Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1995

Page 1

Official Show Guide Issue






Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

Serving environmental professionais across Canada

May 1995

Official Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide - page 81 Water regulations mean enhanced treatment capabiiities Financing municipal water and wastewater services The Smiths Fails sludge pelletization facility Thermal desorption for contaminated soils Health & Safety Auditing

FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors

The Royce Model 7011 Suspended Sol ids Analyzer provides

No moving parts, no maintenance, no re-

calibration required.

Reliable micro-proc

reliable, continuous

essor based electron ics.

operation in waste treatment plants, riv

Continuously moni

ers, lakes and other

aqueous systems. A user friendly text screen provides menu driven setup. The in

tors and controls in terface level In tanks.

Numerically displays interface depth in

strument will read in

feet, meters or per centage of total tank

depth. Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface,

Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

Applications: • Waste Treatment

• Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum

• Pulp & Paper

Parts Per Million

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers


• Mining

either milligrams per liter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that include

insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending), The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced in ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor is for medium ranges typically found in aeration basins (0-30,000 mg/L), The Model 74 in-line sensor is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (0-

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and

low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

80,000 mg/l).

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Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable instrumentation for pH,

Con tfn u0us M0n i10ri n9 For

ORP, SS, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration in Waste Treatment


Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

Model 500 pH/ORP is avail able with an assortment of

Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliable Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Sol ids/Interface Analysers are ideal for remote monitoring in

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(uses inexpensive food grade . vinegar/non-hazardous buffer)

[3 Wide Operating Range ,(.001 ppm to too ppm) [3 Low Maintenance


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Easy to Install Circle 253 on Reader Service Card

aeration basins, short term

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled

Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con

diurnal studies and laboratory applications. Each product features digltai readout, microprocessor based electron ics with self-diagnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digltai outputs.

tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied with self-Installing supporting Software which operates in

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a Windows environment. Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors.

Automatic Liquid Sampling

Effluent Sampler

Siudge Sampier

Wherever it's Needed The EPS 1021 Effluent

Wide Range of Applications

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liq


Is designed to extract samples of sewage siudge from a flow

uid from an open chan nel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an ar ray of 24x1/2 litre con tainers for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

Typical applications: • Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent

• Raw sludge • Most industrial

EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications


ing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via

The EpiclOIIT program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac tical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its abil ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo geneous suspended solids. Typical Applications: • Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

cost effective automatic

sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and industrial waste-

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them Into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

• Mechanical


device feeds

• Road tanker loading/dis EPS 1030

Sludge Sampler

charge terminals

• Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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April/May '95 Vol. 8 No. 2 Issued May, 1995

ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY


Editor and Pubiistier TOM DAVEY

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Saies Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4052

Art, language and environmental science Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Saies Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY

Technical Advisory Board

How Calgary faces water & wastewater challenges in 1995


By G. Lamb

Soil washing team work remediates contaminated cottage site

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bisfiop EPL/MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumier

NOVAMANN (Ontario) inc. Alan Churcti, C.Ctiem. Cfiurch & Trougfit George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeiiow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

The Smiths Falls sludge pelletization facility By Robert Poisson

Financing municipal water and wastewater services By George G. Powell

Thermal desorption for contaminated soils


By Franklin A. Holtforster Potable water disinfection criteria and THM reduction

By Ian P.D. Wright

Canada leads world in paper recycling


Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Stiannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monttiiy business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ESSiE's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental offioiais, water and wastewater treat

ment plant operators and contractors. Ail advertising space orders,copy,artwork,

film, proofs, etc.,should be sent to Environ mentalScience5 Engineering,c/o Prestige

Retrofit increases capacity of biomass-fired boiler By Andrew K. Jones

Peat filters as an alternative wastewater technoiogy


AWWA Anaheim convention preview


Water reg will require enhanced treatment capabilities By A.P. Livingston

Health & Safety Auditing - part 1


By Dr. David A. Whaley

5th International Zebra Mussel Conference Abstracts


Asiatic clams, like zebra mussels, threaten waterways


Printing, 41 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, LAG 3Y5.

Official 1995 Toronto Environmental Tradeshow

Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Guide — Exhibitors, floorplan, workshop topics/speakers

ProductAgreement No.18197 Second Class Mall

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada, by Webb Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may

tje reproduced tjy any means without writ



Industry Update


R&D News Product Review Reader Service Card

Send orders to: Environmental Science

Cover Story: Philip Environmental and the Scientific Ecol ogy Group, have signed a letter of intent to commercialize a proprietary technology to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) residues, a by-product of steel production. The first of these

Unit30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax;(905)841 7271.

Literature Reviews. Ad Index


.63, 64, 93

ten permission of the publisher. Yearly suljscription rates: Canada $45.00for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T.extra)

& Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy.S.,

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Editorial comment

By Tom Davey

Art, language and the environmental sciences should not be in conflict

The past few years have seen an as

Michelangelo match those of Newton,Fara day, Watt and Brunei. Many, of course, ef fortlessly crossed what C.R Snow called the Twin Solitudes. Borodin,for example, held a Doctorate in chemistry and was noted for his aldehydes research as well as his classi cal music. Leonardo da Vinci repeatedly demonstrated engineering genius along with his prodigious artistic talents. Sir Humphry Davy,the inventor of both cathodic corrosion protection and the re nowned miner's safety lamp was a friend of such poets as Wordsworth and Coleridge

tonishing reversal in the image projected by certain words. Lately the thought police on the politically correct language beat have decreed the fol lowing: Do not strike or hit the keyboard but tap or press the keys; resist, instead of fight against; numerical goals, rather than the more adjectivally accurate 'quotas'. Even the phrase, affirmative action, so re cently a battle cry,(sorry, rallying noise) of the left, is already obsolescent, with the stem recommendation that we now must use

employment equity. In England, even the

and was noted for his own flair with the lan

time honoured ballcock has been banished

E Berry,had no equal in its day in size,scope and time frame. It was an outstanding sym biosis of a regulatory agency working with consultants and contractors from the private

guage. While Britain and France were in a state of war. Sir Humphry travelled to France to accept an award for his scientific work. His miner's safety lamp saved thou sands of lives from methane explosions yet he rejected any idea that he might profit from


his invention.

from official plumbing codes. These are only a few of the perversely creative, non-violent, gender neutral banali ties which threaten to reduce the power, glory and magnificent range of the English language to the etymological equivalent of calorie reduced jelly. In the past there were attempts to save us all from the incomparable words of William Shakespeare; these even flare up sporadically today. But it was Thomas Bowdler who gave name to the verb to bowdlerize after he expurgated the sexy bits from the Bard's plays- which must have pro vided some puzzling gaps for later readers. While change is vital to a vigorous lan guage, some once respected words have been virtually transformed into perjoratives. Now growth, development, even mother hood are all under the critical scrutiny of our new, and rapidly changing, politically correct values. Environmental professionals are somewhat bewildered by this. As it was their professional skills which were used to research, design and build the drinking wa ter and sewage treatment systems which dramatically improved public health, they could rightly be regarded as the first envi ronmentalists.

With astonishing rapidity new social values reversed all this. Somewhat to their

chagrin, engineers have found themselves cast as participants in gang rape rather than praetorian cohorts of progress. In fact, so many groups have jumped on the environ mental bandwagon there is little room left for environmental professionals. I recall one Globe & Mail reporter tell ing a group of engineers that he had never met an engineer whom he would consider an environmentalist. Engineers not environ mentalists? The reporter was speaking to a group that had actually designed and built the systems during Ontario's multi-billion dollar water and wastewater treatment

schemes which began in the late '50s. The Ontario scheme, begun by the Ontario Wa ter Resources Commission(OWRC) under the legendary engineer and scientist. Dr. A

Before it was absorbed into the Ontario

Ministry of the Environment, the OWRC (not to be confused with the Ontario Waste Management Corporation) had 95 percent of the urban population serviced by sewage

Environmental professionals are somewhat bewildered by this. As it was their

professional skills which were used to research, design and build the drinking water and sewage treatment systems

which dramatically improved public health, they could rightly be regarded as the first en vironmentalists.

treatment plants and 98 percent served by water treatment. Quebec at that time treated a mere five percent of its wastewater. The dramatic change in environmental attitudes in Quebec was due more to the Association quebecoise des techniques de I'eau - a mili tant group of engineers - than placard-car rying demonstrators, who wouldn't under stand what BOD means if presented in a kid's crayon book. It is perhaps of interest to note that the university students in the humanities have traditionally had a rather superior attitude towards the engineering and science facul ties. There are some historical reasons for this. Romantic fiction and news media alike

are full of stories where struggling artists are in conflict with greedy, insensitive busi nessmen who are all too often portrayed as lacking human and aesthetic values. I must stress my own conviction that the arts are every bit as important to humanity as science and technology. The contribu tions of Milton, Voltaire, Mozart and

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Thomas Jefferson, author of the Decla ration of Independence, combined legisla tive genius with matchless English prose while learning gaelic, latin, Greek and French. He also mastered architecture, built clocks, invented machines and revered sci

ence. Over two centuries ago he and his sonin-law were among the first to practice con tour plowing across slopes to prevent soil erosion, so adding environmentalism to his diverse talents.

Yet there is no doubt that the applied sciences are looked down upon by many of the so called arts fraternity. While I have a deep reverence for all the arts, I despise many of the literary whiners whose com posing skills are more accurately reflected in their grants applications, rather than their artistic creativity. All too often, artistic snob bery is the result of intellectual incest and isolation from the real world. The snobbery of many pseudo-artistic types clouds them to the realization that engineering and chem istry are dynamic, creative arts, as well as exacting sciences. The final conclusion is doubly ironic. So often the criticisms of technology are from the idle minds of a leisured class who were

freed from relentless toil only by the dy namic development of technology — a de velopment which increased production and wealth, while decreasing work hours and effort!

Meanwhile, the very word environment has been elevated to a status bordering on the divine, while environmental scientists

are treated with suspicion, even contempt. Increasingly governments are giving cre dence to a new breed of shamans, elders and an assorted bunch of eco-mystics who lack any knowledge of the value of scien tific methodology in resolving complex en vironmental problems.

Cover Story New technology recycles Electric Arc Furnace residue The steel industry is vitally interested in finding alternatives for managing EAF residues. Conventional recycling methods are no longer viable, due to the escalating zinc levels in EAF residues which result

from the increasing use of galvanized scrap materials in steel production. In excess of 700,000 tons of EAF residues are generated annually in North America alone, and there is additional material which has been stock

Philip Environmental Inc. and the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc., a wholly owned sub sidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corpora tion announced in March that they have signed a letter of intent to commercialize a proprietary technology to recycle electric arc furnace(EAE)residues,a by-product of steel production. The first of these units is to be operational in early 1996, at a capital cost of approximately US $25 million. Through a closed-loop recycling process.

this technology completely converts EAE residues into base metal products including zinc, lead and iron. No waste by-products are generated by the process, eliminating the need for further disposal. Through the process,scrap metal,coke and EAE residues are combined in a plasma torch fired verticle shaft furnace to produce pig iron and zinc oxide. High grade zinc is recovered from the zinc oxide in a multi-stage electrowinning plant, operated on-site.

Employers are Talking

piled for treatment. Through the Philip Environmental and the Westinghouse SEG joint venture, recovered zinc, lead and pig iron will be sold through Philip Environmental's resource recovery group. Based on the demand for these products,Philip En vironmental expects all the metal output of the process to be presold prior to start-up. The development of this technology is the result of over three years of research and development of available technologies by Philip Environmental. "This process clearly represents an approach of treating industrial by-products as raw material. Through de veloping recycling technologies to solve our customers' by-product management prob lems, we are able to produce materials with valuable reuse applications and provide vi able alternatives to disposal," said Allen Fracassi, President and Chief Executive Officer, Philip Environmental.

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Business Report MDS Environmental Services launched MDS announced February 27 that effective March 1, 1995, its three Canadian labora tories, Environment Protection Laboratories,

shortlisted firms, interviewed the CEO and other key personnel, scrutinized financial records and monitored management prac tices in a process that took as long as two days with each contender," The Financial Post reported.

Enviroclean Laboratories and Fenwick

Neo Valves opens

Laboratories, will be integrating their serv ices and changing their names to MDS En vironmental Services Limited.

branch in BC Neo Valves has opened a new sales and

warehouse facility at 6990 Greenwood Street in Bumaby. The latest branch open

ing is a commitment to expand and service the Western Canada marketplace. Neo Valves now maintains stock in Bumaby, Calgary, Edmonton, Toronto and Montreal. Bob Gault will be responsible for manag ing the BC market for Neo Valves and can be reached at (604)421-4010 or fax (604)420-9457.

"Acquisitions made last summer in creased the size of our network by 50%

making MDS one of Canada's largest envi


ronmental laboratories," says Dr. Ross McCurdy,Vice President and General Man ager of MDS Environmental. "Over the last six months we have been transforming our laboratories into a cohesive network that will set the standard for environmental test

• Solvent recycling unit * Glycol recycling unit • Contaminated oil recycling unit • Process water minimization unit * Lube oil recycling

ing in Canada. I am confident that this name change is the next logical step towards total harmonization of our laboratory services."

Its parent company, MDS Health Group Limited, is Canada's largest health and life sciences company, with annual revenues of $630 million and almost 6,000 employees nationally.

BC Environmental Lab "One of Canada's 50 Best" ASL Analytical Service Laboratories Ltd., Vancouver, was chosen by The Financial Post as one of "Canada's 50 Best Managed Private Companies". After initial shortlisting,companies were comprehensively audited by the Enterprise Group of the accounting firm Arthur Andersen & Co. The winning companies met a standard of excellence with respect to ail important facets of their operations; customer service, quality management,em ployee programs and development, strate gic planning, managing change, financial controls, and technology development. "Over a six week period, 50 partners from

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Industry Update Igloos in Florida?

eggs on cranberry leaves where the emerg ing larvae destroy buds and flowers. Female moths attract males for mating by releasing a scent called pheromone. Researchers at PARC (Vancouver) found that males can be confused with a synthetic pheromone and prevented from finding fe males and mating. The researchers released pheromone into cranberry bogs in Pitt Mead ows and Richmond to observe the results.

During May and June 1994 only 3% of fe males mated. The State of Florida has called for a man

datory recycling program to be implemented at all multi-family residences, including condominiums.

Florida state law requires some counties to reduce the volume of solid waste by 30 percent, yet many communities do not have the curbside pick-up for recycling. Colour coded Igloos request householders to sepa rate their recyclables before deposits. Sepa rate igloos are designated for newsprint, aluminum cans, steel cans, coloured bottles and uncoloured glass discards. The 'happy faces' promote awareness among children. The igloos are usually in shopping plazas, parks or other recreational areas.

Mating male moths put off scent Blackheaded fireworm moths cause serious

damage to cranberry crops. They lay their

By comparing the number of fireworm eggs in treated and control areas, research

ers hope to establish if mating disruption will provide acceptable control of the pest. This technique could significantly reduce the use of pesticides, with both cost and envi

effect on January 1, 1995. It clears up con fusion in the workplace over whether the Workplace Health and Safety Agency has the power to enforce its policy that employ ers must pay for health and safety certifica tion training costs, and workers can choose the training centre they attend. The Act requires that workplaces with 20 or more employees or that deal with des ignated toxic substances such as lead, as bestos and vinyl chloride have joint labour/ management health and safety committees. Employers must pay the wages of workers for "time spent" while training to become certified members of these committees.

Hamilton Fire

Department gets

ronmental benefits.

Regulation amendment clarifies who pays for safety training Ontario employers are made responsible for paying the certification training costs of Joint Health and Safety Committee mem bers and worker members have been given the right to select the training centre by an amended regulation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act. The regulation amendment went into

mobile decontamination unit A 24foot,$40,000 mobile personnel decon tamination unit has been built and donated

by Philip Environmental, with support from Gryphon Construction, Mattina Mechanical and Auto Trim Design. With its own gen erator, propane-fired hot water system and heat and air conditioning, the unit will be used for decontaminating firefighters, their equipment and others who may become con

taminated by chemicals while carrying out their duties.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Terry Cooke Regional Chairman, Greater Hamilton

Dr. Stuart Smith

^^hilip Utilities was created to join the best in global


Philip Utilities Management Corporation

water and wastewater treatment technologies with Canada's fastest growing environmental company. The result - a Canadian company with the expertise and experience to compete in the world market for utilities management.

Through a landmark agreement, Philip Utilities now oper ates the water and sewage treatment facilities of Greater Hamilton, providing this essential service to almost 500,000 residents. This private/public partnership,the largest of its type in North America, provides a uniquely Canadian approach to labour and community concerns, while reducing operating costs and providing broad economic benefits. Greater Hamilton has set the standard for developing effec tive economic strategies between industry and government.

With this partnership. Greater Hamilton and Philip Utilities are pioneering new ways to effectively manage public utilities.

For more information on this dynamic partnership, piease call: Mr.Stan Spencer, Chief Operating Officer, Philip Utilities (905) 548-3963 or Mr. Scott Galbraith, Manager of Business Development, Greater Hamilton (905) 546-4447



















For more information, Circle reply card No. 144




Industry Update Laidlaw Environmental and Ford establish

environmental partnership Laidlaw Environmental Services and Ford

Motor Company of Canada have established an environmental partnership,to manage the automaker's hazardous waste minimization

efforts and streamline related management activities.

Under the partnership,Laidlaw Environ mental will provide hazardous waste man agement services to all of Ford's Windsorarea plants in Ontario over the next five years.

The partnership will focus on expand-

ing recycling opportunities and improving residue management practices at the plants, which currently include a cast aluminum research and development facility, three engine plants and three casting plants. Perry Burford, Purchasing Manager for Ford's Windsor Operations, said the ar rangement with Laidlaw Environmental is part of Ford's ongoing initiative to increase

business with a select number of preferred suppliers. In evaluating potential partners, Burford

said his group looked for a package which offered a broad range of cost-effective recy cling options and included service providerowned transportation, treatment and dis posal facilities, supported by a comprehen sive liability management program. The Windsor Operation's decision to establish a multi-year, exclusive service ar rangement will provide Ford with increased opportunities to meet its business efficiency and hazardous waste management goals, said Jeff Parker, Laidlaw Environmental's

technical representative for the partnership. "Large companies are beginning to real ize they are reaching the limit of their inhouse resources and, on their own, will no

longer be able to maintain the pace of waste minimization and management improve ments set in recent years," Parker said. Burford and Parker agree that the longterm arrangement will enable both compa nies to strengthen their existing working relationship, allowing them to focus in creased attention and resources on the analy sis and improvement of waste management



"We are seeing the beginning of a trend in the manufacturing sector towards longer term environmental services partnerships. Over the past few years, we've been expand ing our service capabilities to be able to re spond effectively as the demand grows,"

The environmental demands, which ore

currently being placed on corporations and municipalities to control B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) dis

said Laidlaw's Parker.

charges and reduce in-plant treatment

Since 1993, Laidlaw Environmental and

its sister solid waste and recycling company, Laidlaw Waste Systems, have been offer ing their hazardous and non-hazardous waste management services as a singlesource package. Recently, Laidlaw Environmental intro duced a new partnership service package, called INSITE^M, through which Laidlaw Environmental will supplement companies' existing resources and serve as their inhouse environmental management partner.

costs, have created a tremendous need Derrick Model 58 Flo-Line unit process ing waste woter application handling 1,800 U.S.G.P.M. and recovering solids at 80 mesh.

for efficient, reliable and cost effective

equipment to reduce waste water solids concentrations. Derrick Corporation,

with over 40 years of fine screening experience, is now capable of offering this equipment technology to the waste water Industry worldwide. Through uti lizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid capacities con be Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick urethane screen deck.

Vegetables are light on heavy metals

effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/porticulote removal.

Heavy metals at high concentrations in veg etables may pose a risk to human health.


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Some metals can occur naturally in the soils where vegetables are grown or can be added as contaminants. Researchers at the Agassiz Pacific Agriculture Research Centre(PARC) measured the concentrations of heavy met als in several vegetable crops growing in the lower Eraser Valley during 1992 to de fine background levels for future monitor ing of environmental pollution. The study found that average values for copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in vegeta bles were lower than internationally pub lished averages, while molybdenum was higher. Elevated levels of molybdenum and cadmium were found sporadically in the soils and crops, but were below safe limits.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

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Industry Update "Green" panel board from recycled waste wood A BC company is now positioned to supply high quality medium density fibreboard (MDF)wood products without cutting down trees. The CanFibre Group Ltd., a Vancou ver-based company, manufactures fibreboard from a wide range of post-consumer dry wood and paper waste and is a recipi

Conducted by an independent US re search organization. Franklin Associates Ltd., the analysis compared the potential environmental and human health impacts of propylene glycol antifreeze to the traditional ethylene glycol-based antifreeze. Union Carbide claims the study was subjected to rigorous scientific peer review by four in dependent experts according to practices recommended by the Society of Environ mental Toxicology and Chemistry. Researchers reported that propylene gly

ent of The Financial Post's 1993 Green

col automotive antifreeze:

Product Award.

- generates greater quantities of industrial

CanFibre is said to be the only company to make exclusive use of demolition and

waste wood, which makes up 12% of a typi cal landfill site, as well as all paper waste deemed non-recyclable. This new process will allow for discarded telephone books, magazines, non de-inked newsprint, card board, and even Tetra-pak drink boxes, to be diverted from dumpsites and turned into useful consumer and industrial goods. Developed by Forintek, an R&D agency funded by industry and the Canadian govemment, CanFibre's technology consists of a patented steam press capable oftransform ing 125,000 tons of waste fibre into over 60 million cubic feet of wood panel annually an important step towards reducing the 360,000 tons of solid waste deposited in U.S. landfills each day. A key competitive advantage of CanFibre's technology is the elimination of Urea Formaldehyde, a resin utilized by cur rent MDF manufacturers for its quick cur ing properties that is now facing proposed reduction measures by the U.S. Environ mental Protection Agency. CanFibre's press replaces UF with phenolic resins while maintaining a curing time up to 50% faster than competitors. Laidlaw's Waste Systems Division has agreed to supply the CanFibre plant with a

emissions in 10 out of 14 potential impact categories regarding ecosystem health; and - produces greater quantities of industrial emissions in 7 out of 12 potential impact categories regarding human health. The study focused on the entire life of the products, from raw material extraction to final disposition. According to its find ings, propylene glycol-based antifreeze: - consumes 37 per cent more energy than ethylene glycol antifreeze in its manufac turing process; - generates 47 per cent more solid waste by volume in its manufacturing process; and - produces significantly greater quantities of most of the reported air emissions. Based on these findings, ethylene glycol automotive antifreeze has less potential en vironmental impact and is environmentally preferable to antifreeze formulated with propylene glycol claims Union Carbide. Union Carbide noted that ethylene gly col is toxic if consumed by mouth, empha sizing that no antifreeze is safe to drink and

accounts for 43.7 percent of New York State's energy consumption,emit 139 times

as much SO^ per million kilowatt hour as hydroelectricity. Hydro-Quebec has a long history of exchanging electricity with the northeast region through the transborder in terconnections linking the power systems across the border.

"Since New York typically requires more electricity in the summer because of air con ditioning needs,just when Quebec uses less of it, we are able to make electricity avail able to our neighbors through seasonal di versity contracts," explained Jacques Guevremont.

Checking for arsenic in the Abbotsford Aquifer Elevated arsenic concentrations occur natu

rally in some south coastal B.C. aquifers, but human activities have also been sus

pected of contributing to arsenic in groundwater. One possible source is an ar senic-based medicant that was used in the

past to increase the rate of weight gain in chickens, turkeys and swine. Researchers at PARC (Agassiz) tested groundwater samples from a portion of the Abbotsford Aquifer most at risk for contami nation from the arsenic medicant. Although arsenic was detected, it was present at very low concentrations, always below the Ca nadian Drinking Water Guideline of 5 parts per billion.

caution should be taken to keep it inacces sible to children and pets. The company is a major ethylene glycol producer.

Praxair achieves certification for conformance to ISO 9002 standards

minimum 100,000 tons of waste wood fibre each year for the next 10 years. An amount

Hydro-Quebec provides "breath of air"

equivalent to 25 football fields with a depth of five feet. The company is also in final stages of negotiation for a number of "take

to New York

by this certification are all 54 bulk-gas op

Hydro-Quebec,the Montreal based publicly

erating sites, 12 customer service centres, distribution facilities including the compa

out" contracts with some of North Ameri

ca's largest users of MDF. These contracts will exceed $300 million in value and ac

countfor a ten year forward sale ofover 50% of CanFibre's Toronto plant production. CanFibre estimates the Toronto plant alone will preserve 3,000 acres of Ontario forests each year beginning in 1996.

formance to ISO 9002 standards. Covered

owned utility that generates more than 95 percent of its electricity through hydro power, reports that electricity sales to New York in 1994 helped avoid the burning of

13.6 million barrels of oil, resulting in sig

ny's North American Logistics Centre, plant operations centre and two pipeline control centres, and more that 250 on-site air sepa ration plants in Canada, the US and Puerto

nificant reductions in carbon dioxide(COj),


a green house gas. This use of Quebec hy-

Certification was granted following au dits by certifying bodies of Praxair's cen tral operations quality systems in Tonawanda, New York, followed by audits of 11 operating sites across the US and Canada. The ISO registrar will selectively audit Praxair sites every six months over a three-year period to continue to gain a rep resentative sample of ISO compliance. Twenty-five additional certifications have been earned by Praxair sites and businesses in Europe, Brazil, Mexico, Canada and the U.S. since the company launched its certi fication effort four years ago.

droelectricity reduced CO^ emissions by 6.72 million tons, or the equivalent of the

COjproduced by 1.8 million cars in one year

Study claims ethylene glycol antifreeze preferable

- "more than the number of passenger cars registered in New York City," says Jacques Guevremont, Hydro-Quebec's representa tive in the United States. "This is just as if all the cars registered in the Big Apple had

The results of a scientific life cycle analysis conducted for Union Carbide Corporation run directly counter to environmental claims advertised in the US by a manufacturer of

The use of hydro electricity also avoided the emission of nearly 9,600 tons of sulphur

propylene glycol automotive antifreeze.

ies show that oil-fired plants, whose power


Praxair, Inc. has earned comprehensive quality system certifications given for con

been converted to all-electric."

dioxide(SO^),a precursor to acid rain. Stud

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Industry Update New remediation

teohnology tested at Kentucky site Field testing of a novel method for remediating hard-to-treat, chemically con taminated soils began in January at a US Department of Energy (DOE) site located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

(PGDP) in Kentucky. If proven effective, Monsanto Company's Lasagna™ soil remediation technology, named for its lay ered structure of treatment zones, could of

fer a cost-effective, environmentally-com patible improvement over existing clean-up options. This project is the result of a team effort by three companies: Monsanto, General Electric, and DuPont, and two federal agen cies, the DOE and the Environmental Pro tection Agency(EPA). The partnership was a result of the EPA's Remediation Technol

ogy Development Forum (RTDF) which enabled industry and government agencies to team up with the common goal of devel oping and testing innovative remediation technologies for hazardous wastes. Monsanto is acting as project coordina tor. The partnership is being facilitated by Clean Sites under a Cooperative Agreement with EPA's Technology Innovation Office. Each team member is contributing a differ ent area of expertise to speed the research and arrive at a solution that all participants

field experiments. All three companies are developing proprietary biological and chemical dechlorination approaches which

Accurcast Ltd.fined


may be used to degrade TCE in full-scale

Accurcast Limited has been fined $200,000

tests. Tests on clean soil in the Paducah

in connection with the death of a worker at

area have demonstrated the ability of the technology to move water. As the last step

its automobile parts plant in Wallaceburg on July 19, 1993. The company pleaded guilty in Chatham Provincial Court Mon day to a charge under S.28 of Regulation 851 of the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act. Pierre Charlebois was checking a prob lem with a die casting machine when he was crushed between two die platens. In at tempting to stop the machine, a company supervisor saw a safety door limit switch was held in the "off position by a spray gun hanging from wire attached to it. The company had known that some em ployees were tying back protective limit switches, but had failed to do anything about it. Had the limit switch been operational,

before full-scale remediation of TCE con

taminated soils, researchers will demon

strate the feasibility of the technology at a contaminated site at PGDP.

The 15' X 10' X 15' test area is wired and

connected to a data acquisition system which will monitor, in real-time, temperatures, voltages, and currents in the experiment. Soil samples will provide TCE concentra tion baseline data against which later soil samples will be compared. The effective ness of this process will be evaluated by comparing TCE soil concentrations before

and after conducting the field experiment. The test should be completed by mid 1995. The current test being conducted at the PGDP is designed to evaluate the vertical Lasagna configuration. The DOE has made a significant commitment to this $1.4 mil lion field test and DOEfunding is being used for site activities such as characterization, equipment installation, materials, and test operation, and also enables the industrial companies to complete the necessary labo ratory experiments prior to the field tests.

the worker would not have been crushed in the machine.

The court was told that Ministry of La bour Industrial Health and Safety inspec tors investigating the accident found that it was common practice for workers to pre vent the safety door switches from working and this was known to management. The Justice of the Peace took this into consid

eration when levying the fine.

'Snow'technology used In Innovative wastewater treatment

can use.

In September 1994, the DOE and Monsanto signed an agreement to conduct joint research on this technology resulting

Delta Engineering of Ottawa, Ontario claims to have developed the world's first wastewater treatment plant based on its

number of emergency remedial action situ ations. The process reduces contaminant levels and bacterial activity to below detect

in a field test at the PGDP in Paducah, Ken

Snowfluent'''''^ process. The process treats wastewater of all types by converting it to

fectants or other chemicals, and therefore

tucky. The test site consists of a clay soil contaminated with trichloroethylene(TCE), a cleaning solvent commonly found at many government and industry sites. Monsanto's Lasagna soil remediation technology involves three components. First, treatment zones must be created. Vertical treatment zones can be installed

using technology similar to what is used to install sheet pile. Horizontal treatment zones can be created by hydraulic fractur ing of the soil. Second, low-voltage direct current is applied between buried electrodes to slowly draw contaminated water out of tiny pores in the silt and clay and force this water to migrate toward the negative elec trode (cathode). The third component in volves finding the appropriate treatment materials to inject into the subsurface to break down or trap the hazardous materials in the treatment zones.

Monsanto has proven that the technol ogy is effective in the laboratory. Dupont, in conjunction with a subcontractor, has developed the techniques for installing and forming the vertical treatment zones. Gen eral Electric has developed a sophisticated computer modeling program to simulate the

snow. Delta Engineering has been a leader in snowmaking technology for over 35 years (they provided the snow for the 1988 Win

ter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta and major resorts world-wide), however Snowfluent is

a specialized process for treating wastewater and as such is not used in the production of snow for ski slopes. The new, fully-automated treatment fa cility, located in the pristine Carrabassett Valley in the State of Maine, will serve the surrounding municipality of Carrabassett Valley. The technology was chosen for this project because of its high level of treat ment in environmentally challenging con ditions, its ability to respond to high fluc tuations in wastewater flow, and its signifi cantly lower capital and operating costs. The project was approved by the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (D.E.P.) and was funded by the Farmer's Home Administration (Fm.H.A.) and the D.E.P. through the State Revolving Fund. Snowfluent has been developed over a 15 year period in co-operation with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy and has been used successfully in a

Environmental Science t& Engineering, May 1995

able limits. It does not make use of disin leaves no toxic residues.

The process accomplishes this by pre paring the wastewater in a manner that optimizes water's ability to reject contami nants as it freezes into pure ice crystals; the process is known as freeze-crystallization. Wastewater is collected in standard sew

age lagoons during the summer,and instead of subsequently being discharged into a lake or river, the Snowfluent system converts it to snow. As the snow is produced during the winter, it accumulates in snow-packs of up to 40 feet(12 m)in height until it melts in the springtime. The melt-water from the snow-pack is virtually contaminant-free(ac cording to the MGEE,"5 to 25 times cleaner than discharges from even the most sophis ticated sewage treatment facilities"), and is allowed to either infiltrate the prepared soils beneath the snow-pack or decanted and re leased to receiving waters. After the snow has melted, a nutrient residue remains

trapped on the surface of the ground. These nutrients are consumed by previously sewn grasses, which are then harvested as hay, and can be fed to farm animals, or used as mulch for soil remediation.


Industry Update ENTSORGA Cologne

KolnMesse - once again expect over 1,500 suppliers from 25 countries, including


around 300 from abroad. The largest over seas contingents are expected from Westem European countries with highly ad vanced environmental technology including

The USA and Canada are expected to

- the Federal Association of the German

the Benelux countries, Austria, Switzerland,

provide the largest overseas contingents. At ENTSORGA '94, 36 US suppliers and four Canadian suppliers were able to establish themselves in the European market which is said to have the world's largest demand for recycling and waste disposal products.

Waste Disposal Industry (BDE) and

Italy, Great Britain and France.

In 1996 North American exhibitors will

This International Trade Fair for Recycling and Waste Disposal will be held from March

19 to 23, 1996 in Cologne. The organizers

again have the opportunity to participate at country pavilions which are being organized by the German-American Chamber ofCom merce, New York, and the German-Cana dian Chamber of Industry and Commerce, Toronto. Participation at these 'country pa vilions' will facilitate easy access to a highly intemational target group.

Presidential double for Daveys

ENTSORGA is the official trade show

event of the private recycling and waste dis posal industry. It covers the entire spectrum of machines,equipment and services for the processing, recycling, disposing and dump ing of waste including sewage treatment,

Penny Davey became the first woman Presi dent of the Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association during OPCEA's 25th an niversary meeting. She took over from Ed Pikovnik of Arlat Technology at the Annual Meeting in Mississauga. Penny is Sales Di rector of ES&E.

soil treatment,environmental after-care and logistics. At the last Cologne show in 1994, 65,000 trade visitors from 71 countries were registered including 10,000from abroad and

OPCEA President before being elected to the board of the Water Environment Asso

ciation of Ontario. Steve made it a 'Davey

over 300 from North America.

double' when he became President at the Water Environment Association of Ontario

Contact: Edel Wichmann,Cologne Inter national Trade Shows, Canadian German Chamber of Industry and Commerce Inc., 480 University Ave., Suite 1410, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1V2,Phone (416)598-3343, Fax (416) 598-1840

Annual Conference April 2-4. Sandra Davey their mother, is a former Secretary/ Treasurer and current Newsletter Editor of

Her brother Steve had been 1990/1991

WEAO and Associate Editor of ES&E.

Bringing EnvirDnmental RGsponsibility Oownto Eacth

■ Mobile unit


■ Operational in days ■ Proven technology

PBtroieumCDntaminated Soil

■ Soil cleaned and re-used

■ Environmentally sound ■ Saves valuable landfill space ■ No future liability

Thermal desorption technology cleans soil on site,

resolving environmental liability and restoring property values.


Solutions For Contaminated Soii Economical Tt Toronto (416) 496-7908 14



Ottawa (613)820-0073

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 152

"S Calgary (403) 261-5611

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995





70 Burwell Road

St. Thomas, Ontario N5P 3R7 For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 153

PUMPS Distributors across Canada

Tel: (519) 631-2870 Fax: (519)631-4624

Reader Feedback Re: "Rehabilitation for Aging Infrastruc

sumed. Potential users should verify the properties of the PVC compounds used in

ture". ES&E March/95

these liners.

Dear Sir:

This review of trenchless techniques makes some surprising statements about compet ing products. At best these statements are misleading. As a provider of engineering services for trenchless rehabilitation to

municipalities and contractors, our experi ence includes in depth knowledge in the design, specification and installation of trenchless products and systems. From this perspective, readers who rely on ES&E for decision making information, may appreci ate the following comments intended to clarify and clear up some of the misconcep tions contained in the article.

Point Repairs: cured-in-place repair sleeves,(Magnaline(TM), Insituform(TM), others) are widely used and warranted cov erage along with epoxy injection systems. Spiral-wound pipe: the statement "grout ing of the annulus is required" is mislead ing. Grouting is optional with some prod ucts. The remark "lateral reinstatement re

quires point excavation..." is incorrect. In the case of Ribloc(TM), laterals are rou tinely reinstated by internal remote lateral cutting. Deformed pipe: a disservice has been done to U-Liner(TM), a leading technique in sewer rehabilitation. Specifically, the state ment "inserting standard diameter polyethylene pipes..." is erroneous. U-Liner is custom manufactured in diameters de

signed to fit the host pipe. This system is installed using steam heat and pressure, not as incorrectly described. Neither sketches nor the write up in the article properly re flect on the U-Liner system while the nega tive terms "forcing", "pre-stressed" and "high degree of stretch" are altogether in appropriate. Fold and formed pipe:the statement"PVC pipe is delivered to the site..." is mislead ing. Material performance similar to widely used PVC sewer pipe should not be as

Cured-in-place pipe: the statement "only the Insituform process is readily available in Canada" is untrue. Several municipali ties with installations of InLiner(TM), a major supplier of CIPP rehabilitation, would disagree. Rehabilitation techniques differ. These differences affect performance in specific applications, influencing product selection. While a review may point out these differ ences, we feel it should not be biased to wards or against particular products. Ian J. Doherty, P.Eng. Trenchless Design Service

(^isputes drive people to murder and suicide


Dear Tom:

First, congratulations on your magazine and your editorial as well as your 'Inklings' col umn on page 84, March '95 ES&E. I much appreciate your editorials which have a wider viewpoint than the strict busi ness of environmental activity. I have one quibble with your 'Inklings' column. Why did you not go all the way and name the bank in question? I think you would have achieved a great deal more if you had done so. Regards and best wishes, O.Skorzewski, Degremont Infilco Ltee, Montreal Editor's note. I did not name the bank

out of consideration for a lady whose quite strenuous efforts to remediate the 'overdraft' problems somewhat diluted the corporate arrogance displayed ear lier.

Noise: 17 people

Dear Tom:

have died from it^

I am a fan of your magazine and always look forward to your'Editorial Comments'. Your Nov '94 issue was no exception to the rule and your pointed, humourous, somewhat comical and constructive comments re

OWMC purchase... I loved it. Jim Taylor, DuPont Canada

Dear Tom

I would like to suggest your excellent magazine include noise pollution which is again being addressed as an environmental problem. At the moment, there is no maga zine in Canada covering this subject. Roger G Hooker, President,Rim Environmental Products Inc.

Editor's note. I had an article published in the Toronto Sun on this subject not long ago as i feel it is a serious problem

Dear Tom: Editorial Comment - November 1994

Good luck with your new venture: "TD's WMC". Please advise when you intend to issue your first bonds. Or at least let me know where to line up to carry your bags. Klaus Schonfeld, Schonfeld Consulting Services Dear Ignorant Scribbler

with severe health and other conse

Re: Your Nov. Editorial

quences. in the UK, there were 17 re corded deaths directly due to noise pol lution of neighbours last year, a figure which probably represents a tiny frac tion of the real social costs. ES&E in vites technical submissions on this oft

I can't agree with your description of your self as "low in both standing and IQ" - I think of you as reasonably tall! Regards, Howard Shrimpton, MacViro Consultants P.S. Your timing is uncanny - congratula

ignored subject. Thanks for the tip.





Toronto:(905)829-3336 For more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Calgary:(403)294-4200 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995



The BiofopP was

1 HTi I/ successfully Lkj 1 / porated into aincornew IN BACKWASH


facility in Chateauguay. Quebec. At this facility, design flow is 27,000 m^/d, with peak of 83,000 m^/d. BOD removal efficiency is greater than 80%.

Like all simple ideas, biofiltration is efficient. Degremont Infilco combines and masters two operations in one: biological degradation and retention of suspended solids. The benefits of biofiltration include:

The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of air and water, and the retention of bacteria and

suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This

results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. Degremont Infilco is a world leader in the design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for

more compact installations

improved plant efficiency

municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking


operational flexibility


To inquire about adapting a biofiltration process to your requirements, call our offices today.

DegrtmoKt 200-4145 N. Service Rd., Burlington, ON L7L 6A3 Tel: (905) 332-2322• Fax:(905) 332-3007

Infilco ltd.

160-D St-Joseph Blvd., Lachine, GO H8S 2L3 Tel: (514) 634-8011 • Fax:(514) 634-3102

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 243

Planning in the 1990's


Calgary's water &




TheCity ofCalgary has experienced a tremendous number

of changes in the past few years and achieved a number of outstanding successes. The introduction of biological phosphorus removal and the initiation of ultra violet dis infection at Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant are just two examples. There has also been a growing use of in-situ (or no dig) technologies for sewer repairs. Calgro, the City's program of using thickened sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a soil conditioner, has been an un qualified success. Through the efforts of leak detection and main replacement programs, water system leakage has been reduced from a high of 28 percent in 1982 to the existing level of 10 to 12 per cent.

The City of Calgary is currently serviced with a well maintained and adequately sized water and wastewater system, the result of good planning and foresight.

Maintaining the infrastructure that delivers water to and col lects wastewater from each resident is critical. Consider the size

of the City's water and wastewater systems. There are two water and two wastewater treatment plants with total capacities of 1,400 and 470 million litres per day respectively. The distribution and collection systems contain 39 secondary water pump stations, 30 sanitary lift stations, 17 storm water lift stations and 15 treated water reservoirs. There are more than 200,000 service connec

B No Product Seals - No moving parts in product

tions requiring over 3,400 kms of water mains, 3,000 kms of sani tary sewer mains and 2,400 kms of storm sewers. Attached to the

zone. Only hose contacts product.

water mains are almost 12,000 fire hydrants and over 42,000 valves

B One Moving Part - Rotor alternately compresses

"Can the utility afford not to be diiigent

and relaxes specially designed, resilient hose. Sliding friction minimized by liquid lubricant In the housing.

B Self-Priming •Boasts a 28 to 30-ft. lift. B Runs Dry Safely - No detrimental effect from running dry. Can function as a vacuum pump.

B High Capacities - Eight models available;flow

in the rehabiiitation of its infrastructure?" of various sizes and types. The sanitary sewer system includes 35,000 manholes while the storm sewer system has an additional 30,000 manholes and 41,000 catch basins. Each component of the system is important and this extensive infrastructure system re

quires an organization dedicated to continual maintenance and re

capacities of.1 through 250 gallons per minute.


B Meters as it Pumps - Linear output, with

B ideai for Abrasive Siurries - Handles

Almost every water and sewer utility is, or soon will be, faced with massive expenditures to rehabilitate infrastructure that is rap idly reaching or has already exceeded its life cycle. The ability of utility customers to pay for these expenditures is often questioned. The primary issue facing most utilities is "How can a water or wastewater utility justify the expenditures required to rehabilitate

abrasive slurries and corrosive acids with minimum wear

its infrastructure?"

commercially available pulse generators and pickup to count shaft revolutions, It's a metering pump.

B High Pressures•Performance up to 220 psig. B Low Downtime;Low Parts Cost - Pump failure Is self-contained; optional hose failure switch shuts off motor. Easy hose replacement. No critical adjustments.

B Send for Cataiog & Prices Waukesha/Bredel



Fluid Handling A United Dominion Company 611 Sugar Creek Rd. Delavan, Wl 53115 U.S.A. 414-728-1900 • FAX: 414-728-4320

Avoiding main breaks Between 1975 and 1982, an average of approximately 6.5 kilo metres of water mains were replaced each year. During this pe riod, the number of main breaks kept rising until they reached nearly 1300 in the early 1980's. As the length of water main replaced was increased gradually from 6.5 kilometres per year prior to 1982 to approximately 34 kilometres in 1993, the number of main breaks dropped from a high 1291 per year to 562 in 1993. Had a decision been made in 1982 to maintain the replacement program at 6.5 kilometres per year (the status quo alternative), the number of main repairs in 1993 could have been between 2600 and 3200. This compares to 562 main breaks that actually occurred. Taking a more proactive approach towards main replacement re sulted in avoiding over 2,000 main breaks in 1993. A proactive approach to main replacement also has some side benefits. We estimate that more than 100,000 people were not inconvenienced by loss of service in 1993(2000 less main repairs

For more information, 18

Circie repiy card No. 134

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

By G. Lamb, REng.* along with the loading from wastewater treatment plants to define the total amount a municipality may release. Municipalities will have to decide how to allocate loading, over treat wastewater and under treat

stormwater, or treat both.

• The City must investigate, assess and im plement urban runoff quality improvement strategies such as Best Management Prac tices (some of these are in place, for exam ple the City's Erosion Control Guidelines) and stormwater treatment in retention lakes,

extended detention ponds and wetlands. • Retrofitting quality improvement strate gies at existing stormwater outfalls. The cost and effectiveness of end of pipe treat ment technologies needs to be addressed. Calgary Bearspaw water treatment plant. X 20 homes per repair x 2.5 persons per home)as compared to a status quo approach.

The enactment of the Alberta Environ mental Protection and Enhancement Act

not to be diligent in the rehabilitation of its infrastructure?"

utility as a result of mains rehabilitation; although difficult to economically quantify, it is nevertheless an extremely important

Calgary faces three major challenges with stormwater issues; the quality and quantity of stormwater to be discharged to receiving streams and the funding of new


initiatives to deal with these two items.

There is also a reduced risk to a water

Some key issues related to risk manage ment that should be taken into considera tion include:

•Property Damage Avoidance from reduced main breaks. Less damage to both public and private property.

• Water Quality can be compromised by main breaks both through infiltration at the break site and through cross connections as a result of a loss of pressure in the distribu tion system. • Reliability of Supply is of paramount im portance to most water utilities to reduce liability, provide adequate fire protection, ensure the integrity of water quality and provide customer satisfaction. Competent infrastructure management and good public relations are essential in achieving public confidence and customer satisfaction. The higher the degree of cus tomer satisfaction, the more supportive they will be of the utility in achieving its goals

Stormwater quality issues include: •Increased regulatory compliance - new li censes to operate will include stormwater collection systems. • Alberta Environment will be defining load ing limits to various receiving streams which will apply to stormwater discharges. Load ing of suspended solids will be regulated

will alfect the way in which the City oper ates its stormwater and sanitary sewer sys tems. This Act increases the responsibility of the municipality to manage its systems to protect the environment and as such the City will be revising its By-Laws as needed and increasing the enforcement activities associated with them. Consulting engineers will be increasingly asked to provide exper tise to industries attempting to comply with the new Act and the local by-laws. Indus try must characterize, treat and dispose of only acceptable materials to the City's sani tary sewer system, its storm sewer system and our landfills.



towards a safe, reliable and cost effective

water supply. Generally speaking, good customer satisfaction required to achieve public confidence in the water utility can be categorized into the following three fac tors:

•How well the infrastructure is managed (planned, designed, constructed, operated and maintained). • How well customers are kept informed of all activities affecting service. • How well the utility measures customer satisfaction and adjusts accordingly. The major concern of utilities should not be: "Can the utility afford the level of ex penditures required to rehabilitate its infra structure?" but rather "can the utility afford

*City of Calgary. Excerpted from Associated Engineering's Water and WastewaterTechnoiogy Transfer Forum.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Paul Murray, P.Eng. Consulting Engineer

Deborah Martin-Downs, M.Sc.

Senior Fisheries Biologist

The Board of Directors of Gartner Lee is pleased to announce the appointment of Paul Murray, P. Eng., to the Board of Directors and Deborah Martin-Downs to Shareholder of the firm.

Mr. Murray has over 20 years of consulting experience in all aspects of waste management planning, facility design and approvals. Paul specializes in strategic planning, community involvement and conflict resolution for controversial environmental proposals. Ms. Martin-Downs has over 15 years experience assessing and miti gating the impacts of land development on resident fish communities. Gartner Lee Is a consulting firm of environmental planners, scien tists and engineers focused on solving environmental problems for cli ents nationally and internationally.


Gartner Lee

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 135


Water treatment research

New NSERC Chair in water treatment at

University of Waterioo has ozone focus

The mission ofthe NSERC Chair in

Water Treatment at the University of Waterloo is to conduct leading edge, fundamentally-based yet practically-oriented research in critical issues relating to drinking water treatment. Much of the research currently focuses on ozonation byproducts, specifically biodegradable substances, and their impact on bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. The Chair has been funded for a total of $3.2 million(CDN)over a period of five years, and is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the University of Waterloo and by the water industry. The industrial partners are the Utilities Commissions of Brantford and Windsor,the

Regional Municipalities of Ottawa-Carleton and Waterloo, the Wastewater Technology Centre, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates and Hewlett-Packard. The Chairholder is Dr. Peter M. Huck.

His role is to provide scientific direction and leadership to the research team in addition to assuming some teaching and administra tive duties at the University of Waterloo. Dr. Huck is an internationally respected re

searcher who has nearly 15 years experi ence directing studies relating to drinking water treatment. He has directed numer

ous pilot scale studies, including two for the American Water Works Association Re

search Foundation(AWWARF)and has just started a third. He consults internationally on biological treatment and sits on the project advisory committee for a major AWWARF study examining bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Other personnel associated with the Chair include two professional staff mem bers(W.B. Anderson and S.A. Andrews), a chemist, three post-doctoral fellows and nine graduate students. A state-of-the-art laboratory with approximately $700,000 of new equipment was established in 1993. Three state-of-the-art water treatment pilot plants, each valued at approximately

$250,000 and built on contract to the On tario Ministry of the Environment, are part of the Chair's research facility.

The groundwork for the Chair began in 1989,jointly initiated by Dr.Peter Huck and the University of Waterloo. It was recog nized that a centre of expertise for the wa ter industry in Canada was needed. Such a centre should be capable of performing lead ing edge research involving problems con sidered to be important to industry and pro viding advanced training and education for individuals who would later find employ ment in various segments of the industry. One of the most effective means of car

rying out such activity in various industrial sectors is to promote closer industry/univer sity collaboration. To this end, NSERC de vised the Chair program to allow senior, internationally respected academics to de vote the majority of their time to research and to have appropriate support for mem bers of a research team, equipment and graduate students. Working with the water industry, the University of Waterloo developed a proposal with financial commitments for a Chair in

Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Site remediation

By Peter Lorimer*

Soil washing team work remediates contaminated cottage site on Lake Muskoka the clean-up started, the numbers were dra matically lower (35-740ppm). The Ministry of the Environment and Energy was provided with the test results and they then declared that this property was no longer condemned and was again habit able, a win-win situation for all involved.

The homeowner was able to keep her prop erty which was then returned to its original landscaped state by Kevin Construction,and the Insurance Company ended up paying a bill of less than $33,000 instead of the tra

ditional $400,000 plus. The spill had been

In May of 1994,an elderly widow dis

the XSORB booms. Within 24 hours, the

successfully contained and absorbed by the XSORB booms,pillows and particulate, and RL. Consulting's washing technique was proven to be very effective in expediting the process. Kevin Construction was able to complete the job in one month from start to finish instead of the original estimated six

covered that her heating oil tank,

shoreline had no visible oil sheen on the

months. Michael Newkirk of JAM Envi



ronmental played a vital role in this inno

was buried behind her

summer home, had ruptured during the winter frost and all 250 litres of heating oil had seeped into the surrounding soil. The spring thaw was encouraging the oil to pro ceed along the downward slope of the land and enter Lake Muskoka.

The insurance company assessed the situation and the adjuster suggested that a clean-up of this magnitude, using traditional means of removing all the contaminated soil, bringing in clean top soil, and landscaping, would cost in excess of $400,000. The homeowner had environmental insurance

that would only cover up to $125,000 worth of damages. With the homeowner being responsible for the cost difference, it was going to mean that she was going to lose her property. A Senior Environmental Of ficer with the Ministry of the Environment and Energy declared that the site was con taminated and the land was condemned.

Kevin Rogers, head of Kevin Construc tion, Bracebridge, Ontario, was called to supervise this clean-up. A pit was dug in front of the house to assess the amount of visible oil.

Loraday Environmental Products, New market was called in to provide XSORB, Super Absorbent to contain and absorb the spill. The spill was prevented from enter ing Lake Muskoka by creating a XSORB Select(hydrophobic)barricade of boomsjust feet away from the shoreline which effec tively absorbed the fuel oil as it entered the water. Through the wave action ofthe Lake, the oil that had already entered the Lake prior to barricading, was also absorbed by

*Loraday Environmental Products

The tile bed run-off pipe, already struc turally in place, offered the oil an easy run off pattem into a nearby creek running ad jacent to the property. XSORB pillows were placed beneath the run-off pipe so that the water flowed through the pillows, success fully containing the oil but not absorbing or

vative solution.

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 137

Victaulic Appointments

holding back the flow of water. Loraday Environmental suggested P. L. Consulting of Erin, Ontario be called in to

use their new ground wash technique. This technique uses a potable water and biode gradable detergent that is H. of A.(Health of Animals)Federal Government approved, to force the oil to move within the ground. Strategically placed trenches for catchment were dug by Kevin Construction. The first one was approximately 20 yards in front of the house and the second trench was 60

yards in front ofthe house and 20 yards from the lake, across three quarters the width of the property,and 60 inches deep. Water and oil immediately started to seep into both XSORB lined trenches.

Oil was pumped off the surface of a well on the property and the remaining oil was absorbed by XSORB pillows. Multiple flushes were done with the ground washing technique by PL.Consulting and within two days the water in both trenches was almost clear. The water in the well also showed

outstanding results. Soil and water sam ples were taken periodically to assess the progress.

Eco Logic International of Rockwood,

Ontario, studied the soil samples and were impressed with the results. A generally acceptable level of oil in the soil is less than lOOOppm. At each test site two weeks after

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

I Richard N. Cope and John Gibb have been elected President and Vice Presi

dent - Operations, respectively, of Victaulic Company of Canada, an nounced George F. Neumann, Chair man of the Board of parent company Victaulic Company of America. Mr. Cope had been Vice-Presldent and General Manager for 10 years and Mr. Gibb had been Manager of Administra tion. Both men have been with Victaulic

for over 23 years. "The new positions are in recogni tion of the important role that Victaulic Company of Canada plays in our world wide operations," Mr. Naumann told employees at their Canadian Headquar ters in Rexdaie, Ontario. In addition,

Mr. Joseph M. Trachtenberg was elected Chairman of Victaulic Company of Canada.


Water treatment research, cont'd. Water Treatment. NSERC approved the proposal, providing 60% ofthe overall fund ing for a five year period, beginning in Janu ary 1993. Funding for a second five year period is possible with appropriate indus try support.

progress to pilot scale pipe loops. Control strategies for limiting biofilm growth will be investigated. • Microbial ecology of distribution system biofilms. This research will focus on types of organisms in distribution system biofilms

For the Chair's fnst five year term, much of the research is focused on ozonation

byproducts, specifically biodegradable sub stances, and their impact on bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Because three of the four Chair utility participants have state-of-the-art pilot plants, the strate gic approach is to use these pilot plants for mutually beneficial research programs. In other words, research is conducted which both answers immediate utility needs and provides fundamental and practical infor mation ofa more long term nature. The flex ibility in the design of the pilot plants al lows this to occur.

The work is at an early stage and sev eral projects are just being initiated. The basic thrust of the research on biodegrad able organic matter is to determine causeand-effect relationships between bacterial growth in distribution systems and various chemical and physical factors. The follow ing specific projects are being undertaken: • Modeling ofthe consumption of biodegrad able organic matter (BOM) and specific BOM components, and bacterial growth. This work will be initiated using laboratory scale annular reactors and is expected to

AWWARF and directed by Montana State University. The American Water Works Service Company is also participating. • Quantitative evaluation of biodegradation of ozonation byproducts. This research will focus on developing an understanding of the processes controlling the rates of biodegra dation of various ozonation byproducts. This research will be applicable both to biologi cal treatment plants and also to distribution systems.

Other major research activities of the Chair are in the identification of ozonation

and their nutritional requirements, and pos sibly on the interactions between bacteria and protozoa. Insights into controlling biogrowth will be sought. • Microbially influenced corrosion. This re search is combining fundamental concepts from electrochemistry with microbiological knowledge to enhance our understanding of this phenomenon in drinking water distri bution systems, and to assist in devising strategies to minimize it. • Fate of specific BOM components in dis tribution systems. This research will ex amine the fate of specific BOM components (e.g. ozonation byproducts, amino acids, humic substances, algal organic matter) in distribution systems and their relation to bacterial growth. This study is funded by

byproducts, evaluation of enhanced coagu lation for improving organics removal and reducing ozone demand, evaluation and modeling of advanced oxidation processes (ozone plus hydrogen peroxide)for removal ofodorous compounds,and evaluation ofthe role of UV oxidation in water treatment.

Fruitful collaborations are occurring with faculty members in other departments and at other universities. The overall direction of the Chair's re

search is guided by a Steering Committee with representation from each of the fund ing partners. In addition, the joint research programs at either the pilot or full scale plants ensure direct industrial participation in the research activity. The Chair also seeks input regarding possible research directions from other ex ternal interest groups which, together, form an Advisory Panel.

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Biosolids management

The Smiths Falls sludge pelletlzatlon facility — The first of its kind in Ontario The pelletizer equipment that was in stalled in Smiths Falls is a Berlie/Swiss

Combie Drying/Pelletizing plant designed by Swiss Combie Technology AG of Swit zerland and manufactured in Canada under

■m raflna ■■BBl

• S5«S.

The Smiths Falls Pelletization Facility was constructed as part of


$22.4 million


expansion/upgrade to the Smiths Falls Wastewater Treatment Facility. The pelletizer component of the project cost ap proximately $6 million, which included thickening and dewatering equipment, site electrical distribution and sub-station, and

back-up diesel generating station. In addi tion to the pelletizer, the facility expansion/ upgrade involved the construction of a new pumping station and headworks, addition of secondary treatment (aeration tanks and fi nal settling tanks), construction of two lowhead travelling bridge filters, U.V. disinfec tion system, a new multi-diffuser outfall and new administration building. Approximately one third of the funding for the project came from MOEE grants. A further 15% funding was provided by the Ministry of Government Services on behalf of the Rideau Regional Centre (a major plant user). The Town of Smiths Falls was re sponsible for the balance of the funding. The project was managed by Dominion Waterworks Ltd.. Liquid process facilities were designed by Gore & Storrie. Solids process facilities were designed by Thorbum Penny Ltd. Pelletizer equipment was sup plied by Berlie Technologies Ltd. Sewage Sludge Pelletization

license by Berlie Technologies Inc. of LaPrairie, Quebec. The Swiss Combie de sign is unique in that it incorporates sev eral design features which improve energy efficiency while reducing air emissions and off-gas scrubbing requirements. These fea tures will be discussed as part of the proc ess description.

Process Description The process of making sludge into pel lets is a series of processes rather than the result of a single process unit. The "Pelletizer" itself is a rather complex col lection of drying, air handling and materi als handling equipment. The process at Smiths Falls can be broken down into the

tiple pass rotary drum dryer. The application of this technology to the processing of municipal biosolids began in the mid-1970s, and has slowly gained rec ognition as a viable alternative. The ad vantages of the drum drying process over other drying methods are the ability to han dle relatively moist raw materials, the abil ity to remove large volumes of moisture, and the production of a very dry (>92% D.S.) granular end product. From a product disposal/marketing point of view, the major attractions that pelleti

• A stable, "pathogen free" end product.

Blending and Dewatering The Smiths Falls WTF produces ap proximate 45 m^ of co-thickened waste ac tivated sludge and raw primary sludge at a

Pelletization is classified as a Process for

concentration of around 4 to 5% D.S.

the Further Reduction of Pathogens (PFRP) by the EPA and therefore produces a Class A sludge according to US EPA 503 Regula

gravity belt thickener has been provided for off-line WAS thickening; however, plant operating conditions do not require its use


at this time.

• A product that is easy to handle, transport

The co-thickened sludges are pumped into two storage/blending tanks where they are stored until needed by the pelletizer operation. Prior to introduction to the pelletizer process, the sludge is pumped from the stor age/blending tanks and dewatered on a 1 (one) metre belt filter press (Voest-Alpine). Typical sludge cake dryness is 20 - 22% D.S. The sludge drops off the end of the belt fil ter press into the hopper of a Moyno pro gressive cavity pump. The sludge is pumped a short distance (10 m) through a 100 mm S.S. pipe and into a twin-shaft mixer. The

zation has to offer are:

and store.

• Nitrogen conservation. (When used to process raw and waste activated sludges, the nitrogen content of the sludge does change substantially due to pelletization). The major disadvantage to the process is that it is relatively capital intensive and has significant operating costs when com pared to some other biosolids processing options. The Smiths Falls Pelletizer

Pelletization of sewage sludge is a proc ess that has evolved out of the agricultural and feed processing industry. Pelletization of alfalfa, grasses and other products has been practised since the late 50s as a means of increasing allowable storage time and

Various manufacturers of rotary drum drying equipment have entered the munici pal biosolids pelletizing market. As with all equipment, there is some that is better than others. Most of the design differences

producing a product that is easier to handle and transport. The technology most com monly used for this application is the mul

solids separation processes and on the treat ment of the hot air stream prior to discharge to the atmosphere.


following components: • Blending and Dewatering • Mixing with Recycled Product • Drying and Pelletizing • Sizing and Separation. In addition to these main processes, there are ancillary components which relate to the generation of the hot air source used in the drying process. These components are Hot Air Generation System and the Aspiration/ Combustion Air System.

between manufacturers centre on the air/


twin shaft mixer is considered to be the start

of the pelletizer. Mechanical dewatering is a necessary pre-treatment step in the pelletization proc ess. In Smiths Falls, the dewatering proc ess is integral to the pelletization process; both the pelletizer and the belt filter press

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

By Robert Poisson, P.Eng.* are, and must be, operated at the same time. However, if a wet cake storage hopper is placed between dewatering and pelletization, then it is possible to design a system so that the dewatering and drying/ pelletizing processes are operated independ ently.

Mixing with Recycled Product The next step after mechanical dewatering is to mix the dewatered sludge (22% D.S.) with a metered portion of pre viously processed sludge (92% D.S.). The aim is to produce a homogeneous,free flow ing material with a dry solids content of approximately 50% and a proper granular structure at the inlet to the drying drum. Mixing is done in a twin shaft mixer. Mixture consistency is one of the few important operator-controlled parameters. The twin shaft mixer installation at Smiths

Falls incorporates closed circuit video cam eras so that the operator can monitor the

consistency of the mixture. The operator can vary mixture consistency by controlling the recycle to raw sludge ratio. This is done either by varying the belt filter press output

teraction with the internal deflectors, what Table 1

leaves the drum dryer is already in pellet form, but of non-uniform size. Fines and

over-sized "chunks" are separated from the properly sized pellets in the next stages. Sizing and Separation After passing through the drying drum, the pelletized product is separated from the air/steam mixture in a cyclone with integral bag filter. The air/steam mixture is re

heated in a heat exchanger and is recycled. The dried product is discharged from the cyclone through a cooling screw conveyor and is conveyed to a vibrating screen sizer. The screen sizer classifies the dried prod uct into three size categories (coarse, me dium and fine). What passes as medium is the finished product (2-4 mm diameter). Pellets of this size are conveyed through a second cooling screw to the storage silos. Two 10 m^ storage silos have been provided. Both the coarse and fine sized particles, along with the bag house dust, are conveyed to a recycling silo from where it is fed by screw conveyor to the twin shaft mixer.

Prior to reaching the recycling silo, the




Value 4%

Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Available K


252 mg/Kg

Organic Matter Dry Matter

47% 92.8%

drum dryer and is recycled. The primary cyclones and filters remove the fine parti cles and dust from the drying circuit. The drying process obviously raises the humidity in the primary drying circuit. In order to keep the drying air humidity low enough to accomplish its task, a certain por tion of the drying air is continuously re moved from the circuit and passed through a direct cooled condenser. The condenser

incorporates a spray of water (plant efflu ent) which immediately cools the drying air to below the dew point and the water which was evaporated from the sludge condenses out. This produces a side stream of con densate and injected plant effluent. The air discharged from the condenser passes through a secondary air/air heat ex changer and is fed to the combustion cham ber as a secondary source of combustion air. Aspiration/Combustion Air System All of the materials handling equipment in the plant, including conveyors, crushing mills, twin shaft mixers, vibrating screens and storage silos are maintained under nega tive pressure. The purpose of this is to elimi nate the escape of odours and dust from the plant components. The air stream used to generate this slight vacuum passes through a secondary bag house where the dust is removed. The air is then used as the pri mary source of combustion air. Air Emissions

All of the air used in the pelletizing proc ess passes through the combustion cham ber (850''C for approximately 2.3 seconds) before being discharged to the atmosphere. The volume of air discharged is approxi

•a a

mately 1.6 normal m7s and is discharged or by varying the recycle feed rate. Given that belt filter press output can negatively affect dewatered cake dryness, the operator typically is required to find the optimum balance between belt filter press feed rate and recycle rate. Once this is set, only peri odic checking and adjustment is necessary. Drying and Pelletizing The mixture leaves the twin shaft mixer

and is fed by screw conveyor to the rotating drying drum. Heated air enters the drum at a temperature of approximately 350-450°C and leaves at approximately 110°C. The drying drum is a single pass system incor porating internal deflectors(paddles) which help to maximize the contact between the sludge and the hot air. Due to the rotating and mixing action of the drum and the in-

*Thorburn Penny Consulting Engineers

coarse particles are passed through a crush ing mill. Hot Air Generation System The Berlie/Swiss Combi sludge dryer/ pelletizer differs from other systems in that, although it is a direct heated system (the hot air is in direct contact with the sludge), the combustion process is isolated from the sludge by an air/air heat exchanger. There

is no direct contact between the sludge and the combustion flame.

The combustion chamber operates at a temperature of approximately 850°C. The combustion chamber is fuelled by natural gas. It can be retrofitted for other fuel sources, including oil, digester gas or solid fuel. Even pellets can be used as fuel. The air which passes through the rotary drying drum is heated by a primary air/air heat exchanger to approximately 450''C. The drying air passes through the rotary

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

through a 0.3 m diameter flue located 13 metres above grade. The pelletizer is listed as a component of the overall Certificate of Approval (Air) for the plant. The Certificate of Approval requires that the following "Test Contaminants" be moni tored in a source testing program: • Total Hydrocarbon • Total Reduced Sulphur • Total Suspended Particulate. Source testing is currently being sched uled for April of 1995, after which the re quired dispersion calculations will be sub mitted. Given the performance of other similar installations, it is not expected that air emissions will prove to be an issue.

Product Quality Analysis provided by plant operating staff indicates that product quality has been achieved as per Table 1. An important con-

Continued on page 27 25

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Treatment of waste depends on the quality and quantity. The retention of the water quality and exact measurement of the water quantity are therefore of great signifigance. The electromagnetic flowmeters from

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• Electromagnetic flow measurement with limit alarms and Smart protocol for communication between a process control system or handheld terminal and the flowmeter

• Factory flow lab tested, certified

Fischer & Porter are fitted with

flow measurements

state-of-the-art technology. Measurement of quantities using electromagnetic flowmeters such as COPA-XM, MAG-XM or MAG-XH - for example in the outlet to the sewage

of Standards and Technology (NIST). • Continuous submergence design and self cleaning sensing electrodes Autoranging with MAG-XH. Up to design are also available. 4 ranges can be programmed. Max. flow velocity 15 m/s. "Ask for a copy of our Magmeter Product Catalog.' Measuring range 1:100. Write or call us for more information. Our sales

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Biosolids management, cont'd. sludge due to the early period of operation in the plant before the new

Table 2


Dry Matter


Total N

(As Is) (Dry Wt. Basis) Mixed Sludge




19.2% 92.5%

.82% 4.12%

4.28% 4.2%

6 mm bar screens were

in operation. It appears that this problem has


Sludge Pellets

lessened somewhat in

the later months, but the

sideration is that when raw primary and waste activated sludge is pelletized, most

of the nitrogen is conserved. Samples of blended raw, dewatered and pelletized sludge were analyzed by an independent lab to illustrate this fact. The results are pre sented in Table 2.

The results show that given acceptable error, the total nitrogen of the raw mixed sludge was conserved during the dewatering and pelletizing process. Such results would not be expected if anaerobically digested sludge were processed in the same manner. Anaerobic digestion converts much of the organic nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia, being highly soluble, would be progressively removed through the dewatering and pelletization processes, leaving a consider ably less valuable end product. Volume Reduction

problem of accessibility has yet to be ad dressed satisfactorily. 2)Failure of one of the burner control mod

ules. This was a major failure of the unit which required shut down of the pelletizer while the electronic module was replaced. 3) Control program debugging. The entire process is controlled by an Allen-Bradley PLC5 programmable logic controller. It took several months of debugging to get the au tomatic temperature control logic to perform satisfactorily. This has since been corrected and the operators report that the system is operating well. These problems resulted in fewer than Table 4

should be considered excellent.

The process could be considered com plex by modem sewage treatment technolo gies. However, the level of process auto mation and the utilization of a user friendly man-machine interface have allowed the op

erators to assume computer-manual control of the process with little difficulty. The op erators report that once the process is un derstood, it is relatively easy to operate and control.

The Smiths Falls Pelletization Facility has proven to be a reliable, relatively odour and dust free alternative for the stabilization

of municipal biosolids. The process achieves considerable volume reduction

while conserving the nutrients already present in the sludge. It can be recom mended where volumes of sludge generated Acknowledgements

Operators Maintenance

Polymer Hydro Natural Gas

Bags & Pallets Total (per cubic metre)

$4.66 $0.93 $0.27 $1.91 $3.82 $3.21 $0.23 $15.03

The writer would like to thank Brian

Symondson (OCWA), Bill Galipeau (OCWA) and the operations staff at the Smiths Falls Wastewater Treatment Facil

ity for their assistance in compiling the in formation for this paper. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 122

"Big Scale" ph Meter For

lustrates the considerable volume reduction

achieved by dewatering and pelletizing. Operating Costs The plant superintendent has compiled operating cost estimates based on two months production during the summer of

Lab or Plant Model 707,large 7",0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged portable shock proof case. Practically unbreak able polyethylene shielded electrode.

1994(Table 4). The costs are based on to

Ideal for unskilled users. Economical,

tal energy requirements for the facility. Given that the operating period was in the summer, energy requirements for inciden-

includes probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH

and ORP indicator-Controllers availatile. For more information,

Table 3 Volume


is a new installation undergoing its first year of operation, the reliability of the process

justify the capital costs required.


The pellets produced at the Smiths Falls facility have a bulk density of approximately 700 g/L. Approximately 3.1 m^ of pellets are produced per day. The plant currently produces approximately 45 m^ of mixed liq uid sludge, which would translate into a haulage requirement ofjust over three tanker trucks of liquid sludge per day. Table 3 il

four days of downtime in a total of eight months of operation. Considering that this

45 cu. m./d Liquid Sludge Dewatered Sludge (22%) 9.2 cu. m./d Pelletized Sludge (92%) 3.1 cu. m./d

tal heating were negligible. The costs are based on a per cubic metre of liquid sludge (4-5%).

Process Reliability

The pelletizer facility has operated on a schedule of five days per week, 10 hours per day since start up in March of 1994. During this period the operators have re ported the following problems: 1)Difficulty in cleaning the vibrating screen sizer. The operators report that inadequate access points were provided for cleaning the

pH/Temperature Recorder

Circle reply card No. 256

Cordless Simultaneous recording of pH and tem perature on the same miniature chart. A crystal-controlled chart motor provides accurate chart timing. A time sharing system with one galvanometer is used to record pH on a scale of 2-12 pH or 0-14 scale is available, and temperature of 0-1 QOc.

The Meter is enclosed in a glass re inforced portable polyester NEMA case, with a swing out clear cover. The unit operates from a 6V rechargeable bat tery, or AC model available.

sieve screens. These screens clogged sev

eral times during the initial start-up period due to a relatively high quantity of fibrous material in the sludge. It was reasoned that this material was present in the primary Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 257

2428 Islington Avenue North, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 3X8




Telephone:(416) 749-7179, Fax:(416) 749-8289

lleoMifeirieim i D A


For more information. Circle reply card No. 123



Financing municipai water and wastewater services - what needs to be done

Therecession and the need to devote

significant sums of municipal revenue to soft servicing needs,

such as welfare, education, and police protection, has made it more difficult

to find the needed funding to maintain, upgrade, and expand our water and sewerage systems.

MOEE Needs Study

Asset Value Ontario Water & Wastewater infrastructure

i> Safe drinking water

► Inground

$35 Billion

► Above Ground

$15 Billion

► Total

Development charges, typically transferred from developers to the municipality, are about $1,600 per unit. They will become higher as the easy-to-develop lands are used. A figure of $2,500 has been used in devel oping future costs. The recently passed Bill 40-93 will have an effect on development charges.

$50 Billion

It is estimated that Ontario's water and

$ 2.0 Billion

i> MISA authorities

8.0 Billion

o Rehabilitation

3.0 Billion

> Combined sewers

4.0 Billion

» Universal metering

0.5 Billion

» Stormwater management

1.5 Billion


$19.0 Billion

wastewater infrastructure is worth $50 bil

lion, $35 billion of which is below ground and $15 billion of which is above ground. How long will it last? Optimistically, per haps 100 years - far shorter in some cases.

What this means is that we should be spend ing $500 million per year on infrastructure replacement, 1% of the estimated replace ment value.

Based on Statistics Canada information, spending on the repair of water and wastewater infrastructure has increased

from $161.6 million in 1990 to $267.2 mil

lion in 1993 as a result of catch-up programs like JOBSONTARIO and the Canada/On

tario Infrastructure Program. Realize we are not speaking of upgrading but replacement due to poor installation, inferior materials, or simply old age. At present, spending is about one-half of what is needed. However, since 1990, it has increased by about 50% based on 1986 dollars.

If we now look at upgrading require ments, we see a myriad of additional wastewater needs such as alternate disin

fection methods, removal of ammonia, or higher levels of nutrient removal, as well as the increasing needs for combined sewer overflow reduction and stormwater treat

ment. All of these are important to the pro tection of public health and the environment. Upgrading requirements, as identified in a recent MOEE needs study, require an ad ditional $19 billion over 15 years, or $1.3 billion per year. $3 billion is indicated for infrastructure rehabilitation, and this is the

catch-up that the present federal and pro vincial programs can assist in alleviating. On top of this must be placed growthrelated expenditures, which are normally covered by development charges and, ulti mately, the new owner. The cost to service a new home with water and wastewater

services is in the vicinity of $25,000 per unit. 28

The cost of growth-related infrastructure in Ontario is estimated at $900 million in

1993 and is a result of about a 1% growth rate. In summary, annual capital spending on water and wastewater infrastructure

should be in the vicinity of $1.9 billion. If we look at what is actually happen ing, Municipal Affairs Financial Informa tion Returns (FlR's) in 1992 indicate that

$912 million was spent on capital invest-

Required Annual Capital Spending Water and Wastewater Systems ■■ Replacement of infrastructure

■■ Upgrading of infrastructure

the like.

Expenditures and Revenue Based on 1992 FlR's, $1,477 billion in

operational costs and $912 million that was previously mentioned in capital investment was spent by Ontario municipalities on en vironmental services.

Total revenue relating specifically to environmental services amounted to $1,275

billion, with the shortfall made up by trans fers of payments from municipal coffers, provincial treasury, or private developers. The problem with this accounting procedure is that, while the full cost of the service is

being paid for by the user, in many areas of the province, the cost is obscured by these transfers of payments. Based on the 1990 Fortin/Mitchell study, which examined six years of FIR data, only 70% of the needed revenue to look after

operating and building our water and wastewater infrastructure comes from rate

charges; the rest comes from taxes and other


$500 Million

$1,300 Million

A gap of about $ 1 billion, therefore, ex ists between what is being spent and what is needed. The longer it is delayed, the greater the gap will become. It is like de laying the painting of your house until the wood rots. It is fiscally irresponsible. 1 believe capital expenditures are only

In Ontario, the average household uses about 270 cubic metres of water per year

and pays $340 annually for water and sew age services. The average household income in 1992

was $52,862 made up as follows:








4 6 24 17

NOTE: Water and wastewater costs fall in

1992 Capital Spending in Water and Wastewater infrastructure

Ontario Financial information Revenue and

$158 Million $15 Million

► Total own expenditures $520 Million (includes development charges transferred to the municipality) ► Total expenditures

17.5% of the $2.1 billion approved, so more has gone into arena roofs, trade centres, and

revenue sources. The 1992 data shows im

ments, and 1993 Statistics Canada informa tion shows $1,169 billion.

► Other municipalities

1995, indicates that 33% of the total mon

ies allocated nationally had gone to water and wastewater projects. In Ontario, this is

provement and is about 80%.

» Expansion of infrastructure $100 Million (Development charges transferred to the municipality) i> Total annual spending $1,900 Million

► Grants or subsidies

about half of what is needed. The Canada

Infrastructure Program, as of January 4,

$912 Million

Expenditures Water &

Wastewater System ► Total revenue

► Total expenditures

► Difference

$1,275 Billion

$1,477 Billion 202 Million

► 80% of needed expenditures covered by recorded revenue in 1992

► 1990 Fortin/Mltcheli Study shows 70%

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

By George G. Powell, REng.* the "other" category and represent 0.6% of the household income.

It is interesting to look at other house hold expenditures and compare them with what we pay for water and wastewater serv ices. I have used 2.5 persons per household and 10 million people in developing these statistics.




What Needs to be Done? Implement water conservation > Implement full cost pricing > Require all municipalities to use universal accounting principles in the reporting of

» Range of cost per household In developed countries 1 - 2% of Income

their water and wastewater systems

f Many US and European cities cost per household

> Make special provisions for "have not"


■> Considering this for Ontario


> Integrate the management of water and

» Average family Income - Ontario (1992 StatsCan)

wastewater Into a single entity


There is a need arising, because of our deficit, for public/private partnerships. Ar eas such as design, build, operate, and fi nance activities are now very common in many parts of the world. In fast-growing areas of Canada, where high levels of capital investment are required, the private sector can, Ibelieve, provide this valuable service. There is a need to integrate the manage ment of our water and wastewater systems into a single unit that is totally responsible for water from its taking to its discharge back

@1% $529 @2% $1058






Affordability of Water and Sewage Services

798-827 679




962 913



The USEPA estimates that water rates should not exceed 2% of the median house

hold income,and this does not include sew

age charges, so the rates in Ontario, on av erage, are well below those generally con sidered to be affordable and can, I believe, be increased to pay for the maintenance and upgrading of our water and sewerage sys tems. Based on the work that has been done

to date, this increase is somewhere in the

vicinity of $1,100 per household per year, or an increase of about $2 per household per day, from what is presently being paid. ♦President, Gore & Storrie Limited

Based on what consumers are paying in many other parts of the world, Ontario costs are low, and the suggested increases are, in my opinion, affordable. Recommendations

I believe the management of our water and wastewater systems must be reformed to require full cost recovery of all system costs by the user, not by subsidies or trans fers funded indirectly by the user. These costs would be recovered by user charges similar to your electricity, gas, telephone, or cable TV and would be supported by a standardized utility-based accounting sys tem that would be audited annually. This would be a system requiring the recovery of all operating and capital costs in the user rate, a system that is not cash-based, as is generally the case in Ontario, but assetbased, and depreciates that asset in a regu lated manner over a defined number of years and generates sufficient revenue for the eventual replacement of the infrastructure.

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This strategy would eventually allow government to reduce, and hopefully elimi nate, their spending in the area of water and wastewater, and would make users aware of the full cost of water, as it would be user-

based. It would help in the conservation of water and pollution prevention, and would lead to a better environment for the people sharing it. This is not a new concept. It is a tried and proven one, and would put our water industry on a financially sound basis.

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A column by Tom Davey

Noise pollution makes chemicals toxic

Governmentsponsored ads relentles ly warn ofthe dan

gers of second hand cigarette smoke while the merest suspicion of exposure from chemicals usually results in protest demonstrations. But what about noise as a serious environmental contaminant? Many activists, untypically, are silent over noise pollution issues. Indeed, noise pollution is often regarded as an inconvenient nuisance, rather than a serious environmental problem. Yet many studies have linked excessive noise to deafness and other serious health effects. Now researchers at the British Medical Research Council have

identified a new link between noise and the brain's susceptibility to damage from toxic chemicals. Dr John Cavanagh has identi fied a potential link in rats between sound and chemical neurotoxicity. Rats exposed to normal laboratory noise and a specific chemical, developed fewer lesions when sound levels were re duced. His colleague, Dr David Ray, later wrote that when rats were exposed once again to normal laboratory noise in both ears, lesions again appeared in areas previously protected from noise. Support for their hypothesis has come from another hemi sphere. In Brazil, workers exposed to toluene were found to ex perience greater hearing loss and balance problems in noisy envi ronments. But casualties may be heaviest on the domestic scene. Toluene is found in gasoline, making it a common air pollutant in urban communities. In industry, protective gear is required for industrial workers, including ear protection while residents are scandalously unprotected in their homes. A tragic situation has emerged in the UK. Over the past six years, 17 people in England and Wales were murdered, or com mitted suicide, because of noise problems from neighbours. This

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probably represents the tip of the acoustical iceberg as these are cases where noise was officially linked to the 17 deaths only after inquests or court action. Professor Dylan Jones, a University of Cardiff psychology pro fessor, sums up noise pollution this way."Hearing is the sentinel of the senses. It keeps us on the alert, unlike sight, which switches offfor eight hours of each day. It is adapted to listen for danger in the primeval jungle and is intimately connected to the arousal system. Sound is very, very intrusive; it has privileged access to our thoughts." In the UK,domestic noise complaints have increased dramati cally in recent years rising 390 percent in 16 years. Lynne

Edmonds, writing in the London Daily Telegraph, said that noise is the scourge of city dwellers everywhere - and getting worse. She wrote that it is loud music and barking dogs, rather than traffic, aircraft noise, or trains, which drives apparently normal people to the brink of breakdowns or violence. Statistics support her premise. Most of the 17 noise pollution fatalities detailed in an article in the London Independent resulted from loud music, parties, TVs or barking dogs. Harry Stephenson died after being stabbed 22 times by a Colin Shankland who had revved his car early in the morning, played his radio loudly,shouted in the street and allowed his dog to run wild. He also stabbed four other people. Currently he is serving eight years for man slaughter. Perhaps the most pathetic case was that of 47 year old Valerie Edwards, who died of pneumonia in Bristol. She had been sitting in a park near her home for several nights, in the cold and rain, to avoid noise from her neighbour, Jayne Burston. In desperation, her husband had called environmental health officers 20 times in

18 months. Ultimately, Ms. Burston was charged with playing music too loudly in defiance of three noise abatement notices. She was given a conditional discharge. Mrs Edwards remains very dead. Someone once said that second hand cigarette smoke might be compared to peeing at one end of a swimming pool,away from the swimmers but still disgusting. This is an amusing analogy, at least for non swimmers. But at least pool water is disinfected and, even then, exposure to swimmers would be fairly brief and infrequent. But noise pollution is a relentlessly intrusive spoiler of the quality of life and equally disgusting. When Canadians can fi nally dispel their winter claustrophobia by opening windows to breathe in fresh spring air, it is then they are most vulnerable to excess noise.

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All too often, the soothing sound of birds singing and chil dren at play is drowned by the raucus noise of dirt bikes whose exhausts can saturate many square miles in one minute. In high density neighbourhoods,one noisy biker can disturb thousands of victims in seconds. Residents are often further victimized by ster eos, whose throbbing base notes effortlessly pass through con crete walls and apartment floors, heaping additional misery on hapless victims. Noise pollution is not confined to city dwellers. Camping in our provincial parks provides a wonderful opportunity to escape urban noise and listen to the wonderful sounds of nature. But too

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many wilderness experiences are ruined by loud rock music out of harmony with the peaceful surroundings. Loud music can even be heard in those provincial park camping areas where radios are forbidden. Some louts, it seems, must have their acoustical nar cotics, even in the forest.

Any pleasure noise polluters get from their activities is often trivial and fleeting. The effect of their obnoxious behaviour is often long lasting and painful. Just as British scientists discov ered that noise can be toxic to rats, other UK findings reveal that noise can also be lethal to humans.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Cleaning up contaminated soils

By Franklin A. Hoitforster, REng.*

Thermal desorption for contaminated soils

Properties contaminated with petro

leum hydrocarbons(and other vola tile organic compounds or VOCs) seem to be everywhere. Most of ten associated with leaking tanks at retail fuel fdling stations, fuel storage depots, and industrial sites, hydrocarbons are a long lived pollutant with the potential to contami nate groundwater supplies and migrate

ning total for confirmed production records. Contaminated soil is conveyed into a rotary drier (the primary treatment unit or PTU)

plants in a drier/baghouse/oxidizer configu

last decade, property

decontami nated


ration, the gases entering the baghouse con tain the vapourized hydrocarbons and tem peratures must be monitored to avoid recondensation of hydrocarbons on the bags or baghouse structure. The maximum allowable concentration of hydrocarbons is also constrained by the capacity of the afterburner to consume the desorbed hydro carbons within the constraints of operating temperature limits and residence time. Aris ing from these constraints, the maximum concentration of hydrocarbons contaminants

owners have



in the soil should not exceed about 3% or

become in

PTU into an


auger mixer

30,000 ppm. The concentration of contami nants rarely exceeds this level, especially after the homogenization that accompanies excavation and loading to the desorption

where the material is heated. As the soil is

warmed, hydrocarbons and moisture are volatilized. The variable moisture content,

physical characteristics and level ofcontami nation of the soil are accommodated by vary ing the retention time and temperature

o ff s i t e . Within the

within PTU.


aware of soil contamination issues. This awareness is

the The

where water

is added to wet the soil and control dust.

motivated by regulations that respond to the health risk associated with exposure to hy drocarbons, potential liability arising from offsite migration of contaminants, and the

The clean soil is immediately suitable for



Distillation Temperature: The distillation temperature of the hydrocarbon present in

the contaminated soil in the PTU are ex

the contaminated soil determines the tem

threat to the recoverable value of loan secu

hausted as a gas stream and are routed to the baghouse for filtration to remove dust. From the baghouse, gases are routed to a refractory lined cylinder (secondary treat ment unit or STU) where the volatile or ganic compounds that were captured in the exhaust gases are consumed. Residence time and temperature are controlled to ob tain complete oxidation and ensure that volatile organics are not released into the atmosphere. The effectiveness of the desorption proc ess is measured by the ability to achieve the desired remediation objectives on a consist

peratures to which the soil mass must be raised in the drier ("soil discharge tempera ture") to achieve effective volatilization. Given the fixed heating capacity of the drier burner, hydrocarbon contaminants with higher distillation temperatures - and re quiring higher soil treatment temperatures - will result in lower throughput and higher unit heating costs. A knowledge of the con taminant present in the soil Is essential to the design of an effective desorption pro

rity. Awareness has been translated into site remediation efforts which in turn have gen erated increasing demand for alternative re medial methods.

Cleanup of contaminated sites has tra ditionally meant dlg-and-dump. Dump sites (now landfills) offered an inexpensive, ap parently Inexhaustable capacity to receive all types of contaminated soil. Recently, significant increases in landfill tipping fees and demands for sustainable remediation al

ternatives have encouraged the development of technologies for the remediation of pe troleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Thermal desorption is one such remedial technology. Thermal desorption describes the proc ess by which VOCs are extracted from a soil mass by raising the temperature of the soil until the contaminants are volatilized

(vapourized). The extracted contaminants are collected as a gas stream for subsequent recovery or destruction. Thermal desorption technology is applicable to volatile or semivolatile organic contaminants, subject only to the constraint of the temperature at which the organic will volatilize from the soil mass. The thermal desorption unit(TDU)trav els as a series of transportable highway loads that can be erected on site in a few days. Hydrocarbon contaminated soils are exca vated and delivered to the TDU. A front-

end loader deposits contaminated soil into a supply hopper from which it is discharged onto a conveyor. A belt scale on the con veyor continuously meters the delivery of material to the TDU, records the quantity of material processed, and generates a run *Franklin A. Hoitforster, B.A.Sc., P.Eng., Is the president of Canada Soil Exchange Ltd., with offices in Toronto, Calgary and Ottawa.

Water and hydrocarbons extracted from


Soil Homogeneity: To a large extent, uni formity of treatment results is determined by the homogeneity of the soil delivered to the drier. This homogeneity includes mois ture content, hydrocarbon content, hydrocar bon type, soil gradation and soil tempera ture. A significant effort is made to homog enize the soil feed stock. In many desorption plants, soil

ent basis. Remediation success is affected

both by factors inherent to the contaminated soil and soil pre-processing activity: Moisture Content: The distillation tem

peratures of all but the lightest hydrocar bons are significantly above the boiling tem perature of Item Lower Unit Cost water. Con

sequently, all water in the soil mass will be


Eleclrical power Water (soil rewettins) Soil gradalion

Higher Unit Cost

natural ^as line power

site generated power

piped water

tankered water

coarse(sand & Rravel)

fine (clay) high high heavy (oils)

Moisture content


Hvdrocarlx)n content





through a scalping screen and

then through a vibratory

light(gas or diesel) vapourized Hydrocarbon type small large Size of project screen. Par in the proc ess of raising the soil temperature to the ticles smaller than the 50 mm by 50 mm screen grid drop through to a secondary feed volatilization temperature of the hydrocar bin before being conveyed to the drier. bon contaminant. Significant energy is con sumed in extracting the water from the soil Rock, or soil clumps that are not broken-up

during the desorption process and higher moisture contents consequently result in lower production rates and higher unit costs. Hydrocarbon Concentration: The maxi mum allowable concentration of hydrocar

sufficiently to pass through the vibratory screen are discharged into a rotary hammer mill for final size reduction and reloading to the feed bin. These multiple feed pre

bon contaminants in the soil is determined

homogeneous characteristics necessary to ensure sustained, controllable operation of the desorption unit and uniform high-qual ity remediation results. Within the drier, desorption is accom plished by the exposure of the contaminated soil to the gases in the chamber and contact

both by the design of the desorption unit and the type of hydrocarbon. With safety as a paramount concern, the concentration of volatilized hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas from the drier should not exceed 25% of

the lower explosive limit. In desorption

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, May 1995

processing steps are essential to obtain the


Cleaning up contaminated soils, cont'd. from province to province, but the most stringent criteria associated with the use of soil for residential and agricultural purposes can generally be accomplished using ther mal desorptlon equipment. Typical unit costs for the on-site


« ft


remediation of contaminated soils in south-

s t;!!

em Ontario range from $38.00 to $55.00 per


metric tonne, offering a cost effective alter native to landfilling in many areas. The ta ble identifies the effect of the variety of vari ables on the cost of desorptlon treatment. Thermal desorptlon offers a cost-effec tive and technically proven means to reclaim soils contaminated with a range of volatile organic compounds, and a sustainable al ternative to landfilling for this readily recy


clable waste stream. In the United States,

thermal desorptlon technology has been used to remediate in excess of 5,400,000

Desorptlon plant at CFB Toronto.

tonnes of contaminated soil.

with the surface of the drier shell. The most

metric tonnes of soil contaminated with a

effective heating ofthe soil is achieved when possible particles having the largest surface

wide range of VOCs, including gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, oils and greases. Re medial results are measured by the residual

area-to-mass ratio, and when this disassem

concentration of contaminants in the

bly of the soil mass is accomplished as soon as possible after the contaminated soil is loaded to the drier. Drum flighting (the metal plates mounted on the inside surface of the drier shell) must be appropriately designed to accommodate a specific soil

remediated soil and typically include total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH gas/diesel, TPH oil & grease), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Soils

the soil mass is broken into the smallest

type. We have remediated in excess of 120,000

The use of thermal desorptlon(and most other remedial technologies) in Canada has been significantly impeded by the contin ued availability of landfilling. As a result, we continue to needlessly consume our valu able landfill capacity. We can anticipate however, that provincial regulators will eventually identify the merit of excluding this recyclable waste stream from our

contaminated with heavier fuels and oils


may be tested for specific polycyclic aro matic hydrocarbons(PAHs)as well. Regu latory criteria levels for these analytes vary


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By Ian RD. Wright, REng.*

Designing to meet potabie water disinfection criteria and reduce THM formation

Until recently, the basic require

2. Upstream Processes. The CT is deter

this can have a significant effect on THM

ment for disinfection was to

mined based on that level of treatment which

formation for certain disinfectants.

maintain at least 0.5 milligrams per litre (mg/L)free chlorine re

will inactivate 99.9% of Giardia cysts and 99.99% of viruses. Based on the equiva lent base 10 logarithm, 99.9% is termed 3 log removal and 99.99% is termed 4 log removal. To achieve these degrees of re moval by disinfection alone would gener ally require extremely large dosages of dis infectant and long storage times. However, for conventional plants with upstream clari fication and filtration, "credit" is given for the removal capabilities of these processes. The balance of the required removal by dis infection is 0.5 log inactivation of Giardia cysts and 2 log inactivation of viruses. If the disinfection levels proposed in the En

4. Temperature and pH. The effective ness of all common types of disinfection is influenced by water temperature. For pota

hanced Surface Water Treatment Rule are


sidual in a reservoir or clearwell with at least

20 minutes theoretical detention time prior to the first service. The theoretical deten

tion time was calculated based on plug flow. Also until recently, the maximum allowable concentration of Trihalomethanes (THMs) was 350 pg/L. Designing a clearwell to meet the disin fection requirements was fairly straightfor ward and the vast majority of plants had raw water sources for which formation ofTHMs was below the maximum allowable. There

fore, while being factors that had to be con sidered, these two design criteria were not normally of particular concem to the design engineer. However, the situation has changed. Now there is a fundamental con flict between achieving adequate disinfec tion and reducing disinfection by-products. This paper addresses at least one aspect of how this conflict affects the design process and provides some ideas on how to deal with new requirements. Disinfection Criteria

In 1989 the U.S. EPA brought in the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). Part of this rule defines a different method

ever applied, the required inactivation will be further increased.

3.Effective Contact Time. Previously, the contact time was based on the plug flow capacity of the contact chamber or reservoir. In other words, the 20 minute contact time

was typically based on providing a cham-

Now there is a fundamental

conflict between achieving adequate disinfection and reducing disinfection by-products.

for determining the required disinfection for potable drinking water. The disinfection requirements are based on the very simple concept ofCT which is the disinfectant con centration (C) in milligrams per litre (mg/ L) multiplied by time(T)the disinfectant is in contact with the water in minutes, prior

the maximum flow rate in units per minute. For example, if the flow rate was 1000 li tres per minute, the required volume was

to the first withdrawal of the water. In the

20,000 litres.

Province of Alberta, Alberta Environment

It was recognized that typical storage reservoirs do not provide anything near plug flow. Depending on the layout, inlet and outlet locations, inlet piping, turbulence, flow rate, water temperature gradients, and several other factors, the effective storage time could be reduced to just a few min

Standards and Approvals has adopted the disinfection requirements of the SWTR as the basis for disinfection system design for new or expanded water treatment plants in Alberta. In other Provinces a similar basis

for disinfection system design will probably be established if it has not been already. CT Considerations

ber which had a volume of at least 20 times

bromoform. There is evidence that these

chemicals are carcinogens and therefore their presence in potable water is not desir For most sources of raw water, THMs

themselves are usually only present in trace amounts. However, precursors such as humic and fulvic acids are frequently present in significant amounts. For the purposes of water treatment, precursors can be defined as chemicals which form THMs in reaction with chlorine.

THM formation is affected by pH and temperature. The higher the pH and the higher the temperature, the greater or faster the formation of THMs. Therefore, THM levels tend to peak in summer. This is due

to both the higher water temperatures dur ing summer and also the higher presence of algae which contain precursors. As previously mentioned, the previous maximum allowable concentration ofTHMs

was 350 pg/L. The new limit is now 100 pg/L. Many surface waters will have prob lems meeting this limit based on current treatment practices. All of the above considerations impact the decisions which must be made by the design engineer. More importantly, the de cisions cannot be made in isolation of other

factors influencing plant design. Therefore, a number of difficult choices arise which

the effective residence time. For a practi

way plants must now be designed. Design Considerations The reason disinfection requirements and THMs are being discussed together is that there is a conflict in the approach to


a reservoir is retained in the reservoir. In other words it is the time that it takes for

is measured. This is defined'" as the time

at which 90% of the water passing through

10% of the water entering the reservoir to exit the reservoir. CT is calculated from wherever there is

first a disinfectant present in the water. Therefore the effective residence time of

water travelling through the plant with a disinfectant residual is counted in the CT

'Associated Engineering Alberta Ltd.

THM Formation

THMs are defined as the group ofchemi cals consisting of chloroform, dibromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane and

lead to some substantial differences in the

cal way of assessing the effective time,'T|„'

infectant used. For example: Ozone has a much higher strength than Chloramine. Therefore, the required CT is different for each type of disinfectant.


utes. Therefore the 'T' in CT is defined as

Simple as the concept is, actual imple mentation is more complex. The following factors greatly influence the CT require

I. Type of Disinfectant. The CT required varies with the oxidizing strength of the dis

ble water conditions, the cooler the water

the higher the required CT. If free chlorine is used, the pH of the water is also a factor. The higher the pH the higher the required

calculation. However, as will be discussed.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

deal with them where chlorine is used as

the primary disinfectant. To minimize THM formation, the chlorination point should be located as far downstream in the process as possible. To maximize CT, the chlorina tion point should be located as far upstream in the process as possible. If chlorine is not to be used as the pri mary disinfectant then THMs are not likely 35

Disinfection, cont'd. to be a concern although they can be formed by inefficient chlorine dioxide systems and can form if chlorine is used as secondary disinfectant to provide a residual following a non persistent form of disinfection such as ozonation. Regardless, the presence of THM precursors should still be noted by the design engineer as the same precursors may form other disinfection by-products with the disinfectant used.

The choice of disinfectant may be influ enced by both the THM formation potential and CT requirements along with other fac tors such as owner preference, capital costs and operating costs. The characteristics of alternate disinfectants on CT will be dis

cussed a little later on.

Currently, most

plants are continuing to employ chlorine as the primary disinfectant If the use of free chlorine is to be con

sidered, the first step is to estimate the THM formation potential. For existing sites, there is frequently sufficient data to determine how much of a

factor THMs are going to be based on records of THM levels in the potable water. However, for new sites, there may at best only be raw water test data available. As

if the design engineer is going to have any confidence that the design levels used are going to be right. The design engineer should also keep in mind that CT require ments drop at higher temperatures. This has a positive influence in addressing both

allows a cnide model of the process to be quickly developed and, amongst other things, estimates THM formation at the plant discharge and in the distribution sys tem. This program should be used with care though as it requires some significant simplifications and some of the parameters are quite sensitive. It is better to err on the side of caution and only use the results to flag the probability ofa THM problem. How

CT and THMs.

ever, it is far better than knowing nothing.

THM formation is linked to temperature and the presence oforganics, it is normally high est during the summer months. Seasonal raw water data must therefore be available

Estimating the THM formation poten tial from raw water data is difficult at best.

Piloting the process through at least one whole yearly water quality cycle will pro vide some confidence, although experience from reviewing data from plants where bet ter records exist suggests significant vari ance in THM formation from one year to the next. However, while there is variance in the magnitudes, the shape of the seasonal variance appears consistent.

Piloting is not always possible and the design engineer may have to work from poorer data. In this event, one tool which may help establish the scope of the prob lem is the U.S. EPA water treatment plant process simulation program. This program

UV Technology Solutions

The program is better suited for situa tions where good data exists. The process model can then be calibrated with field data. The model can then be used with more con

fidence to estimate the effect of process modifications and raw water quality ex tremes.

If seasonal raw water data is not avail

able, but the presence of THM precursors

is suspected and the design must proceed based on the use of chlorine, the only safe recourse is to assume that THMs in excess of the maximum allowable concentration will form if chlorine is added to the raw water.

Treatment of THMs is a subject itself. The least costly approach is to avoid form ing them in the first place. For conven tional treatment, the chlorination point should be at least as far as downstream of

the clarifiers. While biologically active fil tration is not yet a common practice, the design engineer should also make provision for primary chlorination downstream of the filters. For plants employing either filtra tion alone or direct filtration, chlorine should

only be added downstream of the filters. Studies have shown'^' that relocation of

the chlorination point downstream of clari fication typically reduces THM formation by about 40%. If it appears that there may be times where this is not sufficient, it is

necessary to provide for some THM re moval. The simplest alternative is pow dered activated carbon which, at higher dos ages, is moderately effective in removing THMs. Some THM removal has also been

I Ultraviolet light disinfects wastewater by altering the genetic (DNA) materiai in

Trojan systems use low intensity UV lamps. By Incorporating a number of

celis so that bacteria, viruses, molds,

standard UV modules, each installation

algae and other microorganisms can no longer reproduce. In UV disinfection systems, the UV light is produced by germicidai iamps which are submerged in an open channel. As the water or wastewater flows past the UV lamps, the microorganisms are exposed to a lethal dose of UV energy. The UV dose is measured as the product of UV light intensity times the exposure time within the UV iamp array.

can be custom-designed to handle the specific requirements of the project. The Pottersburg Pollution Control Plant in London, Ontario uses Trojan Technologies UV. Details: Disinfection Season: 12 months; Design Criteria: 564000 M^/day; TSS: 10 mg/l; UV


Transmission: 65% at 254 nm; Guar anteed Disinfection Criteria: 200/100 ml

Fecal Conform on a 30 day geometric mean.

noted using potassium permanganate. Po tassium permanganate does not form THMs and therefore may also be useful as a preoxidant for the raw water to improve co agulation. If it appears that THMs are going to have to be consistently treated, re-consider the use of free chlorine as full-time treatment.

Using technologies such as Granular Acti vated Carbon (GAG) filtration is very ex pensive. The following are common alter nate disinfectants: Ozone

Ozone is a powerful disinfectant, does not form THMs and has several other posi tive water treatment characteristics. How

ever,it has higher capital and operating costs than chlorine and forms its own group of disinfection by-products which are only now becoming more understood. Strategies such as GAG filtration and biologically active

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Disinfection, cont'd. filtration are being used to address the by product issue. In many cases ozone is a good choice as either the primary disinfectant or a pre-conditioning disinfectant. Chlorine or chloramine is still usually added to provide a residual. Meeting CT with ozone is not usually at all difficult. However, the costs associated with its use frequently preclude its selection as the primary disinfectant.

fection alone. The ratio of this value to the full removal is termed the inactivation ra tio. The available ratio can then be calcu lated for the disinfectant concentrations and


tem and will usually indicate what the de

Chloramine is the weakest of the popu lar disinfectants. Its application within the requirements of the Surface Water Treat ment Rule results in over ten times the re

quired contact time at an equivalent residual to that of free chlorine. This does not rule out the consideration of chloramine as it has

other advantages. Chloramine does not form THMs and has higher persistence in the dis tribution system. If chloramine is to be used, the CT requirements will most likely be a key design factor. The high CT require ments can be offset somewhat by adding ammonia then chlorine at the front of the

plant. This enables the entire residence time in the process to be used for CT. Further CT can be achieved by adding the chlorine ahead of the ammonia. Until

the ammonia is added, the disinfection val ues for chlorine can be used. However, this

strategy fails if THM precursors are known to be a concern as adding chlorine first al lows THMs to form.

Some communities currently using chloramine are trying to establish different disinfection guidelines for chloramine. The design engineer should check with the ap proval authorities prior to proceeding. How ever, unless different direction is given, the SWTR CT requirements should be used.

detention times in the process and compared with the required inactivation ratio to de termine if the disinfection is adequate. Many clients have strong feelings about the way they operate their distribution sys sired disinfection residual leaving the plant should be. However, if no direction is pro vided, then the design engineer must estab lish the disinfection residual based on proc ess requirements. The required residual usually sets the upper end of the concentra

existing plant this can be most accurately determined by tracer studies to measure the

actual T,„. For a proposed plant the theo retical T||, must be calculated The SWTR manual provides guidelines regarding typi

cal T|g values for different types of basins and conduits.

The effects of temperature and pH are important, particularly where there are sig nificant swings in values throughout the year. Higher temperatures tend to coincide with higher water demands. The higher flows required to meet these demands re duce the effective contact time and thus the

order to maximize the residual concentra

CT. However, the required inactivation ra tio is also reduced with higher temperatures. Thus, the critical condition may or may not be at maximum flow. Many plants may also be operated in different configurations or modes. The combination of operating modes, flow rates and changing tempera ture and pH make identification of the criti

tion within the plant. How high this can be

cal conditions more difficult. To assist in

taken is a function of how accurate the moni

this, a spreadsheet can be used to summa rize the anticipated conditions. This can help ensure that the required disinfection

tion range.

The proportioning between primary dis infection and post disinfection provides some flexibility. In general,the primary dis infection should be as high as possible in

toring and control of the disinfection sys tem will be. Knowing the concentration following primary disinfection will estab lish the "C". However, this will change when secondary or post disinfection is added or as water conditions change. Establishing the "T" involves more cal culation. The effective residence time from

can be achieved and also ensure that the

plant is not unnecessarily over designed. References:

"'Surface Water Treatment: The New Rules, Harry Von Huben, American Water Works Association, 1991.

the point of injection to the point of first

'^'Treatment Techniques for Controlling Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water, Ameri

withdrawal must be determined. For an

can Water Works Association, 1982.

If gravity works, why did we Invent something better?

Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is a powerful disinfect ant, requiring substantially lower CT than free chlorine. Some THMs may be formed due to the inefficiency of the chlorine diox ide generation process which leaves some

_ feed .light liquid â– heavy liquid


Centrifugal separators are faster & more efficient for processing, dewatering, cleaning & recycling fluids.

amount of free chlorine in the water. How

ever, this is far lower than for free chlorine

alone. Chlorine dioxide was quite popular as a pre-disinfectant in the 1970's and 1980's. Its use has fallen from favour in

Continuous, self-

recent years, primarily due to concerns with

the potential effects of the chlorate, chlorite

cleaning, automated

and other disinfection byproducts. Once the type of disinfectant and the primary dosing point have been identified,


the CT can be calculated.


The CT credits for the other processes must first be identified as these will nor

mally satisfy the greater part of the disin fection requirements. The SWTR Guide book should be referred to in order to es

A'Uniting Alfa Laval Vital Technologies

tablish the credits for a particular process. These credits are normally fairly simple to determine.

The CT required to meet the remaining disinfection requirements can then be cal culated by subtracting the credits from the base requirements. This will result in the CT value which must be satisfied by disin

A Centrifugal Separation A Heat Transfer A Fluid Handling A Automation

Alfa Laval Separation 101 Milner Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MIS 4S6 (416)299-6101* Fax:(416)299-5864

Environmental Science cS; Engineering, May 1995

For more information, Circie reply card No. 110


Pulp & Paper sector report

Canada leads world In paper recycling

TheCanadian pulp and paperindus

try is not only the world leader in newsprint and market pulp ex ports, it is also the top exporter of recycled products and importer ofrecovered paper. According to 1995 forecasts, 3.8


by Canadian pulp and paper producers in billions of dollars

million of the 6 million tonnes of paper and paperboard consumed in Canada will be

made from recovered paper and paperboard. Of this 3.8 million tonnes,45% or 1.71 mil

mod. and

lion tonnes will be produced from imported recovered paper and paperboard, primarily from the United States, since the quantity



of old paper recovered in Canada is insuffi cient to meet industry demand.


Recycling is not new to the pulp and pa per industry. The first paper mill in North America, a mill built near Philadelphia in 1690, used old rags and recovered paper made from cotton and linen as its raw ma

terial. As well, paperboard mills have been using recovered paper and paperboard for decades.

Over the past five years, the Canadian pulp and paper industry has invested more than a billion dollars in recycling and deinking facilities. More than 60 mills in

Canada use recovered paper either entirely or partially as their source of fibre. Today, 20% of total fibre supplied to Canadian mills consists of recovered paper. The primary objective of recycling was and still is to lighten the burden on landfill sites, and thereby decrease the environmen tal impact. The concept of "saving trees"

through recycling is highly misleading be cause the lion's share of the fibre used in

paper production comes from sawmill waste, including woodchips. This does not mean

that we should underestimate the impor-

maint. of business 1989


tance ofrecycling as an effective component of forest resources management. In 1989, there was only one newsprint mill in Canada capable of recycling. To day, there are at least 23. Currently, in Canada, the recycled content in sanitary papers exceeds 60%.

Last year, Canada imported more than 1.5 million tonnes of recovered paper, outpacing Korea to become the top world importer of recovered paper. Paper is here to stay, according to speak ers at PaperWeek, hosted by the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association(CPPA). "World demand for paper has doubled in the last 20 years, and is forecast to double again by the year 2010," says Brian McClay, senior vice president of trade and government affairs for the CPPA. "Some people insist that the

Internet, interactive television and the in

formation highway all signal the end of pa per, but that is simply not the case." According to McClay, North American business generates about one billion docu ments every day, with each one copied an estimated 19 times. And despite the tens

of millions of computers sold over the past decade,only 10% of the average company's information exists in its database; the other 90% remains on paper. "Paper will continue to be important in

the Information Age," he says. "During 1992 and 1993, more than 50 consumer

magazines were launched. In a lot of cases, even the specialty cable channels publish their own, complementary magazines." "The industry has already taken aggres

Some basic facts What is pulp? Pulp is a generic term for company, what is actually a wide range of products How much pulp does Canada produce

sive action to enhance its competitive posi tion in world markets," says Lise Lachapelle, CPPA president and chief ex ecutive officer. "Since 1989, the industry invested some $20 billion in high-tech,

made by chemically or mechanically treat ing wood and other plant material. Wood accounts for 92 percent of global pulp pro

prise the Canadian industry produced a to tal of 22.8 million tonnes of pulp; 8.7 mil

seek new markets. But to maintain our po sition as the world's leading exporter of

duction, while the rest is made from (among

lion tonnes valued at $5 billion were sold

other things) straw, bamboo, hemp and cot

outside the country, accounting for 3.3 per cent of Canada's total merchandise exports.


How is pulp used? Although most pulp becomes the main ingredient in paper and paperboard, small amounts are added to a

wide range of products - from rayon to pho tographic film,and cellophane to explosives.

and sell? In 1992, the 100 mills that com

Worldwide, Canada ranks second in terms

of annual wood pulp production, and first in terms of exports.

state-of-the-art facilities. We continue to

wood and paper products, we must also find

ways to control the increasing cost of pro duction, and the cost of fibre in particular. And we must continue to identify and adapt to changing market demands, and evolving customer needs."

^^^at is market pulp? Market pulp is

What is the ratio of virgin to recycled pulp? In recent years, virgin pulp has ac

defined as wood pulp that is sold in open

counted for about 60 percent of the total

competition with that of other manufactur

quarters of the pulp produced worldwide, which is pumped from where it is made to

composition of paper and paperboard prod ucts worldwide. Recycled pulp - reclaimed from old newspapers, corrugated contain ers and other waste papers - made up an

•Some 60% of corrugated is recovered • 44% of paper and paperboard packaging

another area of the same mill, where it is

other 30 percent. Small amounts of fdlers

is recovered

processed into paper or paperboard. The term market pulp also excludes pulp that is produced for further processing by a mill that is owned by(or affiliated with)the same

and coatings such as clay and calcium car bonate were also added to some grades of paper to improve the texture, opacity, bright

Other recovered paper uses are estimated at 1.2 million tons or 3% of recovery. Ex

ers. It is differentiated from more than three


ness and/or printability of the finished sheet.

Product-specific recovery in US • About half of all newspapers are recov ered

amples are: cellulose insulation, molded

pulp products,animal bedding, paper mulch, internal cushioning and compost.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

A Report; Card on Sludge □ewatering Alternatives. Hi solids

Belt filter

Plate & frame




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effective dewatering process available today. But don't take our word for it. Compare the benefits of competing systems for yourself. Evaluate all costs, from operation to handling to disposal. And take a look at how easy and safe our equipment is to operate. With automatic, continuous operation and optional pressure discharge, these compact, fully enclosed machines require little operator attention.




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To find out more about Centrico's sludge dewatering and thickening centrifuges, for both industry and municipalities, call iRichard Seaburg, Manager,

IEnvironmental Technology at 'our Northvale headquarters: :(201) 767-3900.

jEAX:(201) 767-3416. iOr contact any of our Ihranch offices listed below. Centrico Headquarters: 100 Fairway Court

Centrico West:

Centrico Southwest:

Centrico Midwest:

Centrico South:

3400 Third Avenue

10077 Grogan s Mill Rd.

725 Tollgate Road

360 Sixtli Street S.W.

1100 Burloak Drive

The Woodlands, TX 77380

Elgin, IL 60123

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Burlington, ON L7L6B2

(713) 292-5800

(708) 742-0800

(813) 299-3900

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(201) 767-3900

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For more information, Circie repiy card No. 111

Centrico Canada:

Air Pollution

By Andrew K. Jones*

Retrofit guided by computer simuiation increases capacity of biomass-fired power boiier whiie reducing emissions

Abb Combustion Division

recently designed and built an overfire air system for biomassfired power boilers at a number of paper mills that increased the ca pacity of the boilers by up to 50 per cent while reducing particulate emis sions by up to 40 percent. These per formance gains were accomplished by using FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software from Flu ent Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire, to model the operation of the fumace and optimize the performance of the air system. The increased capacity of the boiler was achieved by improving the abiiity to bum the biomass fuei (bark, wood, sludge). This improved

fuel. The description of each of these steps includes controlling rates as well as mate rial transfer in the gas phase. FLUENT has the capability to handle each of these steps

step in the solution is to invoke the set of equations that describe the particle evapo ration and resulting combustion of volatile gases. In this sequence, 20 to 50 gas phase calculations are performed to transfer the effect of biomass combustion to

the gas phase through assumed source and sink terms. Solution ofthese terms

occurs during the particle combustion calculations. FLUENT uses an itera

tive technique to couple the effects of the gas and particle droplet phases. Thus, it is necessary to inject the par ticles again, since the first iteration changed the initial flow field. This process of injecting particles followed by gas phase calculations proceeded until we reached a converged solution. In these fumaces the capacity of

combustion allowed for a reduction in

auxiliary fuel use, resulting in a di rect savings in fuel costs. The reduc tion in emissions was achieved by low ering the air velocity in the bottom of the furnace, which decreased carryover of material out of the fur nace.

ABB builds and retrofits large boil ers for the pulp and paper industry and elec trical utilities that provide 100,000 to 1,000,000 pounds of steam per hour. Boil ers supplied to the puip and paper industry typically use wood and black liquor as fuel while those supplied to the utility industry use pulverized coal, oil and gas. Paper mills enquired if we could improve the air system for biomass-fired power boil

the fumace to bum biomass was lim

iting the amount of this low cost re newable fuel that could be used. In stead fossil fuels such as oil or natu

ral gas were being used to generate KilH

OA. LFVcl UMI It»i

Jlhw. ■



through either standard menu items or cus tom subroutines. Once the goveming reac tions were input, we needed to specify ma terial properties. A key advantage ofthe soft ware is that the developer provides source code to users that makes it possible to write subroutines for specialized purposes. These subroutines may be inserted into the menuing system so that they can be easily

ers. The fuel used in these boilers consists

accessed. Since we model these fumaces on

of bark, rejected wood chips and sludge. They have either a pneumatic or mechani cal distributor that spreads the bark over the grates in the unit. In the past, a majority of the air was injected through a grate in the floor of the fumace. A smaller portion of the air was injected near the top of the fur nace and fired tangentialiy in a circie. We started the project by performing a detaiied simulation of the existing burner design using FLUENT. The first step in the simulation was to develop a three-dimensional model to rep resent the geometry and flow domain of the

a regular basis, we have written subroutines that make it possible to quickly describe the properties of materials burned in power

fumace. This model used about 100,000

control volumes to accurately depict the bullnose, bed surface,fumace outlet and air

injection sites. It took about one week to create and debug the model. Once this task was completed, we selected the sequence of reactions that was used to simulate the combustion of the biomass fuel.

The combustion of biomass is a complex

process and requires the description of the drying, pyrolysis, and char buming of the •Manager of Research and Development, ABB Combustion Division, Ottawa, Ontario 40

boilers. Our custom subroutines were writ

ten primarily in FORTRAN with a small amount of work done in C. The fuel proper ties were described so that the user could

select moisture content,fraction of voiatiles,

fraction of char, and generate a distribution of the size of the fuel particles. The next step in the simulation was to specify the operating conditions, which in cluded flow rates for the gas and fuel, and then begin a step-by-step solution procedure. The first step established the flow field with a uniform temperature field. These prelimi nary calculations establish the gas flow pat tern in the unit without combustion. An it

erative technique is used to solve the set of nonlinear equations that describe fluid flow. After approximately 200 gas phase itera tions, we initiated the second step in the solution by invoking the equations related to tracking. This required the injection of hundreds of biomass particles into the fur nace. The solution procedure involves track ing ail of the particles as they are carried through the flow field. The third and final

the required steam. The new design also distributes oxygen more effi ciently throughout the fumace particu larly in fuel-rich areas that were previously starved for oxygen. This lowers the air ve locity in the bottom of the fumace, thereby decreasing emissions out of the stack. Emis sions were monitored during the analysis

by using a special capture plane in the FLU ENT software positioned to monitor the mass and composition of all material leav ing the fumace. FLUENT predicted that particulate emissions would be reduced by 40 percent. This was tested in the field and found to be an accurate prediction. Simulating the operation of the retrofit ted fumaces also helped us make them more capable of handing variations in bark prop erties. This is important because the amount of moisture in the fuel can vary over quite a wide range. Another advantage of using CFD is that it allowed us to provide the cus tomer with an accurate and graphic demon stration of how the fumace would perform at the proposal stage. The output from the analysis was transferred onto videotape us ing a package called Wavefront. Then we created a voice-over to describe the differ

ent vertical sections as they were displayed on the tape. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the performance of an overfire air system has been optimized using simulation. As a result, the customer has increased boiler capacity by up to 50 percent on biomass firing and reduced emis sions by 40 percent for a reiatively small expenditure. Because of results like this, we now use CFD for modeling virtually every new and retrofitted unit that we propose. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 112

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995





ssr ^


BOSS POLY-TITE: technical data

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• Certified to CAN/CSA B182.6, Profile Polyethylene Sewer Pipe and Fittings

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• All-weather impact resistance for year-round installation Size range

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Flow capacity

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 107

Wastewater treatment

Peat filters as an alternative technology for on-slte waste water treatment

Conventional septic tank and tile

field sewage disposal systems for on-site waste water treatment

pose some concerns regarding the potential for impact on groundwater quality. Research in this area has demonstrated the

existence of contaminant plumes extending from the leaching field tens, and in some cases hundreds of metres downgradient. There is the potential, particularly in situations with higher density, multiple sys tem development, and with large systems on commercial, industrial, or institutional

sites to impact water supply aquifers. The

experimental case by case basis. The consultants report used the conven tional septic tank/leaching field system as a yard stick together with available informa tion and experience to assess and compare the various systems in terms of capital and operating costs, site characteristic require ments and constraints, operational history, and effluent quality. The peat filter system has a number of advantages, which could make it a superior alternative to a conventional system. Con ceptually the peat systems are relatively sim ple, similar in design and operation to the

its options limited by the potential for groundwater impact as assessed under On tario's Reasonable Use Criteria. The Board

authorized Oliver, Mangione, McCalla & Associates Limited to prepare a design and obtain approval for a peat filter system to serve the 480 student elementary school. Extensive monitoring of the system was completed for the two year period follow ing completion of the system in December 1990.

The peat filter system at the Glen Tay School has demonstrated excellent treat

ment performance. Significant reductions

effluent constituent of

in effluent constituent


concentrations were ob



served including BOD 95%, and Total Phospho

nitrate, which, with the

health related discharge criteria of 10 mg/L-N,

rous - 80%.

occurs in domestic sew

results for the microbio

age effluent at concentra tions in the range of 40 to 150 mg/L-N. There is very little attenuation of nitrogen compounds in a conventional leaching field system. In many situations the only attenu

logical constituent. Total and Faecal Coliform, were obtained with the

KtAI UbLU^ effluent

ation mechanism is dilu

tion within the groundwater flow system. To address the con






majority of samples meeting the drinking wa ter quality criteria. Of specific importance for the groundwater quality impact was the 80% to 90% reduction in nitrogen species concentrations, from an influent of 60 to

cerns of potential ground65 mg/L-N to an effluent water impact, a number of 8 to 10 mg/L-N. of jurisdictions now re On the basis of the quire that the proponent above monitoring pro WATER TABLE prepare an impact assess gram, the Board success ment prior to the devel fully applied for approval opment proceeding on from the Ministry of En The schematic layout above depicts a typical peat filter system. conventional septic sys vironment and Energy to tems. Alternatives to the conventional sep conventional septic tank/leaching field sys expand the student population of the school tic tank/leaching field sewage disposal sys tem. The peat system can be fed by gravity commencing in the fall of 1994. tem, which can provide a practical and ef or alternatively dosed with an effluent pump, The use of peat for on-site waste water fective method of on-site waste water treat and with that exception, there are no me treatment is currently being investigated for ment, are currently being explored. chanical components or chemical additions a variety of uses. The consultants have de An evaluation of alternative methods requiring on-going maintenance and costs. signed and supervised the construction of was completed by Oliver, Mangione, The peat system can generally be installed an additional eleven peat sewage systems McCalla & Associates Limited in a study on any site for which a conventional septic over the 1992 and 1993 construction sea funded jointly by the Ontario Ministries of tank/leaching field system can be approved. sons. Systems have now been installed to the Environment and Energy,and Education, Experience with the tendering and construc serve elementary (5) and high (1) schools, and the Prince Edward County Board of tion of twelve systems in Ontario has con a multi-family townhouse complex (1), and Education. The technologies evaluated in firmed that the cost for construction of peat a truck stop restaurant (1), shopping cen clude the peat filter. RuckÂŽ System, systems is similar to that for conventional tres (2), a senior citizens apartment com recirculating sand filters, constructed systems. Therefore, for the same capital, plex (1), and a single family domestic dwell wetlands, rotating biological contactors, operating and maintenance costs, and less ing (1). Ongoing monitoring of these sys sequencing batch reactors, and other pack land utilization, an environmentally supe tems continues to provide information on aged mechanical plants. Although none of rior system can be produced. peat system performance with respect to the these technologies are currently approved Faced with the requirement to replace various uses, methods of construction and under existing regulations in Ontario for use the failing septic system, together with the peat sources. with subsurface disposal systems, the Min political desire to increase the student popu istry of the Environment and Energy is grant lation of Glen Tay Elementary School, the For more information, ing limited approval of these systems on an Lanark County Board of Education found Circle reply card No. 101 42

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality


Association Canadienne sur la Qualite de I'Eau

Trihalomethanes in Finished

Enhancement of

Drinking Water

Organochiorine Removal

Disinfection by-products are formed when the disinfectant reacts with bulk organics in water during treatment and distribution. In a paper published in Environmental Tech nology, University of Alberta scientist S.E. Hrudey and colleagues from the Saskatch

A paper by E.R. Hall (University of British Columbia), K.A. Onysko (McMaster Uni versity) and W.J. Parker (University of Wa

ewan Research Council and Alberta Envi

plant wastewaters. The research described

ronment have summarized the relationship

in Environmental Technology compares AOX removal achievable by anaerobic bio logical treatment, ultrafiltration, and cou

between trihalomethanes and dissolved or

ganics in the finished drinking water for municipal treatment plants in Alberta. Treatment processes considered included

terloo) illustrates the feasibility of the anaerobic membrane bioreactor concept for the treatment of segregated kraft bleach

pled anaerobic - ultrafiltration treatment. AOX removal efficiencies were improved

chlorination with fdtration alone, chlorina-

with the application of both ultrafiltration

tion with coagulation, sedimentation and filtration (with and without aeration or ac tivated carbon), and chloroamination with coagulation, sedimentation and filtration.

(54%) and anaerobic membrane bioreactor treatment (61%).

Treatment of Puip and Paper Effluent

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quaiity, Technoiogy Deveiopment Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

C. Bouchard and colleagues from Laval University and Asseau Inc. evaluated an upflow co-current biofilter process to treat the effluent from the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City. A pilot plant installed at the company site was used to evaluate the performance of the system and to collect the necessary data for the design

and operation of the biofilters. The results, described in Sciences et techniques de Teau, showed that the process allowed Daishowa to meet effluent criteria for BOD,suspended solids and acute toxicity.

Quality Assurance for Environmental Monitoring A data quality management framework for environmental monitoring programs is de scribed in a paper published by J. Lawrence and K.I. Aspila in the Water Quality Re search Journal of Canada. According to these National Water Research Institute sci

entists, the framework consists of the fol lowing elements; a quality management plan which establishes the data quality objec tives, the protocols and procedure docu ments to be followed, reporting schedules, training needs, and the individuals to be held responsible; quality control which is the sys tematic set of procedures carried out by each operational unit involved in the measure ment process; and quality assessment which is the set of procedures designed to provide the overall check on data quality while veri fying that the other components of the frame work are adequate. Continued overleaf

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MicrotDxÂŽ Measures Chronic Toxicity

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R&D News, cont'd. Tracing Sources of Episodic

ables affecting process efficiency. At a DO > 1 mg/L and an HRT of6 days, the follow ing percentages of metals were solubilized at room temperature from anaerobically di gested biosolids with 2% solids: Cd - 68%,

Poilution Events

Conventional microbiological surveys, re lying on periodic sampling of the water col umn, were unable to identify sources of epi sodic fecal contamination at a local beach

in North Vancouver. A novel sampling strat egy was devised by EVS Consultants Ltd. scientists P.O. Nix, M.M. Daykin and K.L. Vilkas using porous bags filled with sand suspended from buoys and deployed in a grid pattern around the beach. As described in Water Environment Research, the sand ac

Cr - 71%, Cu - 80%,Pb - 25%, Ni - 55%, Zn - 77%, and Fe - 56%.

formance ofa biological denitrification proc ess. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research,a method for evaluating the metabolic activity of the mi croorganisms was developed based on meas uring nitrogen production rate. The method was found to be particularly valuable in monitoring batch and continuous flow proc

Treatment of Hazardous Wastes In a recent issue of the Water Quality Re search Journal of Canada, J.K. Bewtra and colleagues from the University of Windsor and McGill University review recent ad

esses and confirmed the existence of sev

vances for the treatment of hazardous wastes. Included is a discussion of the use

Toxic Contaminants in Urban Runoff

cumulated fecal bacteria during pollution events and retained them long enough so that they could be analyzed during weekly sampling surveys. In this way, the true pat tern ofthe pollution plume was documented

of horseradish peroxidase, activated by hy drogen peroxide, for the oxidative removal of aromatic compounds from industrial wastewaters. Using a biological sulfate re duction process, catalyzed by suitable bac

eral phases in denitrification. Nitrate and organic overload imposed on the process did not have a significant long term impact on its denitrification performance.

Bacterial Leaching of Metals

teria under anaerobic conditions, metals

The current modelling approaches for planning-level estimates of toxic pollutant loads in urban runofffocus on the loads from large scale areas for relatively long time intervals. These load estimates can be obtained by separating the calculations ofrunoff concen

University of Toronto scientists K.Rich,J.G. Henry and D.Prasad have been studying an improved semi-continuous bacterial process for removing heavy metals from anaerobically digested biosolids. The proc ess, which was described to delegates at tending the 30th Central Canadian Sympo sium on Water Pollution Research, uses nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous

form metal sulfide precipitates and can be

trations from the calculations of runoff vol

and the source was revealed.

thiobacilli which oxidize sulfur to sulfuric

acid. Dissolved oxygen and hydraulic reten tion time were found to be important vari

removed from industrial wastewaters. An

anaerobic upflow fixed-film reactor with continuous flow can be used to treat plating plant wastewater supplemented with lactate.

Monitoring Biological

umes and using the mean event concentra tions of limited runoffevents to approximate the mean event concentrations of whole run

off events. As described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, computations of mean concentrations and loads of toxic con


taminants in urban runoff can be accom

The purpose of a study undertaken by Degremont-Infilco scientist A.Beaubien and coworkers was to determine the impact of biological parameters on the overall per

plished by means of a new model developed by McMaster University scientists I.K. Tsanis and Ping Xu, and National Water Research Institute scientist J. Marsalek.



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Circle reply card No. 181 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

R&D News, cont'd. Removal of Phosphorus by Aquatic Plants C.Michaud and colleagues from Le Groupe Stelca and the University of Sherbrooke have published a paper in Sciences et tech niques de I'eau which reviews the use of floating aquatic plants to treat wastewater for the removal of phosphorus. The water hyacinth and several duckweed species very efficiently take up phosphorus from the water body on which they grow. Plant har vesting results in phosphorus being removed from the pond system. The review paper considers the effect of various parameters on phosphorus removal rates including har vest frequency, productivity and plant den sity, availability of nitrogen and phospho rus, temperature, and the extent and inten sity of daylight.

during biological metal extraction treatment of sludge. Batch leaching tests used sludge spiked with Salmonella typhimurium, As described in Water Environment Research,

the results showed that, although the Sal monella typhimurium population was elimi nated within 7 hours, the total coliform per sisted during the leaching period of 10 days. However,at lower suspended solids concen tration (10 g SS/L), conforms were not de tected after five days.

Biosorption of Pentachlorophenoi on Sludge K.J. Kennedy and T.T. Pham found that

Evaluation of a Swirl Separator Municipalities try to limit overflow of their sewer systems by various means. The swirl separator, proposed by the American Pub lic Works Association, is an attractive al ternative because it requires little supervi sion and maintenance. A field study by

biosorption isotherms for pentachlorophenoi on granular and dispersed anaerobic sludge from five different industrial sources fit well

to the Freundlich equation. As described in their paper accepted for publication in Water Research,these University of Ottawa scientists found no significant difference between dispersed and granular anaerobic. Some variation in biosorption capacity was observed among the different industrial sources of sludge. Comparison of results reported by other investigators suggested that biosorption by anaerobic biomass is lower than that by aerobic microorganisms. Continued overleaf


INRS-Eau scientists J.-P. Villeneuve and E.

Guame, and by F. Michaud of Roche Ltd. was undertaken to determine the perform ance of an existing device, the Quebec swirl regulator. As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, up to 25% of the suspended solids transported during storms can be eliminated. However, most

of the liquid-solid separation seems to take place in the upstream collecting pipe.

Modelling Microbial Leaching Efficiency The efficiency ofheavy metal removal from sewage sludge by microbial leaching de pends on a number of factors including the type of sludge, the resulting decrease in sludge pH, the concentration of metals present, and the temperature of the system. R.D. Tyagi and colleagues from INRS-Eau have developed a neural-net model to pre dict the solubilization of heavy metals from sewage sludge using the bioleaching proc ess. The only input parameters required are the type of sludge, initial metal concentra tions in the sludge, and the sludge pH. The model yielded satisfactory predictions when tested with a number of experimental data.

Fate of Pathogens During Bacterial Leaching A study by University of Toronto scientists J.G. Henry and D.Prasad, and B.M. Smith of Zenon Environmental Inc. was under

taken to determine the fate of pathogens

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso


CISTIis North America's largest and most reliable source of scientific, technical and medical information available when you want it, and how you want it. • Our Information Specialists will find information on any topic you need.

• Electronic Databases: gives you direct access to online information worldwide.

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ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON





National Research Council Canada

Conseil national de recherches Canada


K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 117


R&D News, cont'd. Biodegradation of Lubricating Oils

J.K. Bewtra and colleagues from the Uni versity of Windsor conducted laboratory studies on the biodegradation of some se lected lubricating oils. As described in the Water Quality Research Journal ofCanada, a standard method for determining the biodegradability of selected recalcitrant organic compounds was developed. Test results

Heavy Metals in Aquatic Ecosystems

showed that the species of bacteria present in the sample was an important factor af fecting the biodegradation of selected lubri cating oils. Results also indicate that it is difficult to degrade lubricating oils in wa ter by using indigenous microorganisms in

M. Coquery and P.M. Welboum used sedi ment cores and samples of the submerged and rooted aquatic macrophyte Eriocaulon septangulare to examine the relationships

natural river or lake water. The study

between the concentration of selected heavy

showed that up to 23% removal could be achieved biologically after 67 days opera

metals in plants and sediments. These Uni versity of Toronto scientists studied thirteen


sites in the littoral zone of Bentshoe Lake in south-central Ontario. As described in a

paper accepted for publication in Water Re search, there were significant positive cor

FAX (905) 841-7271 for quick response Company

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relations between metal concentrations in

sediment and their organic matter content. The metal concentrations measured in the

macrophyte were generally comparable to or greater than those in sediments, and were consistently higher in the roots than in the shoots.

Removal of Turbidity Address: Postai






□ Municipal & Govt. Official

□ Consulting engineer/consultant

n Provincial Government □ Federal Government

D Industrial (Please specify area of activity)


In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, University of Alberta scientists investigated the feasibility of using polymers as filter aids for water containing lime sof tening particles. D.W. Smith and colleagues tested seven representative polymers with different molecular weights using a declin ing rate filter pilot plant. The results showed that, at a starting rate of 15 m/h, the removal of turbidity particles could be significantly improved by using polymers as a filter aid. Low or moderately low molecular weight polymers are recommended. It is believed that interparticle binding is the dominant mechanism governing the interactions be tween polymers and lime softening parti cles.

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For more information about products, services and articies in this issue, you can

A Mall in the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mail this if faxing is not convenient)

A paper published in the Canadian Jour nal of Civil Engineering by University of Manitoba scientists M.RJ. DeGagne and S.R Simonovic describes a computer-based

approach which employs the method of re gression analysis for the development of stage-discharge rating curves. The regres

sion is done recursively as the program steps through the data set by adding one point at each iteration. Multiobjective analysis is used to evaluate the improvement or dete rioration of the model using statistical cri teria. The process eliminates ambiguity or subjectivity associated with the current methods used for the development of stagedischarge relationships. The system has been tested using two different data sets.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

Be sure to fill In your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 46

Modelling Stage-Discharge Relationships

ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

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Extract rock from ground. Separate metals. Add garlic.

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AWWA Convention

Conference highlights -American Water Works Association annual conference &

exposition, Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, California, June 18-22, 1995 Preconference Seminars


• Accessing the Bond Market • WaterPlan Version 2.0 Training • A Clinic on the Business of Running a Smaii Water System FULL-DAY SEMINARS • Enhanced Surface Water Treatment • Wellhead Protection

• Update of Manual M26, Water Rates and Related Charges • Today's Issues in Residuals Management • Cryptosporidium - What are the Questions?

• Privatization: Issues, Viewpoints, and Future Implications • AWWARF Groundwater Research:

Current Issues and Future Options • Augmenting Potable Water Supplies With Reclaimed Water

Monday, June 19 "60 Minutes" co-editor and Opening General Session keynote speaker Lesley Stahl will be on hand to help officially commence the 1995 AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition. It's the only function to which everyone attending the conference has been invited.

Prior to joining "60 Minutes", Stahl was CBS News'chief White House correspondent since January 1989, where she returned after serving as CBS News' national affairs corre spondent since 1986, Technical Sessions

• Water Treatment Plants Operation and Maintenance

• Developing and Implementing a Comprehensive Infrastructure Re placement Program • Public Officials Session I • Water Reuse as the Alternative Water

Supply • Research I

• Process Enhancement Utilizing Particle Counting Technology • The New Congress and Reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act • Diversity Issues - MinoritiesA/Vomen's Affairs Committee • Product Information Forum I - Manufac

turers Advisory Committee Tuesday, June 20 • Conflicting Regulations for the Use of Hazardous Materials • Groundwater Disinfection Rule -

Where Are We Headed and Why? • Water Distribution Operation and Maintenance

' Smaii Water System Engi neering and Construction ' Public Officials Session II: The Future of Water Service

• Surface Water is the Supply • DBP Precursor Removal

• Understanding and Commu nicating Health Risks ■ Safe Drinking Water Act: Regulatory Update ■ Plan Review, Contracts and

Inspections • Public Involvement Case Studies • Product Information Forum II • Universities Forum I • Fire Protection


• Water Supply and Distribution Facilities Design and Con struction

> SDWA Compliance and Implementation: What's Done? What's Learned?

• Managing Groundwater Supplies • ICR Compliance • Interior Plumbing and Retrofit • Argochemicais in Drinking Water • The Value of Public Awareness ■ Product Information Forum III ■ Universities Forum II

• Water Supply in Latin America: From NAFTA to Patagonia ■ Smaii System Technologies Wednesday, June 21 • Water Conservation Programs of Southern California

• Protecting Your Water Source • Leak Detection and Water

Accountability • Automation and Instrumentation for Your Water Facilities

• Drought-Proofing Through Desalting ■ Research ii

• Enhanced Coagulation • Program Evaluation and Water Savings Analysis

Photo -T. Davey, ES&E.

• New Source Development: How to Organize and Implement a Successful Permit Process • Research 111

• Landscape and Outdoor Water Use • State and Provincial Policy Panel • Topics in Water Treatment and Residuals Management • Distribution Systems Water Quality • The Information Superhighway • Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready? Thursday, June 22 • Chemical Risk Management • Advanced Distribution System Modeling Concepts and Examples • Financing, Rates, and Budgeting • Research IV • Commercial and Industrial

• Public Information Pros Share Their Secrets

Programs •Alternative Financing and Rate Impacts

• Education, Training, Certification, and Safety: What Do You Need and How

• Membranes, Arsenic, and

Do You Use It?

• International Water Supply and Quality Issues

• Youth Today = Workforce 2000 • More Smaii System Technologies • Water Facilities Construction Contract Administration

• Water Resources Planning for the 21st Century

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Corrosion Control

• Giardia/Cryptosporidium: Occurrence and Treatment Processes

There is also a great Spouses program, the Pipe Tapping Contest, and a host of tours in cluding a Hollywood Happening at Universal Studios. For further details contact: AWWA

Annual Conference, 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver, CO 80235,Fax:(303)794-3951, 51

Water treatment & disinfection

By A.P. Livingston, P.Eng.*

Enhanced regulations will require enhanced treatment capabilities

Pressure by the public and special

interest groups, coupled with recently occurring events of waterborne disease, and rapid advances in detection technology have spurred on the drive for higher drinking water quality. Major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred in the past in Milwaukee, Wisconsin where one-third of a million con

sumers were affected and in Waterloo, On tario is refocussing attention on the new

"superbug". The production of NDMA and of bromate and other disinfection by-prod ucts within the treatment process has caused utilities and designers alike to re-examine health risks to the consumer resulting from their actions. The formation of chlorate ion

in sodium hypochlorite solutions is causing some concern about disinfecting with hypochlorites. All ofthese are providing the impetus for increasingly stringent or en hanced regulations and treatment processes. New regulations under consideration in Canada, and in the United States, will have a far greater impact on water treatment de sign and operation than could be imagined just years ago.

The Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines were updated and re-issued in 1993 (1). Seventeen new parameters have been added to the guidelines for review and

chloramines, fluoride, haloacetic acids, trichloroethylene, radon and radiological characteristics. (2) In April, 1992, Health and Welfare Canada proposed a revised MAC for chlo roform or total trihalomethanes of 50 pg/L. The current MAC is 350 pg/L.The proposed goal was subjected to a 'trial consultation process' and a number of organizations were invited to submit comments. It now appears that the standard, which has still not been released, will be increased to 100 pg/L on an interim maximum acceptable concentra tion basis (2). Even at this level, a large number of Canadian water treatment plants will be impacted, requiring a rethinking of disinfection by ozone in some cases and.

associated with industrial pollution. It has, however, recently been detected in several water treatment plants where it is suspected of being formed in the treatment process by combining chlorinated water and certain polyeletrolytes (6) or with certain amine precursors in the raw water. The direct ad dition of chlorinated water to concentrated

polymer stocks should be avoided and the use of alkyl-amine based polymers should be discontinued.

The implementation of the USEPA Sur face Water Treatment Rule in June 1989,

has had a significant influence on water treatment in Canada. Some of the provinces such as Alberta and Ontario now require direct filtration as minimum treatment for

surface waters. Perhaps the most significant influence on Canadian designers, utilities and some regulators is the concept of C T

Major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred in the past year

for disinfection. The C T value is the nu

in Miiwaukee, Wisconsin

merical product of disinfectant concentra tion and time of contact. Specific C T val

where one-third of a miiiion consumers were affected and

ues have been established for some disin fectants based on various levels of inactiva-

in Waterioo, Ontario is

tion of Giardia lamblia cysts and enteric viruses. The overall treatment process must provide a minimum of 3 logs of Giardia inactivation and a 4 log virus removal, i.e. 99.9% and 99.99% respectively.

refocussing attention on the new "superbug". perhaps changes to the coagulation process. And, it is not inconceivable that the MAC

Since the Surface Water Treatment Rule

three have been deleted. The Interim Maxi

for TTHM's could be lowered even further.

mum Acceptable Concentration(IMAC)for arsenic was decreased from 0.05 mg/L to 0.025 mg/L, dinoseb was added at a MAC of0.01 mg/L and the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for nitrilotriacetic acid has been increased from 0.05 mg/L to 0.4 mg/L. All will be as proposed guide lines which will be adopted in one year if no evidence is presented proving the unsuitability of the levels. The 1994 Workplan for the Federal-Pro vincial Subcommittee on Drinking Water includes the following priority parameters;

In 1992, the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment and Energy issued a revised set of drinking water objectives. Fifty-four new parameters were added to the previous list of objectives published in 1983,seven were removed and eight were revised (3). The Ministry is currently evaluating possible guidelines for benzene, chlorinated ethanes and ethylenes, lead and tritium. The latter two are currently in the public consultation

(SWTR) was promulgated in 1989, several outbreaks ofcryptosporidiosis have occurred

'A.P. Livingston is Vice President, Engineenng Services, Associated Engineering. Graphics were presented at Associated Engineering's Waterand Wastewater Technoiogy Transfer forum, Calgary.


No change to the current MAC for lead of 10 pg/L is anticipated. It is expected, however, that the current tritium objective of 40,000 becquerels per litre will be re placed by an interim objective of only 7,000 becquerels per litre (4,5). Ontario has established an IMAC for n-

in the United States and in Canada. The SWTR does not address inactivation of

cryptosporidium oocysts and the degree of protection afforded by applying this rule is unknown. Chlorine is, however, relatively ineffective and Cryptosporidium will have to be dealt with by superior solids separa tion processes or by disinfection with ozone. Acting under a process of regulatory ne gotiation (Reg-Neg) the USEPA is now de veloping an Enhanced Surface Water Treat ment Rule (ESWTR). An early step in the development of this rule is the implemen tation of an Information Collection Rule

(ICR).The ICR will develop a source water microbial data base to support the Enhanced SWTR.Promulgation ofthe ICR was sched

nitrosodimethylamine of9 parts per trillion. NDMA is a known carcinogen, generally

uled for June 1994. An interim ESWTR is







Continued overleaf


(cysts/lOOL) (i) <1

(ii) (iii) (iv)


99.9% 1-9 99.99% 10-99 99.999% >99 99.9999%

(3-log] (4-log} (5-log) (6-log]



TOO mg/L

mg/L 0-60



HAAS >120

Bromate S2-4




> 4-8














80 ug/L 60 ug/L 10 ug/L 1 mg/L 4 mg/L

40 ug/L 30 ug/L

0.8 mg/L


7 7 7

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995


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Water treatment, cont'd. scheduled for 1996 for systems servicing greater than 10,000 people and 1997 for smaller systems. The final rule is scheduled for 1998, to be effective for all systems by the year 2000. If indicated by the Information Collec tion Rule,the treatment requirements of the SWTR will be increased. One option being considered is to base C T requirements on source water cyst concentrations.This could result in up to 6 log removal of Giardia or 99.9999 percent if the source water concen tration is greater than 99 cysts per 100 L (7). Alternatively, the Enhanced SWTR could require up to 6 log removal of cryptosporidium oocysts. A final decision has not been made as to which organism the rule will apply to. Unless much more efficient solids separation processes such as membrane filtration are employed, the re quirements for increased capacity of chlo rine contact tanks will be dramatic.

2002 if the practical analytical detection level can be lowered to 5 pg/L or below. Ozone users have recently had their world turned upside down with the information that waters containing naturally occurring bromine will produce significant quantities of bromate when ozonated. It now appears that it will be necessary to reduce the pH of such waters to below 6.5 by acidification in order to minimize bromate production.Posttreatment to reduce corrosivity will be re quired for many of these waters. Alterna tively, it appears possible to remove bromate from water by granular activated carbon adsorption or by nano-filtration. The Stage 1 Rule will set a treatment technique for reduction of DBF precursors. Targeted systems will be required to oper ate with enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening. In conflict with the Enhanced

In conflict with the Enhanced Surface

Surface Water Treatment Rule

Water Treatment Rule is the proposed Dis infectant - Disinfection By-Product Rule.

Is the proposed Disinfectant Disinfection By-Product Rule.

This rule will seek to limit the amount of

This ruie wiii seek to iimit the

potentially harmful disinfectants and DBF's that are ingested. Although it has been stated that such limits must not unduly increase

amount of potentiaiiy harmfui

the risk of microbial disease break outs, it

that are ingested.

is obvious that there is a direct conflict be tween the microbial risk and D-DBP toxic-

ity risks. The D-DBP Rule will be developed in two stages. Stage 1 will be implemented along with the Enhanced SWTR,with prom ulgation scheduled for December 1996.This stage will set the MCL for TTHMS at 80 pg/L and the total of five haloacetic acids at 60 pg/L. The five haloacetic acids to be targeted are monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic

acid. The MCL's for chlorite, a degradation product of chlorine dioxide will be set at 1 mg/L (7). Stage 1 will also establish maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDL's). The maximum residual concentration for free chlorine and monochloramine will be set at

4.0 mg/L.For chlorine dioxide,the level will be 0.8 mg/L. No maximum level will be set for ozone since ozone does not produce an enduring residual. The USEPA is currently considering a Maximum Contaminant Level for bromate, which is a suspected carcinogen, of 10 pg/ L (8). This could be reduced to 5 pg/L in

disinfectants and DSP's

lowered to 30 pg/L. The implications of changing quality standards on water treatment design include:

• pH adjustment and subsequent finished water quality conditioning. • increasing coagulant dosages. •increased sludge volume and solids handling. •changing the location ofdisinfectant addition. • use of alternative disinfectants such as ozone and monochloramine. • increased clearwell contact time.

• use of biologically active filters. •use of granular activated carbon contactors. • downrating of filter loading rates. • use of membrane filtration technology. •increased reliance on pilot plant operations to demonstrate the efficacy of a particular process.

This is only a partial listing of the im pacts that emerging regulatory requirements will have on water treatment practices. Although the impacts may not, in all cases, be directly related to each other, they do share some common threads. They require superior design expertise, they are opera tionally complex and they are expensive. However, given the public's demand for safer and more palatable water, it appears certain that we will be faced with such

Enhanced coagulation or softening re quires specific levels of total organic car


bon reduction, based on source water alka

(1) Department of National Health and Wel

linity. An alternative best available technol ogy to enhanced coagulation is the imple mentation of granular activated carbon with a 10 minute empty bed contact time and 180 day reactivation cycle, referred to as

fare, Canada. Guidelines for Canadian Drink ing Water Quality, Fifth Edition,1993. (2)Canadian Water and WastewaterAssooiation. Bulletin, 7:10:1 (November 1993).


In order to avoid enhanced coagulation, the utilities' treated water TOG must be less

than 2.0 mg/L or the raw water TOG must be less than 4.0 mg/L, the alkalinity greater than 60 mg/L and the TTHM/HAA5 less than 40 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively, or the TTHM/HAA5 levels when using free chlorine must be less than 40 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively. Any one of these criteria will obviate the need for enhanced coagula tion. Enhanced softening can be avoided if more than 10 mg/L of manganese hardness

(as GaGOj) is removed. The proposed Stage 2 Rule is scheduled for promulgation in the year 2000 and will apply to all communities with a population of 10,000 or greater that use surface water. In Stage 2, the MGL for total trihalo-






(3)Ontario Ministry of Environment. Environ ment Information, Ontario's Drinking Water Objectives,(Summer 1993). (4) Ontario Ministry of Environment and En ergy. Development of Soil, Drinking Water and Air Quality Criteria for Lead,(December 1993). (5) Ontario Ministry of Environment and En ergy. Backgrounder on a Recommended In terim. Ontario Drinking Water Objectives for Tritium,(Fall 1993). (6) Child, P., Koor G., Bennitz D., Fowlle P. and Hong-You R. Reaction Between Chlorine and a Dimethylamine Containing Polyelectrolyte Lead to the Formation of N- Nitrosodimethylamine. Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Drinking Water,(Sep tember 23-23, 1990) pp.58. (7) Pontius F.W. Reg-Neg Process Draws to a Close. Journal,AWWA,85:9:18, (September 1993).

(8) Pontius, F.W. D-DBP Rule to Set Tight Standards.Journal,AWWA,83:11:22 (Novem ber 1993). DESIGN IMPLICATIONS

* Biologically Active Filters

* Imminent IMAC

100 mg/L

A Free Chlorine

i Future MAC


A Monochloramine 4,0 mg/L

* Downrating Filters

* Chlorine Dioxide 0.8 mg/L

* Membrane Filtration

* Ozone


methanes will be reduced to 40 pg/L. The MGL for the five haloacetic acids will be

4.0 mg/L

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A Pilot Plant Confirmation

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

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Reclaiming foundry sand Sand recycling technology saves money Federal Industry Minister John Manley has an nounced government support for Gudgeon Brothers Limited of London,Ontario,to com

plete development and commercialize a sand recycling system to promote increased effi ciency and environmental sustainability in small-scale foundry operations. Beginning in 1988, Gudgeon undertook a three-year project in vesting $1 million to research and develop systems for recycling resincoated sand used in foundry opera

sius) where it is fluidized around gas-fired burner tubes allowing the burning off of chemical residues. These systems are man aged by a computerized programmable logic controller. Gudgeon has successfully devel-

and disposal and can more easily meet envi ronmental regulations. Thermfire technology positions Gudgeon as a global leader in the sand recycling market, with more than 4,(XX) foundries as potential customers world wide. Gudgeon is now processing, de signing and engineering a smallerscale Thermfire 1000system to sup ply the small foundry market at an in stalled cost of less than $200,000.

This project involves radical redesign ofits existing models to achieve a sig nificant reduction in production costs. As the technology developer.Gudg eon has formed strategic alliances

tions. Sand combined with a chemi

cal binder is used in the foundry in with two London businesses. Wells dustry to make molds which are used Foundry (test site and technology to form castings varying in complex user) and Sleegers Engineering Inc. ity from manhole covers to magne (equipment supplier)to develop and sium aerospace parts. Once used, commercialize the Thermfire 1000. approximately 20% of the foundry TC's Vancouver foundry casting hydrants. - Photo T. Davey The successful completion of the sand cannot be re-used in the proc project will generate seven new jobs and sales oped and marketed its Thermfire 3000 and ess because ofcontamination by residual bind projected at $3.8 million over the first three ers. Even a small foundry needs to replace 6000 series to meet the requirements of me approximately 700 tonnes of new sand in a dium and large sand casting foundries. The years,including $2.2 million in export sales. company has sold and installed these systems The federal government is contributing a year at a cost of about $85 per tonne. total of $92,310 towards the project through Gudgeon has developed an innovative line at major foundries in the United States and the Environmental Technology Commerciali of natural gas-fired thermal sand reclamation Canada. zation Program(ETCP)which is administered equipment called Thermfire''^'^ to remove re Thermfire technology enables users to re by Industry Canada in cooperation with Envi sidual binder from foundry sand allowing its cycle sand at approximately $7 per tonne(op reuse in the foundry process. Theimfire tech erational cost)compared to approximately $50 ronment Canada. per tonne for new sand. Foundries benefit nology involves feeding sand into a high-tem For more Information, perature chamber (550 to 8(X) degrees Cel from reduced costs for waste transportation Circle reply card No. 108

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

OH&S Report

By Dr. David A. Whaley, ROH, CIH*

Health & Safety Auditing Principles and sequence of procedures - part I

Thefields ofenvironmental manage

ment and occupational health and safety management have both been developing quickly. Of these two, environmental management seems to be de veloping more quickly to

the development of standards for manage

properly applied self-regulation is often

ment, distinctive for each economic sector,

more effective than command and control

followed by development of standards for auditing the adequacy of such management. The Canadian Environmental Auditing

often included, as an add on, within the scope of en vironmental audits, in

(reliance on government development of regulations and enforcement of them). Second, heavy regulation is often coun ter-productive, because regulations date quickly and cannot cover every contingency. A good example is the aging Ontario Regulation on Control of Biological or Chemical Agents. In its day, this was an advance in controlling workplace exposures. The Ministry had been slowly develop ing the Designated Sub stance Regulations, with extensive public consulta

which case both kinds of

tion - at the rate of 2-3

ward formalization of au

diting. There is a growing movement to formalize pro cedures for environmental

auditing and credentials for environmental auditors.

This will likely extend to health & safety audits in the coming decade. In fact, health & safety audits are

years/regulation. Consid similarly. ering the hundreds of po The following discus tentially toxic compounds sion is presented in a gen in workplaces for which eral way, to apply to most Safe working conditions and correct equipment are vital. Laidlaw photo. the American Conference workplaces, although the of Governmental Hygiengreatest demand for health and safety au Association is developing standards for the ists (ACGIH) had already carefully devel diting is usually at manufacturing facilities. conduct of environmental audits, training oped professional guidelines for workplace Since workplace health and safety regu programs for auditors and certification re exposure, it would take years for the Min lations are developed and enforced by the quirements for auditors. istry to catch up,putting a regulation in place Ministry of Labour,I will refer to this agency Although the rigor of health and safety for each. simply as the "Ministry". performance of some companies may have Both organized labour and industry were By nature, all audits examine the qual slipped during the current recession, in the impatient. In response,the Ministry adopted ity of management of an area of potential long run, it is likely that the same level of most of the 1986 guidelines from the liability for an employer - at an on-going formal requirements will develop for audit ACGIH, called Threshold Limit Values operation. Auditing will cover two broad ing of H&S performance as are currently ("TLVs"), all at once in this Regulation. areas of operation: technical adequacy and being developed to evaluate environmental However, regulations (and especially laws) acceptability of management systems. performance. are carved somewhat in stone, hard to For efficiency, audits customarily report A Health & Safety Audit(HSA)can be modify without loosing ground, in the face only deficiencies, a custom called "excep performed for a variety of reasons, such as of pressure from interest groups. So this tion reporting". They don't take time to pat health and safety(H&S)status prior to loan, regulation has not been substantively up management on the back for elements of the insurance or acquisition, evidence to im dated. Meantime, the TLV list of profes job well done. Management needs to have prove performance of(or sack)substandard sional guidelines is annually updated, as new scientific information is available. In a strong ego and a thick skin when contract middle management, evidence to justify in ing for an audit. But then, management creased H&S expenditures, as an attempt my opinion, this Regulation is, in several needs these qualities for everything they do. to reduce accidents (e.g., to reduce work places, going out of date. Ideally, audits examine (present) per ers' compensation premium costs),or as part At minimum, a HSA should cover all formance, compared to some generally ac of an investigation of a possible outbreak of the legal compliance requirements of the ju cepted auditing standards. This is the way work-related disease. risdiction, for the operation audited. If the financial audits by accountants are con At the heart of the successful audit proc party contracting for the audit will allow the ducted. The Consulting Engineers of On ess is the voluntary choice by a company to expansion of scope,I recommend that a HSA tario(CEO)has considered and summarized be audited, often dictated by market, union, also include observations, conclusions and recommendations on good practice. That the parallels between financial auditing and potential lawsuit or like pressures. I be lieve the process is less likely to be effec environmental investigations, including au is, a defence of due diligence can be more tive when mandated by law. The Ministry effectively argued if good practice beyond diting. For commercial activities impact ing the environment, the CEO anticipates (of Labour) has long recognized this with the legal minimum is in place. its emphasis on the Intemal Responsibility Workplace health and safety require System in workplaces, where management ments in Ontario include compliance with *Dr. Whaley is a Registered Occupational Hyand labour work out their problems through all applicable regulations under the Occu gienist(Canada)and a Certified Industrial Hya Joint Health and Safety Committee. The pational Health & Safety Act,including the gienist,Toxicology Specialty(American Board). Ministry intervenes only when this system 11 Designated Substance Regulations, the He is currently Assistant Professor of Environ three Sector Regulations (Industrial Estabmental Health, Indiana State University,Terre has not worked. There are two reasons for this. First, Contlnued on page 59 Haute. audits tend to be handled

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995


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Health & Safety Auditing, cont'd. lishments. Mining, and Construction), the 41 Engineering Data Sheets {defacto regu lations,on which Ministry ofLabour inspec tors base orders), and the First Aid Regula tions of the Workers Compensation Act. Compliance also includes adequate atten

main disadvantage is potential for conflict of interest, especially if the audit findings

tion to WHMIS labels, data sheets and train

ing, a combination of federal and provin cial regulations. Then there are Ministry policies, such as that any respirators used shall be listed in the current(USA)NIOSH Certified Equipment List. In the environmental field, professional,

might be seen as criticism of the assessor's superior or immediate co-workers.

ering evidence;(4)evaluating findings; and (5)verbal report. Some auditors lump steps (2) and (4) into one activity. (1) Identifying and Understanding

Independent consultants may provide assistance, especially to smaller companies.

Management Controls The auditor(s) collect information rel

A good way to do this is to have an audit

Fundamental principles driving the conduct of audits are competency, Impartiality and credibility....

evant to the scope of the audit through ques tionnaires,checklists, and copies ofrelevant documents, direct observation (which may include photographs), and interviews. Now the site audit protocol is fully fleshed out and any final polishing finished. It is critical to determine with clarity

team include at least one independent con sultant, and a knowledgeable person from

what are the objectives of each of the man agement controls in place. The principles to look for are that the

national and international bodies are devel

oping voluntary standards for environmen

tal management systems, and for compo nents of such systems,such as environmen tal auditing. In parallel thinking. The Ca nadian Standards Association is consider

ing developing a standard for Workplace Health and Safety Management Systems. Fundamental principles driving the con duct of audits are competency, impartiality and credibility of the auditors and the audit process. For an audit to be successful, there

are several further essential requirements: full management commitment, including readiness to follow-up and correct problems identified; well-defined, systematic audit procedures; and well-documented written reports.

Audit activities characteristically fall into three phases: pre-audit activities, site activities (interviews, site inspection, re view of records), and post-visit activities. This sequence is formally repeated at each site audited, to maintain a uniformity of coverage and comparability among audits.

the company, preferably from another facil

ity - who does not have direct responsibility for any of the functions being audited - and does not report to a person with such re

facility has (1) committed its procedures to writing,(2)organized these procedures sys tematically (ideally into a manual),(3)kept records, and (4) has a tracking system for


corrective measures.

If a company is large enough, it is a good idea to develop a pool of experienced as sessors who can be loaned to other company

ment control elements means examination

Identifying and understanding manage

derstanding management controls;(2)evalu

of formal planning documents, of monitor ing and record-keeping procedures (for ex ample of safety training, of exposure meas urements,of accident investigations,of com pensation claims management, and of Joint Health & Safety Committee activities), of workplace inspection programs (as man dated by law), of engineering controls of exposure, of guarding and other engineered safety measures, and of procedures in place

ating these management controls;(3) gath

Continued overleaf

facilities to assist an extemal auditor con

sultant. In most companies with such inter nal pools, these individuals primarily have other duties, and are loaned for short peri ods for the audit function.

Site Audit Activities Site audit activities include 5 basic

phases. These are: (1) identifying and un

Pre-Audit Activities Pre-audit activities are intended to ac

quaint the audit personnel with the main issues ofconcern, and review what is known about the workplace, to minimize the site time necessary to gather information. These include selecting the audit site and audit personnel; developing an audit plan,includ ing checklists, which defines the technical,

I'lpBHOkOW 1 ■XbeDeep





, rtLSS

geographic and time scope; obtaining back ground information on the workplace to be audited (for example, with a questionnaire); and determining the criteria to be used in

evaluating workplace H&S programs. The standardized audit protocol should be customized at this stage, to fit circum stances of the audit site. All reasons for

. Meclaawica


adapting the protocol away from the stand ard one,now or later, should be documented.

Regarding selecting audit personnel, outside persons conducting an audit are called auditors; inside persons performing


the same function are called "assessors".

There are both advantages and disadvan tages in including an employee at the site being audited within an audit team.


vantages may include(1)insider knowledge of the physical layout and organizational patterns of the facility during the audit and (2) perception of greater credibility among the workforce of the results of the audit. The

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 113


Health & Safety Auditing, cont'd. to control safety liability (such as forkiift operation training, iockout-tagout). A core requirement of an effective H&S management system is the capability to con trol the flow of the information generated. This is best achieved by adequate compu terization of such information, other than

personal medical files. Medical files pose a special problem. Health & safety auditors will generally not include a medical professional with profes sional access to examine a sample of these records directly. Rather, the auditor(s) will want to know how the records are organ ized and security maintained.

If the company has a site physician or nurse,they may elect to keep personal medi cal records of staff on site. For security

purposes, it may be advisable to keep these in hard copy only. Altematively, a com pletely independent computer system for medical staff can be considered.

Computer specialists will claim that lo cal network access between a medical de

partment computer and other company com puters can be successfully controlled by vari ous passwords and other technical barriers. However, exposure to the nether world of computer hacks quickly teaches one that there is no security barrier that some selftaught expert cannot break. An alternative is to have the medical

office separate from the facility, for exam ple on contract or retainer to an independ ent occupational health service. The same

pitfalls of information security apply; the employee's personal information may be just as much at risk, depending on the rigor with which medical information is protected by the contractor, but the employer's liability is somewhat transferred to the contracted health service.

Another special case of information se curity can arise from the WHMIS legisla tion. If a worker appears to have an emer gency medical problem related to exposure to a particular product, professional medi

cal personnel have the right to request full compositional information on a proprietary product. In that case, personal medical files can also hold proprietary information. In most cases, emergency situations are not handled at the workplace; rather, the worker is transferred to a hospital emergency room. In that case such proprietary information may end up both in the hospital records and in the personal medical record kept by com

pany health professionals - a further dilu tion of security control. All these issues should be considered by the health and safety auditor - in posing questions and requesting written policies and procedures. (2) Evaluating Management Controls The second phase, on site, is evalua tion of the effectiveness of the management controls in achieving their objectives. In evaluating the soundness of controls, re member that more controls do not neces 60

sarily mean better control. Here, you are asking yourself: what are the risks to the company if the subject issue is not handled as intended? Put another way,

what types of process upset are possible, even likely, and what could be their H&S consequences? Have adequate preventative, feedback corrective, and contingency(dam age control) arrangements been made? In some cases,regulation may somewhat determine the design of the control system. For example, a workplace using a desig nated substance may be required to have an exposure control system in place which meets the standards of the corresponding Designated Substance Regulation. Usually, auditors must rely on their pro fessional judgement to assess the adequacy of the control mechanisms.

Heavy regulation is often counter-productive, because reguiations date quickiy and cannot cover every contingency. (3) Gathering Evidence In the third phase, on site, the auditor gathers further evidence to verify that the management controls are functioning as in tended. By this time, the audit protocol has been customized to the site, and should be

followed carefully. Any reasons to deviate from it should be documented.

An example of gathering evidence would be to verify by direct observation that the respirators used are appropriate for the ex posure conditions and are listed on the cur rent NIOSH Certified Equipment List. Another example would be to interview worker members of the Joint Committee to

verify that sample contents of the Commit tee minutes are valid. Further examples would be to interview production workers to verify that workplace inspections are oc curring regularly or that a particular acci dent was investigated satisfactorily.

Be sure to get copies of all Ministry or ders and recommendations, and evidence of

any prosecutions and convictions of the fa cility and its leadership, relevant to health and safety. Document the compliance sta tus of all Ministry orders, past and current.

The purpose of these verification activi ties is to be able to make "verifiable asser

tions" as a result of the audit. Verifiable

assertions are the audit findings, substanti ated by reasonable hard evidence.

is the time to consciously look for patterns in the overall functioning of the manage ment system. This is also the time to con firm that each finding is backed by suffi cient evidence. (If not, further verification information should be obtained, if practica

ble, before proceeding.) Finally, this is the time to summarize related findings so as to

clearly indicate their significance. (5) Reporting Findings Verbally - Exit Meeting It is standard practice to discuss find

ings individually with site staff, as these findings are uncovered. However, it is also essential to conduct a formal exit meeting

with top site management to report all find ings which have come to light at this point, at least verbally - and to comment on their significance in the operation of the manage ment control system. The auditor may provide a brief written

report, which can serve as an interim report until the final report is accepted. The above procedure is the ideal. In re ality, budget limits on travel time and ex penses, and availability of key persons at the audited facility are some of the factors

which can require creative modification of the protocol. For example, it may be neces sary to complete review ofa boxfull ofdocu ment copies back at the auditor's office this not being practical while on site. Post-Site Activities

Aside from spillover activities belong

ing within site activities but not practical to complete on site, two other major activities remain following site work: preparation of the final report and development of correc tive action recommendations.

First, review all working notes and docu ments, photographs, etc. accumulated to make sure all topics were covered and all findings supported by working notes and other evidence on hand.

Prepare a draft final report. If the audit was conducted by a team, the team leader will usually prepare the draft report. The Final Report typically includes three

components: (1) all non-compliance with legal requirements (all relevant levels of govemment),(2) all exceptions to (the au dited) company health and safety policy within the scope of the audit and (3) any other significant shortcomings in the health and safety practices and management con trol systems at the facility. Submit the draft report to the manage ment who authorized the audit,for feedback.

All audit information is documented as a record of conditions at the time of the au

Be prepared to discuss any challenges to your findings with evidence. With due con sideration offeedback, modify the draft and

dit. Where a management control is defi

submit the final report.

cient, this is recorded as a "finding".


(4) Evaluating Findings At this point, the auditor(s) have tested

The author is grateful for the thoughtful cri tique by Dr.Om Malik,CIH,Provincial Co

and reached conclusions about the indi

ordinator for Professional and Specialized Services, Ontario Ministry of Labour. How ever, the author assumes complete respon sibility for any errors and all opinions.

vidual elements ofthe management controls. It is now time to integrate and evaluate the

findings, and judge their significance. This

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

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Zebra Mussels conference

The 5th International Zebra Mussel and

other Aquatic Nuisance Organisms Conference Abstracts

Small mollusks stil loom large on

aquatic horizons. This conference shows that the problems have not gone away, yet new methods and research are tackling the problems with a wide range of solutions. Here are selected abstracts from the February 1995 conference in Toronto.

the Michigan Department of Natural Re sources requested assurance that filtration would preclude viable zebra mussel life stages from the pumped water. MCID pro posed to conduct tests, under stringent con ditions, to demonstrate the efficacy of fine mesh filtration in precluding all mussel life stages, including viable eggs.

remove all early life stages of

Comparative biology of zebra mussels In Europe, and

mollusks from raw water

North America

In-line fine mesh filtration to

carrying high suspended

Gerald L. Mackie


University of Guelph

A. Garry Smythe Therese M. Short

Cameron L. Lange Acres International Corporation The byssate zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) have created major macrofouling problems for raw water users in areas of the Great

Lakes and the upper Mississippi River drainage. Mussel infestations now exist east of the Great Lakes, west into Oklahoma on the Arkansas River, and south on the Mis sissippi River to New Orleans, Louisiana.

To date, proactive and reactive chemi cal applications have been the most com mon approaches to mussel control. Many water users do not use chemicals for mus

sel control because of existing or potential future discharge permit regulations. Excessive mussel fouling was not pre dicted for the lower southem states because

heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used

for other plant processes, such as makeup in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditioning, fire protec tion, and human consumption. All raw wa ter systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To date, many different chemical and nonchemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However,

Since the introduction of the zebra mussel,

Dreissena polymorpha,into the Great Lakes in 1985 to 1986, numerous comparisons with European studies have been made on the species' ecological tolerances and re quirements for growth and reproduction, population dynamics, rates of growth and mortality, dispersal rates and patterns, and impacts on fauna and flora in major North American watersheds. Many North Ameri can studies, mostly on the zebra mussel but most recently on a second introduced spe cies,the quagga mussel,Dreissena bugensis, have revealed many differences. North American populations of zebra mussels ap pear to be similar to European populations in their basic biological characteristics, population growth and mortality rates, and dispersal mechanisms and rates. Relative to European populations, significant differ ences have been demonstrated for:(1)indi

vidual growth rates; (2) life spans;(3) cal high summertime water temperatures were cium and pH tolerances and requirements; thought to provide a natural control. Until (4) continental distribution limits; and (5) recently,Dreissena related macrofouling had impacts on Unionidae populations. caused no operational problems; however, In addition, studies on the occurrence of in summer 1994 at ENTERGY's Gerald the two dreissenid species in the Great Andres Plant(GAP)located on the Missis Lakes are showing differences between spe sippi River in Mississippi,temperature fluc cies in their modes of life, depth distribu tuations in systems coolers were observed. tions, and growth rates. Knowing the dif These fluctuations were the result of zebra ferences and similarities in biologies be mussels and some Corbicula sp. blocking tween the species and populations in dif condenser tubes. Facility scientists and ferent waterbodies will allow for more ef operators had been considering nonfective control of these biofouling species chemical, proactive methods to control the as they spread throughout the North Ameri mussel, including filtration, but data on the can continent. backwash capabilities of fine mesh filters exposed to heavy suspended loads typical Zebra mussel mitigation In of Mississippi River water were lacking. Industrial setting; overview Independently,the Mud Creek Irrigation R. Claudi District(MCID),located in Bad Axe,Michi Environment Department gan, proposed to use fine mesh filtration as Ontario Hydro a proactive method to exclude all Dreissena Ziebra mussels cause a number of problems life stages from the flow of pumped irriga tion water. To satisfy the State regulations. to industrial raw water users as well as hav 62

ing serious impact on civil structures ex posed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water(up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and

the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been

the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This

is likely to change as the environmental con straints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase.

Impacts of zebra mussels on Industrial structures: fire

protection systems In particular D. Lewis

Aquatic Sciences Inc. J. Piontkowski, Ed Neuhauser

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Since the introduction of the zebra mussel

to North America fresh water, utilities, in

dustry, and municipal water users have been coping to various degrees with the effects of these mollusks on their ability to meet their water needs. The initial impacts were at times near catastrophic and at the least costly.

\^ether it was intake cribs in Lake Erie, bar racks in Hamilton Harbour or small di

ameter piping or condenser tubes, miles downstream inside an industrial complex or utility, the effect was usually the same, in volving significant and often labour inten sive efforts to maintain critically needed water flow for a variety of uses. In addition, fire protection systems, ini tially overlooked due to their apparent stag nant nature, have proven to be vulnerable in many instances. This paper summarizes some of the more significant effects of the zebra mussel on industrial structures with emphasis on fire protection systems and methods of assess ing and minimizing the risk of infestation to fire protection water piping.

Continued on page 66

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at (905) 727-4666. LIQUID CARBONIC tHDUSTIIAl


Carbon Dioxide |

«\n.Water Treatment \ Systems t


. i

Water treatment systems explained in new brochure Safe, effective and economical water treatment systems are dis

Cna-Effecthc WieaeMiter

'HcatnicnlItdmology The ADI-BVF® Reactor

cussed in new literature from Liq uid Carbonic. The six-page bro chure explains how carbon dioxide

cluding the low-rate ADI-BVF®

(COj)can be used for lowering the pH of various kinds of alkaline wa ters in municipal facilities and in in dustries that include food, textile, chemical, petroleum and pulp and paper production. Several types of

COj injection equipment are also described and illustrated.

Woriluilc liuulliu

Liquid Carbonic Circie repiy card No. 200

Solids Handling Pumps Environmentally Benefldal

Pumping Reliability

n Products

anaerobic digester, the high-rate ADI-Hybrid reactor, and SBRs (sequencing batcfi reactors). ADI Systems can provide the client with complete service from design to start up including op erator training, follow-up and trouble shooting. ADI

Circle reply card No. 201

Abel Solids Handling Pumps

Practice Galde

ior Satapling nastes

Abel SH Pumps are hydrauiically driven, self-priming, positive dis placement, single acting recipro cating pumps. The pump consists of 2 separate units; the pump and the power pack which are con nected by hydrauiic hoses. The pumps are used for transfer of mechanically dewatered munici pal sludges, mining backfill, incin erator feed and other difficult high density pumping applications. Hydro Dynamics Ltd. Circle reply card No. 202

Groundwater Monitoring System The Waterloo Multilevel System gives detailed 3-D groundwater in formation, without the large cost of drilling many monitoring wells. The modular system uses engi neered seals to prevent cross-flow between monitoring zones. It is customized to suit each applica tion. Dedicating monitoring instru

AD! wastewater systems ADI Systems Inc. specializes in design-build wastewater treat ment systems. Anaerobic and aerobic technologies are used in

aud Iniwshial

OWMC's New Industrial

Sampling Guide


This new guidebook provides detaiis on how to obtain representa tive sampies from compiex waste and industriai process streams from pianning through to anaiytical testing. The fiow-chart format makes it easy to pian and to carry out sampiing procedures. Also in cludes sampling strategy, quaiity as surance, health and safety consid erations and regulatory test limits. Ontario Waste Management Corp. Circle reply card No. 203

Free Instrumentation

Instrumentation Reference and Catalogue

Reference and Catalogue National Instruments is providing a 1995 catalogue detailing computerbased data acquisition, instrument controi and data analysis products, includes information on exciting new products and technologies such as Plug and Play boards. Power Macin tosh software. Test Executives, SPG and SQL add-ons, HP-UX instrument controi, PCMCIA interfaces and \/X\plug&play. There is also informa

Test and j Measur»nent j

Process Monitoring and Control

ments can further avoid crosscontamination and reduce field time. Solinst Canada Ltd.

tion on customer education classes.

Includes tutorials and glossary.

Circle reply card No. 204

National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 205

GPS-X™ Optimization

DynaSand Filter The DynaSand Filter is a con tinuous backwash, upflow, deep bed granular media filter. The filter media is continuously cleaned by recycling the sand internally through an airlift pipe



Dynamic modelling of the entire wastewater treatment plant from in fluent to discharge is now available

Wastewater Treatment Plant Simulator

with software named GPS-X'^". The

Unix based software, running on popular engineering workstations, is an interactive simulator intended to

HTdroraaatic Inc.

help engineers improve decision mak ing for research, pianning, design and operations. The GPS-X™ comes with a wide variety of process librar ies and an easy to use graphical in terface. It is the only software capa ble of dynamic simulation of any plant regardless of complexity or size. Hydromantis,Inc. Circle reply card No.206

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

and sand washer. Six models are available with filtration areas

%\'l-> 3 j. I! k

ranging from 7 to 100 square feet. The catalog gives informa tion on applications, mode of operation and standard and op tional features.

Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 207


Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905) 727-4666. Asbestos and Environmental

HAZCO Releases 1995

Emergency Response Team

Rental & Repair Catalogue! This full-color catalogue displays HAZCO's collection ot portable environmental equipment and de tails repair and maintenance serv


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HAZCO's rental fleet, which Is

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Cleanup • Power Washing - Bridge Painting Restoration Consultants

Circle reply card No.230 Odor Control

Cyanide Removal

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorlte (JAVEX-12) Is de tailed In a technical bulletin. Sys

Using Sodium Hypochlorlte (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes

tems are discussed that dis

Is detailed. Bulletin reviews dos

pense a hypochlorlte spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics Include: storage and air collection needs.

ages, equipment, as well as storage, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recover or refining opera



Canada Inc.


Circle reply card No. 231

Canada inc.

Circle reply card No. 232

New From Big 'O' Leak-Tight Sewer System

Zebra Mussels

A "Solution" for ZEBRA WSSELS

To help control zebra mussels,

• CSA Certified HOPE pipe and fittings. • Features Bell & Spigot sealed joints necessary tor sanitary

one solution Involves the use of

JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorlte, which kills the larvae. We are con



sulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. It you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept Informed ot the latest Information, please con

sewers and storm sewers

needing leak-tight performance. • Currently available In 100mm to 600mm diameters.

• Larger diameters under development. Big 'O' Circle reply card No. 234

tact us.

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 233

Motionless Mixers T he proven molioniese mixer mat

Ixin^ new ^fnency and cost-

The Statltio motionless mixer Is a

vital component ot any Inline mix ing/control system. Incorporation ot the Statltio mixer allows rapid sampling and efficient as well as minimum use ot dosing chemicals.

{<3WflajgEwnaigai Centrifugal decanters for thickening and dewatering waste sludge

Statltio motionless mixers are com

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lution and dispersion applications. Statltio Inc.

Circle reply card No. 235 64


Sludge Thickening and Dewatering Centrico otters this 10 page Illus trated brochure comparing cen trifugal decanters to belt filter press and frame press technolo gies. Design features ot clarify ing decanters and their benefits are explained, such as closed de sign, low operating costs, continu ous operation with least operator attention, and compliance with environmental regulations. Centrico

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Mollusk menaces

Asiatic dams, iike zebra musseis,

threaten waterways

Threeyears ago Scottsdale(Arizona)

park officials were having problems with clogged pipes and sprinkler heads. Park staff identi fied the problem as an invasion of Fresh water Asiatic clams throughout several irrigation lakes. Every one or two weeks the park staff had to inspect sprinklers and pipes to remove the accumulated clamshells

Their larvae, exceedingly small, are spawned when reaching 80 microns in size. Upon entering distribution piping, the lar vae continued to mature and develop shells which eventually blocked the system. In the Scottsdale parks, the food chain is small in size and the balance easily up set. This appears to have happened. There has been a proliferation of algae which is a

and debris.

food source for Asiatic clams. With this

This procedure, called a Blist, required efforts of the entire park

increase in the food supply, the clam popu-

staff. If a Blist was not

performed every 7 to 14 days, the sprinkler system would become blocked

with clams and algae. The crucial-cleaning-procedure permitted water to flow unimpeded through the piping systems to irri gate park grounds. With out regular irrigation, veg

ground wells. An analysis of canal and local well wa ters by the Soil Testing Laboratory at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, revealed a significant amount of ammonia and phosphate, which are nutri ents for algae. These nutrients are suspected to be residuals from turf fertilizers used on

surrounding grounds. When it rains or the grass is irrigated, runoff water carries ex cess ammonia and phosphate into the lakes. Eliminating or appreci ably reducing ammonia and phosphate would re quire prohibiting the use of fertilizers on park grounds and requesting nearby neighbors to do the same. Manci believed this

was not an acceptable so lution to control algae growth and subsequent clam populations. EDAW, the site engi neers, working in conjunc

etation would burn and die.

In addition to being time consuming and ex pensive, the Blist did nothing to solve the prob lem of clams entering and succeeding to block the sprinkler system. To solve their problem, Scottsdale hired EDAW, a group of landscape architects and site engineers, to study the problem and determine a solution. Originally from China, and introduced to the United States in the 1930's, the

mollusks were identified as tiny Asiatic clams which proliferate in fresh water ar eas, specifically the western United States.

Wi11 Asiatic clams be the latest th reat to the

Great Lakes system? Photo T. Davey.

tion with Fisheries Tech

nology Associates, Inc., studied the problem and arrived at three possible solutions to control fresh water clams and their food source. These solutions

lation has exploded. Bill Manci of Fisheries Technology Associates, Inc., evaluated the dynamics of the park's biological system. Manci believes proliferation of algae is caused by changes in water supplied to the lakes. The primary supply of water is provided by the Salt River Project (SRP), which collects runoff from outlying areas in the state and delivers it to the lakes via a canal. A second additional source of water is withdrawn from local

were physical, chemical and biological methods. There were two types of possible physi cal solutions. Filtration, which would de

pend upon its ability to remove the small clam larvae and algae, and lethal gas bub ble disease, which is similar to "the bends" in humans. In lethal gas bubble disease, excess nitrogen enters the blood supply. Ni trogen bubbles develop in bodily tissues, re sulting in death. Both methods would pro vide for total and immediate solution.

Chemical methods included poisons, le-

Zebra Mussel Control

GreenwDod Environmental inc.

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People Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 129


Asiatic ciams threaten waterways, cont'd. thai sterilants and oxidants and non-lethal

The 5th International Zebra Mussel conference, cont'd, from page 62 ing the 1960-to-present period when 41 spe

Exotic species; introduction, invasions and impacts

cies became established.

About 10 percent of the exotic species in the Great Lakes have caused apparent economic or ecologic damage to the system. A sample from this group is analyzed to de termine the predictability of colonization and potential impacts on ecosystem health. Successful colonization by most of the spe cies reviewed was predictable from habitat requirements and behaviours of the NIS. Ecosystem disturbance was an obvious fac

Joseph H. Leach Richard A. Ryder Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Concern about the introduction or invasion

of nonindigenous species (NTS) and their impacts on indigenous species of flora and fauna has been increasing globally. In creases in marine traffic, the spread of aquaculture, and intentional and accidental introductions of living organisms and ge netic materials have contributed to a global homogenization of plants, animals, and pathogens. Invasions of NIS are a threat to the integrity and persistence of natural com

tor in the success of some of the colonists

but was not an overriding ecological impera tive.

Health of the Great Lakes ecosystem was impacted by the NIS through competition, predation, habitat damage,introgression and through the introduction of parasites and diseases. Impacts to ecosystem health in some instances are more difficult to predict and in most cases were not readily apparent from knowledge about the ecology ofinvad

munities and contribute to losses of

biodiversity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. More than 4,500 NIS have become es tablished in the United States and 600 in

the United Kingdom. The Laurentian Great Lakes,as a major corridor for settlement and commercial development in central North

ers or native communities. Difficulties in

turies. Since the early 1800s approximately 140 exotic species have become successfully

predicting invasions and damage from suc cessful colonists emphasize the need to pre vent more NIS from reaching the Great Lakes. Efforts to manage biological pollu tion are relatively recent and reflect concern

established. The rate of colonization has

over acceleration in the rate of successful

accelerated since 1900 and especially dur


America, have been vulnerable to invasions and introductions of NIS for nearly six cen

oxidants. Some poisons would kill mollusks and others would kill the algae. Those, such as copper sulfate, which are effective poi sons would be toxic to the turf grasses. The toxicity, plus the high cost of repeated ap plications, did not make this a practical al ternative.

Sterilants and oxidants, such as chlorine,

ozone or quicklime, would be safe to sur rounding terrain and economically feasible. However, because these compounds could kill other forms of life in the park's biologi cal system, the safety of using chemicals was a serious concern. Also, the quicklime would necessitate periodically draining the lake to treat its sediment. Since water is a

precious resource in the desert, this option was not acceptable. Non-lethal oxidation or aeration of the

lake water would be effective for algae con trol. By tying up nutrients in the system with the introduction of oxygen to the water, these nutrients would be less avail able to sustain other organisms. However, the effectiveness of aeration directly on clams would be minimal.

Biological solutions would include in troducing predators such as channel catfish. The catfish could live year round in Scottsdale park lakes only if aeration was provided. However, whether they would eat the Asiatic clams to a significant degree was uncertain.

After reviewing all options, EDAW rec ommended filtration as the most effective,

Technology Works! In Ultrasonic Level Measurement reliability and ease of use make it

the exact barrier to the clam larvae and most

the most widely installed Tsm" ultrasonic level device ■:c

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Amiad automatic self-cleaning filters where chosen because of their ability to fil ter particles as small as 25 microns. At 80 microns the filtration system would present

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algae. A coarse strainer was installed in the system to remove particles one-quarter of an inch and larger from the water before entering the filters. As water passes through the Amiad au tomatic filters, debris is trapped by the fil ter screen, eventually building a filtercake. When the filtercake grows sufficently large to create a pressure drop across the screen, the filters flush in the opposite direction, much like a water vacuum to remove col

lected debris. The Amiad self-cleaning fil ters flush as needed automatically without interrupting the flow of water to the sprin kler system.

Amiad installed their filters in April, 1993. After one year, during annual tem perature changes and biological system cy cles in the Scottsdale parks, the filters have proven their effectiveness, especially as a barrier to clam larvae.

For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 130 66

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 131

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995




* 415 abstracts received from 51 countries




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Product Review


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Quality Anafyticat Laboratories

for speclfK tests registered

Laboratolres Analytlques be OualM

with the CouncllfAtsoclation.

Praa Phaaa Product

- Ground Water

NOVAMANN (Ontario)Inc. L9i>on\otht/0f1ic$i In:

5540 McAbam Road

Mississauga. Ontario Uittiutuga Uonlrial

Nl8g»rg Fallg Edmonton

Amharst, N.Y. Oualph Uexko aty

L4Z 1P1

Tel.:(905)890-2555 FAX:(905)890-0370

Montr6al:(514)636-6218 Toll Free: 1■800-563-6266



The WeilwickTM is a passive recovery sys tem designed to provide continuous recov ery of floating hydrocarbons from ground

monitoring water wells at a fraction of the cost of standard mechanical or manual bail

Environmental Division:

801 Capitola Drive; Durham, NC 27713 TEL: (919) 544-5729 FAX: (919) 544-5491

ing systems. It absorbs floating hydrocar bons with a hydrophobic absorbent mate rial and provides continuous recovery through a capillary action which draws hy drocarbons into the "wick" until the "wick" reaches saturation. The Weiiwick absorbs

DioxinslFurans ^ Volatiles a. PCBslPesticides Metals ^ Semivolatiles a. PAHs 68

approximately one gallon of hydrocarbons per pound of absorbent material. The Weiiwick absorbent material has

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Product Review


passed the ASTM tests so it is compatible with landfilling, when regulations permit.


Used Wellwicks can be incinerated.

MJ. International Associates


For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 213

PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA Burlington, Ontario (905) 332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreai, Quebec(514)493-4733

Portable pH meter

Ainley and

A Water bupDiy s bewage Uisposa


Bnages ■






0 Planning

Soiio Waste D

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

(705) 726-3371

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168


Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

The Model 107 pH Meter is a 9V battery operated, hand held, 6" h x 4" w x 4" d unit in a leather carrying case. Features include: 2-12 pH scale; 0-100c temperature compen sation; gel filled pH electrode with 30" lead and buffer solutions. pH indicator and re

W ite Management solutions to


0 4 Rs

Was ywater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubieshooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

corder-controllers and field meters are avail

able. Analytical Measurements Canada For more information,

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdaie, Ontario M2N 1N2


Circie repiy card No. 216

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Metering aggressive fluids

consulting engineers and technology management Water Poliution Control

Water Supply Water Resources TORONTO WELLAND

(416)497-8600 (416)735-3659



Waste Management Transportation Municipal Services ' Land Development OSHAWA SUDBURY

A<iu0tic SciencesInc. Biology Envitonmentol Audits

Toxicity Testing

' Tunnels and Shafts ' Structures ' Architecture

(416)434-2544 (705)560-5555(Dennis Consultanis)

'Environmental professionals working with Industry to Improve water qualify'

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wostewoter Engineering

Environmental Engineering Stormwoter Management

impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Sin B, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905) 641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519) 383-7822

The new electromagnetic flowmeters of the capacitive line from Bailey-Fischer & Por ter have been designed for the metering of aggressive and abrasive fluids. They also apply to fluids with low conductivities(0,05 uS/cm) and slurries which tend to produce

deposits. An ex-protected version is avail




able for installation in hazardous areas. The flowmeters are rotomolded and electrodeless.

The ETFE liner for flanged instruments guarantees an absolutely tight bond between Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995


/F 69

Product Review


the liner and the metering spool. In combi


TECHNOLOGIES INC. Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

nation with the ETFE liner, the meter is suitable for difficult installations, such as

fluids with resin particles in the paper in

' biopiles, landfarming ' bioslurry reactor processes ' biological laboratory services ' contracted R&D projects

dustry. The electrodes in the capacitive meas

• focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

urement technique are flat and installed liehind the liner (the fluid does not come in contact with the electrode). Corrosion re

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone:(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222

sistance problems associated with electrode materials are nonexistent.

Bailey-Fischer & Porter For more information,

Bluewing Environmental Services Ltd.

New hot water meters

Environmental Assessments

• Site Remediation

Storage Tank Removal Regulatory Approvals

•Air Quality Surveys • OH&S,WHIMS Training • Design Engineering

Environmental Manuals

Circle reply card No. 214


701 Evans Avenue, Suite 701, Elobicoke, Ontario M9C 1A3

Td: (416)626-2222



Fax: (416)626-2232 W


ABB Kent Meters has a new 250° series of

Consulting Engineers

hot water meters designed for applications such as condensate return, BTU systems, and batching where higher flow ranges are required. The meters are capable of han dling flows as follows:

Specialists in a compretiensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontorio Street, Suite 201,

Colllngwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9



mm > Water Supply Strategies •Water Resources &

■ Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management • Environmental


Environmental Planning •Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow


4.4 GPM

132.0 GPM


8.8 GPM

396.0 GPM


10.5 GPM

616.0 GPM

17.6 GPM

1320.0 GPM



• Wastewater Collection & Treatment


Direct reading registers or pulse/regis ters are available in two configurations: Dry reed contact (2 wire), 10 watts rated maxi mum capacity 24 VDC, 100 mA, or OptoElectron (3 wire) with 24 VDC, 100 mA. ABB Kent Meters

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 215 WATERLOO





(5191579-3500 (403)237-9300 (604)684-3282 (416)675-7170


New 3/4" hot water meter


^Environmental Management

' Occupational Health ^Air Quality

^Analytical Laboratory

"Litigation Support For more information, please call your nearest Clayton offi

A new, low cost 195° hot water meter, the



Eastern Region Toronto Tel: (416) 441-4111




Offices across Canada and Overseas


3/4" 5UM-20, has been specifically de signed for applications such as apartment submetering and hot water batching in bak

Fax: 1416) 441-4131

eries. The new meter can handle a mini

Prairie Region Calgary

mum flow of 1.0 gpm, a tec. continuous flow of 11.0 gpm, and a peak flow of 22.0 gpm.

Tel: (403) 276-9861 Fax: (403)277-6902

The user can choose between a direct

Pacific Region

reading register or a pulse/register with 4


watt rated reed switch. ABB Kent Meters

Tel: (604)525-9333 Fax: (604)525-9458

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 190 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

©FLANGED FITTINGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 30", Terminai City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of laterai branches, other than the standard 45°, as weli as with optional reducing on both the iateral and the "run".


Designed primariiy for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'T.C.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22y2° and 1^/4° configurations. As well, 'TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminai City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes,

both straight and reducing are available together with 'TO.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT



Make the Right Connection...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available in both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special" 'T.C. FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks installation requirements.

IRON WORKS LTD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (804) 253-6365

For more information. Circle reply card No. 139

Product Review Turbidity/suspended solids sensor

in situ system which can measure NO^^, SO,,

NH3,HC1,CO,,CH^,HF,THC,opacfty and dust. The Stak-Tracker'''" offers lower main

The Vortex 4 is manufactured with all

wetted parts (stainless steel) and has no moving parts that require maintenance or recalibration. It is available with optional

tenance costs and fewer subsystems than

HART interface. Model lOVT features a

extractive systems, fast response for proc ess control, high availability rates, and it simultaneously measures up to six gases. It

2-wire transmitter design with a dual line LC display standard. The meter is easily configured using a three key pad with a sim ple step-through menu. All information is keyed into the converter locally or uploaded using HART interface. Bailey-Fischer & Porter For more information.

will work in stacks or ducts from 3 to 33 ft.

wide and can handle process temperatures up to 540°C (1000°F). GE Renter Stokes For more information,

Circle reply card No. 199

Circle reply card No. 192 The ability to measure turbidity and sus pended solids is now available in one, port

Vortex 4^"^ flowmeter line enhanced

Large R/S gate valve

able sensor. The COSMOS sensor combines

the measurement of turbidity in drinking water as low as 0.1 FNU and suspended solids concentrations up to approx. 100 g/1 biological sludge. The unit was designed to NEMA 4 specifically for field applica tion to eliminate cumbersome sample tak ing and lab testing. Applications in sewage treatment plants include solids concentration in the activa

tion tank, return sludge lines, and sludge level monitoring, and effluent turbidity. The unit is also used for control measurement

in drinking water reservoirs and spring/well water surveillance and industrial processes. Design features include a combined multibeam measuring principle, SMD-tecbnology electronics, a pulsed infrared light transmitted to/from the measuring medium, a combination of multiple emitters and de tectors, compensation for interference, and stainless steel body. Bestobell Engineering Products For more information,

Circle reply card No. 212

Continuous Emission


Bailey-Fischer & Porter has enhanced its Vortex 4 line of flowmeters with an option (lOVRlOOO)that allows the signal converter to be remotely mounted. The line also has been granted FM approval for Class 1, Div. I intrinsically safe service and is suitable for Class 1, Div. 2 service in areas desig nated as nonincendive.

The Vortex 4 line was introduced early in 1992 with micro-processor-based elec tronics. The meters offer many enhanced design features including extended tempera ture limits, a complete range of sizes and wider flow rangeability.

The Neo-Seguro Resilient Seal Gate Valve is available in sizes up to 60". No other company manufactures this type of valve above 20 inches.

This valve provides 100% full flow bore with no cavities or obstructions in the wa

terway. This minimizes pressure drops and prevents accumulation of sediments and debris. It also provides 100% bubble-tight shut-off. The gate valve is available in both N.R.S. and O.S. & Y., with flanged, me chanical joint or victaulic ends. Neo Valves For more information. Circle reply card No. 193

In-Situ continuous emission monitors H,0 and CO, are monitored on all Procal

Stack Analyzers to provide, in conjunction with Gas Filter Correlation techniques,con tinuous cross-sensitivity correction. Each Procal Analyzer Control Unit can handle up to 4 Optical Head Units. The OHUs are "daisy-chained" to the Control Unit over a simple serial link up to 1 km in length to reduce installation costs. Each

OHU can accept up to 4 local analog in puts,e.g.,from an O,analyzer, opacity moni tor, etc., which can be retransmitted to the


A Continuous Emission Mo i'l om

OS REin'SR BTCKi.';;:

The Procal Analytics PULSI range of In-Situ analyzers can measure up to 6 components simultaneously. The Optical Head Unit, which mounts directly on the stack/duct to eliminate costly, high maintenance gas sam pling and conditioning systems,provides true wet-basis analysis of an unmodified sample.

Control Unit over the serial link to simplify the installation of an integrated CEM sys tem. Bailey Fischer & Porter For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 191

The Stak-Tracker''^' Gas Analyzer from GE Reuter-Stokes is a continuous emissions

monitor for utilities and industry. It is an infra-red based, dual beam/dual wavelength 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Product Review Small conductivity sensor Thermal desorptlon for soil cleanup Thermal desorptlon is a method of cleaning hydro carbon-contaminated soils.

The simple process does not require a large amount of space and is quickly com pleted. Contaminated soil is loaded into a closed drum and heated to volatilize the

The new electrode-less Zullig LF-25 con ductivity sensor has been designed for low maintenance process measurement. The two measuring coils are now placed in co axial position to the shaft; therefore, the diameter of the sensor head is only 40mm. Due to a sophisticated coil concept, a meas uring range from 500 microsiemens/cm to 1 siemens/cm may now be offered. SMD technology is applied on the amplifier, which is integrated directly in the sensor, allowing distances of up to 300 m from the control unit.

Different types of mounting are avail able, including swing brackets for channels and inflows, a flange version in liquid tanks, and in-line installation.

contained hydrocarbons. Exhaust gases containing hydrocarbons are then col lected, filtered to remove

particulate and consumed in an oxidizer. Clean soil leav

ing the treatment unit is immediately available for reuse.

This clean soil can be returned to

the excavation area or stockpiled for later use. Soils recycled in the thermal desorptlon process are used as road base, as soil for landfdl cover or as clean fdl.

The advantages of thermal desorptlon are many. Soil is quickly cleaned - property and soil are immediately reusable. The ex

act level of cleanliness is defined immedi

ately following treatment. Hydrocarbons are not released into the atmosphere. There is no future liability, and valuable landfill space is not consumed. Canada Soil Exchange For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 198

In-line low flow chemical

Emissions continuously



The LF-25 sensor is now made of

polypropylene, replacing the formerly-used PVC. Bestobell Engineering Products For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 194

Ultrasonic level measurement

■ ■■B ■ ■KB

Milltronics' new generation AiRanger DPL Plus and XPL Plus make ultrasonic level measurement easier and faster than earlier


The completely redesigned AiRanger Plus systems offer faster measurement up date times, expanded application versatil ity, and more informative displays. One system can monitor liquids, solids, or a com bination of both in up to ten vessels of vari ous configurations at ranges to 60m. Both offer analog and relay outputs for control and indication. Milltronics Ltd.

The Controlotron System 990DFT In-Line Transit-Time Flowmeter is ideally suited for low velocity, small line applications. The non-wetted transducer design, constructed of CPVC of Kynar tube material, allows the System 990DFT to be used on the most ag gressive chemical applications. The system uses MultiPulse TransitTime technology, a patented all digital meas urement technique. Almost any liquid can be measured, from water to a diverse range of process liquids and chemicals such as: fluoride, polymers, acids, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, alum, potassium permanganate, etc.

Single and Multi-Channel models are available as well as permanent and portable versions. Westech Industrial

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 195 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Siemens continuous emissions monitoring systems (GEMS) are supplied as turn-key operations and include precise analyzing, sampling and conditioning components for reliable, continuous analysis. They are cus tom-built to meet the specified requirement of each installation.

These systems feature process analysis technology, with specialized components to handle any environmental application re

quiring measurement of CO, CO,, SO,, NO^, NHj, O, and TCH. Wilier Engineering

For more Information,

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 196

Circle reply card No. 197 73

A "Solution" for

ZEBRA MUSSELS We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels.

The issue of zebra mussels

Is attracting Increasing attention from municipalities, utilities, government agencies and Industries around the Great Lakes. One solution Involves the use

of JAVEX-12'sodium

If you'd like to discuss this current problem, or be kept

hypochlorlte, which kills the zebra mussel larvae.

Informed of the latest

Information, please fill out tl

in "'in If Ti

Yes, please keep me informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite for controlling zebra mussels. For current project □ For future project □ For researcti purposes □ Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone: (


Mail to; Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. 255 WIcksteed Ave., Toronto, Ontsu'io M4H 1G8 Phone: (416) 421-0000

Fax: (416) 425-9320

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 141

Product Review drawings on a single machine. Copying and printing, that previously had to be separate

New SmartWIRE system CPU or CPU

Power Supply

& Modem



communication over radios,

Input/Output Modules

direct wiring, and telephone lines. SmartWIRE is also

compatible with spread spec trum radios, packet radios _ RS-48S or Phone Line or Radio Network

and radio modems.

ttn nil !tt Digital






SmartWIRE can be used

as a stand-alone telemetry system which transmits and reproduces signals in their

original format. It also pro vides telemetry into a serial â–ź Y

port on personal computers,

Digital Outputs

distributed control systems


and programmable control



RS-232, RS-48S, PC

dual function plotter/copier combining the performance and features of the two above models into one compact unit.

Portable digital Doppler

one-piece construction which eliminates

flowmeter A new lightweight, hand-held digital Dop pler flowmeter has been designed by

body leakage and has a sleek tapered de sign which allows for gentle immersion and avoids snagging on downhole obstructions. In addition, each bailer is decontaminated, bagged and sealed in a clean room so that it


SmartWIRE is used to transmit analog and digital process signals from one loca tion to another. It supports point-to-point

Polysonics for temporary flow measurement applications such as flow surveys, leak or rupture detection, efficiency studies and check metering. The compact, 26-oz. Portable Digital Doppler Flowmeter features Digital Signal Processing and a high-resolution, graphic display to provide viewing visibility even in poorly lit conditions. Flow data is re corded and stored in the non-volatile

memory and can be presented in a strip chart format to simplify data analysis. The in strument can be preprogrammed with set up parameters for multiple site locations and,after completion offlow measurements, data can be downloaded to a PC via the RS-

232 serial interface built into the charging cradle. Data logging is to 65,000 points. Accuracy is typically 2% and the unit meas ures flow rates below .1 fps. Peek Measurement, Inc.

upgradability for CAD and EDMS users. The Oce 9575, the best of both worlds, is a

accessed directly, without consuming local I/O.

and distributed multi-point networks, with

cost SCADA, telemetry, remote input/out put, cable reduction and personal computer

The Series includes a powerful, wide body monochrome raster plotter, a medium volume digital copier and a dual function plotter copier. The digital monochrome AO/E copier called Oce 9535, has full zoom capability and CAD plotting expandability for low to medium volume design professionals. The Oce 9555 is a fast, high volume, digital AO/E plain paper plotter with copier

lers. Remote I/O can be

SmartWIRE is simple to install and use. No programming, no com puter equipment, and no computer exper tise is required. Typical applications include pollution control and water treatment plant monitoring. Brian Controls For more information, Circie repiy card No. 217

SmartWIRE is a universal solution for low

operations, can now be handled as a con tinuous flow of information on the Oce 9500 Series machines.

Abso Canada Ltd.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 220

New multi-parameter water quality monitor

is ready to use right out of the package. The Mono-Econo disposable bailer has a translucent body which permits accurate inspection of immiscible layers and particulates. It is bottom weighted with a stainless steel ring facilitating easy filling in boreholes as well as open bodies of wa ter. With its unique Squeeze-Flow''''^ bot tom, the bailer permits one-handed opera tion by the user without special emptying attachment. Geneq Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 219

Combine copy and plot jobs Oce has developed a new, extremely flex ible system that can produce and reproduce

SRP Control Systems Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 218

Disposable bailer for

single use sampling

The new YSl 600 Multi-Parameter Water

Quality Monitor and YSI 610 Handheld Display are the latest additions to the YSI 6-Series monitor line.

The four-parameter system measures dissolved oxygen,conductivity,temperature and pH, eliminating the need to haul sepa rate instruments into the field. Only 1.6" in diameter and a foot long, the YSI 600 easily fits in 2" wells. With its stirring-independent Rapid-Pulse oxygen sensor, the YSI 600 delivers stable data in lakes, res

ervoirs and estuaries. Independent testing by a major environmental enforcement agency confirms that calibration stability can exceed 30 days.

RS232 and SDI-12 interface capability lets the user display and log data with the YSI 610 Handheld Display or with other data collection systems. With Nema 4 and IP65 ratings, the display can handle the rain, splash and mud encountered in field work. The display's built-in terminal emulator

The new NorwellÂŽ Mono-Econo disposable bailer is for single use sampling in boreholes with diameters of 2" or larger. It features Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

permits communication with any device with an RS232 interface. Geneq Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 221 75

Product Review


"Second Generation"

SIILL©ini Professional Consulting Services

regenerative blowers

'Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Vancouver • Yellowknife • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6N5 (4 16) 229-4646


Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: > Environmental Engineering 'Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances > Ventilation assessment/design 'Air monitoring 'Air emission control 'Indoor air quailty > Environmental audits I Noise monitoring and control 'WHMIS 'Workplace and safety audits I Asbestos

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Misslssauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(905) 858-4424

EG&G Rotron's "Second Generation" line

ofregenerative blowers can be used for pres sures and vacuums up to 9 PSIG at flows

from 30-250 CFM. T^e two stage blowers

Telex: 08-218242

Drainage t Laboratory Services—Analytical and Process R&D

are designed for quiet, efficient, low-main tenance, and compact requirements. Applications include wastewater treat ment, groundwater sparging, soli vapor ex traction, iandfiii gas evacuation, pneumatic conveying, vacuum manipulators, combus tion air, and process gas handling. Explo sion-proof models are avaiiabie in custom

255 Consumers Road

designs. Promat Engineering Sales

Fax:(905) 858-4426

Gore Si Stiorrie Limited Consulting Engineers Water • Wastewater• Water Resources• Air • Waste

Management • Energy Recovery • Environmental Planning •

North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6 (416) 499-9000

For more information.

(416) 499-0090 + ext.

Circle reply card No. 227

(416) 499-4687 fax

Ottawa • Thoroid • Barrie• Cambridge Misslssauga • Kingston • London

Prefabricated secondary containment

Environmental Noise and Vibration Assessments

Design and Specification of Mitigation Measures Audit Measurements Noise Vibration Acoustics

HOWE GASTMEIER CHAPNIK LIMITED 2000 Argentia Road,Plaza 1, Suite 203, Misslssauga, Ontario L5N IP7 Plione: (905)826-4044 Fax:(905) 826-4940 ,.p.



1-67 Watson Rd. S., Guelph, Ontario N1H 6He


TEL:(519) 822-2608 • FAX:(519) 822-3076


Impact Assessments habitat surveys,fisheries, wetlands


Environmental Diving spill investigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Laboratory Testing microbiology,toxicity, chemistry, biodegradation and respiration studies


air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation



dike area.


The Envirodike was developed over a three year period with the support of the


National Research Council of Canada and

Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5 76

Spectra Environmental has introduced the ENVIRODIKE, which is a prefabricated secondary containment unit designed to ret rofit existing single-wall aboveground stor age tanks. It is offered in a variety of sizes to accommodate any tank configuration up to 1000 gallons and its patented design in corporates an all-weather shield to prevent the entry of precipitation and debris into the

Underwriters Laboratories of Canada. To

reflect this new and innovative solution.

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

Underwriters has established ULC/ORD

142.2, a new standard for secondary con tainment of aboveground flammable and

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Prouduct Review


combustible liquid storage tanks. The Envirodike is the first product to be listed


under this new code.

Spectra Environmental For more information, Circle reply card No. 228

Environmental Consulting Engineers • Wcisie MdHftfiCinent • Water Su/>/fty

• Geo-Environmental En^ineerinf^

New multifunction data

NEWMARKET OFFICE Toll Free (800) 263-7419

acquisition board National Instruments has announced a new,

multifunction analog, digital, and timing 1/ O plug-in data acquisition board with supe rior timing features for Sun SPARCstations. DAQ® driver software for Sun,LabVIEW® application software, and signal condition

WINDSOR OFFICE Toll Free (800) 545-5406



Brampton (905) 459^780 (905) 459-7869

ing and cabling assemblies to create highperformance laboratory automation, process



(519) 743-6111 (519)743-3330


(705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Consultants Limited

monitoring and control, automotive and aerospace engineering, and electronic test applications. The SB-MIO-16E-4 has 16 single-ended

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5




down 24-bit counter/timers. The board has

a 250 kS/s analog sampling rate.







National Instruments

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 209

• Waste Water Ois/>osal

ST. CAIHARINES OFFICE Toll Free (800) 668-2598

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects

Users can combine SB-MIO-16E-4 with NI-

inputs, 16 pseudodifferential inputs with a shared common, or eight fully differential inputs with 12-bit resolution; two analog output channels with 12-bit resolution; eight TTL digital I/O lines that can sink 24 mA on each line; and two user-available, up/

* Industrial Minerals and Afiffregate Resources

• linvirontnenlal Rrt>perty Assesstnetit Remediation


P.O. Bag 4300, Lakefield. Ontano Canada KOl. 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax. 705-652-6365






Hand-held oxygen analyzer Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc.

7270 Woodbine Avenue. 3rd. Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R 489

The hand-held Model 630 oxygen analyzer from Engineered Systems & Designs, pro vides convenient, on-the-spot testing. The meter measures 0-100% atmospheric oxy gen with a resolution of 0.1 %. The mainte nance-free galvanic sensor requires no mem brane or filling solution replacements. The sensor has an expected life of 3-5 years and is not affected by hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide or other gases.


Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

For more Information,

• Hydrpgeology • Waste management • Engineering geology • Environmental audits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel: (613) 548-3446 Fax: (613) 548-7975

• Site decommissioning & rehabilitation Marshall Macklin

The Model 630 provides easy operation with one control knob (OFF/%). Sold in kit form,the meter includes a five-foot elec trode, instructions, 9-volt battery and car rying case. The meter is guaranteed for two years, the sensor for one year.

(905) 475-7270 • Fax: (905) 475-5994


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4 (905) 882-1100 Fax: (905) 882-0055

Circle reply card No. 210 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995



Product Review New handheld salinity, conductivity, temperature system



Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10. Pickering. Ont. L1W 3W9 • Tel; 905—831 — 1715

Fax: 905—831—0531


Consulting Engineers •Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply


Tel.: (905)875-2144

Fax:(9051 875-2145

Tel.: 905 643-8166 Tel.: 613 247-0111



Fax:(613 247-0114

The new handheld YSI 30 SCT System makes field, lab and process measurements easy. It is ready to use whenever turned on; it is waterproof and floats if accidentally dropped in the water. It has autoranging for fast, accurate measurement, and a bright, backlit display for easy reading and record ing in any light. This display always shows temperature along with conductivity, tem perature-compensated conductivity or salin ity reading. The system measures conductivity in four ranges 0 to 499.9 pS/cm,0 to 4999 pS/ cm,0 to 49.99 pS/cm, 0 to 200.0 mS/cm; salinity from 0 to 80 PPT; and temperature from -5 to -i-95°C. It is available with a 10',





Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t 0 tt e n sims

TEL:(905)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (905)668-0221

hubicki associates

25'or 50'attached cable and a four-electrode

conductivity cell. Geneq Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 222

Ion trap mass spectrometer extended


UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007




urn 3 gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer systems. Selected Ion Storage (SIS) pro-

Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. • Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater



Misslssauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774

Kitchener, Ontario

• Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

'Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment • Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization 'Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. • Hydrogeology and Groundwater Investigations


Photographic & Video Documentation 306-146 Laird Dr.. Toronto. Ont. M4G 3V7 416-424-2675


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Product Review vides the highest accuracy possible for de tecting trace substances such as pesticide residues in soils or foods, drugs of abuse in biological fluids, and hazardous materials in a variety of matrices.

On-Line Instruments

SIS is a feature of Varian's Wave-Board

technology, which can generate unique waveforms that selectively trap ions of the analytes to be identified and reject other ions from the background matrix. Enough dif ferent ions can be stored from the analyte to allow a search of standard library databases in the clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental industries.

A key advantage of Varian's SIS is the flexibility it gives analysts to store single ions, multiple ions, or even multiple ranges of ions with no appreciable decrease in sen sitivity. Varian Analytical Instruments For more information, Circle reply card No. 223

Instrumentation protecteci

The Series 42S, with its backmounted gauge, can be mounted in-line, parallel or perpendicular to the pipeline so the elastomer ring area can be flushed or rammed clean.

Both are manufactured in PVC, carbon

from slurries

steel or stainless steel. The sensors are de Red Valve's Series 42 Pressure Sensors iso

late and protect instrumentation from slurries. They obtain pressure readings by isolating line fluid from the instrumentation. The Series 42 Pressure Sensors are avail able in sizes 1/2" to 2" for use in-line in

small diameter, threaded end pipes. The Series 42 features a top-mounted gauge.

signed with a 360'^ flexible sensing sleeve which eliminates single point clogging to

Chemtrac Systems offer a full line of on line Streaming Current Monitors (SCM) which control and monitor coagulant dos age. The SCM measures colloidal charge immediately after chemical addition to eliminate overdose or underdose. Primary benefits of the SCM include an average 25% chemical savings, and coagulant reliability monitoring. The new Dura-Trac sensor fea tures a quick change probe cartridge for enhanced performance. Chemtrac's SCM and Dura-Trac sensor

sensing sleeve is available in a variety of elastomers for chemical compatability with the process fluid. Neo Valves For more Information,

are part of a full line of instruments that provide a complete system for optimizing coagulant dosage and accurately measure the finished water quality. Chemtrac Systems For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 224

Circle reply card No. 225

allow continuous fluid measurement. The

Waste Water Management After more than 60 years of service to North American utilities and municipalities, the Heath Companies are recognized as leaders and innovators in resource conservation, waste detection, and waste control

management. Heath programs can help engineers with aging sewer systems to manage immediate problems and to develop the strategies necessary for future growth. The benefits of sewer flow monitoring Using state of the art electronic equipment, and applying sound, time-tested principles. Heath's sewer flow and infiltration studies can save both time and money by: • Deferring the capitalization costs of plant expansion • Reducing labour costs through programs of planned maintenance

• introducing up-to-date reporting of system conditions for budget purposes and replacement programs • Extending equipment life at sewage treatment plants • Realizing savings in operating costs if your problem is waste water management, contact the Heath team of engineering professionals. Enjoy the benefits of their expertise and proven record of successful service.



Coit9uCtahl;2 SPiwited

... creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses.

2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V 3S5 (519)659-1144 Fax:(519)453-2182

6923 Farreil Rd. S.E. Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514) 331-1580 Calgary, Alberta T2H 0T3 Vancouver, B.C.(604) 980-9552 Mississauga, Ont.(905) 273-3040 (403) 258-0151 Eax:(403)258-0577

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 142


Product Review


IN-SITU ANALYZERS Save Time SC Money Win More Contracts

Reduce Sample Collection -i

Gravel problems solved

Gravel eliminated by

Triton™ underdrains get rid of gravel prob lems by replacing filter blocks or perforated pipe laterals with continuous slot screens with openings as small as 0.006".

continuous slot screens

Treatment media are directly retained by the screens. Screens have internal channels to better distribute air backwash. The re

sult is that underdrains generate less wastewater with lower operating costs. Microfloc

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 238

These pumps don't screw things up

Microfloc has added some product refine ments to further enhance the Microfloc Tri

dent® water treatment system's cost-effec tiveness. Most notable is the elimination

of the gravel formerly used to support the filter media. This has been made possible


by using continuous slot Johnson® screens as the underdrain. These screens are fabri cated with close-tolerance slot sizes as nar row as 0.002" which allows for direct re

PetroSense™ Petroleum Hydrocarbon Analyzer From FCI Environmental Inc.

tention of even very fine media. Eliminat ing the gravel has several advantages. The possibility of gravel upset during backwash

Pays for itself with Quick ROI 3rd Party Certified Equivalent to EPA 6020 BTEX in Water

is avoided, and eliminating the gravel layer

Provides Qualitative and Quantitative The CPC Internalift screw pump is com


pletely enclosed which minimizes safety,

Intrinsically Safe Easy to Use

odour and weather concerns. It operates more efficiently than centrifugal or open

Circle reply card #266

screw pumps. The entire cylinder turns so there is no friction of screw flights on cylin der wall, and no leakage or plugging. These pumps can lift to 60-t- vertical feet at 38° or 45° F. Minimal concrete work is needed for

installation. CPC Internalift

reduces the physical size of the plant. Field set-up is also quicker and easier. Microfloc has also increased factory pre-

assembly to reduce installation time. Light media, for example, is completely pre-installed — only the mixed media needs field installation. Microfloc

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 242

Wastewater debris removal

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 240



Meter measures lead In

drinking water

Field Portable XRF HAZ-MET™ 940 From Metorex Inc.

Small Lightweight Unit less than 10 Lbs. Wide Range of Probes incl. High Resolution Si(Li) to cover Elements from Al to U (13 to 92) Quick Snap-On Battery packs for

CO CD rn


SS°E3oa CO con CO^OO!13

Extended use

The Wiese-Flo® screen systems for

Spectral Display for Qualitative and Quantitative use Operates with ACES'" Fundamental

wastewater debris removal are as small as



55 Avonhurst Road., Etobicoke, Ont., M9A 2G9 Phone:416-207-0432 Fax:416-207-9122

Come See Us at T.E.S. Booth 118 (PETROSENSE is a registered trademark of FCI Environmental. Las Vegas. NV)

Palintest's SA-1000 Scanning Analyzer is a

portable, battery-powered instrument for precise measurement of lead contamination in drinking water. Measurement range is 2-100 ppb and accuracy is the equivalent to laboratory analytical techniques. Using disposable, pre-calibrated elec trodes, costing a few dollars, each test takes three minutes. A.L. - Aquatic Life Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 241

1/3 the size of conventional reciprocating rake screens. The Wiese-Flo system can

reduce operating costs by lowering energy demand. Down-time is reduced by a com

pletely self-cleaning screen system. The system has been re-engineered from top to bottom to make repairs easier and able to be done on-site. The whole process of

collecting, dewatering and compacting is integrated into a single unit. Wiesemann For more information.

Circle reply card No. 239

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 268

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Official Show Guide



MAY 9 & 10, 1995 10 a.m. - 5 p.m. daily Toronto International Centre of Commerce

6900 Airport Rd. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Plan to attend! An ideal opportunity to see and learn about the latest technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental management. The official show guide, complete with a floor plan and a list of exhibitors begins overleaf. For further information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240,4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3 Phone:(403)469-2400 Fax:(403) 469-1398

Calgary Phone:(403)258-0705 Fax:(403)258-0745
















insulation for reuse and recycling. Post-consumer cans are

processed for reuse in the steel and aluminum industry and we recycle aluminum by-products for reuse in primary applications.



Philip Environmental services client's requirements for the transfer, recycling, processing and disposal of industrial, commercial, institutional and municipal solid waste.We operate collection, transfer and recycling facilities as well as landfills with the primary focus on matching by-products to potential end-users,and diverting material from disposal.

\'M Environmental SERVICES


The company offers a range of on-site treatment programs and technical and consulting services; including site remediation, demo lition and decommissioning,labo ratory services and an emergency response network across North America. Philip Environmental has built its reputation on devel oping new technologies to deliver

As a totally integrated environmental services

The company is one of North America's largest recyclers of organic hazardous waste.We continually develop or apply technologies in partnership with clients to recycle and reuse their hazardous wastes. By diverting by products from disposal, we reduce costs for our customers and

potential environmental liabilities.

effective site

company, Philip Environmental has developed a client centered approach that provides a single,

remediation & waste


reliable source for all our customers' needs.


Minimizing liabilities, complying to regulations, controlling costs, managing programs and suppli ers - Philip Environmental delivers the right solu tion for all the complex environmental chal lenges facing industry, business and government UTILITIES





Philip Utilities Management Corporation develops effective partnerships with municipal


Philip Environmental develops and operates innovative technologies to recycle ferrous and non-ferrous liquid and solid metal bearing wastes and plastics. For our cus

PHILIP P.O. box 423, depot I, HAMILTON,

industry, we separate aluminum and copper wire from the plastic




water, wastewater and waste

management utilities.The com pany's services include the capability to design, build and operate facilities and to pack age financing when needed, anywhere around the globe.

Head OFFICE: 651 Burlington street east,

tomers in the wire and cable


and industrial clients in the

management and operation of

ONTARIO, CANADA L8L7W2 FAX:(905)548-8468










For more information, Circle reply card No. 145












The Toronto Environmental Show Guide

The 9th Annual Toronto Environmental

Tradeshow & Workshops/Conference Toronto International Centre of Commerce, 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga, Ontario May 9 and 10, 1995 The 1995 Toronto Environmental Tradeshow and Conference

Our '94 Environmental Compliance Conference/Workshops,

represents nine years of successful planning and organization

held in conjunction with The Toronto Environmental Tradeshow, attracted the largest ever number of attendees. Much care and planning goes into the development of a bal anced program of presenters in order to provide a cost-effective way of ensuring that staff have an opportunity to: - update environmental management skills; - attend practical, due diligence workshops; and, - continue to receive the increasingly complex training in envi ronmental and hazardous materials management. Our programs have been set up to allow choices in a wide range of environmental training and professional development sessions. The record pre-registration figures for our workshops/ conference are encouraging evidence that our programs fulfil a vital need in these environmentally sensitive times. Tom Davey, Publisher, Environmental Science & Engineering magazine

of this event.

Past events have resulted in an average attendance of over 4,000 professional environmental people from many nations. We anticipate that this same type of attendance will prevail at the 1995 tradeshow and conference which is Canada's oldest

ongoing environmental tradeshow.

The natural mix of environmental equipment manufactur ers, service companies and industry technicians, along with the thousands of domestic and international attendees, will undoubt

edly contribute to many successful opportunities for all partici pants.

Tom McCaffrey, President

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc.

Tradeshow Exhibitors 3M Canada Inc.



Booth Personnel: Mark Hughes,Jamie Black, Bruce Coull, Bill Westgate, Art Knight,


Booth Personnel: Dave Hallett

Products/Services: Gator products (absorbents).

Cheryl McLeod Products/Services: 3M Petroleum Sorbent

A.L. - Aquatic Life Ltd. Booth Personnel: Jeff Simpson


Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.


Spooled Booms and the 3M Maintenance Sorbent Spooled Booms both absorb up to 100% more liquid than standard melt blown sorbents. These new 3M Spooled Booms are extruded in a continuous 7.6 cm x 48.8 m length.

testing products, water testing and soil testing.

3M Canada Ltd.

Products/Services: Manufactures wastewater

Alrange Container Services

treatment systems, oil/water separation equip

Booth Personnel: Chris Cornwall

ment, including coalescers and ultrafiltration systems, and laboratory services.

Products/Services: Secondary containment


Booth Personnel: David Glover Products/Services: Scotch Kote fusion bonded

epoxy coating for corrosion protection.

Booth Persoimel: Elaine Sinclair

Products/Services: Wastewater treatment sys tems,solids separation, oil/water separation and instrumentation products.

Products/Services: Palintest environmental

ACG Technology Ltd. Booth Personnel: Neil Ryan

Complete or attach business card and bring this pass with you for complimentary on-site tradeshow registation (not valid for conference sessions.) Name Title.


CityProvince / Postal Code. Business Phone

Managed and Produced by: Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. (403) 469-2400 • FAX (403) 469-1398

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995




FPJEE PASS 9th Annual Toronto 3 Environmental Tradeshow and Conference May 9 & 10, 1995


10 am to 5 pm daily TORONTO INTERNATIONAL CENTRE 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga, Ontario


The Toronto Environmental Show Guide Anachemia Solvents

Bovar-Concord Environmental

- Div. Fielding Chemicals Limited #232 Booth Personnel: Russ Poppe Products/Services: Recycling and disposal services for solvents and gaseous refrigerants. Acetone replacement systems for fibreglass manufacturing.

Booth Personnel: Debby Lato Products/Services: Air monitoring,risk assess ment, air testing, OH&S,lab services.


Briggs Environmental Canada Limited


Booth Personnel: Brian Tail

Analygas Systems - A Div. of Inspectech Analygas Group Inc.

mal desorption unit, CSE provides the experi ence and expertise clients demand in solving remediation problems and eliminating liabilities attached to properties. Thermal desorption tech nology is an alternative to the traditional landfilling of contaminated soils. Canadian Centre For

Products/Services:Environmental consultants.


Occupational Health & Safety


Booth Personnel: Chris Moore

Booth Personnel: Frans Stamm'ler

C3 Environmental

Products/Services: Stationary and portable ambient air gas monitors and systems.

Booth Personnel: Cam Wood, Bart Kanters,

Products/Services:Databases available on CD ROM and on the Internet. Chemical, environ

John Badall, Murray Gamble, Minh Le,

mental, regulatory, health & safety.

Associated Design and Manufacturing Co.

Dino Vito


Booth Personnel: Pam Varouxls

Products/Services: Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure GCLP,rotary agitator, haz ardous waste filtration unit, zero headspace ex traction vessel.

Automatic Coating Ltd.



Booth Personnel: Brad Bamford

Products/Services: Job shop applicators of fusion bonded epoxy powder coatings on large and small diameter pipe and fittings.

Products/Services:Environmental service/con

tracting company specializing in containment, control and corrective action technologies. The company offers services in the following areas: primary contairunent linings,secondary contain ment systems, groundwaler containment cells and cut-off walls and Waterloo barrier systems. Calgon Carbon Corp. #215 Booth Personnel: Mike Wagner Products/Services:Activated carbon products, systems and services.

Canadian Environmentai Directory


Booth Persoimel: Peter Asselstine

Products/Services: The Canadian Environ

mental Directory, 1994/95 and 1995/96. Canadian Environmental Protection Booth Personnel: Ian Stuart


Cannington Group Booth Persoimel: Philip Abraham


Products/Services:Environmental remediation and construction services.

Bioman Products Inc.



Booth Personnel: Vicki Hall

Products/Services: Immunoassay test kits for

Center For Hazardous


Materials Research (CHRM)

the detection of environmental contaminants.


Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Products/Services: Company literature.

Booth Personnel: Mark Reeves

BioQuest Environmental

Company Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Dave Simpson

Products/Services: Samplers, oil/water sepa rator, spill protection, flow meters.

Products/Services: insitu bioremediation.

Biorem Inc.


Booth Personnel: Audra L. Ometz

Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Vince Chiricosta


Booth Personnel: Caroline Kunze, Brian Hemer, Owen Ward Products/Services: Laboratory biofeasibility

studies and turnkey bioremediation services. Specializing in synthetic organic chemical deg radation in soil - Styrene, PAH, PCP and

Chem-Serv Associates Inc.

Ganslia Sail Exclian|a Ltd. Canada Soil Exchange Ltd. Booth Personnel: Robert Spottmff,



Booth Persoimel: Gary Bellhouse, Erica Bellhouse, Trish May, Sarah Edwards, Rob Provost, Jamie Wilson

Robert Wendt, Robert Holtforster, Franklin Holtforster, Charles Slade

Phthalate Ester Plasticizers as well as TPH/

Products/Services: Provides on site or off site

BTEX compounds and insitu and exsitu

treatment of contaminated soils by mobile ther

remediation services.

mal desorption technology. Operating a ther-

Products/Services: Waste management serv ice company, servicing Ontario and Quebec in dustrial, commercial and institutional genera tors. Cost-efficient collection, handling, trans portation and disposal program.


104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130


140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158



105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119


127 129 131 133 135




153 155



252 254



253 255



352 354



357 359

145 204 206 208 210 212 214



226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240





205 207 209 211 213 215



227 229 231 233 235


304 306 308 310 312 314



326 328 330







305 307 309 313 315 317 321

331 333 335 337 339 341 343 345 347


Press Room



Show Office

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation Beijing Company Booth Personnel: Liming Ni


ous Hydrocarbon Analyzers from FCI Environ

lated filtration equipment, carbon reactivation

mental. Also the model 920P Field Portable

and changeout services.

XRF Analyser Metorex.

Products/Services: Series of activated carbon

ENCO-TEC Environmental

including coal-based, wood-based,coconut shell based, synthetic fibre based, etc.

Technology Systems Ltd. #313 Booth Personnel: John Morrissey Products/Services: Remediation of hydrocar bon contaminated soils through the thermal desorption process.

CIC Canola Industries Canada Inc.


Booth Personnel: Peter Spencer

General Waste Transport Inc. #235 Booth Personnel: Barry Harris Products/Services: Site remediation including disposal of solid and liquid hazardous waste. Disposal of PCB contaminated soils and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

Products/Services: Canola lubricants and fer

Ensat Canada




Booth Personnel: Michelle Gagnon


Products/Services: Turnkey underground and aboveground storage tank, management serv ices.

ices including online information retrieval, cur rent awareness, document delivery and refer




Booth Personnel: Dan Koyich Products/Services: Waste to energy systems, bio-medical waste disposal system. Contor Terminals Inc.


Booth Personnel: Gary Allen Products/Services: PCB hazardous materials

and chemical storage units from two to 120 drams storage capacity. Standard designs and custom design storage buildings offered. Fire rated and explosion proof units provided as re

quired. Building structures can be supplied with or withoutflooring to maximize application flex ibility and minimize costs. C P Environmental


Booth Personnel: W.N.(Bud) Gary Products/Services:Enretech biologically active hydrocarbon absorbents.

fiaviclson ,, nvironmcntal Davidson Environmental Drilling

Entsorga - Cologne International Trade Shows Booth Personnel: Edel Wichmann


Products/Services: Environmental drilling services.


Products/Services: Entsorga - International Trade Fair for Waste Management, Recycling, Water Pollution Control and Environmental Controls.

Booth Personnel: Robert Hawn, Enzo Silano Products/Services: 1500 LT waste oil tank. Dike tank - model. Total containment double-



Booth Personnel: John White

Products/Services:Environmental Technology Program. Eco Waste Solutions

(1019187 Ontario Inc.) Booth Personnel: Lucy Casacia


Products/Services: Thermal oxidation equip ment to destroy solid, liquid and medical waste through high temperature treatment. Ecolo Odor Control Systems


Booth Personnel: Ian Howard

Products/Services: Odor Control Systems, automatic, unattended systems which atomize AirSolutions®, our non-toxic, non-hazardous deodorizer, formulated from essential oils. Elemental Controls Limited

Greenwood Environmental Inc.


Booth Personnel: Keith Grattan Products/Services: PetroSense PHA - 100

Portable, and PetroSense CMS - 5000 Continu


Kevin W. Christian, David R. Boyd Products/Services:Full service environmental

contractor specializing in site remediation, decommissionings, underground tank removal,

Environmental Science &

Engineering Magazine #205 Booth Personnel: Tom Davey, Steve Davey, Penny Davey Products/Services: Canada's top awardwiiming magazine for environmental profession

contaminated soil treatment/excavation, bioremediation, spill clean up, installation of va pour extraction systems,groundwater treatment systems and leachate collection systems. Con

als. Articles cover water and wastewater treat

control and industrial wastewater treatment

ment, air pollution control, site remediation, groundwater issues, pulp & paper issues, occu pational health and safety and stormwater man


tractors for underwater services, zebra mussel



Ereshway Electronic Faucet Systems Booth Personnel: Barry Kowal, Joan Holodryzuk


valves, faucets, flush valves, hand dryer, soap dispensers, battery operated sensor urinal and flush valves, faucets. Services: water manage ment, water audits, water waste reductions.

Fryston Canada Incorporated #330 Booth Personnel: Jackie Kennedy Products/Services: Water test kits, reagents. On-line and laboratory analyzers for water qual ity monitoring. Dust, mist eliminators, indus trial central vacuum systems, gas boosters, UV disinfection (water/air), on-site solvent recov ery systems. Gelman Sciences


Booth Personnel: Jody McCurdy Products/Services:Filter, air sampling devices and TRACC pre-concentrator. THE


SINCE 1957


General Carbon Corporation, Canada


Booth Personnel: Robert Muller,

John Dragarevich, Mark Buttaglia Products^ervices: Activated carbon and re-

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Groundwater Technology


Booth Personnel: Paul Wilson

Products/Services: A leader in the development and application of advanced technologies for

wall underground tank - model.

Durham College

'Greenwoad Envlronmentat Inc.

Booth Personnel: James J. Di Benedetto,

Products/Services: Electronic sensor urinal #339


Booth Personnel: Michael Velluso


Booth Persoimel: Bill Davidson

DTE Industries Limited

Gk)lder Associates Ltd.

Products/Services: Risk assessment, environ mental management planning, environmental impact assessments and management,environ mental site enhancement, biological/biophysi cal assessments, water resources management, water quality assessments, waste management, archaeological services,socio-economic assess ment and public consultation.

Products/Services:Technical information serv

Continental Waste Conversion Inc.

, Golder


Booth Personnel: Caroline Bell

environmental restoration of contaminated sites

in the petroleum, chemical, manufacturing, elec tronics, transportation, utility and service indus tries. Bioremedial technology for rapid cleanup of soil and groundwater, both above-ground and in situ.

Harold Marcus Limited


Booth Personnel: John Scott

Products/Services: Transportation. Hazardous Materials

Management Magazine #326 Booth Personnel: Arnie Gess, Guy Crittenden, Todd Latham, Stephanie Foster, Jill McMurray Products/Services: Hazardous Materials Man

agement Magazine - the Canadian publication of pollution prevention and control.

HAZCO Hazco Canada, Inc.


Booth Personnel: David Dunlap, Philip Sheridan, Tony Barrega, Marta LaForest, Martin Hurtubise-Julien, Stephen Dryburgh Products/Services: Enviroiunental equipment and respiratory equipment available for rental. 85

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide Hi-Point Industries (1991) Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Garry Ford

IMCO Industrial Machine

Company Inc.


Booth Personnel: Ivan Christensen Hoskin Scientific Ltd.


mental management system based on the re quirements of BS7750, EMAS and eventually ISO 14000.

Products/Services: Pneumatic and gas blow

Booth Personnel: John Matheson, Wayne Eidt, Beth Chaffe


Industry Canada

Booth Personnel: Derek Yue Products/Services: Directories - studies on the

PMIO HiVol and other environmental monitor

environmental industries.

ing instrumentation.

"ENVINET" - The Environmental Bulletin

Booth Personnel: Simon Daoust Products/Services: Water and wastewater


treatment equipment.

Hotsy Cleaning Systems



Products/Services: New Canadian distributor

for Turner Fluorometers. Also exhibiting Hydrolab multiprobes, onset miniature loggers,



Booth Personnel: Rick Arnold

Insituform Canada

Products/Services: Wash water recycle sys

Booth Personnel: Paul Champigny, Gary Lienberger, Ken Derraugh Products/Services: The "Insituform" process of rehabilitating pipelines avoids the expense and effort ofdigging up rough or corroded pipes and replacing them. A polyester fiber tube,satu rated with a thermosetting resin on the outside, is pushed hydrostatically along a length of pipe.

tems, wastewater treatment systems.

Hy-Grade Precast Concrete Booth Personnel: Peter Belanger,


Dominic Ginotti

Products/Services: Easi-Set precast concrete buildings.

John Meunier Inc.



Even 90 degree bends can be accommodated.

The latest version of the lining is made with Kevlar aramid fiber for additional strength. Typical applications are process lines, raw wa

£JSrV^i/iOAfAf£ArTJiL SE/t^JCES Laidlaw Environmental Services


Booth Personnel: Daisey Wessinger Products/Services: Environmental services.

Laidlaw is said to be the largest manager of hazardous wastes in North America, with more

services and more locations than anyone. Laidlaw is well-positioned to form partnerships for survival in the environmental 90's.

ter intakes, force mains and sewers.

Hygrex Spehr - Industries Ltd. #324 Booth Personnel: Erwin Spehr Products/Services: Hygrex - closed loop dry ing system. Dries sludges, water based paints or any components including plastic with no heat in a closed loop. IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. B(X)th Personnel: Lyn Agan


Products/Services: Colilert, Quarti-Tray, Colilert 18.

Lakefield Research Intelex Press Inc.


Booth Personnel: Ted Grunau, Michael Homick,Sonia Grunau,Gloria Phibbs,


Booth Personnel: Joel Reid, Ron Clark,

Linda Elliott, Mike Lord, Richard Wagner, Dave Bucholtz

Products/Services: Consulting, testing and

Jean Michaud

Products/Services: ACMS - Windows based

.analytical services to all environmental stake

software, helps companies understand, assess and manage compliance with current provin cial and federal Environmental, Health and Safety requirements. AIMS - New software designed to help companies build their environ

holders. Facilities can provide both bench and pilot plant testing to solve even the most diffi cult environmental problem. This ability is sup ported by CAEAL accredited environmental and analytical laboratories.


Standard units are fabricated out of carbon steel. Various alternates

include stainless steel, U.L. 1746 listed Plasteel Composit™ and ELUTRON. Epoxy interior and exterior coatings and Sti-P3 cathodic protection systems.





At McTighe we don't just sell oil-water-separators, we sell engineered systems and service. Our equipment is designed and engineered to meet your specific reauirements. Contact us for help in designing and engineering the right system for you.

A Cost Effective Compact Solution

Cl - -


for Industrial Wastewater Treatment








U.S. PATENT NO. 4042512



• Completely separates free oil & grease from discharge water •10 GPM to 4500 GPM flow through with larger systems available

^JOHN MEUNIER. 6290 Perinault Street, Montreal, Quebec H4K 1K5 Canada Tel.:(514) 334-7230 Fax :(514) 334-5070

•Reduces effluent to below 10 PPM free oils 'Guaranteed corro

sion protection DOUBLE WALL UNITS AVAILABLE P.O. Box 928 • Mitchell, SD 57301

Phone:(605) 996-1162

Indu/trie/ Inc.

86 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 178

FAX No.(605)996-1908

For more information, Circle reply card No. 147

lustry leader means more than the size or a

isets or number oflocations. It's going above ordinary measures to protect the best interes ner, against even the toughest odds. In Laid!:

vironmental's case, it means overcoming the challenge ulting lirom the continual redefinition ofcustomers' environmental needs.

At a time when many companies have turned away fi-om

industry, we've strengthened our commitment to bringin environmentally sound solutions to your business. The recent acquisition of USPCI is proof ofthat commitmeni

By adding USPCI's resources to our existing network of service centers and treatment and disposal facilities. Laid Environmental is now positioned to deliver the industry"! highest degree ofrisk reduction, cost efficiency and environmental responsiveness. With this type of dedicati( you can rest assured we'll be there when you need us, instilling confidence every step ofthe way. After all, that's

what being an environmental giant is all about. 220 Outlet Pointe Boulevard (29210) PC Box 210799(29221) Columbia,South Carolina

Corporate Accounts Sales Office (803)798-2993 Corporate Offices (800) 356-8570

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide LaSalle Scientific Inc.


Booth Personnel: Thomas Nagami Products/Services: Goulden large sample ex tractor (GLSE), fluid metering pump.

Loraday Environmental Products


and Product Recovery Systems.

MEC Systems Inc.


Booth Personnel: Taylore T. Beltan Products/Services:High pressure fogging sys

Merldlan-Clemmer Industries Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Michael Walsh

Products/Services: Containment storage tanks and monitoring systems. Monserco Limited



Booth Personnel: Ashley Chinapen Products/Services: Occupational hygiene and radiation management services.

Services Limited

Mimlclpallty of Clarlngton, The



Booth Personnel: Todd Letts, Linda Bruce #136

Booth Persoimel: Grace Simonetti, Valerie Geldart, Jim Bishop


Environmental Inc.


Booth Personnel: R.C.E. McKee

Products/Services: Geo-environmental engi neering consulting services specializing in Phase 1 and 2 property assessments, site specific risk assessments, site remediation and development of risk management plans. OCETA (Ontario Centre For Environmental Technology Advancement) Booth Personnel: Victoria Gagnon


Products/Services: Services in commercializ

ing new environmental technology.

CtdCO Plastics

Products/Services: Provides environmental

analytical services to consultants, government and various industries across Canada. MDS

facilities are accredited by CAEAL and various U.S. state agencies. Comprehensive range of environmental testing capabilities includes I.H. and microbiological.

Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Ltd.

o'connoR rssocirtes O'Connor Associates

Products/Services: XSORB,super absorbent. This absorbent is low cost,non-WHMIS'd,light weight,non-leaching,and environmentally safe. XSORB's complete line of products includes universal (designed for use on land) and select (bydropbobic).

MDS Environmental Services

Products/Services:Envirorunental testing serv ices: air, soil, water, stack emissions.


Booth Personnel: Peter R. Lorimer, Gloria Enright


lytic Oxidizers, Air Stripppers, Carbon Vessels


Booth Personnel: Bruce Lounsbury, Bob Kennedy, John Deacasavicb, Robert Kulbawy,Fred Allen, Benoit Lebeau Products/Services: Complete line of soil and

groundwater remediation equipment including Enviromaster Submersible Pumps,Global Cata

Nasco Plastics


Booth Personnel: Tim Bailey Products/Services: WHIRL-PAK sterile sam

pling bags and related sampling products. These single service bags are made of unbreakable polyethylene and are used for a wide range of sampling needs for liquids and solids. All bags have patented puncture proof tabs and docu mented sterility. Other products include water and sludge sampling equipment,such as Sludge Judge and Swing Sampler. Novamann (Ontario) Inc.


Booth Personnel: Leon Vainer

Organic Resource Management Inc. #153 Booth Personnel: Michael Malachowski,

Doug Caruthers, Charles Buehler Products/Services: Grease interceptor clean ing, sludge removal, waste treatment services, vacuum tmck services,drain and plumbing serv ices. Land application of bio-solids for benefi cial re-use. Specializing in F.O.G., off-spec or ganic materials and food waste. PCB Containment Technology Inc.


Booth Personnel: Byron Day Products/Services:PCB light ballast reduction and recycling process - reduction before destmction.

Pepco Limited



Booth Personnel: Barbara Vanderheuvel

Products/Services: Polyethylene tanks, dual containment, liquid level controls - leak detec tion, plastics piping systems.




Call: D.Hallett (905)336-2441

Philip Environmental


Booth Personnel: Kevin Crawford

Products/Services: Full service integrated en vironmental service company. Offering solid

AL.-Aquatic Life Ltd.

and liquid hazardous chemical treatment; com

Ph.(204)783-0835 • Ph. l-800-409-TEST(8378)• Fax (204)772-2940 501D Weston Street • Winnipeg • Manitoba R3E 3H4

Jeff Simpson President

Representative/distributor of Palintest products Water testing • wastewater•drinking water •soil testing •aquaculture testing equipment

mercial, residential and industrial solid waste collection and processing; metals recoveiy; ana lytical laboratory services, demolition and in vestment recovery; remediation and engineer ing services; public utilities management serv ices. By focussing on developing and imple menting recycling technologies, Philip are able to take one industry's waste and transform it into a valuable raw material for another indus

try, conserving natural resources, minimizing environmental impacts,and reducing clients' li abilities.

aviflson nvironnicntal

Plgmallon Environmental Services



• Monitoring Wells • Recovery Wells ~ • Gas Extraction Wells • Deep Monitoring Well Specialists

• Municipal Well Drilling • Industrial Well Drilling • Construction Drilling • Well Testing and Rehabilitation

R.R.#1(Bast Place) Waterloo,Ontario (519)664-1422

1-800-663-3849 Davidson "Since 1900"


Booth Personnel: Rashmi Kapila


Products/Services: Spill response systems, daily maintenance sorbents, wastewater treat ment and filtration systems. Pol-E-Mar Inc.


147 North Street West

Booth Personnel: David McKechnie

Wingham, Ontario (519)357-1960

Products/Services: Oil spill containment and recovery products.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide

PROECO Corporation


Booth Personnel: Diane Prieur, Brian Winters Products/Services: Affiliated with Custom Environmental Services Ltd. Environmental

consultants. Approved transfer, treatment and recycle facility importing PCB electrical equip ment for recycling in Alberta. Ram Lining Systems Inc.


Booth Personnel: Frank Kunc

Products/Services: Geomembrane lining ma terials.

Scott Specialty Gases, Inc. #316 Booth Personnel: Cathy Schlaufman, Doug Wright Products/Services: Pure and mixed gases, analyzed calibration gases,EPA Protocol gases. All related equipment for handling compressed gases, i.e. regulators,flowmeters and gas deliv ery systems.

SEACOR Seacor Environmental

Engineering Inc.


Booth Personnel: Derk Z. Maat

Regional Municipality of Peel #230 Booth Personnel: Dwayne Cromwell Products/Services:Promotion ofregional gov ernment services including waste assessments and waste material marketing directories.

Restoration Environmental Contractors

Products/Services:Environmental engineering consulting services. Sheridan College #314 Booth Personnel: Bill Costigane Products/Services: Literature describing col lege environmental training programs.

Sarah Belshaw, Doug Belshaw, Jim Kozack, Jean Belshaw

Products/Services: Groundwater monitoring instrumentation which is practical, sturdy, yet innovative. Range includes groundwater sam plers, water level indicators, oil/water interface probe, drive-point piezometers, the Sand/ Bentonite Injector and the Waterloo Multilevel System. Solinst also supplies water quality in strumentation, wellscreen and casing, soil probes and augers,transducers and dataloggers. Solmax Geosynthetlcs #214 Booth Personnel: Paul Payeur, Andrew Watt Products/Services: Geosynthetlcs products: geotextiles, geomembranes (HDPE, PVC, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, XR5), installers of liners for landfills, reservoirs, ponds, float ing baffles, floating covers, secondary contain ment and others. Geogrids,retaining wall, ero sion control products and prefabricated drains. Southam Business Communications Inc.



Restoration Environmental



Silcarbon Canada


Booth Personnel: Chris Moffatt Products/Services: Environmental contractors

Booth Personnel: Fedor Rip

- asbestos, lead, plant clean-ups.

ment of air, water, etc.

S.A.V.E.S. Substance Abuse Verified Evaluation Services


Booth Personnel: Mary Mancini

ENVIRONMENTAL LTD. Spectra Environmental Ltd. #238 Booth Personnel: Stephen Wilcox Products/Services:Secondary containment for above ground tanks.

Products/Services: Activated carbon for treat


Booth Personnel: Dr. Anthony Cimino Products/Services: Substance abuse identifi

cation/treatment in workplace to ensure worker

Solinst Canada Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Jim Pianosi, Brian Brown,

Complete Spill Containment For Existing Tanks


Sphag Sorb (Canada) Inc. Booth Personnel: Bill Bright Products/Services: Sphag Sorb

#100 organic in-

dustrial absorbent.


1-800-661-5792 PROECO Corporation is the first & only fully Approved facility to import & recycle PCB lamp ballasts.

* No Processing On Your Site * Immediate Removal

The EnvirodikeTM offers an economical way to upgrade your existing above-ground storage tanks to provide complete secondary containment. The Envirodike's unique patented design is available in a variety ofshapes and sizes to accommodate farm tanks, utility tanks, generator fuel storage tanks, waste oil tanks and fur nace oil tanks. Carefiilly engineered all weather shields are an integral part of the design keeping precipitation and debris out of the Envirodike. For more information contact:

* Certificate of Recycling * Certificate of Disposal PROECO


in affiliation with

Custom Environmental Services Ltd. 7722-9th Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6P 1 L5


Phone (403) 440-1825 * Fax (403) 440-2428


See us at Booth #120

For more information, Circle reply card No. 161

For more information, Circle reply card No. 162 89

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide Mike Turton, Archie Reynolds Products/Services: Full service organic and inorganic environmental analysis on surfacewaters and groundwaters, wastewaters, soils and air. Solid and liquid waste material char acterizations. Analytical methods are based on recognized standards(USEPA, MOEE,ASTM, APHA, AOAC). Electronic data transfer is available in your choice of format.

Spill Tech Industries Ltd. #301 Booth Personnel: Gene Farquhar Products/Services: Environmental protection products/sorbents. SSI Schaefer System International Limited


Booth Personnel: Otto Fasthuber

Products/Services: Complete line of recycling and waste collection equipment.

Waiters Consuiting Corporation Stablex Canada Inc.


Don Reid


ZCL Fiberglass Ltd. #236 Booth Personnel: Robin MacGregor Products/Services: Fiberglass reinforced plas

Waterloo Centre for

TriWaste Reduction Services Inc.

Booth Personnei: Leanne Gelsthorpe Products/Services: WCGR is a not-for-profit corporation established and funded by Technol ogy Ontario as part of the Ontario Centres of Excellence Program. It developed from multidisciplinary hydrogeological research and edu cational activities at the University of Waterloo. Together with industry and government,WCGR applies research excellence to groundwater is sues, and is committed to providing opportuni ties for partnership between the private and public sectors and university researchers, in the interest of technology transfer and commerciali

Groundwater Research


Booth Personnel: Rob Wilson, Jacques Benoit Products/Services: Providing services in the areas of waste management and site remedia tion, with particular emphasis on volume reduc tion and waste recycling.


Booth Personnel: Ron Berube

Products/Services: Air pollution control scrub bers and spray nozzle systems.


Booth Personnel: Paul Andres

zation to assure the sustainable use of

Products/Services:GORE-SORBER screening surveys: a passive soil-gas survey that detects SVOCs and VOCs in dry, saturated and clay

groundwater resources.

soils. GORE-SORBER is a servicemark of W.L.

Technologies Inc.

Gore & Associates, Inc.

Booth Personnel: Robin Jowett

tic tanks and accessories(ULC & Custom) and

flexible piping products including oil/water separators, sewage holding tanks, tanks for holding hazardous products.

Additional Exhibitors CEMS(Chemical Emission

Management Services)


Booth Personnei: Tahir Khan Products/Services: Printed Services material.

Quatrex Environmental


T.I.S.C.(1102826 Ontario Ltd.) Booth Personnei: Ron Billings


Waterloo Groundwater Control


the control and in situ remediation of contami

Products/Services: Spill kits for transportation and other applications. Transport Initial Spill

nated groundwater, including the Funnel-and-


Products/Services: Offers new techniques for #231

Booth Personnel: Leanne Smith, Judy Waher,



ii H E R A

Waterra Pumps Ltd.

Booth Personnel: John Newall, Rob Daciw,


Products/Services: Inorganic waste treatment.

Walker Laboratories

nants such as DNAPLs, metals, nitrate and

BTEX from groundwater plumes.

Products/Services: NEW: Hydrolift II, Waterra Disposable Bailer, Purge Pump, Hydrolift-gas powered.

Booth Personnel: Richard Dufresne

W.I. Gore & Associates, Inc.

been used in the subsurface to remove contami

Booth Personnei: Gordon Reed


Thrbotak Technologies Inc.

Gate™ treatment system. This system has now

NASCO's Swing Sampler And Sludge Judge* Go To Great Lengths!




SWING SAMPLER-lf you need to collect a sample from a horizontal Howing stream, such as a sewer, the new NASCO Swing Sampler is just what you need! The end of the sampler swings,

allowing collection of liquids, powders, or small solids from differ ent angles, including 90°. The pole extends up to 12 feet.




v,,i •

SLUDGE JUDGE®—NASCO's Sludge Judge helps you obtain accurate samples of suspended solids, providing a visual sample, level by level, of the whole tank. It comes in 5 foot sections (with a 2'h foot top section also available) for taking readings at any depth. For more Information and to receive a FREE 1995-96






744 GORDON BAKER RD„ N. YORK.ONT. M2H 3B4 TEL.: (800) 269-.144.5 FAX: (416) 490-0974

Sampling Products Catalog, write Dept. ESE505, or use our phone or fax numbers below.

~Phone: 519-662-2540 J ^(ZdOO Plastics 454 Bleams Road West, New Hamburg, Ontario NOB 2G0

90 For more information, Circle reply card No. 163

For more information. Circle reply card No. 164

Asbestos Problems?

If Your Contractor Does Not Have

Asbestos Insurance Coverage YOU are Liable! Every day in Canada, Asbestos abatement work is completed by so-called ''professionals" who are operating without insurance. As the person who contracted the work to be done, you are liable. You could be sued both corporately and personally in the event of accidents or environmental repercussions resulting from the work done. General liability insurance does not cover asbestos work. Don't take a chance. Protect your personal and corporate assets. We are experts in asbestos abatement and removal. We carry the best long term asbestos insurance coverage available in Canada. Call us for the best work in asbestos abatement. Call us for peace of mind. RESTORATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRACTORS

(905)477-4359 Ottawa (613) 769-5420 Barrie (705) 734-7350

Kingston (613) 541-9282 Thunder Bay (807) 473-6905 For more information, Circle reply card No. 143

London (519) 668-9666 Florida (813) 866-7606

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide

Environmental Compliance '95 - Program The Toronto Environmental Conference

Workshop #A2

Workshops are divided into four streams on both May 9 & 10, with a total of 16 work shops available. The morning workshops

Environmental management: Practical implementation Session Chair: David Gaylor, Dyno Nobel

run from 9:00 - 12:00 noon; the afternoon is a two hour break at lunchtime - an excel

Workshop #B2 'Duly diligent' management and the due diligence defence

Workshop #C3 Spill management: Reporting, response & clean-up Workshop Leaden Cliff Holland,Spill Man agement Inc. Workshop #D3 How to minimize, manage and dispose of

lent time to tour the exhibits at the Toronto

Session Chair: Robert Power,

hazardous waste

Environmental Trade Show. There is a free

Willms & Shier

Workshop Leader: Richard Szudy, Laidlaw

evening reception for workshop participants on Monday evening from 5:00 - 7:00 p.m.

Workshop #C2


workshops run from 2:00 - 5:00 p.m. There


Workshop #A1 Environmental management: Models, systems & guidelines Session Chair: Don Eraser, Ontario Hydro Workshop #B1 Environmental regulation & compliance - 1995 update Session Chair: P. Douglas Petrie,

Site decommissioning, resolution &

Workshop A#4


Computer applications in environmental management, part 2 Session Chair: Norma Gibson-MacDonald,

Session Chair: David Hopper, Angus Environmental Workshop #D2 Testing, sampling & monitoring hazard ous workplace exposures Workshop Leader: Andrea Sass-Kortsak, Asst. Prof., Occupational & Environmental Health, U. of Toronto

Willms & Shier

Session Chair: Karl Doerwald,JSC Hazard ous Substances in the Workplace

Workshop #A3 Computer applications in environmental management, part I

Willms & Shier

Workshop #B3 Fundamentals ofenvironmental auditing, part I Workshop Leader: Kevin Dunn, AGRA & University of Calgary

Workshop #D4 Beyond 3Rs compliance: The next step in practical reduction Workshop Leader: Glenda Guise - RDC;

Granular, Palletized

Powdered and Impregnated Carbons For Treatment Of:

• Inorganic chemicals • Aquarium water • Dechlorination/ Deozonization

• Decolorizing • Electroplating • Catalyst support • Condensate deoiling

• Food industry • Solvent recovery • Organic chemicals

Ad Index A.L Aqua. Life

88 Golder




63 Greenwood Env.

Alfa Laval


Anal. Meas.

27 Hazco




79 Promat

Aquablast Big 'O'


Hydro Dyn. Hydromantis Hygrex-Spehr

63 Restor. Cont.


• Tobacco filters

• Potable water • Water treatment

• Sugar refining

Can Am Ins. Can. Ex. Man.

44 Inco

Can. Soli Exch.

14 John Meunler

3350 Fairview SL, Burlington, Ont. L7N 3L5 Tel: (905) 333-1323 Fax:(905) 681-7811 92 For more information, Circle reply card No. 165




2 Kent Meters

39,64 Entsorga


Laidlaw Env.

6, 64, 74 Liquid Carb.

Philip Env.

32 95

50 Seacor


93 Silcarbon


86 Solinst


55 Solutions '95


Spectra Env.


87 Statlflo 63 Stormceptor






MEC Systems

58 Terratec 7 Trojan




10,93 Mllltronlcs


Deep Shaft Degremont






Davidson Env.

9 89

63 Sanexen Env.




64 Pro Eco

Liquid Carbonic McTighe

Contain. Tech Corr. Intervent.

63 63

15 Parkson

44, 65 Philip UtII.



• Purification inlet air




Brian Cont.


• Pharmaceuticals

Chair, RCO

For further details, please contact Envi ronmental Science & Engineering, 220 In dustrial Parkway South, Unit #30, Aurora, Ontario,L4G 3V6,tel:(905)727-4666,fax: (905) 841-7271.


• Waste water

Storage tank management and decommissioning Workshop Leader: P. Douglas Petrie,

Session Chair: Lorraine Davidson,CCOHS


• Exhaust air

Workshop #B4 Fundamentals of environmental auditing, part 2 Workshop Leader: Kevin Dunn, AGRA & University of Calgary

Workshop #C4

MAY 10

Workshop #C1 Contaminated site assessment: The phased approach Session Chair: David Hopper, Angus Env. Workshop #D1 Workplace hazardous substances regula tion and compliance



T. City Iron Wks Teck Corp.

4 71 30 44 53

U of Cape Breton Vanton Pump

8 23



Nasco Plastics



National Inst.

Elemental Cont.


Nesbitt Burns

Elsag Bailey Equlpompe ITT Flygt

26 NRC


Wheelabrator Rupke

93 O'Connor Ass.


47, 48, 49



General Carb.



90 VIctaullc 56 63 W20 29 8 Waukesha Fluids 18

34 7

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Literature Review For Information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666. Soil Remediation

Regenerative Air Technology

Second Edition

Latest Edition

An increasingly popular method of treating soils in situ Is via vapor extraction. EG&G Rotron regen

Since 1962, Rotron has been set ting standards for Regenerative Air Technology. Our advanced application expertise and innova tive family of regenerative air de vices have been a major factor in allowing industry to break with the traditional but costly and mainte nance-Intensive, use of compres sor and other high pressure, posi tive-displacement sources of shop-air. Blowers carry a no-fault guarantee for one full year. PROMAT Engineering Sales Inc. Circle reply card No. 278

erative blowers are used world

wide to strip volatile contaminants from soils. Our compact, quiet blowers are ideally suited in flow and vacuum levels for all but the

tightest silts and clays. Both vacuum and pressure can be used simultaneously to strip contami nant from soils and push the vapors Into treatment systems. PROMAT Engineering Sales Inc. Circle reply card No. 277

High speed dry screening

Custom Fabricated Environmental Products

Derrick Model L and K single deck screening machines are

IFF Ltd., a manufacturing company, operates out of a 10,000 sq. ft. facil ity. IPF, with state-of-the-art equip ment and a highly trained staff, pro duces quality custom fabricated plas tic and fiberglass moulded products for industry. Main product lines con sist of Ventilation Systems, Scrub

available with either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators and in sizes

ranging from 18" x 60" to 48" x 120". Machines can be supplied with open hopper configurations or complete dust enclosures with flexible


bers, Mist Eliminators, Moisture Ex tractors, Exhaust Fans, Fiberglass or Plastic Tanks, Plating Systems, and Waste Treatment Systems.


Industrial Plastics Fabricators, Ltd.

motor seals,

gasketed side access doors and removable covers.

Derrick Corporation Circle reply card No. 279

Circle reply card No. 280




Corrosion Protection Waste Waterlreatment, Industrial Plants,

Pollution Control Equipment are valuable assets, wouldn't you agree? Costa Tech nology is committed to providing you with quality Fihreglass products to protect your investments. Our pre-engineered indus trial grade shelters, enclosures, and stor age systems are designed to provide main

Pun^ Monufocturers To The Proceu industry

tenance free, unexcelled corrosion resist ance even in the harshest service condi ISTRODUCES rOV TO THE:

tions. In addition, our design and build fea tures combined with field or factory assem bled options and factory direct service save you money. To find out about our product line send for this free brochure. Costa Tectinology Circle reply card No.281


Equipompe Inc. Circle reply card No. 282

The Best Way Yet To Screw Things Up

Odor control problems? No matter what kind or size of odor

wesfaresCiirbt)!! »irn>/.SiKTcm


Whaoiabrator Engineered Systerns Inc.

control problem you have, Westates has the solution. Our expertise ex tends to all the proven technologies including carbon adsorption, oxida tion, scrubbing and biological treat ment. We can do it all for you from supplying special adsorbent media to designing complete high capacity treatment systems for every kind of odor control program. Contact us with your project details. Wheelabrator Engineered Systems inc. Circle reply card No.283

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

New Concept For Pumping Clean Liquids, Slurries and Solids In Suspension The Double Disc pump combines the performance features of posi tive displacement pumps and the principle of "induced Flow" to pro vide superior versatility in fluids handling. Two flexible discs, driven by eccentrics and connecting rods, work in opposition of each other to create suction, discharge and "in duced flow" of the fluid through the

Completely enclosed, the CPC Internalift screw pump offers advantages found no


where else:

• Operates more efficiently than centrifu gal or open screw pumps. • Entire cylinder turns - no friction of screw flights on cylinder wall, no leak age, no plugging.


• Can lift to 60-r vertical feet at 38° or 45°. _

XffM ,

• Enclosed design minimizes safety, ,


•r(Sr<.dnitmar *'iL

rbtr'> »n.

wPt t


ou> mIu-iehnAT


WhMlabrator Engineered Systenu Inc.

odor and weather concerns. • fylinimal concrete work needed for installation.

Whieelabrator Engineered Systems Inc. Circle reply card No.284


Soil remediation options Crops are cleaning up metal pollution Specially selected plants which are capable of absorbing high concentrations of metals from the soil could soon be used to clean up contaminated land. The plants, called hyperaccumulators, have been found to ab

the Department of Soil Science at Rothamsted Experimental Station, and the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences at The University of Sheffield. At Rothamsted, which is part of the UK

sorb hundreds of times more metals than

Agricultural and Food Research Council's Institute of Arable Crops Research, Profes

other ^egetation. British scientists at the forefront of this development say that the plants offer an efficient and natural alterna tive to the physical and chemical methods currently used to extract metals from pol

sor Steve McGrath is testing several spe cies of wild plants which have the ability to absorb large concentrations of poisonous heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). "Decon

luted soil.

tamination of soils and wastes polluted with

Two of the research centres involved are

Pecfvce downtime4

heavy metals remains one of the most in tractable problems of clean-up technology," he said. "We are developing a low-technol ogy, 'green', in situ approach to achieve both

partial decontamination and site restoration

for sites where a more rigorous, rapid and costly treatment is not appropriate." He explained that the hyperaccumulator plants being tested are mainly endemic to areas of natural mineralisation and mine

spoils resulting from ore extraction. They include species of Alyssum and Thlaspi (Brassicaceae) from serpentine soils, which can take up Ni to concentra tions of more than 2% (dry weight), and species of Thlaspi from calamine soils, which can accumulate up to 3% Zn, 0.5% Pb, and 0.1% Cd in their shoots.

Increase perfermanee!

Practical Means

"The use of such plants for specific ex traction of metals from mine wastes seems

With Sparling Electro-Magnetic Fldwmeters

Utilizing the latest bipolar pulsed DC technology, models 625 and 655 TIGERMAG™ flowmeters



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maintenance-free operation. Applications

Features/Benefits • CSA approved NEMA-4/7 • Easy field programming • Self-test function

• 16-Digit display, rate/total • Sizes from 1/10" to 36"and larger! • Wide choice of liners and electrodes

• Service in Canada by Brian Controls

'Baw sewage • Primary sludge • Mixed liquor • Return and waste activated sludges 'Primary and secondary ciarifier supernatant • Aerobic and anaerobic sludges

impractical because the depth of materials is often deeper than the rooting zone," said Professor McGrath. "However, they may prove an effective and practical means of metal removal from superficially contami nated soils such as those produced by the land disposal of industrially polluted sew age sludges or other metalliferous wastes." Attractive Option Professor McGrath suggests that crop ping with mixtures of hyperaccumulator species rather than using monocultures may present an attractive option of multiple metal accumulation from soils contaminated

with a mixture of heavy metals. A project supported under the CEC's ACE Programme to test the plants on a field scale has now been completed. Preliminary results confirm the promise shown in the small scale trials, Thlaspi dis played a total above-ground uptake of Zn of up to 200 times that of a non-accumulating crop, with the capacity to extract, in a sin gle cropping, twice the annual addition of Zn permitted by UK guidelines. Ni accu mulation by a crop of A tenium could ex tract 45% of the annual addition limit of

this metal, in comparison to less than 1% by a non-accumulator. One aspect needing further study is the

• Plant water

When you need SOLUTIONS IN MEASUREMENT & CONTROL for Process Control Equipment^ Safety & Environmental Monitoring, In dustrial Instrumentation, and Calibration & Test Equipment, contact the experts at Brian Controls.

disposal of the potentially hazardous biomass produced by an effective hyperaccumulator crop. It is suggested that one option could be the controlled ashing of harvested material to yield a residue in which metals such as Zn and Ni may be concentrated at >10%.


Application Specialists Across Canada

Halifax - Moncton - Quebec - Montreal - Ottawa - Toronto - Sarnia - Sudbury - Winnepeg - Saskatoon - Calgary - Edmonton - Vernon - Vancouver Local






Far Immediate Customer Service:

Long Distance :


Toll Free: 1-800-313-3103

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 167

Economic recovery could be achieved by adding the ash to an appropriate smelter feed-stock.

A less attractive alternative

would be the disposal of the ash to landfill in the normal way for hazardous materials. The main objective now is to breed and select the most promising species so that they can be grown on the large scale that is needed for a beneficial effect.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1995

Introducing a True Fixed Network Solution for your utility. Cost cutting, deregulation, competition, re-engineering, value-added services to customers. Many issues are facing your utility. Clearly you need to utilize new customer and meter communication technologies. But with all the technological alternatives, sometimes it is difficult to see the forest for the trees.

Schlumberger can help you see which options are right for your utility. As your requirements evolve, you can be sure your needs are met with MAPS radio frequency fixed networks developed by Schlumberger and our joint-venture partner. Motorola. Call and ask your Schlumberger Sales Representative to show you how MAPS can help you navigate your path through the competitive business issues facing your utility.

Utility Headquarters( Concentratof

Radio Repeater

MApy "Ueading Meter Communications"

Schlumberger Industries • 7275 West Credit Avenue • Mississauga, Ont.• L5N 5M9| Tel: 800 363-7886 • FAX:800 463-6383


For more information, Circle reply card No. 168 ■ ■ <c) Gopyrig^^^ 0:; s:






r~^! .i


Grit Collection Systems Floccuiators and Mixers

Primary and Secondary Clarifiers Solids-Contact Clarifiers

Trac-Vac^" Suction Sludge Collectors


MetalWeave™ Flow Control Baffles

Dissolved Air Flotation Systems Induced Air Flotation Systems WEMCO Oil-Water Separation Systems Inclined Plate Clarifiers

Sludge Thickeners Gravity Belt Concentrators Low-Speed Surface Aerators « Elastox® Membrane Diffusers « Rotary Distributors »

Carrousel®" Biological Oxidation Process Bardenpho®" Biological Nutrient Removal Process

Anaerobic Digester Covers and Mixers Beltpress Filters Shriver® Filter Presses • Rotary Vacuum Filters % Thermal Sludge Pasteurizers % Granular Media Filters % Ion Exchange Systems

% Tankage and Mechanism

For more information on EIMCO water and wastewater

treatment equipment, contact your local EIMCO sales representative.

EIMCO Process Equipment

A Division of Baker Hughies Canada Inc. 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2 (905) 625-6070 FAX: (905) 625-3519

Erection Services

Process Testing Services

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 169