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ENVIRONMENTAL 0

oiro.

0.

Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment Serving environmental professionais across Canada

Spring Convention Previews Are water supply aiKyS^ii^ issues being studied to death? Ozonation technology for soi and groundwater^cemediatio Membrane bior^adtor treats-l

wastewater llf No-dig pipe#ehabiljtation

March 1995


FOR A SAFE ENVIRONMENT CALL US! Turbidity/Suspended Solids Analyzer and Sensors

Blanket Level Detectors No moving parts, no maintenance, no re-

reliable, continuous

operation In waste

essor based electron ics.

treatment plants, riv

Continuously moni

ers, lakes and other

aqueous systems. A user friendly text

tors and controls in terface level in tanks.

screen provides menu driven setup. The In

Numerically displays interface depth in feet, meters or per centage of total tank depth, Displays either

strument will read In

depth of Interface or distance from surface to interface. Graphically displays full-depth Interface profile on

panel-mounted LCD graphical display. Trending Capability.

• Any tank with a liquid/solid

• Petroleum

• Pulp & Paper

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers

The Royce Model 7011 Suspended SolIds Analyzer provides

calibration required. Reliable micro-proc

Applications: • Waste Treatment

Parts Per Million

Interface

• Mining

either milligrams per liter or density per centage and is auto-ranging. With features that Include Insitu calibration, automatic color compensation (Patent Pending), true microprocessor operation, and automatic ambient light compensation (Patent Pending). The Model 72 sensor is for low ranges commonly experienced In ef fluent streams (0-500 mg/l). The Model 73 submersible sensor Is for medium ranges typically found in aeration

basins (0-30,000 mg/L). The Model 74 In-line sensor Is for higher ranges, such as WAS and RAS line applications (080,000 mg/l).

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen analyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel electronics, and

low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four chan nel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/ 9040 and 94.

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Circle 252 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

Portable Instrumentation for pH,

Continuous Monitoring For

ORP,88, Interface Level and DO

Gas and Fire

These Battery operated port able Analysers are rugged, water-proof and completely submersible. They are de signed for reliable remote op eration in Waste Treatment

Plants, rivers, lakes, etc. The

Model 500 pH/ORP is avail able with an assortment of

Sensor styles. The Model 900 PPM DO System with the reliabie Royce Model 95 galvanic DO Cell, and Model 711 Portable Suspended Sol ids/interface Analysers are ideal for remote monitoring in

^ Checl( these features: [3

Economical {uses inexpensive food grade

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3 Low liflalntenance

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aeration basins, short term

The Crowcon Gas Monitor is a Microprocessor controlled

Gas Detection System designed in a standard 3 U (5 1/4") 19" Eurocard Rack. The Gas Monitor operates with Crowcon's and other Manufacturers' Gas Detectors, includ

ing infra-red and Gas and flame detector Sensors. Gas Monitor has a data logging facility which provides for con

diurnal studies and iaboratory applications. Each product features digltai readout, microprocessor based electron ics with self-diagnostics. All models except for the 711 have analogue and RS232 digital outputs.

tinuous recordings of Gas levels. The System is supplied with self-installing supporting Software which operates in

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a Windows environment.

Automatic Liquid 8ampiing

Effluent 8ampler

Please ask for details on

Crowcon's Portable single and multi Gas Detectors.

8ludge 8ampler

Wherever it's Needed The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liq uid from an open chan nel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an ar ray of 24 x 1/2 litre con tainers for subsequent retrieval and analysis. Typical applications: • Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent

• Raw sludge • Most industrial

EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications

effluents

Wide Range of Applications

The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler

ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flow ing pipeline or alternatively

The Epic 1011T program mable portable wastewater sampler provides

from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine

represents the only really prac

cost effective automatic

tical method of acquiring

sampling to assist in monitoring municipal

sludge samples on a regular

and industrial waste-

ity to sample sludges contain ing a high level of non-homo geneous suspended solids. Typical Applications: • Anaerobic digester feeds/

water. A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for sub sequent analysis.

basis and is unique in its abil

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• Mechanical

dewatering

device feeds

• Road tanker loading/dis charge terminals EPS 1030

Sludge Sampler

• Sea tanker loading terminals • Consolidation tank feeds ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

February/March '95 Vol. 8 No. 1

CONTENTS

Issued March, 1995

(905) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4052

Sorbents: Who cares what's the difference?

By John Brinkman

18

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849

Office Manager DENiSE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY

Adapting ozonation technology to soil and groundwater remediation

20

How to protect the results of environmental audits By Brian Stammer

22

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop EPL/MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumier

NOVAMANN (Ontario) inc.

Spring Convention Previews

WEAO, OWWA/OMWA, Health & Safety, AWMA, BOWWA

26

Alan Church, C.Chem.

Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Canada's commitment to sustainable forestry By Dr. J.S. Main

34

Software for health, safety and environmental information

38

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfeiiow

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

"Repeal the laws of organic chemistry" - activist By Tom Davey

48

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CRA Consultants

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors.

Water supply and wastewater issues are being

52

studied to death

By James MacLaren

Rehabilitation for aging infrastructure By J. Kupskay New protocols and research trends for the industrial

65

control of zebra mussels

By Don Lewis

What's wrong with high levels of atmospheric carbon

87

All advertising space orders,copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc.,should be sent to Environ mentalScience & Engineering, c/o Prestige Printing, 41 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3,

dioxide?

Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5.

MOEE, MCCR powers to increase for on-site orders By P.D. Petrie and B.N. Spiegel

Canadian Publications Mail Sales

Product Agreement No.18197

57

By Tom Rutherford

90

Second Class Mail

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada, by Webb Offset Publi cations Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada S45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) Send orders to: Environmental Science

& Engineering, 220 Industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax;(905)841-

The membrane bioreactor is a new concept in the treatment

92

of industrial wastewater

By A. Beaubien Departments Industry Update R&D News Product Review

Reader Service Card

4 43

Classifieds Literature Reviews

67

Ad Index

77 42, 89 91

16, 81

7271.

Cover Story: This membrane bioreactor treats a range of wastewater problems. Story on page 92. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Industry Update Nation wide study found no measurable dioxin in P&P effluent A recent study of five chemical pulp mills across Canada confirmed that there was no

measurable dioxin being formed in their bleaching effluents. Sample analyses were conducted by an independent laboratory, verified by Environ ment Canada and co-ordinated by the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican). The mills involved are: Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd., Grande Prairie, Alberta; Avenor Inc., Dryden, Ontario; St. Anne-Nackawic Pulp Company Ltd.,

Nackawic, New Brunswick; Canfor, Howe Sound, British Columbia; and Tembec Inc.,

Temiscaming, Quebec. The five mills stud ied are representative of industry and cover a wide geographic distribution. The mills tested use a range of pulping technologies and modified bleaching proc esses are installed in each mill. Samples were analyzed from bleach-plant locations most likely to contain dioxins, if they were being formed in the modified bleaching process. No bleach-plant dioxin was meas ured in any of the mills. Samples of unbleached pulp, bleached pulp and final effluent were also analyzed. Other continuous improvements made

commercialized.

Ontario cabinet upholds decision against OWMC facility

TIRED

The environmental demands, which ore

currently being placed on corporations and municipalities to control B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) dis charges and reduce In-plant treatment costs, hove created a tremendous need Derrick Model 58 Flo-Line unit process ing waste water application handling 1,800 U.S.G.P.M. and recovering solids at 80 mesh.

for efficient, reliable and cost effective

equipment to reduce waste water solids concentrations. Derrick Corporation, with over 40 years af fine screening experience, is now capable of offering this equipment technology to the waste water industry worldwide. Through uti lizing the Derrick "Flo-Line" screening unit design, high fluid capacities can be

â– iatrf

Recovery of processed carrots from a waste water stream using Derrick urethane screen deck.

effectively handled at very fine screen mesh openings. This equates to fewer overall units required and higher solids/particulate removal.

DERRICK CORPORATION

Typical screen oversize recovery of organic solids from processing waste water slurry, using a .45 mrn patented

590 Duke Road Buffalo, New York 14225

urethane screen deck.

Tel; [716] 683-9010 Fax: [716] 683-4991

TORONTO:

BRITISH COLUMBIA:

SASKATCHEWAN:

DAGEX INC.

THURSTON MACHINE INC.

COLLETTE MINING LTD.

TEL: [905] 771-8400

TEL: [604] 769-3 848 FAX: [604] 769-5 8 59

TEL: [306] 683-1966 FAX: [306] 931-1128

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 209

Ontario Environment and Energy Minister, Bud Wildman has announced that a pro posed hazardous waste treatment facility in the Niagara Region will not be built. Cabi net upheld a decision made last November by the Joint Hearing Board to reject the fa cility site proposed by the Ontario Waste Management Corporation (OWMC) to be located in West Lincoln, near the City of St. Catharines, Ontario. The OWMC will be directed to refocus

its activities solely on hazardous waste re duction. Its role will be to expand its suc cessful outreach programs to assist indus tries in reducing their hazardous wastes. The OWMC's Direct Assistance Program offers consultative services to waste genera tors that include thorough reviews of indus trial processes, complete with specific rec ommendations for reducing hazardous waste. In co-operation with the ministry, the OWMC has also supported the Ontario Waste Exchange which has been playing matchmaker since 1984 between waste gen erators and those who can use the waste.

Hydrocarbon permeation - it happened A new house in a small rural Saskatchewan

community was hooked up to the town wa ter system with a new polybutylene service line in 1993. The service ran close to the

above-ground fuel tanks on an adjacent property. About a year later, the house oc cupants started to notice a gasoline odour in their tap water. Investigation by town authorities, includ ing analyses for gasoline and several asso ciated hydrocarbons, proved conclusively that the situation was localized to that one

house. The owner of the adjacent fuel tanks agreed that spillage of gasoline in the area may have caused the problem through per meation of the gasoline into the plastic wa ter line. He agreed to the removal of the

IN CANADA:

FAX: [905] 771-8911

between 1988 and 1993 include 35 percent reductions in total Suspended Solids, and 40 per cent reductions in Biochemical Oxy gen Demand. Industry's overall water us age continues to decline, even though pro duction volumes are increasing. Paprican's drive for continuous improve ment includes a five-year, $ 100 million part nership with the federal government. This two-stage program focuses first on research to develop new, closed-system technologies to reduce the environmental impact of mills' process water. Phase two will test success ful technologies and processes in operating mills, ultimately determining which will be

contaminated soil and installation of a new water line to the house. Saskatchewan Water & Wastewater

Association Newsletter, Septl94

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Terry Cooke Regional Chairman Greater Hamilton

Dr. Stuart Smith

llPhilip Utilities was created to join the best in global

President,

Philip Utilities Management Corporation

water and wastewater treatment technologies with Canada's fastest growing environmental company. The result - a Canadian company with the expertise and

experience to compete in the world market for utilities management.

With this partnership. Greater Hamilton and Philip Utilities Through a landmark agreement,Philip Utilities now oper are pioneering new ways to effectively manage public ates the water and sewage treatment facilities of Greater utilities. Hamilton, providing this essential service to almost 500,000 residents. This private/public partnership,the largest of its For more information on this dynamic partnership, please call: type in North America, provides a uniquely Canadian approach to labour and community concerns, while reducing Mr.Stan Spencer,Chief Operating Officer, Philip Utilities (905) 548-3963 or operating costs and providing broad economic benefits. Mr.Scott Galbraith, Manager of Business Development, Greater Hamilton has set the standard for developing effec tive economic strategies between industry and government. Greater Hamilton (905) 546-4447

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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Horror stories of past are obscured by Images of rustic living

Science,chemistry and engineering

such fundamentals as births, marriages and

life expectancies of earlier societies. Also examined are energy sources and uses, eco nomics, social change and urbanization, all areas commonly neglected by orthodox his

were the cutting edges of the Indus

trial Revolution which was unde

niably brutal at first. Child labour, worker exploitation, dangerous working conditions, all were part of this revolution which reshaped our world forever. Charles Dickens brilliantly captured the urban squalor in his fiction, 150 years ago. More recently, social scientist Peter F. Drucker, in his 1994 essay. The Age ofSocial Trans formation, wrote that while industrial work ers were indeed paid poorly at first, they were still paid better than farm or house hold workers. Moreover factory workers worked specifiedhonrs, unlike servants and farmers who were often kept working at the whim of employers. Drucker notes that in fant mortality rates dropped immediately when farmers and domestic servants moved

into factory work. Ultimately, the development of a skilled working class, along with the wealth gen erated by mass production, freed a longabused rural class from centuries of misery and deprivation. The development of ca nals, roads, ships, railways and planes, in creasingly slashed the costs of food, goods and services in economies previously serv iced by pack horses and camels. To the economies of scale were added the economies of scope as advances in transportion technology rivalled that of manufacturing. A pack horse carrying cot ton goods to Liverpool could only haul about 60 kilograms as it wound along Lancashire's hilly terrain. The same horse pulling a ca nal barge could move several tonnes directly into the great port. Indeed, it was a canal which converted Manchester,an inland city, into a port with a global reach. The barges later brought back foods from around the world to feed the factory workers, complet ing a cycle in the revolution which was to encircle the world. Fifty percent of Brit ain's economic growth since the Industrial Revolution was due to better nutrition, ac

cording to economist and Nobel laureate Robert Fogel. But nutrition alone does not always lead to better health. Increasingly, the crowded slums around the factories led to lethal out

breaks of disease until the development of sanitary engineering drastically improved public health. Those diseases, which, tragi cally, are still endemic in the Third World, are now found only in the history books of modem societies, a direct benefit of the In dustrial Revolution.

But perhaps the biggest benefit is the one most overlooked; that democracy usually displaces despotism when citizen empow erment replaces feudal systems. The dy namic which gave the workers manufactur-

torians.

Many ecologists emotionally link acid rain with Blake's Satanic Mills and now

regard all industry and technology with deep suspicion. Braudel's findings will undoubt edly shock some of our environmental zeal ots with their suspicions of, and deep seated resistance to, science and technology. In preIndustrial societies, millions laboured in

appalling conditions so that a few might live in luxury. Even at the turn of the century it

Tom Davey

was said that Britain was heaven for 30,000

ing skills, also gave them political power. Drucker notes pointedly that the three great destroyers of our age, Hitler, Stalin and Mao, produced absolutely nothing in their life times, except wreckage. Ironically, technology is often contemp tuously abused by ill-informed critics who seem totally unaware of their historical debt to science and technology. To these people.

people while being a hell for 30 million. Braudel's research, however,reveals that even the rich lived in conditions which

would disgust modem Canadians. Conven tional French historians tell us of the won

ders of the great chateaux; the glory of Ver sailles, its splendid architecture, glistening mirrors and elegant interiors. But when I was there not long ago, I learned that food was often served cold because the kitchens

Braudel's findings will undoubtedlyshock some

were located away from the main palace. In fact the original marble floors were torn up and replaced with wood; they kept the pal ace so cold that wine was known to freeze in winter.

ofour environmental zealots with their

suspicions of,and deep seated resistance to,

science and technology.

But if the stench of the nobility's houses, centuries ago, would nauseate us today, the hovels of the poor, by far the overwhelming majority, must have been unbearable. As the French historian so eloquently puts it, the world, prior to industrial development, was a brutal, disease-ridden and hungry place for its inhabitants, most of whom had very short life expectancies. The most comfortable inhabitants of

the works of the remarkable Frenchman,

those times were the fleas, lice, rats and

Fernand Braudel,should be required read ing. Conventional history tell us much about pharoahs, caesars, kings, and queens but surprisingly little about the lives of average people. In 1589, George Puttenham,a ma jor figure in Elizabethan English literature wrote: 'The good and the bad ofprinces is more exemplary and thereby ofgreater mo ment than the private person's.' And so it

other vermin which infested the houses of

was that most histories were focussed; work

ing people were virtually ignored. But the French historian, in his books such as Struc tures ofEveryday Life, rectified this histori

cal vacuum by showing how ordinary peo ple lived and worked over the ages. Braudel weaves an intricate tapestry from historical facts which dispels many of the romantic illusions which some youthful environmentalists have of pre-industrial society. He ignores the more regal focus of his historical contemporaries and deals with

rich and poor alike. Braudel stresses that every human be ing born before this century was actually lucky to have lived. Most babies simply did not survive and those hardy ones who did, for the most part, had short lives punc tuated by crippling diseases. Without con temporary science, there were no drugs to ease the pain,or machines to diagnose many medical conditions which could easily be treated today. Ironically, the 16th century Flemish artist, Pieter Bruegel, painted wonderful landscapes filled with bucolic peasants, frolicking happily in their rural environments. While Bruegel's name is very similar to the historian's, his paintings seem like artistic satires, at odds with the

misery revealed by Braudel's historical findings. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Prevent Pollution in Stormwater. Stormceptor™ separates oil and sediment from residential, road and parking lot runoff.

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Industry Update

It is somewhat paradoxical that the ap plied sciences which enable us to live free from the crushing burdens of hunger, are often spurned by today's youth. Most of our history was burdened by regular famine. Now we have lucrative industries such as

Weightwatchers, whose clients pay money to eat less, a situation unprecedented in human history. But our militant activists seem unaware

that many less fortunate countries, lacking our technology, relentlessly continue a pro tracted and unequal battle with nature. Even more tragic is the fact that most poverty stricken people are politically powerless, unable to protest their miserable conditions to their leaders. The works of Braudel and Drucker

should be required reading for today's pro fessional malcontents, perhaps even becom ing mandatory when the protest placards are being issued. If activists knew a little more history, some might become grateful for instead of hostile to - the benefits of tech

nology which have enriched and extended our lives - while creating a climate of po litical freedom to stridently complain about it all. .

the Mississippi Power & Light Company

cryptosporidium

sippi. This site was selected due to the po tentially high concentration of zebra mus sel eggs and larvae; the actual site count ranged from 10,000 to 170,000 per cubic meter. In addition to favorable filter per formance, all pre-shelled zebra mussel lar vae, eggs, and shelled mussels were ex tracted. The complete test results were pre

Gerald Andrus Plant in Greenville, Missis

Editorial Comment, continued

Mollusks vs Milwaukee's Center for Great Lakes Stud ies could have found a use for zebra mus

sels. Studies show that the tiny mollusks filter harbour water so well that they were able to reduce massive quantities of injected cryptosporidium by more than 95 per cent. Cryptosporidium is a tiny parasitic proto zoan, that sickened about 400,000 people in Milwaukee last year after passing through the municipal filtration plant and probably countless home water filters. It has also

caused outbreaks of disease in many coun tries.

Zebra mussels barred

from power plant In September and November 1994, Acres Intemational Corp. of Amherst, New York, conducted two similar tests with Amiad's

automatic self-cleaning SAP filter. Using a patented, multi-layer, 40 micron (absolute) weaved stainless steeel screening system, the filter provided a 100% barrier to all life forms of the zebra mussel, including larvae and eggs.

sented at the International Zebra Mussel conference in Toronto.

Operations'Seminar The Alberta Water and Wastewater Opera tors' Association is holding its 20th Annual Operators Seminar, March 7 - 10, 1995, at the Banff Park Lodge, Banff, Alberta. This seminar will bring operators up-todate on a variety of topics in the water and wastewater field. Speakers and topics are selected to give operators a chance to be come aware of recent technical and equip ment developments and see how other op erators are optimizing their operations. Speakers are operators, supervisors, tech nical industry representatives and other ex perts in their fields. Lor more information, contact The Al

The tests were conducted on behalf of

berta Water and Wastewater Operators'

the Mud Creek Irrigation District(MCID)to satisfy the State of Michigan environmen tal regulations. The actual test site was at

Kingsway Mall P.O., Edmonton, Alberta, T5G 306, tel: (403)427-5877.

Association, P.O. Box 34010, 196 A

ECODYNE LAMELLA SETTLERS You can't settle forless You can save space and instal

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Reduce your installation and operating costs with Large Centrifugal, Propeller and Mixed-Flow Submersible Pumps from ITT Flygt. ■ Modular assembly meets specific duty points without resorting to custom designs ■ Wet or dry pit application needs no superstructure and is therefore envlronmentaiiy friendly

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■ Flygt's "Complete Package" engi neering covers everything from initial pump sizing to start-up ■ Fifteen Flygt offices provide expert advice and fast service all year long

ITT Flygt

propeller pumps are generally The pumps are compact and require little or no superstructure. And operating below ground, Flygt stations are very quiet.

accepted as being the best choice for

pumping large volumes of water at relatively low heads.

Call your local Flygt representative today to discuss your pumping projects or simply to get more information.

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Measure Chemical

ÂŤM t

from Drops to Drums Controlotron's System 990DFT Flow Tube's wide flow range lets you measure chemical feed flow from Drops to Drums. Using Controlotron's patented TransitTime technology, 990 DFT is bi-directional, and sensitive to flow changes as little as 0.001 feet per second, even at zero flow. This makes it ideal for measurement of

chemical additives, such as sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, fluoride, alum or polymer. The easily installed flow tube is of CPVC or Kynar construction. 990DFT also offers a full range of Digital and Analogue Data Displays, plus all conventional analogue and digital output data formats. For further information call the closest Westech office. Saskatoon Westech Industrial Ltd.

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Industry Update Research data confirm

performance of air

pollution forecasting tool in B.C. A computer model, modified by Environ ment Canada scientists to reflect Canadian

standards, has proven to be the best avail able tool for forecasting motor vehicle emis sions in B.C.'s lower Eraser Valley. The results of a scientific survey released by Deputy Prims Minister and Minister of the Environment Sheila Copps, confirmed

that the MOBIEE 5C'computer model, de veloped in the U'.S. but modified by Envi ronment Canada to suit Canadian conditions

and vehicle emission standards, provides the best available estimate of vehicle emissions.

Earlier research, conducted at Vancou

ver's Cassiar Tunnel confirmed the validity of the vehicle emissions data in the Air

Quality Management Plan of the Greater Vancouver Regional District(GVRD). En vironment Canada provides the MOBILE vehicle emission source models to provinces and the GVRD for their use in air quality planning. "One of my government's priorities is to work with provincial and municipal govern ments with the aim of reducing carbon di oxide emissions," said Minister Copps. More stringent Canadian standards for new

The MOBILE 50 model forecasts a 27 percent reduction in vehicle emissions from 1995 levels by the year 2000, despite the increase In the number of vehicles and vehicle-kilometres travelled in the Greater Vancouver area. Photo T Davey vehicles, announced by the federal govern to establish a task force to develop options for setting improved national standards for ment in February 1992, began being phased in from 1994 up to 1996. The emissions reduced automobile emissions, and to set prevented by these federal standards will minimum standards for reformulated fuels achieve about 75 percent of the total forecast that would lead to improved air quality," reductions of air pollutants from all sources added Minister Copps. This task force is to in greater Vancouver by the year 2020. report at the meeting of the Canadian Coun cil of Ministers of the Environment in May "At the recent meeting of federal and 1995. provincial environment ministers, we agreed

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11


Industry Update John J. Coomey 1920-1994 John Coomey, a past President of the On tario Pollution Control Equipment Associa tion and President of Cancoppas Ltd., passed away December 16, 1994. His was a most eventful life. He had

been a Spitfire fighter pilot in the Royal Air Force during World War II, rising to the rank of squadron leader. Later he was on the last ship to leave Singapore as the Japanese

James MacLaren is

honoured by Guelph University The degree. Doctor of Laws honoris causa, was conferred upon James Wade MacLaren at Guelph University, Feb. 3, 1995. A graduate of the University of Toronto and the Massachusetts Institute of Technol

ogy, Jim MacLaren has been a consulting engineer since 1947. For more than 30 years, he and his colleagues designed and built the water, sewage, Hood-control and waste-management projects that most of us now take for granted. In 1982, he became an independent con sultant and began to use his extensive knowledge to challenge the way water is managed in this country. He has consist ently advocated prevention over reaction,

invaded it.

After the war John studied engineering at Rugby University in Britain, before emi grating to Canada with his young family in 1957. John further developed his engineer ing expertise at both Fischer & Porter and Brooks Instruments before becoming Presi dent of Hoke Controls Ltd., a Canadian sub

sidiary of a U.S. firm. While there, John was among the first business delegates to visit China in 1975.

In the early 70s, he started up his own business, Cancoppas Ltd., representing in dustrial instrumentation companies from integrated management of water quality and quantity, full cost pricing of water and sew age services, and protection of Canada's $50billion investment in aging municipal infra structures. Jim wrote on these subjects in the very first issue of ES&E.

Ozone

Europe and the USA. He devoted himself to Cancoppas for 20 years, while finding time for his favourite leisure activity, golf. He was a familiar figure on the links at the Mississauga Golf& Country Club and, later, the motivating force behind OPCEA's An nual Golf Tournament. John loved to travel with his wife Eileen

and daughters Marion Coomey and Shirley Evans who survive him.

ES&E staff will always remember his uncompromising integrity. John Coomey was a man whose word was as good as any written contract.

He holds the University of Toronto's Engineering Alumni Medal, the Engineer ing Institute of Canada's Julian C. Smith Memorial Medal and the American Water

Works Association's George Warren Fuller Award.

ANNOUNCEMENT

Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Limited, inter national leader in the supply of ozone gener ating systems and accessories, is pleased to announce:

• The appointment as agent for the Ontario municipal market of Metcon Sales and Engineering Limited, 328 North Rivermede Road, Unit#9, Concord, ON L4K 3N5,Tel: 905-738-2355, Fax: 905-738-5520.

• The appointment as agent for the Ontario Industrial market of H2Flow Equipment Inc., 1395 Lawrence Ave. W., Box 20143, Toronto, ON M6L 1A7, Tel: 416-

HYDROPHILIC INDUSTRIES LTD. IS PLEASED TO ANNOUNCE THAT

INTERPUMP

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• The continued appointment as agent for the Ontario bottled water market of Bottled Water Concepts Inc., 30 West Beaver Creek Road, Unit #7, Richmond Flill,

WILL BE CARRYING OUR

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• The formation of Hankin Atlas Capital Corp. to pro vide financing for the leasing of ozone systems and accessories.

Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Limited, manufacturers of the Ozotec ™ line of ozone generators and other ozone accessories.

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nps

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Sigma effluent samplers and flow meters keep you in control

Photovac has just announced the new Micro FiD portable flame ionization detector with a powerful new management software package. Circle reply card No. 238

Meters & Analyzers Can-Am offers a complete line of pH, conductivity, oxygen, turbidity and temperature meters.

Circle reply card No. 239

Brookfield viscosity measurement and control in-line viscometers• process viscometers•lab viscometers

Brookfield is the leader in viscosity measurement and control. This equipment can be completely computer interfaced. Circle reply card No. 240

Can-Am Instruments is the Ontario supplier of Sigma's complete line of effluent samplers and flow meters. Now you can find just the right flow monitoring and effluent sampling equipment your operation needs to meet government regulations and manufacture safely. Sigma's line meets all MISA requirements. Sigma is recognized as the technology leader in this field. And they have gained this reputation

through their exacting standards and ease of

operation. A Can-Am representative will do an on-site demonstration to find just the right equipment to meet your needs. Sales and rental inquiries call (905) 277-0331. Circle reply card No. 243 PORTABLE LIQUID SAMPLERS•STORM WATER MONITORING SYSTEMS•REFRIGERATED SAMPLERS•OPEN GHANNEL FLOW METERS

ILC spill protection This product provides fast, inexpensive spill protection. The revolutionary design has adapted space shuttle materials to create a hydrostatic system that quickly seals all size pipes, trapping hazardous materials before they are discharged. Circle reply card No. 241

Rentals made easy Can-Am provides complete in-house service of all equipment for your environmental requirements. Rentals, short-term and long-term leases are available. Talk to your representative at Can-Am Instruments (905) 277-0331.

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Canadian made McTighe oil/water separators keep rolling on When the big train companies deal with effluent from their washing bays, rhany count on McTighe oil/water separators. McTighe's full range of products are custom designed to meet specific project requirements. Your Can-Am representative has over 20 years of experience matching customer needs with discharge water equipment. Can-Am will work with you through every stage from design to completion. For levels below LOPPM, talk to Can-Am (905)277-0331

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 244


Industry Update Concrete in space?

Bell Canada award to MSA Canada

NASA's Space Shuttle Endeavour recently carried a payload which included a unique

The Bell Canada "Award of Excellence", a

concrete mixing experiment funded by Mas

symbol of recognition for superior perform ance, was recently presented to MSA

ter Builders. The experiment, devised by Master Builders and Students for Explora tion and Development of Space (SEDS) at the University of Alabama at Huntsville,

Canada Inc.

Each year Bell Canada honours a select group of suppliers who have shown to be

Invaluable in their efforts to provide qual ity, service and technical expertise. The 1994 award went to MSA Canada Inc., which worked with Bell to develop what has become a model of team work and ingenu ity for future procurement projects. The award resulted from a joint effort between Bell Canada and MSA Canada in

the development of the Passport"' Personal Alarm, an atmospheric monitor for use in confined spaces. This instrument contains an oxygen sensor, a combustible gas sensor and a choice of up to three additional toxic gas sensors. Bell Canada expects to pur

odours

or similar construction is to evolve, concrete

throughout Canada.

and sand. The experiment was controlled by a microprocessor. Shortly after the shut tle reached orbit, temperature probes char acterized the environment and a motor

mixed the dry material for one minute. A solenoid valve permitted water and PolyHeed, Master Builders patented chemi cal admixture, to enter the mixing chamber as a fine mist. The mortar was mixed for

30 minutes, after which it cured for ten days before the shuttle returned to Earth.

"Gravity plays an important role in mix ing concrete and in the subsequent settling effects after concrete placement," noted Bury. "If we can better understand how the chemical structure is changed or altered without gravity, this could lead to signifi cant improvements."

was initiated in the late 1980s.

The challenge of controlling landfill

the safety of their maintenance crews

4" in diameter, which held Portland cement

sought to collect data about the characteris tics of mixing and curing concrete in a zerogravity environment. In order to encourage the use of outer space by researchers, NASA makes room available on its space shuttle missions for small, self-contained payloads, called "Get Away Specials"(GAS), which contain vari ous Independently financed experiments. More than 100 experiments - exploring the effects of microgravity on everything from botanical growth to the corrosion of metals - have been conducted since the program

Spokesman Mark Bury,of Master Build ers in Cleveland, said, "Our goal was to gain insight into how concrete mixes and cures in a microgravity environment. The absence of gravity may offer clues to im prove the strength and durability of concrete made on Earth. Additionally, the experi ment provided information which may prove useful In exploring the use of concrete in extraterrestrial applications. If lunar bases

chase in excess of 1,500 of these units for

may prove to be the perfect building mate rial for use in space." The company provided money and ex pertise in mix design and concrete consul tation. The SEDS student group devised the mixing chamber,a cylinder 12" long and

Later, a series of tests measured

compressive strength and other engineering properties of the space concrete compared to a ground-based control sample. The analysis and research should have been com pleted in time to announce the findings at the World of Concrete '95 convention.

A pilot program aimed at reducing the po tential for off-site odours from landfill op erations at Laidlaw Environmental's

Lambton, Ontario facility shows strong promise, says Dick Williams, landfill man

Technology Works!

ager.

"The pilot project involves changes to our operating practices developed as part of our ongoing continuous improvement pro gram," he explains. "Tlie challenges of pre venting odours from escaping our opera tional area are ongoing because of the wide variety of materials handled at this facility. The pilot program works in conjunction with Laidlaw Environmental's action plan for odour monitoring." The action plan Is: - Minimization of potential for release - in addition to continued screening of potential wastes by the on-site laboratory, all incom ing wastes are checked for odours and re jected if they do not meet predetermined requirements. Leachate is frequently pumped out of the disposal cell, and all waste-containing vessels are kept closed or covered on site.

- Detection program - all employees are re sponsible for detecting and correcting po tential odour problems. Off-site monitor ing for odours is conducted every two hours.

In Ultrasonic Level Measurement The MultiRanger Plus' versatility, reliability and ease of use make it the most widely installed ultrasonic level device

of its kind.

A Measurement of liquid level,

initiated immediately when an odour is de tected or a complaint is received. - Follow-up - the shift supervisor is in structed to advise any complainant about the

processing technology ensures accurate, reliable

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investigation and action taken.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

For more information. Circle reply card No. 245


Industry Update Laidlaw acquisition Laidlaw Inc. has purchased USPCl from Union Pacific Corporation. The transaction price was $225 million (US) plus the as sumption of approximately $38 million in debt and the replacement of various finan cial assurances advanced by Union Pacific. USPCI is a major hazardous and indus trial waste management company and also has major interests in the recycling of nonhazardous industrial by-products. With more than $300 million in annualized rev enues from USPCI,annualized revenue from Laidlaw's Environmental Services unit will

exceed $800 million.

Canadian companies interested in being part of ENVITEC should contact Industrial

European Union is

Ontario Hydro fined $20,000 for violation

$216 billion

Ontario Hydro was recently convicted of vio lating the Occupational Health and Safety Act and was fined $20,000 in provincial court. The charge was laid following an Ontario Ministry of Labour investigation into the fail ure of a crane at Hydro's Carling Transformer The court was told that a boom-truck

ENVITEC 95, will run in Dusseldorf June 19-23. Exhibitors from all over the world

as the load fell on to the deck of the truck.

will be showcasing their ecological prod

Deborah McPhail, the Ministry of La bour lawyer who handled the case, said that although the crane was supplied and oper ated by a subcontractor, Regional Crane Rentals Ltd., Ontario Hydro had the respon sibility of ensuring that the load-carrying capacity of the crane would not be exceeded. Justice of the Peace Richard Sculthorpe registered the conviction. He said Ontario Hydro would also have to pay a surcharge

be a global forum for environmental pro tection and waste disposal technologies. Organisers view Canada as a very im portant market. Canadian industry as a whole is now making an impressive come back after only slight growth in 1993. In 1993 alone,Canada imported machinery and vehicles totalling DM 1,188.4 million in value. More than 150 Canadian specialists travelled to ENVITEC 92.

Tractor pulls unhealthy Tests at indoor motor sports events held over the last two years in Cincinnati have shown potentially dangerous levels ofcarbon mon oxide emissions, the US Center for Disease

Control and Prevention has reported. Events where testing was done included tractor pulls, truck jumps and mud races. Carbon monoxide can cause headaches, nau

sea and choking and high levels can be fa

suant to recent amendments to the Provin

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European Union member countries are brac ing themselves for a battle over tough EU environmental laws with costly new rules to clean up wastewater. A price tag of up to $216 billion has been placed on the work needed to meet the panEuropean standards. Some member coun tries, including Britain, have already re quested the European Commission to relax the terms, particularly the strict timetable for implementation. Other member coun tries, such as Denmark(with its already high environmental standards) will fiercely op pose any tinkering with the legislation.

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crane with a 15-ton capacity failed under the weight of five stacked transformer ra diators. Although no one was injured in the collapse, the potential for harm was created,

ucts and services. In 1995 ENVITEC will

tims of crime.

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Spills response

Sorbents: who cares what's the difference? Material Spills(ASTM F1 127-88) gives the following definitions:"ABsorption-a proc ess where the material taken up is distrib uted throughout the body of the absorbing material (the body of the absorbing mate rial must swell)". "ADsorption - a process where the material taken up is distributed over the surface of the adsorbing material" Similarly from Environment Canada's Environmental Protection Directorate, No

vember, 1983; "If the matrix or solid por tion of sorbent does not swell and contain

the fluid, it is an ADsorbent and not an ABsorbent."

In November, 1992, the U.S. EPA issued an Environmental Fact Sheet which defined

adsorbents "as materials that retain liquids on the surface of their particles by capillary action or surface tension". ABsorbents,

meanwhile retain liquids within their mo lecular structure.

Thecurrent trend in oil spil -related

How does an owner decide what to use? Photo S.D.

industries is to use the generic term 'sorbent' when describing a sorbing material. This precludes the user having to discern whether or not the material 'adsorbs a liquid or 'absorbs a liquid. The terms ADsorbent and

ABsorbent are not interchangeable as some would suggest. Correctly used they distinguish the performance characteristics of the materials in question. The American Society for Testing and Materials in their Standard Guide for Emer

gency Response Personnel of Hazardous

Countless numbers of sorbents produc ers incorrectly label their products and their promotional literature using the term ABsorbent, when by referencing any pri mary physical chemistry textbook the prod uct is by definition an ADsorbent. The argument has been made that "cellulosic" materials absorb liquids into their molecular structure and demonstrate the swellina characteristics of an ABsorbent.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


By John S. Brinkman* This is true when dealing with aqueous liquids but when dealing with organics such as oil, gasoline, diesel, etc. cellulosic mate rials ADsorb these liquids on their surfaces and not into the solid matrix,

"Since ADsorption is by definition only a surface coating process high surface area is advantageous if the tluid has sufficiently low viscosity to cover it. An incomplete list of adsorbent materials includes plastic foams, plastic fibres, straw, peat, sand, po rous clay, feathers, foamed glass and sili cates, activated alumina, and soil. The sur face can be external, as in a fibre, or inter

nal as inside a granule of activated carbon. The criteria is that if the solid part of the material does not swell greater than 10% or the granule does not change size, then the sorption phenomena is called ADsorption" (ASTM F1127-88; ASTM F-726). Whenever an oil sorbing product uses terms such as capillary action, voids, inter stices, biodegradability, or reuse it is de scribing some of the performance charac teristics of an ADsorbent. "Absorbent materials are those that are

inert to the spilled material but physically swell up in it. They often have a low sur face area. They are also adsorbent by the

one sorbing material can supply the solu tion to all material spill problems. As an example, the combination of any finely di vided organic sorbent (which includes al most all of those commercially available) and an oxidizing agent can result in chemi cal reactions far worse than the spill itself. Some acidic and basic materials can cause

adsorbent products cannot hold more than their own volume of spilled liquid. Com pression or gravitational pull will cause most adsorbents to release the amount of liquid in excess of its volume, which in turn causes

secondary contamination. Conversely, ABsorbents will retain, de pending upon the liquid, many more times their own volume within their molecular

A sorbent that is very effective on a highiy viscous iiquid may not be suitable for a iow-viscosity chemical and conversely. catalytic chemical reactions. There are no hard and fast rules in se

lecting a sorbent material. Variables such as viscosity, water temperature, currents, wind velocity, fibre density, retention, en trance resistance, location, time, leach re

sistance will have a direct impact upon the effectiveness of a sorbent material in a spill response situation, transportation or storage of a liquid. With reference to the whole issue of sorbency, adsorbency, and absorbency for spills involving organic liquids.

structure. The liquid cannot be released in liquid form,once it has been absorbed. This is evidenced by the "swelling" characteris tics as the two parts, solid and liquid inte grate to become one. Buying decisions at the end-user level are influenced by and large by the informa tion supplied by manufacturers and their respective sales representatives. People making these decisions may or may not be 'experts' and rely heavily on the belief that the information they are receiving is valid. In this day of increased environmental legislation, the ensuing fines, and lawsuits involving issues of occupational health and safety, the trend is toward becoming tech nically well versed in order to reduce the risks, not the opposite. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 151

nature of their surface area but since this

area is small they are not often used as adsorbents. Those absorbents useful in spill control do not dissolve in the spilled fluid but physically coniain it in a form with mini mum surface area. This reduction in sur

face area lowers the rate of evaporation and minimizes leaching. For many hazardous spills these are required properties. Absorb ent materials also minimize human and sec

ondary contamination since squeezing and contact may not be with a wetted surface as in an adsorbent(ASTM F1127-88)." On the topic of vapour release, it is pos sible to actually increase the risk to clean up personnel by using an adsorbent on a chemical spill. Since adsorbents exhibit only a surface phenomena, adsorbents with large surface areas increase the incidence of'vapour release' by increasing the amount of exposed surface area.

Super Absorbent

In contrast, ABsorbents will also release

vapour but due to the small surface area available to release vapours, the rate of va pour release over a period of time is sub stantially lessened. The fact remains that liquids do not bum - only vapours bum! With the broad range of chemicals be ing used by industry today so called 'uni versal sorbents tend to be either water-spe cific or oil-specific, but not both. This is a misleading catch-phrase. Given a choice, a sorbent will prefer one over the other, which will impact directly upon its perfomtance. A sorbent that is very effective on a highly viscous liquid may not be suitable for a low-viscosity chemical and conversely. TTiere are dangers inherent in the belief that

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19


Soil & groundwater remediation

Adapting ozonatlon technology to soli and groundwater remediation

Ozonation,an oxidation technology

used to treat drinking water and industrial wastewater, has po tential application to the on-site

amenable to secondary aerobic biodegrada

different soil matrices.

tion.

Hazardous waste ozonation is being tested as a primary treatment in aboveground,engineered treatment cells. It is also being applied in situ by sparging to treat contaminated soil and groundwater. Sparging is a newly commercialized tech nology which involves the controlled injec tion of gases, most frequently air, into satu rated soil immediately above or within an aquifer. In situ ozonation is being investi gated as a final polishing step once other treatment technologies have reached asymp totic levels or as a primary treatment

ous waste in a matter of months as com

Nelson explained that the use of ozone is not new. The Dutch began using it to sterilize drinking water before the turn of the century. This application is still widely used today, especially in Europe. About 25 years ago, process engineers began using ozonation to detoxify various industrial wastewater streams, by destroying organics, or by preconditioning water for carbon ad sorption or biotreatment. In wastewater treatment, ozonation is frequently used as a final polishing step. The new technology combines wastewater ozonation with knowledge of soil chemistry and subsurface transport

pared to years for systems relying solely on volatilization or biodegradation." By products of ozonation are generally carbon dioxide, water or simpler molecules that are

is a new application that depends on under standing how ozone reacts with different organic compounds and disperses through

retnediation of contaminated soil and

groundwater. Ozonation can treat recalci trant organic compounds such as chlorinated ethenes and complex aromatics which are often resistant to more traditional treat

ments, such as aerobic bioremediation and

volatilization (stripping). Christopher H. Nelson, Technology Commercialization Manager for Groundwater Technology, Inc., developer of the application, says: "A major attraction of ozonation is that it can destroy the hazard

mechanisms. Hazardous waste ozonation

method.

Over the past two years, GTI has used ozonation in 15 laboratory and field studies at diverse sites ranging from Montana to Australia. Removal efficiencies ranging be tween 35 and 98 percent have been achieved in a matter of months for contaminants re sistant to conventional on-site treatment

Results of hazardous waste ozonation laboratory and pilot tests com pleted by Groundwater Technology, Inc. over the past two years. Site Location

Australia

Contaminants

PAHs

Matrix

Project Type

Results

Laboratory

35% reduction in PAHs after

study

40 hours of treatment.

In situ pilot study

86% reduction in PAHs in soil

Soil and

In situ pilot

50 - 90% reduction in TCE in

groundwater

study

soil and groundwater after 6

Soil

systems such as bioremediation and volatilization (see table). More pilot test ing, laboratory studies, and the first com mercial applications will be taking place. Ozone can oxidize organic contaminants via two pathways - direct oxidation and generation of free radical intermediates, such as hydroxyl radicals. Contaminants most amenable to direct oxidation include

New York

PAHs,

Soil

hydrocarbons Pennsylvania

TCE. DCE

and PAHs after 3 months of

aromatics such as polycyclic aromatic hy drocarbons(PAHs)and chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. A wider range of organic contami nants can be oxidized by the free radical mechanism,including halogenated solvents, pesticides and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Free radicals are commonly formed by the de composition of ozone in water under alka line conditions, the exposure of ozone to

treatment.

U.V. radiation, and the reaction of ozone

after 3 months of treatment.

months of treatment.

Arizona

PAHs,

Soil

hydrocarbons

Laboratory study

90% reduction In PAHs and TPH after 40 hours of treatment.

ÂŁx situ pilot study

Montana

API separator sludge

Sludge

Laboratory study

68 - 94% reduction in TPH

TPH and PAH reduction

ranging from 67 - 82% after 80 hours of treatment.

with hydrogen peroxide. The generation offree radicals is directly related to site-specific soil and groundwater conditions. The concentration of free radi

California

Diesel

Groundwater

Laboratory study

98% reduction in TPH after 40 hours of treatment.

Kansas

TCE, DCE

Groundwater

Laboratory study

82% reduction in TCE after 40

bonates and bicarbonates) and certain met

hours of treatment.

als. Treatment rates for free radical reac

cals is limited by the presence of high or ganic carbon, alkalinity (in the form of car

tions are generally much faster than direct 46 - 93% reduction in TCE in

In situ pilot

groundwater after 2 months of

study

treatment.

ozone reactions. Tlie residual effects of ozone can be ben eficial for bioremediation. Ozone decom

Florida

Chlorinated

Soil

pesticides Ontario

PCBs

Soil

Laboratory

35% reduction in heptachlor

study

after 20 hours of treatment.

Laboratory

77% reduction in PCBs in

study

combination with physical

poses to oxygen which is necessary for aero bic bioremediation. Second, it can break down some contaminants into constituents

In these ten laboratory and pilot studies, ozonation achieved significant reductions in the con centrations of target organics. It should be noted that in each case,the application of ozone was

more amenable to bacterial degradation. However, at high concentrations, ozone can act as a sterilizing agent. Nelson acknowledges there are several health and safety concerns in using ozone

tailored to match site-specific condifions.

to treat contaminated soil and groundwater.

extraction.

20

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Ozone is very reactive and will attack in compatible system materials. Also, in the U.S. it is an OSHA-regulated substance that requires control of ambient discharges and strict adherence to health and safety proce

Annual waste water treatment cost savings can create dividends by effectively reducing extraneous water inflows and infiltration.

dures.

...ozone does not

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react efficiently with aii contaminants

O Prevents extraneous water from entering the

at aii sites.

sewage system Nelson emphasized that ozone does not react efficiently with all contaminants at all

sites. The key to using ozonation effectively is the completion of a laboratory treatability study. The study determines if ozonation will work within the site-specific soil ma

trix, and what design and operational steps might be amended to enhance system per formance.

The methodologies for evaluating soil and groundwater for ozonation and other advanced treatment processes are being de veloped by Groundwater Technology's Remediation Technology Laboratory, in

Concord, CA. The laboratory, working in consort with GTI field engineers, has played a critical role in pioneering the application of ozonation and other advanced treatment

O Protects ground water and the environment

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21


Legal affairs

How to protect the results of

mm

environmental audits

Itis often suggested by lawyers that an environmental audit

ought to be commissioned by the client through his or her attorney in order to protect the audit results with the solicitorclient privilege. However, while some lawyers applaud themselves for this apparently brilliant idea, all indications are that it is without substance. This article examines the decisions

of two recent cases dealing with the solicitor-client privilege as.it applies to environmental audits and concludes that the privilege creates a false sense of security for business people. It is rather through common sense steps that the confidentiality of an environmental audit may be maintained. It is useful to briefly examine the policy reasons behind the

solicitor-client privilege. A fundamental principle in the law of evidence is that all relevant proof is admissible. This principle exists to assist the court in ascertaining the truth. One exception to the principle is the solicitor-client privilege. The law under stands that a client must be able to communicate freely with his or her lawyer without fear that what is said may later be used in evidence against him or her. However, the privilege applies only to communications in which legal advice is sought. The mere fact that a person is speaking to a lawyer affords no protection in and of itself. In the environmental context, an audit received by a lawyer from the client and directly related to the giving of legal advice is privileged. If the audit is received by a lawyer from a consultant, it is only privileged if it was obtained specifically for the preparation or in contemplation of litigation. Most environmental audits, however, are carried out for the

purpose of obtaining information of a general nature, with the

giving of legal advice only an incidental consequence. Whether the audit is requested by a lender, an insurer, a purchaser, a ven dor, a director, an officer or an operating business, in the vast majority of cases, the primary objective is to assess the environ mental quality of the asset. While it may be that certain legal advice is sought in respect of the results of the audit, rarely is the audit obtained exclusively to allow the lawyer to render a legal opinion or to support litigation. For practical purposes, there fore, circumstances will seldom be such as to give rise to the application of the solicitor-client privilege. In the August 1992 case of R. v. McCarthy Tetrault, an inves tigation was undertaken by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment in respect of alleged spills of waste at the Lafarge Canada Inc. cement plant in Bath, Ontario. An environmental inspection officer obtained a search warrant to seize certain documents from

McCarthy Tetrault, who were the lawyers of Lafarge Canada. McCarthy Tetrault asserted that the documents were protected from seizure by the solicitor-client privilege based on the circum stances set out below.

In July 1991, a meeting was held at the Bath facility. A law yer from McCarthy Tetrault was present at the meeting, along with the facility's environmental manager and other senior man agers of the Lafarge group of companies. The meeting was re ferred to in a reminder notice as an "environmental audit" and

the lawyer's role was stated as "the recorder and keeper of the information developed". This was an important qualification, for if the lawyer were merely acting as secretary of the meeting, the privilege would not apply. On the other hand, if the purpose

Two timely Environmental ADAMAS Environmental Inc. ADAMAS Environmental Inc. (ADAMAS) is a progressive and dynamic Canadian owned environmental engineering firm with offices in Ottawa, Toronto and Montreal. ADAMAS provides professional services to Canadian and .American clients in the areas of site assessment and evaluation, site decommissioning, cleanup and remediation. ADAMAS utilizes state-of-the-art technology and risk-based approach to environmental habiHty management to produce cost-effective value-added solutions. In order to support the continual growth the company, ADAMAS is pleased to invite applications for the following positions in our Toronto and Ottawa offices:

SENIOR,INTERMEDIATE and JUNIOR PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS and/or ENVIRONMENTAL

Seminars to be held in Ottawa Environmental Site Assessment - May 9, 1995 Learn accepted techniques for preliminary site assess ment and enhance your awareness of transaction risks and liabilities.

Site Remediation and Cleanup - May 10-11, 1995 Receive a detailed overview of the environmental prop erty assessment process, examine current guidelines and understand the savings from potential liabilities. For information call Chris Goertz at (416) 638-8846 or fax at (416) 638-8731. •

Epic Educational Program Innovations Center 1110A Wilson Ave., Suite 206

Candidates should posses a post secondary degree in engineering, environmental studies, geology, hydrogeology or a related discipline with corresponding experience (minimum two years) and responsibihty levels in conducting ESA's, soil and groundwater investigations and site remediations. Relevant field experience, project management capabihties, strong written and oral communication skills, computer hteracy and the abihty to travel are

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Please send me a copy of the brochure: Mr. Mrs. Ms

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Address:

Resumes and letters ofinterest should be submitted in confidence to: ADAMAS P.nvimnmantal Inc. Human Resources Directorate

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


By Brian J. Stammer* of the meeting was for the lawyer to receive confidential infor mation and provide legal advice, the privilege would apply. The lawyer, of course, insisted that regardless of what was stated in the reminder notice, he attended the meeting for the purpose of giving legal advice on the compliance of the facility with applicable environmental laws and regulations. Conse quently, he maintained that his notes and memoranda from the

meeting were protected by the privilege. The Ministry, however, argued that the meeting was conducted for internal corporate pur poses only. It argued that the results of the meeting were in tended to be shared widely both inside and outside the company and were not, therefore, protected by the privilege. The court acknowledged that it must exercise caution in ac cording privileged status to the lawyer's notes and memoranda.

It must, afterall, be remembered that the privilege interferes with uncovering the truth. The lawyer was adamant in his testimony that the meeting was conducted to render legal advice to his cli ent. He further testified that immediately following the meeting he prepared a written opinion which was circulated only to those who had attended. The court reviewed the opinion and related documents and found that it did indeed confirm the lawyer's tes timony. It was held that the true purpose of the meeting was to determine the environmental compliance at the Bath facility and that the documents seized from Lafarge's lawyers were protected by the solicitor-client privilege. Then, in September 1992, a less favorable decision was ren dered by the Federal Court of Canada. In the case of Gregory v.

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Minister ofNational Revenue, a British Columbia lawyer repreContlnued overleaf

'Brian J. Stammerpractices environmentallaw with the firm of Colby, Monet, Demers, Delage & Crevier in Montreal, Quebec and is the author ofthe book entitled Gu\de to Environmental Due Diligence.

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156 23


Legal affairs, cont'd. sentcd Geddes Contracting Co. Ltd. in con nection with an asset acquisition of Grand Bell Property Ltd. The lawyer later received

audits. It can be seen that application of the solicitor-client privilege to environmen tal audits is extremely limited. The report

a "Notice to Provide Documents and Infor

of an environmental audit should be han

documents to be returned to a central loca

mation" from the Department of National Revenue. The lawyer claimed the solici tor-client privilege in respect of certain documents, including an environmental au dit. In a sworn affidavit, the lawyer stated that the environmental audit report was ob tained by him on behalf of his clients in or der that he could provide his clients with legal advice.

dled like any other sensitive information of a client. The fewer the people who have

tion once reviewed and analyzed. •Place all confidential documents in a sepa rate file to be stored in a safe place.

The fewer the people who

• Limit access to confidential documents.

The environmental audit was carried out

in connection with a property located in Surprise, Arizona. The court held that not withstanding that the audit was conducted at the request of the lawyer and that it may have been partly relied on by the lawyer to prepare a legal opinion, the privilege did not apply to the audit report. The solicitorclient privilege only applies to communica tions between a client and his or her lawyer wherein a legal opinion is given. However, documents upon which a legal opinion is based, such as an environmental audit pre pared by a consultant, are only privileged if they were prepared in contemplation of liti gation. To date, these are the only reported Ca nadian eases dealing with the solicitor-cli ent privilege as it applies to environmental

have knowledge of the results, the less likely there is to be a leak of

information to third parties. knowledge of the results, the less likely

related contracts which make reference to the environmental audit.

• Require distributed copies of sensitive

• Convey the duty of confidentiality to third parties involved in the particular transac tion and the audit process. • Require environmental consultants to sign a confidentiality agreement. • Do not publicize, either intemally or ex ternally, the fact that an environmental au dit is being undertaken. Of course, the manner in which the re

there is to be a leak of information to third

sults of an environmental audit are handled

parties. The following steps might, there fore, be taken to preserve the confidential ity of information contained in an environ

will vary with the circumstances. Where serious problems are discovered, it may be necessary to divulge the results to a large number of people in order to effect proper

mental audit:

• Restrict copying and avoid loose distribu tion of the audit report and related docu ments.

• Mark the word "confidential" on environ

mental audit reports, working papers, cor respondence, memoranda and related docu ments in order to avoid inadvertent disclo sure.

• Mark the word "confidential" on deeds of

sale, deeds of loan, offers to purchase and

remediation. In other cases, however, the

audit may reveal minor problems that the parties are willing to live with. In such cases, maintaining confidentiality becomes all important; for while it is not an offence to know of existing contamination, the pos sibility that a clean-up order will be issued is always present. For more information, Circle reply card No. 157

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Spring Conferences

Spring Convention Previews The Water Environment Association of

Ontario is holding its 24th Annual Tech nical Symposium on April 2 -4, 1995, at the Regal Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario. Their joint sponsor is the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association which is organizing a two-day exhibition of equipment and services. In a separate, full-day session on Tues day, Chief Operators from Ontario Clean Water Agency plants will meet to discuss issues relative to their positions. Business plans, development issues, operating chal lenges and opportunities will be on the agenda. This is the first time that the Chief Operators have combined their meeting with the WEAO conference.

MONDAY, APRIL 3 - CONCURRENT SESSIONS

1. The keynote speaker will be Dr. Joseph Macinnis, internationally

- Design of large CSO storage tanks in a dense urban setting - Providence, RI - UV disinfection of CSO

- Operational control of CSO - Innovative storage cleaning system 5. Small Systems (with Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research) - Future of decentralized wastewater treat

ment systems in North America - Microbiology of septic systems - Soils as treatment and disposal means - Operation of conventional and alternative septic systems - Peat bed systems in Ontario 6. Communal Systems - Perspectives on the use of communal sys tems in Ontario

- Planning considerations - a local munici pal perspective (Waterloo)

- public/private partnership to provide train ing - Problems posed with solids residual from water treatment

TUESDAY, APRIL 4 - CONCURRENT SESSIONS

9. fnformation Technology and Organiza tional Performance - Global trends in information technology for the 90s and beyond - The directions in information networking your organization should be taking - Transforming your vision into reality - Performance management - Overall organizational performance melding people and process into one pack age

10. Instrumentation Cost Effectiveness - Objectives and commitment to automation - Halton plant operation savings via SCADA 6

system

explorer. Dr. Macinnis was the first person to

- Identifying D.O. Probe maintenance requirements - Establishing the 'real'

dive under the North Pole.

instrument maintenance

He was also a consultant

requirements - Applying predictive maintenance management

renowned scientist and

to the Titanic discovery team and the first Cana

dian to explore the world's most famous ship wreck. Currently he is working with the Interna

software 11. Advances in Nutrient

Removal and Disinfection - Review of technologies for retrofitting - Nitrogen removal from

tional Joint Commission

on a science education

project to accelerate the clean-up of the Great

wastewater

- Tertiary phosphorus re moval from small plants - Making a TF/SC process

Lakes. 2. Public/Private

Partnering

work

- Bid structure and con

tractual arrangements - Design engineering, O&M, employment transactions

- Risk management - Finance

- Municipal/provincial/federal client per spective 3. New Technologies - Snowfluent - atomizing freeze crystalliza tion - its effect on wastewater

- Rotary press and its use - Centridry - biosolids dewatering and dry ing - Biological aerated filter pilot study - Degremont Biofor at West Windsor - Variable depth reactors 4. Combined Sewer Overflow Control - Implementing cost-efficient real time con trol The Operations Challenge, which is fast be coming a highlight ofthesejoint conferences, will be held on Tuesday,April 4. The competi tion consists offive events - safety, pipe, pump, collection, laboratory. 26

- A communal system - from inception to operation of an RBC - Sequencing batch reactor - design approval and operations - Solar Aquatics for wastewater purification 7. Professional Wastewater Operations Division (PWOD) - MOFF regulations regarding operator cer tification, operations manuals and other regulatory issues - The operator's environmental responsibili ties and penalties - Health issues facing operators - Training programs offered by the Ontario Environmental Training Consortium 8. PWOD

- Approaches to training and operations manual development being taken in Metro Toronto

- Training programs offered to municipali ties by private sector - Computer games using dynamic models a powerful operator training tool - Training approaches at the Lakeview plant

- The generation and ap plication of ozone 12. Applications in the Food Industry - Optimization of the wastewater treatment plant of Nestle's coffee production facility in Chesterville, Ontario

- Designing an industrial wastewater audit program

- Emerging wastewater treatment issues for the food processing industry - Nutrient removal optimization at a McCain Foods potato processing facility - Odour control with biofilters

13. Plant Optimization - What is optimization and why optimize? - Application of comprehensive technical assistance at Ontario sewage treatment plants - Using the composite correction program model for plant optimization - Region of Niagara experience - Mid Halton wastewater treatment plant rerating - an infrastructure optimization demonstration project

Environmental Science

Engineering, March 1995


Spring Conferences - Field evaluation approaches reveal signifi cant untapped capacity at municipal wastewater treatment plants. The OPCEA exhibition will be held on

Monday April 3, from 2:00 - 7:30 p.m., and on Tuesday, April 4, from 9:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Equipment suppliers, consultants, publishers and laboratories will be on hand to unveil their latest products and services. If you are interested in exhibiting, please contact Kelly Madden, OPCEA, tel: (705) 725-0917.

For registration enquiries, please contact Sandy Pickett, WEAO,63 Hollyberry Trail, North York, Ontario, tel: (416) 502-1440. fax: (416) 502-1786.

Ontario Water Works Association/Ontario

Municipal Water Association The 1995 Joint Annual Conference of the Ontario Water Works Association - Ontario

Section, AWWA, and the Ontario Munici

Action at last year's AWWA/OMWA Conference at Windsor with Detroit Skyline across the River. Photo ES&E/TD.

pal Water Association, will take place May 7 - 10,at the Toronto Colony Hotel,Toronto,

Colin Vaughan, City TV, and two humor

Ontario. The conference theme is Focus

SUNDAY, MAY 7 A Public Forum is being held in the af ternoon. Speakers from the Ontario Minis try of Health and the University of Toronto

on the Wafer Industry Business. The four-day conference features ad dresses from several wcllknown speakers, including Larry Grossman, former PC leader, Jerry Howarth, baseball announcer.

ists, Lou Eisen and Simon B. Cotter.

MONDAY, MAY 8 Morning Opening Session Guest speakers, awards presentation, poster session, tour instructions, etc. Afternoon Concurrent Sessions A. OMWA

will discuss Aluminum Residual in Drink

- Who can run the water business best?

ing Water and Alzheimer's Disease.

- The need for training in waterworks

Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever addi tional or improved water is needed. Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water Division, Oakville, Ontario, (905) 827-9821; â– Âť Calgary, Alberta, (403) 255-9797

WE MAKE WATER WORK

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 125

27


Spring Conferences - Uniform accounting for waterworks

B. Operations Management

<^9 %% - Safety - what does due dili gence mean to you? - Future employment strategies - employ ment equity - Privatization - buzz word of the 1990s - Role of unions in the future

- Full-scale water treatment plant optimi zation: enhanced coagulation for organics removal and improved ozone disinfection - The prevention of NDMA formation dur ing drinking water treatment processes - Optimization of coagulation and filtration processes for ozone byproduct formation - A comprehensive approach to estimate and improve Ct at drinking water treatment

C. Process & Distribution

facilities

- Chemical disinfection of cryptosporidium

- A conceptual approach for modelling the

parvum

formation and removal of ozonation

- Canadian perspective on regrowth in dis tribution systems - Waste reduction at the Burlington water purification plant - Optimizing existing infrastructure to re duce expansion costs TUESDAY, MAY 9 Morning Business Meetings - Ontario Municipal Water Association - Ontario Water Works Association

- Ontario Water Works Equipment Association

Afternoon Concurrent Sessions D. Research in Ontario - Universities

- Kinetic modelling of an advanced oxida tion process for removing geosmin and MIB from drinking water - Minimizing disinfection by-products while maintaining Ct - Assimilable organic carbon removal and biofilm formation in the City of Kingston water distribution system

byproducts in biologically active filters E. Groundwater

- Options for the expansion of municipal groundwater supplies - Groundwater use and the permit-to-take-

For more information, contact Astrid Tallon, OWWA, 45 23rd Street, Toronto, Ontario, M8V 3M6, tel: (416) 252-7060, fax: (416) 252-3908.

Health & Safety Conference and Trade Show Seven co-sponsors are organizing the '95 Health & Safety Conference and Trade Show, to be held at the Regal Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, April 24-26, 1995. The conference program will include over 100 sessions and workshops,covering topics such a MIPP certification, caipal tunnel syn drome, work area protection,fire safety, and a mock trial for due diligence. The trade show

water program

will feature over 200 exhibits, and,for the first

- Some insight into the utilization of the bedrock aquifers of Southern Ontario - Dayton Ohio's innovations in well field protection F. Small Systems - Communal systems and co-ops - Design built for small water systems - Water efficiency for small systems: uni versal water metering in the Town of

time, the show will include outdoor displays of confined space entry, trenching safety, firefighting and much more. In the conference's special tracks,the man agement track has been increased significantly. Keynote speakers will address issues such as continuous improvement and safety,joint ac countability, and managing change. Other tracks will cover professional development,the environment, workplace health & wellness, JHSCs,and competitiveness. For information on registration or exhib its, contact the Health & Safety Conference and Trade Show, tel: (416) 506-8888, ext.

Meaford

WEDNESDAY, MAY 10 Tours

1. Hockey Hall of Fame 2. Metro Archives and High Level Pump ing Station 3. Cadbury Chocolate Factory

MicrotoxÂŽ Measures Chronic Toxicity The new 24-hour Microtox Chronic Toxioity Test detects effluent toxicity at the level of the most sensitive compliance tests, letting you find and fix small problems before they become big and expensive. This sensitive new test complements the 15-minute Microtox Acute Toxioity Test, the world's most frequently run toxicity test, already at work for Limit(High)

and industry

5555, or 1-800-669-4939, ext. 5555, or fax: (416) 506-8880.

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Contact Honey Felske. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 197


Spring Conferences

Air & Waste Management Association

hibiting, contact Jody Sabo, OWMC, tel: (416) 923-2918, ext. 226, fax: (416) 923-

- Effective use of indicators for State of the

7521.

Environment/Sustainable Development - Voluntary Sustainable Development ini

For information on registration, contact the AWMA-OS Spring Conference, P.O. Box 29535, 13075 Yonge Street, Richmond Hill, Ontario, tel:(416)604-3522, fax(416)

tiatives

ONTARIO SECTION

ing a commercial trade show of suppliers

national, national and local leaders will set a global context for the conference. 2. Afternoon Concurrent Sessions - State of the Environment reporting

TUESDAY, MAY 2 3. Morning Concurrent Sessions - Effective ecosystem approaches to State

and consultants.

For information on ex

604-2356.

of the Environment

British Columbia Water

ments the other. Delegates will gain a prac tical understanding of the concepts and part nerships necessary to put SOE and SD into

- Joint approaches to better State of the Environment monitoring - Global trade,competitiveness and Sustain able Development 4. Afternoon Concurrent Sessions - Environmental reporting - Business and the environment: the corpo rate challenge - Case studies: partnerships in Sustainable Development WEDNESDAY, MAY 3 5. Plenary Session - Sustainable Development: saviour or scam? Panelists from industry, government and non-government organizations will de bate the seriousness, commitment and po

action.

tential contribution of SD initiatives to im

vention - Waste Minimization.

MONDAY, MAY 1 1. Plenary Session - Working together; Sustainable Develop

proving our environment. 6. Site tours are being arranged to local in

For further information, contact Catherine Gibson, BCWWA, Mil Harbour

dustrial facilities.

ment and State of the Environment. Inter

On May 1 & 2, the Association is hold

Drive, Coquitlam, BC, V3J 5W4, tel:(604) 936-4982, fax: (604) 931-3880.

Air & Waste Management Association - Ontario

Section Working Together: Sustainable Development and State of the Environment is the theme of the Air & Waste Management Associa tion - Ontario Section's spring conference. It is being held April 30 - May 3, 1995, at the Sheraton Hotel, Hamilton, Ontario. Sessions will examine both the State of

the Environment (SOE) and Sustainable Development (SD) and how each compli

and Waste Association The BC Water and Waste Association is

holding its 23rd Conference and Manufac turers' Display, May 7 - 10, 1995, in Whis tler, BC. The conference theme is Communication

& Education - Keys to the list Century. There will be three days of technical semi nars, technical tours, an operators' compe tition, spouses' program and a golf tourna ment. The manufacturers' display is the largest water and wastewater equipment exhibit in Western Canada.

A technology transfer seminar will be held on May 10. Its theme is Pollution Pre

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

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29


Business Report jonornics on the environment Nobel economist, Milton Friedman, was asked at a Fraser Institute AGM

in Vancouver:'How do you see our ability for sustained growth over the next century, in light of heavy environmental regulation and a perception of limited natural resources?' Excerpts from his reply are revealing. "First of all, we should all agree that the perception of limited natural resources is not correct. A very large fraction of all of the technological developments that have occurred have had the effect of reducing our reliance on natural resources. We have to

distinguish between the physical concept of natural resources and the economic concept. Certainly in a physical sense, there's less oil in the world than there was 150 years ago. But in an economic sense, there's an infinitely larger amount. There was none, economically, 150 years ago. In the same way, if you can use sand to make fibreglass instead of copper wires, then of what economic interest is the fact

that there is a limited volume of copper in the earth's crust? The volume of physical resources is increasing all the time from an economic point of view - it has not declined. So far as environmental controls are con

cerned, there is a real problem. People should suffer the consequences of their be haviour and should bear the cost of any bur dens they impose on others. Getting them to do so is the famous economic problem of 'externalities.'

But, unfortunately, the environmental regulations have gone much farther than can be justified by cost benefit analysis. In an attempt to ensure that polluters bear the costs of their actions we have often imposed costs on polluters - that is, on their custom ers - for which there is no corresponding benefit. Examples include attempts to re duce to 'zero' the amount of any particular

trace chemical. The cost of doing this rises geometrically as the regulation is tightened and every year our ability to measure im proves.

The EPA has, according to my friend Bruce Ames, who invented the test for show

ing the cancer-inducing effects ofchemicals, set a standard for the permissible ingestion of dioxin. This standard is equivalent in cancer-causing terms to spreading the risk of drinking of one bottle of beer over sev eral thousand years. This is an example of a regulation which imposes enormous costs with no corresponding benefit. There is a very important role for gov ernment in this area. Environmentalism will

do least to interfere with growth yet best ensure the achievement of both economic

and environmental objectives, if it is free market environmentalism, rather than gov ernment environmentalism.

And before

anybody says, 'well, that's terrible,' you might take a look at where the environmen tal pollution has been the worst. It has been in places like Russia, Poland, and so on, the communist countries, where the power of government was absolute and where there was no real distinction between 'govern ment' and 'business.'

There is nothing in the West that I have ever seen that can hold a candle (for pollu tion and degradation of the atmosphere) to the government-operated Nova Huta Steel Mill in Poland. So it is not at all clear that

governments are the appropriate entities to control pollution. Governments can and should ensure that

is preaching capitalism and practising so cialism. We give all of the former commu nist countries great lessons about the vir tues of capitalism. And then what do we do? In so far as we give them something called foreign aid, we give it to governments and strengthen the governments, when what we need to do is weaken the governments. In my lifetime, two things have hap pened. We have had a tremendous improve ment in our level of living - in the physical productivity of our society. A large fraction of the goods and services we enjoy today, we did not enjoy when I graduated from high school in 1928. That is one side of it. Where

has this increase in material well-being come from? Almost 100 percent from the private sector. Government has played a very minor role."

Long term ferric chiorlde agreement signed Eaglebrook has reached a long terni agreement with DuPont to buy its output of feiric chlo ride produced at DuPont's Edge Moor,Dela ware, titanium dioxide (Ti02) plant. Eaglebrook has purchased the distribution as sets and DuPont has assigned, to Eaglebrook, its existing contracts for the sale of feiric chlo ride. A new sales and distribution office has

been opened in Edge Moor by Eaglebrook to service its customers on the east coast.

Feiric chloride is a coproduct of the tita nium dioxide manufacturing process and is used primarily as a water and wastewater treat ment chemical.

people's property rights are upheld. They can allocate the ownership of environmen tal amenity in a way that would ensure its protection and they can and must be involved

"This agreement enables Eaglebrook to focus on ourprimaiy mission of distributing and marketing iron salts. This output agree

in the determination of standards of conduct.

ride market and fits extremely well with Eaglebrook's existing iron salt operations"said Sydney Chen,President, Eaglebrook,Inc. of

But this role is perfectly compatible with the use of markets.

What we are doing in the United States

ment enables us to better serve the feiric chlo

Canada.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


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Pulp & paper sector

Fine paper pulp from corrugated containers

Domtar's Specialty Fine Papers division officially opened its Crystal pulp mill in Comwall on

fewer traces ofink compar'ed to newsprint and office paper', corrugated boxes r'equir'e much less de-inking. Also,car'dboar'd contains both

November 29, 1994. Built at a

har'dwood and softwood fibre.which is an ideal

cost of$73 million,the new facility is the first in the world to produce fine paper pulp made entirely from old bleached comrgated contain ers. The new Crystal pulp can be turned into high quality fine papers that are whiter and stronger than papers made from virgin fibres. The Cornwall mill in Ontario will produce 240 tonnes of Crystal pulp a day. The equiva lent of 6,000 truck loads of old con'ugated container's will be consumed annually by the mill instead of being dumped into landfill sites, representing major savings in wood fibre and a significant r'ecycling effort. The use of Crystal pulp will also r'esult in a significant reduction in discharges compar'ed with mills that use the tr'aditional de-inking pr'ocess. Mor'eover,the bleaching pr'ocess does not r'equire elemental chlor'ine. Tr'aditional r'ecycling methods r'ely on newsprint and office waste paper as a raw material and r'equire substantial amounts of chemicals for de-inking - a pr'ocess that has r'ecently become mor'e complicated with the plastic-based inks being used mor'e and mor'e. Using old con'ugated container's r'ather than newsprint and office waste is a unique advan tage of the r'ecycling pr'ocess. Containing

mix for making tlnerquality paper's. OCC preprocessing Fir'st, bales of old con'ugated containers (OCC),weighing appr'oximately 1,000 pounds each, ar'e pulled in fr om on-premises storage ar'eas and fed into a pulper. Here they are mixed with water and agitated until the boar'd br'eaks down into a slushy pulp mixture. At this point, the pulp consists of the car'dboar'd fibr'es to be r'ecycled and a wide var'iety ofcon taminants that may have been affixed to the original boxes. Next, a junk tr'ap and a raggerare used as cleaning devices that r'emove coar'se contami nants, baling wir'e, plastic debr'is and heavy materials such as staples. Then, debr'is such as hot melt glues,stickles, fibre rejects and light weight contaminants are r'emoved thr'ough scr'eening and cleaner's. Up until this stage the pulp is still water'satur ated and of a thin consistency. To thicken it, water is withdrawn and clar'ified. The wa

ter itself will be r'eused for OCC pr'e-pr'ocessing and the relatively small volume of con taminating solids used for landfill. The transformation to crystal pulp Until now,the pulp has r'ctained the br'own

tone of cardboard. To begin the whitening process, the pulp next under'goes pulp pretr'eatment and delignification. These pr'oprietar'y Domtar pr'ocesses are the beginning of the Crystal Treatment Pr'ocess. Using oxy gen, caustic and steam,they r'emove the lignin (the natural glue holding the fibr'es together') fi'om the pulp while preser ving the fibr'e str'ength and dissolving much of the r'emaining contaminants. Again, the liquids ar'e r'ecover'ed and reused in the pr'ocess. As the final stage of the Crystal Process, the pulp then goes through a further cleaning and bleaching pr'ocess using oxygen, perox ide,caustic and chlorine dioxide to tr'ansfor^m it into Cr'ystal - the bright pulp that will next be used to cr'eate fine recycled papers with a br'ightness comparable to virgin pulp. At no time is chlor'ine gas ever used in the recycling pr'ocess. Fr'om her'e on the pulp goes thr'ough the tr'aditional paper-milling pr'ocess. Domtar'is investing $61 million to develop more effective wastewater and sludge tr'eatment capabilities at this mill. This includes an air-activated sludge treatment facility with a 54,000 square foot aer'ation basin, two secondar'y clarifier's 215 feet in diameter and new sludge dewatering equipment. Another part of this pr'ogr'am is a ser'ies of smaller pr'ojects that will allow the Cornwall Mill to reduce

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Understanding the forestry sector - Part two

Canada's commitment to sustainable

Forests are the most prominent

feature of the Canadian landscape,

covering about 50%(416.2 million ha) of the total land surface (921.5 million ha). Approximately 80% of Cana da's forest land is publicly-owned and un der provincial jurisdiction and each province has its own legislation, regula tions, standards and pro grams through which it confers harvesting rights and management respon sibilities to the private sector. Approximately 9%

forestry past three decades, there has been increased emphasis on the management and renewal of forests. The past three decades also marked a greater recognition of the envi ronmental value of Canada's forest land at

the local, regional and national as well as

tions with a broad cross-

representation of Canadi ans, through regional fo rums,a national workshop and mail-ins to develop the new Strategy, "Sus

held by private woodlot owners, including indi vidual private landowners and large forest compa

tainable Forests: A Cana dian Commitment" which

was presented and en dorsed at the 1992 Na

tional Forest Congress. The Strategy's goal is

nies. The other 11% of

Canada's forest land is

federally-owned and man aged, and most of it is lo

"to maintain and enhance

cated in the Yukon and

Northwest Territories(Ta ble 1). Nearly 10% of Canadian forest land is Table 1. Forest area in Canada

Population Total area

Land area Forest land

921.5 Million ha 416.2 Million ha

satellite images of the planet earth, the Brundtland Report entitled "Our Common Future", the preparatory process towards the

Canadians' attitudes towards forests have

evolved over the past 100 years and the shift has been particularly notable during the past decade.

From mining to harmony with nature Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the aboriginal people had minimal impact on Canada's forests; their numbers were small and their technologies simple. However, to the early immigrants from Europe who were struggling to survive and establish in Canada, forests were an enemy that needed to be cleared to create agricultural land.

Subsequently, to those who recognized the socio-economic value of forests, this was a limitless resource to be mined and exploited for economic development. However, the need to take stock of this apparently limit less resource became evident and during the Canada's forests support a multi-billion doilar tourism and outfitting industry. ES&E's January 1995 issue focused on the world's

34

A number of events in the 80s have had

a profound impact on Canadians and their

environmental and cultural points of view is well recognized by Canadians (Table 2.).

need for wood.

global levels.

26.6 Million 997.0 Million ha

National parks 19.3 Million ha Provincial parks 22.9 Million ha The overwhelming significance of Cana da's forests from the socio-economic, trade,

Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

(CCFM). Subsequently, it was recognized that the environment we live in has changed, i.e. society's attitudes, Brundtland Report, new trading blocks and public desire to be involved directly in deci sion-making. As a result, in 1991, the CCFM held extensive public consulta

of Canada's forest land is

dedicated as national and provincial parks.

egy was produced under the aegis of the

attitudes towards forests. These include the

the long-term health of our forest ecosystems, for the benefit of all living things both national and globally, while providing environ mental, economic, social and cultural op portunities for the benefit of present and future generations". The Strategy sets out nine strategic directions, 25 objectives and 96 commitments to guide the policies and programs of Canada's forest community over five years.

Earth Summit in June '92 at Rio and the

Political commitment to this national

emergence of green consumerism in the market-place. Canada's forests are no longer viewed solely as a source of wood and industrial raw material, but are seen in terms of a precious heritage that must meet a wide range of needs of the present as well as of future generations. The Canadian for est community is now leading, both nation ally and internationally, a shift from sus tained yield to sustainable forest develop ment which involves a corresponding shift

consensus was further confirmed with the

from forest management to forest ecosys tem management.

This shift is taking place in the context of expanding world population with in creased demand for forest products, and shrinking forest cover in many parts of the world. It is exemplified by a number of domestic and international initiatives.

signing of the first Canada Forest Accord by CCFM Ministers and representatives of non-govemment organizations. The CCFM is trustee of the Strategy. Individually and collectively, Ministers are committed to developing action plans and encouraging others to do the same. Further, they will review progress annually and en sure that evaluations (mid-term and final) are undertaken by an independent third party and that results are published. To oversee implementation, the CCFM created the National Forest Coalition composed of all the major Accord signatories.

Annual report to Parliament on the state of Canada's forests

The Department of Forestry Act stipu lates that the Minister shall table before

Initiatives in Canada

Parliament, on a yearly basis, a report that

During the past five years, the Canadian Forestry community has embarked on a number of unique initiatives in support of sustainable forestry in Canada.

forests of Canada and their contribution to

National Forest Strategy and Canada

provides an account of the condition of the

the Canadian economy. The report to Parliament provides the reader with an authoritative and timely over view of the state of our forests and addresses

Forest Accord

In 1987, a National Forest Sector Strat

topics and issues important to the sustain-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


By Dr. J.S. Maini* able development of this unique Canadian heritage. Although most of the data are national in scope, some statistics are pro vided by province or by forest region. The report not only aims to inform and educate, but also to further the public debate regard ing the future of our forests. The report's audiences are quite varied, ranging from

regulations and guidelines, such as British Columbia's recently issued Forest Practices Code. The federal government is also pre paring a code of practice that will be meas urable and designed to ensure the sustain able management of forests under federal jurisdiction. To implement the code, guide lines will be developed for specific forest

Canadians, when well informed of their for

est heritage, will lead to better decisionmaking. Of a number of initiatives in this area, the following two are noteworthy: /) National Coniniunity Tree Planting Progrant

The National Community Tree Founda tion was established in 1991 to sensitize Ca

members of Par

nadians

liament, the for

estry constituency and special inter est groups, to trad ing partners and the Canadian pub

Environmental

Social

about 350 forest industry

World:

10% of the planet's cultural, spiritual and

lic.

In general, the report to Parlia ment includes: (I) an overview of Canada's forests

material needs of all Canadians

net absorption and storage of carbon by Canadian forests and by wood and paper products is

299,000 direct forestbased jobs and 371.000 indirect jobs(1991)

77 million tonnes per year

and the major events of the past calendar year; (2) a feature chapter: the first report

flows from Canadian

dealt with Cana

forested watersheds

about 20% of the world's fresh water

outdoor classrooms and laboratories

duced

Canada:

ance, and the third

report profiled the important role of forestry science; and (3) general

a non-profit,chari table organization incorporated pur

contribution to GDP

suant

$17.5 billion (1991)

Canada Corpora

balance of trade $17.4

wages and salaries $9.9 billion (1990)

March 31, 1998,

multi-billion forest-

over 70 species of

aesthetics

outfitting and recreation industry

mammals and about

hunting and fishing

live in Canada's forests

K1A 1G5

Paper given at a 1994 Canadian Pulp and Paper Association Wood Pulp Sec tion Open Forum, Montreal Bibliography available on written request to the Editor.

teerism in support of tree planting in rural areas across

Canada. It also

statistics illustrat

ment, Canadian Forest Service, Natu ral Resources Canada,Ottawa, Ontario,

tion and volun-

communities and

300 species of birds

"Special Advisor, Sustainable Develop

ficient. Its pri mary objective is to promote public awareness, educa

based tourism.

da's forests are under provincial jurisdic tion. In response to environmental concerns expressed by Canadians, governments have been consulting a wide range of constitu ents and formulating increasingly stringent

tended by the Min ister of Forestry or becomes self-suf

wind breaks

As indicated earlier, about 80% of Cana

will terminate on unless it is ex

investment $6.5

almost 50% of Canada's land mass

and abroad.

The

Foundation will

exist for a period of seven years and

Industries:

Forest policies with stringent regulations and guidelines

the

billion (1991)

shade

ing the forest sector's performance includ ing changes that have occurred in Canada's forests over a number of years. Each of the reports also contained a non-governmental perspective: a survey of professional forest ers, a public opinion poll, and the thoughts of two industry officials regarding R&D in forestry. These reports, prepared by profession als, have been widely distributed in Canada

to

tions Act. contribution to the

Other forest-based

environ

cators of perform

value of shipments $46.9 billion (1990)

billion (1991)

mental, economi cal and social indi

Forest Products:

noise reduction

da's timber supply, the second intro

nificance of trees and forests. The Tree Foundation is

over 13 million visits

to national parks (1991)

the

Economic

dependent communities forest cover

to

wide-ranging sig

Table 2. Importance of Canada's forests

practices regionally. Federal-Provincial cooperation In recognition of provincial jurisdiction on about 80% of Canada's forest land, there

is a long history of federal-provincial coop eration through a number of mechanisms including Forest Resource Development Agreements. These agreements have re flected the evolving needs of the forestry community and have assisted the federal government in shifting the forestry agenda from access to resources to sustainable de

velopment. The 1982-1990 round was aimed at regenerating previously harvested forest land and areas destroyed by natural disturbances such as fires, insects and dis

eases. The 1988-96 round of agreements involve $940 million, of which 57.6% is federal. These agreements focus on sustain able forest development and activities in cluding integrated forest management, ap plied R&D, technology transfer and com munications.

Sensitizing Canadians to their forest heritage With a shift from elected democracy to participatory democracy, participation of Canadians in the political process has in creased significantly during recent years. Many in the forest community believe that

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

has as a primary objective the soliciting, accepting and ad ministering of public contributions and pri vate donations.

Through the activities sponsored and stimulated by this Foundation, a wide spec trum of Canadians are engaged in contrib uting financially and participating individu ally and collectively in tree planting pro grams. Of particular note is the National Community Tree Planting Program, for which the federal government has contrib uted funds as the "seed money". 2) Ecotours The notion of ecotourism, which has

emerged as a popular and environmentally friendly activity, was conceived by the Ca nadian Forestry Service(CFS)over 25 years ago. Ecotours along the 8000 km TransCanada Highway connecting Newfoundland to British Columbia, were prepared by the CFS in the seventies. These ecotours have

contributed greatly to sensitizing Canadians on the impact of natural forces and human activities on the Canadian landscape,includ ing forests. Forestry education and training A shift from forest management to for est ecosystem management requires a new breed of forest scientists. The forestry facContlnued overleaf 35


Canada's forests, cont'd. ulties in Canada have responded to this chal lenge by reshaping forestry education. The Canadian forestry faculties are among the best on the continent and many of Canada's top ecologists, economists and scientists are teaching at these institutions and training future foresters and scientists dedicated to

sustainable forestry. Research Canadian forest sector-related research

focuses on two priority areas, namely "green forestry" and "green manufacturing proc esses". The Canadian Forest Service of the

federal Department of Natural Resources, maintains eight forest research establish ments across Canada. Their work is com

plemented by researchers in the provincial

governments and universities. Research in support of sustainable forestry is a top pri ority in the forestry community and the ap proach is "anticipation and prevention" rather than "crisis and cure". Canadians

are world leaders in many areas including biological control, remote sensing, geo graphic information system, fire manage ment, and we are now pioneering a new "clinical" approach towards the manage ment of"healthy" ecosystems and to recog nize or "diagnose" early symptoms (indica tors) of stress in order to take preventative or corrective measures.

The Forest Engineering Research Insti tute, sponsored by the forest industry in co operation with the federal and provincial

FAX (905) 841-7271 for quick response Company

Area Code

Name:

&Tel:

Name:

Title:

Postal Code:

Prov:

MAIN BUSINESS ACTIVITY

n Municipal & Govt. Official n Provincial Government â&#x2013;Ą Federal Government

Model Forests in Canada The Model Forests are the central ele

ment of the $100 million "Partners in Sus

tainable Development of Forests" program under the Green Plan. First announced in

September of 1991, the program had the primary objective of establishing areas where sustainable forest development could be explored. Model Forests are of working scale, greater than 100,000 ha in size, with goals and activities for forest management based on a consensus reached among inter ested parties. The Model Forests also in clude large-scale application of new tech nologies, ecologically-based forestry prac tices, and comprehensive programs of re search and development. Ten Model For ests located across Canada, covering about 7 million ha, were approved through a na tion-wide competition, overseen by an arm's length committee - The National Advisory Committee on Model Forests.

Address:

City:

governments, has developed environmen tally sensitive harvesting technologies and the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada has made major contributions to developing "green" processes and technolo gies. A number of forest companies also maintain in-house research capabilities.

D Consulting engineer/consultant D Industrial (Please specify area of activity)

Comments:

In addition to the Model Forest program, Canada will share its knowledge on sustain able forestry by funding the establishment of model forests in other parts of the world. Two model forests are being established in Mexico and Canada is completing negotia tions with two other countries. Many do nor countries have expressed interest in participating in this initiative. We visual ize the establishment of a Canada-led net work of model forests in all forested eco

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Forests have emerged as a priority item on the international political, policy, environ ment, socio-economic, trade, development and science agendas, and Canada has played a leadership role in shaping the rapidly evolv ing intemational dialogue on forests. Towards Rio and beyond Forest-related deliberations were among the most controversial issues negotiated during the preparatory process towards the

Circle the numbers below for FREE information on the products in this issue that interest you. 101

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vention, the need to harmonize the socio-eco nomic and environmental considerations, the

need to manage forests as ecosystems and to recognize the environmental role of forests at the local, national, regional and global lev els. Canada has had a major influence on the contents of the first intemational consen

sus on global forests, the so called Forest Principles, negotiated at Rio.

A Mall In the separate Reader Service Card B Fax this page to (905) 841-7271 for fast service (You can also mall this If faxing Is not convenient)

During the preparatory process leading

Be sure to fill in your name, address and job function and signature. ENViRONMENTAL Science & Engineering 220 Industrial Pkway. S., Unit 30, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 3V6 36

Canada led the

to the Earth Summit at Rio, Canada force fully argued for the need to formulate inter

nationally agreed, scientifically based cri teria and guidelines that would distinguish sustainable from non-sustainable forestry. Canadian efforts were successful in negoti-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Canada's forests ating the inclusion of these in the Forestry Principles as well as in Chapter 11 on for ests in Agenda 21. Following Rio, we have reviewed the for est-related commitments made at Rio and the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers

(CCFM) has agreed to act as the trustee to guide the implementation of the "Rio Commitments" through the National Forest Strategy. Criteria and guidelines for sustainable forestry The notion of sustainable development has been subjected to numerous Interpreta tions world-wide. In the national and Inter

national deliberations on forests, there are

as many facts as fiction; there Is as much emotion as environmental science; there is

as much mystique and mythology as ecol ogy; and there are many slogans without substance and advocates of the deep ecol ogy religion without adequate recognition of the realities of the difficult choices faced

by the political and policy communities. For over three years Canada has advo

has also helped to establish the Centre for

green consumerism in the market-place. A preliminary set of scientific criteria that was proposed in Canada five years ago is receiving wider acceptance, including by the Helsinki Resolution H-I endorsed by the European Forestry Ministers In June 1993. In September 1993 Canada hosted an Inter national symposium in Montreal where leading scientists and policy makers from

International Forest Research (CIFOR) in Indonesia and has provided funds for its operations. Conclusions Canada's commitment to sustainable

over 40 countries from the northern boreal

and temperate zone participated. Over 25 documents on principles, criteria, guidelines and indicators of sustainable forestry have been produced by forestry professionals, environmental and policy groups In Canada. International assistance program Of the world total of about $1.4 billion in international assistance on forests, Canada contributes about $11 million or about 9% of the total, making us one of the largest donors. Our assistance programs, aimed at promoting sustainable forestry in the developing world. Include the establish ment of a tree biodiversity conservation and utilization centre in Thailand for the

forestry practices is evolving very rapidly. Unlike Europe with dense population and highly modified and intensively managed forests, Canada Is sparsely populated, with vast expanses of natural forests. Canadi ans are committed to protecting at least 12% of the representative and unique forest types as national parks and nature reserves, as well as to environmentally sensitive forestry practices and manufacturing. Canada's for ests, Including those dedicated for indus trial use will be managed extensively as forest ecosystems. As stewards of 10% of the world's forest cover, Canadians are also committed to the conservation and sustain

able management of this heritage In the in terest of maintaining a healthy global envi ronment, for both present and future gen erations.

cated the need to address the issue of sus

ASEAN countries, a Forest Management

tainable forestry in a disciplined and sys tematic manner, i.e. through a set of inter nationally agreed, scientifically based cri teria and indicators. We need this approach, based on rigorously assessed scientific knowledge, to make effective policies and regulations, to assess our performance in an open manner and to enable us to respond to

Institute for the ASEAN countries in Ma

we will continue to make them In the fu

laysia, and a tree biodiversity centre for the southern African Region. Furthermore, the notion of agroforestry aimed to meet the basic human needs was conceived by Cana

ture. There Is no mistake-free endeavour

dians and has led to the establishment of an

We have made mistakes in the past and

and, hopefully, Canadians will learn from their mistakes. A colleague from Europe remarked recently: "By the year 2000, Ca nadian forestry will be the envy of the

International Centre for Research on

world". Yes, we are committed to achieve

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ing Water Act, EPA Advisory lists, US state Right-to-Know and Canadian WHMIS in gredient disclosure lists. The Chemical Advisor® delivers up-todate regulatory information on over 10,000 chemicals. It will answer questions like: • Do leading authorities regulate the chemi cal for its reproductive and carcinogenic effects?

Federal Jurisdiction

Atomic Energy Control Act and Regulations Canada Shipping Act and Regulations Canada Water Act, Drinking Water and Effluent Guidelines Canadian Environmental Protection Act and

Related Regulations Environmental Contaminants Act,

Regulations and Guidelines Fisheries Act, Regulations and Related Effluent Guidelines Hazardous Materials Information Review

Regulations and Procedures National Energy Board Act, Regulations, and Procedures

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Clean Air Acts,Regulations and Guidelines Continued overleaf

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Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. HAZCO Releases 1995

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Odor Control

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in a technical bulletin. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics include: storage

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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1995


R&D News: edited by the

CAWQ ACQE

Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur la Qualite de I'Eau

Detoxification of CTMP Effiuent Biotechnology Research Institute scientist A. Patoine, together with R. Cote and M.

McGill University assessed the applicabil ity of batch assay techniques to evaluate the potential for anaerobic biodegradation and/

Paquet of the University of Quebec at

or toxicity of chemical industrial effluents, and to design a treatment plant. The results described at the 10th CAWQ Eastern Re

Chicoutimi, examined the detoxification of

a CTMP effluent by treatment with two acclimated sludges in batch reactors. The two sludges, one an industrial granular sludge and the other a municipal anaerobic digester sludge, were acclimated to the

discrete sampling of pond inflow, storage and outflow to define the overall balances

gional Conference confirmed the reliability of such techniques in predicting the

analyses of bottom sediment cores, sus pended sediment and submergent plants as well as modelling/management of the ve

anaerobic treatability of effluents. Anaerobic

locity field and sediment transport.

biodegradation was found to vary depend

Journal ofCanada, detoxification of the ef

ing on the type of sludge and the availabil ity of specific degrading microorganisms. Toxicity to methanogens was shown to be reversible and concentration dependent. No

fluent was achieved with both sludges dur

correlation could be made between dilutions

ing the last growth cycle.

needed for successful assays and the dilu tion requirements for a continuous flow

CTMP effluent by successive 6-day sus pended growth cycles on fresh effluent. As described in the Water Pollution Research

Treatability of Chemical

of water, sediment and chemicals, the pro gram includes special process-related sur veys and investigations. These include

process.

Estimation of Active Nitrifying Biomass An in situ nitrifier biomass estimation tech

nique was developed by McMaster Univer sity scientists J.B. Copp and K.L. Murphy to estimate the nitrifier population within an activated sludge sample using dominant cultures of nitrifying organisms. This tech nique was applied to activated sludge sam

Effluents

Stormwater Pond Monitoring

S.R. Guiot and colleagues at the Biotechnology Research Institute and

Stormwater management ponds are widely used to control stormwater pollution. An understanding of the relevant biological,

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

chemical and physical processes in such

ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.

J. Marsalek of the National Water Research

existed between the model estimates and

Institute in Water Science and Technology.

the experimentally determined biomasses.

In addition to continuous measurement and

Continued overleaf

ponds requires a comprehensive monitoring program. Such a program is described by Queen's University scientist W.E. Watt and

PCBs

ples from the Milton Wastewater Treatment Plant and the results were compared with nitrifier population estimates calculated using the lAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, there was good agreement. No statistical difference

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R&D News, cont'd. Release of Arsenic from Sludge Using neutron activation analysis, C.R. Paige and colleagues from McMaster Uni versity and the University of Waterloo have studied the loss of arsenic from model

wastewater treatment solids. The data,

which are provided in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, show that the loss of arsenic from un-stirred solids is con

trolled by a surface exchange reaction. They also clearly demonstrate that arsenic is not retained in solid solution. This is in con

trast to metal ions which are retained in crys talline solids as solid solutions. These data

have implications for the disposal of wastes

for publication in Water Research describes the development of a new mechanistic model for the biodegradation of complex industrial wastewaters. It was evaluated by these University of Alberta scientists using various representative organic mixtures and wastewaters. Through proper calibration, the new model can satisfactorily predict the uptake of oxygen by complex wastewaters over the long term and can be used reliably to assess and compare the biodegradability of such wastewaters. The model is simple but sensitive and provides a practical means for evaluating the mechanistic-kinetic con stants involved in the biodegradation proc esses.

to landfill.

RBC Biofiim Structure

In a paper published in Water Science and Techtwlogy, University of Toronto scientists W.M. Zahid and J.J. Ganczarczyk describe the results of their research on the fractal

properties of the RBC biofiim structure. Fractal analysis showed two different populations of pores in RBC biofilms. The porosity of mature biofilms was largely in fluenced by the presence of large rugged pores while that ofearly-development stages was significantly controlled by the large number of very fine pores.

Biodegradation of Complex Wastewaters

A paper by H. Mao and D.W.Smith accepted

Digested Sludge Particle Aggregates

particles were determined based on these equations.

Removal of Chlorophenols and Creosote

The polymerization and precipitation of chlorophenols and creosote in wastewater may be achieved by using hydrogen perox

ide in the presence of horseradish peroxidase enzyme catalyst. The greatest known limitation to the system is the cost of the enzyme. In a paper presented at the 10th CAWQ Eastern Regional Conference, McGill University scientists M. Rejaee and J.A. Nicell described the results of their

study to find the optimum dose of both en zyme and hydrogen peroxide to effectively treat a variety of wastewaters including those from the wood preserving industry and

In previous work, J. Namer and J.J.

a landfill leachate contaminated with

Ganczarczyk found that digested sludge particle aggregates exhibited the character istics of statistically self-similar fractals. The experimentally determined terminal settling velocities and 2-D settling shape factors, which described the irregularity of aggregates during the settling operation, were used in work by these University of Toronto scientists to estimate the parameters of a settling equation in which the fractal geometry of aggregates was incorporated.

chlorophenols. These were effectively treated with phenol removals up to 99%

As described in the Water Pollution Re

search Journal of Canada, minimal sulfite toxicity was observed under gradual and

search Journal of Canada, the 2-D and 3-D size-density fractal dimensions of digested

after three hours reaction.

Toxicity of Sulfite and Cadmium University of Western Ontario scientists C.F. Shen and N. Kosaric investigated the toxic

ity of sulfite(NajSOj)and cadmium(CdCy ions to anaerobic granular sludge in 1.2 li tre bench-scale USAB reactors during proc ess acclimation and shock load conditions. As described in the Water Pollution Re

Continued overleaf

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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, March 1995


R&D News shock load conditions at sulfite concentra

from heavy weathering effects. These En

tions up to 1000 mg S/L if proper

vironment Canada scientists found that

acclimation was allowed to occur. The COD

triterpanes and steranes present in the intertidal sediment samples provided a means of unambiguously identifying the source of the weathered oil samples.

digestion rate was inhibited at a cadmium loading rate of 2.4 g per day under both acclimation and shock loading conditions. Acclimation did not improve bacterial tol erance to cadmium.

Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater

Queen's University scientists S.J. Duffy,J.E. Deutschman and G.W. vanLoon examined the chemical behaviour of aluminum and

phosphorus at various stages in an activated sludge wastewater treatment facility which uses alum as a coagulant. From the results obtained, these scientists postulated that, by optimizing conditions under which coagu

Biofilm Formation in Deionized Water

entist detected a wide variety of microor ganisms on the coupon surfaces. As de scribed in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the growth of microor ganisms was patchy and in the form of small colonies attached to the surfaces with a con

fluent film of extracellular polysaccharide or fine strands. Corrosion products, such a sulfur, could not be detected.

Stainless steel coupons immersed in a deionized water system for about seven months were analyzed by D.K. Jain for the

presence of biofouling and microbially in fluenced corrosion bacteria. Using scanning

Leaching of Heavy Metals Heavy metals present in sewage sludges can be leached out by acid addition or by microbial leaching using iron oxidizing or

electron microscopy, this Ontario Hydro sci

Continued overleaf

GO AHEAD,

lants are added to the wastewater stream,

improved settling of the resulting flocculant material would occur. As described in the

Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, the data indicated that addition of

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alum using moderate mixing after the ef fluent leaves the aerator could result in a

final effluent with significantly lower tur bidity and phosphorus. Chemical Control of Toxic

Phytoplankton Blooms The

use

of

chemicals

to

control

phytoplankton blooms could increase the

potential health risks in drinking water sup plies if the phytoplankton release toxins. In laboratory experiments, E.E. Prepas and colleagues at the University of Alberta and the Alberta Environmental Protection

Branch examined the potential of six dif ferent chemical treatments to release the

cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR from freshly collected phytoplankton. As de scribed in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, treatment with lime, or to a lesser extent alum, appears to be more suitable than either algicides or chlorine for the control of microcystin-containing cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water.

Characterization of Spilled Oil

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In a paper published in Environmental Sci ence and Technology, Z. Wang, M. Eingas and G.Sergy describe a GC/MS method for the characterization of 22-year-old samples of oil spilled from Xht Arrow in Ghedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. After 22 years of weath ering in the environment, GC/MS finger prints could provide very little information on the source characteristics of the spilled oil. However, a method using biomarker compounds offers the distinct advantages of being better able to withstand interference

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ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

KtCCMC National Research Council Canada

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45


R&D News, cont'd. granular expanded schist filter medium sup plied with stomiwater. Significant remov als of nutrients, suspended solids and trace

sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The advantages and disadvantages ofeach of these processes were evaluated by T.R. Sreekrishnan and R.D. Tyagi. As described in Environmental Technology, these INRS-Eau scientists

centrations of nutrients in the effluent re

found that acid addition is less time con

sulted in erratic removal of ammonia and

suming but requires large amounts of acid. The iron oxidation process is slow and re quires initial pH adjustment, but the final neutralization requires comparatively less alkali. The sulfur oxidation process is not as fast as acid addition, but initial pH ad justment is not necessary. In balance, the sulfur oxidation process is the preferred option.

phosphorus.

metals were achieved. However, low con

Indicators of Ecological Sustainabiiity A weighted water quality species associa tion tolerance index has been developed by University of Toronto scientist G.A. Wichert. This index was used to compare changes through time in ecological condi tions at locales in twelve sub-watersheds in

Treatment of Stormwater

Delegates attending the 10th CAWQ Eastem Regional Conference heard the results of field-scale research that was performed to verify the usefulness of submerged aero bic biological filters to treat urban stormwater runoff. Preliminary results, ob tained by Gore & Storrie scientist R.J. Caldwell and B.C. Anderson of Queen's University, inferred that an active metabolizina biofilm could be established on a

Toronto streams. The scores were generally largest at relatively undisturbed sites and became progressively smaller with increas ing deviation from an undisturbed state. As described in the Water Pollution Research

Journal of Canada, it appears that modem urban stresses are less harmful to aquatic systems than were urban stresses of the past since some tolerant fish species presently live in urban streams where fish were ab

sent forty years ago.

Shoreline Processes and Oil

Spill Cleanup To develop practical and effective coastal spill response strategies, it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to

shore-zone processes. A recent Environment Canada report provides an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada. An outline of the general character and proc esses on a regional basis provides a descrip tion of the coastal environments and an in troduction to the literature that can be con

sulted for more information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shore line is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shore line cleanup or treatment countermeasures.

Heavy Metal Partitioning in Sludge Metal bioleaching from sewage sludge de pends on various physicochcmical charac teristics of the sludges. INRS-Eau scientists B.R. Ravishankar, J.-C. Auclair and R.D.

Tyagi evaluated the metal speciation in some Quebec sludges using a sequential extrac tion procedure in order to better predict the bioleaching efficiency. The results, pub

Appointment Notice MacVIro Consultants Inc. is pleased to make the following

lished in the Water Pollution Research Jour

nal ofCanada, indicate that the organic and residual fractions were the principal metal binding phases. However, sewage sludges of different origins did not have similar metal distributions. Thus, the speciation of metals must be considered for each sludge on an individual basis in order to predict their fate during the bioleaching process.

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Toxicity of Copper to Freshwater Crayfish In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, R.M. Taylor, G.D. Watson and

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M.A. Alikhan describe their research on the

toxicological response of freshwater cray fish to copper. These Laurentian University scientists compared crayfish trapped from Wavy Lake, an acid-stressed, metal-con taminated freshwater reservoir near

Sudbury, and Pike Creek, a nearly neutral, uncontaminated fast-flowing stream. In gen eral, individuals from the contaminated

Wavy Lake were better suited to resist short term behavioral impairment than were cray fish from the uncontaminated Pike Creek.

However, once their behaviour was im

paired, the crayfish from the contaminated lake were unable to withstand further cop per intake.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

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Canada's water oualitv record

"Repeal the laws of organic chemistry"activist Tom Davey,ES&E Editor & Publisher, was Keynote Speaker at the 6th National Drinking Water Conference in Victoria, BC on October 16. He also spoke at a public forum the same day. Here are the highlights from his

Notlong ago an activist in Ontario

addresses.

was demanding zero discharges from all industrial operations. It was pointed out to him that ah-

solute zero could not be achieved because of the laws of or

topsoil delivered to your driveway for the one or two dollars a tonne that potable water costs cheaper than dirt, an irony for a vital com modity treated with high-tech equipment to stringent government health standards. What we have is space age technology at less than dirt cheap prices. 1 could even argue further that the water

you add this to the increasingly mobile populations - it all adds up to an epidemiological nightmare. On top of this, water research method ology is often in direct conflict with newsmedia practices. Anecdotal evidence, for example, is anathema to science; on the other hand anecdotal interviews are the very feedstock of the news media. Regrettably

service costs are even lower than these low

science and the news media are often in

numbers. How so? Well compare your fire insurance rates - if you live on a lot serv iced with a water supply - with the insur ance premiums ofsomeone on an unserviced

conflict and, as in war, truth and accuracy

consumers. Potable water is, in fact, far

are often the first casualties.

Scientific research is a quest for truth based on a systematic analysis of the facts.

ganic chemistry.

Scientific research

Unabashed - and in all seriousness - the

findings are sub jected to rigorous peer review before publication. The

activist then said that the laws of or

ganic chemistry must be repealed. A century before Greenpeace was

news media, on the other hand - even with the most dedi

cated reporters - has this compulsive urge to entertain as they inform, tending to play on emotion, rather than appeal to

launched in British Columbia to be come a world re

nowned

activist

group, environmen tal professionals were actively and effectively fighting

reason.

Science should be devoid of emo

tion both in its pur suit of knowledge and presentation of research findings as

the water borne dis

eases which ravaged the population. The infant mor

tality rates in cities

m

/a

emotions

cloud

like Ottawa and To

judgement. Anecdo

ronto - as late as

tal television inter

Demonstrators at Globe '92 in Vancouver - Steve Davey photo, 1912 - were higher than any major European city of that time. lot. When we lived on a two acre lot in the Environmental professionals combining sci entific research with engineering, gradually country, fire insurance was costly; when we moved to a much more expensive home, wiped out the water home diseases which served by fire hydrants, our premiums slaughtered thousands. Potable water is delivered with such

dropped substantially. How many people

unfailing regularity that TV coverage has

compute these insurance savings, not to mention security of life and property, when

resulted from the rare moments when serv

ice has failed. Five years ago, at the height of a protracted drought - when many home owners ignored lawn watering restrictions - one man was temporarily unable to take a shower. This event was so rare that televi

sion crews were despatched to prop-

the economics of water supply are consid ered? How many people ever consider the

lives saved by fire fighters using a depend able water supply? To debate the safety of our drinking wa-

views, on the other

hand, positively drip with emotion. Show a TV clip of a child with a rash juxtaposed with a shot of a nearby factory. A mother claims the child's skin problem began with the start-up of the factory. The rash is real, the TV close up of the skin erup tion sickening. Many viewers would be convinced that the factory was responsible - yet there may be no link between the child's health and the factory whatsoever. Unquestionably there are some real en vironmental threats. What the public sel dom realizes, however, is the very significant progress that has been made by dedicated men and women. It

erly record this historic event. Water is not even dirt cheap, for you Viewers were later regaled with the was in British Columbia, some 18 cannot get a tonne of dirt or topsoii deiivrighteous indignation of a man, years ago, I first heard of Giardiasis ered to your driveway for the one or two who, having driven home on a hot or Beaver Fever, caused by a small doiiars a tonne that potabie water costs dusty afternoon, had been unable to parasite in raw water resources. consumers. feel the cooling water on his skin What's Giardiasis? in his high rise apartment. When I discussed Giardiasis Yet the cost of this water may be less ter can be difficult even for the most eloquent with activists when serving on an Ontario than two dollars per tonne, delivered right drinking water professional. We have ex ministry committee, they had never even inside the house. Water is not even dirt heard of it, concentrating as they were on tremely low dosage rates of suspected tox cheap, for you cannot get a tonne of dirt or ins, along with long exposure periods. When trace amounts of toxins. The alarm was 48

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Canada's water quality record sounded by public health and water sup ply experts. These parasites were first dis cussed at a BC technical seminar, to my knowledge, along with ways and means to prevent them contaminating municipal wa ter supplies. And again it was the environ mental professionals, not activists, who were vigilant in exposing the threats of Cryptosporidium, a much smaller parasite, which can pose a threat to public health.

supplies. The organics had leached from the plastic containers. And many studies, in cluding one from the Consumer's Associa tion, have shown that municipal water qual ity often equals or exceeds that of bottled water. With price of course, there's no com parison.

Environment which later evolved into the

sallies out and sees her adversary, Who ever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open encounter? Note how the great poet criticizes a 'fu gitive cloistered' virtue. In our day we might talk of academics keeping their findings in cloistered Ivory Towers. Milton says that truth should go out to be challenged, some thing this industry has rarely done. It could even be said that the public is often exposed to greater risks through the alarmist attitudes promoted by some singleissue pressure groups, some with little real understanding of scientific realities. Some environmental activists, while lacking for mal scientific training, are masters of me dia manipulation and accomplished virtuo sos in orchestrating public fear. And even when the overwhelming mass of scientific opinion is against them, some groups adroitly manage to put the so-called

Canadian Water & Wastewater Association

"establishment scientists" on the defensive.

The American Water Works Association, for example, is over 115 years old, and Ca nadians have been especially prominent in

i

this international association. Steve Bonk

of Ottawa was recently the AWWA's sixth Canadian President and here in BC, Stan Mason is only one of many British Columbians long prominent in AWWA af fairs. Stan was also president of the Fed eration of Canadian Associations on the

which has links to the AWWA. Stan

Many of the protest groups are sincere in

incidently took over FACE from Quebec's Pat Bourgeois who had also worked tire lessly for both Quebec associations and FACE. Virtually all such association time was, and is, freely given by dedicated peo ple. The results on the state-of-the-art of water research are palpable.

their efforts to obtain remedial measures;

The AWWA Research Foundation has

done commendable work in Cryptospor idium and other parasites and I have little doubt they are investigating other problems which may affect water supplies. In my opinion, drinking water profes sionals have done as much, if not more, to

wipe out many lethal diseases than the medi cal profession. The record is quite incred ible. Cholera and typhoid outbreaks were common killers in Canadian cities - not in

Dr. Albert Berry. Photo Tom Davey.

But the days have long gone when all official statements on drinking water safety are met with a passive, unquestioning trust. Now distrust, even open hostility has re placed confidence in regulatory agencies. Drinking water experts have too often let hysteria and ignorance dominate the media when water safety issues are reported. Look to Milton

While there is no lack of expertise or dedication in the pursuit of excellence in drinking water matters, the failure of the water industry - and failure is the right word - has been in communications. The public does not trust your product and is spending some $200 million dollars annually on bot-

the Dark Ages - but within living memory. Sanitary sewerage

Even more as

Tradition Few are aware that Canadians have a

tradition of life saving excellence in envi ronmental science and engineering disci plines. Who knows about Thomas Reefer (one of his water pumping stations, built near Hamilton in the 1800s is still in working order) - or Willis Chipman, two pioneering engineers who were designing life saving water and sewage treatment schemes long before the turn of

this century? Who knows about Dr.

too,

played a major role in curbing diseases.

many are simply professional malcontents. When sensitive situations are exploited by unscrupulous politicians, then further mag nified by the media, the results can be dev astating to drinking water experts trying to explain complex scientific issues.

Albert

[a?hinev/Ifenl"

Edward

Berry, a legendary Ontario engineer and scientist whose

tounding is the cost of safe dependable water supply which can range from 40 to

work in providing drinking water and wastewater projects almost certainly

60 cents for a cubic

saved thousands of

metre. You can often

lives?

buy one thousand li tres of municipal drinking water usu ally for less than the

When Dr. Berry died at the age of90, in 1984, his death

cost of one litre of

was virtually ig nored by the news

bottled water. I remember a

Globe & Mail did

media; however the

A common sight in Florida are water vending machines one US gallon for 25 cents. Photo carry a large obitu meeting at the Uni Steve Davey. versity of Toronto ary on the French where Ralph Nader said that he would only tied water. Perhaps it is time for you to add film director, Francois Truffaut. Clearly a drink bottled water when visiting Toronto. the wisdom of a great poet to your science. foreign film maker ranked higher in news John Milton's Aeropagitica is especially An eminent scientist challenged Nader with value than an internationally renowned Ca the data which his students found when they relevant when truth and falsehood engage nadian water engineer and scientist. Paradoxically, Dr. Beixy had been show in combat. Milton wrote: analyzed distilled water used for lab experi ered with honours from the American sciments. They had found more organics in this I cannot praise afugitive and cloistered vir distilled water than in Metro Toronto water

tue, unexercised and unbreathed, that never

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

Continued overleaf 49


Canada's water quality record, cont'd. entific and engineering fraternity. But Dr. Berry is but one of many Canadians who made tremendous strides in making our drinking water safe. In 1902, George G. Nasmith began serv ing as chemist and bacteriologist to the

water treatment facilities with the capacity to produce - on average - 450 litres of pota ble water per day per capita. This figure includes water supplied to industries, parks and road watering, irrigation, fire fighting and other uses.

treated potable water to consumers varies, but is in the range of 40 to 60 cents a cubic metre or 1,000 litres. So it actually costs consumers less than one cent per day for this life sustaining fluid. Soft drinks can cost $1,000 a cubic metre while Scotch whisky

Ontario Board of

can often be over

Health. His qualifi

$20,000 a cubic me

cations were re

tre.

markable. He held

What of the future?

an M.A., Ph.D., D.P.H. and D.Sc.,

We might look back to Henry Ford for some guidance. The early cars were playthings for rich

all from the Univer

sity of Toronto. Later serving in World War 1, Dr. Nasmith

rose

::"or u BOOKSTORE

to

dilettantes

until

Henry Ford startled the world by pro ducing a plain reli

Lieutenant Colonel

and devised field

methods of purify ing drinking water

able

car

which

for both the Cana

working

people

dian and British Ar

could afford. His

mies. His contribu

Model T dominated

tion was vital. Pure water on the battle

the world for years, being both reliable

field can be more

and

affordable.

Fire fighters use water services to save lives and property. Photo Peterborough PUG. important than Chevrolet restyled firepower. In the late 1700s, John Adams, their cars and made them more powerful. Inevitably huge amounts of treated wa the second US president wrote: "Disease ter are 'unaccounted for' by way of leaking Soon Chevys overtook Fords in sales but has destroyed ten of us where the sword of water mains, road cleaning and other uses. Henry Ford steadfastly refused to believe the enemy has killed but one." About 15 percent of water losses may be this until confronted by the cold reality of Scientists have estimated that water due to leaking water mains but in some the sales figures. It is now time for the waterworks indus borne diseases have killed more people than municipalities it is much higher than this. all the recorded wars of history. Everyone Leaking mains are a double ecological try also to respond to market forces by pro viding the best possible water - not just knows of Alexander the Great, Julius Cae tragedy for this leaked water has been drawn meeting minimum standards. Some diehards sar, Napoleon, Wellington, Patton and from a lake, river or well, treated, filtered Montgomery but who knows about the and disinfected, then pumped many miles will say it will cost too much. I say it will actually save the public money. The Cana water engineers and scientists whose work on its way to consumers. The process called infiltration often ex dian market for bottled water is estimated saved more lives than the generals sacri acerbates the problem when the leaked wa to be in the region of $200 million annu ficed? Chemistry has seen quantum leaps in its ter finds its way into the adjacent sanitary ally. At least some ofthese millions are spent ability to detect toxins in trace amounts. sewers where it is conveyed to the sewage by consumers only because they get better What other scientific profession could match treatment plant. Here, what was quite pure taste and less odour than in municipal sup this progress? A mere three decades ago, water, has to undergo expensive treatment plies. I know very well that the water industry chemists could only detect contaminants at to make it potable again. Because it happens out of sight, this eco has the capabilities to vastly improve its one part per thousand, somewhat like find ing one brick in a very small garage. In logical tragedy goes unnoticed. Much more product. Even if the cost of treated water emphasis should be placed on the quality of were doubled, it would still be much cheaper those days many of the toxins we now rou tinely detect in drinking water, foods or pipe, valves, hydrants and fittings. The low than in many countries in the industrialized world. From personal visits I know that con soils, would have gone undetected. Water, bid ethos - which places price over value is responsible in my opinion for some of sumers in England, France, Germany and food or air samples would have been checked out as 'safe' simply because the these massive water losses. As I was flying many US states pay far more for their drinking water. We have chemists of the day were unable to detect contaminants at low levels. I have been to

which places price over value is responsible in my opinion for some of these massive water losses.

several labs where

chemists routinely detect toxins in the parts per quadrillion range, comparable to find ing one second in a 32 million year time period, or possibly locating a single brick in a huge metropolis. This is awesome progress. Relative to this time frame, a CroMagnun man is separated from an astronaut by a split second. On the practical side few realize how well society has been served by its water treatment professionals. Engineers design 50

to Victoria, workmen near our office were

tearing up another six sewers which had failed because cheap pipe had been speci fied two decades earl ier(see Nov '93 FS&F Page 4). The savings when installed were estimated at $10 per household; the costs of digging up the roads and driveways were

in the range of $2,500 per repair. The actual basic water needs of humans

are quite small - a mere two litres of drink ing water per day. The cost of supplying

^There

the

water

charges are not only double those in On-

tario, but quite often the water quality is so poor we too some times resort to buying bottled water because of taste.

Municipalities must stop being driven by the low bid ethos. The huge sales of bottled water prove conclusively that the public is willing and able to pay more for a quality product. Seek consultants, laboratories, equipment and services on value, not price, then follow Henry Ford's example and re spond to market forces with a better product.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


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Guest Comment

l/l/afer supply and wastewater Issues are being studied to death dian municipalities within five years, with a view to completing the program within 15 years. No siudies - action. Household water bills will increase from the current

average of ,$360 annually at an 8% com pounding annual rate, reaching three times that figure when the objective is reached still only a dollar a day per person served. But, if the program is not started now, the current infrastructure investment of $50

Time for construction - not obstruction -ot water and wastewater treatment projects. This pipe became part ot the London, Ont., water transmission line designed by Dillon. (ES&E cover

There are innumerable authoritative

story Nov.'94).

studies to prove environmental threats and toxic danger to the sources of municipal water sup plies or created by municipal wastewater eftluents. There are also a myriad of au thorities who confound these studies to as

sure us problems are not as severe as stated. We are studying municipal water supply and wastewater issues to death. There ap pears to be a political move afoot to put off needed capital investment by cheap but end less studies.

Canadian politicians at senior levels con tinue to regard environmental remediation as too expensive if it involves public finance and general revenues and they would rather dribble money into studies to keep the real corrective programs and their substantial costs, both capital and operating, at bay. As a result, many municipal water sup ply and wastewater management systems in this country face serious problems associ ated with asset deterioration, deferred main tenance, unreliable water quality, inad equate and inefficient wastewater collection and treatment and, all too frequently, underpricing in services. Correction of these

issues^ plus the cost of meeting increasing standards for water supply and wastewater treatment, will require the 2,300 odd mu nicipal water and wastewater utilities in Canada to almost double their investment

in physical plant by 2015. The situation has reached crisis condi

tions, with a provincial and federal politi cal and bureaucratic morass that has con

"Consulting Engineer, Sarnia, Ontario Jim MacLaren has been described as 'an en

gineer's engineer'. He was given an honorary law degree at Guelph University in Feb.'95. 52

tinually failed to untangle itself and take action. Now senior governments are bank rupt and have no resources to support ex tended capital spending, even if the politi cal will existed. Municipal governments are puzzled over the lack of direction from on high. So, to save the situation, two major changes in policy are required: I. Provincial governments must immedi ately institute municipal water conservation programs. The details of the program are set out in the recent report of the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment, adopted May 31, 1994, and entitled "A National Plan to Encourage Municipal Wa ter Use Efficiency". The implementation of a conservation plan automatically engen ders conservation of the use of water and of

the utility's physical capacity and its future needs.

This study and the report of the Ontario Fair Tax Commission released earlier this

year make clear that the onus for the financ-

billion will be lost, the public health se verely threatened and the economy further jeopardized by a crumbling infrastructure. 2. The other major change relates to pri vate sector involvement. Municipal water related infrastructure in this country is al most universally publicly-owned and oper ated and faces little capital-market compe tition and cannot go bankrupt. As a result, municipal and provincial water utilities lack incentive to operate efficiently. Even in the United States, where more than 450 private or investor-owned water utilities do provide municipal service, many face operational and management problems because of rateof-return regulation and unequal tax treat ment with publicly-owned systems. Rate regulation reduces incentive to innovate and provide imaginative and ingenious solutions for least-cost results.

On the other hand, private sector involve ment in the form of ownership, long-term competitive-franchise agreements and op eration and maintenance contracts can gen erate incentives for improved and more ef ficient water supply and wastewater man agement. Moreover, Canadian municipali

ties have no alternative but to evaluate pri vate sector involvement. The program ahead, to sustain the municipal environment in the face of development pressures, far exceeds the ability of Canadian municipali ties to finance it. Whether private sector participation is popular or not, it will be required - our governments are broke. It is important to understand how and by what contractural vehicle municipalities

We need a commitment now to a public Information and awareness program directed to enforcing conservation, Including full cost pricing on a metered use basis... ing of rehabilitation, expansion and upgrad

can involve the private sector in getting the

ing of municipal water-related infrastruc ture, as well as its operation, rests squarely on the water user. As the latter report states, user fees should be applied for water and sewer services, based on levels ofconsump tion and costs of providing the services. So we do not need anymore studies. We need a commitment now to a public infor mation and awareness program directed to enforcing conservation, including full cost pricing on a metered use basis in all Cana-

job done. Each municipal utility represents a unique and peculiar situation and, there fore, the assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of private sector involvement and the manner of effecting it will vary. This, therefore, requires not a study but a realistic, transparent and unbiased analy sis of all practicable alternatives for design/ construction, ownership, finance, and man agement/operation of these water-related systems. These alternatives include:

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


By James W. MacLaren, P.Eng.* • Maintaining the current, publicly-owned utility on a revenue-dependent basis but under improved management resulting from a full utility audit of the best use of current assets and the optimum provision of cus

ter procedure exposes the evaluation proce dure to a wide variety of proposals, some of which may be spurious or capricious at best. Whatever procedure is followed,the RFP should be designed to induce innovative,

tiating provisions such as Ontario did in 1993.

Whatever the alternative to be examined,

it should be explored by a professional team comprising senior municipal officials, elected representatives and outside consult ants. A Public Advisory Committee should also be appointed on a coincident but paral lel basis to enlist public support and under standing of the need and purpose of the as

arrangements and to adjust their proposal accordingly or to raise matters of issue dur ing the proposal preparation stage. It has been observed that the most ap

propriate means of regulating the project and meeting the objectives and concerns of all parties is by way of this contract between parties, covering such matters as scope of work and service, contract compensation, assignment of risk, conformance to regula tion, change in regulation, environmental approvals, land and easement provisions, expansion of facilities, process for dealing

tomer service.

• Contracting with the private sector to un dertake the complete operation and mainte nance of all or a portion of the utility. • Franchising private sector firms to finance and operate all or specific portions of the utility. • The outright divestiture or sale of the util ity or a part thereof to the private sector to upgrade, expand, build, own, finance and operate under long-term arrangements. • The assignment of the responsibility to a provincial agency where available such as the Ontario Clean Water Agency or the Sas katchewan Water Corporation. The foregoing assumes that the Provin cial Government has created, through leg islation and regulation, a legal atmosphere that makes it possible for a municipality to enter into partnership arrangements for ini

the municipality's intent on contractural

James MacLaren

imaginative and ingenious approaches and solutions and should not be exposed to the rigor of normal tendering procedures. The performance specifications should be writ ten to encourage such approaches but with firm productive objectives and conformance to legal regulations. Above all, the procure ment process must be clear to all partici pants and fully transparent to the public. Probably a highly advisable procedure

with obstacles and misinterpretation, liabil ity insurance, buy-back options, employee transition and successor rights, operation and maintenance review, bankruptcy, etc. Transparency,labour issues and the guar antee to the contractor by the sponsor of a non-revocable revenue stream and, thereby, a sound basis for raising capital, are prob ably the most critical issues to be adequately covered.

to follow in the issuance of an RFP is to

In summary, private sector participation to some degree in municipal water-related infrastructure on a partnership basis is in evitable. It remains for us to set the guide lines for a sound process development that will reduce government financing,eliminate grants, encourage conservation, create jobs

attach a draft of the intended contract to be

and restore the environment.

signed with the successful proponent. This permits all proposers to be fully aware of

alone!

Let's do it! Municipalities can't do it

sessment.

The entry of the private sector into a role of producer and deliverer alters the public sector's role to that of provider and over seer - a definite change in the market struc ture on which the public must be fully in'forrned, and understand and support if the undertaking is to be successful.

SEWAGE, SLUDGE,

I^I^ECTED ^AC

Each of the alternative Public/Private

DEAIW your professional reputation.

ICE iCEMIr I it's not a risk we're prepared to take either;

FOR YOUR BUSINESS Offering a complete line

Whatever P3 alternative is selected for

further assessment, if indeed one is, it

should be approached carefully with full disclosure to the public and using painstak ingly fair practices. Assuming a P3 alternative is adopted by a municipal council for implementation then the procurement process must be understood and agreed prior to that adoption. The de termination to use a Request for Qualifica tions (RFQ) and Request for Proposals (RFP) procedure versus direct RFP is im

Vaives are not a component you want to

lrlwElJIEI% wflvM* cut corners on and risk compromising

Partnerships (P3) arrangements has its ad vantages and disadvantages and should be

explored by criteria the municipality con siders important,such as: public acceptance; facility control; legal, institutional and govemance issues; life cycle costs; allocation of risk; labour relations and successor rights; debt capacity; and customer impact.

Forty years in this business has taught us that vaives are critical to the reliability of your project and the long term cost-effectiveness of your plant.

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The former permits the municipality the opportunity to screen out of consideration proponents whose credentials are not wor thy in the eyes of Council and to restrict the

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RFP to a limited number of offers. The lat

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 109

53


Food Industry Focus

By Roy A. Budd, M.A.Sc.*

Acid cracking cuts down biood reiated sewer surcharges for food industries

Most kil operations iocated in

urban centres pay hefty sewer surcharges to the municipali ties in which they operate due mainly to the fats, oils, greases, suspended solids, and BOD related costs. Aer-O-Flo

has developed a simple physical/chemical solution to these escalating costs and cur rently has two wastewater systems utiliz ing the system to decrease surcharge costs. Many municipalities, under new sewer use bylaws, are coercing food processors into reducing their levels of such contaminants and are no longer interested in the sur charges, but in maintaining their own sys tems without upgrades due to such inputs. The process The process is simple. Acid cracking of the blood related products through hemolysis breaks down the complex hemoglobin into constituent parts which can then easily be coagulated and utilizing no tation techniques, removed from the water based stream. The entire process can be PLC controlled for operation and monitor ing ease. Blood typically has a very high BOD and biological wastewater treatment methods would necessitate large reactor vessels and associated land area requirements and op erating costs. *V.P. Operations, Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc., Burlington

The acid cracking process generically consists of:

• Micro-screening via an internally fed 'Drumshear' for removal of gross solids. • Equalization of the raw flow to the down stream physical/chemical process. • Chemical addition consisting of acid ad ditions to crack the blood.

• Neutralization of the pH after the acid crack with caustic.

• Coagulant and polymer addition. • Air flotation.

• PLC controls.

Two systems have been operating, one in Alberta, the other in Ontario, for some

three years and, in both cases,the meat pack ing establishments have come into compli ance with municipal bylaws. Analysis of the treated process indicates removal efficiencies of 90% for fats, oils, and

greases;98% suspended solids removal; and

80% to 85% BOD,removals. All this is in a footprint a fraction of the size required for a biological system accomplishing the same end.

The Ontario Experience The Ontario system was so successful in fact that it was learned that pH reduc tions of less than 4 would yield an effluent quality much greater than required by mu nicipal bylaws. In order to optimize the system and balance out surcharge costs

disposal, it was found that a pH between 4 and 5 yielded an eftluent quality which mini mized the chemical cost requirements while meeting the discharge limits and reducing the total sludge production. The Ontario experience, from an initial treatment of approximately 500 USGPM of wastewater, containing an average of 1,500 parts per million BOD, yielded approxi mately 4,000 GPD of flotation skimmings with a 15% solids content. The skimmings and screened influent solids contain a high percentage of protein and are a saleable raw product to rendering operations. The Alberta Experience The Alberta beef kill operation was a joint venture between the municipality and the industry. It, unfortunately, did not yield as high results in removal efficiencies of FOGs, suspended solids, or BOD, but after extensive flow monitoring it was discovered that the system was undersized for the flow being received. After modifications to equalize the tlow, it was returning results similar to the Ontario operation and contin ues to do so.

Summary These case studies have shown that the

acid crack systems have proved highly ef fective and efficient, providing a prompt return on investment, while easily meeting municipal sewer use bylaws. For more information. Circle reply card No. 110

against the costs of chemicals and sludge

CAUSnC

CONTROL

COAGULANT

POLYMER

DRUMSHEAR SPRAY

ROTATING SCREEN

WASH

AFR-0-F1 OAT

SOUDS

©

INFLOW

FLOATATION CELL

OUTFLOW

EQUAUZATION TANK

eAER-O-FLO ENVIRONMENTAL INC.I

TURBIDITY

SOUDS

METER

BURLINGTON, ONTARIO

ACID CRACK PROCESS

CAD REF; aCPD-1

54

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


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Trenchless technology

Rehabilitation for aging infrastructure o-Dig systems have the follow ing general advantages:

N

less time for construction, shorter traffic detours(time and

cost), • less loss of business to vendors directly affected by con struction,

junction with other planned upgrading works in the study areas. Work may have to be staged so that the most cost-effective solutions can be undertaken first.

A review of these factors is necessary, in order to determine which pipes to fix.

Assessment

Structural Condition and Hydraulic Ca pacity assessment can be undertaken once existing system performance is understood. Structural Assessment is based on

visual(CCTV)inspection, and perfomiance judgment of critical sewers or those in

• minimal or no ex

which performance

cavation, and, when

will affect critical

considering the so

sewers. Knowledge

cial costs, lesser

of failure mecha

nisms and recogni

cost of construction

2

(in every case). No-Dig systems

tion of the extent of failure allow us to

are available for re

define the risk of

habilitation of mu

collapse. Sections of pipelines are gen erally categorized in five (worst to best) condition gradings, which imply levels ofrisk or collapse. It is not possible to predict when col lapse will occur, only when sufficient

nicipal and indus trial pipelines. The Water Re search

Center

(WRC) in the United Kingdom has developed an ef fective system to as sess and rehabilitate

Europe's aging in

deterioration

frastructure.

has

taken place for col

The WRC method

outlines and follows a planned approach to Infrastructure management for updating in ventory and condition of infrastructure, and monitoring demands placed on systems by growth and development. It is based on a number of key factors, which should be done in conjunction with the program, including: • initiation of a selective performance up grading program to achieve adequate levels of service and life cycle cost savings; • planning of work to concentrate on pipes where the corresponding consequences of failure are most severe;

how to fix them, and when.

Planning the Investigation In the initial planning stages, we are con cerned with gaining an understanding of what we have, in preparation for determi nation of its condition. The main objective of this phase is to decide on the level of effort of investigation. System Records must be checked, and categorized. If system records are not avail able, they will have to be created. Key sys tem attributes such as pipe types, lengths, diameters, invert elevations, design and

lapse to be Imminent. Hydraulic Performance Evaluation in volves the development and verification of a computer model of the system under con sideration. The entire drainage area must be modeled. The core area should be

modeled in detail, while the peripheral ar eas should be modeled in sufficient detail

to provide realistic inflow into core areas. The model must be verified by a flow sur vey. Once the model is operational, vari ous design and known flows can be run to confirm performance and operation of the

• consideration of rehabilitation technolo

measured flows, installation dates,construc

model. The model can then be used to iden

gies as a means to correct structural prob

tion details, CCTV inspection history, and maintenance records should form part of system records. The next step is to integrate internal and

tify problems in the system, and assess ef

external field information. Condition rat

is development of the Rehabilitation Plan. Proposals are developed to meet all system

lems, and flow reduction devices to correct

hydraulic problems; • willingness to work with rehabilitation contractors to establish end product speci fications, and the viability of use of certain products to correct identified problems;

hydraulic problems at the same time. Hy draulic performance can be optimized with

ing guidelines should be developed to de fine how evidence of lateral defects, joint deflections, root Intrusion, infiltration and inflow, cracks, and alignment problems can be described, so that condition ratings can

customization of available hardware and

be determined.

• consideration of solutions to structural and

modeling techniques; • development of rehabilitation plans in con

microtunneiing projects carried out in

Level of investigation can be decided upon based on known performance prob lems. A partial investigation (visual assess ment) can be carried out if hydraulic con straints are not a problem. Where struc tural problems exist, or structural upgrad ing is likely to be constrained by hydraulic problems, a full investigation, including

Edmonton and Toronto.

detailed modeling should be carried out.

Workers jack 2.5 meter concrete pipe behind an Iseki Unciemoie in a 4 meter

jacking shaft. ES&E's September 1992 issue

featured

an

articie

on

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

fects of rehabilitation.

Developing the Rehabilitation Plan

The third step of the planned approach

needs. Criteria will be deemed to be met if

as much of the system is retained as possi ble, and the maximum use is made of exist ing system capabilities by: • using renovation as a preference to renewal to correct structural problems; • using flow reduction altematives to relieve hydraulic overload. The Rehabilitation Plan can then be de

veloped for deterioration problems in criti cal sewers where structural condition is

likely to justify rehabilitation in the next 20 to 25 years. The cost of renovation, the caContinued overleaf 57


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Trenchless technology, cont'd. pacity of system after renovation (consider different capacity/cost options) and the cost of renewal as a basis for comparison (and where renovation is impractical) should be

WATER ADDED

jf TO PLACE

RECONSTRUCTION TUBE

LINING

INSERTED

established.

Hydraulic performance can be assessed following completion of remedial work and outline plans to relieve hydraulic overload can be developed to reduce flows upstream, attenuate peak flows, divert flows into new sewers, and replace overloaded sewers. The resulting Rehabilitation Plan will: a) provide a basis for the design of the re habilitation works;

b) indicate which works should have high priority, and provide justification for inclu sion in Capital programs; c) indicate long-term funding requirements; d) provide for staffing required to ensure maintenance of the plan; e) provide for future modeling of the sys tem and its performance. The final phase of development of the plan is to seek municipal approval. Implementing The Plan High priority works should be placed in the Capital Program as soon as possible, with other lower priority works to be car ried out as funding permits. Design and construction procedures should be carried out as with any typical civil works project. The designer should be aware of and famil iar with renovation technologies, and work with suppliers and manufacturers of same. The rehabilitation plan should be up graded on a regular basis, and any changes as a result of renewal or adjacent land de velopment should be input into the model on a regular basis. Following completion of each stage of a rehabilitation program, works carried out should be assessed with respect to satisfac tion of objectives,confirmation that selected approach was best (in view of costs and performance), and determination of whether works in succeeding stages should be re considered.

Implementation of the plan will also in clude dealing with system failures, such as collapses, flooding, and operational prob lems with the plan itself. No-Dig Rehabilitation Systems Many different No-Dig methods are available to rehabilitate pipes. Systems are selected to solve specific problems and can generally be categorized based on the se verity of the problems that exist. Stabilization techniques, such as chemical joint and crack grouting are used to control minor defects, and can success fully eliminate infiltration. No excavation is required for stabilization work. Chemical grouting is completed re motely, using an inflated packer system, monitored by CCTV camera. An appropri ate sized packer is winched into position inside a pipe, and sleeves are inflated at each end of the packer to isolate the crack or joint to be repaired. A grout and catalyst are

HEATING UNIT

HOT WATER

CIRCULATED TO

THERMOSET LINING

Cured-ln-Place Lining mixed and pumped into the packer unit, and into the void between the packer ends. Ex cess grout is removed, and the packer is deflated and moved to the next repair loca tion.

Common materials used are Acrylamide Gel, and Polyurethane foam. Acrylamide Gel is more popular for joint sealing, as the material has the ability to form a reliable external seal. Polyurethane foam cures to a tough cellular composition, and is more ap plicable to manhole sealing. Service laterals can be .sealed effectively using the chemical grouting process mixed and charged into a section of pipe. The vis cosity of the mix increases to a solid mass and fills the pipe and void which may exist around the outside. Excess material is re

moved,and the sealing process is complete. Chemical grouting can be done remotely for 100 to 1200 mm diameter pipes. Man Entry Lining systems, such as gunite (shotcrete) and epoxy coatings are used to repair minor pipe defects where the main pipe is structurally sound. They also serve to provide corrosion protection to ex isting pipelines. The process is initiated by a thorough cleaning, which can be achieved by winch ing spring bladed scrapers through the pipe, followed by piston type wire brushes and final removal of remaining material with rubber disk squeegees. For large pipes, material can be removed by manual or me chanical methods including sandblasting. The mixture is applied to the inner surface of the pipeline using an air pressure line and cement injector. Mix can be applied over preformed mesh to provide structural enhancement.

Point repairs are means of repairing

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

isolated sections between manholes. Two

methods are commercially available: 1) Cured in place - TTie Amkrete process is a means of providing structural rehabili tation to a short section of pipe using epoxy injection through a flexible packer. Short sections of pipe within manhole to manhole sections can effectively be rehabilitated without excavation by pumping resin and hardener into a packer device which is left in place for a period of 90 to 120 minutes to allow initial set and the repair lead to be removed. Complete curing of the resin fol lows in the next 24 to 36 hours. A struc

tural repair results by extruding resin into voids around the pipe as well as by forming a collar inside. The ends of the collar are

designed to taper to the sewer pipe wall, so as not to obstruct pipe flow. 2) Preformed pipe - Link Pipe is a NoDig structural point repair system for 150 mm to 600 mm pipes. A stainless steel re pair sleeve is wrapped in a closed-cell polyethylene foam gasket, which is posi tioned in place using a CCTV camera and locked in place using an inflatable sewer plug. The plug is then deflated, and the installation is visually inspected to confirm that it is locked in place. Grouting can be used with Link Pipe to fill voids outside pipe. Spiral-wound pipe (Ribloc and Danby)- A new pipe is formed within an existing pipe by means of feeding a con tinuous strip of PVC or PE down a manhole (or other suitable access point) to a spiral winding machine, which rolls the pipe and glues a double-edged locking strip together. The wound pipe is simultaneously fed into the existing pipe. Grouting of the annulus Continued overleaf 59


Trenchless technology, cont'd. is required. Lateral reinstatement requires point excavation and external regrouting. Sliplining pipe bursting (Xpandit, TRS, PIM)- Various impact moling sys tems that break up the existing pipe and tow a new pipe behind the mole are available. These systems are capable of replacing pipes size for size, or upsize. The PIM system uses a PE liner that is delivered to the jobsite in continuous lengths, or butt fuse welded together on site. A winch cable is strung through an existing pipe, and is attached to the nose of the mole. Moles can be pneumatically orhydraulically powered. The mole commences its vibrat ing hammer action, traveling up the pipe, shattering the old pipe in the process, guided by the winch cable. Hydraulically powered wings located on the mole can be used to assist in the shattering process. The TRS Hydrahaul System is another method to replace existing pipe with PVC, PE, steel, or ductile iron. Services are typi cally located, and disconnected. Hydrahaul and insertion pits are dug, and a drive string is pushed from the Hydrahaul to the Inser tion pit, through the center of the old pipe. The bursting tool is attached to the drive string, pulling the tool, bursting the old pipe, and installing a new one. Pipe bursting may

B C>

DEFORMED PIPE INSERTED

CONTROL UNIT

-<o)

0-

EXISTING PIPE

TO BURST EXISTING PIPE

Pipe Bursting also be accomplished in the reverse direc

grout.

tion.

Fold and formed pipe - PVC pipe is delivered to the site on a roll in a collapsed

Pipe extraction is used to replace tough ductile iron and steel pipelines, not suited to pipe bursting. It entirely removes old metal pipelines from the ground, including repair clamps and couplings. The TRS Sys tem can be used for sewers, waterlines, and

gas mains. Crunching moles such as the Iseki Pirana have been successfully used for rehabilita tion. The self-driven mole grinds up the existing pipe, using a circular grinding ac tion, while towing a new pipe in behind it. The Iseki system requires a separate mole for each pipe size. Segmented sliplining systems such as Buttress Loc, or Hobas, involve inserting short sections of pipe into existing pipes and either jacking or pulling them through the existing pipe. Pipe lengths (generally 600 750 mm long or longer for larger diameter pipes), with proprietary end connections,are inserted through manholes. Pipes are con nected together and winched or hydrauli cally pushed up existing pipe, leaving a short piece protruding in the manhole to make the next connection.

(O)

IfO

Sliplining involves insertion of a manu factured pipe inside an existing pipe. The

sliplining process includes conventional continuous PE sliplining and segmented systems. DEFORMED

SERVICE

PIPE REROUNDED

CONNECTIONS CUT OUT

For conventional sliplining, an insertion trench (generally about five times the depth of pipe in length) is required. Prior to in sertion of the liner, a proving pig, con structed of a one meter length of double cone ended liner, is winched through the old pipe to ensure that the new pipe can be inserted without obstruction. Pipes to be inserted are butt fuse welded together on the surface into a continuous length. A nose cone is fitted to the lead end of the pipe to assist in installation. The liner end is winched into

BEFORE

AFTER

Deformed Pipe Instaliation 60

EXPANDING MANDREL

NEW PIPES JACKED IN PLACE

position through the insertion trench and along the pipe to be lined. During the in sertion, dynamometer readings are checked at the wall for excessive drag. Once the insertion is completed, the pipe is cut to length, and the ends between the new and existing pipe are sealed. The an nular space between the new and existing pipe should be filled with a cementitious

kidney shape, in order to reduce the outside dimension and insert the liner with mini

mal friction. Diameters range between 150 mm and 300 mm.

Differences between products are based on material characteristics, (some being more durable and longer lasting than oth ers), use of heat containment tube, means used to recall kidney shaped pipe to pre scribed diameter (steam pressure or ther mally controlled pig), experience of instal lation crews, and construction management abilities of the contractor. The NuPipe and AM Liner systems are examples offold and formed processes. Installation of NuPipe, a typical fold and formed process, is carried out as follows: Following cleaning and inspection of the existing pipe, a heat containment tube is

pulled through the pipe, creating a control led environment, effectively isolating NuPipe from infiltration and standing wa ter, while protecting NuPipe from damage during insertion, and providing a restraint in unsupported areas during rounding. NuPipe is preheated in the spool trailer, until flexible. It is then pulled off the spool, through the reinforced plastic heat contain ment tube into the old pipe. Once installed, the folded NuPipe continues to be evenly heated from both sides until a uniform tem

perature is achieved. A specially designed rounding device is then propelled by low pressure steam through the pipe, progres sively rounding NuPipe to form a tight pipe against the old pipe. After rounding, NuPipe is cooled under pressure. Distinct dimples identify the pre cise locations of service connections, which

are reopened using a remote-controlled ro botic cutting device, and a closed-circuit television camera.

Deformed pipe (Ultrapipe, Titellner, U-Liner)- These are methods of inserting standard diameter polyethylene pipes into old pipes while achieving a tight fit with no annular space. The pipe is cold rolled, so that it is prestressed into a reduced diameter without

creating a high degree of stretch. Cold rollContlnued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Getthe^icts onValve selectioa SendforfreeValve Guide fortheWatBr&

Wtewater bidustiy. No matter what your application: chemicals, DeZURIK has a valve for

of water, air, gases, effluent disposal

slurries. Sizes from 2"-72."

water, wastewater, raw sewage,liquid

AWWA & Resilient Seated Butterfly

Valves—For shutoffand throttling

and filtrate from vacuum filters. Sizes from 2"-120:'

3&4-WayValves-

you. Choose from Eccentric Plug Valves, AWWA Butterfly Valves, BCnife Gates, Top Entry Plug Valves, and more. Eccentric Plug Valves—For shutoff and throttling of raw sewage,grit slurries, air, water, gases and all types ofsludge. Sizes from yi"-12'.'

For transferring, switching, shutoff and recirculation

ofraw sewage, air, water, raw and

primary sludge, activated and digested sludge and concentrated sludge. Sizes from 3"-16." Top Entry Plug Valves—

Pump Check Valves—For

shutofi"and throttling ofwater and sewage on all types of pumping stations: Sizes from 4"-72." Knife Gate Valves—For shutoff

For shutoff of chlorine and

other liquid chemicals. Sizes

and throttling ofraw sewage,sludge, grit, grit slurries, dry ash and ash

from 72"-6."

*

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A

UNIT

OF

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%

For more information on DeZLIRIK's full line of valves or a copy of DeZURIK's Valve Guide for the Water & Wastewater Industry contact your local DeZURIK representative.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 119


Trenchless technology, cont'd. ing is established by forcing the pipe through a series of reducing dies which reduce the diameter and maintain the circular profile of the pipe, in the case of Rolldbwn, or roll ing the pipe into a kidney shape, as in the case of U-Liner. Once the liner is in place, water or air is used to create an internal pres sure that reverts the liner to its original size. Cured-in-place pipe (Insituform, Superliner, Paltem, Phoenix, Econoliner, Formapipe)- Only the Insituform process is readily available in Canada. . The Insituform process involves the inversion of a polyester felt tube, which has been

Toronto to host NO-DIG '95 As a leading proponent of trenchless tech nology in North America, Toronto is a logi

rent sessions both Monday and Tuesday. Topics covered include: Design considera tions for trenchless technology; Evaluation & selection of NO-DIG methods; Legal &

cal choice for the NO-DIG '95 Conference

and Exhibition, which will be held at the

Sheraton Centre Hotel, April 30 - May 3. NO-DIG 95 is organized by the North American Society for Trenchless Technol

commercial considerations in trenchless

ogy(NASTT). SUNDAY, APRIL 30

inspection and testing; Infrastructure reha

technology transfers; Microtunnelling; Gas and sewer rehabilitation; Non-destructive bilitation and renovation; Directional drill

NO-DIG '95 kicks off with two semi

ing. Continuing Education Units (CEUs)

nars and a panel discussion designed to ad

will be available.

dress current trenchless issues. The first

No-Dig systems will help to stretch limited funding aiiocations available, and reduce the social effects of reconstruction.

vacuum-impregnated with a thermosetting resin, into a pipe, typically through an ex isting access, such as a manhole. Hydro static head of water forces the Insitutube

against the inside of the pipe, and to the end of the section of pipe being rehabili tated. The inside end of the pipe is attached to a holdback rope which is secured at the inversion end. The pipe also pulls a perfo rated hose through, which is connected to a heat exchanger at the surface. Heated wa ter is circulated through the pipe at a pre scribed rate to suit prescribed curing rate of the resin being used. The curing process is monitored using thermistors placed along the pipe at access locations. Following completion of curing, water

The conference will also provide an op portunity to showcase municipalities' trenchless accomplishments in its Munici pal Display Area.

seminar will include (a) a method for nu merical analysis of stress distribution around shallow buried pipes, (b) pipe - soil inter action design considerations in

microtunneling/jacking projects and (c) HDPE pipe design for a river crossing uti lizing directional drilling.

ALL-DAY FIELD DEMONSTRATIONS - MAYS

Equipment and processes displayed and discussed will come to life as companies set up show-and-tell demonstrations from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, May 3. Trans portation will be provided to and from the

The second seminar will involve (a)

methods for inspecting and evaluating ex isting sewer lines, (b) selecting the most effective method of rehabilitation or replace ment and (c) discussion of procurement practices for trenchless renewal processes. Immediately following the seminars, the exhibits will open and there will be an Ice Breaker Reception in the halls. MONDAY & TUESDAY, MAY 1 & 2

field site.

For more information on NO-DIG '95, contact NASTT Headquarters, tel; (312) 644-0828, fax: (312) 644-8557. For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 260

NO-DIG '95 will feature three concur

Toveko Continuous Automated Sand Filter A cost-effective filter for waste water and drinking water applications Wash Water

is cooled and drained, and lateral services

are cut open from the inside, either by man entry for pipes larger than 600 mm diam eter, or by remote lateral cutter for small pipes. Time of installation from inversion

Advantages of Moving-Bed Sand Filters * Uninterrupted filtration No pumps for backwashing

to service cutout, and restoration of water

service typically varies between 24 and 48 hours, depending upon the length of pipe being rehabilitated. The length of inversion is governed by capacity of the heat exchanger, and diam eter and length of pipe (volume of water). Pipes ranging from 100 mm in diameter to

Rejected * No separate washwater tank Continuous backwashing * Can process variable flow rates

Water

* Direct contact filtration Sandbed

Fitrated

2700 mm in diameter have been success

Advantages of Toveko Filters

fully rehabilitated using Insituform. The longest inversion completed to date is 703 meters of 203 mm diameter pipe in Frihaven, Copenhagen.

* Fully automated * Low headroom requirement * Gravity feed

The need for rehabilitation is evident.

* Mechanical sand wash allows for

The need for economical processes such as those offered by No-Dig systems will help to stretch limited funding allocations avail

heavily polluted water to be treated * Modular layout simplifies installation

able, and reduce the social effects of recon struction.

The TOVEKO FILTER is the best economical choice for treatment of most wastewater applications.

This article was based on a presen tation made by J. Kupskay, Mar-Tech Insituform Ltd. Diagrams courtesy Gore & Storrie Limited.

For more information,

For more information please contact:

DAGEX INC. Process & Environmental Systems 9030 Leslie St., #5, Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1G2 Tel:(905) 771-8400 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax:(905)771-8911

Circle reply card No. 120 62

For more information. Circle reply card No. 130


Your partner in strategic environmental management

Every day you face a broad range ofenvironmental problems. Proctor & Redfern is accredited,

not only for providing high value, cost effective solutions to such

problems, but also for recognizing that sometimes solving problems as they occur is not enough. Concern for environmental issues

needs to be an integral part of your whole business strategy.

Our professional consultants will bring the following expertise to your business team: ■ Environmental Regulations and Approvals Compliance ■ Environmental Performance

Due Diligence ■ Site and Eacilities Equipment Environmental Audits

■ Public and Government Agency

Attention to environmental issues

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K 7i

PROCTOR & Redfern Limited

Professional Consulting Services Hamilton Kingston Kitchener London North Bay St. Cathcirines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Toronto Thunder Bay Windsor For more information, Circle reply card No. 121


A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

is attracting increasing attention from municipalities, utilities,

We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on

government agencies and

this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage

industries around the Great Lakes.

levels and techniques best suited to help control the

One solution involves the use

of JAVEX-12"sodium

spread of zebra mussels. If you'd like to discuss this

hypochlorite, which kills the

current problem, or be kept

zebra mussel larvae.

informed of the latest

information, please fill out tf coupon below.

in"'nil/ri

Yes, please keep me informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite for controlling zebra mussels

For current project □ For future project □ For research purposes □ Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone: (

)

Mail to: Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto. Ontario M4H 1G8 Phone: (416) 421-6000 Fax: (416) 425-9320

For more information, Circle reply card No. 122


Industry Update

By Don Lewis, B.Sc.*

New protocols and research trends for the Industrial control ofzebra mussels

Prior to approval of the first experi

mental control program for removal

of zebra mussels at the Ford Com

plex in Windsor, Ontario, it was clearly stated by Ministry of Environment and Energy officials that the use of chlorine was considered a temporary measure only. Approval of chlorine, to be used as a pesti cide, was granted in order to ensure that in dustrial complexes would have a known and proven effective method to ensure the in tegrity of their cooling water systems. Since that first experi

control of bacteria, a direct link for control

of zebra mussels has not yet been proven. Still, some research seems to indicate that

a reduction in chlorine use can be expected with the addition of brominated compounds. Some problems with the potential for mation of trihalomethanes and increased

toxicity to non-target organisms have been raised in American Water Works Associa

tion (AWWA) and Electrical Power Re

search Institute (EPRI) technical reports. However, as more sites apply this technol-

fective compound and renders it non-toxic. It remains to be seen whether full ap proval for use of these biocides will be given. However,if perceived problems with the potential toxicity of the clay binding agent or the long term toxicity of the bound product in sediments can be addressed there may be a number of useful applications for these products. Another area of recent research has in

cluded recent successes using potassium for mussel control in closed or semiclosed sys tems. This chemical is

mental treatment, de

very attractive due to its very low cost and the fact

signed and implemented by Aquatic Sciences Inc. in 1989, hypochlorite in jection followed by

that it has been shown to

be a bivalve controlling parameter in natural sys

dechlorination at the ef

tems.

fluent has become the

Non-Chemical Control

method of choice for

Alternatives

many industrial water

Over the past five years the majority of in dependent research has

users in North America.

During the last ten years there has been mounting pressure from groups such as Health

m

focused on non-chemical control

alternatives.

Many technologies have Canada, Environment been investigated includ 1 Canada,and various U.S. ing the use of magnets agencies for the virtual and magnetism, a variety Photo shows zebra mussel infestation on a test rack in Welland, Ontario elimination of chlorine of acoustic applications, after only one summer. usage in the industrial filtration, electrolytic ap setting. ogy for zebra mussel and biofilm control in plications, centrifugation, disposable In a proactive effort to ensure that in once through systems, data should become substrates, ultraviolet radiation and thermal dustry does not get caught up in an expen available to better assess any advantages shock. A few of these technologies are pres sive last minute search for replacement tech achieved through its use. Its use may also ently in use or are in the final testing stages. nologies many groups have been involved help to clarify the role of biofilm in zebra The use of thermal shock for control of in the investigation of alternative protocols mussel settlement. zebra mussels has been used at a number of that either eliminate or reduce the use of Although broadly overlooked by regula utilities in the U.S. and Canada. In many chlorine or related disinfectants for zebra

tors and water users, a number of research

cases recirculation lines used for control of

mussel control.

ers have documented the effectiveness of

frazil ice at raw water intakes are used to

monochloramines against both the asialic clam and the zebra mussel. In fact, even though monochloramines are a weaker oxidant they appear to be more toxic to these biofouling organisms than hypochlorous

deliver condenser cooling water to the in take. Closed loop recirculation allows el evation of water temperatures to greater than 36 C for short periods of time which will

Chemical Control Alternatives

While regulators in Ontario have re stricted zebra mussel control protocols to the use of sodium hypochlorite or chlorine gas, industry in the U.S. has had a number of alternatives available to them on a site or

use approval basis. These alternatives have included other

oxidants such as chloramines, chlorine di

oxide, bromine or brominated compounds, potassium permanganate, and ozone as well as non-oxidizing biocides commonly used in cooling tower applications. Recently Agriculture Canada gave ap proval for the use of a brominated biocide in once through cooling water systems. Bro mine chemistry enhances the oxidizing power of chlorine in waters with higher pH such as those at many Great Lakes sites. Although oxidizing power is important for

"Aquatic Sciences

acid. Since the use of chloramines reduces or eliminates the formation of trihalo

methanes it remains a mystery why this chemical remains unapproved for mussel control in Canada.

In 1993, Agriculture Canada gave ap proval for full scale experimentation with a non-oxidizing biocide at an industrial com plex in Ontario. Several follow up studies have been completed at this site as well as at least one other. As with the U.S. appli cations these products have been extremely effective at causing rapid mortality of zebra mussels.

Due to the highly toxic nature of these

eliminate all settled mussels. Portable boilers have also been used for

thermal shock treatments in very small vol ume systems. The duration of treatment will vary depending on background or ambient temperature as well as ramp up time. How ever treatments can usually be completed in less than half a day. Thermally treated waters are then released slowly to the envi ronment to ensure that effluent limits on

temperature are not exceeded. Ultraviolet radiation is an area of prom ising research that has already yielded protocols that may be applied to small wa ter users. Recent research with microwave

biocides, effluent streams must be detoxi

drive lamps may lead to a more efficient light source which could allow treatment of

fied with a clay mixture that binds the ef

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

65


Industry Update

Laboratories

Zebra mussels, continued

Where your Concerns

BARRINGER

are our Concerns

LABORATORIES

QUALITY ♦ TURNAROUND ♦PRICE

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9

engineering resulting in undue cost. The importance of intensity versus dose and the

(905) 890-8566 1 -800-263-9040 Fax:(905) 890-8575

Environmental Analysis Field Sampling Services

Pesticides

Drug Testing

Hazardous Waste

Comprehensive Analytical Services

Air & Water Quality

much larger flows. Research on UV, currently in progress, is designed to determine design specifica tions for a variety of flow rates and water quality parameters so that effective systems can be designed without the need for over

most effective types of lamps are parameters currently under investigation. UV research may also be important due

1523 W 3rd Ave.

to its potential in the water treatment in dustry as a chlorine replacement. The use

Vancouver, B.C.

of advanced oxidation to further enhance

V6J 1JB

this technology will also be investigated. The use of physical barriers such as fil tration is attractive due to the lack of any

CanTest Ltd.

Fax 604-731•238B Tel 604-734-7276 1-800-665-8566

downstream environmental effect.

A

number of companies are now producing automatic backfiush filters that claim to re Accredited for specific tests by CAEAL & SCC

move zebra mussel larvae. Field studies

...as regulators continue to count down to the eventual elimination of chlorine and

the byproducts of Its use the list of potential chlorine alternatives is growing.

soP

have shown that while many of these de vices are effective, they often require a sig nificant amount of maintenance to ensure

Setting the standard for

continuous service. With any barrier de vice any break in service will allow mussel larvae to pass downstream and potentially

* service

settle.

* quality

vice should include the installation of a re

* turnaround time

dundant system as well as a contingency plan in the event that mussels are detected

Installations of this type of controi de lis

^

:3: ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION LABORATORIES INC.

downstream.

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel; (905) 673-3255, FAX:(905)673-7399

Cortlfhd or Accredited

M

by CAEAU Stendardt

OVAMANN

Council of Canada, Hew York State bOH and U.S..

/! tNT N T ERNATONAL

Quality Anafy^ca!Laboratories

Army Corps of Engineers forspecinc tests registered

Laboratolres Anafytfques be Quailt6

with tt}e Council/Associstion.

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Ltbontofiet/OfHoet in:

5540 McAdam Road

Mississauga, Ontario Uitsluujga UontriMt

Nlag8r$ F$lls Edmonton

L4Z 1P1

Tel.:(905)890-2555 FAX:(905)590-0370

Amherst, N.Y.

Guelph Uexico City

Montrdal:(514)636-6218 Toll Free: 1-800-563-6266

Other technologies such as acoustics are also showing promise in both field and labo ratory applications; however, they appear to be a few years away from full scale imple mentation. Conclusion

Research continues to produce refined treatment techniques and it is becoming apparent that as regulators continue to count down to the eventual elimination of chlo

rine and the byproducts of its use the list of potential chlorine alternatives is growing. Further funding of innovative chlorine alternatives is essential to ensure that those

Environmental Division:

801 Capitola Drive; Durham, NC 27713 TEL:(919) 544-5729 FAX:(919) 544-5491

66

groups presently reliant on this "short term" solution are not caught without protection or forced to spend potentially productive dollars on lengthy court cases. For more information, Circie reply card No. 132

DioxinslFurans a Volatiles ^ PCBslPesticides

Want more Information?

Metals a Semivolatiles a PAHs

Use the reader service card. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Consultants

Product Review Small and light datalogging

ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES "QUALITY ASSURED—DELIVERY GUARANTEED" PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA

Burlington, Ontario (905) 332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

Ainley and

A Photovac's newMcroFID provides environ mental and health and safety professionals with a multi-application instrument for subPPM to percent level measurement of a wide range of hazardous gases and vapors. Powerful new data management soft ware allows start-to-finish compliance with EPA Method 21 Fugitive Emissions Moni toring (LDAR). It is the only comprehen sive instrumentp/w^ Windows''''^ based soft ware package available for scheduling, measurement, datalogging and reporting. A lightweight, one-piece design with a Class I, Division 1 Intrinsic Safety rating, the M/craFID's built-in datalogger and on-board tutorial make it a simple instrument to set up and operate. The Photovac Micro¥\D is also ideally suited to many other field applications in cluding landfill monitoring, leaking under ground storage tank (UST) investigations, petroleum and natural gas exploration, soil screening, and emergency response to leaks and spills. Photovac Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 133

tVaief Surd

bewdtjo Uispo

Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS Hoadv 6 Brioqua

COLLINGWOOD

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280 Pretty River Parkway (705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

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BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

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Management Planning Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

(416)226-0148

225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

consulting engineers and technology management Water Pollution Control

Water Supply Water Resources TORONTO WELLAND

(416)497-8600 (416)735-3659

OTTAWA

(613)226-1844

' Waste Management ' Transportation ' Municipal Services ' Land Development

' Structures ' Architecture

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(416)434-2544

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'Environmental professionals

working with Industry to Improve water qualify'

Biology

Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxiclty Testing

' Tunnels and Shafts

SUDBURY

Aiju^iic SciencesInc.

meter, with a large 3 1/2" hermetically sealed register, can be easily read. The hermetically sealed register is per manently sealed and is nitrogen filled to prevent condensation. TTie meter functions well, even completely under water. The turbine T-3000 meter is designed for appli cations where larger pipe sizes and flows are required. The meter is available in sizes

Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and

Cold water meter

The Kent Model T-3000 turbine cold water

OTTAWA

Box 917, R.R.5

(613) 822-1052

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B, St. Catharines. Ontario. Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905) 641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sornla, Ontario. Canada N7T 7H8(519)383-7822

ENVIRONMENTAL

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1 1/2" thru 12" with flow ranges from 4 GPM to 6500 GPM.

The turbine meter's throated design inContinued overleaf

Environnienlal Science & Engineering, March 1995

ASSOCIATED ENGINEERING 67


Product Review

Consultants

creases the fluid velocity through the me

BIOREM

TECHNOLOGIES INC.

Specialmng in the design, development, and implementation of biuremediation systems

biopiles, landfarming

■ focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

bioslurry reactor processes

biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

ter, greatly enhancing low flow metering accuracy. For ease of maintenance, the ta pered shape of the working chamber allows easy removal for inspection or service when the top cover is removed, without having to remove the meter from the line.

Kent Meters, Inc. For more information.

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone;(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222

Circle reply card No. 134

Unique software enables compllance

Bluewing Environmental Services Ltd. • Environmental Assessments

• Site Remediation

• Storage Tank Removal • Regulatory Approvals

•Air Quality Surveys • OH&S,WHIMS Training ■ Design Engineering

• Environmental Manuals

ESSA Technologies Ltd., in partnership with the Canadian government, has launched environmental assessment software that as

sists industry and government in the com pliance of the new Canadian Environmen

701 Evans Avenue, Suite 701, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 1A3

Tel: (416)626-2222

Fax: (416)626-2232

tal Assessment Act (CEAA). Screening is the most flexible type of assessment de scribed in CEAA and will be applied to the majority of projects. ESSA's new SCREENER Environmen tal Assessment Software is the world's first

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD, Consulting Engineers Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

personal computer-based software to sup port and standardize the environmental de cision making process for private and pub lic groups performing multiple projects with environmental consequences. Available now, the SCREENER environ

mental assessment software package is de signed for DOS-based personal computers.

115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705H44-2327

The Microsoft Windows''^'^' based version of

the product will be available in the summer of 1995, along with several modules to cus-

I tomize the product for use by specific in • Water Supply Strategies

'Wastewater Colleclion & Treatment

•Water Resources &

• Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management • Environmental

Environmental Planning •Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow

Assessments/Audits WATERLOO

ENGINEERING LTD.

dustries. ESSA Technologies Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 135

A(j(d-on library and executable

Measurement

CALGARY

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m

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j j 1

For more information, please call your nearest Clayton office. AlUutU

^ CUttla^ Tu-rfftmi

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|

Stellar Solutions has announced an en

Neif Ypri/rtuiadrtphia

hanced version of Video VI - an add-on vir

im-S) 1

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tual instrument (VI) library forLabVlEW® Eastern Region Toronto Tel: (416) 441-4111

SPECIALIZING IN:

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• ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS & PLANNING

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• MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PLANT DECOMMISSIONING • SITE REMEDIATION

• SOLID AND HAZARDDUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

• WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION

Offices across Canada and Overseas

68

Calgary Tel: (403) 276-9861 Fax; (403) 277-6902

Pacific Region Vancouver Tel: (604) 525-9333 Fax: (604) 525-9458

application software that is now bundled with the company's Video Companion ex ecutable software. Scientists and engineers can use Video VI and Video Companion on Macintosh and Power Macintosh comput ers to acquire, analyze, and display images in applications created with LabVlEW soft ware.

With Video VI and Video Companion, LabVIEW users can build instrumentation

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Consultants

Product Review and process control systems that integrate image visualization and image measurement capabilities into their application. Typical applications include interpretation of an image combined with reading sensor data (temperature, pressure, and voltage); record ing area and length measurements of regions selected graphically or programmatically; and comparison of intensity readings in iden tical regions in a series of images.

DIILLOn Professional Consulting Services • Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax

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For more information,

Circle reply card No. 136

COMPREHENSIVE CONSULTING SERVICES IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INTERNATIONALLY

New ranging sensor

Offices throughout Canada. the United States. Europe and Australia.

, Golder Associates

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Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax:(604)298-5253 Tel:(905)567-4444 Fox:(905)567-656-1

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Environmental Engineering > Training programs 'Legal compliance/designated substances • Ventilation assessment/design • Air emission control • Air monitoring > Environmental audits »Indoor air quality "WHIVIIS • Noise monitoring and controi > Workplace and safety audits

The SR50, sonar ranging sensor measures the distance from the sensor to a target. The most common applications are snow depth or water level measurements. The SR50 is

an extremely sensitive unit that is capable of picking up small targets or targets that are highly absorptive to sound such as low density snow. The SR50 can output data in three for mats: SDI-12, Serial Output(300 and 1200 Baud) and a Pulse Train (0 to 5 Volts). The SR50 can measure multiple targets and it makes use of a unique echo processing al gorithm to help ensure measurement reli ability. If desired, the SR50 can output measurement quality numbers as well as the distance measurement (not available for pulse train outputs). The measurement range is from 0.5 to 10 meters with an ac curacy of ± 1 cm or 0.4% of distance to tar get whichever is greatest. The SR50 has a beam angle of 22°. Campbell Scientific For more Information, Circle reply card No. 137

Multi-parameter water quality probe

> Asbestos

GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(905) 858-4424

Telex: 06-218242

Fax:(905) 858-4426

Gore S Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers Water • Wastewater• Water Resources• Air• Waste

Management• Energy Recovery • Environmental Planning • Drainage • Laboratory Services—Analytical and Process R&D 255 Consumers Road

North York, Ontario, M2J BBS

(416) 499-9000

(416) 499-0090 + ext.

(416) 499-4687 fax Ottawa• Thorold • Barrie • Cambridge Mississauga t Kingston • London

n

InT€GRRT€D Explorrtions

1-67 Watson Rd. S., Guelph, Ontario NlH 6H8

CNVIRONMCNTAI ftCSCRACH CONSULTRNTS

TEL:(519) 822-2608 • FAX:(519)822-3076

BIOLOGY & AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT SPECIALISTS SINCE 1977

Impact Assessments

Bioengineering

habitat surveys,fisheries, wetlands Environmental Diving spill investigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Only 1.5 Inches in diameter, the Stevens AxSys™ multi-parameter water quality

iws:

Probe is the smallest diameter water qual

air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation Laboratory Testing microbiology,toxicity, chemistry, biodegradaiion and respiration studies

INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL

BARRIE

SASKATOON

ity probe on the market today. It is highly versatile and fully submersible to depths of

GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS

200 feet.

Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years

The AxSys™ Probe simultaneously monitors four parameters: pH, dissolved

oxygen, conductivity and temperature. Mi croprocessor controlled operation allows for fully compensated operation at all times

342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

Environnienlal Science & Engineering, March 1995

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138 69


Product Review can be set to ignore ground minerals and trash - like pull tabs, nails and tin foil while detecting other metallic targets. One 9-volt battery provides up to 30 hours of si lent, no-drift operation. Fisher Research Laboratory For more information, Circle reply card No. 139

and conditions. Sensor heads can be easily

replaced and calibrated in the field. The new Probe is designed to integrate with the AxSys'''^' MPU, to provide total water and wastewater monitoring, recording and con trolling. The AxSys''''^ MPU and Probe can be incorporated with a sampler to provide sampling based on preset water quality pa rameters. Geneq Inc.

High speed dry screening

1995 rental & repair catalogue released

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 138

Low-cost metal detector

Derrick Model L and K single deck screen

ing machines are available with either 1800 or 3600 RPM vibrators and in sizes ranging from 18" X 60" to 48" x 120". Machines

can be supplied with open hopper configu rations or complete dust enclosures with flexible motor seals, gasketed side access doors and removable covers.

HAZCO Canada, Inc. has recently released its 1995 Rental & Repair Catalogue which features portable instrumentation, as well as confined space and respiratory equipment for the environmental industry. The 62-page, full-color catalog offers the latest technology on the market today, in cluding over 100 new items. In addition,

Fisher Research Laboratory has introduced a new, low-cost, metal detector designed to locate buried valves and other underground utility items. A tum-on-and-go metal detector, the M55 is lightweight and simple to operate. It features one-knob operation, a waterproof search coil, patented double-derivative cir cuitry and a deep-seeking 8-inch search coil. The M-55's variable trash-rejection control

HAZCO now offers the MSA line of instru

mentation and safety equipment. HAZCO Canada, Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 140

• Engineering Geology

Sizing Screens consist of three independ ent screening units which provide three times the effective width of a conventional

screen, mounted in a single frame and driven by one vibrating motor. The three separate feed streams are divided equally through a flow divider system located above the screening unit. A special collection manifold, with laun

• Geotechnical Engineering

* Environmental Audit & Site Remediation

• Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources

sr. CATHARINES OFFICE

NEWMARKET OFFICE

angles to assure maximum screening effi ciency. Derrick Corporation For more information. Circle reply card No. 228

screens Derrick's Model K and A Multifeed Wet

Bmwirommemtal ComMulting EmgimeerM

• Hydrogcology

and allows the use of compound screen deck

Multifeed wet sizing

151 Tagger Hims ■I LIMITED »Sewage System Design

Where two size separations arc required on a single screening unit, a single surface two cut design can be used where fines are removed initially at the feed end of the ma chine and the coarser separation is then made on the discharge end. This design provides easy access to all screen surfaces

ders under the end of each screen, collects Toll Free (800) 668-2598

Toll Free (800) 263-7819

oversize product for discharge to a common chute. Undersize particles bypass the mani fold for collection in a common discharge hopper. Wet sizing capabilities range from 3/8" down to 400 mesh. Derrick Corp. For more information.

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects

=

===

_—»

■■

Tel.

Circle reply card Nc. 229

Fax.

Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener

(519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330

Cobalt

(705)679-5979 (705) 679-5750

100% evaporation efficiency of wastewater

Consultants Limited

A revolutionary new evaporator technology,

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

which delivers up to 100% evaporation ef ficiency in reducing wastewater, has been introduced by Landa. The technology, called Submerged Combustion, is u.sed in Landa's new line of evaporators called the Water

WE CANT CHANGE HISTORY! BUT WE HELP YOU CORRECT IT! WITH OUR COMPLETE TESTING FACILITIES

LAKEFIELD

I<g3EARCH <311

DIVISION OF FALCONBRIDCE LTD. P.O Bag 4300. Lakcficld. Oniano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fa.x 705-652-6365

-SITE

EVALUATION

AND

CHARACTERIZATION

Blaze.

- USE OF PROVEN MINERAL PROCESSING AND HYDROMETALLURGICAL TECHNOLOGIES • DEVELOPMENT

AND

APPLICATION

OF

NEW

TECHNOLOGIES

- BENCH. PILOT PLANT TESTING AND FLOW SHEET DEVELOPMENT

• SOILS REMEDIATION, INCLUDING PHYSICAL CHEMICAL SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

AND

-

WATER TREATMENT INCLUDING SOLID/LIQUID SEPARATION. DISSOLVED CONTAMINANT REMOVAL

-

CAEAL

CERTIFIED

LABORATORY

PROVIDING PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR SITE REMEDIATION, WASTE AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT

70

The Water Blaze is designed so that all of the heat goes directly into the water for higher efficiency and lower cost. It can deal with a broad range of waste streams and even reduce VOCs ranging from petroleum products to pesticides. Landa, Inc. Fcr mere infcrmaticn. Circle reply card Nc. 142

Environmemal Science & Engineering, March 1995


t.\FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver

FOR ALL YOUR INSTALLATION NEEDS

'T.C.' FLANGED 45° LATERAL

Manufactured in sizes 4" through 30", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".

'T.C.' FLANGED BELL MOUTH CASTINGS

Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'TO.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured In sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available In straight and 90° styles and serve In both water and sewage pumping Installations.

'TO/ FLANGED TEES

|

Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are

i

manufactured In standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. 1 TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. | Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request, s;

'TO.' FLANGED 90° ELBOWS

Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured In 90°, 45°, 221/2° and IHA" configurations. As well,'TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available In other optional degrees and. In addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.

TO.' FLANGED CROSSES

Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES In standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'TO.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

Make the Right Connection...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available in both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.1 1975. "Special"'TC! FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks installation requirements.

IRON WORKS LTD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (604) 253-6365

For more information. Circle reply card No. 143


Product Review Sorbent wringer helps reclaim fluids

pie layers of GIS data and attach it to the GPS coordinates that are being continuously collected by the hand-held. The GIS and GPS data collected by the MC-GPS is com patible with AutoCAD and ARC/INFO as well as a number of other GIS and CAD systems.

The MC-GPS is designed to be used in harsh environments. It is waterproof, light weight, shock resistant, and completely sealed against water, dust and other sub

acter display is back-lit for use in low-light conditions and provides impressive graph

ity of gravel upset during backwash is avoided. Second, eliminating the gravel layer reduces the physical size of the plant. And third, field set-up is quicker and easier. Microfloc has also increased factory preassembly to reduce installation time. Light media, for example, is completely pre-installed - only the mixed media needs field

ics.

installation.

A comprehensive Windows-based PC software package is available that allows the user to perform over 100 powerful func tions including: differential correction, GIS fonnatting, data editing (cut & paste, coor

Wheelabrator Engineered Systems For more information.

stances that are harmful to electronics. With

its built-in heater, it can be used in condi tions as cold as -40°C (-40°F) with its in ternal heater on, and in temperatures as hot as 54°C(129°F). The crisp 8 line X 21 char

A new sorbent wringer from 3M is the per fect tool to reclaim fluids from sorbents.

Designed for use where sorbents are used

to pick up fluids from everyday leaks and drips or accidental spills, the wringer can help reduce operating costs through waste minimization and reduction of disposal costs.

The wringer mounts on a closed-head drum for ease of use, and reclaims fluids up to 30W or equivalent viscosity. A largearea screen helps filter out contaminants

dinate conversion, etc.), data analysis (search by attributes & values, etc.), print ing, plotting and GPS mission planning. Geneq Inc. For more information,

sorbent materials into a sorbent drum or into

Package water treatment plant Improved

indoor installations. In addition to the fea

tures found in other control boxes, this sys tem includes a 2-pole, molded case circuit breaker for protection of the whole system, both pump and electronics, plus the control and protection available only with Trilogy

effectiveness. Most notable is the elimination of the

the underdrain. These screens are fabricated

[

wired and mounted in a NEMA 3R enclo

sure, it is suitable for outdoor as well as

The Microfloc Trident® water treatment

Circle reply card No. 144

New GPS unit

or a PCS-2000 pump protector. Factory

system has added some product refinements to further enhance the Trident system's cost-

For more information,

3IVI Canada Inc.

Trilogy Controls Inc. has introduced a com plete, easy-to-install protection and control system for 5, 7.5 and 10 HP single phase The system includes the control box, a contactor, a circuit breaker and a PCS-1500

gravel formerly used to support the filter media. This has been made possible by using continuous slot Johnson® screens as

a collection tray for further processing.

New complete pump and control box system

pumps.

Circle reply card No. 145

from reclaimed fluid.

The sorbent wringer features a feedassist alignment plate, allowing one-person operation. The combination of a gripper roller on top and a grooved bottom roller allows the wringer to grab saturated sorbents and still reclaim high volumes of fluid effi ciently. The combination exit chute and tray allows the operator to direct the wrung-out

Circle reply card No. 146

Controls PCS-1500 or PCS-2000. It will

fully control and protect the pump against low water level, overload, rapid cycle, over

with close-tolerance slot sizes as narrow as

voltage, under voltage, and line surges.

0.002" which allows for direct retention of

Trilogy Controls Inc. For more information.

even very fine media. Eliminating the gravel has several advantages: First, the possibil

Circle reply card No. 147

Versatlle ultrasonic level measurement Versatility and reliability make the MultiRanger Plus a widely installed ultra sonic level measurement device. Capable of measuring level or volume of liquids or solids at ranges to 15m, the unit is perfectly suited for a broad variety of applications. The MultiRanger Plus monitors open

UBimiiii

channel flow, determines actual lift station

throughput, controls up to five pumps, and can measure and control the differential between two levels. Advanced ultrasonic

a

The MC-GPS from Corvallis Micro-

technology, Inc. is the first product to inte grate GIS data collection and GPS technol ogy in a waterproof hand-held unit. The MC-GPS allows the user to collect multi72

IPll li

echo processing ensures consistent, troublefree measurement in all types of applica tions, including those with dusty or steamy conditions, and those with agitator blades. Relay and current outputs provide for flex ible Indication and control. Milltronics

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 148 Environmental Science c6 Engineering. March 1995


Product Review Chemical induction units

Sampling eased from pressurized pipes

Chlor-A-Vac chemical induction units from

Capital Controls offer improved vacuum feed chlorination/dechlorination through high efficiency mixing of gaseous chlorine or sulfur dioxide with process water. ChlorA-Vac units can also be used to feed liquids such as sodium hypochlorite and bisulfite solutions.

Chlor-A-Vac's main features include high efficiency mixing, reduced chemical con sumption, low operating costs, easy retro fit, ISO 9001 Certification, and eight capaci ties. Capital Controls Co., Inc. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 162

In-line pollutant detector

EPIC 1030 SWDGUMIPLER

For industries needing to sample effluent or product flowing through pressurized pipes, the Epic 1030 fixed-site sampler from Montec International, is designed to simply and quickly extract representative samples from flowing pipelines. tion (VPSA) units. Because VPSA systems produce gase ous oxygen and are installed on-site, cus tomers can expect superior supply reliabil ity. They also can expect stable pricing and savings of up to 20 percent because the cost to transport liquid oxygen from an air sepa ration plant to a customer's site is viitually

The total Oil Monitor(TOM) is a new in strument based on ultraviolet transmis-

someter techniques designed for detecting the concentration of oil in water. Perform

ance exceeds that of infrared devices by a factor of five. TOM uses ultraviolet absorbance at 260

nm based on aromatic double bond energy absorption (raises electrons to higher energy state). It detects from 0.3 ppm oil in water. Only a few non-petroleum organics with similar aromatic double bonds may inter fere. This technique responds primarily to aromatics, the more toxic components ofoil and does not respond to aliphatic hydrocar bons (the less toxic portion). TOM includes a micro-processor system based on the HD64180. The micro-proces sor controls the flash operation, data acqui sition, and communication with the host sys

Advanced VPSA technology uses pat

system features a modular, single-skid de sign; several process and design patents;few moving parts; and minimal customer instal lation requirements. In addition to wastewater treatment and

environmental remediation, potential mar kets for the new VPSA system include the pulp and paper and glass manufacturing in

Climber-type screens have long been used for removing debris from wastewater streams but they are generally large, cum

dustries. Praxair, Inc. For more information,

bersome structures that cost a lot to build, and a lot to repair. The new Wiese-Flo® system is as little as 1/3 the size of compa rable climber screens. It is a fully integrated system which removes, dewaters and com pacts the debris without using additional steps or equipment. Stainless steel and plas tic construction avoids corrosion problems. Drive components are enclosed and topmounted away from the water. Screens are self-cleaning to eliminate plugging or carryover. Replacing or repairing parts can be done on-site without tearing out large

Circle repiy card No. 165

Sludge blanket level control

standard RS-232 interface.

the sludge blanket in gravity settling tanks and clarifiers, and can be used to fully au tomate the desludge pump. The system uses no moving parts and features an LCD readout, 4-20 ma output, and two set-point relays. The electronics

On-site oxygen supply for lower-volume users Praxair, Inc. has introduced a new non-cryo genic oxygen supply system that offers a competitive altemative to liquid delivery for wastewater treatment and environmental remediation customers that use 10 to 30 tons

per day (9 to 27 metric tons per day). The new system is an extension of Praxair's line of patented vacuum pressure swing adsorp

problems solved

ented, ultra-efficient adsorbents and a sim ple adsorption and regeneration process to produce oxygen on-site. The new VPSA

Markland's Model 600 locates and controls

For more information, Circie reply card No. 163

Climber-type screen

eliminated.

tem. All communication is handled via a Seimac Limited

Based on a patented positive metering design,the Epic 1030 has no sensors or level detectors to foul-up, and the two valves which pass the effluent are purged between samples to prevent any blockages. It is par ticularly useful in water, food, oil and gen eral industrial applications where flows need to be transfen-ed under pressure. The Epic 1030 can acquire regular 50400ml samples from pipes with varying pressures, 0.1 bar to 6 bar, containing a high level of non-homogenous suspended solids. To cater for even the most inaccessible pipe lines, it can be supplied as a two piece sys tem, where the control unit and metering cylinder are mounted at a convenient loca tion, and the sampling head is installed re motely at the sample tapping point. Cancoppas Limited For more information. Circle reply card No. 164

housed in a NEMA-4X enclosure are mi

croprocessor based and include self-diagnos tics and error traps enabling its use as an intelligent sensor as well as a stand-alone control system. The PVC probe is supplied complete with a PVC pipe mast and stain less steel mounting clamps. Markland Specialty Engineering For more information, Circle repiy card No. 166

Environmental Science cfe Engineering. March 1995

members from concrete structures.

The Wiese-Flo® systems are also fitted with built-in flow bypass gates to allow channel flow to continue uninterrupted if the screen system needs to be shut down for maintenance. Wiese-Flo® systems also have other options such as variable speed controls and a computer/remote interface. Wheelabrator Engineered Systems For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 167 73


Product Review Hart速 field

New folded petroleum

communications protocol added to oxygen analyzer

sorbent A new folded hydrophobic petroleum sorbent from 3M Canada Inc., Occupational Health and Environmental Safety, offers four use configurations packed in a single handy dispenser box. Petroleum Sorbent Folded is actually four sorbents In one box. It can easily be configured for use as a boom, pillow, pad or

Rosemount Instruments has integrated the HART速 Field Communications Protocol

with its World Class 3000 Oxygen Flue Gas Analyzer. Rosemount is also introducing a blind version of its IFT 3000 Intelligent Field Electronics. This lower-cost electron

ics package does not require a display and

roll, so fewer products must be stocked in inventory to meet sorbent needs. This new

petroleum sorbent has perforations every 16 inches, allowing users to reduce waste by selecting only the length required. Work ers can leave the folded sorbent closed for

use as a boom, unfolded once for use as a

pillow, or completely unfolded for use as a pad or roll. 3M's high volume sorbent technology has

increased petroleum fluid-holding capacity, so less sorbent is used; allows for simple reclamation for recycling valuable fluids; and minimizes sorbent waste for disposal. 3M Canada Inc.

keypad membrane for operator interface. Using the HART protocol, all analyzer data can be easily accessed through a hand-held interface, a personal computer or a distrib uted control system (DCS). The HART Field Communications Pro

Rosemount Instruments

For more information, Circle reply card No. 168

flowmeter and ejector. Mounting for cylin ders or ton containers provides a safe vacuum feed from the source to the point of application. The Series 200 features include

For more information, Circie reply card No. 169

ISO 9001 certification, all-vacuum opera tion, corrosion-resistant materials, versatile

Direct container-mounted

gas feeders

mounting options, and simple, low-cost maintenance. Capital Controls For more information.

Circle reply card No. 170

tocol allows the IFT 3000 Electronics to

transmit non-disruptive digital communica tions through frequency modulation via a standard 4-20 mA analog signal. As a re sult, the analyzer can be calibrated and di agnosed from the safe, comfortable sur roundings of the control room.

metal etching, metal waste treatment and many other industrial applications. Series 200 gas feeders carry a lifetime guarantee on springs and diaphragms. Each gas feeder is installed rapidly and easily. Multiple application points are quickly and easily accomplished by the addition of a

The ADVANCE速 Series 200 direct con

tainer-mounted gas feeders from Capital Controls provide a safe and accurate means for feeding chlorine, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide or ammonia gas. The feeders are used in drinking water and wastewater treat

Analyzer monitors fugitive emissions

ment, food processing, pulp and paper manufacturing, rubber products treatment.

1^

1 comminutors for breakfast. In fact, nothing gets past a Channel Monster速 in one piece. Not paint cans. Not rags. Not

The Control Instruments ViewPort Portable

plastics. The Channel Monster's patented rotating screen and cutter technology screens your flows and grinds difficult solids into easily digestible particles. This keeps your valuable down-stream equipment safe and reduces maintenance costs. Call us today and put a Channel Monster to work for you. 16802 ASTON Street

Suite 200

Irvine, CA 92714

(714)833-3888

If

Ifer Environmental

J

Hydrocarbon Analyzer from Wilier Engi neering is a complete lightweight portable analyzer for volatile organic compounds and Total Hydrocarbon monitoring. The unit uses a high accuracy flame ionization de tector. It is designed for parts per million detection applications such as compliance testing, fugitive emissions monitoring, in dustrial hygiene monitoring and hazardous waste site and soil gas monitoring. The rugged lightweight handpiece dis plays complete sample information. Users can add up to 100 additional compounds and their mixtures. In the field, the operator

simply selects the compound to be meas74

For more information, Circle reply card No. 199

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Consultants ured from the table, and wipes its barcode with the scanner. The compound's response factor is automatically used for subsequent readings. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 171

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Speciaiizing in the Environment

O2 for CEM systems

MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270WoodbineAvenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham,Ontario L3R4B9 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994 iTOcmox

»

CEM/O

•Hydrpgeology •Waste management •Engineering geology

Kfuxrm -

MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

The Thcrmox Model CEM/O, from Wilier Engineering was designed to meet the needs for a cost-effective, reliable, serviceable analyzer that can be easily integrated into

•Environmental audits MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation

an overall Continuous Emissions Monitor

ing system. Systems integration is simpli fied by software selectable calibration op tions, extensive analog and digital I/O ca pabilities and a bi-directional RS-485 se rial communications port. The heart of the CEM/O,system is a zir conium oxide sensor. This sensor provides fast, accurate analysis and a long service life. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 172

Marshall Macklin

Monaghan CONSULTING ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS - PLANNERS

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East

TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Wtiitby

Ttiornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100

Oil/water interface probe

Fax:(905) 882-0055

4h m

■CIVIL/ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING'

Solinst's Oil/Water Interface Probe accu

CONSULTANTS

rately measures the level and thickness of floating products and sinking non-aqueous hydrocarbons, such as solvents. CSA approved, it is intrinsically safe for use in hazardous locations. The probe is sturdy, simple to operate, easy to clean and

WATER SUPPLY' POLLUTION CONTROL • DRAINAGE SCADA • ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES • ENERGY AUDITS

decontaminate. It is mounted on a conven

SilVICaE EIMQINEERINC3 QRQUP LltVUTEO

ient, free-standing reel with carrying han dle. The length is from 150 ft. upwards.

Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering. Ont. LIW 3W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

Solinst Canada Ltd.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 173

THORBURN PENNY

Consulting Engineers

Inderwatcr INVESTIGATIONS

.NVmONMENTAL

• Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Planning

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Water Supply

SURVEYS

Photographic & Video Documentation 306-146 Lard Dr.. Toronto. Ont. M4G 3V7 416-424-2675

Environnienlal Science & Engineering, March 1995

MILTON: STONEY CREEK: OTTAWA:

Tel.: 905)875-2144 Tel.: '905 i 643-8166 Tel.: 1613 247-0111

Fax: '9051 675-2145 Fax: 1905 643-6171

Fax: 613^ 247-0114

75


Product Review New analyzer for deohlorination system

^

vide continuous measurement of the con centration of residual chlorine in water. It

uses a flow-through measurement cell with

im

two dissimilar metal electrodes.

Bailey-Fischer & Porter For more Information, Circle reply card No. 174

: '--sf ill®

is an amperometric device, designed to pro

Approval for Ex-Zone 1 has been requested. The extremely low power consumption reduces the current requirements to a point where line independent operation becomes feasible. The meters incorporate a number of data transmission options which are soft ware selectable. Included in the standard

version are 0/4 - 20 mA current and pulse outputs. Evaluation instruments such as recorders, indicators, and controllers can be connected to these outputs or they can be

m

utilized for flow totalization. All instru

ments of the Economy-Line correspond to the NAMUR Recommendations.

Bailey-Fischer & Porter For more information, Bailey-Fischer & Porter's Center Zero Dechlorination Control System (ZCHLOR®)features the new CHLORTROL 5000® analyzer cell. Z-CHLOR helps mu nicipal wastewater treatment plants with feedback control of the dechlorination proc ess, where the maximum limit on chlorine

residual in the final plant effluent is 0.1 ppm or lower, including zero. Z-CHLOR uses the "Center Zero" feed

back control concept providing successful operation at low or zero levels of chlorine. The heart of the Z-CHLOR system is the microprocessor-based controller mounted on the cabinet face. Its specifically designed control logic is keyed to the dechlorination process. A multi-stage alarm system is in cluded. The CHLORTROL 5000 residual

chlorine analyzer with bare electrode cell iengneers

Circle reply card No. 175

Nephelometer watches air quality Series 4000 Magmeters The newly designed Bailey-Fischer & Por ter Series 4000 electromagnetic flowmeters (Economy-Line version) can be used for flowrate measurement in the chemical, pa per, food and beverage industries as well as in water and wastewater treatment plants. The Series 4000 is a compact instrument in which the converter is mounted directly on the primary. The economy line includes 1P67 as standard. For installation in haz

ardous areas, the round converter housing can be mounted remote from the primary.

COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

architects

planners

Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t O 11 e sims hubicki associates

TEL;(905)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (90S)668-0221 COBOURG • TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO

BRACEBRiDGE • OTTAWA •SAULT STE. MARIE • SIMCOE

The TSl Models 3550/3560 integrating nephelometers from Wilier Engineering are high-sensitivity new-technology analytical instruments designed for long-term moni toring of air quality and visual range in air borne and ground-based studies. TSI nephelometers are designed specifi cally for studies of direct radiative effect of the Earth's climate by aerosol particles, or studies of ground-based or airborne atmos pheric visual air quality in clean areas. The Model 3551 provides high sensitiv ity at lowest cost. The Model 3553 with two additional color detectors adds the ca

pability of measuring wavelength-depend ent properties of aerosols. The Model 3561 gives you the sensitivity of a single-color nephelometer combined with the ability to continuously measure total and backwardscattered light signals. Finally, the full-fea tured Model 3563 has simultaneous threecolor detection and total/backward-scattered

UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007

light distinction. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 176

New turbine flowmeters ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE PLANNING & ENGINEERING ATLANTIC CANADA' CENTRAL CANADA - PRAIRIES • PACIFIC COAST

Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. • Corporate Enmronmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater Tel:(905) 821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774

Kitchener, Ontario

76

• Phase i Environmentai Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

• Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment • Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization • Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. • Hydrogeoiogj'and Groundwater investigations

omega's FTB800 Series turbine flow

meters provide a cost-effective solution for high accuracy measurement of a variety of

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Product Review low-viscosity liquids and gases. These me ters come in clear polycarbonate plastic up to 2" NPSM port size; all larger sizes have opaque ABS plastic body. Liquid turbines are supplied with a solidlubricant impregnated glass-filled polyamide sleeve bearing. The gas turbines use 400C SS ball race bearings. Accuracy is up to 1/2% of reading. TTie low-level sinewave frequency output of the FTB800 Series me ters can be amplified with an OMEGA® Model FLSC-AMP magnetic pickup low level amplifier. OMEGA Engineering, Inc. For more information,

Standard features include full round, full

ing mechanism forcenterline closure, posi tive opening feature to ensure even and com plete valve opening, bubble tight closure, corrosion protected non-metallic bearings, and sizes from 1" through 8". Moyno Industrial Products, Div. of Robbins & Myers, Inc. For more information.

port design for unrestricted flow, dual pinch

Circle reply card No. 179

The RKL Series MHW Pinch Valve is

available in a wide range of elastomers with a cast ductile iron housing, solid ductile iron pinch bars and yoke for superior strength and durability, and 303 stainless steel guide rods. The stem is sealed with rotary lip seals which also provide secondary containment.

FILTER MEDIA

Circle reply card No. 177

LTD. ^2^ ENVIRONMENTAL EN\

ANTHRACITE

Biosolids and Waste Utilization

QUALITY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL

Flow meters are ready

CARBON - GARNET - ILMENITE

• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

to rent

nthrafilter ^ Media & Coal Ltd.

Mall — P.O. Box 60069

Oakville, Ontario L6M 3H2

20Si^PROAO,R.R. #6, BRANTFORD.ONT/^O N3r5L8 la:<519) 751-1080 FAX;(519) 751-0617

Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre

4449 Hwy #25, Oakviile, Ont. L9T 2X5

For more information. Circle reply card No. 180

Phone:(905)878-2800/Fax:(905)878-7332

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 181

American Sigma's 950 Open Channel Flow Meter family consists of five units, includ ing the 950AV Area Velocity Flow Meter.

SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS

All are in stock and available for rent.

Environmental Specialists

The 950AV utilizes non-fouling Doppler technology and is capable of measuring av erage velocity directly. This avoids time consuming flow profiling required with other meters. The unit is designed to pro vide accurate readings even under full pipe, surcharged or reverse flow conditions and when the pipe slope is unknown. Also avail able are 950s utilizing bubbler, ultrasonic, and submerged sensor technology as well as Sigma's OptiPlo, a three-in-one flow meter that allows choosing the optimum measurement technology for the site condi

Wastewaler Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Fiowmetering Plant Air Clean Up

Nc/IM

Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity Suspended Solids, Og, DO, Conductivity

INSTRUMENTS LTD.

2495 Haines Road. Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7, Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 182

A

tions.

^

52 PRODUCTION DR.

A

SCARBOROUGH, ONT.

The 950s are also capable of measuring and logging level, pH, temperature, ORP, rainfall, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to rental, the 950s may be purchased and may also be obtained through the Can-Am Rent-to-Own Program.

/ iU(JZ/a/lLIA/ CORP. /

High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

r

MlH 2X8

L Tel: (416) 438-6706 ^ Fax:(416) 438-1521

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cieaning

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 178

For more information, Circle reply card No. 183

New RKL® series MHW

pinch valve Designed for long-life and trouble-free per formance in abrasive and corrosive appli

PHILLIPS DRISCOPIPE POLYETHYLENE PIPE

cations, the new, cost-effective, handwheel

Distributed by:

operated Moyno RKL® Series MHW Pinch Valve features a one-piece 303 stainless

SANDALE UTILITY PRODUCTTS INC.

steel stem with dual ACME threads that

eliminates stem binding and galling. Fully compression-molded, fabric reinforced sleeves ensure dimensional stability and Ions life.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

Ontario TEL: 519-754-1366 FAX: 519-754-4576 Fusion Services/Sales/Rentals

Offices also in C^ebec & Nova Scotia For more information, Circle reply card No. 184 77


Product Review New lead-free check valve

features shutters at the base of the combus tion chamber or "stack" which are control

tings offer higher levels of resistance to the

The new Flomatic 80DICL lead-free sub

led by a thermocouple located near the top of the stack. The opening and closing of these vents controls the combustion air,

wastewater treatment. Corzan pipe and fit tings, from the BFGoodrich Company, pro vide adequate strength for operations in

maintaining peak destruction efficiency

environments of up to 200°F. They are ex

within the stack. The 249 Series is avail able in diameters from 4 to 12 feet and

pected to maintain their pressure-bearing capabilities for more than 50 years. Fluid handling products made from

mersible check valve incorporates Certainteed's new patented groove lock type

pipe connections, called Certa-Lok™. The 80DICL is totally fusion epoxy coated inside and out, along with the pop pet assembly. The fusion process bakes the epoxy onto the valve at a temperature of 400°F, which makes the valve suitable for

most stringent water applications, as it is corrosion resistant and lead-free. The new

heights from 25 to 50 feet. Size is deter mined by the gas flow rate and the destruc tion efficiency required. The System has burners specifically de signed for gas with pressure as low as 4"

ductile iron valve is available in 4", 6", and

wc. The advanced air mixture design re

8" sizes. Flomatic

duces NOx and SO^ emissions by as much

For more information,

Circle repiy card No. 186

as 50 percent over competing methods, and allows for efficient burning over a wide vari

harsh chemical environments common to

Corzan include: Schedule 80 and 40 pipe

(available in sizes up to 16"), fittings, valves, pumps,filters, strainers, tower pack ing and duct, as well as sheet for fabrica tion into tanks, ducts and tank lining. Corzan™ Industrial Systems For more information.

Circle repiy card No. 188

ation of gas flow rates. Westech Industrial For more information,

Inproved efficiency for gas digesters

Circle repiy card No. 187

Waste gas burner and Ignition system

An enclosed flare which controls the com

The Whessoe Varec 244W Series Waste

New Industrial pipe and fittings

bustion atmosphere to improve efficiency for flaring gas from low pressure gas digester systems has been introduced by Whessoe

The new Corzan''''^ CPVC(post-chlorinated

Varec, Inc.

The 249 Series Enclosed Flare System

polyvinyl chloride) industrial pipe and fit-

Cas Burner and Ignition System is a reli able flare and ignition system developed from systems used in the petroleum indus try. The Model 244W has proven to be highly effective in the waste treatment in dustry to eliminate odor nuisance and bum excess waste gas safely.

Designed to flare gas reliably regardless of flow rate variances, the 244W is not af

fected by changes in the waste gas BTU value and provides a flow capacity nearly

ONTARIO

twice that of conventional "pilot-ring" burn ers. Baffles, downdraft preventers, vortex vanes, and secondary stacks are not re

AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT

SECTION

ASSOCIATION

quired. The 244W utilizes a patented pilot ignition system. Pilot air and gas are mixed and ignited at ground level, remote from the burner stack. This controlled method re

Annual Spring

sults in a stable pilot flame with an ideal gas-to-air burning ratio. Westech Industrial

For more information.

Circle repiy card No. 189

Conference and Exhibition Working together; Sustainable Development and State of the Environment

APRIL 30, MAY1, 2, 1995 Hannilton, Ontario Register now: Conference,

Please call (905) 773-9650 Fax (416) 323-5031

Air & Waste Management Association

Cansorb"',an organic oil absorbent, has been used worldwide for several years in the spill response industry and is now becoming widely available in North America. The product is completely organic and is the result of several years of research and development geared towards meeting and surpassing new environmental regulations. When compared to traditional spill response products such as clay, it offers the combined benefits of higher absorbency, the elimina tion of associated health hazards (silicosis),

and a reduction in disposal costs of up to 90%. Further benefits include a wide se

Exhibitors,

Please call (416) 923-2918, ext. 226 Fax (416) 923-7521

Organic absorbent

ONTARIO SECTION

lection of product forms including particulate, socks, pillows, and spill kits. Cansorb

For more information.

Circle repiy card No. 211 78

For more information. Circle repiy card No. 185

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, March 1995


9th ANNUAL

TORONTO ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW & CONFERENCE

Toronto International Centre of Commerce

Mississauga; Ontario, Canada

Book iourE^hlkltSpace Todatf! An ideal opportunity to present your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environ mental management. For further information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240,4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3 Phone:(403)469-2400 Fax:(403)469-1398

Calgary Phone:(403)258-0705 Fax:(403)258-0745 For conference/workshop details, phone: (905) 727-4666. For more information, Circle reply card No. 212


Product Review

Installing environmentally sensitive storm sewers - 5000 Imperial Gallon Concrete Stormceptor Manholes were placed side by side between the vaults. These were then

connected by 750mm diameter concrete pipe in parallel, which tied into the two Type IS Manhole Vaults. The down stream vault

was connected to the existing 1050mm di ameter outlet pipe which daylightcd into a drainage canal.

High winds and infiltration of water hampered the installation. The water was pumped and the bottom of the excavation was filled with compacted granular mate rial. The components were then lowered into place with a crane and once connected, the excavation was backfilled.

The precast 2400mm diameter Concrete Stormceptor Manholes are approximately 9.5m deep with a storage capacity of 4800 Imp. Gallons each. Bob Zmurchyk, owner of BYZ Construction, commented that the

Installation of two Stormceptor Manholes has just been completed by BYZ Construc tion of Medicine Hat on an existing storm line at Canadian Forces Base (CFB),

National Defence for approval. The final design allowed for manhole sections to be produced complete with proper openings

Suffield, Alberta.

The work consisted of splitting an exist ing 1050mm diameter concrete pipe storm line using 2800mm x 2800mm Type IS

Lafarge Construction Materials and BYZ Construction collectively submitted a precast alternative to the Department of

\

and connections.

precast Stormceptor was installed easily and quickly. Within two days the storm water pollution device was retrofitted to the ex isting line and was in use. He felt that this was a major advantage to a poured-in-place structure.

Manhole Vaults(one at each end). Two STC

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 213

No Other Event Cm Give You CmtrolIn Canada.

Take off for Toronto in the spring,and you can find out everything you need to know

ISM

about measurement,control,and industrial automation.

Be a part of ISA's Intemational Conference, Exhibition and Tramhrg Program in Canada. You'll find an amazing variety of products and services, and over 300 exhibitors you can talk to face-to-face...in one of the world's most modem cities. See the latest products and technologies,get hands-on experience with new equipment, and find practical apphcations to keep you a step ahead of the competition.

CANADA TORONTO,ONTARIO

IMTTRNATIONAL CONFERENCE, EXHIBITION & TRAINING rROGRAM

You can also take advantage of 75 teclmical sessions sponsored by ISA and the APRIL 24 - 28,1995 Industrial Computing Society(ICS). There will also be 47 training courses held in conjunction with lSA/95 Canada...a complete educational package designed to further your career. So take control. Call 919-549-8411 for more information.

J

Because there's just no other event that can measure up.

ISSii'lj

ffeSI

The International Society for Measurement and Control 67 Alexander Drive • P.O. Box 12277• Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

SI./95 CANADA • T(DK0f3T§ 80

NTAHtO • APRIL 24-28, 199

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 214

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


Effective hazardous waste treatment

is just a phone call away.

One toll-free telephone call is all it takes to access the services of the Alberta Special Waste Management System. The ASWMS is marking its first , decade as one of the world's most advanced waste management operations.

^ The only fully integrated facility in Canada and the country's only approved °CB destruction facility, the system offers: m National Accessibility through strategically located sales offices readily contacted toll-free.

m Processing Capability of more than 55,000 tonnes of hazardous liquids, sludges and solids a year - accepted in a variety of packages. m Incineration, destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.9999% or better. « Patented Technology through its Recycling Furnace - which decontaminates PCB transformers and other equipment. » A History of Transportation Safety - ensured by specially built vehicles, trained drivers and emergency back-up. ■ Removal ofLiability for conforming wastes once materials are loaded on an Alberta Special Waste Management System vehicle. Learn more now by calling (403) 235-8300, fax (403) 248-3430, or call toll-free 1-800-633-5552

L\>f.

-

ALBERTA SPECIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

OPERATED BY CHEM-SECURITY(ALBERTA) LTD.

b Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd. A member of the BOVAR group

Liability Removal Through Treatment For more information, Circle reply card No. 248


THE BEHER WAT

TO PUMP WATEI YEAR AFTER YEAR AFTER m

Y Y

Whether you're pumping highly corrosive effluent or fresh water, you wont your pumps to be out of sight â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and out of mind. KSB is the world's largest pump manufacturer, so we know the kind of low-maintenance

reliability you need, At KSB, we manufacture a full spectrum of centrifugal pumps, each customized to suit your specific pumping applications. Through extensive research, KSB has

developecTwear and corrosion resistant materials a Vi

which allow our pumps to be used under the most severe operating conditions. From multi-thousand hp horizontal split case water pumps, to submersible waste water purnps., our pumps are easily installed and forgotten. They keep on performing, year after year. After year. KSB Pumps Inc. 52 West Beaver Creek Rd., #16, Richmond Hill, Ont. L4B1L9 Phone;(905) 882-4313 Fax;(905) 882-4315

9506


Product Review Versatile thermoplastic pumps for all sumps

Metering pumps pneumatic stroke control

Metering pumps electronic stroke control

Flow rates of any Series 500 or Series 500A "dia-PUMP" can be controlled by an in strument air signal when using the pneu matic stroke control to change stroke length. Controls respond to a standard signal of 3 to 15 PSI; other signal ranges are available. Positioning is controlled by the Moore Products Model 73 Valve Positioner. For

VPE pumps are for big sumps, little sumps, caustic sumps, acid sumps, clear sumps, dirty sumps,shallow sumps and deep sumps says the manufacturer. Features include: • No metal in contact with fluid, even the

shaft is enclosed in plastic. • Vapour seal contains hazardous fumes within pump column. • Dynamically balanced key driven impeller. • Motor mounting bracket contains ball bearings with camlocks which fix the pump shaft in position to eliminate vertical thrust

ward (direct) response to signal change is standard. Reverse (indirect) response and local manual override options are available. Features:

• Explosion-proof. • Responds to 3-15 PSI signal as standard; other signal ranges are available. • Direct (forward) or indirect (reverse) re sponse to changing signal. • Local stroke position indicator on control ler. Delta Equipment For more Information, Circle reply card No. 262

The flow rate of any Series 500 or Series 50G-A "dia-PUMP" can be controlled auto

matically by a process instrument, or re motely from the control module, using the Neptune Electronic Stroke Control. The Electronic Stroke Control is a one

piece, self-contained Electric Control Rod Positioner mounted on the pump. Features:

• Explosion-proof. • Unit follows 4-20 mA or 1-5V signal. • Adjustable ratio signal to stroke 1:2 or 2:1. • Direct (forward) or indirect (reverse) re sponse to changing signal. • Manual override in event of instrument

signal or power loss, a unique feature. • Remote override and digital readout indi cator (optional). Delta Equipment For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 263

to the motor.

• Sized to fit the depth of tanks or sumps. • Capacities to 1450 GPM;heads to 280 feet; temperatures to 275 G; lengths to 20 feet. Vanton Pump & Equipment Corporation For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 249 •

Portable Mixers

Neptune mixers have been designed, engi neered and built to provide long life and trouble-free service in a wide variety of blending/mixing operations. These mixers are popularly used to: 1. Blend liquids. 2. Suspend or dissolve solids. 3. Disperse immiscible liquids. 4. Disperse small amounts of gases in liquids. Portable mixers can be clamped or basemounted on beams, tank walls or other sup ports. Angle of entry may be adjusted to meet specific mixing requirements. These mixers find use in a variety of dif ferent industrial applications...waste treat

TURBIOITY OPACITY THERMAL MASS FLOW

No matter

what your destination in process measurement,

GAS ANALYZERS CEM'S COMPLIANCE FLOW LEVEL GAS DETECTION

We're your first class ticket.

RECORDERS FLOW PRIMARIES REMOTE MONITORING

1960mi995 Your satisfaction is our success

ENGINEERING LIMITED

Temperature•Pressure• Flow• Humidity • Anaiyzers

ment, water treatment and batch chemical

preparation. Delta Equipment For more Information, Circle reply card No. 261

Toronto

Montreal

Sarnia

Dartmouth

(416)499-4421 Fax;(416)499-0816

(514)333-8555 Fax:(514)333-4662

(519)336-3006 Fax:(519)344-0607

(902)469-4400 Fax:(902)463-1010

Environwenlal Science & Engineering, March 1995

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 264

Sudbury (705)673-8900 Fax:(705)673-8806

83


INKLINGS

- A column by Tom Davey

Marxism - Groucho or Karl?

To move $100, or even $100 mil

other company's payroll. Knowledge of this 'overdraft' came in the form of a reprimand for 'exceeding our limit'. It took three days

lion from one account to another

across the Atlantic today, takes a mere 24 seconds according to re ports on the information highway. Indeed, &â&#x2013; New York banker has already said that

of confusion before the incident was cor

rected and an apology received. But while we have banks which did not

the speed and movement of capital is deci

want to accept money, we also have a Post Office that can be most reluctant to accept letters. Earlier, in preparation for another

was

sively undermining the political authority of national governments. Fortified by such ringing statements, we went to a modem bank, impressively housed

environmental conference, when we had taken in our meter, to load it with almost

in its futuristic architecture in downtown

$ 1,000 of prepaid postage, I was asked to

Toronto. It was a far cry from the solid lime stone pillars and pantheons of my youth, when banks wished to project an image of solidarity and safety. This bank looked like the kind of place that would have a hun dred million bucks on the premises, along with the computerized ballistics to shoot it to Europe in 24 seconds, or Australia in 60.

come back 'when they were less busy!' I tried, but failed, to imagine another busi ness deflecting a $1,000 order with such

Alas, we were confronted with a curi

an environmental conference, later to be transferred a mere 25 miles north to our

regular branch of the same bank. To our amazement, the teller refused to

accept the money, being adamant that such transfers could not be done. She advised us

ous scenario somewhere between Stephen Leacock's comedic banking encounters and

to hold on to the money until we returned to our country retreat, clearly an unsafe proce

Franz Kafka's frustration with overwhelm

dure.

ing authority in The Judgement. What the bank's architecture promised, the staff failed dismally to deliver. Our prob lems began when we wished to deposit

Naturally, we appealed to a higher au thority. Another lady duly swept in, pro pelled by some authoritative and silent en ergy source whose formula was probably kept secret in the vault, like that for Coca Cola. She did not so much discuss our prob

$1,700 in cash from registration fees from

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

lem as issue edicts to us. But she too con

firmed that this magnificent temple of mam mon was not equipped to transmit our filthy lucre a mere 25 miles to another of its branches.

Graham J. Bryant

Joseph G. Montelth, President & Chief Officer, is pleased to announce the appoint ment of Graham J. Bryant, P.Eng., to the position of Director of Engineering. Mr. Bryant has eight years experience in the water resource engineering sector. He will assume responsibility for Stormceptorâ&#x201E;˘ technical development and engineering sup port services. The patented Stormceptor'''''' manhole sepa rator is the leader in source sediment and

oil control for stormsewer applications, in association with Lafarge Construction Materials, Stormceptorâ&#x201E;˘ is offered through out Canada in both fibregiass and precast concrete.

Stormceptor Canada inc. is located in Etobicoke, Ontario. For more information,

please call 1-800-565-4801.

84

We do not give up easily. As a counter measure, (literally and metaphorically), I said we now wished to open a new account with the money, but this too was refused. We could not open an account Just to de posit money then later withdraw it, she said. The situation was becoming a fiasco, the teller now predicting my future behavioural pattems, a calling well outside the normal banking services and certainly beyond her intellectual capacities. By this time I was determined not to leave the bank without depositing the money, even ifI had to staple it to her fore head. After much wrangling, furtive visits and whispered consultations, she came back and said they would accept the money, but,

added triumphantly, that it would cost $3.50 to make the transaction.

During lulls in the protracted combat, I thought wistfully about those wonderful bank commercials where smiling tellers, like fiscal Florence Nightingales, look af ter both you, and your money, with warm smiles and tender loving care. But, like so much on T'V, this too was pure fantasy. Not long ago, our commercial account was moved, against our wishes, to a differ ent branch. During this unauthorized move, a wrong account number was encoded. We ended up with a $50,000 overdraft for an

unconcern.

But more was to follow. Later, when we

took some 2000 letters to the same sub-post office, one of the postal employees (worker would be adjectivally incorrect) grumbled loudly about so much mail being brought in two hours before they closed, 'when there were only two of them on duty!' This was metered mail by the way, which being al ready stamped, did not require the cancel lation process that normal letters require. Only preliminary sorting was required - not exactly the labours of Hercules. A good sec retary could have typed two hundred enve lopes in that time; indeed, a good stone mason might have chiselled the addresses in marble with more speed and enthusiasm than our reluctant posties. Although the post office regrettably has a monopoly, volume of mail does have an effect on staffing needs at various branches. In our case we voted with our feet and be

gan mailing from another post office branch. Given the security of tenure currently pre vailing at the post office, it is highly un likely that any redundancies resulted from our withdrawal of services. Scraping bar nacles off hulls with bananas is easier than

firing postal workers. But we might have scored some minor reductions in their over

time quotas which gave me a minor source of satisfaction in the skirmish.

Currently banks, while technically in the private sector, are rigidly controlled by gov ernment regulations, resulting in a quasinationalized scenario which protects them from competition. Canadian banks have often enjoyed the highest profits in the world, derived more from their protected status, than banking acumen and service to the public. Had Karl Marx foreseen the arrogant sloth which seems inherent in state-pro tected monopolies, he might well have burned his draft of Das Kapital, and the revolution which changed the world might never have taken place. But that is serious conjecture. The bank and post office fias cos resembled the comic antics of Groucho

Marx, rather than the economic realities en

visioned by Karl.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


%mmf

fi*Z

0^/. â&#x2013; â&#x2013; -y

\.4>^

SYNTHESIZE No single testing laboratory can adequately respond to today's ever changing environmental complexities.

Now a network is growing, linking the strengths of five established laboratories, connecting their recognized expertise to provide expanded services to our clients. The name of this network is MDS Environmental Services.

MDS Environmental Services Limited 1-800-701-7092

Comprehensive. Simple.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 265


Air Pollution

By Tom A. Rutherford, Ph.D.*

What's wrong with high ieveis of atmospheric carbon dioxide? A controversial view on global warming

The statement in the headline wil

around the roots of 35 million hectares of

are of this group, as are the majority of our worst weeds, and proliferation of these plants is working against elevated carbon dioxide levels. They are lowering atmos pheric carbon dioxide not only through pho tosynthesis but some also use a process that sequesters carbon dioxide around their roots

African grasses recently planted in South America. A further explanation is in order.

and makes it unavailable to other plants. Low atmospheric carbon dioxide(around

off(Fig. 2). Only about 67% of man made

raise the hackles of many "con

carbon dioxide can be found in the atmos

cerned environmentalists," but, I

phere so where is it all going?

stand by it. Carbon dioxide is an essential nutrient for plant growth and is as necessary for life on earth as oxygen. Present atmospheric carbon dioxide, except for periods when glaciation was at its height, is near its lowest level of the past 100 mil lion years (1)- a period that saw the evolu tion of most modem day plant and animal species. Many of today's plants are "starv ing" for this nutrient. Agricultural produc

Earlier in Fraser Forum (Jan/95) I men tioned that scientists have found much of

our "missing" carbon dioxide sequestered

tion benefits from increased carbon dioxide

levels primarily through enhanced plant growth but also through longer growing sea sons - the latter caused by carbon dioxide's modest warming effect. Some of the higher yields ascribed to the "agricultural revolution" have resulted from greater availability of this important plant fertilizer. Agricultural production has not reached its potential in today's climate be cause low carbon dioxide is often the limit

ing factor (2). But, despite the possible benefits to humankind of present carbon dioxide levels, life itself is the major factor that will prevent carbon dioxide levels from getting much higher (3). Carbon dioxide levels are not rising lin early as fuel use increases. Indeed,for about the past 10 years the carbon dioxide growth rate has been slowing (Fig. 1) and atmos pheric concentrations appear to be leveling

*Dr. Rutherford gained his Ph.D. from Simon Fraser University. He has written and lectured extensively on ciimate-reiated forestry problems.

180 ppm) is associated with periods of severe glaciation. This level is close to the lower survival limit for C3 plants but is more than adequate for C4 plants. Some bota

...the sun put out 4% less energy 500 miliion years ago but, atmospheric

nists believe the recent evolution of C4

plants was driven by the low levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with ice ages. Another view is that the C4 pho tosynthetic pathway's evolution is one fac tor that caused the ice ages. Perhaps by low ering carbon dioxide to levels unfavourable to C3 plants, the C4 plants will enhance their own survival but, in doing so, they will reduce crop production to levels that could

carbon dioxide was

16 times today's ieveis and helped keep the earth warm enough for life. With respect to carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, most terrestrial plants fall into two groups, called either C3 or C4, depending on the number of carbon atoms in the initial product of photosynthesis. C4 plants (most grasses) are more efficient photosynthesizers at low carbon dioxide concentrations than C3 plants (most broad leaf plants and trees) but their advantage over C3 plants ends when carbon dioxide reaches 420 parts per million (about 20% more than present). C3 plants, however, can increase their photosynthetic rates un til about 800 ppm carbon dioxide(more than twice the current atmospheric level). The African grasses planted in South America are C4 plants. One measure of the success of C4 plants is that many of our most productive crops

Atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate

be disastrous for human survival.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal by C4 plants dovetails nicely with the Gaia theory about how life on earth regulates the climate to keep conditions ideal for its own existence. In his Gaia theory, James Lovelock maintains that earth's climate,

over the past 500 million years, has been kept relatively comfortable for life by the presence of life and all life working together is responsible for maintaining the climate's steady state. In other words, as required, carbon dioxide levels - as well as other

gases - have been altered by life to main tain the climate within a life supporting range. Continued overleaf

Mauna Loa Monthly Mean Carbon Dioxide 370t

de-seasonalized data from Mauna Loa

2.5-

/

o

E

^

Q.

s 1.5

\\

CO

cr x:

?

1'

\

/ /

\\

^

0) 340

^

\/ \

a 330

\

o

G

0.5310' 58

^85

86 """87

M

89

M

91

92

93

Year

Figure 1:Atmospheric carbon dioxide growth rate data from the Mauna Loa observatory. Seasonal fluctuations have been removed from the data. This figure was digitized from an updated graph provided with the 1992 Summary Report of Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory No.21 of the National Oceanic andAtmosphericAdminis-

61

60

64 63

67

66

70

69

73

72

76

75

79

78

81

82

85

84

88

87

91

90

93

Year

Figure 2:The monthly mean atmospheric carbon dioxide concentra tions from the Mauna Loa observatory. This figure was digitized from an updated graph provided with the 1992 Summary Report of Cli mate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory No. 21 of the National Oceanic andAtmosphericAdministration.

tration. 86

Environmental Science & Engineering,March 1995


AiFEW POINT ,

-*8 #

«•

^ •W

Gore Si Storrie has been building Canada's water and wastewaten capacity since 1 01 0. Seventy-six yeans later, after more than B5G major projects, we are the nation's foremost environmental engineers. We have worked in the United States for more than a decade.

••

There is much more to be done here at home and

in the U.S., but while we're at it, we'd like to add a few

more points: • Dar-es-Salaam • Ballarat • Bombay • Lewedorp • Shanghai • Whittlesey • Ningbo • Harnes • Prague • Leiystadt • Lake Maracaibo • Bequia • Balcarce • Barbados • • •

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Air Pollution, cont'd. For example, the sun put out 4% less energy 500 million years ago but, atmos pheric carbon dioxide was 16 times today's levels and helped keep the earth warm enough for life. As the sun gradually warmed up less carbon dioxide was needed for warming and It was removed from the atmosphere by plant life. Thus, we should expect to see regulatory mechanisms begin to lower present day carbon dioxide levels or at least mitigate further rises. It appears that plant life, in particular C4 plants and some marine algae, will work against ris ing carbon dioxide levels and help cool the earth despite the sun's inexorably increas ing energy output. The result will almost surely be another ice age, or ice ages, until such time, about a billion years hence, when the sun becomes too hot for life to regulate the climate.

Extensive glaciation has been the natu

ral state of earth's climate over the past 1.7 million years, and climatologist's consen sus is that the current warm period is anoma lous and will be soon (in geologic terms) replaced by another period of glaciation.

There is only about seven times as much carbon dioxide stored in fossil fuels as is

presently in the atmosphere and this will not be enough. Our present warm period represents a regu lation failure by Gala, according to Lovelock (3). So, if the natural state of earth is glacia tion, then people living in what are presently temperate latitudes will face a struggle to survive in the face of Gaia's opposition. Should atmospheric carbon dioxide lev els fall to pre-industrial or glaciation lev-

Design and Specification of Mitigation Measures Audit Measurements

Noise Vibration Acoustics

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about seven times as much carbon dioxide

stored in fossil fuels as is presently in the atmosphere and this will not be enough. Besides, oil and coal deposits are too valu able to be squandered on global warming. The only major sources available to us, if global warming becomes necessary, will be limestone and chalk deposits, such as the white cliffs of Dover, that will have to be

processed through biological acidification

Environmental Noise and Vibration Assessments

ING

els, we will need sources other than fossil

fuels to maintain agricultural production and comfortable temperatures. There is only

to release carbon dioxide. Carbonate and

sedementary rocks contain about a million times more carbon dioxide than the atmos

phere. With good management, and im proved agricultural techniques, we should be able to make this carbon dioxide last in

definitely. References

1. Michaels, Patrick J. Sound and Fury. The Science and Politics of Global Warming. Cato Institute, Washington, DC. USA. 1992.196pp. 2. Wolfe, David W.and Erickson, Jon D. Car bon dioxide effects on plants: Uncertainties and implications for modeling crop response to cli mate change, in Agricultural Dimensions of Global Climate Change.Kaiser, Harry M. and Drennen, Thomas E. eds. St Lucie Press, Delray Beach, PL. USA. 1993.311 pp. 3. Loveiock, James. The Ages of GAiA.A Bi ography of Our Living Earth. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, USA. 1988.252 pp.

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Environmenial Science & Engineering, March 1995


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Regenerative Air Technology

Soil Remediation Second Edition

Latest Edition

An increasingly popular method of treating soils in situ is via vapor extraction. EG&G Rotron regen

Since 1962, Rotron has been set ting standards for Regenerative Air Technology. Our advanced application expertise and innova tive family of regenerative air de vices have been a major factor in allowing industry to break with the traditional but costly and mainte nance-intensive, use of compres sor and other high pressure, posi tive-displacement sources of shop-air. Blowers carry a no-fauit guarantee for one full year. PROMAT Engineering Sales Inc. Circle reply card No. 218

erative blowers are used world

wide to strip volatile contaminants from soils. Our compact, quiet blowers are ideally suited in flow and vacuum levels for all but the

tightest silts and clays. Both vacuum and pressure can be used simultaneously to strip contami nant from soils and push the vapors into treatment systems. PROMAT Engineering Sales Inc. Circle reply card No. 217

Custom FRP products for Fiberglass Reinforced Equipment for Process and Pollution Control

environmental protection Custom design and fabrication of FRP systems and equipment for pollution control, wastewater and process applications. Tanks for mixers, clarifiers, digesters, fioccuiators and separators, scrubbers, tank covers up to 30 ft. diameter, FRP piping and pipe fittings, exhaust and ventilation duct systems, hoods, enclosures, containers, trays, flumes, custom molds, field repairs and inspec

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Bladder Pump Soiinst Bladder Pump provides samples to meet the highest EPA standards for groundwafer moni toring. Stainless steel and Teflon construction. Easily decontami nated without tools. Teflon blad

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Sludge Thickening and [^^ICEPITHICal

Centrifugal decanters

for thickening and dewatering waste siudge

Dewatering Centrico offers this 10 page illus trated brochure comparing cen trifugal decanters to belt filter press and frame press technolo gies. Design features of clarify ing decanters and their benefits are explained, such as closed de sign, low operating costs, continu ous operation with least operator attention, and compliance with environmental regulations.

Absorbent

Cansorb"^" is an Organic Oil Absorbent which effectively ab sorbs up to 9 times its own weight in numerous hydrocarbons and chemicals.

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Geomembrane Liners for

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environmental application Solmax Geosynthetics has re leased its new comprehensive geomembranes selection guide lines. it presents a wide spectrum of applications such as waste landfills, secondary containment, stock pile covers, industrial slag and tailings storage pads with the standard Soimax geomembranes list. Also included are selection souww

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Bail Valves

Chemline's new High Capacity Bail Valves are available in PVC, PR, and PVDF. Compared to 4" Bail valves with ends increased to

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Soimax Geosynthetics Circle reply card No. 223

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

89


Industry Update

MOEE, MCCR powers to increase for on-site orders Revised Compliance Policy Coming Currently, there are no publicly available guidelines or policies governing the mak ing of field orders by designated abatement officers. A revised MOEE Compliance Policy is in the works, and is expected to be released early this year, according to the MOEE's plan. This policy will update the existing and very spare document that is available to the public, and that guides abatement officers and Investigations and Enforcement Branch inspectors. The Com pliance Policy will likely describe the con siderations and limitations to be applied when a 'mini-director' imposes a field or der. [This Compliance Policy is being de veloped separately from the MOEE's pro posed policy on demands for and use of in dustry's environmental audits. That policy has already been subject to consultation and is expected to be finalized in early 1995.] What Can You Do?

Separate initiatives are underway to

Soil vapour extraction remediation tectinology was used at this gas bar - Ptioto ES&E/TD. permit Ontario Ministry ofEnviron ment and Energy (MOEE) abate ment officers and Ministry of Con sumer and Commercial Relations(MCCR) Directors and chief inspectors to make im mediate orders "in the field".

MOEE orders apply to the Environmen tal Protection Act (EPA), the Ontario Water Resources Act(OWRA)and the Pes ticides Act. The MOEE orders will be called

"field orders". MOEE's field order program is already in effect. The MCCR powers, which apply to seven statutes administered by MCCR, in cluding the Gasoline Handling Act and the Energy Act, are called "safety orders". The Director or chief officer may suspend any licence or other authorization for failure to

obey the order.

MOEE officers: field orders The power to make field orders is cre ated under the same law that authorizes

MOEE Director's orders, such as stop, con trol, clean-up, remediation and prevention orders. However, field orders can be made

on the spot by authorized provincial offic ers. These officers must be designated as "Directors" under the Act, but their Direc

tors' powers will be limited. The officers must carry papers indicating this designa tion with them.

Abatement officers who carry this lim ited designation as mini-directors are per *The environmental law firm of Willms & Shier. 90

mitted to make field orders. These field

orders are subject to review by the fully authorized Director who supervises the officer. Exempt From EBR Field orders are intended for situations

that are urgent and require immediate re sponse. They have been exempted by regu lation from the Environmental Bill ofRights (EBR). Notice of field orders will not be filed on the Environmental Registry, and the public does not have to be consulted. Third parties, including the public, will not have the right to appeal field orders. It will be interesting to see if the MOEE uses field orders extensively, with the bless ings of its industrial clients, to avoid the snakes and ladders of consultation and it

eration otherwise required for orders sub ject to the EBR. According to MOEE officials, designa-

Until the revised Compliance Policy takes effect, you will be unable to verify whether an order is appropriate under MOEE policy. You will not be able to de termine for yourself whether the officer has exceeded the authority given him under the field order program. You do have the right to demand to see the officer's written des

ignation granting him Director's powers, and you have the right to require a review of the order by the officer's supervising Di rector. However, the order is effective and

must be obeyed until overturned by the Di rector, or on subsequent appeal to the Envi ronmental Appeal Board. Only a success ful application for a stay of the order will relieve you temporarily from the obligation to obey. If you have concerns about the na ture of the order, or whether it is appropri ate in the circumstances, you should imme diately request a review by the supervising Director. If the order imposes requirements that will be expensive or disruptive, you may

Until the revised Compliance Poiicy takes effect, you will be unable to verify whether an order is appropriate. tion of officers with director's powers has been used in the past, as part of last year's crackdown on illegal dumpers and disposal sites. The use of this limited designation strategy appears to be a stopgap measure pending proposed "Powers and Penalties" amendments to the EPA and OWRA.

MOEE officials say these amendments will be released soon for public consultation. These amendments to the EPA and OWRA

are expected to increase penalties and give greater enforcement powers to provincial officers.

wish to apply immediately for a stay of the order, pending completion of the review, or appeal. This initiative will greatly increase abatement officers' discretion and their abil

ity to require immediate action. It under lines the importance of properly managing communications with MOEE officials. We

recommend that our clients develop a pro gram for managing relations with the MOEE. Often employees or managers are designated to liaise with MOEE officers and accompany them during any attendance.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995


By P. Douglas Petrie and Barry N. Spiegel* These designated contact people are trained to be familiar with plant operations and leg islative compliance requirements. They are also trained in how to cooperate with regu latory officials without compromising the

Ad Index 53

Adamas

22

EPL/MDS

85

Neo Valves

Alberta Sp. Waste

81

Fibertex

89

NRC

45

rights of the company. Often they develop good working relationships with their local

Anthrafilter

77

OCPA

58

Aquablast

77

Flygt Geneq

23

Parkson

11

abatement officers. This could mean the

AWMA

78

GL&V

29

Pencon

30

difference between cooperation and confron

APV Cansorb

89

Gorman-Rupp

33

Philip Env.

tation.

Bailey Controls

39

GTI

37

Proctor & Redfern

63

BEX

18

GU Industries

21

Promat Eng.

89

Big '0'

47

Hach

13

Restoration Cons.

56

Can Am Ins.

14

Hazco

42

Sandale Utilities

77

under Bill 175, an omnibus statute that

Can. Ex. Man.

79

Sanexen Env.

43

amended approximately 100 statutes and

Cancoppas

repealed seven others. The Bill received Royal Assent on December 9, 1994, giving

Canwit

42

Centrico

55

Health & Safety Conf. 40 Hydromantis 42 12 Hydrophillic Ind. Hygrex-Spehr 28

Chemline

89

ISA

MCCR: safety orders, suspensions New inspector's powers were introduced

immediate effect to the provisions discussed below. The Bill introduces new provisions into the Ministry of Consumer and Com mercial Relations Act gWing expanded pow

2

9

.

5

Sanitherm

94

Schlumberger

95

Seacor

16

80, 88

Solinst

89

IWS

43

Solmax

89

JWC

74

Solutions '95

44

KSB Pumps

82

istered by MCCR.They include the Boilers

Colgate-Palmolive 42, 64 Culligan 51 Dagex 62 Degremont 41

Laldlaw Env.

25

24

and Pressure Vessels Act,the Gasoline Han

Delta

17

dling Act and the Energy Act. The new provisions empower an MCCR Director or chief officer to make safety or ders orally or in writing '"to any person on any matter pertaining to safety" under the

Derrick

4

Liquid Carbonic Loraday

Stormceptor Summa Eng. T. City Iron Works

19

Terratec

77

Dezurik

61

MacViro

46

Turblex

11

Microbics

28

Victaulic

32 31

ers to officials under seven statutes admin

act for which the Director or officer has been

appointed. A safety order can require that equipment, buildings or storage tanks or sys

16

Ecodyne

8, 27

7

71

Eimco

96

Milltronics

15

Waukesha Fluids

Envitec

23

Mueller

21

Westech

10

Epic

22

National Inst.

42

Wilier Eng.

83

tems be shut down or taken out of use, or that

other actions be taken. These order-making powers can be delegated to inspectors. Safety orders will take effect Immedi ately and will not be suspended pending an appeal unless the Director or chief officer consents to the suspension. Any licence, certificate or other authori zation document can be suspended for fail ure to obey a safety order. The new provisions also provide for roll ing incorporation of codes,standards guide lines or procedures. This means that the Gasoline Handling Code, which is adopted by regulation, and the standards and codes in it, can be deemed to be updated without the requirement for the passing of an up dating regulation. In effect, due diligence will require storage tank owners to keep apprised of, and comply with the Code and standards as updated from time to time. Since the Code and its standards are safetyrelated, those who are subject to the Code will have to maintain compliance to avoid being subject to safety orders.

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Responsibility for the Provinces? This emphasis by the Province on stand

Licensee of Inline U.S.A.

ards and enforcement coincides with ru

mours of the imminent downsizing or de

The accurate solution

mise of Environment Canada. In Ontario, most environmental enforcement has been

through provincial efforts. Downsizing of Environment Canada will likely mean greater provincial responsibility. The Prov ince appears to be enhancing its power to

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 230

91


Wastewater treatment

The membrane bioreactor is a new concept in the treatment of industriai wastewater s a result of increasing space constraints and limitations, great

A'

different MBR processes, both aerobic and anaerobic for the treatment of industrial and

cal example of a first-generation MBR, al ready in industrial use, is shown in Figure 2. In this schematic description, the filtra

incentives have been directed municipal wastewater, using several types â&#x2013; towards the development of of membranes (ceramic or organic; ultra or tion unit is located outside the bioreactor compact installations capable of treating micro-filtration), depending on the applica where it acts as an absolute microbial bar high influent volumetric loads. Since the tion and required effluent quality. rier, allowing all biomass to be recirculated performance of a biological treat inside the reactor. It is precisely ment process is largely dictated the biomass recirculation that by its overall metabolic activity, distinguishes the membrane 100 microns two parameters are of interest in bioreactor from other filtration the design of high-rate treatment processes, such as tertiary filtra Cheveux/Hoir processes: (1) the active micro tion where the filter downstream organism concentration and (2) of the biological process is sim levuresAeosI the biomass specific activity. ply a refining stage. Fillre a sable 10 microns Sond filler Even though it might be possi The operation of a MBR proc Pollens/Pollen ble to modify the microbial spe ess is simple and straightfor Globules rouges cific activity through various con ward. As illustrated in Figure 2, Red globules trol strategies, the trend gener raw water enters the bioreactor Bacteries/Bacteria ally followed to obtain a highwhere it is contacted with the rate process is to increase the biomass. The mixed liquor is CoiloTdes/Colloids then pumped and fed to the fil biomass concentration. Microfillrotion 0,1 micron tration unit where the membrane Historically, high perform Virus/V'f^ses separates suspended solids and ance wastewater treatment proc water. The permeate (treated esses have been developed by Macromolecules organiqi^es Organic macro-molecules effluent) leaves the filtration unit maximizing the retention of mi whereas all biomass is recycled cro-organisms either by fixing Ultrofiltrotion 0,01 micron inside the bioreactor. TTie circu them on porous material or by Composes organiques lation pump serves to create high favoring the growth of easy-set Organic compounds shear forces at the membrane tling microbial floes or granules. Sels dissous bivalents surface and thus minimize clog For example, in the activated Dissolved bivalent salts ' Nonofillralion 0,001 micron ging. The filtration unit can be sludge process, a liquidisolid regularly cleaned either by backseparation device (clarifier) is Sels dissous flushing or by chemical washing. used to increase the biomass con Dissolved soils The quality of the treated centration in the bioreactor. While numerous studies have

water is one of the main advan

Osmose inverse

Reverse osmosis 0,0001 micron

tages of MBR processes, since they are capable of simultane prehension of the various proc ously biologically treating and esses involved in the fixation of disinfecting the effluent. Com micro-organisms or the formation Figure 1 plete separation of the hydraulic of microbial floes, much less work has been devoted to the improvement The objectives of this paper are to give retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT) is also important since it pro of solid-liquid separation techniques. The an overview of the existing industrial ap vides optimum control of biological reac result is that separation devices have fre plications and to describe the more recent tions, greater reliability and flexibility in quently been the source of several problems advances in this technology that should ex resulting in poor overall treatment perform perience important developments in the next use. Variations in the hydraulic load ap plied to the system can ances. However, fol Table 1. Aerobic treatment of a cosmetic factory wastewater be absorbed, while the lowing intensive re been directed towards the com

search, a new genera tion of ultra-filtration

membranes more pro ductive and less ex

pensive has been de veloped and a new concept has emerged in

the

control of sludge reten Main parameters

COD (mg/1) SS (mg/1)

N-NH^(mg/1) Lipids (hexane extraction)(mg/1)

Effluent

6500

<100

240

0

40

0.4

development of slowgrowing microorgan isms such as nitrifying and methanogenic bac

2500

<2

teria. Under suitable

wastewater

treatment technology: the Membrane BioReactor (MBR). Degremont, in collaboration with the Centre International de Recherche Sur I'Eau

et I'Environnement(CIRSEE)of Lyonnaise des Eaux and FD Conseil, has developed

*Degremont-lnfilco, St-Joseph, Lachine, Quebec. 92

Influent

few years. As illustrated in Figure 1, micro and ultrafiltration membranes are separation devices capable of separating suspended solids and various organic macromolecules from the treated water. Membrane bio

reactor, as its name implies, results from a combination of a biological reactor and an ultra or microfiltration membrane. A typi

tion time allows the

operating conditions, ultra or microfiltration modules might ac.cept high biomass concentrations and,there fore, high organic loads with the conse quence that, unlike conventional activated sludge processes, it can be made compact. Retention of high molecular weight soluble compounds can also be a valuable advan tage of MBR processes since improved biodegradation may result.

Environmental Science ÂŁ Engineering, March 1995


By A. Beaubien, Ph. D.* Several studies have shown that MBRs

produce little sludge. Although the high sludge age frequently used in the process may partially explain this advantage, the theory concerning biological reactions in a perfectly confined space such as a MBR, is still only poorly understood, particularly in the case of hydrolysis which plays a major role In degrading suspended solids. Despite these advantages, the high en ergy consumption required to operate the filtration unit at high suspended solid con centration has restricted the application of MBR processes to areas where the effluent can be considered as a valuable product, such as the denitrification of drinking wa ter supplies and recycling of wastewater in industry or in large buildings. Extensive research is, however, in progress through out the world to overcome this limitation, and second-generation, more intimately combined MBR processes could soon be de veloped. Applications Several MBR applications have been developed in recent years and, in the fol lowing sections, some recent applications of these processes for the treatment and re cycling of industrial wastewater and for the

1,:

A study was, therefore, carried out at the

industrial facility, using a 1 m'' pilot-plant in order to determine precisely the design parameters of the full-scale treatment plant. The average data obtained during a five-

Aerobic treatment and

month test period are summarized in Table I. The results clearly demonstrate the ex cellent overall performance of the MBR process both in terms of efficiency and reli ability, as more than 98% of the influent

recycling of wastewater

COD and 99% of ammonia and lipids were

treatment of landfill leachates will be ex amined.

from a cosmetic

factory

wastewater is then sent to the biological re actor where aeration is provided by a Flexazur longitudinal membrane. The mixed liquor is pumped through the filtra tion unit where the treated water is sepa rated from the sludge. This unit consists of 6 modules of 16 m^ microfiltration (0.1 pm) ceramic membranes (Kerasep). It is highly modular so that more membranes could be

installed, should that become necessary due

to increased capacity at the cosmetic factory. The quality of the Table 2. Performance of the Arnouville leachate treatment piani. treated water is such

Originally, the ef

Raw leachate

fluent of a cosmetic

Removal efficiency

Effluent

MBR

RO

(%)

2500

710

10

>99

740

230

1

>99

N-NH,(mg/1)

410

7

3

>99

Cf (mg/1) SS (mg/1)

1500

1450

50

>95

300

0

0

100

plant located in the

COD (mg/1) TOG (mg/1)

North of France was

discharged and treated at the local municipal wastewater treatment

plant. Due to excess loading of the munici pal treatment plant, it

was decided in 1991 to treat the effluent on

removed. Furthermore, total removal of sus

site. The objectives of the factory opera

pended solid was achieved, thus yielding an effluent that could meet the recycling ob

tions were to remove at least 90 % of the

total chemical oxygen demand (COD)and to produce a high quality effluent that could be recycled for industrial use. EfBuent brut/Raw effluent

jective. Following this study, a full-scale instal

lation was designed to treat 220 nvVday of

Boues en exces/Excess sludge â&#x2013;ş

highly polluted effluent (1200 kg COD/day). This totally en closed

treat

ment plant was inaugurated in May 1994 and is now in full Eau traitee

(permeal.)

operation. After primary screen ing, the raw ef

Figure 2 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1995

Landfill leachates originate mainly from percolation of rainwater and from the bio

logical decomposition of wastes. Depend ing on several factors such as the age of the landfill and the waste composition, leachates can contain high levels of organic and inorganic compounds that make their treatment compulsory before reuse or dis

charge into the environment. Even though conventional biological and physico-chemi cal processes can remove efficiently sus pended solids, organic compounds and ni trogen, more stringent regulations have been implemented in several countries that re quire removal of salts (chlorides, sulfates) and heavy metals. Reverse osmosis is a

maintain

Continued overleaf

tanks to control Bloc Membrane

landfill

leachates

neutral pH. The

in two buffer BioReacteur

Treatment of

well-known technology that has found many useful applications, mostly in the desalina tion of sea water. Flowever, reverse osmo sis requires complete removal of suspended solids and organic matter in order to avoid rapid fouling and/or clogging of the mem-

fluent is stored Aira^

that the management of the plant is consid ering recycling the wa ter for use in toilets, thereby taking another step toward the "zero eflluent" objective.

peak flows and to

93


Soil Management Topsoil substitute developed from waste University of Western Ontario researchers have developed, with Indian scientists, a technique for using waste to produce an excellent topsoil substitute. Now being tested in Orissa State, India, in collabora tion with the state's Pollution Board, the

mixture of fly ash and sewage sludge could help restore degraded lands while solving pressing waste disposal problems. Canada's International Development Re search Centre is supporting this research that could be applied wherever coal is burned, according to Dr. Michael Powell of

UWO's Department of Earth Sciences in

sume a fraction of what is produced in India. The technique developed is simple: fly ash and sewage sludge are mixed to pro

London, Ontario.

duce a soil-like substance. Trials at UWO's

India produces enormous quantities of fly ash and sewage sludge. Both waste materials are now deposited, largely un treated, directly into water streams. This results in siltation and flooding, and con

experimental fields showed that trees and grasses planted in this mixture grew faster than those planted in regular soil, even in

taminates water sources for millions of peo ple. The volume of these wastes will in crease dramatically in coming years. At the same time, traditional uses for fly ash - for road surfacing, as a concrete additive, or in the manufacture of bricks - can only con-

ATAD

fertilized soil. The same is proving true in preliminary trials in India, where experi ments using over 800 trees are now underway. Not only does this technique have the potential to become the greatest user of coal ash in the world, says Dr. Powell, but it could help revegetate large tracts of de graded, deforested lands. The topsoil substitute is not without haz ard, however. Because fly ash and sludge contain potentially toxic heavy metals, the

mixture is not to be used for food or forage crops. "It's safe if you use it wisely," noted Dr.Powell. These uses include trees planted for lumber and fuel and non-forage ground covers planted to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion.

Membrane bioreactor, cont'd. branes. In view of their respective capabili ties, a combination of membrane bioprocesses and reverse osmosis could very well provide an integrated system capable of treating highly contaminated leachates and producing a high quality effluent that should meet all current and future regulations.

Kruger

On the basis of the results obtained dur

ing a one-year pilot-plant study, a full scale installation was designed for the treatment of the leachates from a landfill site in

Arnouville, a small town in the suburbs of

Paris. This compact treatment plant con sists of a 65 m-^ membrane biological reac Why settle for less? Introducing the Kruger/Fuchs ATAD system. Your first choice for effective, effi cient and economical sludge treatment. Quality

Our Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion(ATAD)process has provided excellent performance worldwide. It's recognized by the EPA as a process that can meet the new Part 503sludge regulations for land application of municipal

tor with reverse osmosis membranes as the

post-treatment unit. It was designed to treat up to 10 000 m'of leachates per year, even though the actual production is close to 3

000 m' per year. The preliminary results obtained following start-up indicate that the overall performance of this MBR-RO sys

Speed

tem is excellent (Table 2), the treated efflu ent meeting all current as well as foresee able regulations.

Our ATAD system features a sludge holding time of just six days in most cases. That's up to 75% less than with other aerobic or anaerobic methods, saving both space and time. And it's easy to operate, which reduces training time and operating personnel.

Recent progress in membrane separation technology has made possible the develop ment of a new generation of biological proc

Price

ess: the Membrane BioReactor. This inno

wastewater sludge, which includes PFRP and Class A requirements.

Our autothermal process requires no additional heat, providing significant energy savings.The quick digestion cycle uses smaller tanks,further reducing capital costs. No added chemicals or expensive nitrification equipment are needed, either.

Dependable. Fast. Affordable. There's only one choice for sludge treat ment: Kruger/Fuchs ATAD. More than just A TAD better. Licensed from Kruger in Canada and the Pacific N.W. of U.S.A. by

SANITHERM ENGINEERING LIMITED 431 Mountain highway, suite 4, North Vancouver, B.C. V7J 2L1 Telephone:(604) 986-9168 â&#x20AC;˘ Telefax: (604) 986-5377

Conclusion

vative technology, more reliable and more compact than previous methods, not only provides an excellent quality effluent, free of any solids and disinfected, but also in creases the volumetric loading. With the ever-increasing cost of water, industrial wastewater recycling and reuse as process water is becoming more and more attrac tive when compared to conventional sup plies, and membrane bioreactors should experience a fast growing market in the next few years. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 198 94

For more information, Circle reply card No. 225

Environmental Science d Engineering, March 1995


SCHLUMBERGER BRINGS YOU TURNKEY PROJECT MANAGEMENT 100,000TH METER

DETAILED PUBLIC

SYSTEMS

INSTALLED

RELATIONS CAMPAIGN

INTEGRATION

AND STILL GOING

I

100,000th meter was Installed

on March 22, 1994 by our Technical Service Group

Press Releases, Monthly Updates, Post Installation Handouts

Established Customer Service Centre

Full system setup with on-slte training by our System Support Specialists Complete route management providing detailed customer and area Information

QUALITY-PROVEN PRODUCTS state-of-the-art materials and

manufacturing processes for long life, ease of maintenance, & extended low flow accuracy Meter reading systems for measuring, reading, recording & billing water usage

,c u e r

counts

UrrrtnT

METERSHOP

RIVATIZATION OPTION Build, Own & Operate Options Specialized Management Expertise: Reduce Operating Costs & Improve Efficiencies

"Prompt and thorough responses to inquiries, requests, and complaints was one of the most significant

METERSHOP MANAGEMENT Meter Reading and Installation Billing and Fund Management Operation and Maintenance

Full Turn-key Programs

factors in the success of the

project. All quality issues were responded to immediately to the PROFESSIONAL ROJECT MANAGEMENT iComputerlzed Project Tracking iCustomer-Orlented

satisfaction of the home owner

and the municipality" C. Beach, Deputy Works AdministratorEnvironment, Township of Kingston, Ontario

[Detailed Progress Meetings

Fully Insured Labour & Material Bonds Performance Guarantee

Post Installation Invoicing Complete Warehousing & Material Handling

PROGRAMS Multl-Utlllty Resource Saving

■ Appointment Scheduling

FINANCIAL SECURITY

CONSERVATION

"The fact that no extra City staff time was required to administer or inspect the project is indicative of Schlumberger's turnkey approach..." E. Jackson, Environmentai Superintendent, City of Vernon, British Columbia

Schlumberger I industries Measurement Division Canada 1-800-363-7886

For more information, Circle reply card No. 226

Products and Services

Fully Integrated with Metering Programs

PERSONNEL Fully Trained Uniformed

State-of-the-art Equipment Emphasis on enhancing community relations


Complete Anaepebic Digestion Systoms for WPstewater Sludges EIMCO supplies complete systems for anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludges and efficient dewatering of stabilized biosolids. We can provide equipment for an existing system or design and build a complete new facility. For more information, contact your nearest EIMCO sales representative.

Digester Covers Sludge Mixers Boilers

Heat Exchangers Gas Safety Equipment Thickeners

Belt Dewatering Presses Class A, Class B Sludge

Two stage system using fixed (right)

Type RDT mixer

Gasholder (left) digester covers, EOT and RDT mixers.

on fixed digester cover

Photo above: Spiral

guides for Gasholder cover. Fixed covers with RDT mixers.

Photo below: Gasholder cover

with vertical guides, EDT-J mixer. Photo above:

Spiraliy guided Gasholder covers with EDTand RDT mixers.

Photo left:

Type EDT Mixer.

5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2

Process Equipment Non-fouling sludge mixer propeller.

A Baker Hughes company

(905)625-6070 FAX:(905)625-3519

For more information. Circle reply card No. 227

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1995  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1995  

Profile for esemag