released this 24-minute water aware

ness video production. It was produced for presentation at the Stockholm International Water Symposium. The video is fully nar rated and comes with a multi-grade curricu lum for classroom use.

The cost per video is $39.95, plus $3.00 shipping. There is a price reduction for multiple copies.For more information,con tact Global Water, tel:(916)863-0804,fax: (916) 863-0315. Wetlands - London Television Service has

produced a new video program on the bogs, marshes,swamps and estuaries which make up wetlands. The video runs for 30 min utes and is available for rental or sale.

For more information, contact Mavis Lake,London Television Service, tel:(613) 237-1530, fax: (613) 237-7980.

The world famous Sydney Opera House. Phofo by Peter Laughton

able, and there is a universal right to live and blossom. In short, rocks have rights, as do plants and animals on an equal footing with humans.

"The presuppositions of ecocentrism raise crucial ethical questions about the re lentless search among human beings for health and safety as well as an endless quest for certainty and truth. If all entities on earth are equally valuable, then what is health? What criteria should measure safety? How safe is safe enough? How clean is clean enough? After two decades of experienc ing the aftermath of an explosion in envi ronmental laws and regulations, a taxpaying consumer has more than enough reason to ask: Have we been paying for certifiable health improvements and economic benefits, or instead, have we been paying for a costly legal system of regulations which relies on

Water Resources and Catchment Manage ment, Operations and Management of Wa ter Infrastructure, Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability, and Water Indus try Policy Management and Financing. During the concurrent sessions over two days, 176 papers were presented. In addi tion, Poster Sessions were made on both days, each series involving 67 such presen tations. Two Specialists Breakfasts were also held on each day. Eight workshops dealt with such topics as: Water Resources - Yours or Mine?,

Ocean Outfalls - Long Term Solution or Today's Convenience?, BNR Plants - De sign-Operations Interactions, Tertiary Envi ronmental Education in the Water Industry,

Drinking Water Quality - Guidelines and Standards, By The Time It Hits The Efflu ent It's Hit The Fan, Effluent and Residuals

aggressive enforcement activities which guarantee full employment for lawyers? Moreover, with humans displaced from cen

Quality - Which is the Tail and which is the Dog?, and Privatization - Another View.

tral consideration and the focus of moral

the occasion to hold a Regional Meeting which was attended by representatives from Australia, New Zealand, British Columbia, Japan, Hong Kong and Ontario, together

concern, where is the touchstone for envi

ronmental quality and, in particular, for the quality of water?" Dr. Maxey's presentation was a startling reminder that future environmental profes sionals will have to go outside the realms of technology to fulfill their mandate. 'Ozwater' was an integral part of the Conference, and the '95 exhibition was the

largest in the Association's history. One hundred and twelve manufacturers and con

sultants were on hand to present their ideas and technology. Technical sessions were divided into six

streams, namely Wastewater Collection and Treatment, Water Supply and Treatment,

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

The Water Environment Federation took

with the WEF President, Michael Pollen,

and Marsha Shutty from the Internal De partment at the WEF Office in Alexandria, Va. This was followed by a Meeting of the Asia/Pacific Rim Steering Committee which drew representatives from the areas listed above together with a delegate from the UK. The Australian Water and Wastewater

Association Federal Conference,held every

two years, has grown in size, quality and stature over the years, factors that are re flected in the growth in attendance, particu larly by delegates from overseas. 29


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Soil blending for site clean ups

Reducing soli blending and co-burning wastes

A thre -year ef ort by Groundwater Technology's Elec

tric & Gas Utility Task Force in the US has reduced the cost of soil blending, a process which prepares manufactured gas plant(MGP)wastes, particularly coal tars, for safe transportation to and efficient burning in coal-fired power plants. According to Mark Seaman, Project Engineer and a member of the Task Force,"Improvements in on-site soil blending efficiencies have driven down the combined cost of blending and co-buming to(US)$ 120-200/processed ton (exclusive of transpor tation), or about 80 percent less than hazardous waste incinera tion." (This cost is based on the assumption that the potentially responsible party(PRP)for the site owns the coal-fired power plant.) Seaman calls soil blending a safe,efficient and economical strat egy for many new MGP site clean-up projects. The process can be utilized as a pretreatment to co-burning, thermal treatment, stabilization or landfilling. If there is a Record of Decision(ROD) for a site clean-up that was issued more than one or two years ago, it may be prudent to review the proposed clean-up approach in light of newer and far less costly strategies currently available. This review could save millions of dollars for utilities responsible for multiple MGP sites. Soil blending is a process which can stabilize constituents that classify MGP wastes as hazardous. As a result, the non-hazard ous, processed material may be transported to power generation

"Tin

SEALLESS

facilities and used as a fuel.

Based on RCRA guidance, excavated soils exhibiting hazard ous characteristics can be treated on-site utilizing a container, tank, or containment building for a period of up to 90 days without a permit. By blending MGP wastes with coal, the volatile contami nants are liberated by agitation and/or adsorbed by the coal. The end product is no longer considered hazardous when the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure(TCLP)yields less than 0.5 mg/ litre benzene.

During the blending process, the potential characteristic haz ardous waste is transformed into a high BTU fuel, with handling properties essentially similar to the fuel being used in the power plant. Depending on soil conditions, the heat-generating capacity of the soil and coal tar have to be raised by 2,000-6,000 BTUs by mixing them with coal. The final product should have a BTU value of approximately 12,000 BTU/ton. One of the most critical aspects of the blending process is to arrive at the lowest possible coal to MGP waste ratio, which will allow the end product to pass TCLP requirements. The more coal used, the more mixing required, which can significantly increase labor costs. Groundwater Technology has been developing soil blending since 1991, and was one of the first to devise a methodology for achieving a mixing ratio for transforming coal, coal tar and con taminated soil into a blended material that can be transported and handled without special permitting and burned in a commercial

power plant. The company has worked persistently to drive down the costs of on-site blending, which is both labor and capital equip ment intensive.

Through increased efficiency,careful selection of process equip ment based on site-specific criteria, and reduced downtime, (in cluding that due to equipment failure and weather delays), these

costs currently range from $10-40/processed ton,(about 70 percent of what they were two years ago). The company's experience with soil blending to date includes

pilot studies and four full-scale clean-up projects involving soil blending for the co-buming process. These projects have verified the cost-effectiveness and safety of this clean-up strategy. This experience has demonstrated that blended mixtures bum well in commercial power plants. While the BTUs provided by this product have a modest amount of com mercial value, the real payback from the process is in eliminating the need for special incinerators to treat the mixture on site and avoiding the lingering liabilities associated with off-site disposal.

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Flow Monitoring

Permanent flow meter network Installed

for proactive sewer system management

Amherst,New York,has initiated

a permanently installed flow monitoring network as an inte gral part of their collection sys tem. Seven American Sigma 950 AV flow meters have been installed at five key sites determined to have significant infil tration and inflow (I&I). The data they are acquiring will help them to make informed, predictive, fiscally sound decisions rather than operate solely from a reactive posture, ac cording to Assistant Town Engineer, James Johnson.

"As we are entering a realm of more sophisticated forms of sewage treatment, it is a priority to know exactly what our system is doing," he explains. "Not only can the treat ment plant itself make some adjust ments ahead of time when a certain

eventually providing the capacity for future sewer extensions within the town and neigh bouring communities. "As we reduce I&I," explains Mr. Johnson, "we could use additional plant capacity and put more sewers in, which do

its compact Doppler velocity probe, makes it better suited for use in smaller pipes. Through proprietary technology, the Sigma Doppler was able to read a cleaner water than some Doppler meters. It uses the Q = Area x Velocity Continuity equation and re quires no primary device. Since the 950 AV measures average velocity directly, no profiling is required, in creasing accuracy and decreasing set-up time. The device also features compact, low-cost, interchangeable probes with side-exiting cables. Although the Town of Amherst's basic flow monitoring system is cur rently based on interrogating the flow meters by modem via telephone lines - which has paid off in terms of re duced traffic control costs and dan

gers, minimized downtime, and im mediate knowledge of sensor prob lems for responsive action-the town

flow condition starts to crop up, but we are in almost a day-to-day battle also worked with the manufacturer to configure a radio-modem interface. against excess infiltration from Since the flow meters are con sources other than sanitary sewage. By scrutinizing the flow data, we'll tinuously logging data, the town can interrogate them at any moment and be able to much more accurately pin download logged data for any time point areas where we have excess infiltration. That improves our flow A permanent flow monitoring network has proven to be a key period. And since the 950 AV can management and ability to make re toot in the proactive management of the Town ofAmherst coi- call out for a variety of alarm condi tions, including level, flow, or flow pairs on a basis of knowledge, not iection system. guesswork." not have I&I. We could accept more flows rate of change,the treatment plant can make adjustments ahead of time when these con "With portable meters, we'd end with to help pay for all of this from other com just a report and some data," Mr. Johnson munities. But if we are at the maximum on ditions occur. By reviewing the flow data, said. "But by permanently installing the our permit, we cannot accept new sewers the town is able to more accurately pinpoint flow meters, we have already justified the and that could slow our growth,even though areas of excess infiltration and prioritize expenditure. Other communities may be in the plant has clearly demonstrated the abil repairs on a basis of real world knowledge. more of a reactive mode: 'How can we re ity to treat almost twice the amount the per The goal for the flow monitoring network act to this problem? To this regulation?' mit says it can handle. Well, we want to is to incorporate wastewater, storm water Whereas we try to ask how we can stay maintain controlled growth in the town.The and weather information into one real-time ahead of the regulations, be more predic data becomes a tool to help us keep ahead system. Utilizing the same equipment,there tive, and in some cases even set the stand of that decision, steering the ship instead of is the opportunity to monitor storm water performance with a predictive model. Storm ard. The idea is to work on the problem, being steered by regulatory agencies." water ditch improvements can then be not just the project. For example, we want What the future looks like to Mr.Johnson is a "real time human/machine interface" prioritized and downstream capacities with to know whether it is more cost-effective long-term to eliminate the infiltration and of equipment and information. In the morn the storm sewers can be computerized. In inflow or to increase the plant to handle it." ing the PC will have already polled sites, effect, more pieces of the town puzzle can Amherst is a suburb of Buffalo which analyzed the data and printed out colour be plugged in to a larger database. An unexpected benefit of the system has a primarily residential base with some charts. If there are ovemight wet weather currently in place is the observation of pre light industrial activity. It is a growing com events, certain parameters will be automati munity, with a fairly substantial tax base to cally triggered by the PC. A full report will viously unobserved events. "We logged draw from. Its wastewater treatment plant automatically be generated with graphic events during the beta program where we had 15 feet of water in a 42 inch diameter - a state of the art facility when installed in representation. The target date for approxi mately 25 stations interfaced into such a sewer," said Mr. Moeser. "We've seen flow the early 1970's and costing $US 100 mil system is the end of 1995. lion - processes an average of 22-23 mil reversal where the velocity goes to zero or lion (US) gallons per day. The town also wanted cost-effective negative, because the water is going back At this time, the town is seeking an up probes that could be detached and a generic up the line, or filling this section because it is raining in another section and there is so grade for their State Pollution Elimination interface to plug into a common town data Discharge System Permit. The data staff base, currently Microsoft Access. It asked much flow hitting that junction that it is easier to go back up the empty sewer than are collecting will enable them to determine for a side-exiting cable to cut down on rag whether to remove some of the excess flows ging and make installation easier. to keep going down the full sewer. We've within the system or simply monitor the The 950 AV meter's ability to measure been able to record those events, which we system and use it as efficiently as possible, flows of less than one inch, combined with had never seen before." For more information, 32 Circle reply card No. 129


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Septage

By Johannes Buermans, Eng.* & Jean-Claude Paradis, ing.*

Deschambault opts for septage treatment

In order to adequately manage septage

adequate septage receival and storage, the Deschambault Industrial Park which also produced in its immediate vicinity, the construction of a large single reservoir with treats the sanitary wastewater from the in municipality of Deschambault, a small proper agitation is planned. dustrial park. The filtrate flow constituted town located 25 miles from Quebec Sludge dewatering 30% of the total flow to the lagoons. To City, decided to promote the installation of The rotary press dewatering technology accommodate the larger flow and to main a centre for septage treatment in the spring was selected since it is not affected by the tain the required retention time, the lagoon of 1992. This facility was installed on a presence of small debris in the sludge flow, levels were increased by 12". Three aera temporary basis while a permanent instal and for its ability to obtain a dry sludge cake. tors were added to respond to the increase lation was planned. The equipment is compact and requires lit in oxygen demand. tle operator assistance. A sin Table 1; Municipality of Deschambault: The performance of the lagoon system Average results from septage dewatering gle-channel press with a 48" was quite adequate. 97.2% of the BOD, Rotary Press Model: 1-1200/1250 wheel provided enough capac and 74.7% of the suspended solids were Percent Sludge Total solids Feed Cake Cake Capture ity at 55 to 59 GPM. removed. The effluent remained very sta Number o( o( total Flow production dryness %TS Rale samples The quality of the sludge ble throughout the season. The use of (Average) % GPM ibs/hr % %SS and the performances of the aquatic plants such as Lemna minor, at the 0.1 sTS<1.0% 35 59 123 90.6 40.5 36 (0.46) dewatering equipment for 1992 end of the third lagoon, will allow an in 1.0 sTS <2.0% 51 55 262 40.2 91.0 56 are presented in Table 1. The crease in the removal of suspended solids (1.05) average total solids of the feed and some nutrients, as experiments have IS i 2.0% 14 59 1067 36.9 91.1 15 (3.98) sludge for the sea shown during the 1993 season. The faecal The project consisted of the treatment son was 1.29%. The large vari of the septage received from various local ation of total solids is due to The ch aracteristics of the modified aerated lagoon haulers at the lagoon system of the waste- the presence of two types of system are as follows: influent to be treated: water treatment facility located at the feed sludge: holding tank Filtrate flow Deschambault Industrial Park. Dewatering sludge and septic tank sludge. Ratio = 30% R atio Filtrate BOD5. of the sludge was to be accomplished with The average cake dryness ob Total flow Total BOD, a new technology incorporating the rotary tained was 40%. Number of aerated lagoons: Three (3) press. The filtrate was to be treated with Tables 2 and 3 show BOD,, Aeration: Seven (7) 3.0 HP the existing lagoon system modified for this COD and chemical analysis of Aspireco aerators specific purpose. The cake was to be dis the raw sludge,filtrate and cake Total retention time after posed of at a landfill or a beneficial use was obtained during precommercial modification: Thirty-six (36) days to be investigated. dewatering trials for evaluation Sludge flow purposes. For the filtrate, in 1993 at the In 1992, from June 6th to October 31st, Deschambault facility, average values of bacteria count was far below the limit, in the centre received sludges from five dif BOD,, COD and suspended solids for the dicating excellent removal of pathogens. ferent haulers. A total of approx. 990,000 filtrate were 613, 1533 and 341.5 mg/L re Cake disposal gal. of sludge was treated. The principal spectively. During that same season, the The cake is discharged from the rotary hauler supplied 75% of the total vol press onto a conveyor which in turn Table 2: BOD,and COD Results ume while the remainder was supplied fills a roll-offcontainer. Lime is added COD Total BOOs BOD5 Cake COD Capture by the others. Raw for odour control. A beneficial use of Raw sludge Solids Filtrate Solids Sam ple Filtrate Rate sludge mg4iter mg^iter mg/liter % % % The weekly sludge flow varied sig the cake is under consideration. mg/lller nificantly. The average amount was Conclusions 2.16% 7903 23.467 989 1408 98.3% 1 50% 17.280 96.7% 59,400 gal./week while the minimum 2 1.26% 6523 918 2176 54.5% During the 1992 and 1993 seasons, 5197 10,880 1464 92.4% 3 0.8% 858 45.3% and maximum were 21,500 and the septage treatment centre success 867 4 1.58% 8827 17.621 1856 50% 96.8% 115,000 gal./week respectively. In fully processed 2.09 million gallons 24% 0.79% 4566 10.432 391 1216 97.6% 5 1993, from May 23 to October 31, without major difficulties. Septage Mean 804 96.4% 1.31% 6503 15,936 1628 44.76% results 1,083,000 gal. of sludge were treated has been managed in an environmen and the weekly flows also varied sig tally sound manner and according to Table 3: Mean results of chemical analysis nificantly. This fluctuation posed par the provincial regulations. Raw Sludge Filtrate Cake Element ticular challenges for the storage sys The rotary press has proved more mgA<g (PPM) mgAcg (PPM) mg/kg (PPM) tem. A systematic schedule for emp than adequate for the dewatering of 349.2 K (Potassium) 85.5 58.9 Nl (Nickel) 0.3 Not detected 10.9 tying septic tanks in the area would septage since it is not adversely af Cu (Copper) 5.2 0.12 152 result in a more consistent sludge flow fected by the presence of small debris Zn (Zinc) 12.3 326.4 0.3 and reduce capital investments and and also has a low operating cost. It P (Phosphorus) 36.8 71.5 1136.9 operation costs. has been selected as part of the per 2.56 55.34 Pb (Lead) Not detected Pretreatment and storage manent installation. 0.12 Not detected 2.26 Cd (Cadmium) A manual bar screen was installed

Total nitrogen Ammontacal nitrogen

to remove most of the large debris present in the flow for the protection of the lobe-flo pumps. Six cylindrical reservoirs of 5000 gallons each store the septage as it comes from the bar screen. A recirculation

pump helps maintain the solids in suspen sion until they are dewatered. For more *Fournier Industries Inc.

*Groupe Conseil Gesco, Inc.

460 320

240

7480

220

1280

BOD,of the raw sludge ranged from 2560 to 18200 mg/L.

The soluble BOD,of the filtrate consti tuted more than 95% ofthe total BOD,. This indicates that a further reduction of BOD, is not possible through filtration.

The combined treatment of filtrate and wastewater from the aluminum

smelter in the existing lagoon system has been done without any problems. Acknowledgements This paper was written using in part in formation, reports and work from a number of individuals and companies. The authors

Final treatment of the filtrate

would like to thank those individuals and

Filtrate was treated in the existing sys tem of aerated lagoons which are part of the

especially the municipality of Deschambault

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

for their contribution. 35


Marketplace

Global environmental market to be $391

billion by 1998 tries. However, many developing countries are rapidly accelerating their environmen tal agenda for reasons of economic sustainability, security and access to the world trad ing system. Market forecasts call for an average an

nual growth rate of 7 percent over the next few years. Many firms report aiming some 50 percent of their international marketing efforts at the United States, 20 percent at

the Pacific Rim, 18 percent at Western Eu rope and about 12 percent elsewhere. These targets are already changing as Canadian firms intensify sales efforts in Mexico,Latin

U

America and the Pacific Rim.

Many of Canada's missions abroad place The 1995 Toronto Environmental Tradeshow attracted several thousand delegates, an Indica tion of Canada's growing environmentaiprotection sector. from US $288 billion in 1993 to US $391 mental sector provides a wide billion by 1998 (Environmental Business Journal, 1994). Organization for Economic range of environmental conserva

Canada'srapidly growing environ

tion, pollution prevention,control, protection and enhancement products and services for governments, manufacturers, resource industries and others. The world market for environmental

products and services is expected to grow

Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries dominate the sector, with some 80

percent of the world market. Typically, en vironmental products and services account for 1 percent to 1.5 percent of the gross do mestic product(GDP)for most OECD coun

environment within the top three priority industrial sectors. Booming Asian growth in China, South Korea, Taiwan and the As sociation of Southeast Asian Nations

(ASEAN) has been attracting many Cana dian firms.

In the European Union marketplace, a common body of environmental directives and standards is expected to simplify mar keting. This may result in more concerted marketing to countries such as Germany and France, as well as to others such as Portu-

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerriClear.

From FI2S and corrosion control to water clarification, Eaglebrook has the answer that's tested, proven and economical.

Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 in Canada (800) 387-5021 in USA

#1EAGLEBROOK* INC. of CANADA 36

For more information, Circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Marketplace gal, Spain and Greece, which are playing "environmental catch-up." For Eastern Europe,Canada will continue building trade and partnering with initiatives in Poland and the Czech Republic. Canada has a solid environmental science and

technology base upon which to build... Many developing countries still need support from international financial insti tutions (IFIs) and regional development banks. Strategic environmental planning and institution-building initiatives are pro vided by the Canadian International Devel opment Agency(CIDA). Capacity-building technical linkages are provided by Environ ment Canada research institutes. These sorts of initiatives serve as a basis for fol

low-up industry activity. Canada is a significant financial con tributor to the World Bank and all regional development banks. As a result, Canadian

companies are eligible to bid on over $40 billion in projects funded annually in de veloping countries by these institutions. The vast majority of these contracts, which are all dominated by hard currencies, are awarded under a transparent system of in ternational competitive tendering. Industry Canada's environment industry is com posed of some 4000 firms marketing a wide range of products and services. It represents 142,000 knowledge- and science-based jobs,

activities and projects supported by IFIs. Multidisciplinary environmental consulting, acquisitions and mergers,joint ventures and strategic alliances are increasingly being used to enhance corporate capabilities and to expand market share. The Canadian Office for Technology Exchanges(COTE)helps developing coun tries sustain their resources and strengthen their economies. COTE activities in the past year, related to pursuing opportunities in international conventions and agreements, have also uncovered complementary, more conventional commercial prospects in new markets for many firms. The primary challenge is to continue building momentum in international mar kets, including markets of the developing world, with a strategic planning approach supportive of market-responsive environ mental products and services. It is impor tant for the industry to establish its domi

have shipments of about $5 billion per year, while environmental services account for $4

billion in revenues. Exports amount to ap

proximately $ 1 billion annually, with almost 80 percent directed at the US market. Canada has a solid environmental sci

ence and technology base upon which to build, including research and development facilities within companies,universities and federal and provincial governments. In ad dition, Canada has built a good reputation for monitoring and measurement instrumen tation; emission prevention and control tech

nologies; and solid and liquid waste-han dling equipment (specialty incinerators, shredders, compactors, recycling systems and equipment). Capabilities extend to the manufacturing of equipment components, including attachments for pumps and valves, separators and filters. Environmental services industry firms have won many offshore engineering projects and have enjoyed success through

and improve the competitive position of the environmental sector, the Government has

developed with industry"A Strategy for the Canadian Environmental Industry," a more

complete "tool-kit" for exporters.

Contact: Industry Canada, Environmen tal Industries Directorate, Environmen tal Affairs Branch, 235 Queen St., 7th

Floor East, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H5, Tel.; (613) 954-3382, Fax: (613) 9543430/1894.

LIMA Engineering Ltd. Announcement

nance in the domestic market, and to be well

positioned internationally. During the past five years, active Canadian exporters have doubled to over 600 firms, with another 1200 export-ready.

Bonfiglioli North America appoints new president and sales manager

with output per worker at $130,000, some 25 percent higher than general manufactur ing. This fast-growing sector is undergoing continuous definition in response to a chang ing environmental agenda. An estimated 65 percent of environmental firms provide services, and 35 percent are involved in manufacturing. The latter are believed to

Strategic direction To add to the existing strategic approach

BNABonfiglioli, one of Europe's largest gear drive manufacturers, has appointed Greg Jackson as president of its North American component, Bonfiglioli North America inc.(BNA). Since joining BNA, Mr. Jackson has appointed John Carney as sales manager. Greg Jackson brings more than 20 years experience in gear drive sales and marketing to his new position. Report ing directly to senior Bonfiglioli manage ment in Bologna, Italy, his new respon sibilities include managing and oversee ing all aspects of the company's activi ties in the Canadian and US market

places. Mr. Carney has been active in sales and applications support of gear drives and related products for more than a decade. As sales manager for BNA, Mr. Carney is responsible for servicing

Derek V. Doyle, P.Eng., M.B.A. R. H. Savage, REng., President and Chief Operating Officer, UMA Group Ltd., is pleased to announce the ap pointment of Derek Doyle, P.Eng., M.B.A., as Vice President and Ontario Regional Manager, UMA Engineering Ltd., effective April 21, 1995. Derek Doyle has managed engineer ing, water resource and environmental organizations in the consulting and pub lic sectors. He has a decade of experi ence in the pulp and paper, steel and plastics industries. He has an accom plished track record in resolving conflict between jDroponents, public and govern ment agencies. Derek brings 33 years of innovative management and goal accomplishment to UMA's engineering operations in the Ontario Region. UMA Engineering Ltd.'s services in clude municipal, planning, transporta tion, environmental, water and waste treatment, solid waste management, building services, and project/construc tion management. UMA Engineering is a member company of the UMA Group Ltd., an international group of compa nies offering engineering,consulting and

industrial contracting services. It was founded in 1911 and is an employee owned organization.

BNA's extensive account base as well

as expanding sales in North America.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

37


By Brad Casemore*

Water Infrastructure

Could fibre optics iocate your valve problem?

A situation arose where a out proper operation ofthese valves, the flow could not be throttled or stopped for main

There were a number of options: 1. Tear up the street or boulevard and re move the valves during a scheduled shut down. Replacement would probably be best, to minimize shut down time. This would take a solid day, per valve, and would involve a significant amount of machinery

tion to be done under pressure without leak age into the pipe chamber. It was quickly determined that valve #1 was in an open position; therefore the posi tion indicator was showing correctly. The valve was then manually closed and the

tenance. Both valves were located in sub

and labour, and, therefore, cost.

divisions, at separate locations and down

2. Try and get a look inside the valves while still in service and diagnose the problem. This would take a couple of hours, minimal labour and no machinery, and, therefore, a significant cost reduction. Option #2 was chosen as the most costeffective way to get an immediate answer. If the findings could be recorded on video tape this could be presented as proof of the reasons for the problems. With this proce dure in mind, an industrial endoscopic spe cialist was hired, to use a fibrescope to look inside the valves. Entry was made through two half inch nipples (with gate valves), on

evision monitor. The disc was operating properly. Just to make sure of this, the hold ing pins for the disc were filmed to make sure they were still intact. Once the valve

municipality had two valves on separate water mains that were not working properly. Our cus

tomer needed to know exactly why. With

inside a manhole with limited work area.

The information that they did have was: The first valve could not be completely closed to stop the flow. Could something possibly be jammed in it? Since this was a butterfly valve, there is a shaft or stem that is coupled to a disc using pins. When the shaft is turned (either by hand or motor) the disc turns to allow flow through it. If the pins had corroded away or sheared off, the shaft would turn but the disc would stay sta tionary. This was another possibility, or the position indicator on the outside of the valve was not indicating properly. The second valve could not be operated at all and it was fully open. The possibili ties here were that the disc was seized or

something jammed in it.

either side of the valve, that were used to

take pressure readings on a gauge. Using a strain relief connector, the fibrescope was inserted through the connector and the gate valve then opened. This allowed the inspec-

If gravity \Norks, why did we invent something better? Centrifugal separators are faster & more efficient for processing, dewatering, cleaning & recycling fluids.

movement of the disc watched on the tel

was closed, the entire circumference of the disc was filmed. At this time it could be seen that the rubber seal around the disc

had tom away from its retaining ring, caus ing a significant leak by the disc. The seal could clearly be seen hanging down from the top of the sealed disc. This situation was probably due to normal wear on the seal. This type of seal is bound to show fatigue after a number of years of use, depending on the frequency of use. There fore it is probably a good practice, in preventative maintenance, to set up a schedule for inspection of these seals. The problem with the second valve was discovered immediately upon entering the pipe. It could be clearly seen that there was about 100 feet of hydraulic hose wrapped around the disc and trailing off in the direc tion of the flow.

_ feed I#

.light liquid ' heavy liquid

m

Continuous, self-

cleaning, automated systems.

Upon completion of the inspections an immediate visual report was handed to the customer on a video tape. A comprehen sive written report of the inspection fol lowed. The video provided an immediate way of positively diagnosing these problems. Using this information, the maintenance team could approach the problem knowing exactly what to expect. Therefore the amount of downtime,labour cost and mate rials could be very accurately estimated and a concise work plan formed. Similar types of inspections have been done in the past using the CCTV (closed circuit television) equipment. This system has always worked fairly well but the two main flaws have been the resolution of the

solids

A'Uniting Alfa Laval Vitai Technoiogies A Centnjiigal Separation A Heat Transfer A Fluid Handling A. Automation

Alfa Laval Separation 101 Milner Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MIS 4S6 (416)299-6101* Fax:(416)299-5864

picture and the size of the entrance needed. Using the CCTV equipment, a complete shut down is needed, and the pipe to be entered has to be disconnected or cut to gain entry. With fibre optics the resulting pic ture has extremely high resolution and the entrance can be as small as half an inch.

This technology can, therefore, be used for a variety of applications. So, if the pressure is on to find the cause of problems quickly,fibre optics may be the technology to consider.

*AcuFlow Diagnostics For more information, 38

For more information, Circle reply card No. 116

Circle reply card No. 124


BAILEY

Polyjet Valves Jfor Turbine By-Pass

Lugged. Tough enough to handle high differential, low back pressure service. Polyjet Sleeve Valves for turbine by-pass. Only from Bailey. Custom designed to specs. Bailey delivers for: Synchronous Turbine By-Pass -

Water Saving Closes without

Maintains constant

pipeline upset after

output with changes in grid load. Ensures

turbine shutdown.

Water Wasting Opens to maintain constant flow as turbine shuts down.

constant water

supply to customer. Quickly compensates for load rejection.

Bailey POLYJET SLEEVE VALVES ^

P.O.Box 8070, Fresno, California 93747 (209)252-4491 FAX:(209)453-9030 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 122


Industrial wastewater

Automaker chooses modified batch

process to treat wastewater

Proctor&Redfem wascontracted by General Motors of Canada to de

sign and supervise construction of a wastewater treatment plant for its car, truck and battery manufacturing plants at the South Autoplex in Oshawa, Ont. GM wished to replace the existing lagoon sys tem with a cost effective, state-of-the-art

treatment plant. The most advanced tech nology available would be used to meet and exceed discharge effluent limits permitted by municipal bylaws and federal and pro vincial legislation. A flexible process was necessary to handle the wide variety of waste streams received at the plant. Aesthetic considerations were incorporated into the

design, minimizing the impact of such ele ments as noise and odour on the surround

ing community. P&R responded by designing an inno vative process for wastewater treatment - a modified batch process. This process uti lizes advanced instrumentation and control

to treat continuously, rather than using the batch flow process traditional in the auto motive industry. It also took into considera tion anticipated future reductions in allow able discharge limits, as well as potential influent changes, which would result from modifications to processes or materials. The process, designed to treat all of the effluent generated by the largest auto com plex in North America,chemically removes phosphorus and heavy metals from the wastewater, reducing the load of chemicals and metals sent to the municipal treatment plant and ultimately discharged to the Lake. The process also reduces the biological load discharged from the plant. The process is fed by two 4500 cubic metre equalization tanks which altemately receive wastewater, thus covering a day's worth of discharge in two shifts. From the equalization tanks, the wastewater is con tinuously treated by; Chemical treatment

unaffected even were an emergency to oc cur. Spare tanks, designed to hold a full day's flow, would hold the contaminated ef fluent so that the treatment process could continue as normal while the problem was dealt with. Even in the unlikely event of a spill, the advanced containment facilities would ensure that nothing reached the en vironment.

This "continuous-batch" flow process is

only achievable through extensive use of process monitoring and control. The oper ating information is displayed by two com puter systems, one located in the control room and the second located on the treat

ment plant operating floor. The operator interfaces with the control software utiliz

ing an innovative, user friendly approach. The Windows operating system used pro vides an open communication architecture, transferring data between several programs

that display plant information graphically and numerically. The computers provide some twenty major system graphical screens and several minor operator information dis plays which supply extensive plant operat ing information including alarms, system inhibits, operating modes, corrective meas ures, chemical dosing requirements, opera tor help and operating conditions quickly and in an understandable format.

This advanced system permits fine-tun ing of such aspects of the process as chemi cal dosing, further optimizing plant capac ity and reducing chemical costs. It provides ready identification of potential problems and supports quick response action to be

taken within the plant or from a remote lo cation. It also supports the collection of his torical data through advanced databases and integrated spreadsheet applications. This allows the operator to make intelligent de cisions based on trends and data rather than

feelings and experience, thus marrying the experience of a human operator with the analytical capabilities of a computer. In addition to advanced instrumentation

and control systems, the plant is also equipped with special polymer preparation units. These offer precise dilution and mix ing as well as increased operator health and safety compared to conventional systems. The inclined parallel plate clarifiers offer efficient and economical solid/liquid sepa ration and occupy very little space compared to the traditional clarifiers. Sophisticated on-line analyzers were installed to allow for spontaneous readouts of contaminant lev els which allow operators to react quickly to unexpected changes. The carefully de signed and completely enclosed pipe gal lery is also a rarity for a plant of this capac ity. Not only does it protect the piping sys tem from adverse weather conditions and

thereby lengthen its lifespan, it also in creases the efficiency of operators who would otherwise perform maintenance un der harsh weather conditions.

Due to the excellent cooperation and coordination between GM and P&R, com

missioning of the plant, which was com pleted in December 1992, progressed rap

idly to completion within a very tight time frame. Teamwork continues through P&R's provision of process optimization and other support functions as required. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 125

Ferric chloride is

added to combine with and precipitate the phosphorus. Sodium hydroxide is added to maintain an alkaline pH so that the heavy metals will form insoluble hydroxides, and anionic polymer is added to bind the recently formed insoluble solids into larger floe. The dosage and addition of these chemicals is done in a continuous process made avail able through recent advances in computer technology. Separation. The insoluble floe is concen trated into a sludge (at 5% solids) which is separated from clear water in the inclined parallel plate separators. The clear water is discharged as effluent at a regulated flow rate. Dewatering. The sludge is concentrated into a filter cake (>30% solids) using re 40

cessed plate filter presses. The solid cake is then shipped to a landfill site for safe dis posal. The continuity of the process would be

k!-'

This wastewater project won an ACEC Award of Merit in 1993 for P&R. Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


CUANSE

THE SELF-CLEANING STATION Significantly cuts your operation and

The first pump's start-

maintenance costs

level is reached, and

Reduces inspections

Automatic, troubie-free pumping

the duty pump then starts automatically. The flush valve opens

Cleaner station environment

for about 30 seconds,

Easy installation in new or old stations

stirring the sump water and resuspending any settled solids.

MACTEC® control to govern starts, stops and alarms, for storing data, and helping in system diagnosis.

When the pump's preset stop-level is reached, the pump stops and the valve opens automatically, ready for the next cycle.

For further information on Auto-Cleanse™ or any other Flygt system or pump, contact your Flygt technical representative today.

New 4901 non-electricai flush valve for automatic

Good Ideas Take Flygt. NEVACLOG®

impeller for clog-free

sludge prevention

sewage

and removal.

pumping.

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 101


Recycling tires

Turning used tires into frames for catchbasins and manhoies

TheEnviroframe is a recycled rub

retrofit and new installation market since

precutting of the holes greatly reduces the time required to make an installation. Also the neat circular hole is easily top finished. From an environmental perspective the Enviroframe is the only product of its kind that is made from 100% recycled tires.

ber frame for maintenance holes

and catchbasins. The rubber frame

is precast to a steel reinforced con crete ring. The ring sits directly on the maintenance hole structure. The Enviroframe is said to reduce the

deterioration of pavement that often occurs around the frames on busy streets. The rub ber frames also act to reduce the bump in the road effect, (differential settlement), caused by wheel impact loads that acceler ate the deterioration of masonry below the

Rubber from about seven tires is used in

each ring. The potential market for large quantities of tires is very promising for Enviromax products and,as a result, the po tential is great for alleviating the environ mental waste tire landfill problem. Over 100 Quebec cities have installed about 1500 frames in the past two years and three Ontario communities,Hawksbury,and

frame. Another economic feature is that the

problem of placing top course asphalt around structures has been solved by the Envirolevelling ring. Normally when a top course of pavement is applied all the frames on the

the towns of Caledon East and Alfred have

installed or are completing new construc tion with Enviroframes.

street must be excavated and re-set to the

Demonstration installations have been

correct elevation using masoniy or concrete rings. With the Enviromax system an Enviro-levelling ring of the desired thick ness and slope if necessary is simply bolted

mm diameter hole around the structure.

successfully conducted in the City of North York, City of Mississauga, City of Scarborough, City of Etobicoke, Regional Municipality of Sudbury and the Regional Municipality of Peel. The Regional Mu nicipality of Halton is planning an installa tion as is the City of Thunder Bay. The Shaw group in Nova Scotia has cast frames to be installed for the City of Hali

This equipment is revolutionizing the frame

fax and frames have been delivered to

to the base Enviroframe. No excavation or

adjustment is required. RoadBadger equipment has developed a rotary coring machine that will core a 1200

Technology Works! In Ultrasonic Level Measurement The MultiRanger Plus' versatility, reliability and ease of use make it the most widely installed ultrasonic level device

of its kind.

A Measurement of liquid level,

A Advanced ultrasonic echo

processing technology

flow and volume, as well as solids level and volume, at

ensures accurate, reliable

ranges up to 15 m.

and consistent operation.

A Current and relay outputs provide for control and cycling of up to 5 pumps.

A Installation, set up and oper ation of the MultiRanger Plus require no special tools or training.

B>MILLTnONICS 730 The ICingsway Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B1 705/745-2431 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax: 705/745-0414

Lafarge Construction Materials in Winni peg for installation by the City. The Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO),while not a user of the Enviroframe, has evaluated the product and has confirmed that, if municipalities wish to use the prod uct on MTO funded projects, the Enviroframe would be eligible for funding, as are other selected products not listed on the MTO designated source materials list (DSM). MTQ the Quebec highway minis try has been using Enviroframes with great success. Some locations have traffic vol

umes over 100,000 vehicles per day.

New

developments

planned

by

Enviromax Rubber Inc.for 1996 include the

rectangular Ontario Standard catchbasin frame. Several other new products which could use recycled tires are currently in the research phase. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 103 42

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 102

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


R&D News Performance of UASB Reactors

A study investigating the effects of tempera ture and organic loading on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors was carried out by ADI Systems Inc. scien

application of step-loading reduction and a modification of the internal recycle ratio. As described by these University of British

tists S. Grant and K.C. Lin of the Univer

kinetics and efficiencies were evaluated for

this boundary represents the base of indus trial sediment as shown by an accompany ing increase in both PAHs and trace metal content. This suggests that the completely non-destructive measurement of magnetic susceptibility offers a tool for mapping the

• CAWQ ACQE

sity of New Brunswick. Laboratory-scale reactors were semicontinuously fed syn thetic substrate at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40° C and organic loadings of 2

to 30 kg COD/(mLd). Steady-state process

As described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, these scientists confirmed that

distribution of contaminated sediments in Hamilton Harbour.

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

Model for Screening Remedial Options

Association Canadienne sur la

McMaster University scientists I.K. Tsanis and J. Wu, together with J. Marsalek of the

the various conditions. As described in the

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, a design and operating chart was constructed

Qualite de I'Eau

National Water Research Institute, have as

based on the kinetic coefficients determined

from the experimental data.

sessed the feasibility of modelling remedial measures for microbiological pollution. A regular grid finite difference hydrodynamic

Columbia scientists in Environmental Tech

Two Phase Anaerobic Digestion Research undertaken by R Fongsatitkul, D.S. Mavinlc and K.V. Lo demonstrated the

feasibility of recovery of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system treating simu lated sewage after operating in a deliberate failure mode. The approach employed an

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quaiity, Technoiogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

nology, the system recovered exponentially and logarithmically, with an increase in hy draulic retention time, insofar as COD re moval efficiency (92%) and methane gas production (100%) were concerned.

model, which includes the advectlve accel

eration and eddy viscosity terms, was used to predict the circulation in the near shore areas around Samia Bay. Coupled with this, a two-dimensional pollutant transport and

Mapping Contamination in Hamilton Harbour

fate model, which included advection, dif fusion, and decay terms, was used to pre dict the spacial and temporal distributions

McMaster University scientists J.K. Versteeg and W.A. Morris, together with N.A. Rukavina of the National Water Re

of indicator bacteria. As described in the

search Institute, found that magnetic sus ceptibility measurements on sub-samples

Journal ofGreat Lakes Research, this planning-level modelling system was an effec tive tool for screening remedial options for the mitigation of bacteriological pollution in Samia Bay.

from sediment cores taken from Hamilton

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R&D News, cont'd. Arsenic Uptake by Fish National Water Research Institute scientist

McMaster, demonstrate the removal of 97.8% BOD,96.1% TSS, and 99.5% fecal

J.M. Azcue, and D.G. Dixon from the Uni

conform bacteria.

versity of Waterloo, have determined the effects of the past mining activities on the arsenic concentration in fourteen species of fish from Moira Lake in Ontario. The lake contains elevated concentrations of arsenic

of up to 106 pg/L in water and 1 mg/g in bottom sediments. The results are published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research. Despite these elevated environmental con centrations of arsenic, and with the excep

Atmospheric Input of toxic

resulting in considerable lowering of the sludge pH during the incubation period. As reported in the Revue des sciences de I'eau, after only seven days, this pH reduction re sulted in substantial metal solubilization of

Chemicals

Using propagation of error analysis and a simple loading model, R.M. Hoff has made an estimate of the budget errors involved in making an atmospheric loading prediction for toxic chemicals to the Great Lakes. As

up to 98% as well as an appreciable reduc tion in phosphorus(52%) and volatile sus pended solids (40-50%). In addition, the sludge was rendered odourless. Lead in the St. Lawrence

described in a paper by this Atmospheric

Estuary

Environment Service scientist, the model is simplified in order to use the limited data available at present for monitoring near the Great Lakes. The paper, published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, focuses on the major sources of error and on proc

Institute Maurice Lamontagne scientist C. Gobeil and colleagues from the Institute of

esses which need further work before load

of lead in the sediments were identified: two

A new type of single-pass aerobic biofilter is being developed at the Waterloo Centre

ing estimates can ultimately be made more accurate. The intent of the paper is to iden tify those processes that are poorly quanti

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arsenic suggest that Moira Lake fish are not under arsenic stress nor do they seem to rep resent a health hazard to local residents who consume the fish.

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to the conventional septic tile bed and for the treatment of wastewater in general. The Waterloo Biofilter uses absorbent filter

media that combine long retention times, separate flow paths for wastewater and air, and large surface areas. This permits load ing rates ten times greater than that for solid particle media. The results of the latest field trial, published in the Journal of Environ mental Quality by E.G. Jowett and M.L.

Ocean Sciences have determined the sources and burden of lead in the St. Lawrence Es

tuary. By measuring the stable isotope com position, three isotopically distinct sources natural and one from recent industrial pol ence and Technology, the two types of natu ral lead most likely derive from crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield while the in

Heavy Metal Bioleaching The objective of a research study by INRSEau scientists H.Benmussa,R.D.Tyagi and RG.C. Campbell was to develop a process that would permit the simultaneous stabilization of sewage sludges and the re moval ofheavy metals associated with them. Elemental sulfur and thiobacillus inoculum

were added to municipal primary sludge

dustrial lead has an isotopic composition typical of that measured in the atmosphere of urban regions of Canada.

Contaminant Sampling Error and Design I.G. Droppo and C. Jaskot have undertaken a detailed examination of transport charac teristics at a single river cross-section.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


R&D News These included contaminant transport modes, short-term temporal and seasonal variability, the relationship between dis solved and particulate contaminant concen trations and discharge, and spacial variabil ity in the cross-section. The data obtained by these National Water Research Institute scientists, published in Environmental Sci ence and Technology, emphasizes the im portance of understanding the complete transport/loading regime of a sampling sta tion, defining the required end products of the monitoring program, and defining the accuracy required to meet specific program needs before implementing or evaluating a monitoring program. Behaviour of Pollutants In the

ants RSA found that, when the organic load ing is relatively low, efficient suspended ing subsurface horizontal flow units. When BOD is high, it is usually preferable to in

and feeding habitats for a variety of shore birds and waterfowl, and lower trophic lev els in these lakes could be adversely affected by agricultural pesticides. Following the severe drought of 1988 in Saskatchewan,

stall vertical treatment units ahead of the

Environment Canada scientists D.B. Donald

horizontal flow units to ensure efficient

and J. Syrgiannis determined the concen tration of eleven pesticides in water, sedi ment,and zooplankton in ten permanent and nine semi-permanent lakes. The results published in the Journal of Environmental Quality, indicate that, with one exception, the pesticide concentrations in these lakes were below the levels that might be delete rious to aquatic life.

solids and BOD removals are achieved us

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Bay of Quinte A multi-segment model ofchemical fate and transport and a food chain model were used by M.L. Diamond and colleagues from the University of Toronto and the Ontario Min istry of the Environment and Energy to ex amine the behaviour of arsenic, pentachlorophenol and PCBs in the Bay of Quinte. As described in a paper accepted for publica

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tion in Water Research, the behaviour of

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R&D News, cont'd. a-Amylase Activity in Activated Sludge

exposure may affect the subsequent sensi tivity of the animals. In most cases, prior

synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and DDT by rainbow trout was studied by Department

A significant fraction of the biodegradable material in municipal wastewater is com prised of macromolecular carbohydrates. This complex material must be hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to bacterial uptake and utilization. An assay method was developed

exposure (24h) to a number of such chemi

of Fisheries and Oceans scientists D.C.G.

cals had no effect on the sensitivity of

Muir, B.R. Hobden and M.R. Servos using filtered lake water, simulated (synthetic)

by McMaster University scientists P.L. E)old, E. Fleit and J.B. Copp to monitor the overall rate of a-amylase hydrolytic activ ity in a mixed culture of activated sludge. As described in Environmental Technology, the method is based on the tracer material

amylose azure, a potato starch covalently labelled with Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye.

Modelling Chemical Dynamics in a Lake Ecosystem D. Mackay and colleagues from the Univer sity of Toronto,Simon Eraser University, and the International Joint Commission have

described a comprehensive mass baiance model of the fate of a contaminant in a lake.

The model,published in the.Journal ofGreat Lakes Research, may be used to gain an appreciation of the relative importance of various fate processes and for estimating the lake's time response to loading reductions. The effects of various short- and long-term concentrations throughout the lake ecosys tem can be assessed. Emphasis is placed on developing a complete and uniform quan tification of all processes thus providing a decision support tool to improve manage ment and remediation of aquatic systems by linking loading to concentration.

Effect of Organic Chemicals on Daphnia magna A.V. Consultants Ltd. scientist A.V.Pawlisz

and R.H. Peters from McGill University assessed the effects of sublethal exposure of narcotic organic chemicals on Daphnia magna to examine the hypothesis that such

Daphnia to effective levels of these chemi cals. The results, published in Environmen

water, and filtered and unfiltered Aldrich humic acid(AHA)solutions. As described in Aquatic Toxicology, the uptake rates and bioconcentration factors for all compounds

tal Science and Technology, imply that ani mals from polluted sites should be no more resistant to high body residues of pollutants than those from clean sites.

were lowest in unfiltered AHA. There was

little difference between synthetic, lake and filtered AHA in the uptake values for pyrethroids. The highest bioconcentration

* CAWQ ACQE

factors were observed for DDT and

fenvalerate, and the lowest for deltamethrin.

The depuration rate for the pyrethroids was 25 to 50-fold more rapid than DDT.

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality

Destruction of PCBs Safety-Kleen scientists D.W. Brinkman, J.D. Dickson and D. Wilkinson have pub lished a paper in Environmental Science and Technology on the destruction ofPCBs. Approximately 850,000 litres of used oil

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M. Chartier and G. Mercier describe the

results of their research to adapt the sew age sludge microbial leaching process for the treatment of dredged sediments contami nated with heavy metals. The experimen tal methodology consisted of mixing the

allowed these scientists to monitor the fate

contaminated sediment in a 500 ml Erlen-

of the PCBs and demonstrate their destruc

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Conference Reports

Records set at 24th Water Environment Association of Ontario Conference

Several records were set at the '95

of WEAO, then called the Pollution Con trol Association of Ontario, he was also the first President of OPCEA,25 years ago. Steve Davey, President of Environmen tal Science & Engineering became the youngest ever WEAO President as the con ference concluded. He had been surprised earlier when the consultants brought in a

Water Environment Association of

Ontario (WEAO) Conference in Toronto April 2-4: - Almost 900 delegates attended. - Ontario Pollution Control Equipment As sociation (OPCEA) table top exhibition spaces were sold out long before the dead

large birthday cake at their reception. Operations Challenge 1995 was a huge

line.

- More Operations Challenge entries than

success, with Humber Aerobics Club just edging out The Highlanders 406 points to 405. A record 17 teams participated in Op erations Challenge 1995. There are five events in the Challenge. The safety event involves retrieving a man

ever.

Dr. Joe Macinnis, a world renowned

Canadian underwater explorer and scientist was the unusual choice for keynote speaker. He held his audience spellbound as he re counted a remarkable underwater expedi tion to the Titanic. Using two research sub marines, a joint force from the former So viet Union, Canada and the United States

went down and explored the huge sunken vessel. He screened remarkable footage when the subs probed deep in the North Atlantic, ironically in the area where the present turbot skirmishes are going on. On a sombre environmental note, he

spoke of how nuclear wastes had simply been thrown into Arctic waters, noting that at least five wrecked nuclear submarines

now lay at the bottom of the oceans. Even more alarming, he said, were the 50 nuclear missiles at the bottom of the oceans. Dr. Macinnis said there were some six

thousand shipwrecks to explore in the Great Lakes system making it the world's largest aquatic museum and a priceless resource. Showing a zebra mussel infested wreck, he said the mussels were everywhere in Lake Erie, and listed their rapid progress in North American waterways. He screened footage of the wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald which sank with a load of iron ore some

decades ago. He noted the vessel was only

1995/96 President Steve Davey about 25 feet shorter than the Titanic.

He stressed the responsibilities of envi ronmental professionals in protecting our waterways. His presentation concluded with graceful footage of whales diving as if in some aquatic ballet with a wonderful musical score. Even without a narrator, the

footage evoked a powerful message that these magnificent mammals must not be mindlessly hunted to extinction. It was a tragic irony that the talks about our fisher ies becoming extinct were going on in the European Community while this thought provoking film was being shown. The Bedell Award went to Bob Pickett, Metro Toronto Works Department, the Hatfield to Bob Hutcheson, OCWA Lakeview, and the Water Environment Fed eration Director's Service Award to George Powell, President, Gore & Storrie. Larry Madden, Control & Metering, was Confer ence Chair. Peter Nicol, Conference Tech

nical Chair was appointed Conference Chair for the 1996 meeting. WEF Life Member ships were given to Jacob Dick and John Reid. Not only was John a former Director

OPCEA President Penny Davey presented a $2,500 cheque to Biil Girard of PWOD, enabling the winning team to compete in the WEF Operations Chalienge in Miami this Faii. 48

nequin from a contaminated confined space, using standard retrieval devices. Two-man CPR must then be performed on the man nequin. The collection system event involves a simulation of a PVC sewer pipe in service which develops a leak. Teams are required to replace the damaged area with a piece cut from another pipe with a saddle attached to it. The repair is then pressure tested, and penalties are assessed for any leaks, or for improper procedures, or procedures omitted.

In the process event teams must answer process questions, and do mathematical cal culations in four process topics: sludge dewatering/thickening; activated sludge; anaerobic digestion; and plant effluent dis infection.

The maintenance event involves taking

a plunger pump out of service, and perform ing certain mechanical and electrical main tenance procedures on the pump. The pump is then returned to service after all the re

quired procedures are carried out. The event is observed by judges to ensure that proper

Outgoing President Brian Evans of R. V. Anderson, with conference Chair Larry Madden, Control & Metering. Almost900people attended this meeting. Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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OH&S Report

Health & Safety Auditing Part II -Practical considerations to Improve effectiveness n Part I of these two articles (Environ mental Science and Engineering, May 1995) 1 covered the whole process in sequence. Now I'll comment on how to make the wheels turn

more smoothly - make these steps more effective. There is a minefield of

possible problems facing every auditor. You might look at the following as the auditor's own manage ment measures to help the audit process run more faultlessly. If you are an external auditor, arrange a written confidentiality agreement with the company to be audited before you start reviewing documents, preaudit, so there are a mini

ity control, shipping/receiving, office, man agement and maintenance. Ask for a brief written summary of training given to work ers and supervisors. Finally, ask for a para-

to wear protective gear; should leam about facility safety rules and emergency proce dures, especially those pertaining to visi tors; and should be medically certified as able to wear the respira tors provided at the site. Do your regulation and company policy home work. Before entering the site, know all the applica ble legal requirements for the jurisdiction of the fa cility which would apply to the sector under audit.

Leam, ahead if possible, all corporate rules which apply to the activity or site being audited. Tailor the audit protocol to reflect these external and internal

compliance requirements. Review the overall au

dit program of the com pany being audited, and any prior audits and con iron out ahead of time, in Safety training is an important goal ofthe Water EnvironmentAssociation ofOntario's sultant reports relating to writing, with contracting annual Operations Challenge. the activity or site you will management whether you may speak to graph of the history and main activities of be auditing. Information on the company's worker representatives of your choice - and the Joint H&S Committee and contact auditing program in place, including full whether any limitations are to be put on such names and telephones of the Joint Chairs. reports of past audits, should be provided communication, especially if there is a un Before you leave for the facility site, by the company ahead of time, as part of ion. contact the facility manager, to verify the the scope of your audit. If possible, talk to In the name of both industrial peace and time and place of the opening meeting, the parties who conducted past audits or effectiveness of your audit, negotiate ahead consultant studies (with top management safety indoctrination and initial tour; to sug of time with the management contracting gest who should be present; and to confirm permission). the audit for sufficient time to interview a who your primary site contact will be. Have checklists ready,for each phase of large enough sample of employees, so that Have along calculators at least, better a the protocol, of the people to be interviewed important findings cannot be traced to a laptop computer. If possible, pre-arrange (set up appointments ahead, to the extent particular employee "blowing the whistle" access to a compatible printer for your possible), and of the documents to be re - with potential for recrimination. laptop(s) or bring along a portable printer, quested for review or copy. General Pre-Audit Arrangements Assign accountability among the audit/ along with disks, toner, printer paper and Send the management contracting for stationery supplies. It can be helpful to have assessor team in writing. your audit a questionnaire asking the ba along overhead transparency blanks, At the Audit Site sics ahead of time - with a deadline for re prechecked to be compatible with the fa Begin with the opening meeting. The sponse. For example, ask who is account cility's photocopiers. opening meeting has two goals: on the one able for site H&S, the percentage of their Arrange to have the host company pro hand, to inform key facility staff about the time spent on H&S,and their H&S creden vide a floor plan to scale of the facility to be objectives and techniques of the audit, and, tials. Ask for the supervision structure of audited, plus specifications and plans of the on the other hand,to give the auditors a brief the facility - identification of the key play ventilation system, at the outset of the open overview of the facility, its product(s) or ers, name,title, telephone, whether they will ing meeting. service(s) and the H&S programs in place. be on site during the scheduled audit. Ask Get prior permission to take site photo Seating: intersperse auditors/assessors for site background information, such as whether it is leased or owned (by whom), graphs; be clear if any restrictions apply to and local staff, to avoid a feeling of"us ver photography of sensitive processes, the dis sus them". Keep the meeting brief and care age of the facility, major renovations or ad ditions and when they occurred, floorspace position of the photographs, who pays for fully structured. Don't try to accomplish allotted to production and warehouse. Ask the photography costs, and who owns the too much. Refer to preceding telephone contact(s) for brief description and flow diagram for photographs. Photographs are exceedingly materials and process flow, including where valuable, both as memory jogs to auditors to build rapport. Introduce auditors/asses and as evidence. sors, their background and their responsi products and wastes are created. Ask for Some precautions for the health and bilities during the audit. summary information on numbers of salary Provide a brief, pithy introduction to the and hourly employees, work shifts, and safety of the auditors are advised, both preaudit and on site. Pre-audit, before enter audit process by describing the purpose, whether there is a union. Ask for staff ing the site, auditors (or assessors) should scope, approach, format of deliverable (fi breakdown by production, laboratory/qual arrange to have provided and be prepared nal report), distribution of final report, and mum of barriers to timely provision of the necessary documents to you. Try to

50

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


By Dr. David A. Whaley, ROH,CIH* the time period of operation being audited. Briefly verify the basics of their opera tion as summarized in their answers to your pre-audit questionnaire. Fill in essential missing information. Be unobtrusive, but take notes.

Determine who at the audit site is re

sponsible for advising and facilitating ar rangements for the health and safety of au ditors/assessors, themselves, while on site.

I'll call this person the "audit safety advi sor".

Finally, provide the intended schedule for the remainder of the audit, and schedule

a tentative time for the exit meeting. Following the opening meeting check scheduling, to determine that resources and work assignments are reasonable for the time allotted. It is a good idea to review the progress at several points. Keep a record of each document re ceived, who provided it, when, where, and why. This list ofevidence documents should be updated daily. Record any changes in audit scope occurring during the process, with reasons.

The protocol (game plan) and the audi tor's working papers are separate. A sepa rate page should be used in the working papers for each separate topic, and should refer to the protocol phase and item number. Use a bound (not loose leaO book for work ing pages; make sure pages are numbered. Several times a day, on site, pause to re view your field notes, making sure that you have recorded what you did, and how you did it, for each protocol item. Prepare a brief interim summary at the end of each proto col topic, while on site. It is best to keep a separate running list of preliminary observations of exceptions (findings), to aid in identifying the full list when preparing for the exit meeting. If there is no time for this, at least make a specific kind of marginal mark (e.g., a red asterisk). Regularly compare working field notes with other audit team members, to deter

mine that topics were adequately covered and that findings agree. Before site work in production areas,

arrange for the audit safety advisor to brief the audit team regarding any restricted ar eas, and any specific chemical, biologic, radioactive or process risks which may be unfamiliar. Only enter restricted areas with permission, accompanied by a designated facility employee and wearing appropriate protective equipment. Interview techniques are a key process by which you identify problems lurking be neath surface appearance. The rapport you build and the doors opened will be strongly affected by your success in interviews. *Dr. Whaley is a Registered Occupational Hygienist(Canada)and a Certified Industrial Hygienist,Toxicology Specialty(American Board). He is currently Assistant Professor of Environ mental Health, Indiana State University,Terre Haute.

Before meeting your interviewee, define the desired outcome, then organize the is sues you wish to ask about, in the order you will ask. Select the best setting you can near the interviewee's work area, one-onone, quiet, no interruptions. Open the in terview by introducing yourself, state the

purpose of the overall audit and of the in terview. Ensure you have enough time for the process. Explain how the information obtained will and will not be used. Try to get the interviewee to do most of the talk ing. Make it clear that specific sources will not be identified, other than by process or activity area, when that is necessary. Get a quick overview of the interview ee's responsibilities relating to the audit topic. IJse open-ended questions; try to avoid questions that can be answered in one word. Keep an open mind, and sound like your mind is open. Avoid questions which try to influence the answer. Accept periods of silence, as the interviewee is trying to organize his/her thoughts and answers. Take notes only of key points; do not create a ver batim transcript(which may be threatening). Keep to the agreed time-limit. End the

Avoid extreme language. Rather than use alarmist

words, use matter-of-fact words. The facts will

speak for themselves. interview on a positive note. Summarize your understanding of the key points to the interviewee, asking that they confirm accu racy.

Once the interviewee has left, immedi

ately summarize the interview points and overall conclusions. Be sure to allow time

between activities for this important wrapup process, while memory is fresh. Remember that subjective impressions may be useful in guiding you to another source of information, but cannot serve as evidence for a verifiable assertion. There

is no harm in noting your subjective impres sions on your working papers only - but iden tify them as such. Once you have gathered enough evidence and evaluated your findings, you are ready to conduct the exit meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to report all deficiencies discovered during the audit to facility man agement, in context of the overall facility performance, as you see it. Be sure to state the limitations in your investigation, as qualifiers to the findings. Again, intersperse seating of auditors with auditees. Ease into the discussion; do

not charge in abruptly. Notice verbal and non-verbal signals from facility employees in attendance(make any notes later). Project a feeling of comfort and trust; regularly

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

make eye contact with all participants in the room. Again, describe the purpose and scope of the audit, the intent of this meet ing and the overall reporting process. If possible, distribute a typed (computer printed) list of point findings. Start with the more significant, non-controversial find ings. Discuss each finding; clarify as ques tions arise. Be willing to discuss all find ings to the degree necessary to convey un derstanding. Do not argue; make notes on any disagreements with your findings. Keep your cool and stay friendly. Close the exit meeting with an account of the timing of the process phases. Close on a positive note. You are sure that, in the long run, everyone can benefit from audits of this kind. Acknowledge the help and cooperation of facility staff. Do not linger socially. Post-Site Activities

It is prudent to follow certain conscious guidelines in reporting findings, both dur ing the preceding exit meeting at site, and in the preparation of the final written re port, post-audit. The wording used in both an exit meet ing and in the final report is very important. Following are some guidelines: First, state only what is deficient; do not generalize, which suggests such deficiency

extends beyond what was observed. State the type of finding exactly, giving specifics. Second, state all findings directly, not suggestively - which is less precise and may be misleading. Third, give not only the exception (defi ciency) finding, but also its significance, possible consequences. Fourth, do not state compliance or noncompliance. Give only the finding (which breaches law). Let lawyers state whether the law has been broken.

Fifth, avoid extreme language. Rather than use alarmist words, use matter-of-fact words. The facts will speak for themselves. Sixth, avoid acronyms, unless defined in the text. Your audience is likely to include

a range of persons of different experience and training. Specialized jargon is a bar rier to communication with a heterogene ous audience.

Seventh, do not identify persons as sources. Leave all specific identification in your field notes. "We understand that...; we were informed that...; we observed staff from the department..." is sufficient. Eighth,refer to specific statutory require ment or company policy. When an external or internal requirement is breached, refer to the specific section of the breached regu lation or rule, in describing your finding. Perspective In my experience, taking the time to tend to these practical matters, and budgeting for such time in the cost estimate for the audit,

are well worth the extra effort. It is usually

in management's best interest to obtain a credible, solid audit. 51


Air Pollution

Seeing how Incinerator emissions stack up

When Laidlaw Environmental undertakes comprehensive annual testing of stack

emissions from its Lambton

Facility's high-temperature incineration system, there are three major objectives: • To demonstrate the incineration system is

Laidlaw Environmental and the MOEE

take steps to ensure the integrity of the sam pling and analysis process. "We used the services of a third-party

Particulate

interim standards.

Permit limits maximum emissions to 50

• To demonstrate compliance with special

milligrams per cubic metre. Test Result* - 1.57miiligrams/c.m.

conditions attached to Laidlaw Environmen-

tal's certificate of approval. • To evaluate the incinerator's capability to

destroy and remove contaminants in the wastes treated.

The annual stack emission testing pro

compliance," says Rob Gumming, process engineer at Lambton Facility. "With metal emissions, for instance, we averaged less than one-fifth of one percent of the allow able concentrations among the 30 metals measured."

He notes that testing is conducted dur

ing three consecutive days, with the incin eration system operating at its full permit ted capacity -an average feed rate of more than 200 litres per minute for combined rich (oil-based) and lean (water-based) wastes.

The testing program is conducted under contract by Ortech International of Mississauga. Jim Suddaby, man ager, incineration sys tems, notes the annual emission testing pro gram is conducted under extreme conditions. 'To evaluate destruc tion and removal effi

ciency, we raise the con centrations of the tested

compounds being fed into the incinerator far

beyond normal content. "The

computer-

based dispersion calcu lations, used by the MOEE to assess incin

erator emissions, simu late atmospheric condi tions more severe than

we are ever likely to en counter in our normal

operations." 52

ground level.

The testing program is comprehensive, analysing emission gases for 30 metals, 15 inorganic and organic compounds, and 16

average.

Permit requires minimum of 8% concentration in stack gases.

onstrate the incinerator remains well within

late the concentrations that could reach

250 parts per million over a 10-minute

ergy (MOEE). A major focus of the testing and analy sis is ground-level impingement-point con

of compounds that could reach the ground under unfavourable atmospheric conditions. "In each area of analysis, the results dem

Once the concentration of these com

pounds in the stack gases is known, compu ter programs specified by the Ministry of Environment and Energy are used to calcu

Permit limits maximum emissions to

Test Result* -84 parts per million

centrations - the theoretical concentration

compounds.

Carbon Monoxide

gram is required under Laidlaw Environmental's certificate of approval issued by the Ontario Ministry of Environment and En

sions at ground level. Samples of stack gases are analysed for the presence of various compounds, includ ing particulate and metals, combustion

gases, and semi-volatile and volatile organic

Stack gases

in compliance with Ontario Environmental Protection Act Regulation 346 standards and

mine the theoretical effect of stack emis

volatile organic compounds.

over a 10-minute average.

Oxygen

Test Result* - 10.4% concentration.

Total Hydrocarbon

Testing the destruction and removal ef ficiency (DRE) of Lambton Facility's hightemperature incineration system is not a le gal requirement, says Rob Cummings. But achieving a high level of DRE is important for the comfort of the facility's neighbours, customers and the community. "Our goal is to achieve as close to com

Permit limits maximum emissions of 100

plete destruction as possible," he says. "The

parts per million over a 10-minute

over a 10-minute average.

annual stack emission testing program gives us an ideal opportunity to evaluate the sys tem's effectiveness in achieving this objec

* Results calculated from emission

tive."

average.

Test Result* - 24 parts per million

For the 1994 stack emission testing pro

samples taken over three days.

auditor to monitor and audit the 1994 proc ess from beginning to end. In addition, rep resentatives of the MOEE are frequently onsite monitoring the testing program," said Mr. Suddaby. One of the most detailed aspects of the annual stack emission testing program at Lambton Facility are the computer-gener ated dispersion calculations, used to deter-

gram, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy approved four Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) which are known to be among the most difficult to destroy, he adds. "If the incinerator can destroy those com

pounds to a high level, then it is doing an even better job with other compounds." The POHCs selected for the 1994 testing pro

gram were benzene, tetrachloroethene, tolu ene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.

How do emissions stack up?

Excellent

DREs

were achieved in 1994 for the four POHCs.

stack emission samples were

analysed for the presence of particulate and metals, combustion gases, and semi-volatile and volatile

METALS • Silicon

2.408%

▲ Lead

<0.001%

According to Jim Suddaby, the DRE for benzene is slightly lower than typically expected,

organic compounds. Using computer-

COMBUSTION GASES

generated dispersion calculations, analysts can theorize the concentra tion that would reach ground level

• Hydrogen Chloride 3.85%

1991 and 1993 estab

▲ Carbon Monoxide 0.06%

lished levels greater than 99.99 percent.

under unfavourable atmospheric

VOLATILE ORGANIC

conditions. These results are then

COMPOUNDS

since evaluations in both

"We believe there

compared to concentrations allowed under provincial regulations designed to protect health and the environ

• Vinyl Chloride 0.039% ▲ Remaining 15 contaminants sampled were less than detec

was an inadequate vol ume of the compound in the waste going to the incinerator to provide an

ment. The results are calculated as a

tion levels.

accurate measurement at

percentage of allowable concentra tions. Chart indicates highest (•) and lowest (▲) concentrations of each grouping, presented as a percentage of allowable concentrations.

the stack.

"However, we will

be looking to the upcoming 1995 test for clarification," he added.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


DESIGN MANAGER MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPTIMIZATION SEMINARS

WASTEWATER Paragon Engineering Umited Is a successful, growing firm providing multl-dlscipllnafy engineering services to clients across Southern Ontario. This success has been primarily due to rigorous attention to client service and product quality. The Environmental Division of Paragon Engineering Limited, based In Kitchener, Is experiencing strong growth and has significant current and prospective wastewater treatment workload. Paragon Engineering Limited accordingly requires a dynamic, experienced Individual to lead the design office In this key area and ensure the focus on service and quality Is maintained. The Ideal candidate will have an engineering degree, be eligible for registration as a P.Eng., and have at least ten (10) years of relevant experience In the design, commissioning and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. Strong communication and Inter-personal skills are essential since the position requires supervision of design staff. Experience In either Industrieil wastewater processes and/or water treatment would be an added bonus.

Sponsored by Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy and Environment Canada Optimization Consumer Workshop {Vz day) Topics-.

rationale, self assessment. Composite Correction Program (CCP), process audit, area-wide optimization

For.

STP managers, administrators, engineers

Where!

Toronto

When

London

November 1,1995

Kingston

Febmary 20,1996

September 11,1995

CCP Provider Workshop (1 day) Topics:

background, CPEs, CTAs, relationship to other tools, financial aspects, case studies

This new position represents an exciting opportunity for a motivated Individual to join a successful team and an aboveaverage compensation package will be paid to the right Individual. Please forward your resume In confidence to:

For.

consultants, municipal engineers, operations staff

Where!

Toronto

When

London

November 2,1995

Kingston

February 21,1996

Guy Le Patourel, P.Eng. Paragon Engineering Limited

September 15,1995

Kitchener, Ontario

Paula Steel, Wastewater Technology Centre, ph. (905) 336-4741, FAX (905)

N2B3S4

336-4765

871 Victoria Street North

Further information:

FAX: (519)579-6733

For more information, Circle reply card No. 234

Golder Associates is helping its clients maintain the

WE BEUEVE BOTH INDUSTRY AND NATURE SHOULD WIN! _ Golder

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1 800 414-8314 Offices throughout Canada, the United States, Europe and Austraiia.

balance between

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impact analysis, Golder Associates has the expertise that clients have trusted for over 35 years. With the integrated team of environmental and geotechnical specialists behind our name,our professionals can ineet all of your environmental needs.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 235

.


Air Pollution Report

Ash is no longer exempt from US hazardous waste disposal regulations Last year, the United States Supreme Court

in 1988 against the City of Chicago by the

ruled in a 7-2 decision that municipal waste-

when disposing of ash produced by the in

Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) under the citizen suit provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). EDF alleged that the City was

cineration process. The case arose out of a complaint filed

violating provisions of RCRA and its regu lations by failing to test ash generated by

to-energy combustion plants must comply with federal hazardous waste regulations

FAX (905)841-7271 for quick response Company

Area Code

Name:

&Tel:

Name:

Etie:

its Northwest Waste-to-Energy Facility for hazardous waste. The City's facility report

edly bums approximately 350,000 tons of household and non-hazardous industrial

solid waste each year which is converted to valuable energy. Combustion generates 110,000 to 140,000 tons of residue ash an nually which is then disposed in landfills. Under RCRA, the incoming wastes are ex empt from classification as a "hazardous waste." The residual ash, however, may contain contaminants such as lead or cad

mium, and may test hazardous. Prior to this decision, waste-to-energy facilities relied upon a provision in RCRA

which appeared to exclude the ash from the hazardous waste management requirements of Subtitle C.

Address:

Postal

City:

Code:

Prov:

Signature:

MAIN BUSINESS ACTIVITY

□ Municipal & Govt. Official □ Provincial Government □ Federal Government

□ Consulting engineer/consultant □ Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

Comments:

The City, supported by the U.S. Envi ronmental Protection Agency (EPA), argued that the exemption applies not only to in coming wastestreams, but for all purposes, including outgoing wastestreams. The Court stated that any ash found to qualify as hazardous may be disposed only in landfills appropriately licensed to accept such wastes. Such facilities typically have higher disposal costs than those which ac cept solely non-hazardous wastes. There are approximately 150 municipal incinerators across the country which bum a total of about 30 million tons of waste per year. It is not clear what percentage of ash will have to be handled as hazardous waste

at greater expense.

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in this issue that interest you.

For a copy of the dry of Chicago deci sion, please call Robert W. Ollis, Jr., (312) 845-3000.

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Selective Catalytic

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Reduction used for

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164 176 188 200 212 224 236 248

260

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284

marine diesei engines

249

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Four ships, used by USS-POSCO Industries

262

274

286

275

287

(UPI) to deliver steel coils to its Pittsburg, CA mill, are the only seagoing vessels that incorporate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology in the design of marine diesei engines. Hailed by the Califomia Air Resources Board as "a significant environmental ad vance," the SCR technology has not only resulted in a 90 percent reduction of nitro gen oxides but also played a part in the eco nomic viability of UPI, the largest

101

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For more information about products, services and articies in this issue, you can

A Mall In the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mall this If faxing Is not convenient)

saved more than $43 million in the first three

years of the ships' operation because steel bands can be delivered directly to its termi nal instead of having to unload them at pub

Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 54

steelmaker in the Westem U.S. UPI has

lic docks.

The SCR technology enables UPI to meet strict air quality regulations for daily and annual emission limits established for the local area.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Measure Chemical ITao/I ITlrkiir

sian

from Drops to Drums Controlotron's System 990DFT Flow Tube's wide flow range lets you measure chemical feed flow from Drops to Drums. Using Controlotron's patented TransitTime technology, 990 DFT is bi-directional, and sensitive to flow changes as little as 0.001 feet per second, even at zero flow. This makes it ideal for measurement of chemical additives, such as sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, fluoride, alum or polymer. The easily installed flow tube is of CPVC or Kynar construction. 990DFT also offers a fuU range of Digital and Analogue Data Displays, plus all conventional analogue and digital output data formats. For further information call the closest Westech offlce. Vancouver Westech Industrial Ltd.

Saskatoon Westech Industrial Ltd.

Toronto Westech Industrial Ltd.

Bus: 604-278-5112 Fax: 604-278-5126

Bus: 306-652-2300 Fax: 306-652-3133

Bus: 905-890-5265 Fax: 905-890-6213

Edmonton

Sarnia Westech Industrial Ltd.

Westech Industrial Ltd. Bus: 403-464-4740 Fax: 403-467-1605

Bus: 519-383-6320 Fax: 519-383-6322

Montreal Westech Industriel Ltee. Bus: 514-636-8761 Fax: 514-631-0857

Calgary

Halifax

Westech Industrial Ltd.

Westech Industrial Ltd.

Bus: 403-252-8803 Fax: 403-253-6803

Bus: 902-457-1171 Fax: 902-457-1731

For more information. Circle reply card No. 112


Report on Toronto ISA Show

Instrumentation technology keeps pace with regulatory and process control demands

Asconcerns for the environment

Manufacturing Test System

grow and regulations become more stringent, instrumentation technology is keeping pace by making it easier to measure and control in dustrial and waste treatment processes to ever greater precision, even under the harsh est conditions. As amply demonstrated at the recent Instrument Society of America (ISA)show held in Toronto, advanced elec tronics and the adaptation of commonly-used personal computer software are reducing the cost of complex measurement and control by reducing the amount of training needed of operating staff.

Ftle Test Limits

Innovations in measurements

View Log rite

Log Results To rile

Pait Nuottef

To Screen Orac e

233-32S-11 Scft^ Nunber

Keviston

23021XU-9

Database Connection

Chanoe UUT

Data Table PN 233-32S sefies

Pail Number

233-325-11

Serial Number

23D21XU-9

Batch

Mapped Tesl Result Recoids

Fetch Next

CPU Test:

on liquids An example on display at ISA was a bio chemical oxygen demand (BOD) analyzer for sewage plants and waste treatment in plants such as pulp and paper mills, exhib ited by its new Canadian distributor, Aer-

1273/94

Revision S-15

PASS

Upper Limit: 5.3mV Fetch Prev

Lower Limit: Result:

4.7 mV 4,9 mV

Memory Tesl; PASS Upper Limit; 550 mV Lower Limit: Result: RDM Test:

Update

490 mV 521 mV PASS

0-Flo Environmental.

This BioMonitor, developed by EAR Analytik & Umwelt Messtechnik in Ger many, contains an MS-DOS based compu ter which displays plain-language messages to prompt an operator through selection of functions and entry of parameters,and which allows the operator to view the entire op erator's manual on a computer screen. Re ports on the oxygen uptake of influent and effluent water are produced in graphic and tabular form, and can be converted to stand

ard spreadsheet and transferred to a PC. The analyzer consists of two sets of re actor vessels, each set containing four ves sels connected in cascade so that one vessel

feeds into the next. A sample of the waste water is fed into one of the sets of vessels

and sludge is fed into both. A sensor meas ures oxygen in the last vessel in each set, so that one measures BOD of the sludge and the other of both sludge and water to give a final reading of the water BOD. Biodegradation is faster in the cascaded vessels than

in a single vessel, for a faster reading, and compounds which are difficult to degrade are broken down more efficiently. Oxygen is measured from the air in the final ves

sels, which eliminates the fouling of sen sors.

Similar ease of use was demonstrated in

a Johnson Yokogawa pH meter and OR? analyzer exhibited by CB Engineering. In this EXA PH400 meter, a set of six push buttons and a liquid-crystal display are pro tected by a sealed window which is flex ible so that, for day-to-day operations, an operator can press the buttons without open ing the instrument. The display shows the measurement values as well as messages to prompt the operator which buttons to press 56

'•-rt

a

The LabWindows®/CVI SQL Toolkit, from National instruments, is an add-on toolkit that con

nects Windows PCs running LabWindows/CVi software to more than 20 local or remote databases, it acts as a direct communications link to databases-users can store or fetch data

from a database with easy-to-use, high-level functions, or perform advanced SQL operations using the iow-ievei functions in the package.

to select. The pH sensors are automatically monitored and the display will give an im mediate warning, and output alarm contacts will close, when faults occur such as dirt on the electrode, a break in the electrode glass, or the glass being attacked by an acid. Elec trodes can be automatically washed with a spray of water or acid. Self-cleaning is a feature of a new se ries of EchomaX ultrasonic level transduc

ers developed by Milltronics for measure ment under tough conditions. Condensa tion is atomized on contact with the trans

ducer face to keep it clean. Built-in elec tronic circuitry amplifies measurement sig nals while reducing noise, so that reliable measurements can be made in steam, dust

and foam, and a built-in temperature sen sor corrects for shifts in the velocity of the ultrasonic signal due to temperature changes, saving the wiring costs of external temperature compensation. A seamless housing allows the transducers to be totally submerged under flood conditions without damage. The Sure Shot XPS models in this se

ries are for measurement of a variety of materials, from waste water to plastic pow ders. Other models are for high-tempera ture, corrosive environments and for long measurement ranges.

Waste treatment is among the applica

tions of level measurement by microwaves developed by Endress + Hauser for use on liquids, sludges, pastes and bulk solids. The Micropilot FMR 130 can measure in high temperature and pressure and in the pres ence of gas blankets, dust and steam, and can measure the top level of foam on liq uid, as in a digester. Microwave energy is at a low level so that it can be used in metal

and plastic vessels. Turbidity of water is of growing interest in water treatment and industrial applica tions, according to Richard Lewandowski, REng., of Endress + Hauser who demon strated several models of turbidity meters. The CUS 1 model, whose applications in clude sewage and waste water treatment, measures turbidity with a beam of infra-red light which is reflected by an optical assem bly on to a reference photodiode and is di rected into the process stream where it is reflected by particles on to a measurement photodiode. The measurement signals are processed digitally to remove interference caused by big air bubbles or by large parti cles, to give a high resolution over a wide range.

Flow of liquids with high levels of en trained solids or gas bubbles, such as raw sewage, sludge, and mixtures of oil, water and gas, can be measured with an innova tive ultrasonic technology shown at ISA by

Environmental Science <& Engineering, July 1995


By Tom Kelly Panametrics. This company's TransFlection technique uses a pair of ultrasonic transduc ers. One transmits an ultrasonic signal into the flowing liquid while the other receives the reflected echo. At any instant, the dis tribution of solids and bubbles in the liquid will result in a unique pattern of reflected ultrasonic energy. This pattern is detected by the electronics in the receiving transducer which measures the distance travelled in a

period of time by the section of the liquid giving the unique reflection. The company displayed two models each of which can be switched to use either

method: the DF868 is for permanent instal lation and the PT868 is portable. Both can use transducers which can be clamped on the outside of pipes or mounted on open chan nels, can compare flow rates in dual pipes or channels, and can feed data to a PC. Valves and actuators

The convenience of commissioning and operation evident among instruments at the ISA show extended to some valves and ac tuators as well.

Rotork Controls displayed what it de scribes as "the world's first actuator that you can commission and interrogate without re moving electrical covers," which can speed maintenance operations and is especially beneficial in bad weather. Its IQ range of actuators uses a hand-held push-button unit it calls a "Setting Tool" which is linked to the electronics inside the sealed actuator by

infra-red. This is used to set values such as

torque levels and position limits, and to switch a display on the actuator to show actuator status, alarms, torque settings, valve position in 1° increments, and codes to diagnose faults. To preserve the double seal of the actuator, two control knobs- one

to select valve open or closed and the other for local, remote or stop operation - are linked to the internal circuitry magnetically. The actuator can also transmit a record

of the valve's operations over an infra-red link to another hand-held device, a compu ter called the IQ Communicator which can feed the data into a spreadsheet in a PC to build up statistical records to reveal changes in operating conditions. Two devices which can improve valve performance and help in predictive mainte nance of valves, especially for critical ap plications where valve failure cannot be tol erated, were exhibited by Neles-Jamesbury. One, the Intelligent Signal Modifier or ISMO, measures the operation of a valve, actuator and positioner and stores the data as a record of performance. It uses this data in several ways; it modifies input valve con trol signals to compensate for friction and mechanical linkages to speed response to control inputs and increase accuracy of valve positioning; it produces an output for continuous monitoring of the valve; it gen erates an alarm when the valve behaviour

ing of the need for maintenance; and it can feed data to a PC for fault diagnosis. The other device, the Nelscope, is a combination of a portable computer and measuring instrument for analysis of valve performance. It can be used during commis sioning and operation to set up,troubleshoot and predict maintenance needs of valve con trol loops. Data acquisition and control by software Computer graphics can make even the most complex set of measurements easy to understand, as shown on several booths. Fluke Electronics Canada demonstrated

some new Windows-based software,Trend-

Link, which can process signals from vari ous Fluke data acquisition instruments. The software will plot traces of up to 32 variables on a screen as an electronic strip chart, with the width of the screen repre

senting a period which can be selected by the user to span from seconds to days or weeks. It allows the user to scroll back in

time to see past events and trends, to ex pand a section around an event, and to com pare traces by superimposing one on another. Precise readings can be taken with a verti cal line or cursor which can be moved across the screen so that the value of each trace

and the date and time will be displayed at the point where the cursor intersects each. The software can do some basic analysis, or the data can be loaded into a spreadsheet

exceeds present limits to give an early warn

Continued overleaf

The Workhorse SODIUM HYPGCHLORITE

For water disinfection, wastewater treatment, odour

control,cyanide removal, and general sanitation and disinfection.

9

COLGATE-PALMOUVE CANADA INC. Professional Products Division 6400 Northwest Drive

Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4V1K1

Tel.(905)678-2051 FAX (905)678-0898 Plant Locations: Moncton,Montreal,Toronto,Edmonton

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 123

57


Report on Toronto ISA show, cont'd. for further analysis or to word processing for reports.

uted around a plant on a network with one operating as a main supervisory control and data acquisition server. Remote operation is possible with a FIX terminal that can be used to dial into a plant system. A Windows-based multi-media system capable of storing and displaying text, im ages, photographs of equipment, schematic diagrams, video and sound was demon strated by Wonderware. Its InSupport soft ware contains an expert system for trouble shooting which can guide a technician through the most cost-effective strategies to fix faults in a process or plant. Maintenance documentation for all equipment in a plant can be stored on-line for instant access, and

data base.

Similar Windows-based software,

National Instruments showed a series of

known as FIX, was demonstrated by

signal conditioning and digitizing modules which can connect monitoring instruments and controllers to any of various makes of computer - Windows PCs, Macintosh, Sun

Intellution, which boasts the water treatment

facilities in the Region of Waterloo, Ont., among its users. This is both a graphical man-machine interface and a process auto-

SPARCstations and Hewlett-Packard HP

9000 workstations - programmed with the company's LabVIEW or LabWindows/CVI software developed for a variety of applica tions, including water and wastewater treat ment.

All these trends exhibited at ISA

add up to some vital benefits being offered to the waste treatment and environmental

protection communities.

The software provides a library of graphic symbols,displays and measurement and control functions, including PID algo rithms. These can be used by a process en gineer to design, on a computer screen, a process control and data acquisition system which can then be operated through the com puter, using the familiar Windows pointand-click mouse operations. Programma ble logic controllers and set-point process controllers can be operated from the com puter and their actions depicted on the screen. Animated graphics can display the operation of mechanical objects such as con veyor belts. Measured variables can be plot ted in various strip-chart or graphical forms. A system can be linked to any of a variety of data bases, so that data can be transferred

to the system to modify a process, and so that historical records can be fed into the

mation system capable of performing super visory control, statistical process control, alarming, real-time and historical trending and report generation. In building the graph ics diagram, the user can enter sequences of commands for automatic operation, such as to perform mathematical calculations, open up a picture of part of the plant, ac knowledge alarms and set control values based on if-then-else logic. The operator is able to enter, modify and download process control set points, machine setup values and other variables, and a statistical process control package enables the operator to de tect and correct process conditions that have drifted out of specification. A single computer can handle 300 in put/output points or less; larger systems can be made up of several computers distrib

INSTANT DATA.

JUSTADDWATER.

technicians can add their own notes and in

structions. All failures and repair work are logged for maintenance planning,and the sys tem can be used for continual staff training. All these trends exhibited at ISA add up to some vital benefits being offered to the waste treatment and environmental protec tion communities. Instruments capable of operating under the most demanding con ditions can now be coupled with data ac quisition and control systems which make it easier to operate and troubleshoot treat ment plants and industrial processes. That means that greater reliability of plant and process operations can now be olstained at a reduced cost for the expertise and train ing needed to run them.

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Groundwater protection

Research alliance pays off for Sollnst

New technology makes it pos ible

to take samples from many iso lated zones in a single borehole, cutting costs and reducing distur bance to the sub-surface. University re searchers and manufacturing companies need to work more closely together to over come language barriers, foster more univer sity-industry cooperation and speed the transfer of ideas to the commercial sector.

Research cooperation with the Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research is paying off for Solinst Canada Ltd. The company manufactures and markets a number of in

strumentation products used to measure the properties of soil, rock and groundwater, in cluding half a dozen spun off from research carried out at the University of Waterloo. Chief among these is the Waterloo Multilevel Groundwater Monitoring system, commonly referred to as the "Waterloo Sys tem." It is being marketed internationally. Systems have been sold in the United States, Mexico, Norway, the United Kingdom and Malaysia, as well as Canada. The Univer sity patented the Waterloo System about eight years ago; Solinst has exclusive rights for 25 years. The Waterloo System offers advantages in studying such phenomena as the move ment of contaminants through groundwater, by providing a way to take samples from many isolated zones in a single borehole. Multilevel monitoring is economical and it

to its static level. If a dedicated sampling pump or pressure transducer is used, it at taches to the port stem. Sampling pumps, activated at the surface, are suitable for sam

pling many types of contaminants includ ing Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs). Al ternatively, an open tube may be attached to each port to maximize flexibility and al low more zones to be monitored in each sys tem. A third option is to choose a mix of open tubes and dedicated sampling pumps. If water sampling is not needed, the Waterloo System can comprise numerous pressure transducers for multilevel pressure monitoring. The System can be adapted for use in overburden or bedrock applications. It is extremely flexible. Some of its appli cations include: defining groundwater flow patterns, determining aquitard leakiness, pump test monitoring, performance moni toring of pump-and-treat systems, and iden tification and determination of spatial dis tribution of contaminants.

Projects on which Waterloo Systems have been used include: monitoring landfills, tailings storage, dam leakage, tun nels, pipeline leaks, underground storage tanks, salt water intrusion, deep well injec tion impacts, industrial site cleanups and organics plume delineation. "When we first heard of the Waterloo

System we thought it sounded interesting," says Doug Belshaw, president of Solinst, "but as we looked into it we realized it

needed some redesign if it was to be com mercially successful. This we did, working closely with university researchers." He sees this kind of cooperation as some thing that "certainly needs to be extended," to involve many other Canadian companies and university researchers, if this country's economic future is to be improved. "Instrumentation devices such as those

we manufacture and market are expensive to develop," he notes. "University people have the talent to come up with the ideas, but they are not usually trained in manufac turing and thus they may,for example,fail to realize that a small change in design could permit a manufacturer to reduce the price of a component or instrument so substantially its success would be much more likely." Additional items jointly developed by Solinst, the University of Waterloo and WCGR and currently being marketed by the former include a soil-core sampling device (Soil Core Sampler), a drive-in piezometer (to measure groundwater levels or pres sures), a saturated sand sampling device, and a triple-tube sampler. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121

reduces disturbance to the subsurface.

The Waterloo System uses modular com ponents with specially designed joints to form a sealed casing string, made up of pack ers, ports, various casing lengths, a base plug and surface manifold. It allows accurate

placement of groundwater entry ports at the zones to be monitored.

A monitoring tube, attached to the stem of each port, individually connects that packed zone to the surface. Monitoring tubes(piezometers)are like miniature wells contained and protected within the sealed casing string. The packers use a water-activated ex pansion sleeve fitted over a length of wellscreen. A rubber/Kevlar/rubber sheath

envelops the expansion material, the Kevlar providing strength to bridge across large fis sures, and the rubber moulding to small fis sures, ensuring that water does not leak around the packer. Packers are inflated after installation, when water is added to the inside of the

sealed casing string. This water passes into the expansion sleeve, causing it to swell. Expansion continues until a permanent seal is formed against the borehole wall. Port modules are of stainless steel or

PVC. Formation water enters the port di mesh filter, into the stem, up into the moni

The complete system can be quickly Installed. Each system is site and application specific. The standard installation is in a 75mm borehole and comprises packers, a 50mm PVC casing string,stainless steel ports and polyethylene tubing. The Soil Core Sampler Is ready for driving.

toring tube attached to that stem, and thus

WCGR Groundwater notes.

rectly, or through a 75-micron stainless steel

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

59


Groundwater protection

By Rene A. de Vries*

Subsurface remediation - a comparison between the Netheriands and Ontario

An old proverb tel s us that a fool

learns from his own mistakes but a wise man learns from others. It makes sense to look around to

see how other jurisdictions are handling their environmental issues and learn from it.

This is of particular relevance to the topic of subsurface remediation, since vast

amounts of resources are expended on this environmental issue by both government and industry. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute recently indicated that their mem

bers alone have spent more than $250 mll-

veloped as part of the IBS are known as the A-B-C criteria and have been used in many jurisdictions outside The Netherlands. The criteria in the WBB have been simplified to just an A and C value where the C (or "intervention criteria") can be more site specific and tailored to the existing envi

will have to be remediated within "one gen eration". Based on discussions with vari

ous environmental specialists within the petrochemical industry (Shell, Fina, Mobil, Elf, and BP)the consensus was that the law maker's view amounts to wishful thinking.

These industry representatives believe that the remediation costs of contaminated lands

ronmental risks.

Ontario Earlier environmental laws were amal

to multi-functionality within one generation are too extensive or simply not practical in

gamated into the Ontario Environmental

some instances where industrial use of land

Protection Act (EPA) of 1971 which is broadly directed towards the protection and

remains to be seen whether the Dutch soci

will not change in the foreseeable future. It

ety is willing to strictly enforce its own laws Population (1991) Land surface area (sq. km) GDP/Capita(Cans,1992) Life Expectance(Male/Female, 1986,1989) Cancer as tfie cause of death(% of total, 1990) Cost of a litre of gasoline(Can$, 1994)

Ontario

The Netherlands

10,084,885 891,190 27,511

15,200,000 37,330 17,600

73/80

74/80

27

23

0.50

1.40

on this issue.

In the proposed guidelines, the Ontario counterparts of the Dutch lawmakers have conceded to more site specific criteria de pending on current land use, while also hav ing a regard for the specific risk posed by the contaminant. The Ontario approach is clearly more cost-effective in areas where

lion on voluntary subsurface remediation activities to date. The clean-up of the Expo

conservation of the natural environment.

lands in Vancouver has cost the BC taxpay

tario government developed two soil clean up guidelines (1989 and 1993) which pro vide recommended practices for the clean up of contaminated sites. With the exception of the requirements of the Gasoline Handling Act, there are no specific legislative requirements for the rou tine initiation of investigation or remediation of soil and groundwater unless an emergency or adverse effect is noted and reported. The Ontario government is presently fi nalizing new soil clean-up guidelines that

ers more than $70 million to date. The de

velopment of the infamous Toronto Ataritiri housing project did not get off the ground, primarily due to expected costs for soil remediation (possibly in excess of $300 million).

Three undergraduate environmental sci ence students from the Prof. H.C. van Hall

Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands,

recently completed a study for Central Projects Group Inc. The study compared the approaches of Ontario and The Nether lands with respect to dealing with the issue of soil and groundwater contamination. Regulatory regimes, investigative tech niques and remediation technologies were compared. This article uses the findings of this study and compares the regulatory re gimes of both jurisdictions. The Netherlands The first environmental law in the Neth

erlands was the Hinderwet (Nuisance Law)

of 1871 where municipalities were empow ered to impose restrictions on industrial developments and/or require industry to implement control measures with respect to

the discharge of contaminants. Starting in the early 1970s, various compartmental (ie. soil, water, and air) environmental laws were developed. The Interim Soil Remediation Act(IBS) was introduced in The Netherlands in 1983

and set the stage for the initiation of soil and groundwater investigation and remediation programs. The IBS was changed in May 1994 into the Soil Protec tion Act(WBB). This act provides the regu latory authorities(primarily provincial gov ernments) with extensive legislative ammu nition to initiate investigation and remediation of soil and groundwater pollu tion. The soil and groundwater criteria de60

Within the framework of the EPA, the On

are intended to further standardize and

streamline the recommended practices uti lized by industry for environmental site in vestigation and remediation work. Comparison The students concluded that the Dutch

governments developed more legislative instruments to cover soil and groundwater contamination issues than their Ontario

counterparts. They feel that, in Ontario, the responsibility for the investigation and remediation of subsurface contamination

primarily lies with the individuals or com panies owning contaminated lands and con trolling industrial processes. The Dutch governments have taken on a

more prominent role in setting and enforc ing standards with respect to soil and groundwater investigation and remediation. It was felt that, since the legislative require ments in Ontario are not very specific, there is more room for a site specific approach that also leaves room for economic consid erations. Further it was felt that the Dutch law

makers are attempting to hold on to the con cept of multi-functionality of land (e.g. in

land is not a scarce commodity or where the land use will not change in the foreseeable future. However, In densely populated ar eas, the use of site specific criteria based on current land use without long term land

use planning may result in the "using up" of land by (primarily) industrial/commer cial development. This may place major restrictions on alternative land use of these sites and/or result in excessive costs once

these lands are to be redeveloped. Unfortunately, it is hard to produce any

tangible statistics on whether society has benefited because of these different ap proaches. What can we leam from the comparison?

1) It is important for a society to have a long term vision of the issues of soil and groundwater impairment. An analysis of costs versus benefits (including those cre

ated by possible health and safety issues) to society should be the focus. 2) Long-term land use planning with a re gard for potential environmental risk asso ciated with its use is important, specifically in densely populated areas. 3) The benefits to society of environmental

soil and groundwater protection laws,guide lines, and industry standards require quan tification in order for decision makers within

governments and industry to defend their priorities. 4) If a society has to choose between spend ing its money on prevention measures or the remediation of existing non-emergencies, society is likely better offto spend its money on prevention. The paradigm shift in mod em society from the short-term "end of the pipe" approach to a longer term, processintegrated approach indicates that this shift is presently taking place.

dustrial lands should meet the environmen

tal requirements for alternative land use) and that lands with contaminant concentra

"Central Projects Group Inc.,

tions that exceed the intervention or C-value

Markham, Ontario

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


ENVIRONMENTAL

Science & Engineering September 1995 — Fall Convention Special Thousands of Canada's environmental protection professionals are expected to attend the 1995 Water Environment Federation Convention in Miami and/or the Calgary Environmental Tradeshow this October. ES&E's September issue will preview these major events and

will be distributed at the shows as a bonus for advertisers.

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Fall Convention Previews (Bonus circulation)

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October 31 - November 1,1995 ..A. very informative publication. James D. Megill, P.Eng., City of Cornwall

- AWMA fall conference preview

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Corrosion control

...Still the best environmental magazine in Canada! Mike Neale, President, Consultech Niagara Stoney Creek, ON

Energy conservation Enhanced coagulation and flocculation

...Good, timely articles, Good to see Canadians involved! Joseph J. Cuvaj, True Temp Ent, Miilgrove, ON

Equipment maintenance Focus on laboratories - special Spills containment Trenchiess technology Water and sewer pipe applications

Contaminant hydrogeology Emergency response

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...I have enjoyed reading your editorials over the last few

years and indeed ES&E is a great help to all in industry. Brian Stevenson, Crestbrook Forest Industries Cranbrook, B.C.

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before August 11,1995. Steve Davey President

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Groundwater protection

Microbial "Biofilter" used to clean up contaminated groundwater A successful demonstration of an under

ground "biofilter" that uses living microor ganisms to clean up solvent-contaminated groundwater has been accomplished by re searchers from the Lawrence Livermore

National Laboratory. In a test at a Northern Cali

partially impeded the filter's effectiveness." The microbial water scrubbers are a type of natural nonpathogenic bacteria that con sumes methane for energy and growth. Though the bacteria cannot gain nourish ment from TCE, enzymes in the bacteria

infusion of nutrients caused the contamina

tion to be pushed away from the microbes. Also, the injected nutrients stimulated growth of other kinds of bacteria in the area, causing proliferation of types not helpful in the clean-up. A further difficulty was try ing to get just the right distri

fornia site having groundwater

bution of nutrients. In some

contaminated with the common

cases, the nutrients caused foul

solvent trichloroethene (TCE),

ing of the wells because of a blooming of bacteria around the

Lab scientists used an under

ground filter of harmless soil bacteria to reduce dramatically contaminant levels from around

400 parts per billion (ppb) to less than 10 ppb. The test was conducted at

well bore.

"Ours is a revolutionary concept because we inject bac teria without nutrients," said

Knapp. "We rely on these starving bacteria to destroy sig

the Chico Municipal Airport,

nificant amounts of contami

where TCE contaminates a

nants before the microbes be

groundwater aquifer some two kilometers long by half a

come inactive and more have to be introduced. This field test

kilometer wide. The environ

proves our concept. It's the first time anyone's accomplished

mental engineering firm of Brown and Caldwell, which is

this kind of bioremediation of

cleaning up the site, contacted the Laboratory about the biofilter technology after hear ing of a test of the filter at the Kennedy Space Center in

TCE in groundwater."

Florida. The Chico test is be

ing conducted by the Labora tory in partnership with Brown and Caldwell.

At Chico, Lab researchers injected about 13 pounds of the common bacteria Methylosinus trichosporium 0B3b into the Chico contaminant plume, lo cated about 90 feet beneath the surface. The microbes adhered

Chico Site Ideal for Biofilter

At the Kennedy Space Center initial tests determined

that, while the biofilter would

have worked,the degree ofcon tamination and the soil condi tions at the site were such that

the filter technology would not have been able to restore the

groundwater to regulatory re quirements. At the Chico site, though, the type and amount of con tamination and the soil condi

to surrounding soil particles, tions-oxygen content, pH bal forming a spherical microbial Initial tests ofthe biofilter were conducted at the Kennedy Space Center. ance and soil permeability and mass roughly a meter in diam porosity - were conducive to break down the compound, nonetheless. eter around the end of the injection well. effective bioremediation. The microbes used at Chico were grown Scientists then began drawing on the Lab researchers hope that biofilters well, pulling contaminated groundwater in a special bioreactor facility at Livermore, employing various kinds or suites of bacte from the surrounding area through the mass and should continue to degrade contami of microbes, into the well bore and up to nants for a number of weeks before they ria, depending upon the contaminants in either die or go into an inactive state. To question and subsurface conditions - could the surface. As the contaminated water continue the clean-up process thereafter, reduce the cost of cleaning up sites with con passed through the mass of bacteria, en taminated groundwater problems - and, in new microbes would have to be introduced. zymes within the organisms began break some cases, also speed it up. Current clean Revolutionary Concept ing down the TCE into harmless aqueous up methods center around the slow and Bioremediation of contaminated sites is carbon dioxide and water. costly process of pumping water from the "We were able to achieve 98 percent not new. However, prior efforts usually in degradation of the contaminants in the volved simply injecting nutrients into the ground and cleaning it using chemical proc groundwater," said Richard Knapp, a ground to stimulate the growth of bacteria esses at the surface. "Now that we've proven the concept, it's geochemical engineer in the Laboratory's already present. While significant increases Environmental Programs Directorate. "We in underground bacterial populations were a lot easier to go after other kinds of con taminants using different bacteria," said were actually somewhat surprised at the achieved, the resultant destruction of con Knapp. "We've laid out the roadmap for taminants was not effective. This was due exceptional results because the heterogene subsequent development." to a number of factors. One was that the ous nature of the soil in the area should have 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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J


Pulp & Paper Section

By Brian Stevenson* & Sean Smyth*

Canada's First Tertiary Effluent Treatment System In Operation at Crestbrook, B.C. storage tanks are sized for rail and truck off loading.

Clarifier System Isometric

Site preparation began in August. Ex isting buried pipe was re-used in place for the majority of the required wastewater line

To Outfall From

to and from the clarifier. Service lines from

Sccondar>'

the mill and sludge return lines were bur

Treatment

ied in a 700 metre trench. Three stainless

steel pipelines (weak black liquor, sludge return, and a spare) were wrapped together in a bentonite blanket for security against leaks. Monitoring wells were installed along

Dissolved Air

Flotation Clarifier^

From

the pipeline to provide early detection of

Coagulant System

leaks.

Sludge Removal

Sludge scrapers, which are connected to the bull gear in a spoke-like fashion, dis charge colour sludge from the clarifier sur

From"

face onto two beaches located 180 degrees

Floceiilant

from each other. Sludge from the south side

System

of the clarifier slides down a chute to a small

Sludge to Weak Black Liquor Tank

In 1994, Crestbrook Forest Industries completed its $300 million mill revitalization program which included Kamyr digester improvements,an oxy

gen delignification plant, new lime kiln and recausticizing plant, an upgrade of the pulp drying machine, chip thickness screening, new recovery boiler island and the installa tion of Canada's first tertiary effluent treat

ment plant on kraft mill effluent. The terti ary system was designed to remove colour from the mill's secondary treated effluent stream. Process water for the mill is drawn from Skookumchuck Creek and wastewater

is discharged to the Kootenay River. The process which was developed by Stone Container Corp. of Atlanta, Georgia, involves the creation of colour floes by con

ditioning effluent from the secondary treat ment system with polymers and removing the resulting colour sludge with a dissolved

tank where it is collected and pumped to

the main sludge blend tank located on the

ing rate of 100 to 150 ppm to form a pin point floe from the colour colloid. Flocculant is added (at 3 to 6 ppm dosage) as the efflu ent enters the second mix tank to gather the floe into a larger, more stable form. The second mix tank is connected to the centre well of the 100 foot DAF clarifier. A

pressurized recycle stream of clarified liq uid containing dissolved air is added to the

north east side of the clarifier. Sludge from the bottom of the clarifier is also pumped to this tank. The blended sludge is mixed with

weak black liquor from the mill to reduce viscosity and is pumped back through the 15 cm underground return pipe to the weak black liquor storage tank. Twenty to fifty BDtpd of sludge, at 3 to 6% consistency, are returned for evaporation and incinera tion in the recovery boiler.

centre well zone where contact is made with

Operator Training and Start Up A Bailey PV View distributed control

the incoming flow of conditioned effluent

station at the colour removal plant shares a

from the second mix tank. The combined mixture flows over the centre well wall where the colour floe is floated to the clari fier surface with the aid of effervescent air

room with the operators' laboratory. The steam and recovery field engineer operates the plant along with his other steam plant duties.

bubbles from the recycle stream. The clear

The clarifier was put on line March 5,

liquid exits through upflow boxes to dis charge and cascade to an external launder. The launder flows by gravity to a collection tank before entering the buried pipeline

1994 with an effluent flow of 38,000 M3/

day and a colour of 720 cu.(colour units). Colour sludge began forming within min utes of introducing effluent and polymer into the mix tanks. Effluent leaving the clarifier was 150 cu for a removal efficiency of ap

which leads to the river.

air flotation (DAP)clarifier. The new treat

Engineering and Construction

ment facility replaces the mill's ground in

Crestbrook negotiated a license agree ment with Stone Container in the spring of 1993 for the use of the above process. Sandwell of Vancouver, which was retained

proximately 80%.

as the prime engineering firm for the mill revitalization, began preliminary design work on the colour removal plant in March '93. A total budget of approximately $12

to 1300 cu. Removal efficiency has ranged from 60 to 80% depending on effluent con

million was set.

shown to reduce other effluent constituents

filtration basins which had been in service

for over 12 years. Process Description After secondary treatment in a five day retention aeration stabilization basin, efflu

ent is pumped from the existing lift station to a splitter tank where a portion of the flow can bypass tertiary treatment. Effluent to be treated is directed into the first mix tank

Pollution Control Engineering of Santa

where coagulant polymer is added at a dos-

Ana, California was chosen to supply the DAF clarifier in June and detailed engineer

ditions and polymer types.

Besides removing colour,the process has such as BOD,suspended solids, and AOX. As well, the final effluent has remained nontoxic.

Downstream colour in the Kootenay River has remained well within the provin

Crestbrook Forest Industries, Cranbrook, BO. V1C 4J7

ing began in the same month. The two part polymer system was cus tom designed and engineered by Callway

cial requirements and local residents (who

'Process Engineer, Sandwell Inc.

Chemical Limited of New Westminster,EC,

include those who work at the mill) have

Vancouver, 80. V6Z 2H6

according to mill specifications. The bulk

begun to rediscover their river and its beauty.

*Pulp Division,

64

Conclusion

The plant has run consistently since start up and has treated influent colour from 500

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Finally, there's a Pulp and Paper waste water treatment process that makes

ZERO DISCHARGE achievable at a reasonable cost.

^0^

Using the ingenious HCR treatment process from Kvaerner now being installed at Atlantic Packaging in Toronto. The HCR is a modern activated sludge The main advantages of the HCR process are: process which uses ioop-type bubbie coiumn ■ Substantiaily reducted investment and operating cost. technology for optimizing mass transfer. ■ Surpius sludge production reduced by more than 40%. The HCR process combines compact ■ Moduiar design for easy instaiiation. dimensions with excelient performance and reduced sludge production. Captial and ■ Integrates easily with conventional existing plant. operating costs are significantiy lower than other AST systems as are yearly maintenance ■ Good flexibility to match poilution fluctuations. charges. Bacteria adapt swiftiy to the The HCR can be instalied as a large main wastewater. treatment facility for an existing mill operation Even toxic contaminants such as formaldehyde, phenol, furfural and resin or as a local, single stream treatment cell for a acids can be treated with good efficiency. new pulping or papermaking instaiiation. KV/ERNER GROUP

Inquiries to; Kvsemer Engineering, Inc. a.s.

KV/ERNER HYMAC, KV/CRNER PULPING, KV/ERNER PULPING EQUIPMENT, KV>ERNER ENGINEERING a.s.

Servicing the Pulp & Paper industry worldwide.

Environmental

Tei:(416)296-9915 Fax:(416)296-9912

For more information. Circle reolu card No. l.^n


Pulp & Paper Industry Report

Britain considers the environment

Britain's paper industry imports

most of its pulp and relies heav ily on recycling waste paper. The United Kingdom's four pulping mills use mechanical - as opposed to chemi cal - processes, and dioxin from elemental chlorine bleaching is not a problem. Al though Kraft pulping by Britain's overseas suppliers is moving into the use of alterna tive bleaching methods, the environmental benefits mean a less white product that may not meet customer needs. The United King dom industry considers that, within certain essential environmental criteria, the custom

ers must decide what they want. The paper industry is energy intensive, but dramatic savings over the decade have

indirectly contributed to improving Britain's environmental impact in terms of power sta tion flue gas emission. Therms consumed for each gross tonne of paper or board pro duced fell from 260 in 1981 to just under 210 in 1991.

Environmental priorities

Discharge to a salmon river attracts se vere constraint whereas discharge to an in dustrial estuary enjoys more relaxed limits. Although the NRA is moving towards trans parency in the criteria it uses in allowing discharge permits, a single, national emis sion limit approach is unlikely. The measurement of the content of dis

charges is load-based by biochemical oxy gen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen de mand (COD) and solids. Today the paper industry would find it almost impossible to discharge to a United Kingdom river with out secondary effluent treatment at two lev els. The first settles the fibre, the second

alters the effluent chemical composition. An alternative approach, involving anaerobic treatment by bacteria to transform a large proportion of effluent into water and methane, is becoming more accessible. With research opening the working param eters of the anaerobic phase, the United Kingdom industry sees this as the optimum treatment of the future. Risk Assessment

Water-based effluent dominates British

paper mills' environmental priorities. Dis charges to surface waters vary considerably from place to place because each requires the consent of the National Rivers Authority (NRA)or its Scottish equivalent. Environ mental absorbency establishes the criteria.

Like many other industries, Britain's paper and board manufacturers want to work with regulators and the public to minimize waste and emissions, but it is the responsi bility of the industry to decide how they do

it. This approach means that determining

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Usually a consent for effluent discharge to surface waters will contain BOD and sol

ids figures. If the consent covers trade ef fluent discharge to a sewer then there will be a COD requirement alone and possibly nothing more, other than concentrations of a few specific substances like ammonia. Trade effluent discharges from the paper industry comprise a high-volume, low-toxicity cocktail of substances which make en vironmental control complex to implement. Over the past five years some $20 mil lion a year has been invested in improving the environmental impact of the industry in the UK in terms of effluent treatment alone.

Over the past decade the industry has in vested about $2 billion in upgrading its proc esses and the advanced technology means that discharges have decreased because gen erally less water is required. Recycling has obvious environmental benefits, but is inconsistent at packaging grade raw material quality and this variabil ity makes it difficult to decide the content of the effluent and its appropriate treatment at any instant. Pulp on the other hand is understood precisely because suppliers guarantee a consistent raw material quality by means of their product criteria.

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Pulp & Paper Industry Report

state-of-the-art Thai P&P waste treatment

plant passes performance tests

Protection of the environment is a

prime objective of Thai Paper Co. which operates four fine paper machines. The fourth one was

started up in April, 1994 and has a capacity of 96,000 t/y of coating base fine papers. The existing waste treatment system con

Eimco undertook, from conception to start-up, a complete turnkey solution guar anteeing both cost, project schedule and ef fluent quality. The team combined the proc ess design capabilities of H.A. Simons of Canada,the construction management serv ices of Oxidation Co. of Thailand and the

problems encountered during the commis sioning of a new paper machine. A post-installation performance evalua tion was contractually agreed to, to demon strate compliance of the plant with discharge limits, chemical consumption and power usage. The seven day test was conducted in November, 1994 and the final analytical

1993 for a complete effluent treatment plant to process the combined waste stream of the four fine paper machines. The factory is located in the pulp and paper complex of Ban Pong,80 km west of Bangkok, and shares the facilities with Siam Kraft(packaging and industrial papers) and Siam Pulp & Paper(bleached bagasse pulp). The system supplied incorporates the latest available technology to meet the re cent stringent Thai effluent discharge stand ards. It utilizes a high-rate activated sludge treatment based on jet aeration technology:

know-how of Eimco Process Equipment for the supply of major equipment and for proc ess responsibilities at the plant. The activated sludge treatment system was completed on time and came smoothly on line in April, 1994. Project life through the entire contract was just over 13 months -from process concept, detail engineering, project management, to equipment fabrica tion and delivery, site erection, operators' training and finally plant start-up. Given Thai Paper Co.'s goal of total compliance for effluent discharges, the environmental project presented some unique challenges for plant design, for expedited equipment fabrication, shipment and customs clearance and for fast-tracking methods during instal

- A solids contact Reactor-Clarifier™ with

lation.

chemical addition is used for primary treat ment due to the expected fines carry-over from the new paper machine. - The aeration basin has submerged jet aera

The effluent treatment plant has been designed to meet all current and foresee able environmental requirements. The al lowable pollutant discharge limits for ex isting paper mills in Thailand are currently

95% actual without flocculating aids vs the 90% figure estimated for design condition with alum and polymer addition. The contractual guarantees were also easily

20 mg/1 for BOD,, 30 mg/1 for suspended

- The effluent flow rate averaged 104% of the design value with daily average peaks up to 111%. The contractual capacity of the plant is 12,500 m3/d.

sists of a series of anaerobic and aerobic

lagoons which occupy one-third of the mill complex and was not able to handle the ad ditional load. Eimco received the order in

tors for high BODj removal, an oxidationditch configuration for greater shock load absorption and an 8.5m deep tank for a com pact installation. - The secondary clarifier is of the sludge suction design to ensure rapid collection and return of the active biomass to the aeration tank.

solids, 2000 mg/1 for dissolved solids and pH value in the 6 to 9 range. Results from the first eight months of operation after start up have been excellent. The effluent treat ment plant has consistently exceeded or met the design parameters despite the usual

results were received in December, 1994.

A report summarizing the performance test was submitted to Thai Paper Co. in Janu

ary, 1995. The acceptance certificate was released in March, 1995.

For the test run. Thai Paper Co.'s tech nical department was mandated to system atically collect and analyze the samples for

BOD,,COD,pH, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. The tests were meas ured with the appropriate procedures de scribed in Standard Methods (APHA, AWWA,WEF).

During the performance test run, sus pended solids removal efficiency of the pri mary Reactor-Clarifier™ unit was substan tially better than expected, averaging over

achieved:

- BOD, emissions averaged 9 mg/1 (98% BOD, removal), a value considerably beContlnued on page 70

- A tertiary flocculating Reactor-Clarifier™ with further chemical treatment is installed

to ensure that colloidal fines from the paper machines do not pass through the system and violate the suspended solids limit. It normally operates in series with the second ary unit, but can also run in parallel during

SECONDARY CLARIFIER

COOLING TOWER

0

upsets.

- All three clarifiers incorporate a large cen tral chamber equipped with thickening pick ets. This internal sludge thickener eliminates the need for a separate sludge thickener. - An emergency spill basin is incorporated into the flowsheet to handle accidental spills and other process upsets. The contents of this basin are pumped to the aeration tank at a controlled rate so as not to upset the biological process. - A cooling tower is added to ensure the in fluent temperature to the aeration basin is always lower than 37 degrees C. - Excess secondary sludge is blended with the primary and tertiary sludge and dewatered on a screw press. The solids are subsequently incinerated in a fluidized bed power boiler for energy recovery.

NUTRIENT

SPILL TANK

PRIMARY CLARIFIER

POLYMER

TERTIARY CLARIFIER

•00

I SPLITTER BOX

FROM PUMPING STATION

AERATION AIR BLOWERS (3)

FROM EXISTING SEWERS I

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

FLOCCULATION TANK ROTARY THICKENER SCREEN SLUDGE DEWATERING PRESS STEAM

SLUDGE TRANSFER POLYMER

CONVEYOR EXISTING POLISHING POND

TO MAE KLONG RIVER

<^3—<-j SLUDGE BLEND TANK

67


Pulp & Paper Industry Report

Dioxins and furans - how dangerous are they? Figure 1:

Chlorinaled Dibenzo-g-dioxins(Dioxins) and Dibenzofurans(Furans): Structure and Numbers of Isomers

6

"

4

such as PCBs and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). The dioxins and furans can be destroyed but only by using very harsh methods such as high temperature incineration, cata lytic hydro-dehalogenation and photolysis with powerful UV lamps. In the laboratory when standards of dioxins and furans are prepared, the conditions used are relatively rigorous. These compounds could be considered equally as hard to make as they are to eliminate.

Dlbenzo-g-dioxin

Dibenzofuran

NUMBER OF CHLORINES

NUMBER OF COMPOUNDS

Dioxins 1 2

Furans

2

4

10

16

3

14

28

4

22

38

5

14

28

6

10

16

7

2

4

8

1

1

In 1991,the U.S.EPA began a long and involved process to

reassess the risks that dioxin and related compounds pose to humans. Later this year, a final report on their findings will be released. It is widely anticipated that they will conclude that these risks are greater than originally proposed. Certainly, no one person in government,in industry or in the scientific com munity can accurately predict the full, eventual impact of the EPA's

Analytical History Even though the first synthesis of dioxin was reported in the scientific literature over a century ago, it would seem that most, if not all, of the chemical and toxicological data has been gener ated in the last 20 to 30 years. This is largely due to the vast improvements in analytical methods and instrumentation and concurrent developments in methods used to test the toxicity and biological effects ofchemicals. It should be recognized that dioxins and furans, if they are present in an environmental or chemical sample, are usually at concentrations that are very much lower than other organic constituents and contaminants. It is now pos sible to isolate and positively identify dioxins and furans at very low levels and there are toxicological methods (eg. bioassays) that are essentially dioxin or furan specific and quite sensitive. Using these techniques, it became more and more evident that dioxins and furans were widespread, environmental contaminants and they could be linked to deleterious effects in living organ isms including humans. The amount of scientific data generated increased dramatically in the 1970s and every so often it would seem that certain events (eg. industrial accidents, scientific dis coveries, reports) would serve to spark renewed interest in these compounds. Some of these 'events' are listed in Table 1. It should be

reassessment.

This August, the annual international conference on chlorin ated dioxin and related compounds, DIOXIN '95, is to be held in Edmonton. Since its inception, this conference has attracted the world's experts on dioxin chemistry and toxicology. Considering these events, it is appropriate and timely to summarize what we

noted that this table is not meant to be definitive. For example, there were industrial accidents involving chlorophenols prior to 1950 which likely involved dioxins. It should also be noted that the end result of some of these events is still unknown. Figure 2:

The Sevenieen Toxic" Dioxins and Furans and Toxic Equivalent Factors

know about these chemicals.

What are they? One often hears or reads the term 'dioxin' to describe this

group of compounds; although universally accepted, this is scien tifically incorrect and sometimes misleading. Most often, they are referring to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins which is a series of 75 different compounds (see Figure 1). This group has also been given the aliases PCDDs and CDDs. The same applies to 'furans' which are more properly termed chlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs, CDFs) and are comprised of 135 distinct organic compounds (also see Figure 1). Rather than confuse, the terms 'dioxin' and 'furan' will be used in this arti

OT TO 2,3,7.8-Telrachlorodibenzo-B-dioxin (2378-TCDD)

COMPOUND Dioxins:

2.3,7.8-TCDD

1.0

1.2,3.7,8-PeCDD

0.5

1.2.3.4.7.8-HxCDD 1.2.3.6.7.8-HxCDD 1.2.3.7.8.9-HxCDD

0.1

cle.

Out of this total of 210 compounds, 17 receive more attention due to their potential human toxicity. These are the chlorinated dioxins and furans that contain 4 or more chlorines per molecule with these chlorine atoms in the 2,3,7 and 8 positions. These 17 are listed in Figure 2; at one time there was a smaller group, affectionately known as the 'dirty dozen', until the heptachloro (3) and octachloro (2) dioxins and furans were added. The individual pure dioxins and furans are white, crystalline solids at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and look somewhat innocuous. They are very stable in the environment and readily bioaccumulate in fatty tissue. What is disturbing, is that the 17 listed in Figure 2 are generally the most stable and lipophilic. In the environment, they are almost always found adsorbed onto particulate such as soil, sediment and ash. They are very insoluble in water and are only sparingly soluble in most organic solvents. They usually coexist with structurally similar compounds 68

0.1 0.1

1.2.3.4,6,7,8-HpCDD

0.01

OCDD

0.001

1.2.3.7.8-PeCOF 2,3.4,7.8-PeCDF

0.05 0.5

1.2.3.4.7.8-HxCDF 1.2.3.7.8.9-HxCDF 1.2.3,6,7.8-HxCDF 2.3.4.6.7.8-HxCDF

0.1

1.2.3.4.6.7.8-HpCDF 1.2.3.4.7.8.9-HpCDF

0.01 0.01

0.1 0.1 0.1

' NATO/GGMS

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


By Brock G. Chittim* Table 1;

Chronology of DIoxIn/Furan Events

DATE

EVENT: INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT/SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY/REPORT

1957

Ghloracne In German chemical workers linked to

dioxin In 2,4,5-tetrachlorophenol 1957

Millions of chickens In the U.S. died due to

consumption of dioxin contaminated feed 1965 Yusho: Human RGB poisoning In Japan due to consumption of contaminated rice oil 1970-present Vietnam: Use of Agent Orange (2,4-D/2,4,5-T) as a defoliant caused dioxin contamination of the

environment,the Vietnamese people and armed forces personnel 1970

Furans found in RGBs

1971

Dioxin found In 2,4,5-T and determined to be potent teratogen

that require dioxin/furan testing on new and existing chemicals that have the potential to contain these contaminants. P&P Industry

Another significant source of dioxins and furans was the pulp and paper industry. In the late 1980s, it was determined that the chlorine bleaching processes used in the manufacture of bleached pulp and paper resulted in the dioxin/furan contamination of these products and the effluents and wastes from these mills. To its credit, the pulp and paper industry responded quickly and effectively. By changing its processes and the chemicals and quantities it uses, the industry plans to eliminate dioxins and furans in their effluent by 1996. The industry has already voluntarily begun to virtually eliminate dioxins/furans in its paper products.

1972

DIoxins found in chlorinated phenols

In addition to these sources, there are many others that have been identified. Some of these could be included in the catego ries discussed above, some have been eliminated and some are

1973

Dioxins determined to be cause of chick edema

very minor, but interesting contributors.

(see 1957) Furans found In rice oil from Yusho poisoning (see 1965) Seveso;Accidental release of dioxins from plant In Italy that produced tetrachlorophenol

1976 1976 1977

Dioxins and furans found in incinerator ash and flue

1977 1979

Ferrous and nonferrous metal smelting

TEFs proposed Yu-Gheng; Human RGB poisoning InTaiwan, again due to consumption of a contaminated edible oil; Furans later found in human autopsy tissue

Wastewater/sewage treatment facilities (likely due to input from

Dioxin found in Great Lakes fish

1981

Binghamton, NY: Office fire involving RGBs caused furan (and RGB)contamination of building Times Beach: Improper disposal of dioxin-containing chemical wastes caused extensive contamina tion of a number of sites in Missouri

1980-1984 (1942-1952)

Love Ganai: improper iandfiliing of chemical wastes caused dioxin contamination of surrounding area and Niagara River

1987/1988

Dioxins and furans found in effluent, wastes and

1988

products from puip bleaching l-TEF factors proposed(NATO-GGMS)

1990

Dioxins and furans found in wastewater from

1990/1991

petrochemical catalyst regeneration systems First reports linking dioxins to increased occur rences of cancer and other illnesses in chemical workers

1991

Forest fires

gas

1980

1981 (1972)

Other Sources of Dioxins and Furans

Goal and wood combustion including residential fireplaces Internal combustion engines(using leaded fuels) Gigarette smoke

Beginning of dioxin reassessment Sources

A disturbing fact about dioxins and furans is that they are not made intentionally, except in small quantities for research and chemical analysis. It is now well-accepted that the major source of these compounds is combustion, in particular waste incinera tion. It has been estimated that 95% of all the known dioxin

emissions to the global ecosystem come from incineration. The crude rule-of-thumb is that some supply of chlorine is all that is needed for a combustion source to become an emitter of dioxins and furans.

Incineration has been heavily studied since the 1970s in order to determine where and how the dioxins and furans are formed.

At this point, the exact mechanisms whereby these compounds are created remain theoretical and there are no known methods to

completely stop their formation and ultimate emission. TTie second major source in terms of quantities of dioxins and furans that have been released to the environment is chemical sources. Dioxins and furans have been found as contaminants in

chlorinated phenols(eg. pentachlorophenol),chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides (2,4-D: 2,4,5-T; Silvex), PCBs, hexachlorophene and a variety of related chemicals and formulations. This source is largely controllable as the synthetic processes can, or have been changed to eliminate or reduce dioxin/furan formation. Moreover, certain chemicals such as 2,4,5-T, Silvex and PCBs are no longer produced and regulations are in place â&#x20AC;˘President, Vi/eilington Laboratories, Guelph, Ont.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

other sources) Wire reclamation facilities Gement kilns Ghlorobenzenes

Ghlorinated aliphatic hydrocartaons RVG production

How toxic are they?

When reading the literature available,including the U.S.EPA's Draft Reassessment of Dioxin, one often encounters the words

'likely', 'infers', 'suggests','may','possible' and so on, partieularly when the authors are referring to the human toxicological impact of dioxins and furans. By no means is this a criticism of the research or reports, it merely shows that no one is completely certain.

A considerable amount of toxicological data has been gener ated using experimental animals that clearly shows that these compounds, in particular those listed in Figure 2, cause a number of adverse effects, including cancer, at low doses. Obviously,

similar experiments cannot be performed on humans. Thus, un certainties arise and debates begin when this (animal) data is used to predict what may happen in humans and estimate the dose required. For example, it has been shown that some species of animals are more sensitive to these compounds and the ques tion becomes,'What animal are humans most like?' For some

effects, we may be like a rat, for others, a guinea pig. Unfortunately, there have been cases where humans have been exposed to relatively high levels of dioxins. It has been reported that there is a correlation between exposure of groups of chemi cal workers to dioxins and increased cancer mortality and other illnesses. However, certain groups contend that this association is weak and does not adequately consider the contributions of other agents (eg. asbestos, cigarette smoking). We know of no human death that has been directly and solely attributed to dioxins or furans. But, there is no argument that these chemicals are toxic and pose a threat to human health. The extent to which the public is at risk is still under debate. To this date, as stated by the U.S. EPA, 'there is currently no clear indication of increased disease in the general population attributable to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds'. Toxic equivalents The concept of Toxic Equivalents was first introduced in 1977 as a method of relating the toxicity of the 210 dioxins and furans to what is considered the most toxic dioxin, 2,3,7,8-

tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or 2378-TCDD. In its current form, each of the 17 dioxins and furans listed in Figure 2 have been

assigned weighting factors which express their toxicity in terms 69


Pulp & Paper Industry Report, cont'd. of an equivalent amount of 2378-TCDD. Multiplication of the concentration of a dioxin or furan by its toxic equivalent factor (TEF) gives a toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration. One then merely sums these TEQs to arrive at a total TEQ for the sample. Although the factors(TEFs)are still under debate, this method simplified the reporting of data and affords a procedure whereby different matrices with different dioxin/furan patterns can be com pared to one another. The most widely accepted TEFs are also given in Figure 2. Should I eat the food or the packaging? Table 2 lists some of the regulatory limits or guidelines that are currently applied to dioxins and furans. If one scans down this list and compares the limits assigned, it is easy to become confused. For example, it could be concluded that effluent from

a pulp and paper mill must be cleaner than drinking water. Or, it might be safer to eat the box instead of the fish it contains. However, one must realize that some of these are regulated

limits, some are guidelines and some are voluntary industry ini tiatives. In addition, the full text of the regulations should be read and understood to appreciate the limits imposed.

of diverse groups including various govemment agencies(domestic and foreign), several interest groups and the industries who must

respond to the regulations. When one truly considers all of these hurdles, it is much harder to be critical of the end result. Table 2: Regulatory LImlts/Guldellnes for Dioxins and Furans Matrix Regulated Limits/Guidelines Agency Effluent

Effluent Air

Fish Tissue

Drinking

5 ppqTCDD,50 ppqTCDF (TEQ =10) Not Measurable*(TEQ 35) 15 pgTEQ/m3** 15pptTEQ 15ppqTEQ

Water

lOpptTEQ Soil (After Landfarming of Sludge) 1-2pptTEQ Food Packaging

Environment Canada Ontario MOEE/MISA Ontario MOEE

Guide to Eating Ontario Sports Fish(MOEE) Ontario Drinking Water Objectives(MOEE) U.S. EPA

U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry

To be fair to the persons responsible, they have the unenvi able task of setting limits that are scientifically sound, and within reason, achievable. These people first have to determine; (i) the potential for a human to be exposed to the dioxins or furans

* Less than method detection limits

in the matrix,

(ii) the uptake of these compounds into the exposed humans, and, (iii) the risk that such an exposure will cause an adverse health

As previously noted. It is expected that the U.S. EPA will conclude that dioxins and furans pose a greater health risk than originally thought and that emissions from existing sources should

effect.

be reduced.

The lack of significant amounts of human data requires that they use certain assumptions, estimations and probabilities and, in the end, build in safety factors to allow for potential errors. They also have to take into account the ambient/background lev els of dioxins and furans and that the average human already has a body burden of these compounds. Is this exposure significant

They consider that incineration/combustion is the major cul prit and thus we can expect more stringent and demanding air emission regulations. Unfortunately, all combustion sources, no

relative to what already exists?

Secondly, they have to consider the limitations of the current analytical techniques. Can the average analytical chemist analyze the matrix for dioxins and furans at these levels with a high de gree of confidence in the final data? Thirdly, and finally, the eventual limits must satisfy a number

Thai pulp & paper treatment continued from page 67 low the 20 mg/1 limit allowed by the mill control permits. - Suspended solids emissions were always below the legal 30 mg/1 and averaged 15 mg/1(98% removal efficiency) with mini mum addition of chemical aids despite process upsets.

- Effluent pH was kept within discharge limits (6-9) in spite of consecutive paper machine cleaning. The existing plant must rely on the spill tank and the hydraulic absorption of the plant to absorb any pH shock load occurring upstream. - Effluent temperatures were controlled by the cooling tower at approximately 33 degrees C, below the acceptable 35 degrees C. - Power consumption was over 80% lower than the guaranteed figure. At the process loading conditions experienced across the biological plant during the test, the jet aeration system demon strated its flexibility to meet oxygen demand by throttling the air flow and/or shutting down one of the two blowers in operation. This resulted in major energy savings during the test conditions. - No polymer was added in the primary and tertiary clarifiers, while a small alum dosage was applied on the tertiary unit during the process upset.

Innovative approaches, coupled with engineering judgement produced an effective and economical wastewater treatment sys tem. The aeration system showed an extremely good resistance

** At point of Impingement The horizon

matter how small or how clean, will be initially caught in the same net.

This will be a boon to firms involved in combustion technolo

gies, emission control systems and monitoring. More than likely the U.S. EPA will be looking for technologies that reduce the for mation of dioxins and furans as opposed to end-of-pipe remedies. The EPA's reassessment will also have an impact on other

regulations and, if anything, the limits will be lowered. Whether the current analytical techniques can achieve the sensitivity re quired and whether industry can respond, remains to be seen. On top of this, the EPA has added dioxin-like compounds to its reassessment. This includes certain PCBs and other com

pounds that have similar properties(TEFs have already been pro posed for some of these compounds). How these compounds will be regulated and at what levels is unclear at present. If there is a bright side, new emissions of dioxins and furans to the environment have been reduced. But,considering the natu ral and household sources of these compounds,they certainly will not be eliminated in the near future.

Suggested Reading - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency;

• Estimating Exposure to DIoxIn-LIke Compounds, Vol. I; Executive Summary • Estimating Exposure to DIoxIn-LIke Compounds, Vol. 11; Properties, Sources, Occurrence and Background Exposures • Health Assessment Document forTCDD and Related

Compounds, Vol. Ill -Available from U.S. Printing Office, Washington - Chemosphere: All Issues, especially those devoted to the DIOXIN conference - World Health Organization (lARC); Environmental Carcinogens; fvtethods of Analysis and Exposure Measurement Volume II -

Polychlorinated Dioxins and DIbenzofurans,C. Rappe et al eds., lARC Scientific Publications, No. 108, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.

to caustic or toxic shock loads and has overcome extreme BODj load variations, prolonged high pH conditions and nutrients defi ciency. 70

DIOXIN '95 will be held In Edmonton from August 21st to the 25th. DIOXIN '95 Secretariat Tel/FAX:(403)438-4843.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


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Pulp & Paper Industry biomass within the reactor permit the use of the high-rate HCR process for the lowstrength wastewaters found in municipal sewage treatment facilities. Oxygen trans fer efficiencies of +50% are expected to be similar to the industrial HCR system. The HCR-Turbo system would replace conventional municipal horizontal second ary treatment cells with the vertical reactor

which has significantly reduced space, en ergy, chemical and man-power require ments. Capital costs for the unit are also expected to remain equivalent to the indus trial unit at approximately 20-40% less than conventional AST systems.

Performance trials conducted in Norway will be considered equivalent to trials in Canada due to the similar climatic condi

P&P wastewater

system -trials for municipal applications Kvaemer Engineering of Norway has begun performance trials of their new code-named Turbo HCR wastewater treatment system for municipal applications. The process utilizes the same efficient HCR reactor aeration sys tem used at the Atlantic Packaging paper recycling plant in Toronto. Trials are being conducted under a development contract with the NEPA (National Environmental Protection Agency) of China. Innovative methods of immobilizing the

tions of the two countries. Municipal ap plications will be possible for up to 8,000 L/s of wastewater.

The HCR system is presently in world wide use in a variety of industrial wastewater applications including pulp & paper, breweries, landfill leachate, food process ing, dairy and other applications. Kvtemer is represented in Canada by PUMA Engi neering Inc. Shown above is an HCR plant under con struction in Scarborough, Ont., for Atlantic Packaging earlier this year. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 132

Cornwall mill earns ISO 9002 certification Domtar Specialty Fine Papers mill in Corn wall, Ontario has received a certificate of

registration for ISO 9002 from SGS-ICS (International Certification Services) Canada Inc., thus making it the second of the Division's mills to become ISO regis tered. Its sister mill in St. Catharines, On tario received registration last December. The ISO total-quality system evaluates every aspect of the business, from mainte nance, raw materials and manufacturing to sales and customer service. Actual regis tration guarantees that the mill operates under an internationally recognized total quality system. In order to ensure the procedures set in place by ISO are respected, the mill is au dited both internally and externally every six months. Domtar's Cornwall mill is the backbone

of its Specialty Fine Papers Division and home of the world's first state-of-the-art

C$73 million Crystal Pulp Facility which recycles old corrugated containers into a strong, white pulp suitable for the manu facture of high-quality fine papers.

The miil just recently started up a C$61 million secondary treatment plant, five months ahead of schedule and eight months ahead of provincial and federal government regulations.

ANNOUNCEMENT EIMCO Acquires American Screw Press i Dewatering Technoiogy Added value for our customers: • North American manufacturing & 24 hour service • North American made parts

• Heavy duty design, reliability & over 30 proven installations to help our customers in the Pulp & Paper, Food & Chemical Processing Industries • Trailer Mounted Pilot Unit & Experienced Application Engineers EIMCO, A COMPANY COMMITTED TO QUALITY, TECHNOLOGY & CUSTOMER SATISFACTION USA

72

CANADA

EIMCO - ASP

EIMCO Process Equipment

P.O. Box 3523

5155 Creekbank Road

York, PA 17402 (717) 757-7273

MIssissauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 (905) 625-6070

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 197

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


.s

^^Neutralizes naturally ^^2Liquid Carbonic's new C02 technoiogies help Pulp and Paper mills meet their emission goals. CO2 is naturai, versatile and safe and

is being applied to some of the most challenging emission difficulties facing the industry. As the world's largest supplier of CO2 we have installed efficient applications for: KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT PH CONTROL

RECYCLING/DE-INKING PH CONTROL

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NEUTRALIZATION OF PEROXlOE BLEACHED PULP

D MORE APPLICATIONS

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environmentally responsible solutionsX Call Liquid Carbonro>^ Vancouver 604 / 321-4323 Prince George 604 / 563-3641> Calgary 403 / 279-2740 Edmonton

403 / 463-8811

^egina Winnipeg

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905/477-4141

Montreal

514/337-6000 902 / 468-6205

Dartmouth

For more information, Circle reply card No. 178

"The Diamond is the Key


Get Your Share of the Sales Action -

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Calgary: (403)258-0705 • Fax:(403)258-0745

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 179


Odour Control

By Peter Burrowes"

Sewers don't have to smell

We've al passed a manhole

mmm

cover and caught an unpleas ant whiff of rotten eggs.

116) 33:

Where does it come from and

how do we stop it? Odor-producing substances found in do mestic wastewater are small, relatively vola tile molecules with a molecular weight of 30 to 150. Most of these substances result

from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter containing sulfur and nitrogen. In organic gases produced from domestic wastewater decomposition commonly in

Studying sewer

r i--

characteristics is

an important component to

d

odour control.

Photo courtesy, Aer-O-Flo.

clude hydrogen sulfide (H^S), ammonia (NHj), carbon dioxide and methane. Of these gases, only H^S and NH3 are malo dorous.

Often odor-producing substances include

organic vapors such as indoles (C^H^N), skatoles(C,H^N), mercaptans and nitrogenbearing organic compounds. Other volatile organic compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones discharged from industrial facilities, may also cause odor.

H3S is the most commonly known and prevalent odorous gas associated with do mestic wastewater collection and treatment

systems. It has a characteristic rotten egg odor and is extremely toxic. For example, the odor is offensive at concentrations of 3-

10 ppm, can cause headaches, nausea and throat or eye irritation at 10-50 ppm, and loss of smell above 100 ppm.

Two conditions are required for H^S gen eration and emission:

• the presence of dissolved sulfide in the wastewater, and;

•the release of H^S gas from the water phase to the gaseous phase.

The conditions leading to H^S formation generally favor the production of other malo

dorous organic compounds — solving H^S odor problems can often solve other odor problems as well. The presence of dissolved sulfide in wastewater usually occurs from the anaerobic decomposition of inorganic *Gore & Storrie Limited

sulfates and the reduction of organic sulfide. Inorganic sulfates are found in most water supplies and organic sulfur compounds are contained in sewage from human waste. Sufficient sulfur is normally available in domestic wastewater in the form of inor

ganic sulfates (from a few milligrams per liter to hundreds of milligrams per liter) and sulfide for the production of odorous gases by anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Conversion of sulfates and sulfide to dis

solved sulfide usually occurs in slime lay ers in gravity sewers and force mains, when there is a deficiency of air(oxygen). In grav ity sewers (which are not normally com pletely filled), this usually occurs below the level of the sewage flow. In force mains(in which pumped sewage flows under pressure and,therefore,fills the pipe),conversion can occur around the entire perimeter of the sewer. The wastewater is usually out of con tact with the air for some time. Dissolved

sulfide occurs as a mixture of H^S and the hydrosulfide ion, HS", in a proportion that is dependent on the pH. At pH 5 (and at temperatures usually found in sewers), it is

nearly all H^S; at pH 9, it is nearly all HS'. HjS, normally gaseous, is soluble in water to the extent of 3,000 to 4,000 mg/1 at the temperatures prevailing in sewers. Because of this relatively high solubility, it does not come out of the wastewater as bub-

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Tel: (416) 778-6590, Fax:(416) 778-5702 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

bles, yet it tends to pass into the air to some extent from exposed surfaces. At points of high turbulence, and especially if there is a vertical drop, rates of release are far greater than where the stream flows smoothly. Ex amples of points of turbulence in gravity sewers are at 90° bends and in steep sewers with hydraulic jumps. Turbulence also oc curs and at the end of force mains where

the wastewater, which has been under pres sure, expands, releasing energy. Another interesting fact is the amount

of HjS that can be in the air, relative to dis solved sulfide. At 20°C, 1 mg/1 of dissolved sulfide will be in equilibrium with about

250 ppm of HjS gas. Therefore, depending on the pH and temperature of the wastewater

and the turbulence, a large amount of H^S gas can be released at low concentrations of dissolved sulfide.

Gravity sewers flow only partially full and the level depends on a diurnal varia tion in flow rate. The gases within a sewer are normally drawn down the sewer by the flow of sewage,but there is also an exchange of gases for air resulting from the rise and fall of the sewage. Manholes and building vents are generally adequate to keep sew ers sufficiently ventilated and gases within a sewer are typically not odorous when there

is no HjS present. The trick, therefore, is to prevent the formation of H^S. This can be done by implementing an effective preventative maintenance program. The key is regular cleaning The key element in an effective preventative maintenance program will be keeping pumping station wet wells, force mains and gravity sewers clean. An Important consid

eration, in suppressing the formation of H^S, is the type and frequency of cleaning. A history of the system must be devel oped before a preventative maintenance pro gram can be designed and implemented. An understanding of the make up of the sew age in the sewer system must be developed. Are there any sources that could assist in developing slime in the force mains or gravContlnued overleaf 75


Odour control, cont'd.

Laboratories

ity sewers? Are there any high strength wastes that could promote anaerobic condi

Where your Concerns

BARRINGER

tions?

There are a number of techniques that can be used to develop historical informa tion. Flow monitoring can establish where flows are entering the system and their di urnal changes. Sewage sampling and analy

are our Concerns

LABORATORIES

QUALITY ♦ TURNAROUND 4 PRICE

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 (905)890-8566 1 -800-263-9040 Fax:(905) 890-8575 Environmental Analysis Field Sampling Services

Pesticides

Drug Testing

Hazardous Waste

V6J 1J8

age. Inspection of wet wells in pumping stations and the discharge ends of force mains can establish the required frequency of cleaning. In-situ analysis can determine whether sulfide is being formed in sections of the sewer. Video surveys are useful in locating potential areas where sulfide may

Fax 604-731•2388

be formed.

Tel 604-734-7276

Once the system history has been estab lished, a preventative maintenance program can be developed. It will likely include fre quency of cleaning, procedures for cleaning and frequency and procedures for monitor

CanTest Ltd.

Comprehensive Analytical

1523 W 3rd Ave.

Vancouver, B.C.

Services

Air & Water Quality

sis can establish characteristics of the sew

ni.Rfin-Rfi.'i-R.fRR

Accredited for specific tests by CAEAL & SCC

ing the sewer system. Finding the source The location where odors are observed

is unlikely to be the source. More likely, it is the area that provides sufficient turbu

lence to release H^S from the sewage.If the potential source is not apparent from the system history, an investigation must be carried out upstream of the odor location. Techniques that have been successfully used

complex

include:

• Installing continuous flow and gas moni tors. The information can be used to iden

tify the source by linking H^S spikes with

MjMDS

Setting the standard for service

Environmental

* quality

Services Limited

pumping station cycles. • Measuring sewhge sulfide concentrations either in-situ or by taking samples and hav ing them analyzed in a laboratory. A change in sulfide concentrations is ah indication of

* tumaround time

anaerobic conversion of sulfates.

• Manually measuring H^S concentrations in upstream manholes using an H^S meter.

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel:(905)673-3255,FAX;(905)673-7399 Certified/Accredited* testing of:

M

WAMjANN

Soil

h f/NTERNATIONA N T t ii QuaiityAnaiyticai Laboratories Laboratoires Anafytiques de Quality ;

Once the source has been located, in

Water Air

most cases, cleaning will immediately stop the odors. If the odor is caused by a dis charge into the sewer, the discharge must

••4

Stack Emissions

be curtailed.

••4

Waste

Toronto

(90S)890-2555 FAX (905)890-0370 Montreal

(514)636-6218 FAX(514)631-9814 Mexico

EMERGENCY:(416) 237-8283

ifLS[L^S. Enviromnental Division:

801 Capitola Drive; Durham, NC 27713 TEL:(919) 544-5729 FAX:(919) 544-5491

DioxinslFurans ^ Volatiles ^ PCBslPesticides Metals ^ Semivolatiles 4 PAHs 76

Once the odor has been eliminated, it

* - for registered tests and matrices.

(5-25)661-9979 FAX (5-25)663-1447 Toll Free: 1-800-56.3-6266

• Visually inspecting force main discharges to determine whether there is a slime layer to promote sulfide formation. • Taking sewage samples upstream to iden tify a source of grease or fat.

must be prevented from reoccurring. A maintenance program will usually achieve this, biit in some cases, engineering solu tions are required. Some of these include the installation of systems to inject air or oxygen into force itlains to maintain an oxy gen-rich atmosphere, or adding chemical dosing systems. Chemicals that have been effectively used include iron salts, chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanga nate and nitrogen based compounds. There are also proprietary elixirs on the market that are purported to prevent odors. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 167 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Product Review

Laboratories/Consultants

New on-line TOO analyzer

provide volumetric or mass flow measure ment for pipes or tubes from 1/8 to 3 inches in diameter with better accuracy and repeatability than conventional in-line flow meters. The 990DFr is extremely accurate, measuring flow rates as low as 0.01 GPM. This new system is best suited for low velocity, small line applications.

In-line transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter Controlotron's System 990DFT provides performance and reliability in a non-intru sive transit-time flowmeter. The 990DFT

combines Controlotron's clamp-on flow computer technology with a series of nonintrusive flow tubes.

Westech Industrial

Available in two sizes, the flow tubes are designed to accommodate flow rates

For more information, Circie reply card No. 193

from 0 to 50 ft/sec (bidirectional). They

ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES "QUALITY ASSURED-DELIVERY GUARANTEED" PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA Burlington, Ontario (905) 332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreai, Quebec (514)493-4733

The new Isco EZ TOG Process Analyzer is a fast and reliable method for measuring total organic carbon (TOG). The EZ TOG

uses a single UV lamp in a patent-pending reactor to create an efficient oxidation path way that yields as high or higher efficiency as multiple UV lamp reactor systems. The built-in sample valve allows convenient grab sample measurements as well as continu ous on-line monitoring. UV-promoted persulfate oxidation and non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detection provide continuous readings of TOG levels in mg/L. Both gas and liquid calibrations can be performed automatically or initiated manually. In addition, an automatic, twopoint gas calibration precedes liquid cali brations to ensure that the EZ TOG is oper ating to specification. Isco, Inc. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 180

Ainley and

A

Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS IN

COLLINGWOOD

BARRIE

BELLEVILLE

280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (705) 445-0968

OTTAWA

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions

ALTECH

to the 4 Rs

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.

Quick-disconnect system for spray nozzles

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

(416)226-0148

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

consuiting engineers and technology management Water Pollution Control

Water Supply Water Resources

BEX ZIP-TIP® quick-disconnect spray noz zles are now available in molded plastic and allow fast and easy installation and removal of spray nozzle tips without tools, while providing positive alignment between noz zle body and nozzle tip. Installation involves simply inserting a ZIP-TIP® nozzle tip into a ZIP-TTP® nozzle body, pressing lightly, and twisting in a clockwise direction until the nozzle tip snaps into aligned position.

(416)497-8600 (416)735-3659

OTTAWA

(613)226-1844

■ Waste Management ' Transportation ' Municipal Services ' Land Development

Bblogy Enviionmental Audits

' Tunnels and Shafts ' Structures ' Architecture

OSHAWA

(416)434-2544

SUDBURY

(70S)560-5555(Dennis Consultants)

A(fu0tlcSciencesInc.

ZIP-TIP® nozzles are now available in

glass reinforced polypropylene and PVDF (Kynar®) as well as brass and 303 or 316 stainless steel, and all are supplied with

TORONTO WELtAND

loxicitY Testing

'Environmental professionals working with Industry to Improve water quality'

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B. St. Catharines, Ontario. Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905)641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia. Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519)383-7822

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

I

IMG I

Soi'O Wasio Disposal • Municipal Dfa

11


Product Review

Consultants

VITON® seals as standard. Other nozzle

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SERVICES

and seal materials are available upon re quest. A wide range of styles and capaci ties of ZIP-TIP® spray nozzles for flat, fullcone, and hollow-cone spray patterns are available. BEX Engineering Limited For more information,

^ INTERNATIONAL BRITISH COLUMBIA SASKATCHEWAN ALBERTA

ONTARIO

Circle reply card No. 181 ASSOCIATED ENGINEERING

BIOREM

Automatic VOC sampler

TECHNOLOGIES INC. Specializing in the design, developnieni, and implcnienlation of bioremcdialion systems

biopilcs, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

■ focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone:(519)746-8973

Fax:(519)746-1222

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Speclallsta In a comprehensive range of

Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Huronforio Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

mm • Wastewater Collection & Treatment

•Water Supply Strategies

> Hazardous & Solid Waste

Environmental Planning •Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow

•Water Resources &

Management • Environmental Assessments/Audits WATERLOO

ENGINEERING LTD.

Measurement

CALGARY

VANCOUVER

TORONTO

(519)579-3500 (403)237-9300 (604)684-3282 (416)675-7170

THE LEADING PROVIDER OF COMPLETE, INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES IN NORTH AMERICA

Clayton ENVIRONMENTAL

CONSULTANTS

' Environmental Management

The new ISCO 6000 Volatile Organic Com pounds (VOC) Sampler is the first fully automatic sampler that complies with EPA collection protocols. At the heart of the Model 6000 is a new 18" patent-pending bladder pump. It is constructed of stainless steel and Teflon. The pump is operated by a built-in air compressor. Absolutely no suction or vacuum is applied to the sample. The pump performs either vertically or hori zontally. It delivers samples from depths to 80 feet and from distances up to 100 feet. The model 6000 automatically rinses both the sample line and bottle three times. Unique needle injection gently delivers liq uid in a 360 degree stream. Standard 40 ml glass vials are equipped with a patent-pend ing valve that protects sample integrity. The new sampler can collect single grab sam ples at dozens of sites, or run a comprehen sive multiple sample program at one loca tion. Nortech Control Equipment For more information,

Circle reply card No. 182

' Occupational Health "Air Quality "Analytical Laboratoty

"Litigation Support

On-line analyzers for ammonium, nitrate, chloride and organic pollution

For mure information, please call your nearesi Clayton ojfi

□ELCAIM SPECIALIZING

IN:

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS AND PLANNING MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Eastern Region Toronto

Tel: (416) 441-4111

Fax: (416] 441-4131

PLANT DECOMMISSIONING SITE REMEDIATION

SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION Offices across Canada and Overseas

78

Pacific Region Vancouver

Tei: [604] 525-9333 Fax; [604] 525-9458

The DATA-LINK series of on-line analyzers uses state-of-the-art UV absorption technol

ogy to continuously monitor water quality. Four analyzers are presently available to monitor either ammonium, nitrate, organic

pollution or chloride. Each system operates without the use of reagents allowing low operational costs. A

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Product Review common design approach offers important features such as fast response, large capac ity data storage, automatic alarm transmis sion by modem and portability for field use.

Bypass system facilitates WWTP upgrade level control,each pump capable of handling 4,200 GPM. Two 8-inch Godwin CD225

GeoStructure Instruments Inc.

pumps allowed the plant to recycle the drain.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 183

Eimco Process Equipment is now offering

The temporary bypass system allowed the plant to continue normal operations. Incoming water was pulled around the ar eas receiving the treatment. That allowed those areas to receive a primary pressure cleaning, after which they were sandblasted,

a Grit Washing System, which follows the Lime Slaker in the recausticizing system, to meet the very stringent EPA's (Environ

dried out, coated and, after the coating had hardened, returned to service. All areas that could be isolated received an epoxy coat

New grit washer

mental Protection Agency)Paint Filter Test requirements for dryness of solids. The washed grit from the system will also meet government regulations for the landfill of hazardous wastes.

Eimco has extensive experience in the design and manufacture of screw classifi ers/grit separators. Over 1,000 screw clas sifiers have been built to date.

In order to wash the grit effectively, the Grit Washer is equipped with an axial flow, heavy duty agitator. The classifier section is designed so that all the fine mud mate rial is removed from the grit, thereby re moving the "Wet Slop" material. The ex tended "Beach" area provides the flexibil

ity to wash the grit if necessary. Any trapped moisture is removed prior to actual grit dis charge. EIMCO For more information,

Circle reply card No. 144

ing, while less accessible areas received a The Boat Harbour, Virginia, Waste Water Treatment Plant has upgraded its odour con trol ability by coating its concrete tank fa cilities to provide a stable environment that was less likely to be affected by the materi als passing through it. Plant incoming flow averages 14 MGD with a treatment capacity of 25 MGD. Coat ing the concrete tanks could have meant bypassing the unit process, shutting down most of the main plant. Since this was not feasible, a secondary pumping system had

fiberglass coating.

Treatment plant incoming flow feeds into a primary tank where the first layers are knocked out. Water flows to a clarifying tank where solids are removed and chemi

Godwin Pumps had the answer: A fleet of pumps that provided an effective bypass pumping system to operate at various flow

cal treatment and testing is performed. Flow then goes to a system of primary and sec ondary clarifying tanks for further treatment. The pumps automatically self-prime to 28 feet, dry static suction heads and will reprime on demand. Mechanical seal is lo cated away from the harmful effects of the flow, enabling the pumps to run-dry indefi nitely. Pumps handle solids to 3-1/2 inches with total dynamic heads to 485 feet. They can be left running unattended overnight.

level demands. Seven 12-inch Godwin Dri-

R.M.S. Enviro Solv

to be found.

Primc DPC300 pumps were supplied, all diesel-driven and equipped with automatic

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 186

MEET THE REVOLUTiONARr 2380MCU

FIELD DATA ACQUISITION From stand-alone data logging

r"

Q. When is a Filter Press notjust a Filter Press? A. When it's a J-PRESS'^ of course! 2380MCU

(20 to 80 channels)

For almost 25 years JWh has been developing quality prod ucts that serve the surface fin

ishing industry. J-Press" filter presses and J-Mate" sludge SCOmm J-PRESS dryers are manufactured to Things to consider: exacting standards. When you • Complete range of filter press sizes, are considering your options for • Volume capacity flexibility. waste reduction, you owe it to • 100 and 225 psi operating pressures. yourself to discuss your needs • Extensive variety of automatic controls. with a JWi representative. • Reduces volume and disposal costs. •Technical laboratory assistance, • Extensive spare parts inventory.

You provide the problem... We provide the solution.

Grow to on-line remote networks

□I Gateway

GEONETfor Windows

The new 2380 Meosurementa! Control Unit (MCU) from Geomotion is truly unique. Designed for harsh environment remote monitoring the 2380 provides universal sensor interfacing while supporting wireline, radio and other communications options. Another little plus: IT IS WINDOWS-BASED.

Call or Fax for Brochures and Information

DAGEX, INC. 9030 Leslie Street, Unit 5 Ricfimond Hill, Ontario, Canada L4B 1G2 Phone: 905-771-8400 / Fax: 905-771-8911

Circle reply card No. 184

1410, boul. Taschcrcau, B-200,

STRUCTUR€ I N 5 T ft U M. l.W.T_S

La Prairie (Quebec) Canada J5K 4E8 Tel.: (514) 444-8420 Tax: (514) 444-8422

Circle reply card No. 185


Product Review Cryptosporidium removed from potable water

makes the meter ideal for a wide variety of process systems. The meter accurately reads 1 ppm up to 120,000 ppm concentration. Technitron offers free testing of process sam ples. The meter has a number of options; 1" and 2" fittings, through ball-valve insertion, and window cleaning jets. The units have no electro-mechanical components in either the .sensor or in the circuitry. Electronic sig nal handling components are remote from the sensor which improves reliability in high temperature and vibration environments.

results, force execution through various test sequence paths and automatically document their test plan using the LabWindows/CVI Test Executive. National Instruments

For more information,

Circie reply card No. 189

Smoke, dust and odour eater

Technitron Labs

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 188

Free demonstration kit available

The Fibrotex® depth filter is specifically designed to filter out and kill Cryptospori dium and Giardia in raw water supplies. It eliminates Cryptosporidium in two stages. The Fibrotex® expandable bed-filter traps the Cryptosporidium, then the vacuum steam pasteurization process destroys them. The filter is unique in that the expandablebed fibrous filter element is coupled with a Programmable Logic Control(PLC)system, enabling it to backwash automatically when fully loaded with solid. In challenge tests with sand filter backwashings containing 1000 Cryptospori dium per litre, no Cryptosporidium was de tected in the Fibrotex® filtrate, indicating removal efficiencies of better than 99.9%.

The whole process for destroying Crypto sporidium and cleaning is fully automatic and takes less than ten minutes to complete. Smith & Loveless

For more information,

A new environmental product developed by MEG Systems controls humidity, smoke, Eznair

~ eacB

Stopped

dust and odour in smaller, confined areas

tion. With this demo, which is Windows-

and can be used for indoor and outdoor ap plications. The .system is also used for cool ing in certain applications. The Minny "MISTer"™ system, takes water and disperses it through a tiny, noz zle orifice, creating fog particulates. A spe cially formulated, organic, odour neutralizer

based executable, test engineers can learn

is mixed with the water and neutralizes the

how to use the LabWindows/CVI Test Ex

odours. It features single nozzle, and multi nozzle systems, that operate manually or automatically. It is efficient, economical, lightweight, and easy to install. MEG Systems Inc. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 190

A demonstration version is now available of National Instruments' new Test Execu

tive Toolkit for LabWindows/CVI,the visual

programming environment for instrumenta

ecutive Toolkit to control the execution of

test sequences for production and manufac turing test applications. The demo shows users how to load and run sequences, set test run conditions and specify test limits. It also demonstrates how users can store test

Portable environmental analyzer

Circie repiy card No. 187

It is modular by design and can be used with any portable DOS based computer. This creates an analytical platform that al lows the instrument to be configured with the components required to meet analytical

Suspended solids monitor

needs. The heart of the instrument is the

proprietary X-MET PC System (XPCS) card. This contains the 2048 channel MCA and other associated instrument electronics.

§ Technitron Labs' newly-developed Sus pended Solids Monitor 9402A is perfect for both in-line control and open channel moni toring needs. The unit is 3A approved and its ability to work over a wide range of con centrations, and its insensitivity to colour. 80

The X-MET 920P Portable Environmental

Analyzer is built to withstand the rigours of field use. Menu driven software makes the

instrument easy to use even by novices.

With the basic configuration, PC, software, XPCS card and probe, the X-MET 920P is a complete analytical instrument providing quantitative and qualitative analyses. As analytical demands change, it can change with them. A full array of hardware and software options is available to upgrade the system at any time. Elemental Controls For more information, Circie reply card No. 191

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1995


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For more information, Circie repiy card No. 213


PCB Management

By Byron Day*

Economical weight loss program for PCB light ballasts leaking capacitor terminals, or simply PCB was an original ingredient in the tar. What ever the reason, environmental regulators have clearly identified it as a PCB mate rial. Several studies have been performed

on the tar pitch and all show that the tar is well above regulated limit of 50 ppm. of PCB. Concentrations range from 1 to 26,000 ppm. and have averages around 4,000 ppm. The ConTech Ballast Reduction Process

disassembles the ballast back to its original components. The metal components are cleaned of all PCB contamination caused

by the contaminated tar and recycled. The two PCB components are collected sepa rately and packaged as tightly as possible to reduce the number of full drums requir ing destruction. In 1993,PCB Containment Technology Inc. was introduced to Public Works Canada

to perform a pilot project on 9000 PCB bal lasts. The project was Initiated by both

PotentialPCB-containing bal asts are

Environment Canada and Public Works

Recycled components from a light ballast.

present In the housings of fluores cent, mercury vapour, and high in tensity discharge light fixtures manufactured prior to 1980. Once

decommissioned from a fixture and identi

fied as PCB containing, ballasts must be handled and treated as PCB material in ac

cordance with Provincial or Federal regula tions. Although each on its own is very small in size, collectively they accumulate to enormous weights and volumes. In turn, the storage, handling, transportation and fi nal destruction costs are comparatively enor

Canada. Public Works Canada (National

Alberta. This facility is fully approved to incinerate PCBs safely and is the only such facility in Canada. It is important first to understand the ballast and Its PCB components. The com monly known component of the ballast that contains PCBs, is the capacitor. The ca pacitor is a small completely sealed con tainer with a shell made of aluminum or a

similar composite metal. Within this ca pacitor shell Is a thick dielectric fluid ab sorbed in several layers of paper. It is this thick fluid that is highly concentrated

Capital Region) had an ever increasing number of ballasts in storage and were seek ing a method to reduce ballasts in order to save on storage space. The pilot project offered Environment Canada a first hand look at the ConTech Ballast Reduction Proc

ess, with an opportunity to develop a feasi ble testing and inspection protocol for fed eral inspectors. In October of 1993, the project was completed and considered a huge success by all parties involved. On a provincial level, ballast reduction technologies now require approvals from the

mous. How can such costs be reduced?

PCB Containment Technology Inc. from Cambridge, Ontario has developed a mo bile process to reduce PCB lighting ballasts

The concentration ofPCB in ballast capacitors

is as high as 750,000 ppm.

down to their smallest PCB contaminated

components. The process isolates the bal last's two PCB components and cleans the remaining components to an acceptable level for recycling. No part of the ballast enters landfill and reusable resources are

not needlessly destroyed. PCB waste own ers benefit by reducing the amount of PCB material requiring storage, handling, trans portation and destruction. Not only Is the volume of the ballast material reduced by up to 70%, but the fee to destroy the re

(Askarel) PCB oil. The concentration of PCB in ballast capacitors is as high as 750,000 ppm. A typical capacitor from a standard 4 foot light fixture will contain about 23 grams(17 mL.) of PCBs, equiva lent to ab)out a tablespoon full. Capacitors from larger industrial use ballasts can con tain as much as 100 grams. The second component of the ballast

sidual PCB material is also reduced.

which also contains PCBs and has been

Once the material is reduced,PCB Con tainment Technology Inc.can co-ordinate the waste for destruction to the Alberta Special

overlooked in the past, is the tar potting material. The tar pitch material in the bal last Is poured in the ballast during the manu facturing stage in order to set its compo nents in place. But why would a potting

Waste Management System in Swan Hills,

*PCB Containment Technology Inc.

provincial Environment Ministries. It is the intention of these approvals to ensure that proper control measures are being imple mented to control potential contamination or wrongful disposal of PCB ballast com ponents. In the past, ballast reduction was being performed without consideration for the tar component or for the personal pro tection of the persons performing the work. In summary, ballast reduction offers a cost effective alternative to bulk incinera

tion. It utilizes the old Reduce, Reuse and

Recycle theory, while at the same time pre paring a PCB ballast inventory for final de struction.

material contain PCBs? Some theories are;

For more information,

capacitor overflow during manufacturing.

Circle reply card No. 127

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

83


PCBs, the media and AQTE

Why there's no room on the bandwagon

Wehave many examplesofgreat authors creating fantastic sce narios to emphasize the stupid ity of officialdom. There is

Thomas Moore's Utopia, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and,ofcourse,

There are other advantages. By using PCB-contaminated liquid wastes during ce ment manufacture, toxic liquids are trans formed into valuable fuel - giving substan tial economic as well as ecological benefits. The system worked equally well in destroy-

improved through research and development, had the technology been implemented. It has been estimated that a single cement plant might dispose of all the liquid PCB con taminated wastes in Ontario in a six months

period and all the PCBs in Canada in two

George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. These renowned

years.

authors created their worlds of

the Environment, George Kerr,

fantasy to satirize and warn of

once told me that the cement

man's follies. The failure of en

vironmental professionals to communicate the foUy of certain environmental policies has had

A former Ontario Minister of

I

kiln technology was indeed su perb - but the testing experi ments caused a furore at both

public meetings and in the Ontario Legislature. Mr. Kerr said: "Some Not In My Back Yard proponents have a worse

serious economic consequences. PCBs are a good example. Imagine a preposterous world where Canadians spend tens of

effect on the environment than

many industrial polluters." In this case they killed a solution to a serious problem. The ce ment company also wearied of

millions to bum off PCBs and

other waste chlorinated hydro carbons. Yet, by using these wastes as fuel in cement kilns,

we could stop spending millions on American coal while safely disposing of the toxins. It is a continuing scandal that millions

the furore and withdrew from

further experiments. Following emotional con frontations and legal skirmishes with citizens' groups in of litres of PCB-contaminated Mississauga, where the test wastes still remain untreated The lime kilns at the Lafarge Canada inc. cementplantin Richmond,B.C. bums occurred,the kiln technol when this viable disposal tech ogy was abandoned- a remark nology exists. Over 20 years ago utilize iandfiiigas from the former Richmond municipal iandfiii. able retreat in the face of overwhelming sci I edited the first two reports for the Federal ing many other toxic waste-chlorinated-hy drocarbons which still pose serious disposal entific evidence. One Environment Ontario Government which contained studies on ce ment kiln waste technology, at a time when problems. They can also bum old tires expert repeatedly stated that alternative tech which may contain the equivalent of five nology offered no better safeguards to the Canadians were leaders in this field. problems of PCB disposal. He was backed This nascent technology resulted from a litres of fuel oil. In short, these wastes con brilliant symbiosis of federal and provincial tain high value thermal properties which are up by Environment Canada scientists who now being wasted. spoke up vigorously in support of the tech scientists, working with private sector engi Private waste treatment firms could play a nology at various technical meetings. But, neers and scientists from the Ontario Re somehow, technical experts managed to search Foundation, now ORTECH. But this role in the collection, pretreatment and ship truly innovative scheme was stifled over 20 ment of such wastes prior to incineration in snatch defeat out of the very jaws of victory. years ago when the project was abandoned the kilns, transforming an expensive environ Apparently, in the appeasement business, in response to pressures from Mississauga mental problem into an economic solution. complete destruction of toxins while saving City Council and citizens' protest groups. Today, people cannot believe that such a vast amounts of energy was not enough; so The studies I edited reported on experi promising technology was abandoned, if in the cement kiln technology was put in limbo.

ments which proved that PCB-contaminated wastes could be safely incinerated when used as fuel for rotary kilns during cement manu

facture. Now burning PCBs can be a risky business. The chemical must be incinerated

at extremely high temperatures before it is safely destroyed. But rotary cement kilns operate at extremely high temperatures which greatly exceed those required for safe dis posal. Moreover, the PCBs are detained in the kiln, well in excess of the time needed to ensure total destmction. This combustion

deed it was both effective and safe. Let us examine the facts. Environment Ontario's

own scientists said that disposal by the ce ment kiln process destroyed some 99.986 percent of PCBs. The remaining chemicals were broken down into low molecular weight solids which were harmlessly absorbed into the cement. During the experiments, scien tists could find no trace of PCBs in the flue

gases,the cement clinker products,or the dust collected from the flue gases. When I visited a sophisticated treatment

residence time is especially important; par tially burned PCBs can form dibenzofurans which are extremely hazardous when re leased into the atmosphere as particulates

complex in France not long ago, I enquired how liquid PCB contaminated wastes were disposed of. "In cement kilns" was the reply.

from accidental fires such as the St-Basile-

nadian engineer to say this was 'an engineer ing marriage made in heaven'; incineration of PCBs in cement kilns actually had a ben eficial effect on the cement being produced, the limestone acting as a scrubber. Unques tionably the process could have been further

le-Grand catastrophe. 'Excerpts from addresses to the Metropwlitan Toronto Board ofTrade and the Canadian Concrete PipeAssociatlon, February and April 1995. 84

There is a final bonus which led one Ca

Mississauga had its little Munich - no PCBs in our time - but for several years millions of litres of untreated PCBs have piled up all over Canada,sometimes with tragic consequences. None of the political parties are without blame for the PCB fiasco, except the Reform Party which was not around at that time. But the NDP in particular loathes incineration with a passion. It is ironic that the engineers, chemists and scientists - the original environmental ists - usually so good at math, are so inept at demographics. Demos being the Greek word for people. In media battles for the hearts and minds of people, the engineering frater nity has been glaringly inept. They are pay ing dearly for this now. I have been reporting on the cement kiln fiasco for over two decades. On this issue I

have broadcast nationally on radio as well as written for the Globe and Mail, the King ston Whig Standard, the Fraser Institute

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995


By Tom Davey* Forum as well as Environmental Science

& Engineering. I have also debated the is sue at setninars at Queen's University and the University of Toronto. None of these data were ever seriously disputed. At one time I really thought political common sense would prevail but the cement industry, while spending millions on coal annually, was par simonious in mounting ad campaigns.

Can things be changed? But can opinions be formed and shaped? Can the political pendulum be swung to fa vour common sense? Look at AQTE**. This is an association of engineers and sci entists which began over three decades ago when there was virtually no sewage treat ment in Quebec. When Ontario had 95 per cent of urban communities on sewage treat ment systems, Quebec had a mere five per cent. But AQTE,from the very first, courted the media. There was always

mately led to legislative changes. But mostly, media opportunities have been squandered by professional associations; this was while the activist bodies warmly embraced the press. Qne friend of mine, an award-winning journalist who has written several books as well as countless articles, is often commis

sioned by several magazines. He attended one conference with his assistant where he

was pointedly told that, while he could get press registration, his assistant would have to pay $250 to register. As he related to me later,"how could I cover concurrent sessions

on my own?" I replied that only an engi neer could work that one out. This journal ist wrote for magazines which charged

go inside the Odeon Cinema to unplug the toilets while a film was being screened. Journalists, by the way do not need or want free lunches. But they resent the de liberate snub in invitations which pointedly exclude them. Then organisers wonder why the awards presentations are never covered. In their disciplines, engineers and chem ists perform like Errol Flynn. With the me dia, they often perform like Woody Allen. It has all been a very expensive farce so far for the Canadian public, but the environ mental professionals have suffered the most. There is, tragically, little room on the envi ronmental bandwagon they began to build 150 years ago. **Association quebecoise des techniques de

$2,500 per page for ad space, ten times the

I'environnement. For over three decades,

registration fee. I wondered if such confer ence organisers would charge a plumber to

AQTE has been the leading group of engi neers, scientists and operators in Quebec.

a media room with coffee and

typewriters. Later FAX and phone facilities were added; these days there are computer facilities. Today AQTE is the

PCB BALLAST REDUCTION

source for environmental infor-

mation in that province. Morever, no Quebec politician dares to ignore AQTTE. They used to say that trade follows the flag. Political power fol lows the press.

PbocessingI

iDtuPiiocEssK Unit

When ES&E staff attend

AQTE meetings we encounter an abundance of journalists from radio, television and print media. I must stress that the AWWA and WEE member as

Reduction Is the first step to any PCB destruction program by minimizing your waste and reducing your costs.

sociations have always been ex tremely hospitable to me. But there is often a grudging atti tude towards the general press from certain technical groups. It is common for invitations to be issued to attend technical

meetings which pointedly stress that lunch is not in cluded. The economics of this

attitude are astounding. A lunch might have cost $20 and

REDUCE PCB STORAGE COSTS! REDUCE PCB TRAIMSPORTATIOIM COSTS! REDUCE PCB DESTRUCTION COSTS! /

yet even a small article in the Globe

&

Mail

or

Toronto Star could be worth

$20,000 at classified ad rates alone. (Engineers, with their knowledge of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, perhaps feel there really are no free lunches!)

UB

And do not underestimate

the power of the trade press. Quite often trade magazines are used as sources by other media, so becoming agenda-setting publications for other media. I

PCB Containment Technology Inc

ff-K

have documentation on articles

in trade magazines which

Ontario (519) 622-8058

Quebec (514) 631-7161

British Columbia (604) 986-7220

caused outcries which ulti-

Environmental Science <& Engineering, July 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 214

85


Product Review Classification under Class 1, Division 1,

Reassurance when

Groups B, C and D (Exp/1/1 BCD).

pumping volatile fluids

The Extronic is available with manual,

dry contact(pulse)and 4-20 m A control and has a capacity range of up to 67 litres per hour against back pressures of up to 363 psig. Dosing heads are available in acrylic, PP,PVC,PTFE and 316 SS. ProMinent Fluid Controls

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 215 Motion sensors

Early warning of impending equipment fail ure can be easily provided with motion sen sors alarming on machine slowdown or stop page. Some models allow the magnetic sensing probe to be located as far as 4inches from the monitoring target, permitting ver satility of application in harsh environments. Since the sensing probe is both rugged and non-contacting, the motion sensors provide maintenance-free operation. Milltronics For more Information, Circle reply card No. 216

New Laser Distance Measurement Module

r

r

ProMinent® Fluid Controls has introduced

the Extronic, an electronically controlled, solenoid driven, diaphragm type metering

pump for flammable liquids and/or hazard ous locations. This product is tested in com pliance with Factory Mutual Systems Research Standards - For Explosion Proof

Milltronics non-contacting motion sensors provide machinery protection, thus avoid ing failure and reducing costly downtime.

Sydio is pleased to introduce their new pre treatment technology nrS

The new LDM300 Laser Distance Meas

urement Module,from Jenoptik Technologic of Germany,executes ten measurements per second at distances of up to 300m with +/10cm accuracy. The system incorporates a highly sensitive photo detector which meas ures backscattered laser light returned from the subject without the use of reflectors. Laser divergence of 3mrad translates into

(to be patented)

o

This single unit will provide:

Z 'C

a. Fine Screening b. Deragging c. Chiemicai Addition

a

e. Grit Removai & Dewatering f. Scum Removal & Concentration g. Flow Measurement & Recording

beam diameters of 7cm at a 10m distance

d. Pre Aeration

u

and 30 cm at a 100m distance. Computer u

u

U

The components are available individually or as a single innovative com pact, completely automated and extremely capital cost effective proc ess for the pretreatment of municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. It can be designed to provide an effluent quality similar to primary clarification at a fraction of the installed capital cost. Please address Inquiries by FAX to fax no.(905) 273-3815 (Include your fax no.)

controlled distance discrimination enables

the LDM300 to reject measurements which fall outside a user selectable range. Both RS232 and analog (current output 4mA-20mA) interfaces are built-in, allow ing connection to a wide variety ofPLC and computer equipment. Carsen Group For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 217 d

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tial clients aware of your firm's expertise. My experience spans the writing and de sign of newsletters, advertisements and press releases for consulting engineers, equipment suppliers and laboratories in the rapidly grow ing environmental field. I have also written countless articles for the technical press on

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WaterGroup

d Z

behalf of clients.

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U

86

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


mmBmcmm

f^'7'

SYNIHESIZE No single testing laboratory can adequately respond to today's ever changing environmental complexities. Now a network is growing, linking the strengths of five established laboratories, connecting their recognized expertise to provide expanded services to our clients. The name of this network is MDS Environmental Services.

md MDS Environmental Services Limited 1 -800-701 -7092

Comprehensive. Simple.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 218


Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(905) 727-4666. Regenerative Air Technology

Soil Remediation Second Edition

Latest Edition

An increasingly popular method of treating soils in situ is via vapor extraction. EG&G Rotron regen

Since 1962, Rotron has been set

ting standards for Regenerative Air Technology. Our advanced application expertise and innova tive family of regenerative air de vices have been a major factor in allowing industry to break with the traditional but costly and mainte nance-intensive, use of compres sor and other high pressure, posi tive-displacement sources of shop-air. Blowers carry a no-fauit guarantee for one full year. PROMAT Engineering Sales inc. Circle reply card No. 278

erative blowers are used world

wide to strip volatile contaminants from soils. Our compact, quiet blowers are ideally suited in flow and vacuum levels for all but the

tightest silts and clays. Both vacuum and pressure can be used simultaneously to strip contami nant from soils and push the vapors into treatment systems. PROMAT Engineering Sales Inc. Circle reply card No. 277

High speed dry screening

Custom Fabricated Environmental Products

Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are

NEUSIRIAtPtASnCS-

IFF Ltd., a manufacturing company, operates out of a 10,000 sq. ft. facil ity. IFF, with state-of-the-art equip ment and a highly trained staff, pro duces quality custom fabricated plas tic and fiberglass moulded products for industry. Main product lines con sist of Ventilation Systems, Scrub bers, Mist Eliminators, Moisture Ex tractors, Exhaust Fans, Fiberglass or Fiastic Tanks, Fiating Systems, and Waste Treatment Systems.

TABRIGATORSjlTEl

Industrial Plastics Fabricators, Ltd.

available with either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators and in sizes

ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" x 120". Machines can be supplied with open hopper configurations or complete dust enclosures with flexible

motor seals,

gasketed side access doors and rfdcsllKg ea'XOiteJiT

removable covers.

Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 279

Circle reply card No. 280

Introducing Proven

CWW PBNN

rZl'/ZJ VALUV

COSTA TECHNOLOGIES

BBSS PUMP Co.Ino.

Corrosion Protection Waste WaterTreatment, Industrial Plants,

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Pollution Control Equipment are valuable assets, wouldn't you agree? Costa Tech nology is committed to providing you with quality Fibregiass products to protect your investments. Our pre-engineered indus trial grade shelters, enclosures, and stor age systems are designed to provide main

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pump.

The Best Way Yet To Screw Things Up

No matter what kind or size of odor

Westsles(

^

Whoolubra^r^Enalnoornd Systoms in^.

The Double Disc pump combines the performance features of posi tive displacement pumps and the principle of "Induced Flow" to pro vide superior versatility in fluids handling. Two flexible discs, driven by eccentrics and connecting rods, work In opposition of each other to create suction, discharge and "in duced flow" of the fluid through the Equipompe Inc. Circle reply card No. 282

Odor control problems? control problem you have, Westates has the solution. Our expertise ex tends to all the proven technologies including carbon adsorption, oxida tion, scrubbing and biological treat ment. We can do it all for you from supplying special adsorbent media to designing complete high capacity treatment systems for every kind of odor control program. Contact us with your project details. Wheelabrator Engineered Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 283

New Concept For Pumping Clean Liquids, Slurries and Solids In Suspension

Completely enclosed, the CPC Internalift screw pump offers advantages found nowfiere else:

The Best Way Yet p r To Screw Things tJp.^^

• Operates more efficiently than centrifu gal or open screw pumps. • Entire cylinder turns - no friction of screw flights on cylinder wall, no leak age, no plugging. • Can lift to 60+ vertical feet at 38° or 45°.

<

omiiiSii-iiiitiy itnn i mliUralM si&h'.

HmvrtSoJVf tuntt - isi Wrti™ <«

mw muum

itvofisJusnu-ilimitrnall.iHik-A' • Mininulin tlxfr''

r l*> vtwv JijvtiusJ llic i

• Enclosed design minimizes safety, odor and weather concerns.

• Minimal concrete work needed for Installation.

^ Wheelabrator Enginoered Systetns Inci

Wheelabrator Engineered Systems Inc. Circle reply card No.284

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666. Serving the Pulp & Paper Industry

Thermal Destruction

Technology is at Hand

This 8-page,full colour brochure pro

PCB Disposal Inc. can now offer disposal of ALL PCB waste types Including PCB transformers, askarel liquid, PCB-contaminated solvents, sludges, soil and miscel laneous solid debris. PCB Disposal will provide the most cost-effective options for managing and dispos ing of your PCB wastes. For more

vides a detailed look at how Praxair

industrial gases and technology pro vide economical and environmental

solutions for the Pulp & Paper Indus

try. Some of the featured gas appli cations include oxygen/ozone bleach ing and wastewater treatment; oxy gen for chemical recovery, white and black liquor oxidation, and lime kiln enrichment; and nitrogen for chemi cal transfer, cleaning and purging pipelines, and blanketing chemicals.

information circle the number be low.

1 800 563-PCBs'

PCB Disposal Circle reply card No. 200

Praxair

Circle reply card No. 201

Hou Can uc

safety control

pHlwelsF

How can we safely control pH levels? COj is a safe, effective chemical for

Free Data Acquisition Software Tool

DAQ Designer, now updated for 1995 and Windows 3.1, helps de

lowering the pH of various kinds of alkaline streams. As the world's larg

termine which hardware and soft

est supplier of COj, Liquid Carbonic

ware combinations are best for your PC-based data acquisition system. DAQ Designer will (1) ask ques tions about your application, (2) analyze your answers to determine your system needs, and (3) de

has years of experience in neutrali zation applications. Liquid Carbonic's storage, transportation and new injection technologies are available to you as are Its analytical laboratories and application engineers who are dedicated to quality solutions. Like WAS,

CtK|.Effcctn« WastewBter

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scribe what hardware and software

COj, we're around when you need us.

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Liquid Carbonic Circie reply card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 203

National Instruments

ADI wastewater systems ADI Systems Inc. specializes In deslgn-bulld wastewater treatment systems. Anaerobic and aerobic technologies are used including the

Objective: "Zero Discharge" This Pulp and Paper mill's objective is to operate completely as a closed system, both In terms of effluents the only fresh water make-up is to off set evaporation in the drying units and in terms of sludge output, since all sludge Is returned to the mill's pulpers. This ambitious "zero dis charge" project built by Degremont In volves many changes; retrofitting of existing effluent treatment and Instal

low-rate ADI-BVF'® anaerobic di

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User's Guide

lation of a fluidised bed anaerobic di

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gestion unit. Degremont infilco Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205

FlowView® - Open Channel Pipe Flow Calculator

Cost-effective soiutions

A fully integrated waste management company, Philip Environmental pro vides services to Industry, government

FlowView is a new software tool for the Microsoft Windows environ

FlowView

open Channel Pipe Flow Calculator

Millstream

ment that provides a graphic and dynamic user interface. It provides professionals with a comprehen sive approach to steady, uniform, open channel pipe flow computa tion by analyzing 23 hydraulic vari ables. Users can interact by drag ging the water surface up or down to simulate changing flow condi tions while all variables are updated dynamically. Millstream Software

Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

and commercial clients. Its Chemical

Waste, Solid Waste, Resource Recov

ery and Environmental Services op erations, as well as its Public Utilities

'iHUP

Management Corporation, have made Philip Environmental one of North America's leading by-product man agement and environmental services companies. Employing over 3500 people and with facilities in over 40 locations, the company delivers costeffective, responsible solutions tai lored to the exacting requirements of its clients.

Philip Environmental Circie reply card No. 207 89


Product Review New digital iine tracer

New liquid end for diaphragm metering pumps of flow. Formation of gas, in the case of sodium hypochlorite is attributed to the de crease in the stability of the chemical solu tion. ProMinent Fluid Controls has intro

duced a new liquid end which automatically vents gas bubbles. If a gas bubble forms, a special bleed valve in the self-deaerating pumps opens at low pressure to allow the gas to be evacuated on each discharge stroke. The bleed valve closes at high pressure, as when fluid is present, causing the fluid to be discharged out of the pump's discharge valve.

Geneq Inc., representing Fisher Research Laboratory, is introducing a new digital depth-reading line tracer - the TW-770. It will combine state-of-the-art digital signal processing with Fisher time-tested, turn-onand-go technology to offer a fast, accurate and easy way to locate underground pipes and cables.

Other than a turn-on switch, a single button controls all functions of the TW-770.

When this button is pushed, a numerical readout of line depth appears on the TW770's large liquid crystal display (LCD). When the button is not pushed, the LCD

gives a continuous numerical readout of sig nal strength. The operator is guided over the buried line by left/right arrows that ap pear on the LCD and by an audible left/right signal. Automatic gain control eliminates the need for manual adjustments. Geneq Inc. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 155

Ultrasonic level transducers

It is difficult to dose gassing liquid chemi cals using positive displacement diaphragm metering pumps. If gas bubbles form, this can interrupt delivery and reduce dosing quality. Many fluids, such as sodium hypo chlorite or hydrogen peroxide, out-gas as they are drawn into the suction line of a metering pump. The gas accumulates in the liquid end and is compressed with each dis charge stroke, causing vapour lock and loss

Milltronics new Echomax™ Series trans

measurement into applications that were not previously viable. Echomax™ transducers increase the op

erating temperature to 150° C, while main taining temperature stability over the range. 90

ProMinent Fluid Controls

For more information, Circle reply card No. 156

A more powerful signal output and improved echo sensitivity mean that applications are possible in more dusty and steamy environ

tains 7,000 BTU/lb, producing less than 4%

ments. Materials and methods of construc

remove oil from water surfaces and leave

tion improve immunity to harsh chemicals and expand mounting options. The new transducers can be applied to applications where high temperatures are

them clean, with no sheen.

ash.

Socks and booms containing Cell-U-Sorb

ADDCO Industrial Absorbents

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 159

encountered, such as clinker, food process

ing, steam cleaning, chemical processing, and pulp and paper. Milltronics

Recycling lamp ballasts

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 157

Powder coating technique Automatic Coatings Limited has developed Specification AC-70-GO1, a powder coat ing technique to combine the superior cor rosion protection properties of 3M's Scotchkote family of epoxy resins with an integrated top coat of polyester resin. The .system provides users with a wide choice of colours for the polyester top coat, while, at the same time, offering excellent ultra violet protection to weathering. The base epoxy film thickness can be tailored to meet other specifications up to 25 mils. A complete list of chemical resist ance properties is available. Automatic Coating For more information. Circle reply card No. 158

100% cellulose absorbent ducers extend the use of ultrasonic level

This allows the pump to self-prime against the pump's rated back pressure, so you no longer have to relieve pressure on the discharge line to get it primed. Bleed ing by manually slackening the pressure line is no longer necessary. The new liquid end is available in Plexiglass or PVC and can be retrofitted on Gamma/4 pumps without difficulty.

Cell-U-Sorb® absorbs up to an average of 12 times its weight in hydrocarbons, depend

ing on viscosity. Cell-U-Sorb is 100% cel lulose, is produced from recycled raw ma terial, and is recyclable as a waste-derived fuel for energy recovery in a permitted ce ment kiln. In its raw state, the product con

PROECO Corporation, in affiliation with Custom Environmental Services, operates the first, fully-approved facility under the Alberta Environmental Protection and

Enhancement Act, which is licensed to im

port and recycle PCB lamp ballasts. All processing is carried out at Custom Environmental Services facilities in Edmon

ton, removing on-site client liability and providing complete due diligence which is now required by legislation. PROECO Corporation For more information. Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Consultants

Product Review Range of thermoplastic pumps designed and manufactured by Vanton

SIILL©in) Professional Consulting Services • Planning 'Engineering

For those involved in chemical processing, the transfer or metering of chemicals and

'Environmental Science

polymers, the neutralizing of effluents, odour control, scrubbing noxious gases or

any other difficult fluid handling operation, pump selection is very critical. The Vanton range of thermoplastic pumps handle acids,

Toronto 'London • Cambridge * Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax

Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Vancouver • Yellowknife • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East. Toronto. Ontario M2N 6N5 (4 16) 229-4646

K

caustics, salts, halogens,solvents and waste.

Since 1950, Vanton has specialized in providing dependable centrifugal,sump and flexible liner rotary pumps with all wet end components of solid homogeneous thermo plastics and elastomers. The pumps are available in a wide choice of materials in

cluding PVC,CPVC,PE,PP,PVDF,ECTFE and PI PE.

These pumps resist corrosion, abrasion and metallic contamination:

© GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Environmental Engineering •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances > Ventilation assessment/design > Air emission control • Air monitoring > Environmental audits • Indoor air quality > WHMiS • Noise monitoring and control • Workplace and safety audits 'Asbestos

2000 Argentia Road. Plaza III, Suite 301

Telex; 06-218242

Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(905) 858-4424

Fax:(905) 858-4426

- Vertical centrifugals for sumps to 20 feet, flows to 1450 GPM,heads to 280 feet, tem

perature to 275 degrees F. - ANSI horizontal centrifugals for flows to 1450 GPM, heads to 280 feet, temperature to 275 degrees F. - Rotary, flexible liner pumps. Seal-less. Self-priming. Flows to 40 GPM, tempera ture to 250 degrees F. Vanton For more Information,

Gore Sl St:arpie Limit:ed Consulting Engineers Water • Wastewater• Water Resources• Air• Waste

Management• Energy Recovery • Environmental Planning • Drainage• Laboratory Services—Analytical and Process R&D 255 Consumers Road

North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6 (416) 499-9000

(416) 499-0090 -f ext. (416) 499-4687 fax

Circle reply card No. 162

Ottawa• Thorold • Barrie • Cambridge Mississauga • Kingston • London

Hach analyzers modified Envifonmentai Noise and Vibfation Assessments

HGC

Design and Specification of Mitigation Measures

ENGINEERING Noise Vibration Acoustics

Audit Measurements

HOWE GASTMEIER CHAPNIK LIMITED 2000 Argcmia Road, I'laza i. Suite 203, Mississauga, Ontario L5N i P7 Phone:(905) 826-4044 Fax:(905) 826-4940

n

lNT€GnnT6D CxPLORflTIONS

1-67 Watson Rd. S., Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H8

€NVlBONM€NTm RESefiRCH CONSUITRNTS

TEL:(519) 822-2608 • FAX:(619) 822-3076

BIOLOGY & AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT SPECIALISTS SINCE 1977

Series 5000 Analyzers from Hach are de signed for maximum reliability and minimum maintenance. Recent design modifications have resulted in compliance with interna tional safety and electro-magnetic compat ibility standards. They have also made the

Impact Assessments habitat surveys,fisheries, wetlands

Bioengineering air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation

Environmental Diving spill investigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Laboratory Testing microbiology, toxicity, chemistry, biodegradation and respiration studies

iWs.

Series 5000 easier to install and use.

The analyzers have an external keypad for more convenient programming, a builtin RS-232C serial EG for two-way commu nication with an external printer or compu

ter. They can be used to monitor aluminum, hydrazine, oxygen scavengers,low and high range phosphate, and silica. Hach Company For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 164

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL

BARRIE

SASKATOON

GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS

Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayvlew Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138 91


Product Review Mobile demonstration unit

CW 20 are used for water purification. Silcarbon granular carbons have a very large specific surface area (usually more than 1,000 m7g). The pelletized SIL 40 and granular C 46 are perfect for exhaust air purification. Pelletized SC 40 can be used to recover sol

vents with a high boiling point.

and safety. The heart of the Rennel pump is its "S" transfer tube which, acting as a valve, al ternates between two ports to allow the com pressed sludge to be evacuated into the pipe line. John Mennier Inc.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 152

Silcarbon Canada

Drilling and sampling

For more information, Circle reply card No. 151

•I

John Meunier performs tests with its mo bile demonstration of the Actiflo® system, an accelerated settling process for potable water plants. The demonstration unit con sists of a 40 ft trailer, fully equipped to treat a design flow of up to 160 USgpm. The unit is self-contained and the client only has to provide the raw water to be treated, a drain and a power source. Tests are usually performed over a period of two weeks.

systems

Sludge conveying

John Meunier Inc.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 150

Activated carbons Silcarbon Canada offers a range of activated carbons. Silcarbon K 835 and K 814 are

very hard and extremely resistant to aggres sive chlorine or ozone. They are, therefore, suitable for dechlorination and deozoniza-

tion. Their powdered carbons TH 90 and

The Rennel sludge pump is a positive dis placement piston pump, capable of moving sludge at more than 2625 cu. ft/hr, and at pressures in excess of 2200 psi. Displaced in a pipeline, dried sludge (as much as 45% dryness)can be conveyed over considerable distances and at elevations needed by an incinerator or dryer. This can solve any prob lems with odour control, a clean workplace.

Triple deck screens

Davidson Environmental use the latest and

most innovative auger/rotary drilling and sampling systems available for environmen tal drilling projects. They can provide fast and accurate sample recovery to virtually any depth. Their systems can be used for all moni toring and observation wells, angle drilling, contaminant extraction wells, split-spoon sampling, wireline sample recovery systems, bedrock and overburden coring, and pres sure grouting. Davidson Environmental For more information.

Circle reply card No. 154

24-Hour access to instrumentation information National Instruments has established a

World-Wide Web Server to give users easy and rapid access to large volumes of infor mation to assist in the development, con figuration, and maintenance of instrumen tation systems. It includes information on products, technical support, sales locations, developer programs, product-related discus sion groups, and other National Instruments network resources.

The Derrick triple deck screening machines are available in Models A, C or D. Vibra

integral vibrator. Special long roller bear ings permit high speed/high load operation.

tors are either 1200 or 1800 RPM. All the

With no exterior belts or drive mechanism

decks are easily accessed through side doors. A reduced overall unit height is accom plished through utilization of a dual vibra tor "straight line" conveying action. This allows the triple deck units to be incorpo rated into layouts with limited headroom availability. The screening machines have a unique

there is no possibility of motor contamina tion by potentially damaging dust or chemi cals. The average life expectancy of the

92

vibrators is in the 35,000 to 50,000 hour

operating range. Derrick Corporation For more information.

Circle reply card No. 153

Product information includes details on

the company's LabVIEW®,LabWindows®/ CVI, and HiQ® application software prod ucts; GPIB, VXI, and data acquisition (DAQ) hardware; and customer education courses on all product lines. Technical sup port issues are addressed by listing answers to commonly asked questions, as well as supplying information on application notes and technical notes. National Instruments

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 145 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


Consultants

Product Review

151 Tagger Hims

Tank level monitoring

mm

LIMITED

Environmental Consulting Engineers ' Wa.\/e Mantificnient

• W<iic'r Siip/fly

* liiclitstrUil Minerals am! Afifirenate Kesanrci's

• Environnienlal Properly Assessment Pemee/ialion

• Ceo-Pnvironmenuil linfiineerin};

• Waste Water Disposal

NEWMARKET OFFICE

ST. CATHARINES OFFICE

WINDSOR OFFICE

Toll Free (800) 263-7419

Toll Free (600) 668-2598

Toll Free (800) 545-5406

The Kavlico Model P350 Pressure Trans

ducer can be incorporated into level moni toring equipment for the water utility mar ket. In SCADA systems or stand-alone monitoring, it helps to maintain control over water supply, maintain safe levels in stor age tanks and reservoirs as well as monitor

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects

ground water levels. The P350 is suitable for mounting di

Consultants Limited

Tel.

Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519)743-3330 Cobalt (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

rectly on the tank, adjacent to the tank con nected on a pipeline, or in conjunction with a bubbler system designed to monitor the height of the water in the tank or well. Kavlico Corporation For more information,

Fax.

Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869

WE CAN'T CHANGE HISTORY! BUT WE HELP YOU CORRECT IT! WITH OUR COMPLETE TESTING FACILITIES

SITE

EVALUATION

USE OF PROVEN

AND

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AND

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Circie reply card No. 271

LAKEFTELD

Quality management

I^EARCH

software for Windows

<31

DIVISION OF FALCONBRIDGE LTD. P.O. Bag 4300. L-akeficld. Oniano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Ea.x. 705-652-6365

DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGIES

APPLICATION

OF

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SOLlCS; SUSPENDED TENPERATURE tURSIOIIT; LAB TT:TOTAL CAC03

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ITY GUIDELINES MAX! . .. .ITY GUIDELINES 08JE ESH MATER OBJECTIVES AQUATIC ESh HATER OBJECTIVES PUBLIC ALIIY GUIDELINES PROCESSING INDUSTRY EFFLUEN r STANDARDS AOUATIC OBJECT] T STANDARDS CURRENT GUIDELI

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment

T STANDARDS MAXIMUM ACCEPTA

EQWin®,the Environmental Quality Man

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R4B9 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994

agement System for Windows™, is a pow erful yet easy-to-use package that manages routine monitoring data, produces reports and graphs, and greatly assists with ad-hoc data analysis. Output can be either printed or directed to other Windows software such

as spreadsheets and word processors. EQWin is fully configurable. For a given industry or situation, users simply fill in a table of applicable parameters along with the relevant government standards or guide lines. Permit and guideline information is automatically utilized on compliance re

MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

•Hydrpgeology •Waste management •Engineering geoiogy •Environmentai audits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation

ports.

Marshall Macklin

A versatile data entry system lets users enter data directly or import it from spread sheets. The import capability means data

Monaghan

obtained in various formats from such

sources as commercial labs, in-house labs,

and existing computer files, can be acquired without rekeying. Numerous automated quality controls ensure data accuracy and integrity. Teck Corporation For more Information,

CONSULTING ENGINEERS - SURVEYORS • PLANNERS

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORCNTO, EDMCNTCN

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Cntario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100

Fax:(905) 882-0055

Circle reply card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995

93


Consultants Ad Index ADI. Alfa Laval Anthrafilter

Aquablast

45

Armtec

17

Bailey

39

C.C. Tatham Can Am Ins

21 45

Can. Ex. Man

■CIVIL/ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING' CONSULTANTS WATER SUPPLY - POLLUTION OONTROL • DRAINAGE SCADA • ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES • ENERGY AUDITS

SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITEG

Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Monor, Suite #10. Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715

Fox: 905-831-0531

• Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Planning

2 20 57 19

Contech Corrosion Inter. Costa Tech

85 43 88

Dagex

49

Davidson Env.

86

Degremont

89

Derrick Eaglebrook Eimco Equlpompe Geneq

16, 88 36 72, 96 88 58

Gorman Rupp Greenwood Env.

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Water Supply

44

15 26 88

Fax: (905) 875-2145

Isco ITT Flygt

STONEY CREEK: OTTAWA:

Tel.: 1613)247-0111

Fax: (613) 247-0114

KSB Laidlaw Env.

Liquid Carbonic

COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

engneers architects

Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment

planners

MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t 0 tt e n slms hubickl associates

TEL: (905) 668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (905) 668-0221 COBOURG • TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO BRACEBRIDGE • OTTAWA • 5AULTSTE. MARIE • SIMCOE

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007

34, 63 41 47 7

73,89

Malroz Master Builders MDS Labs MIcroblcs Mlllstream Software Mllltronlcs National Inst OCRA

11 13 87 43 89 42 89 33

Paragon

53

Parkson

PCB Disposal Philip Env.

66

82, 89 89

Praxair Pro Eco Proctor & Redfern

89 81 30

Promat Eng

88

ProMlnent

46

Puma Eng

65,89

RMS Enviro Solv RPA

12 66

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Schlumberger

95

PLANNING & ENGINEERING

Seacor

58

Stormceptor Summa Eng Syntechnlcs T. City Iron Works

4 10 21 23

Terratec Trimax

45 49

ATLANTIC CANADA - CENTRAL CANADA - PRAIRIES - PACIFIC COAST

Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. • Corporate Environmeiiial Policy Developmeni • Linid Application of Wasiewaier Tel: (905) 821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel: (519) 741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

94

9 45

GTI

Tel.: (905) 875-2144

Fax: (905 643-8171

53

Hach Heath Ind. Plastics

MILTON:

Tel.: (905) 643-8166

71,74

Cancoppas Carsen Group Colgate-Palmollve Columbia Geosystems

Colder

THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers

.89 38 45

• Phase 1 Emaroninental Autlits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

• • • •

Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the.3Rs. Hydrogeo!og\' and Croundwater Im'estigations

Trojan

25

UMA VIctaulic W20

37 10 14

Watergroup Ind

86

Waukesha Fluids

31

Wellington Labs

11

Westech Wheelabrator WTC

55 88 53

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1995


When you need powerful solutions for customer satisfaction...

MAPS™ can show you the way. ^

"Leading Meter Communications" r .^

rmm ^ mwk. W"i

Programming Software

Host Software

Handhefd Systems

You're on the road to success when you start with the MAPS vision.

Contact your local Sphlumhorgof Sales RoproSontativo

I Schlumberger

A

Or call: 1-800-363-7886

For more information, Circle reply card No. 168

Schlumberger Industries•7275 West Credit Avenue• MIsslssauga, Ontarle L5N 5M9 MAPS is a trademark of Schlumberger Industries, Inc. © 1995 Schlumberger Industries, Inc. All rights reserved.


17

rr C-r^ ••

h

Grit Collection Systems Flocculators and Mixers

Primary and Secondary Clarlflers Solids-Contact Clarlflers

Trac-Vac™ Suction Sludge Collectors

iSP

MetalWeave™ Flow Control Baffles

Dissolved Air Flotation Systems Induced Air Flotation Systems

For more information on EIMCO water and wastewater

WEMCO Oil-Water Separation Systems

treatment equipment, contact your local EIMCO sales

Inclined Plate Clarlflers

representative.

Sludge Thickeners Gravity Belt Concentrators Low-Speed Surface Aerators Elastox® Membrane DIffusers Rotary Distributors

Carrousel®" Biological Oxidation Process Bardenpho®" Biological Nutrient Removal Process

m Anaerobic Digester Covers and Mixers ©» Beltpress Filters

Shrlver® Filter Presses Rotary Vacuum Filters (S» Thermal Sludge Pasteurizers Q Granular Media Filters

Ion Exchange Systems (a» Tankage and Mechanism

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A Division of Baker Hughes Canada Inc. 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2 (905) 625-6070 FAX: (905) 625-3519

Erection Services

o Process Testing Services

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 169

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June-July 1995  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June-July 1995