Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1994

Page 1

Official Show Guide Issue






Focussing on Industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air poliution & drinking water treatment Serving environmental professionals across Canada

May 1994


Official Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide Anaerobic technology for municipal and industrial wastewaters Oxygen cuts costs and chlorine use in Alberta P&P mill Water metering saves capital costs at Port Elgin Air emission inventory and government regs The OWMC - three viewpoints on its future


Parts Per Million

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Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen ana

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• Continuously monitors and con trols interface level in tanks.

'Numerically dis

plays interface depth in feet, meters or percentage of total tank depth,

Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

which automatically retains a clarifier blanket interface following a disturbance, exhibits

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• Petroleum


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lyzers with features such as automatic cali bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current

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matically to maintain the desired interface

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level. The Model 2500 has no moving parts and can be virtually maintenance free. Request Bul

Request Bulletins 9010/9040 and 64/90.

letin 2500.


Circle 240 on Reader Service Card

Circle 232 on Reader Service Card

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Amperonietric Chlorine Residual Analyzer




The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an array of


Thie 1511 Zone 1 portable waste water sampler is a


unique world first — the

only electrically operated (with intrinsically safe power pack) sampler of its type which is fully

24 X 1/2 litre containers

approved for Zone 1

Typical Applications * Crude seiivage * Settled sewage

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

hazardous environments,

Check these features: \sX Economical

providing an alternative to traditional pneumatic

* Final effluent


(uses inexpensive non-toxic/non-hazardous bullet} SSf Low Maintenance

* Raw sludge

* Most industrial effluents


(seil cleaning cell)


Sf Easy to Install W Continuous sampling


STANDARDS The 1511 complies with the many international safety


EPS 1021

standards and is certified

H'Meets EPA Requirements

by BASEEFA for use in

(40CFR 138 table IB Nol/17)

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W Unaffected by pH Swings

Reader Service Card

(up to IpH)

Zone 1 environments with

the following classifica

Effluent Sampler

To MISA Specifications Circle 235 on Reader Service Card

tions, E Ex ib IIB t4.

B" Operates without need for buffer


(raw water pH up to 7.2)

B Wide Operating Range


Circle 241

(.OOtppm to tOOppm)

Auto-Pacing Valve

oi ||nni; QAMDI CD


The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a

Wide Range of Applications

□ Low cost

□ High Quality □ Easy to Install


The EpiclGIIT programmable portable

sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the

wastewater sampler

□ Universal □ Linear

□ Low feed capability □ Controls over-feeding □ L.E.D. Display □ WIN automate any gas chlorlnator

only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a

provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and Industrial

regular basis and is unique in its

ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.




A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids Including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subsequent analysis.

Typical Appllcatlons

* Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

* Mechanical dewatering device feeds

* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals

* Sea tanker loading terminals * Consolidation tank feeds

EPS 1030

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Sludge Sampler

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CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 SOUTH SERVICE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONTARIO L6L 6K3 TELEPHONE (905) 847-2740 FAX (905) 827-6984 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 220


Circle 238 on Reader Service Card

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(905) 727-4666

April/May'94 Vol.8 No. 2 Issued May, 1994


Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666


The write stuff


Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604)274-3849

Official Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide


Exhibitors, floorplan, workshop topics/speakers


Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates


How to locate those expensive watermain leaks By G. Wayne Hennigar


Submersible pumps used in two dry pit scenarios


Jim Bishop Environment Protection Laboratories Pierre Beaumier

Mann Testing Laboratories Ailan Church, C.Chem.

Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng.

Aerated biopile reduces ethylbenzene contamination in industrial soil

By Caroline Kunze and Dr. Owen Ward


Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept.

We can create jobs and protect the environment By Sheila Gopps, Deputy PM and Environment Minister


An assessment of the application of ultravioiet disinfection technology in Ontario By G.T. Eastwood, 0. Moralejo and K.W. Schmidt


Oxygen cuts costs and chlorine use in Alberta P&P mill By Sue Coates


Dr. Howard Goodfeilow

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. All advertising space orders,copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environ

Metering saves capital costs at Port Elgin


By Matthew Ferguson

"OWMC still vitally necessary," says Dr. Donald Chant -

"No it's not" replies John Jackson


A special ES&E report by Tom Davey on this timely debate. Air emission inventory and government reguiations By Tahir R. Khan, Ph.D.


Anaerobic technology - a system whose time has come?


mentalScience & Engineering,c/o Prestige Printing, 41 industriai Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G3Y5. Canadian Publications Mail Sales

ProductAgreementNo.18197 Second Class Mail

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada,by Webb Offset Publish ers Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) Send orders to: Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G5N7, Tel:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

Departments Industry Update R&D News Product Review Reader Service Card

9 42 63 12, 76

Classifieds Literature Reviews Ad Index

47 52, 77 82

Cover Story: A UK refrigeration engineering company FES International, has designed equipment that can safely use more ozone-friendly sub stances, such as propane and ammonia. As propane Is Inflammable, there are special expertises needed in devising the requisite electrical and con trol systems.

New ozone-friendly substances are being developed and the company is already designing equipment to use these.

Details: FES International Ltd., Unit 15, Airport Trading Estate, Biggin Hill, Kent, TN16 3BW, England. Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Editorial Comment

George Orwell once observed that

By Tom Davey, Publisher

The write stuff academic individuality. Guidelines for most publishing ventures have enough latitude for self-expression to suit even the most active intellectual gymnast. But papers are usually late or incom plete, and editors' entreaties are frequently ignored. Which brings us up to promises broken ones. Long after deadlines expire, it is not uncommon to find the promised papers still unwritten. In many cases, even a nine months' time span fails to produce

people get exactly the faces they deserve by the time they are fifty. Other writers and poets have de scribed movingly how life's triumphs and traumas are recorded indelibly on the hu man frame. As some of us have become

prematurely aged through editing scientific manuscripts, a review of the state-of-theart might be in order. Lord Byron said that, when he died, the word Italy would be found inscribed upon his heart, while novelist Upton Sinclair said that social justice would be etched on his. When it comes to my turn to shuffle off this mortal coil, the words'symposium proceed ings' will be etched on the wreckage of my cardiovascular system. As I have willed my body to medical research, the message will probably emerge as some young student plies his scalpel on my cadaver; the writ ing, in my case, will be on the ventricular wall.

My anguish first began years ago when editing scholarly papers. I leamed then that dealing with leamed authors can be a com bination of watch-making and baby-sitting. I had seen better organized papers in daycare centres. Some papers, ironically on

precise and highly complex subjects, were

what abortionists call a viable fetus.

handled so carelessly as to border on seman tic anarchy. It is a mystery to me how many academics - so clever and precise in math, physics, and chemistry - develop personal ity changes when writing for symposia. The problem then was compounded by a world-wide academic tendency to cling te naciously to a brand of individuality that ignores accepted editing procedures. Thus, instead of having one editorial style, say, for Abstracts, Papers, and References, sev eral score evolve, all of which must be re

constituted laboriously into some semblance of consistency. The solution would involve neither sac

rifice of intellectual virtuosity nor lack of

How is it that some hyperintelligent peo ple, some of whom are acknowledged lead ers in their profession and justly have earned international recognition by their profes sional skills, can turn in sloppy, incomplete papers which would invoke wrath in a high school teacher?

Brilliant minds, which handle effort

lessly complex scientific matters, so often flounder on office procedures which an un skilled receptionist would handle with ease. Then there are the omissions. There are

papers without abstracts; there are abstracts without papers. There are papers without titles, and there are even titles without pa pers. This is a new biological phenomenon. We have all heard of children without fa

thers - now apparently we have fathers with out children. These titles float in an aca

In North America, there's something new in the air.

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demic limbo, waiting to encounter intellec tual ova from which, after conception, will grow fully fledged papers after in vitro fer tilization in the publishing house. Sometimes the loss is exacerbated by the brilliance of the defaulting authors who, unpublished, become the mute, inglorious Miltons of applied science. Trees are mar tyred to make paper for editorial memoranda which try vainly to bring order to chaos. Now we have diskettes arriving bearing no hint of the author's name, the title of the articles, or the name of the software pro gram. Editors may have many skills but clairvoyancy is not one of them. The problem is not confined to any par ticular institution. Painful experience shows that the malady is endemic on a global ba sis. People from commercial firms, scien tists in academia, and especially officials in government agencies, apparently took the virus with them, along with their degrees. If engineers and scientists really wish to promulgate the results of their research and experiences and thus accelerate the pace of civilization, (for that is what scientific projects so often achieve), they could make a quantum leap by averting their gaze from the stars to focus on humdmm but vital com

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mon publishing procedures. If they did this, environmental profes

sionals might cope better with their many articulate but ill-informed critics, who have

confused so many complex issues while ef fective rebuttals languish in limbo because of literary ineptness. Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

industry Update NDMA causes water

advisory in Ontario community (Burlington Spectator - Feb. 12/94). The discovery of unacceptable levels of N-nitroso

dimethylamine(NDMA)in Cayuga's drink ing water supply has resulted in an "advi sory" to the village's 1300 residents. The advisory warns against using the water for drinking and cooking. Cayuga draws its water from the Grand River. This is the

two weeks without water defied the critics

to come up with a practical alternative. As an example, in the Region of Water

homes and 200 Guelph homes running their taps constantly. Homeowners will be billed for historical average use rather than actual consumption. In Hamilton-Wentworth Re gion, officials told every one of their 150,000 customers to run taps constantly. In Kin cardine, 75% of the town's 2800 homes

opened their taps, says CWWA Newsletter.

BCWWA Operators' Training Workshop

dioxin scare in the water.

frozen services Ontario homes (even southern Ontario) ran taps 24 hours a day to prevent water serv ices from freezing as the recent deep freeze drove frost 1 to 2 feet deeper than normal. Hundreds of frozen services occurred in

every community, with waiting periods of up to two weeks to have services thawed. Some environmentalists criticized the

continuous flow from taps as an unneces sary wastage. Public Works officials and homeowners who suffered through one to


loo, there were 270 Kitchener homes, 250 to 350 Cambridge homes, 55 Waterloo

second time in 2 years that NDMA has been detected above the provincial guideline of 9 parts per trillion. Last year, there was a

Water "wasted" to fight

For details call the British Columbia

Water & Wastewater Association, (604)

This workshop, held May 15-20 in Vancou ver, will be directed towards improving op erators', inspectors' and supervisors' under standing of their jobs in water and wastewater operations. The program will cover many aspects of wastewater treatment, wastewater collection

and water distribution systems. Three classes will be run concurrently allowing participants to choose areas of interest. The workshop will be of assistance to operators who intend to write level 1 certi fication exams. (It is recommended that ad ditional study be undertaken before attend ing the workshop.)

Major hazwaste facility for Manitoba Glen Cummings, Manitoba Minister of the Environment,has signed an initial agree ment between the Manitoba Hazardous




(MHWMC) and a consortium of Ontario environmental companies to develop theprovince's central hazardous waste man agement facility to be known as the Mani toba Environment Centre (MEG). A new company,Industrial Ecology Inc. (lEI), in conjunction with its associates.

Environmental Technologies Development Corporation(ETDC)and the Altech Group, will earn a 50% share in a new joint ven ture business with the MHWMC in return

for financing, designing and constructing a state-of-the-art $20 million physical-chemi cal hazardous waste treatment facility at a site about 60 miles south of Winnipeg. The MEC site is fully licensed and the project enjoys the strong support and cooperation of the local community. The province will retain ownership of the site. The MHWMC already operates a large bloremediation facility and a transfer sta tion at the MEC site.


The Stormceptor System "The Stormceptor System'^' is installed in storm sewers to separate oil and sediment from stormwater flows."

Stormceptor™ Benefits: • removes high concentrations of fine and coarse sediment from stormwater flow • removes 100% of non-emulsified oil

spilled into the storm sewer during design flow conditions

• patented design protects contents from scouring during high volume stormflows


• uncomplicated installation & maintenance


• conveniently installed in place of conventional inspection manholes

installation in progress.

• fully tested at Environment Canada's National Water Research Institute

Stormceptor™ Applications: • applied in-line or as an inlet control device at:

view of trapped oil in Stormceptor'" treatment chamber.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


• commercial parking lots • industrial properties • petroleum service stations

Stormceptor Canada Inc.

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Industry Update Ontario 3Rs Regs,

Drier forests possibile New findings just published show that plants in a future "greenhouse" atmosphere may breath out less water vapour than pre viously predicted. The outcome could be a world with reduced cloud formation and less rain.

This and other discoveries are revealed

in the first report by the UK Natural Envi ronment Research Council on its ÂŁ 13 mil

lion terrestrial initiative in global environ mental research, known as TIGER for short. The report confirms that research groups have successfully linked computer models of processes at the land surface to meteoro logical climate prediction models, and stresses the importance of modelling a for est's "breathing apparatus" accurately. A simple climate model predicted nearly 10 percent more evaporation and three percent more rainfall over the tropical rainforest in a future high carbon dioxide environment.

Canadian Public Works Association to meet in Moncton The 1994 Canadian Public Works Confer

ence and Equipment Show will be held at the Hotel Beausejour, Moncton, NB, June 12-15. "Coping in the 90's: New Realities in Public Works" is the conference theme.

Ontario's businesses, industries and most

The two instrumented TIGER research

1-800-668-9938 or in Toronto at 326-5300.

853-3525, Fax: (506) 853-3543.

others in Amazonia, West and Sahelian Af rica, and Canada.

signer for International Harvester and served 2 years in the Royal Engineers prior to fil ing his first patent in 1956 for the cement mortar lining of drains. The invention of Insituform resulted when Eric Wood was contacted about the

possibility of reinforcing piping systems without disruption. Since then, over 20 million feet of pipe have been rebuilt world wide using Insituform.

New CWWA President A former Water Environment Association

Ground water research network announced The Atlantic Canada Groundwater Network,

led by staff of Memorial University in New foundland, has been announced. Universi ties will be the main participants with start

up funding provided by the federal govern ment. The Network's intent is to improve research and development in groundwater sciences. Priority will be given to educat ing students and informing the public on important groundwater issues.

vert as much as 2 million tonnes of waste a

year; the equivalent of 200,000 truckloads every year or 40 million garbage cans full of waste that won't be going to landfdls. The provincial goal is to reduce the amount of waste going to disposal by at least 50 per cent by the year 2000 compared to the amount disposed of in 1987. Copies of the Official 3Rs Regulations are available at

of Ontario President, Doug McTavish re ceived the CWWA presidential gavel from outgoing President Camille Charette(Mon treal, PQ) at the association's annual din ner on February 3. He recently completed a distinguished career with Ontario's Min istry of Environment and Energy,and is now the Director, Great Lakes Regional Office (Windsor,ON),International Joint Commis sion. He emphasized that the association was entering a particularly challenging pe riod for dealing with national water and wastewater issues.

Kicking the bucket American style A US Congressman has proposed legisla tion which would require buckets to bear warning labels. New Jersey Democrat Frank Pallone proposed a federal law requiring buckets over four US gallons in capacity to bear labels, warning parents that the recep tacles could be hazardous to their children. He told the House in December that chil

dren have been drowned in buckets. Even

buckets containing a small amount of liq uid are dangerous when left unattended, he said.

His Bill was aimed specifically at buck ets with four to six US gallon capacities. California already has such a requirement and New York is considering one.

Canada joins more than 80 nations in

agreement on global environment facility Canada has joined more than 80 nations in supporting a groundbreaking agreement on the Global Environment Facility (GEF), a

Rebate for water

$2 billion fund to help developing countries

insituform inventor


address environmental problems. The agreement,reached March 16 in Ge

dies in plane crash

The Greater Victoria Water District has in

neva, builds on commitments at the United

Eric Wood, inventor of the Insituform proc ess for reconstruction of underground pip ing without excavation, was killed in Janu ary in a private plane crash in the United Kingdom. The plane, piloted by Eric's son,Stephen, exploded in mid-air over Bloxwich, West Midlands, England. The 59-year-old inventor was a gradu ate of Harper Adams College in the U.K. with a degree in Mechanical Engineering. He started his work career as a product de 10

municipalities will be required to implement waste reduction programs under new envi ronmental regulations announced by Envi ronment and Energy Minister Bud Wildman. The five 3Rs Regulations became law March 3. The new requirements will di

sites in the UK are being complemented by

For more information contact: Ron LeBlanc,

City of Moncton Engineering, Tel: (506)

now in effect

but when the rainforest was described more

realistically, a new chain of causes and ef fects was started, leading to less water be ing available for cloud formation, and less evaporation and rain. Two large solar domes,rather like green houses, are being used to rear plants in an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, while other soil and vegetation warming experi ments are studying how plant litter decom position and insects react in a warmer, pos sibly more drought-prone environment. Arrays of UV-B lamps have also been placed over sample plots to mimic the effect of ozone depletion and to observe directly the ecological impact of increased ultraviolet light.

troduced a program to give $ 100 to home

Nations Conference on Environment and

owners who switch to ultra-low-flow toilets,

Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It provides for replenishment of the GEF's resources, enabling it to become a permanent mechanism to deal with issues such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, pollution of international waters and ozone depletion.

taps and shower nozzles. All fixtures must be converted to qualify. The rebate will cover about 1/3 of the cost of a full retrofit, says CWWA. Water rates will be increased to pay for the program, to be identified on the water

bill as a "demand management surcharge" (7%). The conservation program could de fer the construction of a $20 million water

treatment plant by 3 years and cut water con sumption by 12 to 15 percent.

Canada has committed $112 million to

the GEF,to be disbursed over ten years. This follows up on Canada's signing at UNCED of the global Conventions on Biodiversity and Climate Change.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

windows? When it comes to maintaining your process turbidimeter, cleaning a glass sample cell can be a troublesome, time-consuming chore. That's why Hach : designed its 1720C Turbidimeter without one. So there's no condensation and ^


filming. No accumulation of dirt and residue. No glass to clean.



A few other things you won't get with our innovative turbidimeter design are gas ; bubbles, stray light problems,false high turbidity readings, and loss of sensitivity at low turbidity levels. There's also no need for desiccants or air purge systems.




Hach's 1720C Turbidimeter gives you: ■ Quick and easy calibration , ■ Two fully-independent, set-point alarm systems ■ Selectable recorder output ■ Self-test diagnostics ■ Accuracy ± 2% from 0-30 NTU


Here's how we ~ eliminated the window

■ A design that meets criteria specified in U'SEPA Method 180.1 ■ Two-year warranty, manual, and technical support

The sample stream enters : the 1720C through bubbleventing babies and overSowsaweir,whlch

■ NEMA 4X control unit enclosure

■ Compliance: 1720C is ETL listed to UL1262; ETL certified to CSA 22.2 No. 142; and bears the CE mark.


forms an optically Sat surface. Light then passes through this Sat surface to an immersed detector.

Hach 1720: The most widely used on line turbidimeter In the world. For more information, request literature number 4529. Call 1-303-669-3050 or write: HACM COMPANY PO. Box 389

Loveland, Colorado 80539

Sales outlets throughout Canada I Service Centre In Winnipeg For more information, Circle reply card No. 217

Fax 1-303-669-2932

Industry Update Moncton water plant attracts private Investors Moncton city council has received several inquiries from private developers who would like to build a proposed $26 million Turtle Creek water treatment plant, then lease it back to the city. Staff will conduct a study comparing the costs of financing the project in a conventional manner to a pub lic-private partnership.

B.C. researches

Farmers urged to

vironment. Bacteria, however,grow and re produce very rapidly with their life span

being measured in days not years. This

convert to wetlands

means that bacteria can adapt to changing environments very rapidly. To grow and

Up to 3% of agricultural land should be con

reproduce they must eat, and if the only food available happens to be diesel fuel then

water quality goals, says Robert Kadlec, chairman oflAWQ's specialist group on the use of macrophytes in water pollution con trol. By changing land use, the quality of water in agricultural river basins can be improved, he says. Building wetlands is the only feasible solution to rural water pollution by pasture

verted to wetlands to meet even modest

sooner or later some of the bacteria will "learn" how to use this as a food source.

Among the many types of bacteria,some types need oxygen to survive (aerobic bac teria) while others will only survive in an oxygen free environment (anaerobic bacte ria). Dr. Matthew Crowe and his associ

runoff, argues Kadlec. The value of land

ates at BC Research have worked exten

bacteria for wastewater

sively on developing processes that use bac teria to biodegrade chemicals that can cause


harm to the environment. "One such proc ess, sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment

used to protect rivers is not lost as the cost will be offset by savings on other pollution control measures.

Keeping animals out of rivers, setting up buffer strips along stream corridors, re-es tablishing riverine wetlands, cleaning up

process (SAAT)," says Dr. Crowe "can be The process of "bioremediation" (biologi cal cleaning)a method for cleaning soils and groundwater aquifers contaminated through industrial land use, is becoming increasingly

popular. Bacteria can consume gasoline and diesel oils in soil and, under certain condi

tions, will even consume chemical bacteriocides and fungicides such as pentachlorophenol, used for many years as a wood preservative. It appears a paradox that living organ isms can thrive in such an unwelcoming en

anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that have

been 'taught' to use the contaminants in impure water as a food source. When the

Centrifugal docsntcrs waste sludge

ately, he says. Water Quality International, Nov. 2, 1993

bacteria have 'graduated' from the labora tory they can be put to work in a treatment

plant." Dr. Crowe adds that "the SAAT process has been shown to be effective for treating kraft mill effluent at both bench and pilot-scale. The next step is to demonstrate the process at a full-scale treatment plant."

Improved Thickening and Dewatering of Waste Sludge for Mdwnlng and dowatering

point discharges from agribusiness, improv ing municipal wastewater treatment and using best management practices for fields, are among steps that can be taken immedi

used to treat effluents or contaminated

groundwater. The SAAT process uses both

This comprehensive brochure pro vides details on the newest technol

ogy in high solids centrifugation forthe thickening of waste activated sludge and dewatering of digested sludge. Centrico/Westfalia Separator,a world leader with 100 years experience in centrifugal separation technology, has created a new generation of high sol ids decanters that produce dryer cake solids, thus reducing disposal costs, with no emission of aerosols.

Centrico Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No.218

Complete or attach business card and bring this pass with you for complimentary on-site tradeshow registration (not valid for conference sessions.)

Letters Dear Mr. Davey: Please send me a second copy of your January issue, mine was routed. I plan to use your editorial in an upcoming presenta tion to the Ministry of the Environment. Of all the environmental publications that run by my desk ES&E is my favourite and I es pecially enjoy your witty and common sense editorials. W.T. denBak

Huntsville, Ontario

Excellent issue, especially article on Ontario Drinking Water Surveillance Program. Sidney Joseph, Ontario


Name Title







City Province/ Postal Code Business Phone

Managed and Produced by. Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. (403)469-2400 FAX (403)469-1398



May 10 & 11, 1994 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily TORONTO INTERNATIONAL CENTRE 6900 Airport Road, Mississauga, Ontario

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

The Toronto Environmental Show Guide

The 8th Annual Toronto Environmental

Tradeshow & workshops/conference Toronto International Centre of Commerce,

6900 Airport Road, Mississauga, Ontario May 10 and 11,1994 As in the past, we anticipate there will be over 4,000 professional environmental people from many nations attending our tradeshow and conference. This tradeshow, which originated in 1987, is not only the first of its kind to be held in Canada but is also the

oldest ongoing environmental tradeshow in Canada. The popularity of this event reflects the excellent results ob tained by exhibitors in previous years. Whether you are an environmental equipment manu facturer, a service company,an industry technician or one of the thousands of domestic or international attendees,

we wish you every success as a result of your attendance this year. Tom McCaffrey, President Canadian Exhibition Management Inc.

Last year, the tradeshow and accompanying workshops attracted the highest number of attendees and delegates since its inception in 1987 (as "Haztech"). Compare the quality of our speakers with other envi ronmental conferences in Toronto, and you'll see that there's no more convenient or cost-effective way to: - ensure you and your staff receive necessary environmen tal and hazardous materials training; - update your environmental management skills; - attend practical, hands-on due diligence workshops; and - see the latest in pollution control technology. The number and configuration of workshop sessions offered allows participants the choice of a wide range of targeted environmental training and professional devel opment opportunities. Tom Davey,Publisher Environmental Science & Engineering

Tradeshow Exhibitors 3M Canada Inc.


Booth Personnel: Mark Hughes, Jamie Black, Dave Velikonja, Bruce Coull, Steve Grantier, Bill Westgate Products/services: Petroleum sorbents, main tenance sorlrents, chemical sorbents. Many new

products within each of these three families of sorbents from 3M for 1994. New: Wringer for sorbents and a new sorbent dispenser, just in

Ambio Biofiltration Ltd.


removing scale incrustations from the interior

Booth Personnel: Calvin Pride

surfaces of heat exchange equipment. Fits all

Products/services: Air pollution control equip ment and technology.

units for oil well and oil refineries. Treats for

pipe sizes 1/8" to 60" in. diameter. Special power paraffin,asphaltine, and calcium carbonate scale

Anachemia Science #249 Booth Personnel: Ian Johnson, Paul Sterritt,

with success.

Arcturus Environmental


John Smiciklas, Glenn Carnegie, Marilyn Browne

Booth Personnel: Alan Parker, Andy Panko,

troduced. Our innovative 5000/6000/7000

Products/services: Distributors of chemicals,


instrumentation and consumable products for

Tony DiFruscio, Mike Osborne, Tony Hawke Products/services: Offer a broad range of en

A.F. Pollution Abatement

Systems Inc.


Booth Personnel: Ronald Myers, Mike Myers, Gerald Fair Products/services: Oclansorb oil sorbents, 3M

synthetic sorbents, Myers above-ground waste oil storage systems, Spill Response Stations, Abanaki Oil Skimmer, permanent oil booms. ACG Technology Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Neil Ryan Products/services: Oil water separation equip ment. Wastewater treatment equipment. Labo ratory services. Alberta Economic Development & Tourism


Booth Personnel: Tren Cole

Alrange Container Services


Booth Personnel: Chris Cornwall Products/services: Portable hazardous mate

analytical laboratory application. Ohaus bal

vironmental services from our offices in Toronto,

ances, Orion meters, Brinkmann products,

Ottawa, Niagara Falls, Thunder Bay, Montreal and Buffalo, N.Y. Arcturus performs compre

Horiba water quality checker,Eagle-Aemer precleaned sample containers, Anachemia chemi cals, environmental-grade acids, organic & in organic standards. Anachemia Solvents

- Div. of Fielding Chemicals Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Jack McGregor, Ian MacGregor, Russ Poppe, Glenn Webber, Keith Yuen, William Feng Products/services: Solvent recycling and dis posal services. Separation of solvents which have been mixed through mishap. New: Recy cling of gaseous chlorofluoro carbons.

Booth Personnel: Adriano Russo

Barringer Laboratories


Beachvilime Limited Booth Personnel: Steve Brookshaw


Products/services: Lime (CaO) and limestone products. #233

Booth Personnel: Vicki Hall


Products/services: Sales of immunoassay test

Booth Personnel: Frans W.J. Stamm'ler

kits for field testing of environmental contami

Products/services: Ambient air gas monitors and analyzers (portable and fixed).

nants, ie. PCB's,PHCs,PCP's. BioQuest Environmental

Aqua Magnetics International, Inc.

Products/services: Chemical locker.


Bioman Products Inc.

Analygas Systems, A Division of Inspectech Analygas Group Inc.

rials storage units. Alstel Industries Inc.

hensive environmental site assessments; waste

audits; underground storage tank investigations; spill response, cleanups and monitoring; plant decommissioning and site cleanups; planning and land use studies; and sampling and analy



Booth Personnel: Roland Carpenter Products/services: Manufactures a complete line of magnetic power units for preventing and

Company Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Dave Simpson, Wayne

Simpson, Dave Wood, Carl Oppenheimer Products/services: Bioremediation.

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994






company's WASTE WAS YOUR

ACCOUNTANT? Now it's three levels of government; your shareholders; yonr children; environmental groups from here to Timbuktu, and yes, there's still yonr accountant.

And us. We're Chem-Security and we make things easy for you. Our waste management facihty has just undergone a $100 milhon expansion making it unique iu North America and a global model for efficient,

environmentally responsible treatment. This, together with our end-to-end collection and transportation systems, ensure total safety and convenience. Our

guarantee of liahdity removal through treatment, underlines onr coimnitment to safeguarding the environ ment and keeps yon in your accountant's good hooks. For more about how Chem-Security takes hazardous waste problems off your hands - and your mind, call us in Calgary at (403) 235-8300, or in Edmonton at (403) 955-9462. ALBERTA SPECIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OPERATED BY CHEM-SECURITY(ALBERTA)LTD.

You've got better things to worry about than waste For more information, Circie reply card No. 160




The Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide Biorern Technologies Inc.


Canadian Environmental Directory

Chem King


Products/services: The Canadian Environ

Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd.


mental Directory.

Booth Personnel: Peter Colak, David Henderson, Adrienne Turner

Booth Personnel: Caroline Kunze,

Booth Personnel: Peter Asselstine

Brian Heriver Products/services: Bioremediation of contami

nated soil using biopile and landfarming, de velopment of reactor-based processes, biofeasibility and lab research studies. Focus on plasticizers, petroleum hydrocarbons,PAH's,


Booth Personnel: Ian Stuart

Canadian Exhibition

antl VOC's.

Blinard Inc.

Canadian Environmental Protection



Management Inc. #366 Booth Personnel: Bruce Day, Linda Schreurs Products/services: Producers of Canada-wide

Booth Personnel: Marc Chouinard

Products/services: NOGSYS(Nascent Oxygen Generating System) water treatment units. Oxidation. Used for cooling towers, effluents, iron removal, pools, etc. Competitors: Ozone, UV,chemicals, etc.

tradeshows for the environmental control, oil & gas, and oil sands mining industries. Canlon Limited


Booth Personnel: Bill Orr, Earl Wetmore, Mike Aurini



Booth Personnel: Michelle Gagnon, Jean Kneale

Products/services: For anyone who needs sci entific or technical information, the C.l.S.T.I,

booth is a must. Our information specialists can search world-wide to find who is doing what in all aspects of environmental science, engi neering and medicine. We have North Ameri ca's best collection of journals, books, confer ence papers and technical reports, as well as

Products/services: Facet patented MPak en hanced gravity coalescing plate separators ca pable of reducing free oil contamination to be low 10 ppm. Also on display will be the series of two stage filter separators and the New CIF crushable filter cartridge designed to reduce cartridge disposal costs by as much as 80%.

Central Projects Group Inc.


engineers. #347

Workshop #1 Environmental Management: Proven Prin ciples, Policies & Practices Featured speakers include John Phyper and Ed Arnold. Coordinated by the Training & Education Committee of the Canadian En

Products/services: American Sigma samplers and flowmeters, Arjay level and fiow products, McTighe separators and Photovac VOC moni

vironmental Auditing Association (CEAA).

Workshop #2 Using the Environmental Audit as a Man agement Tool Featured speakers: Don Fraser, President, Canadian Environmental


Booth Personnel: Eileen Bowser

Auditing Association (CEAA), Mike Kacsor (Member CEAA Training & Education Committee).

Workshop #3 Canada Soil Exchange Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Robert Wendt

Products/services: Remediation of hydrocar bon contaminated soil by low temperature ther mal desorption.

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety


Conference/workshop program

Booth Personnel: Mark Reeves

Services Ltd.


Contor Terminals Inc.

Charlton Communications Inc.

CAN-ROSS Environmental

Clemmer Industries Limited

Booth Personnel: Gary Allen Products/services: PCB, hazardous materials and chemical storage units from two to 120 drums storage capacity. Standard designs and custom design storage buildings offered. Fire

Booth Personnel: Tara Norman


Products/services: Collect, transport and ar range for disposal of hazardous waste.

Products/services: Environmental consulting

ices offered by the National Research Council of Canada through C.I.S.T.I.



Booth Personnel: R.A. de Vries

out more about these resources and the serv

CAN-AM Instruments Ltd.

Chem-Serv Associates Inc. Booth Personnel: Susan Bellhouse

Booth Personnel: Mike Walsh

access to hundreds of online databases. Find

Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. #206 Booth Personnel: Antonio Scarpi Products/services: Activated carbon products systems and services.

Products/services: As the contracted operator of the Alberta Special Waste Management Sys tem, Chem-Security provides collection, trans fer, treatment and disposal services for most hazardous wastes including PCB's. At North America's first fully integrated hazardous treat ment facility, applied technologies include two rotary kiln incinerators, solidification and stabilization, physical chemical treatment, se cure landfill and deep well injection of treated aqueous waste. A patented PCB Transformer Recycling Furnace destroys waste PCB residues and produces recyclable metals.

Communicating with the Ministry: Setting up a Strategic Environmental Com munications Program Featured speakers include: P. Douglas Petrie (Willms & Shier) - Chair; Andrew McDougail (Environmental Software Asso ciates).

ited); Mark Madras, (Gowling Strathy & Henderson); Steve Black (Gore & Storrie) and John Mclrvine (Proctor & Redfern).

Workshop #8 Profit from Waste ReductlonI -A Hands-on

Guide to Waste Reduction Auditing & Plan ning Presenters: Moira Rosser,(Recycling Coun cil of Ontario), and Pat McEwen (McEwen Waste Management Consultants).

Workshop #9 Spills: Management, Reporting, Response & Clean-up Workshop Leader: Cliff Holland, President, Spill Management Inc.

Workshop #10 Storage Tank Management: Complying with the New Code

Featured speakers include: J. Michael Osborne, Arcturus Environmental and P. Douglas Petrie, Willms & Shier.

Workshop #4

Workshop #11

Booth Personnel: Laurie Tirone

Negotiating with the Ministry

Assessment & Management of

Products/services: Electronic information on

Chaired by John R. Willms(Willms & Shier)

Contaminated Sites

CD-ROM (Compact Disc - Read Only Memory),including MSDS,chemical informa tion,advisory and regulatory information, multi media training packages. New products include

Workshop #5

Workshop Leaders: Bruce Powers, David Hopper and Brett Ibbotson of Angus Envi

Meeting Due Diligence Requirements Un

ronmental Limited.


Noise Levels on diskette, NIOCH manual of analytical methods on diskette. C Environmental


Booth Personnel: Murray Gamble, Bart Ranters

Products/services: Containment, control and corrective action technologies. Including sec ondary containment systems, groundwater cut


Workshop Leader: Jan Chymyck,President, CANWIT CONSULTING Corporation.

Workshop #6

Workshop #12 PCBs: Management Transport, Disposal, & Remediation

New Transport of Dangerous Goods Train ing - Focus on the New Changes

Workshop Leader: Dr. Eric Smith, President, PCB Disposal Inc.

Workshop Leader: Jan Chymyck,PresidenL CANWIT CONSULTING Corporation. Fundamentals of Environmental Audits

For further details, please contact: Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)

Presenters: Les Johnston (M.M. Dillon Lim


Workshop #7

off walls and bioremediation.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide rated and explosion proof units provided as re quired. Building structures can be supplied with or without flooring to rnaxiinize application flexibility and minimize costs. Cortil Industries Ltd.

Enviroclean Laboratories Inc.


Booth Personnel: Tibor Kompp, John Bangsi Products/services: Consulting, design, manu facturing. installation, maintenance for air and wastewater purification systems. Dames & Moore, Canada

cabon filters.

Florida Department of Commerce,


Booth Personnel: David A. McRae

Office of International Trade

Products/services:Environmental testing labo ratory analyzing all forms of industrial dis

and Development Larry March

Products/services: Works with Canadian


Environment Canada, Great Lakes Cleanup Fund Booth Personnel: Gladys Locke

remediation/env. audits./env. engineering & waste management/env. assessment, planning, regulatory compliance/hydrogeology/surface water/air quality.

Environmental Auditors Limited

Delsan Environmental Group #222 Booth Personnel: John Organ Products/services: Decommissioning and en

Environmental Science &

vironmental remediation services.


Booth Personnel: Sean Fitzpatrick, John W. Hawley, Enzo Silano

agents, importers and distributors to match with Florida companies offering products to the Ca nadian market. The Canadian office also pro


Products/services: Great Lakes Cleanup Fund.

vides assistance to Canadian firms who are in

terested in expanding operations to Florida as an advantage for U.S. and Latin American mar


ket distribution.

Booth Personnel: Mark Farrell

Prtxlucts/services: Brochures, flyer, newslet

Fox Environmental


Product.s/services: Well Wizard速.Sample Pro速, Pulse Pump速 & Hydropunch速.

Engineering Magazine #205 Booth Personnel: Steve Davey Products/services: Bi-monthly magazine cov ering Canada's municipal and industrial envi ronmental protection industry. Over 19,000 key figures with specifying influence read this maga

French Trade Commission

Products/services: Documentation on technol

ogy and equipment from France. Fryston Canada Inc.


Kennedy. Jon Dorrington. Mike Brandon, Willena Redden,"JP" Clough Product.s/services: Hach Company - water quality testing equipment-on-line, laboratory and portable. Spencer Turbine Co. - industrial vacuum and process systems for environmen

Booth Personnel: Carl Christie

Products/services: CEM Catalyst.



Booth Personnel: Robert Greer

Products/services: Laboratory supplies, sam ple containers, chemicals,environmental stand ards and samples.


Booth Personnel: Ian Stewart. Jackie

EPA Enterprises

Dynavent Inc. #309 Booth Personnel: Guy Hebert Products/services: Portable steel building for the storage and handling of hazardous mate


Booth Personnel: Danielle Dostert


self contained tank. Specialize in the manu facturing of liquid storage tanks.


Booth Personnel: Teresa Ratliff

Products/services: Waste oil tank, dike tank,

Eagle - Picher Industries, Inc.


Booth Personnel: Kemeli R. Prskalo,


Booth Personnel: Linda Wrong Products/services: Site decommissioning and

DTE Industries Limited

Products/services: Liquid and vapor phase

Products/services: Waste Business Magazine. Haz Pages Directory.

Facet International, Inc. #248 Booth Personnel: Bill Orr. Earl Wetmore, Mike Aurini

tal control. Smith Environmental - V.O.C. and

Products/services: Facet patented MPak en hanced gravity coalescing plate separators ca pable of reducing free oil contamination to be low 10 ppm. Also on display will be the series of two stage filter separators and the New CIF crushable filter cartridge designed to reduce car tridge disposal costs by as much as 80%.

odour emission control. Trojan Technologies UV water purification systems. Waste Gosludge and grease reduction and control for sew age treatment plants, sewers, grease traps, etc. (Non-Poisonous. Non-Caustic, Non-Acid).

Gator Environmental Options


Booth Personnel:CO Ed Summerfield

Eco-Lands Publishing


Booth Personnel: Matthew Keegan

Filcorp Industries


Products/services: Oil Gator absorbent /

remediation agent.

Booth Personnel: Frank Simms

To Ontario, French & Vancouver Rooms100

104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126



140 142 144 146


150 152 154 156 158




105 107 109 111

113 115


204 206 208 210 212 214


123 125 127 129 131 133 135 137


151 153 155 157 159



O 3

161 222

226 228 230 232 234 236 238 242

248 250 252 254 256 258





205 207 209 211

213 215



227 229 231 233 235 237 239 241


249 251 253 255 257 259




326 328 330


348 350 352 354 356 358

261 300




AISLE 300 301

305 307




331 333 335 337 339 341 343 345 347 349 351

353 355 357 359 361 363

To Laurentian A & B & Media Rooms


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide General Carbon Corp.


Booth Personnel: Robert J. Muller, Robert F. Muller, Kim Muller, Carol Muller, Steven Wang Products/services: A full service activated car

bon company. Our product line includes acti vated carbon made from coal,coconut shell and

wood for the purification of both vapor and liq uid streams. We also carry a complete line of carbon filtration equipment including vessels, panels and our popular 55-gallon cannisters. In addition, we can provide a custom reactivation

Hazardous Materials Mgmt. #326 Booth Personnel: Arnie Gess, Stephanie Foster, Todd Latham, Guy Crittenden Products/services: Publishers of Hazardous

Materials Management magazine,the Canadian publication of pollution prevention & control. We are also a major sponsor for the across Canada training program, "Canadian Environ mental Workshops". Hazco Canada Inc.

tation and respiratory equipment.

engineering services are also available.


Geostructure Instruments Inc.


Booth Personnel: Jacques Bourbonnais Products/services:Site remediation equipment. Remote monitoring equipment.


Booth Personnel: Michael Geiger Products/services: Magic Sorb is a highly ef fective sorbent capable of absorbing liquids in cluding virtually all chemicals, oils, acids, caustics, alcohols, solvents, toxins, paints and PCB's. Magic Sock has several uses including use around leaking equipment, containment of emergency spills, and protection of drains from spilled liquids.


Booth Personnel: Marta LaForest Products/services: Environmental instrumen

service for spent activated carbon and changeout services for carbon filtration equipment contain ing spent carbon. Carbon related laboratory and

ITW Devcon Environmental

Keith Manufacturing Company Booth Personnel: Michele Larocque,


Gregory K. Lair #216

Booth Personnel: Bob Martindale, Hani Saleh, Steve Lohman, Miro Donabedian, Peter Morawetz, Joe Ventura, Pierre Khoury

Products/services: Hazard material storage buildings & lockers. Econ emergency show

Products/services: The world leader in the

design and manufacture of Walking FloorÂŽ" tech nology will display pictures and video of the latest applications for the Keith"'Walking FloorÂŽ unloading system in the waste/environmental industry.

ers. Environmental instrumentation.

Golder Associates Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Michael Velluso

Products/services: Areas of expertise that Golder Associates Ltd. offer to industry, govemment and the legal and financial communi ties include: risk assessment, strategic environ mental planning, environmental management, environmental impact assessments, site en hancement & restoration, biological/biophysi cal assessments, water resource management, water and air quality, waste management, ar chaeological services, socio-economic assess ment and public consultation. Gouvernement Du Quebec #332 Booth Personnel: Bertin Tremblay Products/services: Various suppliers of prod ucts and services from Quebec. Harold Marcns Limited


Hazmark Inc. Booth Personnel: Ben Beaulieu


Products/services: Compliance markings, TDG placards, NFPA, WHMIS, workplace safety signs & labels. Regulatory compliance training and consulting services. Hoskin Scientific Limited


Booth Personnel: Jon Matheson

Products/services: Water quality monitoring, sampling & testing instrumentation. Air qual ity monitoring instrumentation. Hydrophilic Industries Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Cliff Lieuwen

Products/services: Environmental grade PVC groundwater monitoring, well equipment, cas ing, screen.


Booth Personnel: John Scott

Industrial Environmental

Products/services: Transportation services.

Supply Inc. #300 Booth Personnel: Richard E. Salem, Jim Bums, Gary Terry, Stu Ferguson, Cheryl Pressley Products/services: SCAT secondary contained above ground tanks for the collection, storage and/or dispensing of flammable liquids.

170 172 174 176 178 180


Kuh Coatings #100 Booth Personnel: Brent Bolger Products/services: Paint recycling and manu facturing. Lakefield Research

ices to all environmental stake holders. For over

50 years we have been providing a variety of services to the mining and mineral processing industries and have completed over 5,000 projects around the world. Our facilities in Lakefield,Ontario can provide both bench scale and pilot plant testing, to solve even the most difficult environmental problem. This ability is further supported by our fully staffed and CAEAL accredited environmental and analyti cal laboratory. Our teams of biologists, hydrogeologists,geologists,chemists,engineers, mineral processing experts, technicians and health and safety personnel, provide a high level of in-house testing expertise, to meet your needs.

Liquid Level Controls

Industry And Science Canada Booth Personnel: Philippe Lalonde


Intelex Press Inc.



Booth Personnel: Patrick Devlin, Joel Reid, Richard Wagner, Dave Hevenor, Wade Stogran, Roch Marion Products/services: Offers a unique combina tion of consulting, testing and analytical serv


Booth Personnel: John Grimes

Products/services: Fluid measurement sys tems.

167 266

171 173 175 177 179 181 270 272 274 276 278 280

183 282


271 273 275 277 279 281



370 372 374 376 378 380


367 369 371 373




Booth Personnel: Ted Grunau, Andrew Jaine, Michael Homick, Sonia Grunau,

Loraday Environmental

Gloria Phibbs

Products Ltd.

Products/services: LEAF(Local Environmen tal Assessment Facility), is a windows based software package designed to help companies understand and assess their compliance with current provincial and federal environmental legislation. A set of self-assessment question naires guides the user through the major areas ofenvironmental concem including: Emergency plans, air emissions, water discharges, hazard ous waste, waste storage, waste transportation, storage tanks, and PCB's. Immediate feedback and assistance regarding compliance is provided throughout the assessment process. A detailed reference section provides summaries of basic environmental, health and safety legislation. Other system utilities include a database of en vironmental contacts, a glossary ofenvironmen tal terms and acronyms, and a waste classifica

Booth Personnel: Peter Lorimer

(Ottawa) and Haney (B.C.). OHS training -


contaminated sites.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


Products/services: XSorb absorbents.

M.J. International


Booth Personnel: Mike Silver

Products/services: Industrial sorbents, spill control equipment.

Magellan Engineering Consultants / OETIO #124 Booth Personnel: Paul Butler, Duke Butler, Kevin Reed, Todd Gonet Products/services: Environmental science,

engineering, management consultants. Occu pational Health & Safety / Occupational Hy giene. OETIO Hazmat centres at Morrisburg


Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide Maple Leaf Environmental Equipment Ltd.

PCB Disposal Inc. #341

Booth Personnel: Bruce Lounsbury, Bob Kennedy, Fred Allen, Robert Kulhawy Products/services: Groundwater pump and treat systems, soil vapour extraction, catalytic oxidation, industrial wastewater treatment and

industrial air pollution control equipment. New: "Enviromaster" submersible groundwater pump, economical new active skimming systems and catalytic oxidizers for chlorinated solvents.


Booth Personnel: Dr. Eric A.H. Smith, Tim Noonan, Pat Moran

Products/services: PCB management & de struction materials & services.

Philip Environmental Inc.


Plastics Canada


Booth Personnel: Tom Richard

Products/services: Plastic tanks and SureMarine Container Services Inc.


Grip® concrete liner.

Booth Personnel: Dory Tuvim Products/services: Environmental container

for storage of hazardous materials. MBB-TRECAN



REMEDIATION, WASTE AND EFFLUENTS TREATMENT Complete testingfacilities for: • Site Evaluation and Characterization

• Use of proven Mineral Processing and Hydrometallurgical Technologies • Development and application of New Technologies • Bench, Pilot Plant Testing and Flow Sheet Development • Soils Remediation, including Physical and Chemical Separation Technologies • Water Treatment including Solid/Liquid Separation, Dissolved Contaminant Removal • CABAL Certified Laboratory


^^I^EARCH Come see us at Booth #317 P.O. Bag 4300, Lakefield, Ont. Canada KOL 2H0 Phone 705-652-2000 / Fax 705-652-6365

"Growing on the Quality of our Services"


For more information, Circle reply card No. 194


Booth Personnel: David McKechnie #120

Booth Personnel: Ed Byron Products/services: Incinerators - solid/liquid/ gas - Pictures and brochures, etc. McCordick Glove Inc.



Products/services: Boom, skimmers, oil pol lution control equipment. PPM Canada Inc.

Booth Personnel: Bob Train, Dominic

QED Environmental Systems, Inc.

Galati, Bob Robinson, Doug Johnson Products/services: Spillkleen, an absorbent for spills. Work gloves for industrial use. Safety products for eye, face, head, respiratory, cloth ing and boot protection.

Booth Personnel: Teresa Ratliff

McTighe Industries, Inc.



Booth Personnel: Bryan Maskell #114

Products/services: Well Wizard®. Sample Pro®, Pulse Pump® & Hydropunch®. Radian Canada Inc.


Booth Personnel: Dr. Ed Berry, Toby Wallers, Andrew Taylor, Dr. Ray Hemmings

Booth Personnel: Gale Paulson

Products/services: New: Subsurface remedi

Products/services: Oil-water separators de- ' signed to remove oil and other light weight

ation technology for sites contaminated with volatile organic hydrocarbons in low penneability formations. Exhibit also includes extensive state-of-the-art consulting and technical serv

materials and solids from oil-water mixtures.

MEG Systems Inc.


Booth Personnel: Steve Crawford

ices in air, water and soil media, materials sci

ence, waste management and contaminated site services.

Products/services: High pressure fogging sys tems to neutralize or control odors, dust, pests, humidity and cooling for industrial and com

Ram Lining Systems Inc.

mercial industries.

Booth Personnel: Frank Kunc


Products/services: Geomembrane materials. Monserco Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Maureen Youngson Products/services: Radiation protection and waste management consulting and services.

Region of Peel


Booth Personnel: Tim Robinson

Products/services: Waste reduction services for IC&I businesses in Peel.

Napier-Reid Ltd. #321 Booth Personnel: Larry Yeigh, David Archer, Tarmo Sepp, Tim Otton Products/services: Displaying water and wastewater treatment equipment and services offered from the following companies: Envirex Inc., Vaughan Pump Co., Austgen Biojet, Vulcan Industries & Napier-Reid Ltd.

Republic Environmental Systems Ltd. Booth Personnel: Gary Degroote


RGE Environmental Group


Booth Personnel: Kemeli Prskaio

Products/services: Manufacturers of RGF

Novamann (Ontario) Inc.


Booth Personnel: Stephen Timmings Products/services: Laboratory services. Omega Recycling Technologies

ultrasorb systems, the most complete line of vehicle wash water recycling and treatment sys tems. Also manufacture a full line of advanced


Booth Personnel: Yan Cohen

Products/services: Solvent recycler and oil purification.

oil water separation systems that utilize coalesc ing, ultrafiltration, mixed media filtration, chemical flocculation and encapsulation; the turbo zone line of ozone generators for destruc tion of malodours and air purification as well as an advanced line of marine and bilge filters and systems.

Organic Resource Management Inc. #348 Booth Personnel: Michael Malachowski

Products/services: Services to handle transport and treat liquid organic wastes and sludges from food industry.

RNG Equipment Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Chris Vasos

Products/services: Leak detection, double wall flexible piping, above ground tanks.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide Safety Supply Canada


Booth Personnel: Bob Martindale, Hani Saleh, Steve Lohman, Miro Donabedian,

Peter Morawelz, Joe Ventura, Pierre Kboury Products/services: Hazard material storage buildings & lockers. Encon emergency show ers. Environmental instrumentation. Sci-Tec Instrnments


Booth Personnel: Andre Roberge, John Hughes, Patricia Hall, Dave Cutts, Robert Herman

Southam Business

Booth Personnel: Richard Dufresne

Booth Personnel: Mary Mancini Spehr-Hygrex #350 Booth Personnel: Erwin Spehr Products/services: Closed-loop drying system. Sphag Sorb (Canada) Inc. #228 Booth Personnel: Bill Bright Products/services: Sphag Sorb - Organic in

Systems Plus #113 Booth Personnel: Garry Ruttan Products/services: Containers for laboratory sampling and testing. Chromatography vials, EPA vials, widemouth and narrowmouth, clear and amber, glass and plastic containers. Con tainers precleaned EPA and MIS A lab sampling and testing. Teflon lined closures for vials and bottles.

dustrial absorbents.

Products/services: New:


Stablex Canada Inc.


Communications Inc.

HAWK Infra-Red

Open-Path Gas Monitor. HAWK is a long range gas monitor. HAWK provides an economical, immediate, practical way to protect personnel, plant & surrounding areas from the threats of explosive or toxic gas concentrations. HAWK is also an atmospheric research tool.



Spill Tech Industries Inc. #301 Booth Personnel: Gene Farquhar Products/services: Sorbents and pollution con trol equipment.


Shred-Tech Limited Booth Personnel: Carol Glass

SSCAN Technologies #152

Site Remediation Inc. Booth Personnel: Mike Reid

Products/services: Groundwater remediation


Booth Personnel: Bob Martindale, Hani Saleh, Steve Lohman, Miro Donabedian, Peter Morawetz, Joe Ventura, Pierre Khoury Products/services: Hazard material storage

buildings & lockers. Encon emergency show


ers. Environmental instrumentation.

Solmax Geosynthetics #207 Booth Personnel: Paul Payeur, Johanne Dulude, Andrew Watt, Paige Beutelspacher Products/services: Installer of lining materi als used for containment applications such as landfills, industrial wastewater lagoons and sec ondary containments. Solmax is also involved

Management Inc.


Booth Personnel: Derek Cathcart Products/services: Site remediation contract-

Total Construction Solutions


Booth Personnel: Rhonda Lavigne Products/services: Turn-key construction, project management concerning water treat ment, sewage treatment plants, waste to energy facilities.

TPZ Controls Booth Personnel: John Grimes


Products/services: Fluid measurement sys SSI Schaefer System International Limited



Booth Personnel: Otto Fasthuber, Paul Speed, Maureen Von Ameln Products/services: Waste containers (wheeled carts) for composting, recycling and trash col lection.

with road construction.

Tbomas Environmental

Need An Acciipale,Porlane, Neibkivasive,Transit-lime

Transoft International


Booth Personnel: Mrs. Beauvais

Products/services: Software Fluidyn for the simulation of pollutants dispersion in air, ground and water.


Howmeter?.... Here it Is! Here's a user-friendly, ultrasonic, transit-time flowmeter with the features you need most — plus unmatched accuracy and repeatability. Call today to arrange your

free demonstration.

PwLYjOnivJ A Peek company. Represented by

SRP Control Systems Ltd.


5155 Spectrum Way,#19


Mississauga, Ontario j

Canada L4W 5A1

\ Phone (905) 238-2880 \ Fax (905) 238-9590

Sampling and Analysis Storage Facilities Transportation Destruction Tectinologies Disposal Processes E/R Training

Regulatory Affairs Environmental Impact Assessments

Contingency Planning Site Remediation Waste Reduction

For More Information Call or Write:

RGB Disposal Inc. 72 Lake Driveway West Ajax, Ontario L1S 3X1

Fax:(905) 428-6481 Cellular: (416) 346-5272 Phone: Toronto (905) 428-6480

Easy Clamp-on \

PCB msAi

Ontario 1-800-563-PCBs

design \ For more Information, Circle reply card No. 195

For more information, Circle reply card No. 196

Toronto Environmental Tradeshow Guide Trenton Environmental

Waterloo Centre For

Equipment Ltd. #160 Booth Personnel; Jerry Legate, Chad Brown Products/services:"Aero-Power" aboveground, self-diked,steel storage tanks for flammable liq uids, chemicals, etc., complete system ULC

Groundwater Research #111 Booth Personnel: Robin Jowett Products/services: An Ontario Centre of Ex

listed. "The Boat" intra-channel clarifier for wastewater treatment.

Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd. Booth Personnel: Tom Doyle

cellence funded by Technology Ontario. WCGR is a not for profit corporation, with advanced research programmes in many aspects of groundwater quality, resource development, protection and remediation.

Products/services: Control and remediation of

flowmeters and the new on-line continuous

contaminated groundwaters. Waterloo barrier containment wall and funnel & gate insitu treat

BOD monitor.

Waterloo Groundwater Control

Booth Personnel: Peter Cooper, Grace Simonetti, Samar Habash

Products/services: Complete analytical and investigative research services for the environ mental and industrial sectors. Accredited by

Turbotak Technologies Inc. #345 Booth Personnel: Ron Berube, Gord Janes Products/services: Two phase spray nozzle technology and wet scrubbers for air pollution control. Evaporative cooling,scmbber enhance ment, spray drying, combustion and incinera tion, dust suppression and gas conditioning. VR Systems, Inc.


Booth Personnel: Gordon Davis

Products/services:Soil vapor extraction equip ment.

W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Booth Personnel: Paul Andrew, Jack Woolston, Todd Folmsby


Products/services: Gore Sorber™ Screening Survey, Leakleam'" leak detection and location system,and filtration technologies. Gore Sorber Screening Survey is a Service Mark of W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Leaklearn Leak De


ment system. Enco-Tec Environmental

Technology Systems Limited Waterra Pumps Limited



Walker Industries Holdings Ltd.


Booth Personnel: Leanne Smith

Booth Personnel: John Newell

Products/services: Soil remediation services and literature.

Woodington Systems Inc.


Booth Personnel: Claudia Marsales

uid wastes.

World Environmental Inc.


Environmental Enterprise Centre


Booth Personnel: Deanna Silverthome

Products/services:Transportation and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous, solid and liq


Booth Personnel: Chuck Longille, Roy Dodd, Alan Ross Products/services:Emulsified oils, heavy met als and suspended solids are easily and economi cally removed from wastewater utilizing World Environmental's one-step powdered reactants. Crystal clear water and a non-hazardous solid are the results. Similar compounds for stabilization of hazardous solids. Over 500 sys tems in operation meeting MGEE and EPA specifications. Demonstrations provided at the WEI booth.

Products/services: Canadian Environmental

Enterprise Guide. Canadian Environmental Enterprise Products Catalogue.

General Waste Transport Inc. #344 Booth Personnel: Bob Glover, Barry Harris, Tracey Smith Products/services: Site remediation including disposal of solid and liquid hazardous waste (Lab Pacs) & asbestos abattment. We also of fer emergency spill response, the disposal of PCB contaminated soil over 50CCM & ther

mal absorbtion of hydro carbon contaminated soils.

Groundwater Technology

ZCL Fiberglass Ltd. #226 Booth Personnel: Rick Kanay Products/services: Fiberglass underground storage tanks (Oil / Water coalescing).

Products/services: Full service environmental

analytical testing, on both water and solid ma


Booth Personnel: John Morrissey

Products/services: Waterra inertial pumps.

tection and Location System is a Trademark of W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.


Booth Personnel: Robin Jowett



Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.

Booth Personnel: Blake Tonogai, George Pastoric, Rob Anderson, Frank Scriver, Tim Owen, Herb Langner Products/services: Wastewater treatment sys tems and measuring devices including the Drumshear rotating fine screen, dissolved air flotation systems, package sewage treatment plants, full aeration capabilities, sludge dewatering and compaction, Marsh-McBirney

Technologies Inc. TSL Environmental Laboratories

Additional Exhibitors

Canada Inc. Booth Personnel: Paul Wilson


Unisearch Associates Inc.


Booth Personnel: Adam Latawiec

Products/services: Laser based ambient air

Zorbit Technologies Inc. Booth Personnel: Allen Shully


monitors. Chemiluminescent NO^,O,and PAN instruments.














TL: (905) 277-0331 FX: (905)277-2588



For more information, Circie repiy card No. 197

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

t FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 30", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'T.C.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 221/2° and 111/4° configurations. As well, 'TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are T.C.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

Make the Right Conneetwn...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available In both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special" l.C! FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks Installation requirements.

IRON WORKS LfD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (604) 253-6365

For more information. Circle reply card No. 139

Leak detection

How to locate those expensive leaks

The most costly waste of treated

water is existing leakage on the below ground water distribution systems. Unaccounted-for water in the range of 10% to 30% is commonplace on many municipal water systems in Canada. Upgraded maintenance practices, based on an effective water leakage detec tion and control program, can save money

In water mains and help conserve this vital resource.

mates can be factored into the unaccounted-

actual water losses through system leakage. Leakage is controllable but is not an exact science, even in today's highly technologi cal society. In recent years an evolution has occurred in our leakage detection capabili ties through advancements in acoustic in strumentation and improvements in proce dures. No longer is it necessary to wait for

for statistic to provide a closer estimate of

roads to cave in, for leaks to surface or for

Not ail unaccounted-for water is attrib

utable to leakage. Inaccurate metering, unmetered municipal use, street flushing, fire protection as well as unauthorized use or theft contribute to the unaccounted-for

figure. However, such consumption esti

basements to be flooded before leaks can

be found. No longer is it necessary to send crews out under adverse weather conditions

Applications now being accepted

Awardsfor Outstanding Waste Reduction Performance 1994 Every year Ontario

The winning projects

Waste Management Corporation hon

are featured in OWMC's Waste Reduction

ours Ontario

Bulletin that is mailed

manufacturers who have


lenges of indus

Ontario businesses.



found solutions to the chal

to over 10,000

OWMC —i'




Winners also

receive widespread coverage in local, regional, and specialist media. If your company has

trial waste reduction. The winners of

OWMC's Outstanding

achieved a significant

Waste Reduction

reduction in hazardous

waste, please contact

Performance Award

receive plaques pre

Karen Slack at

sented by the Minister

OWMC by mail, by phone or by fax.

of Environment and

Energy, and individu

Karen will send

you an application

als who contributed to the success of the


projects are present


ed with certificates

receipt ofcom plete applications is

at local Recognition days.

30th June, 1994.

<s)WA\C 2 Bloor Street West, 1 1 th Floor. Toronto, Ontario M4W 3E2 (416)923-2918/1-800-268-1178 Fax (416)923-7521

to conduct emergency repairs to many leaks that could be located and repaired during normal work schedules. The majority of water leaks can now be detected, pinpointed and repaired under favorable construction conditions.

A water leak detection program nomially involves some type of sonic evaluation which depends on an operator's ability to hear and identify leak sounds on the water mains. Sonic leakage detection is based on the principle that high pressure water leak ing from a water system through an open ing or break in the main into an area of at mospheric pressure sets up sounds and vi brations that are audible with special equip ment.

The majority of water leaks create three distinct sounds. The first sound, normally in the 500 to 800 Hertz range, originates as an orifice-pipe vibration phenomenon and is transmitted along the pipe wall. This sound is transmitted along the pipe for vary ing distances depending on pipe material, leak size and system operating pressures. Generally this vibration will be transmitted considerable distances on metallic pipes but only short distances on asbestos-cement and plastic pipes. Some of the sound may also be transmitted into the soil surrounding the pipe but the energy is quickly dissipated. This first sound is considered the search

sound and is useful in systematically search ing an area to determine the presence or absence of leaks. By using highly ampli fied sonic instruments, these sounds can be heard on valves, hydrants, curb valves and other contact points on the system.

The second sound created by a water leak is often referred to as the impact sound. This is caused by the leaking water, under high pressure, striking the soil in the leak area. The third sound is the fountain sound, which is caused by water circulating in water, usu ally in a cavity in the soil adjacent to the leak. Both the second and third sounds are

in the 20 to 300 Hertz range and are gener ally limited to the immediate area of the leak. Consequently, these sounds are im portant in pinpointing or verifying the ac tual leak location. Considerable advancements in the de-


For more information, Circle reply card No. 179

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

By G. Wayne Hennigar* velopment of water leakage detection instru

mentation have been achieved in the past two decades. In the early days, man de pended on water surfacing to establish a leak location or direct listening on the system by using a sounding stick or geophone. Geophones are mechanical devices, similar to a doctor's stethoscope, which amplify the

L - D-(VTd) 2



(( c c ))); A Velocity xTg




Where L



volume of leak sounds to audible levels.

V = velocity of sound Td = time delay (transit time difference)

Modern instruments apply the same princi ple but amplify the signal electronically to much higher levels. Such instruments are generically classed as sonic type water leak detectors. Electronic frequency filters are a standard feature in a number of instru

ments and effectively filter out unwanted or extraneous frequencies commonly present on water distribution mains. Leak search

activities employing sonic instruments are referred to as sonic type leak detection pro grams. Sonic type procedures are normally utilized to search for leaks but are often

successful in pinpointing actual leak loca tions.

In recent years computer based "Corre

lation" type instruments have gained promi nence. Applied correctly, these instruments can provide additional capabilities for an experienced operator. The advantages of leak noise correlation over previous sonic methods are numerous, particularly in the pinpointing application. The correlation principle uses sound similarity, not the po sition of maximum leak noise intensity, as the basis of operation. Water, or any other fluid, escaping from a pressurized pipe pro vides a characteristic noise which is propa gated at a constant velocity in both direc tions away from the leak location. Sensors placed on both sides of the leak receive the

leak noise at different times. The computer based correlator then progressively delays one signal relative to the other while con tinuing to compare the similarity between them. This enables the correlator to meas ure the difference in travel time of the leak

noise to the respective sensors. By deter mining the velocity ofsound for the particu lar pipeline under test and using the dis tance between the sensors, the correlator can accurately compute the leak position. A built in formula in the electronics allows

the correlator to compute the actual distance

"President and Chief Operating Officer Heath Consultants Limited

London, Ontario

— leak position = overall distance

of the leak from both sensors and display the distance on a clear display. Effective water leakage detection pro grams are as much dependent on proper pro cedures as on good quality instruments. Leak detection personnel must have a knowledge of system design and pipe ma terials as well as an understanding of the influencing factors to sound attenuation. Soil types, soil resistivity, soil moisture con tent, pipe materials, pipe size and depth, pipe corrosion as well as operating pressures affect the attenuation ofsound along the pipe wall or through the soil. Metallic systems such as cast iron and ductile iron require different procedures than non-metallic sys tems such as plastic types and asbestos-ce ment. One procedure or a single instrument cannot be effective for every condition to be encountered on a water distribution sys

Step two involves a more detailed evalu ation of the suspect locations and is normally scheduled at night when water use, traffic noise and other ambient background noise is at a minimum on the system. This is the verification procedure and establishes the actual existence of a leak and its approxi mate location. In numerous situations, the leak can actually be pinpointed during the verification program. Step one and two are normally referred to as leak search opera tions.

Steps three and four are normally re ferred to as leak pinpointing operations. Pinpointing is defined as establishing the actual leak location and is not as yet an ex act science. Well trained leak survey per sonnel will achieve a high level of success but some dry holes will be inevitable. Higher levels of success are being realized

tem. For effective results, leak detection

with the advent of leak correlators based on

personnel must be flexible in their approach and be prepared to adjust procedures de pending on the design and field conditions

the leak noise correlation technique. Step three is the actual leak pinpointing procedure and normally involves the use of a computer driven water leak correlation


For optimum results, a four step ap proach is recommended when scheduling a water leakage detection program. Step one is the leak search procedure which involves systematic listening at all contact points, such as hydrants and valves, on the water distribution network. When

sections of non- metallic piping are present in the search area, it will be necessary to listen at grade directly over the pipe with a combination of soft surface and hard sur

face microphones. The test interval will nor mally be about one meter or every step along the pipe run. Listening at grade will also be necessary on long sections of metallic pipe without contact points. Sounds at sus pect locations noted during the search pro gram will be logged as to location,frequency and intensity.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

unit. The actual location of the verified leak

is pinpointed with the correlator. Step four confirms the correlated loca tion by a variety of procedures using the portable search instruments. In some situ ations, the confirmation procedure is more accurate and adjustments are made to the correlated location. The intent of step four is to reduce the chance of dry holes and to permit leak repairs in a one cut operation. Once step four is completed the leak loca tion can be marked for repairs and duly re ported on the proper report forms. When leak sounds can only be detected at one con tact point on a water system,correlators can not be used to pinpoint the leak source. This is commonplace on non-metallic systems which are poor conductors of sound. Continued overleaf


Leak detection, cont'd. Several correlator manufacturers provide hydrophone sensors as optional accessories. These sensors are inserted into hydrants with special adaptors and detect leak fre quencies transmitted directly in the water. Leakage frequencies or sound waves travel well in water and can often be detected a

are being used, they are connected to the hydrant and the valve opened. The pipe distance or length between the sensors is measured. Leak noise signals transmitted from the sensors by radio transmission or cable connections are received by the correlator. Sensor data, pipe material data

latlon peak, the distance of the leak from both sensors is displayed. The zoom facil ity can be used to allow closer interrogation of the leak position on display. Results can be stored in memoiy for later recall to dis play or down loading to a printer or video monitor screen.

considerable distance from the leak source.

Sound waves from the same leak travelling along the pipe wall or through the soil tend to attenuate or diminish rapidly as they move away from the leak source. Hydrophone sen sors offer improved sensitivity to leak noise detection as the sensor is inserted directly

If surface cover over the pipe involves asphalt and concrete, or, soil conditions include frost, it may be necessary to place test holes through this cover to pre-determined depths.

into the water core.

The correlation procedure to pinpoint leaks is quick and easy to use. Valves or hydrants indicating sounds on either side of the suspected leak position are located and the sensors attached. If accelerometers are

used, these are attached magnetically to the outside of the pipe or fitting. If hydrophones

and distance information are entered into

Situations do occur where conditions are

the correlator. The correlation process is automatically initiated and displayed rela tive to pipe length. The leak position is in dicated by the formation of a definite peak. When the cursor is aligned with the corre-

such that leaks cannot be detected by tradi tional sonic and correlation procedures. These leaks often occur as hydrostatic test failures during new construction or upgrad ing projects. They tend to occur more fre quently when non-metallic pipe materials are being used. A tracer gas procedure us ing helium has exhibited a high level of suc cess in locating such leakage over the years. The procedure involves dewatering the sec tion under test and inserting a mixture of 5% to 10% helium in air at one end of the

section. A relief is kept open at the oppo site end to allow the helium to flow through and fill the section. When helium is de

After 40 years, the annual June

tected at the relief end, the relief is closed

and the section is pressurized to a pre-determined pressure. Helium is one of the true noble gases being completely inert and non-toxic. It can be used on any type of enclosed system. Due to its light gravity (0.17) it tends to vent quickly upwards through the soil to atmosphere. A specialty instrument developed by Heath Consultants Limited in conjunction with Bell Canada is extremely sensitive to

Ontario Conference on the Environment

is teaming up with the November Technology Transfer Conference

helium. This instrument, called a Heath

Gasophon-T, is used to sense the atmosphere at grade directly over the section of piping under test. An operator carrying the instru ment walks slowly along the pipe run and the instrument continuously monitors the atmosphere over the pipe. The Heath Gasophon-T can detect very minor seepages of helium to atmosphere.

to create the


When helium is detected at the surface, the

Metro Toronto Convention Centre

leak location is quickly verified and pin pointed using the various sensitivity settings

November 15 & 16, 1994.

of the instrument. If surface cover over the

For more information on registration, the program or booth space, contact: Ana Rosatl, Ministry of Environment and Energy, (416) 323-4649

pipe involves asphalt and concrete, or, soil conditions include frost, it may be neces sary to place test holes through this cover to pre-determined depths. Test holes are nor mally placed at ten foot intervals along the

pipe run. The helium test procedure is the last resort to locate difficult leaks. It is

@ Ontario

widely used to locate leaks on water mains, pressurized telephone lines, ground heat re covery systems and pressurized vessels of all kinds.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 185 24

For more information, Circle reply card No. 256 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Pumping Systems

Submersible pumps used in two dry pit scenarios "What we really like about the Mactec system is the alarm capabilities." says Phil Kalyta, the town engineer. "Without lifting a finger, we know if there's a problem or if something needs attention. The Mactec system even notifies the appropriate person automatically. This saves us a great deal of time."

The Spadina Retrofit Saskatoon is a small city of 180,000 located in south-central Saskatchewan. Recently, this city was the site of another Flygt CT pumps installation. The main pumping facility in Saskatoon is the Spadina Crescent Lift Station. Lo cated on the west bank of the South Sas

Steinbach is a small town 70 kilo

operating time per day. A provision has been

metres southeast of Winnipeg,

made for the installation of a fourth CT 3230

Manitoba whose 9,500 residents

sometime in the future.

are involved either in farming or work in the retail industry. The town's newest sewage lift station was originally designed for centrifugal pumps. But it was decided to go with sub mersible pumps in a dry pit after city engi neers became aware of the advantages of this type of installation. The submersibles require smaller,simpler stations, with fewer levels and less ventilation. Moreover, they run quieter than conventional pumps, and

Steinbach's other operational lift station originally housed three conventional pumps. So far, two of these have been replaced with Flygt 3127's. The third conventional pump will be replaced with a submersible in a dry pit in the next five years. In addition to the new pumps, the town

are easier to install and maintain. Their

goon-type water-treatment facility. Steinbach engineers use the Mactec sys

of Steinbach also has a new Mactec Telem

etry system. This is the only Mactec sys tem in Manitoba and it operates the town's two lift stations as well as its aerated la

sealed construction is particularly advanta geous if the station floods, since no subse quent equipment overhaul is necessary.

tem to monitor and control the lift stations

The new Steinbach station now incor

the town Civic Centre. Mactec reduces the

and the treatment plant from an office in

pumps run five times per hour, two minutes

number of on-site inspections - a real ben efit during Manitoba's notoriously cold win ter months, when temperatures can reach a bitter - 40 degrees C. The Mactec system also monitors the blower system at the la

at a time, for a total three or four hours of


porates three Flygt CT 3230 pumps(147hp/ 600 volts/3 phase), each of which pumps raw sewage downhill over a distance of about three and a half kilometres. The

katchewan River, this four-storey station (three storeys betow ground,one above)has very little waste-holding capacity. It takes in raw sewage and pumps it directty to the treatment plant located two kilometres away. The treatment plant was built in I97t. Prior to that time, the raw sewage was discharged directly into the river. The 22 lift stations in the Saskatoon re

gion pump 100,000 cubic metres ofraw sew age to the treatment plant every day. Some 80% of that either emanates from or passes through Spadina Crescent. The Spadina station was designed around four conventional pumps. Three have now been replaced with Flygt CT 3530s; the fourth will be replaced by a CT 3530 later this year. C.P. Hwang, maintenance manager in charge of Saskatoon's water-treatment sta tions, said:"We wanted to make sure that if the station flooded, as it has in the past, there would be no pump damage and downtime would be minimized. We also felt that a

dry pit installation was the most cost-effec tive way to reduce moisture and eliminate odour."

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 259


Water and Wastewater Services • Mtmicipal & Industrial • Facilities Management and Operations • Environmental Plarming and Approvals • Instrumentation/Automation • Design/Build • Watershed Plarming • Plant and System Optimization • Infrastructure Management • Water Efficiency and Audits • Laboratory Services

45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600 Fax: (416) 445-5276 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

For more information, Circle reply card No. 143


Site remediation

Air sparging reduces soivent contamination in soiis

Air sparging, an emerging treat

groundwater of solvents and

ing would only bring in more water. In this type of situation where VOCs are trapped below the water table, air sparging is a po

other volatile chemicals, has

tential solution."

ment method to rid soils and

yielded impressive results at an industrial

With air sparging, air is injected into

site in New York State. After 13 months of

saturated soils. The air flows both verti

air sparging and soil vapour extraction to remove trichloroethylene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorbed to soils below the water table, groundwater contamination has been reduced by as much as 90 percent.

cally and horizontally to form an oxygenrich zone where adsorbed and dissolved

VOCs are volatilized. As the vapours rise from the saturated zone to the unsaturated

soils above, VOCs are captured by a soil vapour extraction system. The same soil

Sparge systems must also be carefully designed to prevent the possibility of spreading the contamination, to minimize vapour migration and to optimize treatment efficiencies. The solvents, found on the property of Pawling Corporation, a rubber and plastics product manufacturer, were the result of the long-abandoned practice of disposing of waste solvents by burning them in open trenches. Richard Brown, Vice President

ofRemediation Technology for Groundwater Technology Inc. said:"Often solvents lodged in the unsaturated soil can be treated by soil vapour extraction which involves pulling air through the soils to volatize the VOCs(vola tile organic compounds). In this case, how ever, as much as 75 percent of the 3000 lbs. of contamination present was adsorbed to soils below the water table. One way to get soil vapour extraction to work under these circumstances is to lower the water table

by pumping groundwater. At Pawling Cor poration this was not an option because the property is adjacent to wetlands and pump-

vapour extraction system also removes adsorbed solvents from the unsaturated soils.

Brown explained that not all sites qualify for the use of sparging. Barriers within the soil, such as clay lenses, may prevent effi cient sparging. Sparge systems must also be carefully designed to prevent the possi bility of spreading the contamination, to minimize vapour migration and to optimize treatment efficiencies.

After a careful site evaluation and per forming pilot studies essential to proper sys tem design, it was determined that air sparging would be an effective option at this site. A combined air sparging and soil va pour extraction system was considered the most effective and least costly treatment technology for this site over the life of the Corrective Action project. Groundwater ex-

ABR Consultants is a joint venture of Associated Engineering, Brown and Caldwell and Reid Crowther established to provide engineering services for the GVRD Secondary Treatment Project. The joint venture members are currently expanding their construction management staff. Positions available include: RESIDENT ENGINEERS - 8-i- years experience managing major mechanical and structural construction ($20 M -i-). Must be eligible for professional regis tration in B.C. Requires knowledge ofcontract administration,scheduling,change orders, progress payments, estimating, process equipment and systems. Must have demonstrated leadership abilities. Experience in wastewater treatment plant construction is preferred.

INSPECTORS - 5-t years experience in inspection of major construction projects. Civil, structural, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation inspectors are re quired. A technical degree is preferred. Please send resume, indicating position of interest to:


ABR CONSULTANTS 7th Floor, 4330 Kingsway Bumaby, B.C. V5H 4G7 Attention: W. Stollery

traction with air stripping was chosen to pro vide hydraulic control over groundwater flow and remove dissolved-phase solvents. A regenerable carbon treatment system was selected to treat off-gases. Proactive site remediation was overseen

and encouraged by the New York State De partment of Conservation (DEC). Susan Thompson,Regulatory Affairs Manager for Pawling Corporation, said, "I think that the regulatory agencies are looking for compa nies to take ownership over their problems and try to mirror what will have to be done under the Superfund requirement - not just a haphazard cleanup, but really giving it a concerted effort. They appreciate and ap plaud that type of approach." The company's other alternative would have been to follow more formal steps out lined by *CERCLA regulations which would have meant postponing remediation for several years, while incurring costs for site administration and additional testing. By being proactive. Pawling Corporation maintained control over the remediation

project. While Pawling's Corrective Action plans were being implemented. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation issued a formal Record of Decision(ROD) accepting the treatment plan as an appro priate means of complying with site remediation. The ROD is an essential step which will ultimately make it possible for the company to obtain regulatory closure of the site.

Thompson said Pawling Corporation is

obtaining a number of advantages by aggres sively treating the solvents. Sparging is re ducing contamination levels many times faster than would be the case with conven

tional technologies based on the extraction and treatment of groundwater. By moving forward with a treatment method that was

proven effective by pilot studies and then in operation, the company by-passed expen sive assessment and testing procedures that would have been required under the formal Superfund process. Proactive corrective action is enabling the company to control the pace of remediation. Costs are curtailed by an in cremental approach which brings technol ogy to bear on problems at the site only as it is proven to be needed in practice. Finally, the company hopes to obtain regulatory closure of its site within the next three to four years. With the approach out lined in CERCLA regulations, it would only be starting to remediate now.

"^Comprehensive Environmental Re sponse, Compensation and Liability Act For more information,


Circle reply card No. 252

Introducing Your Prime Source For Safety instrumentation For over 15 years Brian Controls has been a prime source of ambient air monitoring equipment to Canadian industry. Today, more than ever, Brian Controls recognizes the need for increasing personal safety in our environment. We've now added and

strengthened our safety instrumentation capability to include; toxic gas detection (portable and fixed); air sampling; noise and heat stress monitoring; ambient air quality analysis; plus a variety of testing and calibration equipment. At Brian we're proud to include

Personal gas monitors

Circle #170

Ametek, Bacharach, BIOS International, Environics, Honeywell, Lear Siegler/Monitor Labs, MSI Measurement Systems and Metrosonics to our

Multi-gas aetecnon

Circle #172

Heat-stress monitoring Circle #171

Noise measurement

Circle #173

product line. Brian Controls capability goes far beyond providing the very best in safety instrumen tation. Our coast-to-coast customer service network of

computer linked sales offices, Ambient air analyzers

warehouses and service centres

;:| Circle #174

can respond to your needs — fast. We can ship any "in stock" item to any major Canadian centre within 24 hours.

As leading instrumentation specialists for over 35 years, Brian Controls can satisfy your

Air samplers

Circle #175

Cos calibrotion/blending

Circle #177

Portable gas detectors

Circle #178

industrial hygiene and safety


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For more information, Circle reply card No. 144 Flow calibrators

Circle #176

BRIAN CONTROLS A DIVISION OF AXEL JOHNSON (CANADA) INC. 2445 Duncan Road, Montreal, Quebec H4P 2A2,(514)738-5757, Fax (514)341-7205 Vancouver • Edmonton • Calgary • Saskatoon • Winnipeg • Sudbury • Sarnia • Toronto • Ottawa • Quebec • Moncton • Halifax


By Caroline Kunze & Dr. Owen Ward*

Aerated Biopile Reduces Ethylbenzene Contamination in Industriai Soii

Biopiles (also cal ed aerated soil

piles) have been used for a number of years and many varia tions of the technology exist. The system works to eliminate VOCs from con taminated soil in two ways: firstly, by pro moting bacterial degradation of the contami nants in the pile and secondly, by stripping contaminants from the soil gas spaces. Biorem Technologies Inc. has developed its own version of soil pile technology which was successfully demonstrated in 1993 at a full-scale site in Samia, Ontario. During a site assessment, ethylbenzenecontaminated soil was discovered at one of

Polysar Rubber Corporation's Sarnia prop erties. The contamination is believed to have

originated from a styrene leak at a tank farm 15 years ago. Very little styrene was actu ally detected in the soil, however, ethylbenzene was present in levels averag ing 434 ppm, according to the initial test ing conducted by Pollutech Environmental. The ethylbenzene is believed to have formed from the anaerobic biodegradation of styrene

taminated area and moved into an on-site warehouse. The treatment area was lined

with a high density polyethylene liner (HOPE) and covered with sand. The soil was configured into a 62'x 20' pile, ranging in depth from six to nine feet. The bacterial culture isolated in the biofeasibility study was mass produced through a fermentation process and mixed into the contaminated soil during pile construction. A low-level

nutrient mixture was also added to augment the soil conditions. Perforated piping was laid throughout the pile as it was built. The pipes were manifolded together at one end of the pile and hooked up to a series of vacuum pumps. A HDPE tarp was used to cover the pile to prevent volatile emissions. Ambient air was drawn through the pile and into the perforated piping using a vacuum system. The air, which showed ethylbenzene levels of up to 1433 mg/m', was then directed to a series of biofilters.

The biofilters contained peat amended with

in the soil.

In May 1993, Biorem Technologies Inc. conducted a feasibility study to assess the potential for use of bioremediation at the site. As part of the study, a site-specific microbial culture capable of efficiently de grading ethylbenzene was isolated. The bac teria were cultured in small quantities and tested for their degradative ability in soil microcosm systems. The results indicated

the whole pile. Therefore, when the outer concentrations were reduced to less than 50

ppm, the core soils were sampled. Soil at the core was very wet and drain age from the soil was very poor. Passage of air through this region was impeded by both the low permeability of the soil as well as the high moisture content. Under these con ditions, ethylbenzene removal by bacterial degradation and stripping was limited and concentrations were well over the criterion

(Figure 3). To finish remediating the core, additional perforated pipes were inserted horizontally into the base of the pile to enhance drain age. The pipes also provided a conduit for air to be forced into the core. The system was run for a month before samples were taken again. Figure 3 shows the drop in core ethylbenzene concentrations over the month of treatment, to below the 50 ppm criterion.

that with the addition of the culture, the

ethylbenzene degradation rate was improved over simply adding nutrient and/or a com mercial inoculum. Through the biofeasibility study, it was also established that the nutri ent component of the soil was reasonably high and would require little augmentation

When the final mass balance was con

ducted, it was determined that more than

95% of the original contamination had been removed overall in the pile. In the outer 6 feet of soil, removal was greater than 99%. A mass balance conducted on the pile indi

for effective bioremediation.

In August 1993, Biorem began a dem onstration of its biopile technology for BTBX (Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylene) degradation. Approximately 400

Figure 3: Average Ethylbenzene Concentra tions in Core Soils.

Figure 2: Average Ethylbenzene Concentra tions in Outer Soils (to 6 foot depth).

cates that less than 1% of the contaminant

Figure 1: Schematic of Biorem's Aerated Soil

The objective of this bioremediation was to lower the ethylbenzene levels to 50 ppm, the Industrial criterion for ethylbenzene in soil. Figure 2 shows the removal of ethylbenzene from the soil in the first three months of operation of the pile. This data was obtained to depths of 6 feet initially. As the sampling process for core soils was difficult and costly, the outer soils were used

was removed from the pile via stripping, and therefore the majority of the contaminant destruction occurred via biodegradation within the pile. Biorem is developing advanced biopile technology which combines optimized con figurations for soil aeration, drainage and leachate collection with custom-developed site-specific microbial systems capable of degrading a wide range of soil contaminants. The addition of bulking agents to improve homogeneity of and airflow through low permeability soils is also being investigated. The objective of the development program is to accelerate the treatment process, thereby increasing the efficiency and costeffectiveness of the system. For more information.


as an indicator of contaminant reduction for

Circle reply card No. 258

an active bacterial culture. Contaminants

tonnes of soil were excavated from the con-

were adsorbed onto the peat and degraded in the biofilter, consistently being reduced

'Biorem Inc., Waterloo, Ont.

to non-detectable levels In the exhausted air

stream. After about 4 weeks of operation, ethylbenzene was no longer detected in the influent airstream, eliminating the need for treatment in the biofilters.

a- SuKily

Tap liner


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

GORMAN-RUPP HAS THE WASTEWATER PUMPING SYSTEM TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Gorman-Rupp manufactures a complete line of pre-engineered, factory-built packaged lift stations. Whettier it's a small or large wastewater collection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system including motors, controls, valves and piping ready for tiook-up on site. Electronic Pressure Switchi features dependable,solid-state construction and provides accurate, trouble-free monitoring of wet well liquid level. Bubbler Control design eliminates problems common to othier bubbler systems. Controls are NEMA rated, UL/CSA Listed and will easily interface with) users telemetry. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-priming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for dependable wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of clogs or maintenance ot components. And, no special tools are needed. T-Series pumps Base-mounted "autostart" pump station with bubbler control and standby engine automatically drives pump if power fails and eliminates need for expensive generator set.

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Report from Globe '94

By Sheila Copps, P.O., M.P.*

\Ne can create Jobs and protect the environment

By the year 2000, the global mar ket for environmental industries

will be in the order of $600 bil

lion annually. That is five times the total sales of Canada's ten largest busi nesses. It is four times as large as our coun try's total exports. It is six times as large as the Gross Domestic Product of British Co lumbia.

We are not talking about an imaginary future. Environmental industries will be

growth industries. Green industries are sun rise industries. The growth is driven by an increasing number of international agree ments on issues from pollution control to biodiversity. It is driven by new environ mental laws and regulations in country af ter country. It is driven by the marketplace. The new government of Canada has a leadership role to play and we will play it: • we are reviewing our federal policies to ensure that they are not creating barriers or disincentives to sustainable development. • we are devoting 25% of all new govern ment research and development funds to en vironmental technologies. • we are harmonizing our environmental regulations with other levels of government. • we will meet our commitment to reduce

greenhouse gases by 20% by the year 2005. • we have announced in the budget a com plete examination of how we can best use

*Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Environment, speaking at GLOBE 94, Vancouver, B.C.

economic instruments - taxes, grants and subsidies to promote sustainable develop

has a fundamental right to know. I have announced that the National Roundtable of

• we have engaged in detailed consultations

the Environment and the Economy will be proclaimed and I have mandated them to

with environmental businesses in order to

ensure business and environmental realities

develop the best environmental industry strategy for our country.

are in synch. All of these are designed not only to pro


We have learned that environmental in dustries do not form a monolith. The needs

and wishes of different parts of the envi ronmental business sector vary. The con cerns of firms can vary from those attempt ing to clean up pollution to those attempt-

tect Canada's environment, but to make Ca nadian business world leaders in environ

mental know-how and expertise. Canada hosted the forum for Asia Pacific Economic

Cooperation in Vancouver, the first ever meeting of Pacific Rim ministers with re-

We have learned that environmental industries do not form a monolith. The needs and wishes

of different parts of the environmental business sector vary. ing to control pollution to those that are at tempting to prevent pollution in the first place. It won't do any good for government to bring down regulations or tell others what to do unless we clean up our own act as well. It's not going to be easy but we are going to green the largest organization in Canada the federal government. That is why I re cently announced that we are having a speedy parliamentary examination of an En vironmental Auditor General. We expect government departments to respect the fi nancial bottom line. When we in govern ment make environmental errors the public

sponsibility for the environment. APEC en vironmental ministers are in Canada at the

specific invitation of the Prime Minister. He wants us to get serious about technology transfers in the Pacific Rim. He wants us to move the Pacific Rim towards true sus

tainable development. This could not be a more serious issue.

Canadians know that the world is watching our performance. We have signed an agree ment with Canada's pulp and paper indus try to undertake the most advanced research in the world to move as quickly as possible towards zero discharge from Canada's pulp and paper mills.

Halozone gets $2.5 million We are phasing out the manufacture and import of ozone depleting substances. But there are immense quantities of substances such as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, al

ready in use, for example, in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. Without effective measures, those CFCs will even

tually escape into the atmosphere to con tinue the cycle of ozone depletion. One of the best technologies for captur ing, reclaiming and reselling CFCs has been developed here in Canada. Halozone Re cycling Incorporated's Blue Bottle System has been tested. It works. The next step is to get this technology into widespread com mercial use. The federal government will contribute $2.5 million to Halozone to help it commercialize the Blue Bottle System. This is the most efficient system in the world for capturing diluted CFC emissions. It

could generate sales of $28 million dollars and create 26 jobs within three years. The potential for the environment and the

Left, Sheila Copps, Deputy PM and Environment Minister at the press conference in Vancouver with Dusanka Filipovic of Halozone Recycling. ES&E photo. Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

economy over time is far greater still. Continued overleaf

Report from Globe '94, cont'd. I am pleased to announce that we will extend our expertise to Venezuela. The fo cus of this agreement will be to help them manage and reduce their use of halons. Halons are ozone depleting substances that are used in fire protection systems. This kind of cooperation is a key element of our ozone layer protection strategy. It is an es sential part of our support for the Montreal

Brewer Spectrophotometer One of Canada's most significant con tributions to the protection ofthe ozone layer has been leadership in ozone science. That leadership takes many forms but one of the most prominent has been the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer. This is quite simply the world's most accurate ozone-measuring equipment. Since the first one was built in


1982, Brewers have been sold to 25 coun tries around the world. In fact, the Nether

As of June 1993, Canada's annual consumption of CFCs had been reduced by

lands has just bought the 100th Brewer ever built.

Like so many of our environmental suc cesses, its story is one of partnership. En vironment Canada scientists designed the original device. It is now manufactured and sold by Sci-Tec, a Canadian company based in Saskatoon. The result has been jobs for

62 percent from 1986 levels.

Canadians and more accurate scientific data

Environment Canada has been invited

try Co-operative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP). We have accepted the invitation. Canada's Northern Telecom pioneered this group in 1989. The group brings together several major electronics and aerospace firms. It promotes and coordinates the worldwide development and exchange of information on technologies, processes and

Venezuela Agreement

substances that offer altematives to the use

of CFCs. It continues to be a positive force in the elimination of ozone depleting sol

zil and China on this issue.

of the Montreal Protocol Fund. This fund

is used to help developing countries accel erate the rate at which they eliminate CFCs and other ozone damaging chemicals. The $510 million. In March, Canada ratified

to become an affiliate member of the Indus

My third example concems our coopera tion with developing countries. The poten tial growth in the use ofozone depleting sub stances in those countries could easily elimi nate all our progress. So, we must find ways to cooperate with them for our common ben efit. Canada is already working with Bra

World Bank that will contribute to the ef

fort to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances in developing countries. We look forward to working with its members to wards our common goals. The world is accelerating the phase out of ozone depleting substances. Earlier I an nounced that Canada was contributing its fair share of $24 million to the next phase

total worldwide investment in the fund is

ICOLP Membership

for the world.

vents from electronics manufacturing. ICOLP is an excellent example of the private sector's role in technology transfer, training and developing technical resources. It has recently signed an agreement with the

the latest amendments to the Montreal Pro

tocol. With the action, we hope the amend ment will come into force in June. Canada has a track record of international leader

ship in protection of the ozone layer. As of June 1993, Canada's annual consumption of CFCs had been reduced by 62 percent from 1986 levels.

So, protecting the environment is help ing us create new technologies and new jobs. It puts a valuable perspective on this gov ernment's commitment to sustainable devel



Environmental Management Conference Air & Waste Management Association's 87th Annual Meeting & Exhibition June 19-24,1994 Cincinnati Convention Center, Ohio,United States

Nearly eight thousand environmental professionals from

aroimd the globe gather each year for die lar gest enviroruiiental



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management meeting held in North America for technology transfer, professional development and business opportunities. A&WMA's meeting features about 800 original,:peer-reviewed technical papers on air, waste, water and environmental management issues; a compr ehensive three-day exposition of products and services(over 500 exliibitors); continuing educa tion courses; technical tours; and social events whcr e you can meet your colleagues.

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 122

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


D.G. Langley President

Dr. M.M. Fisher

J.N. Bishop

T. Munshaw


Vice President Sales & Service

Laboratory Service

Jim had a distinguished 24-year career with the Dntario Ministry of the Environment spanning all aspects of environmental chemistry. His progression from Laboratory Manager

Doug has over 25 years of environmental consulting and management experience. His career began with Tom Beak in

The founder of EPL, Woody has had a distinguished

the mid sixties. He has

Medical Centre, and on the

directed the development and growth of several of

University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine from

Canada's environmental

1968 to 1989. Prior to

Resources Branch, involved

consulting firms and he has managed environmental projects for industry and government in North

that, he did biochemical

the establishment of

and molecular biology

America and abroad. He is

This medical research

policies and regulatory/monitoring programs such as MISA, hiomouitoring, drinking

Chairman of North Services Inc. and of lAETL

background gives EPL unparalleled strength in the interpretation of


environmental information.

American Environmental

career in medical sciences. He was Director of

Research at Sunnyhrook

research at the Universities

of London and Pittsburgh.

to Director, Water

water and other water resources programs.



"Excellence in Environmental Analysis"

6850 Goreway Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1P1 Telephone:(905) 673-3255 Fax:(905) 673-7399

For more information, Circle reply card No. 124

Vice President

Tim has an extensive

background of environmental chemistry

experience with recognized expertise in trace organics and priority pollutant analyses, including dioxin/ furan analysis. He has managed numerous large chemistry projects for federal and provincial

regulatory agencies and for the private sector, and is a recognized leader in the implementation of QA/QC in laboratory analyses.


By G.T. Eastwood, C. Moralejo, and J.W. Schmi

An assessment of the application of ultraviolet disinfection technology

The Wastewater Technology Centre

(WTC), operated by RockCliffe Research Management, has re cently completed an empirical as

sessment of ultraviolet(UV)disinfection at

17 Ontario municipal water pollution con trol plants(WPCPs). Eleven of these plants were found to have secondary treatment while six had tertiary filtration. WTC per sonnel visited 13 plants to interview the operators and collect plant performance data. Representatives of three UV system suppliers were also interviewed.

Table 5-1: Municipal WPCPs in Ontario with UV Disinfection, June 1993 FLOW ('000 mVday)""^



.Average Daily






Row %






1. Alliston



Average Design












Systems 1.S

2. Arthur







Trojan 3000


Fischer &





3. Craigleigb










4. Georgetown








Activated Sludge

Ultraviolet 1991


Systems S. Iimisflt








Trojan 2000


Fischer &



Ultraviolet radiation disinfects by dam aging the nucleic acids(DNA and RNA)of bacterial cells and viruses, thereby render ing the microbes unable to reproduce. Pre vious research has found that suspended

6. Kleinburg






Activated Sludge




7. London,







Trojan 2000


Activated Sludge


8. London,

solids and dissolved contaminants can in







Pottcisburg Cr.


April 1989

Trojan 3000


Activated Sludge

March 1991

terfere with the transmission quality of the wastewater and the effectiveness of UV dis

infection. Low pressure mercury lamps are used to irradiate treated municipal wastewater because of their efficiency, du rability and cost. UV disinfection systems in Ontario typi cally consist of numerous lamps suspended horizontally in an effluent channel. The du ration of exposure to the radiation is ap proximately 10 seconds, and the UV power applied ranges from 250 to 1,550 watts per

1000 mVday, based on design average flow rates. Features to consider prior to purchas ing a UV system include: component qual ity; electronic ballasts; accessibility of lamps for maintenance and repair; and, an enclo sure over the system.

FLOW ('000 mVday)""^











Row %






9. Lucan








Fischer & Porter 70-UV-3200



Activated Sludge

10. Palmestoo






11. Point Edward









Oxidation Ditch


Trojan 2000








Aeration 12. Port Burwcll






Trojan 2000



13. St Mary's








Trojan 2000


Trojan 2000



Trojan 3000



Trojan 2000



Trojan 3000


Activated Sludge 14. Tillsonburg


IS. Wallacebuig







> 50


May 1985


Activated Sludge 6J




16. Windsor,












Sutton Process

Activated Sludge

Little River

17. Wingham



Routine plant effluent data from the 1992 disinfection season showed that most UV

plants were able to achieve their disinfec tion targets, regardless of whether second ary or tertiary filtered effiuent was irradi ated. Effluent suspended solids concentra tions below 25 mg/L were not found to have an impact on the effluent bacterial count.

The capital cost of purchasing UV dis infection systems in Ontario ranged from $50,000 to $1,000,000, based on available data. The power consumption is estimated to range from 1,400 to 40,000 kW-hrs/month during the disinfection season. The time required for maintenance of the systems re portedly ranges from 4 to 80 person-hrs per month. Most plant operators and superin tendents said they would recommend UV disinfection to other plants.

*Wastewater Technology Centre (Operated by RockCliffe Research Ivlanagement Inc.) Burlington, Ontario 34

Notes: 1.

Average Design and Average Daily Flow and Population data provided by MOEE for 1991.


Industrial Flow data provided by plant supeiintcndcnLs.


Flow data from 1992.


ita s not available for this study. Table 5-5: Costs of UV Disinfection




Design Flow


Power Consumption

('000 mVd)




1. Alliston



2. Arthur



3. Cnigleigh


Lamp Replacement Lamps/month

MaintenaiKe Time

Does Curator


Recommend UV?


Not reported



Not reported

3.5 12

4. Georgetown




5. innisfil





6. Kleinburg



Not reported

Not reported

7. London, Oxford St

8. London, Pottersburg Cr.










10. Palmciston




11. Point Edward


12. Port Burwell


9. Lucan

13. St Mary's


14. Tillsonburg


15. Wallaceburg


16. Windsor LR


17. Wingham 18. Thombury







New installation

New installation



Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported





Not reported


Not reported





Not reported



Not operational




Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

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1/ £ji^/ h Ptea

By Ralph Jessop*

Gas detection

and workplace safety OSE/Environment One Low

Pressure Sewer Systems and Grinder Pumps have been providing the viable

Therearefour categories ofgas haz

ard which may be encountered in the workplace: flammable, toxic, oxygen enrichment and oxygen deficiency. These hazards may be encoun tered singly, or in combination.

alternative to conventional

sewers for over twenty-five years. Let us provide your servicing solutions by putting on the Pressure.

Flammable and Toxic Risks

Commonly encountered flammable gases include methane, propane, octane, petro leum spirit and hydrogen. Any enclosed area in which these gases are stored, can accu mulate, are used as fuel, or emitted in an industrial process, needs to be monitored continuously.

Commonly encountered toxic gases in clude nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide and car

bon monoxide. These three examples are emitted in exhaust fumes. Vehicle depots, maintenance pits and boiler houses are ob vious areas for concern.

Oxygen Emphasis


Far more people die from insufficient or excess oxygen than from exposure to flam mable or toxic gases. Oxygen enrichment can be caused simply by a leaking oxygen supply on an oxy-acetylene torch. Excess oxygen makes any material, such as an op

erator's clothing, so flammable that a single spark can cause instant ignition. Oxygen deficiency is caused in three ways: by oxygen being exhausted by natu ral breathing, consumed in an industrial process, or displaced by another gas.

Temporary Work Sites In some circumstances, using a fixed system is neither possible nor practical. Examples include certain areas of offshore oil platforms and construction sites. We have developed a new, transportable gas detecto'r for this type of application called Detective. The unit comprises a multi-gas detector mounted on a steel tripod frame. Detectives can be linked together in a line or loop to form a protective network around any temporary work site. When one Detec tive senses gas it not only triggers its own alarms, but informs all the others to do the

Personal Protection

same. To ensure workers do not evacuate

Portable gas detectors give workers ad vance warning of any potential hazard so they can leave an area before the situation becomes dangerous. Simple clip-on per sonal monitors, like the Gasman range can be used where a single gas hazard can oc cur. Where more than one gas hazard is likely, multiple gas monitors such as Triple

towards the hazard, the Detective sensing gas displays an additional alarm light. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 250

Plus could be used.

The British became gas detection pioneers when Sir Humphry Davey invented his miners'safety lamp which extinguished the flame in the pres ence of methane. Prior to his lamp,

Fixed Systems Plant buildings and confined areas can be monitored continuously using fixed gas detection systems. These comprise a con trol unit, like the Gasmaster or Gaswarden,

thousands of miners died in under

to which several remote detectors are con nected. The status of each detector is

ground coal mining explosions; portable electric lights used on today's helmets had not then been Invented.


checked from the central control unit, al lowing a wide area to be monitored from a single point. Fixed systems can also be used to control other emergency equipment such


as automatic doors, ventilation systems, valves and sprinklers.

Servicing Canada Coast to Coast Phone:905-632-3900

Burlington, Ontario


Editor's Note

For more information, Circle reply card No. 126

Not far from my birthplace In Lancashire, one explosion took hundreds of lives, in what was

*Managing Director

regrettably not an uncommon occurence In those days. Ironically, Sir Humphry's assistant, fdichael Faraday later became known as:

Crowcon Detection Instruments UK

"The father of electricity." Tom Davey

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


Engineered water and wastewater treatment

equipment FMC provides practical solutions to your equip ment needs with one of the most complete lines of water and wastewater treatment equipment available. Our product design and development is the result of over 70 years experience with installations across North America and around the world.

The FMC equipment line includes; screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit collec tors, rectangular sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, flocculation

equipment, rotary distributors and auxiliary equipment. You can rely on FMC to meet your equipment requirements. Consult with us. FMC of Canada Limited, Material Handling Operation, 650 Hood Road, Markham Ontario L3R 4S7

(905) 474-7500 FAX:(905) 474-7542

-FMC For more information, Circle reply card No. 142

Pulp & Paper Industry report

Oxygen cuts costs & chlorine at pulp mills

Thegoldfish aquarium in the recep

tion area of Alberta- Pacific (AlPac) Forest Industries Inc.'s new kraft pulp mill is more than an at tractive display. The fish are thriving in in dustrial waste water that is discharged to the Athabasca River from mill operations in Prosperity, Alberta. "The aquarium is an interesting con cept," said Ian Mackenzie, Industrial Water Quality Specialist, Water Quality Branch,

Standards & Approvals Division, Alberta Environmental Protection in Edmonton. "It

demonstrates to visitors that new and up graded pulp mills with the latest technolo gies, including modified counter cooking (MCC)digesters and oxygen delignification, emit effluent of a very good quality." To produce white pulp fibres for pre mium paper products, the kraft pulp proc ess removes lignin, a brown-coloured, or ganic compound that holds the cellulose fi bres of the wood together. While most of the lignin is gently separated in the digester, the addition of an oxygen delignification system eliminates as much as 50 per cent of the remaining substance. As a result, sig nificantly less environmentally-harmful chlorine is required to whiten the pulp in the bleaching plant. In turn, fewer pollut

ants, particularly AOX(Adsorbablc Organic Halogen) and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), are in the effluent that goes to the waste water treatment plant. "While an efficient waste water treat

ment system remains important," explained Mackenzie, "minimizing the need for bleaching chemicals during the pulp-mak ing process is the real key to protecting water quality. "Oxygen delignification makes good sense for the mills," he added. "It reduces the amount of expensive chemicals used,

lightens the load on the treatment plant, and helps the environment." Mackenzie is responsible for setting water quality based limits, establishing pro grams to assess water quality capabilities, and writing the approvals for industrial waste water dischargers in Alberta. His report was among many that allowed start up of Al-Pac's bleached,elemental-chlorinefree kraft pulp mill last September. He noted that three out of four kraft mills

in Alberta now use oxygen delignification to cut the organic load to their bleaching plants. Two, including Al-Pac, are new mills, while the third has upgraded its op erations. "From now on, there's little ques tion that new mills will have to include oxy-

gen delignification," Mackenzie said. "Retrofitting an older mill with oxygen delignification and/or an MCC digester is a more difficult decision because of the costs

involved," he continued. "The increase of

organic solids and chemicals to the recov ery boiler can require upgrading that unit, as well. But discharge limits are tightening throughout North America, and more and more mills are preparing for the future by upgrading. Al-Pac meets tight environmental limits

Al-Pac's new facility is the world's larg est, single-line, bleached kraft mill, produc ing 496,000 tonnes of hardwood and softwood pulp per year. The latest process technologies, including extended cooking, oxygen delignification and oxygen extrac tion bleaching, have earned the $1.3 billion operation a reputation as one of the cleanest, most efficient mills ever built. The mill eas

ily meets its permitted discharge limits of 0.31 kg of AOX per air-dried tonne, and BOD of 1.5 kg per tonne. "One of the major concerns in a kraft mill is the volume of liquid waste dis charged," said Mac Palmiere, Al-Pac's tech nical manager. "Oxygen delignification is an important advancement in enabling mills to recover more of the chemicals from the process.

"The combined effects of our EMCC(ex tended modified continuous cooking) di gester, white liquor oxidation and oxygen delignification lengthen the closed loop of the process and achieve significantly more delignification and chemical recovery prior to bleaching," he continued. "By reducing the work required of the bleach plant, we are able to use more environmentallyfriendly chlorine-dioxide and oxygen rein forced extraction."

With the addition of new oxygen tech nologies, a secure source of oxygen must be available to the mill. To this end, Al-Pac

has signed a five-year, multi-million dollar contract with Praxair Canada Inc.(formerly Linde Canada) to supply 31 tonnes a day of liquid oxygen for on-site storage. A fleet of tractor trailers delivers the oxygen 260 km to the mill in Prosperity from Praxair's air separation plant in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta.

Other mills have chosen different options to meet their individual needs. On-site,

vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) oxygen plants, in particular, have become a

fast-growing trend. During the past two years, Praxair alone has installed six VPSA units at mills across Canada.

Alberta-Paciflc Technical Manager Mac Palmiere standing by the oxygen reactor where oxygen is injected into the brown stock pulp. 38

"New technology is constantly being de veloped to supply a full range of volumes and oxygen purity levels," said Warren Johnson, Praxair development engineer in Edmonton. "For example, we recently in-

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, April 1994

By Sue Coates troduced an ultra-compact VPSA unit for smaller volume users in remote locations.

For the first time, pulp mills that use from three to 25 tonnes a day of oxygen can take advantage of an on-site supply of oxygen. A VPSA plant can realize up to 20 per cent savings compared to trucked-in liquid oxy gen." Recovery and reuse are key Pulp quality is established in the digester system. To ensure a consistent yield and superior grade of pulp, Al-Pac preheats spe cifically-sized wood chips in a steaming ves sel before impregnating them with white liq uor (sodium hydroxide and sodium sul phide). The wood and caustic solution then enter the EMCC digester vessel and cook gently at 150 C for up to five hours. Al-Pac is the first mill in Alberta to make

oxidized white liquor with oxygen rather than with air. Using oxygen reduces air emissions and saves energy. Oxidized white liquor consumes less oxygen in the oxygen delignification stage and improves process control.

The majority of the lignin separation oc curs in the digester vessel. Then the pulp passes over a set of washers to separate and extract spent lignin and chemicals. Every thing is reused. The organic lignin is burned as fuel to generate steam, and the chemi cals are recovered in the recovery boiler. After going through knotting and screen ing to remove small slivers and uncooked

chips, the pulp continues on to oxygen delignification. Oxidized white liquor is added to the stream, and oxygen is injected through two high-shear mixers. After about one hour in a pressure vessel, a reaction to break down as much as 50 per cent of the remaining lignin is complete. Two more washers remove dissolved or-

ganics and chemicals that are redirected to the recovery boiler before the pulp enters the bleaching plant. Al-Pac uses a countercurrent washing process to minimize the use

"The new oxygen technology allows us to close up the process loop for environ mental protection, while having no negative Impact on pulp quality." of fresh water.

In the bleach plant, oxygen extraction (the addition of oxygen and sodium hydrox ide) provides an economical and environmentally-friendly enhancement for chlorine and chlorine-dioxide. For almost a decade, oxygen extraction has been a well-accepted industry method of reducing the amount of toxic bleaching chemicals required. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States recently cited oxygen delignification and/or extended cook

digesters, combined with the complete sub stitution of chlorine-dioxide for chlorine, as

the preferred processes for bleached papergrade kraft and soda mills. The EPA's Cluster Rule proposes air and water standards for the pulp and paper in dustry. While industry leaders throughout both Canada and the United States are ques tioning the AOX and BOD levels that the EPA is endorsing, most agree that digesters and oxygen delignification stages should be fundamental to mills of the future.

"A key factor for us is maintaining our high quality pulp in order to compete in glo bal markets and remain in business," said

Mac Palmiere. "The new oxygen technol ogy allows us to close up the process loop for environmental protection, while having no negative impact on pulp quality." Palmiere envisions ozone as potentially replacing both chlorine and chlorine-diox ide bleaching to move the next generation of mills even closer to the ultimate, totallyclosed-looped mill. Fresh water would only be added to replace steam losses. "With the help of the EMCC digester and the oxygen systems, Al-Pac's mill is down to 42 cubic metres of discharge per tonne of pulp compared to 70 cubic metres per tonne from an older model mill," he said. "We're

always looking at new technology to see how we can implement it into our mill." For more Information, Circle reply card No. 260

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Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 101


Pulp & Paper Industry report P & P Research Institute and Environment Canada to

seek pollution prevention systems The pulp and paper industry took an impor tant step forward when Environment Canada and the P&P Research Institute signed a Memorandum of Understanding in Vancou ver, March 23.

During the announcement ceremony. En vironment Minister Sheila Copps said: "the memorandum of understanding with the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada is part of the re-engineering of one of Cana da's most important industries. It recognizes the fundamental shift in values, in costs, and

in approaches that are reshaping how Ca nadians make the goods they sell around the world."

She said Canadians, and the P&P indus

try's global customers, have come to expect businesses to operate with an unprecedented degree of respect for the environment. They have taken responsibility for their actions, and they want to know that others are doing the same. There were clear financial ben

efits as the accepted limits for every kind of environmental impact are growing tighter and tighter, she stressed. At one time it was cheaper to dump waste than to control it or prevent it. Tlrose days are gone. With in

creasing anti-pollution requirements even the costs of many kinds of end-of-pipe con trols are rising. Waste of any type in an operation is increasingly understood as in efficiency. Developing technologies that do not produce waste can lead to increased pro ductivity and profitability, and sales of the new technologies to other companies, the

"made in Canada" solutions that will re

minister noted.

people. This partnership is one of those

"The time to solve environmental prob lems is not at the end, but at the beginning. We need to re-engineer our processes so that we prevent pollution. The memorandum of understanding we are signing today repre sents the pulp and paper sector's commit ment to that thinking. It represents the fed eral government's commitment to work with the industry to find solutions.

spond to our environmental and industrial realities.

"The federal government will continue to use its legislative ability to deal with en vironmental issues. But the law is only one tool. We have other means of responding to the environmental concerns of the Canadian means.

derstanding will be a partnership that should help us develop and commercialize the socalled "closed loop" technologies for the pulp and paper industry. These technolo gies are aimed towards goals of zero dis charge. They are aimed at creating efficient processes that will set an industry standard

"This partnership also underlines an im portant trend that goes well beyond this in dustry. The future of environmental tech nology is in prevention. It is in helping in dustries to rethink their practices to avoid pollution. It is in developing the systems that will help them meet that goal. The changes we anticipate are fundamental ones. They may change the very heart of processes that have been in place for years. But they represent a necessary step forward. They offer opportunities for growth and job crea tion through technology exports to other countries. The pulp and paper sector has made an important step forward through this memorandum of understanding. It deserves

around the world. In the end we will have

credit for its action".

"The result of this memorandum of un


Optimal convenience in portable field screening • Liquid niti-ogen free Staudardless fimdamental parameters

Monthly newsprint statistics The Canadian newsprint industry operated at 93 percent of capacity in January 1994, as compared to 91 percent in January 1993. Newsprint production for the month totalled 768,000 tonnes, which represents an in crease of 0.7 percent from a year ago. Ship ments to the U.S. posted a decrease of 11.6 percent from January 1993, ending the month at 446,000 tonnes. At 80,000 tonnes,

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domestic shipments posted a decrease of 7.9 percent compared to the same period last year. A total of 178,000 tonnes were shipped to offshore markets, representing an increase of 15.0 percent from a year ago. U.S. newsprint consumption in January totalled 982,000 tonnes, which represents an increase of 6.0 percent compared to the same month last year. At 1,247,000 tonnes, U.S. consumer stocks were down 43,000 tonnes from last month and 78,000 tonnes

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R&D News: edited by the

Canadian Association on Water Quality Association Canadienne sur la Qualite de I'Eau

Enhanced Performance

Journal of Canada, showed that up to 65%

Activated Sludge Treatment

removal of AOX from whole-mill kraft ef

Crossflow microfiltration was investigated by McMaster University scientist P.L. Dold and South African colleagues as a substi tute for secondary settling in the activated sludge process, to retain a greater biomass

fluent was consistently obtained at hydrau lic retention times ranging from 5 to 10 days. This compares with typical AOX removal efficiencies in conventional aerated lagoons of about 25%. Modifications to the system

concentration in the reactor, and to increase

increased removals even more.

the reactor COD degrading capacity. Using a synthetic wastewater, the reactor sus pended solids concentration was increased over three times the normal secondary set tling maximum of 6.0 mg/L. As described in Water Research, effluent quality was good with 0.013 g/L suspended solids and COD removal greater than 97%. Although the particle size reduction resulting from the microfiltration process had no deleterious effect on COD removal, it was not possible to settle the sludge particles.

Enhanced Lagoon Treatment of Kraft Mill Effluent

A continuous flow sequential anaerobicaerobic lagoon treatment process was de veloped by E.G.-H. Lee, M.F. Crowe and H. Stutz for the removal of adsorbable or

ganic halide (AOX)from whole-mill kraft effluent at both laboratory and pilot scale. The results of pilot scale studies by these British Columbia Research Inc. scientists,

published in the Water Pollution Research

Environmental Protection Pubiications

As part of its technology transfer program, the Environmental Protection sector of En

vironment Canada publishes a series of tech nical reports. A new catalog of these reports has recently been issued. Environmental Protection Series reports are divided into nine categories with identifying code num bers and cover colours. The reports are listed by subject area and appear in chronological order with the most recent reports appear ing first. The listing also includes EnviroTIPS Manuals, which provide de tailed information on fifty chemicals to en able effective planning of spill countermeasures, and reports published jointly by Envi ronment Canada and other government agencies.

ORP-Regulated Sludge Digestion A paper published in Water Research by D.S. Mavinic and K.J. Hall, University of

British Columbia, and a Hong Kong col league, presents the results from two labo ratory scale reactors digesting waste sludge In an aerobic-anaerobic fashion. The con

trol reactor "fixed" the length of the aero bic-anaerobic cycle at 6 h, with each seg ment of the cycle set at 3 h. The experimen tal reactor used oxidation-reduction poten tial (ORP) to control the total length of the cycle based on the distinctive "nitrate break point" occurring in the ORP-time profile. The ORP-regulated reactor demonstrated improved removal of nitrogen and solids and was better able to accommodate distur

bances to the system.

Activated Sludge Treatment of TMP Wastewater S.E Liver (CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.), H.K. Miyamoto(Dames & Moore,Canada), and S.A. Black (Gore & Storrie Ltd.) un dertook a continuous bench-scale treatability study to determine the most desirable de sign and operating parameters for waste treatment of effluent from an integrated thermomechanical pulping newsprint opera tion. As described in the Water Pollution

Research Journal ofCanada, mass balances incorporating the results of the bench-scale studies and the effect of fibre carry-over from the primary clarifier, defined the fullscale operating conditions. Based on the ki netics for biological treatment of mill efflu ent, at maximum mill production, adequate

BODj removal will still be obtained under these operating conditions,even during cold



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weather conditions.

A Rapid and Simple Genotoxiclty Assay A University of Windsor study described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research cali brates the use of a bullhead fish cell line as

a measure of contaminant stress by meas uring cyto- and genotoxicity of sediment extracts from the Detroit and St. Clair riv

ers. The simple method was developed by K. Adeli and coworkers using established cell cultures of brown bullhead that meas

ures the level of DNA repair as an indica tor of genotoxicity. The brown bullhead fish line was shown to have the potential to be a model system for assessing biological ef fects of in-place pollutants using a dye-up take assay and a simple and rapid genotoxicity assay.

Blodegradatlon of Chlorinated Organic Compounds R. Fulthorpe, C. Page and D.G. Allen have recently characterized the culturable com munity of bacteria in an operating aerated pulp mill wastewater lagoon. These Univer sity of Toronto scientists have characterized the substrate range of these microorganisms and determined their ability to remove ad sorbable organic halogen (AOX) from bleached kraft pulp mill effluents. As deContinued on page 46 Environmental Science <& Engineering, April 1994

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Our new flash furnace in theory.


CjuSS:>-i}Kt3x, > Cu


A/f'^vf^t--3*^'^^5bx - ■?

<i„S-'^C'.'C",'''SOt -fj'5 F,s,^0^=ffS+so^ -y/.i On paper, our new flash

F,S<--?<3.= rf«?^So, -"Z -

The mining of nickel

furnace technology seems

begins with ore from deep

pretty complicated. But what

beneath the earth's surface.

it leads to is refreshingly

It's crushed and concentra

simple: clean air.

ted, then smelted. These

In 1989 Inco embarked

processes separate the met

on a massive rebuilding of our nickel and copper

als in the ore and produce enormous amounts of

processing operations, Canada's largest-ever cor

SO2. For every one part of nickel produced we

porate cleanup, promising to contain fully 90 per

must contend with eight parts of sulphur, a far

cent of the sulphur found in the Sudbury area ores

higher ratio than anywhere else in North America.

we mine. Sulphur dioxide (SO2), as you know, is a major contributor to acid rain.

Five years and $600 million later, we've kept the promise.

Perhaps you'd take a moment to understand how it works. And what it means.

But with the completion of our two flash fur naces we can now capture the SO2 and convert it into marketable sulphur products. As well, our oxygen flash furnaces, a technology developed and patented by Inco scientists, virtually eliminate the need to bum fossil fuels that contribute

Our new flash furnace in practice.

to the 'greenhouse effect!

because these tiny trees-

All told, 415,000 person-

to-be are grown in our own

days of engineering and

Creighton Mine, where the

construction were involved,

climate is warm and moist

at a cost of more than $600

year-round. This spring, in

million. None of it, inciden

fact, we're planting our mil

tally, taxpayer's money. Even more impressive,

lionth seedling. We've also pioneered ways to

throughout this period our Sudbury complex, the

recover metals from used catalytic converters in

heart of Canadian mining, didn't skip a beat.

cars, becoming the world's largest platinum group

The project is a bonus not only for the environ ment, but for the company too. Inco forecasts savings

of about $90 million a year from here on in. Cleaner air is just one aspect of Inco's environ mental mindset. Each spring we revegetate acre after acre around Sudbury with tens of thousands of pine seedlings, it's particularly satisfying for us

metals recycler in the process. In years to come, other ideas will surely present themselves, just as surely, we'll do our best to make them happen. Because we believe a theory isn't much good if you can't put it into practice.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 106

R&D News, cont'd. scribed to delegates attending the 43rd Ca nadian Chemical Engineering conference, batch cultures of two of the strains were

capable of significant AOX reduction. Work is continuing on the bioaugmentation of AOX removal and the potential to enhance the predominance of dehalogenating species based on the physiological characteristics of these organisms.

tested a 1200 L multiplate reactor for the anaerobic treatment of cheese dairy wastewaters. The results of experiments to determine COD removal, nutrient require ment,and gas production from the treatment of effluents from two cheese dairies in Que bec are presented in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. The optimum retention time for the treatment of one of

the wastewaters, with a COD of 3000 mg/ Anaerobic Treatment of

Cheese Dairy Wastewater SNC Research Corporation scientist C.N. Mulligan and coworkers have developed and

L, was 12 h. A COD removal of 84% could

be achieved. Although shock loading re duced the removal rate to 72%, it then re

turned to 86% after seven days. Even better

results were obtained with the effluent from

the second cheese dairy.

Heavy Metal Bioleaching Heavy metals present in sewage sludge can be leached out using sludge-indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process de pends on the growth of these bacteria and their acid production. R.D. Tyagi and col leagues from INRS-Eau examined the ef fect of ambient temperature on the process. As described in a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research, these scientists

found that lower temperatures resulted in slower accumulation of acid and slower pH reduction. Specific growth rates of the acidophilic bacteria were dependent on both sludge pH and temperature. At constant pH, metal solubilization was independent of temperature in the range studied. Wet Air Oxidation of

Pulp Mill Effluents Wet air oxidation involves the aqueous phase oxidation of organic matter by oxy gen at high temperatures and pressures pro ducing only carbon dioxide and water. Paprican and McGill University scientists

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takes it back to Halozone's plant to reclaim and recycle the CFCs.

gated this process for the treatment of thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (TCMP) pulping waste effluents. As described to delegates attending the 43rd Canadian Chemical En gineering conference, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel batch reactor

using different waste streams from TMP and TCMP mills at temperatures of 150° to 310°C and pressures of 100 to 204 atmos pheres. COD and total solids reductions of up to 92% were achieved. Constructed Wetlands for

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review, which appears in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada, presents background information on wetland treat ment and wetland design, and outlines the potential for wetlands to treat water con taminated with organic compounds includ ing hydrocarbons. The very high level of biochemical activity in the water column and upper sediment layer in wetlands, combined with a high degree of ecological resilience, suggests that wetlands can be an attractive low cost, low energy, low maintenance al

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Solid-Phase Microextraction Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a fast and simple analytical technique which

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

R&D News, cont'd. uses coated fused silica fibres to extract

analytes from aqueous solution. The analytes are desorbed in the injector of a gas chromatograph and subsequently analyzed. A SPME method,described in En vironmental Science and Technology, has been developed by University of Waterloo scientists K.D. Buchholz and J. Pawliszyn. Limits of detection were typically at nanograms per litre, and the precision was at relative standard deviation of 5%. The

results, accumulated for various environ

mental samples, indicate that the SPME approach is suitable for rapid screening of phenols at high and low concentrations. Sources and Fate of Contaminants in Hamilton

Harbour A quantitative water-air-sediment fugacity/ aquivalence mass balance model has been developed for Hamilton Harbour by H.Ling, M. Diamond and D. Mackay to assess the sources and fate of contaminants in the sys tem. As described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research,these University of Toronto scientists deduced a complete picture of the steady-state behaviour of four model con taminants and the time responses of the sys

developed for a conventional process is ap plicable to a process using lamellar settling. The lumped-parameter model examines the hydraulics of a system composed of stirred

Spouted Bed Sludge Drying In a paper presented at the 43rd Canadian Chemical Engineering conference, Ecole Polytechnique scientists R. Legros, M. Rioux and R.C. Meyer described the devel opment of a spouted bed dryer for wastewater treatment sludge. Sludge from

tank reactors in series and simulates sus

pended solids concentration of the effluent under various flow regimes. P. Lessard, D. Martel and B. Desjardins validated the model using data collected from a pilot la mella settler. The prediction of the model was in agreement with the observed values for concentration and hydraulic behaviour

the Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant

was fed to a 200 mm diameter spouted bed dryer. Granulation of the sludge was obContlnued overleaf





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R&D News, cont'd. tained by means of a unique counter-current feeding system. The optimum sludge drying conditions were determined from fixed bed experiments and these results then used to predict the drying behaviour in the spouted bed dryer. Typically, at 280°C the system produced sludge particles of 2 mm diameter with a water content of 2 mg/g of dried sludge.

Anaerobic Biodegradation Rates

The removal of selected toxic organic com pounds during anaerobic digestion of mu nicipal sludge was investigated at pilot scale by W.J. Parker and H.D. Monteith of Enviromega Ltd., and Wastewater Technol ogy Centre scientist H. Melcer. In most cases, the majority of the toxic compounds were removed at efficiencies greater than 90% in primary digestion, and more than 60% entering secondary digestion were de graded. As reported in their paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the anaerobic biomass appeared to acclimate to biodegrade the chlorophenolic compounds during the experimental period. A dynamic model,developed to predict the fate of toxics during primary sludge digestion, was cali brated with data from the experiment. Wastewater Treatment in a Peat Moss Biofilter

Ecole Polytechnique scientist B. Gagne and coworkers evaluated the applicability of peat moss biofiltration for the treatment of agroindustrial wastewaters. As described to del

egates attending the 43rd Canadian Chemi cal Engineering conference, a laboratory scale biofilter with a total volume of 30 L

was used to treat a wastewater having a COD of 2000 mg/L and a pH of 3.2-4.6. The average COD reduction achieved was 90%. The primary mechanism for COD re moval was aerobic biological oxidation

which was achieved mainly by bacteria at tached to the surface of the peat moss.

lent to the endogenous approach under con ditions where there is no accumulation of

intermediates. In a paper accepted for pub

Disinfection of Sewage Sludge

lication in Water Research, McMaster Uni

University of Toronto scientists D. Prasad, J.G. Henry and A. King conducted studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of copper sulfate for the disinfection of sewage sludge

versity scientists L.A. Lishman and K.L. Murphy describe preliminary studies which indicate that, at lower temperatures, hy drolysis is appreciably slower than either death or decay. In such cases, a net accumu lation of slowly-biodegradable COD can be expected. This could explain the higher pro duction of solids at lower temperatures even when a large percentage of the feed is rap idly biodegradable COD.

under anaerobic conditions. As described in

the Canadian Journal ofCivil Engineering, the effects of suspended solids and copper dosages on the survival of coliforms in nor mal and acidified sludges were studied. The results indicated that reductions of total

coliform bacteria of up to 99% in normal sludge could be achieved at a dosage of 40 mg Cu/g of dry sludge mass, sludge sus pended solids of less than 3%, and a con tact time of 24 h.

Removal of Aromatic

Compounds from Wastewater McGill University scientist J.A. Nicell and colleagues from the University of Windsor have investigated enzyme catalyzed polym erization and precipitation of aromatic com pounds from wastewater. Horseradish peroxidase enzyme, once activated by hy drogen peroxide, initiates the oxidation of a wide variety of aromatic compounds. Re action products undergo a non-enzymatic polymerization to form water insoluble ag gregates which are readily removed from

Treatment of activated sludge with zebra mussels University of Guelph scientists, G. Mackie and C. Wright have investigated the ability of zebra mussels to biodeposit and remove phosphorus and BOD from diluted activated sludge. The mussels were suspended in sedi ment traps within lOL containers for 96 hours in up to 30% activated sewage sludge. They found that the mussels significantly reduced the turbidity and phosphorus lev els for all concentrations of activated sew

age sludge tested. The BOD levels in con tainers with less than 3% sludge were also substantially reduced. The results indicate the potential use of zebra mussels for removing turbidity, phos phorus and BOD by means of biodeposition.

solution. As described in the Canadian

Journal ofCivil Engineering, the efficiency of removal from wastewater. was depend ent on the nature of the aromatic undergo ing treatment, the amount of enzyme pro vided, and the pH of the system.

Hydrolysis in Microbial Death and Decay One of the distinctive features of the

lAWPRC Activated Sludge Model is the death-regeneration cycle which is equiva

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

ciation on Water Quality, Technol ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Water conservation through metering

By Matthew Ferguson*

Port Elgin delays water plant expansion

Meeting municipal water de

mands by installing residen tial meters and providing in Jar expensive water saving de vices can cost less than one-tenth the price t Fe of expanding present treatment plant capac ity, as shown by the results of a successful operation conducted by the Town of Port Elgin. The small community (pop. 6,500) re


cently avoided a $5.5 million expansion of their water treatment plant by installing resi dential water meters and distributing water saving devices for a cost of $550,000. In 1989,Port Elgin faced a development

crisis. The Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment placed a limit on future construc

million gallons per day(MOD)to 3.6 MGD

tion because the municipal water treatment

large amount for taxpayers in a small com munity. In Ontario, municipalities must prepare

plant could not provide additional water for new development. At this time, residents paid a flat fee for water and sewage service. As the water treatment plant reached capacity on several

days in the summer, a lawn watering by law was passed by Port Elgin Council. How ever, by-law enforcement was difficult, and other methods had to be investigated. Initially, Port Elgin planned to expand the plant to meet increasing demand. How ever, doubling the plant's capacity from 1.8

Flow Data for Port Elgin Water Treatment Plant Average Daily Flow (1000s of Imp. Gallons) Pre-Metering Post-Metering


1991 1993 668







April May



• Average the cost to each household for the



same size of meter.

• Rely on established companies to perform





July Aug Sept



the meter installations.



• Inform homeowners well in advance of the













"We started our publicity program through press releases six months before the installation started," says Kraft. Direct ad vertising about the availability of the wa ter-saving devices accompanied municipal tax and utility bills. Any reservations which homeowners had about the meter program were addressed before the installation crew

arrived at their homes.

The cost of the metering program was $230 per installation including staff train ing and the purchase of computer software and meter reading equipment. Residents paid this amount over a two year period as a special levy on their municipal tax bills. One factor taken into consideration by Town staff was the large number of sum mer residences in Port Elgin and the spe cial requirements these installations might require. The majority of summer residences in Port Elgin are cottages. "The cottages were harder to install.



1,200 VJ c

1 1,000 V

^ 800 e


cn "O cz

Post- Metering

With no basements, we had to either crawl



under the cottage, or install a pit," says Port Elgin Water and Sewer Department em ployee Charlie Schmalz, who coordinated

200 0

projects such as the water treatment plant expansion. Although the environmental as sessment process for the project had com menced, it became apparent that several re visions to the proposed expansion might be necessary. Port Elgin began to examine more economical methods of supplying drinking water to the municipality. Based on research by the Public Works department. Port Elgin Council accepted a recommendation in early 1991 to install 2,400 meters accompanied by an intensive water conservation program. "We learned from other people's errors," states Town Engineer Richard Kraft (P.Eng.). "Before we set up our program, we contacted various municipalities that had gone through this and found out what they wouldn't do again." Among the suggestions from Kraft's re


Treatment Plant)


a class environmental assessment for


Average Daily Flows(Port Elgin Water


would cost $5.5 million—an unacceptably



the installations. He added that most mu



















nicipalities will encounter fairly uniform in stallation costs.


Continued overleaf

''Matthew Ferguson is a fourth-year En vironment and Resource Studies stu

dent at the University of Waterloo. Environmental Science (6 Engineering, April 1994


Water conservation through metering, cont'd. When residential metering was pro

posed, Port Elgin provided the opportunity for homeowners to reduce their water con

sumption and correspondingly, their water bill. An intensive water conservation pro gram was implemented by Recreation Pro grammer Barbara Elias, involving the sale of water-saving devices through local stores. Rather than sell the water-saving showerheads,faucet aerators and toilet dams at the municipal office, the Town purchased

cial impacts from metering (for example,

benefits of Port Elgin's new water conser

car washes).

vation program in a special presentation prepared for younger listeners.

The installation of meters and water-sav

ing devices resulted in a phenomenal 50% reduction in summer water consumption with an average reduction of 25% in 1993 (see figure). TTiis provided Port Elgin with enough surplus capacity to indefinitely de lay the expansion of its water treatment plant. The waste water treatment plant also

the devices and asked three local stores to sell them at 10% above the Town's cost. The

sales program was designed to complement the installation of the residential meters, and

to not compete with stores selling the prod ucts.

Ontario Hydro assisted Port Elgin by of fering a 50% rebate on the devices, as long

Taxpayers must feel that they have a stake in conserving water, whether it be through reduced municipal taxes or increased environmental

ucts at well below wholesale cost.

Some municipalities running similar pro grams chose to give the water-saving de vices to residents at no cost. Port Elgin sold the products at cost so residents would have an incentive to install and use the devices.

Accordingly, Port Elgin experienced a high participation rate. In addition to residents. Port Elgin in formed businesses, apartment owners and the local school board of the new system. Town staff also worked directly with busi nesses that experienced immediate finan

distributes water conservation brochures

free of charge. Their materials provided a basis for Elias' presentations and newspa per advertisements. One of Port Elgin's primary goals was to reduce the feeling among residents that water meters and water-saving measures

were being imposed on them. Instead, Port Elgin motivated residents by offering the devices at cost and illustrating the environ mental benefits of water conservation, as

well as the cost savings. The greatest in centive for residents to buy the water-sav

ing devices was the amount of money they


as at least one was a showerhead. Effec

tively, residents were able to buy the prod

Elias also recruited the help of the On tario Ministry of the Environment, which

benefited from the program. "The effect of the toilet dams on the sewage plant was dra matic," says Kraft. Not only did the de mand for potable water decrease, but waste water volume dropped by 30% as well. Ellas' extensive promotion campaign was an important factor in the program's success. Her speaking engagements in cluded town meetings and information ses sions, and even local elementary schools. "Children are very aware of the importance of conservation," stated Elias. "It is impor tant to educate children as well as parents." Over 1,000 students heard Elias discuss the

could save on their monthly utility bill. Port Elgin's second goal was to estab lish a billing method that was fair to all resi dents. The water treatment plant's operat ing costs are now covered solely by meter

ing revenues, with no contribution from municipal taxes. In addition to paying a Hat annual fee, residents' municipal taxes had previously covered a portion of water treatment costs.

This hidden payment prevented residents from realizing the true cost of water con

sumption. Water meters reveal the true cost of water and allow residents to adjust their water consumption accordingly.

Taxpayers were initially hesitant about


the water meter installations. However, the

Town sold almost 2,000 toilet dams, along

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pating stores sold additional devices from their existing stock. Port Elgin realized immediate benefits from the project. The water treatment

plant's annual operating costs decreased $12,000 due to decreased electricity and chemical requirements. In addition, the

Ontario Ministry of the Environment lifted the restriction on new development in the community. If water and sewage rates encourage con servation through direct savings, other mu nicipalities can accomplish Port Elgin's high participation rates. Most importantly, tax payers must feel that they have a stake in conserving water, whether it be through re duced municipal taxes or increased environ mental awareness.

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The Town of Port Elgin's program ex ceeded expectations and delayed the water treatment plant expansion expenditure of $5.5 million. Above all, water conserva

tion produced immediate savings for the Town in the operational costs of the water and sewage plants while decreasing taxpay ers' water bills. The success of Port Elgin's program proves that municipal water con servation can be both environmentally and fiscally responsible. Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


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Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Industrial waste management

OMWC still vitally necessary, says Dr. ChantNo, It's not, replies John Jackson Two articulate speakers, Dr. Donald Chant (right), President, Ontario Waste Management Corporation,

lion tonnes were shipped off site for treat ment. And, of this off-site total, about 400,000 tonnes is truly hazardous waste.

and John Jackson, President,

This is the waste which OWMC sees as

Ontario Toxic IVasfe Research

its target market. Almost all of that waste is inadequately treated, without the use of the best-available technology. It is inter esting to note that there has been little change in this target market for the past four to five years. While overall industrial waste quantities are showing some decline, the quantities of the most hazardous wastes are not. And stricter regulations are bound to drive those quantities upwards. Because so many tonnes of toxic sub stances are receiving inadequate treatment, a lot of toxic materials are getting into the environment where they pose very serious

Coalition, presented diametrically opposing viewpoints at an Environmental Forum sponsored by the Conservation Council of Ontario, February 23. Dr. Chant spoke first. Photo report by ES&E Editor - Tom Davey.


Iam very curious about the use of the term "debate" to describe what we are

doing here. I find this very staged and artificial. And it is taking place long

threats to wildlife and human health. I want

after the fact.

The OWMC's project has been on the public agenda for nine years, since 1985. It has been subject to four years of intensive Environmental Assessment hearings. Eve rything that conceivably could be said has been said, under oath, has been subject to cross-examination and is in the transcript record. The hearing panel, and only the

hearing panel, has the final say on the pro posal now — and that panel will give it ei ther a green light or a red light. We expect the panel's report in the next few weeks. The Ontario Cabinet, of course, will make the final decision. But the panel decides on the merits of the case, that is, the need, technology, environment, social and economic impacts. In short, the panel will rule on whether the plant is justified. As an ecologist, I personally believe that toxins are the No. 1 environmental threat

facing us today. And I also believe that the facility proposed by OWMC offers the only practical solution to dealing with toxic wastes in the foreseeable future. I will dis

cuss the role of the facility in more detail but first I want to touch on the history of the proposal which includes a rotary kiln, a

physical/chemical treatment plant, a solidi fication plant and a landfill. When OWMC was formed in 1981, the government of the day had already chosen a

site in South Cayuga Township. That site was unsatisfactory,carrying with it the threat of contaminants leaching into the Grand River.

By 1985, we had selected another site in an exhaustive process of elimination.

To provide balance for this discus sion, ES&E invited Richard Szudy of Laidiaw Environmental to give a pri vate sector view on page 61.

That's when this preferred site, in West Lin coln Township between Hamilton and Niagara Falls, came under the Environmen tal Assessment Act. From 1985 to 1987, we carried out an analysis of the site and the proposal. That proposal went through two reviews by 25 to 30 government agen cies between 1987 and 1989. Finally, in 1989, we received the green light to go to Environmental Assessment Hearings. That started a four-year process which ended in

September of 1993 and has cost the prov

to make it clear that the quantities of wastes I'm talking about are the wastes generated annually by Ontario industry. These num bers do not include the hundreds of contami

nated sites scattered around the province and crying out for cleanup — a cleanup that On tario does not have the capability of doing.

Contrary to some claims, the proposed fa cility will actually benefit the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle. For instance, it will give us the ability to test and develop new waste treatment and 3Rs technology.

ince more than $50 million, $7 million of

It is inexcusable that Ontario, the most

which went to intervenors. And most of that

industrialized province in Canada, lags far behind other jurisdictions in the treatment it provides for its hazardous wastes. We must look at these other jurisdictions and learn from their examples, not only in the need for treatment and disposal but in the type of treatment and disposal they make available. Germany and Finland and other European nations have well-established haz

was spent on lawyers. Although it may be difficult to compre hend, comparatively speaking the process has gone at the speed of light when one con siders that the approval process for a mu nicipal solid waste landfill regularly takes 12 to 15 years. In final analysis, the Minis try ofthe Environment and Energy supported the case we put forward, our proposal for a waste treatment and disposal facility and the need for the facility. While all this was going on,OWMC cre ated North America's most active and ag gressive program to assist industry in reduc ing wastes through the 3Rs. Under the Di rect Assistance Program, OWMC's waste reduction experts go into the plants to work hand-in-hand with industries in carrying out

ardous waste treatment facilities.


Canada, we have a new rotary kiln Incin erator starting up in Alberta, a plant which eventually hopes to profit from Ontario's PCBs. And we have the advanced Stablex

plant in Quebec, although it cannot treat all wastes.

Meanwhile, Ontario has the outdated

Laidiaw facility near Samia, a plant that does not use the best-available technology,

waste reduction audits and implementing

cannot deal with the nastiest wastes and will

waste reduction measures. It's a side of

not be upgraded. Laidiaw, of course, is transferring its focus to the United States. It is buying up ambulance and school bus companies where higher profits are to be

OWMC that is often lost or ignored in the ongoing debate around the facility and whether or not it is needed. But there is no

question that we do need a comprehensive waste treatment and disposal facility, offer ing the best-available technology. The latest figures from MOEE illustrate that need. In 1992, Ontario industries cre ated some 3.7 million tonnes of waste at

some 27,000 plants. Of this total, 1.2 mil Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


The facility proposed by OWMC offers a number of benefits to Ontario, headed per haps by its contribution to environmental and health protection through waste treat ment and the cleanup of contaminated sites. Continued overleaf 53

The OWMC Debate, cont'd. The facility will also encourage indus trial expansion because industry will know that wastes can be treated safely and respon sibly.

It will take decades to implement totally suc cessful 3Rs programs. And what do we do

all of the safety features we will build into our facility. In addition, new technologies

with our toxic wastes in the meantime? Our

are often mentioned in the same breath as

plant will actually assist the 3Rs industry.

In terms of direct economic benefits, the

It can serve as a demonstration site for new

facility will create some 1,500 person years of employment in the construction industry and some 150 permanent jobs. It will give Ontario a new dimension in engineering expertise. It can help create new waste treat ment technology which can be exported, to

waste treatment technology. And it will not accept wastes that have the potential for reduction, reuse or recycling — just as takes place in Germany.

mobile technologies. By and large, these new technologies are commercially unproven and are not available now. It seems that there is always some wonderful new gadget that our critics leap to embrace-usu ally only to have it fail and fade away. An example is plasma arc technology. Who has heard anything about it recently although, some years ago, it was reported as holding all the answers. I can't help but wonder

the benefit of all.

And West Lincoln will

benefit through the Community Impact Agreement negotiated with the township. A lot of myths have risen up around the proposal and I want to address some of the more common ones. Let's start with the

myth that there is no need for the facility. Baloney! There are many, many studies which refute this, including the most recent report of the International Joint Commis sion. Our facility will incorporate the world's most up-to-date proven technology. For instance, we will incorporate a drum handling system developed in Finland and the flue-gas treatment system in use in Ger many, which meets the strictest standards in the world.

Of course, it is everyone's preference to deal with toxic wastes through the 3Rs. And there is no question that much more can be done to reduce waste quantities. But 3Rs alone will never take care of the problem.

It seems that there is

always some wonderful new gadget that our critics leap to embrace usually only to have It fail and fade away. Mobile facilities may supplement a plant but not replace it. We have 27,000 plants in Ontario producing wastes. And we have hundreds of sites that need cleanup. It would be a logistical nightmare to try to do it with mobile facilities — particularly be cause they're not truly mobile. They are not here today and somewhere else tomor row because they take weeks to set up. For instance, the RGB clean up in Smithville was done with a mobile incinerator. It took

months. And that one project has cost $50 million to date.

what the next brainstorm will be.

If any of these new technologies do prove out on a commercial scale, we can find a

place for them within our system. But they will never be a substitute for the facility we plan to build. Should the private sector do it? There are no significant private sector initiatives on the books and there haven't

been any for 15 years. Private industry is frightened off by the high costs of winning environmental approval for such a proposal and the public opposition any such proposal will undoubtedly create. That, essentially, is why the Ontario Government created OWMC,to create a hazardous waste treat

ment facility despite these obstacles. Will our plant poison everyone? The record of waste treatment and dis

Nor do these mobile incinerators have

posal facilities in Europe is outstanding.

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The OWMC Debate, cont'd. Our proposed facility will be able to meet the strictest environmental standards In

place anywhere in the world. The most difficult residue to deal with

is sodium chloride, familiar to most of us as common salt.

We've found that sodium

chloride is very difficult to Immobilize in a landfill. In 700 years or so, it will leach out and into the groundwater. That's why we

Looking at comparative costs, the Re gion of Ottawa-Carleton spent $300 to $350 million just to upgrade its sewage treatment plant. That's just one community, not a treatment plant for the entire province. OWMC will have a very valuable licence that no one else will have in Ontario, a li cence that creates an opportunity for part nerships with the private sector — as has

intend to recover the sodium chloride and sell it.

EA process and hearings are very useful — up to a point. The scrutiny we have under gone has improved our project, without question. But enough is enough! The tactic over the last two years by our opponents was blatantly to play for delay piled on delay presumably hoping that government and the public would lose interest. These self-im posed "environmentalists" have actually succeeded in perpetuating environmental harm.

Could phase-outs and bans make our plant unnecessary? We simply cannot achieve phase-outs and bans without having treatment available for some of the materials, a back-up system where phase-outs and bans will not work immediately. Otherwise, we risk closing down industries and driving them out of On tario.

We need the facility to bridge the gap while phase-outs and bans are put in place and become effective. And that gap will be long. Phase-outs and bans were first talked about in the 1970s - and here we are today still talking about them. And we must ask; without the facility, what do we do in the interim? An issue that is often raised is whether

the province can afford the facility, and its estimated cost of $250 million. First of all, Ontario has already invested nearly $150 million and it has to protect that investment.

These self-imposed

We have all been fiddling while Rome burns. Hundreds of thousands of tonnes of

"environmentalists" have

actually succeeded In perpetuating environmental harm. happened in Alberta,Finland, Denmark and Germany. There is considerable interest al ready from the private sector in some form ofjoint capital venture and perhaps contract ing for the operation of the facility. We know that this interest will rise after we get the green light to go ahead. It is also a long way from being a finan cial white elephant. A financial analysis of its profitability shows that it will easily pay its own way. The facility will reach a break even point in four years with a return on investment of about 14 per cent. There is one final point on which 1 feel very strongly. 1 want to make it clear that

toxic wastes have continued to poison the environment because this province does not yet have a modern, state of the art, treat ment plant. Make no mistake. This plant is needed - urgently, even,more urgently than when OWMC was created. Such a plant is the cornerstone of any hazardous waste man agement strategy, no matter what the other components may be. There is no single so lution, but a waste treatment and disposal facility will have to be included in the final matrix. Otherwise, we will hobble into the future with only one crutch. Only by attacking the problem on all fronts — 3R's, phase-outs and bans, and state-of-the-art treatment — can we hope to have an overall hazardous waste manage ment strategy that will help move us to a sustainable future.


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The OWMC Debate, cont'd.

The other side of the picture. approach. The Provincial Minister of the Environment released a Progress Report for 1991 on restoring and protecting the Great Lakes. It said, "the challenge for the Prov

John Jackson (above) replied that says that we have to change our direction in dealing with contaminants.

Pollution "control", which is put ing

better traps at the end of the pipes and at the tops of the stacks, has not solved the problem and will not solve the problem in the future. Our focus must be on pollution "prevention". This means changing the way that we produce materials in our society and, in some cases, not producing particular materials at all. The Ontario government endorses that

reduction in hazardous waste produced. Industry itself, through a committee

ince in the immediate future is to redirect

called the Hazardous Waste Minimization

the thrust of its existing programs and to

Committee, made up of a wide range of in

design new initiatives to help industries,

dustries from across the country, has recently set as its declared goal to have 50% less

businesses, individuals and institutions im

the International Joint Commission

vincial government has stated a 50% waste reduction goal by the year 2000, that is 50%

plement pollution prevention." The question then is where does the OWMC fit into a provincial strategy of pol lution prevention? Is it part of the new ap proach or is it part of the old pollution con trol approach? I think the nature of the fa cility is quite clear; it is part of the pollu tion control approach; it is part of the past, not part of the long term and even the im

waste going to disposal by the year 2000 than they did in 1992. The OWMC's num

mediate future.

quantities of waste. That got taken off the

Let's look at the OWMC's need descrip tion. It assumes an ongoing increase in

table as it became clear that MISA would

waste production. It assumes in the evi

the first place.

bers are based on 7% reduction, which just does not add up.

The need history of this case is really quite astonishing. The basic description of need in terms of quantities and size of the facility happened in 1984; that is now ten years ago. *MISA was going to create large

get industries to stop creating the waste in

dence that it gave at the hearing, that by

The other sort of waste that we are all

1997 we will have a 7% reduction in waste because of the 3Rs and that reduction will

very concerned about is what comes out every day from the end of a pipe, goes up a stack or out of a pipe from a pulp and paper industry, all the major sources of the envi

be counteracted by the growth in the economy so that we actually end up with a 3% increase in waste. "Seven percent likely", the term that the OWMC uses, is a very pessimistic view of where we are go ing in terms of waste reduction. The Pro

ronmental contamination that the Interna

tional Joint Commission is talking about. But building an OWMC type of plant will not mean that the pulp and paper industry





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The OWMC Debate, cont'd. suddenly catches its effluent and ships it down to West Lincoln (OWMC site). It is changes in the technology, changes in the operation of the plant, changes in the way in which they produce paper that are going to stop contaminants going out the end of a pipe. They are not going to be catching the dioxins and the furans at the end of the water

pipe and shipping them to the OWMC. In February 1991, the Hearing Board made an interim decision and said yes, we will continue with the hearing because there clearly is a need for something. They said there is a proven need for additional dis posal for PCBs,bio-medical waste, and with the possibility of a border closing, wastes that the United States no longer allows us to ship across the border. With the PCBs, there is clearly a problem that we have to solve. The question is do we build a large service centre facility? Is that what we need

pollution control approach? The message

What is the most appropriate method to deal with those wastes that are still there? Who

we send is that we intend to continue in the

is the most appropriate one to do it? We need to look first of all at potential existing

old way, despite what the province is say ing about having to change from pollution control to pollution prevention. The mes sage here is that it is okay to continue pro ducing waste because we have a safe way to handle it. That is not the message we

facilities. We have to look at the potential of transportable facilities, incinerators, so lidification plants. I agree with Don that mobile is not an appropriate term for most of these facilities. They are major facilities

want to convey.

The other problem is an incinerator. The OWMC incinerator will have emissions. No

The message here is that it is okay to continue producing waste

one can debate it. The comparisons that the OWMC itself put forward in terms of emissions from their stack exceeded, in

some important cases by substantial quan tities, the interim standards which the MOE had put forward as acceptable (unfortunately the Ministry dropped their CAP Clean Air Program). But this does not mean that there was no validity to the numbers that they had

because we have

a safe way to handie it That is not the message we want to convey.

there. And the OWMC cannot meet some

to solve it?

because that is what is needed to make them

of those standards.

Regarding bio-medical waste, since this interim decision was made by the Board, the province has come up with a strategy for bio-medical wastes that calls for regional facilities around the province and not that they all be shipped to one location. On U.S. border closings, there are no indications that there are going to be border closings. There is a lot of waste coming into Ontario; the Laidlaw facility near Sarnia receives a sub stantial percentage of its waste from Michi gan and from other states in the United

useable in a reasonably safe way.

The IJC sees incinerators as something that we have to work to phase out. They see them as a continuation of the accept ance of pollution. They say the only accept able incinerator is the zero discharge incin erator. I don't think any of us hope that we can achieve a zero discharge incinerator. Anything else that we are doing in the in terim must be working on phasing out the incinerator, not seeing it as a long term so

And we also have to look at to what ex

tent it is appropriate to centralize disposal. The other side of the need issue is the

plant that is proposed by the OWMC. Does it in any way add to the problem? Does it perpetuate and continue the problems? First of all, it sends the wrong 3Rs message. What is the message that we send to indus try and to all consumers in this society if we are setting up a facility that supports the


Continued overleaf

States. So this issue is not so black and

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What is really interesting in the need de bate is that we had our huge debate in the first year. We then came to the end of the hearing and the OWMC came with its mar ket assessment. They had their market peo ple go out to make an assessment like any company would in terms of what is their potential market. The numbers suddenly became much smaller; they became actu ally quite close to what our own experts were telling us. One of the things that was necessary for that market, was that they take approxi mately a third of the waste that Laidlaw is currently handling. It was not suggested that Laidlaw was doing a lousy job, and there fore it was environmentally desirable to take It to a place where it could be better han dled. The rationale given was that the

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The OWMC Debate, cont'd. The landfill is another problem. The pro posal which the OWMC had very near the end of the hearing included a landfill which would contaminate with chlorides the

groundwater under three thousand acres of land in the West Lincoln community. The Ministry of Environment warned the OWMC years before that their landfill would not be up to standard. And yet near the end of the hearing they were still say ing, it's okay, what we'll do is we'll buy out the rights of people to drink the water there and we'll bring in water for them. They withdrew that proposal after major public outcry and then said, okay we'll find a way to extract the chlorides and if that doesn't work we will put them into a deep well. This is not simply table salt. These are a wide range of chlorides and chlorides carry with them other contaminants. What the Board is now left with and what

the community is now left with is a pro posal that is not fully worked out in terms of deaiing with the landfill. The OWMC did not bring forward assessments on whether the area was suitable for a deep well (disposal), if indeed any area is suit able for a deep well. The Board does not have the technical details in front of them to be able to make a rational decision about how safe this landfill will be. So what is it then that the interveners at

that hearing want? We want a halt on both

public and private proposals for new dis posal capacity at this moment until the Prov ince of Ontario conies forward with a haz

ardous waste management strategy for On tario. Isn't it ironic that for municipal landfills you have to have a waste manage ment master plan before you can plan dis posal capacity? We in this province are talk ing about building ourselves, the taxpayers, a disposal facility but we have not got the

It is a political decision about what is the most

appropriate way for the provincial government to be involved in solving the hazardous waste problem. master plan. That was one of the reasons we got involved in the hearing. But the Board in its interim decision said no, that is not what we are doing at this hearing. We are not developing a hazardous waste strat egy for Ontario. What we want the province to do now is develop a hazardous waste strategy for On tario. What we have now is the OWMC with

a mandate to build a disposal facility. They added the 3Rs because of our encourage ment and the support for the 3Rs program was very good, but it is a minor part of the program. We want to have that hazardous


waste strategy first, then see where the OWMC fits in.

We have already spent $130 million on the OWMC. Unless we know that this is

the appropriate way to spend provincial money, we do not want to spend another half billion. (It is a half billion from the docu mentation that the OWMC brought). The government should be in the forefront in stead of following. Being in the forefront is becoming part of the IJC's vision about a pollution prevention society rather than be ing part of the past which is pollution con trol, which is where the OWMC fits in. The

vision that the IJC gave us is based not on some fantasy but on their perception of the reality of what we are confronted with out there. The Province and OWMC should get onto that bandwagon and move forward with it instead of dragging behind. Ultimately this is not the decision of the Board. Ultimately it is the decision of the provincial cabinet. It is the decision of us, the people of Ontario. It is a political deci sion about what is the most appropriate way for the provincial government to be involved in solving the hazardous waste problem. We want them involved in solving it. They must be involved in solving it. But we are not convinced that this is the most appropriate way for them to be involved.

Continued on page 61 *Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement


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miDMEia suME ijIn neiEi nil

The OWMC debate, cont'd.

A reply from the private sector Taj Mahal terms, this must be seen as sig nificant. Dr. Chant continues to criticize the ca


pabilities of our integrated hazardous waste management complex, near Sarnia, even though he has never evaluated its perform ance and capabilities. He brushes aside the facility as outdated, but, neglects to men tion its design is duplicated in his corpora tion's state-of-the-art landfill facility. In addition, our facility's high-temperature in cinerator incorporates a unique combination of proven and patented technology, which demonstrates its ability to effectively treat wastes on a daily basis. Annual stack tests

Laidlaw Environmental Services

confirm its world-standard destruction effi

was not invited to participate in the Conservation Council forum, although representatives were present and the company was referenced by the debate participants. ES&E has invited

ciency, with emission rates measuring just two per cent and less of levels permitted by regulation. The private sector is responding, and contributing to Ontario's betterment.

Laidlaw Environmental's Richard

Szudy, Vice-President, Environmental Management, to present a private sector perspective to balance this feature.

The kind of at ack against the pri

vate sector, which Dr. Donald

Chant included in his comments at the Conservation Council's envi

ronmental forum discussion, has become as predictable as it is inaccurate. The accusa tions are hollow, given the fact the OWMC

refused to consider private sector hazard ous waste management services during the development of its proposal. The corpora tion stated during the hearings that such a consideration "was not in the best interest

of waste management in the Province of On tario." There is strong evidence that the OWMC was speaking solely in the inter ests of its own proposal. The private sector does not deserve to be maligned, or misrepresented. There con tinue to be significant private sector initia tives, not merely on the books, but in appli cation, as there have been for close to 15

years. The Hazardous Waste Management Companies directory, published in Novem ber 1993 by the Canadian Environmental Industry Association(CEIA)in co-operation with Environment Ontario, lists 134 com panies active in waste management in On tario — most having come into existence in the last 15 years and many of which focus on waste reduction, reuse and recycling. Ac cording to an Ernst and Young study com missioned by Environment Ontario, this in dustry generates more than $2.5 billion in revenue annually. In 1989 alone, the private

sector in Ontario spent $8.3 billion on en vironmental protection measures, according to a Dunn and Bradstreet report for Envi ronment Canada. Surely, even in OWMC's

Laidlaw Environmental Services' recycling, treatment and disposal facilities in Ontario alone represent an investment in excess of

$200 million over the last 15 years. In re sponse to market demand and technologi cal and regulatory developments, Laidlaw Environmental continues to invest $5 mil

lion to $10 million annually for modifica tions and improvements.

It is Laidlaw's resources which pio neered the shallow-encapsuled secure landfill concept copied by OWMC; it is Laidlaw's private sector resources which developed the lab pack protocols endorsed by Environment Canada; it is Laidlaw's re sources which pioneered the concept of household hazardous waste(HHW)manage ment endorsed by Environment Ontario and municipalities across Ontario and Canada; it is Laidlaw's private sector resources that

velopments by other Laidlaw companies and inferring that they are being undertaken by Laidlaw Environmental Services, is like

suggesting the government's interest in waste management is being replaced by ca sinos where more revenue can be generated. Just as the government can and does pursue different activities through different minis tries and agencies, so also does Laidlaw Inc. pursue different activities through different operating companies. Ontario does not need a publicly funded mega-plant. Yet, the OWMC continues to point to waste quantity data, as if the rep etition of such action alone is all the proof necessary to justify its proposed facility. The corporation's approach is akin to looking at medical treatment statistics and concluding that, because the number of patients per year is at a certain level, a new hospital needs to be built. Could one conclude that a new

hospital is needed solely on the basis of the number of patients being treated? Shouldn't existing treatment capabilities be a key fac tor in the equation? Yet, such false logic is precisely what the OWMC has been using to justify its case for a $500-million-plus plant. The corpora tion concludes that, because waste contin

ues to be generated and treated, there con tinues to be a need for its giant facility. The data OWMC uses clearly identifies where the waste is actually being managed now. As with the hospital example, a new facil ity should be considered only if justified by a substantial gap between volumes gener ated and volumes treated. No such void has been identified.

Laidlaw Environmental Services remains

Ontario's real hazardous waste manage ment need, with private sector capabilities factored in, can no longer be excluded from the OWMC facility question. It is a tragedy that the OWMC remains unable to grasp Ontario's waste management needs, after gorging itself in a 14-year, $130-million frenzy to justify a preconceived notion. But, it would be nothing short of a catastrophe for the province's waste generators and tax payers, if the crown corporation's megaplant is allowed to displace private sectorfunded facilities, services and jobs, for a return of negligible value.

focused on serving Ontario's hazardous and special waste generators. Referring to de

Circle reply card No. 257

introduced the recycling of HHW paints and constructed a world class automated paint recycling facility... hardly outdated and cer tainly not static. We're only one example. There are the contributions of 133 other pro fessional waste managers serving Ontario which deserve consideration.

Our commitment continues to be strong. While other operating companies within Laidlaw deal with solid waste management, medical services and passenger services,

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, Golder Associates Fischer & Porter Canada is providing a new Magmeter Rapid Repair Exchange Program for the company's line of Canadian manu factured magnetic flowmeters. The focus of the program is improved delivery time for the repair/exchange of these magmeters to minimize customer inconvenience, lost

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the company's Factory Repair Centre or their local sales office or distributor. With

the call, the company ships an exchange unit of current design as a direct replacement to match the specification of the failed unit. Flow test facilities are also available as

a service through the Centre to prove accu racy performance and verify good working order of existing magmeters in the field. Fischer & Porter Canada

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 155 Environrtienlal Science & Engineering, April 1994


255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9(X)0 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa • Thorold • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston • London


Consultants □HZHZl-a

Product Review

Hydromantis, Inc.

Cellular confinement

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Presto Products has appointed Armtec Con struction Products as a National Canadian Distributor of Geoweb Cellular Confine


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mensional cellular structure allows the use 'Hydrogeology 'Engineering Geology • Geotechnical Engineering

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Automatic VOC sampler

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Consulting Engineers

settlement and prevents penetration into the subgrade. As an effective solution to ero sion control problems, the system has been utilized on steepened slopes and as a chan nel lining. Armtec Construction Products For more Information,

The new Model 6000 Sampler automati cally collects and stores liquid samples con taining VOCs. It can be programmed to collect samples based on time or flow into 24 individual 40 ml glass bottles. An inno vative, patent pending sampling system de livers representative VOC samples that ex ceed EPA protocols. To eliminate cross con tamination, this product rinses the sample line and bottles prior to sampling. During sampling, liquid is injected into the bottle in a 360 degree stream, eliminating air bub bles.

After filling, a valve closes and seals the sample bottle with no exposure to air. The unique bottle rack makes bottle changing, transporting, and sample docu mentation easy. Each bottle is identified by its position in the rack, and sampling infor mation for each bottle is stored in batterybacked memory. Isco Environmental Division

For more information, Circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Air Pollutlon

By Tahir R. Khan, Ph.D.*

Air Emission inventory and Government Requirements

Scientific enquiry as well as public

concern gave almost two and a half decades of intense scrutiny to the phenomenon of "Acid Rain". This enquiry was almost entirely directed to the deposition of two acids, sulphuric and ni tric. Although the emitters of these acids, the electric utilities, metallurgical and oil refineries, municipal incinerators, pulp and paper mills, chemical plants, surface coat ing plants and other manufacturing facili ties may release relatively large amounts, the emission is not limited to the two acids.

Studies have reported that these sources, commonly known as point sources, emit a mixture of simple and complex organic chemicals in addition to sulphuric and ni tric acids (1-3). For example, it is estimated that for the Ottawa, Canada, region, weak acids contribute approximately 20 % to the acidity of precipitation (3). Focus on atmospheric research took a significant turn from NOx and SOx emis sions to the emissions of volatile organic compounds(VOC)in the late eighties. The role played by the VOCs in altering the chemistry of the atmosphere was duly rec ognized. The triggering of the ozone deplet ing chain reactions in the upper troposphere, exceedances of the pollutant in the lower troposphere, accumulation of smog in the atmosphere and global warming are all perturbations of the atmospheric chemistry resulting from VOC emissions. The scien tific research in atmospheric chemistry pro vided enough evidence for the public to raise

not limited to a region or a province. The

sive document called National Emission

MOEE limits itself to issues that affect On

Reduction Masterplan (NERM). The pro gram was referred to as Responsible Care commitment of all CCPA member compa nies requiring an awareness of all emissions to the environment and a program to reduce

tario's environment. Environment Canada. Environment

Canada addressed the VOC issue by com piling an inventory of emissions from the industry sectors that are major emitters of VOCs. This included oil refinery, chemical producing plants and transportation. These

those of health and environmental concern


Another major driving force to manage

industries were invited to volunteer the

VOC emission came from the U.S. EPA's

emission data from their respective facili ties. The underlying purpose of the enquiry was to set priorities for pollution reduction programs, for tracking the progress of vol untary or regulated emission reductions, for estimating trends of releases to the environ ment and for estimating releases from pro posed facilities and other sources (4).

Toxic Chemical Release Reporting rule. The agency promulgated this rule pursuant to

The Canadian Chemical Producers As

sociation (CCPA) responded to the VOC emission issue by developing a comprehen

Sections 313 and 328 of Title III of the

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Title III is also known

as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. The Act re quires owners and operators of covered fa cilities to report annually their releases of listed toxic chemicals. The purpose was Continued overleaf


its concerns on the emissions of NOx and

VOCs and for the regulatory agencies to address the problem closely. The purpose of this article is to put into perspective the various government pro grams designed to manage the VOC emis sions, to comment on the implications of these programs for industry and to discuss the importance of emission inventory.

Role of Regulatory Agencies Two levels of government exercise leg islative jurisdiction over the manufacturing industry in Ontario, the federal government and the provincial. Environment Canada,the federal agency, functions under the Cana


dian Environmental Protection Act(CEPA) and the Ministry of the Environment and Energy(MOEE),the provincial agency, un der the Environmental Protection Act. En vironment Canada addresses the environ mental issues that have a national and ulti

mately a global character, the issues that are

Inco's flash furnaces represented a tremendous breakthrough in SO^ reduction from the smelting operations. Photo shows two flash furnaces under construc

*Vice President,

tion. They were expected to reduce SO^ by at least 100 kilotonnes per year.

Chemical Emission Management Services (OEMS)

Issue 1992.)

Prince Charles officially opened the project In 1991. (Cover story ESi&EDec./Jan.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


Air Pollution, cont'd. to provide the public with information on

targeted chemicals at the source. CAP included a new requirement called Source Registration. All emitters were re quired to report, on an annual basis, the quantities of the targeted chemicals emit ted to the atmosphere. The Source Regis tration was nothing but the Ontario version of the air emission inventory, which indus try is to comply with.

such releases in their communities and to

provide EPA with release information to assist the agency in determining the need for future regulations. In March 1993 Environment Canada enacted the National Pollutant Release In

ventory (NPRI)through a notice under Sec tion 16 of the CEPA. Under this notice the

reporting criteria are: 1. Any facility that manufactures, processes

...CAP was put on the back burner by the newly elected NOP government. The ministry, however, did

or otherwise uses 10 tonnes or more of a

substance on the NPRI list, and

2. Whose employees collectively work 20,000 or more person-hours a year. The reporting requirements are compre hensive as the inventory must fully account for the multi-media (air, water and land) discharges of the listed chemicals. The emis sion data for 1993 are to be submitted by May 1994 using the prescribed format de signed specifically for the purpose. Ministry of the Environment & Energy. During the early 1980's the Min istry of the Environment and Energy held workshops to review the existing Regula tion 308. This resulted in the development of a new program called Clean Air Program (CAP). In 1987 the ministry issued a dis cussion paper on CAP. This was followed by a comprehensive draft regulation in Au gust, 1990. The intended objective of the

Due to the change of hands in the gov ernment, CAP was put on the back burner by the newly elected NDP government. The ministry, however, did not abandon CAP completely. It applied part of the operational components of CAP under the existing Regulation 308, now 346, in 1991. It intro duced the Source Registration program un

CAP was to limit the emission to about 800

der a different name, the Ontario Industrial

completely. It applied part of the operational components of CAP under the existing Regulation 308, now 346, in 1991.

ducers Association (CCPA), the petroleum industry to Canadian Petroleum Products In stitute (CPPI), the surface coating industry to Canadian Paint and Coatings Association (CPCA) and the pulp and paper industry to Canadian Pulp and Paper Association (CPPA). Some associations, such as CCPA, took initiatives to develop their own com prehensive program to guide their members in compiling the emission inventory. One association, CPCA put a hold on their mem bers' Ontario Industrial Survey submissions until the reporting format is finalized with the MOEE.

Then came the directives from the pro vincial and federal governments notifying industry to comply with their regulatory and



>. 1

areas were asked to fill out a set of 14 forms

(10 for 1990 and 4 for 1991) designed by the ministry to report the air emission data. It must be noted that the reporting require ments, i.e., the contents and the report for mat are very different from those of Envi ronment Canada's NPRI. The next city in line is likely to be Hamilton. Industry is Confused Industry received requests for volunteer ing air emission data from their respective associations and regulatory bodies. The chemical industry was obliged to provide emission data to Canadian Chemical Pro

not abandon CAP



Survey, in Windsor and the Greater Toronto Area(GTA).The target industries in the two

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Air Pollution, cont'd. legislative requirements, namely, the On tario Industrial Survey and NPRI. The ob jectives and the compliance requirements of both government agencies had very little in common. MOEE and Environment Canada chose

to use a direct mailing system to inform in dustry about their programs. MOEE mailed the industrial survey forms to the target in

denies the certificate for the stacks built, modified or put into operation prior to June

dustries in selected cities. Environment

Unless a national emission

inventory is developed and updated regularly, the regulatory agencies have

cation on a national scale. Environment Canada failed to reach all covered indus

tries. Both programs lacked consistency. Only the recipients of the government noti fications found themselves obligated to com ply. At the same time they were dismayed

• a comprehensive account of stationary source inventories,

• complete inventory documentation, • credibility of emission data, •analyzed and collated data as per each gov ernment requirement i.e. flexibility of data management, and • a public information resource This would have spared Industry from the existing confusion, duplication of work to meet each government requirement sepa rately, stretching scarce dollars and strained

no means to determine the

air pollution level at the regional or national level...

to learn that other industries with similar

or ductworking under Section 9 of the En

tral location,

1988, the grand-father provision. Industries operating grand-fathered stacks, in the majority of cases, interpreted

Canada attempted to mail the NPRI notifi

emissions were unaware of the programs and might not have to spend their scarce recessionary dollars. While there may be more reasons for inconsistency at the government level, there is another major reason from the organiza tional standpoint. The speciated emission inventory constitutes a major portion (about 80%) of the material required to complete a Certificate of Approval (C of A)(AIR) application and is critical to the approval process. The C of A is a legislative require ment of the ministry(MOEE)for operating air emission equipment such as a stack and/

emmental well-conceived program, there would have been established by now; • an emission inventory repository at a cen

vironmental Protection Act (EPA) of the

province of Ontario. The ministry, however,

relationships. Value of Emission Inventory Whether the value of source emission

inventory is discerned from the above dis this as a waiver of the EPA Section 9 legal obligations. Furthermore, some of the curi

cussion or not, it should be clear that emis

the documentation of air emissions. Had the

sion inventory is fundamental to an air emis sion management program. It is a basic tool for the regulatory agencies. Unless a na tional emission inventory is developed and updated regularly, the regulatory agencies have no means to determine the air pollu tion level at the regional or national level and develop guidelines, mandatory or oth erwise, to control it. The benefits to the pub lic of a national inventory are that it can: 1. Identify priorities for action;

regulatory agencies executed an inter-gov-

Continued overleaf

ous ones discovered that others in similar

situations continue to operate without any judicial interruptions. A corollary of this affair is that the proc ess of establishing a comprehensive docu mentation of emission inventory for the sources in Ontario that should have long been in place continues to be ignored. Thus only a handful of industries have completed


Waterloo Drive Point

Piezometers Total Construction Solutions Inc. is one of

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TCS is able to provide our clients with timely and costeffective solutions to their turnkey project requirements through a process of identification, qualification, formulation, integration, and execution. Major fields of expertise are in cogeneration, particle board, steel, offshore, petrochemical and automotive. Please visit us in Booth 128 Toronto Environmental Tradeshow and Conference Toronto international Centre of Commerce

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Drive Point Piezometers are driven

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High quality instrumentation

Solinst Canada Ltd. 515 Main St. Glen Williams, ON L7G 3S9 Tel: 1 (905)873-2255; Fax: 1(905)873-1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 182



CALGARY ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW & CONFERENCE CALGARY CONVENTION CENTRE •NOVEMBER 1 AD 2, W94 An ideal opportunity to exhibit your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental


Forfurther information contact:

Canadian Exhibition

Management Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, AB T6E 5W3 (403) 469-2400 Fax: (403) 469-1398

Calgary: (403) 258-0705 Fax:(403) 255-7404

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 146

Air Pollution, cont'd. 2. Encourage voluntary action to reduce re leases;

3. Allow tracking of the progress of release

Consultants try to demonstrate due diligence with re spect to releasing chemicals to the atmos phere.


4. Improve public understanding; and 5. Support targeted regulatory initiatives (6). Industry is puzzled at this point. It is confronted with a variety of inventory re quirements from the governments and each requirement is different in content and ex tent. If it is not already, it should be con cerned with the contaminants it is putting into the atmosphere. The fact remains that industry is the waste generator and it must control it. The onus is on industry. Furthermore, the public is now sensitive to any more abuse of the environment. The time is long gone when industry could turn its back on the waste it is generating. It can no longer count solely upon the economics and the quality of its product while ignor ing the byproduct, the waste. The course for industry is set. It must establish a comprehensive multi-media (dis charges to air, water and land including offsite disposal) speciated emission inventory data base of its manufacturing plants. The following steps will facilitate the data collection and presentation process and enhance the accuracy of release estimates: 1. The inventory should be structured into two regimes. One, a data bank, where all contaminant discharge data are keyed and stored and two, data presentation, where the target data are imported from the data bank and presented in the desired format, such as NPRI, Ontario Survey or C of A format. 2. Get companywide commitment to collect all pertinent data, purchasing records of all materials and the accompanying MSDSs.

rate, Health & Welfare Canada, 1992.

4.Theinterim Report of the NPRI, MultiStakeholder Advisory Committee, "To


wards a National Pollutant Release In

1. Canadian Environmental Newsletter, No. 160,1979, 1365.

ventory", Environment Canada, 1992 5. National Emission Reduction Master-

2. Likens, G.E., Chem. Eng. News,

Plan (NERM), The Canadian Chemical

1976, 29-44.

Producers Association, January, 1993. 6. NPRI MSAC Final Report, Decem

3. Khan,T.R. and Meranger, J.C.," The Effect of Acidic Deposition on the Qual ity of Drinking Water in the Ottawa Area", Environmental Health Directo

ber 1992.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 148

For information on advertising in the Consultant's Directory, please call Steve Davey,(905) 727-4666.

MacViro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Martrham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(905) 475-7270 • TeleFAX:(905)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment


•Hydrogeology •Waste manageinent •Engineering geology •Environmental audits

The data should include:

MALROZ Engineering Inc.

• an accurate computerized record of raw material usage, finished goods production and storage and waste disposal amounts • throughput records of storage tanks • raw material preprocessing records • process data • stack/vent parameters, such as, stack di mensions, flow rates and temperature

168 Montreal St., Kingston, Got. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

& rehabilitation

Marshall Macklin


• emission control measures

• waste water treatment and handling op

•Site decommissioning



• solid waste handling and disposal opera tions

• fuel storage and processing. 3. Develop a raw material purchasing and usage tracking system. The system should include for each raw material start-of-year and year-end inventory,a description of how,

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100


where and the amount of material used and

on-site disposal or off-site waste transfer. 4. Ensure the accuracy of the raw material annual inventory. Release estimates will be erroneous if the raw data regarding amounts of chemicals used or processed at the facil ity are in error. Conclusion

Both the regulatory agencies and the public are sending strong signals to indus Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994



Product Review Module for portable, flexible data acquisition and control


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Fox: 905-831-0531

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System developers can combine it with a PC,chassis and up to 11 signal condition ing I/O modules to create a flexible data acquisition and control system suitable for portable or remote applications.


Consulting Engineers •Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply



A new multifunction data acquisition and control module has been developed for the SCXI product line. The SCXI-1200 elimi nates the need for a PC expansion slot by moving the data acquisition hardware out of the PC and into the signal conditioning

Tel.: (905)875-2144


Tel.: 1905 643-8166 Tel.: 613 247-0111

'905) 643-8171

National Instruments

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 210

Very low flow flowmeters





Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment MiSA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o 11 8 n sims hubicki


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Decommissioning & Clean-up Asbestos/PCB Management Waste Management Hydrogeology

Trow Consulting Engineers

Three oscillating piston flowmeters have been developed for measuring very low flow rates, from 0.25 to 390 gai/hr, of light fuel and diesel oil on engine test stands,furnaces, boilers, tug boats and off-road construction vehicles. The Type VLF meters are preci

1595 Clark Boulevard,Brampton,Ontario (905)793-9800 Facsiimle(905)793-0641

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sion machined to -i-/-0.0006-in. Their accu

racy is -i-/-l% with a repeatability of +/0.25%. The measuring chamber is protected from contamination by a fine filter at the inlet. These meters feature a standard


vacuum sealed register with flow indicator. Schlumberger Industries


Measurement Division


For more information,

Circle reply card No. 211 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Product Review Slurry knife gate valve

Consultants operations, the compact unit can reduce the hydrocarbon contents of the waters treated to less than 5 ppm. Rotation speed and power consumption of the installation and volume of the unit are also reduced.

High-flow automatic airdriven pump HammcrHead groundwater cleanup pumps are controllerless air-driven pumps that

The cyclone can handle large variations in speed and concentration and is not af

break the 10 GPM barrier in 4-in wells.

fected by movements of the platform. Five

ft depth, 10-ft submergence. The pump runs itself with no external

sizes are available to handle individual

speeds from 8 to 130 m3 per hour. Neyrtec For more information. Circle reply card No. 163

Maximum flow rates exceed 11 GPM at 25-

controller; an internal float and self-clean

ing Hammer Drive air valving adjust flow rate to well conditions automatically. Solid, investment-cast stainless steel construction

Clip-on personal gas monitor Red Valve's new Flexgatc Slurry Knife Gate Valve is a heavy duty, rugged valve engi neered for operator dependability,low main tenance, and excellent abrasion resistance.

Rugged applications include mining opera tions, power plants, pulp mills, wastewater treatment, sludge, and abrasive slurry or solids handling plants, which standard valves are not equipped to handle. Opera tional cost savings are realized in less down time, less maintenance and repair, and valves that open and close when required. Designed for On/Off service, the valve closes like a knife gate valve. A heavy duty, stainless steel gate passes through two heavy duty cartridge reinforced rubber slurry sleeves. These rubber slurry sleeves pro vide a compression interference fit result ing in a driptight seal. When the valve is in the open position, the full port design elimi nates flow obstructions, keeping abrasive wear to a minimum. Neo Valve

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 161

Landfill design computer program The HMfW Help Model for Windows v2.05 is a landfill design tool which guides the user through the design process of an open, partially closed or closed landfill. The original FORTRAN model compu tational engine is used with no modifica

Portable gas detectors give workers advance warning of any potential hazard so they can

Circle reply card No. 166

leave an area before the situation becomes

dangerous. Simple clip-on personal moni tors, like the Gasman range from Crowcon, can be used wherever a single gas hazard may occur. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information. Circle reply card No. 164

Respirometer tests

Software for sewage treatment design GPS-X (for General Purpose Simulator) is a new engineering software package for the design, operation and control of full-scale sewage treatment plants which allows for the simulation of entire plants under dy namic conditions. Seven years in develop ment, the software allows engineers and operators to study different designs and op erating procedures regardless of plant size or complexity. Situations that may be tested include se vere rainstorms or spills, without threaten ing beaches or rivers. Economies can be achieved by deferring capital expenditure, and refining designs or annual running costs. Hydromantis, Inc. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 165

Arthur's bench and on-line respirometers measure the bioactivity of the microorgan isms in the treatment plant and provide the real time look inside the biological treat ment process that physical tests cannot. Short term tests of the plant influent reveal changes in organic load, treatability and toxicity, and tests of the effluent indicate whether or not treatment is finished. Tests

of return sludge measure microorganism viability. Customer training in these process con trol tests is provided with purchase. Arthur Technology For more information,

Circle reply card No. 167

Innovative Consulting in

tions. The user interface module consists

of a main design screen, and mouse and keyboard driven worksheets. Scrolling se lection lists, pop-up windows, and bar and xy-graphs provide the user with an intui tive environment to design a landfill and display the results of a simulation.

is engineered to deliver superior strength, corrosion resistance, and easy field mainte nance. QED GroundWater Specialists For more information.

Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc.

Tel:(905) 821-1127

Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

'Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater 'Phase 1 Emdronmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

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Grace Dearborn Inc.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 162

Offshore drilling production waters


treatment Dynaclean is a rotating cyclone designed in France to meet the needs of the petroleum industry by purifying production waters on offshore drilling platforms before returning them to the sea. Due to its vortex dynamic Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


biopiles, landfarming bioslurry reactor processes biological laboratory services contracted R&D projects

Specializing in the design, development, and implementation of bioremediation systems

■ focusing on degradation of plasticizers, petroieum hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs

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Product Review Quartz driven tlmeswltch The new Diehl 884 quartz driven timeswitch has lithium battery reserve. Its large LCD display shows time, day,switching program and status.

Standard features include

manual over-ride, repeat programming, small compact design and panel mounting capability. Available in all standard power supplies and relay configurations. Access Control Sales Ltd.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 169

Meteorological monitoring system The WEATHERPAK CL2 is a new mete

orological monitoring system which pro vides critical, real-time information about

the potential impact of an unplanned chlo rine or ammonia release. Knowledge about wind speed, direction and concentrations of such a release will result in prompt identi fication of contaminated areas and other action-related assessments.

The rugged system is a sophisticated combination of components, hardware and software, that will also assist in the day-today management ofodour control and health risk assessments. Archived data is easily retrievable for compliance issues. Coastal Environmental Systems Circle reply card No. 168

Compact mixer for

pH monitoring system The RC475 is a pH recorder in Nema case, with four set points and four relays to pro vide a two-way neutralization, and two-way alarms. The unit provides a record of the pH for up to 30 days without chart replace ment, and utilizes pressure sensitive paper: no ink or pens required. A digital readout panel is available as an accessory. The relays are rated for 7 amps non-in ductive. The set points can be set anywhere on the 2 to 12 pH scale (0-14 scale avail able) for treating waste with acid or caus tic.

The second set of relays can be arranged to activate other pumps or valves, for back up, or connected to alarms. pH sampling

intermediate size

applications The new Prochem JDW Specialty Mixer was designed to provide big drive features at economical intermediate mixer prices. It has a double-reduction, right-angle drive with a dry-well to prevent oil leakage. Three size ranges are available with 1-1/2, 2, and 2-1/2-in diameter output shafts. Motor sizes from 1 hp to 10 hp can be applied at eight output speeds from 30 to 125 rpm. Stand ard turbine impellers and high-efficiency hydrofoil impellers are available for a wide range of intermediate size mixing applica tions. Robbins & Myers, Inc. For more information,

and field meters are available.

Circle reply card No. 184

Analytical Measurements

Circle reply card No. 183

Analyzing air quality was never easier. Save time and money using BREEZE™ dispersion models for your air quality studies.



Over 30 enhanced EPA models are available. Call us

for your free demo, including the new ISC2 model. BREEZE 15 a trademark of Trinity C.oasttltntnts Inc.


, Air Quality Specialists (214)661-8100 Fax (214) 385-9203


For performance, safety, and cost effectiveness, McTighe Oil Water Separators are your best cfioice with modeis avaiiabie from...20 to 4500 GPM. □Completely separates free oil & grease from discharge water □20 GPM to 4500 GPM flow through with larger systems avail able □High grade coated steel construction □Reduces effluent to t)elow 10 PPM free oils □Guaranteed corrosion protection □ Various equipment options avaiiabie DEasy to install □Fully automatic


Write or call for detailed information on a system that is designed and built to your specific application.

. , ^ , indu/crie/ Inc.

P.O. Box 928 • Mitchell, SD 57301

Phone: (605) 996-1162 fax no. 605-996-i908

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 187


Toronto - August 22-25,1994 For more information.

Circle reply card No. 186

Government Affairs

Canada hosts first meeting of APEG ministers responsibie for the environment Canada hosted the first meeting of minis ters responsible for the environment in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) forum. The meeting was held in Vancou

tant trading region (after the United States). In 1993, 12 of Canada's top 25 markets were APEC economies. Two-way trade with APEC economies, (excluding the U.S.) in

the past decade, Japan moved from being the eighth-largest foreign investor in Canada to third largest, behind the U.S. and the United Kingdom. Japanese direct invest

ver, on March 24 - 25, 1994.

1993 was worth $41.7 billion, compared

ment in Canada has doubled since 1985 to

With a population nearing 2 billion and an aggregate gross national income twice that of the European Community, the AsiaPacific region is of growing importance to Canada and to the global economy. Asia has become Canada's second most impor

with our $25 billion in trade with the Euro

$5.7 billion, while portfolio investments, mainly in federal and provincial government bonds, are substantial. Other Asian econo mies, such as Hong Kong, Australia, Sin gapore and South Korea, have also become major foreign investors in Canada. Led by growth rates between 6-9% among what are referred to as the Dynamic Asian Economies(DAEs)— Korea,Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and Ma laysia — the rate of economic expansion in the APEC economies is exceeding the glo bal average by a large margin. Since its founding in 1989, APEC has become the principal inter-govemmental ve hicle for cooperation in the Asia-Pacific re

pean Community. Background The Asia-Pacific region is also becom ing a vital source of foreign direct invest ment and new technology for Canada. Over



gion. Its emergence was the result of care


ful community-building efforts of govern ments, business and academics over the pre vious two decades. It is evolving into a key PUMPING

agenda-setting body for the region, helping


to define priorities for member countries. APEC has been essentially a ministerial process, with annual meetings offoreign and trade ministers and periodic meetings of



senior officials. Canada is scheduled to host


the ninth ministerial meeting in 1997.


bers include the United States, Japan, Ko rea, Australia, New Zealand, China, Hong

In addition to Canada, APEC's 17 mem

-•:;v " QUALITY (I.A.Q.)

Kong, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, Singa pore, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei and Papua New Guinea. It is the first and only existing international organi


zation in which China, Hong Kong and Tai DEHUMIDIFIGATION

wan are all represented at the ministerial level. Chile will join in November 1994, at the Indonesian Ministerial.

Membership in APEC allows Canada to participate in developments in the Asia-Pa cific region and to benefit from its extraor dinary economic opportunities. An equally important objective is to increase awareness, making Canadians more informed about opportunities in the region, and prompting citizens of other countries to consider

Canada when making decisions about eve

rything from business to tourism. APEC serves as an important counter

weight to competing proposals from within


the Pacific Rim for more restrictive regional

groupings, such as the proposal for an East Asian Economic Caucus. Participation in

USA: 217 South Union Street, Burlington, VT 05401 Canada:

APEC complements work in other regional

4300 Poirier Blvd. Montreal, Quebec H4R 205

Tel.: (514)334-9609

and international bodies such as the OECD,

Fax: (514) 334-9184

GATT and the G-7,and will become increas

ingly important as the Asia-Pacific region itself takes on greater weight in global af

DRY-D-TRON® a registered trade mark of dectron inc. 78

For more information, Circle reply card No. 230


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(905) 727-4666. Field Portable Analyzer

New From Big O' Leak-Tight Sewer System

TN Technologies Pb Analyzer is a versatile field portable XRF instrument which provides the user ease of use

• CSA Certified HOPE pipe and fittings. • Features Bell & Spigot sealed joints

and freedom of movement. The

Analyzer has four different applica tions installed to analyze paint, soil,

necessary for sanitary sewers and storm sewers needing leak-tigfit performance. • Currently available in 100mm to

surface dust and air filters for lead.

The high resolution x-ray spectro meter provides a substrate independ ent measurement with excellent pre

375mm diameters.

• Larger diameters under development. Big '0' Circle reply card No. 204

Delta-Stak® Clarifier The Delta-Stak® Clarifier is a patented Low Cost ClartlicBScn in One Tlird to

One KaB the Space of Otter Dcsigna



Ramsey Canada Circle reply card No.205

The proven mclionless inixer that- . bringsrewetficiencyandcost^ " . ^vings to ins proi^s industries-.

Motionless Mixers The Statiflo motionless mixer is a vi

tal component of any inline mixing/ control system. Incorporation of the Statiflo mixer allows rapid sampling

inclined plate gravity separation de vice which greatly reduces require ments and costs compared to con ventional clarifiers. It also provides operational simplicity and high over flow rates. The design combines the shallow depth sedimentation principle, a high separation surface to volume ratio, and extremely low weir loading rates to optimize clarification effi ciency. EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 206

and efficient as well as minimum use

of dosing chemicals. Statiflo motion less mixers are commonly used in coagulation/flocculation, flash mixing of dilute polyclectrolyte, alum, caus tic, etc., ph control, disinfection/chlorination/fluoridation/ozonation and

other dilution and dispersion applica tions. Statiflo Inc.

Circle reply card No.207

<}<y Facet


Rotoco™ Filter The Rotoco™ Continuous Duty Filter is a patented granular media filter that combines the advantages of upflow filtration with a steady state reject stream (backwash)for the removal of suspended solids. Upflow filtration minimizes the chances of blinding the filter media. These advantages com


Engineering Clear Solutions

for Environmental Clean-up CiulesdnsPlates MPaka'

bine to make the Rotoco filter a low

cost, highly efficient filtration system. EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No.208

High Efficiency Oil-Water Separator The Facet Patented MPak coalesc

ing plate separators can reduce oil contamination to 10 ppm. Efficient for removal of solids, their unique multi ple angle plates are virtually self cleaning. Available in pre-engineered steel and concrete configurations for above and below ground,their modu lar construction allows retrofitting of existing API separators. Proprietary computer simulation program of ap plications gives customer guaranteed performance with the MPak design. Canlon Limited

Circle reply card No.224 DISI-1200 SERIES WATCR l.FV=L SENSORS

Intelligent-Water Level

Odour and VOC Control

Sensors The six page TAVIS Corporation bro chure outlines details on two types of water level sensors: 1) Submersible, 2) Non-submersible or bubbler applica tion. Designed for remote, year round operation in unattended stations, the DISI-1200 Series is temperature com pensated from -40° to h-50°C with an accuracy of 0.1% FS over the entire temperature range. Power required is

via Biofiltration Biofilters are widely used in Europe for odour and VOC control in com

posting facilities, waste water treat ment plants, rendering and food processing plants, and for a variety of VOC producers(e.g. printing, spraypainting). A biologically active filter layer breaks down and eliminates problem compounds. Backed by German engineers, Ambio designs,

8 to 16 VDC. Communication is either


RS232 or SDI-12 with extremely low power consumption of less than 0.5 ma at standby and less than 35 ma during peak read (2.5 sec. max.) Technel Engineering Inc. Circle reply card No. 212

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994


builds, and installs biofilters of all types and sizes tailored to your needs. Ambio Biofiltration Ltd.

Circle reply card No.225






Messy samples, slow lab results and un-

The results speak for themselves. In


dependable readings.You might say that

its first six months of operation at the


Moccasin Bend (Tenn,)WWTRthe HC-

the inspiration for the world's most ac n 3000•

curate and reliable high concentration sensor came from one of the world's



300 ran non-stop while measuring con


§ 2000-

tinuously, In fact, about the only thing we



Even in primary sludge, the


most thankless jobs: sludge sampling,



HC-300 achieves remarkable

linearity across a broad range.

The HC-300 combines brealcthrough

had to adjust was the calibration. But that's not all. When you buy from


software and improved signal filtering to produce an in-line device that's impervi

[1 |






Concentration {%)

ous to almost anything it will ever face.

Measuring principle

scattered light

Advanced 180° back-

BTG you get more than a sensor You get expert Installation, calibration assis

tance and quick attention if a problem

Even temperature changes in primary


+ 2% of full span

should arise.Which means you getsome

sludge. And because moving parts tend


+ 0,5% of full span

thing extra with the HC-300, A partner

to become problem parts, we designed


+ ,025% of signal, 0°

who can take the worry off your mind

the HC-300 without a single one.


to 50° C

and the sludge off your hands.

For Information on handling high concentration measurement problems, call I-800-BTG-2270 for our free booklet, © 1994 BTG

For more information, Circle reply card No. 229

Wastewater treatment

Anaerobic Technology - A System Whose Time Has Come?

Anaerobic treatment can, in many industrial applications, be a very

cost-effective alternative and of

fer a payback on investment. The payback results from biogas utilization as an energy source, a reduction of aeration energy costs (up to 90 percent), a reduction in sludge handling and disposal costs, and a reduction in surcharges when discharging to a municipality. ADI has approximately 40 anaerobic or anaerobic-plus-aerobic wastewater treat ment installations worldwide, and has en gineered solutions for dozens of conven tional aerobic waste treatment plants. ADTs modified low-rate anaerobic sys tem, referred to as the ADI-BVF® reactor,

incorporates mechanical mixing, sludge recirculation, and influent wastewater heat

ing (where required) to increase anaerobic activity. Anaerobic systems are considered to be "low rate" when they operate at load ing rates of 0.5 to 3 kg COD/mM. This re actor has proven repeatedly to be the least costly of the seven anaerobic technologies offered by ADI. The seven technologies range from low-rate to high-rate, including such technologies as sludge blanket, fixed film, and hybrids. The system has the ability to treat raw wastewaters having high concentrations of fats, oils, and grease such as potato process ing, meat processing, and dairy wastewaters. It produces very little waste sludge on its own and provides an excellent place for dis

posal of waste biological sludge from any aerobic polishing step that follows, thereby increasing the quantity of biogas produced and saving on sludge handling and disposal costs. Typical removal rates for BOD and suspended solids are 90 percent.

odor control.

One client's BVF reactor is situated be

This anaerobic treatment technology is particularly suitable for strong industrial wastewaters such as food processing, dairy, winery, brewery, distillery, soft drink, landfill leachate, certain types of chemical, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical. If the

side a city park. It is designed for BOD removal rates of 88 percent and suspended

has a BOD of at least 2000 mg/L, it will

wastewater flow is at least 500 m^/d and

The payback results from biogas utilization as an energy source, a reduction of aeration energy

costs(up to 90 percent), a reduction in sludge handling and disposal costs. solids removal of 85 percent; sludge wast ing is not anticipated for four to five years, and biogas is burned in the plant's boilers, resulting in a 10-15 percent reduction in natural gas requirements. The major ad vantage of this anaerobic technology is that equalization and any primary treatment(i.e.,

DAF and primary clarification)are normally unnecessary, due to the fact that the system can accept wastewaters with very high or ganic strengths and suspended solids con centrations.

The digester is supplied in two basic configurations-above-ground steel or con crete tanks, and partially inground basins constructed

of earth



Geomembrane covers are used for biogas collection, temperature control,and positive

. -M

likely be a good application for this tech nology.

A Case History: The City of Cashmere, Washington was looking for a wastewater treatment plant that was highly effective, inexpensive, and sim ple to operate. In order to lessen the load on the City's existing treatment plant, a 21 000 m' BVFT'^

reactor was installed

on-site at one of the area's major wastewater contributors. The location, one of the larg est apple processing plants in the U.S., has a design average wastewater flow of

1140 mVd with a COD of 3000 mg/L. The system provided COD, BOD, and SS removals of up to 99 percent! This high level of pretreatment has greatly lessened the burden on the City's treatment plant. The entire plant is run by one operator, who is required only 2-3 hours per day. Situated amid an apple orchard, the plant is visually acceptable, and a gas tight float ing membrane cover and gas collection sys tem ensures no escape of objectionable odors.

For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 251 Water Fnvironment Association of A


* r ■* T

. I.** - **


' /



' 1.^!!. •>>

V. •• V -aii'tfaBak-


WEAO Seminar The Water Environment Association of On

tario is holding a one-day seminar entitled "Public and Private Options for Community Environmental Infrastructure; Municipal Perspectives". The event will take place June 9, 1994 at the Regal Constellation Hotel, 900 Dixon Road, Toronto.

The City of Cashmere, Washington uses anaerobic treatment instaiied by ADI to treat wastewater coming from a nearby apple processing piant.

For registration enquiries, please contact Sandy Pickett, phone: (416) 502-1440, fax: (416) 502-1786.






CETECH - October 18,19,20,1994

^2^ Reed | Exhibition Companies

International Centre, Toronto

"CETECH Offers Industry

Profitable Environmental Solutions" "Waste costs businesses...so much

money that cutting waste is often the biggest single opportunity for a manufacturer to improve profits." This amazing fact is from a recent article by Dr. Charles Rooney, Phd, a leading expert on industrial waste.

CETECH (Canadian Environmental Technology Showcase) provides Canadian industry with the opportunity to discover how to meet the demands of Due Diligence and reduce environmental legal liabilities without hurting the bottom line. In fact, CETECH exhibitors can show you how to become environmentally friendly, while at the same time:

• Increasing profits •Reducing waste handling & disposal costs •Improving product quality • Raising productivity Focusing on state-of-the-art environmental solutions for Canada's industrial market

place, CETECH will feature the latest teehnology, products, and services for the pre vention, minimization, control, handling, and management of pollutants. Held in conjunction with CETECH will be several valuable eonferences, including the AWMA Fall Conference, the Green Industrial Skills Exchange, and ISO 9000.

Part of




• OVER 750 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITORS CETECH is one of five interrelated shows

which comprise Canadian Manufacturing Week (CMW), Canada's largest display of industrial technology. In 1992 CMW attracted over 12,000 industry personnel representing over 6,000 Canadian manufacturers.

For both legal and financial reasons, this is one event that no one in Canadian industry can afford to miss.

For more information on CETECH, please call/fax:

Tel: (416)491-7565 Fax: (416)491-5088 CETECH is sponsored by:



Canadian Environment ■

1-^ industry


Canadian Manufacturers' Association

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 198


Product Review Biodegradable waste services Biodegradable wastes from industry hold the potential of becoming a resource valuable to agriculture and beneficial to the environ ment, providing the right technology is em ployed. Organic Resource Management provides the food industry with low cost environmen tally sound services: handling, transporta tion, and recycling, of sludges, interceptor waste, by-products, etc. Organic Resource Management For more information, Circie reply card No. 192

Improved compound meter The new, improved COMBO Compound meter with standard test ports, drain plugs

and AWWA laying lengths is designed to allow utilities to replace existing old style compounds with the compound meter with out re-piping or adding expensive spool pieces. Available in standard sizes of 2-in,

ethane and CFC 113 for a range of cleaning and degreasing applications. Tarksol solvent cleaners are naturally

3-in, 4-in, 6-in and 8-in bronze, the new meter can be easily installed, tested, and

Terpene Technologies/Storchem Inc.

based pine terpene and not d-limonene (cit rus terpene). For more information,

Circie reply card No. 149

repaired in line, with lower initial cost and maintenance than competitive models. ABB Kent Meters, Inc. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 233

Solvent alternatives Tarksol SC 959/1050/2000/4000/5000/6000

are newly patented terpene based, low odour, biodegradable and non-hazardous solvent cleaners. These aqueous and semiaqueous solvent systems are replacements for regulate solvents like 1,1,1, Trichloro-

... •

- -■ ■ —. - i.J




Environmental Site Assessments/Audits ♦ Decommissioning & Cleanup Environmental Management ♦ Waste Management Expert Testimony ♦ Site Characterization Occupational Health & Safety ♦ Soil/Groundwater Assessment Head Office: 30 Wertheim Court, Unit 19, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1B9

^^^^^^TeU905^86;7965_^axjj905^88^7^^ For more information, Circie reply card No. 158

Acoustic barriers from old tires The French company Acial has developed a new design of acoustic barrier constructed from used tires, combining efficient noise reduction with a solution to the problem of disposing of the growing number of used tires.

Environmental Software used by Canadian Industry Environmental

Auditor Employs CSA guidelines for EA Detailed Criteria: legislation Provincial, Municipal & Federal, EMS (CSA, BSl), & Industrial Codes of Practice.

Environmental Data Manager™

Automatic assessment of exceedances from permits/bylaws Storage of incident, compliant & corrective action data Equations for air emission rates & dispersion models Waste classification (provincial/federal) and inventory Export of data to printer, file, MOEE MIDES and NPRI Report Writer and Grapfiic package


For more information. Circle reply card No. 159

corrosion resistant, non-inflammable and

thick enough to withstand strong winds. The tires themselves do not deteriorate with age. Modular, the barriers can be positioned to produce required heights and lengths, and are available in practically any colour, as well as aluminum or with anti-graffiti treat ment.

Calendar for tracking reports & monitoring Menu driven, pop-up lists & on-line fielp Electronic import of lab & MOEE MIDES data

Environmental Software Associates Ltd. Suite 318, 99 Atlantic Avenue, Toronto, M6K 3J8 (416)516-2337 (416)516-9892

The barrier consists of a metal casing which houses stacked tires cut in half along their diameter. The side facing the noise is made from perforated sheet metal. Noise, focused towards the shells formed by the half-tires, is dampened with a coefficient of absorption of 85 percent for frequencies between 250 and 2000 Hz (the frequency of heavy road traffic lies between 250 and 700 Hz), in accordance with the AFNOR 31-089 standard of July, 1990. The casings are galvanized and strongly

Designed for ease of installation, poles welded onto plates rest on bearing plates or piles and form the supporting framework for the casings. The tires are stacked on site and are fitted at an angle to drain rain wa ter away. The barriers are self-cleaning or a high pressure water jet can be used. Each element is interchangeable in the event of accidental damage. The Acial barriers are designed for shielding noise along motorways, other busy roads, and railways. They also have indus trial applications. Frantech For more information.

Circle reply card No. 193 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1994



Flygt's wet CP pumps are easy to install. They can be mounted quickly and simply on guide bars and iowered into the iiquid. The discharge connection is fixed to the sump fioor so that when the pump is iowered on the guide bars, it automaticaliy engages the discharge connection and reieases automatically when it is raised. Flygt's dry CT pumps are instailed aiongside the pump sump and mounted on a stand with inlet pipes. Like ali Flygt pumps,they are submersibie and cannot be damaged by accidentai fiooding. Ali of our 0 pumps are compact, efficient, and available in sizes from 1 to 700 HP.

Backed by years of application engineering experience, they can reduce operating costs by up to 75%. They provide reiiabie perfor mance and the peace of mind you have come to expect from Fiygt. For compiete information on our versatile C pumps,contact your local Flygt representative. Good Ideas Take Flygt.

yvAVrw:'/;' rVv/V-v;-:?

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 199

Fiygt ITT Fluid Technology Corporation FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514)695-0100 Telex: 05-821844 Telefax:(514)697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Ciaire ■ Quebec ■ Vai d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. Jotin's (Nfid.) USA: FLYGT CORPORATION, Norwaik, Conn.

Product Review Type S disc flowmeter for reliable measurement of


low-torque operation,even at low flow rates, for high accuracy. The disc's larger toler ances are more forgiving of suspended sol ids, producing a lower pressure loss, espe cially in high-viscosity applications. The Type S can be ordered in line sizes from 5/8-in to 2-in (16 to 51 mm),for flow ranges from 2 to 160 gpm (7.6 to 605 litres/ min). Schlumberger Industries Measurement Division

For more information, Circle reply card No. 188



The Type S nutating disc flowmeter meas ures a range of fluid viscosities and is vir tually unaffected by flow profile distur bances. This flowmeter stands up to stresses and upsets that cause problems for other types. It is rated for pressures to 150 psi (10.2 bar) and temperatures to 250 degrees F(121 degrees C). Used for inventory control, mechanical or electronic batching, totalizing and flow monitoring,the flowmeter can be configured with a broad selection of registers, pulsers and totalizers. Direct gear coupling ensures positive calibration. An auto-stop valve option is available for mechanical batching; pulsers and totalizers can be applied for automated control. It is constructed with a

durable, reinforced synthetic polymer disc. The fluid serves as its own seal, producing

Turbotron is a centrifugal/regenerative type blower/exhauster with a performance char acteristic that mimics rotary lobe, positive displacement type equipment. With flows up to 990 cfm and pressure to 15 psig, it has only one moving part(no timing gears),

High performance pipe Tankinetics Inc.'s fibre reinforced Siloxirane

Pipe is carefully fabricated to high quality standards using a patented resin matrix with glass fibre reinforcement. The pipe is said to outperform epoxies, vinylesters, PVDF and thermoplastics, resist a range of acids (up to 98 percent sulphuric acid), alkalais and solvents, and outperform even the toughest pipe materials including rubber, urethanes and stainless steel. Based on spe cific chemical or fluid being handled, it pro vides thermal shock resistance (-80 to -1-500 degrees F). Plastics Canada

Circle reply card No. 190

Chain drive retrieval for vertical tank entries


uses grease lubricated bearings located out side of the casing (not oil lubrication) and operates with tolerances ten times greater than PD equipment.


This blower/exhauster offers PD per formance without the noise (free field 85

dBA), maintenance problems, and suscep tibility to failure commonly exhibited by rotary lobe positive displacement blower/ exhausters. Applications include pneumatic conveying, aeration in water treatment plants, fluidized bed applications, soil va pour remediation, landfill methane recov ery, turning bars, air knives, vacuuming cleaning, process air, and heavy industrial vacuum. Lamson Corporation For more information,

Circle reply card No. 189

The continuous Chain Drive Retrieval Sys tem for difficult vertical tank entries has

been added to the Uni-Hoist product line. Using its new double brake, two speed man rated winch, the chain drive takes the place of the crank handle and enables the entry to be performed in many ways. Designed for difficult entries into kettles, vats, and fibreglass and glass tanks. Life Protection Inc.

Circle repiy card No. 191 SERVING CANADA SINCE



Ad Index ABR Consultants Aer-O-Flo AWMA

Big 'O'



30 73

wastewater treatment For more information, Circie repiy card No. 147


16700 Bayview Avenue,Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X1W1 Tel:(905)836-9490 Fax:(905)836-9070

81 35 18 62

Lakefield Res.

Liquid Carbonic McTighe Ind.

61 27 75


Campbell Sc. Can Am Ins.



20,47 70

Cancoppas Centrloo





Waterworks MJ Int.


58 52 52





National Instr.

55 52

Cetech Chem Securities


Neo Valves Norwest Labs






Dectron Ind.






Degremont InfiIco






PCB Cons.


Eaglebrook Eco Equip. Eimco





Proctor & Redfern

25 56


Env. Auditors Env. Prot. Labs Env. Soft. Ass.


Quality Control Eq. Ramsey Canada


Sanexen Env. Serv. 58




Fischer & Porter


Sci Tec Canada




8 69


Stormcepter T. City Iron Works


Geostructure Instr.

8070 Jarry Est Anjou, Que, H1J IHS Tei:(514)351-4632 Fax:(514)352-3711


ITT Flygt

Brian Controls BTG

Can. Ex. Man.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and

26 59 32





Total Const.


Gorman Rupp

29 11 46

Trinity Cons. Trojan Tech.







Introducing the New ADVANCE™ You asked for it. Schlumberger's got It. ADVANCE—the most advanced

handheld in the industry today. What makes the ADVANCE so

great is that it's designed with input from customers like you.

There's also the Schlumberger Information Systems Guarantee that assures expandability and guarantees compatibility within your system today and tomorrow.

The ADVANCE is a true hand

ADVANCE to the next level with

held computer featuring open architecture, easy-to-instaii adapters for reading popular encoder meters, user-friendly software, low weight, and

Schiumberger—the acknowledged leader in meter reading technology

MS-DOS® 5.0 for ease of

and the new leader in information

management. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.


We designed the ADVANCE to be used for countiess appli cations such as keyed, auto matic or radio frequency meter reading, service work orders,

inventory management, customer service, or any field or office automation.


Schlumberger—An Information Management Company Schlumberger

Industries Water Division

Measurement Division-Canada

Hwy. 229 South

7275 West Credit Avenue

Tallassee, AL 36078

(205)283-6555 1-800-645-1892

International Division 200 Ashford Center North

Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 5M9

Atlanta, GA 30338

Tel: 1-800-363-7888 Fax: 1-800-463-8383

(404)913-1250 ©Copyright 1993 Schiumberger Industries inc.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 222

'U t>:^'

Until now, all low-head filters had one thing in common, a travelling bridge transport arrangement for the back wash hood and pumping equipment. Travelling bridges work well enough, but they add to the capital and operating costs of a filter and are the focus of mainte

Partition Plate

Media Support Panels Partition Support

nance attention on most. Convinced there must be a

better solution, EIMCO engineers have taken the travelling bridge back to the drawing board.

The result? A bridgeless low-head filter using ElMGO's corrosion-resistant underdrain and a revolutionary new drive mechanism for the hood. Flat Tank Floor


OPTIONAL Gullet lor Air Header


Rugged, Copposion-Resistant Undepdpain System

To find out more about reducing filtration expense with Travelling Hood and Travelling Bridge Filters, contact your The filter shown here features self-propelled back local EIMCO sales representative. wash hood driven by the Trac-Vac™ pneumatic traction system. Trac-Vac drives use pairs of sliding pneumatic clamps to transport the hood and pump across the filter along a fixed guide rail. Transport bridges, gear motors, drive shafts, sprockets, bear ings, pillow blocks and bridge alignment problems Process Equipment have all been eliminated, reducing both capital and

We took a little off the top and lowered your bottom line


maintenance costs substantially.

A Division of Baker Hughes Canada Inc.

The Trac-Vac system is widely used to transport suction sludge collectors in potable water clarifiers. With over 600 units installed they've earned a sterling reputation for mechanical reliability and

5155 Creekbank Road

control flexibility.

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2

(905) 625-6070 FAX (905)625-3519 For more information, Circle reply card No. 243