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ISSN-0835-605X President STEVE DAVEY Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY
October/November '94 Vol. 7
Issued November, 1994
(905) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY
Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905)727-4052 Western Canada and
Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON Sales Rep. COLLEEN DAVEY
Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.So., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates
Why I am buying the Ontario Waste Management
Editorial comment by Tom Davey Never enter a confined space without written authorization
By Robert Kroetsch and Joseph Bucci
Confined space: gas detectors....what you don't know can hurt you By Greg Boyko
EPL/MDS Dr. Pierre Beaumier
NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc. Alan Church, C.Chem.
Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.
Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfeliow
Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.
Rod Holme, P.Eng.
The Elgin-London Transmission Main - an integral part of London's short-term water solution
By Ken Morrison, REng.
ACPO urges MOEE to include chemists as signing authority for site ciean up reports
Myths, chailenges and opportunities: how OWMC will contribute to Ontario's environment industry By Dr. Donald Chant
Keys to successful automation of operations By Mark Robertson, REng.
Some environmental problems can be turned around... with centrifuge technology By Jeff Douglas
Hydraulic fracturing for enhanced in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater By Bryan Leach, REng. and Keith Kosar, REng.
High-rate pilot plant for treatment of CSOs
Guelph's new composting system goes on-line
The roots of sick building syndrome By Howard D. Goodfellow, Ph.D., REng.
Uncommon approaches to pulp & paper common problems By Ronald Oberlander
Proctor & Redfern Ltd.
Don Kemp, M.A.So., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants
Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates
Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CPA Consultants
Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers,industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. All advertising space orders,copy,artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environ mentalScience & Engineering,c/oPrestige Printing, 41 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5. Canadian Publications Mail Sales
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Cover Story: Real environmentalism in action. A total of 10,400m of steel pipe and 4,200m of concrete pressure pipe was installed to bring Lake Huron and Elgin area water to London. Story on page 18. Dillon photo.
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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By Tom Davey
Why I am buying the Ontario Waste Management Corporation
Privatization is ciominating the en
which they make their wares, it should be relatively easy for industrial staff to treat most of their effluents by reversing the proc esses, so to speak. Specialist consulting advice could be brought in where knowl edge gaps occur, and indeed, there are pri vate sector firms with excellent disposal facilities who could take full responsibility for any residual matter. Industries rarely focus on the ecosystemic life-cycle costs of their efflu ents, with many ignoring an earlier plea from the environment ministry for voluntary com pliance. Can you imagine voluntary income tax? Using a full-cycle costing approach would see many so-called profits subtracted
vironmental industry so I have de cided to buy the Ontario Waste Management Corporation. In doing so I will solve serious economic problems for the Ontario government, assist industry, confound the investment community and protect the environment. Yes, I know there are sceptics out there. How can an ignorant scribbler, low in both standing and IQ, pos sibly dream up this scheme? It was, like so many portentious events, a revelation. It struck me while walking in a forest located on the 45th parallel which is precisely halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, an indication that cos
mic forces were at work. As St. Paul was
struck on the way to Damascus, as Archimedes was smitten in his bath, I was
so smote on my way to swim in a provincial park lake. Like many profound ideas, the answer is simple. I shall offer to take the OWMC's fiscal problems off the government's back and, as the Ontario government is drown ing in red ink,I expect cabinet approval will be swift. There will be some token protests in the form of private member's bills, of course, but they will evaporate overnight. Bob White will say it wouldn't have hap pened but for NAFTA, while Greenpeacers will rappel down the CN Tower, their streamers protesting the take-over. All such actions will be regarded as affirmations of my common sense.
Then I shall unleash market forces in the
valuation prior to my take-over. In 13 years the OWMC has spent $130 million without actually treating any toxic wastes. While they have sponsored industrial recyling projects, completed some commendable education schemes and gone through an exhaustive site selection process, this crown
corporation has yet to build its treatment fa cility. So I shall insist on the usual commer cial valuation. This should be like buying General Motors stock had they not built cars for over a decade.
There are other aspects to my proposal. It has been predicted that scores of lawyers might jump from high buildings when my take-over is completed, but even this will not soften my resolve. As the labyrinthian environmental as sessment (EA) process - not the actual OWMC staff - was the culprit for these de lays, I shall be generous. To pay for sever ance and other liabilities, I shall issue bonds. These must not be called either garbage or
junk bonds. I have already consulted Mr. Milken,since his release from Club Fed and, on his advice, my issue will be named Greenie Bonds. They will be green in col-
our and printed using vegetable inks which will fade totally in six months. My slogan will be;'Environmentally friendly and value degradable.' As economic realities are never factored into environmentalists' de
mands, I predict that activists will be big buyers of Greenie Bonds. As many of their
It was, like so many portentious events, a revelation. It struck me
while walking In a forest located on the 45th parallel which Is precisely halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, an Indication that cosmic forces were at work. activities have led to some monumentally expensive remediation project delays, their purchases might also bring forth a measure ofjustice. Sales should be strong enough to pay generous severance to the beleaguered OWMC staff.
from the balance sheet, when the restora
tion costs for a damaged environment were factored into the production figures. It makes no sense to generate a million bucks profit making hubcaps, if, in doing so, you contaminate an aquifer for a thou sand years, especially as it is likely to con tain renewable quantities of pure drinking water worth far more than the hubcaps. And that is not even calculating the aesthetic or public health depreciation. Ugh, I'm begin ning to sound like an economist. But we must never forget that many so-called 'prof its' would not be so designated had the re storative environmental costs been factored
into life-cycle costs. But when industries and researchers put their minds to effluent treatment, instead of
just the production of raw materials, the results can be awesome. For example, fer ric chloride, or iron salt, is undeniably present in liquid industrial waste from steelmaking. Industrial garbage right? Well yes, but iron salts are also perfect for re moving phosphorous from treated sewage going into the Great Lakes and other water ways. Nutrients, such as phosphorous, rap idly accelerate the growth of algae and weeds, choking waterways, in a process known as eutrophication.
'But what about the industrial wastes;
But what about the wastes like the
how shall we deal with them?' you ask. Well, having talked with various major in
dreaded PCBs? This would appear to be an insurmountable problem, compounded by the fact that it seems mandatory for jour nalists to insert cancer causing immediately before the acronym for polychlorinated blphenyls. As PCBs were designed as fire retardants, they are not highly combustible in themselves, but PCB wastes are usually loaded with high quality volatile compounds which may make excellent low cost, per haps even no cost, energy resources. Now if these wastes are burned in open fires, such as in the St Basile-le-Grand dis
dustries, I found their technical staff to be
devilishly clever, sometimes ingenious. The people who make petroleum products have
a profound knowledge and understanding of the molecular structures of the chemicals
which go into their products. Technical staff in the forest industries also know their prod ucts inside out; so do the makers of pies,
paper, paint and potato chips. Most of them employ chemists,engineers or technologists who use R&D to continually improve their diverse products. It stands to reason that, with such great understanding of the raw materials from
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
aster in Quebec, partially combusted PCBs can form particulate matter in the form of Continued overleaf
Industry Update Editorial Comment, cont'd. dibenzofurans and dioxins which are highly toxic and carcinogenic. Moreover they can easily penetrate our bodies through breath ing. Such particulates have the ability to enter deep into the lungs of active people, this makes them even more dangerous for joggers and others who exercise vigorously when particulates are present. We can bum these wastes.in rotary kilns while making cement. Such kilns, incidently, are similar in shape and opera tion to the advanced rotary incinerator which OMWC plans to construct. Another plus is that cement making requires temperatures twice that needed for complete combustion of these PCB wastes, along with stable com bustion conditions and high temperatures
Currently we are paying tens of millions to clean up sites where the thermal
properties in the RGBs are simply wasted. which destroy the dreaded dioxins. Moreover, cement kilns also have a vo
racious appetite for other wastes, such as old tires, each of which may have thermal properties equivalent to ten litres or more of fuel oil. Finally the limestone acts as a scrubber, giving additional environmental benefits as it absorbs any low molecular weight residuals from the waste. Almost perfect, right? Currently we are paying tens of millions to clean up sites where the thermal proper ties in the PCBs are simply wasted. Mean while the cement industry is spending mil lions each year to bum coal, mainly from the United States. Coal is a very dirty fuel producing toxic emissions as well as acid rain. Cement kilns could burn up the PCB wastes and other waste hydrocarbons while saving millions compared to the portable PCB disposal systems which currently bum the PCBs without making any useful prod ucts.
These are but two examples of how my new privatized corporation will save money for taxpayers while actually treating indus trial wastes. One serious disposal problem remains. What shall I do with the moun
tains of written reports and environmental studies that were generated by and for the OWMC during the last 13 years? Properly mined they could reveal a mother lode of data for future generations of lawyers, en vironmental engineers and political scien tists. Alas, even such a scholarly 'mining' proposal would result in activists' cries for a full environmental assessment. Given that
the reports are full of four letter acronyms such as VOCs, PAHs and, worst of all the dreaded PCBs, chances of a quick EA ap proval are slim.
OSWCA conference to be held in B.C. The Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con struction Association's 1995 Conference -
Commanding Excellence Beneath and Be yond - will be held at the Pan Pacific Hotel in Vancouver, B.C., from January 29 to Feb ruary 1, 1995. Details (905) 629-7766.
Mlsslssauga firm fined $45,000 for safety
lions of dollars more in losses through sub sidies to the Swan Hills plant, said Mike Percy, Liberal treasury critic.
Since 1987, nearly $200 million in gov ernment money has gone into the Swan Hills plant. The government has an agreement with Bovar to pay the private sector com pany a guaranteed rate of return annually whether the plant makes money or not. The Alberta government is preparing to have five western provinces and territories send their hazardous waste to Swan Hills,
ending the "Alberta only" policy of treating toxic goods. A Natural Resources Conser vation Board decision on whether that will
be allowed is expected shortly.
Chembond Limited of Mississauga, On tario was fined a total of $45,000 Septem ber 21 in connection with an explosion at its plant two years ago that severely burned one of its employees. The explosion occurred on September 2, 1992 when Clair Jefferson was using a gaspowered abrasive cutter to cut through a steel tank that had been used in the manu
facture of glue. The tank had not been purged of flammable substances and it ex ploded, severely burning him. His supervi sor had assured him there was no danger in the procedure. Mr. Jefferson has since re turned to work.
Justice of the Peace Meena Nadkarni
fined Chembond $25,000 for failing to purge the tank of flammable substances and
$20,000 for failing to instruct the employee on how to cut the tanks safely. Justice Nadkarni said that although it is a small company with only 30 employees and had no prior safety convictions, the size of the fine should act as a general deterrent.
Philip to run HamiitonWentworth water
systems Hamilton-Wentworth Region has signed a 10-year agreement, valued at more than
$187-million, for a subsidiary of Philip En vironmental Inc., Philip Utilities Manage ment Corporation to run the area's water and wastewater treatment systems. The legal text of the contracts will be completed shortly, with an effective takeover date of January 1, 1995. Under the agreement, Philip Utilities will operate and manage the facilities, with the Region retaining ownership and control over both the water supply and capital spending. The Region has received com prehensive financial guarantees of perform ance from Philip Utilities and is also guar anteed a portion of the savings realized. Philip Utilities and the Region have agreed to enter into a second, shorter term contract
Waste price wars A "surfeit" of hazardous waste plants across North America has prompted a price war which has slashed prices to five-year lows, reports the Minneapolis-based El Digest. The journal says that "operators are pes simistic that market conditions will change favorably anytime soon." It cited "bargainbasement pricing" as a key worry which is not good news for Alberta's waste treatment plant in Swan Hills which has just tripled its size. The 40 per cent government-owned plant accounted for 82.8 per cent of the building undertaken in the North American waste disposal business in 1993, El re ported. Tom Thackeray of the Alberta Special Waste Management Corp., said the Crown corporation which co-owns the plant with Bovar Inc. of Calgary did not anticipate a downturn when it agreed to triple the plant's size. Thackeray blames the current overca pacity - Swan Hills is running at 50 per cent and the expansion is not yet fully on-line -
to provide operation and maintenance serv ices for the Region's water and wastewater collection and above-ground distribution systems including pumping stations and res ervoirs.
Some 150 workers presently employed by the region will be considered as on leave of absence for two years. They will become full employees of Philip Utilities. Workers will receive 10 percent of any savings achieved by Philip's management. Philip expects to gain savings by invest ing in new technology that is more efficient, and by reorganizing the work force. It has promised not to lay off any workers, but could reduce the number of employees through attrition.
Philip Utilities was established by Philip Environmental earlier this year to compete internationally in the global market for wa ter and wastewater management. The size and scope of this contract provides Philip Utilities with a significant presence in the rapidly expanding field. Philip Utilities will establish the Region of Hamilton-
on an economic downturn and alternate
Wentworth as its Head Office and as the
sources for treatment.
centre for its ongoing research and devel opment activities.
This outlook spells out hundreds of mil
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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Canadian made McTighe oilAvater separators keep rolling on W/hen the big train companies deal with effluent from their washing bays, many count on McTighe oil/water separators. McTighe's full range of products are custom designed to meet specific project requirements. Your Can-Am representative has over 20 years of experience matching customer needs with discharge water equipment. Can-Am will work with you through every stage from design to completion. For levels below lOPPM, talk to Can-Am (905)277-0331.
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By Tom Davey
Outspoken environmental scientist dies
Professor Philip Harrhy Jones, P.Eng., one of Canada's most out spoken environmental scientists and engineers, died of cancer,Sep tember 22, in Queensland, Australia, where he was founding Head of the School of En vironmental Engineering at Griffith Univer sity. Shortly before he left Canada, four years ago, he was made a Professor Emeri tus of the University of Toronto, awarded the Albert E. Berry Medal by the Canadian Society for Civil Engineers, and given the Professional Engineers of Ontario Engineer ing Medal. He took his B.Sc at the University of To ronto and his Masters and Ph.D. in the U.S., at Northwestern University. Later he be came a driving force behind the creation of the Institute for Environmental Studies at
the University of Toronto. Dr. Jones was always energetic in inter national affairs. A professor of both micro biology and civil engineering, he played a major role in many international events. These included World Health Organization symposia in Rome, Italy, Jabolonu, Poland, and lectures in Beijing, Harbin and Tsienjin in the Republic of China and he assisted in the establishment of a New Pacific Basin Consortium on Hazardous Waste Research in Honolulu. He was conference chairman
of the 10th Biennial Conference of the In
viewed him in 1968 for an article which
linked detergent phosphates with eutrophication of waterways. His outspoken views aroused reaction from coast to coast
as well as at Cabinet level at Queen's Park and in Ottawa - this at a time when there were no Ministers of the Environment in
either jurisdiction. Reaction spilled over the border and, subsequently, he was invited to testify in Washington, DC, at a Congressional hear ing into eutrophication. His unequivocal statements became a motivating force be ternational Association on Water Quality, in
hind the amendments to the Canada Water
1980, in Toronto.
Act which later restricted phosphates in laundry detergents. Prior to going to Aus tralia, he was also active in Toronto organ izing symposia on PCB destruction using cement kiln technology. He wrote an arti cle on this subject in the July issue ofES&E (page 48).
Philip and Eileen Jones were the most hospitable of people, the countless parties and barbeques at their Aurora farm often attracting some of the brightest minds in the environmental sciences. In Rome, during a WHO Conference, I saw him at his best when experts from the Warsaw Pact coun tries discussed chemical spill research with European, Australian and Asian academics. In this truly international gathering, Philip mixed leadership with his irrepressible sense of humour,emerging as the dominant figure at the five day meeting. Philip Jones was taking courageous steps to alert society to environmental hazards long before the word environmentalist be came part of the popular lexicon. I inter
Bom in Wales in 1931, he met his wife
Eileen, daughter of a British Army Major, while he was on an engineering assignment in Africa. He leaves his wife, two daugh ters, Denise and Lisa, two sons, Glyn and Ian, and six grandchildren. A Philip H. Jones Memorial Fund, has been set up. Donations may be made to the University of Toronto, C/0 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, M5S 1A4.
Letter to the editor Dear Mr. Davey: I am writing to you on two counts. Firstly, I would like to commend you and your staff on the quality of Environmental Sci ence & Engineering. As an active researcher and teacher in the field, I always find something of use or of interest in each issue; many of these I pass on to my students, in an attempt to keep both them and myself current. I was particularly impressed by your publication this year of a rather comprehensive listing of envi ronmental consulting firms (Directory & Buyers Guide). Many of our graduate students, and the first graduating class in our undergraduate Environmental Engineering program, found this list to be invaluable in looking for employment. In the Aug/Sept. ES&E, however, I was somewhat disturbed by something I read. In the regular column "R&D News", it was noted under the title "Control of Wastewater Treatment Systems Using ORP", that U.B.C. scientists K.J. Hall, D.S. Mavinic and "a Hong Kong colleague" had conducted research to compare two different operating strategies for aerobic-anoxic sludge digestion.
It happens that I am very good friends with this unnamed Hong Kong colleague(Dr. David Wareham), and I am sure that he would be more than a little dismayed to find that he was not getting proper credit for his work. In this particular case, the research that is described in the paper was Dave's Ph.D. research at U.B.C., and I can remember spending many long nights with him discuss ing the results and approaches he had taken.
Turblex single-stage integral geared compressors are the world's most efficient. And they're guaranteed by ASME PTC-10 tests.
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Other than that, all I can say is keep up the good work. Bruce C. Anderson, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 143
Industry Update New joint venture formed
25, 1994 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to of ficially sign the Shareholders Agreement. HICOM Environmental Sdn. Bhd. was
vironmental Sdn. Bhd. The announcement
formed to seek opportunities in the new and rapidly growing environmental business sector, both within Malaysia and the ASEAN Region. The official signing ceremony was high lighted by an exchange of tokens of appre ciation by representatives of both joint ven ture partners. The Agreement calls for the joint venture to research, identify and par ticipate in major infrastructure projects. The immediate focus will be on major contracts relating to Malaysia's solid waste manage ment privatization and geographic informa tion systems for property and facilities man
was made at a formal ceremony on October
Two leading Canadian environmental con sulting firms, Gartner Lee Limited and Keir Consultants Inc., recently formed a new joint venture company called Gartner Lee Keir Asia Inc. The combined international ex
pertise of this partnership strengthens their position for environmental consulting work in the ASEAN Region. Gartner Lee Keir Asia Inc. took another
step recently and announced the incorpora tion of a new company with a Malaysian firm, HICOM Technical and Engineering Services Sdn. Bhd., to create HICOM En
High performance pipe bedding for Highway 401 demonstration installation Dufferin Aggregates Aberfoyle Ontario gravel pit manufactures a limestone chip material that is proving to have some unique properties that make it ideal for use as pipe bedding material. Laboratory evaluation has indicated that in some ways such as ease of placement and filtering of fines High Per formance Bedding (HPB) may be superior to many materials currently being used. The main function of pipe bedding is to provide support to the pipe. In this regard the crushed stone angular particles of HPB provide a very energy efficient foundation as it requires less compactive energy than conventional materials to achieve a high level of density. Indeed tests indicate a dumped density of 90% of maximum. MTO soils and aggregates evaluation To confirm the independent laboratory tests, Dufferin Aggregates asked the Ontario Ministry of Transportation(MTO)Soils and Aggregates Section to evaluate the material and, if found satisfactory, to permit a trial Installation on an MTO project. Steve Senior, P.Eng., Senior Soils and Aggregates Engineer, conducted the evalu ation for MTO and, based on the results, recommended use of the material on a trial
basis on MTO Contract 93-07 Highway 401 near Milton. After review by MTO London Region staff responsible for the project, fi nal approval for the demonstration installa tion was issued.
June 9, 1994 demonstration Fermar Construction and their sub con
tractor for pipe installation, Wimpey Con struction, agreed to use the High Perform ance Bedding material on an approximately 100 m section of 750 mm flexible metal
smooth inside wall storm sewer being in stalled in the centre median adjacent to the concrete barrier wall. Arrangements were made to safely accommodate the five minivans carrying the demonstration partici pants on site. Invitations were sent to MTO staff as
well as representatives from the Cities of Brampton, Mississauga, Oakville, Vaughan, 10
Etobicoke,Toronto, North York, Guelph and Milton, as well as the Regional Municipali ties of Peel and Halton. Contractor repre sentatives from Tacc and Con Drain also
attended. Peto MacCallum provided geotechnical testing for the demonstration. The installers appreciated the fact that the bedding material was dust free and flowed easily into the haunches of the pipe. Leo Magno, of Fermar, provided a wa ter truck to dump water on the installation
HCR biological wastewater treatment
for P&P recycling plant Kvaemer Engineering a.s. Environmen tal has signed a contract for a biological wastewater treatment system to be installed at the Atlantic Packaging Products recycling paper plant in Scarborough, Ontario. The treatment facility will be cleaning the mill effluent to enable recycling part of the wa ter back to the mill and thus reducing the total fresh water intake. In addition the
treatment facility could eliminate munici pal sewage surcharges. The treatment system is based on the HCR process which is a high rate, activated sludge biological process requiring substan tially less land area for Installation than competing systems. The system has been applied in a number of installations in Eu rope since the early 1980's and this con tract represents a breakthrough in North America for new industrial wastewater
treatment technology. The APP plant in Scarborough recycles waste paper to produce liner board for pack aging purposes as well as tissue paper. Contact: Mr. Robert K. Maier, Puma
Engineering, (416) 296-9911, Fax - (416) 296-9912.
to demonstrate the benefit of this material
in wet conditions. The water disappeared as fast as it fell. Steve Senior observed the
tests conducted by Peto MacCallum's tech nician Chris Olitis. They confirmed 95% density with one pass of a plate tamper. Demonstration results
Since the demonstration, High Perform ance Bedding material has been permitted for use, on a project approval basis, in the Region of Peel. It is approved for storm sewer construction in the Cities of
Mississauga, North York, Guelph and Oakville.
Tacc Construction is currently using High Performance Bedding on two subdivision developments in Mississauga and also in Brampton. Conclusion
The initial introduction of High Perform ance Bedding material has been successful. Future seminars are planned by Dufferin Aggregates to provide the technical infor mation required by specifiers. A seminar can be arranged by contacting Don Wilson at Dufferin Aggregates(416)630-4422,fax; (416) 630-1554. Additional applications for High Per formance Bedding are also under evalua tion. Uses such as trench backfill under
major roads, subdrain embedment, and foundation wall backfill are all areas iden
tified for future market development by Dufferin Aggregates. For more Information,
Circle reply card No. 144
Canadian consulting engineer appointed lAEG Vice-President for North America John Gartner, P.Eng., Consulting Engineer ing Geologist and Chairman of the Board of Gartner Lee Limited was elected VicePresident for North America of the Interna
tional Association of Engineering Geology (lAEG)at their September Congress in Lis bon, Portugal. Seven hundred people representing 60 countries gathered in Lisbon to hear and discuss the results of more than 600 papers dealing with engineering geology problems. The lAEG represents some 6,000 engi neering geologists from around the world. As Vice-President for North America, Mr. Gartner will be responsible for co-ordinating activities for the Mexican, United States and
Canadian National Groups. The Canadian National Group, which is part of the Cana dian Geotechnical Society, was chosen to host the 8th Congress that will be held in Vancouver in September 1998. For more information, contact Alison Johns, Gartner Lee Limited, phone (905) 477-8400, fax: (905) 477-1456.
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Safety in the workplace
By Robert Kroetsch^ and Joseph BucoP
Never enter a confined space without written authorization
Confined spaces can pose serious
dangers for the workforce. While aware that stringent precautions are necessary, some employers may not realize they have confined spaces. The law requires that confined spaces be identified and certain actions taken before
anyone may enter. It is essential to good business practice that employers with confined spaces in their plants or on their job sites estab
lish an entry permit protocol for
worker must be stationed outside the con
fined space while the person is inside. In addition, someone trained in CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation) must be accessi ble.
Dangerous air in a confined space is only one of the many hazards that may exist in a pipe or machine. Fires and/or explosions
the benefit of their employees and themselves.
Confined space is defined in the Ontario Occupational Health & Safety Act Regulations for In dustrial Establishments as a space
in which, because of its construc tion, location, contents or work
activity therein, the accumulation of a hazardous or toxic gas, vapour,
fatalities is that almost 60% of the
Of the 88 fatalities reported in a US study, 39% were workers who were attempting to rescue a fellow
dust or fume or the creation of an
worker. Good intentions without
proper preparation often end tragi cally. Oxygen enriched or oxygen de ficient atmospheres are confined space situations that workers on drainage systems should always be prepared for. Fifty percent of con fined space fatalities result from oxygen deficiencies. Oxygen con
with limited access, such as man
holes, storage tanks, tank cars and other vessels and chambers en
• Basements which are ventilated for regu lar entry or occupancy are not considered confined spaces, but may become confined spaces if the work to be done will produce a hazard from fumes, gases, dusts or vapours. There are four main dangers in confined spaces: oxygen deficiency and oxygen en richment; fire or ex
plosion; toxicity; and, drowning in liquids or free flowing solids. If
centrations of less than 18% have
may result if the area contains combustible materials.
Death or injury may result if mechani cal equipment in the confined space is acci dentally turned on while someone is inside.
the effect of loss ofjudgment and motor co ordination. At 16% oxygen concentration, judgment and breathing become impaired and fatigue quickly sets in. At 12% concen tration, a person becomes unconscious and
The use of electrical tools in metallic con
will die unless removed from the area. And,
fined spaces may lead to electrical shocks if tools are damaged or not grounded with ground fault interrupters. The presence of
at concentrations of 6%, breathing is diffi cult and death occurs in minutes.
Ambient air contains about 21% oxygen. If the concentrations
Dangerous air in a confined space is only one of the many hazards that may exist in a pipe or machine. Fires and/or explosions may result if the area contains
there is a chance that
hazardous vapours, dust, gas, or fumes exist in the confined space, the air must be tested and the area ventilated. Workers must wear a breathing apparatus (if the confined space cannot be purged),safety harness, and any other equip ment deemed necessary, before entering con fined spaces with such dangers. Another
'Bestpipe U.V. (A Division of ESSROC Inc) ^Frost Wire
Many workers enter confined spaces with little knowledge of the dangers such spaces present, or how to alleviate potentially danger ous situations. A U.S. study re ported that 80% of surveyed com panies had not changed their entry procedures. But statistics show that confined spaces are not to be trusted or taken for granted. A dis turbing aspect of confined space deaths were the would-be rescuers.
oxygen-deficient atmosphere may occur. Examples of confined spaces include the following: • Completely enclosed structures
tered through a manhole; •Deep structures that may have an open top but require special means of entry and provision for emer gency exits, such as tanks, loop ing pits, bins, excavations, etc.; • Other enclosed spaces include boilers, fur nace flues, ducts, sewers,tunnels, pipelines,
facturing plants should never forget to have proper written authorization before enter ing a confined space. Even if entry is for a few minutes of maintenance activity, work ers must advise their supervisor in advance. The work area must be prepared for safe entry and that means assessing and often coordinating people,equipment, and activi
of oxygen exceed 23%, it is considered enriched. The main
concern with oxygen enriched atmosphere is the risk of combustion
water is an obvious danger as it will con duct electricity. And in some cases where the walls of a confined space are coated with rust or slime, oxygen levels in the space may become low enough to cause death. All pipe and other supply lines which contain mate rials likely to create hazards, must be blocked off. Mechanical equipment within a confined space must be disconnected and "locked out".
Workers on job sites and within manu
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Oxygen deficiencies are common. Such de ficiencies may be the result of bacterial res piration that consumes oxygen, or chemical reactions such as rusting. Oxygen may be displaced by another gas. No one wants to hear about fatalities on
job sites. However, it is important to em phasize the ease with which workers can be drawn into situations involving confined spaces that ended tragically. Perhaps the Continued overleaf 11
Safety in the workplace, cont'd. following US cases will cause someone to stop and remember to never enter a confined
space without proper written authorization: • Two workers at a wastewater plant were working on a digester that was being drained. They went on top of the digester and opened a hatch to check the sludge level. They lowered an extension cord with an exposed 200 watt light bulb into the digester to provide light. The light broke and caused the methane gas in the digester to explode, killing both men instantly. • A self employed plumbing contractor en tered an underground waterline vault to in spect a back flow device. The contractor collapsed shortly after entering the vault. A
supervisor noticed the man was down and entered the vault in a rescue attempt. Both men had entered an untested oxygen defi cient atmosphere and died. • A worker entered a septic tank to clean out the residue and collapsed. Two workers went in to rescue the man and also collapsed.
the tank to rescue him.
• A self employed truck driver died after entering a 22 foot high by 15 foot square sawdust bin. He suffocated when the saw
dust collapsed and buried him.
Not only Is permitting vital to good business practice, but it is a requirement of labour related legislation.
• A municipal employee was removing an inspection plate from a sewer line in a 50 foot deep pumping station when the plate blew off, allowing raw sewage to enter the
All three were dead when removed from the
attempted to rescue the worker from the sludge-filled room. All four died in the
room. Two fellow workers and a policeman
There is no doubt that confined spaces must be identified by employers and a sys tem of permitting established for proper
Put Accurate,Inorganic Elemental Analysis at your Fingertips at the site The Spectrace Model 6000 is a compact, ruggedized transportable XRF analyzer ideally suited to conduct elemental analysis on-site or in the lab. The 6000's superior elemental resolution provides sensitivity to the single digit ppm level without the need for liquid nitrogen cooling. An on-board comprehensive fundamental parameters program requires only a minimum number of standards.
The 6000 is the right choice for mobile lab environmental analysis.
Weighing just 19 lbs, the Spectrace 9000 portable XRF Analyzer allows convenient analysis of up to 26 elements in soils, sludges, oils and
dusts for site charactetization and contaminant assessment studies.
Calibration is not required and the menu-driven software makes
analysis quick and simple to perform. The 9000 provides lab quality analysis in a portable package for optimal convenience
The Canada Labour Code notes that a per mit is required for confined space entry when an area is presenting, or has the po tential for containing, hazards related to the atmospheric conditions, engulfment, con figuration or any other recognized serious hazard. Employers are required to conduct evaluations of their workplaces and deter mine if there are any permit-required con fined spaces. Employers must inform work ers through signs or other means and pre vent unauthorized entry.
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Association notes that an entry permit serves several essential functions. It restricts en
try to authorized personnel and ensures that communication occurs and hazards are con
trolled. An entry permit serves as an offi cial written record of existing conditions, requirements and safeguards. Several sam
authorized duration, list of authorized en
trants, list of eligible attendants, and list of eligible individuals to be in charge of the entry.
For sales and rental information on the
Spectrace 6000 or Spectrace 9000 XRF Analyzer, please contact:
RAMSEY CANADA Division - TTiermedics Canada inc.
385 Enford Road • Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 3G2 Tel:(905)883-1881 • Fax:(905)883.1750 For more information, Circle reply card No. 147
confined space entry. Not only is permitting vital to good business practice, but it is a requirement of labour related legislation.
ples of entry permit checklists exist for employers to refer to when drafting check lists for their own workplace. Such lists in clude potential hazards, measures for isola tion and lockout, acceptable environmental conditions, testing and monitoring equip ment procedures, rescue equipment and means ofcommunication,required personal protective equipment, and any related in formation necessary to ensure employee safety. Permits also identify the permit space, purpose of entry, date of entry and
or in the field.
• A worker collapsed after entering a chemi cal degreaser tank to clean the bottom. Two fellow workers also died when they entered
Precautions must be taken to work safely in confined spaces. Confined spaces must be identified for all workplaces including plants and job sites, and a system of entry permitting must be established and followed by workers and employers. Above all, work ers and employers must be constantly re minded to never enter a confined space with out proper written authorization. For more information,
Circle reply card No. 146
Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 1994
Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver
FOR ALL YOUR INSTALLATION NEEDS
'T.C.' FLANGED 45° LATERAL
Manufactured in sizes 4" tfirough 30", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".
TO.' FLANGED BELL MOUTH CASTINGS
Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'TC.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes
from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.
T.C.' FLANGED TEES
Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.
'TO.' FLANGED 90° ELBOWS
Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22^2° and 1iy4° configurations. As well, 'TO.' FLANGED
ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.
T.C.' FLANGED CROSSES
Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED
CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are T.C.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".
Make the Right Conneetion...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available in both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured
to ANSI Specification B16.1 1975. "Special" 'T.C.' FLANGED FITTINGS can be
supplied to meet your specific waterworks Installation requirements.
WORKS LTD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products
1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (604) 253-6365
For more information. Circle reply card No. 148
By Gerry Beamer*
Low bids seen as a factor in sewer
Ihave instal ed sewer systems through
out British Columbia and Alberta for
the past 30 years and believe that there
are serious cost and environmental
problems being built into some sewers in stalled today. Many manhole structures will fail and leak well before the end of their
expected design life. There are three critical areas of weak ness built into some manhole structures:
1. The manhole benching and channelling. 2. The joint between manhole riser sections. 3. The manhole pipe connections. In my experience a common cause of early failures, occurring and re-occurring at these critical points, is the use of normal Portland cement mortar as a sealing and fin ishing compound. Normal portland cement mortar does not stand up in some adverse atmospheres or to
Weeping riser joint. dynamic loading. The result Is fast deterio ration from chemical attack, hydrogen sul phide and hydraulic action, wearing away
design and available materials include nu merous types of adhesive and mastic seal ing compounds,epoxy applications and lin
of the "buttered-on" on mortar finish. This
can be accelerated by traffic forces trans mitted throughout the entire structure caus ing cracking and loss of the cold jointed mortar finish. A common argument oppos ing this observation has been that a man hole is a static structure; anyone who be
The best solution I have seen is a rigid plastic liner mechanically bonded to the
lieves this should be in a manhole when a
y Dr. K.L.(Keith) Murphy, P.Eng.
Dr. John Bell is pleased to announce that Dr. Keith Murphy is joining Enviromega Ltd.'s pro fessional staff as Senior Process Engineer. As Professor of Environmental Systems Engineer ing at McMaster University, from which he is currently on leave, Keith is renowned for his research on advanced water and wastewater
treatment. He was also a Principal with Beak Consultants Ltd. for twelve years. Keith will enhance Enviromega's commitment to excel lence in optimization of wastewater treatment design and operation. Keith's wealth of experience ranges from process design to assessment of environmen tal impacts. Past consulting assignments have included the World Bank, municipalities, con sultants, and legal firms. He has appeared as an expert witness at public meetings and en vironmental hearings. Enviromega, a process engineering firm in Hamilton, ON, can provide thorough analysis of an industrial or municipal treatment facility or in-depth analysis of specific unit processes using procedures such as Comprehensive Per formance Evaluations (CPEs) and process au
60 ton 7 axle truck goes by at 60 kmh. The use of normal portland cement mor tar has been recognized as an inadequate method for sealing manhole structures in many other countries and areas. This has been confirmed by the US Environmental Protection Agency who have been conduct ing studies on infrastructure systems for the past twenty years. Yet, this is still speci fied in the Master Municipal Specifications in much of Canada.
Many years ago, manufacturers of precast manhole barrels started producing manhole riser sections with jointing surfaces for gasket systems. But the specifying au thorities continue to require mortar at the joints, so little use has been made of this technology. Eroded and corroded channelling,joints and connections resulting from cracked and damaged cold joint mortaring increase tur bulence, compounding any hydrogen sul phide activity, and significantly contribute to the infiltration of groundwater into the sanitary system. The results are expensive treatment plant costs coupled with on-go ing repair and maintenance costs that must be absorbed by the taxpayers. This is a direct result of the low-bid pro curement process that drives the contractor to cut costs in both labour and materials and
some Master Municipal Specifications that allow this ancient practice to continue. Modem technological advances in both
concrete base that assures smooth flow with
flexible pipe connections. This system al lows manhole bases to be built with a con
tinuous one piece wetted surface that is impervious to aggressive sewer chemicals abrasion and corrosive attack. The mechani
cal bond and rigidity also enhance the strength of the structure, an important con sideration in areas of earthquake potential. It is warranted for more than twice the de
sign life of the existing structures. The costs of treating excessive infiltra tion water in the sewer system and endless rehabilitation costs are being studied by many professionals. Millions of dollars are being spent on enlarging sewage treatment plants to handle the flows. Yet we are still installing manholes on some systems to a 19th century specification. The environmental damage of lowered water tables and raw sewage entering the ecosystem is incalculable. The cost to cor rect this will have to be faced at some point soon. Procurement practices must begin to review system-wide life cycle costing to obtain the 'best value', not the cheapest al ternative.
Engineers should insist on the proven, longer-lasting and more efficient technolo gies being incorporated into new systems. Normal portland cement mortar should be disallowed in the makeup of sewer systems. There has surely been enough time and money spent on studies. Now is the time for some basic common sense to be applied to implement a solution to this serious prob lem.
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 149
Environnienlal Science & Engineering, November 1994
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Containment and barrier construction
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Plant Decommissioning Environmental Impairment Occurrence Insurance
Urea Formaldehyde Foam - UFFI Removal, Cost Estimates,Inspections Expert Court Testimony Asbestos Encapsulation and Repairs Hazardous Waste Spill Cleanup
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(416) 543-4719 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 151
Confined space entry
Confined space: gas detectors.... what you don't know can hurt you
Theuse ofgas detectorsforconfined _r-_
space is not just good operating practice but it is necessary for regulatory compliance and worker
safety. Size and weight: This should not be a big concern. Most four channel instruments are
about 23 X 10x8 cm. in size and carry a weight of roughly 1 kilogram. I would not place too great an emphasis on size; for the sake of an inch or two, you would not want to eliminate a more suitable instrument.
Sensors: These are the heart of the gas detector. What you need is a catalytic LEL sensor for combustible gases, and electro chemical sensors for oxygen,car bon monoxide, and hydrogen sul phide. You need four channels in total. A fifth may be useful if your application presents another known toxic gas other than the
forms by itself in a laboratory may be some what different than when it is assembled
into a gas detector. Keep in mind, that just because a par ticular sensor of a particular instrument re sponds 10 seconds faster does not necessar ily make it a better instrument. The key is overall performance repeatability, accuracy, specificity, and reliability. Ask for specific test data and who the large users are. Hygiene Capabilities: The unit should be able to collect and display the following: PEAK exposure (the highest gas level en countered), STEL(short term exposure limit - a moving 15 minute average value), and
>^7 a ^
157-92 orZ433-M92)which addresses con struction and performance of the instrument. Price: You have probably heard it a hun dred times but the lowest price is not al ways the best deal. Ensure all necessary
accessory items are included in the proposal (i.e., charger, calibration adapter, battery pack, pump module,sample line, probe,and calibration kit). Training should also be included to the end user level.
The Sales Rep: Although dealing directly with the manufacturer is always more ad vantageous, this is not often possible. Therefore, beware! Avoid sales people who arrogantly boast about the second to none features of their unit, their com
pany, and themselves. Deal with a professional sales rep who asks you a lot of questions and actu ally listens to your answers and then tailors their presentation around your needs.
standard two. This could be SO^, NO , NO^, HCN, or CL^ for ex ample. Another common type of sen
Remember, the most cost ef
fective unit is not necessarily the lowest price unit. Ensure the in strument can be upgraded to dif
sor is the broad-band sensor (also known as metal oxide sensor,
solid state sensor) which is non specific and has been around for many years. It will respond to a wide variety of toxic gases. It will also respond to humidity changes, temperature variations, perfumes, hair spray, and steam. You can see a problem developing. When this sensor signals an alarm con dition, is it a toxic gas? Is it an atmospheric change? Or is it Joe's abuse of Brut? False alarms? You need confidence
in a gas detector if you expect the user to really take heed of what the gas detector is indicating. Since the most common hazards in a con
fined space are combustible gases, oxygen deficiency,carbon monoxide,and hydrogen sulphide, you should choose toxic specific sensors. If you suspect other toxics, obtain information on the appropriate instrument to use to measure it. You should have a
good idea as to the potential dangers of the confined space and what you are dealing with before risking entry. The use of an electric or gas-powered ventilator will help to keep the air clear. Performance:
Concentrate on relevant
facts and not on verbal claims or theories.
This area can be rather in-depth so ask for actual test results on the gas detector. Do not just accept the technical data on the sen sor itself, which are usually derived from the sensor manufacturer. How a sensor per •Product Manager, Portable Instruments, MSA Canada
ferent sensors, software versions,
hygiene operating modes, and the ability to choose operation with or without a pump. This article only briefly cov ers the major components of a portable gas detector. There could be many other areas which may
*^e applicable to your own situa tion. Jot them down and make
TWA (time weighted average - the average ofthe toxic gases over an eight hour period). The unit should also have the potential to tie downloaded to a PC.
User Friendly: How easy is the instrument to operate, not necessarily by you during the sales presentation but by the worker out in the field who probably does not use a gas detector every day? Simple operations are the key and the unit should provide display prompts or statements to interface with the user so the user does not have to rely on the manual to operate the unit. Service: Does the company service the in strument in Canada? This does not just mean being able to change a sensor but rather to be able to do repairs down to the circuit board level by trained technicians. Approvals: CSA is by far the most accepted
sure your potential supplier ad dresses them. Also, shop around to ensure you get a consistent message from all sup pliers. Your confined space gas detector check list should at least include the following: • Performance - accurate, specific, repeatable, and reliable.
• Microprocessor based. • Datalogging capable. • Friendly to operate and understand. • Removeable pump module - the pump should obtain its power from the gas detec tor and not require an additional power source.
• Alarms - visual and audible.
• Display - should provide simultaneous readouts for all sensor channels.
• Rugged and durable. • CSA approved - intrinsic safety and per
standard. Be careful here. Some instru
ment suppliers will state their unit is CSA approved but that may only refer to intrin sic safety or the electrical aspects of the
• Dependable. • Specific toxic sensors. • Compact design. By using this guide as your template, you will quickly become a satisfied owner and user of portable gas detectors for confined
charger. It has nothing to do with how the instrument will perform out in the field. Also,ask for compliance to the performance standard for gas detectors (i.e., C22.2 No.
For more information, 16
Circle reply card No. 152
You HAVE THE RIGHT TO LIABILITY PROTECTION
Your contractor should be a full partner in the program, willing to indemnify you against their negligence or wrongdoing. They should have ample insurance-Worker's Compensation, General Liability, Environmental Impairment Liability, and Automobile Liability including hazardous materials transportation. They should also be able to provide you with a performance bond if requested. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO RESPONSIVE SERVICE
YOU should receive service from a partner who
YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO SOLUTIONS... NOT MORE PROBLEMS
Hazardous waste must be managed efhciently and responsibly. Your partner should respect the intent, as well as the letter of the law, following the hierarchy of reuse, recycling, treatment, and hnally sending a minimum amount of waste to a licensed, secure chemical landhll. They should own and operate qualihed facilities rather than rely on someone else's facilities. You have the right to a partner with a wide range of technologies and services to ensure efhciency and responsibility.
assigns the highest priority to your satisfaction. Service should include advice and assistance, even for
YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO FAIR PRICING
Partners value your business for the long-term and
items where your partner does not anticipate hnancial will offer terms driven by market forces and gain. You are a client, and should be treated as such, regardless of size. reasonable proht margins. It is in your partner's best interest that your business is successful. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO RAPID SERVICE
Your partner should be located where you need
YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO ACCURATE INVOICES
Your partner should never provide unwelcome
them. They should have broad geographic surprises. Invoices should accurately reflect the coverage and substantial local presence to provide the service to you when you need it, not when it is contract terms and the proposal you have accepted. convenient to them. You have the right to visit and YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH audit the sites you use.
Partners listen. Do you have questions or interest in
YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION
Your partner should provide copies of all shipping
a partnership program for environmental services? Give us a call at 1-800-356-8570. There's no
documents, information on the type and quantity obligation and the phone call is free. of material received, and a written statement on what
happened to your waste-where it was sent, how it was managed.
c9hvicesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;' For more information, Circle reply card No. 118
The Elgin-London Transmission Main An Integral Part of London's Short-Term
Wateris the resource that every
municipality needs to sustain its population, keep indus tries working and promote a strong community for future growth. In 1988, London, Ontario began to plan its fu ture water needs for a safe, reliable and
adequate supply into the 21st Century. The City of London, population 312,000, is home to the University of Western On
Water Solution Elgin Area Water Supply System. This will provide London with two sources of water, the Lake Huron Water Supply System and the Elgin Area Water Supply System.
The tendering process on the OCWA contracts resulted In one contract
Water Treatment Plant 50 km southeast to
being constructed in concrete pressure pipe and the other in steel pipe. Overall, a total of 10,400m of steel pipe and 4,200m of concrete pressure pipe
London in a 1200 mm concrete pressure pipe
will be Installed.
tario, world renowned medical facilities, Labatts, Kelloggs and CM Diesel. It cur
rently receives 315 MlVd of water from Lake Huron through the Lake Huron Water Sup ply System. The water travels from the
This solution was to connect London to the
provide a maximum of 45 MLVd of water when completed. In order to provide this amount of water, upgrades are underway at the Elgin Water Treatment Plant, a new Pumping Station and Reservoir are being constructed and approximately 15 km of 1050 mm transmission main installed. The transmission main consists of two
City contracts and two OCWA contracts. It was determined that the pipe materials would have to be:
• established products • reliable
• economical, and
•ensure competition among manufacturers. Two materials which meet these criteria
were concrete pressure pipe and steel pipe,
In 1991, a short-term solution was iden tified which would be the first phase in pro viding the water required for future needs.
terminates 8 km south of London and will
Both of these systems are owned and op erated by the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA). The Elgin .Area Water Supply System
and it was decided that the watermain ma
terials would be limited to these two prod ucts.
The use of steel pipe was not new in the London area, but it had not been installed for many years. Its absence can be attrib
uted to a lack of promotion, perception of high costs and concerns about design and installation.
Dillon was authorized by the City of London and OCWA to investigate the use of steel pipe with push-on, 0-ring joints, cement mortar lining and exterior tape coat ing for this project. This investigation resulted in the prod uct being chosen as an alternative material because of:
• a proven history • cost competitiveness • availability of sizes • designed and manufactured to American Water Works Association (AWWA) stand ards.
As an integral part of the design proc ess, a number of issues had to be addressed
once steel pipe was designated as an alter native product. Some of these were: • backfill type • modulus of soil reaction
• allowable pipe deflection • wall thickness
• pressure rating • transportation and handling • coatings • cathodic protection. Based on this information, the design was completed and the following specified: • 1050 mm internal diameter
• cement mortar lining to AWWA C205 • exterior tape coating to AWWA C217
Thermite welding a second band strap across the bell and spigot joint of the steel pipe.
•Project Engineer, M. M. Dillon Limited
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
By Ken Morrison, REng. â&#x20AC;˘ manufactured to AWWA C200
â&#x20AC;˘ cathodic protection system comprising of test stations and sacrificial anodes.
Thompson Pipe and Steel Company, a major steel pipe supplier, hosted seminars for the Local Heavy Construction Association and design professionals to introduce Contrac tors and Engineers to steel pipe, and address any concerns regarding construction and design methods. To ensure that both of the watermain materials were tendered competitively, contractors were required to submit bids for both pipe mate rials.
LONDON CITY OF LONDON
The combined formal low bid for both contracts deter
6700rri STEEL PIPE
mined which material would be chosen for the job. As a
result of this process, steel pipe was selected for both City of London contracts.
Considerable savings were realized, compared to budget estimates, which may have been the result of a favourable construction climate and the inclusion of steel pipe as an alternate material. Construction started in August 1993, for the two City contracts and in the Spring of 1994 for the two OCWA contracts, with a scheduled completion for October
OCWA 4200in CONCRETE
The tendering process on the OCWA contracts resulted in one contract being constructed in concrete pressure pipe and the other in steel pipe. Overall, a total of 10,400m of steel pipe and 4,200m of concrete pressure pipe will be in
OCWA 3700m. STEEL PIPE
With the completion of the transmission main, the Pump ing Station and Reservoir and the upgrades at the Elgin Water Treatment Plant, the system will provide 45 ML/d of addi tional water to London. Thus, the Elgin-London Transmis sion Main will help London meet its short-term water needs. For more information, Circle reply card No.119
^ELGIN-MIDDLESEX PUMP STATION A RESERVOIR
THOMAS^ ELGIN - LONDON TRANSMISSION MAIN DIAMETER 1060mm
Announcement WATER AND EARTH SCIENCE ASSOCIATES LTD. American and Canadian
Environmental Firms Sign Alliance Woodward-Clyde (Denver, Colorado) and Water and Earth Science Associates Ltd.(Ottawa, Ontario) are pleased to announce that they have signed an alliance agreement to respond to the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Woodward-Clyde have over 2,500 employees In more than 70 offices worldwide. Woodward-Clyde is a full service environmental company specializing in planning, Investigating, permitting, engineer ing, design and construction management services. Water and Earth Science Associates Ltd. (WESA) Is a 50 em
ployee company with offices in Quebec, Ontario and the United King dom. WESA staff specialize In the fields of contaminant and water supply hydrogeology, solid waste management and remediation en gineering. Both firms share a commitment to high quality client service and cost effective solutions to environmental problems. For Information, contact: Dr. Leigh Short, Principal, Derek Smith, President, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Water and Earth Science Wayne, New Jersey, Associates Ltd., Ottawa, Tel: 1-613-839-3053 Fax: 1-613-839-5376
Tel: 1-201-812-6887 Fax: 1-201-785-0023
VICE PRESIDENT & GENERAL MANAGER Ontario Region We represent one of Canada's leading engineering, consulting and contracting firms. The company operates on a regional basis and provides project management and multi-discipline engineering expertise throughout Canada and internationally. A wide range of activities are offered Including design, construction and project management services associated with Transportation, Environmental Science and Engineering, Urban Development, Municipal Infrastructure and large industrial projects.
Operating as Ontario Regional Manager, we look tor a business minded professional engineer recognized for leadership In consulting engineering, a related field or a technology driven business. Accountability relates to general management and strategic initiatives including developing and Implementing marketing plans, negotiating joint venture partnerships, T.Q.M., client relationships, human resources planning, and generally managing the affairs of the Region with a view to profitability and client satisfaction. This Is a senior management position operating at a high level of accountability and autonomy and offering an attractive compensation package, including participation in a shareholder's arrangement. If you feel confident in assuming this position, I would like to hear from you. Please call or send your professional prolile, in conlldence, to: Frank Behan, Campbell Lewis Associates, Executive Search Consultants, Suite 400, 75 Navy Street, Oakville, Ontario L6J2Z1. Tel:(905)842-9898 Fax:(9G5)842-9623
Woodward-Clyde w Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Report on Mexico
By Les Panek and Dr. Ron R. Wallace*
How to access the Mexican environmental market
Ithas been estimated that the Mexican
environmental markets exceeded 2.5
billion dollars U.S. in 1993. Approxi mately one third of the 70 companies
as: science and technology 34%,water treat ment 14%,engineering services 12%,petro chemical control 12%, incinerator plants 8%, solid waste 7%, inorganic waste 6%,
operating in Mexico, which have capabili
water purification 4%, dust and noise con
ties for the treatment of air and water toxic
residues, consultant services and pollution abatement equipment, are foreign-owned. The demand for these services results from
significant, and rising social needs for en hanced environmental quality to meet the needs of sustainable development. With an estimated 4.3 million tons of contaminants
per annum being generated in the valley of Mexico alone (one third of Mexico's total annual emissions) problems are so severe that major industries have sought to relo cate to other regions outside of this geo graphic area. This is just one indicator that
It is significant that engineering and sci ence/technology account for almost one half
the Mexican environmental market has
most significant potential for international technical service development in that coun try. However, these areas will also likely face the most competition and very real op portunities do exist in some of the smaller
enormous potential for growth. The market share for environmental
services (Anon, 1993) has been estimated
of the total Mexican environmental services
market share (46%). We believe that these sectors are the ones which constitute the
niche areas listed above.
'Senior Vice Presidents, AGRA Earth & Environmentai,
A very broad overview of the environ mental opportunities in the Mexican mar ketplace can be broken down into three
major areas: air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. Air pollution It Is no secret that Mexico City stands out as one of the areas in the world with the
most significant air quality problems. This urban area generates over 23% of the coun try's air pollution with Guadalajara and Monterrey following closely behind. Most of the problems are due to emissions from the transportation sector (85%) and the in dustrial sector (15%). Approximately 15,000 industrial sources have been classi fied as severe polluters. Of course this leads to a myriad of opportunities for business to resolve these problems, from the design of ambient air monitoring programs, to instru mentation for monitoring and analyzing, and to process re-engineering and equipment supply. Water pollution There are three major sources of water quality problems: sewage from the major cities; liquid waste from industry; and pes ticides from agricultural activities. Many business opportunities will rise from the need to improve drinking water and for the treatment of municipal and industrial waste waters. In addition, over 20 of Mexico's 270 rivers have accumulated over 80% of
residual waste water discharges over the years. Significant efforts are required to identify the key polluters and pollutants and to implement waste minimization and re medial programs to address the problems.
Land pollution As with water and air, the majority of concerns in this sector are based in the mu
nicipal and industrial areas. Many prob lems await resolution in the areas of solid
waste management, hazardous waste man agement and industrial non hazardous waste management.
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In addition to the above three major cat egories, numerous other environmental con sulting opportunities are available includ ing environmental training, environmental auditing, natural resource management,ElA and institutional strengthening. As is the case with most countries, the
impact of legislation and enforcement of regulations are key drivers in this sector. It would appear that the Mexicans have the will and the knowledge to address their en vironmental issues through the use of the enforcement of environmental regulations as a key to sustainable development. As the presidential term nears the end of a six year mandate in 1994, sweeping re forms to the Mexican economy are rapidly progressing (Leger, 1993). It is noted that: "the reforms sharply reduce decades of old
Continued on page 22 20
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121
Environmenlal Science & Engineering, November 1994
All stainless steel hardware.
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for drain pipe
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piano hinges prevent warping. Prip proof,
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wheel loading for occasional traffic.
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MSU MISSISSAUGA LTD. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississaugo, Ontario, Canada L5J 2M4 Voice: 905-823-4340 Fax: 905-823-4947 For more information, Circle repiy card No. 122
Report on Mexico, cont'd. ily available for those wishing to start-up and operate a business enterprise which re quires local acumen. The developing success ofour operations in Mexico City has been, in part, due to our recognition and harnessing of both the sig nificant professional expertise which exists
state protection for national industry and previous limits on foreign investment and ownership in vital sectors ranging from min ing to telecommunications. In addition to overhauling its economic system, the coun try is also expanding and improving its ba sic infrastructure and is looking to acquire state-of-the-art technology." This statement, of course, has specific application to most aspects of the environ ment industry including the privatization of previously state-owned enterprises. AGRA Earth & Environmental presently has projects in 28 countries around the world, including offices in Russia, Tanza nia, Argentina, Ecuador, Chile and Mexico. We have consistently applied a rule of op erations which has significantly enhanced market penetration in those countries and this is; to the greatest extent possible we employ local technical and scientific human resources and support those individuals with external technical and managerial advice, development capital and marketing exper
of regulations and standards in both tech nology and business, which are on a par with the best practices anywhere in the world.
Indeed, we consider Mexico to be one of
At the outset of our market analysis it was immediately apparent to us that the level of engineering expertise which exists in Mexico is very sophisticated. When it
the most dynamic and dedicated technical market opportunities anywhere in the world. The final part of our approach has been to forge strategic alliances with smaller Mexican environmental firms who operate within, and outside of, the Mexico City area and, while this business approach has only just begun for us, we consider it to be an area which has a high potential for future business development.
comes to civil works like dams, reservoirs
and huge earthworks, the Mexicans are probably among the finest engineers in the world.
It was also clear to us that there exists a
new generation of business people who spe
within Mexico and also to the determina
tion of Mexican political and professional
When it comes to civil
works like dams, reservoirs
and huge earthworks, the Mexicans are probably among the finest engineers in the world. individuals to change the country for the better. The latter includes the introduction
cialize in economics and business adminis
General business observations
tration, many of whom have been trained by, or are affiliated with leading learning institutions abroad, including many in
When thinking-about doing business in Mexico remember these three words: prepa ration, patience and persistence. Our expe rience has shown that persistence in stay-
Canada. This "on the ground" talent is read
Letters to the editor Dear Tom:
protect and conserve their agricultural land
I must congratulate you and the Toronto Sun for your article warning of the serious ad verse impact of destroying Class 1 agricul
near their cities.
tural land for solid waste landfill in the
urban areas is not "sustainable develop
As you pointed out, waste management by landfill on "green fields" within or near
Greater Toronto Area,and the excessive cost
of landfill studies and searches under the
R.G. Ferguson, REng.,
Environmental Act process that frequently ignore common sense and the obvious. Regrettably, the option Metropolitan Toronto purchased on the Adams Mine Site, at Kirkland Lake, prior to the creation of the Interim Waste Authority, to secure time for investigation and preparation of an En vironmental Assessment Act application,
Commissioner of Works, Metro Toronto Editor's note. The September Editorial comment in ES&E,page 9,also focussed on arable land and garbage disposal while the centre spread showed a B.C. proposal to use a mine site in a landfill opera-
may soon be lost. A consideration in the selection of the Adams Mine Site, an aban
I've just read your commentary "What Gar bage Crisis?" in the Saturday Spotlight, (Toronto Sun). It's beautifully written Tom, and abso lutely right in its assertions. Perhaps even more importantly, it is fun to read.
doned open pit mine which requires remediation, as our preferred site, was the avoidance of a green field site that would remove agricultural land from service. A few days after your Sun article, the TV Learning Channel described the aban donment of Mayan cities thousands of years ago because apparently, they also did not
number of environmental audits that we
have conducted in the mining and mineral processing sector.
Business people will have to accept that there are differences with the way things are done in Mexico and one must be pre pared to acquire a sensitivity to Mexican cultural attitudes and customs. We believe
it is essential to have a working familiarity in Spanish and to employ local resources to understand, and overcome, local cultural
conditions which could significantly affect business activities.
Business people should be creative in dealing with adversity and obtaining wellinformed advice as to local sensitivities and business conditions. It is essential to busi
ness success. Those companies who think that they will be able to conclude success ful deals within a few days of arrival in Mexico, should not be surprised if they are disappointed. You must obtain your own personal understanding of the marketplace by investing in visits to the country over a period of time. On a cautionary note, the confirmation of NAFTA has increased the presence of for eigners in Mexico and has resulted in a par allel growth in the industry of representa tives or agents who often allege their capa bilities in locating proper contacts or com panies which will lead to the securing of business opportunities for foreign compa nies. As anywhere in the world, we would suggest that entrepreneurs proceed with caution in this area in order to avoid disap pointments from overly enthusiastic promot ers who may not be able to deliver upon their promises of the opportunities which truly do exist in Mexico. We believe strongly that the political and economic situation in Mexico is stable, growing and has enormous development potential. It is clear that the Mexican Gov ernment and people are committed to ag gressively pursuing environmental, social and economic development policies which will lead to a significant improvement for the people of Mexico. Indeed, Mexico may become a model for economic and cultural
Richard Szudy, Vice President Laidlaw Environmental Services, Burlington
ing with our Mexican operations base has begun to pay benefits after three years of hard, competitive activity in that market place. Mexico is a developing country, not a third world country, and many first time business visitors will probably be surprised at the country's diversity, sophistication and technology which is already available or in place. In addition, and notwithstanding my previous comments on some of the environ mental problems in Mexico, there are sev eral examples where newer facilities have state-of-the-art pollution control systems. This became apparent to us through a
development throughout Central and South America.
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 123 22
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
City of Ottawa WATERWORKS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
j'^PfOyED WATER SUPPLY LEMIEUX island PURiriCAflOhTPL^l^ PUMPING STATION.EXTENSION & EQUIPMENT CROSS SECTIONS
WATEP W0PK3 ENGINEER
NA3MITH S STaPRie DATE
4 • July 1951.
^8 INCH - I FOOT.
'l9a3 Gore &
I Consulting Engineers jO*''* DEC 12.1993
In the summer of'31 we worked Saturdays. Some things never change. Saturday, the Fourth of July,
has happened since then (much
important historical tact is that
1931, the year Canada raised
of it on Saturdays), it's the next 75
Gore & Storrie enjoys long-term
tariff barriers on U.S. imports.
years we'd like to teii you about.
relationships with our clients.
Gene Autry had a hit with "Got A Date With An Angei," and Gore, Nasmith & Storrie designed the Lemieux Island Water Plant, near Ottawa,Canada. Our new color
reduction techniques at Lemieux became the basis for fioccuiation
tanks now in use throughout Canada and the United States.
The company was 12 years old. Today we're 75 . Although a lot
Some of those relationships are Gore & Storrie is Canada's
pre-eminent water, wastewater
and environmental engineering
even longer than our support tor the people who depend on the Lemieux Island plant.
consultant. Our expertise spans environmental planning, solid
What matters in the long run is
waste management, water and
that people's health and the
wastewater engineering tor
environment are protected. That's
municipalities and industries. We
what we are good at and why our
help analyze, test, and automate
clients keep us involved in their
water and sewage systems. We
plans, their projects and their
train the people who run them.
visions tor the next 75 years.
In ail those years we've invented
Gore Si Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers
Gore & Storrie
People Knowledge Commitment
and adapted a lot of new
255 Consumers Road
technology - and there is much
more to be done. But new
North York, Ontario (416) 499-9000 (41B) 499-0090 -1- ext. (41B) 499-4B87 fax
technology is only tools. The
Offices in Ottawa, Barrie, Mississauga, Thoroid, Cambridge, Kingston, and London
For more information, Circle reply card No. 124
Setting contaminated site guideiines
ACPO urges MOEE to include chemists as signing authority for site dean up reports
Atthe request of the Ontario Min
ciation's Code of Ethics. D. Bayley stressed the responsibilities, imposed on members by the Code of Ethics, which include duties to the public,to the employer,to clients when in private practice, to other chartered chem
ister of the Environment and
Energy,the Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards
(ACES)has been conducting a series of pub lic hearings to provide interested parties to make presentations concerning the Minis try's proposed "Guidelines for the Clean
ists, and responsibility to maintain high lev els of competence and maintenance of a
good professional image by the use of high
up of Contaminated Sites in Ontario." At one hearing at Guelph University on Sept. 13, the Association of the Chemical
standards of performance. It was stressed that chartered chemists place the welfare of the public before any other considerations. He argued that chartered chemists as well as engineers were the logical profes sionals to sign reports and other documen
Profession in Ontario, represented by Dennis A. Bayley, C.Chem., made a pres entation on behalf of Association members.
The guidelines propose new approaches on
Dennis A. Bayley, C.Chem., F.I.M., was
tation in connection with site assessment
how sites in Ontario should be assessed for
President of ACPO from 1990 - 1992. He is
and clean up. He cited the perils involved when people without specific chemical knowledge are involved in sampling, analy sis or interpretation of results, and discussed the Environmental Assessor Registry being set up in the European Economic Commu nity. Within the U.K. the requirement for inclusion in the registry is C. Chem, not the professional engineer's designation. The ACPO has reciprocity with the Royal Soci ety of Chemistry in U.K. and O.C.Q. in Quebec regarding the acceptance ofC.Chem designations and it was pointed out that a
contamination and cleaned up. In the Guide lines it was proposed "that final reports on the completion of clean up be certified by a Professional Engineer licensed to practise in Ontario." Within the guidelines are pro visions to enable other certified professional associations which demonstrate comparable self regulation to be given similar recogni tion by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. In the ACPO presentation D.A. Bayley
currently chair of the ACPO licensing commit tee.
outlined the history of his association and discussed the enabling legislation Pr Bill 9 of 1984 which conferred the right to title of C. Chem (Chartered Chemist) on its mem bers. He explained that with this privilege comes the responsibility of self regulation, and discussed the function of the Associa
tion's disciplinary committees and the char tered chemists' commitment to the Asso-
In North America, there's something new in the air.
chartered chemist from Ontario could trans
fer to Europe and be accepted on the Asses sor Registry by means of this reciprocity. In response to questioning from the ACES panel the aspect of liability was dis cussed and it was demonstrated that ACPO
has negotiated liability insurance for its members, but liability would be reduced by employing Professional Chemists to be re
sponsible for all of the factors involving chemistry.
Specific technical points in the guide line were dealt with in other presentations made by individual chartered chemists.
Notable among these was Dr. George Duncan of A & A Environmental Services.
available in either a portable or fixed configuration.
He also expressed concern about the sign ing authority of Professional Engineers and his recommendation to ACES on this topic was "Remove all references to the require ment to have a Professional Engineer cer tify the ESA report or alter the wording to read... by a Professional Engineer or Char
Hawk offers continuous real
The Siemens Hawk long range gas monitor Hawk provides on economical, concentrations directly in the immediate, practical way to protect personnel, plant and surrounding areas from the threats of explosive or toxic gas concentrations. Based on infrared radiation
absorption and wavelength moducal techniques. Hawk detects and measures gas SCI-TEC INSTRUI.TNTS If-JC.
atmosphere. The monitor, retro-reflector system is
time monitoring with fast response at remarkably low levels.
For more information on Hawk, contact: SCI-TEC Instruments Inc.
SCI-TEC Instruments USA Inc.
1526 Fletcher Road
4240 Bluebonnet Dr.
CANADA S7M 5M1
Telephone (306) 934-0101
Telephone (713) 240-0404
Facsimile (306) 978-2339
Facsimile (713) 240-0428
The ACPO recommendation to ACES
was:"ACPO is a strictly self-regulated As sociation of Chemists with the unique knowledge ofthe chemistry required to carry out the sampling, analysis and interpretive work to meet the requirements of the Guide lines for clean up of contaminated sites in Ontario, and'as such, its members, as Char tered Chemists should be the certifying au thorities for all chemical matters pertaining to site remediation."
For more information, Circle reply card No.125
For more information, Circle reply card No.126
GORMAN-RUPP HAS THE WASTEWATER PUMPING SYSTEM TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Gorman-Rupp manufactures a complete line of pre-engineered, factory-built packaged lift stations. Wfiethier it's a small or large wastewater collection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system including motors, controls, valves and piping ready for fiook-up on site. Electronic Pressure Switcfi features dependable, solid-state construction and provides accurate, trouble-free monitoring of wet well liquid level. Bubbler Control design eliminates problems common to other bubbler systems. Controls are NEMA rated, UL/CSA Listed and will easily interface with users telemetry. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-priming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for dependable wastevi/ater handling. l\/lounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of clogs or maintenance of components. And, no special tools are needed. T-Series pumps Base-mounted "autostart" pump station with bubbler control and
standby engine automatically drives pump if power fails and eliminates need for expensive generator set.
are available in 3",4",6",8" and 10" sizes with capacities up to 3,200 gpm and heads to 130'.
Rugged,economical fiberglass-reinforced enclosures house all equipment. They resist corrosion, mildew, mold and fungus and provide all-weather protection. Compact,low silhouettes and forest green colour blends in perfectly with surrounding landscaping. Enclosures provide easy access to interior equipmentfor maintenance and service. Vandal-resistant
designs give added security. Ask us how we can help you with your next lift station project.
6' x6' above-ground lift station
features two 3" to 6" T-Series pumps deliver ing 50-1,200 gpm on a single pump operation.
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 101
7' X10' above-ground lift station features two 3" to 8" T-Series pumps with capacities from 50-2,100 gpm on a single pump operation.
GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 BurwellRd., St. Thomas, Ont.N5P3R7 Phone;(519)631-2870 Fax:(519)631-4624 Telex: 064-73530 Distributors across Canada. Consuit the Yeiiow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.
TORONTO ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW & CONFERENCE
Toronto International Centre of Commerce
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
hook iour EyjilhitSpace Todatf! An ideal opportunity to present your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environ mental management. For further information contact:
Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240,4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3 Phone:(403)469-2400 Fax:(403) 469-1398
Calgary Phone:(403) 258-0705 Fax:(403) 258-0745
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140
R&D News: edited by the
* CAWQ ACQE Treatment of Oily Wastes A metal transformation industry wastewater was treated by Sainte-Lawrence Centre sci entist R.Zaloum and colleagues from Zenon Environment Inc. using a membrane bioreactor. The results, described to del
egates at the recent WQI '94 conference in Budapest, were compared with the existing infiltration system. Toxicity tests using the microtox and algal tests were undertaken on treated and untreated effluents from both
systems. The results indicated that the bio logical step of the membrane bioreactor detoxified the wastewater. The biological system reduced the amount of hazardous waste by a factor of three in comparison with the ultrafiltration system.
Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur la Qualite de I'Eau Canada and CANMET investigated the leaching of heavy metals from soldered cop
Binder in laboratory scale, two phase anaerobic reactors. Of the management
per coupons into water as a function of standing time in a static test on new plumb ing. As described in a paper by K.S. Subramanian and colleagues accepted for publication in Wafer Research, significant leaching of lead and tin occurred with the amounts of lead released exceeding the maximum acceptable concentration pre scribed in the Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines. The amounts of copper and zinc released from soldered copper coupons were generally lower than those released from non-soldered copper pipes and were below
strategies investigated, these University of
Treatment of a BCTMP/TMP
Drinking Water Quality
To evaluate the potential for drinking water contamination, scientists from Health
Pulp manufacture uses sulfur in a variety of forms. These sulfur compounds eventually end up in the effluent as sulfide presenting problems of toxicity, odour, corrosion, and reduced methane yields and treatment
For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso
ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON
K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.
efficiencies. As described in Water Science
and Technology, the fate of these inorganic sulfur compounds in a BCTMP/TMP efflu ent mixture was examined by R.J. Stephenson, R.M.R. Branion and K.L.
British Columbia scientists found that the
most effective for this type of wastewater was hydrogen sulfide stripping using ferric chloride scrubbed and recycled off-gas.
Metal Bioleaching from Sludge Bioleaching of metals from sewage sludge can be effected using a consortium of indig enous sulfur oxidizing bacteria. In a poster paper at the lAWQ biennial conference in Hungary, T.R. Sreekrishnan and R.D. Tyagi described their studies on the effect of
sludge solids concentration on the process. While sludge solids concentration had very little effect on the biological process lead ing to pH reduction, these INRS-Eau scien tists found that higher concentrations re sulted in increased buffering capacity for the
sludge resulting in higher bacterial growth and acid production rates. This also reduced the quantity of leachate to be neutralized.
Water Quality Modelling Incorporation of physical limnological proc esses within the water quality/contaminant modelling framework of large lake systems Continued overleaf
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R&D News, cont'd. is fundamental for accurate simulation of
did not perform satisfactorily. The param
Water Quality of Urban Runoff
transport, distribution and pathways of pol lutants. In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada,
eters estimated for the Hom kinetic model
Analytical probabilistic models, which com pare favourably with the STORM simula
National Water Research Institute scientists
tion model, have been derived by Ryerson Polytechnic University scientist J.Y. Li and B.J. Adams from the University of Toronto.
were found to be statistically different be tween the two waters for both free chlorine
W.M. Schertzer and C.R. Murthy present
and pre-formed monochloramine. However, if sufficient contact time was provided, the
specific examples of water quality/contami nant model applications which incorporate physical processes to solve eutrophic and toxic contaminant problems. Examples of circulation and transport model application
overall inactivation was the same in the con
As described in
trol and biologically-treated streams. The kinetic differences may be due to a highly resistant subgroup within the heterotrophic plate count bacteria population in each wa
to lakes and coastal areas as well as
Technology, these models predict the longterm pollution control performance of stor age-treatment systems from rainfall statis tics. With knowledge of the cost functions of storage-treatment systems, the cost opti mization procedure can be used to determine the least-cost combination of storage and treatment systems which can achieve vari ous levels of quality control. This informa tion is useful for specification of design pa rameters and subsequent design level analy ses of control systems.
thermocline models are briefly discussed.
Specific examples are provided primarily from applications in the lower Great Lakes.
Energy Usage in Municipal
Disinfection of Bioiogicaliy
Ontario Hydro commissioned a study of municipal wastewater treatment plants to identify the main process power users and potential areas within each plant where sig nificant energy savings could be generated. As reported by R.V. Anderson Associates Ltd. scientists B. Evans and P.J. Laughton at the 17th biennial lAWQ conference in Budapest, up to 25% of electrical power currently used can be saved by introducing energy efficient measures. Of all the unit operations in wastewater treatment plants, aeration accounts for 42% of the power us age, influent and effluent pumping con sumes 20%, and dewatering uses 6%. In fluent pumping represents the best target area for energy savings.
In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, University of Alberta Scientists D.J. Pernitsky, G.R. Finch and P.M. Huck evaluated the disinfection kinetics of bio
logically and non-biologically treated drink ing water. The Chick-Watson kinetic model
For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso
ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.
Water Science and
Mathematical Modelling of Filamentous Bulking Two common causes of filamentous bulk
ing of activated sludge are low dissolved oxygen concentration and low food to mi croorganism ratio in the activated sludge system. Hydromantis Inc. scientist I. Takacs and a Hungarian colleague developed a mathematical model to simulate the popu lation dynamics of two groups of bacteria, floc-formers and filaments, within the Continued overleaf
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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
R&D News, cont'd. microenvironment of the activated sludge floe. As described in their paper at the re cent lAWQ biennial conference, the results indicate that the method accurately predicts the onset of the excessive filamentous
growth (directly linked to bulking) even when traditional models neglecting diffu sion limitation fail to do so.
Urban Impacts on Shoreline
D. Proulx and J. de la Node contributed a
poster paper at the WQI '94 conference in Budapest which presented an alternative nutrient removal process utilizing cyanobacteria (Phornildium bohneri). The paper presented and brietly discussed the results of field experiments which showed that good performance could be achieved with the system.
scientist J.J. Ganczarczyk applied linear regression models to evaluate the free-set tling velocity of activated sludge floes in samples of mixed liquors. The models proved to be superior to the respective mul tiplicative regression models. A modifica tion of these models, by the introduction of functions of settling shape factors instead of constant intercepts, improved the corre lations even more and demonstrated the
Microbial Aggregates in
National Water Research Institute scientists
B.J. Dutka and J. Marsalek studied the im
In a paper presented at the 17th biennial lAWQ conference, University of Toronto
pacts of urban sources on fecal bacterial pollution of the near-shore zone of the St. Mary's river in Sault Ste. Marie. As de scribed in the Journal of Great Lakes Research,the observed microorganism den
important influence of these factors on the free-settling velocity of activated sludge tlocs. The shape factor may be used as a measure of softness or stiffness of the floes.
sities were used to assess the levels of bac
terial fecal pollution in relation to bacterial sources and the compliance with the rec reational water quality guidelines. Almost the entire reach of the river studied exhib
ited very good bacteriological quality with low fecal bacterial concentrations and high probabilities of compliance with the guide
ASK US ANYTHING!
Bleached Kraft Mill Wastewater Treatment
Laboratory scale activated sludge, faculta tive stabilization basin, and aerated
stabilization processes were operated in parallel by E.R. Hall and W.G.Randle treat ing bleached kraft mill effluent to assess their relative efficiencies for removal of
chlorinated phenolics. As described in Water Science and Technology, these Wastewater Technology Centre scientists found that, under most operating conditions, chlorophenolics removal in low rate treat ment systems was superior to that in a higher rate activated sludge process. Operation at long solids retention times and moderate temperature enhanced the removal of chlorophenols and reduced toxicity to less than threshold values in all three treatment processes.
Toxicity of Tar Sand Tailings
CISTIis North America's largest and most reliable source of scientific, technical and medical information available when you want it, and how you want it.
A study published in Environmental Technologywas conducted to assess the tox icity of sludge tailings produced from the hot water extraction process employed in extracting oil from tar sand deposits in Al
• Our Information Specialists will find information on any topic you need.
berta. Colder Associates Ltd. scientist M.A.
• Current Awareness: we can monitor any subject of scientific or
Warith and R.N. Yong from McGill Univer sity considered lluids emanating from four teen different potential sludges resulting from various proposed treatment processes. All of these were highly toxic to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum with an average lethal concentration of 25.8% by volume.
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Nutrient Removal with
Cyanobacteria The implementation of nutrient removal is becoming a necessity for small communi ties. Laval University scientists R Lessard,
Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1994
de recherches Canada
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 105
R&D News, cont'd. Recreational Water Quality
concentrations exceeded Aquatic Life
In a paper published in Water Science and Technology, G. Vincent of the Montreal
Guidelines. Total PCB and DDT residues
in fish collected in 1990 were significantly
ganics from photosynthetic aquatic organ isms, and specific organic compounds can impart taste, odour and sometimes toxicity
Botanical Gardens described the effective
lower than residues from the 1970s. While
to treated water. Scientists from the Sas
ness of artificial wetlands constructed in
PCB and DDT residues continued to decline
katchewan Research Council and the Uni
Montreal to maintain the water quality of a recreational facility on an artificial lake. The wetland consists of four ponds of varying depth where more than 100,000 aquatic plants of different native species were in troduced. Intake pipes draw water into the first pond and water then circulates by grav ity through the three remaining ponds. The ponds proved to be effective for the removal of orthophosphate, nitrate and suspended
at most sites, downward trends at some sites
versity of Alberta studied the effects of sev eral chemicals used at different stages of the water treatment process on a nitrogenfixing strain of the cyanobacterium AphanizontenonJlox-aquae. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, H.G. Peterson and colleagues found that, at treatment usage concentra tions, the release of DOC and geosmin was negligible for aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, moderate for calcium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, but excessive for chlorine, copper sulfate and potassium per
solids. Removal of fecal coliform was less certain.
Organochiorine Contaminants in Fish A paper published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research reports on organochiorine contaminant bioavailability and temporal trends in nearshore waters of the Great
Lakes. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy scientists K.R. Suns, G.G. Hitchin and D. Toner used collections of
Magnetic Water Treatment To assess the effects of magnetic water treat ment under well controlled laboratory con ditions, McGill University scientist R. Gehr and colleagues tested a saturated solution
of CaSOj 2HjO in the magnetic field of a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. The results, to be published in Water Re search,showed that the treatment had a sig
nificant effect on the precipitation of cal cium sulfate crystals. The results are con
sistent with claims in the literature that
magnetic water treatment can induce pre cipitation of inorganic crystals from solu tion and could possibly prevent scaling by avoiding precipitation of these salts onto solid surfaces.
DOC and Geosmin in
young-of-the-year spottail shiners as
biomonitors of contamination. Of the ten
Chemicals used in water treatment proc
compounds analyzed, only PCB and mirex
esses can cause the release of dissolved or-
For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso
ciation on Water Quaiity, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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Industrial waste management
Myths, challenges and opportunities: how OWMC will contribute to Ontario's
The Ontario Waste Management
in mind that these predictions are based on current production levels, not taking into account growth or plant expansions. Even if there is a 50 per cent overall reduction in
Corporation's proposal for a com prehensive integrated facility is aimed at a key segment of On tario's hazardous waste market, principally the market needs that are not currently be ing met within the province. In brief, the facility will open with an initial capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year, of which 30,000 tonnes is incineration capacity. The balance will be physical-chemical treatment, or residuals disposed of in a landfill. There is an aspect of OWMC which is
the total hazwaste from existing processes,
what new processes, with new chemicals and toxic challenges, and what new plants will be introduced in the meantime?
What new industries will start up; will the volume of hazwaste increase with a solid
economic upturn? There is strong evidence that this already is occurring in the United States. Recent reports note that a tempo rary over capacity in treatment facilities there is declining rapidly as the manufac turing sector comes out of the recession. Our
often overlooked in the rhetoric surround
ing the facility proposal and that is our pio neering work in waste reduction and pollu tion prevention. We began this program in 1986. Today,as many of you know, we have a staff of seven experienced engineers who work hands-on with Ontario waste genera
tors. We have been helping generators iden tify and reduce wastes at source, so that fewer and less toxic contaminants are pro duced. A recent survey of OWMC waste reduction clients found that 90 percent were very satisfied with the assistance they re ceived and most found that the OWMC rec
ommendations exceeded their expectations. At the same time, these pollution pre vention activities have presented a major
challenge. Factors such as the recession, soft waste disposal prices, and the manu facturing readjustments companies have had to make because of free trade, have meant
that many businesses are too harried to fo cus on pollution prevention. Many compa-
best current estimate, and no one else has a better one, is that between 300,000 and 400,000 tonnes of the most hazardous waste
By Dr. Donald A. Chant* One of the first myths we have had to deal with is the notion that hazardous wastes
are "disappearing" or somehow magically have gone away. We have tracked wastes carefully over the years,and even won praise at hearings for our very substantive work in this somewhat uncharted area. And, while
there have been a lot of changes in the na ture of wastes over that period, I am sorry to disappoint you by saying the wastes have
not disappeared. In fact, to confirm our numbers, we recently undertook a survey of more than 2,000 waste generators in On tario to find out what wastes they produce today, and which ones they hope to reduce
is generated in Ontario annually. And none of the disposal facilities for hazardous waste in the province can compare with the best commercially proven treatment technology that we have seen elsewhere in the world
and that will be incorporated in our proposed
plant. This is the market targeted by OWMC.
Balancing the dynamics I have noted and this target market, we have set the initial start-up capacity of our facility at 80,000 tonnes per year; about one quarter of the target market. This seems prudent to us and a sound start-up position, especially bear ing in mind our modular design which will allow for future expansion, if required. Ontario urgently needs this capacity to en sure that the most hazardous wastes in the
A recent survey of OWMC waste reduction clients found that 90 percent were very satisfied with the assistance they received and most found that the OWMC recommendations exceeded their expectations.
province can be treated effectively. Our critics are quick to claim that this initial capacity cannot be justified by the market - but they are slow to come forward with their own estimates. Until they do and they won't - OWMC's estimates are by far the best available. We must ensure that
nies are worrying more about economic sur vival than changing their processes to pro duce less waste unless, of course, there are immediate savings. Even then, they tend to
phase in changes gradually, so as not to risk disrupting their basic productivity. So the challenge of introducing pollution preven tion is not one that will be won overnight.
by the year 2,000. Right now, we are analyzing the responses. The early returns tell us that some com panies expect to be waste free by that date. A considerable number feel they can make the government's 50 per cent reduction tar get. But, at the same time, there are many others who indicate they will continue to produce toxic waste and that the quantities will increase.
'Chairman and President, Ontario
Waste Management Corporation. This report is compiled from an address to the Canadian Environment industry Association, Ontario Chapter, on Sep tember 14, 1994. 32
In other words, the challenge of dealing with hazardous waste is not going to disap pear in the foreseeable future. Besides that,
six years is a long time in manufacturing and you have to read and interpret the prog nostications very carefully. You have to keep
there is the capacity to clean up old, con taminated industrial sites and to destroy wastes such as the tens of thousands of
tonnes of RGBs both in storage and in use. We must be able to deal with the impact of new government policy initiatives. These will likely include wider definitions of haz ardous waste and new efforts to eliminate
toxics from going to solid waste landfills and sewage treatment plants. As a result of all OWMC's efforts, we know a lot about pollution prevention and what's happening in industry today. We also know that there is a void in the market place in Ontario. It is a void which we believe
will not disappear for decades and one which Continued
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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Industrial waste management, cont'd. we feel our integrated facility can best fill. In one sense, it is not surprising that myths have developed around our project. Some, no doubt, stem from comments and concerns arising from those who opposed us over the prolonged environmental assess ment process. This process is confronta. tional. Make no mistake; there are a lot of economic interests and bruised egos that now form part of the legend of our E.A. But when most of these myths have been de bated and cross-examined exhaustively and, to my mind, dismissed in the hearing proc ess, you have to wonder how some of them
formation on pollution prevention and proper treatment and disposal of toxic ma terials.
There are many new players involved in the green industries and waste reduction fields. Some of these new players have done a remarkable job in a relatively short time. We are very aware of all this, and wish them continuing success in their efforts. But, in
It Is true that Industry has developed a greater awareness of hazardous
continue to survive.
It is true that industry has developed a greater awareness of hazardous waste in recent years. That is the result of tougher regulations, augmented by the increased productivity required to survive a recession and the free trade marketplace. Actually, disposal costs and regulatory constraints alone have had a significant impact, even
waste In recent years. That Is the result of tougher regulations, augmented by the increased productivity required to survive a recession and the free trade
without other economic factors.
To a significant extent, some industries in Ontario have taken to heart the message of pollution prevention. Some practical and effective solutions are in place to prevent the generation of hazardous wastes or, at the very least, to reduce the volume of liquid industrial wastes dramatically. More and more, industries are seeking help and in
another very real sense, we are also aware that nothing has changed, particularly in terms of the disposal of "the most hazard ous wastes" of which there are the 300,000
to 400,000 tonnes generated annually in Ontario.
Another myth we have had to deal with for many years is that OWMC is building a mammoth, monolithic, monopolistic megaproject. Critics say this project will, by its sheer size, create a new market for wastes;
it will spell doom for pollution prevention and the 3Rs, and will force the private sec tor out of the hazardous waste business.
These are myths that our opponents have tried to perpetuate. The truth is that we will not force the
private sector out of anything. Entrepre neurs who are trying to develop and com mercialize new technologies should know that our projections show OWMC will likely capture a total of about one-quarter of to day's total hazardous waste market, hardly a monopoly in my books.There is also a myth that we are a dinosaur, with outdated technology. That again is untrue. We will be using the most up-to-date, commercially proven technology available in the world and operating under the most stringent con trols anywhere. At the same time, the terms and conditions proposed for our facility by the Ministry of Environment and Energy re quire us to review our technology every five years.
This does not mean that we are closing the door on other technologies or new de velopments. Nor are we building an incin erator that will become a black hole to proc-
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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Industrial waste management, cont'd. ess as much waste as it can, as quickly as it can. It simply means that, as soon as we are operating, we will provide proper treat ment for a certain spectrum of hazardous
I cannot stress too strongly that the OWMC facility will not treat and dispose of wastes that can be reused or recycled. We will complement the 3Rs by providing a site where wastes can be batched and ex
In terms of developing new technologies, in fact, I view our site in West Lincoln as potentially the only licensed testing ground in Ontario. It will provide an approved lo cation where new technologies can be de veloped, nurtured and tested on a commer cial scale. We are open to partnership agree ments.
Some of you will be aware that we have been working on an agreement concerning the Eco Logic thermal process for some time now. I am hopeful that we will soon be able to conclude negotiations. For all of the posi tive things we have learned about the Eco Logic process, however, the jury is still out on its ability to match the rotary kiln incin erator in all respects. While the process must still prove itself in the commercial market at competitive prices, it will certainly be a coup for Canada and Canadian indus try if it does succeed. And it would be great if OWMC were part of the success story. In addition to providing test sites, we have in house expertise in world technolo gies and developments in waste treatment and reduction. We can make this expertise available to help in the development of ex port markets.
changed. We can batch and ship significant quantities of metals, in particular, or other wastes which can be economically used by other industries, playing the role of honest
YOU ASKED FOR RAPII
What we can provide for the environ ment industry in Ontario is a "treatment facility of last resort" - a place to send the residual chemicals that you cannot safely dispose of. And many of the new technolo gies themselves will have their toxic residuals which will have to be disposed of. This is a role that the OWMC facility will
Above all, let's buckle down and get on with the job. Throughout this lengthy proc ess, we have all been fiddling while Rome
bums. Hundreds of thousands of tonnes of
toxic wastes have not been, and are not now
being properly treated because this province does not yet have modem, state-of-the-art treatment facilities. OWMC cannot meet
this need alone, nor can the environment
industry. But together we can, if we will, create a system for dealing with toxic wastes that will be a model for the industrialized world.
For more information, Circie reply card No. 111
TECHNICAL SERVICE STAFF
Letter from Hawaii about incineration in Egypt
• 24-48 hr. TAT ON MANY TESTS
• OVER 80% OF ANALYSIS COMPLETED I
We visited an incinerator that had been
donated by the United Nations several years ago.
This is a modem two-stage controlled air unit that could undoubtedly be made to
operate with minimal start-up effort. A cer tain Bedouin gentleman has been using the primary combustion chamber as his resi
'OVAMANN INTERNATIONAL II N T
My recent experience in Egypt may prove of interest to your readers. Our asso ciates have a client who owns resort prop erty in the South Sinai region. I was in vited to Egypt to propose a feasibility study for solid waste management for the region. I learned that current waste-handling prac tice is to dump the garbage in the desert.
WITHIN 5 DAYS
Quality Analytical Laboratories
dence for the past seven years or so. The
photograph shows the current method of waste combustion and recycling efforts. Your editorial in the May 1994 issue con cerning the frequent inability of technical
people to communicate effectively is very much to the point. Alas, the human condi tion! People seem to want to hear sound bytes of demagoguery and political posturizing interspersed with cola commer cials, while technical explanations often don't lend themselves to being understood quite so readily. Michael Clark, Blue Pacific Distributors Inc., P.O. Box 1749, Keaau, Hawaii, 96749
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Tel. (905) 890-2555 FAX (905) 890-0370 Montreal
Tel. (514) 636-6218 FAX (514) 631-9814 Toll Free: 1-800-563-6266 For more information, Circie reply card No. 211
Instrumentation In wastewater
Successful automation of a waste-
water treatment plant is often a dif ficult task. Generally, these projects cannot be successfully completed using traditional design and project management methods from the wa ter and wastewater industry. This discus sion reviews the typical historical failures, then discusses various keys to the success ful automation of operations, including al ternative contract options. The automated operations are commonly referred to as the SCADA System. Historical Failures
Over the past 10 years, there have been many failures, and some successful Return On Investments for wastewater SCADA
All field instruments should be of proven Industrial quality, requiring an acceptable level of routine maintenance.
No "Process Control" Design A significant difference exists between designing a manually operated water pollu tion control plant, then adding automation, versus designing an automated operation. Civil engineers design the plant operation based on average and maximum daily flow rates. The automation equipment measures and responds to second-by-second values. A successful process control design bridges the "daily parameters" design with the needs of on-line monitoring and control. The most common problems are flow meters with an accuracy of + 50% because they are 2-10
lacking the confidence of the operations staff. As a result, the staff usually ignore the automation shortly after construction is complete. The SCADA system hardware and soft ware should be first tested in the factory under all normal, and conceivable abnor
mal, process conditions. At the plant, all field instrument signals must be fully tested and then as much as possible, the factory software tests should be repeated on site.
SCADA System Design Suggestions Measurable Benefits
A successful SCADA system provides measurable hard and soft cost benefits.
Estimated energy and chemical cost savings should be compared against the capital and
systems. The most -
maintenance cost of
common historical ■
the SCADA system.
failures are caused by: : • No ownership by ' Operations. i
Possible soft cost ben
efits are improved
Preventive Mainte nance
• Useless field sen- i sors.
• No"process control" , design. •Incomplete commis sioning. No Ownership by Operations In some cases, the
plant operations staff are "handed" the |
cation of the labour
force previously re quired for manually operating the plant) and improved system reliability. Target benefits
should be established
prior to the design of the SCADA system. After project comple
plant automation at i the end of the SCADA
tion, the actual results
system construction. They do not fully un
derstand the software
should be calculated
programs and are sur prised when equip ment starts or stops
unexpectedly. The operators do not feel any ownership and, therefore, do not take responsibility for the automation. Eventu ally, they turn off the SCADA system. The operations staff should be involved in designing and Implementing the SCADA software as it relates to how the plant should actually operate. Allowing them to custom ize the automation, such as graphic colours and symbols, builds ownership and famili arity with the SCADA system. Useless Field Sensors
From the view point of the plant opera tors, the design engineers sometimes install "useless" field sensors that either never
work, only work under certain process con ditions, or require continuous, high levels of maintenance. Initially, many wastewater sensors were insufficiently modified lab in struments. They were unreliable and re quired a great deal of ongoing maintenance. 36
(through the re-allo-
and the project's suc cess quantified. Integrated SCADA Systems The project Return On Investment
times too large, and inaccurate density val ues because of insufficient lengths of straight pipe prior to the instrument meas urement point. The process control design should suc cessfully bridge the daily average design pa rameters with the on-line second-by-second values.
Incomplete Commissioning In traditional municipal engineering, the project is basically commissioned once the equipment Is installed. However, commis sioning a SCADA system is often one of the longest and most difficult phases of a SCADA project. For this reason, some SCADA systems are never fully commis sioned prior to project completion. Field instruments and/or software programs may not have been tested under plant conditions. The result is an unreliable SCADA system
can be significantly improved by develop ing an Integrated SCADA system approach. An Integrated SCADA system combines the traditional SCADA system with other com puter information systems implemented within municipalities. The same computer hardware may be used for many different software applications, thus reducing the overall plant automation costs. A relational database can be used to restore and retrieve
data among the following applications; wastewater plant SCADA system, sewage collection SCADA system, Geographical Information System, Expert system, mod elling, simulation software, Computerized Document Management, Maintenance Man agement System, inventory control, plant security. Laboratory Information Manage ment System,Lotus 1-2-3, and WordPerfect.
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
By Mark C. Robertson, REng.* Successful Project Execution Recognized Software Project Rather than use the traditional munici
pal project management methods, some of the successful project management tech
niques from the computer software indus try can be utilized to monitor and control the project. It is strongly suggested that the
Project Milestones Committing to and maintaining mile stones is often the most challenging and cru
system designer should concurrently de velop an integrated start-up plan. Additional mechanical equipment, such as isolation valves on a multiple pump header, may be required to ensure that the software can be fully commissioned on site. Where equip
success of a SCADA project is directly re lated to the level of experience and exper tise of the SCADA designers and project
managers. Clearly defining the software and hardware objectives, establishing an action plan which includes deliverables, while monitoring and controlling changes in the project scope are all critical to the project's
cial issue for success. A common miscon
ception is that, because SCADA software is easy to change, there is no need for a thor ough review and commitment to milestones. This fallacy has resulted in having to re
ment already exists, the plant staff can pro vide invaluable information reaardina the
write software 2 - 3 times, causing signifi cant project delays and cost overruns. The most common changes which affect
A common misconception
the project schedule are changes to the fa cility design, poor field documentation, and changes to the SCADA system require
is that, because SCADA
ments. Most importantly, all parties must recognize that any changes to the mechani cal design will likely have a "domino ef fect", requiring modifications to the SCADA system. The resulting SCADA costs and time delays should be thoroughly understood prior to proceeding with the mechanical
software is easy to change, there is no need for a
Design - Commissioning Continuum In many cases, the SCADA software can not be properly tested in the plant unless
thorough review and
the commissioning and start-up strategy is developed during the design phase. During detailed design, the layman's description of the software logic should be reviewed by the plant operators, plant maintenance staff, instrumentation designers, and mechanical designers, to ensure all necessary Instrumen
tation and control is installed. The SCADA
*Thorburn Penny, Consulting Engineers Milton, Ontario
When a milestone is reached, all parties
must agree and "sign off" on this aspect of the project design. Any further changes to this task will likely result in project delays status and reliability of the instruments. Integrating this commissioning plan into the detailed design will significantly reduce the future commissioning time period. If the project is properly executed, commis sioning should not entail any surprises. It should only be a verification of the design.
and additional costs.
Contract Options In the last few years, new methods have been used for executing some SCADA projects, resulting in a lower total project Continued overleaf
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Keys to successful automation, cont'd. cost. TTie pros and cons of the following contract options should be reviewed for each municipal SCADA project: 1. Traditional Consultant vs. Contractor.
contractor battles which typically occur throughout the project. In many cases, this alternative helps ensure both the hardware and software fulfil the specific needs of the
cuit TV., plant security, and fire alarm moni toring are all integrated to form one com mon computer information network. Rela tional databases provide data storage and
2. Separate Plant Construction and SCADA
users, at the lowest cost.
3. Design/Build. 4. Design/Build with Financing. The traditional Consultant vs. Contrac
tor is likely the most familiar option and works well with smaller projects. One con sultant completes the design and contract supervision for the entire project. In larger projects however, many field equipment and process design flaws can be hidden as SCADA problems, resulting in the SCADA system and plant process never achieving their full potential. Establishing separate facility and SCADA contracts helps to over come these traditional problems. The fa cility equipment is first tested and commis sioned by the facility (mechanical) design ers. We have found that 5 - 20% of the proc ess equipment then fails the retesting which occurs during the SCADA commissioning. The owner receives a better design and more reliable operation by utilizing this approach. Design/build projects are becoming in creasingly popular. Pre-qualification helps ensure that an acceptable level of product quality will result. This approach is espe cially suited to complicated SCADA projects. It eliminates the consultant vs.
As the financing of municipal projects becomes increasingly difficult, some mu nicipalities are looking for a creative financ ing plan as part of the engineering solution. We believe that there is a place for public/ private joint ventures and that this option may become one commonly used method for municipal projects in the near future. SCADA projects are ideal candidates for this type of alternative due to the level of specialization.
Success Story The Robert O. Pickard Environmental
Centre, Ottawa (Wastewater Treatment Plant) was a successful application of many of these design and construction suggestions. The project commenced in September 1988, with substantial completion in December 1993. The total SCADA system construc tion cost was $7 million, 2% of the total
$370 million plant expansion. This Inte grated SCADA system provides automatic control of the sewage collection, primary treatment, secondary treatment, and sludge management system. SCADA, computer ized document management, maintenance management, inventory control, closed cir
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We believe some of the keys to this suc cessful Return On Investment were:
• an Integrated SCADA solution, • site SCADA standards,
• separate facility and SCADA contracts, • extensive software commissioning and testing. In summary, we believe some of the keys to the successful automation of plant opera tions are:
1. Be familiar with the past, historical SCADA system problems in order to learn from, rather than repeat them. 2. Establish a clearly defined scope and measurable benefits, which will likely be enhanced by taking an Integrated SCADA approach. 3. Recognize that SCADA projects are soft ware projects and establish appropriate milestones and procedures for dealing with changes effectively. 4. Review alternative contract options in or der to select the best project method for achieving the lowest overall cost and/or re quired schedule. For more Information,
Circle reply card No. 116
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ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LTD.
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 115
Wastewater treatment Environmental sewage system is key to Inn expansion One of the first Aquarobic Commercial Sew age Systems in Canada is now operating at Sherwood Inn in Muskoka. A joint co-op erative effort between Central Plumbing & Electrical of Gravenhurst, Ontario, dagger Hims Limited of Newmarket, Ontario, and
the Ministry of Environment and Energy has permitted the future expansion of the Inn to 40 bedrooms in 1995. The project was com pleted on August 15, 1994. The Sherwood Inn is a luxury resort in Ontario's beautiful Muskokas, an area re nowned for its lakes and rivers. Out of ini
tial expansion plans, which included a new health club and 12 bedrooms, many with whirlpool baths, it became apparent that the existing sewage system would have to be reviewed.
It was determined that the best approach would be to install a modified Class 6
Aquarobic Treatment Plant in conjunction with three elevated sand-filled leaching beds. Central Plumbing & Electrical was the primary contractor. The sewage system is cost effective, fairly simple to operate, and it incorporates unique features. The system has been de signed to control the flow of sewage at a constant rate, while at the same time includ
ing a mechanism to retain and treat any over flow effluent during periods of high usage. In addition, the system was also designed with two built-in energy saving features. During periods of low usage, air blowers shut off and are used only intermittently to
minimize electrical use. Also, a second
blower system was installed to prevent the burnout of the main blower units during periods of heavy usage and high effluent levels in the balancing tanks. The sewage system consists of a series of three tanks; as the sewage passes through
each of the first two tanks it is treated and
pumped to the third tank. From the third tank it is pumped to the leaching beds and begins to dissipate by absorption through the leaching bed sandfill into the existing soils and by cvapotranspiration, the end re sult being that the water produced by this system does not harm the environment. A 9000 litre grease tank prevents the kitchen grease from entering the sewage system. The treatment system was constructed in an area of low lying land that was unus able for other development and is now be ing considered for additional usage for a putting green, badminton, croquet and ar chery.
FAX (905) 841-7271 for quick response Company
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Environnienlal Science & Engineering, November 1994
Circle reply card No. 212
By Jeff Douglas
Some environmental problems can be turned around...wlth centrifuge technology
Centrifuges have been suc es ful y
operating for more than 100 years, yet for some applications, they are
still considered the "new kid on the block".
of the liquid layer, and dumps them out one end of the centrifuge. This reduces the size of the clarifier required by increasing the force the particle sees, and thus increasing its settling velocity. An average size decanter, approxi mately 2 metres long, gives an equiva lent settling area which would cover two
base has been wrapped around a centre of rotation.
In a gravity clarifier, there is a feed zone in the middle, a moving scraper which moves the sedimented solids up an incline
Centrifuge technology has come a long way since a brilliant young Swed ish engineer, Gustaf de Laval, devel oped the first cream separator in 1879.
Since the 1950's, the decanter cen
Evaluating The Centrifuge Option
trifuge has been solving even the tough est environmental liquid/solid separa
Operational features of decanter cen trifuges can translate into tangible ben efits for the end user. Comparing cen trifuges (increased sedimentation) with filters (filtration), these benefits are; a) Drier Solids. Centrifuges can often produce drier cake solids. b) Efficiency. Centrifuges never blind like filters can and they do not require pre-coating. Operational fluctuations in % solids, and polymer dosage have less effect on a centrifuge. Polymer usage
In the environmental industry, a de canter centrifuge is most often used for sludge dewatering; that is, when you have a waste stream containing a liq uid/solid slurry and you want maximum removal of solids while producing the driest cake possible, to be suitable for landfill.
A decanter typically handles parti cle sizes from 1 micron to 30 millime
tres and concentrations from 1 % to 65
% by volume. Sizes are available to handle flows from 1 gpm to 150+ gpm. Polymers for coagulation/flocculation can be used to optimize the centrifuge per formance and cake dryness.
Understanding Decanter Centrifuges When evaluating different methods of separation, it is best to start at the begin ning and examine the principles Involved. There are two ways to separate a solid from a liquid - sedimentation and filtration. To determine which method of separa tion is most suitable for your application, first identify all the process pa rameters
c) Space Requirements. Centrifuges are the most lightweight, compact tech nology available, occupying approxi mately 25% of the space required for fil
Equivalent settling area. and dumps them over one end and, at the
ters. Mobile skid and trailer mounted mod
other end, a series of weirs over which cas
els are available.
cades the clarified liquid. Sedimentation by gravity is slow and cumbersome. But, if you wrap the clarifier tank around an axis and rotate it, the result ing force exerted on the particle is enormous. Each solid particle sees a force of 3000 Gs.
d) Automatic and Continuous Operation. Centrifuges can be left to run virtually un attended; no full time operator is required. Solids and liquids discharge continuously and are relatively insensitive to fluctuations in feed. The unit is usually PLC controlled
Sedimented solids are compacted by the high G-force and removed continuously. A
with fail-safe alarms.
e) Low Maintenance. A rugged design and quality construc.
volved. Helpful data are liquid
and solid densi
needs to be done.
ties, pH, viscos ity of liquid phase, % solids in feed, particle
efits of decanter
could become in Clarified
essence, a de
canter centrifuge is like a clarifier whose
*Alfa Laval Separation 40
centrifuges use method
rising labour, space, and sludge disposal
size distribution, and the purity re quired.
separation. The governing prin ciple involved is density, whereas filters rely upon particle size. In
mean only rou tine preventative
â&#x2013; Pond" of
deposited on bowl
How the decanter centrifuge works. helical scroll conveyor replaces the solids handling scraper. The slow scrolling mo tion pushes the solids along, lifts them out
creasingly im portant. When analyzing sludge management op tions on a return on investment
basis, centrifuges often come out on top. For more information, Circle reply card No. 141
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Product Review Passive dosimeters/
badges used to prove due diligence
Monitoring with Pigmalion Services Passive Dosimeters/Badges is an efficient, easy-touse, and cost-effective way to identify an employee's exposure to hazardous sub
The user simply clips the badge onto a shirt collar and then goes about their daily activities. Each badge is worn once by the ind ividual for either a single eight-hour day,
or a 15 minute 'worst-case scenario'. The
badge is then replaced in its foil container, returned to Pigmalion and sent to an inde pendent laboratory for analysis. Pigmalion For more information, Circle reply card No. 252
Control pH levels with CO^ CO,neutralizes naturally while being a safe, effective process for lowering pH levels. The Liquidator Bulk CO, System is ideal for small and medium industry; it hooks up with few or no modifications to existing equipment. This low pressure, CO,system delivers the same capacity as eight, high pressure cylinders, with uninterupted 24 hour service.
Carbon dioxide is easier to handle than
sulphur dioxide, sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, and it is cost competitive. CO, can help to extend equipment life; it requires less downtime and fewer monitoring de
Monitoring The Stak-Tracker™ Gas Analyzer from GE
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vices, which results in reduced maintenance
costs. Liquid Carbonic For more information. Circle reply card No. 255
Reuter-Stokes is a continuous emissions
OVER 25 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE
monitor for utilities and industry. It is an infra-red based, dual beam/dual wavelength
in situ system which can measure NO^,SO^, NH3,HC1,CO3,CH^, HE,THC,opachy and dust.
The Stak-Tracker'''" offers lower main
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tenance costs and fewer subsystems than extractive systems, fast response for proc ess control, high availability rates, and it simultaneously measures up to six gases. It
with the council/association
will work in stacks or ducts from 3 to 33 ft.
wide and can handle process temperatures up to 540°C (1000^). GE Renter Stokes For more information,
Quality Analytical Laboratories
the cost of a S.C.B.A. for the non-fire serv
BEX"R"Series spray nozzles project a high capacity hollow-cone spray in a direction perpendicular to the nozzle inlet axis. The spray consists of medium to large sized drop lets in a very uniform distribution. "R" Series nozzles are a one-piece cast construc tion, and are designed with large maximum free passage sizes to reduce the possibility of clogging. Standard construction materi
als are cast iron, bronze, and 316 stainless
It is totally user-serviceable and is avail able in high or low pressure; it can be equipped with air-line connections and comes in a Hazmat configuration. Canadian Safety Equipment For more information.
Circle reply card No. 253
Self-contained breathing apparatus The Vanguard self-contained breathing ap paratus from ISI is NIOSH approved for in dustrial use. It has dramatically reduced
Circle reply card No. 254
Typical applications include aeration, cooling ponds,scrubbing and washing gases and fumes,and evaporative wastewater con centration. BEX Engineering Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 256
Environmenlal Science c6 Engineering, November 1994
NOVAMANN (Ontario) inc. 5540 McAdam Road
Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1 PI Tel.(905) 890-2555 FAX (905) 890-0370
NOVAMANN (Quebec) inc. 9420 Cote de Liesse
Lachine, Quebec H8T 1A1 Te!.i(514) 636-6218 FAX (514) 631-9814
loll Free; 1-800-563-6266 For more information. Circle reply card No. 213
Hydraulic fracturing for enhanced in-situ remediation of contaminated soii
The development of industry in
North America has resulted in the
water, or the drawing of vapours from the soils using conventional vertical recovery
the fracturing fluid to revert to that of water after a preset time period, typically 18 to 24
construction and operation of a
wells, is neither effective nor economic.
hours. This causes the fluid to flow back
multitude of diverse industrial fa
Consequently, these sites have typically been remediated by relocating the problem through the "dig, haul and dump" approach. The permeability, and hence the effec
from the fracture into the injection well, leaving the sand to permanently prop open
cilities across the continent. Historically, these facilities have included steel mills,
coal gasification plants, wood preserving fa cilities, chemical plants, oil refineries and, today, include the latest high tech electron ics and manufacturing industries. Despite their substantial benefits to mankind above
tiveness of in situ remediation of fine
grained soils can be enhanced through the development of a network of induced hori zontal fractures in the soil. These induced
the ground, many have left a not so at
tractive legacy be
Surface Spills/ Tank Leakage
neath the surface - soil
pletely bio-degradable and environmentally friendly. Fracturing technologies have been devel oped in the United States by the University of Cincinnati (hydraulic fracturing) and the New Jersey Institute of Technology(pneu matic fracturing). Both of these tech
and groundwater con tamination.
the fracture. The fracture fluids are com
nologies involve multiple entries into
a borehole with sev
ter table or a dissolved
eral different pieces ofequipment. Hence the fracturing proc ess using these tech nologies is time con suming and rela tively expensive.
phase in the groundwater. In situ
ates, an international
tamination may exist in many forms, such
as immiscible fluids
(NAPLs) above and below the water table, vapours above the wa
methods used to remediate sub-surface
contamination prima rily involve promoting Schematic of multi-phase remediation of contaminants using hydraulic fracturing. some form of fluid
(liquid or vapour) flow through the soil in which the contamination is located. This
flow is typically encouraged by the installa tion of pumping wells below the water ta ble, or the installation of soil vapour extrac tion wells above the water table. The ef fectiveness of these remediation methods is
controlled primarily by the permeability of the soil.
A major portion of the surface of North America is covered by fine grained soils.
fractures can be formed through the proc ess of either pneumatic or hydraulic frac turing. Fractures can be formed in soil using ei ther a gas (pneumatic fracturing) or a liq uid (hydraulic fracturing). Hydraulic frac turing has been used in the oil industry for many years as a method of enhancing the
production from oil wells. During the frac turing process, fluid is injected into an iso lated section of a borehole in the formation
A major portion of the surface of North America Is covered by fine grained soils, usually silts and clays, that were laid down beneath Ice sheets. In glacial lakes,
by rivers, or along estuaries and coasts.
firm ofconsulting en gineers, has devel oped a technology that enables fractures
to be initiated, propa
gated and propped with sand sequentially with increasing depth in a single excursion into the ground. The key to this technology is a piece of equipment called the "Fractool", for which a patent application is currently pending. The Fractool technol ogy has the potential to enable a site to be fractured more cost effectively than the other available fracturing technologies to date. The Fractool was developed in the
Calgary, Alberta office of Colder Associates as a result of large scale laboratory studies of hydraulic fracturing of oil sand. This work was subsequently extended to inves tigate the effectiveness of fracturing on the
permeability of clays. The Fractool frac turing technology has been demonstrated in the field at three clay test sites in Canada. The most extensive field trial to date was
usually silts and clays, that were laid down beneath ice sheets, in glacial lakes, by riv ers, or along estuaries and coasts. These soils are generally not very permeable to ei ther liquids or gases, and also contain natu ral vertical fractures through which the con taminants preferentially move. The in situ
containing a preformed notch. The pump ing rate of the fracturing fluid and its prop erties are designed to promote the growth
remediation of contaminated sites underlain
sand can be held in suspension in the fluid during the fracturing process. A breaker is also added that will cause the viscosity of
by these types of soils through the pumping of NAPLs and/or contaminated ground42
of horizontal fractures out from the well.
undertaken at a former service station site
in Regina, Saskatchewan, in late 1993. The site is underlain by a medium to high plastic glaciolacustrine clay, and the petro
The fracturing fluid comprises a starch based guar gum dissolved in water. A cross
leum hydrocarbon contamination is associ
linker is added to stiffen the fluid so that
clay above the water table. Three unfractured and eleven hydraulically fractured wells were installed at the
ated with natural vertical fractures in the
site. A total of eleven tonnes of sand were
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
By Bryan Leach, M.So., P. Eng., and Keith Kosar, Ph.D., P. Eng.* injected into the fractured wells in an area measuring approximately 30 m by 20 m. In each fractured well an initial upper frac ture was formed at a depth of 3.0 m, and then subsequent fractures were formed at incremental depths of 0.5 m to a maximum depth of 8.5 m. Each fractured well con tained between seven and ten fractures, which are typically 10 mm thick in the vi cinity of the injection well, and approxi mately 5 mm thick at a radial distance of 5
removal rates from the two systems was in excess of 100 litres/day. After the initial two month monitoring period the rates main tained a steady flow of 5 litres/day. During the first 1000 hours of operation, over 600 litres of liquid equivalent hydrocarbon were extracted from the clay. This is equivalent to a daily product removal rate of approxi-
three unfractured wells, and the eleven frac tured wells. Three former monitoring wells
....at some sites, fracturing may render in situ remediation a technicaiiy viable option, whereas, without it, the only option may be prohibitively expensive
and the eleven fractured wells were con
excavation and off-site
nected to two separate vapour extraction sys tems, with seven wells on each system. Air flow tests indicated that vapour flow from the fractured wells was typically three to four times higher than the flow from the unfractured wells. Under an applied vacuum of typically 0.18 bar, the vapour extraction systems have consistently yielded vapour
disposal at a secure iandfiii.
m. A total of 96 fractures were fomied at the site.
Air flow tests were conducted on the
flows of 0.7 to 2.0 m3/min over the initial
two month monitoring period. The com bined initial liquid equivalent hydrocarbon
*Golder Associates, Hydraulic Fracturing Group, Calgary, Alberta
technical benefits of the induced horizontal fractures include: • an increase in the effective radius of the
well, thus reducing the number of wells re quired to remediate a given area of contami nation;
• an increase in the mass permeability of the soil, thus increasing contaminant re moval rates and reducing the time required to remediate the site; • the intersection of the natural vertical frac
tures, thus facilitating the removal of con taminant entrapped in these natural fractures and the adjacent matrix of the deposit; and • significantly increased contact area with contaminated soil.
These technical benefits result in signifi cantly lower capital and operational costs for in situ remediation. Furthermore, at
mately 14 litres. This product removal rate exceeded the client's acceptable and excep tional performance criteria by factors of ap proximately ten and three respectively. The technical and economic benefits of
hydraulic fracturing with this process can be significant. Fracturing is an enabling technology that facilitates the application of, and enhances the performance of, existing technologies such as soil vapour extraction, air sparging, bioremediation and pump and treat systems, for the in situ remediation of low permeability fine grained soils. The
some sites, fracturing may render in situ remediation a technically viable option, whereas, without it, the only option may be prohibitively expensive excavation and offsite disposal at a secure landfill. At the pilot project site in Regina, the volume of contaminated soils beneath the
site was estimated to be 3,300 m2. The cost
of fracturing was approximately $55,000. This is equivalent to about $575 per frac ture, or $17 /m3 of contaminated soil.
For more information, Circie reply card No. 128
Your Ideal Partners for Personal Sampling of i^irbome Contaminants. The Escort^"Pump
The Gemini^"Twin-Port Sampler
The most feature-packed yet smallest, ligtitest pump on ttie market. Weighing in at just 19 ounces, the Escort Pump is compact, quiet and easy to carry. And, it's water- and dust-tight and will continue to operate In areas where other pumps may fail. For all types of personal sampling, the Escort Pump can tre partnered with an assortment of sampling devices to measure the
The Gemini offers increased flexibility and control in gathering samples through sorbent tubes. If air is being sampled for two or more contaminants, the Gemini Twin-Port Sampler can draw samples at independent flow rates through tubes containing different sorbents such as charcoal, silica gel or Tenax'/CMS.
/' In situations where a single contaminant is being sampled, sampling on two tubes of the same type can be done simultaneously at different flow rates—to protect against "breakthrough." Use with the Escort Pump or any competitive sampling pump capable of a 1.5 Ipm flow rate at a
concentration of airborne mists, dusts, partlculates, gases and vapours. •UL-approved. •Elapsed-time readout.
•Flow rate of 0,5 to 3.0 Ipm Is easy to set and adjust, with built-in high-
load of 25 inches of water column.
•Simultaneous four-tube sampling can be done easily by ;coupling two Gemini Samplers with a suitable'T' or Y ■ connector (provided) or an optional four-point manifold allows use with high volume samplers for area monitoring. •Integral vacuum regulator provides reliable flow confrol
• Case protects against RFI and EMI. •Pump automatically shuts down when flow is blocked but retains elapsed time. •Rechargeable battery pack provides 8-16 hours operating time. •Tamper-resistant door.
y' foreachtube. • One tube's flow rate is easily set and stays consistent when adjusting the other tube's flow rate. •Kit contains two tube protectors to accommodate different size sampling tubes.
•Run/Hold function allows intermittent
•Tenax is a registered trademark of AKZO Research Labs.
MSA Canada Inc., 148 NorfiM Drive, North York,
1X8 Tel: (416) 667-9400 Fax:(416) 663-5908 Toll Free 1-800-267-0672
"% Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 127
High-rate pilot plant for treatment of CSOs A multi-agency initiative has been es PILOT PLANT CONFIGURATION
tablished to examine the treatment of com bined sewer overflows.
The purpose of the project Is to develop, evaluate and demonstrate innovative tech
nologies for the treatment of combined sewer overflows. The pilot-scale equipment is designed to operate in various configura tions, over a range of wet weather condi tions. The pilot plant is composed of modu lar, transportable sections to facilitate fur
The pilot plant is designed to provide
flexibility in ^e arrangement of the treatment
units. The three principal components are
shown In this figure.
chemical coagulation and other treatment operations may be added as required by the experimental program.
The pilot plant wHI treat actual combined sewer
overflow (CSO) during storm events. During dry
ther studies at various sites.
The initial objectives are to examine the performance of a vortex separator and ul traviolet irradiation, in conjunction with small storage volumes. Although vortex
weather, a simulated SCO
suspension consisting of sewage, water and
solids will be used
units have been constructed elsewhere,field
to facilitate the
ing the use of a vortex in conjunction with storage, enhanced sedimentation with chemical coagulation,and with disinfection. In addition, operational experience is required in order to design systems which include instrumentation and control compo nents. The data collected from this investi
gation, the first of this scale in Canada, will define performance characteristics and op
verification of vortex system performance is very limited, as is information concern
older urban areas, collect domestic and in dustrial wastewater as well as rainwater.
During storm events, the combined sewers can be overloaded. To prevent sewer back
ups and basement flooding, the combined sewer systems include overflow structures which discharge some of the combined sew age directly to rivers and lakes. The com bined sewer overflows (CSOs) result in
eration conditions necessary for full-scale
shock loads of bacterial contamination that
necessitate beach closings, as well as the discharge of other pollutants which degrade
Combined sewers, which are common in
Annual waste water treatment cost savings can create dividends by effectively reducing extraneous water inflows and infiltration.
Although the high-rate treatment systems
The GU System is a permanent, low cost, incremental solution that eliminates Inflow and Infiltration (I & I) together with expensive repairs and maintenance of concrete sewage system structures due to the deterioration and waste water dam^e of manholes, pump stations, wet wells, etc. sewage system
nicipalities in the Great Lakes Basin. The technology should be equally applicable to other municipalities with combined sewer overflow problems in Ontario and through
The study is sponsored by the Govern
O Easy rehabilitation of existing manhole hase
with canal bed shell
GU INDUSTRIES INC. Call Today For More Information! 26020 - 31 B Avenue V4W 2Z6
Ph: (604) 856-1543 Fax: (604) 856-9032
ment of Canada's Great Lakes Cleanup
Fund and the City of Scarborough, with par ticipation from the Ontario Ministry of En vironment and Energy and the Municipal ity of Metropolitan Toronto. The work is being conducted by the Wastewater Tech nology Centre (operated by RockCliffe Re search Management Inc.) in conjunction with the National Water Research Institute.
F exib e
Watertight Be Connection
GU Line r
O Fast, easy installation and low maintenance
are not expected to achieve effluent quali ties equivalent to conventional (secondary) wastewater treatment processes, they will be significantly more cost effective than other options. If proved feasible, high-rate treatment systems with one-third the cost of conventional treatment will create poten tial savings of several hundred million dol lars for Remedial Action Plan (RAP) mu
O Prevents extraneous water from entering the
O Protects ground water and the environment O Improves sewage flow to treatment plant ÂŠ Prevents waste water damage to concrete
water quality and fish habitat. The frequency of CSO events and the quantity of wastewater discharged may be minimized by separation of storm and sani tary sewers, by storage of the excess flow within the sewer system, and by modifica tion or enlargement of sewage treatment plants to accept greater flows. However, these options are expensive and cannot be designed to cope with all storms. High-rate treatment facilities at overflow locations may be a practical alternative (or addition) to wastewater storage and subse quent treatment. The high-rate treatment systems would be designed to achieve sus pended solids removal and disinfection, us ing physical and chemical treatment opera
For more information. Circle reply card No. 129
The estimated cost of this project is ap proximately one million dollars. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 130 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
submersible mixing systems are
designed for lowcost installation, easy access and optimum control.
WAUES. Easy Instal latlon and removal with winch or hoist reduces downtime.
bility enables you to match the mixing action to the shape of
Traditional mixers cannot generate a bulk flow. Stagnation zones build up, which leads to frequent process interruptions.
depth control optimizes operating point.
angling ensures efficient mixing according to your objectives: blending, resus pending solids, or preventing stratification
FLYGT MIXERS develop a jet flow that follows the tank's geometry. Hydraulic losses are minimized.
For further information on FLYGT's submersible mixing systems, contact your FLYGT technical representative today.
Good Ideas Take Flygt.
)ITT Fluid Technology Corporation ITT Flygt, 300 LabrosSBAvB.,Pointe-Claire,P.Q. H9R4V5 (514)695-0100 FAX:(514)697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Ciaire ■ Quebec ■ Val d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. John's (Nfld.)
For more information, Circle reply card No.131
Guelph's new composting system goes on-line
Early this fal , the City of Guelph
was Canada's first operator of a large in-vessel sewage sludge composting system. The new invessel composting facility began operation in September, 1994. The new plant will serve a population of 90,000, and produce about 44,000 tonnes of compost annually. The need to completely contain odours pre sented design and construction challenges. Properly controlled composting destroys pathogens, contains odours, and produces a stable material that is easily handled and stored. This latter advantage is important where land application is seasonal. Several sludge composting systems were in use in the United States when the study began and many of these were reviewed by Gore & Storrie and the City of Guelph to determine whether they might meet the City's requirements. While several produced compost of sufficient quality for other ju risdictions, only two were able to meet the City of Guelph's particular requirements. Taulman Composting Systems, of Atlanta, Georgia, was recommended and was awarded the CDN$ 10.76 million equipment contract.
In the Taulman system, compost is gen erated in a 27-day cycle that processes ma terial through three reactors. Capacity is sufficient to accommodate fluctuations in
supply quantity and quality, and alternate process paths can be chosen by the opera tors. The City and G&S were well satisfied
with the process, but felt that one aspect in particular could be improved. The use of drag-chain conveyors to elevate the mate rial to the reactors is fairly standard in such
For the length of the sandwich belt travel, the material and its odours are sealed.
Much less mechanical wear is experienced compared to a drag-chain conveyor and
Properly controlled composting destroys pathogens, contains odours, and produces a stable material that is easily handled and stored. systems despite the fact that chain convey ors have high maintenance costs. Belt con veyors are also in wide use, but, due to their slope limitations, they require long travels that use more land area. These disadvan
tages were important, but the over-riding factor for the City of Guelph was the neces sity to contain odours; a belt conveyor would have been very difficult to enclose. The conveyor improvement that G&S proposed was a sandwich belt. Material in a sandwich belt is trapped between two pli able belts that travel parallel paths. Typi cally, material is tumbled onto one of the two belts at a point where its travel is hori zontal. Beyond the loading area, the path of the second belt converges with the first, squeezing the material between them. Their travel is redirected from a horizontal to a
vertical path and the material is carried up wards to the required elevation. The belt path is then returned to the horizontal, the two paths diverge, and the material is dumped.
maintenance costs are lower. Construction
The three steel Taulman reactor tanks,
with a combined capacity of 4,700 cubic metres, sit atop a reinforced concrete build ing that houses process equipment. The structure reaches 24 metres above ground. The tanks are supported on a cantilevered slab that forms the top of a circular ring wall on the concrete roof of the equipment build ing. The sandwich belt conveyor required careful coordination. The belt passes through an opening in the structural slab and several openings in the structural steel framework at various elevations, and is con nected to the mixer at the bottom and the
accumulator at the top. Many screw convey ors connect other areas, and close planning was required during installation to avoid conflicts with the process piping for the aera tion and exhaust off-gases. While control of odour-bearing gases was the primary consideration, G&S was able to make further refinements to the sys tem that will reduce operating costs. Composting process produces low-grade heat that will be useful to heat the opera tions building during the winter. Since these warm exhaust gases were also odourous, an air-to-air heat exchanger was designed, al lowing the exhaust system to remain sealed while its heat was transferred.
Of course, these odourous gases must finally be disposed of. Normally, there are three disposal methods for odourous exhaust gases; incineration, bio-filtering, and chemi cal scrubbing. All three entail further costs and none makes beneficial use of the ex haust stream.
Guelph's three steel reactor tanks near completion. Their combined capacity of 4,700 cubic metres is sufficient to handle fluctuations in supply quantity and quality. 46
A fourth alternative, used in the G&S design, was to re-route the gases to the plant's aeration tanks. The oxygen content of the gases is sufficient for aeration and could be supplied at a net energy saving by shutting down the existing aeration blow ers. The more important benefit, again, was odour elimination.Passage through the aera tion tanks removes the odour and the gas is released harmlessly to the atmosphere. For more information,
Circle reply card No. 132
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Money Down the Drain Today's tough economic conditions call for Engineers to review every decision. Even a "straightforward" one ■ such as which material to specify for storm sewers - can significantly effect development costs. Introducing Armtec's Ultra Flo®Splral Rib Pipe for today's storm sewer systems.
Ultra Flo® spiral rib pipe is an innovative, flexible
metal pipe which has been proven highly reliable in thousands of installations.
TmTi Construction Products
It's unique rib design has a low manning's "n" coefficient similar to rigid pipe materials. Ultra Flo is light weight, inexpensive, easy to get and easy to handle. Available in long lengths (12m) and
diameters of up to 2600 mm. It is available in
galvanized steel for normal conditions or Aluminized
Type II for more corrosive environments.
For more information, contact the Armtec office near you. Sales Offices: Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Reglna, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Guelph, Toronto, Ottawa, Quebec City, Montreal, Dartmouth, Sackvllle, St. John's, Bishop's Falls and Fresno, California.
Solving the needs of Canadian Engineers for over80 years. For more information, Circle reply card No. 133
Pulp & paper effluent
Water system can be used in P&P applications The Makonde Water System relies on a new concept in filtration technology, the basis of which is a preconditioning unit to trans form small particles, colloids, and even semi-insoluble materials into larger agglom erates which can be easily filtered using the patented filtration unit with a very low pres sure drop. The design of the system allows for the removal of particles down to as small as one micron with minimal pressure drop, and efficiencies in the 80-90% range. At 20 microns the removal efficiency is almost
• Removal of various contaminants to allow
recycle, particularly to showers with fine
there is only one configuration for all appli cations. However,since the technology has not been tested in all applications, it may be necessary to combine it with a pretreatment system to remove bulk materials. In other words, the system must be tested in each application before it can be considered to be suitable.
Pulp and Paper Applications In general the applications which have been identified to date are:
For many years the removal of small particles has been recognized as a means of reducing many forms of pollution from ef fluents. As an example, the use of talc in mills to control pitch has been practised for many years. Similarly, removal of very fine particles after clarification has been dem onstrated to remove certain contaminants
such as PCBs and PCP, which are highly surface active. The extremely high surface area of small particles means that their sur face charges attract many oppositely charged materials causing them to agglomerate. Previous attempts to remove very fine particles have been successful, but often the
• Removal of bacterial contamination.
equipment was very expensive, or it was necessary to use various chemicals, such as alum and various flocculant aids, which re
quired auxiliary equipment. The Makonde system can be easily in stalled in a very small working area, and sized to meet any hydraulic flow require ments. Because of the nature of the system
•Recovery of useful materials or chemicals. • Conservation of energy. Some particular applications are: 1) A major application of the system would be in white water recycling. The advan tages are obvious: removal of very fine par ticles which may plug fine shower nozzles; removal and destroying bacteria which cause slime; cleanup of contaminated systems. 2) Removal of bacteria from cooling water systems. This led to a very successful trial on a cooling water system at the Harwell Nuclear plant in England. The system was
GASURV^Ofi^dSI Gas detection technology for your personal protection The new GMI Gasurveyor 400 is designed for the latest worker safety iegislation on confinedspace entry and fire department appiications. The new range of Gasurveyor models combines a combustibie gas(CG)detector and a Confined Space Monitor(GSM)in one economicai unit. Detect up to four different gases,over six ranges, in combinations to suit your needs inciuding hydrocarbons, oxygen, carbon monoxide and hydrogen suifide. Standard features include time-weighted average(TWA),short-term exposure limit(STEL), peak hoid (PH)and data iogging. Easy to use and caiibrate, the Gasurveyor 400 family offers a single compact solution for improved safety and ieak detection. New for 1995 is the compact "Personal Surveyor" for confined space entry
applications. Call Heath today for information on this new safety product.
Coiisuftants y^iwited... creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses. 2085 Piper Lane
6923 Farrell Rd. S.E.
London, Ontario N5V 385
Calgary, Alberta T2i-I 0T3 (403)258-0151 Fax:(403)258-0577
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 134
Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Saskatoon, Sask.(306)242-1713 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9552 Misslssauga, Ont.(905)273-3040
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Classifieds I Labs I
SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS
Environmented Speciedists Wastewater Samplers Groundwaler Sampling Level Control & Fiowmetering Plant Air Clean Up Portable Test Equipment: pH,Turbidity
Suspended Solids, Og, D(J, Conductivity
INSTRUMENTS LTD. \ RAW
2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y lY7.Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588
For more information. Circle reply card No.160 contaminated with Legionelia bacteria, and
Managing Residuals for the Food Processing Industries
the level ofcontamination was reduced from
110,000 to 1000 CFU (colony-forming units)/ml after about 26 days. The unit was only operating on a partial stream which is why there was some lag-time. 3) Removal of fine particles and bacteria from process water entering critical areas such as bleaching, and papermill wet-end chemical make-up (coating and filler, etc.). 4) Removal and recycle of material from saveall cloudy leg to reduce the hydraulic
• Biosolids - beneficial revise
• Transportaticn • Land i^jplicaticn • Oflf-spec materials de^ackaging • Specializing in F.O.G.
ORGANIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
1-800-661-4613 / (416)747-6584
For more information. Circle reply card No.159
load on the filter. The filtrate can then be
reused in showers, etc.
5) Cleanup of vacuum seal-water for recy cle.
6) Cleanup and concentrate scrubber efflu ents, from lime kilns, for example. In the case of biologically active materi als, a final ozone disinfection system is used to kill any bacteria escaping the initial treat
High Pressure Water Jetting tting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services
ment. This ozone unit itself uses direct cur
Sponge Jet Cleaning
52 PRODUCTION DR. SCARBOROUGM, ONT. M1H 2X8
Tel:(416) 438-6706 Fax:(416) 438-1521
Waste Water Treatment
rent to generate the ozone, which is then applied through a revolutionary new diffu sion system. For more information, Circle reply card No. 153
For more information. Circle reply card No.158
WaterGroup Canada Ltd. WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
TERRATEC 1\^ ENVIRONMENTAL LTD.
— FILTERS, ION EXCHANGE, REVERSE OSMOSIS — ROTAMAT SCREENS, AERATORS, CLARIFIERS
Biosolids and Waste Utilization
265 INDUSTRIAL ROAD,CAMBRIDGE ONTARIO
• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spiils Response & Industrial Wastes.
For more information. Circle reply card No.157
Mail — P.O. Box 60069
Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2
THE ATLAS CORPORATION
Location — W.A. Johnson Resource
Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakviiie, Ont. L9T 2X5
For more information,
- Wellpoint Sytems - Eductor Systems - Deep Weii Systems
Circle reply card No. 136 -
- Groundwater Extraction Systems - Groundwater Remedial Systems - Groundwater Depressurizing
111 Ortona Court, Concord, Ontario L4K 3M3 Phone:(905) 669-6825 Fax:(416) 661-2516
For more information. Circle reply card No.156
QUAUTY FILTER SAND & GRAVEL CARBON - GARNET - ILMENITE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
Media & Coal Ltd.
20SHARP ROAD,R.R.«.BRANIFORD.ONIAHIO NSt5tS la;(519)751-1080 FAX:(519)751-0617
For more information,
Where your Concerns are our Concerns QUALin ♦ TURNAROUND ♦PRICE
5735 McA(jam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 (905)890-8566 1 -800-263-9040 Fax;(905)890-8575
Circle reply card No. 154 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Labs I Consultants Environmental Analysis Field Sampling Services
Air & Water Quality
1523 W 3rd Ave.
V6J 1J8 Fax 604*731-2386
Accredited for specific tests by CAEAL & SCO
Screening system aimed at comminutor replacement JWC Environmental have introduced their low-flow version Channel Monster® to
.OntidoD"™"' Qu« • UkefAtfS^'""
Setting the standard for
PROTECTION LABORATORIES INC.
* turnaround time
6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel; (905) 673-3255, FAX:(905) 673-7399
bridge the gap between Muffin Monster® channel units and the larger Channel Mon ster screening systems. Built on proven design principles which use a horizontally rotating screen to divert solids into a Muffin Monster grinder, the latest model fits mid-sized headworks and
pump station applications with channel widths ranging from 22" to 36". The new Channel Monster was designed with a drumshaped, rotating single-shaft screen that is integrated with the grinder as a single as sembly, resulting in a simplified version of larger Channel Monsters. The single-shaft screen also makes for fewer moving parts, resulting in lower maintenance. JWC Environmental
For more information, Circle reply card No. 161
Cyiin^d or AccftcBM
CoiJncIl of CanadM, Hew York SUieDOH end U.S.
// /f^r /V r £fiNATIONAL
Army Corps of Engineers lor specific tests registered
Quality Analytical Latxyafones
Laboratoires Anaiytlques de QuaM
with the Councii/Associetion.
NOVAUANN (Ontario) Inc. L$boniorm*/Ofneas In:
5540 McAdam Road
Mississauga, Onta^to yittiUBuga
Quelph Uexioo City
Toll Free: 1-800-S63-6266
ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES "QUALITY ASSURED—DELIVERY GUARANTEED" PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA Burlington, Ontario (905) 332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733
Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS
bupuiy 6 Sew.itji; 0
280 Pretty River Parkway
48 High Street (705) 726-3371
205 Dundas Street
Box 917, R.R.5
(613) 966*4243 Fax (613) 966-1168
Fax (705) 726-4391
programmable gas chromatograph HNU Systems has re-designed its compact gas chromatograph, the 301-DP, to create the new EC2200. An enhanced multipoint sequencer option expands the coverage area for this fully automated air monitor. Multi ple detector options allow for custom con figurations to meet specific requirements for a broad range of applications. The new EC2200 features an automated
Soiio VVasie Disposal • Ml
(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445*0968
Fax (613) 822*1573
air sampling system, auto calibration, printer/plotter, pre-column backflush (mini mizes analysis time), and a stable oven, which has a temperature range to 300"'C. The EC2200 also features alarm relay con tacts and analog outputs. HNU Systems, Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 162
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Consultants Environmental Auditing and Management Planning
Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.
design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting
Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada
225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect
Light body control valve The new "Light Globe Style" CF control valve incorporates a flow efficient, stream lined design that provides lighter weight construction than the standard globe style
Water Pollution Control
Wafer Supply Water Resources TOROtrrO (416) 497-8600 WELLAND (905) 735-3659 OSHAWA (905)434-2544
"C" control valve. The CF control valve's standard features include: Buna-N Seat and
0-Ring,rust inhibitive paint orepoxy coated cast iron body, bronze seat ring with stain less steel optional, bottom plug to drain lower section, free-standing support, and 125# and 250# flanged connection. Flomatic is manufacturing this reduced port valve in sizes 3" through 6" for a vari ety of applications including basic control valve, pressure reducing, back pressure, pressure relief and solenoid control. Flomatic Corporation For more Information, Circle reply card No. 163
Sludge dewatering The ECO/MiniPress Belt Filter System was developed to dewater sludge for smaller plants with high reliability, low energy con sumption and low cost. The skid mounted, pre-piped, pre-wired system is designed for unattended automatic operation. Installa tion may be mobile or permanent. Features include total system concept, mechanical tension-guided belt tracking, mechanical spring assisted belt tensioning, and rugged,
Circle reply card No. 164
(705) 560-5555 (Dennis Consultants)
BROCKVILLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmlth Consultants)
'Environmental professionals working with Industry to improve water quality'
Aquatic Contaminant Remediation
Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering
Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments
PO Box 2205, Stn B, St. Cathorines, Ontario. Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905) 641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519) 383-7822
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SERVICES
INTERNATIONAL BRITISH COLUMBIA SASKATCHEWAN ALBERTA
biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects
Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems
• focusing on degradation of pfasticlzers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs
450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone;(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222
Instrumentation Geneq's new catalogue of environmental instrumentation is available free of charge. Comprehensive, its 68 pages cover more than 400 products related to different fields such as water and air quality, ground water, data acquisition, meteorology, wind, GPS, ozone, gas, decontamination, pressure, 'sound, radiation, metal locating, water sam pling, light, flow measurement, and humid ity. Geneq Inc. For more Information,
Land Development Tunnels and Shafts
stainless steel corrosion resistant construc
tion. Applications include chemical and petrochemical plants, metal finishing, steel producing, tanners and food processing. Eco Equipment Inc. For more Information,
Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services
Bluewing Environmental Services Ltd. Environmental Assessments
• Site Remediation
Storage Tank Removal Regulatory Approvals
■AirQuality Surveys • OH&S,WHIMS Training • Design Engineering
701 Evans Avenue, Suite 701, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 1A3
Circle reply card No. 165 Environrtiental Science & Engineering, November 1994
C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,
Coiiingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9
New elastomer compounds
•Waslewater Collection & Treatment - Hazardous & Solid Waste Management - Environmental
a^HiLi ENGINEERING LTD.
-Water Supply Strategies -Water Resources & Environmental Planning - AnalyticalTestIng - Field Sampling & Flow Measurement
(519)579-3500 (403)237-9300 (604)684-3282 (416)675-7170
HE LEADING PROVIDERS OF COMPLETE, INTEGRATED
and fiuoroeiastomer which were introduced
ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES IN NORTH AMERICA esiMisfied 7954
•Occupational Health Services
Clayton ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS
Seven new elastomer stator compounds for the R&M 1000 pump enhance its chemical compatibility, abrasion resistance and tem perature range. The addition of available eiastomeric compounds broadens the range of applications for the positive displacement pump in the chemical processing, food and general industrial mrrkets. The pump is designed to handle clean, clear liquids as well as thick, abrasive and corrosive fluids and slurries, even with viscosities over i,000,000 cps. Four additional nitriie com pounds, a food grade fiuoroeiastomer, Hypaion and Urethane have been added to the original nitriie, natural rubber, EPDM
6 Lansing Square, Suite 223 North York, Metropoiitan Toronto Ontario, Canada M2J 175 Tei.(416) 493-7444 Fax:(416) 491-2323 Contact: Dr. Nasrat Hi]azi
Toronto • Windsor, ON • Detroit• New YoridNewark • Atlanta » San Francisco • Los Angeles • Honolulu • Minneapolis Birmingham, U.K." London, U.K. • Southampton, U.K. • Cateshead, U.K.
with the pump in 1992. Robbins & Myers, Inc. For more information,
Circle reply card No. 166
Software programs to simulate pollution scenarios
Toronto Tel; (416) 441-4111
Fax: (416) 441-4131
• ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS S. PLANNING • MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Prairie Region Calgary Tel: (403) 278-9881
• PLANT DECOMMISSIONING
Fax: (403) 277-8902
• SITE REMEDIATION
• SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
• WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION
. Offices across Canada and Overseas
Pacific Region Vancouver Tel: (804) 525-9333 Fax: (604)525-9458
DllLLOn Professional Consulting Services • Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax
Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Yellowknife • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6N5 (4 16) 229-4646
COMPREHENSIVE CONSULTING SERVICES IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INTERNATIONALLY
Offices throughout Canada. the United States. Europe and Australia. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA
Tel; (604) 298-6623 Fax: (604) 298-5253 Tel: (905) 567-4444 Fox: (905) 567-6561
Transoft International has developed the
Fiuidyn line of programs capable of simu lating and analysing accidental pollution scenarios in order to create an effective ac
tion plan for dealing with the spiii/ieak/expiosion, etc. The programs take into account ail topographical and meteorological param eters in a high precision numerical scheme. Including such urban features as tunnels, residential areas, and buildings, fluid dy namic simulations for pollution dispersion of gases and particles over hilly terrain or under cloud cover are easily manipulated by non-technieai personnel after only 3 days of training. Because this type of simulation is very time consuming, it was only available to those few companies who had the comput ing and personnel resources to commit. However, with new advances in computing power, this program is now within the reach of a user with a 486, Pentium processor or workstation. The program is endowed with an interactive user-friendly environment that allows an environmental engineer who is neither a programming specialist nor a fluid dynamics specialist to input data, perform calculations and output results. In addition to the commitment to a user-friendly inter face, the underlying code remains cutting edge to ensure longevity of the program. Frantech
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 167
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Product Review "PROFIBUS patent" free of charge PROFIBUS is the standard for communica
tions between automation devices in the
field level. The Automation Group of Sie mens AG, Nuremberg, is a member of the PROFIBUS User Organization (PNO). It grants all users a free, non-exclusive right to share its patent 36 43 979 entitled "De
0 GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.
Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits
• Environmental Engineering •Training programs > Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design > Air monitoring •Air emission control « Indoor air quality • Environmental audits > Noise monitoring and control • WHMIS > Asbestos
2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301
MIssissauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada ♦ (905) 858-4424
terministic access method for data transmis
sion according to the token principle". The patent contains elements which are used In
Gore Sr Sfcorrie Limited
the PROFIBUS field bus.
This right to share applies as long as the application of the user meets the PROFIBUS specification. To satisfy this requirement it is sufficient to implement either DIN 19245 or another PNO approved directive. Siemens Electric Limited
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 168
Water• Wastewater• Water Resources• Air• Waste
Management• Energy Recovery• Environmental Planning Drainage • Laboratory Services—Analytical and Process R&D Nortti Yortt, Ontario, M2J 5B6
(416)499-9000 (416)499-0090 + ext.(416) 499-4687 fax
Ottawa• Thorold • Bam'e• Cambridge MIssissauga• Kingston • London
Controller for water well environment PUMP
255 Consumers Road
INTERNATIONAL WATER SUPPLY LTD. MONTREAL
GROUNDWATER TECHNOLOGY SPECIALISTS
Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years
342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,
Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138
Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4I\/1 4T5 Urv3^ Voltage .-ft-Kiet
(MK-S. iNC. Msyr.'oir. Vs»,
ISIJagger Hims ■I LIMITED
EHviroumemtat Consulting Engineers
The PCS-1500 is a solid state technology controller for the water well environment,
designed to provide protection against low water, overload, rapid cycle, over voltage and under voltage. By using the pressure or level switch on a new or existing instal lation, the controller protects the pump and motor from conditions that cause premature failure by shutting the system down imme diately when adverse conditions are detected and automatically restarting the system when it is safe to do so.
For both existing and new systems, the controller is easy to install without calibra tion as it requires only "Power-in/Poweroiit" connection between the power switch and the pump, and a connection to the pres sure or level switch. Six separate easy-toread indicator lights with full text on the front panel signal the exact status of the water system, enabling a number of war ranty service calls to be resolved over the phone. The circuitry and solid state relay assure soft starts and stops of the pump motor by creating gentler current changes, increasing the life of the pump and motor.
• Engineering Geology
• Seivage System Design
• Geotechnical Engineering
•Environmental Audit & Site Remediation
• Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources
ST. CATHARINES OFFICE
Toll Free (BOO) 263-74i9
Toll Free (800) 668-2598
Environmental Management Consultants
for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.
Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener Cobalt
(519) 743-6111 (519) 743-3330 (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750
Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5
WFONFAINE, CDWIE, BUR^RO &/ASSOCIATES LIMITED Consulting Engineers
Available for both 230V and 115V AC
and up to 3 HP(15 Amps), single phase. A special terminal is included for motors us ing a separate running capacitor. Trilogy Controls, Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 169
WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT • STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADS AND BRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR, ONTARIO, N8X4L4
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
FAX; (519) 966-5523
(519)680-3580 FAX; (519) 680-3582
Product Review Recycled freight containers provide good secondary containment
WE CAN'T CHANGE HISTORY! BUT WE HELP YOU CORRECT IT! WITH OUR COMPLETE TESTING FACILITIES
USE OF PROVEN
MINERAL PROCESSING AND
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P O Bag 4300. Lakcficld. Oniano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax. 705-652-6365
DIVISION OF FALCONBRIDCE LTD.
SEPARATION. DISSOLVED CONTAMINANT REMOVAL CAEAL
PROVIDING PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR SITg REMEDIATION, WASTE AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT
In 1983, Porta-Mini Systems of Toronto in troduced its portable mini-warehouse con cept. The refurbishment of ex-ocean freight containers led to the recycling of these strong, weatherproof and portable units as instant warehouses. Rented to clients, at ground level access, these vandal-resistant containers require no special ground prepa ration.
Standard sizes are 20-ft x 8-ft x 8-ft 6-
Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham,Ontario L3R 4B9 (905)475-7270 • Fax:(905)475-5994
MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geoiogy •Environmental audits
MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975
•Site decommissioning & reliabilitation
in, and 40-ft with the same width and height. Since these containers were built originally to ISO standards, they are easily handled and internationally accepted by various means of transport. Trains, ships, helicop ters, fork lifts, transport trailer flat decks, tilt-n-load trailers and chassis, all have car rying capabilities, offering an endless vari ety of specialty equipment and accessories. The concept of modular use is not a new one, but the 'recycle' feature of this one is environmentally friendly. European, Asian and African countries ail employ this easily assembled, transportable, strong, weather proof and modular method of secondary con tainment. Porta-Mini Systems For more Information,
Circle reply card No. 170
New meters for higher mass flowrate measurement
Monaghan CONSULTING ENGINEERS • SURVEYORS • PLANNERS
Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East
Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby
Ttiornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4
New i-in. and 1 1/2-in. sizes have been added to the Tru-Mass Coriolis Mass Me ter line. These 2000 Series meters include
the new 50MM2000 Mass Flow Computer. The new sizes have been developed for higher mass flowrate measurement appli cations and mass flow measurement of high viscosity fluids. These applications include high fiowrates of up to 2000 ib/min and/or high viscosity fluid applications that create excessively high pressure drops if used with
CIVIL/ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING' CONSULTANTS WATER SUPPLY' POLLUTION CONTROL - DRAINAGE SCADA' ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES • ENERGY AUDITS
SIMCOE EIMGINEERINB GROUP LIMITEO
Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 5W9 • Tel: 905-831-1715
Photographic & Video Documentation 306-146 Laird Dr.. Toronto, Ont. M4G 3V7 416-424-26^
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Product Review smaller size meters.
The single tube, double helix, centre bal anced design of the meters provides for bal anced flow, lower pressure drop, conven ient self drainage without tube blockages and vibration immunity. The Flow Compu ter features a user-friendly menu driven sys tem to allow easy set-up and operation and to provide greater versatility in process ap
plications. Fischer & Porter Co. For more information,
oil loss. It produces a highly concentrated sludge, with no oil content. It consumes very little water during operation because of the partial discharge design. The sludge is automatically discharged at pre-set inter vals. Clean oil and separated water are discharged continuously under pressure by built-in paring disc pumps. Alfa Laval Separation Inc. For more information.
New centrifuge turns waste oil into fuel Alfa Laval's new Model WHPX series cen
trifuge enables industrial plants to recycle their own waste oil. The Model WHPX Is
a self-cleaning, disc-stack type centrifuge which offers maximum throughput and an average processing capacity of 25 gallons per minute. The WHPX operates with virtually no
Circle reply card No. 182
Circle reply card No. 171
Positive displacement meter
The 1/4-in Mini Major has been upgraded to 316 S.S. This positive displacement
Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963
meter is designed specifically for low flows from 1.3 to 48 GPH with working pressure to 400 psi. The meter is available with several pis tons for the following applications: aluminum piston/light oils, ebonite/water
• WASTE MGMT.
• PLANT COMPLIANCE AUDITS • UST REMOVAL
• INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE • AIR QUALITY • STACK SAMPLING • TOXICITY TESTING
• SAMPLING & ANALYSIS
• ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS
• SnE CHARACTERIZATION
• IMPACT STUDIES • RISK ASSESSMENT
121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090
and Ryton for miscellaneous. The Mini Major is available with register or high reso lution pulser/1640 contact = 1 USG.
THORBURN PENNY Consulting Engineers
ABB Kent Meters, Inc. For more information.
Circle reply card No. 181
•Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems
• Instrumentation & Controls
• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control
• Environmental Planning
• Water Supply
MILTON; STONEY CREEK: OTTAWA:
Tel Tel Tel
COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE
The Model B10-C generator provides up to 10 watts at 12 VDC from the catalytic (flameless) combustion of propane or natu
ral gas. With a conversion efficiency of 80%, the unit is designed to provide reli able power for remote site applications.
Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA
t o tt e n sims
TEL:(90S)668-9363• WHITBY • Fax (905)668-0221
COBOURC • TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO
BRACEBRIDGE • OTTAWA • SAULTSTE. MARIE • SIMCOE
C.D. Nova Ltd.
For more information.
Circle reply card No. 172
UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007
Zirconia oxygen analyzer The new Model 1100 Zirconia Oxygen Analyzer for in-situ monitoring is designed to continuously measure oxygen concentra tion in flue gases on utility power genera
PLANNING & ENGINEERING
tors, packaged boilers, and within numer ous industrial processes. Employing a di rect-insertion zirconia oxide sensor and mi
ATLANTIC CANADA - CENTRAL CANADA - PRAIRIES • PACIFIC COAST
croprocessor controlled display unit, the in strument offers rapid response, high reliabil ity and pin-point accuracy. This model fea
Innovative Consulting in
tures automatic calibration, non-sampling
operation, menu-driven control unit, fault detection, multi-line liquid crystal display, serial communications, analog outputs, and available options including variable probe
lengths for user customization. Land Combustion
For more information.
XCG Environmental Services Inc.
Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.
Tel:(519)741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario
'Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Lan(j Application of Wastewater 'Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments
• Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment • Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization » Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. » Hydrogeology and Groundwater Investigations
Circle reply card No. 173 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
Occupational health & safety
The roots of sick building syndrome Figure 1 - Typical HVAC System RETURN FAN
SUPPLY FAN SUPPLY
OUTSIDE AIR DUCT FILTER HEATING COOL NO
Violation ofgood engineering and
billion each year in lost productivity. Figure 2 shows the overlapping symptomology for Sick Building Syndrome. The figure shows the effects, such as eye irritation, dry throat, sinus problems,cough ing, etc. that are associated with SBS, can be caused by any of the indoor pollutants described earlier. For example, formalde hyde or moulds and fungi can give you ex actly the same symptoms of headache or of sinus problems. A study of staff who believe their work rate would improve with cleaner, fresher air was carried out by Harris Research Opin ion Polls. Results, covering countries such as Germany, France and Australia, show a level above 50%. A similar study on the frequency of complaints to management about unsatisfactory temperatures in offices
Regulations for the European community
is multi factorial, with no specific causes and overlapping symptomology. Building related illnesses(BRI)are char acterized by clinical science and laboratory findings. They frequently involve an infec tion and one, two or more people are af flicted. The affliction runs for days, weeks, or may cause death. An example is Le gionnaires disease. Legionnaires disease
40% or more of the staff complain about unsatisfactory temperatures in their offices. If we look at the question of tempera tures, it is important to recognize that ther mal comfort depends on numerous interact ing variables. Temperature is dependent on
will be discussed.
refers to the 1976 outbreak of an illness
latent heat, conduction, and radiation.
Energy conservation and indoor air qual ity are important factors related to SBS. An HVAC system, as shown in Figure 1, sup plies air to the occupied environment. The
which resembled pneumonia and affected 182 people at an American Legion Conven tion. At this convention,34 people died and the organism legionella pneumophila was
Other variables that are important are hu midity, air movement,clothing, activity and movement. These interacting variables can
return air mixes with the outside air to be
later identified. The Centre for Disease
come the supply air to the space. This mixed air is conditioned by using filters and also temperature control with heating or cooling
Control has estimated that this bacterium
For thermal comfort, it is known that a
strikes 25,000 - 45,000 persons each year
relative humidity less than 20% will result in drying out of mucous membranes of na sal passages, throat and eyes. It is also known that dry conditions are more suscep
operating principles causes many air quality problems. This arti cle will cover a description of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), and Build ing Related Illnesses (BRI). lAQ legisla tion from both the North American perspec tive, which is ASHRAE 62-1989 and the
in the USA.
show that it is not uncommon to have 20 -
be combined into a term called "Effective
dust pollutants, we must include allergens, house mites, pollens, feathers, danders, to bacco smoke, etc. For microbes, pollutants include bacteria, protozoans, fungi and vi
The Sick Building Syndrome may be caused by other factors besides indoor pol lutants. These factors are temperature, rela tive humidity, air movement,lighting, noise, radiation, odour perception, overcrowding, office ergonomics, personal conflicts and psychological factors. The preferred course of action for BRI is based on source specific. The goal is to eliminate the proven source of the problem. For SBS it is necessary because of the multi factorial, non-specific causes, to develop a course of action based on a building sys tems approach. The goal is to simultane ously reduce the burden of all potential pol lutants. A further step is the incremental improvements by source control if neces
will occur on building surfaces which will
Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is char acterized by a transient state of sickness, i.e. it often disappears on leaving the build ing. The symptoms affect 15-20% or more
The extent of the Sick Building Syn drome has been studied by the World Health Organization for new and remodelled build ings. It has been reported that 30% of these
lead to microbial contamination and struc
coils and the use of humidifiers to add mois ture to the air.
lAQ issues have been the subject of nu merous technical articles and reports. In door pollutants fall into four categories: gases and vapours, fibres, dust, and mi crobes. For gases and vapours, there are more than 300 compounds ofthe YOG (vola tile organic compound) classification. In door pollutants also include inorganics,such
as COj,CO,SOj, NO^ and NHj. Eor fibres, materials include asbestos, fibrous glass, man-made fibres, cotton and textiles. For
tible to microbial infections. For relative
humidity greater than 70%, condensation SICK BUILDING SYNDROME OVERLAPPING SYMPTOMOLOGY Inorganic Chemicals
Eye Irritation Dry Throat Runny Nose
Organic Chemica s
tural damage. ASHRAE recommends rela tive humidity levels of 30-60%. Our expe rience recommends relative humidity in winter conditions of 20-30% and for sum
mer conditions, a relative humidity of 40-
TABLE 1 LIGHT
of the building occupants. The symptoms for SBS include headaches, fatigue, eye, nose, and throat irritation and upper respi ratory complaints. Sick Building Syndrome 56
If we look at indoor pollutants and con sider the sources of VOC, there are many common sources in buildings. Sources of
buildings could be classified as sick build ings. A study carried out by the Environ mental Protection Agency showed that poor lAQ costs the American economy $10-12
• human perspiration • plants, insects, microbes • wood products, binders, preservatives
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
By Howard D. Goodfellow, Ph.D., P.Eng.* • insulation material
• fabrics - clothing, furnishings, dry clean ing residue • paints, solvents, adhesives, hobby materials • combustion - fires, smoking, CO • health care products - sprays • cleaning products - detergents, pesticides • contaminants in outdoor air
Other sources are new carpets and ad hesives, new fumishings, paints, lacquers, and cleaning solvents. The adverse health effects of individual VOCs are known, but
the significance of aggregate concentrations is unknown. The control techniques for VOCs include selection and off gassing practices for different building materials and fumishings. An option for control is ad equate dilution ventilation. For new build ings, bakeouts with simultaneous heating and ventilating to increase offgassing rates can be used. For specific applications, it is necessary to use a dedicated exhaust sys tem.
The data available on emission rates in
units of mg/mVper hour for carpets and par ticle board, wall coverings, adhesives and paint have been developed. Data show emissions for carpets and actual particle board and wall coverings are typically, an order of magnitude, lower than emissions from adhesives and paints. lAQ Guidelines and Standards There are numerous lAQ guidelines and standards. The World Health Organization in 1984 published lAQ guidelines.
ing that by 1997 there will be substantial
include smoke free
workplaces, implementing indoor air legis lation, implementing product emission regu lations for building materials and fumish ings, developed investigative protocol, con duct research on risk, and launch public awareness and education initiatives for the
workplace and home. These regulations will impact on hospitals and health care facili ties.
Another document which covers issues
of lAQ is the CSA Document 317.2-M9I,
entitled "Special Requirements for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems in Health Care Facilities"''".
'President Goodfellow Consultants Inc.
(GGI), HBI - Canada, Ivlississauga,
Ontario. Dr. Goodfellow also serves on
ES&E's Advisory Board.
The unique features of the CEC guide line are that ventilation levels have been
Based on a review of ASFIRAE 62-1989, Goodfellow et al'" recommended the follow
defined for three levels (10% dissatisfied, 20% and 30%). The CEC guideline also accounts for the quality of outdoor air and for the pollution load caused by fumishings and building materials. The CEC guide line develops a definition for the olf which is the air pollution from one sedentary per
ing areas for further scientific work:
son. The unit of olf can be used to define a
tiveness. This procedure uses design equa tions to calculate required ventilation rates.
air quality O
-/ i i ! 1
C|=112 (in (PD}-5.98
is an Ontario Government Interministerial
improvements in lAQ in homes, workplaces, institutions and public places.
ards were met. Also, more than 8000 chemi cals were identified, but all of them were at very low concentrations. The results of this were that the buildings still have a prob
tion, How, temperature, and % outdoor air. The procedure also specifies the filtration requirements, including type of contami nant, type of air cleaners and percent effec
neers) has published the 62-1989 lAQ guidelines'". The Commission of the Euro pean Community (CEC), has published a draft of lAQ guidelines'^'. In Ontario, there
miers Council on Health and Well-being (January 1993)'"', a target has been set stat
ventilation, airflow between rooms, and
design and operation. The background of the work by CEC was a presentation by Prof. Fanger at a Healthy Buildings Conference in 1988 where he dis cussed the frustration of problem buildings. It was reported that, in many of these prob lem buildings, all of the ventilation stand
recirculation and factors such as filter loca
ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engi
Committee that examined lAQ issues. There has also been a report published by the Ontario Premiers Council. In the Pre
air qual ity, health aspects of lAQ, perceived air quality, air pollution sources, outdoor air quality, ventilation effectiveness, required
The ASHRAE 62-1989 Standard for ac
ceptable indoor air quality suggests two ap proaches. The first approach is a ventila tion rate procedure, which provides venti lation air of the specified quality and quan tity to the space. The second approach is the indoor air quality procedure which achieves lAQ within a space by controlling known and specified contaminants. The ventilation rate procedure is based on an occupancy of seven persons per 1000 sq. feet and outside air requirements of 20 cfm per person. The lAQ procedure is based on establishing acceptable contaminant lev els(health, comfort,odour)for the occupied space. This procedure accounts for
PERCEIVED AIR QUALITY (Cj)
Figure 3 - Relationship between % Dissatisfied and Perceived Air Quality 1. Operating/Maintenance Booklet in lay man's terms.
2. Easy maintenance of HVAC system. 3. Assess effectiveness of different types of air cleaners.
4. Standard protocol to measure ventilation effects. 5. Establish emission rates for different sources.
6. Verification of computer models (outside air supply). 7. Incorporate ASHRAE 62-1989 in build ing codes. The design documentation for HVAC systems must answer the questions of what is required, who will receive documents, who will keep it current and performance verification reports. Commission of the
European Communities The Commission of the European Com munities has developed a report on indoor air quality and its impact on man. The lAQ report is No. 1 1 entitled "Guidelines for Ventilation Requirements in Buildings". The contents of this report include indoor
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
pollution source. For example, a confer ence room table could have a pollution source with a strength of 3 olf. Using the concept of olf and based on bioeffluents from more than 1000 persons, and judged by 168 subjects, it is possible to establish a rela tionship between % dissatisfied and venti lation rates.
A unit called decipol is defined as a ven tilation rate of 10 1/s for one olf. This defi
nition is based on the assumption of a steady state and complete mixing. Table 1 shows
the comparison of source strength and per ceived level for units of light, noise, and air pollution.
Figure 3 shows the relationship between perceived air quality expressed by the per centage of dissatisfied and expressed in decipol. If we look at the three levels of perceived air quality designated 10%, 20% and 30%,
it is possible to calculate the required ven tilation rate in litres per second. The equa tions for calculating ventilation are for fac tors of health and for comfort. The equaContinued overleaf 57
Air Quality, cont'd. tion for the calculation of the ventilation rate
Indoor air quality surveys
required for health is shown below.
By Paul Klawunn and Leon Vainer
In the formula: c,
• • G •
= ventilation rate required for health (1/s) = pollution load of chemicals (pg/m^) = allowable concentration of
chemical (pg/m') •
= outdoor concentration of
= ventilation effectiveness
chemical at air intake (pg/m )
The equation for the ventilation for com fort based on sensory pollution load is shown below. In the formula:
£ . -1Ci - c„ e,
= ventilation rate required for comfort (1/s)
• G = sensory pollution load (olO • C, = perceived indoor air quality desired (decipol) • = perceived outdoor air quality at air intake (decipol) •
An Indoor Air Quality survey, or NOVAMANN International Inc.
= ventilation effectiveness
The required ventilation rate for lAQ is based on the maximum value for either health or comfort.
Figure 4 shows the corresponding decipol scale and the different parameters. For example, it shows that a decipol scale of 0.01 corresponds to outdoor air at the top of a mountain. For decipol 0.1, this corre sponds to outdoor air in a town. Decipol 1.0 corresponds to a healthy building and decipol 10 or larger corresponds to a sick building. DECIPOL SCALE
decipol 100 1-
lAQ as it is commonly called, is a term that can be applied to a wide variety of tests, or groups
of tests conducted at locations as diverse as
factories, hospitals, or office buildings. Being somewhat similar to, or, on occa sion, part of a full environmental audit, an lAQ is generally conducted in three distinct stages. The first stage is considered an in formation gathering stage and an on site visit is almost always necessary. This portion is sometimes done concurrently,or on the same visit as the next phase. The second stage may involve some air testing if necessary, and the final stage includes making and im plementing some recommendations. In practice, each investigation has specific cir cumstances and may require a certain amount of flexibility. This may be in the number of on-site visits, the air testing re quirements, or certain modifications to the HVAC, with follow-up air testing sessions. Upon arriving on site, lAQ profession als begin their investigations with an inter view of several people, or groups of people. This may include both management and non-management personnel in the "problem area" as well as building maintenance em ployees. The purpose of the interviews is to determine the nature and frequency of the symptoms from affected individuals. At this stage it is important to establish the severity of any suspected air quality "problem" in terms of the number of peo ple affected. The type of survey conducted will often depend on whether the symptoms are widespread, or isolated to a select group and location. Discussions with management will often yield some insight into the workplace atmosphere for such conditions
as employee satisfaction with work, work load, and the level of stress in the affected area - as these factors may impact on the
lAQ. A questionnaire is commonly used as the primary information gathering tool at this stage. Finally, a discussion with build ing maintenance personnel and an inspec tion of the air handling system and mainte nance logs can often help narrow down the investigative focus. The second stage of an lAQ can be con troversial. Depending on information ac cumulated in the first stage of the study, sampling may or may not be initiated. In lieu of any conclusive evidence from the first stage of the investigation, however, some sampling is almost always done. A basic study usually includes some assessment of the ventilation efficiency and measurement of selected comfort parameters and poten tial contaminants. There are a large number of tests for specific contaminants available; however, economics and justification from the first phase of the lAQ usually limit the amount of testing done. The final stage of the lAQ includes the development and implementation of recom mendations that are based on results from
earlier phases of the survey. Often, the rec ommendations can include such things as refinements to the ventilation system in terms of maintenance or system distribution, installing exhaust ventilation for processes which may be generating contaminants in ternally, or conducting additional routine monitoring. Although, in principle, this rudimentary outline of an lAQ is simple to follow, the investigation is rarely straightforward in practice. The causes behind many indoor air quality complaints remain obscure even after an lAQ, as the study of indoor air and its effect on the occupants is still in its in fancy.
Human expiration Combustion product Sewer gas
Direct Reading Bag collection/GC
Carbon Monoxide Methane
Direct Reading or
Bag collection/GC Outdoor air, town
Personal Care Products
Paint, Wet Copier
Outdoor air, mountain
Wood, Paper, Textiles
Electronic Air cleaners
Figure 4 - Decipol Scaie for Different Perceived Air Quaiities.
Many air problems in offices and health care facilities are covered by poor engineer ing and operating practices. It is recom mended that the lowest cost solution is a
pro-active monitoring program combined with good engineering practice and a wellmanaged maintenance program. For more information and references,
Circle reply card No. 250
Solid SorbenUHPLC Colourimetric Indicator
Direct Reading Colourimetric indicator
Paper Handling Processes
Filter collection/ Gravimetric
Commonly Tested Air Parameters For more information, Circle reply card No. 251
IVIoLher Nature is becoming second nature to us. That's because
we've always seen ourselves as tenants too and why we endeavour to leave the land better than we found it.
We begin land rehabilitation by excavating the land. Instead of
stockpiling the topsoil, we carefully place it on the side slopes of previous excavations. This quick use of the soil
prevents it from becoming sterile and encourages the micro-organisms that are naturally present to continue
We're getting everything ready for the next tenants. their life giving ways.
will eventually include a 600 acre
if we can be of any service to
At our Milton quarry alone, we
lake (stocked with fish), as well as
you, please contact; Sarah Lowe,
have restored 80 acres of previously
many more miles of treed shoreline
Property and Re
developed land back to nature and
for every tenant to enjoy.
we've added a chalet and baseball
Now, and for years to come.
diamond for public use. Soon, another 50 acres will be added. It
Our door is always open.
For more information, Circle reply card No 142
Pulp & paper industry update
By Ronald Y. Oberlander*
Uncommon approaches to pulp & paper common problems
The forest products industry plays
an extremely important role in the Canadian economy. One out of every 17 Canadians, almost one quarter of a million people, work in the for est products industry. Three hundred and fifty of our communities are highly depend ent on forests for their economic well-be
ing. The forest sector is the largest con tributor to Canada's trade surplus. This in dustry contributes $19 billion to Canada's annual balance of trade - more than is gen erated by all other resource sectors com bined.
This vital Canadian industry has under gone a fundamental restructuring. In the face of growing global competition and throughout the North American recession, Canadian producers had
ment, but the spending will not generate a return on capital. Meeting these targets and covering these costs makes it even harder to make money. Fibre supply has always seemed like a major advantage for resource-rich Canada. But we do not take it for granted by any means. Ninety-four percent of Canada's forests are publicly-owned. Harvesting and regeneration levels are regulated by the for est management agreements with our re gional governments.
on virgin fibre and has not been focused on recycling. In 1989, only one newsprint mill in Canada was recycling; just five years later, 23 mills are producing recycled prod uct, and this is in a country with a very small "urban forest". Not only does Canada recy cle its own paper waste, but we now import four million tonnes of recovered paper an nually.
Much of Canada's forests will never be
America. At the same time, we remain a
harvested; only half is considered commer cially viable for producing forest products, and only one-half of one percent of that is harvested in a year. And I should point out that two thirds of the fibre for our pulp in-
major exporter of virgin fibre newsprint, which helps to satisfy the fibre needs of na tions with significant recycling programs. Overall, the Canadian pulp and paper in dustry is stronger and more focused, having become more competi tive through the reces sion. The healthy growth in consumption we have been seeing this year is finally translating into sustain able pricing improve
to sink or swim, as news
print prices plummeted to a sixty-year low in real terms.
Collectively, we lost $4 billion between 1991
and 1993 - plus another $ 1 billion in restructuring charges. That's how tough it has been. Each of us had to focus on pro ductivity and efficiency improvements and, yes,
even our survival. Col
lectively, we have be come much more com
dustry comes from either saw-mill residue
petitive. At Abitibi-Price, for instance, we over
hauled our company; we shed non-core busi nesses, representing half of our revenues. At the same time, we and other Canadian producers downsized and slashed corporate overheads, reduced manufacturing costs, in creased productivity and boosted tonnes per employee across the industry by about a third. We improved efficiency, enhanced quality and consistency and increased recy cle capacity. As a result, we survived. On the environmental front our industry has been faced with some very steep costs about $3 billion since 1989, yet we have major capital expenditures ahead to meet new compliance standards for mill emis sions and effluent by the end of 1995. In Canada, our industry plans environmental
spending of over $500 million in 1994, and a further $700 million in 1995. This in
vestment is essential to protect the environ
â&#x20AC;˘President and Chief Executive
Officer, Abitibi-Price 60
At Abitibi-Price, we have come from no
where in 1990 to being one of the largest producers of recycled newsprint in North
or recovered waste material.
Canada has set aside 12.5 percent of the entire world's protected land areas and is committed to expanding these protected ar eas. Incidentally, the 74 million hectares already protected is twice the size of Ger many. Canadians have very strong ecologi cal values and our respect for our lakes and forests is second to none. We operate in government controlled forests, and see our selves as responsible partners. Our industry has made considerable progress towards sustainable development. My company and other forest users are par ticipating with governments in a Model Forest Program. This program has been designed under Canada's Green Plan for a Healthy Environment to develop forests for sustainable development, multiple-use and bio-diversity. These Model Forests cover a combined area of six million hectares or
60,000 square kilometres. And what about recycling? Again, given our tremendous forest resources, there may be an impression that Canada relies totally
We are well
placed to benefit from economic growth and improving global news print markets. All of us - to vary ing degrees - face in creasingly rigorous en vironmental legisla tion. And while it is possible to meet these standards through current technologies, the cost is enormous, making it even tougher to achieve a decent return on capital. Surely there are more innovative and cost effec
tive technologies that could be developed? We are more likely to arrive at such solu tions by collectively pooling our substan tial R&D funds and expertise for the task. Taking a collaborative approach may be an unusual step for this industry. But, while the outlook for the next few years is buoy ant, we face common challenges over the long term and the time has come for un common approaches.
Photo: The P&P industry has spent $3 billion on environmental projects since 1989 yet will still have to spend S500 million by the end of 1995 on mill emission and effluent improve ments. In Bale Comeau,Quebec,Quno Cor poration Is installing this EIMGO Carrousel system for their 1300 tpd newsprint mill which treats 80,000 mVday,of mill effluent.
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
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• Clarifiers & thickeners
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Solids-contact and flocculating clarifiers Ion-exchange systems Dissolved air flotation systems Low-speed aspirating aerators • Elastox® membrane diffusers
• Carrousel® biological oxidation systems • Granular media filters
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than fifty years experience in the industry's production and waste handling processes, EIMCO can provide services that range from preliminary testing and flow sheet development to turnkey installation of complete treatment systems. If your plans include an upgrade or expansion of your plant's treatment facilities we invite you to explore the benefits offered by ElMCO's unique combination of process technology and full-line manufacturing capability.
^ EIMCO Process Equipment
Process testing & flowsheet development Process system design Tankage construction Mechanism erection
Complete construction management
A Baker Hughes company
EIMCO Process Equipment - USA P.O. Box 300 / Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801)526-2000 / FAX (801) 526-2005 EIMCO Process Equipment - Canada 5155 Creekbank Road
Misslssauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 (905)625-6070 / FAX (905) 625-3519 For more information. Circle reply card No. 231
Pulp & paper Industry news
Willow 'energy forests' get boost from U of T research
in Southern Ontario alone - that can be con
verted to willow plantations. "Willows can grow where and when there is difficulty es tablishing other crops - for example, in tem porarily flooded land and in frost. A lot of
Long associated with melancholic lovers and pensive poets, willows may soon be getting an image makeover - as a powerful source of bioenergy and a means of fighting pollu
land that isn't fertile enough for other crops is good for willows."
rapid growth rate. "Most trees take three
"In Canada, little attention has been
given to the tremendous potential of wil lows as a supplier of wood fibre, energy and chemicals," said Louis Zsuffa, professor emeritus with the University of Toronto's Faculty of Forestry. "But a willow energy plantation would offer, based on annual growth,a source of biomass 10 times greater than a planted forest of equal size, and ICQ times greater than a natural forest. "As well, willow plantations could sig nificantly reduce the amount of carbon di
Whal makes willows more effeclive than
other trees as a source of bioenergy is their decades or longer to grow to maturity. Most willows take only two to five years. So they
produce wood much more quickly than natu ral forests do," said Zsuffa.
He added that willow plantations also
make good sense in view of growing envi ronmental concerns about fossil fuels. "Be
cause willows grow much faster than other
species, they take in more carbon dioxide and produce more oxygen. Therefore wil low forests could improve our air quality and reduce a trend to global warming.
oxide in the air, and harmful waste elements
"As well, willows make use of water that
in our lakes and rivers."
"It is not necessary to fully unravel the genetic mysteries of willows to begin reap
ing the benefits of growing them as a short rotation, intensively managed crop," he said. "In Sweden, over 11,000 hectares of sur
is unsuitable for other crops. Sludges and wastewater containing heavy metals such as lead and mercury are absorbed by willows, and the trees keep these pollutants locked up in their tissue and out of the soil for long
plus agricultural land are now being used
periods. They act as a kind of water purifi
for willow energy plantations."
Willow plantations currently exist only on an experimental scale in Canada. How ever, he explains, there are millions of hec tares of surplus agricultural land through
Research is funded by the Natural Sci ences and Engineering Research Council,
out the nation - several hundred thousand
Natural Resources Canada, and the Inter
national Energy Agency. Details: Prof. Louis Zsuffa, Faculty of Forestry,(416)978-6512.
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Water & Earth Science
Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1994
SCHLUMBERGER WISHES YOU A JOYOUS HOLIDAY SEASON WITH A HAPPY AND PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR!
Customer Service Team, Measurement Division Canada As the year draws to a close, Schlumberger celebrates 75 years of service to Canadian water utilities. It is our continuing commitment to provide better products and services to ensure that utilities are able to optimize both their people and budget resources.
Our in-house Customer Service Center in
Toronto provides support and service to keep all our metering systems operating efficiently for you and your customers. We invite you to visit with us when you are in the Toronto area or call 1-800-363-7886
for more information on our facility.
Schlumberger | industries Measurement Division Canada
HEAD OFFICE: 7275 West Credit Avenue, Mississauga, Ontario L5N 5M9 Ph:1-800-363-7886 Fax: 1-800-463-6383 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 241
Fremont, Ohio WWTP
Buced AoraUon Energy Consumption 40% with ELASTOX' Momhrono Oiffnsers Operations staff estimates 30% increase in BOD capacity with new tliffusers. "After researching and recommending the use of the Eiastox-D diffuser, the City of Remont entered into this venture with some trepidation. Up to that time(1987) the use of the EPDM membrane diffuser was a reiativeiy new technoiogy in the United States, lam extremely happy to report that the diffuser's performance over the last four years has been outstanding. We have been saving approximately 40% of our power consumption each year since their installation. This works out to a pay back on the system (capital cost) of a little less than four years. Operationally, this system is also very efficient. Plant staff has estimated an increased BOD capacity of our activated sludge system of 30%. An attractive characteristic of the Eiastox-D diffusers is low
maintenance. With this increase in BOD capacity, we are able to simply take down a tank, scrub each diffuser with a soap solution and mild-bristle brush, and put the tank back into service. Oxygen transfer efficiency has remained well over 90% of the new diffusers for the past four years with this cleaning schedule.
Tests show no significant memhrane deterioration after three years service. Treatment Process: Tertiary, Activated Sludge Design Flow; 7.0 MOD Average, 13.75 MGD Peak Consulting Engineers: Gills, Guard & Johnson
We have also tracked the physical properties of the EPDM membranes, trying to get an idea of the actual life of the diffusers. Ewing Engineering, who conducted studies after one year and after three years, has found that no significant changes have occurred over three years of operation (ending in 1991). The City of Fremont is extremely pleased with the EiMCO Eiastox-D diffuser's performance." Superintendent, Division of Water Pollution Control
^EIMCO Process Equipment A Baker Hughes company 5155 Creekbank Road
Oxygen transfer efficiency testing.
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2 (905)625-6070 FAX:(905) 625-3519 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 150