Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1994

Page 1





Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

Serving environmental professionals across Canada

September 1994


This mine could hold BC's garbage for 150 years An historical look at chemists, chlorine and risk assessment

WEFTEC '94, a preview of the Chicago WEF conference Due Diligence -a precarious environment for directors Large water filtration system expansion at Windsor Relocation of a 1050 mm diameter trunk watermain

Smog - the French don't have a word for it

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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(905) 727-4666

August/September '94 Vol. 7 No. 4


Issued September, 1994

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666

Editorial Comment By Tom Davey

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 President STEVE DAVEY

WEFTEC Chicago,'94 preview


AWMA holds conference with CETECH


Office Manager DENiSE SIMPSON

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Environment Protection Laboratories Pierre Beaumier

NOVAMANN (Ontario) inc. Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfeliow Goodteilow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

What wouid chemistry's historicai giants think about our

attitudes on chlorine and risk assessment?


By Adam Latawiec

Due Diligence: A precarious environment for a


board of directors

By Brian J. Stammer

Overcoming obstacies in the relocation of a 1050 mm


diameter trunk watermain

By Jim Leppard

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

Smog - the French don't have a word for it - but instruments to measure it


R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hili Engineering Ltd. Environnnentai Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ

Significant water filtration system expansion at Windsor

mental officials, water and wastewater treat

Spill remediation with melt blown polypropylene sorbents

ment plant operators and contractors. Ail advertising space orders,copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc.,should be sent to Environ mentalScience & Engineering, c/o Prestige

Printing, 41 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5. Canadian Publications Mall Sales

By B.L. Wheeler, R. Kargel and W.L. Knowles

Lithium injection used to verify one of the largest water networks in industry


By Joe Gemin and Renzo DiCarlo Controlling watermain corrosion By J.R. Pepin


By James Higgins

Hydrant maintenance is vital for municipal fire protection

By Doug Willey

ProductAgreement No.18197

With privatization, plant personnel stand to benefit too

Second Class Mall

By Tom Wingfield

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada,by Webb Offset Publistv ers Ltd. No part of this publication may be

reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for

one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) Send orders to: Environmental Science

& Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy. S., Unit 30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel:(905)727-4666, Fax;(905)8417271.

Departments Industry Update R&D News

Product Review.

Reader Service Card


'^ H

'^ ..4 34 58

Classifieds Literature Reviews Ad Index

67 56, 71 78

17, 64

Cover Story: This nnine site on Vancouver Island, could accom modate EC's garbage for 150 years, while supplying substantial amounts of clean energy. See centre spread for this proposal and its economic benefits. On page seven, Tom Davey takes a critical look at the rejection of a similar proposal at an Ontario mine site in Kirkland Lake.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Industry Update HIV in wastewater not a

Ontario to cut gasoline vapours

recognized threat... Plant operators want to know if there is a risk of transmission of the Human

Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), from con taminated wastewater.

'No' says the Center for Disease Con trol (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia. AIDS is a blood-bome disease so the CDC does not

consider the water-borne route a possibility for its transmission.

But some studies indicated that the vi rus is stable in wastewater.

As a CDC source pointed out, labora tory studies use high concentrations of HIV. Persons infected with HIV have very low levels of the virus in their bloodstreams.

HIV is a delicate, blood-borne virus. Un

like bacteria and fungi, viruses are unable to multiply outside a living host cell. "HIV is not shed in the feces of infected

Air pollution control Installation at Vancouver gas station. Ptioto T. Davey A new Ontario law that will reduce the

truck or underground tank, Mr. Wildman

amount of gasoline vapours pumped into the atmosphere will help clear the air over


Southern Ontario. Environment Minister

stations and facilities that distribute fuel to

Bud Wildman said gasoline vapours are a major contributor to smog. Two to three litres escape every time 1,000 litres of gaso line is transferred from a storage tank to a

install equipment that captures those gas vapours, he told a news conference in July. The vapours can be converted back into gasoline.


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individuals, as are poliovirus and other en teric viruses. Its only means of getting into wastewater is by mixing of water with blood, semen, saliva, or tears prior to enter ing the sewer system. Therefore, concen trations of HIV in wastewater should be

quite low," adds Jim Kreissl, environmen tal engineer with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's(EPA). Once in wastewater, the fragile viruses


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Industry Update would be very dilute and would not find

Letters to the editor

ideal conditions. The viruses would be sub

ject to a host of hostile conditions, includ ing disinfectants and other chemicals, as well as vast numbers of other microorgan isms, changes in temperature and pH. The potential for HIV infection - from any source - is how it enters the body. It must enter through the bloodstream. "Theo retically, the only way you could get HIV infection from wastewater is if you were in jected with rather large amounts of it, which is hardly likely," says the CDC source. The only recognized transmission mechanisms for HIV are by needle sticks, through sexual intercourse, and from mother to baby, according to the CDC. The CDC source says "The disease is not transmitted by sewage or wastewater." But there are other pathogens in wastewater that could pose a threat to operators includ ing those that enter through the nose and eyes; some infection may occur when the microorganisms become airborne during agi tation or spraying of wastewater and are breathed in, or when wastewater is splashed in the eyes, for example. Dirty hands may inadvertently pass pathogens to the eyes or mouth.

Workers in treatment plants can mini mize the risks by following simple rules of good hygiene and first aid, and by wearing suitable protective clothing.

Dear Mr. Davey: In a recent issue you had an article about water peak reduction in Port Elgin, appar ently as a result of metering. We too had a reduction in peak and we didn't have to spend our customers money to do it. I have attached the published graphs from the ar ticle and a graph of our consumption for the same period. We have looked long and hard at meter ing over the last decade but it appears to us that within a few years after the implemen tation of metering people return to their normal consumption patterns. I expect that is because in the scheme of things water is a very low cost item. Education and water appliance efficiency improvements are bet

was rampant, the gutters frequently flowing from lawn watering that often went on all night. Since metering, overwatering Is rare; in fact the reduction was quite dramatic. Even more Important is the societal effect. People who always use water as a 'free' public good will never develop an appreciation for this safe product delivered with unfailing regularity In great volumes - unless they see a price tag for it. Thanks for your viewpoint.

ter alternatives.

Dear Tom:

You might want to inform your readers that reductions can occur without spending

I thoroughly enjoy reading your maga zine. It contains some very practical infor mation on environmental problems and is sues which are quite valuable to the indus

money on meters.

Robert G. Lake, P.Eng. General Manager, Peterborough Utilities Commission

Dear Tom:

Excellent Magazine, Canada's best in water/environmental/engineering sector. W.H. Brant

Poetker MacLaren Ltd.,

Winnipeg, Manitoba.

trial sector.

Editor's note: We are always pleased to pro vide diverse points of view. My feeling is as water costs rise - as they must - Adam Smith's invisible hand of self interest will exert a pro found effect. Personal Observation. Our subdivision is

eight years old. For the first four years we were unmetered. Excessive lawn watering

I would like to see you continue with coverage of the pulp and paper industry specifically the issue of effluent treatment and how the industry is complying with new federal regulations. J .W. Hodder, P.Eng. Environmental Engineer, Comerbrook Pulp & Paper Limited

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

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Industry Update Scientists discover

why algal "blooms" are toxic Researchers in Scotland, working with an international network of scientists, have discovered the toxic mechanism

Bob Goodings retires Bob Goodings has retired as Chairman of Gore & Storrie after 43 years as a major figure in environmental consulting. In 1984 he was appointed President of Gore & Storrie Limited. Beginning in 1984, Bob guided the company through some of the most dynamic years of its history. He accepted the position of Chairman in 1992. Bob will continue to serve G&S as Chair man of Gore & Storrie International Inc.


microcystins found in algal blooms. Toxins present in such blooms, which occur on 70 percent of reservoirs worldwide, can be fa tal in high doses. Blooms occur seasonally in these "over nutritious soups" and can kill wildlife by depleting oxygen supplies and by produc ing potent toxins. High doses of some of these toxins, the microcystins, severely dam age the liver and can be fatal. Recent re search has also highlighted the risk that low doses of the microcystins may promote hu man liver cancer.

But now a team from the UK Medical

Research Council's protein phosphorylation

associations such as AWWA. He was an

unit in Dundee, Scotland, has found that microcystins are toxic because they block

Ontario Section Chair, President of FACE

the activities of two regulatory enzymes that

Bob has been tireless in his work for

and Chair of the Ontario Drinking Water

act like molecular switches inside the cells

Information Council. Bob and his twin

brother Bill were Queen's graduates. Bill becoming a Vice President of Proctor & Redfem Ltd. Both brothers made signifi

of plants and animals. These enzymes are crucial to the control of a cell's growth,struc ture and metabolism. Microcystin's ability to contribute to the development of cancers

cant contributions to Canadian environmen

even at doses where acute effects are not

tal engineering.

seen is the result of its interference with the

phosphatase control of cells. These findings have Implications for public health because they mean that microcystin can be detected easily in a quick and sensitive protein phosphatase assay. The protein phosphorylation unit is now helping water companies to set up this as say for large-scale screening. For more information, contact the Medi cal Research Council, 20 Park Crescent, London WIN 4AL; Tel: 011-44-71 636 5422; Fax: 011-44-71 436 617.

Hydrogen peroxide use increases as a chlorine alternative Hydrogen peroxide is being used increas ingly as a chlorine alternative for the pretreatment of municipal drinking water, due to stricter regulations on disinfection byproducts, according to Monica L. Tarver, a research chemist with the Peroxygen Chemicals Division of FMC Corporation. Speaking at the recent annual conference of the American Water Works Association, Tarver said that pilot tests, demonstration studies and resulting commercial installa tions have clearly shown the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide in treating both groundwater and surface water supplies to be used for drinking water.

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Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

While reason sleeps, monster landfill sites are breeding

The garbage 'crisis' makes for per

area. Prudently, Metro Toronto put an op tion on the mine site as a garbage disposal possibility. But the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy resolutely sticks by the NDP

fect television. Screeching seagulls provide a haunting backdrop as they wheel amid huge bulldozer

blades moving endless mountains of gar bage. The scene cuts to reporters solemnly intoning their banal, in-depth commentar ies like extras in a tragic f^rce. "Canada," they repeat ad nauseum,"is rapidly running out of landfill space." Wrong. Dreadfully wrong. Insanely wrong. Canada is running out of agricultural land, not landfill space. The availability of landfill space is more a matter of politics than geology, says the renowned British magazine The Economist. In a lecture to Britain's Royal Academy of Engineering, Peter Daley of Waste Management Interna tional, pointed out that landfills, at the present rate of waste generation in Europe, use just over two square yards of land per

edict that communities must deal with their

own garbage. The dogma was pronounced by Ruth Grier, the first NDP environment minister. And even when she was recycled into the health folio, her policy was main tained by her successor Bud Wildman. This absurd premise ignores the fact that

Tom Davey put to rest by former Liberal Environment Minister John Roberts in 1981. He told the American Association for the Advancement

of Science that a mere six percent of our

person per century.

land mass is arable. As massive urbaniza

The magazine also quoted Clark Wiseman of Gonzaga University in Wash ington state, who last year made equally star tling calculations. Ifthe United States con tinues to produce municipal solid waste at present rates for the next 1,000 years, the whole lot will still be containable in a space 100 yards deep and 30 miles square. As the 48 contiguous states have 3 million square miles between them, this hardly sug gests the US will face a landfill crisis. While clearly It would be impractical for the US to use just one landfill site, the num bers - given out by learned people and re ported in serious journals - at least put the 'garbage crises' in perspective. If nothing else, they should divert the media feeding frenzy to some other area where they could do less damage. Public misinformation on garbage is costing millions. Canada, needless to say, has far more land than the US, with only 10 percent of its population. But even Canada has no ar

tion projects have taken place since then, the available arable land figures must surely

able land to waste on needless landfills. Dr.

Ed Manning, when head of Environment Canada's Land Analysis Division, wrote that, had the CN Tower been built in 1967, it would have been possible to overlook 37

percent of Canada's Class One agricultural land and 25 percent of Class Two land. Dr. Manning also quoted a 1971 study which showed that 43 percent of the value

of agricultural production in Canada came from within 80 kilometres of the centres of

22 major metropolitan areas. He noted that while Canada occupies the second largest area of any nation on earth, the amount of our Class One agricultural land is smaller than the province ofNew Brunswick. The myth of a huge fertile landmass was

If the United States continues

to produce municipal solid waste at present rates for the next 1,000 years, the whole lot will still be containable in

a space 100 yards deep and 30 miles square. be revised downwards. It might take 10,000 years to make a few inches of fertile soil and ten seconds for a bulldozer to destroy it forever.

Currently, the Ontario Interim Waste

Authority (IWA) has spent $58 million to locate new landfills at three sites in some

of the best agricultural areas in Canada, one incidently sited over a large aquifer. Another $15 million is budgeted to defend the IWA choices at hearings for the three proposed sites at Pickering, Vaughan and Caledon. By climate and location these areas are ideally situated to feed Canada's largest urban community with stock and crops. Yes I know that many fertile farms currently lie fallow because land around Metro Toronto

is worth more as building lots than cropland;

but the population is growing and farmland in good climates is shrinking rapidly. Moreover there is already a valuable re source which can accommodate the garbage - a barren worked-out mine at Kirkland

Lake,Ontario.Preliminary hydrogeological studies indicated this mine was ideal to ac

cept garbage. Moreover, more than 100jobs might be created in this high unemployment

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

all three of the proposed new dumps are actually well outside the Metro-Toronto boundaries and the IWA proposals will con stitute a de facto export of garbage. They get over this by saying the three dumps will be in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), an

area which in fact does not exist politically. There is no GTA mayor,councillors or other representatives to be voted in or out. One might argue; "No garbage without repre sentation."

Now that she is health minister, Ruth

Grier is not insisting that only Metro To ronto residents may use Metro's hospitals. There are, thankfully, no medical ghettos to parallel her environmental ones. Seriously ill people are not stopped at Metro's bound

ary and told to get treatment where their sickness began. Metro's factories,shops and restaurants continue to get their raw mate rials, agricultural produce and finished goods from all over the world. Why should garbage not enjoy the same freedom of movement as these 'imported'

goods? Why shouldn't the residuals of these world-wide imports be directed on the logi cal basis of economic, agricultural and en vironmental benefits, not on baseless politi cal doctrines which are unsupported by sci entific reality? The NDP is always promoting the idea of rail as being more environmentally be

nign than vehicular traffic - but only for peo ple it seems. Yet if the IWA succeeds, the concept of a 600 kilometre rail trip to Kirkland lake will be abandoned. As well

as the megadumps, many scenic rural com munities will be further blemished by hun dreds of diesel trucks, their exhausts belch

ing as they daily criss-cross some of the most picturesque parts of Canada. Europeans scoff at our so-called garbage crises. Caesar Augustus said: Ifound Rome a city of bricks. I left it a city of marble. Italians now fill their empty quarries with rubbish. Augustus also said: that which was' well done was quickly done. Something to think about as the hearings and court chal lenges drag on on these dumps. Continued overleaf

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Editorial Comment, cont'd. Britain, with double our population liv ing on a fraction of our land mass, has long used abandoned mines to dispose of its rub bish. Clay pits, for example,can make ideal, impermeable garbage dumps. Quite often garbage is disposed of in the very pits which had provided the clay, to make the bricks, which built the towns, which generate the garbage - a perfect recycling option span ning several generations. On a personal note, as a schoolboy, I of ten swam with friends in an abandoned clay pit in Northern England. Much later the pit became a repository for thousands of tons of garbage. Today my friends' grandsons play football on the former site, now in its third incarnation as a range of public play ing fields. Few ever realize the site was a former clay quarry. The estimated $73 million dollar ven

ture by Ontario's Interim Waste Authority to put dumps in Caledon, Vaughan and Pickering is only a down payment on this economically and environmentally disasterous exercise. Opponents seem will ing to put up substantial financial resources to fight the Interim Waste Authority. York Region alone has budgeted a reported $800,000 for the hearings and another $500,000 to mount simultaneous court chal lenges. No doubt the other affected juris

It is heartrending to see Health Minister Grier slash hospital services while millions are needlessly frittered away on the envi ronmentally illiterate legacies from her term as environment minister. Her obduracy, and that of her successor, is proving costly for a province drowning in red ink. Ironically, the millions being wasted on megadump pro posals could have maintained many of the medical services she shut down because of

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lack of funds.

The regions involved hope to delay ac tion on the dumpsites until the next provin cial election. Their strategems may well work. Both Liberal opposition leader Lyn McLeod and Tory leader Mike Harris have promised to dump the entire IWA selection process if elected next year. As the Spanish painter Goya noted: "The sleep of reason breeds monsters". These days reason seems comatose in Queen's Park as three monster landfill sites are planned while an obvious solution re mains barren and empty.

Centrifuges have applications in many industries. Chemical

Reference sources ES&E March 1993: Solace in Blunderland as

Red Queen gets health folio. Bridges,(a magazine for educators) Feb. 1984,

dictions will also be forced to invest heav

Vol.1 #3.

ily in this fiasco.

The Economist May 29,1993.



Recovery of chemicals, solvents, and catalysts Clarification of liquids Classification of pigments Separation of two immiscible liquids Environmental Waste

Dewatering of municipal waste sludge Dewatering of surface and ground water for portable water treatment Thickening of waste activated sludge Industrial Waste Wastewater treatment


Dewatering of process waste Industrial Fluids

Purification of factory fluids for reuse

Contract Operations Certification Training Operations Manuals Operational Audits Optimization Studies

Cleaning paint booth water Recycling of waste oil Pulp & Paper Metal & Mineral Mining Dewatering/classifying of clay Dewatering of tailings Coal Burning Electric Utilities Flue-Gas-Desulfurization -

dewatering of waste slurry Food/Agri-Business Clarification of wine

Trouble Shooting Commissioning

Fermentation of yeast Dewatering of spent grains, starch Fax or Write

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Circle reply card No. 158

Industry Update Laidlaw honoured for

compliance records

across the continent are being recognized, is an achievement that makes us very proud."

• Two condensate polishers to remove hy drocarbons and solid contaminants from re

turn steam system condensate. Of particu

Nine Laidlaw Environmental Services

Laidlaw Environmental facilities in the

lar interest is the use of "coconut" carbon

facilities, including four in Canada, have received an international award, presented annually to commercial treatment, storage and disposal operations with perfect com pliance records under applicable govern ment hazardous waste management regula

U.S. that earned the award are located in

to maintain a very low level of silica in the treated condensate. Capacity - 53 m-7hr. • Two deaerating heaters to remove dis solved carbon dioxide and oxygen from boiler feedwater, with a capacity of 330,000 kg/hr. for each heater. The equipment was fabricated in Ontario and shipped this summer.


The El Environmental Compliance Award was presented to Laidlaw Environ mental Canadian facilities in Debert, Nova Scotia, Ville Ste-Catherine, Quebec, as well as Mississauga and Guelph, Ontario, along with five of the company's U.S. facilities,

for operating in full regulatory compliance during 1993. Only 34 facilities in North America received the award, sponsored by Environmental Information, Ltd., a U.S.based publication specializing in the North American waste management industry. "Ours is a highly regulated industry that leaves very little room for error," said Laidlaw Environmental President William

E. Stilwell, Jr. "To have nine Laidlaw fa

cilities honoured, especially when so few

Tennessee,Texas, California and Louisiana.

Ontario company wins contract for Abu Dhabi Ecodyne Limited of Oakville, Ontario has been awarded a contract valued at nearly

$2 million to supply water and condensate treating equipment for Abu Dhabi National Oil Co.(ADNOC). Ecodyne won the order in spite of world wide competition. The order was placed by Eastern Bechtel Corporation of London, England. The order comprises: • Two demineralizer trains to treat a con

tinuous supply of boiler feedwater make up to replace losses in the steam generating plant operating at 42 BAR(A) and 400 de grees C, the demineralizer plant consisting of counter-current regenerated cation units and co-current regenerated anion units. Each train has a capacity of 75 mVhr.

Who is "responsible" for all this garbage? Holding US manufacturers responsible for the packaging of a product after it be comes waste only results in higher prices for consumers, according to a new report from the Center for the Study of American Business.

In Who is Responsible for Garbage? researchers Christopher Boerner and Kenneth Chilton examine the so-called "re

sponsible entity" concept, where manufac turers are made responsible for a product throughout its life-cycle. Senator Max Baucus, Chairman of the US Senate Envi ronment and Public Works Committee, has expressed his support for this notion and the US Conference of Mayors recently called on Congress to study the issue.

The high cost of local curbside recycling is draining municipalities offunds that could be used in other areas such as education and

law enforcement. Some mayors are seeing this concept as a way to reduce the amount they spend on recycling, while forcing some one else - the manufacturer - to subsidize

politically popular recycling programs. The concept of responsible entity is cur rently being attempted on a large scale in Germany. The German Ordinance on the Avoidance of Packaging Waste, or "green dot" program,has forced manufacturers and retailers in Germany to take full legal re sponsibility for managing packaging waste. The result has been a less than 2 percent reduction in Germany's total municipal waste. This reduction has come at a very high cost,however. 1993 expenditures were

$1.75 billion and are expected to reach $2.5 - $2.75 billion in 1994. Deploying a "green 12

dot" system in the United States would eas

ily cost a minimum of $8-9 billion. Additionally, the German system has flooded the European market for recycled materials, disrupting the recycling programs of its neighbours. High costs and extensive exporting of German waste has resulted in much criticism for the green dot, even among the environmentally conscious Ger

Romans left clues to hazardous waste

disposal High concentrations of lead left by an cient metal workings dating as far back as the Romans are helping UK scientists to discover the rate at which potentially haz ardous metals can spread into the surround ing soils, rocks and ground water. Researchers, led by Professor Iain Thornton from Imperial College, London, examined the sites of five former lead smelt

ers, four in the English Midlands and one in Wales. The surface soils in these regions were heavily contaminated with metals and it was not unusual for the researchers to

stumble over lumps of lead waste that had been lying around for centuries. But, despite the heavy ground contami nation, there was little evidence that much

metal had spread into the surrounding soil and rock or had penetrated down into ground water. This was predominantly due to the alkaline nature of the smelting wastes, which had the effect of locking up the met


als in an immobile form. However, accel

The authors suggest that the free market offers a superior alternative to increased government control of municipal solid waste disposal. Competition provides an incen tive to minimize packaging. Overuse of packaging materials by manufacturers places their products at a competitive dis advantage.

erated metal movement was seen to take

Boemer and Chilton conclude that the

where we are able to look at pollution rates over such a long period of time".

question "Who is Responsible for Garbage?" really has only one answer: The public is responsible for garbage. If it is politically unpopular to tell the voter how much trash collection and curbside recycling cost, vari ous ways to shift the cost burden to produc ers - such as the German green dot system - can be devised. When these costs are

placed on producers, however, they are passed along to consumers in the form of higher prices. They say that before blindly following the European lead on the issue, it is critical that American policymakers and voters take a candid look, not only at the actual per formance of the German "green dot" pro gram, but also at the costs and benefits of current local recycling programs.

place down fractures in certain rock types. Prof. Thornton says the research results have important implications for the predic tion of future damage from current heavy metal pollution and storage of hazardous wastes. He continued: "Britain is unique in as much as there is nowhere else in the world

Plumbing the depths of political correctness UK plumbers have been ordered to stop using time honoured terms such as ballcocks and stopcocks. Failure to comply with new guidelines in The Model Water By-Laws Book, issued by the Water Research Asso ciation, could land plumbers in court. Allan Richardson, director of the Na tional Plumbers Association, was reportedly enraged, saying: "This is political correct ness gone mad....This is the most powerful document in plumbing and all our members have to obey it." The new guidelines say a ballcock should be called a "float-operated valve" and a stopcock a "stop valve."

Environmental Science <fi Engineering, September 1994






10:28:30 AM

LOGOUT Plant Effluent MUd Lev-el

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Pump 6410(20 MLDl

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Pump 6420(20MLD)

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Pump 6430 20 MLDl

Va ve 6444

Pump 6440(20 MLD)

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Value 6454

Pump 6450(10 MLDl To Fikers

Plant Reservoir

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Flov/ Value 6464

Pump 6480(5 MLD)









High Lift Pumps Mode

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It's the real thing. Computer control used to be a complicated subject. Today, complicated plants are monitored and controlled through simple screens like this. Gore & Storrie has been designing control systems since the days of clock dials and rheostats.

The screen above will run the high lift pumps for the new Grimsby Water Treatment Plant. 42 ML/d of potable water will be controlled by a few clicks of a mouse button. A well designed control system like this can provide you with the operational data that you need to optimize your processes and save energy and chemical costs. It can speed up your trouble-shooting, make your planning more effective and put your operators where they should be - in control.

Ask any of our clients. It's simple and it works because Gore & Storrie knows how to look

after the details. For 75 years, we've been finding better ways to keep the environment clean. We know water and wastewater processes like nobody else in Canada. And we know how to design control systems and training programs to make plants simple and inexpensive to operate.

For more information about G&S control

systems and training programs call Vera Polyakova at Gore & Storrie Limited, (416) 499-0090, extension 321.

Gore & Storrie Limited

Gore & Storrie

Consulting Engineers 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 159

UTUJlUgJB I People Knowledge Comml

Industry Update tory facilities, 100 professional staff, and leading-edge, high-technology analytical

The project uses a thin-film energy gath ering technology which is 100 times thin

and robotic instrumentation.

ner than conventional watered silicon solar

Laboratories(EPL)has become part of MDS Environmental. This expansion has added

MDS Environmental is a subsidiary of MDS Health Group Limited. Details: Ross McCurdy, Ph.D., VicePresident & General Manager (905) 568-

methods used for street lights and calcula tors. Manufacturing of the new panels is expected to begin early in 1995.

a critical element to MDS Environ mental's


MDS Environmental

Services expands MDS Environmental Services Limited has announced that Environment Protection

network of operations, in line with their strategy for growth in the environmental testing industry in North America. "We are pleased that EPL is joining us as they bring valuable expertise, credibility and knowledge to the merger",said Dr. Ross McCurdy, Vice-President & General Man ager of MDS Environmental. With revenues of $10 million, MDS Environmental has five laboratories with a

total of over 40,000 square feet of labora-


A new partnership in the

Grave eco-decisions made in UK Eco-cemeteries where trees will replace tra ditional marble headstones are being intro duced in Brighton, England. Bodies will be interred in cardboard coffins made of recy cled paper. Brighton, a large seaside resort some 60 miles directly south of London on the English Channel, is opening a three acre back-to-nature cemetery with space for 300 graves. Eventually the site will become a woodland laced by winding trails and stocked with wildlife.

Atlantic Provinces Degremont Inflico LW. announces the appointment of Canada Water Supply Ltd. of Saint John, N.B. as the Atlantic

Provinces' Representative for ourselves and our sister company inflico Degremont Inc. of Richmond, Virginia. To better serve and understand our cli

ents, your speoific needs, we have cho sen someone whom the industry re spects and who is well known in Atlan tic Canada for consistently providing first

Geotechnica 1995,

Cologne, Germany Call for Papers Contact Cologne International Trade Shows, 480 University Ave., Suite 1410, Toronto,Ontario, M5C 1V2; Tel:(416)5983343, Fax:(416) 598-1840.

class customer service.

As President of Canada Water Sup ply Ltd., Mr. G.A.(Sandy) Robertson will aot as Representative for the Atlantic Provinces in both municipal and indus trial water and wastewater sectors alike.

Degremont inflico Ltd. has been sup plying products and proven process knowhow in Canada since 1960. For more information: Canada Water

Supply Ltd., Sandy Robertson or Riok Benoit, Tel: (506) 652-5885, Fax: (506) 633-0031, Email: cwater@nbnet.nb.ca.

Let there be light Photovoltaic panels which can supply all daytime electric power needed for domes tic households at almost half current costs

have been reported in the US. Current pan els have some six percent efficiency in con verting sunlight into electricity. Officials of United Solar Systems, based in Troy Michi gan, now claim a record 10.2 percent effi ciency. The United States had set a 10 per cent efficiency rating as the standard for photovoltaic modules which can be pro duced in high volumes.

Growing safety concern is haiting installation of plastic vent systems Crowing safety concems - from government agencies, manufacturers, and a testing labo ratory - are curtailing use of high-tempera ture plastic sidewall venting systems for mid-efficiency furnaces and boilers through out North America.

Instead of plastic, specialty stainless steel systems are being specified by gov ernment and industry analysts: • The Nova Scotia Department of Labor has banned installation and sales of plastic sidewall venting throughout the province • Underwriters Laboratories of Canada has

suspended recognition of such systems • Ontario's Ministry of Consumer and Com mercial Relations has issued a warning about plastic • Furnace and boiler manufacturers have advised distributors not to sidevent with

plastic In its regulatory bulletin banning sale and installation of plastic sidewall venting sys tems, Nova Scotia Department of Labor urged contractors "to carefully inspect" ex isting installations "to ensure they do not pose a risk of combustion products being released indoors."

In a special alert published in Canadian newspapers, Ontario's Ministry of Con sumer and Commercial Relations advised

consumers to check - "as soon as possible" - plastic sidewall venting for oil, natural gas, and propane mid-efficiency furnaces, water heaters, and boilers. "Stuffy or humid air and/or strange odors" could "signal a prob lem," the Ontario alert said, citing symp toms of carbon monoxide poisoning.


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For more information, Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


Aer-0-Flo Oil Coalescing Separators (DCS) treatment systems handle free oil down to 20 mic

rons.Systems can be designed for bury or above ground installations in sizes from 1 to 3,000 USgpm.

Circle reply card No.161


Control and record your influent or effluent with continuous on-line oil-in-water monitoring.Instru ment measures in standard ranges of 0 to 10,30 or 200 ppm with 4-20 mA analogue output signal.

Complete systems available with sample pre conditioning to ensure accurate repeatable results.

Circle reply card No.162 Emulsified

Aer-O-Flo Dissolved Air Flotation(DAP)technol ogy will remove emulsified and entrained oils

down to levels less than 10 ppm.Sizing from 1 to 1,000 USgpm.

Circle reply card No.163

Systems Complete system technologyfor all your oil needs for removals down to less than 10 ppm from feed stock of over 100,000 ppm at flow rates to 1,000 USgpm. Refineries, Pulp and Paper, Manufactur ing, etc., are all clients of the Aer-0-Flo Solu tions Approach.

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King Gustaf of Sweden and US Vice President A!Gore scheduied to address

WEF Conference in Chicago opening general session on Sunday, Octo ber 16.

The Great Canadian Icebreaker will also

be a great way for Canadian delegates to meet their peers at Here's Chicago, in the

historic Water Tower Pumping Station on Saturday, October 15. The pumping station survived the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and still functions, carrying 75 million gallons of water a day. The seminar topics cover: fermentation to enhance biological nutrient removal; con trol strategies for the photo processing in dustry; compliance and operations under tightening regulations; trenchless technol ogy; pathogen assessment and monitoring of biosolids and wastewater effluent; im

WEFTEC '94, The 67th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference and

Exposition will take place at McCormick Place North, in Chicago. WEFTEC will begin with seminars on October 15 & 16. King Gustaf of Sweden and US Vice Presi dent, A1 Gore are scheduled to speak at the

proving wet weather water quality: nonpoint source controls; advance process control for activated sludge and auditing wastewater facilities to comply with air quality regs; minimizing environmental exposures and hazards to WWTP staff; wastewater micro biology for operators. TTiere will be a short

16. The seminars end with a public educa tion session on dealing with the media. The general technical program and ex position will begin on Get 17. ES&E will be there to report the event and you can stop by and meet our staff at

course on instrumentation on October 15 &

the Canada Stand #2271.


WEFTEC '94 EXPOSITION 9:00 A.M. - 5:00 P.M.

9:00 A.M.-12:00 NOON


Biological Nutrient Removol: Industrial Focus

SESSION 2 Advances &


SESSION 4 Hazardous





Wastes in

Control in Collection

tbe Great Lakes

in Wastewater

Treatment Plants

0= ^


SESSION 6 Beneficial Reuse of Biosolids

SESSION 7 Stormwater



uu u


S (=> 13 =ยฃ o


SESSION 17 Nutrient Removal: Research Focus




Aeration &



SESSION 20 Hazardous Waste Site Case Studies


SESSION 21 Collection


System Design &

Sidestreom to Fnd Product



SESSION 23 Watershed


9:00 A.M.-12:00 NOON

WEFTEC'94 EXPOSITION 9:00 A.M. - 5:00 P.M.

SESSION 33 Nutrient Removal:


Models, Costs and

Biological Treatment


SESSION 35 Pollution Prevention


SESSION 36 Hazardous





Wastes: A

in Sewers

Sludge Thickening & Dewotering


Research Facus

& Pumping

Water Quality in tbe Great Lakes


9:00 A.M.-12:00 NOON

22 Sc

WEFTEC '94 EXPOSITION 9:00 A.M. - 5:00 P.M.




Anaerobic Biological





SESSION 51 Pollution Prevention

SESSION 52 Hazardous

& Recycling / Recovery


& Demonstrations




Sludge Incineration

environmental Manitoring


Controlling Wet Weather, I/I, CSDs,

& Modeling

and SSDs

SESSION 68 Remediation

SESSION 69 Infrastructure


Digestion &

Rouge River



Beneficial Use


& Drying

& Assessment



1:30-5:00 P.M.

SESSION 65 Advancements in Biofilm Process

Modeling & Application 16



General Biolagical Treatment Topics

Heavy Metal & Color Removal



Demonstration Project

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994



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SESSION 8 Environmental



SESSION 10 WEF Government





Managing the



Small Community


Affairs Activities

Forum 1


of the Union

Control & Informotion

History of the Metropolitan

Sanitary District

Systems 1



Water Recla mation District of

SESSION 15 Natural

Systems 1: Theory & Design

SESSION 16 International Technical Issues

Greater Chicago SESSION 24 Risk Assessment









In a Nutshell

Regulatory Updates

Control & Information

Forum II

Systems II

SESSION 40 Coastal & Morine

Water Quality


Managers' Forum: Managing in the

SESSION 42 Industrial



Control & Information

Public SectorPonel Discussion




Water Quality


SESSION 58 Federal Facilities 1

Criteria &






Water Quality

Managing Utility

& Sediment Criteria for Metals & Qther Pollutants



SESSION 29 Small Comm

SESSION 30 Greot Lakes

SESSION 31 Natural

SESSION 32 International

unity Treatment Systems Manage

Water Quality

Systems II:





ment Issues

SESSION 44 Effluent

SESSION 45 Sustainable



SESSION 46 Midwest Issues


Emerging Environmental Professionals


SESSION 48 International Global


Systems III

SESSION 59 Disinfection




Municipal Permitting & Compliance

of Odors & VOCsl

SESSION 74 Federal Facilities II



Laboratory Analysis


SESSION 77 Infrastructure


SESSION 63 Water Reuse

SESSION 64 Public Education 1:

Assessment &

Schools, Tours,


& the Media


of Odors &


Human Factors &

SESSION 79 Environmental Issues in the


& Privatization



8, Siting




Application of

SESSION 80 Public Education II: Communities

Conference Preview

Air & Waste Management Association holds Fail Conference with CETECH

TheAWMA-OS Fal Conference on

Environmental Chemistry provides a forum for the exchange of scien tific information and for peer group discussions of issues relating to air, solid and liquid pollution. The programs estab lished for this conference present current scientific knowledge on areas of atmos

pheric chemistry and air pollution, waste remediation, analytical methodologies and toxic risk assessments. Sessions are de

issnes & concerns

Canada and what it means to Canadian busi

This plenary session deals with airborne toxic chemical emissions (NOx, VOC,


ozone, metals and aerosols) from localized and large scale industrial and automotive

chemicals, metals, mercury and vehicle-re

quantities and their effects on the ecosys

lated emissions. Session will cover the im

tem and human health will be discussed.

pact on remote environmental areas of large

Chair: Dr. Neville Reid, Ontario Minis try of Environment & Energy. Dr. Monica Campbell, Environmental Health Speclal-

urban and industrial emissions, water, air

Chair: Dr. Claude Davis,Bovar- Concord T. Dann - ambient measurement of vehicle related VOC and metals L. Barrie - toxics in the Canadian Arctic

A block of rooms has been reserved at


Airport) at a conference rate of$75 Premium


or $89 Club Rooms (single or double occu pancy) until October 1, 1994. To reserve your accommodation, please contact reser

ist. Metropolitan Toronto Teaching Health Unit, Overview of Air Quality issues in To

Dr. P. Rasmussen - methods of estimat

ing mercury deposition rates in remote en vironments: a critical review

P. Fellin - toxics in the Russian Arctic

ronto: concerns for human health.

vation hot-line at 1-800-461-1145.

Opening plenary session: air quality

and soil deposition, exchange processes and analytical developments. Environmental

the Regal Constellation Hotel(Near Pearson

of State for Science

Ground level toxic effects of airborne

sources. How they are transported, in what

signed to promote environmental control and management, enhance the environmental profession and provide ongoing education for the membership and allied professions.

Wednesday, October 19 - Morning Keynote speaker: John Gerrard, Minister

Afternoon session Concurrent Session A: Air Part 1



Feature speaker: Allen Fracassi, Presi dent and CEO, Philip Environmental Inc. Topic: The changing environmental man agement and water treatment industry in

Concurrent Session B: Waste & Water Part 1

Remediation processes and technologies: Session will examine and compare the vari-



PCBs CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS PCBD process: decontamination of transformer oil ,

DecontaksGlv process: decontamination of transformers and capacitors Ultrasorption process: treatment of water and of aqueous wastes Disposal of contaminated soil

185 The West iVIall, Suite 1010, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 5L5

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Quality Control Equipment Company Phone 515/266-2268• Fax 515/266-0243


Specialists in Sampling Technologies

18 For more information, Circle reply card No.131

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Conference Preview ous soil and ground water remediation tech nologies for their relative effectiveness and values.

Chair: Dr. D. Hallett, ELI Eco Logic Craig Wardlaw - bioremediation Bruce E. Holbein Phd., Tallen Metal

Technologies Inc., Longue Pointe decon tamination project: recovery of lead and re cycling of soil David Nantes, Jacques Whitford Envi ronmental Ltd., EnviroSoil contaminated soil recycling technology project.

Thursday, October 20 - Morning Concurrent Sessions A: Air Part 2

Airborne toxics and their relationship to air quality. Session will review the legisla tive and analytical approaches to VOCs and their effect on indoor and outdoor air qual ity.

Rod Thompson,Zenon - AQ/QC of ana lytical methods as applied to remediation Kelvin Campbell,P.Eng. - the Eco Logic process

Gerrard Amlin, Industrial Ecosystems innovations in bioremediation, sewage sludge and recycled food processes from industrial and agricultural sources. Afternoon Plenary Session "Elmira case study". This session will review all aspects of the problem from dis covery and analytical techniques through initial and ongoing remediation activities to planning and health issues. Chair: Dr. D. Hallett, ELI Eco Logic Jerry Thompson,Chief Engineer,Region

Chair: Claude Davis, Bovar-Concord

of Waterloo - overview

Earl Shannon, CH2M Hill - investiga tion and resupply of drinking water Ron Haley,ELI Eco Logic - discovery of toxicological risk assessment of NDMA Tim Boose, Uniroyal - remediation ac tivities at Uniroyal Chemicals Gary DeBrou, MGEE, Manager of Spe cialized Monitoring and Reporting Branch - resolving air issues via advanced mobile monitoring. Contact: Ms. Gisella Niedermeyer, On tario Waste Management Corporation, 11th Floor, 2 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3E2, 1-800-268-1178 Ext. 207. See overleaf for CETECH exhibi

tor iistings.



Barristers & Solicitors

S. Prakash - driving forces to reduce transportation sector emissions

Environmental Litigation

R. Bell - indoor and outdoor VOCs in

The law firm of Monteith Baker & Howe provides services in all areas of Environmental Litigation including:

Hamilton P. Steer - urban VOCs C. Davis - emission estimates for VOCs from the indoor environment. Concurrent Session B: Waste & Water Part 2

Remediation processes and technologies Comparison of the various soil and groundwater remediation technologies for

• prosecutions • administrative tribunal hearings

• civil suits • insurance claims

For more information contact: Michael G. Kovacevic, B.Sc.(Hons.), LL.B., Daniel W. Monteith, B.A., LL.B.* 227 Eagle Street East, P.O. Box 281, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 4X1 Telephone:(905)895-8600,(905)773-8910,Facsimile:(905)895-8269 'Certified as a speciaiist in civil litigation by the Law Society of Upper Canada

their relative effectiveness and values

Chair: Dr. D. Hallett - ELI Eco Logic

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Canadian Environmentai & Technology Showcase 1994 International Centre, MIssissauga, Ont. October 18-20 Booth Number 1933


Exhibitor List*

Absorbent Midwest Inc.


Air & Waste Management


Assoc. of Canada Anachemia Solvents div. of


Fielding Ghem. Aquablast Corp.


Arcturus Environmental

2000 1840

Baking Soda Blasters Barringer Labs Ltd.


Envir. Risk Assessment Info. Ser. Inc. Environmental Science


Philip Environmental Group


Pinchin Environmental

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Guest Comment

What would chemistry's historical giants think about our attitudes on chlorine and risk assessment?

To most, the names Sir Humphry

Davy and Michael Faraday will be meaningless. To those with a sci ence or engineering background the names will likely evoke some vague memory of chemistry,electricity or magnet ism; just more names among many. But to chemists, especially those with an interest in the history of science, the names Davy and Faraday conjure images of titans. Davy was big, Faraday was probably slightly bigger. If Nobel prizes were avail able in the 1830's Davy would be a shoe-in for Chemistry. Faraday would probably have won two, Chemistry and Physics. Three years ago, in a rare accolade for a chemist, Michael Faraday's picture replaced that of Shakespeare on UK 20 pound banknotes.

the poisoning of Davy by Faraday, but I di gress. Even before Davy's death, Faraday had already established himself as an ex cellent chemist and physicist, having worked with Davy to isolate most of the alkali met als and alkali earths.

Davy first identified chlorine as a gase ous element in 1810, but it was not until

1823 that Faraday successfully liquefied chlorine, studied its properties extensively and set into motion the commercial use of

the gas. Chlorine has come to be used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent and an indus trial raw material for the synthesis of thou sands of chemicals. Even in 1810 chlorine

was known to be highly toxic. When Fara day was asked by the British government whether chlorine could be used as a warfare

causing agents, radiation, microwaves, and in-laws. On the other side, we have a whole slew of voluntary risks such as smoking, drinking, driving, boating, bungee jumping, salted buttered popcorn, and charcoalbroiled hamburgers. The ironic part of the whole risk dilemma is that the voluntary risks are usually hundreds and even thou sands of times more likely to be the cause of death than involuntary risks. Although cancer and disease do strike us down in large numbers, the major reason is that our sus ceptibility to disease, cancer and death in creases as we get older. It is often difficult to accept this medi cal and actuarial view. After all, when you buy insurance the items that will categorize you as high risk or low risk will tend to be lifestyle items such as: Do you fly an

airplane? Do you bungee jump? and do you commute long dis tances? When it comes to pes ticide exposure, rural or urban living, working in an office or chemical factory, these items

Faraday started as a lab assistant (mostly washing bottles) for Sir Humphry Davy, who was no slouch in the annals of engineer ing either. Davy did a great deal of chemistry, but was probably most remembered for the inven

have limited effects on the like

tion of his Davy lamp. For 19th century coal miners in England en countering pockets of deadly meth ane gas, the explosion proof Davy lamp was pretty close to a godsend. The lamp was quickly used all over the conti nent and throughout the world with no pat ents, no royalties and no exclusive licens ing agreements. Humanism was a common trait in scientists of the day. Even when France and England were in conflict, Davy travelled to Paris to accept an award saying that although diplomats may be at war, sci

lihood of death and disease and

entists were not.

If Sir Humphry Davy had a failing, it was his keenness for chemical analysis. Davy felt that the thorough analysis and charac terization of chemicals required tasting and smelling, probably more than once. Davy amply characterised the more euphoric and anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide(laugh ing gas). By the time he was 33, he was convalescing for long periods in the more temperate climes of Italy. Settling down in Rome at the age of 51, he roamed about the Coliseum, viewed the aqueducts and the other ancient monuments of Roman glory, describing himself with grim humour to his colleagues as "a ruin among the ruins." He died shortly thereafter. Some say he was embittered by the suc cess of his former bottle washer Faraday. I have always wondered if a fictional histori cal murder mystery could be written about 22

insurance rates generally reflect this. But if life (which at the best of times can be short, hard

gas, could he manufacture large quantities of the gas, and would he supervise such a project, he replied: "Yes, yes, and no he would have nothing to do with it". Almost two hundred years later, chlorine is the en vironmentalists'"Public Enemy #1"and sci entists debate the relative costs and benefits

of chlorine containing compounds. In this context I'm often tempted to wonder how Davy or Faraday would have felt about a proposed total ban on chlorine usage. The issue is, of course, one of safety. At social gatherings, when people find out that I'm an environmental consultant, I'm usu ally asked a question along the lines of: "Is the water safe?","Is the air safe?","Is the

food safe?". To which I inevitably reply in a smiling, positive, nurturing fashion:" Yes, yes, and yes!". I sometimes feel a bit guilty about providing a simple absolute answer to an obviously complex problem, but peo ple want simple definitive answers, espe cially when it comes to risk. There are probably two broad categories of risk, voluntary and involuntary. In the category of involuntary risk we might con sider nefarious exposure to all sorts of un wanted items such as pesticides, cancer

and brutish) fails to live up to expectations, then there is a great need to find a scapegoat. Hence the call for the banning of chlorine,spearheaded largely by environmental activists armed with plenty of real enough data but little real perspective on risk. If we were to ban compounds solely because of toxicity at high doses,I could provide convincing arguments for the banning of fruits and vegetables, animal products, water and even oxygen. The latter is really remarkably toxic, espe cially at higher concentrations. Many environmental activists will point to "hundreds of papers" to bolster what is ultimately a visceral attitude towards "chemicals." At the risk of sounding glib, "hundreds of papers" have been written in support of'cold fusion' but I remain largely unconvinced of its validity. Moreover, sci entists who oppose a ban on chlorinated compounds are not(as some might suggest):

1. Stubborn in the face of overwhelming evidence.

2. Paid off by multinational chemical pro ducers (believe me, it's not easy to get money out of a multinational). 3. Evil anti nature types who hate kids and dogs (not true, my dog Fudgie is very well cared for).

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

By Adam Latawiec, M.Sc.* It is simply that a total ban on chlorin ated organics cannot be justified scientifi cally or economically on the basis of the toxicities of some (even many) chlorinated molecules. It is not a question of whether some risk is posed by organochlorine com pounds. That organochlorine compounds pose some amount of risk is undeniable. Rather it is the magnitude of the risk and its significance compared to the everyday risks that we take for granted. In that sense organochlorines are very low as human risk factors. The levels of chlorinated contaminants

ban on organochlorine compounds is putting the dead horse before the cart, and flogging it too. Michael and Humphry would prob ably agree. Of course, Michael Faraday also was the first to isolate benzene (another chemica non-grata), so he might be some what biased.

The voting, and legislatively influencial populace could probably be convinced that the greatest environmental danger to hu mans is chlorine. That view will even go largely unchallenged by toxicologists, re searchers and scientists who might know better but are reluctant or cannot be both

in the Great Lakes have dropped several fold since the I970's. A large number have ap peared to stabilize at some level for the last few years. There are even naturally occur ring chlorine compounds that are probably responsible for the background levels of

ered to engage in the debate. Perhaps the term debate is a bit misleading, because scientific exploration is usually enhanced by discussion but hampered by debate. In the case of discussion, there is some genu ine effort to provide proof, weight of evi

chlorinated dioxins and furans found in soil

dence and verification in a somewhat em

samples dating from the I840's. Our fatty tissues now contain a host of organochlorine compounds ranging from DDT to RGB's and TCDD as well as various plasticisers, pre

pirical fashion. This process is generally slow, boring and does not lend itself to "sound bites" or glossy pamphlets that

servatives and additives. If that is not

of debate, the time and effort is mostly spent scoring debating points and the more ex tremist the viewpoint the better, since it is

enough to make you lose some sleep, the levels will probably rise during your adult life and even if you changed your diet, puri fied your water and lived in Biosphere II, the chemicals would likely never leave your body. On the other hand, considering all the naturally occurring toxins, carcinogens and radiation your body has to cope with, you'll probably never know the difference. The great danger is to focus time, effort, energy and money on eliminating chlorin ated products which will likely have abso lutely no discernible impact on human qual ity or quantity of life. To a large extent, organochlorines, International Joint Com mission recommendations, target com pounds and lists of toxic persistent chemi cals are products of I970's analytical meth odology and mindset. In a nutshell, the tar get chemicals are extracted by dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography; if they're not extractable and not ame nable to GC, then you won't hear much about them.

The real danger which is overlooked and ignored, is a growing body of literature that is reporting toxicities and chemicals in wastes and effluents that do not contain

organochlorine compounds. The worst part is that most of these compounds have not been identified and will not likely be iden tified because of legislation and environ mental programs mired in target com pounds. For the record, I support greater control in the use, production and applica

tion of organochlorines, as well as finding more acceptable substitutes, but a general *Adam Latawiec, has worked for the MOEE, Environment Canada and private laboratories

in a variety of technical and research positions. He currently operates Terra Nova Consulting

sive beer and Monday morning hangovers. It was shown quite conclusively, that there

was a strong correlation(R^ > 0.99) between these unwanted events and the east to west motion of the sun.

A contrarotational lobby was quickly formed, the matter duly debated, and a ref erendum was called to force the student

union to concentrate its efforts to implement ing the contrarotational plan. The students voted and their collective voice was heard.

With the largest recorded turnout in many years the motion was passed by an over whelming majority. In a conspiratorial re buke to established democratic principles, the student union stubbornly ignored the will of the populace, claiming that the motion could not be taken seriously. Perhaps former members of the contrarotational lobby have now set their sights on chlorine. ES&E


"scream" for immediate action. In the case

a common belief that "truth" lies somewhere

between two opposing statements. As I consider the drive by many envi ronmentalists for the elimination of chlo



rine usage, I cannot but help remember an incident from my youth. During my univer sity years(an only moderately long time ago) an ambitious plan was launched by a group of intrepid'ArtSci' students that would pro vide a means to eradicate death, illness,

pollution, war, lack of OSAP loans, expen-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


Pulp & Paper Industry Report Performance improvement continues in drive towards effluent-free pulp and paper mills Canada's pulp and paper industry has reported dramatic five-year reductions of up to 40 per cent in specific components of mill process water while simultaneously reduc ing dioxins and furans by eliminating 98 per cent of aggregate discharges. According to the first nation-wide indus try review of water quality from 110 mills for the periods from 1988, when dioxins were first confirmed in mill process waters, to the end of 1993, specific daily reductions measured in kilograms per tonne of produc

• More than 35 per cent in Total Suspended Solids(TSS), the totai amount of suspended solid matter in mill discharges; • Nearly 40 per cent in Biochemical Oxy gen Demand (BOD),the oxygen consumed by organic matter breaking down in mill

tion are as follows:

In addition, water usage for pulp and paper production has decreased by more than 10 per cent since 1988, and by more than 22 per cent when measured over the past ten years. This is doubly interesting because, while water usage plummeted, in dustry pulp and paper production increased by nearly 10 per cent since 1983. Further more, according to results supplied by the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN), industry's annual chlorine use has dropped by 70 per cent since 1988. "Our industry is proud to announce these national results. They are tangible evidence of our investment in, and commitment to, Canada's environmental integrity," Cana

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discharges. Concentrations of dioxins and furans, already down 98 per cent from 1988 to the end of 1993, will fall to undetectable levels this year under the provisions of the Cana dian Environmental Protection Act.

dian Pulp and Paper Association (CPPA) Chairman Paul Gagne said. Effluent quality improvements will con tinue as all mills now operating within ex isting regulations complete the installation of new treatment systems, Mr. Gagne said. PAPRICAN's leadership in developing closed-loop technology is a key factor in the new five-year, $100 million partnership between industry and the federal govern ment announced earlier this year. Its objec tives are:

• To develop new closed-system technolo

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Legal affairs

By Brian J. Stammer*

Due Diligence: A Precarious Environment for a Board of Directors

Due diligence does not require a

directors of companies whose activities af

ply glance over the storage area twenty times

fect the environment are searching for guid ance on what constitutes diligent conduct. The Bata Industries case is often loosely

over his four-year tenure did not meet the

tions to prevent those mishaps which are reasonably foreseeable. Whether a particu lar mishap is foreseeable is often measured by the industry standard. However, the

cited in the corporate world as the leading precedent in regard to environmental due diligence for all directors. In fact, however, the court made important distinctions based

tor of Bata Industries Ltd. bore less respon

standards, customs, norms and guidelines

on the knowledge that each director pos

established by the governing body of a par ticular industry or the industry itself, have no legal force. They represent a minimum standard of care, thereby providing an indi cation of the standard by which others in

sessed of the corporate activities. The bal

once per month, which was all that his time permitted. The problem was that the exist ence of leaking barrels was brought to his personal attention well before the govern ment stepped in. The court held that this individual had a responsibility not only to give instructions but to see to it that such

corporation to prevent any and all mishaps. It requires the corpo ration to take reasonable precau

ance of this article examines the standard

of due diligence as it varies with the func-

The greater

the industry will be judged.

the Ontario Court of Justice rendered a de

cision, the effect of which rippled through out the Canadian corporate world. The case was R. V. Bata Industries Ltd. The players were the company itself, its president and

the director's

knowledge of corporate operations, the higher the

its vice-president, as well as the chief ex

standard ofconduct

ecutive officer of the multinational parent corporation.

expected of

Bata Industries Ltd. carried on the rela

tively environment-friendly business ofshoe manufacturing. Its operations, however, generated liquid waste which was stored outside in metal barrels. The barrels even

tually leaked permitting toxic waste to en ter into the environment. In addition to

$500,000 in clean-up costs, the corporation was fined $90,000 while both the president

and vice-president were fined $6,000. The chief executive officer was acquitted of all

charges. It was the first time in Canada that directors of a large corporation were con victed of an environmental offence. Virtu

ally overnight, the courts caught the atten tion of the corporate elite. No longer was

personal liability for an environmental of fence a moot consideration.

Indeed, on May 31, 1993, Tioxide Inc., a chemical manufacturer located on the shores of the St-Lawrence River in Tracy,

Quebec, was directed to pay the largest sum of money ever ordered in a Canadian envi ronmental case. The corporation and five of its directors pleaded guilty to charges of permitting the deposit of wastewater into the St. Lawrence River. Although the di rectors were granted absolute discharges,the

corporation was ordered to pay a fine of $ 1 million and to donate $3 million to projects

that protect fish and fish habitats. As the reality of environmental liability sets in. *Brian J. Stammer practices corporate and environmental law with the firm of Colby, tvlonet, Demers,Delage & Crevier in IVIontreal, Quebeo.

On the other hand, the president/direc

sibility than the on-site general manager but more than the chief executive officer. This

individual visited and toured the plant only

instructions were carried out in order to

Whether the officers and directors of a

corporation acted diligently is also a ques tion of particular fact. On February 7,1992,


that director. tions of each directorship and offers some

guidance on diligent conduct for directors. It is clear that the diligent conduct of officers can be distinguished from that of directors. Directors are elected to compe

tently guide and direct the corporation. The directors must adopt the necessary environ mental policies and programs and ensure that such policies and programs are imple mented by the officers. Consequently, the diligent conduct of directors is largely fo cused on asking appropriate questions and insisting on reasonable answers. Officers, on the other hand, are charged with over

seeing the day-to-day operations of the cor poration. They are responsible for imple menting the policies and programs adopted by the directors. Relative to directors,there fore, officers have a greater knowledge of the corporation's day-to-day activities and are held to a higher standard of due dili gence.

Even among directors themselves, how ever, distinctions in diligent conduct can be made. In the Bata Industries case, the gen

eral manager/director/vice-president worked at the plant on a daily basis. The facts re vealed that this individual demanded the

minimize the damage. The chief executive officer had the least

personal contact with the Bata Industries plant. His corporate responsibilities were primarily directed at the global level of the Bata shoe organization. He attended the site only once or twice a year to review the op eration and performance of the facility. The court held that this individual was not guilty

of the offences charged. He was entitled to rely on the on-site manager to bring to his attention any environmental problems. In light of the above, it is apparent that whether or not a director has acted diligently

is always a question of particular fact and circumstance. The greater the director's knowledge of corporate operations, the higher the standard of conduct expected of that director. To facilitate appreciation of diligent conduct, however, it is possible to classify directors into one of three catego ries: i) operational directors, ii) managerial directors and iii) outside directors. The

highest standard of diligence is required of operational directors. These individuals must personally ensure that the corporation is operating in compliance with the law. For example, in the case of R. v. Nitrochem Inc., nearly 6,000 gallons of ni tric acid spilled while being loaded for trans portation. The spill was caused by the fail ure of a valve. The accused was found not

to have exercised due diligence for two rea sons; first, there was no containment sys

tem present at the site where the spill oc curred and second, there was no person re

sponsible for monitoring the loading opera tions. Therefore, not only must operational directors develop a due diligence program,

they must also oversee its implementation. Managerial directors, on the other hand,

authority to control his work environment, had experience in production and was aware

do not have the same day-to-day exposure

that toxic chemicals were used in the manu

tional directors. To the extent that environ

facturing process. The court held that this director had a responsibility to personally inspect the site on a regular basis. To sim-

to operational directors, an environmental

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

to the corporation's activities as do opera mental responsibilities have been delegated Continued on page 30 27

Watermain construction

Overcoming obstacles In the relocation of a 1050 mm diameter trunk watermain

The construction of Highway 407

across the north of Toronto is pre senting numerous obstacles and challenges to the planners and de signers. One of the many issues to be ad dressed is the physical conflict of the new

highway with both the underground and overhead utilities. One utility which pre



, \



exist WM


sented a unique challenge is a 1050 mm diameter watermain at the N.E. comer of

Highway 7 and Yonge Street. (See Figure 1). This watermain extends west from the

Bayview Avenue Pumping Station along the south side of Highway 7 (Langstaff Road), and crosses to the north side of Highway 7, east of Yonge Street. At Yonge Street, the watermain turns north into Richmond Hill. TOWN OF MARKHAM

Built as a part of the York Water System in 1977, this watermain is the major and vir tually only supply to the Town of Richmond Hill. As a result, the importance of this watermain cannot be understated and it could not be taken out of service for more than a few hours.

During the design of this watermain in 1976, the additional loads for the then fu


loadings resulting from an embankment over 13 metres high.

tance of the watermain, the Region could

In addition to the concerns about pipe

for a lengthy period of time. Thus, initially, various options were assessed to protect the existing watermain in place and avoid shut ting down this critical utility. The goal was

strength, the watermain included both a

ture Highway 407 were considered and a portion of the watermain was constmcted under the existing Highway 7 using concrete encased steel pipe. This design was suffi

ber in the immediate vicinity. The air valve chamber would fall outside the roadway

cient to handle the loadings for the future

surface of Highway 7N, but the drain valve

Highway 407.

chamber would be within the intersection

drain valve chamber and an air valve cham

way 7 was not as expected in 1976, thus the new Highway 7N is to be located over a

of Highway 7N and the connection road to Yonge Street. This was considered to be a great safety risk for operations personnel as

portion of the watermain constructed using

well as undesirable for traffic.

Unfortunately, the realignment of High

concrete pressure pipe (CPP). This section

of watermain did not have sufficient pipe strength to carry the additional earth

Options considered Several options were considered to re

solve this conflict. Because of the impor-

not permit the watermain to be shut down

to support the additional earth loadings over the pipe. Options considered included the following; a) concrete cap, b) geogrid reinforced earth fills, c) light weight fill. Althoijgh all options seemed to have technical merit, it was decided to relocate

the watermain because of operational and safety reasons. The location of the drain

valve chamber within the paved portion of Highway 7N certainly creates a safety haz ard from traffic. Also, with the additional RJ - Restrained Joint

earth fills, the resultant access chimney to the drain valve chamber would be in excess


of 15 m deep. This, too, was considered unsafe from confined space entry considera tions.

Therefore, despite the operational prob lems and service risks that could arise diir-

ing construction, it was decided to construct a new section of the watermain to permit the use of properly designed pipe to with


stand the new earth fills. This would also

permit the relocation of both the air valve chamber and the drain valve chamber to more suitable locations on the north side of



Highway 7N. See Figure 1. Watermain relocation The watermain relocation consisted of

constructing approximately 310 m of new FIGURE 2 'MacVIro Consultants Inc., Markham,Ontario


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

By Jim Leppard, P.Eng.* 1050 mm watermain, two chambers, two

connections to the existing watermain and filling the abandoned section of watermain with grout. In general, the construction of this relocation was routine with one major exception - the connections to the existing

RJ - Restrained Joint



As mentioned, this watermain is the pri mary supply for the Town of Richmond Hill and serves a population of over 75,000 peo ple. Thus, shutting down this watermain to

40° 26' HOR. BEND


make the connections to the new watermain


carried significant risks. In addition, the timing of the highway construction required this work to be done in early June, a tradi tional period of high water demand. To determine the length of down time which could be safely permitted,the Region



1050 DIA. CLASS 12


C —J

reviewed its records and carried out tests

on the distribution system to confirm the actual impacts of shutting down this watermain. From these investigations, it was determined that the watermain could

be taken out of service for a maximum pe riod of 18 hours at any time during the week.


This period included the draining and re filling of the watermain. After this period, there was a potential that the Richmond Hill

Vacuum testing for sanitary sewer projects

Alogofor marking pipe as"vacuum

tested" was approved by the On tario Concrete Pipe Association Board in the spring of 1993. At the same time the logo was being approved, engineers and technologists from member firms joined forces to draft guidelines for

length of time. Each piece of sanitary pipe can be tested in about 45 seconds or less for

pipe 200 and 250 mm sizes, to approxi mately one minute for pipe up to 900 mm. It is also possible to join a series of three pieces together to test the joints.

Typically, sanitary sewers are relatively small diameter projects in

members to follow when

vacuum testing pipe and joints. At present, all con crete pipe for sanitary in


stallations up to and includ- /^ ing 1200 mm internal diameter are being tested by participating firms. OCPA recently carried out a survey of its pipe pro ducing members to deter mine the level of participa

tion in applying the vacuum testing guide lines. The survey is the first to monitor progress of members fully participating in the initiative. Eventually, the guidelines may become a requirement for certification under the OCPA's Plant Prequalification Program. Pipe manufacturers are now reporting on projects that have received vacuum tested pipe. These projects mark the beginning of a new level of quality assurance being pro vided to owners and their contractors. By the end of this year's construction season, vacuum tested pipe will have been installed In numerous construction sites throughout Ontario.

Vacuum testing is a term that describes the evacuation of air from the pipe and hold ing negative pressure for a predetermined

the 150 mm to 250 mm

range. Concrete pipe of those diameters are pro duced in one metre lengths. Two significant projects were in



Wentworth Region and each exceeded 2,500 metres.

But not all sanitary sew ers are small diameter. Two

projects of note were con structed utilizing a producer member's vacuum tested pipe. C.M. DiPede Group of Toronto was the successful bidder for a

job in Barrie, Ontario. Included was 1,500 metres of675 mm sanitaiy sewer. Each pipe was vacuum tested prior to shipment with a pass rate of 100%. Also, Brantford Engi neering & Construction of Brantford was awarded a contract in Guelph that included approximately 600 metres of 1050 mm sani tary concrete pipe. The pipe was installed to depths exceeding 10 metres in a wet con dition. The pipe was vacuum tested to as sure its quality and the pass rate was again 100%. Following construction of the first 400 metres, the dewatering pumps were turned off. Tbe interior of the line was com

pletely dry,confirming the quality of the pipe and the construction process.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 126

supply could be at risk in the event of a major fire or watermain failure. Connections

As discussed previously, the existing watermain was constructed using two types of pipe material and as a result, one con nection was required to each type of pipe. (Concrete pipe and concrete encased steel pipe). The connection to the steel pipe required the removal of the concrete encasement to

permit accurate field measurements for the manufacture of the closure pieces.' These consisted of specially fabricated fittings and pipe (2 bends and 2 sections of pipe) com plete with restrained joints to effect thrust restraint. The final closure piece was fitted with a plain steel end, matching the dimen sions of the existing steel watermain. A split welding sleeve was provided for the final connection. (See Figure 2). For the connection to the existing CPP, the existing watermain was exposed to con firm the location and type ofjoints used and to permit accurate measurements to be made for the closure pieces. A total of4 pieces of CPP were specially fabricated for this con nection (1 bend and 3 sections of pipe),com plete with the appropriate restrained joints. Two sections of pipe were produced with plain steel ends to permit the use of a welded split sleeve for the final connection. (See Figure 3). Construction The installation of the connections re

quired the cooperation and coordination of many parties including the Region's opera tions staff, the contractor and the pipe sup

plier. Prior to the starting of the work, a meeting was held to review the contractor's work plan and to ensure all foreseeable con tingencies were considered. The activities and responsibilities of all parties were con firmed to ensure that the work was prop erly coordinated.

The Region shut down the watermain Continued overleaf 29

Relocating a 1050 mm diameter watermain and commenced the draining of the affected sections at 3:00 A.M. To speed the drain ing process, pumps had been placed in the two drain chambers to keep the water level as lovv as possible in the chambers. This kept the hydraulic gradient within the watermain as high as possible and reduced the draining time. By 8:15 A.M., the

Figure 4

watermain had been drained and the work commenced on the connections.

The contractor provided two work crews and thus work proceeded at each location simultaneously. At each location the work consisted ofremoving the appropriate length of existing pipe and the installation of the closure pieces. These pieces were installed, starting at the previously completed new watermain, working toward the existing pipe. The final closures were accomplished by welding the split sleeves to the plain ends of the pipe. The connection to the existing CPP was completed by early afternoon while the connection to the existing steel pipe was completed at 6:00 P.M. At 6:15 P.M., the Region crew initiated the filling of the watermain, less than 15 hours after the valves were initially closed. (See Figures 4 &5).

Effects on water supply During the course of the work, the ef fect on the water supply to Richmond Hill was negligible. Initially, all reservoirs were full and the levels dropped slightly during the first few hours. However, by continu ing to pump water from Bayview Avenue, and by using minor interconnections through the Markham system, the reservoirs re mained at suitable levels throughout the day.

The weather was overcast with scattered

mm diameter trunk watermain must be con

rain which reduced the overall water de

mand for the day. Residents had also been asked to reduce consumption via a newspa per notice. When the watermain was put back in service, there were some complaints about "milky" water. This was attributed to trapped air, but the condition dissipated after one day. Considering the potential for a signifi cant water supply shortage to the Town of

sidered a resounding success. This is a di rect result of the pre-planning and coopera tion carried out by the major players in this drama. Recognition must be given to the Region of York Operations Department(Mr. Bob Little), the Contractor (Mardave Con struction Ltd.) and the Pipe Supplier (Hyprescon Inc.)for their efforts in success fully completing this unique piece of work. For more information,

Richmond Hill, the relocation of this 1050

Circle reply card No. 116

Due Diligence: A Precarious Environment

continued from page 27 compliance officer or an environmental com pliance committee, the responsibility of managerial directors is reduced. Their duty is then limited to providing assistance, where called upon, in order to facilitate im plementation of the corporation's due dili gence program.

The lowest standard of diligence is as signed to outside directors. These individu als do not have the same knowledge as op erational or managerial directors do of the corporation's activities. Their questions and proposals, with respect to environmental concerns, will be of a much more general nature than that expected of operational or managerial directors. In all cases, however,


^ V


where a director has been informed of an

environmental problem, he or she then has a duty to ensure that the problem is prop erly addressed. Further detail on the type of conduct now expected by the Canadian courts from of ficers, directors and the corporation itself is outlined in the author's 116 page Guide to Environmental Due Diligence. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 125 30


Figure 5 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Protecting Creeks, Rivers & Lakes From Pollution.

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Monitoring air, water, wastewater Smog - the French don't have a word for it - but Instruments to measure it

The word "smog" fortunately does

not have a French translation. The

air in Paris, like that in most re

gional metropolitan centres in France, is quite healthy, though this does not prevent it from coming under close sur veillance. The capital has not had a pollu tion alert for a good many years. Winter pollution from sulphur dioxide has been cut by a factor of six over the past thirty years, thanks to the disappearance of heavy indus tries near Paris and a ban on fuels with a

high sulphuric content. At the same time, pollution caused by automobiles, wbich is rapidly growing, requires increased vigi lance.

Today more than fifty automatic stations constantly inspect the air of the Ile-deFrance region which encompasses Paris and its suburbs. Over the entire territory of France there are about a thousand measure

ment stations, financed by the national gov ernment, local municipalities, and major sources of pollution, such as fuel-burning electric generation plants, incineration fa

cilities for household waste, airports, etc. These stations analyze the amounts of sul phur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, lead, ozone, and suspended particles found in the air. In each major city, monitoring stations are con nected via a telecommunications network

Nevertheless, the air pollution measure ment department of the CNRS (Centre Na tional de Recherche Scientifique) designed an optical measurement device for pollut ants in situ. Marketed by the French com pany ATMOS under the brand name Sanoa,

Winter pollution from sulphur dioxide has been cut by a factor of six over the past thirty years, thanks to the disappearance of heavy industries near Paris and a ban on fuels with a high sulphuric content. to a central command post that processes the resulting data on a computer. Automatic analysis and telecommunica tions have their limitations when it comes

to certain pollutants. As a result, recourse must be had to manually gathered samples and laboratory measurements. This is true with trace hydrocarbon that is measured by gaseous phase chromatography. Direct measurement has not been possible until now due to variations in transmissions in

the atmosphere from one instant to the next.

and costing approximately $170,000 (US), it measures several pollutants simultane ously without having to take samples. One of the devices is currently being tested in the very heart of the capital. "Sanoa analyzes the spectral definition of the constituents of the atmosphere using linear detectors made of PCD (Pulse Cou ple Device) silicon bars," explains its in ventor, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, director of research at ATMOS. "The equipment de tects absorption variations between one wavelength and the next in the order of 1/ 10,000th instead of I/lOOth, which was the

case with old-fashioned spectrometers." As a result, Sanoa can simultaneously meas ure a number of urban pollutants, ozone,

SOj, NOj, NO, NFIj, toluene, benzene, and xylene, while also identifying chlorine com ponents and tars found in industrial settings. Lyons, the second largest city in France, recently equipped itself with a top level real time computer system for monitoring pol lution. With an investment of 2.5 million

French francs, ($430,000 US), the city ac quired a Dataviews system from the French instrumentation manufacturer CEGELEC.

Henceforth, it will be possible for its engi neers to visualize every analysis on the screen or on paper, in the form of numbers, maps, or graphics. The data is managed on an Oracle database from the same company. Lyons envisions making this information available to the public, through its telematic information service via the Minitel tel

ecommunications system. Telesurveillance

The city has expanded the principle of telesurveillance to its sanitation network.

Also with CEGELEC, it has installed an

extremely complex system that manages nine water purification plants, 2,500 kilo metres of sewers, thirty sampling stations for grey water, forty rain measurement sta tions, and twenty-four highway catch-basins. In the 1860's Baron Hausman laid out the wide sweeping boulevards which made Paris a masterpiece of urban planning. Influenced by the Mouvement Hygieniste,the city also took the opportunity to create its famous sewer system. This did much to safeguard Parisians from lethal water borne diseases which plagued communities in that era the world over. This article describes French instrumentation technology used to monitor air, water, wastewater and coastal pollution. Copyright photo by Marc Verhille, office of the Maire de Paris. 32

A command station centralizes information

and guarantees the security of the facilities. Known as Transveil, the system localizes operational abnormalities and makes it pos sible for competent services to intervene immediately on site. Continued on page 67

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


The Biofof/^ was



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The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of air and water, and the retention of bacteria and

suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. Degremont Infilco is a world leader in the design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking water.

To inquire about adapting a biofiltration process to your requirements, call our offices today.


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R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur ia Qualite de I'Eau


The solution consisted of a flexible, modu lar design, course bubble aeration system. Information on the aeration system sizing,

Bioremediation of a Chemical

Dump Site N.W. Schmidke (N.W. Schmidke & Asso ciates) and D.W. Smith (University of Al berta) have reported the results of their re

layout, and costing, both capital and oper ating, is provided in a paper published in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

search undertaken in the selection and de

sign of an aeration system for the treatment of a liquid chemical dump site. The ap proach consisted of using a combination of pilot and field-scale data coupled with ex periences reported in the literature and fun damental oxygen transfer considerations.

Treatment of Water Using a Natural Coagulant Moringa oleifera is a tropical plant whose seeds contain an edible oil and a water solu ble substance which is non-toxic and bio-

degradable. University of Sherbrooke sci entists A. Ndabigengesere, K.S. Narasiah and B.G. Talbot studied the efficiency and properties of Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural coagulant in water treatment. As described in a paper accepted for publica tion in Waier Research, the optimum dos age of shelled seed was almost the same as that of alum. Unlike alum,Moringa oleifera does not significantly affect the pH and con ductivity of the water after treatment. The volume sludge, which is innocuous, is four to five times less than that of the chemical

sludge produced by alum.

"Monster Solutions" Cut Solids Problems Down to Size. ^^4 '

Water Chemistry of Small Sudbury Lakes Canadian Wildlife Service scientists D.K.

McNicol and M.L. Mallory studied trends in the water chemistry between 1983 and

Pioneers ofthe industry-ucclmined duul-ahafted cutter i MMn&logy

1991 of 97 small shallow lakes northeast of

to meet the toughest ofraw sewage problems in headwo^&^/jU^

Sudbury that are important habitats for breeding waterfowl. Although there have been short term improvements in pH and

and Channel com used in our Muffin Monsters®'""d Chnnnpl Monsters®^e Mnnsterx^

stations. Our lines ofsolids reduction equipment are more effective than comminutors at treating solids while eliminating the cost oftraditional

SO^ levels, there has been no consistent long

screening systems.

scribed in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, the

term trend of chemical recovery. As de chemical condition in these lakes varied

considerably between 1983 and 1991 and responded quickly to changes in precipita tion levels. However, the present condition of most lakes suggests that further reduc tions in emissions will be required to im prove these habitats for breeding waterfowl. Control of Nonlinear


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A paper by PAPRICAN scientist M.Perrier and a Belgian colleague published in Water Science and Technology deals with the de sign of adaptive nonlinear control algorithms for biological wastewater treatment proc esses. A systematic approach is presented for the design of controllers, based on the dynamical mass balance equations of the process, which includes the on-line estima tion of uncertain parameters(specific growth rates or yield coefficients) and measured components (biomass). The procedure, il lustrated using two control examples, can be used and extended to other typical con trol problems arising in wastewater treat ment processes such as the control of denitrification or dephosphatation proc-

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ships between metals concentrations, sus pended particulate matter, turbidity, colour, temperature, and system hydrology in 21 rivers to derive empirical models for pre-

I.D. Cuthbert and J. Kalff used the relation r.ww



For more information, Circle reply card No. 102

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

R&D News, cont'd. dieting metal concentrations. Annual metal exports were calculated, and empirical mod els for predicting catchment exports were developed using system hydrology and av erage suspended particulate matter concen trations. As described by these McGill Uni versity scientists in Water, Air and Soil Pol lution, these simple models can be used to estimate metals concentrations and exports from routine water quality monitoring data without requiring chemical analyses. They also serve to distinguish background levels from those indicating metal contamination and will, therefore, be useful for water qual ity evaluation. Characterization of RBC Biofiim Surface

In a Rapid Communication accepted for publication in Water Research, University of Toronto scientists W. Zahid and J.J.

Ganczarczyk describe a new technique which they have developed to evaluate geo metric irregularities of biofiim surfaces.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canatdian Asso

Vertical microtome sections ofRBC biofiim

bia scientists K.J. Hall, D.S. Mavinic and a

samples embedded in glycol methacrylate resin were cut in two perpendicular direc tions and their properties examined by light microscopy image analysis. The measured

Hong Kong colleague describes research undertaken to compare two different oper ating strategies for aerobic-anoxic sludge digestion and biological phosphorus re moval. The better strategy employed real time control making use of the distinctive breakpoint in the oxidation-reduction poten tial (ORP)-time profile to control the anoxic sequences in the process. Since the breakpoint corresponded to nitrate disap pearance,the ORP probe demonstrated great potential for automated control of anoxic

fractal dimensions of the biofiim surface

were in the broad range of 2.1 to 2,8. The thermodynamic and mass transfer models for biofiim systems may be greatly improved by inclusion of numerical values character izing the surfaces involved.

Monitoring Lakewater Acidity Queen's University scientist J.R Smol and a U.S. colleague have discovered that changes in the species composition of scaled chrysophytes can provide an effective means for identifying and quantifying changes in lakewater acidity. As a result, it is concluded that such a component would provide an excellent addition to long term monitoring programs and a plan for this purpose is out lined in their paper published in Water, Air and Soil Pollution. The plan includes analy ses using discrete water samples, sediment traps, and sediment cores. Several programs are outlined and discussed based on the fre

quency of sampling events.

ciation on Water Quaiity, Technoiogy Development Directorate, En

Treatment Systems Using ORP

vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.

A paper published in Water Science and Technology by University of British Colum

Control of Wastewater

segments in batch sewage treatment sys tems.

Toxlcity of a Wood Preservative The toxicity of the wood preservative agent 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) was evaluated in three species

ofjuvenile salmonids by D.L. NikI and A.P Farrell. These Simon Fraser University sci entists found that TCMTB had both a con

centration and time dependent effect on gill histology with damage apparent at concen trations as low as 6pg/L. Concentration de pendent reductions in swimming speed were observed with thresholds of5 to lOpg/L, As reported in Aquatic Toxicology, the inhibi tor effect on swimming performance was also intensified by an increase in exposure duration.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 103


R&D News, cont'd. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenoi and Pentachiorophenoi In a joint University of British Columbia, University of Ottawa, Environment Canada study, S.J.B. Duff, K.J. Kennedy and A. Brady investigated the treatment of dilute

phenol-polychlorophenol wastewaters using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, COD re moval efficiency using phenol as the sole carbon source reached 100% by day 46. With pentachiorophenoi, sequential appear ance of tri-, dl, and mono-chlorophenols was observed in the reactor effluent with only 3-chlorophenol detected after 70 days. Us ing phenol as an additional carbon source, the UASB reactor proved capable of reduc ing highly chlorinated phenolic compounds to lightly chlorinated phenolics more ame nable to subsequent aerobic degradation.

lytical detection limit. As reported in Envi ronmental Science and Technology, the av erage concentrations of total dissolved chro mium in the epilimnetic waters was 69 ng/ 1 in Lake Superior, 136 ng/L in Lake Erie, and 351 ng/L in Lake Ontario.

Improvement in Sewage Lagoon Treatment Systems In a paper published in Water Science and Technology, R.V. Anderson Associates Lim ited scientist B. Evans and colleagues from XCG Consultants, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, and the Wastewater Technology Centre describe al ternative approaches for upgrading effluent quality for conventional lagoon based sys tems. Two approaches were evaluated. They are called the Button and New Hamburg processes after the towns in Ontario where they were first installed. The Button proc ess consists of extended aeration followed

Chromium in the Great Lakes

A technique has been developed by J. Nriagu and coworkers from the National Water Research Institute and the University of Waterloo for selectively measuring the forms of chromium in freshwater samples with limits in the low nanogram range. When the method was applied to samples from Lake Ontario, it was found that Cr(VI) made up 75-85% of the dissolved Cr, and that Cr(III) was consistently below the ana

by polishing lagoons with waste sludge sent directly to the lagoons. The New Hamburg process consists of conventional lagoons followed by intermittent sand filtration. Role of Alum in Zebra Mussel

Control MAWBA Inc. scientists C.L. Mackie and

B.W. Kilgour have assessed the efficacy and role of alum in removal of zebra mussel

veliger larvae from raw water supplies.

Concentrations of alum used in most water

treatment plants were insufficient to kill the veliger larvae although the llocculation proc ess physically removed some of the living organisms. Additions of alum which de pressed the pH below 5 caused instantane ous kill of veligers. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, prechlorination improves the removal proc ess. Thus, alum will remove veliger larvae by chemical toxicity in the mixing zones where chemical gradients exist for alum, hydrogen ions, and chlorine, and by physi cal removal through flocculation. Mass Balances in Activated

Siudge Systems RB. Barker and P.L. Dold performed COD and nitrogen mass balances on four differ ent laboratory-scale activated sludge sys tems which included a variety of configura tions with differing wastewater character istics and operating parameters. These McMaster University scientists achieved good COD balances in aerobic and anoxicaerobic systems, whereas COD balances of less than 80% were obtained in systems in corporating anaerobic zones. The conse quences of the COD "loss" include both a significant decrease in oxygen requirements and in sludge production compared to aero bic or anoxic-aerobic systems. Possible mechanisms for the loss of COD are dis

cussed in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research.

Biomonltoring to Detect Lake

Septic Odours? Now an Effective, Economic Solution.


Acidification D.R. Marmorek and J. Korman undertook a

detailed review of the zooplankton litera ture and found strong evidence that lake acidification consistently causes declines in crustacean and rotifer species richness, the relative abundance of cyclopoids and daphnids, and the relative abundance of 16 particular zooplankton species. Five species consistently increase as pH declines. As described in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, these scientists from EBBA Environmental

The ARV Kit provides you with an effective method of remedying failed or failing Tile fields.

and Bocial Bystems Analysts Ltd. recom mend a number of biomonltoring response variables based on these results to detect

early acidification effects.

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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, September 1994

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R&D News, cont'd. mine drainage (AMD) using straw as a substrate requires sucrose as a supplement. G. Bechard and colleagues from CANMET and Carleton University undertook a study to determine which, if any,of three cellulosic materials could sustain the microbial treat

ment of AMD alone. Laboratory scale con tinuous reactors,employing a retention time of five days, were used with alfalfa hay, timothy hay and straw. The results presented in the Journal ofEnvironmental Quality in dicate that a low maintenance microbial

treatment system can be developed with al falfa as a substrate without the addition of a

Toxicity of Tar Sands Tailings A study reported in Environmental Technologyhy M.A.Warith(Golder Associates)and R.N. Yong (McGill University) was con ducted to assess the toxicity of leachate from sludges produced from the hot water proc ess used to extract oil from Alberta tar sands.

Fluids emanating from fourteen different potential sludges resulting from various pro posed treatment processes were considered. All were highly toxic to the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, with an aver age lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.8% by volume.

stance concentrations are high, the turbid ity, chlorine demand, and total trihalomethanes concentrations in the drinking water are generally high as well.

Effect of Lake Acidity on Fish S. Tremblay and Y. Richard surveyed 74 lakes in the Outaouais region to assess the potential impact of acidity on fish popu lations. The results presented in Water, Air and Soil Pollution showed that species di versity declined with increasing acidity both in brown lakes and clear lakes. 72% of fish

A laboratory scale model of a rotating bio logical contactor was used by W.M. Zahid and J.J. Ganczarczyk to investigate the vari

University of Windsor scientists M.T.

species were no longer captured when the pH declined to 5.0 as compared with 32% at pH 5.5. The pH range of 5.0 to 5.5 can be regarded as the break point for the occur rence of most fish species in this area. These researchers from the Quebec Ministry of the

Alarcon-Herrera, J.K. Bewtra and N.

Environment estimate that lake acidification

ations in the structural features of the biofilm

Biswas studied the concentrations of dis

formed in the four compartments of the model during both the early and late stages of biofilm development. These University of Toronto scientists found that, in the early stages of growth,the biofilms were predomi nantly occupied by non-filamentous bacte ria. In later stages, the biofilms were mostly filamentous. Biofilm porosity decreased with depth in the biofilm and from one com partment to another. Details of these and other results were published in Water Envi

solved humic substances from the Detroit River and treated water from the Windsor

is responsible for the loss of more than 10,000 fish populations in the Outaouais

sucrose amendment.

Humic Substances in

Structure of RBC Biofilms

Potable Water

ronment Research.

Water Treatment Plant. As described in the

Canadian Journal ofCivil Engineering, the results of the research show significant sea sonal variations in humic substance concen

trations and these values are influenced by the turnover of water bodies. There is a

gradual reduction in their concentration during the treatment process, the greatest change occurring after the coagulation-sedi mentation process. When the humic sub

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.

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The most feature-packed yet smallest, lightest pump on the market. Weighing in at just 19 ounces, the Escort Pump is compact, quiet and easy to carry. And, it's wafer- and dust-tight and will continue to operate in areas where other pumps may tail. For all types of personal sampling, the Escort Pump can be partnered with an assortment of sampling devices to measure the concentration of airborne mists, dusts, particulates, gases and vapours. • UL-approved. •Elapsed-time readout. •Flow rate of 0,5 to 3.0 ipm Is easy to set and adjust, with built-in high«i

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/ In situations where a single contaminant is being sampled, sampling on two tubes of the same type can be done simultaneously at different flow rates—to protect against "breakthrough." Use with the Escort Pump or any competitive sampling pump capable of a 1.5 ipm flow rate at a load of 25 inches of water column.

resolution flowmeter.

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to 1

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Mine could handle all( 1

1 he criteria for a

good landfil] include .i siif)-

stantial capacity, protec tion of tfie water table and

adjacent environment, a site visually removed from residential areas, efficient transportation, and cost

Container barges are being considered as the safest means oftrans portation to Rupert Arm.

effectiveness for the land fill customer.

The open pit at the Island Copper Mine on the north ern tip of Vancouver Island

Separated, compacted municipal waste will be trucked in containers

from transfer stations to marine ter minals for shipment to Rupert Arm.

fulfills all those criteria.

The pit extends over an area of 500 acres (200 hectares) and will reach a


depth of 1,300 feet (400 metres) below sea level.

At a disposiil rate of 2.5

million tonnes per year equivalent to British Columbia's total annual

municipal waste produc tion - the pit would have a lifespan of more than 150 years.

Constructed in low per meability bedrock, the waste disposal area is 1,000 feet(300 metres) below the

The open pit atIsland Copper is approximately

water table, providing a

1,300 feet below sea level when mining ends in 1995.

1.75 miles long and .75 mile wide and will be

natural barrier to k-ai hai e

migration out of the i>il.

The nearest populated areasj

the pit to be dumped at the lar fill face. The working area will


are Coal Harbour and the

First Nations community of Quatsino Village, both

quite small and waste will be c ered at the end ofeach day.


Containers will be unloaded ai marine terminal and trucked ii


situated four miles (6.5

kilometres) away behind a ridge of land. Contain

erized waste will be ship ped to a marine terminal and trucked to the landfill. The landfill will be

designed according to British Columbia Landfill

Criteria for Municipal Solid

The cone-shaped pit has been dug in low per

Landfill leachate will be collected \

Waste and U.S. Environ

meability volcanic rock

mental Protection Agent) Subtitle "D" regulations.

and is an ideal configu ration for the capture of both landfill leachates

a system ofdrainage pipes and pur. and transferred to a treatment plai

and rain and groundwater runoff.

prior to discharge according to crib established by the Ministry of Environment.

BCs waste for 150 years lie potential for ry of bio-gas ener gy from the landfill - the fourth R - is of primary interest to the project proponents. Landfill gas is presently being utilized for a cement plant in Richmond, a gypsum plant in Surrey, a recre ation centre in Matsqui, a field house at the Premier

Street playing fields in North Vancouver...and

planned for the news print recycling plant in Coquitlam. This potential is impor tant to the economy of northern Vancouver Island which faces declin

ing revenues from its traditional forest and

mining activities. Coupled with provision of a regular marine transportation system to Vancouver and other

Vie lime kilns at the Lafarge Canada Inc. cement plant in ichmond, B.C. utilize landfill gas from the former Richmond tunicipal landfill.

ports on the Georgia Basin, industries operated by energy generated from the landfill gas would provide a welcome addi tion of jobs and tax revenues.

Methane gas from municipal landfills is a common source ofenergy to power steam or electrical generators for

The gypsum products division ofDomtar generator provides electricity to a large Inc. draws gas from greenhouse operation in Indianapolis. the Port Mann Landfill to fuel part of its plant operations in Surrey, industrial and commercial uses. This


Drinking Water Treatment

Significant water fiitration system expansion at Windsor

Asignificant milestone in the his

• an additional intake from the River; • a doubling of the number of filters, and

tion station, including standby power equip

tory of public water supply in Windsor, Ontario was the con

the addition offlocculated water settling ba

• additional ground level storage of filtered

struction of the Essex Border




• a laboratory build ing for monitoring

Utilities Commis sion water filtration


plant in 1925. That plant, located on Wyandotte Street East, one block

both chemical and

low lift pumping

biological param eters of water qual ity; • a remote ground level storage and repumping station to help sustain pres

station, flocculation

sures at times of

basins, rapid sand filtration, and adja cent ground level storage. Treated water flowed by gravity pipeline to a remote high lift pumping station

peak demand.

south of the Detroit

River, initially in I f I I

volved an intake,

In 1988, master

planning indicated the need to expand water filtration ca

pacity by an amount of 227 ML/d (50 MOD). A plan was devised whereby

which had, until then, directly dis

several of the older

tributed unfiltered

and smaller reser

river water. These

voirs at the site

components formed the beginning of the

would be demol

ished to make way for the new plant. This plan allowed the new plant to make full use of the exist ing intakes and low and high lift pumping

Treatment plant residues are dewatered on-site, and dropped directly into trans

Windsor Utilities Commission water

port containers on the floor below.

treatment and pumping ig system. Subsequent expansions and upgradings have included;

a plant drain to the river; a second high lift pumping and chlorina-











j \ j \j \j \j












Iflfi IV 12

tx* tx* ixr


J I7 U 2

















Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

By B.L Wheeler, P.Eng.,* R. Kargel, REng.,^ and W.L. Knowles, REng.' stations. Following construction of the new plant, the 1925 plant would be renovated to current standards. With matching hydrau lic profiles, the new and renovated plants would operate in parallel and give a total rated filtration capacity of 454 MUd (100 MOD). The design philosophy for the new plant was to provide a highly functional system at reasonable cost. This entailed a design which selected equipment intended for long service and ease of maintenance, while pro viding for flexibility in operation and adapt ability to future technology to the extent that could be anticipated. The exterior archi tecture was designed to provide security and act as a backdrop to both the general streetscape and the original plant. Construction of the new water filtration

plant has now been substantially completed, and its operation began early this year. Total flow to the new plant is metered before being split into two sections. Con tact tanks are provided for future use. The concept is based on the use of ozone, as applied by diffusers fed from generation equipment placed above the tankage. The space provided is also compatible with al

and uniform clarification process. Although the theoretical potential of parallel-plate settling had been recognized for many years, its application to large-scale potable water treatment in Ontario was quite limited un til its use at the Ministry of the Environ ment and Energy's(now Ontario Clean Wa ter Agency) Lake Huron plant in 1986. Fenco MacLaren Inc. received an Award of Merit from the Association of Consult

ing Engineers of Canada for their role in that project. It is worthwhile noting that the consideration and eventual selection of

the process for use resulted from the initia tive of an equipment supplier. Axel Johnson (Canada)Inc., now the Parkson Corporation. This successful application has led to its incorporation into most other expansions of larger plants in Canada. The process can be regarded as one of the more significant developments in water treatment technol ogy in the last few decades. Parallel-plate settling allows for a five

compared to conventional proces.ses. Thus, the overall facility can be enclosed more economically. The hydraulic retention time of these units is approximately 15 minutes. Integral solids-thickening units give excel lent control over the solids inventory and effectively concentrate solids for both recy cling and removal. Solids recycling can be used to stabilize the process, thus maintain ing the effectiveness of water purification when certain hard-to-settle solids are en

countered in the raw water. This procedure can also reduce coagulating chemical usage and provide appropriate retention and con tact times for powdered activated carbon, when this process is needed. The use of this highly efficient method of settling allows filters to be designed and operated largely independent of raw water conditions, thus filter-media type and gra dation and filter-aid chemical additions can

be directed primarily towards filtered wa ter-quality, rather than compromising this

to tenfold reduction in the tank surface area

Continued overleaf

Windsor's truly international heritage

ternatives to ozone, such as the addition of

other oxidizing chemicals or powdered ac tivated carbon.

The Rapid Mix process is of the con ventional backmix reactor type, but differs from the conventional design in terms of its short retention time, which is 15 seconds at

the design flow rate, and its level of energy input, which is designed to provide high intensity mixing. The mechanical mixers provided are equipped with variable speed drives and axial-flow, hydrofoil-type impellers. In addition to alum and polymer, powdered activated carbon may also be added at this stage of the treatment process. Four-stage flocculation is provided. Each stage is fitted with a top-mounted vari able speed mechanical mixer,equipped with an axial-flow, hydrofoil-type impeller. These impellers are highly efficient mixing devices,featuring low shear and high pump ing rate characteristics. Variable speed mix ing provides control of the flocculation proc ess so that the floe is sized for the best per formance of the subsequent processes. The flocculated water channels reduce shearing of the floe by limiting the velocity to less than 0.6 m/s.

Settling tanks are of the orifice flow con trolled parallel-plate type, with integral thickening of the settled residue. Parallelplate settling involves the use of closespaced inclined flat plates, and control of the individual flows between the plates by means of orifices to ensure a uniform and

laminar flow regime. Laminar flow,in con junction with short settling pathways for particle removal, creates a highly efficient


Windsor has a history which encompasses French, British, American and Aboriginal roots.

The government of new France, anxious to increase its presence on the Detroit River, offered land for agriculture on the south shore in 1749. That summer,families from the lower St. Lawrence relocated to lots

which began about 6.5 kilometres down stream from where Dieppe Park is now. A French nobleman by the name of Cadillac was said to have 'discovered' the Detroit

River which must have surprised the Hurons who lived by its banks. Along with civilians and discharged soldiers from Fort Font Chartran(now Detroit) they formed the com munity of La Petite Cote. Additional water front lots including this site were laid out in 1751. These extended from the Fluron mis

sion located in the vicinity of present Am bassador Bridge to the Ottawa village op posite the fort. When the French Regime ended in about 1760,some 300 settlers were

living in the area. Ultimately the French were driven out 'Fenco MacLaren Inc.

^Consulting Engineer

of Detroit and, for a while, Detroit was a

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

British possession, until they were dispos sessed by the Americans. The Windsor waterfront stands domi

nated by the Detroit skyline as a peaceful memorial of the longest undefended border between the United States and Canada. It

was not always so. In 1838 the Battle of Windsor took place. A force of 140 American and Canadian

supporters of William Lyon Mackenzie crossed the river from Detroit about one mile

east of what is now Dieppe Park. After cap turing and burning a nearby Militia barracks, they took possession of Windsor. In this vicinity, they were met and routed by a force of 140 Militia men commanded by Colonel John Prince.

Five of the invaders taken prisoner were executed summarily by the order of Colo nel Prince. This action caused violent con

troversy in both Canada and the United States. The remaining captives were tried and sentenced at London, Upper Canada. Six were executed and 18 transported to a penal colony inTasmania,Australia; sixteen were deported. Tom Davey 43

Expanding Windsor's water filtration system, cont'd. objective with concetn of short filter runs due to surface binding. Consequently, the filter-media selected, consisting of anthra cite coal and filter sand, is relatively fine. An air scour is used prior to backwashing for most efficient cleansing of the filter media and to help reduce the quantity of backwash water.

Another innovative aspect of the new plant is the on-site management of solids. Filter backwash water flows by gravity to mixed holding tanks from which it is pumped to coagulation, flocculation and settling/thickening units. The separated backwash solids are pumped with solids from the main process flow settling tanks to dewatering centrifuges. The dewatered solids are currently disposed of at a landfill. Alternative disposal sites may be estab lished in future.

The plant is monitored and controlled by a computer/PLC based control system with interactive remote terminal units. These in-

plant components are part of a system-wide SCADA system which monitors and con trols the plant,remote pumping stations, and pressure sensing stations throughout the serviced area.

Data from the initial months of opera tion are summarized in Table 1.

While supplying treated water of ex tremely high quality, the new plant was con-

Table 1 1994

Treated Water Quantity (ML/d) Raw Water Turbidity (NTU) Range Average







2.0 - 13.6 6.1


6.4 - 73.5





Coagulant Additions (mg/L) alum






Settled Water Turbidity (NTU)




Treated Water Turbidity (NTU)




% Backwash Water




Filter Runs

35 - 40 hours

Average Quantity of Solids for Disposal Concentration of Dewatered Soiids

4 tonnes dry solids/day 27% - 31 % dry solids

Treated Backwash Water Turbidity

8 - 12 NTU

structed at an economical capital cost of about $150,000 per ML per day of capacity

($0.70 per gallon per day of capacity). The consulting engineer for the project is Fenco MacLaren Inc., contractors and se lected suppliers are: General Contractor Ellis-Don Construction Ltd., SCADA Con tractor - Sutherland-Schultz Inc., Mixer/ Flocculators - Hayward Gordon Limited, Filter Underdrains - Lisle Metrix Ltd.

(Leopold), Backwash Pumps - ITT Flygt (A.C.Pump),Clarifier Equipment - Ecodyne Limited, Backwash Water Treatment -

Parkson Corporation, Centrifuges - Bird Machine of Canada, Polymer Preparation Systems - Allied Colloids, Chlorination Equipment - Metcon Sales and Engineer ing Limited (Capital Controls). For more Information, Circle reply card No.112

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerriClear. From FI2S and corrosion control to water

clarification, Eaglebrook has the answer that's tested, proven and economical.

Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 In Canada (800) 387-5021 In USA



For more Information, Circle reply card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Getthe&cts on\^eselection. SendforfieeWveGuide fortheWatBr&

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water, wastewater, raw sewage,liquid chemicals, DeZURIK has a valve for

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of water, air, gases, effluent disposal and filtrate from vacuum filters. Sizes from 2"-120."

you. Choose from Eccentric Plug Valves,

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AWWA Butterfly Valves, Knife Gates,

Top Entry Plug Valves, and more. Eccentric Plug Valves—Eor shutoff and throttling ofraw sewage, grit slurries, air, water,gases and all types ofsludge. Sizes from Vi'-IT.' Pump Check Valves—For shutoffand throttling ofwater and sewage on all types of pumping

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primary sludge, activated and digested sludge and concentrated sludge. Sizes from 3"-16" Top Entry Plug Valves—

stations: Sizes from 4"-72." Knife Gate Valves—For shutoff

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 109

Flow Measurement

Lithium injection used to verify one of the iargest water networks in industry

Dofasco Inc. is a large integrated

steel producer (3.5 million tonnes of steel per year) located on the shore of Hamilton Harbour

in Southwestern Ontario. In 1992, the Re

gional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth ("Region") requested a flow verification study of Dofasco's water and sewer net works. This request presented a huge chal lenge to the staff at Dofasco and Proctor & Redfern Consulting. How was the project team to verify tens of thousands of draw ings, walk 80 to 100 miles of pipe and sew ers and cover over 600 acres of property in an accurate manner?

In 1989, the Region introduced a new Model-Sewer Use By-Law("By-Law"). The By-Law required any industry which dis

charged non-regionally sourced water (i.e.

Harbour water- Bay water system) into the sanitary sewer system to enter into a Sur charge Agreement with the Region. This agreement provided the Region with a means to recuperate the costs for treating the non-regionally sourced water by levy ing a surcharge fee on the discharger. This discharge fee is based on the total amount of non-regionally sourced water discharged into the sanitary sewer by a facility minus the amount of regionally sourced water treated by the same facility and discharged into the Harbour. The Region requested that

a third party. Proctor & Redfern Consult ing, quantify this surcharge at Dofasco. In order to manage the complexity and size of this study, the project team divided the plant into three areas with specific ob jectives for each area. These three areas

Schematic Of Proposed Lithium Injection into Baywater System

were named the Bayfront, Sheet Mill, and Main Plant. In the Bayfront area, the ob jective of the investigation was to determine if any of the Bay water, non-regionally sourced water, enters the sanitary sewer system. To achieve this objective, the project team decided to inject a chemical tracer (lithium chloride) into the Bay water system and then monitor the sanitary sewer discharges for lithium. The lithium injec tion was one of the largest tracer tests ever conducted in industry. Test Methodology

The first thing that the project team did was hold consultative meetings between the Region and Dofasco to develop a test meth odology and specific test details that both parties could agree on. The test methodol ogy which follows is based on the agree ments reached at these meetings. To establish whether or not Bay water is discharged to the Burlington Street sanitary sewer,sufficient lithium chloride was added to the Bay water system to achieve a system


wide increase in lithium concentration for









Q= 660,000 GPD




Sewer # 1

Sewer # 2

chloride addition. Any significant increase in lithium concentration above background levels would indicate the presence of Bay water within the sanitary sewer discharge.

Based on previous studies conducted in the Bayfront area and measurements taken just prior to lithium injection, the back ground lithium concentration in the sanitary sewer(s) was established to be in the range of 0.01 to 0.08 mg/L. A lithium concentra tion of 0.2 mg/L was selected as the assess ment level with which to confirm the pres ence or absence of Bay water within the sanitary sewers. This level was selected to

Bayfront Area Baywater System (Lithium concentration - 2 ppm)


a period of approximately one hour. The two sanitary sewers which discharge to the Burlington Street sewer were then moni tored before, during and after the lithium

ensure that random fluctuations in back

ground lithium concentrations would not generate false positive results. In order to compensate for dilution of lithium tracer by the existing sanitary flow, a high lithium concentration was required in the Bay water system relative to the sani tary sewer. Therefore,for the study, the Bay water system was "doped" with 2 mg/L of

Regional Sewer

Q = 660 GPM

Sampling Locations (Three (3)sampling locations within the Baywater System)

lithium which would allow for a 10 fold di

Method detection limit for Lithium = 2 ppb 0.002 ppm

lution by the sanitary sewer to the assess ment level of 0.2 mg/L. As a result, the

Background concentration of Lithium in Sanitary Sewer System = 0.01 ppm

sewer at 0.2 mg/L would represent a Bay water discharge to the sanitary sewer of 10% of the sanitary flow. Conversely, less than 0.2 mg/L of lithium measured in the sani tary sewer would confirm that less than 10% of the sanitary flow was due to Bay water discharges, which all parties agreed to be

presence of lithium within the sanitary

Dosing to achieve detectable concentration of 0.2 ppm in Sanitary (assuming more than 1% Baywater leakage)

Figure 1 46

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

By Joe Gemin, P.Eng.^ and Renzo DiCarlo, REng.^ acceptable as a confirmation of zero Bay water discharge to the sanitary sewer. To achieve a lithium concentration of 2

the tracer chemical. Further samples were then collected from the sanitary sewers dur ing tracer addition (one hour) and for a fur

mg/L within the Bay water system, a me-

ther six hours after the tracer addition was

tered volume of concentrated lithium chlo


ride solution was gravity fed into the intake side of Pump No. 4 in Pumphouse No. 2 and metered under positive pressure into the discharge side of the steam pump located in Pumphouse No. 3 (See Figure 1). The addition of the tracer solution was regulated in proportion to the flow rate for each Pumphouse so as to achieve and maintain a final Bay water lithium concentration of 2 mg/L for a period of approximately 1 hour. Samples of Bay water were collected from the Bay water system during the addi tion of the lithium chloride tracer to con

firm that a lithium level of 2 mg/L was achieved and maintained for the desired

period of one hour. Samples representing Bay water from each Pumphouse were col lected from the No.4 Blast Furnace(Pump house No.3 output), Caster(Pumphouse No. 2 output), and Oxygen Plant (End of sys tem, Pumphouse No. 2 output). Background concentrations of lithium were established for the sanitary sewers by collecting samples prior to the addition of 'Proctor & Redfern Consulting Group ^ At time of study, employed by Dofasco. Currently employed by Environment Canada, Industrial Programs Branch.


As mentioned previously, lithium addi-

This concluded that Dofasco Inc. did not

discharge Bay water to the Region's sanitary sewers from the Bayfront Area. tion to the Bay water system was regulated in proportion to the flow rates at each pumphouse. The quantity of lithium chlo ride required at each Pumphouse was precalculated based on pre-determined injec tion rates and assumed flow rates of 50,000 USGPM at Pumphouse No. 2 and 25,000 USGPM at Pumphouse No. 3. Actual flow rates recorded during the tracer test were i found to be approximately 56,000 USGPM and 27,000 USGPM for Pumphouse No. 2 and No. 3, respectively. The lithium concentration in the Bay water supply from Pumphouse No. 3, as measured at Blast Furnace No. 4, ranged from between 1.96 and 2.11 mg/L, an aver age concentration of 2.07 mg/L. Lithium

concentration in the Bay water supply from Pumphouse No. 3 as measured at the Caster and oxygen plant, was found to vary between 1.69 and 1.92 mg/L, an average concentra tion of 1.80 mg/L. Background concentrations of lithium in the east sanitary sewer and west sanitary sewer, as measured prior to the tracer test, were typically in the order of 0.010 to 0.014 mg/L and 0.010 to 0.033 mg/L,respectively. During and subsequent to the lithium chlo ride addition to the Bay water system, lithium concentrations in the east sanitary sewer did not exceed 0.016 mg/L. At the same time, lithium concentrations in the

west sanitary sewer were found to vary be tween 0.010 and 0.102 mg/L. These results are well below the 0.2 mg/L assessment cri teria. Conclusion

No significant increases in lithium con centrations were observed in the sanitary sewers. This concluded that Dofasco Inc.

did not discharge Bay water to the Region's sanitary sewers from the Bayfront Area. Both Dofasco and the Region were satis fied with the results of the study and the manner in which it was conducted.

*The writers would like to thank the personnel at Dofasco Inc. andThe Regional Municipality of Hamllton-Wentworth for their review of this article.

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 110


Cut weight Va, assembly time V2 with grooved'end eccentric plug valves. 'Install, maintain Vic-Plug with just two Victaulic couplings.

• Rugged ductile iron body

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more information, Circle reply card No. Ill


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Concrete Pipe...Future Perfect For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

ocpo Ontario concrete pipe association

6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1N3 Phone:(905) 677-1010 Fax:(905) 677-1007

For more information, Circle reply card No. 128

Distribution system protection

By J.R. Pepin*

Controlling watermain corrosion The sole purpose of protecting a pipe line with an external coating, in the case of a buried pipe, is to provide a physical bar rier between the pipe and its surrounding environment. This environment can be ei

ther atmospheric or soil. This external coat ing must be impermeable to moisture and air and other corrosive materials and be in ert to the effects of this environment. This

coating must totally conform to the profile of the pipe and must totally eliminate any contact moisture and air could have with the

pipe. These coating materials generally con sist of hydrocarbons or chemically stable high polymers. Coal tar, bitumen, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride or petrola tum compounds are typical materials used for pipe protection as they are inert to the surrounding environment. Most utilities in North America are familiar with these ma

A properly protected valve and piping system like the one shown above, will give years of

Corrosion is basical y defined as

terials. One of the simplest and effective products, yet one of the least known mate rials, is petrolatum tape. Fabric re-inforced petrolatum tapes rep

trouble-free service.

ronment." Corrosion can occur in non-me

temperatures. For example, moist air is more highly corrosive than dry air, rates of corrosion are increased at higher tempera tures, air pollution increases the corrosion process and salt water is more highly corro

tallic substances; however, in this article,

sive than fresh water.

we will confine our definition to corrosion

Pipelines form the basis of transporta tion for our society whether they carry fresh, potable water, wastewater, oil, gas, or

"the deterioration of a metallic

substance or its properties be cause of a reaction with its envi

of metals.

Corrosion can be caused by the attack of a metal by chemical reaction, electro

chemicals. The cost factors associated with

chemical reaction or by physical process.

the installation, and maintenance of these

For example, in the case of iron, the combi nation of iron, water and oxygen creates fer rous hydroxide, or rust. If any of these ele ments are absent entirely, corrosion will not occur. Generally speaking, corrosion can occur in various environments; namely, at

pipelines and the guaranteeing of safe, ef fective and efficient transportation of mate rials through them is of paramount impor

mospheric, underground, liquids or high

of corrosion. The two most widely used techniques for this protection are the use of external coatings or cathodic protection.

'Denso North America Inc.

tance to the owner/operator. This requires the reliable protection of these pipes and the associated infrastructure from the effects

resent one of the oldest and established

forms of coating pipeline. The use of these tapes originated in the early 1920's when severe cases of corrosion occurred on gas mains in Europe. This corrosion was traced to stray currents from underground subway systems and led to a number of fatal gas explosions. Since that time, petrolatum tapes of various widths have become widely used and recommended by engineers, pub lic utilities and industry throughout the world.

These products, primarily formulated from petrolatum which is free from acids, alkalis and resins, use thermal extenders, inhibitors, surfactants and fillers as required to adapt the corrosion resistant materials for Continued overleaf

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CALGARY ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW & CONFERENCE CAIGARV CONVENTION CENTRE• NOVEMBER 1 AND 2,1994 An ideal opportunity to exhibit your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental


Forfurther information contact:

Canadian Exhibition

Management Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, AB T6E 5W3 (403) 469-2400 Fax: (403)469-1398

Calgary: (403) 258-0705 Fax:(403) 255-7404

For more information. Circle reply card No. 119

Controlling watermain corrosion their intended use. They are manufactured in tape form of various widths and are used throughout the chemical process, petroleum refining, utility, mining and refining,ferrous and non-ferrous metal industry, marine in dustry, food processing, transportation, bridges and any areas where any metal and concrete need protection by coating and seal ing under severe conditions. These products are, for the most part, applied by hand labour. No special skills are required and surface preparation stand ards are minimal. The surface preparation on corroded steel is simply to remove loose corrosion products from the surface. With these products, moisture and air are dis placed and the surface is sealed and inhib ited to prevent further corrosion. As coldapplied products, they do not harden, crack, or shrink, and can withstand mechanical

strain and vibration. They remain perma nently pliable, are highly adhesive, durable and offer a long term solution to the effects of corrosion on watermain systems, by pre venting contact with the metal surface by water and oxygen. The application procedures for these products consists of wire brushing the pipe or joint on existing corroded fittings to re move any loose surface scale, rust and del eterious material. Rub, brush or spray a proper primer compound on the entire sur face, which passivates any existing oxides, displaces surface moisture and provides maximum adhesion for the tape product. The tape is then spirally wrapped onto the pipe or fitting with a 55% overlap of the tape. The material is cold-applied and can be moulded to any profile. It can easily be replaced if removed to inspect the underly

ing surface. There is no drying time or cur ing time and backfilling may commence immediately after wrapping is complete. If the profile of the fitting is such that tape wrapping becomes difficult, for example,on a pipe joint or valve, a mastic compound is incorporated to fill cavities and voids and smooth the profile of the fitting prior to tape wrapping. The second technique utilized for corro sion protection and corrosion prevention is cathodic protection. Cathodic protection is defined as "reduction or elimination of cor

rosion by making the metal a cathode by means of an impressed direct current or at tachment to a sacrificial anode (usually magnesium, aluminum or zinc)." A cathode is the electrode where reduc

tion occurs, and practically no corrosion is present. In an existing metal, most corrod ing surfaces will have a cathodic area and an anodic area (an area where corrosion is active and present). By converting all anodic areas to cathodic areas, we can, therefore, eliminate corrosion. In any metal structure where corrosion is present, there is a direct current flowing from the anodic area to the cathodic area by way of the soil surround ing the pipe structure. From the cathodic

area the cu rrent flows back through the soil to the anodic area and, therefore, completes an electrical circuit. Corrosion occurs where

the current discharges into the soil at the anode.

In applying cathodic protection tech niques, the operator is trying to convert the entire metal structure into a cathode by forc ing the metal to collect current from the soil

and, when this is attained, the entire exposed surface becomes a non-corrosive cathode.

In order for this to occur, the cathodic pro tection current must flow into the soil from

a special ground connection established for the purpose. These ground connections act as anodes and material consumption occurs at this point. Materials suitable for use as an anode include aluminum, magnesium,

zinc and other materials. Quite simply, we have protected the metal surface by trans ferring the effects of corrosion to the anode from the cathode which, in this case, is our pipe. Anodes can be designed to supply this needed cathodic current for a reasonably long time and when consumed, may be re placed.

There are limitations to what cathodic

protection systems can do. The cathodic protection current must be allowed to flow freely onto the existing metal surface by way of the soil. Any portions of the system ex posed to air will not be cathodically pro tected as air does not act as a conductive medium for the cathodic current. Cathodic

protection systems can be expensive to op erate where energy consumption is high or anodes deteriorate rapidly. In the oil and gas industry for example, all pipe has a fac tory coating applied as a "first line of defense" and, additionally, various tapes or urethane coatings are used in conjunction with cathodic protection systems. Corrosion has become an unavoidable

side effect of burying metal pipe in the ground. Repair and maintenance costs caused by corrosion-related breaks are con tinually increasing. By using the two dis cussed corrosion control methods, either separately or together, municipal engineers can substantially lower these costs and en

A further version of cathodic protection systems is known as impressed current, whereby an external source of direct cur rent power is connected between the metal

sure themselves trouble-free operation of their water supply systems, for many years to come. The long term solutions offered by tape systems and cathodic protection sys tems must be considered a high priority in the design of waterworks projects, now and

and the anode and forces the anode to dis

in the future.

charge the needed cathodic current. The positive terminal of the power source is con

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 120

nected to the anode.

"Big Scale" ph Meter For Lab or Plant Model 707, large 7", 0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged portable shock proof case. Practically unbreak able polyethylene shielded electrode. Ideal for unskilled users. Economical, Includes probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH

and ORP Indicator-Controllers availatile.

ph Instrumentations

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 216

Field & Industrial The Model 30WP is a portable pH Re corder in a glass reinforced polyester case with hinged clear polycarbonate cover and compiles with NEMA 1-2-34-4x12-13 requirements. A crystal con trolled chart motor drive provides accu rate chart timing and a gel type combi nation electrode encapsulated In 3/4" PVC nippled handle, provides a rugged sensing element. Rechargeable battery. Also available, pH and ORP sampling Meters, and Recorder-Controllers, Indi cator-Controllers.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more Information, Circie repiy card No. 217

2428 Islington Avenue North, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 3X8 Telephone: (416) 749-7179, Fax:(416) 749-8289


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 242 51

Coping with spills

By James Higgins, Ph.D., P.Eng:

Spill remediation with melt blown polypropylene sorbents

Spills are a serious source of envi

ronmental damage. During 1991, the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment (MOE) reported 5251 spills of fuels, industrial chemicals, sewage and gases. More than half of these involved oil or fuels and a further 17% chemicals.

30% went into the water, including 208 oil and chemical spills into the Great Lakes. (Lake Ontario was polluted by 105). Most of the spills were small and only 14% were considered to have caused serious environ

mental damage. 64% ofthe spills were com pletely or partially cleaned up and, because MOE's statistics include sewage and gase ous spills, most major oil and chemical spills fall into this category. Any spill on land, plus most releases to watercourses, of oil and oily hydrocarbons, and spills there of chemicals which are not significantly water soluble, can be wholly or partially remediated (cleaned up) using a variety of methods. These include burn ing, physical pick up by devices such as skimmers, burial, reaction with chemicals and sorption (soaking up) in a variety of media known as sorbents.

Where the spill occurs in a specific inci dent (usually outdoors), clean up is known


Table 2

Water Sorbency (Times by Weight)


Clay Melt Blown Polypropylene





Polyethylene fabric Polyurethane foam Virgin Wood Pulp

0.1 - 1.0

Peat Moss

0.1 - 1.1

Ground Polyurethane



Polyethylene foam Polyether

0.5 - 2.7 1.0-7.2

as emergency spill remediation. Where one occurs periodically (often indoors),clean up

Emergency spills are often large and if remediatable,can involve the release of oily

rial (the sorbent) to take up in some man ner another liquid or gaseous material. In the case of spills clean up, the "sorbed" material is a liquid. With ADsorbency, the sorbed liquid interacts only with the sur

materials to seas, lakes, rivers and streams.

face of sorbent molecules and does not

is known as maintenance remediation.

Maintenance spills are usually very small and can involve the release of either aque ous and/or oily materials. (The familiar "kitty litter" is an example of a maintenance sorbent).

'Environmental Technologies Development Corporation,Toronto, Ontario

Sorbency Sorbency is the ability of a solid mate

Table 1

Approximate oil sorbencies of some spill clean up materials Sorbent

Virgin Wood Pulp


Approximate water sorbencies of spill clean up materials

Approximate Oil Sorbency (Times by Weight) 0.5



Clay Rags

0.7 - 1.6 -1.0

physically enter the sorbent material itself. No chemical reactions are involved. With

ABsorbency the sorbed liquid actually mi grates into the sorbent and in some cases actual reactions occur. With both types, physical entrapment of the sorbed material in the sorbent media matrix also can occur. o bo (e.g., wood pulp) is an Cellulosic material

absorbent, while melt lO blown polypropylene O is an adsorbent.

Sorbents for spills clean up come in three general classes: Organic, Inorganic and Synthetic. Organic sorbents include natural mate rials such as feathers, com cobs, wood pulp, peat moss, cork, sawdust and paper fibre. Inorganic sorbents such as clay, glass,

Diatomaceous Earth


vermiculite and diatomaceous earth have

Corn Husks


been used for spill clean up for years.



Treated Wood Pulp


The synthetic sorbents include a variety of materials made from polymers such as polyethylene, polyurethane and polypro pylene. These latter types are convenient, lightweight, do not react with most chemi cals, and have relatively high sorbencies. One of the most widely used and useful syn thetic sorbents is melt blown polypropylene, made from polypropylene, a synthetic poly mer (plastic). Melt blowing is a manufac turing technology used to process a variety

Peat Moss

Ground Polyurethane Polyethers Needle-Punched Polypropylene Rug Treated Polyurethane Foam Scrap Melt Blown Polypropylene** Polyethylene Scrap Polypropylene Universal Sorbent Foamed Polyethylene Melt Blown Polypropylene

5-9 5 - 14 6-8 6-10 7-27 10-16 11 -23 14-16

of synthetic polymers, including polypro


pylene. It involves extruding molten poly mer through multiple spinerettes along with


* A variety of wood and ground paper-based cellulosic materials ** Off spec materials from other melt blown polypropylene uses such as disposable diaper liner manufacture. 52


Adsorbents and absorbents may be ei

ther oleophyllic("oil-loving") orhydrophylContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Simple to cast In place reduces

All stainless steel hardware. 51am lock and

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Case For Hatch Standards M5U Single and double door stock sizes available, M5U can tailor build type "M" hatches to match your rec^uirements. MSU is certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau to CSA standard

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Coping with spills, cont'd. lie ("water-loving") or both. In spill remediation, most of the synthetic polymer sorbents are oleophyllic adsorbents with

varying degrees of hydrophobia ("waterhating") properties. This latter facet pre vents them from taking up water so that they can be used to clean up oil, and other "oily" hydrocarbons, spills from in and on water. Additionally, all polymeric sorbents are less dense than water so they float on it. An emergency spill response sorbent which gets water-wet and sinks in water, as some other types of sorbents will do, is obviously much less useful than one which will not. It is

possible to treat many sorbent materials, especially absorbent ones, to increase their hydrophobia properties and improve their potential for use in emergency spill remediation; but none so treated begin to approach the utility of naturally hydropho bia ones (e.g., melt blown polypropylene). Oil Sorbency Table 1 lists the approximate ranges (on a weight/weight basis) for oily materials sorbency of various common spill clean up sorbents. Specific products may exceed these ranges either because of superior processing conditions or materials, or

through the use of additives. Water Sorbency The degree to which water is taken up by a material is especially important with emergency oil spill clean up sorbents. For this service, ones with high water sorbencies are less desirable. Table 2 shows the ap proximate water sorbency (on a weight/ weight basis) of several sorbents. For main tenance spill remediation, a sorbent with both a high oil sorbency and a high water sorbency is preferable. Universal Sorbents

While hydrophobia properties are a defi nite advantage in emergency spill remedia tion, they are often disadvantageous in nor mal maintenance spill clean ups where aqueous spills are often encountered. Here both hydrophyllic and oleophyllic proper ties are desirable. Materials which possess both are referred to as "universal sorbents". Cellulosic materials are natural universal

sorbents although their oil-sorbing proper ties are relatively poor. Additionally, the physical nature of many of them (e.g., loose form) often makes them messy to use and clean up after use. The use of sawdust to clean up spills in a shop is an example. What is needed are simple-to-handle, universal sorbents with the high oil sorbency ofthe synthetic polymer sorbents,combined with good hydrophyllic properties. These can be created by mixing two types of sorbents together or, more conveniently, by treating polymeric sorbent materials with another material which imparts hydrophyllic properties to them. The most useful and widely used types Table 3 Some uses of melt blown

polypropylene Spill Response Media Apparel Automotive Seats

Bandages Bedding Carpet Cleaning Materials Cloths

Clothing Disposable Diapers Furniture Fillings

For Environmental Advice: Due Diligence, Assessments, Waste


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Continued on page 57 54

For more information, Circle reply card No. 122

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


CETECH provides Canadian industry with the opportunity to discover how to meet the demands of Due Diligence and reduce environmental legal liabilities without impacting the bottom line. In fact, CETECH exhibitors can show you how to become environmentally friendly, while at the

CETECH is one of five interrelated shows

included in Canadian Manufacturing Week (CMW), Canada's largest display of industrial technology. All five shows are located under one roof, with complimentary audience crossover. In 1992, CMW attracted

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CEIA Canadian Environment

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In cooperation with:

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Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Computer-Based

Wastewater Treatment

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Wastewater Treatment

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LOW C&M COSTS, and BiCGAS ENERGY are possible with the ADIBvftm patented anaerobic reactor. The SPACE-SAVING tank type or the larger In-ground type are two popular variations on the BVF"^" system. ADI offers complete supply-and-instaila-

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ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No.202

GPS-X^'^ Optimization Dynamic


Cost Effective Sorbents


Dynamic modelling of the entire wastewater treatment plant from in

Our products have the highest capac ity/value of all leading manufacturers as measured by ASTM testing pro cedures. We are also the only sorbent distributor to have our products SEG certified for incineration. DynoSorb products are made from pre con sumer recycled materials, absorb more than any leading brand, and are tough enough so that the fluids ab sorbed can be wrung out and re

Treatment Plant

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Unix based software, running on popular engineering workstations, is an interactive simulator intended to

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inquiries Welcome! M.J. International and Associates Inc.

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AWWA butterfly valves

Stormceptor^" System

Now you can quickly replace or ad just valve seats in the field without any chipping, grinding or burning. DeZurik AWWA butterfly valve seats are me chanically retained with a stainless steel clamping ring and locking

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moves oil & sediment from storm-

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Stormceptor Canada Inc. Circle reply card No.206


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Degremont infiico, the REKO shaftless conveyor will revolutionize the transportation of wet and dry materi als in both municipal and industrial applications. Benefit from low main tenance costs, continuous transpor tation, facility to convey at angles and over considerable distances, etc. Also available are the REKO

dewatering press, static and vibrating screens and the screw separator. Degremont Inflico Ltd. Circle reply card No. 208

Circle reply card No.207 56

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Coping with spills, cont'd. Table 4

Materials sorbed by melt blown polypropylene* Crude Oil

Liquid Polymers







Diesel Oil


Other Oils



Many Others

* Treated melt blown polypropylene universal sorbents can also be used to sorb aqueous spills.

Exxon Corporation developed the first widely used melt blowing technology for polypropylene and has dominated melt blowing technology for the past few decades. The latest major player, Pigmalion (or "Pig" as it is often known), entered the field in 1984 with a maintenance product de signed to be wrapped around equipment to contain on-going leakage (a sock or "pig" now a standard, widely-used product). Melt blown polypropylene sorbents can, depending on type and situation, be used to clean up and contain spills of the materials shown in Table 4.

of universal sorbents are types of melt blown polypropylene, treated with a hydrophyllic agent to impart the capability to clean up both oily and aqueous spills. Sorbents Products

Sorbents are sold in a variety of product configurations: Powders; Beads; Loose Material (e.g., shred); Rolls; Pads; Pillows; Socks; Wipers; Ropes and Booms. Booms are long(10-50'), 4" to 10" diam eter, tubular, floating barriers filled with sorbents. They can be connected together to both physically impound a spill on water and soak up material in contact with them. Socks are smaller versions, 2" to 4" in di ameter and a few feet long. Along with pads and pillows, they are often filled with shred

phobic properties keep a baby dry while al lowing liquids to pass through to an inner (cellulosic) sorbent. Table 3 details only some of the uses of melt blown polypro pylene. Melt blown polypropylene and similar materials are useful because they have voids. This offers properties such as insu lation from temperature changes, sound deadening and cushioning. These and other design criteria allow a melt blown polypropylene manufacturer to make a prod uct's surface rough or smooth, opaque or transparent, heavy or light, white or col oured, stiff or flexible, thick or thin or any of several other properties to meet market objectives.

Reuse and Recycle Unlike many other sorbents, melt blown polypropylene ones are readily reused. Sorbent soiled with oily liquids may be squeezed to remove them and reused again and again. Used sorbents products also may be cleaned (with detergents or by processes such as caustic washing) for further use. Although not recommended,soiled melt blown polypropylene sorbent products also can easily be combusted or disposed of in landfills; they bind well to adsorbed mate rials, resisting the leaching of them until the degradation of these adsorbed liquids is complete. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 150

or loose sorbent and are contained in cotton

or polymeric textile mesh covers. High tech sorbents are marketed in all ofthe above forms while lower tech sorbents

are usually sold loose and occasionally in packs and booms. Sorbents which can be used in forms such as pads, socks, and booms, are easy to use and are convenient and easy to pick up after use. Many organic and synthetic sorbents are sold this way. Convenience

Convenience is an important factor for sorbents. Clays and other inorganic mate rials are low cost and do not react with many chemicals. However, they can be labour intensive, non-recyclable, and have rela tively low sorbencies. These types of main tenance sorbents share most of their unde

sirable properties with certain expandable bead polymeric sorbents (usually treated polystyrene and similar materials) which are intended for emergency remediation of oil spills. Such materials, which react with a hydrocarbon spill to form a dense mat,seem impressive when demonstrated on floating oil in a small tank. However, in practice they are messy, relatively low in oil sorbency, inconvenient, difficult to use and do not perform well in the field in many situa


& Investigative Testing ERCB Regulations

Toxicity Testing/Assessment Drilling Waste, Sump Fluids Soils, Sediments & Sludge


Water & Wastewater

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Muititroptiic Bioassays Battery Bacteria (MIcrotox) Fish (Rainbow Trout) Water Flea (Daphnia)

Fertilizer Requirements Pre-/Post-Testing Advice Data Evaluation &

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Melt Blown Polypropylene Melt blown polypropylene is a versatile material and widely used in a variety of products. In addition to being highly hydrophobic and oleophyllic, it also is a good insulator. Is economic to produce and is rela tively inert. Its most familiar use is in the liner of disposable diapers where its hydroEnvironmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Accredited by the Standards Council of Canada and Certified by the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories inc. for specific tests. EDMONTON (403)438-5522

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Product Review


Hydrocarbon specific leak detection system

Level indicators Pressure





Capacitance Probe


Bin-Bob Continuous Level Controi

Full line of level indicators for almost every situation and material. All are designed and constructed to last. Various models are available with U17CSA approval for general pur pose and explosion-proof applications. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Where your Concerns


are our Concerns


Leakleam is a leak detection system that can detect and locate hydrocarbons, water and chemical leaks from pipelines, aboveground and underground storage tanks, and liquid distribution systems at distances up to 5,000 feet. Leaklearn Model 6000 consists of micro-controller-based leak detection and

location monitoring unit and Gore-Tex ex


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pable of detecting leaks up to 1,000 feet.

Tel 6G4-734-7276

The visual display identifies when an open, short, or leak fault occurs and sounds an audible alarm. A history file stores all ac tivities. Geneq Inc. For more information,


Accredited for specific tests by CAEAL & SCC

Circle reply card No. 136

Personal gas monitors


Setting the standard for New range of small lightweight gas moni tors include models for most common toxic


quality turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (905) 673-3255, FAX:(905)673-7399 58

gases, oxygen and a version for flammable gas detection. The monitors can be carried in a breast pocket or clipped to a belt. ISO 9001 CSA approved. Cancoppas Ltd. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 137

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review


Blanket level detectors

Csrilfhd orAecredltsd


byCAEAL,Sttndsrds CoufwJl of Cansds, New


Yofk State DOH snd U.S.

Army Corps of Engineers

Quality Anafytioal Lsboratories LaboratolrBS Anafytlques de Oualft6

for specific tests registered with the Council/Association.

NOVAUANN (Ontario)Inc. Labonloritt/Officet kii

5540 McAdam Road

Mississauga, Ontario


L4Z 1P1


Tel.:(905)890-2555 FAX:(905)890-0370

NIaffsrt Fills Edmonion

Amhertt, N.Y,


Ouelph Uexhc aty

Toll Free: 1-800-563-6266

ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES "QUALITY ASSURED—DELIVERY GUARANTEED" These blanket level detectors require no moving parts, no maintenance, and no recaiibration. Reliable microprocessorbased electronics continuously monitor and control the interface level in tanks. The unit

numerically displays interface depth in feet, meters, or percentage of total tank depth and displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface. The LCD graphi cal display provides full-depth interface pro file on panel mount. Applications include waste treatment, petroleum, pulp and pa per, mining and any tank with a liquid/solid interface. Cancoppas Ltd. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 138

PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA Burlington, Ontario(416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec (514)493-4733

Ainley and


Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS Flood Co.nl'

Land Use Planning



280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

(613) 966-4243

Stormceptor™ available in both Fibreglass and


Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

Precast Concrete

Waste Management soiutions to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect Water Pollution Control

Water Supply Water Resources

Stormceptor Canada Inc. has announced that Lafarge Construction Materials, A Division of Lafarge Canada Inc., has recently added the Stormceptor"' System to its line of precast concrete products.

Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services

Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Structures

TORONTO (416) 497-8600


WELLAND (905)735-3659

SUDBURY (705) 660-5555 (Dennis Consultants) BROCKVILLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmith Consultants)




Phase 2 of the National Water Research

Institute's testing program indicates 100% free oil separation, up to 80% sediment re moval and absolutely no scouring during heavy storm flow events! Phase 2 of the NWRI's testing program is now available. To receive a copy of the associated report, call 1-800-565-4801. Stormceptor For more Information,

Atfu^tic SciencesInc.

'Environmental professionals working with Industry to Improve water quality'


Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxicity Testing

Environmental Engineering Stormwoter Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905) 641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia. Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8 (519) 383-7822

Circle reply card No. 139 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994



Product Review Device combats


stormwater pollution







Bluewing Environmental Services Ltd. Environmental Assessments

■ Site Remediation

Storage Tank Removal Regulatory Approvals

• Air Quality Surveys • OH&S,WHIMS Training • Design Engineering

Environmental Manuals

701 Evans Avenue, Suite 701, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 1A3

Tel: (416)626-2222

Fax: (416)62&-2232

Stoimceptor" is a pollution prevention de

0.0. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

safe and easy removal. Stormceptor'" is unique in the market because it will not re lease trapped pollutants between servicing, even in periods of peak water flow. As the

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

ColHngwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Stormceptor"' storage chamber is air tight,

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705H44-2327

CONSULTING ENGINEERS > Wastewater Collection & Treatment • Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management • Environmental






* Water Supply Strategies •Water Resources &

Environmental Planning •Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow Measurement EDMONTON


(403)237-9300 (403) 488-2760 (604)684-3282


•Lnvironmenlal Management •Occupational Health Services


vice that efficiently removes oil and sedi ment from stormwater, and stores them for

6 Lansing Square, Suite 223 North York, Metropolitan Toronto Ontario, Canada M2J ITS

Tel.(416)498-7444 Fax:(416)491-2328 •Laboratory Services Contact: Dr, Nasrat Hijazi Toronto • Windsor, ON • Detroit • New York/Newvk •Atfant* • San FrvKiseo • Los Arygdes • Honolulu • Minneapolis Birmirtgham, U.K. * London, U.K. •Southampton, U.K. • Cateshead, U.K.


it will also prevent air pollution from those volatile petroleum products that it traps. Designed to replace more costly conven tional water quality inlets, and fully tested by Environment Canada's National Water

Research Institute, Stormceptor"' offers other benefits beyond front-line pollution control.

When installed in new or existing storm sewers, Stormceptor'" eliminates the need for catch basin sediment traps, and reduces the frequency of scheduled sewer flushing. Stormceptor For more information, Circle reply card No. 140

Sulphide gases eliminated Noxdown" products are designed to elimi nate ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gases from stilling lagoons, settling ponds, la goons, septic tanks, and other waste man agement structures.

Working through dissociation of the ac tive compounds in Noxdown™, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide are controlled.

Noxdown'" comes in sprinkleahle granules,




Offices across Canada and Overseas

Eastern Region Toronto Tel: (416) 441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

Prairie Region Calgary Tel; (403) 276-9861 Fax: (403) 277-6902

Pacific Region Vancouver Tel: (604) 525-9333 Fax: (604) 525-9458

as well as a 10" diameter disc that is floated into the control area. Noxdown™ does not

pose a problem when treated wastes are dis posed of; in fact, the reduction of offensive odours is noticeably better.

Noxdown"' discs and granules come with a high order of safety, are easy to use and have a residual activity of about thirty days. Speciality Markets For more information,

Circle reply card No. 141 60

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review


Open channel flow meter measures more than flow

DIILLOn Professional Consulting Services 'Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax

Sydney • Fredericton * Winnipeg • Edmonton • Yellowknife • International 100






M2N 6N5

(4 16) 229-4646


*1 !


American Sigma has introduced a new se ries of open channel bubbler flow meters that also measure level, pH, temperature, ORP, rainfall and other parameters, such as conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbid ity. The Sigma 950 bubbler system is mi croprocessor-controlled to maintain a con stant bubble rate even with rapid changes in liquid level. Pressure in the tubing changes in proportion to liquid level. The 950 flow meter converts the level readings to a flow rate based on the level-to-flow re

, Golder

the United States. Europe and Australia.



Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax:(604)298-5253 Tel:(905)567-4444 Fox;(905)567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES:


• Workplace and safety audits

• Environmental Engineering 'Training programs > Legal compliance/designated substances • Ventilation assessment/design > Air monitoring • Air emission control > Indoor air quaiity • Environmental audits > Noise monitoring and control •WHMIS > Asbestos


lationship of the primary device or channel configuration. American Sigma For more information,

Circle reply card No. 142


2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Misslssauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(416)858-4424

Telex: 06-218242


Gore Sl Stsorrie Limited Consulting Engineers

Depth Sensor

Water• Wastewater• Water Resources• Air• Waste

Management• Energy Recovery• Environmental Planning Drainage • Laboratory Services—Analytical and Process R&D

G ore & Storrie

255 Consumers Road

North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6

(416)499-9000 (416)499-0090 + ext.(416) 499-4687 fax

Ottawa• Thorold • Banie • Cambridge Misslssauga• Kingston • London

Hydromantis,Inc. O-cb-a Data Instruments' DSl provides high accu racy (.25% F,S.O.) liquid level measure ments to depths up to 115 feet of water (0 to 50 PSIG). This two-wire pressure trans mitter is packaged in a high pressure, 316 stainless steel, waterproof enclosure. All four DSl ranges, 5, 15,30,50 PSIG include a desiccant chamber that protects the vented gauge reference from external moisture and a 4-20 mA output, compatible with a vari ety of data logging equipment. The DSl offers optional cable lengths ranging from 25' to 200'. Applications in clude tank or well level measurement as

well as ground water measurement. Technel Engineering Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 143

Consulting Engineers

1685 Main St West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5 Tel. (905)522-0012 FAX(905)522-0031

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems • Neural Networks


1-67 Watson Rd. 8., Guelph, Ontario N1H 6H8


TEL:(519) 822-2608 • FAX:(519) 822-3076


Impact Assessments habitat surveys,fisheries, wetlands

Bioengineerlng air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation

Environmental Diving spill investigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Laboratory Testing microbiology, toxicity, chemistry, biodegradation and respiration studies

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


Product Review



New flow meter



Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

342 Bayview Drive, Box 310, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

151 Tagger Hims mm


EnviroMmental Consulting Enginetrt

• Hydrogeology

• Engineering Geology

•Sewage System Design

• Geotcchnical Engineering

•Environmental Audit & Site Remediation

•Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources

The new 3240 Variable Gate Flow Meter



Telephone (905) 853-3303

Telephone (905) 687-1771

from Isco is ideal for temporary or iong-term monitoring in a variety of municipal and industrial applications. It uses patent-pend ing technology to accurately measure flow in 4, 6, or 8 inch pipes, without a weir or

Fox (905) 687-1773

Fax (905) 853-1759

Toll Free (800) 668-2598

Toll Free (800) 263-7419

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


tion is required. The Isco 3240 also features a built-in

Kitchener (519) 743-6111 (519)743-3330 Cobalt (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

plotter to print flow summary reports on

port that allows an attached sampler to ob tain representative samples in low flow situ ations. An optional telemetry package and


Windsor, Ontario








(519) 966-2250

(519)680-3580 FAX:(519)680-3582

FAX; (519) 966-5523

command or at selected time intervals, au

tomatic gate flush and bubble line purge to reduce maintenance, and a built-in sampling

Consulting Engineers, Pianners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5


cise measurement from 0.25 to 500 GPM.

Installation is quick and easy - no calibra

Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869

Consultants Limited


flume. The bubbler system and exclusive variable gate metering inserts provide pre

Isco Flowlink® software allow convenient

on-site data retrieval using a laptop compu ter or remote monitoring from a central com

puter. Isco Environmental Division For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 144

IR analyzer tracks gases





DIVISION OF FALCONBRIDCE LTD. P.O. Bag 4300. Lakefield. Oniano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax 705-652-6365







The Siemens Ultramat Models 21 and 22

gas analyzers from Wilier Engineering are based on the non-dispersive infrared absorp

tion principle (NDIR) and can measure CO, CO,, CHj, NO and SO, gases as well as oxygen level. The design uses a single-beam method with an optopneumatic double layer detec tor for components with absorption bands

Consulting Engineers, Pianners and Scientists, Speciaiizing in the Environment MacViro Consultants inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, 3rd. Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R4B9 62

(905)475-7270 • Fax: (905)475-5994

in the lower and middle areas of the infra

red spectrum (carbon dioxide, sulphur di oxide, etc.). The double layer detector mini mizes interferences from background gases and automatically compensates for changes

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review


in temperature. Microprocessor control and a unique Microflow sensor increase meas urement accuracy and reporting and diag

•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geology

nostic functions.

An oxygen sensor option permits the analyzer to measure oxygen concentration in the sample in ranges of 5, 10 and 25 per cent by volume. The analyzers have auto matic recalibration and self-diagnostics and are designed for long term unattended op eration. Wilier Engineering Limited For more information,


•Environmental audits MALROZ Engineering Inc.

•Site decommissioning

168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel;(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

& rehabilitation

Circle reply card No. 145 Marshall Macklin

Fluid Purification System The new Alfa Laval Fluid Purification Sys tem (FPS)'" offers an attractive alternative to the old standard operating procedure of using fluids until contaminated and then paying for their disposal and replacement. The FPS products are fully equipped mod ules which utilize a centrifugal separator to remove contaminants such as tramp oils, bacteria, and solids from process fluids. The centrifuge can extend the life of these serv ice fluids many times over by purifying them to a "good as new" state.


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East


Thornhlll, Ontario L3T 7N4

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

(905) 882-1100

Fax:(905) 882-0055


The system purifies by generating cen trifugal force on the contaminated fluid which has been pumped into the centrifuge bowl.


Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 « Tel: 905-831-1715

Alfa Laval has engineered the Fluid Pu rification System into single modular units consisting of pumps, controls, and other components mounted on a platform. De signed to operate virtually unattended, the module can purify up to 5 gpm either in a dedicated installation or as a portable batch platform. The FTS can also be installed in a continuous bypass arrangement on a cen tral fluid system up to 10,000 gallons in capacity. Larger units can handle systems up to 100,000 gallons. Alfa Laval For more information,

Fox: 905-831-0531

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES RISK ASSESSMENT









Circle reply card No. 146

121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090




•Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply


Photographic & Video Documentation


Tel.: (905)875-2144 Tel.: 1905 643-8166 Tel.: 613 247-0111

675-2145 643-6171


306-146 Udrd Dr.. Toronto. Ont. M4G 3V7 416-424-26^

Environmenial Science & Engineering, September 1994


Product Review

Ductile iron pipe installation is getting easier ting and grooving is made easy so that the installer can use a standard grooved cou pling. The power unit requires only 11.5 amps of 120 volt power, so it can go wher

The switch from the traditional flanges PINION DRIVE

to the grooved method for ductile iron pipe has been steadily increasing over the past decade because of faster and easier instal



lation and quicker delivery of spool pieces. However, machining a cut groove into the wall of ductile iron pipe has been viewed in the past by some installers as awkward. Today however, more efficient piping is evolving around the use of a recently devel oped tool. Preparing the pipe for the grooved method normally required a Cut-off saw, a grooving tool, plus a separate power drive. The Victaulic VG-412 not only machines the groove but cuts the pipe as well. The geared drive motor is integral with the tool, remains mounted during pipe changes, and is normally removed only for shipping. Equipment handling is greatly reduced. Traditional groovers could not groove short nipples because they mounted onto a length of pipe held with a vise. The new

pad locations often end up different from the plan. Construction conditions, unavoid able errors and inevitable changes all mean additional pipe fabrication is required. If this fabrication is on-site, piping can con tinue efficiently no matter what problems

machine, mounted on its own stand, is lathe

contractors encounter.

like in that it can groove and cut nipples as short or as long as required. Grooved spool pieces are often ordered ahead of the pipe installation schedule with the fittings and couplings. The lengths are according to dimensions from plans. However, pipe sleeves and equipment

Piping from cemented-in sleeves, or cut ting into existing systems, has meant the pipe fitter used a cut-off saw, then installed an expensive bolt-on flange. Now, with lit tle more than a one-foot clearance require

ever an extension cord can.

Grooving tool operators are often con cerned with internal pipe linings used in municipal treatment plants. Since the new VG-412 holds the outside of the pipe, it grooves without disturbing the intemal lined






AWWA/ANSI C-606 "Rigid" grooving dimensions for ductile iron AWWA pipe, frequently specified by consulting engineers, are designed to butt accurately square pipe ends together. Alternate "Flexible" dimen sions provide a pipe gap in combination with standard AWWA grooved couplings, allow a limited amount of pipe movement. While pipe movement can be useful to accommodate misalignment or slight direc tion changes, it is often not desired. If a cut-off saw did not cut perfectly square, which often is the case, then the pipefitter was forced to use "Flexible" grooving. With the VG-412 however,accurately square cut ting gives the installer the means to effi ciently machine the specified type of groove. Victaulic

ment, the VG-412 comes off its stand and

For more Information,

clam-shells onto the installed pipe. Cut-

Circle reply card No. 147

Announcement engneers




Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t 011 e n sims

TEL;(905)668-9363• WHITBY • Fax (905)668-0221

hubicki associates



Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. • Corporate Environmental Policy Development ■ Land Application of Wastewater Tel:(9051 821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774

Kitchener, Ontario


'Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

'Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment 'Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization 'Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. 'Hydrogeology and Grotiiidwater Investigations

Eric MacDonald, General Manager and Vice President of Associated Engineering's Ontario Operation, is pleased to announce the addition of Mr. Michael Hribljan, P.Eng. to their Ontario staff.

Mr. Hribljan joins the firm as a Project Man ager and Process Design Engineer and brings with him experience in wastewater and water treatment from both engineering consulting and Regional and Federal government. Mr. Hribljan's experience encompasses both design and operation of water and wastewater treatment plants. He has a Master of Engineer ing Degree specializing in the areas of biologi cal nutrient removal, dynamic simulation and process control of wastewater treatment sys tems.

Associated Engineering is a leading Canadian employee-owned company offering consulting engineering services to clients across Canada and around the world. Our clients in

clude all levels of government as well as large corporations, entrepreneurs and developers.



Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994


A comparison ofdewatering tecfinoiogies proves

Ill lENIIEIIB IIIIIH ISIn CiieiiiedEiiiiil

Centrico'sWestfalia decanters deliver drier solids at lower cost It's time to take a fresfi look at all sludge dewatering alternatives. Advances in centrifu

gal technology have made Westfalla high solids decanters the most efficient and cost

effective industrial dewatering process avail able today. Don't take our word for It. Compare the benefits of competing systems for yourself.

Evaluate all costs—from operation to handling to disposal. Then have one of our field units visit your plant for on-site testing and a sludge-to-sludge shoot-out.


Find out more about our sludge dewatering and thickening centrifuges for both industry and municipalities. Write or call Centrico, Inc.,

Environmental Technology, 100 Fairway Court, Northvale, NJ 07647. Tel: 201-767-3900.

[^ICEWTWiml . -r-,

• In Canada, contact:

-r- •. -

Douglas tvlcDaniel, P.Eng.,' Centrico Canada Inc.,

- -


Royal Bank Tower, 1100 Burloak Drive, * Burlington, Ontario L7L'6B2,

c ■'

- - -'

(905) 319-3900, Fax: (905) 319-3903.'

For more information,Circle reply card No.166

"J.-''-. '

-rf "



ES&E celebrates six years of publishing with the purchase of its own building

Ocean yacht racing was once com

pared to taking cold showers while tearing up $100 bills. Launching a new magazine in Canada could be accurately described as

being in a cold sweat while tearing up $100 bills.

The mortality rate of new Canadian magazines has always been high. Our sprawling land mass, sparse population and high labour costs have traditionally made Canadian publishing a risky business. The present protracted recession was especially catastrophic for a fragile magazine industry so often dominated by US publications. In the past six years many Canadian magazines perished while some long respected titles became endangered species. When Environmental Science & Engi neering was being planned late in 1987, there were only two national magazines serving the professional environmental mar ket: Water & Pollution Control (W(fePC), owned by Southam Inc.. and Civic Public Works, owned by Maclean Hunter. Both magazines had long enjoyed respect from readers but. by 1987, the total annual

portive. Our editorial coverage was Canadawide; the first major feature article was writtten by Tom McMillan, then Environ

staff have won three national awards and

ment Minister and Prince Edward Island

ers for their sustained assistance and sup port. A very special thanks to our Advisory

MR Later our staff met with Jean Charest who served in the dual roles of Env ironment

Minister and Deputy PM. We also met Que

revenues for the Canadian environmental

bec Environment Minister Pierre Paradis in

sector were estimated at less than $400,000 annually. A few pages of environmental ads were found in other magazines in special 'environmental' issues, but, in general,

Montreal. In Vancouver, in March, we met

W&PC and Civic had been the two key play ers - long before consumer environmentalism emerged. But despite media hype - and polls re peatedly demonstrating great public concern about environmental matters - the advertis

ing market for pollution abatement equip ment had, in fact, been steadily declining in both magazines for .several years. Not for nothing did Thomas Carlyle call

with Sheila Copps, now Environment Min ister and Deputy PM. The fact that the last two federal Environment Ministers became

Deputy PMs underscores the growing po litical importance of the environmental fo lio - and all have contributed editorially to ES&E.

ES&E staff also accepted invitations to give papers at Waterscapes, an international conference in Saskatoon, two University of

economics the dismal science. While the re

cent past had been bleak, what of the fu

entations at OPCEA, AWWA and WEAQ

ture? Our own research indicated that the



So we took a leap of faith into the eco nomic void with our own editorial mix of features and editorial comments in Environ

mental Science & Engineering. Tlie new magazine soon received strong written en dorsement from many readers, including the then Dean of Engineering and Science at the University of"Toronto, Dr. Gary Heinke, and Dr. Philip Jones, formerly of the U of T, now Head of the School of Environmen

tal Engineering at Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. Consulting engi neering firms and labs were particularly sup


We thank our contributors and advertis

Board members who have served us so well

over the past six and a half years: Robert Baker, Jim Bishop, Pierre Beaumier, George B. Crawford, George V. Crawford, Allan Church, Robert Ferguson, Howard Goodfellow, Rod Holme, Don Kemp, Peter Laughton, Mike Provart, Bruce Smith, Earl Shannon, and Peter

Turgoose. The past six and a half years have been exhilarating, working with the people of this industry. What of the future? We believe the best is yet to come. Sincere thanks from all ES&E staff.

Toronto seminars on PCBs and MISA, two

Consulting Engineers of Ontario seminars and two National Drinking Water Confer ences, one in British Columbia; plus pres

public's environmental concerns would soon be translated into remedial action, creating a need for environmental goods and serv

been elected to directorships ofenvironmen tal associations (see milestones).


1988 First ES&E comes off press in Aurora. 1989 Sandra Davey inducted into 5-S Society at Water Environment Association of Ontario(WEAQ) Conference

Our cover stories ranged from Moncton to Vancouver, with staff written stories also

filed from France and England. The Gulf War provided a challenge and an opportu nity to focus on the importance of water in military campaigns. We scrapped our exist ing cover artwork and contacted Zenon en gineers who collaborated with alacrity. The result was a cover story giving technical details on how our ground forces in the desert, as well as warships at sea, were able to obtain abundant fresh water using ad vanced membrane technology. While the war lasted only a few weeks, our readers were able to read this story before the fight ing had stopped. Since the magazine was launched,ES&E

1991 Steve Davey elected President of Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association(OPCEA) 1991 Tom Davey inducted into 5-S Society 1991 Tom Davey awarded Environment Canada's Certificate of Honour

1992 Penny Davey elected Director, OPCEA 1992 Steve Davey elected a Director of WEAO

1992 Tom Davey presented with Environment Canada's top award for Communications (previous winner was David Suzuki) 1993 Penny Davey becomes Vice President of OPCEA

1994 (MAY 2)Award from American Water Works Association for ES&E 1994

(May 9)TomDavey wins a 'Top Five' K.R Wilson Award from Canadian Business Press - his fifth CBP Award.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Monitoring air, water, wastewater, cont'd, from page 32

Smog - the French don't have a word for it Protecting a Lengthy Coastline The environment in France also includes

several thousand kilometres of shoreline, a

fragile area subject to both tourist and aquaculture use. Working in collaboration with the French sensors manufacturer

France for over thirty years. The creation of six Water Agencies, one for each of France's river basins, provided the original impetus for this movement. By 1996 the Seine River, which flows through Paris, will benefit from a completely integrated com

puter system for monitoring and controlling pollution. This will be an initial applica tion for the EMS (Environmental Monitor

ing System) project. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 173

MORS, IFREMER (French Institut for

Marine Development)launched a spectacu lar project, an automated network for moni toring the environment of the entire length


of France's sea coast. Due to be completed in 1995, it will consist of some one hun dred stations (buoys or pylons) capable of automatically measuring different hydrological parameters, from samples taken at the water's surface or at a pre-determined depth. This will include water temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen content, as well as at mospheric pressure, wind speed, and other climatic factors. The data will then be transmitted via

satellite or VHF, making it possible to closely monitor the marine environment and quickly detect any potential source of pol lution, thanks to the constant sampling be ing done. The stations will also be able to accept commands, such as an order to in crease the frequency of sampling during a





Biosolids and Waste Utilization


• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.


6nthrafilter 1 Media & Coal Ltd.

Mail — P.O. Box 60069

OalLViiie, Ontario L6M 3H2

20SHARP ROAD,R.R. #6. BRANTFORD.ONTARIO N3T 5L8 la:{519)751-1080 FAX;(519)751-0617

Location — W.A. Joltnson Resource

Management Centre 4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 167

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 168

crisis situation.

"Samples for the time being are taken by hand. As a result, they are very expen sive and cannot be increased according to needs", explains Jean-Paul Berthome, the head of the project at IFREMER. This is being done because major problems exist concerning the reliability of sensors func tioning properly in harsh conditions over a long period of time. "Like the hulls of ships, sensors become covered with crustaceans

and various other parasites. These have an adverse effect on their operation, but we are on the road to finding a solution that will certainly be the subject of several patents", promises Jean-Paul Berthome. Energy sup ply for the stations will come from panels of photovoltaic cells.



/ tQUjCi</LLZ4/ CORP. High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services

Cost Effective * XSORB is a natural molecular sieve specially processed for easier handling and reduced disposal costs, available In a full line of Universal and Selective (hydrophobic & oleophilllc) products. A comparison demonstration with your existing sorbent will make you a believer! WINDRUSH INNOVATIONS - Atlantic Distributor Harold Dort

RR#5, Otter Lake Rd. Saint John, N.B. E2L3W5 Tel; (506) 696-2445 Fax:(506) 696-4702

Tel: (416) 438-6706

^ Fax:(416) 438-1521

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more Information, Circle reply card No. 169

Managing Residuals for the Food Processing Industries • Biosolids - beoeficial re-use


* Ultra Light* Non-WHII/IIS *


Ml H 2X8

Waste Water Treatment

Eresh water has been monitored in




• Tranqjortaticn • Land Application • Off-q)ec matenals de-packaging • SpecializbginF.O.G.

1-800-661-4613 / (416)747-6584

For more information. Circle reply card No. 170 SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS

Environmental Specialists Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up

Portable Test Equipment: pH,Turbidity


Suspended Solids, O2, DO, Conductivity

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y IV/.Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588

For more information. Circle reply card No. 171

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 172


Overseas Report

Ukraine develops modular plants

Waterpol ution has been recog

nized as an urgent problem in many areas of the former USSR and the systems used for wastewater treatment and purification in Ukraine are not necessarily highly effi cient. Current primary and secondary sys tems are very shallow (to 5 metres deep) with the result that channel type aeration tanks, clarifiers, recirculation pumping fa cilities and interconnecting piping consume large areas of valuable land. In some loca tions, highly productive agricultural lands are used for these purposes. Now the Ukrainian National Research

and Development Institute for Municipal Fa cilities and Services in Kiev has developed multi-story, compact modular treatment plants, based on the use of column type aera tion tanks. These plants are intended to provide deep biological and tertiary treat ment of municipal and industrial wastewaters with BOD and Total Suspended Sol ids (TSS) concentrations up to 500 mg/1 in a single-stage system. These systems will treat even higher strength wastes in twostage or multi-stage configurations. Efflu-

By Anatoly Sverdlikov, Michaii Zemljak, Eugeny Volodarshy, Donald Haycock\ Andrew Lugowski^ ent wastewater concentrations are 3 to 5 mg/ I for BOD and TSS and below 1 mg/l for ammonia nitrogen and phosphates. At present, these installations are used for small to medium cities, industries, health resorts and agricultural processing plants

with flows of up to 50,000 m^/day (11 mgd). Individual processes incorporated into the modular plants include: bar screening, grit removal, pretreatment separation, deep biological treatment in the column type aera tion tank, and biological tertiary treatment within bioreactors with fixed film micro

organisms. The column type aeration tank is de signed in the form of a vertical column of round or polyhedral shape. The columns range from 1.8 to 6 metres in diameter and up to 20 metres in height. Activated sludge remains in suspension throughout the en tire height of the aeration tank. The aera tion tanks are divided into zones of aera


tion and clarification by vertical and inclined partitions. The zones are hydraulically con nected and include zones of degassing, recirculation and suspended layers of acti vated sludge protected by zones of clarified water.

Aeration tanks are designed as a com mon column with a separate central aera tion column,surrounded by multiple column clarifiers with a diffused or jet aeration sys tem.


Five new associates have been named at

Simcoe Engineering Group Limited of Pickering: Richard Bartolomeu, C.E.T. Ben Kramer, C.E.T.

Allen LI, P.Eng. Larry Manley, P.Eng.

Distinguishing Features and Advantages • Technology is simple and compact. •Single reactor volume encompasses the re moval of organics, oxidation and separation of solids by filtration through the thickened layers of activated sludge. • Option of locating separate auxiliary set tlers and recirculation pumping station with connecting piping. • Uses 10 to 20 percent of the land ^rea re quired by conventional systems. • There is a 30 to 50 percent increase in the efficiency of oxygen utilization in the deep aeration column.

Fernando Rodriguez, O.A.A. The company is also celebrating its 20th anniversary this year.


• The hydraulic loading per cross sectional unit of activated sludge is more efficient, ranging from 4 to 6 cubic metres per square metre per hour. • The sorption and oxidation processes are up to twice as efficient as those of conven tional systems due to the favourable condi tions for micro-organisms and the reduced


I and tfiere is an accompanying reduction in the arnount of excess or waste sludge. • Due to the increased specific capacity, there is an accompanying reduction in both

capital cost and energy consumption of be tween 30 and 50 percent. • There is an improvement in sanitary and

hygienic conditions due to the reduction of the area of potential aerosol formation and accorppanying ease of collection and decon tamination.

These state-of-the-art column type treat ment plants generally meet or exceed the world standards for treatment and the tech

nology is protected by patents. Full scale facilities are in service in the Ukraine and

Byelorussia (White Russia). More detailed information on this tech

nology may be obtained by writing to Dr. Anatoly Sverdlikov at 35 Uritsky St., Kiev, Ukraine, 252035 or to Mr. Donald Haycock at 3 Grand River Drive, RR#I, Waterloo Ontario, Canada, N2J 408.

The principal authors of this article are from the Ukrainian National Research and Devel

opment Institute in Kiev. Dr. Sverdlikov spent seven weeks in CH2M Hill's Waterloo office

• Activated sludge mixed liquor concentra

and Dr. Volodarshy spent a similar period at CRA in 1993 as part of a program to acquaint Ukrainian scientists with the free-enterprise system. Both are actively pursuing opportuni ties for Canadian-Ukrainian cooperation on environmental problems.

tions can be increased to 6000 to 8000 mg/

'CRA, Waterloo Ont.

return time.

Consulting Cngln«*rs & Archlt«ct


Compact treatment facility in the

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review Scale reduction without

the use of chemicals

crystal precipitation process can result in colloidal particles being formed and remain ing in active suspension. These particles are carried away by the movement of water and may not "scale" or attach themselves to foreign materials. In addition, Aquatreat treated water can dissolve old scale in pipes, hot water tanks, elements, cooling towers, boilers, etc., over a period of time. Aquatreat Environmental For more information, Circie reply card No. 174

two lines: Universal for spills on land; and Selective (hydrophobic) for spills on water. Loraday Environmental Products For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 175

New sorbents introduced

to Canada

The Aquatreat Water Conditioner is a ca pacitance device manufactured from special materials. Chemical additives, salt, elec

trical power or magnets are not required, and the unit has no moving parts in its op eration.

The Aquatreat Conditioner does not re move any chemical content of the water, therefore a conventional hardness test re

mains the same. However, it can change crystal and precipitation forming processes in the water.

When water has passed through and been treated by the Aquatreat Conditioner, the

XSORB™ Super Absorbents are now avail able in Canada. XSORB is composed of alumina silicate, a recognized molecular sieve composed of cations, channels and cavities which selectively take up some molecules while rejecting others. The natu ral minerals are subjected to a special super-heating process to simulate a'popping' effect. The resulting by-product combines the molecular sieve concept with signifi cantly amplified surface area for maximum absorption capabilities. The proprietary process is fine-tuned to produce selectivity for a sorbent which floats on water (hydrophobic), but which is oleophyllic (absorbs hydrocarbons). XSORB™ Super Absorbents come in

30" mechanical

joint fittings Produced in British Columbia, 'T.C.' is the

only Canadian manufacturer producing cast ings in this size range. All 30"(750 mm) fittings are to AWWA C110-87 standard with flanges to ANSI spec B16. 1-75. They are cast in ductile iron for a 250 PSl (1725 kPa) pressure rating, and are available with mixed or flanged end con nections. Terminal City For more information,

Circie reply card No. 176

ECODYNE LAMELLA SETTLERS You can't settle forless You can save space and instal lation time when you specify Ecodyne Lamella Settlers.

Ecodyne's 10 years experience in Lamella Settlers includes

single installations up to 90 MGD, treating a variety of raw waters including Great Lakes water. Custom designs are available with plastic or stainless steel plates, galvanized or SS selfsupporting troughs. No field assembly, no maintenance required. You can't settle for less.

Graver Water Division

2201 Spears Road Oakville, Ontario L6L 2X9 We make water work

Telephone: (905) 827-9821 Fax: (905) 827-8428

Other Ecodyne Divisions specialize in cooling towers, evaporators and other process equipment for municipalities, industry, and utilities across North America.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more information. Circle reply card No. 177


Product Review Metering pump, indicator and chemical controller The "D"Series Chemical Feed System from

ProMinent® can measure and control pH, ORP(redox potential) or free available chlo rine within the operating range of pH 0-14, ORP 0-999 mV (corresponding to 4-20, mA), Chlorine 0-2 or 0-20 ppm. The "D" Series Chemical Feed System features: Accurate and reliable feeding of

Compound and fire service meters The Neptune Tru/Flo Compounds offer the

expensive and hazardous chemicals propor tional to deviation in set point value; safety timer stops chemical feed if set point is not reached within pre-determined time (adjust

best of both worlds: maximum revenues and

minimum maintenance costs through the low flow accuracy of the T-10 chamber and the sustained high flow capacity of the Nep tune Turbine. These measuring elements combined with the patented Tru/Flo valve result in an efficient and easily serviced compound meter. Its Unitized Measuring

able); "plug-in" moisture proof receptables for sensor and chemical container low-level

warning device; output signals for chart re corder and for fault-annunciating; pump stroke length and set point are both adjust able; pump materials available to accom modate water treatment chemicals; chemi

cal resistant, NEMA 4X housing. ProMinent® Fluid Controls

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 180

Automated continuous

gas chromatograph The new Model 501-A Automated Continu

ous Gas Chromatograph incorporates the best features of the 501 Gas Chromatograph System for continuous or chromatographic, unattended, worry-free monitoring of large areas. Now with improved sensitivity, choice of detectors, optional concentrator, plus a new external display monitor and keyboard, the 501-A accepts other inputs such as flow and temperature, has exten sive alarm functions, and is easily net

Element with stainless steel calibration vane

accurately registers and simplifies mainte nance.

The Neptune Fire Service Meters — the HP Fire Service Turbine and the HP


Protectus III Meter Assembly — are de signed for applications where one line serves both potable and fire service use. Both are UL listed and FM approved. Schlumberger For more information,

Features include self-diagnostics, auto calibration, multiple alarms and either 10 or 20 sample points which the user can pro gram in any order. HNU Systems, Inc. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 179

Circle reply card No. 181



Mr. Patrick is a Senior Hydrogeoioglst based in Burnaby, responsibie (or projects Involving hydrogeoiogicai investigation, environmental engineering, contaminant investigation, and site remediation throughout B.C, and North America.


tvlr. Smoikin, head of the

Hydrogeoiogy group in Ottawa, Ontario, is responsibie tor projects involving hydrogeoiogy, environmental engineering, contaminant investigation, site remediation and waste facility design.

Dr. Zapf-Giije, based in the Burnaby office, is the manager of the B.C. Environmental Division. He is

responsibie tor the technical review and direction of

environmental audits, subsurface

contaminant investigations, soil and groundwater remediation, and human health and ecological risk assessment projects.

, Golder

Golder Associates is a Canadian based group of consulting companies specializing in environmental management and sciences, geotectinicai engineering and mining engineering


across Canada and around the world.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 178

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review tools for any Plant Haz-Mat team or Fire Departments. M.J. International For more information,

Circle reply card No. 182

try systems with on-line help, comprehen sive documentation, and expert technical support. BREEZE WAY is a series of pro grams for transportation modeling and BREEZE HAZ is used to evaluate hazard

BREEZE software program upgrade

ous releases. Trinity Consultants Inc. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 183

The BREEZE WAKE computer software program which assists in air dispersion modeling studies has been updated to in corporate the U.S. era's Building Profile Input Program (BPIP). The program ac counts for the effect of building downwash in an air quality modeling analysis and en sures all building calculations conform to the latest EPA guidelines. After entering source and model options

Tank leak patch The Tanker or Drum Tourniquet utilizes magnetic or suction technology to compress a chemical resistant, flexible pad against the split or punctured area. The stainless steel backing plate is flexible and may be applied in any direction. The Tanker Tourniquet is applicable to a quick response for leaking Storage Tanks, as well. A Chemical Resistance chart and a train

ing Video are available, on request. The new products are ideal emergency

in ISC2, the user enters structural data such

Prefabricated drainage systems



as the number of tiers, building height, number of comers,and X,Y coordinates into

BREEZE WAKE/BPIP. The program then calculates the direction-specific downwash parameters for structures located near an air pollution source and produces output files which can be input into ISC2. BREEZE WAKE/BPIP and ISC2 are part of the BREEZE AIR series of air quality modeling programs for continuous releases. All programs feature user-friendly data en

''f'l'itrn "III fill ft Armtec Construction Products has been ap pointed a distributor of Multi-Flow drain age systems in Canada. The Multi-Flow prefabricated drainage Continued overleaf

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905)727-4666. Concerned about hazardous

Pump control system The DeZurik pump control system features two valve styles. Eccen tric Plug valves are designed for

chemical spills

Just give up...

water and wastewater applications. AWWA butterfly valves are better suited to water applications. They are both designed for durability, long service life and maintenance ease. To better understand how to

protect your pumping system, send for this free brochure. DeZurik

Circle reply card No. 209


In today's world, containment of haz ardous chemical spills and leaks is just as important as corrosion protec tion, Sentry Polymers has led the way in the development of impermeable floor toppings to seal expansion joints, cracks, floor-to-wall transitions and protects, even restores, the concrete of your secondary containment area from a variety of chemicals including 98% sulfuric acid. Contact us for more information on SENTRY

SEMSTONE, as well as suggested specifications and construction details tailored to your project requirements. Corrosion Service Company Circle reply card No.211 New - Canada's Environmental



Eccentric valves

Legislation - 1994/5 edition

DeZurik eccentric action and resil

This convenient, business compliance guide explains key environmental stat utes and regulations In plain, easy-tounderstand language, uniquely illus trated by numerous charts, tables and diagrams. The 1994/5 edition pro vides current updates on site clean up guidelines, controls on chemical substances, ozone-depleting sub stances, certificates of approval, ad ministrative orders, the environmen tal assessment process and new 3Rs regulations. Recommended for envi ronmental & plant managers, consult ants, lawyers and students. Templegate Information

ient plug facings assure lasting deadtight shutoff. The Eccentric Plug valve features a welded cor rosion resistant nickel seat. Send for this free brochure that outlines

options for body materials, end styles, sizes, manual and automatic actuators and accessories. DeZurik

Circle reply card No. 210

Services Inc.

Circle reply card No. 212

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review system, which can be used in highway drain age,etc., combines the shape of a panel drain with the structured hydraulic capacity of conventional corrugated tubing. This new geocomposite drainage system is con structed from high density polyethylene and is comprised of interconnecting corrugated pipes. Trevira Spunbond non-woven geotextile encapsulates the core to eliminate soil clogging and allows the water to flow freely through the perforations and into the

Typically Multi-Flow is used in four applications: highway edge drains, sheet drains, soil interceptor drains, and wick drains. Armtec Construction Products

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 184

Portable flow meter The Detec 3033 portable flow meter uses ultrasonic readings to provide a non-inva sive solution to flow measurement in full

pipes. The unit is particularly recommended

drain core.

Thank you AWWA

for process and chemical industries who need rapid measurement of liquid flows without disrupting production. The light weight meter clamps onto pipes with no downtime for the process line or personnel. The unit allows direct reading of flow rates, in metric or imperial units, and can log up to 15,000 readings before data must be downloaded. The data log records time, date, site details and device number so com


plete details of each measurement point are readily available for analysis. Accurate over a range of flow velocities covering typical applications, the meter can be configured to display total volume continuously or over specified time periods. Simple menu-driven software makes the unit easy to set up and use by line personnel.

hcrebv) recoubsits' r>4PPReci^oon to

Heath Consultants Ltd.


For more information,

& Engtnwrtttg

Circle reply card No. 185

eeruice to flie^^saociatioa


cui^toflieiuDuotry a? baiitng pnvtronmrntal gubltrat!aÂť !n Olattalia spnthtg tttr uiatrr augglg and vnntrnnmpntal prutprttnn tnduatrg wttlj Infnrttipd and ararrliing fommpntarjj oÂŤ tnigortant iaHUfa affprttng Qlanadtana

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd. is pleased to announce the addition of Mr. Frank Muschalla, B.E.S. as technical rep resentative for the laboratory operations. Frank has more than ten years of envi ronmental consulting and government ex perience including soil/groundwater

May 4 1994 Omirmnn

remediation and hazardous/solid waste

management. For over 120 years, theAmerican Water Works Association has been rolling back the frontiers of disease and environmental degradation through research and continuous improvements in drinking water treatment. The AWWA was curbing disease and saving lives decades before any of the current'environmentalist' groups began. ES&E staff are proud to have been tionoured byreal environmental professionals, with a Certificate ofAppreciation at the 1994 AWWA/OMWA Conference in Windsor. This certificate was presented May 4, 1994; five days later, the Canadian Business Press also honoured the magazine. The ES&E March '94 editorial comment: What about the voice appropriation ofenvironmentalprofessionals?won a'Top Five'Award in the annual CBP writing

CANVIRO is a high quality environmen tal laboratory committed to excellence in en vironmental analysis and customer service. CANVIRO is affiliated with QAL, an EPA-

approved laboratory with 160 professionals and locations in Ontario, California, Florida and Alabama.


awards contest.

In its six years of publication, ES&E staff have won six awards - three of them national honours. No other Canadian environmental magazine can match this record. 72

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 187


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

Product Review Gas detection for confined space entry A new lightweight monitoring tmit has been designed to meet cur rent safety legislation for confined space entry into manholes, vaults, tanks, holds and vats. With high accuracy and reliability, the new GMI Gasurveyor 400 models combine a combustible gas detector and confined space monitor in one economical unit that weighs less than 4 lbs.

The Gasurveyor series can detect up to four different gases, over six ranges, in combinations to suit your needs including hydrocar bons, oxygen,carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Hydrocarbons are measured in parts per million, lower explosive limit and percent by volume. Standard features include time-weighted average, shortterm exposure limit and peak hold. The monitoring system includes audio and visual alarms, real-time clock and automatic data logging. A range of design features are built in to protect the unit from shock, dust, water, static and radio-frequency interference.

Series 801 R.F.

Capacitance Transmitter for

Level/Flow/Voiume ► Enhanced anti-coating circuitry.

► Dual input capability.

► 4-20 mA output and four 10 Amp relays.

Heath Consultants Limited

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 186

► Continuous diagnostics.

Fibreglass reinforced polyester

► RS-485 for networking of up to 62 units.

enclosures The Vynckier range of fibreglass reinforced polyester enclosures uses a thermoset plastics process that results in self-finished, durable, and stable products from -50 to +150 degrees C. Designed to be corrosion proof, FRP is suitable for outdoor use, standing up to wind and weather. Resistant to weak acids and organic solvents, FTkP is an alternative to stainless steel which is four times heavier for a

given strength and more expensive. Self-extinguishing, hot press moulded PTkP will not contribute to the spread of a fire in the event of arcing. Any fire is confined to its

For a FREE Brochure, Call: 905-678-2720 or Fax: 905-678-7407

^ MagnetroF Mississauga, Ontario, Canada REGISTERED ISO 9001 - Z299.1

source within the enclosure. GEC Alsthom International

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 251

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 252

somego zuitfi the flow, ... otHers manage it, ... and then there are those who CONTROL it.

IMueller Canadal "Wdve been CONTROLLING theflow of Water to Canadians for over 80 years... 9(pt a Cot of our competitors can say that. AVVWA Valves • Century and Modern Centurion Fire Hydrants • Corporation Brass Products Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more information. Circle reply card No. 233


V IJ/.U" " M"'.' ""





How cm we 'â– f



levels? THE


CO2. is a safe, effective cfiemical for lowering the pH

As the world's largest supplier of CO2, Liquid Carbonic has years of experience in neutralization applications. Liquid Carbonic's storage, transportation and new

of various kinds of alkaline streams.

Compared to sulfuric, sulfurous or hydrochloric acids, Carbon Dioxide is easier to handle, safer and cost effective too. Using CO2 provides efficient pH control by eliminating overtreatment. Plus, results have shown that equipment life is extended and maintenance is reduced.



U S!

injection technologies are available to you as are its analytical laboratories and application engineers who are dedicated to quality solutions.

Like CO2, we're around when you need us. YOU eon count on


the woHtt-wiOe HAHCOs

H\ CO!

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Dissolved COi hydrolizes into carbonic acid which dissociates into carbonates and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions reduce the pH.

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The Diamond is the Key"

For more information, Circle reply card No. 232


Municipal fire protection

By Doug Willey*

Hydrant maintenance - mundane but vital

It is of the utmost importance that mu

nicipalities should have a regular op eration and inspection of their valves and hydrants. Just think for a minute of the implications that would arise if the headlines of your local paper read; Firemen rushed to the scene of a three alarm blaze that broke out during the night. While the cause of the blaze is unknown, the flames became uncontrollable because an improp erly maintained fire hydrant would not op erate.

Should a court case come up over an in stance like this, the first thing that's going to be asked is, "When were the valves last

operated and where are your records?" How many municipalities can answer these ques tions?

Worthy of note is the fact that fire hy drants are installed to fight fires, not for fill ing swimming pools or street flushing. If they should be used for any secondary use, then one should make sure it's done in ac

cordance with safe regulations and that eve ryone relying on the hydrant is notified. To point out a few variations in hydrants, the dry barrel type alone has at least three styles of valves, the cory, the gate type and the compression type which is the most popular throughout Canada. It closes with the pressure and opens against the pressure. The operating threads are located at the top, usually protected from the waterway by a packing ofsome type, and may be lubricated either manually or automatically. In addition to the dry barrel fire hydrants, there is the "wet barrel" type. It is used in warm climates and has independent gate control of each outlet. The wet barrel type

Cheok again for seat leakage by aquaphone. • Check for main valve leakage with an ' aquaphone. It's possible to have a slight leak • If your fire hydrants have permanently plugged drains because of high groundwater that's being handled by the drain field. in your area,then pump out residual water from • For a compression type fire hydrant, deter mine if it's manually or automatioally lubrioated. barrel. A screw or fitting in the operating nut indicates • Remove nozzle caps and inspect for thread damage or cross threading. Wire-brush the manual lubrication. Check lubricant level and nozzle and oap threads. Glean and lubrioate lubricate if necessary. A fill plug in the bonnet the outlet nozzle threads. A dry graphite base suggests a reservoir where automatic lubrica tion occurs. Check reservoir supply. lubrioant works well. Check for ease of op eration. Check to see that nozzle oap gas • Replace your nozzle cap and open the hy drant all the way. In this balanced pressure kets are in good condition, too. situation, the hydrant should operate easily. If • Cheok for free aotion in cap chains. If chains stem action is tight, exercise it by opening and bind, open the loop around the cap until action closing it several times until the aotion is free is free. This prevents kinking during emerand smooth. genoies. • With nozzle caps on,the main valve fully open • Replace nozzle caps. Tighten with spanner and full pressure applied, check the various wrench, then back off slightly so oaps aren't outer connections, nozzle connections, caps too tight. and seals for leakage. • Lubricate operating nut threads. Cheok • If leakage is detected,tighten or recaulk out manufaoturer's instruotions on this. let nozzles. Lubricate and tighten compres • Be sure the gate valve ahead of the hydrant sion packing, or replace 0-rlngs, gaskets or is fully opened. • Tag all inoperable fire hydrants. Report them to your fire department and request scheduled repairs or replacements to prevent time loss in emergenoies. • Clean the exterior of the fire hydrant. Now is a good time for repainting if needed. Painting the hydrant in some municipalities has become a real art, but in most cases these fancy art jobs usually are actually a color code to iden tify the various features of the hydrant, fea tures such as: main size, whether there is a

is used in areas such as California.

All dry barrel fire hydrants have one thing in common - progressive drains. This means they do not open or close instantly, but operate progressively as the fire hydrant opens or closes. In general, it takes from three to five turns to completely close the drain. All of the people who may operate tire hydrants should be aware of this fact.

A partially open drain, under full pres sure, can soon saturate the drain field. This

softens the support behind the "kick block" and could result in the fire hydrant blowing off of the lateral. In the better hydrant de signs, the drains and flowway are connected. They flow together with drains under line pressure for only a portion of the first full tum in opening or the last full turn in clos ing. The drain then functions to clear the hydrant of water by gravity after the main valve is fully closed. Maintenance Tips • Remove outlet nozzle caps and check for water in the barrel. Water Indicates either a

leak in the main valve or high groundwater. "Mueller Canada

similar seals. If leakage cannot be oorreoted with the tools on hand, record the nature of the leakage for prompt attention by those respon sible for repairs. • On dry barrel hydrants, close the main valve to the position at which the drains open. This will "power flush", allowing the water to flow through the drains under pressure for approxi mately ten seoonds. Fully close and remove nozzle cap. Observe the drain rate to insure the drains are open. • Flush the fire hydrant. This is best done through the pumper nozzle - the bigger the opening,the greater the flow and the more ef fective the flushing action. Use a hose or diverter. You'll often receive two "slugs" of dirty water. The first out of the hydrant lead and the second out of the main.

• Close the hydrant. Always be sure the last few turns are done slowly to minimize the pos sibility of water hammer. Observe the drain rate. If it's draining properly, you should feel a suction if you place your palm over an outlet. Don't tighten the last nozzle oap too soon or the inability to draw in air will retard or stop drainage.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

secondary valve or not, are drains open or plugged and so on. By painting the hydrant in this manner, you not only protect it, but put your effort towards useful information and possibly create an incentive to keep up proper records. • A question that frequently oomes up is "What anti-freeze would you recommend for ,a hydrant?" My reply has to be "none". A well maintained fire hydrant should never require anti-freeze. If water is present in a dry barrel hydrant,then it's not functioning properly and should be repaired. • Above all, keep a reoord of your inspection and any repair work performed. Another consideration is that fire hy

drants should be set to proper grade. When grades change, the hydrant should be ad justed accordingly. All manufacturers offer extensions and

lower sections in varying lengths. Fire hy drants at the proper grade are better fire fighting tools because they're easier to use and maintain.

A basic stock of repair parts should be maintained and available for immediate use.

This reserve of parts should include main valves, since they seem to be the most fre quently replaced part on a fire hydrant. Other important items are drain compo nents, seat rings, grease or oil for refilling reservoirs, stem seals or packing, and "traf fic damage" repair kits. These parts should be stocked for the various types and sizes of hydrants in your system. The quantity of parts you will need can best be determined by your experience. For more information, Circle reply card No. 234 75

Water and wastewater treatment trends

With privatization piant personnei stand to

In recent months the is ue of privatiza

tion of municipal water and wastewater treatment plants has come under in tense scrutiny. Many misconceptions have arisen around the meaning of private ownership and contract operations. Alarms may sound in the minds of existing plant personnel as they speculate about outcomes of a move from public to private ownership and/or operation. Many times the miscon ceptions and alarms are the result of a justi fied caution. Other times they are the result of an unjustified fear. In the case of public/ private transition, caution may be tempered and fears allayed by more thoroughly un derstanding the motivating factors and the direction of the private sector party. First of all, the contract operations con cept may be defined in the following man ner. A private firm specializing in the op eration


maintenance of Water/

Wastewater treatment facilities is ap proached to discuss the private ownership and/or operation and maintenance of the treatment facility. In signing a contract or buying a facility, the private firm assumes the compliance risks and responsibilities of

benefit too

By Tom Wingfield* the plant. The risk associated with equip ment problems is either shared with the owner or assumed altogether by the operat ing company. The contracted firm special izes in efficient operations. Normally, cost savings achieved in operations are shared with the client, which is, ultimately, the tax payer. Quite simply, the operations firm wins contracts based on its technical abili

ties and operational expertise. This, in turn

depends upon the technical and managerial expertise of the people who comprise the company's operational team. Contrary to popular opinion. Operate & Maintain (O&M) and Own & Operate (O&O)companies do not retain a standing army of operators which they have poised ready to move in and displace existing per sonnel.That would be costly and inefficient. Rather, the company's greatest asset and its ultimate product is the site-specific opera tions expertise of each set of site operators. The shared experience of the larger team of operations people from other sites and frorri within the corporate structure benefits eve ryone involved. In short, the employee that is conscientious, technically solid and reli able prior to any transition, will be highly valued in the eyes of the O&M/O&O com pany both in the short and long term. Once part of the team the company wants to create incentives for the new employee to stay. Upper management want to have the best people in their organization. They want to motivate personnel to optimize plant op erations. Not only is this profitable on a site by site basis, it also benefits the com-


Trenchless Technology

Save time and money during your environmental site assess ment, remediation, excavation, and emergency response ac tivities writh on-site chemical analysis and technical assist

comes to Toronto!!!

ance from ASL's two Mobile Laboratories.

EXHIBITOR PROSPECTUS now available iw NO-DIG '95 Conference & Exhibition:

April 30 - May 3 at the Sheraton Centre, Toronto

ASL's Mobile Laboratory Services are designed to comple ment our full laboratory capabilities while providing "real-time" information in the field. Benefits to your projects are;

Exhibition will include displays on: • Auger Boring • Directional Drilling • Inspection • • Leak Detection • Microtunneling• Pipe Bursting ■ • Pipe Jacking • Sewer Renovation • Slip Lining • and more!

• rapid on-site analysis eliminates costiy delays • lab quality data allows you to make informed decisions in the field

• qualified field chemist provides valuable technical assistance

• regulatory acceptance of results For more information on ASL's Mobile Laboratory Services or our other diverse capabilities, please call (604) 253-4188 or 1-800-665-0243.

^ ASL Analytical Service

ita /isg

Laboratories Ltd.

1988 Triumph Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L 1K5 Fax: (604) 253-6700 Tel: (604) 253-4188 Toll Free: 1-800-665-0243

Accredited by CAEAL for specific tests Specialists in Environmental Chemistry 76

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 235

Contact NASTT for a Floor Plan

and Application/Contract: 435 N. Michigan Ave. #1717 Chicago, IL 60611 Phone 312/644-0828 or Fax 312/644-8557

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 236

Water and wastewater treatment trends pany in the bigger picture. In order to pro mote such an industrious attitude amongst its people there must be employee incen tives, flexible corporate structures wherein a person can see themselves moving, and ongoing reward programs. An Oc&O/O&M company is committed to retaining, devel oping and motivating its people. One of the chief concerns of an employee in any transition is compensation. It would not be in the private company's best inter est to offer valued employees remuneration and fringe benefits that are any less than what they are currently enjoying. Generally the compensation packages offered are at least equal to if not greater than the em ployee's current package.Incentive bonuses and pay for performance are regarded by operating companies as excellent personal motivators to encouraging an on-going atti tude of personal improvement and opera tional optimization. One should also con sider the personal and family benefits rang ing from medical and dental to educational, recreational and pension programs. The O&M/O&O company takes, what might be termed, an "extended family" attitude when formulating compensation packages. Unique benefit may be found in the ca reer opportunities that private firms offer as incentive to optimize operations. Corpo rate strategies and personal goals are dis cussed and planned. Opportunity to merit both lateral transfers and upward promo tions increases dramatically upon becoming part of the new operating entity. Intra-company transfers are viewed as a help in broad ening the experience of operators by plac ing them in a variety of operational settings. Management potential is also recognized, encouraged and developed through GifeM company in-house programs such as the Expanded Management System (EMS). Personal development is encouraged and financially supported through ongoing edu cational programs, tuition reimbursement and information sharing. Operators confer ences and regular information sharing fo rums are arranged by some of the compa nies in order to problem solve, brainstorm and network with some of the most knowl

edgeable people in the industry. Participants say that these times have proven to be tre mendously rewarding both professionally and personally. On the one hand, new meth ods of solving process and management problems broaden their horizons while, on the other hand, new associations and friend

ships are initiated and nurtured. This type of synergy produces job satisfaction and achieves the ultimate goal of the O&M/ O&O - to develop the potential of the com pany's greatest resource; its people. So where will this take the employee of the private operating firm? Let us suppose that the operating contract is up for renewal.

Hopefully, the client is pleased with past performance and the contract is renewed. If the client is dissatisfied based on the per

formance of the staff then it is not likely that the contracting company will retain the employees who have caused this impression. Factors, not related to the performance of operating staff or private firm, may govem the decision for non-renewal of an operat ing contract. In such a situation, several al ternatives are open to the employee. For example, the employee may be re tained by the operations/owner firm or the client/owner. Perhaps, another contractor will hire the employee for the same reasons cited above, i.e. site-specific knowledge. Many times, though, depending upon the merit of the operator, the private firm will offer a position at another of its facilities or somewhere else in its organization. This em ployee would have already demonstrated a high level of technical ability and individual responsibility, or excellent management skills. Such proven knowledge, reliability and skill can be greatly utilized by the pri vate operating firm. In moving laterally or vertically within the firm the employee's site-specific knowl edge takes on a consulting flavour. On the one hand,the skills and knowledge acquired at previous sites broadens the employee's technical horizons and adaptability to other operational challenges. Such an employee daily increases in value to the firm. On the

other hand, the knowledge may be utilized by operators at sites where that employee has already spent time. Both the perceived value of the employee by industry and com pany and the individual ability and confi dence of the employee increase dramatically with this type of varied experience.. Increased technical, accounting, market ing and managerial skills open new avenues of choice, opportunity and remuneration to anyone in our society. The successful mar keting of oneself and one's abilities comes through exposure to a variety of contacts within and without one's specific sphere of influence. This forum to build expertise and broaden the range and number of valuable contacts is part and parcel of one's active participation in a private operations firm. It would seem then that with the right motivating factors in place, private owner ship and/or operation contracts should be viewed as beneficial by client/owners, tax payers, and by the operating employees. Competitive remuneration, better personal and family benefits, new training opportu nities and increased job satisfaction are important motivational incentives. The added chance to move up based on merit should also be carefully considered by mu nicipal water and wastewater operations employees when evaluating the "privatiza tion".

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 238

Annual waste water treatment cost savings can create dividends by effectively reducing extraneous water inflows and infiltration. The GU System is a permanent, low cost, incremental solution that eliminates Inflow and Infiltration (I & I) together with expensive repairs and maintenance of concrete sewage system structures due to the deterioration and waste water damage of manholes, pump stations, wet wells, etc.

I extraneous water from entering the sewage system

O Protects ground water and the environment O Improves sewage flow to treatment plant O Prevents waste water damage to concrete


manhole base

O Easy rehabilitation of existing manhole base




with canal bed shell


O Fast, easy installation and low maintenance

GU INDUSTRIES INC. Call Today For More Information!

20620 - 3IB Avenue

Ph: (604) 856-1543

GU Flexible

V4W 2T'"


Watertight Bell Connection

*Wheelabrator EOS Canada

- Rupke Division. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1994

For more information. Circle reply card No. 237


Hazardous chemicals

By Don Lamb, P.Eng.*

Corrosion resistant iinings are vitai for secondary containment

Government agencies, concerned

corporations and individuals all demand protective systems to safeguard our environment from

age is usually from the corrosive attack which the chemicals can inflict on the sec

resistant to the stored waste. At first glance, this does not seem to pose much of a prob

ondary structure.

lem. Conventional chemical-resistant coat

Two of the most common types of sec

ings can provide the needed protection, but the properties of these coatings and linings

hazardous materials and chemical waste. Diverse chemicals that are used in the in

ondary containments are made of concrete structures or soil berms. These structures

are such that as chemical resistance in

dustry are stored in vessels made of differ ent materials. The protective system is built

are in many cases protected by coatings, lin ings, elastomeric membranes, or a combi

around the vessels.

nation. The corrosive environments in second

creases,flexibility decreases. The structural design of the concrete containment will have a bearing on what type of coating or lining system is used. What about cracks? The biggest prob lem with using concrete for secondary con tainment is that it may crack. Cracks pro vide chemical spills easy access through the containment system into the underlying soil and ground water. Cracks in the lining can also cause rapid deterioration of the con crete when exposed to aggressive chemicals. Shrinkable cracks may develop during cur ing, and stress cracks may occur later due to expansion and contraction, settling, or overloading. Control joints help minimize random cracking but do not ensure a crack-

Secondary containment areas are de signed to contain leaks or spills when a fail ure develops in the primary container. The terminology secondary containment, means different things to many people, but the best description I can relate to is that the con tainment should contain the hazardous ma

terial for a period of 72 hours without dam age being inflicted on the secondary struc ture. This means that a spill could happen Friday evening,and if not noticed until Mon day morning, the secondary containment structure would not be damaged. The dam-

'Manager, Ceilcote Corrosion Products, Master Builders Technologies

ary containment areas vary widely in the demands they make on protective systems. A system that resists concentrated acids may not be effective for chlorinated solvents.

Areas subjected to heavy traffic or mechani cal abuse require a solution different from areas not subjected to traffic. Tank farm dikes may require an elastomeric seamless membrane and in some cases the material selected would need

exceptional wear qualities. This type of system would allow the owner to have pro tection from thermal deterioration, puncture and wear.

Concrete vaults are the most common

structures used for secondary containment

DMA Environmental

of hazardous chemicals. While concrete

meets the structural requirements of second ary containment systems, it is attacked by many of the contained chemicals. Recognizing this, authorities require sec ondary containment vaults to be lined with impermeable coatings or linings that are

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Liquid Carbonic Magnetrol

Toronto, ON: Clinton Edmonds, P.Eng., Vice President, LIMA Environmental, is pleased to announce the appointment ol David \A/. Hein, P.Eng. to the position of Regional Manager (On tario). With a strong mandate to further expand the busi ness area, he will be responsible for all environ mental assignments undertaken by UMA Engi neering in Ontario including municipal, private and Industrial water supply and pollution control, en solid waste management and site remediation. David Hein joins UMA following 17 years of ex perience in environmental engineering in Ontario since his graduation with a B.A.Sc. in Civil Engi neering from the University of Waterloo In 1977. UMA Environmental is a division of UMA Engi neering Ltd., a member of the UMA Group, a major Canadian organization involved in a wide range of engineering and construction activities.

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biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

free structure. Most conventional chemical resistant

coatings cannot withstand the stresses caused by crack movement and therefore crack along with the concrete. As a result, secondary containment structures protected with conventional coatings often require fre quent repairs. One of the biggest problems facing engineers and owners, is how to han dle concrete movement and cracking. Our company has now addressed this problem. Crack-bridging lining systems are now available that not only resist aggres sive chemicals, but are capable of bridging crack movement greater than one mm. These systems utilize an elastomeric base coat that relieves the stress caused by crack movement. Fiberglass reinforcement and a flexible resin saturant dissipate localized stresses and increase lining strength. Choice of topcoat depends on the service environ ment. The topcoat is usually an epoxy, novolac epoxy, polyester or vinyl ester which provides the barrier to aggressive chemicals. These types of systems are very effective for new and existing structures. The instal lation of the systems discussed requires the expertise of a qualified contractor who is experienced in this field. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 240 Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

• focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroieum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone:(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 239



Press releases, monthly updates, post installation handouts

Computerized project tracking: error-free & paperless transfer of customer biiling information Customer-oriented appointment scheduling guaranteeing at least 95% completion through our five step program Detailed progress meetings Flexible customer defined programs

Established customer service centre


o unts




Fully trained Completely




equipment Emphasis on enhancing community relations


Fully insured

Labour &


material bonds ■


Post installation


invoicing Complete warehousing & material handling


On March 22, 1994 the Technical Service Group installed its 100,000th meter.

TSG takes care of all aspects of your metering program from start to finish.


"...prompt and thorough responses to inquiries, requests and complaints was one of the most significant factors in the success of the project. All quality issues were responded to immediately to the satisfaction of the home owner and the municipality" - C. Beach, Deputy Works Administrator - Environment Township of Kingston, Ontario

"The fact that no extra City staff time was required to administer or inspect the project is indicative of'Schlumberger's' approach..." - E. Jackson, Environmental Superintendent City of Vernon, British Columbia For more information.

Circle reolv card No. 241

Schlumberger i industries Measurement Division-Canada 1-800-363-7886

Complete Anaerebic DIgestlen Systems for Wastewater Sludges ElMCO supplies complete systems for anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludges and efficient dewatering of stabilized biosolids. We can provide equipment for an existing system or design and build a complete new facility. For more information, contact your nearest ElMCO sales representative.

® Digester Covers ^ Sludge Mixers ® Boilers

% Heat Exchangers % Gas Safety Equipment ® Thickeners

^ Belt Dewatering Presses % Class A, Class B Sludge Design Concepts

Tvvo stage system using fixed (right) and Gasholder (left) digester covers, EOT and RDT mixers

Type RDT mixer

on fixed digester cover.

Photo above: Spiral

guides for Gasholder cover. Fixed covers with RDT mixers

Photo below: Gasholder cover

with vertical guides, EOT-J mixer mmm.

Photo above:

Spirally guided Gasholder covers with EDTandRDT mixers.

Photo left:

Type EDT Mixer.

^ElMCO Non-fouling sludge mixer propeller.

Process Equipment A Baker Hughes company

5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2



For more information, Circle reply card No. 243