Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June-July 1994

Page 1





Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment Serving environmental professionais across Canada

June/July 1994



Pulp & Paper industry faces tough challenges -an ES&E report Photo reports of AWWA/OMWA, WEAO, AQTE and BCWWA Conferences

A waste management approach which prevents leachate migration Immunoassay as an analytical tool in site remediation

GVRD's Inflow and Infiltration reduction program How to understand and avoid analytical errors

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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(905) 727-4666

June/July '94 Vol. 7 No. 3


issued June, 1994

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Sales Rep, JENNIFER J. ROBERTSON

New approach to waste management prevents ieachate migration


By Doug Lowry, P.Eng. and K. Cliff Chan, P.Eng.

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 President STEVE DAVEY

The future of groundwater resources By Robert E.J. Leech



Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

AQTE changes name but acronym remains By Jennifer J. Robertson


Immunoassay as an analytical tool In site remediation By Rene de Vries and John Novog


B.C. lab privatization was a success story - a response By David Hope


Greater Vancouver Regional District's Inflow and Infiltration reduction program By Fred Nenninger, P.Eng., and Beth Currie, P.Eng.


Clarifiers solve Quebec community's water quality need By Jean-Yves Bergei


Open channel flows and how to measure them By Brian Dawson


Maximizing the use of existing facilities at Metro Toronto's Main Treatment Plant using the process audit approach By Daniel Nolasco, Joe Stephenson and Bill DeAngeiis


Jim Bishop Environment Protection Laboratories Pierre Beaumier

Mann Testing Laboratories Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat

ment plant operators and contractors. All advertising space orders,copy,artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering, c/o Prestige Printing, 41 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5.

The predictable plunge Down Under -or how to lose


$314M In one crack

By Professor Philip H. Jones, P.Eng. Water for people in the Third World By Peter Miiiey


How to understand and avoid analytical errors By J.N. Bishop


Canadian Publications Mail Sales

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Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada,by Webb Offset Publisfv ers Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) Send orders to: Environmental Science

& Engineering,220 Industrial Pkwy.S., Unit 30,Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3V6, Tel;(905)727-4666, Fax:(905)8417271.


Pulp & Paper Industry Special


Departments Industry Update


Reader Service Card

Editorial Comment



R&D News

Product Review


57-64, 77, 78

Literature Reviews Ad Index

5, 76 54

49, 74 78

Cover Story: AWWA Pipe Tapping Contest in Windsor framed against the imposing Detroit skyline. Windsor also hosted the WEAO conference at the same location earlier (see pages 26 and 31). Photo - Tom Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, JunelJuiy 1994

Industry Update Laidlaw VP appointed to McMaster advisory board Richard A. Szudy, Vice President, Environ mental Management (Canada), Laidlaw Environmental Services, has been appointed to the advisory board of the Eco-Research Chair's Program in Environmental Health, at McMaster University, one of Canada's leading medical education and research in

theme of the conference, which is to be held

health and safety of our members' employ

in Victoria, B.C., is "Approaching the 21st Century - Challenges in Health Protection".

ees. This Program is a first for the indus try." At present, a key lobbying initiative is

For more information, contact the confer ence chair, R.W. Bradbury, tel: (604) 4780523 , fax: (604) 478-9363.

OSWCA name change reflects broadening

The university's Eco-Research Chair in Environmental Health, chaired by John Eyles, PhD., is dedicated to the advance ment of issues relating to public health and the environment, through sound research, education, training, and consultation. The eco-research program, which is the first of its kind in Canada, was formally introduced earlier this year by Sheila Copps, deputy prime minister and the minister of the en vironment,in a ceremony by McMaster Uni versity and Environment Canada.

Health inspectors change of date The dates for the Canadian Institute of Pub

lic Health Inspectors Educational Confer ence have been changed from September 18 -21, 1995 to: September 25 -28, 1995. The

ate $2.1 billion in infrastructure investment

in the province over the next two years. On behalf of its members, the Association also



the allocation of funds under the Canada-

Ontario Infrastructure Program. This Pro gram, announced by the federal government early this year, is expected to create thou sands of new construction jobs and gener

The Ontario Sewer and Watermain Contrac

tors Association, acknowledged as the pro vincial voice of the industry, has unani mously endorsed a name change to the On

is actively lobbying for fair labour legisla tion, reasonable contract language, sensible tax reform, appropriate environmental regu lations and more effective safety standards.

tario Sewer and Watermain Construction

An unusual


"In 1970, when this Association first was

established, the majority of our members were contractors; now approximately 50% of our 650 members specialize in the sup ply, distribution and manufacture of sewer and watermain products and services. These members are an integral part of our indus try. This name change acknowledges their contribution and commitment to this indus

try and to this Association," says Drew Black, Association President.

"Just recently, on behalf of the industry, the Association developed an Industry Health and Safety Program which estab lishes province-wide guidelines for the


hydrological cycle Erik Dullerud, head of Engineering Serv ices at Gore & Storrie Ltd., North York, and Ron Sorokowski, of the City of Winnipeg, rode their bikes about 120 km between

Shoal Lake, near the Manitoba/Ontario bor

der, and Winnipeg...underground. Their thoroughfare was the Shoal Lake Aqueduct,a 97-mile-long concrete tube that joins Winnipeg with its only source of wa ter. Shoal Lake. Since 1919, Winnipeggers have depended on this almost unique engi neering phenomenon to convey drinking water to a reservoir.



PCBD process: decontamination of transformer oil

Decontaksoiv process: decontamination of transformers and capacitors Ultrasorption process: treatment of water and of aqueous wastes Disposal of contaminated soil

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Industry Update Gore & Storrie has been assessing the

Nature and the International Fund for Ani

ards, analysis to help understand current and evolving regulatory requirements, and evaluation of management and process safety designs and issues.

aqueduct's condition, developing a plan for long-term as well as emergency repair and water consumption reduction. Plans include the presentation of various types of data on a geographic information system (CIS) so that Winnipeg's engineers can track the sys

mal Welfare have agreed to a formula that would allow whaling to resume. The tradi tional activists deny the charge and say they remain fundamentally opposed to whaling.

Thermal hazards lab

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tains both text and graphical information tied together.

Though unusual, the tour was relatively uneventful. Both riders found that they had to get used to riding down a narrow tube while swinging a miner's light and inspect ing the concrete at the same time.

Green rebels face whalers

Arthur D. Little, the international consult ing firm, has launched a new service to iden

tify and control possible thermal hazards that could result from runaway chemical re

Ontario award Bud Wildman,Ontario Minister of Environ

ment and Energy presented the prestigious 1993 Ontario Waste Minimization Award


from the Recycling Council of Ontario The new Thermal Hazards Laboratory (RCO) to Halozone Recycling Inc., in the is designed to identify potential chemical Outstanding Product, Packaging, Techno reactivity hazards and to prevent them from logical Category. occurring through process modification or The Recycling Council of Ontario award design mitigation. The service includes, recognizes only new products, packaging or mathematical modelling and computational technologies introduced into the market expertise to identify potential reaction haz place in 1993.

A rebel environmental group which says tra ditional groups like Greenpeace have gone soft is buying a ship to confront the Norwe gian whaling fleet which hunts minke


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Bioengineering air and water biofiltration, soil bioremediation

Environmental Diving spill investigations, underwater clean-up, HAZMAT and scientific diving surveys

Laboratory Testing microbiology,toxicity, chemistry, biodegradation and respiration studies

trawler and set sail with a crew of 30 Brit

ish and Dutch volunteers, mostly former Greenpeace activists. Breach was set up in response to reports that Greenpeace, the World Wide Fund for



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Industry Update WHO report confirms that asbestos in drinking water is not a health hazard Based on its ongoing evaluation of scien tific findings in the field of drinking water quality, the World Health Organization (WHO)states in the most recent edition of its annual Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality that "asbestos is a substance not of health significance at concentrations nor mally found in drinking water"(WHO Re port 1993, p. 42). The WHO is the latest in a long list of agencies and scientific committees to con clude that ingested asbestos is not a health

the most part, it is introduced via the disso

lution of natural asbestos-containing min erals into groundwater, but can also origi nate from industrial effluents and atmos

pheric fall-out. Based on water monitoring conducted in Europe and North America, scientists have determined that typical con centrations of asbestos in drinking water range from about 200,000 to more than 3 million fibres per litre. In Canada and the U.S., concentrations of 10 million fibres per litre and more are not uncommon.

hazard. In 1991, the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) noted in a news release on its Drinking Water Contaminants Rule that "asbestos is not classified as a

carcinogen in the regulations because EPA has determined it is carcinogenic only when inhaled, not ingested." In 1989, the Cana dian Government concluded in its Drinking Water Quality Guidelines that "there is no consistent, convincing evidence that in gested asbestos is hazardous. There is, therefore, no need to establish a maximum acceptable concentration for asbestos in drinking water". Asbestos is commonly found in drink ing water supplies around the world. For

Several studies have been carried out to

and then measuring their carcinogenic re sponse. The majority of these studies found no excess cancers, despite doses up to 100,000 times higher than levels found in heavily contaminated drinking water. Simi larly, several long-term epidemiological studies have concluded that there is no solid

evidence that asbestos in drinking water has any adverse effects on humans, even under conditions of heavy exposure. Source: Commins, BT, Asbestos Fibres In Drinking Water: Scientific and Technical Re port, 1988.

assess the extent to which the use of asbes

tos cement pipe contributes to the level of asbestos in drinking water. They have found that, except where the water supply is ex tremely aggressive, the quantity of fibres released by A/C pipe is either not detect able, or a very small fraction of the asbes tos occurring in water from natural sources. Over the years, numerous animal feed ing experiments and epidemiological stud ies have been conducted to determine

whether high concentrations of ingested as bestos pose a health hazard. The animal studies generally consist of feeding large doses of asbestos fibre to laboratory animals

Acknowledgement The authors of An assessment of the appli cation ofUV disinfection technology, which appeared in the May 1994 issue of ES&E, would like to acknowledge the support pro vided to the study by the Federal Govern ment's Great Lakes Cleanup Fund. For fur ther information or additional copies of the report, please contact John Shaw, Manager, Great Lakes Cleanup Fund, Environment Canada,RO.Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June!July 1994

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Saliva without nourishment - a legacy from the media's conditioned reflexes

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov trained his dog

Now zero is in the news again - this time the target is the Ontario forest industry. Under new regulations, Ontario mills have had to meet limits of 2.5 kg of Adsorbable Organic Halide (AOX) per tonne of pulp within 90 days, 1.5 kg by December 31, 1995 and 0.8 kg by December 31, 1999. Companies will be required to file progress reports on meeting the regulated limits, and to file additional reports, outlining factors involved in reaching the government's goal

to salivate at the sound of a bell, even

when no food was in evidence. He went

on to develop the concepts of condi tioned reflexes, winning the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1904. Nine decades later, the validity of his work is constantly demon strated when TV camera crews react, with conditioned reflexes, to colourful stunts and

staged protests. Too often the result is junk food for the mind from generous servings of media coverage which contain neither news nor food for thought. A prime example occurred when a youth ful group was seated in the public gallery in the Ontario legislature. During one ques tion period, the group rose in unison, their tee shirts each bearing a single letter which spelled out the message; Zero Pollution Emissions. The spelling was correct, leav ing me to suspect they had either completed remedial reading at university, or perhaps their mothers had dressed them prior to the line up. The stunt trivialized serious science, yet both print and TV media - with truly Pavlovian reflexes - invested this youthful prank with generous media coverage with out serious consideration of the scientific realities involved.

Letters to the editor Dear Tom, Thank you for forwarding back copies of your excellent publication Environmental Science & Engineering. I was especially impressed by your editorials in the Sept.'92 and Nov. '93 editions. I now have a first

hand understanding of why so many CEO members are inclined to extoll your virtues (which far outnumber your infinitesimal frailties)...a condition with which I have over the years become familiar. Keep up your crusades. You may feel as though you are tilting at windmills...but you're not. Bill Weinstein Executive Director

Consulting Engineers of Ontario "Good magazine. Marvellous editorials." Ron Kent, P.Eng., Manager Community Works Management and Training, Municipal & Community Affairs, Govt. of the NWT, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

We thoroughly enjoy your publication. Keep up the good work! Steve Clayton, Davis Engineering & Associates Limited

of zero AOX. Members of the Ontario Forest Indus

The goal of zero is not new. I first heard the term in 1972 while a panelist at a Uni versity of New Brunswick conference. Zero was so appealing at first glance that I con sulted with various engineers and scientists to see if the magic zero was feasible. 1 found, ironically, that it was more achievable dec ades ago than now. Why? Over thirty years ago,our chemists could not even detect most of the toxins which are routinely detected today. The few they could find were often at the one part per thousand detection limit. Then capabilities went up to a breakthrough detection level at one part per 10,000. Today, many labs can routinely detect matter to one part per trillion, akin to locat ing one second in 320 centuries, with some labs detecting at the quadrillion level - equal to one second In 32 million years. This as tonishing progress is truly space age tech nology which has changed all previous con cepts of zero pollution goals. But, if we can detect toxins at these in

credibly small numbers, why don't we go further with a noble ideal of removing them? Well,the costs of a true zero pollution - even if achievable - are staggering, while the ac tual environmental benefits could hardly be found with a mass spectrometer. Let's say it would cost $1 million to re move 90 percent of the PCBs in a given volume of wastewater. To remove the next

9 percent would cost another $1 million, a fact which always surprises the public. Now what about the last 1 percent? Since we've already spent $2 million to achieve a 99 percent pollution reduction, surely it would be insignificant to take out that tiny frac tion? Incredibly, to remove that last one per cent would probably be exponentially more than the $2 million already invested - that's if it could be done.

These are approximate figures as waste volumes, types, complexities and strengths vary enormously, but I believe my hypoth eses are closer to reality than those of many of the proponents of true zero pollution emis sions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, JunelJuly 1994

tries Association (OFIA) say they are will ing and able to support many of the limits in the final Municipal and Industrial Strat egy for Abatement (MISA) regulation for pulp and paper effluent. But OFIA has ex pressed concern that, while zero AOX is not a regulated limit, it remains a goal of the province, despite the fact it is based on nei ther sound science nor environmental needs.

Marie Ranter, President of the Ontario

Forest Industries Association says her asso ciation is pleased that the environment min istry will consider relevant environmental, technological and economic concerns when assessing the reports. "But companies al ready face a great deal of uncertainty in ar eas like wood supply, markets and prices. Although it is not a regulated limit, the goal of zero AOX will add considerably to the uncertainty of doing business in the prov ince."

OFIA supports the research program that has been proposed in conjunction with this regulation. However, current science indi cates that AOX below 1.5 kg per tonne of pulp, is not harmful to the environment. Ac cordingly, the association believes that this program should focus on whether a goal of zero is valid - not on how to achieve the

goal. OFIA says that no one questions that some organochlorines, such as dioxins and furans, are considered persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative, but these are in the mi nority. According to OFIA, many organochlorines - including most produced in the kraft bleaching process - do not dis play these characteristics. Moreover,dioxins and furans are included in the AOX param eter while also being regulated separately in the MISA regulation.

Ontario Premier Bob Rae recently pro claimed his belief that regulations must be based on science. He should stick to this

belief. His government already has quite enough zeros in its provincial deficit with out needlessly ravaging one of the largest economic sectors in the country - in pursuit of yet another zero.

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Pulp & Paper Industry Update Agreement announced to develop new environmental

technologies for pulp and paper sector A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed in March between the federal govemment and the pulp and paper sector, marking a commitment to move toward closed-loop systems in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The Initiative to develop advanced en vironmental technologies for pulp and pa per mills was announced by Deputy Prime

by the technology to which the industry al ready has committed.

"The U.S. pulp and paper industry is among the nation's most competitive in glo bal markets, but cannot remain so for long

cil (NRDC) has criticized the rule for not going far enough. According to NRDC,the rule should require the elimination of chlo rine-dependent technologies In kraft mills to eliminate the discharge of dioxins in

if forced to divert billions of dollars needed


for capital expansion and productivity im provement to expenditures on environmen tal technology that yield insignificant envi ronmental benefits," according to Red Cavaney, president of AFPA. The paper industry's suggested approach for control ling its discharges is to reduce all toxic pol

Despite criticism of the rule, EPA plans to issue future rules by industry "cluster" in order to integrate air and water regulations. According to EPA's Karl Hausker, "the Agency plans to create clusters deliberately by reviewing past rules." This could result in existing rules being reopened to combine sections with new rules as they are being developed. EPA's emphasis on the multi-

lutants to unmeasurable levels. The Natural Resources Defense Coun

Minister and Environment Minister Sheila

Copps, Secretary of State for Science, Re search and Development Jon Gerrard and the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican) President Peter Wrist at

Once installed.

the Globe '94 International Environmental Trade Fair and Conference in Vancouver.

This initiative will be a partnership be tween the federal govemment and Paprican, to develop closed-loop technologies that pre vent pollution within the pulp and paper manufacturing process itself, rather than minimizing the impact of toxic substances at end of pipe. The federal govemment and Paprican will cooperate to develop a strat egy for the funding of this initiative. Sup port from the federal government for this research and development will be provided over the next five years through existing federal programs concemed with research, development and commercialization. This agreement will be national in scope, and will involve work in research centres, universities and the environmental indus



try to develop and refine new technologies that will allow for the eventual elimination

of the discharge of pollutants from pulp and paper mills. Spin-off benefits from this new approach could include increased employ ment from the export of consulting services and equipment sales from the environmen tal technologies industry.

Both sides oppose multi-media rule for

pulp and paper mills Reaction from industry and environmental advocacy groups to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's first-ever regulation to deal simultaneously with air and water dis charges from the pulp and paper industry has been swift and critical. Officials with the American Forest and

Paper Association (AFPA)say they believe the proposed regulation would provide lit tle environmental improvement and no pub lic health benefits beyond those achieved Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Easily forgotten. Rotork Actuation. For the company which refuses to compromise reliability and precision in its actuator products.

Rotork Controls (Canada) Ltd. Calgary (403) 569-9455 Mississauga (905) 602-5665 Offices in Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon, Sarnia, Montreal.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 149

Pulp & Paper Industry Update FafBtf>Siipp<itn. taf."

media approach stems from President

Clinton's Executive Order on regulatory re view requiring streamlining of the regula tory process.

Some facts about

newspaper recycling •The estimated 1992 old newspapers(ON?)

one Ontario newsprint mill that could recy cle used newspapers; today, six of Ontario's seven mills produce recycled newsprint Tfie Newspaper Publishers of Ontario

An alternative solution to reduce dioxins and furans in effiuents

recovery in Ontario's residential sector was

225,000 tonnes, or a rate of 75% among households with Blue Boxes - the highest rate for any post-consumer material. • An additional 33,000 tonnes was recov ered in the industrial/commercial/institu

a Precise D.O. Meter? How about a heavy-duty sampling dredge? Or maybe a digital turbidity meter? Whatever you need, chances are we have it.

We're Forestry Suppliers, Inc." and we carry a wide range of highquality accessories for today's aquatic professionals - from aquacultural test kits to salinity refractometers.

See for yourself! Call and request a copy of our NEW 540-page catalog, Catalog 45. The sooner you call, the sooner you'll discover why Forestry Suppliers, Inc." is... more than the name implies*.

tional (ICI) sectors, bringing total recovery to 258,000 tonnes, representing more than 50% of consumption. • Ontario newspaper publishers voluntarily

pay $3.50 per tonne of newsprint through OMMRI to finance the expansion of the Blue Box program in Ontario. Over a fiveyear period, the funds from the publishers will provide $10 million towards capital development of the municipal infrastructure to collect and market old newspapers. • Total in-province demand for ON? is 441,000 tonnes, largely from newsprint and paperboard mills. Due to limited domestic supply, about 190,000 tonnes of ONP are imported by Ontario paper and board mills. • Recycling ONP is financially self-sustain ing. When newspapers are picked up as

regular garbage, municipalities pay $120 or more to collect and landfill each tonne of ONP. When ONP is recovered in a Blue

Box program, not only are landfill costs for the newspapers saved, but the newspapers generate revenue when sold. This net sav

ing is at least $50 per tonne. • Three or four years ago, there was only

False positives in laboratory testing can lead to costly monitoring programs, process changes, or treatment systems. The prob ability that the results obtained from sam ples are inaccurate depends upon the method of analysis used. Methods using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry or GC/HRMS(EPS I/RM/19, EPA #1613, SW-846 #8290) are the only ones that should be used, says Canviro Ana lytical Laboratories. Although these meth ods are ten times more specific than stand ard GC/MS methods and use rigorous sam ple cleanup steps, the potential of reporting false results still exists. Canviro's new PRO-RES method is a

confirmation technique that can ultimately prove the presence or absence of dioxins or furans in samples. Even if only one dioxin or furan compound can be shown to be ab sent, it could significantly reduce the calcu lated yearly effluent discharge, content in fish tissue (EEM initiative) or levels in pa per produce. The reduction of the occur rence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, through the additional use of the more specific meas urement technique ofPRO-RES,could save the Pulp & Paper industry thousands of dol lars. In turn, this would improve their com petitive positions.

Sterling poweh systems HAMILTON, ONTARIO

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Jackson, MS 39284-8397

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Reliance Electric - AC Adjustable speed controls - DC/SCR controllers - DC motors

-AC & DC spindle drives - Servo drives

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Steams - Brakes & Clutches

Hamilton:(905) 547-2345, Fax:(905) 547-2381 Toronto:(416) 364-0040 MORE THAN THE NAME IMPLIES

Responding with Equipment That Performs For more information,


Circle reply card No. 150

For more information, Circie reply card No. 151

Pulp & Paper Industry Update Report is a blueprint for the future of Canada's forest

industry Canada's forest industry could experi ence significant change, including greater public involvement in forest land use plan ning and environmentally sensitive codes of practice, following the release of a report signed by a diverse group of 25 representa tives from Canada's forest sector. Greater

responsibility and consideration of all the values of our forests are the underlying themes of the 26 principles and action plans to guide sustainable forestry practices in Canada, detailed in a landmark report re leased by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE). Three years of meetings, field visits to working forests and heated debate led to the forging of a common view on the future of Canada's forests, as contained in the Final Report of the Forest Round Table on Sus tainable Development. It is the first report released by the NRTEE since its proclama tion by the Prime Minister's Office on May 2, 1994.

"This is a real milestone for forestry in Canada,"said John Houghton,Forest Round Table member and Chairman of QUNO Corporation. The report called for greater

public involvement in forest planning and operations. The group agreed the public has a right to be involved in forest policy, plan ning and decision processes,that forest com panies be accountable by sharing their plans in a timely fashion and that public interest groups be responsible with the information they obtain.

Tough new BC forest practices code The Forest Practices Code of British Co

lumbia Act was introduced in the BC legis lature May 16 by Forests Minister Andrew Better. He said "the Code will dramatically change the way our forests are managed by making better forest practices the law, and by backing it up with tough enforcement." Environment Minister Moe Sihota

added, "Violators will face million dollar

penalties; we will demand environmentally sound forest management practices." Each day a violation continues can mean another

$ 1 million fine - repeat offenders could face fines of $2 million or rhore. "Until now, effective regulation of for est and range land operations has been nearly impossible. There was a mish mash of thousands of federal and provincial stat utes, regulations and guidelines - many of them overlapping, many of them contradic tory, and most of them unenforceable,"

Better said.

The new code, according to the govemment:

- establishes a comprehensive framework for legally enforceable, environmentally sound forest practices; - provides for tough enforcement and stiff penalties for damaging the environment or illegally cutting trees; - introduces the concept of performancebased logging. Approval of future logging activities will depend on a company's per formance on current operations; - provides for regulating forest practices on privately managed forest lands; and, - provides for the establishment of a Forest Practices Board to audit forest practices and expedite public involvement in policing for est practices and to ensure fairness. The government is beefing up enforce ment to ensure compliance with the new code. Field workers of the Ministry of En vironment, Lands and Parks and the Minis try of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Re sources will be given expanded powers to work with Forest Service staff on enforce ment.

Draft regulations and proposed manage ment standards will be released shortly. For further information contact Laura

Stringer, Ministry of Forests(604)387-8486 or Mark Stefanson, Ministry of Environ ment, Lands and Parks (604) 387-9419.

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors 8f Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor & Exhausters ore available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals hove been operating v/ith utmost

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Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

For more information, Circle reply card No. 152


Managing Ontario's water & wastewater systems

Ontario water & wastewater upgrades could cost$19 billion

Canada is rich in natural wonder

and resources - we are the envy of the world. We have oil, gas and timber - and seemingly end less supplies of water. From sea to sea to sea Canada, with one percent of the world's population, holds 22% of the world's sup ply of fresh water. For generations we have taken it all for granted - we have consumed our way through the decades since Champlain's day. Every day, every man, woman and child in Canada uses 360 litres of water - that's

about two bathtubs filled to the top - and we drink only 2 litres of it. Over one third

industry know the answer. We are in the business of cleaning water - we clean it before it's used and we clean it after it's used - and we know how much it

costs to produce clean water. So, our busi ness at the Ontario Clean Water Agency is to clean water and to place a value on it.

That's why promoting its wise use is part of our job. People may not choose to save water - but, they will always want to save money. Underpricing, i.e. undervaluing a resource, leads to waste.

The Ontario Clean Water Agency is a new Crown corporation created by the Prov

of the water we use is in our homes. Al

ince of Ontario. OCWA was created for two reasons, one fiscal and the other environ

most half of the water used in a household


is used to flush the toilet. We cannot con

water when we have so much of it? Some

Projections into the next century tell us that to meet the growing demand for ad equate supplies of safe, clean water for the people of Ontario we will have to upgrade our existing water and sewage treatment fa

17% of Ontario is covered by fresh water lakes and rivers. This is an area larger than

cost of $19 billion.

tinue to consume our way through the next decade.

Why, people ask, do we need to save

Nova Scotia,Prince Ekiward Island and New Brunswick combined. Those of us in the

cilities and build new ones at an estimated

The old ways of funding water and sew age infrastructure are no longer viable. Gov-

emments need to look at innovative and long term solutions. OCWA was created to find

those solutions.

Prior to OCWA,the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy operated 346 mu nicipally and provincially owned water treat ment and sewage treatment plants. The Ministry is the regulator of water quality standards. So when a plant, for whatever reason, was operating below provincial

Conestoga-Rovers & Associates is an internationally known environmental engineering firm, servicing Canadian and American clients. Our expertise is derived from the employ of over 400 professionals and support staff, providing the most advanced consulting services in fields such as solid and hazardous waste management, environmental audit and impact assessments, groundwater and surface water supply,

standards, the Province was in violation of

itself. OCWA removes this potential con flict - we, like you, are a part of the regu lated community. OCWA now operates the plants formerly run by the Province, but our business is more than operation; our clients are the munici palities of Ontario; we are a full service company. OCWA will help municipalities plan, develop and construct water and sew age facilities. We will provide technical assistance, and in many cases this assist ance can result in innovative technologies being pursued instead of an expensive new plant. We act as project administrators and pro vide financial assistance and advice through our treasury activities. We facilitate part nerships between municipalities and the private sector, helping them save money and plan for area wide growth. OCWA administers the Municipal As sistance Program (MAP)on behalf of the

site remediation and wastewater treatment. As we continue

to set the industry example, the need has been created for the following position in our Waterloo office.

INTERMEDIATE ENGINEER The successful candidate will have a degree in engineering with five to eight years of experience in all aspects of groundwater, water and wastewater treatment. Key areas of responsibility will include: client interaction, supervision of staff conducting analytical programs and treatability studies, data assessment, review of environmental

regulations, process wastewater treatment design and construction supervision. Strong written and oral communi cation skills are essential. Previous experience in a consulting engineering office would be a definite asset. CRAoffers a competitive salary as well as a comprehensive benefits package. Please forward your resume including salary expectations in confidence to: Recruitment Manager CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES LIMITED

651 Colby Drive Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2

Fax:(519)725-5240 Principals only please.


â– ConsuUing Engineers


'President and CEO, Ontario Clean

Water Agency. He was keynote speaker at the joint AWWA/OMWA conference in Windsor.


Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuiy 1994

By Jeffrey Marshall* Province. This is a capital grants program available to municipalities for their infra

Norwest Labs

structure work.

The eligibility criteria for the Munici pal Assistance Program encourage and sup port projects that are environmentally sound,


contribute to economic renewal in the com

munity and support good land use planning. The Municipal Assistance Program now provides ongoing financial assistance for water efficiency and system optimization studies. Funding is also provided for water efficiency capital projects such as fixture replacement and meters. One such project is taking place in the


& Investigative Testing ERCB Regulations

Toxicity Testing/Assessment Drilling Waste, Sump Fluids Soils, Sediments & Sludge


Water & Wastewater

Contaminoted Site

Leactiate & Runoff


Muititroptiic Bioassays Battery Bacteria (Microtox) Fisfi (Rainbow Trout) Water Flea (Dapfinia)

Fertilizer Requirements

Pre-/Post-Testing Advice

Towns of Elmira and St. Jacobs in the Re

gion of Waterloo, where the replacement of existing fixtures by water efficient ones will enable growth to continue and defer the con struction of a wastewater plant. This will result in close to $10 million in savings.

Data Evaluation &

Results interpretation

Accredited by ttie Standards Council of Canada and Certified by the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories Inc. for specific tests.

OCWA is run like a business. Our man

date is to run on a full cost recovery basis operating and capital. That means charg ing our clients for the services we provide. To keep the costs down, we need to be as efficient and cost effective as any company in the private sector. As a company we have



one shareholder - the Province of Ontario.

And our shareholder expects a return on its

(403)291-2022 (403)329-9266 (604)530-4344 (204)982-8630

FAX (403)434-8586 EDMONTON (403)491-8294 FAX (403)291-2021 FAX (403)327-8527 FAX (604)534-9996 FAX (204)275-6019

investment. That investment is an initial

equity contribution of $100 million.

For more information, Circle reply card No.154

Insertion Flowmeters Tools for every measurement task... Utilities across North America are striving to cut costs and eliminate unnecessary energy consumption. The Heath Insertion Flowmeters provide leakage detection, hydraulic analysis and monitoring to help utilities run their systems and ongoing audits with the highest possible level of efficiency. Flowmeters may be used to measure the velocity of both gases and liquids in pipelines. The Heath Fiowmeter is inserted into a pipeline for measure ment or withdrawn for inspection without interruption to the line flow or reducing pressure when fitted with an isolation valve, its large operating ranges of up to 100 to 1 make the Heath Fiowmeter an easy, accurate and economical alternative to conventional metering methods. The Heath Mini Fiowmeter for smaller diameter pipelines or larger pipelines with restricted access and the Heath Waste Fiowmeter for measurement of potable water provide utilities with a complete range of Fiowmeter tools.



Consuftants S^iwifGcl

. creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses.

2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V 3S5

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Saskatoon, Sask.(306)242-1713 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9552 Mississauga, Ont.(905)273-3040

For more information, Circle reply card No.155


Groundwater protection

New approach to waste management prevents leachate migration

Fifteen years in the making,the Re

gional Municipality of Halton Waste Management Site was opened in late 1992. Located in Milton, Ontario, 40 kilometres west of

Toronto, the 126 hectare site serves the solid

waste disposal needs of Halton Hills, Milton, Oakville and Burlington, which make up the Regional Municipality of Halton. With a planned life of thirty years, the solid waste facility is intended to ac cept materials which cannot be diverted elsewhere through focusing on an intensive Reducing, Reusing and Recycling program. The waste management site is more than a series of landfill cells. A public drop-off station has been constructed to accept small loads of household waste and recyclables. Homeowners can also safely dispose of haz ardous household waste at a permanent onsite depot. Wherever feasible, materials are reused or recycled. The heart and soul of Halton's Waste

Management Site are the five 10-hectare solid waste disposal cells, which are de signed to prevent the migration of leachate into the ground water. Currently, the westem half of Cell 1 has been constructed and

has been in operation since the fall of 1992.

By Doug Lowry, P.Eng., Geosynthetics ProcJuct Manager, Armtec, and

K. Cliff Chan, M.Sc., P.Eng., P.E., Manager of Solid Waste Operations, Regional Municipality of Halton, Public Works Department.

The balance of the cells will be brought on line as the previously opened cells reach capacity. The leachate, formed when rainwater

flows through the waste, is collected by a network of perforated collector pipes located in the drainage layer above the cell's imper

ers of non-woven continuous filament in wet

be trucked off-site to be treated at a waste-

and rainy conditions was not a problem. However, field sewing the fabric was an other matter. Project specifications called for each layer of the Trevira Spunbond geotextiles supplied by Armtec Construc tion Products, to be sewn into large indi vidual mats with seam strengths exceeding 80% of the wide width tensile strength (MARV)of the geotextlle. The cell was constructed by excavating about 4 to 5 m below grade. The clay liner soil was stockpiled. A layer of300 mm thick 50 mm stones was put above the native fill to act as a subliner contingency layer which

water treatment plant. Naturally occurring materials make up the majority of the components in the leachate collection and control system. The impermeable liner portion of the system is comprised of on-site remoulded clay, which yielded hydraulic conductivities in the or-

Ideal for unskilled users. Economical,

and ORP indicator-Controllers availatjle. For more information. Circle reply card No. 216

Field & Industrial The Model 30WP is a portable pH Re corder in a glass reinforced polyester case with hinged clear polycarbonate cover and complies with NEMA 1-2-34-4x12-13 requirements. A crystal con trolled chart motor drive provides accu rate chart timing and a gel type combi nation electrode encapsulated in 3/4" PVC nippled handle, provides a rugged sensing element. Rechargeable battery. Also available, pH and ORP sampling

Tiofiifeat Ileoiufcm^ IDA


The summer of 1992 experienced higher than nomial amounts of rainfall. This cre

litre capacity holding tanks, the leachate will

includes probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH

Meters, and Recorder-Controllers, Indi


ated some challenges in the construction of the first cell. Placing the fabric, three lay

Lab or Plant Model 707,large 7",0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged portable shock proof case. Practically unbreak able polyethylene shielded electrode.


mon in landfills built in the United States,

the leachate control system features a hy draulic trap. This trap is created by an arti ficially induced hydraulic pressure at the bottom of the cell. This positive hydraulic pressure will prevent the migration of leachate into the native soil and groundwater

meable liner. Once collected in the 350,000

"Big Scale" ph Meter For

ph Instrumentations

der of 10"" cm/sec in construction quality assurance testing. This compacted clay liner lies underneath a 600 mm layer of 20 mm clear stone and non-woven polyester geotextlle. The entire leachate control sys tem is situated on a layer of native clay, which varies in depth from 4 to 8 m. In lieu of a geomembrane liner so com

can be pressurized to create an artificial hydraulic trap. A geotextlle is laid on top of the contingency layer. A 1.2 m thick re moulded clay liner was constructed above the geotextlle. A second geotextlle was placed over the clay liner and was overlain by a 450 mm thick 50 mm stone drainage layer where the leachate collection pipes were embedded. A third layer of geotextlle was placed with a layer of 150 mm thick stone above it to act as a protection for the collection system. Despite the problems with weather, the first cell commenced receiving solid waste in September 1992. The eastern half of the cell is currently scheduled for construction in 1995.

Since start up, Halton Region's Waste

For more information. Circle reply card No. 217

2428 Islington Avenue North, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 3X8 Telephone:(416) 749-7179, Fax:(416) 749-8289


For more information. Circle reply cartJ No. 242

Management Site has received over 1,000 visitors, anxious to see this facility and to learn from the Region's experiences in build ing and operating a state-of-the-art munici

pal solid waste landfill. Interested in visit ing the site? Contact Cliff Chan, P.Eng., Manager of Solid Waste Operations of Halton Region at (905) 825-6000. For more information. Circle reply cartj No. 156

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Wheelabrator merges with Rupke & Associates Wheelabrator EOS Inc., has now combined its international operational expertise, capital and environmental technology with the Canadian operational and process expertise of Rupke & Associates to serve Canadian municipalities and industries. The company now offers a range of equipment and process expertise backed by solid financing commitment and resources. Wheelabrator EOS is one of North America's largest private sector operators of municipal water and wastewater treatment systems. Rupke & Associates is a contract operator with experience in providing maintenance and consulting services for both industrial water and wastewater treatment plants in Canada and the U.S. The new company has the resources, expertise and financial backing to take over the full responsibility for all water and wastewater treatment operations for municipalities and industries and the principal's experience is evident.

^ #»V.. ' ■

Joe Burrows, B.Sc., MBA,has a success ful history of creating innovative financing packages for municipalities and industries. He has served as a VP administration and

finance for a multinational corporation and has been controller, divisional GM,an ac quisition strategist, as well as financial con sultant.

Gerry Rupke, M.Sc., P.Eng., is a well known environmental and process consult ant and troubieshooter to municipal and industrial sectors. He formed Rupke & Associates Ltd. to do contract facility op eration and optimization, consulting and process design. He has been operations engineer operating 12York Region WPCPs and 35 water supply systems and was re

tained by the Ontario MGEE as troubie shooter for municipal/industrial WPCPs. His operational abilities have been proven in scores of large operations.

Tom Wingfield, P.Eng., MIBS, has been an established industrial and municipal partnership builder throughout NAFTA countries. He has been involved in Mar

keting & Business Development for envi ronmental treatment systems in Canada, Latin America and the Middle East, includ

ing national and international industrial and municipal contracts, with extensive work In Mining and Automotive sectors. He has NAFTA wide service capabilities.

The strengths of the new company can be characterized as: •People, Technology and Capital Working Together • Water, Wastewater & Biosolids Management for Both Industry and Municipalities •Partnering with Municipalities, Sharing Objectives, Sharing Rewards •Partnering with Industry to Sustain Growth & Development •Industrial Infrastructure Financing • Guaranteeing Compliance while Assuming Risk and Liability

Wheelabrator EOS Canada Inc. lupke Division Partnering for Environment and Efficiency in Canada and North America 471 D'Arcy St., Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, L3Y 1M9,1-800-663-2463, Fax:(905)853-8830.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 148

Ontario's water resources

The future of groundwater resources ous and metamorphic rocks. Groundwater moves and is stored within fractures within

these rocks. Yields in these low permeabil ity rocks are generally less than 1 L/s al though in some highly fractured areas yields up to 15 L/s have been reported. In southern Ontario Paleozoic rocks un derlie much of the area. These rocks are

comprised of limestones, dolostones, shales and sandstones. Groundwater generally moves and is stored in these rocks through their secondary porosity (fractures). Yields of5 L/s or less are common. However, water

Precambrian rocks of the Canadian Shield cover almost two thirds of Ontario's land area. Lake

Mazlnaw,350 ft. deep at this point, is about the height of the rock face at Bon Echo Provincial Park. Photo by T. Davey.

There is a general lack of under standing of groundwater by gov

ernment decision makers. This in

turn leads to either over exploita tion or under utilization of this resource.

There is an overwhelming tendency by wa ter authorities to utilize surface water over

groundwater because surface water is easier to understand. Such decision making un fairly taxes the public when long pipelines and expensive treatment plants have to be built. This article also addresses the mis

conception that significant amounts of our groundwater resources are contaminated by man's activities.

Groundwater is a major source of sup ply in Ontario. Most rural supplies come from wells constructed in a variety of dif ferent aquifers. Almost one half of all mu nicipal supplies in Ontario come from groundwater. Groundwater offers advan tages over surface water supplies since groundwater generally requires a minimum of treatment and long, expensive pipelines can be avoided. In addition, with proper management and conservation practices, groundwater supplies are dependable if managed as a renewable resource. Ontario does not have large areally ex tensive, high yielding aquifers like the Ogallala Aquifer in the United States. In the densely populated southern part of the province groundwater resources have been more fully developed and more hydrogeologic information is available. Whereas, in northern Ontario the sparse population has led to an ad hoc approach to groundwater resource development and the data are as a consequence less useful for assessing the resource. 18

The emphasis by all Canadian govemments, and the Ontario government in par ticular, over the past two decades has been to direct their attention at policing the envi ronment (including water resources) at the expense of understanding the environment. This has led to a proliferation of regulations governing contamination of our resources and maintenance of their quality. Little at tention has been paid to understanding the water quantity aspects of this life support

ing resource. Contrary to public perception, with the exception of a few highly publi cized groundwater contamination problems (Elmira, Smithville), groundwater quality in Ontario is excellent and requires mini mum treatment for public supply. Groundwater Supply

quality in most ofthe Paleozoic rocks is poor, particularly at depth or in the shaley rocks due to dissolution of minerals, except in the upper few metres of the formations where increased fracturing has led to more rapid groundwater circulation. The GuelphAmabel formation is an exception; groundwater yields from this formation can exceed 50 IVs and are of good quality for public supply. This formation is used extensively for municipal supply. Over the past million years, Ontario has been subjected to several ice ages. Such events are responsible for the present dis tribution of unconsolidated overburden ma

terials across the province. Such materials comprise gravel, sand,silt and clay and vary in thickness up to about 200 m. Where present in substantial thickness, glacial age sands and gravels can yield significant vol umes of groundwater to wells through their primary porosity. Such deposits are often associated with deep buried glacial valleys that have been infilled. Many large mu nicipalities in southern Ontario obtain their water supply from such glacial deposits where well fields yield tens of thousands of cubic metres per day. The natural groundwater quality in both the Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks is of

The physical and hydraulic properties of geologic materials govern the occurrence,

good quality for human consumption. Natu rally high levels of iron and manganese of

movement and storage of groundwater. An understanding of the geology will therefore

ten occur which may exceed aesthetic guide line criteria. In these rock aquifers water

Groundwater offers advantages over surface water

supplies since groundwater generally requires a minimum of treatment and iong, expensive pipeiines can be avoided. provide, in a general sense, the likely avail ability of groundwater to yield to wells. Two principal types of geologic materials gov ern groundwater occurrence; they are bed rock and surficial overburden formations. Precambrian rocks of the Canadian Shield cover almost two thirds of the land area of Ontario. Over much of this area

these rocks are at shallow depth. The Precambrian rocks comprise a host of igne-

quality generally deteriorates with depth as the groundwater becomes more saline. Groundwater quality in the surficial aqui fers is excellent for public supply purposes. While such aquifers are exposed to man's activities, significant contamination is not a major concern particularly from industrial sources. Non-point source contamination by agriculture is a major concern for both groundwater and surface water contamina-

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

By Robert EJ. Leech* tion. Recent work (Agriculture Canada 1993) showed, however, that agricultural practices across southern Ontario, while us ing large amounts of agrochemicals, had not contaminated groundwater to the stage that it becomes unsafe for human consumption. The groundwater resources of Ontario are an important contributor to surface wa ter flow. Discharge of groundwater to streams as baseflow maintains streamflow

during low precipitation periods, mainly the summer months. As well, groundwater dis charge maintains the large wetland areas of the province. Therefore management of our groundwater resources must consider the influence of water takings on the mainte nance of streamflow and wetland areas.

Groundwater Use

ness of the Canadian groundwater industry;

Groundwater Education Ontario (GEO)


some two years ago. This group has some impressive accomplishments already. More is needed, it is up to the professionals, their institutions and associations to get involved.

• Federal priorities for groundwater re search.

The Environment Canada publication identified four urgent priorities for action based on their survey: • The development of a National Groundwater Strategy; • The allocation of funding and human resources to groundwater resource management;

In Ontario the annual

groundwater use is approximately 400 MmP. Of this about50% is

It is difficult to determine the volume of

groundwater used in Ontario as much of it is withdrawn for private, agricultural and industrial use. An assessment of municipal use by the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR 1984) indicates that groundwater withdrawals represent about 10% of total municipal water use. In the large urban centres of southern Ontario this drops to

tural and 10% industrial (Environment Canada 1981).

A general decline in groundwater use by the larger southern Ontario municipalities, as they move to surface water "pipe" solu tions, and shrinking industrial use will likely be offset by a growth in demand in rural and agricultural sectors. This will likely lead to an overall slow growth in Ontario's groundwater use over the next decade. Future Groundwater Research Needs

Two recent publications (Canadian Geoscience Council 1993 and Environment

Canada 1993) both address future research

needs for the groundwater industry. The Geoscience Council work focussed mainly on federal government research efforts and support of research and provided twenty two


Municipal governments are charged with the responsibility of supplying and distrib uting water to the public. This provides a

Some common themes can be drawn

of the groundwater resources within their jurisdiction. In these days offiscal restraint, it seems negligent that government bodies move to such expensive solutions without due consideration of groundwater resources, water pricing policy and water conservation

this area dictates that more needs to be done.


Second, government legislation related to water quality and cleanup has been the main focus of both the federal and provincial gov ernments over the past two decades. Such legislation has outpaced the supporting sci ence. There has been a sad drift away from science and water resources research by all levels of government. If this trend contin ues severe economic consequences could result for all Canadians. Each report points

There is a growing recognition by groundwater professionals that to affect change in the groundwater industry they must get involved in public awareness and

out the need for more research in the areas

of groundwater resources evaluation and aquifer management practices. The perti nent question at this time is: will both lev els of government adopt such recommenda


Both reports identify a need for groundwater education and dissemination of groundwater information. This is an area that has had little attention over the past few years but should be recognized as an important responsibility for all groundwater professionals. It's through education, not just of the public, but perhaps more impor tantly of the politicians and government

*Gai1ner Lee Limited

water resource issues. It can be no coinci

dence that the Regional Municipality of Waterloo is taking a leadership role in the utilization and protection of its groundwater.

from these two recent publications. First, that the federal government should take a leadership role in groundwater research and resource management for the people of Canada. While this may tread on "provin cial toes" (jurisdictional issues) the gener ally poor performance of the provinces in

• The protection of recharge areas; and • Dumpsite locations in relation to groundwater protection.

understanding of its groundwater resources. The Environment Canada publication re ported on a survey of priority topics for groundwater research from about 150 groundwater specialists from across the

• Establishing an effective framework for groundwater problem identification and re search in Canada; • Access for Canadians to safe groundwater; • Direct enhancement of the competitive-

hydrogeology but is now moving more into

provincial governments that water resources are "not our problem". Pragmatically, wa ter is not a high priority of either the fed eral or provincial governments. Therefore changes in policy or approach to water re sources will come slowly, if at all over the next few years. There is a tendency by municipalities currently relying on groundwater resources to move to distant surface water supply so lutions to meet projected future demands. This trend is prevalent in southern Ontario

recommendations to further the nation's

The Canadian Geoscience Council report grouped its recommendations into the fol lowing four areas:

respected groundwater schools in the world. Their main focus has been on contaminant

convenient excuse to both the federal and

municipal, 20% rural, 20% agricultural and 10% Industrial(Environment Canada 1981).

about 3%.

In Ontario the annual groundwater use is approximately 400 Mm^. Of this about 50% is municipal, 20% rural, 20% agricul

It's not all doom and gloom. There are some bright spots in Ontario. For example, the University of Waterloo is one of the most


and is initiated without full consideration

educational activities. Not to do this will

mean a continuing deterioration of the fo cus and funding provided for groundwater management and protection.


Agriculture Canada, 1993; Ontario farm groundwater quality survey. Environment Canada, 1993; National survey on priority topics for the development of groundwater guidelines. Geoscience Council of Canada, 1993; Groundwater Issues and research In Canada.

National Hydrology Research Institute, 1986; Ground-water use In Canada, 1981: NHRI Paper No.28,IWDTechnlcal Bulletin No. 140. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 1984; Water quantity resources of Ontario. Presented to: American Water Works Asso

see positive changes and attitudes towards groundwater resources. In Ontario, the

ciation, Ontario Municipal Water Association, Joint Meeting, Windsor, May 1994. For more information,

Ontario Water Well Association established

Circle reply card No. 260

decision makers at all levels that we will

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994


Quebec Report

By Jennifer J. Robertson

AQTE changes name but acronym remains Highlights of the 1994 Association quebecoise des techniques de I'eau conven tion include a change of name and the pres entation of the prestigious Fuller Award to a past president. At the annual general meeting in March, members unanimously adopted a resolution that enlarges the Association's mandate


from the technical field of water to the tech

nical field of environment while keeping water as the main vector of development. The Association will keep the AQTE acro nym for its new name, I'Association






With the resolution approved, the board of directors is reviewing the image, struc ture and operation of AQTE. This work will be done throughout the year and the results presented at next year's AGM. The recipient of this year's George War ren Fuller Award is Lisette Provencher of

Lyonnaise des eaux Dumez. Provencher, past president of the association, received AWWA's annual award for her sustained

participation in AQTE and AWWA and her activity in the field of potable water. Given to a member of AQTE and WEE, the William D.Hatfield Award was received

by Roger Tessier of Gendron Lefebvre inc.

The Fuller Award presentation. From left to right: AWWA Secretary-Treasurer Bill Murray, recipient Lisette Provencher of Lyonnaise des eaux Dumez and AQTE past president, 1993 AQTE presldentAlaIn Lalumlere.

for his professionalism and dedication to the wastewater treatment sector throughout his career.

Marcel Couture ofSNC Lavalin received

the Pat O. Bourgeois Award in absentia. Couture was recognized with the annual


award for his exceptional contribution in the field of water and particularly for his gen erous dedication to the activities and goals of AQTE. The Fournisseurs Award, given every other year to a member of the suppliers group, was awarded this year to Jean-Pierre Dubois of Compteurs d'eau Lecompte in recognition of his work within and at all levels of AQTE. The AQTE/SNC-Lavalin Award of Ex cellence, Scientific Article, and the AQTE/ ITT Elygt Canada Award of Excellence, Technical Article, are awarded twice every three years for excellence of articles pub

lished in Sciences et Techniques de I'Eau. Jean-Pierre Villeneuve, Olivier Banton,Eric Gauthier and Pierre Dupuis, shared the

$1,000 bursary donated by SNC-Lavalin. Nicole A. Roy and Marc-Andre Desjardins

shared the $1,000 cash award sponsored by ITT Elygt Canada. This year's Lucien L'Allier Award was given to the municipality of Sainte-Marguerite-du-Lac-Masson for its initiative and mm

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Field testing

Immunoassay as an analytical tool in site remediation

Along-proven analyticaltechnique

in the medical diagnostics indus try, immunoassay (lA), is now being applied in the environmen tal industry. Immunochemistry has long pro vided the clinical testing field with a reli able, fast, cost-effective and proven means of testing large batches of samples for many


infectious diseases, antibiotics, substances

of abuse, proteins and other macromolecules. In the environmental testing field, lA is now capable of rapid and quantitative testing for numerous pesticides, petroleum contamination, PAHs, PCBs, PCP, explo sives and other organic pollutants. Immunoassay technology involves the development of antibodies or detector agents which chemically bind to specific antigens or analytes. This binding specificity or af finity has been extended to various analytes which are considered environmental pollut ants. For each pollutant, researchers must develop a different antibody. Immunoassay eliminates much of the laborious sample preparation procedures and test results are rapidly quantified by measuring colour de velopment or, more precisely, the lack of colour development in the test solution. The colour development is produced by the addition of a "conjugate" reagent to the test solution. The conjugate contains: 1) molecules very similar in chemical struc ture to the test analyte; and 2)colour producing enzymes. By placing test solution (or soil extract), conjugate reagent and antibodies in contact with each other in a mixture, a competition

The Quantix Environmental Workstation is a portable, on-site analytical system that detects and measures contaminants In soil and water samples. is created between conjugate and test tration, results in conjugate molecules be analyte for binding sites at antibodies. This ing displaced by the analyte at the antibody competition is reproducible and quantitative binding sites, thus producing less or no col for a sample with a fixed analyte concen our development. The result is that colour tration. If the test sample contains low is inversely proportional to analyte concen analyte or pollutant concentration, the con tration. Colour can be measured by a jugate reagent binds to most antibody spectrophotometer, hand-held reflectometer, (receptor) sites, producing a colour devel visual comparison, etc. At present, most if opment. The opposite case, in which the not all, commercial environmental immu test sample contains high analyte concen noassay systems follow this principle which is called competitive Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays(ELISA). TABLE 1: SOIL ANALYSIS COMPARISON: QUANTIX vs. LABORATORY Recently, Central Projects Group Inc. (CPG) of Markham, Ontario,- environmen Quantix Laboratory tal consulting engineers and innovators in BTEX BTEX the application of assessment and Sample Number Soil Type TOV (Total) (Total) remediation methods for petroleum hydro carbon(PHC)sites, conducted a preliminary 1 Sand 170 >80 4.41 evaluation of the Quantix Portable <80 Workstation (Workstation) for the detection 2 Sand 96 <3.5 0.05 and quantification of BTEX(Benzene,Tolu 3 Sand and Gravel 45 <3.5 <0.05 ene, Ethylbenzene Xylene - major gasoline 4 Sand and Gravel 20% 35.1 39.59 components)in soil and water. TTie Quantix 5 Weathered Shale 300 5.4 8.17 Workstation is an immunoassay-based field 6 Weathered Shale 10% 9.1 10.21 portable system developed for the detection 7 Weathered Shale 10 <3.5 <0.05 and quantification ofPHC contamination in 8 Weathered Shale 10 <3.5 <0.05 soil and groundwater. Field screening tech 9 Clay 250 12.2 14.7 nologies are rapidly evolving as a result of 10 Sand and Clay 100% 788 219 the environmental industry's increasing de 11 Sand 30 <3.5 <0.05 mand for on-site quantification which is re 12 Sand 35 <3.5 <0.05 liable, rapid and cost-effective. 13 Sand 30 <3.5 <0.05 The evaluation consisted of field tests


All values are In parts per million (ppm) unless otherwise noted as percent(% LEL). Vapour analyzer used; Gastech Model Trace-Techtor, calibrated to hexane. All contamination was gasoline with the exception of Sample 1, which was furnace oil.

completed by CPG personnel in December 1993 and January 1994 on a variety of pe troleum distribution sites in Ontario during assessment and remediation activities.

CPG's objective for conducting this work 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

By Rene de Vries^ and John Novog^ was to perform a third party evaluation of lA technology and research the potential for

cal technologies. Maximization of IAs cost-

effectiveness is based on the ability to pro

use as a reliable and cost-effective field

vide immediate results and correlation to

screening technique. To evaluate the Quantix Workstation, 10 water and 13 soil samples were analyzed. The system was evaluated for user-friend liness and the soil samples were also analyzed by conventional GC analysis. The overall impression of the project managers/engineers regarding the userfriendliness of the Quantix Workstation was positive. Lightweight (5 kg), requiring no power source, the system was easily trans portable. The Workstation is completely self-contained, requires no setup time and is ergonomically designed with the analyti cal protocol following a logical left-to-right platform sequence. Quantitative results for five samples were obtained within 15 to 20 minutes. Some concern was expressed as to suitability of use in inclement outdoor weather (i.e., frost, rain, wind) and person nel were inclined to operate the Workstation system in controlled conditions such as a site office or vehicle. Reagents must be kept cool (4°C to 10°C). During tbe summer, this is accomplished by transporting the rea gents in a cooler containing freeze-packs. Soil samples were collected as part of the routine sampling programs for a variety of sites and soil types. Following the Total Organic Vapour(TOY) measurements with a portable gas detector, the soil samples were split with half sent to certified labora tories in glass containers for GC analysis. The other sample half was analyzed on-site immediately by the Quantix Workstation (refer to Table 1 for results). A comparison of the results in Table 1

analyte-specific remediation objectives such as BTEX. Another practical use is to rap idly identify uncontaminated soil on-site and provide scientific rationale for immediate soil disposal decisions. In the US, lA is being promoted for all phases of environmental restoration. The


1) all samples for which total BTEX was not detected on-site by the Workstation(<3.5 ppm), were confirmed by the laboratory GC analysis and, in most cases, were below the laboratory detection limit (<0.05 ppm), i.e., no false negatives; and 2) Samples in which total BTEX was de tected on-site by the Workstation generally corresponded to laboratory GC results. Based on the results of this preliminary evaluation and a literature review, CPG has concluded that lA technology is a helpful tool for the environmental professional working at petroleum contaminated sites. Central Projects Group Inc. has planned a strong quality control strategy to support the successful application of lA field screening technology. This strategy will provide CPG's field personnel, site owners and regu latory authorities with the required confi dence to interpret the lA field results. Furthermore, CPG has concluded that the cost of lA technology is reasonable in comparison to currently available analyti

benefits include:

1) rapidly delineating contaminated zones; 2) rapidly determining the volume of con taminated soil and the cost of cleanup; 3) adjusting sampling patterns based on the on-site concentration of contamination

rather than a fixed and pre-determined grid pattern;

4) monitoring contaminated groundwater migration on-site; 5) improving decision-making or enabling on-site decision-making by providing early access to data;

6) rapidly corroborating or refuting expec tations based on site history or other sources; 7) selecting the most appropriate samples for laboratory submission; 8) maximizing the probability for finding all "hotspots" while minimizing the prob ability of over-remediation; 9) reducing overall project time by days or weeks resulting in remediation project cost savings of 5 to 20%; and 10) providing environmental laboratories

with a technique to maximize operation efficiencies and provide clients with an ex press screening service. The US Environmental Protection

Agency (U.S. EPA) and Environment Canada have been evaluating lA technol ogy. The Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (MGEE) is proceeding with technical validation studies and applications development as a rapid field screening and laboratory screening technique. At least 20 U.S. state environmental regulatory agen cies are using, evaluating or approving use of lA. For example, the New Jersey De partment of Environmental Protection and Energy "has experienced good results with the immunoassay techniques" and is includ ing lA screening this summer in revisions to the state's "Field Analysis Manual". Immunoassay is an asset to meet future remediation challenges by providing in creased analytical and workflow efficiencies. In the US, there are possibly several thousand sites contaminated with ex

plosives alone, including 26 sites on the National Priority List. In the case of TNT, lA can also increase the margin of safety to the analyst by screening potentially danger ous samples by eliminating much of the onhands sample preparation process and iso lating the highly contaminated sample at a fraction of the regular cost and time. For more information, Circle reply card No. 131

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Postal Code: 23

Guest Comment

By David Hope*

B.C. lab privatization was a success story - a response Tjenon Environmental Laboratories Inc. was

awarded a five year contract with the Min istry of Environment, Lands and Parks in 1988 when the decision was made to priva tize the provincial government's environ mental analyses. Following a tendering process in 1993,judged by our competitors as unfair(ES&E, March 1994), Zenon was

awarded a substantial portion of the work in a renewed contract. In spite of the con troversy the decision generated, a more im portant point to be made is the demonstrated success of this privatization of government lab work in British Columbia, the first such experiment in Canada. During the past five years, we estimate that privatization of analytical services to Zenon has saved the Province well over $3 million dollars, while service, as measured

by average tum-around time, has improved from 116 days to 14 days. In addition, dur ing this period significant quality improve ments from 'moderate to excellent' have been

made, as determined by independent stud ies of the Federal/Provincial Quality Assur ance(FPQA)program. Our data quality has

'General Manager, B.C. Laboratory Zenon Environmental Laboratories

Zenon has invested substantial energy and capital in compiex,sophisticated analytical instru mentation and systems enhancements.

been proven in over 50 other external stud ies and documented by our CAEAL,Stand ards Council of Canada and Washington

tional company headquartered in Burlington, Ontario. Zenon has facilities

State accreditations. Zenon would have

plus three in Europe. Our major analytical laboratories are operated in Bumaby, B.C., Burlington, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec. Each laboratory offers services that fit their region. In some cases, individual Zenon laboratories have developed unique capa

never been selected to retain the largest portion of the contracts if the ministry did not have confidence in Zenon's capability to provide the highest quality data at mar ket value.



Engineering / Science



bilities and are used as centres of excellence

noted that in order to

by the other facilities. For example, the Burnaby laboratory is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada for trace pes ticide residues in food crops, carries out trace analysis of organolead and organotin pollutants in effluents and coplanar PCBs in biomaterials for industry and government clients throughout North America.

make these quality and cost improve ments, Zenon has invested substantial

Professionais Sendex is looking for seasoned professional engineers

energy and capital in complex, sophis ticated analytical in

and environmental scientists with demonstrated lead

strumentation and

ership abilities who are interested in participating in the growth of the company. The need exists to geo graphically expand our operations in order to meet the

systems enhance

demand for our services.

Sendex is a fast growing practice specializing in site assessments and risk management,and is well-known within the financial services industry for its independ ence and practical approach in assessing and quanti fying environmental liabilities. From site assessments to operational audits, Sendex has earned a reputation for providing high quality "value-added" services that squarely address each client's business objectives in commissioning the work. If you are solution-oriented and think you have what it takes to run your own show, we'd like to talk to you about your opportunity to establish a practice under the Sendex umbrella. Contact us at:

Sendex Environmental Corp.

ments and in the

training and devel opment ofthe highly skilled analytical chemists



them. Through this experience, we have learned how to ef

fectively incorporate private sector efficiencies into a

government-based lab operation. This laboratory is now clearly in the top tier of North American

labs and competes on an international

1108 Dundas Street, London, Ontario

scale, thus contrib uting external rev enue to the economy

N5W 3A7

of B.C.

Administrative Services



in seven other North American locations

Our laboratory is a strong British Co lumbia company, part of an interna

Our customers benefit not only from a greater variety of analyses offered ("one stop shopping") but also from the lower costs associated with economies of scale. I am

proud to be a British Columbian and am equally proud of my British Columbia labo ratory and the fifty British Columbians we employ. The laboratory, with or without privatization, will continue to create jobs in B.C. through specialized analytical serv ices across Canada, the United States and

in the Pacific Rim region.

Overall, privatization has been a success in British Columbia, providing improved service at a lower cost to the province and generating high quality employment. We believe Zenon was selected because we pro vided British Columbians with a proven track record of quality and delivery com bined with competitive pricing and assured continuity of data and service. These are ample reasons for our selection. Contro versy over the tendering process should not overshadow a success story in privatization of government analytical testing. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 132

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Water says many things. Important things. And you can hear them all with license-free UtiliNet™, Metricom's intelligent, packet radio network.

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its own- when water storage levels are too f^ low or too high. When to start and stop pumps. Or when to open or close valves. You can even program the network toperform many of these water-management tasks. UtiliNet automatically routes data around obstacles like high-rises. And simultaneously collects data from many different points-speeding it home to you by the shortest

route. On top of that, UtiliNet is easy to install and scales up or down to fit changing needs. Add or subtract radios at any time without the license hassle.

In a word, UtiliNet prudently takes you into the modem world of RF communications. So you no longer have to deal with cumbersome phone lines and hefty ongoing lease charges. Best of all, you can depend on UtiliNet. Which uses the same packet switched, spread spectrum technology proven reliable by the military in hazardous environments. For more information. Fax 408/354-1024 today. Or call 408/399-8200. UtiliNet. Because we know the pressures.

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Conference Wrapup

Media focus on WEAO conference

Seldom was the technical excellence

a wide variety of unrehearsed questions on both TV and radio, including an interview en fran^ais with a Radio Canada reporter. Incoming President Brian Evans also gave interviews, as did many presenters. This

of past WEAO* meetings reflected in media coverage. Like the Maytag repairman's shop, conference me dia facilities were always the loneliest place

time the public heard about environmental issues from real experts. AQTE** has long been the leader in en couraging media participation in environ mental conferences on water issues in Que bec. Reporters are always welcomed and provided with facilities and hospitality. Over the years AQTE became a prime source of

in town. Even when the media wanted a

quote on a given environmental situation, reporters went everywhere - except to the real environmental professionals. Stung by this media indifference, a WEAO committee took a proactive role in encouraging the media to attend the annual conference in Windsor Ontario.

This year the impact of the presentations went far beyond the conference hall. Thanks

relevant technical information and the

WEAO initiative should become a regular feature of all professional association meet ings. With Detroit looming large on the Wind sor skyline, it was appropriate for the con

to a Public Education Communications

Committee headed by Steve Nutt, news cov erage in radio, TV and the print media was unprecedented for the association. First came the radio and newspaper re porters, then came the TV cameras. Con

ference to address Ontario and US strate

'Water EnvironmentAssociation of Ontario,

gies to achieve Remedial Action Plans (RAPS). Papers included the impact of US Great Lakes Water Quality initiatives on municipal and industrial water pollution control programs and the IJC strategy to achieve virtual elimination of persistent

formerly the Pollution Control Association


ference Chair, Glenn Vicevic of Zenon - al

ready busy with conference details - fielded

of Ontario.

Former WEAO President, Doug

"Association quebecois des techniques de I'eau, the leading body of water and wastewater professionals in Quebec.


McTavish (Now President, Canadian Wa ter and Wastewater Association) and Glenn Vicevic were co-chairs of this intemation-




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Glenn Vicevic handled the media with flair.

ally focussed event. Conjointly a second ses sion on emerging bio-process developments was co-chaired by John Neate and Gord Speirs of the Wastewater Technology Cen tre.

In addition to technical papers on ad vanced wastewater treatment processes many discussions on privatization of vari ous municipal services took place. The mes sage is clear, it is obvious that privatization is a subject whose time has come. Balancing the technical program was the Operations Challenge where the teams com peted in five subjects: process control, lab work, safety, collection and maintenance. The Operations Challenge allows staff to compete in a variety of tasks which simu late work In the field, including working in confined spaces and maintaining complex equipment. This occupational health and safety as pect is a vital part of operations and a great opportunity for crews to hone their skills in competition with other teams. Cordell

Samuels, of Metro Toronto Works Dept., interpreted the considerable complexities of the events for spectators with great flair. Metro Toronto's Humber Bumblers, the overall winners, will go to the finals at the Water Environment Federation Conference

in Chicago next Fall where over 12,000 del egates from across North America are ex pected to attend. The Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association exhibition was the ideal

venue for this exciting event. OPCEA Vice President, Penny Davey presented a $2,000 cheque to Bill Girard for the Humber Bum blers, to help the team compete in Chicago with the best in North America.

George Powell, President of Gore & Storrie, was given the covetted Bedell

Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 26

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Award. Tom Alkema, of PSG Canada, was given the Hatfield Award for his dedicated work in operations management and train ing. Brian Evans, of R. V. Anderson Asso ciates, took over the WEAO Presidency during the Annual Banquet.

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

Photo report by Tom Davey


Clockwise from top, left to rlgtit; Syd Love congratulates Hatfield Awardee Tom Alkema, PSG Canada (right); Bedell winner George Powell, President of Gore & Storrie; Bill Girard, PWOD representative, received a S2,000 cheque from OPCEA Vice President Penny Davey; New WEAO President Brian Evans with Lillian and Jim Greenshields.

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 244


B.C. Report

By Fred Nenninger, P.Eng., and Beth Currie, P.Eng., G.V.R.D.

Greater Vancouver Regional District's inflow and infiltration reduction program

Agenciesresponsible for transport

ing and treating wastewater have recognized for decades that ex traneous flows, commonly re ferred to as inflow and infiltration (I/I), can be a significant problem. Infiltration occurs most commonly when groundwater seeps

into sewers through defects such as cracks and broken joints located below the water table, but it can also be induced by rainfall. Inflow occurs when water enters sanitary sewers through inappropriate connections such as roof leaders, catch basins, yard and area drains, manhole covers, and cross-con-

550 delegates attend BCW&WA conference The 22nd Annual Conference of the British

Columbia Water & Waste Association was

held in Victoria, May 8 - 11, 1994. Dennis Mitchell, President of BCW&WA, wel comed Karl Kohlhoff, Vice-President of the American Water Works Association, and Phillip Gerwert, President of the Water Environment Federation, who gave the opening addresses. Keynote speaker was Moe Sihota, BC Minister of Environment, Lands & Parks. Some 37 papers were given over the twoday technical sessions, which included a

local school groups attended and exhibitors demonstrated how their products worked to the students, a creative way of educating the public. Indeed,community involvement was evi dent throughout the tradeshow. Delegates came with small children and even babies

in strollers. Everyone seemed to enjoy them selves thoroughly - great PR for this and future generations.

nections between sanitary and storm sew ers. A certain amount of inflow and infil

tration is unavoidable, and is provided for in routine sewer design procedures. In most areas, the District designed its sewers with surplus capacity to handle fu ture population growth. In the interim, this surplus capacity has accommodated any ex cess I/I. However, sanitary sewage flows have now increased to the point where many sewers are now operating at capacity or sur charge regularly. Flooding occurs in some areas during heavy rainstorms. Solutions for control of I/I typically include one or a combination of:

• construction of additional sewers, pump ing stations, and treatment facilities; • storage of wastewater flows for later dis charge into the sewer system when treat ment capacity is available; or • I/I reduction.

The George Warren Fuller Award was presented to David Swanson, a past presi dent of the BCWWA. The Stan Copp Award went to another past president. Bill Hyslop.

Region-wide cost-effectiveness studies undertaken as a part of the District's Stage 2 Liquid Waste Management Plan(LWMP)

District and Municipalities will implement.

exhibitors, many demonstrating new tech nologies, from trenchless technology to hy

Annual environmental engineering awards were presented to Gillian Larkin and Angus Chew of the University of British Co

drant and water line maintenance. Four

lumbia. Ron Canton

duction experience through work undertaken in the past twenty years. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)report titled Rainfall Induced Infiltra tion Into Sewer Systems - Report to Con gress (August 1990) addressed problems with and appropriate control measures for rainfall-induced infiltration, and presents recommendations on ways of reducing rain

technology transfer seminar, workshops and panel discussions. The annual tradeshow featured over 90

will determine which solutions to I/I the

Inflow and Innitration The United States has extensive I/I re

fall-induced infiltration.

Some of its major conclusions include the following: • shallow portions of collection systems are more vulnerable to rainfall-induced infiltra

tion (RII); interceptors, which are typically deeper, do not appear to be a significant entry point; • RII is related to the design, construction, climate, geology, and degree of maintenance of a collection system; • accurate field investigations and data analyses are important to develop an effec tive RII control program - you must accu rately identify and quantify RII to manage it;

• rehabilitation work must include both pub lic and private portions of the system to be effective;

• entire areas of the sewer system should be addressed as opposed to fixing individual defects:

Beth Currie, P.Eng., and Fred Nenninger, P.Eng., presented the paper on the GVRD's inflow and infiltration reduction program. Stan Mason (left), ofTerminal City andTom Maxwell ofTrimax at the highly successful tradeshow which was a hit with children as well as environmental professionals. Photos - Ron Canton. 28


Excerpted from a paper given at the BCW&WA Conference in Victoria, B.C., May 1994.

Environmental Science <& Engineering, June/July 1994

After 75 years of cleaning up, anyone else would be ready to

Gore & Storrie does municipal water and wastewater, industrial wastewater, solid waste, environmental planning and engineering, energy management, water resources, and air pollution. We do it all very well, and we do it on six continents. Public-private enterprise demands a range of services—engineering, finance, construction and operation. You will find all of them right here at Gore & Storrie.

Keeping our environment clean was important 75 years ago,just as it is

today. G&S is Canada's pre-eminent environmental engineering consultant. That makes us one of the best in the world. Ask us how we can help. Call John Anderson, extension 289, or Norm Huggins, extension 364, at Gore & Storrie Limited,(416)499-0090, or fax (416)499-4687.

Gore & Storrie Gore & Storrie Limited,

Consulting Engineers 255 Consumers Road,

North York, Ontario, M2J 5BB

Seventy-five years

People Knowledge Commitment|

For more information, Circle reply card No. 115

B.C. Report step 1


Characterfze - Pipe Inventory

Tributary Area

- Sewered Araae

- Soil lypee - Storm Drainage

GVRD I/I Reduction Program Outline In 1992, 1993, and 1994, the GVRD's Administration Board approved funds to begin work on FI investigation in the Fraser, North Shore, and Lulu Island West Sewer age Areas. Work items completed or underway include the foiiowing: • researching inflow and infiltration pro grams throughout North America; • performing temporary sewer flow moni toring in the North Shore and Fraser Sew erage Areas; • upgrading of the GVRD rain gauge net

Step 2 I Quantify I/I

Monitoring • Rainfall - Row

Sanitary Row - Winter Water Uae

- Population Contributing - Diurnal Ructuatlone

Step 3 I Allocate I/I to

System Components! *


•Smoke Teating

Infiltration Location

- Dye Testing

- TV Inspection - Graundwater Monitoring

Step 4 I Estimate Unit Cost!

to Eliminate I/I


Inflow Location - DIaconnect Sewers

- Add Storm Drainage

- Rehabilitate/Replace - Collection Components - Unit Costs

Step 5


Step 6

Determine I/I

etermlne Costs to

Removal Costs

Collect & TVeat I/I Excess ve Costs ?

• an effective preventive maintenance pro gram, including flow monitoring, cleaning, testing, and inspection, should be in place; • sewer design standards should be modi fied to minimize future I/I;

• rigorous construction inspection and per formance testing should be implemented for both public and private sewers and laterals. Liquid Waste Management Plan Under the Provincial Waste Manage ment Act, the District is developing its Liq uid Waste Management Plan - Stage 2, which will provide a comprehensive frame work for all liquid waste activities, projects, and programs for the next decade. We will develop the plan through a con sultative process with member municipali ties, the public, and other levels of govern ment. There are eight major areas of study including environmental assessments, wastewater treatment plants, combined sewer overflows, stormwater runoff, source control, residuals management, inflow and infiltration, and sewerage and drainage sys tems. Infiltration and inflow assessment

will be undertaken on a regional basis and I/I management options examined with due consideration for the other areas being stud ied under the Stage 2 LWMP. Preliminary I/I Assessment With the advent of secondary treatment

WCWWA looks to the four new R's The 1994 Conference of the Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association will be

held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, October 4-7, under the theme, "The Four New R's —

Restraint, Renewal, Responsibility and Risk".

For registration/general information, contact the WCWWA Calgary office, at: Tel; (403) 259-4041; Fax;(403) 258-1631. 30

results of the LWMP - Stage 2 overall costeffectiveness analyses for managing liquid waste in the region.

• performing inflow and infiltration analy ses on flow and rainfall data coiiected pre viously, as well as on the data currently be ing coiiected; • designing and implementing a flow and rain database for manipulating and storing

in the District, increased attention was fo

flow and rainfall data;

cused on infiltration and inflow in the sepa rate sewer systems. In 1991 the District

• continuing CCTV inspections in District sewers, and performing remedial works where required; • developing a CIS database for the sewer

retained ABR Consultants to undertake a

preliminary assessment of I/I and to make recommendations for the first five years of a program to quantify and manage I/I. This preliminary assessment examined the District's Sewer Problem Reports, re viewed the flow records at three of the Dis

trict's treatment plants, and reviewed the flow records from some of the District's

pumping stations. The District's Sewer Problem Reports contain seventy accounts of sewer problems during six storms that occurred between November i 988 and Janu

ary 1991.

I/I Reduction Program: Objectives The following are the main objectives of the Inflow and Infiltration Reduction Pro

gram as envisioned by the District at this time:

1. To investigate and quantify FI. 2. To monitor and improve current sewer construction and inspection standards to ensure high quality new construction. 3. To monitor and improve current building service and plumbing construction and in spection standards to ensure high quality new construction.

4. To investigate region-wide implementa tion of standard sewer operation and main tenance procedures. 5. To perform cost-effective analyses for controlling FI. 6. To perform rehabilitative or other works as determined by the overall LWMP costeffectiveness analysis considering ail liquid waste management issues. Cost-effectiveness studies specific to each sewerage area will ultimately deter mine which combinations of conveyance and treatment, storage, and/or FI reduction pro vide the best solution for managing inflow

network in the North Shore and Fraser Sew

erage Areas; and •establishing a Task Force to develop stand ards and coordinate inflow and infiltration

work among the municipalities and the Dis trict.

In 1994-1995, the District is planning to undertake further sewer flow monitoring in the Fraser and North Shore Sewerage Areas, and in the Vancouver Sewerage Area's sanitary sewers. In its own interceptor and trunk sewers, the District will continue to carry out inter nal and closed-circuit television inspections to identify deficiencies potentially contrib uting to FI. The District will repair such deficiencies on an ongoing basis. The District has conducted extensive research into the work other North Ameri

can municipalities have undertaken in their efforts to identify and reduce FI. The Dis trict's report /// Quantification Methodolo gies: A Summary ofi North American Stud ies, summarizes the research. One major observation is that, while the methodologies applied to FI identification and assessment vary broadly, the resulting net reductions in FI after completion of a rehabilitation pro gram are almost invariably much less than anticipated. The District's discussions with other

and infiltration. The District and munici-

North American municipalities indicate that many cities have been unsuccessful in re ducing FI, regardless of the methodology used. In many cases, tens of millions of dollars have been spent with very little re duction in FI. Their experience shows that it is necessary to completely rehabilitate or reconstruct a subbasin, including the sewer

paiities wiii undertake projects based on the

Continued on page 61

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

Cover Story

By Tom Davey

Powerful water agency outlined at AWWA/ OMWA meeting

Jeffrey Marshall, President and CEO

full MOEE costs. Now the 346 treatment

troit River. Naturally it attracted media at tention because it embodies the elements

vative and long term solutions. OCWA was

plants are revenue neutral. They must cover their own costs. Mr. Marshall made a deep impression with both his knowledge and willingness to leam. Foster Burba, an AWWA past President, said he was pleased to see the progress made in the Ontario Section's government affairs. In the States, AWWA had a lot of input, for example, into regulations of THMs. "The message is clear: control your destiny or

created to find those solutions, he said.

someone else will," he stressed.

In the past, the Province made the an nouncement when it gave money to finance particular projects; in other words, it was always political to announce winners, they never announced the losers. Any surpluses

"A few years ago, the AWWA, because of its expertise, developed a confrontational situation when regs and other matters af fecting water were being discussed. The AWWA is now trying to overcome this. Lawyers are trying to crowd us out. All we seem to get is a legal outlook on things. We need more input from environmental pro

of the new Ontario Clean Water

Agency, was keynote speaker of the AWWA/OMWA '94 Conference in

Windsor, Ontario. His paper was a very lowkey, yet powerful presentation of the oppor tunities and problems which his new agency faces. The old ways of funding water and sewage infrastructure are no longer viable, he said. Governments need to look at inno

went into consolidated revenues. It was like

a member of the family collecting the money, yet another member of the family spending the money and not talking about it. The MOEE had added a 6% fee to cover admin

istration, etc. This 6% did not cover the

fessionals such as AWWA."

The pipe tapping contest was held in per fect weather at Dieppe Park right on the De

of sport with technical skill. The team from Ottawa-Carleton was the winner with a time

of 1 minute and 29 seconds, earning a trip to New York to compete with the best in North America at the AWWA National Con

ference. For a change there was also a Wa ter Works Triathlon. This was an exhibi

tion event, made up of more events than just tapping watermains. In some ways it will attempt to do what the Water Environment Federation teams do in their operations chal lenge. There they perform lab analyses and

safety procedures in manhole entries and pipes. They cover five work-related areas in the competition. While this Triathlon was purely an exhibition event, it is being stud

ied as a possible replacement of the annual pipe tapping contest. At the Ontario Municipal Water Asso ciation Meeting, the membership resolved Continued overleaf

Left to right. (Top)Anne and Michael Provart, winner of the AWWA's coveted Fuller Award; Hershel Guttman.AWWAOnt. Section Chair congratu lates ES&E Publisher Tom Davey. (Bottom) Ken Hicks, winner ofAWWA Certificate ofAppreclation; the photo was taken during OWWEA boat cruise on the Detroit River; and, more action at the riverside during the Pipe Tapping Contest.

Environnienia! Science & Engineering, JuneiJuly 1994


AWWA I OMWA, cont'd. that the OMWA formally request the MGEE to develop with the AWWA and the OMWA, a study of the impact on costs and health risks associated with the "sunsetting" of chlorine disinfection in water treatment in Ontario. OMWA noted that water disinfec

tion with chlorine or chlorine compounds is the primary defence against waterbome dis eases in Ontario and the cost to convert to

alternative disinfectants and operating costs had not yet been fully identified. The Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion introduced an award for meritorious

service. It will not be an annual award; it

will only be awarded when the occasion war rants it. The first recipient was Richard

Beck of Peterborough. The Howard Award went to Leo Deneyes who represented those waterworks people in Canada who manage smaller water sys tems, and who, through their skills and lim ited resources, bring to their communities the most up-to-date management systems. Leo brought the computer world to his wa ter utility, modernizing billing and office procedures, and installed remote meter read outs for 60 percent of the town. He is well on the way to finishing it on time and on budget in the next two years. The Euller Award, the Section's top hon our, went to Michael Provart, M.M. Dillon. Mike has been Chair of the Ontario Sec-

tion. International Director, AWWA and has served on countless committees.

The Albert E. Berry Student Fellowship is presented for outstanding performance in studies emphasizing water works. Kai Wah Tang, of the University of Toronto is this year's winner. Three Certificates of Appreciation were awarded. The first recipient was Environ mental Science & Engineering magazine. In making the announcement, Hershel Guttman, Section Chair, said: "This journal has been outstanding in taking up the cause for good water and wastewater systems in Canada. Environ mental Science & Engineering has also come to the defence of environmental en

gineering in the face of criticism of the In dustry by non-professional advocates. In fact, at times, they have called government to task when Inappropriate action has been taken by government In regard to the water supply and environmental protection Indus try." Tom Davey, co-founder and editor, ac cepted the award. Gore and Storrie Limited also received

a Certificate of Appreciation. Hershel Guttman said: "Gore and Storrie have had no less than

six staff members recognized as George Warren Fuller awardees, commencing In 1944 with William Storrie, one of their found

ing partners. More recently, in 1980 there was Ron Simmons, And in 1983, and still

active. Bob Goodlngs, now CEO of Gore & Storrie. G&S staff members have been ac

tive over the years In just about every com mittee we have. As well, members of the firm have served the Section as chair,

namely Bob Goodlngs and John Anderson; John retires this June as our Director, hav

ing served the last three years. And finally, and perhaps most Importantly, they have been solid contributors to our membership roles. Aside from a corporate membership, currently over 30 staff are listed as mem bers. As well, they are members of the AWWA Research Foundation."

The final recipient named was Ken Hicks, President of Dense North America Inc.

"He is being recognized by AWWA be cause of his unstinting loyalty to the water works equipment suppliers and the Ontario Section. Ken has been the OWWEA rep resentative on the AWWA for the last six

For Environrnental Advice: Due Diligence, Asses.sments, Waste Management & Disposal, Compliance Issues, Toxic Real Estate, Transporting Dangerous Goods, Litigation & Criminal Defence. Innovative and cost-effective legal advice and solutions. Call Client Relations at (416) 863-5647 for more on how we can help you.

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 245

years. He has directed his energies to im proving the relationship between the two bodies in many ways; by interacting with the section executive, keeping the relation ship at a high professional level; always ac cepting assignments and carrying them out with flair and dignity; by fostering and en hancing the relationship between members of his profession and that of the Ontario section; and by his significant contribution to the preparation of the annual conference and executive meetings", concluded Hershel.

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Drinking water treatment

Clarifiers solve Quebec community's water quality need

The Quebec city of Victoriavil e's

potable water treatment plant has experienced many changes since

silica are added. Powdered activated car

mg/L, Color = 0, Iron = 0,005 mg/L, Man ganese = 0,03 mg/L and Turbidity = 0,02

bon is added to eliminate taste and odours.


its construction in 1928.

The floes settle in the High-Rate Flocculator Clarifier. The water then passes through

Several problems had occurred earlier, leading the city of Victoriaville to review its entire treatment process and capabilities. In the early 1980s, a

On average, the city requires a flow of 31,000 mVd. In Victoriaville potable water comes from

current detector. Polymer and activated

two downflow sand and anthracite filters


sources: a potable wa ter treatment plant with an average yearly flow of 14,000 mVd; a radial collecting well with an average flow of 11,000 m'/d and a gravel-packed well with an average flow of 6,500 m7d. In 1990, adapting to a growing popula tion as well as indus

trial needs, the city

river dam located

upflow from the Pota 1. Raw water intet

ble Water Treatment

2. Vacuum chamber

Plant(PWTP)was de

3. Vacuum pump

stroyed because of ex cessive damage. It

4. Vacuum breaker valve

5. Raw water distribution conol

used to create a reser

6. Distribution iaterois

voir which provided the plant with a natu ral "pre-settling" tank

7. Parolfel plates

8. Sludge concentrator 9. Sludge extraction ppes

environment. The raw water was of ex

10. Sludge extraction volves 1. Clarified water collection laterals

ceptionally good qual ity and the static clari fiers produced satis factory water quality.

12. Tube settling modules

modified its static

clarifiers, capable of treating up to 18,000 mVd, to two dynamic


When the dam was

destroyed, the water chemistry changed. Total suspended sol ids(TSS)content was higher and when it rained abundantly, the city was faced with levels: turbidity: 500-

clarifiers with a maxi

mum capacity of 30,000 mVd. The city was provided with a high-rate, sludge blanket, solids con

tacts system: the

1200 NTU; color

UltrapulsatorÂŽ. For the water treatment plant, the raw water comes from a reservoir created by a

and finally the water is chlorinated with the

dam on the Bulstrode river. Pre-treatment

preserve the aqueduct network. Clarifier sludge is pumped directly to the wastewater treatment plant. The water pumped from the wells by passes the treatment and is submitted only to disinfection (chlorination and corrosion inhibitor dosing) before it merges in the wa ter system. The water

consists of pre-oxidation with potassium permanganate, aeration and straining. The water is then pumped to the plant where a coagulant (alum when alkalinity is greater than 40 mg/L or P.A.S.S when alkalinity is less than 40 mg/L) is added by a streaming

addition of a corrosion inhibitor in order to

from the wells before

disinfection averages levels of Alkalinity =79 mg/L, Hardness = 108

AVERAGES FOR 1993 PLANT Characteristics

Alkalinity Aluminum

Colour Chlorine Hardness Iron

Manganese Nitrates

PH Fluorides rH Dissolved solids

Turbidity 34



82,00 0,02 19,00

73,00 0,01 0,00 0,75 128,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 7,20 0,19 515,00 148,00 0,09


117,00 0,30 0,27 1,20 7,50 0,20 379,00 130,00 11,40

(mg/L) (mg/L) (Units) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (Units) (mg/L) (mV) (mg/L) (NTU)

>200PCU; alkalinity: 20-60 mg/L and ammoniac nitrogen: 0,20-0,65 mg/L. With these conditions, the static clarifiers no

longer performed well and changes were re quired. The High-Rate contact clarifier chosen by the city combines two techniques in sol ids contact flocculation: the recirculation of

sludge and the passage of coagulated water through a homogeneous sludge blanket maintained in suspension by periodic pul sations.

Recirculation of sludge is effected by a system of inclined plates with deflectors

AVERAGES FOR 1993 Chemicals used Activated silica Alum Activated carbon

Hydrated lime Chlorine


Potassium permanganate Polymer Polyphosphate

Kg -

8724,00 2117,00 1753,00 866,00 5073,00 381,00 16,00 161,50

mg/L 2,50 45,00 8,40 9,00 3,70 35,10 1,60 0,10 0,77

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

By Jean-Yves Bergel*

Simple,Proven Solutions without excessive turbulence in order to

to Meet the New

bring about an intimate water-sludge mix ture and prevent any sludge deposit. The sludge blanket acts as both a flocculator and "fluidized filter" permitting optimal use of injected reagents, giving per fect colloid particle agglomeration and fil tration of all impurities. The blanket presents a natural cohesion and is able to withstand greater rising velocities than an isolated flocculated particle could. While partially flocculated water rises between plates, a settled sludge moves downward along the interior surface while thickening and a whirlpool conducive to flocculation is created by deflectors fitted to the underside of each plate.

Discharge Limits New concepts, media and equipment for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from industrial process and ground water remediation. Featuring: • Filtration media that absorbs

This clarifier transforms each inclined

elementary static clarifier formed between plates into a concentrated sludge blanket clarifier with internal sludge recirculation and a lamellar settling zone above the sludge



The use of lamellar settling multiplies sludge settling surfaces in a basin. The set tling zone produces superior water quality with the same settling velocity or allows an increase in settling velocity. The High-Rate Clarifier obtains results without artificially loading the floe which would normally lead to increased operating and maintenance costs. Compared to the old static clarifiers, the city now uses 50% less powdered activated carbon, compared to 20 mg/L on average, and the use of a poly mer is now 0,1 mg/L,compared to 0,8mg/L. Since the clarifiers maintain such low tur

bidity levels (0,35NTU), the chlorine de mand has dropped 50% reducing the possi bility of forming THM. In April, 1991, a pilot plant study was conducted to examine what would be the

water rate In the High-Rate Clarifier in wa ter temperatures of approximately 7°C. The clarifier yielded a water rate of 9,35 m/h with turbidity levels of 0,27 to 0,35 NTU at a maximum flow of 23,000 m7d . Re member that the flow was brought up to

23,000 mVd in only one clarifier and that the plant's maximum flow is 30,000 m7d and all this without effluent deterioration.

Victoriaville is also equipped with a computer system providing operators with valuable up-to-date information on the clari fiers as well as the entire process. Each clarifier has its own automatic settings and parameters vary constantly depending on the sludge blanket characteristics. The compu ter also monitors each sludge extraction valve, calculating the amount of time it is open and closed, permitting operators to detect problems related to sludge draw-off. The computer also keeps up-to-date infor mation on the hydraulic load for the clarifi ers, the water rate, and the retention time. For more information,

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oil, grease and other sparingly, soluble organlcs to well below 10 PPM. • Proven systems for the removal of heavy metals, COD's and BOD's. • Fully engineered systems. • Lab evaluation of your effluent.


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Open channel flows and how to measure them Flow measurement plays an increasingly important role

Palmer-Bowlus flumes are designated by the size of the pipe into which they fit. Standard sizes range from four to 42 inches. The dimensional configuration is not rigidly

in the environmental

professional's range of responsibilities. This article reviews the various options

established for each flume size. However,

a Palmer-Bowlus tlume with a trapezoidal throat with a flat bottom has emerged as the standard design for circular pipes. Flumes are more expensive and more


Open channelflow is defined as flow in any channel in which the liquid flows with a free surface. Examples include rivers and irrigation channels. Certain closed chan nels such as sewers, when flowing partially full and not under pressure, are also classi fied as open channels. Open channels are used to conduct liquids in most sewer sys tems, sewage treatment plants, industrial waste applications, and irrigation systems. There are four methods for automatically measuring open channel flow: hydraulic structures; area velocity; slope-hydraulic radius; and variable gate. Hydraulic Structures The most common method of measuring open channel flow is the hydraulic struc tures method. A calibrated restriction in

serted into the channel controls the shape and velocity of the flow. The flow rate is then determined by measuring the liquid level in or near the restriction. The restrict

ing structures are called primary measur ing devices. Tfiey may be divided into two broad categories - weirs and flumes. A weir (Figure 1) is an obstruction or dam built across an open channel over which the liquid flows, often through a specially shaped opening. Weirs are classified ac cording to the shape of this opening. The most common types of weirs are the trian gular (or V-notch) weir, the rectangular weir, and the trapezoidal(or Cipolletti) weir. The flow rate over a weir is determined by measuring the liquid depth in the pool up stream from the weir. Weirs are simple and inexpensive to build and install. Common materials of construction include metal, fiberglass and wood. However, they repre-

Top View

difficult to install than weirs. Common

materials of construction include fiberglass, concrete and metal. However, flumes re sult in a lower head loss and are self-clean

Figure 1. Non-contacting ultrasonic sen sors are often used to measure the level

upstream from a weir.

ing, requiring less maintenance than a weir. Preferably, weirs and flumes are installed so that non-submerged flow exists, that is, so that downstream conditions do not affect

the flow rate through the primary device. sent a significant loss of head, and are not suitable for measuring flows with solids that may cling to the weir or accumulate up

by making a single level measurement. If submergedflow occurs, both upstream and

stream from it.

downstream levels must be measured, and

Aflume is a specially shaped open chan nel flow section providing a restriction in channel area and/or a change in channel slope. The flow rate in the channel is de termined by measuring the liquid depth at a specified point in the flume. The most com mon flume is the Parshallflume (Figure 2). The flow rate through a Parshall flume is determined by measuring the liquid level one third of the way into the converging sec

reference made to submerged flow tables. A secondary measuring device, or open channel flow meter, is used in conjunction with a primary device to measure the rate of flow in an open channel. The flow meter measures the liquid level at one point in the


Parshall flumes are designated by the width of the throat, which ranges from one inch to 50 feet. The throat width and all

other dimensions must be strictly followed so that standard discharge tables can be used. Also, note the drop in the floor of the flume, which makes it difficult to install a Parshall flume in an existing channel. In contrast, the Palmer-Bowlus flume (Figure 3) is designed to be installed in an existing channel with minimal effort. The flow rate through a Palmer-Bowlus flume is determined by measuring the liquid depth at a point one-half pipe diameter upstream from the flume throat.

This allows the flow rate to be determined

channel, and then converts this measure ment into flow rate based on the known

level-to-flow rate relationship of the weir or flume.

There are a number of technologies for measuring the level in the channel. The most common are ultrasonic sensors, bub

blers and submerged pressure transducers. Most modem open channel flow meters use software to convert the measured level into flow rate.

Area Velocity The area velocitymethod calculates flow rate by multiplying the area of the flow by its average velocity. This is often referred to as the continuity equation, Q=AxV. For convenience, most area velocity flow meters use a single sensor to measure flow rate (Figure 4). Doppler ultrasonics is used

Side View measuremen

Water surface

Throat seclion

Slope 1/4

Figure 2. Parshall flumes are self-cleaning and measure a wide range of flow rates. 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

By Brian Dawson* where: Q= flow rate in cubic feet per

Top View


A= cross sectional area of flow in

Front View

square feet. R= hydraulic radius (cross sectional area divided by wetted perimeter) in feet.


S= slope of the hydraulic gradient. n= roughness coefficient based on


channel material and condition.

The cross-sectional area A and the hy draulic radius R are calculated based on the 1.7D

liquid depth, and the size and shape of the channel. The slope S is often estimated based on installation drawings of the chan nel. The roughness coefficient n is selected


Upper Flow




from standard references based on the ma


terial of construction of the channel, and its

Water surface


Upstream deptti Downstream


D = Conduit diameter


Side View



Given the size, shape, slope and rough ness of the channel, an open channel flow meter can calculate flow rate using the Manning formula based on a measurement of the liquid depth. The Manning formula is not as accurate as the hydraulic structures and area veloc ity methods, but it can provide sufficient accuracy in some applications. In addition, no weir or flume is required. Variable Gate

Figure 3. Palmer-Bowlus flumes are designed to be installed in existing channels with mini mal effort.

The main advantage of the area velocity method is that it can be used to measure

flow under a wide range of conditions: open channel; surcharged; full pipe; submerged;

Area Velocity Sensor

The most recent advance in open chan nel flow measurement is the variable gate flow meter. Developed by Isco, this patent pending flow meter consists of a variable gate metering insert and an electronic con troller.

verts this level into the area of the flow

of the water surface slope, cross-sectional area, and wetted perimeter over a length of uniform channel. The most popular of these equations is the Manning formula (Figure

The metering insert (Figure 6)has a piv oting gate under which the liquid flows. The gate creates an upstream level that is meas ured with a bubbler system. Together, the gate position and upstream level determine the flow rate through the metering insert. The controller automatically adjusts the gate in response to changing flow rates. This allows a variable gate flow meter to accu rately measure flows that fluctuate between extremely low and extremely high flow

based on the size and shape of the channel.



and reverse flow.

In addition, the area velocity method does not require the installation of a weir or flume.

Figure 4. Area velocity flow meters com monly use Doppier ultrasonics to measure average flow velocity.

to measure average flow velocity, while an integral pressure transducer measures the level in the channel. The flow meter con

Slope-Hydraulic Radius Various resistance equations are used to estimate flow rate based on measurements

1.49 AR^'S'"

For more information,


Isco Environmental Division



Circie reply card No. 104



Variab e Gate




Figure 5. The Manning formula estimates flow rate based on the area and hydraulic radius of the flow, and the slope and roughness of the channel. Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

Figure 6. Gate position and upstream level determine the flow rate through a variable gate metering insert.


R&D News: edited by the Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur la Qualite de I'Eau

CAWQ ACQE Treatment of Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent A paper presented by A. Schnell at the 29th

cals by mass spectrometry techniques. Static acute toxicity tests were also conducted on the samples using rainbow trout, brook trout,

Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pol

and water fleas. As concluded in the Water

Water Research, PAPRICAN research sci

lution Research described his work under

Pollution Research Journal of Canada, the acute toxicity of the leachate was primarily

entists F.S. Archibald and L. Roy-Arcand

taken with colleagues from the Wastewater Technology Centre and E.B. Eddy Forest Products Ltd. on the removal of toxic con

taminants from bleached kraft mill effluent

using enhanced biological treatment meth ods.The effluent from a pilot scale activated sludge system installed at the E.B. Eddy mill in Espanola, Ontario passed all acute and chronic toxicity tests. A high level of efflu ent quality was achieved with low concen trations of AOX, chlorophenolics, toxicity equivalents, total resin and fatty acids, BOD, and COD.

Toxicity of Landfill Leachate Environment Canada scientist W.R. Ernst

and colleagues took samples of leachate from a municipal waste landfill site near Halifax. They were analyzed for a number of physical and chemical parameters and screened to Identify specific organic chemiFor more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

tion on Water Quality, Technology Development Directorate, Environ ment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

Photodegradatlon of Kraft Bleachery Effluent In a paper accepted for publication in

describe their work on the decolonization

due to its ammonia content. The chronic ef

and dechlorinization of hardwood and

fects of the range of organic chemicals iden tified in these samples on the aquatic or ganisms remain to be determined.

softwood kraft bleachery effluent by abiotic sunlight processes. Visible light at an in tensity comparable to the sun at the earth's

Bloremedlatlon of Hamilton

surface in northern latitudes mineralized a

Harbour Sediment

substantial portion of the "stable" high mo lecular weight AOX, in both fresh and salt water,and at high and low effluent dilutions. Such light also mineralized an appreciable fraction of the high molecular weight car bon to carbon dioxide by abiotic mecha

Laboratory experiments were undertaken at the National Water Research Institute to en

hance the biodegradation of organic con taminants in Hamilton Harbour sediments

by injecting oxidants and nutrients. After 44 days, 78% of the oil (TPHs) and 68% of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were biodegraded. In field tests, TP. Murphy and coworkers injected 39 tonnes of oxidant and


Rapid Determination of PAHs and PCBs in Water

nutrients into 2 hectares of sediments in

Solid-phase microextinction was investi gated by D.W. Potter and J. Pawliszyn as a

Hamilton Harbour. As described to del

solvent-free alternative method for the ex

egates attending the 29th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, biodegraded, but a year later 40% had bio degraded. Although the treatment takes time, the significantly lower cost relative to dredging and confinement makes the in situ

traction and analysis of non-polar semi-vola tile analytes. These University of Waterloo scientists extracted analytes into a polymeric phase immobilized onto a fused silica fibre. The fibre was then inserted directly into the injector of a gas chromatograph and the analytes were thermally desorbed. As de

biotreatment a viable alternative.

scribed in Environmental Science and Tech-

in the first four months, 18% of the TPHs

Your technical experts are now ISO 9002

registered As one of Canada's leading technical service companies, ORTECH continually strives to be in the forefront ofany quality movement.ISO 9002 registration means, for instance, that the more than 2,000 clients we serve each year can interact with ORTECH fully confident that our quality processes are internationally recognized. Call us for quality service in product and process design and development, technical problem solving, analyses and evaluations.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

R&D News, cont'd. nology, the detection limits for PAHs and PCBs exceeded the USEPA regulatory re quirements. This new technique allows sam

pling directly from the source (lake, drink ing water, etc.) and eliminates the loss of analytes through adsorption onto container

Changes in concentrations of hormones, par ticularly those regulating vital functions, may have a potential as early warning indi cators of toxic stress in fish. In a paper pub

biofilter can be successfully used for landfill leachate renovation as well, including thor

ough nitrification and suspended solids re moval. As described to delegates attending

review the recent literature in fish endocrine

the 29th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research,laboratory experi ments resulted in TSS removal rates of 9095% and BOD removals of 83-99%. Coliform bacteria were reduced by two or

Plant Effluent

toxicology and illustrate the use of hormo

ders of magnitude. Pilot scale demonstra

University of Regina scientists D.R. Cullimore and T. Viraraghavan used labo ratory scale anaerobic filters packed with plastic ballast rings to treat low strength sep tic tank effluents at temperatures between

nal indicators in detection of toxic stress in

tion tests will be undertaken.


Anaerobic Treatment of Septic

5° and 20°C. As described in Environmen

tal Technology, BOD removals Increased in proportion to temperature and hydraulic re tention time. The filters achieved 90% re

moval of conforms, but effluent coliform

populations remained too high to allow di rect discharge into receiving waters. The

lished in the Water Pollution Research Jour

nal ofCanada, University of Quebec scien tists A. Hontela and G. Chevalier, together with J.B. Rasmussen of McGill University,

pike and perch from the St. Lawrence River system polluted by a mixture of chemicals.

Contaminated Sediments In

Treatment of Landfill Leachate

W.L. Lockhart and colleagues from the

Domestic and municipal sewage wastewaters have been successfully reno

Freshwater Institute took sediments from

Isolated Canadian Lakes

two isolated Canadian lakes for the purpose

vated in laboratory and field trials over the

of comparing current and historical loadings

past few years with the newly developed sin gle-pass "Waterloo Biofilter". University

of several contaminants. There are no

of Waterloo scientists E.G. Jowett and M.L. McMaster have demonstrated that this

sources of anthropogenic contaminants within either basin, yet both lakes showed increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-

rates of attachment and colonization were

greatest at lower temperatures, and more


bacteria formed tighter attachments at the lower temperatures.

Distributed by; Biological Indicators of

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Environmental Science <& Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

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R&D News, cont'd. bons (PAHs) and mercury in more recent sediments as compared with older, deeper sediments. These results, reported in Water Science and Technology, are interpreted as indications of increased loadings as a result of atmospheric fallout. Both lakes showed peak inputs of PAHs in the middle years of this century, followed by more recent de

Microbial colonization of peat and gravel was effective as revealed by scanning elec tron microscopy.

Removal of Cyanide by Activated Carbon

clines. Current values still exceed those

The sorption of cyanide in solution, at lev els less than 1 mg/L, by granular activated carbon was investigated by K.S.

from the deep sediments.

Subramanian and coworkers at Health and

Septic Tank Effluent Treatment with Peat Alberta Environmental Centre scientists R.N. Coleman and I.D. Gaudet assessed the

effectiveness of filter columns, containing sand, peat and coarse gravel, for treating septic tank effluent. The columns were op erated at a loading rate of 8 cm/d, tempera tures of 10° and 20°C, and preferably in up ward flow mode to avoid plugging. As de scribed in the Water Pollution Research

Journal of Canada, fecal coliform removal was usually greater than 95%,BOD removal was greater than 75%, and various removal levels were exhibited for other components.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

Welfare Canada and Carleton University. The study was undertaken to define the con ditions required to reduce residual levels to below the maximum acceptable concentra tion value specified in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The sorption process proceeded slowly with up take continuing over a 30-hour mixing pe riod. As described in Water Environment

Research, cyanide uptake was generally in dependent of pH but increased with increas ing adsorbent density. The authors discuss possible mechanisms for cyanide sorption by activated carbon and their implications for water treatment.

Computation of Toxic Contaminant Loadings An alternative approach is presented by McMaster University scientists P. Xu and I.K. Tsanis, and J. Marsalek of the National Water Research Institute, in the Water Pol

lution Research Journal of Canada for es timating annual toxic contaminants in ur-

ban runoff. The mean contaminant concen

trations are calculated by a regression method. The contaminant load component transported by the liquid phase was esti mated by multiplying the mean concentra tion in water by the runoff volume simu lated by the STORM model. The compo nent transported by suspended sediment was calculated by multiplying the mean concen tration in solids by the event mean solids concentrations reported in the NURP Pro gram.

Effect of pH on Pentachlorophenol Solubility When pentachlorophenol(POP)dissolves in water, two forms are normally present undissociated PGP and the dissociated ani-

onic form pentachlorophenolate. These dif fer in their physico-chemical properties and in their microbial response and toxicity. It is therefore important to know the solubil ity behaviour of PGP at specific pHs when working with site remediation and toxicity assessment. In a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research,Biotechnology Re search Institute scientists Y. Arcand, J.

Hawari and S.R. Guiot describe an empiri cal model which they have developed for estimating the total PGP aqueous solubility at different pHs using its standard solubil ity value and dissociation constant. The method may be extended to other chlorophenols and to most wastewaters.

Grooved piping cuts worktime 32%, weight 50%, vs. Hanged systenns. ■ For municipal systems, a complete , line of couplings and fittings for

pipe grooved to AWWA C-6O6 up to 36"(for IPS steel up to 42"). Also for stainless steel, PVC plastic, coated/lined, FRP and specialty pipe. Fittings to AWWA C-110/ANSl A21.10—coated, cement or glass-

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'1994 Victaulic Co. Ail rights reserved.

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

DRUMSHEAR... the economical solution

for sludge dewatering and thickening problems Optimum capture rate of solids using stain less steel woven wire mesh from 45 microns

and up.

Removable screen panels are a first in the

industry — allowing a change of openings. Variable speed drive(3 to 12 rpm)varies solids retention time and dryness.

Adjustable diverter flights automatically direct solids to discharge lip of cylinder. No other screen on the market gives so much flexibility.

Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving lower haulage and/or treatment costs.

Rugged 1/4 inch stainless steel construction — thicker, more durable, corrosion resistant.

The low operating and maintenance costs of the screen give substantial savings over the life of the equipment — as much as 2to 3times better than comparable screens.

Central Greasing.

Internal and External Spray Cleaning System. No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain. Low energy requirements, only 1 - 7.5 hp. Better environmental protection of industrial and municipal applications.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

For more information, Circie reply card No. 108


R&D News, cont'd. Phosphorus Removal

degree of phosphate removal. This led to

preferred in terms of producing the less bi

In a joint research study, K.S. Narasiah(Uni versity of Sherbrooke), C. Morasse (Gendron,Lefebvre Inc.) and J. Lemay(En vironment Quebec) conducted laboratory and on-site studies on two aerated lagoons to optimize phosphate removal. Three co agulants were used: alum,ferric chloride and

sludge accumulation in the aerated lagoons.

ased estimates and the minimum variance

lime. As described in the Water Pollution

Research Journal ofCanada, seasonal tem perature variations in wastewater did not have a detrimental effect on the coagula tion and flocculation processes. The phos phate removal efficiency was 90% to 95% for all coagulants. For lime, the dosage was relatively high in order to achieve the same

on residuals from regression. Ozone Disinfection A paper accepted for publication in Water Research presents a new error-in-variables approach to analyze the inactivation data ob tained with ozone in a CSTR system. The appropriateness of this approach, as com pared to the forced linearization and classi cal non-linear regression, was examined sta tistically by University of Alberta scientists H.Zhou and D.W.Smith. Both the data gen erated from the Monte Carlo simulation and

the experimental observations were used. The results show that the new approach is

Contaminant Behaviour

An approach to modelling contaminant be haviour in aquatic systems, presented in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, is based on the principle of superposition of linear systems. The ap proach developed by University of Toronto scientists W. Stiver and D. Mackay, sepa rates the modelling into two parts. Part one is the description of the contaminant behav iour and generation of system responses, and part two is the analysis of a given situation through the addition of system responses. Separating the model into two parts facili tates model use in remedial action planning and in model evolution. The technique is illustrated with PCBs in Lake Ontario.

Shoreline Microbiological Quality Pioneers of the industry-acclaimed dual-shafted cutter Wmtiolo'^y

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to meet the toughest ojraw sewage problems in lieadworKSHlni^Uitt stations. Our lines ofsolids reduction equipment are more eJfecTfve than comminutors at treating solids while eliminating the cost oftraditional screening systems.

The impacts of urban sources on fecal bac terial pollution of the near-shore zone of the St. Marys River were studied by National Water Research Institute scientists B.J. Dutka and J. Marsalek. Observed microor

ganism densities were used to assess the lev els of fecal bacterial pollution in relation to bacterial sources and the compliance with recreational water quality guidelines. As de scribed in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, almost the entire reach ofthe river

studied exhibited very good bacteriological water quality with low fecal bacterial con centrations and high probabilities of com pliance with the recreational water quality guidelines taken as 100 E. colillOO ml.

Sludge Management Practices


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D. Couillard and G. Mercier performed an economic evaluation for various sludge man agement practices including the biological process of metal solubilization for digested and undigested sludges, and the traditional methods of sludge management. As de scribed in Water Environment Research by these INRS-Eau scientists, biological leach ing, including lime neutralization and land spreading, was less expensive for undigested than for digested sludge and was competitive with land spreading of non-de contaminated dewatered sludge. These two management practices are less costly than all the other options considered. The bio logical leaching - neutralization - land spreading process had less environmental impact than any of the other options exam

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

tion on Water Quality, Technology Development Directorate, Environ ment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax: (819) 953-9029.

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994


Norah Oakley

Helena DeSousa

Office Manager

Customer Service

Norah has 20 years experience working in

Following graduation with

Valerie started her career

an Honours Bachelor of

government and the private

Environmental Studies at

sector. This includes nine

University of Waterloo, Helena taught computer software applications for the Computer Training

as an organic analytical chemist and progressed to Supervisor of Organics Analyses for a commercial laboratory where she ran the department, performed method development, and

years at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy and four years atEPLAtMGEEshe

Centre. She combines her

gained broad knowledge of programs and policy in the

environmental knowledge with strong computer skills. Helena provides the link

Water Resources Branch, Acid Rain Office, Hazardous Contaminants Branch, and Pollution Control Branch. She also has extensive

experience in public relations and customer

service, and is responsible for managing EPL's office in Mississauga.

between the customer and

EPL's unique Laboratory Information Management System, to ensure that customers' analytical data meets their requirements.

Valerie Geldart Sales Manager

scheduled the work. Her

experience covers all types of environmental analyses, with specialization in petroleum hydrocarbon chemistry. Val works closely with clients to develop specific analytical approaches to solve unique environmental problems.



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Eva Cottenden Service Manager

Eva's background combines laboratory experience at a distillery, a pharmaceutical laboratory, plus customer service for a commercial

laboratory. Since joining EPL in 1992 her

responsibilities include tracking clients' samples through receipt to analyses, and ensuring TAT commitments are met Her

knowledge of federal, provincial and municipal guidelines and regulations ensures that EPL clients

will meet government requirements.

Wastewater Treatment

Maximizing the use of existing faciiities at Metro Toronto's Main Treatment Piant

using the process audit approach

In the past ten years,several evaluation

and optimization techniques have been applied by CH2M HILL in more than 20 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP)in Ontario to assess the actual con dition,capacity and operating status of these faciiities. These optimization projects have become known as "process audits". In most plants evaluated, the application of recom mendations resulting from the process au dits have led to significant energy savings and postponed or minimized piant expan sion requirements through effective proc ess optimization and control. Process au dits are now a key requirement for funding by the Ministry of Environment and Energy and Ontario Clean Water Agency (MGEE/ OCWA). In 1992, Metro Toronto retained CH2M HILL to perform a process audit at the Main Treatment Piant (Main TP), located on Ashbridges Bay. The Main TP is the larg est activated sludge plant in Canada, with a design treatment capacity of 818 million litres per day (818 MLD or 180 MIGD), providing primary treatment, activated sludge secondary treatment with chemical addition for phosphorus removal, sludge handling and treatment, incineration and ash disposal facilities. The treated effluent is discharged to Lake Ontario. The MOEE has indicated that more

stringent effluent requirements may be es

tablished for the Main TP. To meet the fu

ture (potential) effluent criteria at the outfall, the Main TP will have to nitrify to reduce ammonia-N levels to 3 mg/L and improve the current phosphorus removal rates to achieve total phosphorus levels be low 0.3 mg P/L. Results from previous stud ies using traditional design parameters(e.g., steady-state design guidelines based on or ganic and solids loading rates) at several Ontario facilities Indicated that approxi mately $220 million would be required to achieve nitrification at the Main TP while

maintaining the design hydraulic capacity.' These costs did not include improvements to achieve future effluent phosphorus re quirements. Metro Toronto needed a costeffective approach to meet the future (po tential) effluent criteria. The Challenge at the Main TP Currently the Main TP operates at a bio logical solids retention time (SRT)of 2 to 4 days. Future nitrification will require ad ditional oxygen transfer to the mixed liq uor and a higher SRT (7-i- days approxi mately). The solids loading rate at higher SRTs may exceed the secondary clarifica tion/thickening capacity, leading to higher

capacity of the liquid train, and to maximize the usage of the existing facilities while maintaining effluent compliance in the fu ture. The Main TP Process Audit is the larg est and most comprehensive process audit carried out in Canada.

Evaluation and Optimization Techniques Municipal and industrial WWTPs are generally designed using traditional guide lines based on steady state assumptions. This practice does not always permit opti mum operation and expenditure minimiza tion. Process data collected at the plant on a discrete basis (grab samples) are not suf ficient to determine the dynamic operating characteristics and ultimate treatment ca

pacities of these facilities. In 1993, an intensive online and offline data acquisition program was carried out for 10 months. Signals from more than 50 online instruments were obtained and stored

suspended solids will impact effluent qual ity, particularly effluent phosphorus. The objectives of the Main TP Process

for further analysis using a computerized data acquisition system. Elow-proportioned 24-hour composite samples were collected on a daily basis from over 14 locations in the liquid train. An off-gas analyzer was used to assess the oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) of the aeration system. Dye tests were used to study the hydraulic behaviour of the secondary clarifiers under different flow rates and to identify potential bottle

Audit were to evaluate the actual treatment

necks. Stress tests were used to assess the

effluent suspended solids. Higher effluent

performance of the primary and secondary clarifiers under high flow conditions, and determine their maximum hydraulic capac ity. The data collected were used to maxi mize the use of existing facilities and esti mate capital costs required to achieve fu ture performance objectives. Results The results from the intensive online and

offline data acquisition and capital cost analysis indicated that the current operat ing strategies are adequate to meet present secondary effluent requirements. Oxygenation Capacity Oxygen requirements were calculated using Influent flowrates (online data) and aeration influent characteristics (offline

data: CBOD^, and TKN*). Average and

OFF-gas analyses and on-line instrumentation were used to determine ttie actual piant capacity. 44

peak oxygen requirements were calculated for current and future effluent requirements at current flows and extrapolated to future (design capacity) flows. The oxygenation capacity of the aeration system was evaluated to estimate the maxi mum organic and nitrogenous loading sus tainable by the existing aeration system and to determine the upgrades required to meet

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

By Daniel Nolasco<^>, Joe Stephenson'^) and Bill DeAngelis''>* future oxygen requirements. The aeration system consists of nine plug-flow covered aeration tanks operating in parallel (two additional aeration tanks were under construction at the time of the



process audit). Each tank has four passes in series. Each aeration tank operates in a step-feed mode, with a portion of the aera tion influent entering each pass. The air diffusion system consists of coarse bubble


OTE = 5.7%

All arrows indicate airflow rates W/N: with Nitrification W/0: without Nitrification

PEAK; air flow rate requirement at 95 percentile organic load





The existing aeration system is adequate to meet the current oxygen requirements without nitrification. However, the system will not be able to achieve the required lev els of nitrification at present and design


flows. The results of the evaluation of the

aeration system requirements are summa rized in Figure 1. The air flow rate require ments for average and peak loadings at cur rent and design flows are represented by two arrows; one for the existing coarse bubble diffusers, and the other one for the system retrofitted to fine pore diffusers. The air


Case d Case b Case c

flow rates achievable with different blower

configurations are represented by two col umns at the right hand side of each arrow. For this study, it was assumed that ret rofitting the system to fine pore diffusers would increase the OTE at normal operat ing conditions by 70 percent, i.e. from 5.7 percent(measured with the off-gas analyzer) to 9.7 percent. Therefore, the same oxygen requirements can be met with less air flow rate (I.e. less energy requirements) if fine pore diffusers are used. The following alternatives to meet the oxygenation requirements with nitrification were analyzed and evaluated: •increase the number of blowers (i.e. higher air flow rate: Case b)

• retrofit the existing coarse bubble diffus ers to fine pore (i.e. higher OTE: Case c) • increase the number of blowers and retro

fit the system to fine pore diffusers (i.e. higher air flow rates with higher OTE: Case d)

Retrofitting the system to fine pore dif fusers, combined with the installation of two

additional blowers (Case d) gave the best results. However, this combination will not

be sufficient to meet the peak oxygen re quirement with nitrification at the design flows.

Process Optimization Three process optimization alternatives to reduce the oxygen requirements and match the oxygenation capacity while avoid ing plant expansion were investigated: stepfeed denitrification, pre-precipitation, and sludge recycle loading minimization. Step-Feed Denitrification: The online dissolved oxygen (DO) data indicated that the first pass of each aeration tank main tained very low DO concentrations. These

Case a


Air flow rate


Air flow rate


anaerobic/anoxlc conditions have a biologi cal selector effect that results in good sludge settling characteristics. This selector effect could be further enhanced by retrofitting the upstream section of each pass to anoxic zones, as shown in Figure 2. The rate of fine pore diffuser fouling, directly related

to the amount of readily available BOD, (RABOD),could also be reduced by design ing the anoxic zones to achieve complete removal of the RABOD. The oxygen re quirement credit of step-feed denitrification would be over 10 percent. Pre-Precipitation: Adding iron salts to the primary influent will be required to re duce the phosphorus loading to the aeration system and achieve future (potential) phos phorus effluent requirements. The addition of a precipitant in the primaries will also

'^'Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Main Treatment Plant

Air flow rate


Air flow rate achievable

in primary sludge. Sludge Recycle Loading Minimization: The impact of sludge train discharges (de cant liquor from heat treat system, digested sludge overflow, waste activated sludge and centrates and filtrates from dewatering ma chines) on the liquid train was evaluated during the audit. The minimization of these sludge recycle loadings will have a signifi cant impact on the final effluent phospho rus concentration and will reduce the oxy gen requirement, which will reduce energy and aeration system expansion require ments. Under these operating conditions, the inert solids loading to the aeration sys tem will be reduced increasing the viable SRT and allowing the system to nitrify with out increasing the MESS and the solids load ing rate to the secondary clarifiers.

reduce the CBOD, loading to the aeration

The results indicated that additional

system, thereby, reducing the carbonaceous oxygen demand. A 30 percent reduction in

aeration tanks will not be required (i.e., no

the CBOD, concentration in the primary effluent can be expected. The increased

CBOD, removal in the primaries will re duce the total oxygen requirement by ten percent. Pre-precipitation will increase the generation of primary sludge. However,the reduction in organic and solids loading to the aeration tanks will reduce the amount




of secondary sludge generated. This de crease in secondary sludge will depend on the yield and may compensate the increase

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

plant expansion)if step-feed denitrification, pre-precipitation, and sludge recycle load ing minimization are combined with a fine pore retrofit and the addition of two new blowers. These process improvements will allow the Main TP to maximize the use of

the existing facilities and meet future efflu ent requirements at minimum cost and with energy savings in the aeration system. Reducing the sludge recycle loadings to a minimum may allow the plant to meet fuContinued overleaf 45

Wastewater Treatment, cont'd. ture phosphorus requirements without ma jor capital expansions. Pilot testing the


above recommendations will be necessary to estimate the need for tertiary filtration



(total or partial) to meet the 0.3 mg P/L limit at the outfall. A reduction in the secondary



bypass loadings will also be required to meet effluent targets at the outfall (i.e. second ary effluent + bypass).

Actual Hydraulic Capacity


The determination of the operating per formance of the secondary clarifiers and their maximum loading capacity was impor tant to determine the maximum treatment - PARTIALLY oearTRiFim mlss

capacity of the Main TP. Dye tests, per formed to investigate the hydraulic flow pattern characteristics of these units, did not show any shortcircuiting. The dry weather flow capacity of the secondary treatment system determined during the audit is 909 MLD (200 MIGD). This capacity is ap proximately 10 percent higher than the present plant rated capacity of 818 MLD



(180 MIGD).

Summary and Conclusions The results from the operational evalua tion and process optimization of the Main TP indicated that secondary treatment ex pansion is not required for nitrification and that the capital costs necessary to meet ni trification requirements at future flows can

be reduced from a projected $220 million




to less than $32 million. The reduction in

capital requirements can be achieved by optimization and process enhancements to the existing unit processes, improvement of

operational strategies, and by the introduc tion of a unique process design that takes advantage of the current step-feed operation. The actual secondary hydraulic capacity of the plant was found to be approximately 10 percent higher than the current rated capac ity. This additional capacity will allow plant expansions to be forestalled. The online and offline data acquired

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during the evaluation and optimization study were used to calibrate a dynamic model us

ing the General Purpose Simulator (GPSX™). The model was successfully used to confirm the predictions from the study and to test different operating scenarios. The combination of a powerful dynamic model ling tool with a process audit constitutes a substantial improvement to more traditional steady-state design techniques in an age when capital funds are more and more dif ficult to obtain. The recommendations from

the process audit are currently being re viewed by Metro Toronto. Acknowledgements The MainTR Process Audit was funded by Environment Canada,through the Great Lakes Cleanup Fund,the Ontario Ministry of the En vironment and Energy, and the Regional Mu nicipality of Metropolitan Toronto. The authors would like to thank these institutions, and Main Treatment Plant staff for their enthusiastic par ticipation and collaboration throughout the project. Reference:

'Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, "Report on Economic impact of Conventional Toxics(Ammonia and Chlorine Residual) Re moval from WPCP Effluents", December 1990.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuty 1994


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Your partner should be located where you need


Your partner should never provide unwelcome

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By Professor Philip H. Jones, P.Eng.*

The predictable plunge Down Under - or how to lose $314M In one crack

It was recently reported that Brambles

Industries Ltd. incurred a major loss by having to write down the value of its subsidiary high-tech hazardous waste incinerator company,ENSCO,in Ar


In September 1992, Griffith University, together with the Australian cement indus try sponsored and organised KILNBURN '92, an international conference to show the Australian government, industry and the public that the most efficient way to dis pose of hazardous waste is to bum it as a supplementary fuel, or alternative material in an existing cement kiln. The conference brought together inter national professionals from the cement and waste industries from many parts of the world. They did not tell of what could be done, they spoke of what was being done. The main message was that all kinds of wastes, hazardous, dangerous and toxic

incinerator. Such a waste incinerator will

experts. The closing remarks from the chair man were: "Well you have convinced us,

require supplementary fuel. This fuel will

now how do we convince the rest of the

much lower cost than a custom-built waste

be consumed not to produce a marketable commodity, but simply to dispose of un wanted material. How can any commercial waste disposal company having a custom

single purpose waste, charging back full costs, compete with a cement kiln, blast fur-

Australian population?" A truly remarkable comment from the chairman of the body re

sponsible to advise the Australian Govern ment on such a sensitive issue.

The properties of a cement kiln which make it the best solution for disposing of

I am sure one does not need a Ph.D. in economics to

understand that the facility disposing of the wastes at minimum or no cost will win every time. nace, lime kiln or brick kiln which is using the waste as a fuel to produce a profitable

toxic, hazardous, dangerous, flammable wastes, or material contaminated with any

product? Such wastes are obtained either

of the above are as follows:

at no cost, or the cement company is actu ally being paid to dispose of them, realising a small profit.

• A cement kiln operates at between 1600 and 2000 degrees celcius while a typical waste incinerator operates at 1200 to 1400

were excellent substitutes for fuel, and, in

I am sure one does not need a Ph.D. in

many cases, the extraneous material also

economics to understand that the facility dis posing of the wastes at minimum or no cost will win every time. So why, you might ask, does the Australian public not understand that this opportunity is available to them? In 1992 I presented all these facts and more, to the Independent Panel on Intracta ble Wastes, accompanied by their overseas

degrees celcius. • A cement kiln has a residence time many times greater than a custom waste incinera

served as an alternative material.

This demonstrates clearly that a cement kiln will dispose of such wastes at a very *Head, School of Environmental

Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland

The Down Under Connection


• The cement kiln being a rotary kiln has more than adequate turbulence, which is a major requirement for complete combustion. • Being run by a profitable and well-estab lished industry, the quality control neces sary to manufacture cement is more than adequate to ensure complete destruction of the waste.

• A cement kiln does not depend on the waste as the fuel; it is only a supplementary fuel. Therefore, if the supply of waste runs out, as it is apt to do, the cement industry can revert to its original fuel (coal, oil or gas). • Burning waste instead of coal will pro duce less greenhouse gases than separately burning both coal (cement kiln) and wastes (incinerator). • The thermal inertia of a cement kiln is

much greater than an incinerator. It will take longer to cool down if an upset occurs which requires shutting down the plant. This in ertia allows time to shut off the flow of

wastes before the kiln temperature falls be low the critical level.

• Cement kilns already exist and do not re quire any major infusion of public money to

Left to right, Peter Laughton, P.Eng.,

Peter has flown to Australia three times to

Chairman of R.V. Anderson Associates, Dr.

assist with curriculum development and was appointed an Honorary Senior Teaching Fellow, Environmental Engineering in 1993. Dr. Jones initiated symposia in both

Philip Jones, P.Eng., author of this article, Tom Davey,PublisherofEnvironmental Sci ence & Engineering and Barry Hitchcock, P.Eng., a past APEG President and former VP of Giffels. Tom was a reporter for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in Melbourne and Hobart, Tasmania, in 1965/

66. Barry Hitchcock was bom in Australia. 48

Canada and Australia on cement kiln tech

nology. Tom edited the first report(EPS 4WP-75-1) on kiln technology in 1975 and has written extensively and participated in symposia on the subject.

build as would be the case for a waste dis

posal incinerator. • Because cement kilns already exist no ma jor social problems occur in trying to find a site.

•Cement kilns are normally situated in some kind of an industrial setting which is appro priate for a waste disposal industry. • If it becomes necessary to improve the Continued

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Literature Reviews stack emission controls, the result will be that the emissions from the cement kilns in

its normal operation will be improved. Normally overseas, when a cement kiln commences waste destruction, it is subject to the more stringent emission controls of a conventional waste disposal facility.

• Development of this kind of technology offers great advantages for overseas selling, as most developing countries have cement kilns strategically situated throughout the country.

Recently, the Lord Mayor of Brisbane stated categorically that there is no known technology available to deal safely with toxic and hazardous wastes, and, as a re sult, he would not be able to close down a

facility at Willawong in Brisbane, which was causing concern to neighbours. Where was he, or his environmental advisors when

this technical convention was being held in his own city? In fact, a public forum was held on the last day for non technical peo ple to ask questions such as"All you wanted to know about hazardous wastes but were

With all this information set out in 1992,

it is a wonder that any waste management industry would attempt to set up in compe tition, knowing all the advantages which the kiln technology has over conventional waste incineration.


afraid to ask".

So why do we not use this technology in Australia? The public requires a great deal of education of the real facts. The media

must provide this education. Public con sultations for particular situations would

also serve to educate the public.

For example, storing PCBs is a much more dangerous strategy than burning them in a cement kiln. At St. Basile le Grande in

Quebec, several years ago, a PCB storage barn was "accidentally" bumed. Burning PCBs at low uncontrolled temperatures pro duces dioxins and furans, which are known to be much more toxic than the PCBs. Do

we really want to take all these chances? Would it not be better to use proven tech nology that exists - as was tested in Canada 20 years ago and found to be excellent - and is now in widespread use in other countries?

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Overseas Report

By Peter Milley*

VJater for people in the Third World Mozambique is recovering from a vicious 17-year civil war which for the most part has been stimulated from outside its own

borders. The result of this bitter conflict,

coupled with two consecutive years of drought has reduced the economy of the country to the poorest of all the Third World countries. The infrastructure of the country has been devastated and nowhere is it more

evident than in the water supplies of Cuamba District of Niassa Province in

Northern Mozambique. Numerous villages are using muddy open water holes for their potable water supply while bathing and laundry activities take place in or nearby these supplies. In February '94,1 had the opportunity to work as a volunteer on an AWWA Water for

People water project in Cuamba District. This was the first of the newly-formed On tario Chapter of Water for People. Accom panied by Sandy Dee, a microbiologist with the Denver, Colorado Water Commission,

we provided technical assistance to an on going Medical Core Development Interna tional(MCDI)US aid funded program. This program will remobilize approximately 25 to 50 communities in the Cuamba District

to recognize and solve water and sanitation programs by introducing strategies and low cost appropriate technologies that the local population will be able to initiate and rep licate on their own.

Twenty-five water supplies were sam pled and analyzed for the presence of total

*Peter Milley is an Investigator with the Ontario Ministry of Environment & Energy, Investigations & Enforcement Branch. Mr. Miiiey was on a leave of absence from the Ministry to participate in this project.

The author, left, with Mozambiquan water staff and hard evidence of civil war. and fecal coliform using the Iddex Indus tries Coli Alert method. Twenty-four of these drinking water supplies were from substandard water holes and dug wells serv ing populations of approximately 600 to 1,800 villagers. In addition, the Mitucue Reservoir, providing piped water to the City of Cuamba (population 50,000) was sam pled. Two Agua Rural, the Mozambiquan water authority, staff were trained to moni tor bacteriological and chemical water qual ity. Also as part of the water training com ponent, Agua Rural staff were trained to sample potable water supplies for bacterio logical analysis and were instructed on de contaminating dug wells. The work we performed was most chal-

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lenging due to the political and economic climate of Mozambique. Roads in Niassa Province are only passable with 4-wheel drive vehicles. Bridges are unsafe on many roads and some are merely logs spanning creeks and rivers. Some roadways and paths are still mined from the war and high infla tion and lack of resources in Mozambique made acquiring supplies for the project lo cally impossible and all equipment and sup

plies had to be imported and shipped with great difficulty by air to Cuamba from North America.

Malaria is common and even

those on the prescribed preventative medi cations are not immune.

Under a ceasefire, Mozambique is pres ently attempting to combine the two mili tary factions into one army under UN guid ance before the elections rescheduled for

this fall take place. Cuamba, where we worked, is a military demobilization centre overseen by a Canadian UN soldier. Major Richard Dufour. It was reassuring to know there was another Canadian in the area. I

have nothing but respect and praise for our Canadian observers and peacekeepers hav ing seen them in operation. As a Water for People volunteer, I was

The author at water hole in banana tree grove. 50

proud to be a small part of the remobilization of Mozambique in helping to educate the Cuamba District villagers on the importance of safe drinking water and building their desire to help themselves. The high levels of infant mortality from diarrhea and waterbome disease I witnessed reaffirms my belief in the importance of such projects which will ultimately provide a better stand ard of living and save many lives. Here in Canada where we are blessed with good water and modem technologies, we take so very much for granted. ES&E Environnienlal Science & Engineering, JuneUuiy 1994

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analytical errors

Very few environmental decisions

unambiguous terms. Scientists are notori ously ambiguous and avoid making un equivocal statements, because they are trained to understand that "nothing is 100%". Le Chatelier's principle tells us that all systems in equilibrium will shift to coun teract disturbances in that equilibrium. What this means in plain talk is that no re action is 100%. There are always by-prod ucts, side reactions and incomplete solu tions. In environmental analysis, this means that all data has some uncertainty associ

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In fact, in science, no number is exact; all numbers come with some degree of un certainty. Lawyers, accountants, and oth ers will often attempt to dispense with un certainty and try to obtain unequivocal state ments. Lor this reason, it is important to understand the underlying reasons for data uncertainty, and to be sure that the data you may be using in litigation or enforcement proceedings are as free as possible from bias, error, or uncertainty. There are three basic types of measure ment errors.

• Systematic errors are errors that are al ways the same magnitude and always con tribute either a positive or a negative bias. These errors remain constant no matter how

many measurements are made. An exam ple of a systematic error would be an in strument with a zero reading that drifts throughout the day. The zero needs to be adjusted; if it is not, the drift will contrib ute a systematic error. The use of top qual ity analytical equipment and frequent cali bration of the equipment helps to minimize systematic error. • Random errors vary in magnitude and can be either positive or negative. They are unpredictable and they average out and gen erally approach zero if enough measure ments are made on a sample. In most envi ronmental work, there are nearly never enough measurements made on field sam ples to average out these random errors. • Blunders are simply mistakes that are made on occasion and which produce erro neous results. A good example of a com mon blunder is that the wrong sample was weighed and measured. Other common examples are transcription or transposition errors in reporting data, where one hundred parts per million becomes one hundred parts per billion. Blunders are usually large and embarrassing. Together, these types of errors lurk eve rywhere, and they degrade the accuracy and precision of the final result. Detection Limits

In order to understand the concepts of bias and random errors, and their impact on the precision and accuracy of measurements, Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

By J.N. Bishop* it is essential to first examine the problems associated with measurement itself. In ana

where a decision can rest on the reliability of the data establishing compliance.

lytical chemistry,substances themselves are


not measured. Instead, an electrical or

chemical or physical reaction that is caused by the analyte (substance of interest) is measured.

Different laboratories use different lan-

Every step that a sample is put through from being taken in the field to the delivery of the final results, has a potential for intro ducing error. In practical terms, the biggest sources of error are blunders - that is,

In analytical chemistry, substances themselves are not measured. Instead, an electrical or chemical

or physical reaction that Is caused by the analyte (substance of Interest) is measured. guage to describe their ability to detect an analyte. All analytical equipment produces a signal that has some uncertainty, caused by electronic noise in the power grid, dis turbances caused by external electromag netic events, and by Murphy's Law. In fact,every analytical measurement has two components. One component carries the information about the analyte, and this is of primary interest to the analyst. The second component is noise - extraneous unwanted information which degrades the accuracy and precision of the measurement, and which also degrades the ability to meas ure the lowest amount of analyte. Noise is associated with every component of analy sis. There is chemical noise and instrumen tal noise - noise associated with the electric

line source, the input transducer, all signalprocessing elements, and so on. As more analyte is present - that is, more than zero - there will be a point where the equipment can begin to detect the presence of the analyte. It won't be able to tell you how much; it can simply tell you that it feels that such and such a chemical is present, or may be present. This is the detection limit. As more of the analyte is present, a level will be reached where not only the equip ment can detect it (i.e. separate from "noise"), but it can actually quantitate it. This is called the limit of quantitation and it is defined as the level above which quan titative results may be obtained with a speci fied degree of confidence. What all this means, is that if you are going into court with analytical data, you

the wrong sample being analyzed, transpo sition errors and the like. Blunders can gen erally be avoided by using a laboratory that employs qualified personnel, uses reliable equipment and which maintains a thorough quality assurance program. A properly op erated computerized Lab Information Man agement System curtails transposition er rors since all the data is generated electroni cally and is electronically locked to the cli ent's sample number. As a further benefit, top quality laboratories will assign certain QA/QC functions to LIMS,so that analysts absolutely must perform adequate quality assurance/quality control steps, or the sys

tem will lock them out.

Precision and Accuracy Precision describes the degree to which data generated from repetitive measurements differ from one another. It also is referred

to as dispersion and it is measured using the standard deviation or relative percent difference between replicate analyses. Precision can be estimated by perform ing severai measurements of the same pa rameter on the same sample. However, in today's cost conscious market, such careful monitoring of precision is seldom requested. Entire sites may be "monitored" using one sample; there is no protection from impre cision for such projects. However, your laboratory should routinely analyze dupli cates of your samples, to estimate the pre cision of their analytical measurements. Accuracy refers to the correctness of the data. Unfortunately, there is no general agreement as to how to evaluate accuracy. It is obvious that inaccuracy will result from imprecision (random error) and bias (sys tematic error) in the measurement process. Unless the true value is known, accuracy cannot be evaluated. In environmental test

ing, the true value Is never known and there fore the accuracy can only be estimated. It can be estimated by analyzing standard ref erence material. SRM are materials that


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nants. Your laboratory should routinely analyze and report SRM as part of their normal QA/QC protocol, to give you some idea of their analytical accuracy. Quality Assurance and Quality Control For projects that require sound analyti cal data, the project manager should know the laboratory's quality control/quality as surance program.

Quality assurance (QA) has been de scribed as a system of activities that assures the producer or user of a product or a serv ice that defined standards of quality with a stated level of confidence are met. Qual ity control(QC)differs in that it is an over all system of activities that controls the qual ity of a product or service so that it meets the needs of users. In other words, QC con sists of the internal (technical), day to day activities, such as five point calibration, analysis of SRM's, replicate analyses, use ofcheck samples, matrix spikes, etc., to con trol and assess the quality of the measure ments, while QA is the management sys tem that ensures an effective QC system is in place and working as intended. Your laboratory should have a comprehensive QA/QC manual, and it should report the results of its QC on each one of your ana lytical projects. If the work your lab is performing is part of due diligence, or will he scrutinized by a regulatory agency, you should require that the lab demonstrate the effectiveness of their

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1-800-661-4613 / (416)747-6584

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 125

tistical control through quality control sam ples. The objective of QA/QC programs is to control analytical measurement errors at levels acceptable to the data user and to as sure that the anaiyticai results have a high probability of acceptable quality. By doing so, you will have data that not only answers the needs of your client, but which is much more likely to stand the test of government scrutiny and/or legal action. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 164


Environmental Specialists Wastewaler Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity


Suspended Solids, Oj, DO, Conductivity



Photographic & Video Documentation 306-146 L^ld Dr.. Toronto. Ont. M4G 3V7 416-424-2675

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y lY7,Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588

For more Information,

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 126 54

Circle reply card No. 127 Environnienlal Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

Don't let our age fool you. ÂĽ


Concrete pipe has been standing strong for decades. But don't let our age fool you. Concrete pipe is made for today. High tech and adapt able to any design, concrete pipe respects

the environment, creates local jobs and stands the test of time. So take the

weight off your shoulders by specifying concrete pipe. Your project will be in great shape.

Concrete Pipe...Future Perfect For concrete pipe manufacturers in your area, contact:

ocp*a Ontario concrete pipe association

6299 Airport Road, Suite 508, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1N3 Phone:(905) 677-1010 Fax:(905) 677-1007

For more information, Circle reply card No. 128


CALGARY ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW & CONFERENCE CAIGAKV COPENIION CENTRE• NOVEMBER 1 AND 2,1994 An ideal opportunity to exhibit your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental


Forfurther information contact:

Canadian Exhibition

Management Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, AB T6E 5W3 (403) 469-2400 Eax: (403) 469-1398

Calgary: (403) 258-0705 Eax:(403) 255-7404

For more information. Circle reply card No. 129

Product Review Wireless calibration




A new wireless calibration system has been designed to reduce the time required to cali brate combustible gas sensors for the MSA

^ _

5315 Main St., P.O. Box 149, Orono, Ont. LOB 1 MO

Series 5000 Monitoring System. One per son can periodically calibrate the sensors without opening the sensor enclosure, avoid ing disassembly and eliminating the need to clear an area of combustible gases prior to calibration. Other types of gas sensors such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen sul phide are also available for use with the wireless system. The calibration system consists of a hand-held remote control unit used only with sensors equipped with a special transducer assembly. Using an infrared beam, the re


905 983-6298

Internal Fibre-Optic Inspection and rages, sewage treatment plants, oil produc tion and processing, steel mills, chemical processing facilities, airport and bus termi nals, pipeline pumping stations, oil tank ers, etc. MSA Canada Inc. For more information,


For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 247

Circle reply card No. 216

mote control communicates to the transducer

and makes needed electronic adjustments. The transducer assembly provides continu ous calibration readout at the sensor loca tion.

The monitoring system includes microprocessor-based gas multipoint monitors that simultaneously detect any combination of toxic and combustible gases and monitor for oxygen deficiency. Industrial and com mercial applications include parking ga-



biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

• focusing on (degradation of plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

450 Phillip St., Unit #11, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 5J2 Phone:(519)746-8973 Fax:(519)746-1222

Employment Opportunity

Full-Time Faculty

©iiLL©rii Consulting Engineers • Planners Environmental Scientists

Senior Engineer/ Project Manager Water Treatment and Supply Due to a promotion, we require for our London (Ontario) environmental engineer ing office a senior engineer/project man ager specializing in water treatment/ water supply engineering. Applicants should have at least 12 years' progressive experience, preferably following a post-graduate degree, in the planning, design and construction of wa ter treatment and water supply facilities. Experience in process design and project management of a multi-discipline team is desirable. Excellent verbal and written communication skills are essential.

Dillon is a major employee-owned firm of consulting engineers, planners and en vironmental scientists and offers excellent

working conditions. London is a first-class city and offers excellent educational, cul tural and recreational facilities and afford

able housing. Please mail or fax (519-672-8209) your resume to Dillon, Consulting En gineers, Planners and Environmental Scientists, Box 426,Station B, London, Ontario N6A 4W7, Attention: Mike Provart, P.Eng., Director, Environmen tal Engineering Division.

Environmental Science <Sc Engineering, June/July 1994

Positions Georgian College,in Barrie,Ontario,hasseveral full-time Faculty openings in the CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY programs.

Faculty will teach subjects such as: surveying, drafting, waste management, energy efficiency, air pollution, soils analysis/clean up, water spills clean up, landfill site layout and construction, water/wastewater treatment, structural design, construction practices, mathematics, computer programming and general science.

We are seeking Engineers or Technologists with teaching and/or trainingexperience who can provide currentindustry information to our students and are committed to excellence in education and

student success. Curriculum development experience would be an asset.

Please submit a resume, quoting Posting #14/94 C, to:

(S> Georgian College Manager, College Employment Georgian College One Georgian Drive Barrie, Ontario L4M 3X9 FAX (705) 722-5131

Georgian College is committed to employment equity and especiallyencourages applicationsfrom allqualiOed candidates including women, men, aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and racial minorities.

We thank all applicants for their interest, however, only those selected for an interview will be contacted.



Product Review Change in warranty

Where your Concerns


are our Concerns



5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 (905)890-8566 1 -800-263-9040 Fax:(905)890-8575

Environmental Analysis Field Sampling Services


Drug Testing

Hazardous Waste

Comprehensive Analytical

CanTest Ltil. 1523 W 3rd Ave.

Vancouver, B.C.

sewage grinder has been extended from the

V6J 1J8


A new three-year service warranty for the in-line Next Generation Muffin Monster

Fax 604-731-2386 Tel 604-734-7276 1-800-665-8568

standard one-year warranty. In addition, the company has introduced a change-out pro gram to upgrade existing in-line Muffin Monsters to a compatible Next Generation unit. The Next Generation's 12-in. cutter

cartridge can be interchanged with 4-, 6-, and 8-in. pipeline sizes and comes with a free one-piece housing to upgrade existing units. New features are designed to mini mize repair time by as much as 50%, re duce in-line stack tightening from hours to minutes,and enhance the self-cleaning abil

Accredited for speciflc tests by CAEAL i SCC


ity for easy, cost-effective maintenance and

high-performance wastewater grinding. JWC Environmental

For more information, Circle reply card No. 134

Free oil solution

Setting the standard for * service ^

* quality


* turnaround time

LABORATORIES INC. 6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPI, Tel: (905) 673-3255, FAX:(905) 673-7399

Coalescing Separators(OCS)treatment sys Cartifled orAcoradlled

tems handle free oil down to 20 microns.

by CAEAL,Standards


Systems can be designed for bury or above

Council of Canada, Now


York Stale DOM and V.S.

ground installations in sizes from 1 to 3,000 USgpm. Aer-G-FIo Environmental Inc.

Army Corpa of Engineara for specific tests registered

Quality Analytical Laboratodes Laborafdres Anatytfques tie Qualltti

arltti the Council/Association.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 135

NOVAMANN (Ontario) Inc.

Labonlorht^ffioes In:

5540 McAtiam Road 1. Ontario


L4Z 1P1


SBR process equipment

Tel.:(90S)890-2555 FAX:(905)890-0370

Niagara Faiit Edmonton

Amhartt, N.Y,

The BioSequencer is designed to be a reli able SBR technique with predictable per formance. Features include a biological


Guelph UexlGO aty

Toll Free: 1-800-SS3-62e6

selector of desirable filamentous vs.


zoogloea bacteria balance for optimal


ids exclusion, programmable logic controls for controlled operation, and a hybrid aera tion system for controlled anoxic periods. Each is site-specific, designed using a"Mass


Burlington, Ontario(416)332-8788

Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808

Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733 58

biomass separation, sealed decanters for sol

balance" approach based on wastewater

biokinetic constants. Eco Equipment Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 136 Environmental Science & Engineering, JunelJuly 1994

Product Review


Multilevel groundwater monitoring

Ainley and



Water Supply S Sewage D Waste Dispos



280 Pretty River Parkway

48 Higti Street (705) 726-3371

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street


Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions

The Waterloo System offers 3-D groundwater infoimation without the cost of drilling many single monitoring wells. The flexible, modular system can be adapted to the individual needs of each application. Engineered seals prevent cross-flow be tween monitoring zones. Monitoring instru ments may be dedicated or portable. Dedi

to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdaie, Ontario M2N 1N2


cation of the instruments further avoids

cross-contamination and can dramatically reduce the ongoing cost of field time.

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Solinst Canada Ltd.

consulting engineers and architect

For more information, Circle reply card No. 137

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services

TORorrro (4i6)497-8600 WELLAND (905) 735-3659




(705) 560-5555 (Dennis Consultants)


BROCKVILLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmith Consultants)

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply

Polymer-water blending system

(905) 434-2544

A(fu0tlc SciencesInc.


'Environmental professionals working wllh Industry to Improve waler quality'


Aquatic Contaminant Remedtation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consulting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Toxicity Testing

Land Development Tunnels and Shafts

Environmental Engineering Stormwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205. Sfn B, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (905)641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario. Canada N7T 7H8 (519)383-7822




The Dynabiend Polymer-Water Blending System's enhanced design retains the reli ability of the HydroAction mixing process and boasts a high quality stainless steel frame. To maximize polymer activation without polymer damage, HydroAction in duces non-damaging initial high mixing energy that diminishes through four concen tric chambers (staged mixing). With no moving parts to repair or replace, the sys tem is guaranteed to perform with all types of liquid polymer and is backed by an ex tended 5-year warranty. Fluid Dynamics, Inc. For more Information,



Bluewing Environmental Services Ltd. ■ Environmental Assessments

• Site Remediation

• Storage Tank Removal • Regulatory Approvals

■ Air Quality Surveys • OH&S,WHIMS Training • Design Engineering

• Environmental Manuals

701 Evans Avenue, Suite 701, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 1A3

Tel: (416)626-2222

Fax: (416)626-2232

Circle reply card No. 138 Environmental Science & Engineering, June!July 1994


Consultants Environmental oil



Consulting Engineers SpeclaUsts a comprehenstve range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)44-4-2327

CONSULTING ENGINEERS > Wastewater Collection & Treatment > Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management > Environmental




•Water Resources &

Environmental Planning •Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow Measurement



'Water Supply Strategies




(403)237-9300 (403) 488-2760 (604)684-3282


•Occupational Health Services


•Laboratory Services

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.

For more Information,


Control and record influent or effluent with

continuous on-line oil-in-water monitoring. The instrument measures in standard ranges of 0 to 10, 30 or 200 ppm with 4-20 mA analogue output signal. Complete systems are available with sample preconditioning to ensure accurate repeatable results.

Circle reply card No. 139

6 Lansing Square, Suite 223 bhrrh York, Metropoiilan Toronto Ontario, Canada M2J 1T5

Tei.(416) 493-7444 Fax:(416) 491-2323 Contact: Or. Nasrat Hijazi

Emulsified oil soiution

Toronto • Windsor, Or4• Detroit.New York/Olewsrk • Atianta • San Francisco • Los Angeles • Honolulu • Minneapotis Birmingharrt, U.K. * London, U.K. * Southampton, U.K • Catesbead, U.K.

OlllULOini Professional Consulting Services • Planning • Engineering • Environmental Science Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax

Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Yellowknife • International 100 S h e p p a rd Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M 2N 6 N 5 (4 16) 229-4646

Dissolved Air Flotation (DAP) technology removes emulsified and entrained oils down


to levels less than 10 ppm. Sizing from 1 to


Aer-O-FIo Environmental Inc.

1,000 USgpm.


For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 140

Offices throughout Canada.

, Golder Associates


the United States. Europe and Australia. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA

Long-range gas monitor

Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax:(604)298-5253 Tel:(905)567-4444 Fox:(905)567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES; > Environmental Engineering • Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances • Ventilation assessment/design • Air emission ccntroi • Air monitoring • Environmental audits »Indoor air quality • WHMIS • Noise monitoring and control • Workplace and safety audits > Asbestos

The Hawk long-range gas monitor,designed and manufactured by Siemens Plessey Con trols in England, is based on infrared radia tion absorption and wavelength modulation techniques. Hawk detects and measures gas concentrations directly in the atmosphere. The monitor, retro-reflector system is avail able in either a portable or fixed configura tion. The monitor offers continuous real

time monitoring with fast response at low levels. Sci-Tec Instruments Inc.

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 MIssissauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(416)858-4424

Telex: 06-218242


For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 141

Environmental Science <& Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

GVRD, cont'd, from page 30 laterals on private property, to reduce I/I significantly. As a first step in the Eraser and North Shore Sewerage Areas, the District is car rying out comprehensive rainfall and sewer flow monitoring to gain a better understand ing of system operation and initially iden tify areas having the highest l/I. Monitor ing locations are at the upper ends of the GVRD sewer system to measure flows con veyed mainly by municipal sewers. Depend ing on the size of each municipality, and the length, hydraulics, and configuration of


be utilized to capture rain gauge data, flow

I/I Task Force

data from permanent monitors, and data

For the I/I Reduction Program, techni

from the District's thirty-three pumping sta tions. To manage and efficiently work with the flow and rainfall data, we are develop

cal staff from the District, member munici

ing a long-term database on the District's

force as part of the Liquid Waste Manage ment Plan - Stage 2 planning process. This is providing a way for the District and mu nicipalities to work together to identify vari ous methods of reducing and controlling I/I.

client/server computing environment. Working data is generally summarized as average hourly based on 1 minute rainfall data and 5 minute tlow monitoring data.

palities and the B.C. Ministry of Environ ment, Lands and Parks have formed a task

Bore S,Storrie Limitied Consulting Engineers

GVRD sewers, the District selected flow


monitoring locations to separate each mu nicipality into one or more subcatchments.


I/I Assessment I/I Assessment will be undertaken based

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

on the six steps outlined in Figure 1. The objective is to perform a cost analysis to

Ottawa •Thorold • Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London

identify the excessive FI that is cost-effec tive to remove. At present, the District is actively working on steps 1 and 2. The District is also completing a pilot study to assess the cost and potential of us ing a GIS database to characterize the ba sins being investigated for excessive I/I. Data required for I/I analysis includes: • the sewer network including pipe mate rial, size, and age; • land use and population information;

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687


1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5 Tel. (905)522-0012 FAX(905) 522-0031

Hydromantis,Inc. Consulting Engineers

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources Modelling • Simulation « Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems » Neural Networks

• subcatchment data for sewer catchments,

rain gauge areas, flow monitor catchments,


and soils information; and


• SSES results including video inspections, smoke testing, and rehabilitation work. The District's flow monitoring programs include projects for permanent long term monitoring sites as well as temporary moni toring programs specifically undertaken to quantify I/I.




Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 4T5

To be effective a flow monitoring pro gram must consider flow monitoring tech nology, site selection, calibration and veri fication, and equipment maintenance.

ISIJagger Hims ■I


Environmental Consulting Engineers

The District has examined the various

flow measurement technologies considered

*Bydrogeology 'Engineering Geology

suitable for use in wastewater collection

' Geotechnicttl Engineering • Geosynthetic Engineering

systems. The technologies can be ranked from most accurate, and also most costly, to least accurate and least costly as follows:

'Envii^nmenUxl Aitdit & Site Remediation 'Seioage Syatem Design *Indust7-ial Mineral & Aggregate Resources

• flumes and magmeters, • transit time meters,

The District's temporary monitoring pro

The District's rain gauge network is be ing expanded and upgraded. Obsolete rain monitoring equipment is being replaced with tipping bucket rain gauges. Rain data will be captured in 1 minute intervals. The District's new SCADA system will


130 Dovis Drive. Suite 210 Newmarket, Ontario Canada L3Y 2N1

274 Fourtti Avenue, Unit One St. Calhorines, Onloflo Conoda L2R 6P9

Telephone (905) 853-3303

Telephone (905) 687-1771

Ton Free (800) 263-7419

Ton Free (800) 668-2598

Fax (905) 853-1759

• Doppler meters, and • depth only (and Manning's equation). gram has relied extensively on the use of Doppler meters whereas flumes and magmeters are preferred for the permanent flow monitoring sites.


Fox (905) 687-1773

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 ■■


(519)743-6111 (519)743-3330


(705)679-5979 (705)679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994



Product Review











Windsor, Ontario



Flowmeter with wide







(519) 966-2250

(519)680-3580 FAX:(519)680-3582

FAX; (519) 966-5523








P.O. Bag 4300. Lakeficld. Onlario Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax. 705-652-6365










The Model 682 Reciprocating piston flowmeter features accuracy of-f/-0.1% over 200:1 turndown ratio. This positive dis placement flowmeter is designed particu larly for agricultural, chemical, petroleum and food applications. It offers flexibility with its wide turndown and the ability to handle a wide range of viscosities with ac curacy.

The instrument is available with an air eliminator/strainer and choice of the 600

MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270 lA/oodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Martrham. Onlario. L3R 4B9• Telephone:(906) 475-7270 • TeleFAX:(905)475-5994

Series mechanical register or optional elec tronic register capable of both totalization and rate of flow. Its line size is 1 1/2-in

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment


MALROZ Engineerino Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geology

(38mm), with a flow range of 0.2 to 40 gal/ min (0.7 to 151 1/min). Working tempera ture is -20 to 200 degrees F (-29 to 93 de grees C), with a working pressure of 150 psi (10.3 bar). Available in cast iron or 316 SST. Schlumberger Industries Measurement Division

For more information,

•Environmental audits

Circle reply card No. 257

•Site decommissioning

Victaulic receives ISO 9001 certification

& rehabilitation

Piping components manufacturer Victaulic

Marshall Macklin


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

Company has been certified as having sys tems that meet the ISO 9001 quality assur ance standard for their principal locations in North America and Europe. Through assessment by accredited independent au ditors, the ability of Victauiic's management procedures to deliver specific quality crite ria has been measured, certified, and will continue to be verified.

TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4 (905) 882-11 GO Fax:(905)882-0055

The Victaulic Company of Canada was audited for compliance to ISO 9001 last Feb ruary by the Quality Management Institute division of the Canadian Standards Asso

ciation. The certification program covers all stages from design through purchasing, processing, handling, delivery, installation and servicing, and involves documentation, traceability, inspection, audits, training, sta tistics, non-conformance detection, correc tion and prevention. Victaulic Company of Canada Ltd. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 258 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994


Product Review Level sensor for harsh environments Data Instruments' DSl provides high accu racy (.25% F.S.O.) liquid level measure ments to depths up to 115' of water(0 to 50 PSIG). This two-wire pressure transmitter is packaged in a high pressure, 316 stain less steel, waterproof enclosure. All four DSl ranges, 5, 15, 30, and 50PSIG,include a desiccant chamber that protects the vented gage reference from external moisture and a 4-20 mA output, compatible with a vari ety of data logging equipment. The sensor offers optional cable lengths ranging from 25' to 200'. Applications include tank or well level measurement as well as ground water measurement.

Technel Engineering Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 180


Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9 Tel: 905-831-1715

Fox: 905-831-0531

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES RISK ASSESSMENT









121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1 E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090

Environmental oil system technology


Consulting Engineers •Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply


Complete system technology is available for


all oil needs for removals down to less than


10 ppm from feed stock of over 100,000 ppm at flow rates to 1,000 USgpm. Applications include refineries, pulp and paper, manu facturing, etc. Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 217




Tel.: 905 643-8166 Tel.: 613 247-0111

'905) 643-8171 613) 247-0114

COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o 11 e n sims

TEL:(905)668-9363 • WHITBY • Fax (90S)668-0221

hubickl associates



Submersible pressure UMA ENVIRONMENTAL Telephone: (905) 238-0007




Innovative Consulting in

Special electrical and pressure connections have been added to Keller PSI's full line of

submersible pressure transducers, including watertight connectors for detachment of the transducer from the cable. Designed to in crease the ease of handling and installation of the transducers, the rugged 1/4-in. NPT pressure fittings are ideal for tight under water connections while a l/2-in. NPT con

Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. Tel:(905)821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519)741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

• Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater • Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

• Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment • Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization • Waste Characterization and Minimization - Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. ■ Hydrogeoiogi'and Groundwater Investigations

nection at the electrical output allows

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994


Product Review C02 pH control systems

mounting to protective rigid conduit.

Liquid ana gaseous carbon dioxide pH con trol systems are available for the safe han dling and disposal of various alkaline in

All submersible pressure transducers can

be used in pressure ranges from 0 to 5 PSIG through 0 to 250 PSIG and are available in a variety of static accuracy configurations ranging from 0.1% to 1 % FSO. These short

dustrial wastewaters. Individually designed to meet the customer's requirements, these

1-in. diameter units feature contemporary on-board electronics that provide optional 0 to 5 VDC or 2 wire 4-20 mA output as

systems can handle large variations in both flow and pH levels. They also operate in

well as power surge and reverse polarity

sion while providing a safe working envi


ronment. Liquid Carbonic Inc. For more information.

an automatic mode for minimized supervi

Each unit is shipped wih a calibration card specific to that transducer. The card specifies I/O conditions as well as actual data reflecting the unit's static accuracy and thermal characteristics. Geneq Inc.

Circle reply card No. 144

River and lake monitors Two innovative systems have been devel oped to monitor water quality in rivers and lakes. Both systems continuously record pollutants in the water and warn water pro

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 142

Area velocity flow logger The new Isco 4150 Flow Logger is designed to provide maximum accuracy under tough open channel conditions including sub merged, full pipe, surcharged, and reverse flow. Innovative, patent pending Doppler technology allows the logger to directly measure average velocity in the flow stream. An integral pressure transducer measures depth of the liquid to determine flow stream area. The logger then calculates flow rate by multiplying the flow stream area by the

average velocity. The streamlined, low profile sensor is easy to install in pipes, manhole inverts and other open channels and is designed to shed debris and withstand corrosive flow stream

chemicals. Unlike electromagnetic probes, the sensor resists fouling caused by grease and oil.

Features include battery power for longterm monitoring applications, a rugged, wa tertight enclosure, and a large, versatile memory that stores flow, rainfall and sam pling data. Isco Environmental Division For more information, Circle reply card No. 143

tection authorities in the event of violation

of specified maximum and minimum lev els.

The Sherlock monitoring system is de signed as a mobile unit for use on river banks or lakeshores. Merlin is a floating unit. The data recorded by the two systems are trans mitted by radio link to a computer centre. In the event of violation of limit values, these

radio signals can also be used to shut down pumps, to divert water flow or to activate water protection equipment. Siemens Electric Ltd.

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 145

► Process Audits/Evaluations ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Plant Optimization Modelling (GPS-X) Design/Construction Management Services Water/Waste water Residuals Management Hazardous & Solid Waste Management Soil & Groundwater Investigations Water Resources & Environmental Planning Laboratory Services CH2M HILL

cmtHU. ENGINEERING LTD. For further information, please call: Waterloo

(519) 579-3500 Calgary (403)237-9300 Vancouver

(604) 684-3282


For more information, Circle reply card No. 146

Turblex single-stage integral geared compressors are the world's most efficient. And they're guaranteed by ASME PTC-10 tests.

• Can be manufactured to API 672 standards

• Capacity: 2,500 - 70,000 scfm • Pressure: 4-72 psig Write or call for details! (417) 864-5599, FAX (417] 866-0235





For more information, Circle reply card No. 147

Don't Change Your Filter. Change Your Mind. Alfa Laval centrifuges can handle your toughest separation problems, outper forming filtration systems in every way. Better Separations Alfa Laval centrifuges often produce drier cake and clearer centrates and they elimi

Lower Operating Costs They cost less to use when you combine reduced operating and maintenance costs, disposal requirements and utilities and water consumption.

nate filter aid.

Less Space They require a thirtieth to two-thirds as much plant space.

Environmentally Friendly Alfa Laval centrifuges are completely enclosed; they limit aerosols, spillage and other

Alfa Laval centrifuges are a welcome change from filters. Find out more by requesting our FREE Separation Technology computer disk. Mall or fax the Reply Card today.

hazardous work conditions. There's also no


disposing of dirty cloths or cartridges.

Alfa Laval Separation Fax (416) 297-8690 Phone (416) 299-6101

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For decades, Canada's pulp & paper industry has been a major factor in the nation's economic health and job creation. Now it is facing stringent regulations and other

environmental issues. This special section focuses on complying with the new regs, financing process and equipment purchases and wastewater treatment options. Photo courtesy Abitibi-Price Inc.

Pulp & Paper Industry Special

stringent P&P regs require SB, BOD and toxicity removal facilities perienced in this area. The motor and drive

are not subject to misting and freezing and aJw'*'

are readily accessible for routine mainte

nance. Air inlets covered by grating are provided in the concrete platform adjacent to the aerator to provide adequate air flow to the enclosed aeration zone to prevent oxygen starvation in this area. The Carrousel also incorporates the use of variable height adjustable weirs on the outlet from the basin to allow for a varia tion in water level within the basin. A

change in water level increases or decreases the submergence of the impeller, the amount of horsepower drawn and the oxygen trans

fer to the wastewater while maintaining the

Government regulations wil re

rates, a "StanEord" Baffle will be installed

quire pulp and paper mills in

on the interior wall under the launder to

Eastern Canada to meet more

improve the overall solids removal effi ciency of the clarifier. The Carrousel is the heart of the biologi cal treatment process. The overflow from the primary clarifier flows into a basin ap proximately 120 m long, 80 m wide and 5 m deep. It consists of a series of continu ous channels within the basin, laid out in the racetrack configuration. Located at the ends of the basin are 12 200 hp low speed

stringent secondary effluent regulations by the end of 1995. In order to meet these new regulations, they require the installation of secondary treatment for sus pended solids, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)and toxicity removal. The major ity of these secondary treatment installations will incorporate some form of biological treatment.

Quno Corporation, located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence in Baie Comeau, Quebec, is a 1600 tpd newsprint mill pro

surface aerators. The aerators mounted in

the channel ends provide both the aeration and the velocity in the channel. A I'/sec.

ducing 80,000 m^/day of effluent. In order

velocity is necessary to prevent solids depo

to meet these new regulations, Quno re tained H. A. Simons in Montreal, their con

sition on the floor of the basin. The use of

sulting engineer, and the process design ca pabilities ofEIMCO Process Equipment for the supply of the Biological Treatment Sys tem. The Carrousel™ System for biological treatment supplied by EIMCQ will be ca

pable of producing an effluent containing 50 ppm suspended solids,50 ppm BOD and

the low speed surface aerators eliminates fouling, a characteristic with aeration com ponents located on the floor of the basin.

The Carrousel provides complete mix ing in the aeration zones with plug flow characteristics in the channels between the

aerators. The large recirculated flow in the

larger baffled feedwell. The feedwell will incorporate the latest EIMCO technology, a

channels provides reliable treatment during variations in inorganic loadings. The low speed aerators consist of a high efficiency motor with an integral heater mounted on a rugged reducer. The drive unit, supported on a concrete platform, drives a large diameter impeller located at the water surface. This drive unit provides the energy for high oxygen transfer and mix ing to the waste effluent over a wide range of power draw. Misting aerosol, splashing, noise and foaming are reduced by housing the impeller of the aerator in a totally en

304 SS Metalweave™ Feedwell with 304

closed aeration zone. This enclosed aera

SS supports. In order to minimize fibre carryover at the anticipated higher flow

tion zone also prevents icing of the impeller during the extreme cold temperatures ex

100% toxicity removal. The completed wastewater treatment plant will include modifications to the ex isting primary clarifier and the addition of

the Carrousel and two secondary clarifiers. In order to improve the fibre removal ef ficiency in the existing 46 m diameter EIMCO primary clarifier, a number of modi fications are required. The 20 year old unit will require a new centre column and a


mixing velocity in the channel. The total system horsepower can be turned down to 40% of the installed capacity without los ing mixing efficiency in the channels. Moni toring of the dissolved oxygen content near the effluent weir allows the operator to closely match oxygen input to oxygen de mand and minimize energy consumption. The effluent upon leaving the Carrousel basin goes to two EIMCO 56 m diameter secondary clarifiers. These clarifiers in clude individually adjustable suction pipes located on the rake arms to quickly remove the mixed liquor solids on the floor for re turn to the aeration basin. 304 SS Metal-

weave feedwells with 304 SS supports are also incorporated on the secondary clarifier design. One of the secondary clarifiers is de signed as a "swing" clarifier with the abil ity to operate either as a primary or second ary clarifier. Because of the fibre content in the primary effluent, this unit has to be designed with a higher torque rating for the drive and the rake arms. The rake arm con

figuration must be capable of moving the primary solids directly to the centre when operating as a primary clarifier and direct ing the mixed liquor solids to the suction withdrawal pipes when operating as a sec

ondary clarifier. To maintain mill opera tion, the "swing" clarifier will operate as a primary unit while the existing primary clarifier is retrofitted. When the primary clarifier retrofitting is complete, it will go on-line. The unique design of the rake blades will allow the "swing" clarifier to revert to its secondary operation without being drained or requiring further modifi cations. There are over 300 installations of this

System for municipal and industrial wastewaters in North America.

Carrousel Is a registered trademark. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science <& Engineering, June!July 1994

Pulp & Paper Industry Special

Using Ozone in the Puip and Paper industry

Numerous recent environmental

By Ron Larooque* and Alan Pryor**

activist calls for the elimination

of chlorine based chemicals, combined with other increas

ingly stringent regulatory demands, have re

sulted in renewed emphasis in the pulp and paper industry to produce products of the highest quality, with the least possible amount of waste generated. As a result, in dustry must exert even greater efforts in the future to reduce the amount of environmen

*Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Limited **Ozone Process Consultants, Inc.

Johnson Intake Screen Systems

applications include pulp bleaching, cool ing tower water treatment, and plant waste

ZAUoy Screen Systems for Zebra Mussel Applications

effluent treatment. With the use of ozone,

the amount of characterized discharged waste water can be dramatically reduced or treated to a degree of purity unachievable

tally-sensitive toxic waste generated and

by any other means. It is relatively simple

released. To achieve these new standards

and the most cost-effective, functional al

of environmental quality, improved tech nologies must be utilized which provide for

ternative to chlorine compounds available today.

both cost-effective oxidation without the

PULP BLEACHING Ozone has been utilized in cellulosic

production of environmentally-deleterious byproducts, associated with the use of other oxidizing agents. One of these technologies is ozonation - the treatment of water with ozone gas.

Ozonation involves the onsite production ofozone gas from oxygen or ambient air with an ozone generator. Ozone gas is produced by electrical discharge and is immediately injected into a waste water stream where

gaining momentum in legislative and regu velopment have been expended, optimizing the use of ozone in pulp bleaching, utiliz ing many different types of pulp and con

Ozone can be effectively used in a vari ety of ways in a pulp and paper plant. These

For more information, Circle reply card No. 165

Process Considerations

With the probably irreversible movement toward Totally Chlorine Free (TCP) plants latory arenas, substantial research and de

carbons, as with the use of chlorine or chlo rinated compounds.



beneficial effects.

very reactive oxidizing agent and readily oxidizes many common organic and inor ganic compounds. It has an oxidation po tential 52% greater than chlorine and, as a result, it is the strongest oxidizing agent commercially available. Ozone has a very short half life (on the order of minutes in water) with simple oxygen as its decompo sition product and use of ozone will not re sult in the formation of chlorinated hydro

with Hydroburst ™

bleaching operations since 1913 (1). Mod ern ozone bleaching involves injection of ozone gas into a pulp slurry, where the ozone oxidizes and destroys lignins and coloring

the ozone dissolves and achieves its desired

Ozone is triatomic oxygen (O3). It is a


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sistencies, Much of this work has centered

on bleaching of high consistency (40-55%) pulp (2,3,4). In this process, low consist ency pulp may be acidified to a pH of from 2.5-3.0 to enhance the bleaching by ozone (5,6,7,8). The pulp may also be treated with viscosity preserving agents (6). As shown in Figure 1, the pulp stream is then pressed and fluffed to remove excess water and sepa rate the fibers (12). Bleaching of the result ant high consistency pulp is optimally car ried out in a pressurized reactor by injec tion of ozone into the slurry, at a ratio of 1-

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 166

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Environmenlal Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158

Pulp & Paper Industry Special 2% ozone:pulp (6,9,10,11). The ozone is most often generated using oxygen as a feed gas to produce ozone to be injected at a con centration of 3-5% by weight (11). Use of higher concentrations of ozone gas results in more favorable bleaching reaction kinet ics than if lower concentration ozone gas produced from air (at 1-2%) is used (10).














Effects of Ozonation Ozone

At consistencies of 20-55%, ozone has


been shown to be an excellent bleaching agent, with relatively constant pulp viscosities resulting from the ozonation process. With pulp consistencies above or below this range, undesirable loss of vis cosity is apparent. Ozone also acts as an excellent delignifier; however, the reactiv ity of ozone is not limited to these reactions with lignin. Ozone oxidation of pulp carbo hydrates will also occur in quantities greater

I Chi er or








Cooling Tower Telephone

Exchangers I


age by the higher concentrations of ozone that would otherwise be necessary for com plete bleaching. COOLING WATER OZONATION

Ozonation of cooling water simply in volves mixing small quantities of site-gen erated ozone gas with a cooling water sidestream. As shown in Figure 2, the sidestream is generally taken from the cool ing tower basin and upon ozonation is uni formly distributed back into the basin. The ozonated bulk water is then recirculated

throughout the plant where it provides func-

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Overall cooling system performance can be impacted by excessive biological growth, corrosion, or scaling. Compared to the av erage conventional multi-chemical control methods, ozonation provides superior bio logical control, corrosion inhibition, and scale protection. These benefits have been demonstrated in numerous studies per formed by independent third party research ers for such institutions and companies as the Electric Power Research Institute (13), Southern California Edison Co. (14), and the State of California (15). These reports collectively documented the functional ef ficacy of ozonation at a total of 14 different sites. Additionally, numerous other case studies have been performed by end users or system providers which conclusively demonstrate the substantial improvements in water quality and cooling system perform ance seen upon commencement of properly designed and maintained ozonation systems. These include reports prepared by or con cerning installations at NASA (16), IBM (17), Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (18), Union Carbide (19), Xerox (20), and nu

Cost Effectiveness Numerous studies have confirmed the

Advantages of Toveko Filters

economic effectiveness and cost-savings

* Fully automated * Low headroom requirement * Gravity feed

ing towers (14-16,18,24). These savings

* Mechanical sand wash allows for

• Reduction in water and sewage costs due

heavily polluted water to be treated * Modular layout simplifies installation

• Elimination of additional chemical costs

associated with the use of ozonated cool include:

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tional control.

merous other industrial and HVAC applica tions (21-24), covering a wide variety of operating conditions and water qualities.

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Sidestream Loop

results, due to the reduction of fiber cleav

sult, ozone is most advantageously used at the beginning of the bleaching cycle, when extensive delignification is required and the high concentrations of lignins inhibit the oxidation of carbohydrates. Research has also shown that partial pretreatment of the pulp with oxygen, prior to ozonation, results in sufficient delignification that reduced amounts of ozone can be used in subsequent bleaching sequences. By employing preoxygenation under alkaline conditions, prior to ozonation, improved pulp strength


Sidestream Pump J

Primary Cooling Pumps

than that seen with chlorination. As a re




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to the decrease in blowdown • Decrease in labor costs associated with

frequent manual monitoring of chemically treated systems and continuous chemical feed pump adjustments • Reduction of energy costs due to increased cleanliness and operating efficiencies of heat exchangers Additional savings accrue to users of cooling tower ozonation due to extensions of plant equipment life.

Environnienlal Science & Engineering, June!July 1994

Pulp & Paper Industry Special EFFLUENT WASTE TREATMENT

Ozone also has numerous applications in a waste treatment process as a disinfect ant, oxidizing, or flocculating agent. Disinfection - Ozone as a process disinfect ant is unrivaled, due to its high oxidation potential and lack of an environmentallypersistent residual. This makes ozone very suitable for disinfecting waste streams prior to discharge. Many waste streams can even be reused in process applications elsewhere in the pulp plant, following ozonation, be cause of the degree of purification achieved. Oxidation of Contaminants - Due to the

high oxidation potential of ozone, many common organic contaminants in pulp waste

out the formation of chlorinated hydrocar bons and trihalomethanes(THMs)common to the use of chlorine as an oxidizing agent. ELIMINATION OF DISCHARGES AND HUMAN SAFETY CONCERNS

In an era of increasingly stringent envi ronmental regulation, ozonation is one of the

few technologies available that can actually reduce waste at its source, hence comply ing with Canadian and U.S. national man dates for waste minimization. Additionally, the use of ozone eliminates many of the human safety concerns associated with the use of compressed chlorine gas (26). Pulp Bleaching - Another Canadian man date for the elimination of chlorinated dis

water are readily oxidized by ozone. The degree of oxidation of organics in water is quite varied, due to the widely differing na

charges from pulp and paper plants, and the

ture and reaction rates of the contaminants

tion Guidelines and Pretreatment Standards

found in waste. In general, mineralization

for pulp and paperboard plants, are also dra matically increasing the interest in ozone as the industry moves towards TCP plants. Use of ozone can significantly reduce or even completely eliminate discharge ofchlo rinated hydrocarbons in pulp plant effluent that result when chlorine-containing com pounds are employed for pulp bleaching. Cooling Towers - Currently, the vast ma jority of cooling tower operations employ

of the organic compounds by ozone to CO^ and HjO is rarely completed,due to the lim ited contact times and concentrations that

can be economically employed.In summary, ozone is effective at oxidizing aromatic and unsaturated aliphatic compounds to some

degree. Phenols are particularly susceptible to ozonation. Chlorinated phenolics and chlorinated lignins are oxidized more slowly.

Preoxidation for Turbidity Control Potable water and waste water plants have long used ozone as a preoxidizing agent to stimulate flocculation and aid filtration ef

ficiency. By neutralizing positive polar sur face charges on suspended solids, colloidal microflocculation is enhanced and filtration

efficiency is thus improved substantially. And, because ozone degrades into simple oxygen so rapidly, users are not forced to

employ additional measures to remove any other flocculating or disinfecting agents through the use of reverse osmosis, bisulfite addition, or other means. Preoxidation of carbonaceous contami

nants also improves clarity of the treated water due to the formation of carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl compounds. These

polar compounds readily combine with poly valent cations in water (calcium, magne sium, iron, manganese, etc.) to form complexed, insoluble solids which precipi tate and can be subsequently removed by fdtration.

Preoxidation for Biodegradability Enhancement - Ozone has also been shown

to greatly assist in the removal of these com pounds by preozonation, prior to further di gestion in bioreactors. Ozonation enhances

the biodegradability of organics by convert ing larger, relatively non polar compounds into smaller oxygenated compounds that are more readily assimilated during subsequent biodigestion (25). Not only does ozone destroy or assist in

the removal of many of the above objection able contaminants in the pulp plant proc ess,recycled, or waste water, it does so with

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or bioaccumulative" under various state or

provincial regulations. These chemicals in clude glutaraldehyde, chlorine, chlorine di oxide, hypochlorite, molybdenum, zinc, sulfuric acid, potassium and sodium hydrox

ide,sodium nitrite, and various other organic and inorganic biocides, dispersents, and corrosion inhibitors(27). Use of ozone com

For more information, Circle reply card No. 169

pletely eliminates the use and discharge of these chemicals in pulp or paper plant cool ing tower blowdown; any required cooling tower blowdown will contain only the natu rally-occurring minerals in the makeup wa ter. No other chemicals are used. This means

employees are no longer required to move and handle drums or cylinders of highly hazardous chemicals. Personnel and equip ment adjacent to the cooling tower will also no longer be exposed to the potentially toxic or corrosive chemicals found in drift from the tower.

Waste Streams - Because regulators throughout North America have significantly reduced the concentrations of contaminants in waste streams that are considered haz


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of manifested waste leaving a facility's premises, while simultaneously lowering waste water treatment costs.Ozonation may also allow recycling of waste effluent streams that would otherwise have to be

discharged into the environment, due to the presence of the contaminating chlorinated hydrocarbons and the corrosive effects of chlorine. References available.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, JunelJuly 1994

Factory Assembled and Tested

For more information, Circle reply card No. 170


1-800-231-4212 Box 36• 441 Main Street


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161

Quebec P & P Report

By Susan Liver, REng.* and Marc Patry, M.Sc.A.*

Quebec responds to Pulp and Paper Environmental Regulations

The pace of environmental activity in the pulp and paper industry in Quebec has been steadily acceler ating as the September 1995 dead line imposed by Provincial Regulations ap

proaches. The Regulations Respecting Pulp and Paper Mills (September 16, 1992) un der the Environmental Quality Act have

placed limits on a range of parameters in cluding air emissions, effluent and solid waste. At present, however, the effluent regulations are the major focus of engineer ing effort and capital expenditures. The highlights of the effluent regulations are summarized in Table 1.

Due to the number of mills in this prov ince, the Quebec pulp and paper industry has had to face major changes in its approach to the environment, on a scale larger than any other province. The flurry of activity

struggled with policy, the letter of the law, and the workload the regulation has gener ated. Both government and industry have explored various avenues for implementa tion of this regulation. From its conception, the regulation has

generated controversy between regulators and industry. Between 1989 and 1992 all discussions and applications regarding new effluent treatment systems were dealt with by the MEF's head office. In general, the office tended to evaluate the development

of the new treatment systems looking for compliance not only with the existing law but with proposed limits not yet in place. The MEF reasoned that by designing the

• BCD, • suspended solids • copper • lead • zinc • nickel • aluminum

• cyanide •PAH (poly aromatic hydrocar bon) • ACX (adsorbable organic halide) The MEF is trying to have operating permits in place under this regulation for each pulp and paper mill by the end of 1995. Cther industrial sectors will follow pulp and

paper as the focus for these operating per mits.

The "system requirements", shown in Table 1, such as an emergency basin and sludge dewatering requirements, have also

prolonged the review process. The Quebec regulation requires an emergency basin but

mind, the mills could save substantial dol

does not define its size, or provide any ba sis for its design. As well, the requirement for a 25% dry solids sludge cake prior to

has been matched within the Quebec Min

lars in the long run. But for companies struggling to survive the recession of the 90's, long-term savings are only a part of

landfill is independent of the type of mill or the ratio of primary to secondary sludge. Some mills face the possibility of diverting

istry of Environment (Ministere de

the overall equation.

treatment facilities with the future limits in

merly MENVIQ) as the regulators have

waste materials from reuse schemes, such

The proposed limits have since been for

I'Environnement et de la Faune, MEF, for

malized in the "Attestations D'Assainisse-

ment En Milieu Industriel", roughly trans

lated as Operating Permits for Industrial *CH2M Hill Engineering Limited, Waterloo Office, working out of Quebec City. "Consultants BPR,Quebec City, Quebec. CH2M Hill and BPR tiave formed a

partnership to serve the pulp and paper industry.

Facilities, which were promulgated in the summer of 1993. The regulation, which applies to any category of industry selected by the government, places an effluent tax on each tonne of the following substances discharged to the environment or to a mu nicipal treatment facility:

Table 1

Highlights of the Quebec Puip and Paper Effiuent Reguiations Effluent Limits (per tonne of product)

as composting, to provide "bulking mate rial" for dewatering secondary sludge. Thus solid waste reduction and reuse policies conflict with landfill requirements in the

pulp and paper effluent regulation. These and other issues pointed to a need for increased participation by the local MEF offices in resolving such site specific con cerns. An approach was sought to stream line the approval process. In early 1992, regional offices received the authority to review applications and issue certificates of approval. At present, the central office con tinues to provide expertise to the regional offices on each project. The administrative burden has been decentralized, allowing the central office to focus on providing techni cal expertise, and allowing a greater voice

Suspended Solids*

8 kg/tonne (monthly maximum) 16 kg/tonne (daily maximum)


5 kg/tonne (monthly maximum) 8 kg/tonne (daily maximum)


LC„ not less than 100% for 96 hour test 50 with Rainbow Trout

While the MEE was adapting to the new workload imposed by the effluent regula tion, the Quebec Pulp and Paper industry was also trying to come to terms with regu

1.0 kg/t (month max), 1995 limit 1.5 kg/t (daily max), 1995 limit

Several of the key players in the industry

2.0 kg/t (month max), 1995 limit 2.5 kg.t (daily max), 1995 limit

banded together to lobby the government for more time, and for synchronization with the Federal Pulp and Paper regulations. Their three main arguments were insufficient





for local concerns.

lation in the face of hard economic times.

not to exceed 2 mg/L

time, insufficient funds, and insufficient

'for alt mills except (dissolving grade sulphite

expertise in treatment to meet these regula tions.

System Requirements The effluent outfall must be submerged at all times.

The last of these arguments generated a tremendous research effort by the industry,

The mill must install an emergency basin.

beginning in early 1989. Preliminary esti

Blended primary and secondary sludge must have a dryness of at least 25% before it can be accepted by a landfill site. If the landfill site is impermeable and leachate is collected and treated, sludge from biological treatment may have a dryness between 15% and 25%. 70

mates of the cost of conventional secondary treatment staggered the industry. A wide variety of technologies (Table 2) ranging from in-mill controls to ultra high-rate bioContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994


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Pulp & Paper Industry Special logical treatment were tested in the hopes of finding a "miracle solution", not only to the present regulatory limits but to the fu ture criteria under development by the MEF. Research efforts continued until early this year. By this time, one by one, most if not all, research teams were drawing the same conclusion: activated sludge processes are the most reliable and cost effective

means to meet the current regulations. As well, they offer the advantages of reduced

space requirements and minimal heat loss compared to the less capital expensive aer ated lagoons. Temperature is a key factor in removing toxicity during the cold Que bec winters.

In addition, more detailed cost estimates of the cost of treatment - using a leaner and more aggressive approach to design - dra matically reduced previous estimates of capital cost requirements. Meanwhile,despite the substantial lobby effort, regulators continued to stand behind the deadlines for compliance imposed by the regulation. Eventually a few key players abandoned the lobby effort and announced the commitment of funds for secondary treat ment. Solidarity was lost among the indus

nancial times, the search was on for a "busi

Table 2

ness miracle". In addition to the traditional

Some Treatment Technologies Investigated in Quebec

consulting engineering approach, there has been a wide range of responses. Some "Doit-yourselfers" have drawn upon internal resources to build treatment systems, using their own engineering staff and available tankage retrofitted to become a treatment facility. Others have taken a tum-key ap proach - handing over the design, manage ment and sometimes financing of the sys tem to a consortium of consultants, suppli

Biological Treatment

activated sludge processes air activated sludge oxygen activated sludge sequencing batch reactor

Some multi-mill companies have chosen to turn the burden of building treatment sys tems for each of their mills into a bargain

ing advantage. The "guichet unique" or onestop-shopping approach - be it for equip ment or EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) services - offers opportuni ties for simplified project management and for cost savings. For example, major equip

anaerobic treatment

Non-Biological Treatment closed loop processes freeze crystallization polymer treatments

ment for several mills has been bid as a

package. Harmonizing equipment require ments, to the greatest extent possible, re duces manufacturing costs - savings which can be passed on to the mills.

Without a "miracle" treatment technol

Of course, the final analysis will not be complete for several years to come. Oper ating costs, reliability and flexibility to meet changing market demands and regulations

ogy to help the industry through tough fi

must be included in the true cost to the mills

try lobby group, leaving behind rapidly ap proaching deadlines and some hard feelings.

other biological processes submerged upflow/ blofilter submerged downflow blofilter aerated lagoons trickling filter

ers and financiers.

of meeting these regulations. The industry will then be able to look back at the period when dozens of secondary treatment systems were constructed, virtually simultaneously, and compare results. For more information, Circle reply card No. 163

Colilerf simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms andE coU simply, quickly and economically. Add reagent and Read results

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June/July 1994

Pulp & Paper Industry Report

Sustaining deveiopment: The own and/or operate & maintain option

In the past, when impinging competi

to conflict with the public desire for a

tive or regulatory imperatives have caused managers to divert their atten

cleaner environment. Add to that the recent

industry slump and cash flow crunch and one finds that the critical level of any deci sion made today for the medium and long term approaches breakpoint. Nowhere in the world is the seeming

tion from the core business, new busi

nesses and services have been developed or sprung up which allow the manager to refocus. Sometimes the new service has

conflict and pressing nature of these forces more apparent than in Canada and the US.

come from within the organization and re sulted in services such as a mailing or Man agement Informations Systems department. Sometimes out-of-core business has been

outsourced as in the case with advertising and market research. Also, sudden introduc

tions of new technology such as the desktop computer have transformed, almost over night, the way of doing business. The deci sion to develop or outsource services has hinged upon a weighted evaluation of the

By Tom Wingfield, P.Eng., MIBS Wheeiabrator EOS Canada Inc.,

Rupke Division, Newmarket, Ontario

external market factors and the internal ca

motivated to increase the value of the stock

pabilities of the company. Pulp and paper managers in the 90's, particularly in North America,find themselves at just such ajunc ture: to stay clean and to stay focused. Staying clean and staying focused might seem to be opposing forces. Both of these forces have put increased stress on an in dustry already in crisis. The manager is

holders' investment and, at the same time,

survive in a cutthroat business. By impos ing restrictions and levying fines, govern ments motivate the manager to run an "en vironmentally friendly" ship. Many times, in the eyes of the pulp and paper manager, the global imperative of increasing the com petitive edge of the enterprise would seem

Canadian environmental regulation stipu lates that pulp and paper mill effluent must be in compliance with the law by the end of 1995. This legal declaration and the current industry situation produce an immediate capital and time problem. Canadian man agers find themselves facing several logistical and resource constraints within which they are required to operate. Quite often, even understandably, the risk of noncompliance and plant responsibility are com pared with the equally undesirable situation of falling behind the rest of the industrial community. Meanwhile, in the US the soon-to-beenforced "cluster rules" will treat each in

dividual mill as responsible for its particuContinued overleaf









Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 179


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666. Automatic water quality monitoring systems Mertin end Sf)er1oclt

qxltly noniwuig

Merlin and Sherlock - the flexible ap proach to automatic water quality monitoring. This 4 page colour flyer introduces you to water monitoring and control system from Siemens, Merlin: a floating, anchored automatic water quality monitoring system pro viding automatic continuous monitor ing at Inaccessible locations. Sherlock: a transportable bankslde system, placed close to the water's edge, Ideal for monitoring discharge outlets or where shallow water pre cludes using Merlin.

GPS-XTM Optimization software

Dynamic Wastewater Treatment Plant



with software named GPS-X™. The

Unix based software, running on popular engineering workstations, is an Interactive simulator Intended to

Hvdromantis, Inc.

Siemens Electric

Circle reply card No.220

help engineers Improve decision mak ing for research, planning, design and operations. The GPS-X™ comes with a wide variety of process librar ies and an easy to use graphical In terface. It Is the only software capa ble of dynamic simulation of any plant regardless of complexity or size. Hydromantis,inc. Circle reply card No.221 OWMC's New industrial

TDG Compliance Materials Specializing In dangerous goods compliance products and services. International Compliance Centre of

Dynamic modelling of the entire wastewater treatment plant from In fluent to discharge Is now available


for Snpiiog Wastes SMiiadusbU

Sampling Guide Waste and industrial process streams

are generally complex in nature and therefore do not readily lend them selves to simple testing methods.

fers North America's widest selection

of UN-certlfled packaging, as well as TDG labels, placards and a host of materials necessary to ship danger ous goods by any mode,domestically or internationally. international Compliance Centre Circle reply card No. 222

We've written the book on how to ob

tain representative samples In these situations. This new guidebook pro vides details from pre-planning through to liaising with the laboratory. The flow-chart format makes it easy to plan and to carry out sampling pro cedures. Also Includes sampling strategy, quality assurance, health and safety considerations and regu latory test limits. OWMC

Circle reply card No. 223 FILL-MAG™ Flowmeters Described in New Fischer & Porter Literature Fischer & Porter is offering a new, sixpage, four-color brochure explaining its

Concerned about hazardous

Just give up...


y worrying!

chemical spills In today's world, containment of haz ardous chemical spills and leaks Is just as Important as corrosion proteotion. Sentry Polymers has led the way In the development of impermeable floor toppings to seal expansion joints, cracks, floor-to-wall transitions and protects, even restores, the concrete of your secondary containment area from a variety of chemicals Including

new line of FILL-MAG Flowmeters. Pho

tos, schematics and tables are employed to update readers on this Intelligent sen sor for precision filling and dosing proc esses. FILL-MAG Is a complete batching system consisting of a D10DS3112 flowtube and a D50ES7000 signal con verter. Its 20 millisecond full scale re

98% sulfuric acid. Contact us for more information on SENTRY

sponse lime Is the fastest In the indus try. The new system is AG-based and

SEMSTONE, as well as suggested specifications and construction details tailored to your project requirements. Corrosion Service Company Circle reply card No.224

AWWA butterfly valves Now you can quickly replace or ad just valve seats in the field without any chipping, grinding or burning. DeZurIk AWWA butterfly valve seats are me chanically retained with a stainless steel clamping ring and locking screws. So there isn't a need for

epoxies or fillers. Send for this free brochure. DeZurik

Circle reply card No.226


can auto-zero itself after each batch.

FILL-MAG has no moving parts and of fers Clean-ln-Place (GIF) service.

Fischer & Porter (Canada) Limited Circle reply card No. 225

SBR qualifies as advanced process technology.... SBR qualifies Advanced process ledintdogy



Is the

"HEART" of the system. Process Features & Benefits include:

•Improved biomass characteristics •Site-specific treatment capacity •Improved hydraulic characteristics •Simple to operate activated sludge •Biological phosphorous removal •Nitriflcatlon/denltrlflcaticn potential •Controlled use of energy •Economy Eco Equipment Circle reply card No. 227

Environmental Science cS Engineering, June!July 1994

Pulp & Paper Industry Report lar "cluster" of solids, effluents and emis

sions. Suddenly, the American manager must determine the overall effects and

byproducts of solid, liquid and gas treat ment. For example, does solving the wastewater problem create a solids prob lem? In turn does the solving of the solids problem create an emissions problem? The American manager must take care of com pliance in all of these areas at once and present a harmonized approach to the gov ernment authority and the public. Since it is unlikely that regulation is going to be

time constraints of regulation? Does indus try have, or even want to develop, the inhouse expertise to operate, maintain and continually upgrade increasingly complex

processes was as difficult as, if not more than, getting the mythological personalities to get along. What might have been deemed a series of shrewd solutions ten years ago

Increasingly, the outsourcing

gerial labyrinth consuming an amount of time and money that would dwarf Mount Olympus. Today, more care must be taken to ensure that the solving of one problem does not create an even more costly and unwieldy result. Increasingly, the outsourcing of all the risks for compliance and the responsibili ties for plant operation and equipment is being sought after as a possible solution to the manager's dilemma. This usually takes the form of an Operation & Maintenance (O&M)contract with a capable contractor. The premise for such a decision is solid and goes back to the principle of "comparative advantage". Automobile manufacturers

now comes back to be a technical and mana

of all the risks for

compliance and the responsibilities for plant operation and equipment is being sought after as a possible solution to the manager's dilemma.

come more lax, the maintenance and mod ernization of the cluster treatment facilities

will be an on-going enterprise. American managers face the same global competitive situation and market factors as their world

wide counterparts. It is not surprising then that the future course of the company is fre quently seen from the same clean-up vs. competitiveness perspective as seen in some Canadian companies. Should the costs and benefits of the en

vironmentally friendly way be weighed against those of the competitive advantage perspective? Those who preach the path of sustainable development would tell us no. It is said that environmental friendliness and

industry leadership are compatible. But from where will the human and financial capital be sourced to achieve this ideal? Can the

various companies harness and schedule the necessary resources to meet the imposed

air, liquid and solid treatment systems? Who keeps track of and determines priorities and puts them into a cohesive environmental agenda? What manager has the time and energy apart from production activities to devote to the environmental imperative? Up to the present, pulp and paper man agers have turned to a host of smaller spe cialized companies to solve a variety of prob lems. The most common project pathway saw management retaining the services of an engineering firm for design and project management purposes. Frequently, differ ent aspects of the pollution problem were dealt with in band-aid or piecemeal fashion as regulation tightened. The resulting pan theon of technologies surpassed even the Acropolis in scope. Harmonization of the


make cars and trucks, athletes excel in their

sport and endorse foodstuffs, waste treat ment companies treat waste, treatment op erations companies operate treatment plants and pulp and paper companies make paper and paper products. In simple terms,"Stick to what you're good at!" Quite understand ably, this move to outsourcing O&M takes a huge managerial load off the plant man ager's shoulders while increasing treatment operational efficiencies. In consideration of cash flow, resource Continued overleaf

Waterloo Drive Point

Piezometers Obtain groundwater samples quickly and inexpensively!


Excellent for:


•fast site characterizations

• confined spaces where a drill rig cannot reach

LOW FLOW RATE Drive Point Piezometers are driven

(0.3-30 FPS)



into the ground by hand-held ham mer to 20 meters and more. Avoid

drilhng time and costs. Sample around spills or UST's for groundwater or soil gas samples. Teflon® or LDPE tubing connect the stainless steel tip to the surface. Fax or call for more information on this or any other groundwater monitoring instmments.


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High quality instrumentation

Solinst Canada Ltd. 515 Main St. Glen Williams, ON L7G 3S9 Tel: 1 (905)873-2255; Fax: 1(905)873-1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 181 75

Pulp & Paper Industry Report and logistical constraints, some companies are going even further in their search for a solution. The criteria for selection describe a contractor with financial as well as tech

nical and managerial capabilities. The abil ity of a contractor to take treatment facili ties, as both an asset and liability, com pletely off the plant's balance sheet puts operating capital back in the hands of the plant manager. That capital can then be di rected towards the competitive upgrade of the production facility. Responsibility for the treatment works is shifted to the contractor.

In one swift motion the pulp and paper manager is provided the precious resources of time and capital to focus on competing. The profit motive drives the contractor to make sure that the pulp and paper plant is environmentally friendly from top to bot tom. The dilemma is solved.

O&M/Own, Operate & Maintain (OO&M)contracts may be simple or com plex depending on their scope. Risk for com pliance and fines payment risk is taken en tirely by the contracted party. Responsibil ity for the entire plant includes equipment and operation. The equipment is maintained and upgraded as required within a compre hensive environmental management plan laid out with the plant managers. Operation includes day to day process fine tuning as well as sampling and laboratory analysis, operational optimization and government

reporting and liaison. Many times, if a treat ment facility already exists, the OO&M will take on the existing operators as their own employees. This implies a responsibility for benefits, training and, if merited, promotion. Chemicals and other necessary operational supplies can be accounted for in the con tract. Amortization of associated capital costs may also be spread over the short, medium and long term. Buy-back clauses are sometimes written into the text as well.

Risk, operation, maintenance, supplies, la bour and capital financing are all included in a monthly fee arrangement. Ten times out of ten this outsourcing,or off-balance-sheet, option proves far more cost efficient than the in-house attempts at doing something that is not core to the pulp and paper busi ness.

In today's reality less than a handful of O&M companies have the technical and managerial ability to provide the type of services described here. The pulp and pa per manager should be looking to compa nies with proven technical expertise and experience. Established track records of fi nancial stability, safety, compliance, re newal, etc. should all be readily available and examined carefully prior to entering into

operation and maintenance of treatment facilities. However, some of those compa nies do exist and are providing the OO&M option to pulp and paper clients. Again the pulp and paper manager should be con vinced of the financial, technical and mana gerial capabilities of the OO&M company with which they will negotiate a contract. The pulp and paper industry is indeed facing a turning point with regard to stay ing clean and competitive. The challenge need not be perceived from the viewpoint of one alternative vs. another. Neither does

it need to be perceived as a capital inten sive and operationally costly enterprise. In the past, other industries have found the outsourcing of essential services to be ex tremely cost effective. A few O&M and OO&M companies are providing the finan cial, technical and managerial capabilities to the pulp and paper sector which essen tially solve the pulp and paper manager's dilemma. It is a call to a strategic alliance on a different plane with the profit motive at work to ensure sustainable development. It is a commitment which allows two spe cialized enterprises to do what they do best and thereby allow each other to prosper. The pulp and paper industry, particularly in the

any contract.

US and Canada, can achieve what the rest

Even fewer companies have the ability or the desire to provide the coveted off-balance-sheet financing, design, construction,

of the world, until now, only talks about. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 251

Employment opportunity Desert Research Institute LEADERSHIP

Through innovative Waste Reduction Strategies

Special Waste Management

Management of RGBs

Reno, NV Assistant Research Professor Program management of air quality research projects; development and application of gaseous/aerosol measurement methods; statisti cal data analysis; source/receptor modeling and data interpretation on mass and chemically speclated aerosol, gaseous and meteoro logical data; preparation or proposals, reports and journal articles; establishing and maintaining relations with sponsors; and presenting research findings.

Post-Doctoral Research Assistant

Site Assessment and Remediation Activities

One-Year Appointment

Volume Reduction of Contaminated Materials

Assist in developing new air quality research areas and sampling and

Sludge Dewatering

analysis methocis for atmospheric pollutants, participate in field meas

Co-ordination of Household Hazardous Waste


urement programs, conduct microcomputer-based analysis of air quality and meteorological data and prepare journal articles, reports and proposals. Positions require doctorates in environmental science, physics, en gineering or chemistry from accredited universities; previous experi ence performing duties similar to those listed above, proficiency in FoxPro, Excel, Flarvard and Freelance Graphics and Word 6.0 and demonstrable written/oral communication and human relations skills.

see Environmental 137 LeMarchant Road, St. John's,

Newfoundland, Canada A1C 2H3

Bus:(709) 726-0506 Fax:(709) 726-7905

Previous publications, successful proposal preparation and prior in dustrial or technology transfer experience desirable. Salaries com mensurate with qualifications and experience. Excellent benefits package. Submit resume, one-page narrative describing how your qualifica tions meet position requirements and names, addresses and phone numbers of three references to: Recruitment Office, Desert Re

"Meeting the Environmental Challenge'

76 For more information. Circle reply card No. 182

search Institute, UCCN, P.O. Box 19040, Las Vegas, NV 891320040. AfflrmatlveActlon/Equal Opportunity Employer. Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

Product Review Fixed and portable gas detection systems


for protecting people working in potentially dangerous locations such as storage vessels, sewer systems, tunnels and pits, ships' holds, petrochemical complexes, oil rigs, etc. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 185

depth interface profile on panel mount. Applications include waste treatment, pe troleum, pulp and paper, mining and any tank with a liquid/solid interface. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 187

Personal gas monitors

Level indicators

Crowcon's new range of small lightweight gas monitors include models for most com mon toxic gases, oxygen and a version for flammable gas detection. The monitors can be carried in a breast pocket or clipped to a belt. ISO 9001 CSA approved. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information.

Bin-Master offers a full line of level indi

cators for almost every situation and mate rial. All are designed and constructed to last. Various models are available with ULV

CSA approval for general purpose and ex plosion-proof applications. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 186

Circle reply card No. 188 Positioners and

Crowcon offers a range of fixed gas detec tion systems for monitoring flammable gases and vapours, toxic gases, and oxygen. Ap plications include petrochemical complexes, clean and dirty water plants, pumping sta tions, paint factories, chemical works, stor age depots, and other places where there is an obvious risk of hazards occurring because of leaks of gases or vapours. The range of portable gas detection instruments is used

Blanket level detectors


The Royce blanket level detectors feature no moving parts, no maintenance, and no recalibration required. Reliable microproc essor-based electronics continuously moni

PMV-USA manufactures a full line of

terface or distance from surface to interface.

positioners and accessories in a state-of-theart facility using the latest techniques. The company has expanded its product package of rotary positioners, available in various materials and options, to include a linear positioner and FID single loop controller option. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information.

The LCD graphical display provides full-

Circle reply card No. 189

tor and control the interface level in tanks.

The unit numerically displays interface depth in feet, meters, or percentage of total tank depth and displays either depth of in







C.P.I. EQUIPMENT LTD. 22652 Fraser Highway,Langley, B.C. V3A 4P6

TEL:(604) 530-0264 FAX; 530-6336

- Data collection

- Custom Telemetry Systems - Rapid pulse DO probe uo stirring - Stable oxygen data up to 30 days - Up to eight parameters measured



- Small size, 1.6" Diameter probe ASK FOR OUR NEW ENVIRONMENTAL






AQUA-FLO (604)530-8999 57218 Production Way, Langley, B.C. V3A 4N5

FAX:(604) 533-2552 For more information. Circle reply card No. 183

GENEQ inc. 8047 Jarry E. Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1J 1H6 Tel: (514) 354-2511 Fax: (514) 354-6948 223 Signet Drive, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9L 1V1 Tel: (416) 747-9889 Fax: (416) 747-7570 2628 Granville St., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6H 3H8 Tel: (604) 739-0889 Fax: (604) 731-9445

For more information. Circle reply card No. 184 77

Product Review waste incineration plants for flue gas meas urements, process gas monitoring in chemi cal plants, and in the metallurgical and ce ment industries. Westech Industrial Ltd.

For more information, Circie reply card No. 191

Viscometer measures

viscosity, density and

pumps The BIBO Submersible Dewatering Pumps have been released for construction, indus

Non-dispersive UV analyzer

process viscometer designed for the simul taneous measurement of viscosity, density and temperature. The Model 7827 is based on field-proven vibrating element technol ogy, has no moving parts, and operates equally well in pipelines and static tanks. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 192

Slag control system

for emission measurements on furnace and

CEM package

Solartron Transducers has introduced a new

Westech Industrial Ltd.

The Radas 2 on-line Ultraviolet analyzer is designed to provide a reliable and cost ef fective way of measuring a range of UV absorbing gases. The analyzers are suited

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 194

monitoring package are the Hartmann & Braun continuous gas analyzers which moni tor and analyze process gas for 02 and CO. The addition of a remotely mounted Land Model 4500 Opacity Analyzer Control Room Unit creates a CEM package for any application.

Submersible dewatering

Circle reply card No. 190

concerns. Westech Industrial Ltd.

At the heart of this continuous emissions


trial and mining applications. Formerly known as "B" Series Pumps, the BIBO name, meaning "I drink" in Latin, is being reclaimed to point out the pumps' latest technical innovations. ITT Flygt For more information,

analyzer which measures 02, CO and NOx simultaneously. Featuring simplicity and accuracy, it is designed to improve combus tion efficiency and clean up environmental

Land's Slag Control System is designed to optimize efficiency of all areas in fossil fuel boilers and maximize their safe operation at the same time. Through a series of heat sensors, the system constantly monitors slag levels. By analyzing sootblowing opera tions, it can detect early tube corrosion or dryout conditions and assists in thermal

The standard CEM system consists of a Magnos 6G Oxygen Analyzer, a Uras 10 Carbon Monoxide Analyzer, the Land 4500 Opacity Monitor, a 6 channel recorder and a sample conditioning system. Westech For more information,

Circle reply card No. 196 Wastewater screen

NOx reduction. The net benefit is overall

efficiency and performance, and extended life for the boiler.

Ad Index Aer-0-Flo Alfa Laval

41 57

ICC inter. IDEXX Labs

Analytical Meas.


Int. Water Supply


54 54

Aquablast Aquaflo BEP Bestobell

Blastal Can Am Ins. Can. Ex. Man.


John Meunier


49 54 54



McGraw Hill



23 25 49

2 49


Colgate Palm.


Columbia Geo. ComEnCo




Multiplex Tech. NASST Nat. Instruments Neo Valves Norwest Labs OCPA

Conestoga Rovers


Organic Res.

Corrosion Service


Dagex Degremont


Ortech OWMC


Philip Env.

Desert Research Dezurik


Quality Control

51 74 80 43

Rotork Sanexen Env. see Env.



74 12

Sealand Sales Sendex Siemens Solinst


Env. Prot. Labs Filter Innov. Fischer & Porter

Forestry Supply GEC Alsthom



77 57 29 33 27 10 15

Georgian College Gore & Storrie

Gorman Rupp GTI Hach Heath Cons.

Ramsey Canada

Sterling Power Stormceptor T. City Iron Works Terratec

The Atlas Corp.


8, 46 5

49 35 15 55 54

38 74 7 4

Analyzer reduces emissions

Wheelahrator Engineered Systems Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 197

Modular water treatment


76 79 75 24 74 75 12


Land has developed a continuous stack gas monitoring system to detect and monitor several gases from a single sample. The

The Microfloc Trident is a pre-engineered modular water treatment plant. Capacities range from 350 to 2800 US gpm. Wheelahrator Engineered Systems Inc. For more information.

EGA Multigas Series offers a versatile

Circle reply card No. 198


54 54 73

Holden Day Wilson Hydromantis


Trimax Turblex Victaulic Wheelahrator


Wheelabrator-Rupke 17


For more information,

Circie reply card No. 193




and tested.

Westech Industrial Ltd.

53 11


HNU Systems

The Wiesemann Wiese-flo Screen has open ings from 0.039 to 0.25 in. Designed for continuous duty with stainless steel and high impact plastic construction, the screens fea ture no carry-over for municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater and raw water appli cations. The systems are factory assembled

26 5

JWC Env. Laidlaw Env.


Canwit CH2M Hill

Eco Equipment





67, 69

Environmental Science & Engineering, JuneUuly 1994

ProRoad™ ARBŽ Setting New Standards, FLEXIBILITY


ProRead ARB is the first PROGRAMMABLE encoder

- An EEPROM chip inside the register allows you to customize information at

each service. Now you can program information such as account ID, the number of

digits read and user characters. Multiple

registers can be networked to one receptacle - ideal for compound meters and meter

Available with superior moisture protection and pit mount receptacles, ProRead


ARB is ideal for harsh

The ProRead ARB Field

Programmer is user-friendly and programs in two ways. By interfacing with the register terminals or right through the receptacle, re-programming is easily done both in the meter shop and on site.

environments such as pit or vault settings. And, the receptacle may be located up to 500 feet from the ProRead register.COMPATIBILITY

ProRead ARB is backed by Schlumberger's Information Systems Guarantee assuring expandability and guaranteeing compatibility within your system today and tomorrow.

Leading encoder technology provides the most effective information

management for water utilities!

I Schlumberger iftdustries Measurement Division




6555, boul. Metropolitain est

7275 West Credit Ave

1209-59th Avenue S.E.

Misslssauga, Ontario

Suite 140

Suite 402

L5N 5M9

Calgary, Alberta

St-Leonard, Ouebec

Ph; 1-800-363-7886

T2H 2P6


Fax: 1-800-463-6383

(403) 255-0316

(514) 327-9998

For more information, Circie reply card No. 199

Complete Watep and waste Treatment Systems for the Pulp and Paper Industry



V : T



'Jj^3jijjj^jjl • Clarifiers & thickeners

• • • •

Solids-contact and flocculating clarifiers Ion-exchange systems Dissolved air flotation systems Low-speed aspirating aerators • Elastox® membrane diffusers

• Carrousel® biological oxidation systems • Granular media filters

• Beltpress filters • Filter presses

EIMCO supplies pulp and paper producers with a comprehensive offering of equipment, processes and services for water and wastewater treatment. With more

than fifty years experience in the industry's production and waste handling processes, EIMCO can provide services that range from preliminary testing and flow sheet development to turnkey installation of complete treatment systems. If your plans include an upgrade or expansion of your plant's treatment facilities we invite you to explore the benefits offered by ElMCO's unique combination of process technology and full-line manufacturing capability.

^ EIMCO Process Equipment

• Process testing & flowsheet development

• Process system design • Tankage construction • Mechanism erection

• Complete construction management

A Baker Hughes company

EIMCO Process Equipment - USA P.O. Box 300 / Salt Lake City, Utah 84110

(801) 526-2000 / FAX (801) 526-2005 EIMCO Process Equipment - Canada 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 (905)625-6070 / FAX (905) 625-3519 For more information. Circle reply card No. 231