Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1994

Page 1






Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air poliution & drinking water treatment Serving environmental professionals across Canada

UV shows promise in controlling zebra mussel scourge Sherbrooke: a North American premiere for ciarifiers Ontario's Drinking Water Surveillance Program Previews of BCWWA, WEAO, AWWA, AWMA Decontamination of PCB electrical equipment Storm water treatment in Etobicoke

March 1994


Blanket level Detectors Features:

Parts Per Million

Level Detectors

Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers

The only blanket interface monitor/controller which automatically retains a clarifier blanket

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxygen ana lyzers with features such as automatic cali

• No rrxDving parts, no maintenance, no recalibration

required • Reliable micro

processor based electronics.

• Continuously monitors and con trols Interface level in tanks.

• Numerically dis

plays interface depth in feet, meters or percentage of total tank depth, Displays either depth of interface or distance from surface to interface.

• Graphically displays full-depth interface profile on

panel-mounted • LCD graphical display.

Applications: Any tank with a liquid/

• Waste treatment

solid interface

• Petroleum

interface following a disturbance, exhibits continuous clarifier profiles on a computer and controls up to four sludge pumps auto

bration, self-diagnostics, stepped current

matically to maintain the desired interface

output control, low cost multi-channel elec tronics, and low maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four channel conversion available.

level. The Model 2500 has no moving parts and

Request Bulletins 9010/9040 and 64/90.

can be virtually maintenance free. Request Bul letin 2500.

• Pulp & Paper


Circle 232 on Reader Service Card

Circle 233 on Reader Service Card

Circle 231 on Reader Service Card

Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer




The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite




Check these features: D* Economical

(uses inexpensive non-toxic/non-hazardous butter) sy Low Maintenance (sett cieaning celt)

The 1511 Zone 1 portable waste water sampler Is a unique world first — the only electrically operated (with intrinsically safe power pack) sampler of its type which is fully approved for Zone 1

container or sequentially

into an arr^ of

24 X 1/2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

Typical Applications

hazardous environments,

* crude sewage

providing an alternative to traditional pneumatic

* Settled sewage * Final effluent


* Raw sludge

* Most Industrial effluents


Easy to Install \S' Continuous sampling


The 1511 complies with the many international safety


standards and is certified

ay Meets EPA Requirements (40CFR 136 tabie 18 Notti?)

Circle 234 on

ay Unaffected by pH Swings

Reader Service Card

(up to 1pH)

by BASEEFA for use in Zone 1 environments with

EPS 1021

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications

following classifica-

Circle 235 on Reader Service Card

lions, E Ex ib IIB t4.

(SC Operates without need for buffer


(raw water pH up to 7.2)

Wide Operating Range (.OOlppm to lOOppm)


Circle 239


Aufo-Pacing Vafve □ High Quality □ Easy to Install


The Epic 1011T programmable portable

wastewater sampler

□ Universal

automatic sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and Industrial

□ Low feed capability □ Controls over-feeding □ L.E.D. Display □ Will automate any gas

ability to sample sludges

containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.


A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24



Typical AppllcatioRs * Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

* Mechanical dewatering device feeds

* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals

separate containers for

* Sea tanker loading terminals

subsequent analysis.

Circle 236 on


wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique In its

provides cost effective

□ Linear


The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or altematively from a sludge holding tank via the tank

Wide Range of Appllcatlans

□ Low cost

* Consolidation tank feeds

EPS 1030

Circle 237 on Reader Service Card

Sludge Sampler

Reader Service Card



For more information, Circie repiy card No. 220


Circle 238 on Reader Service Card

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(905) 727-4666

February/March '94 Vol. 7 No. 1


Issued March, 1994

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep, RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 President STEVE DAVEY

(905) 727-4666 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON

America's tragic cycle - from the Lunar Rover to assembling Third World bikes Editorial comment by Tom Davey Trends of direct source measurement of


air and gas emissions By Richard Urbanski

Technical Advisory Board

Sherbrooke: Une premiere en Amerique du Nord

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Sherbrooke: A North American first for clarifiers

Totten Sims Hubicki Associates


By Jean-Yves Bergel

Jim Bishop Environment Protection Laboratories Pierre Beaumier

Mann Testing Laboratories Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfeiiow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ mental officials, water and wastewater treat ment plant operators and contractors. All advertising space orders,copy,artwork, film, proofs, etc.,should be sent to Environ mentalScience & Engineering,c/oPrestige

Printing, 41 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5.

UV shows promise in controlling zebra mussel scourge By Don Lewis

Decontamination of PCS electrical equipment for inventory reduction and metals recycling By Michael G. Vocilka

25 28

Storm water treatment in Etobicoke exfiltration


and filtration systems By M. Mansfield

Environmental developments in Europe and the United Kingdom By the Earl of Cranbrook


Ontario's Drinking Water Surveillance Program (DWSP) reviewed By P. Lachmanluk


Releasing 'Bound Up' fluoride for greater monitoring


and control reliability By Huvin Thompson


Spring conference previews B.C. Environment Minister's tendering process upsets private laboratories


Second generation air-stream biofilters are approaching



By Dr. Paul Tlnari

Sonochemistry - a new and versatile tool for complex


environmental problems By James Lock

Canadian Publications Mall Sales

ProductAgreement No.18197


Second Class Mail

Industry Update

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada,by Webb Offset Publish ers Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra) Send orders to; Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

R&D News

Literature Reviews

4-15 39

52, 69

Product Review



79, 80

Ad Index


Cover Story - A North American first for four Densadeg clariers used In Sherbrooke's municipal wastewater treatment plant. Photo shows a clarlfler during installation. Treated effluent is discharged into the St. Francois River which serves as a source of potable water for downstream communi ties. See story on page 20. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice. This maga

zine is printed on recycled paper made with 10% post consumer and 50% post com mercial waste.

Environmerital Science & Engineering, March 1994

Photo report

By Steve Davey, 1991 OPCEA President

Report on 24th OPCEA Annual Meeting

Outgoing Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association President John Coomey (right) received his past president's plaque from incoming President Ed Pikovnik of Arlat Technology. Both men have been ac tive in reducing inter provincial trade barri ers and both were quoted nationally in Diane

OPCEA can be proud that its members have played a significant role in effecting this change. At the annual business meeting February 15, Ed Pikovnik updated members

Francis'columns in the Financial Post. John

Agency (centre). He said the agency was established as a crown corporation under the Capital Investment Plan Act without share capital. It was mandated to assist munici palities and to act on its own account in fi nancing, billing and operating water and

also wrote a Guest Editorial in Environmen

tal Science & Engineering on the subject. Once the issue reached the mass media,

the Ontario Government put its weight be hind the trade barrier issue and unquestion ably the barriers have become to come down.

on the trade barrier situation.

The guest speaker was Fausto Saponara, Vice President of the Ontario Clean Water

sewer works. Some $5 billion in water and

sewerage assets and liabilities have been transferred to the new agency. The agency was also inheriting over 400 long term serv ice agreements with municipalities along with over 900 MOEE employees. OPCEA Vice President Penny Davey (left) outlined the work done on the WEAO Public Communications Committee. The

group, headed by Steve Nutt of XCG Con sultants is planning to be particularly ac tive during conference activities with me dia liaison and other activities.

Chris Canning(Metcon)and Dave Filman (Pro Aqua) were elected to the board.


• 100% Canadian Ownership • Dedicated Management Team •Total Capability: Sales, Design, Engineering and Manufacturing • Committed to Customer Service

• Full Quality Assurance Programme •85 Year Track Record

• Experience in Export


Anaerobic digesters Clarifiers Detriter Thickeners

Pumps Degriting Travelling Bridges

174 West Street South, Orillia, Canada L3V 6L4

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 145

Environmenlal Science & Engineering, March 1994

In North America, there's something new in the air.


The Siemens Hawk

long range gas monitor See us at the Toronto Environmental Trade Show & Conference

Booth #236 May 10 & 11, 1994


Designed and manufactured by Siemens, Hawk is a long range gas monitor. It provides on economical, immediate, practical way to protect personnel, plant and surrounding areas from the threats posed by explosive or toxic gas concentrations. Based on infrared radiation absorption and wavelength modulation techniques. Hawk detects and measures gas concentrations directly in the atmosphere. The monitor, retro-reflector system is available in either a portable or fixed configuration. Hawk offers continuous real time monitoring with fast response at remarkably low levels. Currently in service with a number of international petrochemical companies and research organizations. Hawk is already being acknowledged as a major, highly effective advance in gas monitoring. For more information on Hawk, contact; SCI-TEC Instruments Inc.

SCI-TEC Instruments USA Inc.

1526 Fletcher Road

9810 Radley Drive Sugarland, TX

Saskatoon, SK CANADA S7M 5M1

USA 77478

Telephone (306) 934-0101

Phone and Facsimile

Facsimile (306) 978-2339

(713) 983-9502

For more information, Circle reply card No. 146


XiM if-i# s®#






'^y-^vAj'"" ~>^'*""^ --^r;4"



': %.< - ",> .•> ' j^'


1^ V ;_,!/" -__'


r.,! '

When it comes to maintaining your process turbidimeter, cieaning a glass sample cell can be a troublesome, time-consuming chore. That's why Hach - ^ designed its 1720C Turbidimeter without one. So there's no condensation and

filming. No accumulation of dirt and residue. No glass to clean. I-


" %f',

A few other things you won't get with our innovative turbidimeter design are gas bubbles, stray light problems,false high turbidity readings, and loss of sensitivity at low turbidity levels. There's also no need for desiccants or air purge systems.




Hach's 1720C Turbidimeter gives you:


■ Quick and easy calibration ■ Two fully-independent, set-point alarm systems ■ Selectable recorder output


■ Self-test diagnostics

■ Accuracy i 2%from 0-30 NTU >1. ■ A design that meets criteria specified in uSEPA Method 180.1 ■ Two-year warranty, manual, and technical support ■ NEMA 4X control unit enclosure

■ Compliance; 1720C is ETL listed to UL1262; ETL certified to CSA 22.2 No. 142; and bears the CE mark,

Here's how we eliminated the window


The sample stream enters the 1720C through bubbleventing baffles and ovetHows a weir, which forms an optically hat surface. Light then passes through this hotsurfoce to on immersed detector.

Hach 1720: The most widely used on line turbidimeter in the worid. For more information, request literature number 4529. Call 1-303-669-3050 or write: HACH COMPANY PO. Box 389

Lovetand, Colorado

Sales outlets throughout CanadaI Service Centre in Winnipeg For more information, Circle reply card No. 147


Fax 1-303-669-2932

Editorial comment

By Tom Davey

America's tragic cycie - from the Lunar Rover to assembiing Third Worid bikes

Cape Canaveral is symbolic of the

told the last Water Environment Federation

enormous technological capabili

(WEF) annual conference in California^. Not long after her address, federal leg islation was proposed which would require buckets to bear warning labels. A congress

ties of the United States. It was

here that Americans, with unprec edented energy and skill, accepted the chal lenges of the space age when the Soviet lead in the early '60's was daunting. While US rockets were still failing on launch pads, the satellite Sputnik was beeping its triumphant message of Soviet supremacy around the globe. Sputnik was followed by a Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagaran who returned safely to earth after orbiting the planet. So viet leader Niklta Krushchev contemptu ously described the first diminutive US sat ellites as mere 'Florida grapefruits.' Blending advanced science with their usual entrepreneurial energy, the Americans accepted the challenge while still lagging far behind in the space race. Combining en gineering,electronics and chemistry, the US quickly developed better rockets and fuels to catch up and surpass the Soviet cosmo nauts.

Soon astronaut Neil Armstrong' landed on the moon and Mariner space probe set out for Mars, the launching and navigation technology matched only by the outer space television engineering which brought the epic space feats to the world. But American TV network reporting did not match the marvels of outer space television engineer ing which had brought the space age to view ers with stunning clarity. The historic lunar landing called for a Churchillian eloquence worthy of the epic historic telecast. Televi sion re-runs now reveal such reportorial banalities as: "Wow/ Wasn't that some-

man warned that children had been drowned

in buckets. He proposed labels on buckets with four to six US gallon capacities. The labels were to alert parents to the dangers of children drowning when receptacles con taining even small amounts of liquid were left unattended. California already has such a requirement and New York is considering one. One US newspaper editorial sarcasti cally enquired if similar warnings should be prominently stamped on bathtubs. Even more bizarre is the case of the road

Tom Davey Editor and Publisher

while complete destroyers sailed from ship yards in weeks. This was also the country which put men on the moon then designed a four wheeled vehicle, the Lunar Rover, for them to drive over the moonscape. I was brought back to earth when the cycle store owner explained that it was not low wages that had reduced Americans into mere bike assemblers, but Occupational Health and Safety and other bureaucracies which had made US workplaces uncompetitive. Coincidently, a Florida homebuilder wrote a letter to a Treasure Coast newspa per, complaining of the prohibitive costs of workers' compensation Insurance. Accord ing to his letter, an astonishing forty eight of every one hundred dollars spent on his labour costs went on workers' compensa-

Combining engineering, electronics and chemistry, the US quickly developed better rockets and fuels to catch up and surpass the Soviet cosmonauts. thing?" - pronouncements more appropri ate for dog food commercials than one of the most stupendous feats of human history. But that was 25 years ago. What about American technology today? Just after the North American Free Trade Agreement was proclaimed in Canada, we entered a bicy cle shop south of Cape Canaveral. The store owner showed us a range of reasonably priced bikes - all made in South America! Seeing my surprise he stressed that the bikes were assembled in the US.

Bicycle assembly! Have Americans fallen from both space and grace to assem bling bikes made in the Third World? This is the nation which so quickly rebounded from the devastation of Pearl Harbor to pro duce Liberator bombers every few minutes

tion charges. Finding his statements hard to believe, I contacted a Florida construction trade asso

ciation. They said while workers' compen sation assessments varied, depending on the trades involved, the builder's complaint did not seem unrealistic, roofer's premiums being particularly high, for example. The builder laid some blame on lawyers and doctors who had made a speciality of work ers' compensation cases. Clearly the victim industry is a growth business in the United States. Dr Margaret Maxey, a bioethicist at the University of Texas, has spoken out against the tyranny of safety, noting that death is no longer re garded as natural. "There must always be a cause of death and someone to blame," she

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

side jogger wearing a portable radio head set when struck by a hit and run pickup in Florida. He was dragged about 400 feet and neither driver nor vehicle was ever found.

The jogger's neck was broken in two places. Both legs were so badly Injured that doc tors feared amputation, so they borrowed a technique pioneered in the Soviet Union, using a series of rings and wires to fuse to gether a boneless gap in one leg. Medical care cost some $450,000 - this for a patient with no medical insurance. Today he walks with a limp and attends university. Some might think this so far is about a miracle of modem medicine. But his law

yer sued the city saying the road shoulder was too soft, the street wasn't lighted, mak ing it hard for the driver to see the jogger and there was no yellow line. He also sued the orthopedic surgeon for malpractice and the Community Hospital for poor care. The lawyer also worked out a deal with 37 un paid medical bills from surgeons, anes thetists, ambulance companies and hospi tals, obtaining significant reductions in fees. But the day before a four year deadline on lawsuits expired the lawyer made a gi ant step for the victim industry; he sued both the makers of the headset and the depart ment store which had sold it to his client. The headset had come with a "road

safety" warning which mentioned that it should not be worn while driving, cycling or walking; it also warned owners that they should exercise extreme caution, or discon tinue use, in potentially hazardous situa tions. The lawyer said this warning was not enough: it did not mention jogging. "They should have put a warning for joggers, es pecially at night," he said, as he took a quan tum leap in legalistic creativity. But how will the tyranny of safety affect the future of environmental professionals? In London, the renowned Economist took Continued Overleaf

Editorial comment, cont'd. aim at environmental scare tactics as it pre dicted green movement activities for 1994: "Like sharks, environmentalists must move forward or die. Without a constant

supply of new incidents, new buzz words, and above all new threats, they cannot keep scaring people into sending the money that pays their salaries. For this reason alone, 1994 will produce a fresh crop of environ mental scares. Not all will be bogus, but judging by the recent track record of the greens, many will. The environmental move ment has become increasingly driven by the push of marketing, rather than the pull of public outrage." My own view is that many green activ ists are very definitely motivated by ideal istic, not materialistic issues. However,

some scare tactics on drinking water safety, and certain issues such as PCBs, have often

resulted in regulatory overkill which does little for environmental remediation.

While the tyranny of safety is driving North America unswervingly towards Third World living standards, there is a curious twist to the bicycle assembly story, for it was the Wright brothers, who designed, built and flew the first pioneer aeroplanes from Kittyhawk, North Carolina. Their feats gave birth to a dominant American aerospace in dustry which became the ultimate in high

technology on earth and In outer space. Orville and Wilbur Wright, it should be re membered, began their brilliant aviation careers as bicycle mechanics, a cruel irony for Americans in the '90s.

Readers Reply Dear Tom

I read with interest your final comment in the November ES&E regarding Dr. Maxey's

presentation. Would it be possible for her presentation to be reproduced in ES&E al lowing untold numbers of subscribers to share her informatation.

'Neil Armstrong later went from outer space to a career below ground.After leaving the US space program he became Involved in ad vanced technology to locate leaks In under ground gasoline storage tanks. I met him in Toronto at a meeting organized by the Petro

Since I've taken the initiative to put my

leum Association on the Canadian Environ

pen to paper to ask for something, I will take the opportunity to congratulate you and your people on the production of an excel lent Canadian magazine. I thoroughly enjoy the editorial com

ment(PACE) where he gave a presentation. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks(LUSTS)

ments. Joe M. Lewis, Ontario Clean Wa ter Agency

have become a crucial environmental Issue,


requiring a high-tech combination of physics, electronics, engineering, chemistry and hydrogeology. Ironically, the economic Impact of LUSTS might yet rival the costs of the US space pro gram. An earlier ES&E article by XCG Con

Editor's note. It has not been possible to obtain Dr. Maxey's fuii presentation. However, Mr. Lewis may note that this

sultants, estimated that In Canada alone, the

costs of locating and rehabilitating LUSTS might be comparable to our federal deficit. In the US, remediation costs would be stagger ing, perhaps costing hundreds of billions of dollars.

^Dr Margaret Maxey's comments were re ported In the November ES&E, page 6, and the January 94 ES&E,page 5.

issue carries additional commentary on

this remarkable woman's keynote ad dress to the WEF Conference. New

readers might be interested that we have carried a staff report which referred to her address, as well as a commen

tary in the January issue. We feei that her paper defined perfectly the myths and ideologies which so often frustrate environmentai professionals.

"Master" Your Flow

From Outside the Pipe Polysonics new "Master Series" Doppier Flowmeters have the advanced collection/ detection circuitry necessary to measure cleaner liquids, at lower velocities, than any other Doppier flowmeters available today. These instruments can be equipped with a wide range of optional features in either English or Metric calibration and are available in both Permanent and Portable Models. Master Series flowmeters feature:

• User-friendly, menu-prompted programming • Microprocessor data entry via keypad •Simultaneous display of RATE and TOTAL FLOW • No contact with liquid being measured • Multi-velocity range switch

Permanent Model MST


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Fax (9051 238-9590

For more information, Circle reply card No. 148

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Industry Update Three environmental

firms in FP's top 50

Johnston Laboratories of Montreal. Mann

best minds in the business and there's noth

Testing was founded in 1972 to screen race horses after races for drugs, later doing a wide variety of analytical work including environmental and forensic testing. John Martin, a Professional Engineer and Char

ing you can't accomplish," he said in a state

tered Chemist, is now CEO of Novamann

International. The company has 200 em

ployees and annual sales of $16 million. GED ATE COMPANIES

An environmental laboratory, a consulting engineering firm and an equipment supplier are in Canada's Top 50 best-managed pri vate companies. The Financial Post and Arthur Andersen & Co. teamed up to select the 50 firms. Despite Canada's longest re cession, the 50 companies have expanded sales, boosted employment and, in many cases, moved aggressively into foreign mar kets. Novamann




Mississauga, Ont., Western Water & Sewer Supplies (1978) Ltd. of Calgary, and the Jacques Whitford firm of Consulting Engi neers and Environmental Scientists from

Nova Scotia each won an Enterprise 50 award in Toronto in January. Novamann International is an analytical testing laboratory which focusses on foren sic and environmental testing. The company is a merger of Mann Testing Laboratories of Mississauga and Novalab/Lynn &

TTie firm began smokestack testing last year to enable companies to ensure they are meeting air quality guidelines. Using a mobile lab, it is able to compete in the U.S. market, now 50 percent of the business. Once the system is set up, information is automatically sent by modem, eliminating the need for personnel on site. Western Water & Sewer Supplies is a wholesale distributor of pipe, valves, and fittings for municipal utilities and contrac tors. With branches in Edmonton, Alta., and Vernon, B.C., President Alan Grant at

tributes his company's success to open com munication with employees. If someone comes to him with a problem,he wants them to also come up with an answer; then, he acts on their solutions.

Jacques Whitford is a multidisciplinary Nova Scotia consulting firm with 14 offices throughout Canada and in Portland, Maine, offering services to a wide client base. CEO Hector Jacques attributes the award to his employees."You align yourselves with the

ment released from Dartmouth, N.S.

Canadian Exhibitors

Target Billion-Dollar Euro Recycling Market ENTSORGA,the International fair for waste

disposal and recycling in Cologne, Germany, May 18-21 is also a window on the bur geoning environmental market in the former Soviet bloc countries.

German purchases of waste disposal and

recycling technology have exceeded the $60billion mark level and continue to experi ence annual growth in the double digits. Population density is helping drive Germa ny's investment in recycling and waste man agement. With a population of 80 million, there are 536 Germans per square mile,com pared with 375 for the European Commu nity as a whole, 69 for the United States and just under 8 for Canada. The Canadian government, with the col laboration of the Canadian Embassy in Bonn, is supporting the Canadian presence at ENTSORGA with an information stand.

Travel packages are available which in clude economy round-trip air travel to Co logne, three nights' accommodation, admis sion to ENTSORGA plus all service charges. Contact Edel Wichmann (416) 598-3343.

Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly Installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wfierever addi tional or improved water is needed. Each) Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, cfiemical feed and gravity backwasfi systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.


For complete Information, contact Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water Âť .

Division, Oakville, Ontario, (905) 827-9821;

Calgary, Alberta, (403)255-9797


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

For more information. Circle reply card No. 149

Industry Update 1994 Conference,

Winnipeg, "The Four New R's" Planning is underway for the 46th annual Western Canada Water and Wastewater Conference which will be held in Winni

peg, October 4-7, 1994. The conference theme is "The Four New R's: Restraint,

Renewal, Responsibility, and Risk". Phone: (403) 259-4041.

scientists have demonstrated that a one-in-

a-million chance of death is very remote. They calculated that this risk is present when eating 40 tablespoons of peanut but ter, drinking water in certain cities for a year, living for two months with a smoker, living for two months in Denver (because of the extra solar radiation), drinking half a litre of wine, smoking 1.4 cigarettes, spending one hour in a coal mine, flying 1,000 miles

by jet, driving 300 miles in a car, or riding for 10 minutes on a bicycle.

Vatican support for nuclear growth The Vatican supports the expansion of nu clear energy to meet the economic needs of current and future generations. Archbishop Donato Squicciarini, in a speech to the general conference of the Intemational Atomic Energy Agency,said that "The Holy See believes that all possible ef


I would also like to compliment you on the continuing quality ofEnvironmental Sci ence & Engineering. It always offers inter esting articles and information on the lead ing edge of our industry. It is well read and distributed throughout our Eirm. Dale C. Craig, P.Eng., President

lication, I have never taken the time to of fer you my views on it. Your editorial com ment in the November, 1993 issue has prompted me to finally redress this over sight.





Committee of the Consulting Engineers of Ontario, I would like to express my appre ciation, and those of these organizations, to you for your efforts in this educational proc ess.

lion?"(Page 8g.) Now Harvard and Stanford

One in a million

of Canada, and a active member of the Eee

Although I am a regular reader of your pub

The Jan '94 ES&E asked, "What's a tril

tries, especially to the developing ones, the benefits contained in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy." The Archbishop added that, particularly in the Third World,"industrial development without some application of nuclear energy would seem to be impossible."

As a member of the Board of Directors

of the Association of Consulting Engineers

Dear Tom:

On behalf of my associates here at J.L. Richards, and the consulting engineering industry in general, I would like to compli ment you for the succinct and accurate ob servations on the perils of"price vs. value" selection for goods and services. Those of us who value our professional reputation and ethics are under severe pressure to survive in an era where capital cost is deemed much more important than life cycle cost by many uneducated or uncaring purchasers of serv

forts should be made to extend to all coun

Unfortunately, some of those in our own profession who purchase professional serv ices are the worst offenders in encouraging this type ofselection process in order to look good to their employers. We all must con tinue the educational process if our country is to maintain the quality of infrastructure which we have come to take for granted.


J.L. Richards & Associates Limited, Ottawa

The whole issue (Jan. '94) is quite impres sive — you all do a fantastic job. This is one of the few magazines I don't put aside for another time to read. It always gets read the same day. Thanks again — keep up the good work. Kathy Wareham, Engineered Systems & Designs, Newark, DE


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CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS PCBD process: decontamination of transformer oil

Decontaksolv process: decontamination of transformers and capacitors Uitrasorption process: treatment of water and of aqueous wastes Disposal of contaminated soil

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Tel.:(416)622-5011 Fax:(416)622-6966 579 Le Breton, Longueull (Quebec), J4G1R9 Tel.:(514)646-7878 Fax:(514)646-5127


Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years

10 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 221

For more information, Circle reply card No. 222







NOVAMANN (Quebec) Inc.

5540 McAdam Road

9420 Cote de Liesse

Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1 PI

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Tel.- (905)890-2555, FAX -(905)890-0370

Tel.-(514)636-6218, FAX -(514)631-9814

ilili] Canadawide Toll Free: 1-800-563-6266 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 223

Industry Update Government lab too costly to B.C. taxpayers - Opposition Critic B.C. Environment Minister Moe Sihota's

one-man crusade against private environ mental testing labs in British Columbia could cost the province's taxpayers an ad ditional $40 million, charged Official Op position Environment Critic, Wilf Hurd. He charged that Mr Sihota and his Environment Ministry are well aware that private labs are far cheaper for routine environmental

testing work than building and staffing a new government lab. "The Ministry has the data that proves it," said Hurd. "Not only is Mr. Sihota not

willing to share that information with the taxpayers of the province, but by temporar ily awarding work to Zenon Laboratories,

Facts about the

he is thumbing his nose at the Auditor Gen eral, who has questioned whether the prov ince was receiving value for its money un der Zenon's previous five year contract." "Here we have a situation where private labs with the potential to compete interna tionally are being shafted by their own gov ernment," Hurd stated. "What does it say about the credibility of the Premier's inter national sales junket when back home the Environment Minister rips up legally ten dered contracts, and willfully wastes tax payers money." For more information contact:


The great floods of 1993, which virtually drowned parts of nine Midwestern states in the US from North Dakota to Missouri, also unleashed a torrent of statistics. US weather

expert Frank Richards has calculated how much water poured through the Mississippi and Missouri River basins between June and

September, 1993. He said 16 quadrillion US gallons (16,000,000,000,000,000) went through the basins; enough to empty Lake Erie or provide a four month's flow over Niagara Falls. Ironically, the water which caused so much damage, could also have filled California's vast reservoirs twice over.

The floods killed 50 people, damaged or destroyed 50,000 homes and washed 16 billion tons of topsoii down the Mississippi

The last comparable^ood in the United

The 250-page manual has been devel oped with the assistance of Dames & Moore, Canada and the input of numerous external groups including the Association of Munici palities of Ontario (AMD), Municipal En gineers Association(MEA)and the Ontario Waste Management Association (OWMA). Copies are available at 1-800-268-7095.

had to be put on a respirator for several days.

epidemiology. Dr. Gary Hlady, said," we know that he was infected and we think it

is very likely that the infection caused his illness." His was the first hantivirus case

reported east of Mississippi. A rodent trapping expert from the Centers for Disease Control hantivirus re

search team was called to help coordinate a trapping and testing program early in Janu ary as sanitation officials considered rodent eradication programs.

Employment Opportunity Stormwater Engineer

ing diagnosed as the 54th US victim of the deadly hantivirus disease. Although it sounds oxymoronic, the rodent borne virus causes severe, even fatal respiratory dis eases. First recognized in the Southwest US, 28 deaths have already been reported. The man's lungs were so congested he 12

in training, demonstrations and marketing. Dial One will include the Blue Bottle sys tem in its sales and marketing programs to position it as an environmetally responsi ble company.

Han kin starts

Must be an outgoing professional engineer with excellent presentation As the successful candidate, your major duties will involve technical and marketing support for a new water quality inlet technology. The position requires urban drainage design experience in the private sector or with government agencies. A familiarity with relevant provincial and federal environmental legislation is preferred. Qualified applicants please send

A north Miami man has recovered after be

commerciai contractor Halozone Recycling Inc. has signed an agreement with Dial One Temp Air Con trol, the first commercial contractor to uti lize Halozone's Blue Bottle CFC recycling system in its commercial service operation. In addition to supplying Dial One Temp Air Control with Blue Bottle cylinders and

The Candidate:

in the US was recorded in 1844.

reported east of Mississippi

Halozone signs first

stands, Halozone will assist the contractor

States was in 1903 and the only larger flood

First hantivirus case

ments and consultants. The focus of the

document is on the operation, management, closure, end use and post closure care of landfill sites.

and communication skills.

Flooding during 1993, was also reported in Europe and Southeast Asia while ty phoons struck Japan. Africa and Australia encountered drought problems.

The Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy has released a Guidance Manual for Landfill Sites Receiving Municipal Waste. The document is an update of "Guidelines for the Establishment, Operation, Manage ment, Maintenance and Closure of Landfill Sites in Ontario", published in 1981. This manual provides guidance on pro vincial requirements to landfill owners/op erators, provincial and municipal govern


into the Gulf of Mexico. Flood run-off, in

cluding fertilizers, contaminated fishing grounds in the Gulf with identifiable pieces of Nebraska actually rounding the tip of Florida and riding the Gulf Stream as far up the coast as North Carolina.

landfill sites receiving municipal waste

Hurd, Liberal Environment Critic, (604)

The state director of communicable disease

great US flood

Guidance manual for

resume in confidence to:

ber. The plant uses two 50 lb/day OzotecTM ozone generators to provide a total of 100 lb/day of ozonation capacity to disinfect fi nal effluent from the treatment plant. In the first six weeks of operation, treatment results of the system exceeded expectations.

Cholera spreading Cholera has been spreading rapidly in Latin America since 1991 reports a team of Stanford researchers. Hundreds of thou

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Hankin commissioned the Wellesley, On tario, wastewater ozone facility in Decem

sands have been infected. Prevention —

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wastewater treatment

by boiling water for drinking and washing food — is a matter of economics in povertystricken areas such as Mexico's Chiapas state, where boiling one litre of water for 20 minutes can use an entire day's supply of fuel.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Paperweek '94 Highlights from the pulp and paper industry Penny Davey attended the recent Canadian Pulp and Paper Conference in Montreal where she

filed the following news items.

Gagne, President and Chief Executive Of ficer of Canadian Pacific Forest Products

Limited. He spoke at the closing luncheon of PaperWeek '94 in Montreal, pointing out that free access to world markets would

spearhead the Industry's efforts to improve its market share and maintain its position as the world's leading exporter of forest products. In the area of communications, Mr.

Canada's pulp and paper manufacturers are currently recycling one tonne of paper and paperboard for each two tonnes consumed domestically. The figure is expected to even out by the end of 1995. The Canadian Pulp and Paper Association's PaperWeek '94 in Montreal





papermakers will recycle 3.5 million tonnes of recovered paper, twice the 1990 total. More that 60 mills are now producing recycled-content products, compared to fewer that 30 only three years ago. These involve a capital investment of more than $ 1.2 bil

Gagne affirmed that the industry has made tremendous progress in environmental per formance, forestry practices and competi tiveness in recent years. "We have not, how ever, made as much progress in communi cating these achievenments to the public, to consumers and to governments," he said. An additional priority is to ensure that the new government in Ottawa understands the industry's importance for the country and

across Canada our partners in supporting the industry's growth and competitiveness through a favourable investment climate," Mr. Gagne added. Outgoing Chairman Robert Findlay told the gathering that Canada's pulp and paper industry is in a mode of positive change. "The economy in North America has tumed positively and Europe and Japan are improv ing," he stated. "Our markets for pulp, pa per and packaging products are on the mend."

CPPA President Howard Hart also had a

message of optimism for participants at the Association's 81 st annual meeting. He told them that during his 40 years with CPPA he had seen the industry make spectacular re

its achievements in environmental perform

coveries from four serious recessions, those of the 50s, the 70s, the 80s and the current and most enduring, that of the 90s. "With all Its cyclicality, the pulp and pa


per industry in Canada has a basic strength.

"We must work to make governments

Continued overleaf


Demand has now pushed paper recov ery rates in Canada to 36 percent from 27 percent in 1990. Ironically, industry repre sentatives point out, they have to import huge quantities of recovered paper and board to meet Canadian requirements for recycled fibres.

Under the terms of the 1989 National

Packaging Protocol, which it helped to es tablish, Canada's pulp and paperboard in dustry has agreed to a 50 percent reduction, based on 1988 levels, in the amount of pack aging sent for disposal by the year 2000. The interim objective of a 20 percent cut by December 1992 actually reached 21 percent In the case of paper and paperboard pack aging products. The industry is also on track for a 35 percent drop set for 1996. During an open forum, Mona Doyle, President, Consumer Network Inc,., dis cussed changes in consumer attitudes to

packaging, showing that the emphasis is now on value, and environmental claims are

becoming irritants in many cases. Consum ers are looking for less package with more performance. Lynn Scarlett, Vice-President, Research, Reason Foundation, dealt with concerns arising from passed-along costs and arbi trary imposition of content and reuse regu lations, many of which have proved unsuc cessful. She also discussed potention im pacts for the industry of various items of legislation.

P & P Industry focuses on expanding markets "The preservation and expansion of access to all our markets, together with Increased effectiveness in telling our story at home and abroad, are key priorities for the industry," says the incoming Chairman of the Cana dian Pulp and Paper Association Paul E.

Fourteen 75 HP AquaJet aerators, manufactured by Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. of Rockford, 111., are used in this aerated stabilization basin (ABB). ABB technol ogy is successfully used at a number of Canadian bleached kraft pulp mills. Photo courtesy ENVIROCAN

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


Paperweek '94 resilience and adaptability that allows it to overcome adversity and to continue to grow and make a significant contribution to our way of life," he said.

P & P industry praises BC premier Canadian pulp companies increased their market share in Germany in 1993 despite a concerted boycott effort by Greenpeace against Canadian forest products, says an industry official. B.C. Premier Michael Harcourt should be treated as a hero for

standing up to Greenpeace activists during his recent tour of Germany, says Maldwyn Thomas, who represents the industry in Europe. Environmentalists have put up wanted posters that depict the Premier(who is bald) as "Mister Clear-cut." Greenpeace has high credibility in Germany and has representa tives on the boards of some forestry compa nies, Mr. Thomas acknowledged. He has recently completed his first year as European spokesman for the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, which held its annual meeting in Montreal In February. His mandate was to counter campaigns by the

European environmentalists in order to pre serve Canadian markets, especially in Ger many and the UK.

Canadian mills exported $650 million worth of products to Germany in 1993, mostly pulp, which increased its share of the German market to 26 percent from 22 percent in 1992. Canada exports relatively little paper to Germany because of a 9 percent tariff wall. Tariffs between Europe, Japan and North America are to disappear over 10 years un der a preliminary agreement reached in December.

For more information: Pierre Lachance, CPPA- 514-866-6621.

Protests haunt B.C. Premier's EC visit Protesters who have trailed B.C. Premier

Michael Harcourt on his European tour fol lowed him to the European Parliament in Brussels in February. Greenpeace demon strators protesting against Canadian clearcut logging practices marked Mr. Harcourt's trip with sawdust and pictures of felled trees virtually every stop along the way. Some members of the European Parlia ment - MEPs as they are called - are seri ously considering proposing a boycott of Ca nadian forestry products made from clearcutting practices. The B.C. Premier tried to correct what he said are "unfair and inaccu

rate statements" circulating throughout Eu rope.

U of T test prevents paper breaks on press runs




For more information, Circie reply card No. 133

A University of Toronto researcher has de veloped a test to measure newsprint's abil ity to survive the stress of press runs that could save the newspaper industry millions of dollars and keep the number of trees used in paper manufacturing to a minimum. In this test, paper is subjected to an inplane tear and then analysed using a new software program that incorporates paper fracture mechanics. The technique, devel oped at U of T's Pulp and Paper Centre, will help the newspaper industry choose the lightest possible paper that still has good press runnability. "The newspaper industry has been forced to make important economic decisions based on poor tests for runnability," explained chemical engineer Mark Kortschot, who leads the paper fracture research group at U of T's Pulp and Paper Centre. This is because the test widely in use measures outof-plane tears - those against the grain of the paper - and that doesn't really measure performance in terms of what happens on the printing press. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

"However,the test we've developed uses a new analysis technique to measure inplane tear, which is similar to the action of tearing a sheet while it is in contact with a Hat surface. In-plane tear is a better simu lation of what happens to paper during a press run," he said. Newsprint grade paper is made prima rily of recycled pulp and while environmen tally advantageous, it is not a strong paper. When newsprint breaks during the print run, the presses are shut down, the paper re-

"What if my handheld meter reading system is obsolete tomorrow?"

"There's a better way Call Schlumbergen"

threaded and the result is often late deliv

ery of the newspaper. Newsprint contains many small slivers called shives which often serve as the ini

tial fracture point. It can be made stronger and more tear resistant by adding more ex pensive chemical pulps, but the goal is to add as few of these as possible to save money and use fewer trees. "Recent results with the new fracture test

show that many newsprint makers are add ing more kraft pulp than is necessary. Our new test provides a way of finding the opti mum balance," Kortschot said.

Two large mills in Ontario and one in the northwestern United States are experi menting with the new method. Contact: Mark Kortschot, Chemical En

gineering (416) 978-8926.


m IT

P & P spokesman calls

Now there's a harsh environment handheld meter reading sys tem for outdoor use featuring IBM-compatibie field computers with adapters that make advancing from keyed entry to remote reading and beyond a snap. It's part of Schlumberger's ADVANCB'^ Meter Reading System, and it's just one of the many ways we help you stop worrying about obsolescence.

for certification of

sustainably managed forest products One of Canada's forest product industry leaders has called upon governments, as owners of90 percent of the nation's forests, to tell the world of their commitment to

proper forest management. "If ever there was an issue that requires strong leadership, it is sustainable forestry," said E.F. Boswell, President of E.B. Eddy Forest Products Ltd. "This leadership must come from more than one source," he added, speaking at the Association's PaperWeek '94. Working with governments at all levels, the industry is pushing for international cri

teria for sustainable forestry. "We also need the input of responsible environmental groups," he said. He told the forum that the industry is moving ahead with plans to have a totally independent, arm's length certification pro gram put in place that would help custom ers identify products that come from sustainably-managed forests. "We are going to seize this initiative and make the certification of Canadian sustain

All of our systems are guaranteed to be upgradeable, and our reading systems are fuiiy compatible with Schiumberger (ARB and ProRead™ ARB) and Sensus (ECR) encoders. A full line of telephone and radio reading products is also available. Reading system obsolescence is never a problem with Schiumberger! Call us and we'll provide a free economic analysis to help you reach a decision about the best way to meet your needs with state-of-the-art meter reading technology. Or we can discuss any other problem your water distribution system faces. For over 100 years, we've helped customers find a better way to reach water distribution solutions. Call 1-800-363-7886.

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able forestry practices a reality," he said. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

For more information. Circle reply card No. 134


Air pollutlon

Trends Of Direct Source Measurement Of Air And Gas Emissions In the sequence of emissions quantification, the incremental modes to characterizing

ous emissions monitoring systems has cre ated an enormous need for auditing func tions using established source test protocols. 4. Regulatory agencies have increasingly

• prediction

As an indication of the effort required to promulgate a source test method for a spe cific parameter, slightly more than one method per year have been promulgated since the issuance of EPA methods 1 through

• direct measurement

5 in the mid 1970's.

Estimation values are generally based on gross material balances and are used where the input element or contaminant is not modified by the process. The estimation of

Traditionally, emissions sampling has been a 2 step process: (1) field sample col lection followed by (2) laboratory analysis of the field samples using high resolution instruments. This method of grab sampling

emissions levels are: • estimation

SOj values from uncontrolled coal fired util ity boiler stacks, based on fuel sulphur con tent, is an example.

has often left the need for real time emis

sions trending unaddressed and has required exhaustive efforts of QA/QC to preserve technical integrity. Such QA/QC require

Predictive values are based on estima

tion factors developed empirically through correlation of measured emissions with ref

erenced process parameters. Again, using the utility boiler as an example,fuel elemen tal nitrogen content would not be used to

estimate NO^ emissions. Predictive values of NO^ might be established based on cor relations empirically derived for a matrix of parameters such as coal rank, volatile vs non-volatile carbon bound nitrogen, parti cle size, excess air, and other relevant proc ess parameters. Emission factors are often used in area

wide emission inventory applications. How ever, they are also often used under exact ing situations where quality measured data would have been more appropriate. The practise of factoring emissions to develop plant inventories has been particularly popu lar since the onset of the Canadian National

ments have often overshadowed the direct

sampling itself. As our analytical capability has brought

By Richard Urbanski* required irrefutable data to complement

a multitude of source contaminants under

their enforcement activities;

scrutiny, the demand for enhanced quanti fication capability has exploded. There has been a need created for prac tical and cost effective field technologies ca

5. The practice of granting operating per mits with associated fees or emission sur

charges requires exacting data; 6. Evolution of precise control limits is re quiring a corresponding precision of emis sions status to confirm process efficiency. The trend in source testing has been to address several emerging needs. 1. Real time data capability to establish true operational ranges and to establish correla tions with process parameters; 2. Improved detectability to provide real time field data in the ppb and sub-ppb range; 3. Increased specificity of real time instru

pable of providing the on-line trace detec tion levels of a host of regulated toxics. A number of emerging technologies that inte grate laboratory and field advances are be coming available for enhancement and dem onstration prior to market acceptance. The evolution of promising technologies such as FTIR, FTUV, portable mass spectrometry, laser reflectance, etc. are expected to im prove our capability to measure trace air and gas source and ambient contaminants in real

Pollutant Release Inventory(NPRI)program and the parallel Toxic Release Inventory program (TRI) in the U.S.



4. Ability to determine mass emission rate

The ability to correlate process cycles with emission episodes will not only pro

Direct source emissions measurement

5. Flexibility to monitor a matrix of con-

in real time;

vide better emission factor determination;

but will also result in an improved vehicle for trace emissions abatement and control.

The regulatory initiatives pertaining to minute risk assessment levels of toxic air contaminants

are creating challenges to traditional methods of air and gas sampling. has often been considered expensive and time consuming,and, the temptation to over apply emission factoring is significant. Direct, probe-in-the-stack measurement methods are considered the definitive mode of emissions release determination.

Emphasis on direct measurement has in creased recently. 1.Public concern of risk from trace contami

nants has increased demand for exacting verifiable numbers; 2. The emissions trading process has unitized dollar values on emissions rates; 3. The proliferation of stationary, continu*NOVAMANN International. 16

stituents in one source.

6. Remote and non-intrusive capability. The regulatory initiatives pertaining to

Through the inherent improved quality as surance and quality control achieved by eliminating the break between field and laboratory, detectability of contaminants and reliability of data is expected to improve. High end emissions monitoring has been repeatedly identified as an extremely high growth market. To bring on-line technology to real-time

minute risk assessment levels of toxic air

trace contaminants measurement, several

contaminants are creating challenges to tra ditional methods of air and gas sampling.

companies have been advancing instrument and detection technologies using Laser Cou pled Diode array incorporating Raman spec tra to enable highly specific laser reflected measurements. There is considerable po tential for this technology to be taken into the industrial environment to provide low level specific measurements for VOCs. Similarly, portable mass spectrometers are becoming prevalent as durability and

The legislation of source emissions lev els of a specific substance, unless accom panied by a standard test method for that substance, renders enforcement very com plex. Over the past years agencies have been playing catch-up as the number of sub stances targeted for control has increased at a rate greater than the rate at which refer ence test methods are being developed.

cost factors make these units more accessiContlnued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

An Actuator And Warranty With Teeth. Rigid vcdve/actuator/ positioner couplings eliminate backlash

Jor accurate positioning.

Double-acting and spring-return optionsfor application versatility.


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Modular actilalor de.sign and compact size allow

close-coupling to valve

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For more information and actuator warranty details, contact your localDeZurik representative.







Innovation at every turn. For more information, Circle reply card No. 135

Air pollution, cont'd. ble for general field use. Brian Williams, the CEM authority at Environment Cana da's River Road laboratories is currently in the process of evaluating one such unit. On line gas chromatography for emis sions compliance determination is another example; for some time sulphur speciation in industries such as pulp and paper and pe-

The problems associated with accurate determination of regulatory levels of organics such as benzene provide another exam ple. The detection limits of current field instrumentation for benzene are inadequate to measure reliably, compliance levels, while, field concentration techniques have given rise to artifact problems during sub-

An interesting consideration is that as our real-time measurement capabilities become more sophisticated, the need for direct industrial gas measurement may be dramatically reduced. troleum has been recognized as critical for regulation and control. There is need to provide on-line speciation of reduced sul phur constituents. Carbonyl sulphide is a non-odorous constituent while hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide etc., have extremely low odour thresholds and quite different toxlcity fac tors but often occur simultaneously. The ability to quantify the constituents at low levels. Individually is a valuable tool for regulation and control. Traditionally, the common TRS CEM systems have grouped the reduced sulphur constituents by control led oxidation and measurement as equiva

sequent laboratory analyses. A refinement of a field technique for benzene is In order. The following activities in source emis sion testing are expected to continue: 1) Methods recipe testing where regulatory prosecution is a possibility; 2)Expansion of on-line CEM usage for the traditional cocktail mix of gases;

lent SO^. While satisfying regulated re

Where, a decade ago, the focus was the quantification and the characterization of a dozen largely combustion related gases, the

quirements, these systems do not provide operators with optimum process data.

3) An advent towards CRM (continuous process monitoring) substitution; and 4) On-line developments for continuous trace measurements both for CEM applica tion and for interval use to assist In devel

oping emission factors for inventory appli cations.

current challenge is to measure and to char acterize hundreds of constituents occurring at trace levels.

An interesting consideration is that as our real-time measurement capabilities be come more sophisticated, the need for di rect industrial gas measurement may be dramatically reduced: Consider that (1) The advent of fuzzy-logic technologies will soon become prevalent in enabling com puters to correlate selected process opera tional parameters with CEM outputs and will enable computers to "learn" emissions factors for a matrix of process conditions. Several very recent developments are indica tive of this trend.

• A recent Canadian workshop looking at various technology opportunities following the KPMG (Peat Marwick Stevenson and

Kellog) study on air pollution control con cluded that integration of continuous emis sion monitoring with process controls us ing expert systems, was one of three top technology opportunities. Intelligent proc ess optimization using CEM feedback was obviously the primary intent here, but, the technology capability will inevitably lead to accurate emissions prediction at such ap plications. Initially, it is expected that at tempts will be made to use installed intel ligent systems, to backfill CEM data, but, ultimately, the intent may be to replace the need for CEM systems entirely.




For more information, Circle reply card No. 136

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Air pollutlon, cont'd. • As part of the EPA-HAPS propositions,

Aeration Ozonation Biogas Filtration Positive Displacement Blowers Oil-Free Screw Compressors

rather than continuous emissions monitor

ing, the EPA is proposing the use of con tinuous monitoring of control device oper ating parameters to determine whether con tinuous compliance is achieved. In the meantime, to keep up with the con tinuing rapid developments in source test ing will continue to preoccupy an increas ing number of highly specialized environ mental professionals. In turn this expand ing knowledge and capability base should continue to spawn a rapid evolution of needs and technological solutions for at least the next several years.

Glossary NPRI - National Pollutant Release

Inventory Program TRI

- Toxic Release Inventory Program

FTIR - Fournler Transform Infra Red FTUV - Fournler Transform


VOC - Volatile Organic Compound TRS - Total Reduced Sulphur

ISO 9001

Aerzen Compact II The anti-prototype More than world class

equipment and guaranteed technical solutions. If you agree that:

- prevention is preferable over correction, - equipment selections should consider life cycle cost data, - high technical risk Is Inherent to the public tender system, - suppliers must help consulting engineers to minimize project risks, - equipment claims must be based on technical facts and guarantees, - high technical standards and the municipal sector are compatible,

OEM - Continuous Emission

....let's talk!


CPM - Continuous Process Monitor HAPS - Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA - U.S. Environmental

1995 Montee Labossiere, Vaudreuil,





Quebec,J7V 8P2 Tel.:(514)424-3966 Fax.:(514)424-3985

Protection Agency For more information, Circle reply card No. 255

For more information, Circle reply card No. 137



Tel:(604)385-8721 Fax:(604)383-8099 EASTERN CANADA:

David Brierley Tel:(416)441-4111 Fax:(416)441-4131

Environmental Science <ÂŁ Engineering, March 1994

DELCAIM ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIVISION For more information. Circle reply card No. 136


Sewage treatment

By Jean-Yves Bergel*

Sherbrooke:Une premiere en Amerlque du Nord

Depuisfevrier 1991,1'usine d'epuration de Sherbrooke, Quebec, tente d'ameliorer la qualite des eaux des deux rivieres adjacentes - Magog et St-Franfois. Cinq

municipalites de la region de Sherbrooke (Fleurimont, Rock Forest, Lennoxville, Ascot et Sherbrooke) ont reuni leurs efforts afin d'ameliorer la qualite de I'eau deversee dans la riviere

St-Franfois qui sert de source en eau potable pour certaines municipalites en aval.

Anterieurement, il n'y avait qu'une seule des cinq municipalites qui ne traitait qu'en partie ses eaux usees. Le con sortium de la ville de Sherbrooke a retenu les services des Con

sultants CESIR Inc. pour construire une nouvelle usine d'epuration.

CESI® eut pour tache de developper une nouvelle usine capa ble de traiter des debits moyens quotidiens de 80 000 m7d avec

des pointes de 132 000 mVd. L'affluent a 1'usine d'epuration est de caractere municipal et industriel et presente des charges en DBOjde 7 570 kg/j avec 8 140 kg/j de matieres en suspension et un contenu en phosphore total de 400 kg/j. L'usine d'epuration refoit en plus les eaux et boues de vidange de fosses septiques correspondant a 5% du debit et de la charge a traiter.

Le schema de traitement preconise par I'ingenieur conseil, CESI®, comprend quatre grilles mecaniques, dessablage, decantation-epaississement, biofiltration, conditionnement et deshydratation des boues. Degremont Infilco a fourni les deux dessableurs aeres longitudinaux ainsi que quatre reacteurs-


Arriv6e d'eau brute


Raw water inlet









4. Goulottes de reprise d'eau d6canlee

4. Clarified water troughs


Sortie d'eau decantee


Clarified water oullel




Picket fence

7. Recyclage des boues 8.

Extraction des boues

7. Sludge recirculation 8. Sludge draw-off

Since February, 1991, the new sewage treatment plant at

Sherbrooke, Quebec, has been working to improve the quality of the local waterways. Five municipalities

(Fleurimont, Rock Forest, Lennoxville, Ascot and

Sherbrooke) recognized a need to improve their treated sewage

decanteurs epaississeurs lamellaires Densadeg® en tant que decanteurs primaires pour le traitement phisico-chimique des ef fluents. Les quatre unites sont presentement en operation; Sherbrooke est la premiere usine d'epuration en Amerique du

discharge to the St. Francois River. The St. Francois serves as a source of potable water for a number of downstream communi ties and eventually flows into the St. Lawrence River.

Nord a utiliser cette technologie. L'utilisation de ces decanteursepaississeurs optimise la biofiltration comme traitement

tion of its sewage. The Sherbrooke consortium decided to retain


Durant la saison hivemale, les decanteurs enlevent un fort

pourcentage de matieres en suspension sans I'addition de produits chimiques. En fevrier 1993, alors que la temperature moyenne de I'affluent n'etait que de 6°C, ils ont reduit les matieres en suspension de 127 mg/La51 mg/L. Ce pourcentage d'enlevement de 60% a ete atteint sans I'addition de produits chimiques. La concentration des boues epaissies pendant cette meme periode etait de 3-5%. Pendant les mois d'ete, I'ajout d'environ 32 g/m'

de chlorure ferrique (Fecl^) et 0,04g/m^ de polymere anionique favorise la dephosphatation chimique. Toujours pendant ces mois, la temperature moyenne de I'affluent etait de I5°C et le

pourcentage d'enlevement de la DBO^ atteignait 67%. L'ajout de produits chimiques contribue a produire des concentrations en boues epaissies entre 6 et 8%.

A l'usine de Sherbrooke, chaque decanteur-epaississeur comprend un melangeur rapide de 9 m^ de capacite, un floculateur de 280 m'de capacite muni d'une turbine de recirculation de 3 m de diametre, un reacteur piston, une zone de tranquilisation et une zone de decantation lamellaire de 115 m^ permettant d'atteindre une vitesse ascensionnelle de 7,5 a 12,0 m/h a travers les modules lamellaires. En dessous de la zone de decantation, on retrouve la zone d'epaississement. La surface totale du

decanteur au sol est de 229 m^ et n'occupe que 50% de I'espace requis par les procedes conventionnels utilises dans la meme ap plication.

'Degremont Infilco 20

Before 1991, only one of the five municipalities treated a por the services of the consulting firm, CESIR Inc. to design a new facility.

CESIR was confronted with the task of developing a facility which would be capable of treating an average daily flow of 80,000 mVday (21.1 mgd)and a daily peak flow of 132,000 m'/day (34.9 mgd). The combined municipal and industrial influent is repre sented as having a BOD,of 7,570 kg/day (16,700 lb/day), a sus pended solids load of 8,140 kg/day (17,900 lb/day), and a phos phorous content of 400 kg/day (880 lb/day). Approximately 5% of the influent flow is generated from septic tanks. CESIR developed a treatment scheme which utilizes mechani cal screening, aerated degritters, solids contact clarifier- thicken ers, biofiltration, sludge conditioning, and dewatering. The aer ated degritters and solids contact units (used as primary clarifiers) were furnished by Degremont Infilco. The solids contact clarifier-thickener specified for the Sherbrooke project was the Densadeg® Clarifier. Four such units are now in operation there, making this the first municipal sewage treatment plant in North America to employ these clarifiers. The use of these clarifiers as pretreatment units is an integral aspect of the optimized use of biofiltration for secondary treatment. At Sherbrooke, during the winter months, the clarifiers re move a large percentage of the total suspended solids without the addition of chemicals. In February, 1993, while the water tem perature was only 6°C,the Densadeg units reduced total suspended solids from 127 mg/L to 51 mg/L. Again, this 60% reduction was achieved without the addition of any chemicals. The concentra tion of thickened solids during this same period was 3 to 5%. During the summer, approximately 32 g/m^ of ferric chloride and 0.04 g/m^ of anionic polymer are added to facilitate the precipitaEnvironmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

' w -N









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A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS The issue of zebra mussels

is attracting increasing attention from municipalities, utilities, government agencies and industries around the Great Lakes.

One solution involves the use

of JAVEX-12'sodium

hypochlorite, which kills the zebra mussel larvae.

We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the spread of zebra mussels. If you'd like to discuss this current problem, or be kept informed of the latest

information, please fill out ti

III Ml(IIf l',

Yes, please keep me informed on the use of JAVEX-12 sodium hypochlorite for controlling zebra mussels For current project □ For future project □ For research purposes □ Your name Title

Organization Address

Postal Code

Phone: (


Mail to: Colgate-Palmclive Canada Inc. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto, Ontario M4H 1G8 Phone- (416) 421-6000 Fax- (416) 425-9320

For more information, Circle reply card No. 122

Sherbrooke clarifiers, cont'd. 1 au 17 juin 1993












tion of phosphates. During this period, when the water tempera ture averages 15°C, the BOD., removal efficiency in the clarifiers peaks near 67%. The chemicals utilized also assist in producing thickened solids at a concentration of 6 to 8%.


















Ou 1or au 17 juin, las DENSAOEG ont itd op6rds sans ajout da produits chimiquas avac un dibit moyen da 80 024 m3/d at un dibit maximum da 116 600 m3/d.

Le Densadeg emploie la recirculation interne et externe des boues optimisant ainsi son operation. Une pompe de recirculation des boues extrait les boues a la concentration desiree a partir du cone ajustable et les renvoi dans le floculateur afin de favoriser un contact intime avec les eaux entrantes et ainsi maintenir une

concentration optimale dans le reacteur. La recirculation externe des boues au floculateur, en plus de I'ajout de polymeres, favorise

raccroissement du floe, amenant ainsi une decantation superieure des particules. Densifiant les solides dans la zone du reacteur, le decanteur-

epaississeur permet un usage optimal de produits chimiques. Un des avantages qui fait du decanteur-epaississeur un appareil unique en son genre, est sa flexibilite face a d'importantes varia tions de debit et de charge. Pour ce faire, une turbine avitesse variable dans le floculateur permet d'accroitre le contact des boues floculees recyclees avec I'eau a traiter en augmentant la concen

Each clarifier unit at the Sherbrooke facility is comprised of a rapid mix tank having a capacity of 9 m^ (2,380 gal), a 280 m^ (74,000 gal) reactor vessel equipped with a 3 m diameter recirculation turbine, and a lamellar clarification zone of 115 m^ yielding settling rates of 7.5 to 12 m/h. Beneath the lamellar clarification section is the highly effective thickening zone.

The total surface of each clarifier unit is 229 m^ and the space requirement is less than 50% of that which would be required for conventional solids contact clarifiers in the same application. Densadeg employs both internal and external solids recirculation which optimize its operation. External recirculation is optimized because the Densadeg is designed to recycle a range of solids concentrations from the thickening zone. It accomplishes this by use of an adjustable withdrawal device. One of the principal advantages of this clarifier is its ability to perform equally well over a wide range of flow and raw water characteristics. This is accomplished as a variable speed turbine in the reactor mixes the influent wastewater with recirculated 1 - 17 June 1993



























tration en matieres solides dans le reacteur. Un cone d'extraction

des boues a recirculer, ajustable, permet I'obtention d'une boue a differente concentration, selon les besoins du traitement. Le cone ajustable est un element de reglage qui determine I'interface entre les boues recirculees et les boues epaissies. Un systeme de


Between June 1 and 17, 1993, the DENSADEG was operated without chemicals at

an average flow of 80 024 mS/d and peak flow of 116 600 mS/d.





Promoting Excellence in the Environmental Field

For membership information call: Canada: 1-800-233-4203 Toronto: 416-761-4786 RO. Box 80078 2850 Lakeshore Blvd. W. Quality Control Equipment Company

Etobicoke, Ont. M8V 4A1

Phone 515/266-2268 • Fax 515/266-0243

Specialists in Sampling Technologies

For more information, Circle reply card No. 125

For more information, Circle reply card No. 124

Sherbrooke clarifiers, cont'd. 18 au 30 juin 1993









solids resulting in an increase in the solids concentration in the reactor. A vertically-adjustable conical sludge withdrawal appa ratus in the thickener zone allows the transfer of varying solids concentrations to the reactor zone, as determined by the process.



















moins de 1.0


Du 18 au 30 Juin 1993, tea DEN9ADEG ont opir^s avac aioutdo coagulant at da floculant. La dibit moyen pandant cetta piriode itait da 86 995 m3/d at la dibit maximum da 139 851 m3/d.

This adjustable cone determines the interface between the recirculated sludge and the thickened sludge. A slow-moving bottom rake assists the thickening of the dense sludge and per mits waste sludge to be withdrawn. Speed adjustment of the external sludge recirculation pump varies the volume of sludge to be mixed with the influent.

The Sherbrooke plant has been in operation since February 1991. Sherbrooke's operators are very satisfied with the opera tion of the clarifiers. Values indicated in the tables represent

raclage des boues de fond permet d'augmenter la quantite des boues en exces a extraire, ou de favoriser un epaississement accru des boues. Un ajustement de la vitesse de rotation de la pompe

de reyrculation des boues permet aussi d'adapter le volume de boues a etre mis en contact avec I'eau a tralter.

Les operateurs de I'usine d'epuration sont tres satisfaits de I'operation des decanteurs-epaississeurs. Les valeurs Indlquees dans les deux tableaux temoignent des rendements correspondant au mois de juin 1993. Plusieurs points meritent une attention particuliere: (a) La temperature de I'affluent pendant les mois d'ete est de 15-16°C. (b) Le Densadeg opere efficacement pendant les mois d'hiver meme si la temperature de I'affluent descend jusqu'a 6°C. Par exemple, en fevrier 1993, la charge des matieres en suspension etait de 127 mg/L a I'entree et de 51 mg/L a la sortie, representant un pourcentage d'enlevement de 60%. (c) La concentration des boues epaissies a la sortie des decanteurs-epaississeurs a ete de 3-5% sans I'ajout de produits chimiques et de 6-8% avec prodults chimiques. For more information, Circle reply card No. 259

performances during the month of June 1993. Several points are worth noting;(a)The average influent tem perature during the summer is 15-16°C. (b) The Densadeg has operated efficiently during the winter when temperatures have dropped to as low as 6°C. For example, in February 1993, sus pended solids were reduced from 127 mg/L in the plant influent to 51 mg/L in the effluent, a removal of 60%; (c) And the con centration of the extracted sludge was 3-5% without the addition of chemicals and 6-8% with the addition of chemicals. 18-30 June 1993


























less ttian 1.0


Betwoen Juno 18 and 30, 1993, tho DENSADEG was operated with the addition of

ferric chloride and a polymer. Average flows of 86 995 m3/d with a peak flow of 139 851 m3/d were recorded.



TITLES FROM EMOND MONTGOMERY — your best source for comprehensive, accurate,


accessible information on environmental law!


The Prosecution and Defence of Environmental Offences by Stanley Berger, b.c.l., ll.b.

Milfoil Removal


Se\«age Lagoons Underwater Drilling Work Removal of Floating Debris

Industry Pile Driving Pulp & Paper

Pipeline Laying (Muskeg) Mine Tailings (large dredge) Improve Water Flow

Erosion Control Dredging Excavation

Contaminated Sediment Removal Flood Control Management

Ice Breaking

Environmental concerns have become one of the most important issues of responsibility for all governments and corporations. At Marathon Waterworks, we have put this responsibility into ACTION with the purchase of sophisticated equipment specifically designed to restore the natural ecosystems of our precious waterways. We provide solutions, not quick fixes.

Our amphibious excavator is not only superior in performance, it is extremely cost effective - offering viable and affordable project completions for ail environmental aquatic problems. Due to the advanced technology used, we are not limited by land, water depth, shorelines, or dense vegetation.

Used by the prosecutors and investigators at the Ontario MOEE. Features sections on the constitution, investigative procedures,due diligence,"hot calls" by ministry investigators, and sentencing. Also features helpful checklists and tables, including a table of concordance for the Ontario Environment Protection Act and detailed sentencing tables.

Published 1994/444 pages, including table of cases, statutes, and lndex/Looseleaf/$195 for main work, including binder (semi-annual updates billed separately)/ISBN 0-920722-57-1

Environment on Trial: A Guide to Ontario

EnvironmentalLaw andPolicy,Third Edition edited by John Swaigen, ll.b., ll.m. Three years in the research, writing,and rewriting. Environment on Trial leaves no stone unturned in its quest to be comprehensive and accessible to anyone who needs a good working knowledge of environmental law. Published 1993, with the Canadian Institute for Environmental

Law and Policy/958 pages/Softcover/$44/lSBN 0-920722-51-2


(Canada Wide) Call 1-800-450-8603(24 Hours) for complete information

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 126

Emend Montgomery Publications Limited 58 Shaftesbuiy Avenue, Toronto, Ont. M4T 1A3 Phone(416)975-3925 • Fax(416)975-3924 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 127

Zebra Mussel Update

By Don Lewis*

UV shows promise in oontroiiing zebra mussei scourge

The introduction of the zebra mus

mine the extent to which mussels have be

bers were observed in the Sarnia area

sel to the Great Lakes Region in

come a problem and to determine the effec

throughout the summer months. Veliger lar

1985/86 has to date had a dramatic

tiveness of their control efforts.

vae numbers were recorded in excess of

impact on water users in this re gion. Industries and municipalities continue to suffer infestations and develop treatment strategies to varying degrees. The mussel has now become widely dis persed throughout the Great Lakes and St.

The Great Lakes continue to see heavy infestation and in some areas dramatic in creases in numbers were observed. Zebra

mussel densities have been increasing in Lake Ontario over the past three years. In 1992 and 1993, there were significant in creases in larval densities, however not all areas of Lake Ontario received heavy in creases in mussel settlement. Despite this

Lawrence River as well as the mid western

100,000/m^ on many occasions. Industrial and municipal water users con tinue to rely heavily on the use of chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite or chlo rine gas to keep water intake pipes and cool ing water systems free of mussel infesta tion. A number of protocols are presently being used but most rely on maintaining a minimum of 0.5 ppm total residual chlorine in areas which need to be protected. As public and political pressure contin

United States (see map). Conferences aimed at defining the problem and poten tial solutions are now planned for as far west as Denver and south to Kentucky. Water

fact most shoreline areas now have at least low level infestations. Hamilton Harbour

users in southern Canada coast to coast are now considered vulnerable to eventual in

was perhaps heaviest hit by mussel in

ues to mount in both the United States and

creases. Lake Erie had moderate increases

Canada, for the elimination or minimization

on larval numbers which will sustain already high adult numbers. In 1993, Lake Huron and the upper

of chlorine use in industrial water circulat

reaches of the St. Clair River showed the

more important. For the most part, few alternatives have proven effective, however testing continues in a few promising areas. Aquatic Sciences Inc. continued its work

festation. Most industries that draw water from

known or potentially infested areas have also implemented monitoring programs to deter-

greatest increases in mussel numbers.

Aquatic Sciences

Greater than tenfold increases in larval num-

ing systems, the search for viable alterna tives to disinfection of this sort becomes

in 1993 at four research sites located in On-


Continued overleaf Lake





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Saul! Ste Marie



# Cliampltiln


CoWord Bostoi

Huron /, Toronto

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t -J Madison

Lansing/ J J /WyT .a,-"R, • <i6® '' ^

1 I-i♦


A Suw^na/j |(






'hiladelph^^TfgLjQri Harrisburg





hloMng^hala BarHmore


Delaware Bay

^ Columbus Springfield

Indianapolis <v Richmond Charleston



efferson City



' ^^Greensboro Raleigh Nastwille



OS A-n

Mis^sslppl ^

Golumbia Atlanta T Cha/fahoochee


(V Montgomery

Mi^issippi ♦Tallahassee Baton



CAN TEST LTD. is pleased to announce the appointment of Anglina Elliot to the position of Marketing and Sales Coordina tor effective January 1, 1994. Anglina started with CAN TEST in 1986 as a chem

ist in the Trace Organics department. In 1989 she was promoted to Coordinator of the Trace Organics department. In her new position, Anglina will assume all responsibilities related to business de velopment, promotion and customer liai son. One of her main responsibilities will be the monitoring of our performance to better meet the needs of our customers.

CAN TEST is a full service laboratory that offers a myriad of testing services re lated to air quality, environmental chemis try, industrial processes, microbiology, fo rensic toxicology and applied research and development. We are located at 1523 West 3rd Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V6J US Tel: (604) 734-7276, Fax: (604) 731-2386.

Zebra mussel Infestation areas In bold. (Courtesy Sea Grant Extension)


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Circle reply card No. 195

For more Information,

Zebra mussel update, cont'd. tario, Quebec and New York State. Work with oxidants has included chlo

rine, chloramines, hydrogen peroxide and ozone minimization through combining the effects of heat and other potentially synergistic chemicals, which may reduce the duration or concentrations of the killing agent. Research continues in this promis ing area, which has shown dramatic in creases in mortality with some combina tions. Further research in this area has in cluded molluscides. The results of some of

this work will be presented at the Fourth Intemational Zebra Mussel Conference in

Madison, Wisconsin.

Aquatic Sciences and Cybex Corp. con tinued studies on cathodic protection. The results of this continuing research are very promising. Elevated levels of cathodic pro tection have so far been shown to signifi cantly decrease zebra mussel settlement on steel surfaces. The focus offuture work will

be on determining the lowest effective cur rent densities, in order to minimize costs of

this control option. This technology is now being tested on concrete surfaces and may ultimately replace the idea of coatings at some locations.

Extensive full scale research projects on cathodic protection are presently being spon sored by Ontario Hydro and Hydro Quebec. New research using UV light was initi ated in 1992 and continued in 1993. Re

sults to date look very promising. Flow through field studies were initiated in 1993. Both medium pressure (UV B/UV C) and low pressure lamps (UV C) have been shown to provide good control. Work is now in progress to analyze collected data and testing at larger scale industrial sites will be the focus of work for 1994. It is pres ently felt that UV could be applied in many low flow situations, given the present state of the research. It is hoped that the poten tial for use of this technology can be ex panded to include a wide variety of moder ate or even high flow users. Research is almost completed that will allow the effective use of heat as a means

of controlling zebra mussels at industrial sites. This methodology has been fine tuned by Aquatic Sciences Inc. and Gilbert Com monwealth Consultants, at Niagara

ceptibility to mussel infestation and detect levels of infestation at specific sites. Meth ods of controlling infestations in fire and service water systems were the focus of re search efforts for 1993. Further work is

expected in the area in 1994 and it is felt that this work will result in a useful tool for

investigation of these critical systems. A number of other research projects by universities and chemical companies are in progress. These studies include the use of electric fields, centrifugal separators and a wide variety of filters and coatings. Previ ous information indicated only partial con trol with all but a few filters and this con

tinues to be the trend. Coatings that have shown promise include both toxic and nontoxic products. Of the non-toxic coatings, those that contain a silicone component have been most effective.

Mohawk's Dunkirk Steam Station in Dun

kirk, New York and good mussel control has been achieved. ASI is presently providing consulting services for design and imple mentation of this technology for a number of water users.

It has recently become apparent that in dustrial fire protection systems are vulner able to zebra mussel infestation which may have catastrophic repercussions if left un checked. ASI has worked extensively on developing protocols and analytical equip ment to allow determination of system sus

Molluscides have been used in some ar

eas of the United States with varying suc cess and in 1993 an experimental approval was given for its use on two occasions in Ontario. The short and long term environ mental safety of these products continues to be the subject of debate on both sides of the border. It remains to be seen whether

these chemicals will be given full Ministry of Agriculture and MOEE approval. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 258

Newfor Wastewater Testing Optional self-cleaning By-Pass Y Strainer is now available to reduce clogging and fouling

Hach CL17

Chlorine Analyzer Around-the-clock monitoringforjust pennies per hour''' The CLI7 Chlorine Analyzer provides the continuous, accurate, on-line monitoring required for optimum chlorine residual control. Thousands of facilities have discovered that the CL17 is the affordable way to eliminate expensive overfeeding while assuring full-time compliance. ■ ■ ■ ■

USEPA-approved DPD colorimetric chemistry (for drinking water and wastewater) Operates unattended for 30 days between reagent changes Dual programmable alarms Selectable recorder output and optional computer interface kit

*Based on five years of use excluding depreciation

For more information, request literature numbers 3879 and 1320. HACH COMPANY P.O. Box 389

Loveland, Colorado 80539 U.S.A.

Service Centre in Winnipeg


Telephone:(303)669-3050 Sales outlets throughout Canada Fax:(303)669-2932

For more information, Circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 30", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'T.C.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets.

TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22y2° and 1^/4° configurations. As well,'TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'T.C.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

Make the Right Connection...CALL All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available In

both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.1 1975. "Special" 'T.C: FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks Installation requirements.

^ouhChoI^4^ IRON WORKS LfD. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (804) 253-6365

For more information, Circle reply card No. 130

Managing PCBs

By Michael G. Vocllka, B.Sc.*

Decontamination of PCB eiectricai

equipment for inventory reduction and metais recycling

PCB electrical equipment has been and is still being decommissioned

in response to nationwide regula tions and to the risks associated

with PCB related spills and fires. As a re sult there has been an exponential growth in the number of PCB storage sites regis tered across Canada. Per square foot these sites are accumulating a higher proportion of decommissioned PCB contaminated elec

trical apparatus.

Storage of electrical apparatus however is only an interim solution for PCB man agement and risk reduction so PCB genera tors are searching to reduce storage costs, optimize the use of space and reduce their PCB inventories in preparation for the final solution, incineration. The next logical step has been developed, and addresses PCB contaminated electrical apparatus inventory reduction.

In Canada,Decontaksolv™,implemented upstream of incineration, is a method to de

contaminate electrical carcasses by separat ing the metals from the porous materials and then recycling the metals(copper steel and aluminum). Mobilized as a stand alone

operation at present, this technology may in the near future, be combined with a mo

Decontamination distillation trailer staged for set-up. to maximize cleansing efficiency. In step one of transformer decontamina tion, up to six transformers are connected to a closed loop liquid phase heated solvent Material Distribution Flowsheet For Drained Askarel Transformers

in the closed loop system to dry the equip ment prior to the removal and dismantling of the core plates, copper windings and po

Dry wrigbt •• 1M«

which will serve to eliminate all the PCBs stored at various locations in Canada.

rous materials. The residual extraction fluid

is desorbed, condensed and recovered.

The technology, Decontaksolv"' devel oped in 1985 by Sanexen Environmental

The internals are dismantled and segre gated in an enclosure under negative pres sure and the metals are loosely packed into a basket which is subsequently placed into

Services Inc., uses the properties of a PCB compatible solvent, Tetrachloroethylene, to desorb and solubilize PCBs from the cas

ings, cores and windings of electrical equip ment. Both the liquid and vapour phases of the solvent are used in sequential operations *Sanexen Environmental Services Inc.

an Autoclave. It is here that the internal com

circulation system which serves to degrease the exposed surface areas internal to the apparatus. A final gaseous phase solvent purge ensures optimum cleansing.


Heat source

Distillation unit

cooling water Heat


Distillat'on residue


to be cleaned Tanks



and the extracted PCBs are concentrated and

drummed for storage or for furtherance to an incineration facility. A circulation of air is then established

Decontaksolv™ - Metals Recycling

bile PCB(askarel) destruction technology

The contaminated solvent is recycled by distillation for reuse in the next operation


ponents are decontaminated. Wipe tests of the metal surfaces insure that the metal components meet the set cri

teria of 10 micrograms per ICQ square centimeters prior to release for recycling. Almost 90% of the transformer dry weight may be disposed of as recyclable metals. Only 10%, the residuals, consisting of the concentrated PCBs and the non-recyclable porous components are now stored or pack

aged for incineration. Competitive with in cineration, it also precludes the risk and costs associated with the transportation of the complete PCB contaminated apparatus. Waiting for a complete PCB elimination solution, many PCB Managers view Decontaksolv™ as the upstream next step solution to inventory reduction, while at the same time, supporting the evolving philoso phy of recycling, and finally, as a prepara tion to final PCB elimination by destruc tion.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 257 Environnienlal Science & Engineering, March 1994

Piping by the numbers

to* X 8' VIC 90* RU CLKIV • R-10 <

.VW i Cjy



-1 i

" :>>!

' - ), ,

To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with Victaulic®. For example, to help you save time and reduce overhead, Victqulic Technical Services Division offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the numbers. And it's fast!

So if numbers are important to you, check into something you can count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or CO

416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.

■ctaulic wiith Victaulic saws tiweaM mney.

Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system... over 100 innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com

pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out.

Victaulic is a registered trademark of Victoulic Company of Canodo. ©1990 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 110

Stormwater management

storm Water Treatment In Etobicoke

Exfiltratlon & Filtration Systems projects. The completed study will provide a full performance evaluation together with documentation of all necessary parameters,

specifications, design criteria, hydraulic modelling and improvement suggestions. There was sufficient interest in these two

new applications by the regulatory agencies to create a degree of cooperation that bodes well for similar future endeavours. Envi TRAP

ronment Canada, via the Great Lakes Clean







Illustration A - Perspective sketcti showing the iayout of the Etobicoke Exfiitration System.

The treatment of urban runoff is an

issue that is changing the tradi tional concepts of subdivision drainage. Storm water ponds were originally conceived as an effective means of reducing downstream flooding and ero

sion damage. Considered as an undesirable feature by developers, they were placed in the back of beyond to minimize the poten tial negative impact on future buyers. Only rarely were they used as an attraction by

problem while also promising high effluent quality. The Etobicoke Exfiitration System is intended for use in areas of granular soils while the second, dubbed the Etobicoke Fil

tration System, is suitable for impervious soils. One clay and four sandy soil systems were installed in 1993 and are now operat ing. A formal three year evaluation study has been begun to evaluate the success of these

Up Fund, is funding the overall study while the laboratory analysis costs are borne by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment & Energy. Etobicoke, as a general policy, is imple menting storm water quality controls only in conjunction with other storm drainage works: the marginal water quality improve ment costs are therefore expected to be rela tively low. The first exfiitration project re quired a replacement pipe due to structural and root penetration problems with the origi nal 60 year old pipe. The next three projects were existing ditched roads that were to be reconstructed to curb and gutter standard and thus required the installation of storm sewers.

Etobicoke Exfiitration System All the proposed projects were in areas of fine sandy soils. The specific method selected for dealing with the water quality issues was required to be simple, use stand ard materials and methods and not involve

mechanical or electrical equipment. The final design was essentially a French drain modified to prevent longer term plugging

themselves in what would otherwise have

been just another development. Lake Aquitaine in Mississauga, Ont., built in 1980, is a 5 acre artificial lake that is the focal point of the development and provides visual and recreational advantages to the subdivision. Effective sediment and oil removal facili

ties, largely screened behind thick bushes, have helped to turn a necessity into an as set.

Dealing with storm runoff quality in ex isting urban areas is a much more compli cated issue than in new developments: ponds or wetlands, due to the lack of suitable space,cannot generally be considered. Most retrofit solutions will have to be applied within the existing road allowances and only relatively few will fit into the limited val ley areas that are not already dedicated to other uses. The City of Etobicoke, when considering methods to implement the wa ter quality component of its Storm Water Management Program, has developed and is implementing two methods that we be lieve will be effective solutions to the space 30






Illustration B - Perspective sketch of the Etobicoke Filtration System. Environmental Science

Engineering, March 1994

By M. Mansfield, P.Eng.,* and to allow the accumulated sediments to

be removed with regular sewer flushing equipment. The design concept requires the capture and treatment of 15 mm storm events at

three day intervals which exceeds the In terim Water Quality Guidelines for warm water fisheries. The 15 mm criteria, given local rainfall records, would result in zero runoff in 9 out of 10 rain events. The

Exfiltration Process layout is as shown on Illustration No. 1 and can be described as follows:

Runoff enters the local catchbasins and

enters the standard Etoblcoke 2 year storm return frequency design storm sewer. At the next downstream man

hole the flow drops into two perforated pipes which are plugged at the down stream end. The water passes through the pipe perforations Into the stone filled trench and from there seeps into the



surrounding native soil. When the

amount of runoff exceeds the designed capacity of the perforated pipes the water will backup In the perforated pipes toward the upstream manhole and over flow via the conventional storm sewer

pipe. The process Is then repeated in the next downstream section.

There are a number of design and con struction considerations that complicate the above to some degree. The catchbasins are equipped with goss traps to retain oil and floatables so that they can be removed dur ing normal maintenance. We realize that any oil would be washed out during heavy storm events but felt that it was worthwhile

to provide such retention capacity for re ported accidental spillage or the Intentional dumping of used motor oil or paints. The perforated pipes are standard SDR 35 PVC gravity sewer pipes and the manu-

EES installation in open trench. Note geotextile trench and perforated pipe wraps, extensive crushed stone bedding, native material backfill. downstream end allows some head to build

up in the perforated pipe sections and re tains the sediments in the pipe but can be easily removed for maintenance. The per forated pipes were arbitrarily sized at 200mm diameter: minimum pipe size for regulatory approvals, routine maintenance requirements and cost.

System. All particles above the 50 - 100 mm micron range will be removed; bacte ria will die off in the soil environment; fer

tilizers and other nutrients will likely be taken up by the trees in the area; groundwater will be recharged and the stream baseflows enhanced with cool wa

The trench itself is backfilled with 15

ter at a relatively constant rate. If the EES performs anywhere near as well as hoped it

mm clear crushed stone which is Etobicoke's

could turn out to be an economical tree-

huggers delight. Chemicals such as herbi cides, pesticides or de-icing salts are not

Lowering the groundwater level may cause existing trees to die off while raising It may cause wet basements. There Is also the possibility of Increasing Infiltration rates Into nearby sanitary sewers. facturer drilled the perforations at nominal cost. Our design calls for four rows of 12.5 mm diameter holes oriented 90 degrees apart. The 12.5 mm diameter was chosen

standard bedding material specified for use with PVC pipe. A geotextile layer is placed around the outside of the trench to prevent plugging of the voids in the crushed stone.

because it was felt that accumulated

The volume of the stone filled trench be

sediments could be washed out of the per foration openings with a standard hydraulic sewer flusher. The perforated pipes are snugly wrapped with a geotextile material with an effective opening size range of 50 to 150 microns which should retain parti

tween the invert of the standard storm sewer

cles almost down to the 40 micron level

called for by the Interim Storm Water Guide lines. A removable mechanical plug at the

and the bottom of the trench represents the storage volume available for the design event and can be modified as necessary. The Exfiltration System is expected to deal successfully with the "first flush" since each section of pipe normally only handles two to four catchbasins. A second perceived advantage, with all parts of the system lo cated below the frost line, is that it will deal

cause there are no downstream groundwater users.

A word of caution: groundwater levels should not be substantially altered by such an underdrain system. Lowering the groundwater level may cause existing trees to die off while raising it may cause wet basements. There is also the possibility of increasing infiltration rates into nearby sani tary sewers. We will be monitoring our installations for that occurrence.

Etobicoke Fiitratlon System This system is also based on a standard 2 year design storm sewer system but will not improve the quality of the discharged water as much as the Etobicoke Exfiltration

System. Illustration No. 2 gives a pictorial schematic of the system. The basic concept here is that storm runoff, as in the EES, is

Water quality improvements should be

filtered through a perforated pipe into a stone filled trench. Instead of exfiltratlng into the surrounding native soils however

substantial with the Etobicoke Exfiltration

Continued overleaf

with snow melt as well as rain events.

'Director, Utility Division - Engineering City of Etobicoke Works Department

removed - not a concem in Etobicoke be

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


Stormwater management, cont'd. the water is collected again at the bottom of the trench via a smaller perforated founda tion drain pipe and discharged back into the storm sewer system at the next downstream manhole.

The basic design objectives remain the same: the system is intended to handle 15 mm rain events at three day intervals. Ex cept for the delay while the water perco lates through the stone backfill, there is no significant detention and gradual release as compared with the Exfiltration System. Bacteria and nutrients will similarly pass through the system but sediment and there fore heavy metals removal should be very

effective. The delay or storage can be short ened by installing the underdrain system from manhole to manhole or extended by installing only a short length of collector pipe connected to the downstream manhole. This system features two catchbasin leads arranged vertically and thus standard goss traps were unfortunately not feasible. The lower of the two leads is a 100 mm di

ameter pipe connected to the perforated pipe. The perforated pipe in this system is above the main storm sewer, wrapped in geotextile fabric and has mechanical plugs at both ends. This allows some hydraulic head build up to assist the filtering process

and also extends the possible storage vol ume vertically. Lower flows, as in the first flush, enter the perforated pipe until its capacity is ex ceeded. The water will then back up in the catchbasin until it overflows into the stand

ard 200 mm diameter upper catchbasin lead and from there into the conventional storm

sewer pipe. The geotextile arrangements, crushed stone backfill and perforated pipe details are the same as described for the

Etobicoke Exfiltration System. An early review of the two systems as installed suggests that the Filtration System is not as practical as the Exfiltration Sys

tem. A slight modification to the Exfiltration

System allows that approach to be used in any soil condition with only a slight modifi cation. If impervious soils are encountered, a single length of perforated pipe, without

â– Wl

filter cloth, can be installed between the two

Trm t

exfiltration pipes at the downstream man hole. This length of pipe will collect the accumulated water from the stone bedding and discharge it back into the manhole from whence it either flows into the next set of

exfiltration pipes or overflows into the standard storm sewer pipe.


A variation that we used in two instances

where single sewer lengths passed through unexpectedly impervious areas was to in stall the removable mechanical plugs not at the very end of the pipes in the manhole, but about as far up the pipe as a person can reach. The effect of this is that the plug is upstream of several of the pipe perforations, thus allowing the water in the trench to be drained into the manhole. The advantage is that this decision can be made during or af ter installation to suit the actual soil condi

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tions encountered in any one run of sewer pipe. Precise and continuous soils informa tion during the design stage is therefore not that vital.

The two systems described in this arti cle are the first such systems to deal with storm water quality and quantity at source at least as close to source as possible in a municipal environment. Future installations by Etobicoke will also deal with some endof-pipe treatment possibilities. We have al ready constructed a storm interceptor sys tem in conjunction with a major road sys tem reconstruction in one small area of the

City that has replaced five existing storm sewer outlets to Lake Ontario with a single larger one. Scheduled for design and in stallation in 1994 is a treatment tank using the inclined plate system that will provide efficient sediment removal facilities for that

interceptor pipe. A little further in time, depending on the development climate, is a variation of the Bunkers Flow Balancing System coupled to a wetland effluent polishing arrangement. In the meantime we will continue to install, and develop if necessary, any practical re medial measures which will help to improve the water quality in our surface waters.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


D.G. Langley

Dr. M.M. Fisher

J.N. Bishop

T. Munshaw



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Doug has over 25 years of environmental consulting and management experience. His career began with Tom Beak in

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Jim had a distinguished 24-year career with the Dntario Ministry of the Environment spanning all aspects of environmental chemistry. His progression from Laboratory Manager

Canada's environmental

1968 to 1989. Prior to

to Director, Water Resources Branch, involved

consulting firms and he has managed environmental projects for industry and government in North

that, he did biochemical

the establishment of

and molecular biology

of London and Pittsburgh.

policies and regulatory/monitoring programs such as MISA,

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Tim has an extensive

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Report from the EC

Environmental developments In Europe and the United Kingdom

On January 1, 1973, the UK and

two other new Member States

joined the original six in the Eu ropean Economic Community. The Treaty of Rome, which established the EC,had the primary goal offorming a com mon market. It neither mentioned environ

mental concerns nor provided an explicit legal basis for environmental action.

Origin of EC Environmental Policy In 1972, the EC heads of government, sitting as the Council and joined by appli cant members, asked the Commission to set up a program of environmental action. In 1973 Member States signed an Envi ronmental Information Agreement under which they let the Commission know of any national measures they might be taking on environmental matters. This enables the

Excerpts from an address by the Earl of Cranbrook, Ph.D., D.Sc., C.Biol.

DL., Board Member, Anglian Water Pic (UK) and Chairman English Na ture. (Given at the 1993 WEF Con ference in Anaheim.) ing is explicitly authorized, or is not pro hibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers". Policy towards industrial discharges adopted a source-oriented approach. The approach and the standards adopted were influenced by two international conventions to which some Member States became party: the 1974 Paris Convention for the preven tion of marine pollution from land-based sources (including rivers); and the 1976

Commission to decide whether it is an is

Convention for the Protection of the Rhine.

sue on which action at Community level is warranted. While this is happening the Member State concerned with any proposal refrains from taking any unilateral action. This has proved a very powerful forcing mechanism for environmental legislation through which policies favoured by Mem ber States with specific problems or inter ests (for example on water quality) have been adopted across the Community. Legal Basis The enormous output of Community leg islation (300 environment directives in 18 years) was not hampered by the lack of en vironment Articles in the Treaty of Rome which is effectively the constitution of the EC. For many years, most environmental legislation was based on one or both of two

The key Directive was 76/464 (On pollu tion caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment) in which 'dangerous substances' are grouped in two lists; prior authorization must be sought for discharges of substances on ei


The first. Article 100, provides for laws of Member States to be effectively identi cal, because anything widely different (for example on environmental controls) might create unequal competition and affect the functioning of the Common Market. The second. Article 235, provides the power to attain an objective of the Treaty when the Treaty itself does not have the necessary powers.

The Single European Act came into ef fect in 1987. The Act added a title on the

environment to the original treaty finally es tablishing a clear legal basis for EC envi ronmental policy. EC Policies for Water

In line with priorities set out in the first Environmental Action Plan in 1973, one set

of Directives sought to establish environ mental quality standards for water, use by use. Most significant for wastewater treat ment was that concerning the quality of coastal bathing waters. These waters are defined as "fresh or sea water in which bath34

ther list.

List I, known as the Black list, includes substances of high toxicity, persistence in the environment and tendency for bio-accumulation; 131 such substances have now

been identified. For these, the preferred regime sets tight Community-wide limit values, which national standards must not

exceed. As a result of pressure from the U.K., an alternative regime was also intro duced permitting standards to be set by ref erence to water quality objectives. List II referred to as the Grey list, includes other potentially dangerous substances, for which pollution reduction programs must be es tablished. A seminar of environmental Ministers

at Frankfurt in 1988 (where I served as rapporteur), expressed concern at the limi tations of the approach use-by-use and substance-by-substance. To date progress has indeed proved slow. By the early 1990s, only 17 Black list substances had been con sidered.

Sewage Treatment The bathing water directive(76/160)had implications for Sewage Treatment Works discharging to designated waters. Policy was further influenced by the successive inter-Ministerial conferences on the protec tion of the North Sea involving all littoral nations and including the EC as a partici pant, in 1984, 1987 and 1990. Particular pressure was exerted by Ministers of coun

tained to stop the dumping of sewage sludge in the North Sea by 1998. Meanwhile implementation of the direc tive has been uneven in Member States. By 1992, some 11,000 coastal bathing waters had been designated, the numbers reflect ing the length of coast, climate and lifestyle, ranging from 4033 in Italy, 1-2,000 in Den mark, France, Greece and Spain to <100 in Belgium, Ireland and Netherlands. Greece claimed the highest rate of compliance(only 3 percent failing to meet mandatory stand ards), compared with 5 to 10 percent in Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain, 10 to 20 percent in Belgium, Netherlands and Por tugal, 21 percent in France and U.K., and 27 percent in Germany. At the Frankfurt seminar. Ministers fo cused on the detrimental effects of dis

charges of inadequately treated sewage to inland and coastal waters of the EC. The

Commission's response took the form of a far-reaching Directive, (91/271), concern ing urban wastewater treatment, for which Member States' implementation programs have to be drawn up in 1993. This seeks to protect freshwaters, estuarial and coastal waters by setting minimum standards, and timetables for their achievement, for the collection, treatment and discharge of do mestic sewage, industrial waste waters and run-off,including a final ban on all disposals of sludge to sea. Implementation of Directives Because it has no explicit powers to au thorize bathing from public beaches, the U.K. has based its designations of its bath ing waters on the phrase "traditionally prac tised". Apprehensive of the costs that would fall on the former publicly funded water au thorities, the Government ruled in 1979 that

this should be interpreted as not less than 500 people in the water at a time and more than 1500 per mile of beach. As a result, only 27 bathing waters were identified as falling within the terms of the Directive. The sense that perhaps the U.K. was not responding reasonably found strong public support and prompted considerable com plaint. In 1986 the Commission threatened legal action. In 1987, the guidelines for se lection were reviewed and a further 362

bathing waters were identified! The U.K., with a long coastline and many port and coastal towns, had traditionally relied on direct discharge of sewage to sea. Even in 1984, as the Royal Commission on Envi ronmental Pollution found in evidence, it

tries with sensitive shores and/or coastal

was generally held in official quarters "that sewage contamination of beaches and bath ing waters may create a health hazard only

waters vulnerable to eutrophication. At the 3rd conference (1990), agreement was ob

thetically quite unacceptable." Not unex-

when conditions are so foul as to be aes

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Report from the EC pectedly, many newly desig nated beaches failed to meet the standards of the Direc tive. The Commission re

sumed legal action. In fact, by 1989, the Commission had started proceedings against every EC Member State except Portugal, which obtained a derogation until 1993!

In November, 1989, the U.K.



nounced a $2.1 billion(U.S.) program to install long sea outfalls, and in 1990 an ad ditional $2.25 billion to end

the discharge of raw sewage from coastal towns with



10,000. In 1991, the Com

mission agreed to suspend infringement proceedings. The huge necessary in vestment now falls on the

privatized water services companies. It has been esti mated that the final national

European Community Water Directives have brought a need for industry, agriculture and water authorities to find some answers. The problem of environmentally-harmful liquid waste is being tackled by scientists at the University of Kent in Canterbury, south-east England, whose work revolves around the use of versatile, natural, microbes. Here, researchers are gathering samples at a lake close by.

spending will be $4.5 billion. In my Anglian region, we have 320 miles of open coast

$225m on relevant installation and treat

line, 36 EC designated bathing waters, of

by 1998. The EC is a unique political creature. It has enormous potential for the future of Eu rope. Some of its citizens may still ques-

which in 1992 two failed. Seventeen areas

require investment to safeguard bathing waters and by 1995 we expect to have spent

ment plants with a further $150m proposed

tion the route ahead, but I am certain that, for U.K., membership in the Community has been, and will continue to be, of immense advantage in the development ofsound poli cies for the protection of our water environ ment.


The Stormceptor System "The Stormceptor System is installed in storm sewers to separate oil and sediment from storm water flows."

Stormceptor^^' Benefits: • removes high concentrations of fine and coarse sediment from stormwater flow • removes 100% of non-emulsified oil

spilled into the storm sewer during design flow conditions

• patented design protects contents from scouring during high volume stormflows


• uncomplicated installation & maintenance < conveniently installed in place of conventional inspection manholes

Stormceptor installation in progress.

• fully tested at Environment Canada's National Water Research Institute

Stormceptor'^'^' Applications: • applied in-line or as an inlet control device at:

• commercial parking lots • industrial properties • petroleum service stations

View of trapped oil in Stormceptor'" treatment chamber.

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A unique recycling program has begun that will keep thousands of old photocopiers and other office equipment out of landfills. Laidlaw Waste Systems Limited has entered into a partnership with Pitney Bowes, Purolator Courier, Kodak Canada, and Canon Canada to establish a disassembly program and expand its Material Recovery Facility in Hamilton, Ontario. The program,the first of its kind in North America, has been in development for more than a year. Almost 7,000 pieces of office equipment have been disassembled and re cycled to date. Approximately 97% of the components are diverted away from landfill. The official launch was November 23, 1993 at Laidlaw's Material Recovery Fa cility, Hamilton, Ontario.Laidlaw has also been presented with the Ontario Region of Hamilton-Wentworth's Environmental

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Through its Hamilton division, the com pany pioneered the first multi-material of fice recycling program. The system relies on a smaller version of the blue box and

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In January 1993, another initiative to cut office waste was established through a part nership developed between Laidlaw Waste Systems Ltd.,Pitney Bowes of Canada Ltd., and Purolator Courier Ltd. Toner cartridges are collected free of charge and delivered to Laidlaw's MRP in Hamilton, where they are sorted for reuse or recycling. The goal is to reuse 90% of all cartridges, recycle the remainder, and divert 24,000 cubic feet of waste from landfill sites annually. The benefits of these programs are nu merous. Hamilton is fast becoming Cana da's recycling and disassembly centre; more materials are diverted from landfill; and several new job positions have been created at the facility in Hamilton. This program has the potential to return raw material to Canadian industry at a fraction of the cost of conventional methods and diverts 95 per cent of the components away from landfill. All packaging, such as cardboard, paper, shrink-wrap, styrofoam etc., associated with these programs is recycled.

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R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Quaiity

Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of Municipal Sludges

trends in water quality parameters over a period of time. As described in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, three independent statistical techniques were used

A three-facility, full-scale pilot program was undertaken by H.G. Kelly, H. Melcer and

for trend evaluation. The first is the 12-

D.S. Mavinic at three small wastewater

ommended as a visual tool for trend detec

treatment plants. This project, supported by Dayton and Knight Ltd., Wastewater Tech nology Centre and the University of British Columbia,concludes several years of inves tigation and one year of plant evaluations for sludge treatment using autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion(ATAD).TTie studies concluded that the process was suit

In Situ Monitoring of Organic

tion. TTie second is the Spearman's rank co

Contaminants in Water


Anaerobic Biodegradation of Toxic Compounds Enviromega scientists W.J. Parker and H.D. Monteith, together with H. Melcer of the Wastewater Technology Centre,investigated the removal of selected toxic compounds during anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. As reported in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research,the anaerobic biomass appeared to acclimate to biodegrade the chlorophenolic compounds during the experimental period. A dynamic model, de veloped to predict the fate of toxics during primary sludge digestion, was calibrated with data from the experiment. Biodegra dation rate coefficients could only be esti mated due to statistical redundancy of the sorption partitioning parameter during the non-linear regression.

Water Quality Trend Analysis An interactive program with graphic capa bilities has been developed by McMaster University scientist I.K. Tsanis to evaluate

is optimized according to an analytically determined optimal relationship between SBOD concentrations of adjacent stages.

month moving average technique that is rec

efficient that is recommended for use if the

information on the data trend during a part of the year is needed. The third method, a linear regression, is recommended for use in the presence of seasonal cycle and for determining significance in the results.

A semi-permeable membrane device is de scribed in Environmental Science and Tech

nology by University of Toronto scientist D. Mackay and colleagues from the U.S.A. and Sri Lanka for passive in situ monitoring of contaminants in water. The device consists

able for use in small communities. The in

formation presented in Water Environment Research is taken from the final project re port and is supplemented with design sug gestions for use when considering the ATAD

paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the active disc area of each stage

High Rate Anaerobic Dechlorination of Effluents

The removal of organochlorine from segre gated kratt mill bleach plant wastewaters using high rate anaerobic reactors was in vestigated at bench scale by University of Waterloo scientists W.J. Parker and C.J.

Farquhar and Wastewater Technology Cen tre's E.R. Hall. As reported In Water Envi ronment Research, modified sludge blanket reactors with long solids retention times were utilized in the study. AOX removal efficiencies ranging from 27 to 65% were observed over hydraulic retention times of 3 to 48 hours. Although bleach plant wastewaters have been reported to be ex tremely inhibitory to methanogens, meth ane production was observed under all con ditions imposed on the biomass in this study.

Rotating Biological Contactor Optimization McCill University scientists have developed a method of minimizing the total active disc area required for soluble biochemical oxy gen demand(SBOD)removal by multi-stage rotating biological contactor in which the substrate removal rate is not oxygen lim ited. This was applied to two generalized steady-state SBOD removal models. As de scribed by I. Buchanan and R. Loduc in a

of a thin film of neutral lipid, such as triolein, enclosed in thin-walled layflat tub ing made of low density polyethylene or another non-porous polymer. Laboratory results with test chemicals in the laboratory using flow-through exposures and dissipa tion experiments indicate that it may be fea sible to use the device to determine average concentrations of organic contaminants in natural waters.

Environmental Impact of Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent

J.H. Carey and colleagues from the National Water Research Institute, the Creat Lakes

Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sci ences, and the University of Cuelph as sessed the impact of effluent from a mod em bleached kraft pulp mill on the Spanish River. Although the mill employs second ary treatment, the low river flow results in relatively high AOX concentration in the receiving waters. As reported in their paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, there was only a mini mal reduction in the concentration of AOX

and chlorophenols in river water sampled over 51 km downstream of the outfall. Liver somatic index was elevated In fish immedi

ately below the outfall while elevation of EROD activity persisted 51 km downstream.

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R&D News, cont'd. Stripping Volatile Organic Compounds In a joint Enviromega Ltd. - Wastewater Technology Centre project, J.P. Bell and colleagues carried out a field Investigation at four municipal wastewater treatment plants to characterize stripping of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aerated process vessels. Concentrations of VOCs in the off-gas and wastewater at aeration grit

the blosorptlon since it predicted the satu rated biomass phase concentration at high organochlorine concentrations. The maxi mum percentage removal of high molecular weight organochlorine was 70% at a biomass concentration of 2.0 GVSS/L or


stripped to a greater extent than non-chlo rinated compounds. The data published in Water Environment Research suggest that VOC stripping can be reduced by reducing aeration rates, and that operating and de sign parameters have an impact on the loss

Dual Power Multlcellular

Lagoon Systems

tion time reduction. To evaluate the suit

ability of such a system for the treatment of unbleached kraft mill effluent mixed with

a municipal wastewater, AKAM Enterprise scientist A. Kantardjieff and University of

of VOCs.

Sherbrooke's J.R Jones conducted industrial

scale pilot plant tests over a period of nine months. Their results are reported in Water Environment Research. The process was able to produce effluent non-toxic to rain bow trout, Daphnia magna, and photoluminescent bacteria despite a median

Blosorptlon of Organochlorines In secondary treatment systems, blosorptlon is considered to be an important step in the removal of organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent. Its role in the removal of high molecular weight organochlorine was studied by University of Toronto scien

lethal concentration of the untreated efflu

ent in the range of 18 to 24%(96 h EC 50).

tists G. Van and D.G. Allen. Ultrafiltered total mill effluent was used as the sorbate

and municipal sewage sludge as the sorbent. As described in a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research,the Langmuir iso therm provided the best characteristics for

data in sediments as far downstream as the Gulf of St. Lawrence and describe the de

velopment of a mass budget for this con taminant. This incorporates both measured results and modelled data on the amounts

The dual power level lagoon process is a higher rate modified aerated stabilization basin system allowing effluent improve ment, energy optimization, and total deten

chambers and aeration basins were meas ured. Chlorinated VOCs tended to be

National Water Research Institute and the

Canadian Wildlife Service report new mirex

Mlrex in Lake Ontario and the Gulf of St. Lawrence In a paper published in Environmental Sci ence and Technology, scientists from the

of mlrex in the food chain. The analysis by K.L.E. Kaiser and colleagues showed that, over the last four decades, a total of approxi mately 2700 kg of mirex has entered Lake Ontario, of which about 550 kg has been removed primarily by transport to the St. Lawrence estuary.

Volatile Fatty Acid Production in Sludge Digestion The efficacy of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in thermophilic aerobic digestion

of primary sludge was investigated at pilot scale by D.S. Mavinic and colleagues from the University of British Columbia and Dayton and Knight Ltd. Under microaerobic conditions, the highest concentrations of VFA (950 mg/L) were produced while neg ligible amounts were produced under full aerobic conditions. Of the total VFA con

centration, acetate constituted 81% and

propionate constituted 11%. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Wa ter Research, it was concluded that VFA

production was a function of aeration which, when increased or decreased, produced a proportionate change in VFA.

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R&D News, cont'd. Removal of Heavy Metals with Fly Ash In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, University of

Regina scientists T. Viraraghavan and M.M. Dronamraju describe their research on the effectiveness of fly ash in adsorbing cop

tions steadily increased from 1975 to 1987 and then a large decrease was observed.Iron

from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and to

and aluminum concentrations and loads

for subsequent bioaugmentation of the soils.

have shown steady increases since 1975, probably due to increased sediment loads in the October to January period, while lead,

Environment Canada collected water and

nickel, zinc, and chromium concentrations are decreasing.

the St. Clair River from 1987 to 1989 for

Off-Flavours from Bleached

organic contaminant analysis. As reported by C.H. Chan in the Water Pollution Re

per, nickel and zinc. With a contact time of two hours, fly ash was found to be an effec tive adsorbent with the maximum adsorp

tion occurring in the pH range 3.0 to 3.5. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be applicable to the adsorption data. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption was exothermic.

Changes in Niagara River Water Quality

enrich bacteria expressing these genotypes

St. Clair River Water Quality sediment samples at the head and mouth of

search Journal of Canada, higher concen

Kraft Mill Effluent National Water Research Institute scientists

E.G. Brownlee and G.A. Maclnnis,together with Alberta Environment's L.R. Noton, identified one chlorinated anisole and three chlorinated veratroles in extracts of Athabaska River water collected in the win

ter downstream from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent outfall. Evaluation of their po

trations and higher frequencies of detection of many organic contaminants, in particular penta- and hexachlorobenzenes, hexachlorobutadiene and octachlorostyrene, were measured at the river mouth. Year to year

comparisons showed substantial reduction in concentrations of hexachlorobutadiene

and octachlorostyrene in suspended sediments.

A paper by K.W. Kuntz (Environment Canada) and I.K. Tsanis (McMaster Uni versity) in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada presents the seasonal and

tential for causing off-flavours in the receiv ing waters is reported in Environmental Sci ence and Technology. Olfactory gas chromatography showed several odour peaks in

annual variations of the physical parameters,

these extracts in addition to the chlorinated anisole and veratroles. Several of these com

ren and A.P. Zimmerman used distribution

pounds were found as far as 1100 km down stream from the pulp mill consistent with

nutrients, major ions, and trace metals in the Niagara River for a period of 15 years

Heavy Metal Partitioning in an Urban River

University of Toronto scientists L.A. War coefficients to estimate the most important

phorus was observed until 1984, but since

field observations of odour in this river dur

has levelled off. Nitrate nitrogen concentra-

geochemical phases within the suspended particulate matter pool for sorption of cad mium, copper and zinc. The influence of

ing the ice-covered winter period.

environmental variables on trace metal par

(1975-89). A steady decrease in total phos


rv,. -

Bacterial Leaching of Toxic Metals from Municipal Sludge As part of an ongoing study of the micro biological process for heavy metals removal from wastewater sludge, R.D. Tyagi and colleagues at INRS-Eau examined the ef fects of metals, solids concentration, and

initial pH on indigenous sulfur-oxidizing thiobacilli growth and metal solubilization. The results reported in Water Environment

A.I.J. (Lewis) Reinders, P.Eng. Wayne J. Delbeke, P.Eng., President of Associated Engineering internationai Ltd. is pieased to announce the appoint ment of A.I.J.(Lewis) Reinders,P.Eng. as Vice President. In addition, Associ

ated Engineering Group Ltd. is forming a new group to be headed by Lewis within the corporate office to oversee

Research indicate that metals removal is

possible even in high sludge solids concen tration. Leaching tests conducted with metal sulfides as substrate showed that metals

solubilization occurred by an indirect mechanism involving initial acid production

followed by solubil ization resulting from the action of the acid produced. No evidence of direct oxidation of the metal sulfides was

ment to internationai work. Lewis wiii

be responsibie for ongoing international projects as well as developing new op portunities for the Associated group of companies and their affiiiates. Associated Engineering provides muitidisciplinary nonsuiting engineering and project management services to private and pubiic sector ciients in North



Isolating Pollutant Degrading


Dispersion of Activated Siudge Fiocs

In a paper published in Water Environment Research, University of Toronto scientists D. Li and J.J. Ganczarczyk correlate the

parameters of the power-law and log-nor mal size distribution models with the val

ues of process operation factors for five full-

Soil Bacteria

wastewater plants. Factors affecting the fre quency of occurrence of primary particles were examined by logistic regression and stepwise regression. It was found that these

C. Greer and colleagues from^ the

factors affect the floc size distribution in a

Biotechnology Research Institute and Ecole Polytechnique have applied several basic molecular biological techniques to the iso lation and monitoring of organic pollutant degrading bacteria. As described in the

complex way. Sludge loading was the most important and statistically significant fac tor influencing the frequency of occurrence of primary particles in mixed liquor.

Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada,

gene probes encoding enzymes involved in the dissimilation of chlorophenols and

For more information, contact Dr.

chlorobenzoic acids have been used to iso

H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Quaiity, Technoi-

late bacteria from polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soils. The toluene-xylene deg

America and overseas.

mains in the dissolved and potentially more bioavailable pool.

scale conventional activated sludge


the international activities of the Asso

ciated Engineering group of companies. This group has been formed in response to increasing opportunities in the inter national marketplace and Associated Engineering's many years of commit

titioning between the particulate and aque ous phases in the Don River was evaluated using a series of multiple linear regressions. The results, described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, suggest that in running waters during winter months, or even during summer months in the hypolimnia of sufficiently deep lakes, a rela tively higher proportion of these metals re

radation, naphthalene degradation, and C6C12 n-paraffin degradation probes have been used to isolate indigenous bacteria

ogy Development Directorate, En vironment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

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Drinking water quality

Ontario's Drinking Water Surveiilance Program (DWSP)Reviewed

TheOntario Drinking WaterSurveil

plant after all treatment chemicals have been added, this sampie is thus representative of the water heading into the distribution sys

lance Program is a monitoring pro gram that is designed to provide immediate, reliable and


current information on drink

ing water quality. The pro gram was first developed in 1983 as a strategic drinking water monitoring program with the objective to maximize use, availability and control of present and future data collected concerning potable water. As de Tut hHIOHM M'XlW veloped, the program was to in clude: a standardized protocol for sampling; a detailed description of all treatment processes; records of all process control data; analytical data for those parameters for which ;\ an Ontario Drinking Water Objective (ODWO) was set; and a system to quickly and methodically examine new or exotic contaminants. The system was The DWSP initiative will do much to dis designed to develop criteria for selecting pel many of the false perceptions which sampling locations, aid in request for sam abound in drinking water safety. ples and expedite the samples through the laboratory as quickly as possible. In 1986, DWSP surveyed twenty-two The program was officially adopted as Water Supply Systems and is currently moni DWSP in the spring of 1986 in response to toring drinking water quality at over 112 mu the August 1985 Dow Chemical spill of nicipalities covering 22% of the 500 sup perchloroethylene, affectionately referred to plies in the province, representing 85% of as the "blob", into the St. Glair river. Dur the population of Ontario serviced by mu ing that investigation, it became apparent nicipal water. Water supply locations are se that there was a lack of concise and accu lected for surveillance based on population rate background data on drinking water density, probability of contamination and quality. DWSP is designed to eventually geographical location. A prioritization proc include all 500 municipal water supplies in ess is carried out in each region to ensure representation throughout the province. Ontario. Direction for the program is pro vided through a steering committee with rep Assessments are carried out on all mu resentation from provincial Ministry of the nicipal water supplies prior to sampling. Environment regional offices. Laboratory Complete plant processes and distribution Services Branch and the Drinking Water system details are documented. The source Section of Water Resources Branch. water is identified and classified as ground Since its inception, DWSP has evolved water, spring, river or lake water. The flow to a computerized information system for of water is tracked through the treatment the monitoring and assessment of drinking process, this includes listing all treatment water quality and treatment process effi chemicals and identifying the points of ad ciency at municipal water supply systems. dition and documenting the size of tanks and It is a dynamic report card that details the construction materials. progress of Ministry and municipal water After the entire treatment process has treatment staff towards the delivery of the been documented, sampling sites are des best possible drinking water to the consumer ignated. Raw and treated water is sampled by: providing current and reliable informa for each source water. The raw water sam tion on drinking water quality; acting as a ple must be void of all treatment chemicals, flagging mechanism when an Ontario Drink thus a sampling site must be selected that ing Water Objective is exceeded; defining is ahead of the first point of chemical addi contaminant levels and trends; supplying a tion. Facilities that are injecting chlorine at comprehensive background for remedial the mouth of the intake pipe for zebra mus action and presenting a framework for as sel control will have to turn off the chlorinator prior to sampling and may find it sessment of new contaminants. The program continues to provide the necessary to run a stainless steel line inside means for Ministry and municipal person the intake and fit the line to a pump that is nel to anticipate problems before reaching void of plastic. The treated water sample


emergency status. 46

must be taken at a site located within the

All sample lines should pref erably be 1/2 inch stainless steel. Copper lines may be accepted if already part of the plant design. Practically, for existing plants, stainless steel (piping or tubing) is retrofitted onto the existing pipes and the water is sampled at the site. Ideally stainless steel lines would connect the raw and treated water

sampling sites to a sink in the plant laboratory, a requirement made man

datory in the policy for the design of new water treatment plants. Attempts are made to capture the same block of water at each sampling point by taking the flow retention time into considera tion.

When possible, two sites in the distri bution system are selected for monitoring, one located near the plant and the second at the far end of the distribution system. The distribution path from the plant to the site is characterized, as is the household plumb ing. In order to determine possible effects of distribution on water quality, both the standing water, representing water that has been in the household plumbing and serv ice connection for a minimum of six hours

and the free flow water, flushed for five min

utes, are sampled. These samples are used to assess changes in water quality due to leaching from (or deposition on)the plumb ing system. Sample collection is the first and often the most critical stage in determining the presence and level of a substance in the water. A standardized sampling protocol is critical when dealing with micro-contami nants. The main aim in standardizing the sampling is to fix as many variables as pos sible and thus reduce the influence of the

sampling method on the level of the con taminant measured. With the sampling pro cedure, as many variables as possible are standardized from within; consistency is maintained in the types of sampling bottles, analytical methods and sampling locations. From the standpoint of data interpreta tion, it is normally assumed that a repre sentative sample has been taken. Once the sample has been taken, improper use of a preservative or delay in transportation may result in inaccurate data. In general, the sam pler's aim is to collect a representative sam ple from a known location and transfer it to the laboratory with a minimal change in chemical composition of the parameters of interest. It is of little value to make an ac

curate analysis on an incorrectly collected

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

p. Lachmaniuk* sample. Sampling is carried out by opera tional personnel who have been trained by the DWSP assessment group in the appli cable procedures and supplied with compre hensive standardized procedures and appro priate field test kits. The list of parameters monitored as part of the DWSP is by necessity a dynamic one. Included are parameters for which Ontario Drinking Water Objectives(ODWOs)have been established or for which other juris dictions have established drinking water guidelines and parameters that may be present in drinking water as a result of the treatment process and have been identified as being potentially harmful to human health.

Approximately 180 parameters are sur veyed as part of the DWSP, these param eters assess the microbiological quality, physical characteristics, and metal and or ganic quality of the water. Seventy-two per cent of the parameters surveyed are organic and include chloroaromatics, chlorophenols, pesticides and PCBs, polyaromatic hydro carbons and volatiles. Process parameters such as aluminum, hardness and alkalinity, for which there are no particular health or aesthetic objectives but are necessary to characterize the process, are also included. The versatility of the program allows for the inclusion of additional parameters, that

Assessment of analytical methods for micro-contaminants is a difficult problem. Many of the techniques are highly techni cal and experimental in nature. Therefore, the first criterion in dealing with a new con taminant is to obtain confidence in the best

available method of identification and quan tification. Our Ministry of the Environment & Energy laboratory is equipped to perform a large number of chemical and microbio logical analyses on municipal waters. All radiological analyses are performed at the Ministry of Labour laboratory. All DWSP samples are analyzed at these two laborato ries using standardized analytical methods and following strict quality control protocols. It is necessary to gather as much ancil lary and support data as possible: a detailed description of the physical and chemical processes being used to treat the water at the time of sampling (treatment chemical, dosage and point of application); location and time of sampling; and chemical and physical data measured on site (turbidity.

pH, chlorine residual). The support data, by comparison with information gathered previously at the same location, is used to assess whether the wa

ter sampled is representative of the general water quality for that specific location; ena bles replicates to be sampled and validates the data. Expensive resampling may be avoided if a complete data set is collected initially. Data for each location is assessed annu

ally. Monitoring continues at monthly inter vals for the first two years. Additional fa cilities are phased in as resources permit. The major goal is to collect valid water qual ity data in context with plant operational characteristics at the time of sampling. As soon as sufficient data have been accumu

lated and analyzed, both the frequency of sampling and range of parameters may be adjusted. Three sample types are characterized and assessed. The raw water is assessed for

trends in ambient water quality and treat-

19th Century drinking water project restored to award-winning standards

are identified as a concern, once a reliable

routine method for analysis has been devel oped. Analytical protocols must provide the as surance that the contaminant in question can, in fact, be measured with the appropri ate sensitivity without compromising accu racy and reliability. Analytical techniques must be developed, standardized and main tained constant for the period of a study and should be acceptable to the scientific com munity. The results generated should be accurate and precise and be directly relatable to "objective" levels established for drinking water or meaningful data for risk assessment.

Programs,even routine surveillance pro grams, must be designed properly to give meaningful results. A prioritization system has been developed to identify and prioritize compounds to be surveyed as part of the DWSP program. Parameter selection in cludes: risk and hazard assessment for po tential to cause health effects or produce an aesthetically undesirable water; probability of occurring in ambient water or being manufactured as a by-product in the treat ment process; availability of an analytical method that provides sensitivity and preci sion while being subjected to the rigors of routine analytical and sampling methods; and, technology and/or treatment process to control the contaminant either by reduction or elimination.

*Ontario Ministry of Environment & Energy

Although the term "environmental engineering" is relatively new,engineers were doing environ mental work long before the turn of the Century. An example is the Fleet Street Pumping Station on the fringe of downtown Ottawa. Designed by the prominent 19th Century civil engineer, Thomas Coltrin Keefer,the original station was built In 1874,forming the cornerstone of the first water supply system serving Canada's capital. The beautiful stone structure housed huge hydraulically driven pumps using energy from the nearby Chaudiere Falls. Expanded and modified over the years,the facility had fallen Into disrepair by the late 1970s. Rather than abandon the station,the Region chose to restore and maintain the facility. Underthe direction of J.L. Richards & Associates Limited, the station building, headworks and aqueduct were restored and the operation was automated. The original Victorian building features and garden were restored or recreated and the site was Integrated into the surrounding N.C.C. park and pathway system (above). The engineers,architects and landscape architects won City of Ottawa HeritageAwards for their work. The electrical power saving alone has paid back the cost of the project many times over. The station has continued to serve as a key component in the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton's water system for 120 years.

Environnienlal Science & Engineering, March 1994


Ontario's Drinking Water Surveiiiance Program,cont'd. ment efficiency. Results for the treated wa ter are used to characterize the product wa ter, assess the treatment efficiency and moni tor the effects of distribution. Results for

the distribution system sites characterize changes in water quality as a result of dis tribution

and effects of materials used in

the distribution system.

Water quality is judged by comparison with the Ontario Drinking Water Objectives.

Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/ MS) method is performed on both raw and treated water samples. This analytical method is designed to indicate the presence of contaminants which are not routinely sur veyed but which may be present in the wa ter at significant concentrations. The method produces a scan that reports semi-quantita tive results for organic contaminants. Only

GC/MS. On November 9, 1989 the MOEE

laboratory reported n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)present at approximately 3 ppb in the raw water and 4 ppb in the treated wa ter sampled from the E9 well of the south aquifer. This toxic compound had not been detected previously in any drinking water supply monitored as part of the DWSP. Immediately, the supply was resampled

The Province of Ontario has health related

and aesthetic objectives for over 100 param eters. When an ODWO is not available

guidelines/limits from other agencies are consulted. The Parameters Listing System, published and maintained by the MOEE Drinking Water Section staff, catalogues and keeps current over 1750 guidelines for 650 parameters from agencies throughout the

The Parameters Listing System, pubiished and maintained by the MOEE Drinking Water Section staff, cataiogues and keeps current over 1750 guideiines for 650 parameters from agencies throughout the world

parameters for which there are no ODWOs.

if a contaminant is identified as being present in a drinking water would an inves tigation ensue and a quantitative analytical

If a result exceeds a health related ODWO

method used.

world and is used as a reference for those

an ALERT notice is immediately generated and the regional District Officer is notified. When an aesthetic objective is exceeded an ADVISORY notice is generated and the re gional District Officer notified. In the ab sence of an ODWO another agency's(gen erally EPA) health related guidelines are consulted and if exceeded prompts an advi sory notice. To augment the routine characterization of organic contaminants in a drinking water supply, an annual analysis using the Gas

The DWSP was initiated in Elmira, a

community of approximately 16,000 people located In southern Ontario in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo,in May 1988. The drinking water is provided from many aq uifers each supplying a network of wells. Two aquifers were sampled, the north aqui fer at the E5A well and the south aquifer at the E9 well. Disinfection was the only treat ment applied. The raw and treated waters were sam

pled on September 19, 1989 for analysis by



and submitted for GC/MS analysis specifi cally for NDMA. The levels of NDMA in the south aquifer were confirmed to be about 40 ppb. NDMA belongs to a family of chemicals known as N-nitrosamines.The chemical for

mula of NDMA is C,H,N,0. This chemi2 6 2 cally stable compound has a low molecular weight and is very water soluble. NDMA is derived from the nitrosation of the simplest secondary amine(dimethylamine). It is con sidered a potential human carcinogen - a chemical compound known to cause cancer in animals and suspected of being able to cause cancer in humans. NDMA is found in

varying concentrations in a wide variety of foods and beverages, as well as in many other places including: inhaled air; main stream and sidestream smoke from ciga rettes and other tobacco products; in mu nicipal sewage sludge; and in the human body. NDMA was used as an antioxidant, as an additive for lubricants, as a solvent in

fibre and plastics industry, as a plasticizer for rubber and as a softener for copolymers.


NDMA has been emitted into the air from

foundry, rubber, chemical, dye, leather, fish processing and surfactant industries. It is produced as a by-product in the manufac turing process used in those industries. In addition NDMA may be synthesized by soil bacteria from precursors such as nitrate, ni trite and amine compounds that exist in the

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and


Available data suggest that NDMA is subject to slow photolytic degradation in sur face waters. NDMA absorbs strongly in the near ultraviolet spectral region between 330

wastewater treatment

and 400 nm, but data are not sufficient to calculate the half-life of NDMA in surface

CANADA WIDE REPRESENTATION 8070 Jarry Est Anjou, Que, H1J 1H5 Tel:(514)351-4632 Fax:(514)352-3711

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waters. In unlit waters (e.g. groundwater), where photolysis would not be a factor, it appears that NDMA would be persistent and that degradation may occur eventually through microbial action, however, this would be a slow process. At the time NDMA was detected in the

Elmira well supply there were no Federal or Provincial Drinking Water Guidelines setting out the limits for NDMA to be al lowed in drinking water nor were there


For more information, Circle reply card No. 131

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Ontario's DWSP, cont'd. guidelines specific to drinking water estab lished by any other agency. The USEPA had set an ambient water quality guideline for NDMA of 0.014 ppb because of concern regarding its carcinogenicity. An ambient water quality guideline may actually be lower than a drinking water guideline since it also accounts for chemical bioaccumulation in fish which are consumed.

On November 10, 1989 the MOE pro posed an Interim Drinking Water Quality Objective for NDMA of 0.014ppb. On No vember 10, 1989 the MOE notified the

Medical Officer of Health for the Regional Municipality of Waterloo of the test results indicating the presence of NDMA in a drink ing water well in the south end of Elmira used by residents. Since then several pri vate wells and a third and fourth municipal well were contaminated by NDMA. The chemical was also discovered as far down

stream in the Grand River as Cayuga. The affected wells were closed and the residents

were provided with an alternate drinking watersupply. Results from other water supply loca tions monitored as part of the DWSP or groundwater locations monitored by the re gions in response to specific requests indi cate that, with the routine analytical method having a detection level between 50 and 500 ng/L was used, NDMA was not found in a fairly wide range of both surface and ground waters. As investigations proceeded in the Elmira area and a more sensitive analytical method reporting a detection level of 10 ng/ L was developed, NDMA was found in the effluent from the Uniroyal plant, the Uniroyal test wells and the Elmira sewage treatment plant; subsequent sampling in the Grand River and at the Brantford, Cayuga and Six Nations Indian Reserve water treat

MDEE office to concentrate manpower on investigation of the source of the contami nant. Liaison with the Regional Municipal ity of Waterloo kept both groups advised of the others activities. Private wells in the area

of the contamination, as well as some re

mote wells, were sampled in an effort to pin-point the contamination and to deter mine the extent of any aquifer plume. The MGEE assisted a number of municipalities in identifying alternate sources of NDMA to municipal sewer systems. Extensive testing for NDMA sources identified Uniroyal Chemical as the source of the contaminant. On February 1 1990, The Environment Ministry served Uniroyal Chemical Ltd. with notice under a second

emergency order ordering the company to stop its wastewater discharge to the Elmira STP. Uniroyal complied with the order and subsequent testing showed very low levels of NDMA in the STP effluent. Furthermore, water samples taken in the communities of Brantford, Kitchener and Cayuga have

of Waterloo was developing a contingency plan to provide an alternate water supply to residents between Waterloo and Elmira.

The Drinking Water Section Technology Assessment Unit of the MGEE evaluated

mobile treatment processes which would allow regional staff to purge the water from the wells. Processes evaluated included ul

tra-violet treatment (with and without ozone), activated carbon and reverse osmo sis.

Requests were made to Health and Wel fare Canada and the Gntario Ministry of Labour for assessment and guidance on the contaminant NDMA. In order to expedite this process, the Hazardous Contaminants Coordination Branch was charged with co ordinating a scientific report on the poten tial hazards and associated health risks from

exposure to NDMA in the province. An Expert Committee was established in May 1990. The Scientific Criteria Document and

the Rationale Document were produced as

shown non-detectable levels of NDMA.

a result of the committees' deliberations.

Levels of the chemical at the Six Nations

The Ministry of the Environment then adopted a more stringent objective for NDMA of 9 parts per trillion. The Advi sory Council on Environmental Standards (ACES) was then charged with the respon sibility to carry out a public consultation and recommend a Maximum Acceptable Con

Indian Reserve decreased drastically, al though were still slightly above the recom mended interim guideline. Uniroyal was also ordered to cleanup the underground waste storage pits as well as the aquifer which had been contaminating Elmira's mu nicipal water system. In addition the Region



Optimal convenience in portable field screening

ment plants as well as one infiltration well in Kitchener, showed NDMA to be present. The levels found ranged from 8 ng/L to 69 ng/L, levels which would be below the de tection level generally attainable using the routine GC/MS scan.

The question arose, considering the new, lower detection level, whether the Elmira

situation is unique, and solely related to discharges from Uniroyal, or whether NDMA could be widely distributed in wa ter supplies at low "background" levels,

Liquid nitrogen free Standardless fundamental parameters Automatic inorganic elemental analysis

High resolution XRF Hgl2 detector distinguishes between adjacent elements

detection level of 50-500 ng/L. Since the

Weighing just 19 lbs, the Spectracc 9000 allows convenient analysis of up to 26 elements in .soils for site

contamination found at Brantford and

characterization studies. Menu-

Cayuga may still be related to the discharges from Uniroyal, it was important to analyze water samples from outside the "zone of influence" of Uniroyal in order to determine whether NDMA occurs at "background"

diix'cn sofh\'are makes analyses quick and simple to perform. Pot-

which were not detectable at the routine

sales and rental information contact:

levels in the environment as a result of natu /

ral processes and/or atmospheric deposition. Considering the volume of samples being submitted to the lab from Elmira and sur

rounding areas and the limited lab capacity, a province wide study was not pursued. A task force was formed by the regional Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

m S









Alt EnviKiTecIt cornpai


Phone:(905) 883-1881 Fax:(905)883-1750

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 117


Water treatment operations

Huvin Thompson B.Sc., Ph.D.*

Releasing 'Bound Up'Fluoride for greater Monitoring and Control Reiiabiiity

Protecting the aqueous environment

upon which virtually all life forms depend is today high on the agenda of world concem. Huge investments are being deployed in response to increas ingly heavy demands for pollutant-free riv ers and waterways, and for optimum qual ity assurance in potable water treatment plants. As a result, the need for reliable chemical monitoring equipment has never been greater. Significant progress in the refinement of chemical sensing techniques has enabled on line monitors to be applied in many areas monitoring and controlling waste water treatment, the policing of discharges into the natural water courses and quality assurance in the treatment of potable water. However, an understanding of their limitations is es sential in ensuring the validity of the results obtained. A notable example is the moni toring and control offluoride concentration. When a fluoridation process is included in potable water treatment, strict monitor ing and control is vita! to ensure that the regulatory Ippm, or 1.0 milligram per litre, concentration is maintained. The widely accepted fluoride ion selective electrode is an attractive candidate for implementing such control. However, the highly reactive nature of the fluoride ion can, in certain ar

eas, pose problems which can seriously jeop ardise its valid measurement when using this simple sensor. It is based on a lanthanum fluoride crys tal and will, therefore, only respond to free, or "unbound" fluoride ions. Many condi tions commonly present in natural and treated waters influence this free concen

tration. For example, a low pH, the pres ence of certain metal ions and temperature can all change the proportion offluoride ions complexed or "bound up", thus rendering

feet. For example, in the coagulation stage of water treatment, iron or aluminum sul

phate may be used as a coagulent. The re sidual aluminum or iron in the water fol

lowing settlement and filtration may be only at a few ppm level but will bind fluoride in a series of complexes to which the fluoride electrode will not respond. Being trivalent ions, each iron or aluminum ion has the

potential to bind six fluoride ions. Similar effects will be caused by the presence of calcium or magnesium. The magnitude of the "hidden fluoride" problem in any sample will, therefore, de pend on the area and its environment. Where it is known that the water to be treated is

not going to vary in temperature, the pH is stable at 5.5 or above and that there are no

interfering ions present, then the fluoride being added can be adequately controlled using relatively simple equipment. A pack age, such as an ABB Kent-Taylor fluoride electrode, reference electrode, flow system and ion selective meter will make a

potentiometric measurement under these circumstances, and may accurately display the free fluoride concentration in the water.

In practice, however, it is often difficult for those responsible to appreciate and to specify precisely the nature of their sam ples to the degree that they can have abso lute confidence in the accuracy of the most basic monitoring package. Furthermore,the strictures placed on fluoride dosing control make it inappropriate to rely on guesswork or incomplete information. Indeed, the complexities involved in maintaining accurate levels of fluoride con centration are clearly documented. The UK Code of Practice covering technical aspects

of fluoridation of water supplies states: "It is not possible to maintain the fluoride con centration in the water supplied at exactly 1.0 milligram per litre because of the limi tations in the materials and the equipment available for fluoridation plant." 'Variation in the strength of the fluoride chemical and the accuracy of its assay' heads the list of primary factors quoted which in fluence the actual concentration of fluoride

in water leaving the works. Under the Code's operational criteria to ensure that the regulatory fluoride concen tration is maintained at, or soon after, the

point of injection, fluoridation plants are required to operate at least 90% of the time in order to fulfil a long-term average. Within this stipulation the mean fluoride content of the water leaving the works in a calendar month is required to be maintained between 0.9 and I.I milligrams per litre and between 0.8 and 1.2 milligrams per litre for at least 90% of the time during which the fluorida tion plant is in operation. It should not, however, exceed 1.5 milligrams per litre. Monitoring and controlling these levels with the accuracy and reliability of a truly total measurement call for a system with the capability to overcome the problems of the undetectable complexed fluoride ions. We were the first in the UK market to develop such a system, from which the fourth gen eration - the Kent-Taylor Model EIL 8231 fluoride ion-selective monitor - is now be

ing supplied. It forms part of a series which also includes ammonia and nitrate monitors.

The approach has been to control the sample conditions before measurements are made. The monitor continuously adjusts pH and temperature of the sample, as well as

To Electronics Section

them "invisible" to the electrode.

The stronger the fluoride complex formed, the greater will be the influence to change the free fluoride status and the less reliable will simple measurement become. In a sample at pH 5.5, for instance, all the fluoride content will be free and, therefore, detectable by the fluoride electrode. How ever, as the pH moves to lower levels, the portion of fluoride ions complexed as HP and, therefore, "unseen" by the electrode increases rapidly. Even at pH 4.5, more than

Temperature Reference Two Channel



Peristaltic Pump Out of Sample


Constant Head Unit

Float Sv.'iich



Dram via i—

Sample / Calibrate

Conslani Head Unit

Solenoid Valves SV1 SV2



Contaminated Overflow Sample Drain



Sample Heater Coil

5% of the fluoride content becomes bound

up and at pH 3.2, only 50% remains free.

Such fluctuation in pH can happen all too readily in unbuffered waters.

Standard Standard Solution 1 Solution 2


Reagent Solution Container


Small concentrations of iron or alumi num can have an even more dramatic ef-

*ABB Kent-Taylor Limitetd 50

A schematic diagram showing the liquid handling facility for sample conditioning incorporated in the Kent-Taylor EIL 8231 fluoride ion-selective monitor. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994




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Releasing 'bound up' fluoride, cont'd. introducing a reagent solution to 'free up' fluoride ions complexed by interfering ions. In this way, measurements and calibrations

the option of a serial interface for download ing data to a PC. Where it is required by law to keep a

are made under standard conditions, thus

record of fluoride concentration, the moni

optimizing validity. Based on high integrity sensing tech niques, this fluoride monitor also incorpo rates a liquid handling section of advanced design to minimize routine maintenance, complemented by a direct readout of fluo ride concentration, two alarms and an iso

lated cun-ent output. Microprocessor-based electronics provide such advanced features as automatic two-point calibration, diagnos tics to assess the sensor's performance and

tor can be linked to a continuous chart re

corder which can provide hard-copy evi dence of performance, or, by serial link, to a computer which would store, for exam ple, the maximum and average concentra tion for a 24-hour period. The concept of chemical sample condi tioning as an integral part of fluoride moni toring is not only important in artificial fluoridation programs. It can also be essen tial in the prevention of fluoride pollution

from many industrial processes which use materials containing fluoride. Effluent monitoring at semi-conductor plants, for example, is coming under closer scrutiny because of the hydrofluoric acid used to process silicon. Aluminum smelt

ing, lead production and other metals in dustries may be equally vulnerable unless, through superior monitoring, they can en sure that their effluent is always in full com pliance with the need for total discharge measurement.

For more information,

Circie reply card No. 260

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (905) 727-4666. ph Instrumentations comtMm bh r«c«i^

Field & Industrial The Model 30WP is a portable pH Recorder in a glass reinforced poly ester case with hinged clear polycarbonate cover and complies with NEMA1-2-3-4-4 x 12-13 require ments. A crystal controlled chart motor drive provides accurate chart timing and a gel type combination electrode encapsulated in 3/4" PVC nippled handle, provides a rugged sensing element. Rechargeable bat tery. Also available, pH and ORP sampling Meters, and RecorderControllers, Indicator-Controllers. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No.200

A "Sokiton for

Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one


solution Involves the use ot JAVEX-

iii.. I . iiii.iiwiii.1

onm: COMKO

Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) Is detailed in technical bulletin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics Include: storage and air collec tion needs.

Coigate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No.201

Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes Is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal re cover or refining operations. Colgate-Paimolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help con trol their spread. It you'd like to dis cuss this problem, or be kept informed otthe latest information, please con tact us.

Coigate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No.202


Intelligent-Water Level Sensors The six-pageTAVIS Corporation bro chure outlines details on two types ot water level sensors: 1)Submersible,

Instrumentation Free 1994 catalogue ot hardware and software tor computer-based Instru

2) Non-submersible or bubbler appli cation. Designed tor remote, year

mentation. Features instrumentation

software tor Windows, Windows NT, Macintosh, UNIX, and DOS, includ ing LabVIEW, LabWIndows, and the

round operation in unattended sta tions, the DISI-1200 Series is tem perature compensated from -40° to

4-50°C with an accuracy ot 0.1% PS over the entire temperature range. Power required is 8 to 16 VDC. Com munication is either RS232 orSDI-12

with extremely low power consump tion ot less than 0.5 ma at standby and less than 35 ma during peak read (2.5 sec. max.). Technei Engineering Inc. Circle reply card No.204 52

new LabWindows/CVI. Describes

Data Ac^iaition.

IEEE 488.2 interfaces, plug-in data acquisition boards, VXIbus control lers, and signal conditioning acces

and AAaty»i«

sories. Customer education classes

l£EE 48S af>d VXiHis Control.

also detailed. Includes tutorials and

glossary. National Instruments

Circle reply card No.205

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Conference previews

Spring Convention Preview Windsor hosts AWWA/OMWA and WEAO Conferences strategy and operational review Optimization of facilities use at the Picton Water Pollution Control Plant

Evaluation of nutrient removal potential at the Toronto Main Treatment Plant using the process audit approach SESSION 5 - PROGRESS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

Ontario's pollution prevention program Case study: municipal pollution prevention program at the regional municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth

Case study: pollution prevention manage ment for metal working fluid use for auto motive parts industry Case study: pollution prevention planning/ implementation for the metal finishing in dustry Municipal water conservation effects. The Canadian experience SI


Ambassador Park and Ambassador Bridge in springtime. removal of selected aromatic compounds Water Environment Association of A Ontario

from wastewater

Anaerobic and aerobic synchronous treat ment of PCP contaminated wastewater



The BIOQUAL Network will join this con ference with speakers from across Canada presenting their latest research in the de velopment and application of biotechnologies to remove nutrients and toxic chemicals from industrial and munici

pal wastewaters. April 17 - Consultants Buffet (evening) April 18

Continuous biological removal of hydrogen sulphide and conversion to elemental sul phur Implementation of the acticontact process for treating fine paper mill effluents, engi neering and practical aspects New developments in deep shaft technol ogy


An assessment of the application of ultra violet(UV) disinfection technology in On


Hydrodynamic grit separation Phosphorus levels in STP achievable with existing filters The developments and evaluation of a pro tocol for rating secondary clarifiers Optimization of phosphorus removal effi ciency at the Collingwood WPCP Optimization ofP Removal using dual point addition of Ferric Chloride at the Burlington WPCP


Design of stormwater best management practices Best management practices: environmental resources management study at the Town

tario Chlorination and dechlorination control us

of Markham

ing high resolution redox Keys to successful automation of operations


Hamilton CSO detention tanks - design con Case study: sewage flow monitoring and analysis for a regional sewage system - City


Odour control alternatives for wastewater


treatment plants and collection systems Response to wastewater treatment plant operator training needs Poor presentation, avoiding the pitfalls

Performance review of perforated storm sewer pipes and grass swale systems




Process evaluation exceeds expectations at Windsor's Little River Sewage Treatment

Municipal wastewater treatment operations: public sector or private sector domains WEAO 1994 survey of municipal-sewage


rates in Ontario

Diaphragm pilot filter press tests for sludge conditioning and dewatering at the Duffm

Structuring the deal Case study: Halton Region biosolids utili zation program. Privatization of the opera tional component Public-private partnerships, the global ex-


Ontario's strategy to achieve RAP goals The impact of the U.S. Great Lakes water quality initiatives on municipal and industrial water pollution prevention and control programs IJC's strategy to achieve virtual elimination of persistent toxics Pollution prevention: training, on-site tech nical assistance and clearinghouses SESSION 2 - EMERGING BIO-PROCESS

Creek WTCP


Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton Wastewater System: pollution control plan

Evaluation and cost analysis of enzymatic

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

of Edmonton



Nobody protects Canada like Armtec From Nanaimo to St. John's...

Armtec Geosynthetic Products are the underlying solution to design assurance. Armtec, with sales offices iocated throughout Canada, is proud to offer a wide range of premium geosynthetic products for civil engineering and environmental projects. There exists an extensive and rapidly growing range of applications for these highly versatile products. They include: base stabilization and soil separation of roads and yards, erosion control, subsurface drainage, soil reinforcement in embankments

•7777a; Construction Products

and retaining wails and the primary and secondary

• Bonterra Erosion Control Blankets

containment of hazardous

• Geocomposite Drainage

liquids. • Trevira Spunbond® Non-woven Geotextiies

• Ciaymax® Geosynthetic Giay Liner

• Ceoweb® Ceoceli

• Stratasystems® Ceogrids • Synthetic Industries Woven Geotextiies • Silt Fence


In addition to our geosynthetic products, Armtec also offers design, fabrication, and on-site technical services.

For details on how you can benefit from our geosynthetic products on your next project, contact your local Armtec Sales Engineer.

Protect yoyr design with Armtec Geosynthetic Products. Sales Offices: Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Regina, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Gueiph, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec City, sackvllle, Dartmouth, Bishop's Fails and St. John's.

Solving the needs Of Canadian Engineers for over80 years. # For more information, Circle reply card No. 118

Spring conference previews perience lessons learned for the Canadian

For conference details contact: Sandy Pickett

of the new information age with the con straints of a deep recession, has caused all of us to re-evaluate how we do our jobs. The water supply industry, by its techno

Water and Wastewater Treatment Industry

- Tel:(416)502-1440, Fax:(416)502-1786.




Case history: suds, sewage and EVP diges

In tandem with the symposium, a compre hensive exhibition will be held on Monday


and Tuesday in the Canadian Club Room

global changes. We are being called upon

Advances and application of the TOXCUEM predictive factor model Design and operation of a wastewater treat ment plant for crude oil pipeline hydrotest

B. Equipment suppliers, consultants, pub lishers, and analytical laboratories will be on hand to unveil their latest products and services. Tours are being planned for April 20 but no details were available at press

to conserve water and energy, to reduce costs, to increase efficiency,to improve qual ity, and to increase training levels. This year's conference program, with its theme of"More with Less", addresses these criti


cal issues.


Case study: wastewater treatment lagoon upgrade for East Huron Poultry Ltd.

Papers and posters will be presented on plant optimization through changing coagu

Nitrogen removal from wastewater contain ing high concentrations of TKN.

lants, operator certification, chloramination, automated meter reading, bladder type wa


ter reservoirs, small system automation, well

field maintenance management and rehabili tation, and membrane technology. Come


Low-cost approaches for retrofitting munici

and hear what we in the waterworks indus

pal sewage treatment plants for nitrification

Case history: retrofitting of Bonnybrook sewage treatment plant removal process Retrofit of biological nutrient removal uti lizing primary sludge fermentation to en



hance reaction rates - How short can the

hydraulic retention time be?

Separate stage nitrifying trickling filters to



reduce costs in cold climates


Improved effluent quality and toxicity re duction from municipal lagoons using in termittent sand filters

Welcome to the 1990's! This combination

Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers At environmental conferences around the

logical nature, is in the forefront of these

It will undoubtedly be of interest to Ca

try are doing to improve communications with Government, to work with the Ontario Clean Water Agency and how to establish

good media relations in these changing times.

Hershel Guttman, Chair Ontario

Section, A.W.W.A., and Jim McDade, President Ontario Municipal Water Association.

Sunday, May 1

Co-Chairs' Reception - Sunday evening Monday, May 2 Keynote Address Jeffery Marshall, CEO Ontario Clean Wa ter Agency DEALING WITH THE ISSUES

Organization of Municipal Enterprises

world, a small gold shovel can sometimes

nadians to know that the former Governor

OMWA/Ontario Section AWWA Grass

be seen in the lapels of certain distinguished environmental scientists and engineers. Most shovels are identical except they may bear an additional symbol; Quebec shovels

General,the late Madame Sauve,was made an Honourary Member of the Florida Chap ter when she spoke at the WPCF Confer


ence in Miami in 1975. The Honourable

A Uniform Accounting System For

Roger Simmons, M.P.P. for Burin-St. George's, was similarly honoured at the Conference in Las Vegas in 1980. The Society was formed to provide a means of recognizing those who have con tributed freely of their time and talents to the growth, well being and success of their individual Associations. Many of these hard


a small Fleur-de-lis; Ontario a Trillium;

B.C. a Dogwood; Australia an Opal; Texas a Lone Star, and so on.

The Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers had its beginnings in the United States, but there is some dispute as to where and by whom it was founded. A commonly accepted thesis Is that the Original Chapter of the Five S. Society was formed in Ari zona in October 1940, the idea being con ceived by A.W. "Dusty" Miller and F. Carlyle Roberts, Jr.. Other people strongly contend that it had its beginnings in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the Ted Moses High Hat Award.

workers do not become President of their Association, or receive one of the coveted

awards associated with water pollution con trol activities, and the Five S Society does provide a concrete method of expressing recognition and gratitude for their efforts. It is important to appreciate that one can not "join" the Society, but that members are

Whatever its origins, independent Chap ters of the Society have since been formed in many of the American States, British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, Sas

"selected" on the basis of merit. Tradition

katchewan and Manitoba, the United King tion, there are Shovelers in Japan, Brazil and The Netherlands. The Chapter in New Zealand is probably the youngest, having

bers who qualify by their activities. How ever, most Chapters have developed their own rules, regulations and methods of op eration in this regard, although all honour the original purpose and intent of the Soci

been inaugurated in May, 1993.


dom, Australia and New Zealand. In addi

provides that the four Senior Members of a

Chapter present at a Meeting of their Asso ciation shall select three new Chapter Mem

Government Relations Program Media Relations

WATER QUALITY & TREATMENT Cryptosporidium Outbreak From An Operation Point of View Taste & Odour

Pilot Plant Studies At Windsor Utilities Commission and

Enhanced Coagulation Using Activated Silica


Multi-Utility Communications Architectures

New Technology Water Service Box Excavation and Repairs Computer Software System Earth Embankment Supported Flexible Membranes Tank for Water Storage Evening Boat Cruise (Courtesy of Ontario Water Works Equipment Association) Tuesday, May 3 EARLY BIRD SESSION

Code of Environmental Stewardship David Chappell, Implementation Officer Environment Canada


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


CanadiaiT Chapter


Testing Laboratory Survey — An Analysis of Key Canadian Industry Statistics


Laboratory iiiilii i Testing Survey An Analysis of Key Canadian industry Statistics

October 1994


The final report of lAETL's comprehensive study entitled, "Environmental Testing Laboratory Survey — An

Analysis of Key Canadian Industry Statistics" wiU be available by October, 1994. The subscription price is $600 to lAETL members and $1300 to non-members if ordered before May 15, 1994. After May 15, the price in creases to $750 for lAETL members and $1500 for non-members.

Number of Copies:


@ $600(members)

@ $1300(non-members)

@ $100 (additional copies) Send the lAETL industry study to: Name:

Organization: Address:


Make check or money order payable to lAETL and mail to: lAETL Canada, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 phone:(519)725-3313 fax:(519)725-1394

Spring conference previews ONTARIO WATER WORKS EQUIPMENT Leader: Gary Gallon, Canadian EnvironmentIndustry Association - Ontario Environmental Resource Guide Workshop


Guest Speaker - Jonathan Deneau, General Manager

for Science Teachers

Convention & Tourism Bureau - Windsor

(Tourism in Windsor & New Casino)

Air & Waste Management Association



Small Systems Funding Automation Options For Small Plants Small Diameter Distribution Systems And

Monday, May 2, 1994 Conference Chair: Brian Forrestal

Laidlaw Waste Systems

The Fire Flow Issue


Slow Sand Filtration Treatment Expanding The Technology GROUND WATER

Iron Sequestration - Practical Experience Over 20 Years The Future Of Groundwater Resources Of Ontario The Middleton Well Field -

Implementation Of The Groundwater Protection Strategy The Well Maintenance Program For The Region of Waterloo MANAGING WITH NEW REGULATIONS



More With Less - Motivational

Environmental Bill of Rights


System & Operator Certification

Wednesday, May 4 TOURS 1. Windsor Utilities Commission

Opening Plenary The Honourable Sheila Copps, MP, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the


WORKSHOPS - Sunday, May 1, 1994 (Separate registration required) Air Permitting Leaders: David Hopper, Angus

Water Conservation - Is It Cost Effective?

Leader: Kim Thompson, Trow

John David Phyper, Phyper & Associates Exporting Environmental Technology & Techniques

Environment (to be confirmed)

Innovative & Emerging Technologies and Services Groundwater Contamination &

Remediation Product Stewardship Tuesday, May 3, 1994 Exporting Ontario Technologies and Services Waste Minimization

Product Demanufacturing Closing Plenary Theme: Emerging Regulatory Issues in Ontario Contact: Ms. Cindy Lxsage, Ontario Waste Management Corporation, 2 Bloor Street West, 11th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3E2

Tel: (416) 923-2918 or 1-800-268-1178 ext. 223.

- New Water Treatment Plant - Pilot Plant 2. Hiram Walkers Distillers

On Sunday afternoon, the annual golf tournament will be held at Cordova Bay Golf

3. R.P. Scherer Capsule Manufacturing


For further details, contact Astrid Tallon Tel; (416) 252-7060, Fax: (416) 252-3908.

During your time off from the confer ence, downtown Victoria offers an array of shopping experiences and restaurants which will appeal to everyone. If you haven't been to Victoria recently, you'll be amazed at the transformation that has taken place as new buildings have sprung up to reflect the grow ing and vibrant business community.


For further information, contact Catherine Gibson at (604) 936-4982.



The conference committee is in the process of putting together an educational and en joyable conference. This year's theme is "Share the Wealth of Knowledge" and will focus on our need to strengthen relationships with B.C. schools, colleges and universities.



this course will be limited to the first 15

applicants. For further information, contact Catherine Gibson at (604) 936-4982.

777 Douglas Street, Victoria, B.C. Reservations: (604) 388-5111

Saskatchewan seminar

Rates: $78.00 single / double

The Saskatchewan Council of the Western

Empress Hotel 721 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. Reservations: (604) 384-8111

Rates: $125.00 single / double 1994 BCWWA UBC WORKSHOPS

Peter Malone of the Greater Victoria

Water District and Bob Warman of the Capi tal Regional District are this year's techni cal program chairmen and they promise a collage of relevant and enticing topics. The work portion of the program will be offset by the MSC pub night which will be look ing back at the 60's and a gala banquet fea turing great food and dynamic entertain

In addition to its normal courses, the

school will offer a special course to coin cide with the approaching mandatory certi fication requirements in B.C. This is a BCWWA developed course -"Introduction to Wastewater Treatment", which will run as a separate program throughout the work shop. Prerequisites for this 5-day course are a minimum one-year experience in wastewater treatment and a grade 12 or equivalent education. The enrolment for

The 1994 UBC Workshop will be held from May 15th - 20th, 1994 at the Walter Gage Residence on the UBC Campus. This year's workshop which runs a full week, will again be directed towards Im proving the operator's understanding of his or her job in the Water and Waste water Field of Operations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Canada Water and Wastewater Association

is planning a two-day seminar in Saskatoon on April 20-21, 1994. The first day will cover design features of operator friendly ground water and surface water treatment plants. Day two will be on sequencing batch reactor technology for small to medium sized sewage treatment systems. Contact Dan Hogan in Saskatoon. Phone(306)653-4969. Fax: (306) 242-4904.

For all the conferences, readers

are urged to contact the associa tion for final program details. 57

Western report

Lab-work shift angers private firmSi 3y GflrariC

the testing system,Sihota said Sunday. But Enns charged politics were involved

tracts for Environment Ministry testing. tracts. They say the government was pre;

But they say Sihota refused to sign the coqj

are ftirious

and Sihota's decision was "one-sided" with no consultation with the affected labs.

I is putting the public

"There was no formai eiplanation^" he said. "TheNDP government

"ds of dol-

Employees'Union. Cantest and ASL are not unionized but the#

sured by the B.C. Government and Scrvic^

said all the way along they want to put the laboratory

say.Zcnon Laboratories, which has done go/

arly un-

back into the public sec


tor. Essentially, the gist of it is that in undertaking



this action they're being

ged oa

consistent with what

cmment work for five years, has union cij Sihota said during the two-year switch t\

the public sector the u.sintf

it will kecJ ^ anic and inl rded an inl


\.S\ \in\


testing an/ testing/


Vd\ :va\





• uS.«-f hiaintalns the move will result in si.gA


v,i,uu» i»-_> ^.^csands ,

and were infonrca in

niQcant savings during the two-year period.|

He couldn't be reache^^^fliU^tiMtiliU"

"^Ivntiug tliey had been awarded vi =jss;

B.C. Environment Minister's tendering process upsets private iaboratories

After leading two of British Co

lumbia's top private iaboratories down a lengthy and costly ten dering process, Environment Minister Moe Sihota has reneged on the deal just before the contracts were to be signed, say spokesmen for two major laboratories. Instead, they say, he had decided to award much of the government's environmental testing to Zenon. "This eleventh hour reversal of an open and honest tendering process Is purely ideo logical," said Don Enns, General Manager of Cantest Laboratories, one of the B.C

owned and operated labs which was initially awarded a significant portion of the envi ronmental testing contracts with the provin cial government.

ES&E Editor will be

keynote speaker at '94 National Drinking Water Conference ES&E Editor and Publisher Tom Davey will be keynote speaker at the 6th National Con ference on Drinking Water October 16-18 in Victoria BC: Conference Theme - Plan

ning for Tomorrow. Tom has made many presentations at AWWA and WEAO con ferences, the University of Toronto, Queen's University, the University of New Bruns wick and Consulting Engineers of Ontario

Allan Maynard, an owner of Analytical Service Laboratories(ASL), which also was a successful bidder, echoed Enns' frustra tion: "This decision ultimately will cost the taxpayers millions of dollars in inefficien cies. We won the contracts when the play ing field was level, but now Mr. Sihota has

was opened up to competition. Enns and Maynard commented that "it appeared that Sihota took the unprecedented action of can celling the REP process in response to pres sure from B.C. Government Employees

decided to tilt it in favour of a non-British

have resulted had it failed to win any of the

Columbia company which has been criti cized in the past by the Auditor General for its above market value billing structure." Mr. Enns and Mr. Maynard noted that the government intends to de-privatize some of the environmental testing work. "We agree it makes sense for the Ministry of En vironment to undertake certain aspects of the testing. But this process will take up to two years to put in place. Coincldentally

contracts. The other private labs are non union although in most cases compensation is equitable. Mr. Enns and Mr. Maynard stressed that the Minister didn't even have the courtesy

the contracts we were to be awarded were

Sunday evening when it was far too late for them to respond to this political manouevering, the two laboratory officials

for two years' duration. One can only specu late why Mr.Sihota chose to give it to Zenon instead of our labs which won the work in a

fair and open bidding process." They also said that private B.C. labs col lectively spent tens of thousands of dollars responding to a Request for Proposals(REP) from the B.C.Purchasing Commission.Suc cessful bidders were informed in writing that they had been awarded various contracts to perform the environmental laboratory testing for the Ministry of Environment. The awards were on the basis of expertise, qual ity, service and price. Instead of following through with the


Zenon is unionized and layoffs could

to inform the iaboratories himself. Instead

he leaked part of the story through personal contact to selected media on the weekend.

And then he instructed his ADM to call rep resentatives of the labs at home late on a


They said that it came as no surprise that, in his calls to the media, the Minister

downplayed the bidding process which he callously chose to ignore. The two labora tory officials also found it ironic that Pre mier Harcourt had just left for a trade mis sion to the Far East, promoting the exper tise of B.C. companies. They said the Pre mier pledged that the province was open to private sector investors, then his Minster of Environment failed to recognize the exper tise of B.C. owned and operated companies that are successful domestically, and also ready to export their expertise to Asian

Conference details will be announced

successful bidders, however, Mr. Sihota re fused to sign the contracts and is giving the bulk of the government's laboratory testing

later; for preliminary details write: National Conference on Drinking Water, Box 8419

Zenon, which has had an exclusive contract

For further information contact: Allan

Victoria, BC, V8W 38 i"

for this work for the past five years, was unsuccessful in bidding once the process

Maynard, ASL, (604) 253-4188 or Don Enns,Cantest Laboratories,(604)734-7276.



work to Zenon Laboratories. Ontario-based


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

r poLY-riTE GASKETED SEWER SYSTEM (100 mm - 375 mm)



Innovative teehnoiogy


working for yqiL^


BOSS POLY-TITE: technical data

The key to the performance of the BOSS PQLY-TITE Sewer System is its new gasketed connection. Designed and factory-tested to meet exacting CSA certification standards, the system provides the Beii & Spigot seaied joint required for sanitary sewer systems and storm sewers needing ieaktight performance.

• Certified to CAN/CSA B182.6, Profile Polyethylene Sewer Pipe and Fittings • Manning's coefficient of 'n' = 0.010 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s

• Minimum pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection • Ghemicai and corrosion resistant

• Ali-weather impact resistance for year-round installation Size range

BOSS POLY-TITE Bell & Spigot Sewer Systems are currently available in diameters of 100 mm to 375 mm. A fuii range of CSA-certified thermoplastic fittings completes the system. Larger diameter product is currentiy being developed, and

Ask for the BOSS POLY-TITE brochure now, and discover the benefits of the new Leak-Tight Sewer System. For complete testing guidelines and procedures, ask for the BOSS Installation Guide as well.

will be introduced as avaiiable.

Flow capacity

BOSS POLY-TITE HOPE pipe combines a corrugated exterior

for maximum strength with a smoothwall interior for optimum fiow. A Manning's 'n' of 0.010 satisfies the hydraulic requirements of both sanitary and storm sewers.

Big '0' Inc. Head Office

6014 - 64th Street

254 Thames Road East

Taber, Alberta TOK 2G0 (403) 223-3521

Exeter, Ontario NOM 1S3 1-800-265-2446

34601 Vye Road Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 4N7 (604) 850-0753

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 119

101 de Lauzon

Boucherville, P.O. J4B 1E7

(514) 449-5004 1 (800) 361-1895 ®BOSS is a registered trademark of Big '0' inc.




The S/OFOH® was



Like all simple ideas, biofiltration is efficient. Degremont Infilco combines and masters two operations in one: biological degradation and retention of suspended solids. The benefits of biofiltration include:

more compact installations improved plant efficiency cost-effectiveness

operational flexibility

successfully incor porated into a new facility in Chateauguay, Quebec. At this facility, design flow Is 27,000 mVc/, with peak of 83,000 mVd. BOD removal efficiency is greater than 80%.

The Biofor® is based on the co-current upflow of air and water, and the retention of bacteria and

suspended solids in a media called Biolite®. This results in a high rate of filtration and provides extended filter runs and an odour-free workplace. Degremont Infilco is a world leader in the design and manufacture of biofiltration systems for municipal wastewater, industrial effluent water, and iron and manganese removal for drinking water.

To inquire about adapting a biofiltration process to your requirements, call our offices today.


Infilco ltd,

200-4145 N. Service Rd., Burlington, ON L7L 6A3 160-D St-Joseph Blvd., Lachine, QC H8S 2L3 Tel: (905) 332-2322 • Fax: (905) 332-3007 Tei: (514) 634-8011 • Fax:(514) 634-3102 For more information, Circle reply card No. 132

Product Review Gas detection at

temporary work sites

Positive displacement pump alternative The new R&M 1000 Pumps have been de signed to provide a versatile positive dis placement pump alternative for a wide range of applications. Available in 1-, 2- and 4stage models, they offer capacities from .38 to 320 gpm and pressures to 350 psi, and can efficiently handle clean, thin liquids as well as thick, abrasive fluids. Performance features include: metering accuracies to +! - 1%; low shear pumping action; viscosities over 1,000,000 cps.; no pistons, valves, or


m timing gears to wear out or gum up; low NPSH requirement. Robbins & Myers For more information,

Circle reply card No. 152

Crowcon Detection Instruments has devel

oped a new, transportable gas detector for use on temporary work sites. Called De tective, the unit comprises a multi-gas de tector mounted on a steel tripod frame. Detectives can be linked together in a line or loop to form a protective network around any temporary work site. When one Detec tive senses gas, it not only triggers its own

If you have CFCequipment, you have a problem.

alarms but informs all the others to do the

same. Cancoppas Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 150

The ENM-10 liquid level regulator

Venting CFCs and the law.

Comply without converting.

Ventmg CFCs into the atmosphere is now illegal in many jurisdictions,

Blue Bottle™ Service from Halozone is the

least expensive option to bring your CFC • Replacing a commercial chiller can chiller into compliance. Once the Blue cost over a hundred thousand dollars. Bottle Cylinder is full of captured CFCs your • Converting it to HCFCs can cost up to Blue Bottle Service team replaces it, and takes it back to Halozone's plant to reclaim a hundred thousand dollars. • Adding on a high efficiency CFC and recycle the CFCs. capture unit can cost in the tens of No capital investment, thousands.

Halozone equals compliance. It's a technology, a system and a full ser vice team that lets you use CFC chillers to the end of their effective lives while com

plying with CFC emission legislation.

When liquid reaches the regulator, the cas ing tilts and activates a mechanical switch that closes the circuit, thereby starting or stopping a pump or activating an alarm. Because the ENM-10 is mercury and lead free, it can be safely used in a wide range of applications,from pumping stations to water supply and food process systems. This level regulator is available in dif ferent versions and buoyancies to accom modate a variety of mediums. Some ver sions will also operate in aggressive liquids and at different temperatures. ITT Flygt For more Information, Circle reply card No. 151

just low monthly fees. For the least expensive compliance option from Halozone call:

1-800-267-5502 or


Now you have a solution.

Blue Bottle is a trademark of Praxair Canada Inc. Halozone Recycling Inc. is a licensed user and wholly owned subsidiary of Halozone Technologies Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 129


The IMtemtlonaI



May I0& II, 1994 Toronto International Centre of Commerce, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

An ideal opportunity to present your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental


Book iourlyjilhltSpace Todaifl For further information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3

Phone;(403) 469-2400 Fax: (403) 469-1398 Calgary phone:(403) 258-0705 Fax: (403) 255-7404

For more information, Circle reply card No. 194

Product Review wastes but need a cost effective way to screen out loads that would cause plant up sets, microorganism kill and permit viola tions. This simple screening test, which uses the microorganisms in the plant's own mixed liquor, produces test results in 10-15 minutes. Even relatively small plants have found that the fees charged for the screen ing test have paid for the respirometer equip ment within one year. In the test, easily identified changes in microbial respiration rates indicate treatability or toxicity of the waste. The instrument also performs a computerized, longer term influent toxicity test that will provide more specific information such as correct concentration for treatment of a spe cific waste, and the requirements for treat ment time and aeration. Arthur Tech.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156

Cleanup pump without

Consultants CONSULTING ENGINEERS ■ Wastewater Collection & Treatment > Hazarilous & Solid Waste

Management • Environmental

■ Water Supply Strategies •Water Resources &

Environmental Planning ■Analytical Testing > Field Sampling & Flow Measurement













tslMishcd ISSi

• Occupational Health Services


• Laboratory Services


• Environmental Management

Ontario, Canada M2J 1T5

Tei. (416) 498-7444 Fax: (416) 491-2328 Contact: Dr. Nasrat Hijazi

Toronto • Windsor, Ot-l • Detroit • New York/Newerk • Atlante • San Francisco • Los Angeles • t-tonoioiu • Mirmeapotis Birmingharn, U.K. • London, U.K. * Southampton, U.K. • Galeshead, U.K.



Professional Consulting Services • Planning ' Engineering • Environmental Science

Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax Sydney • Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Yellowknife • International


The Eliminator cleanup bladder pump re covers up to 1,000 gpd of floating-layer hy drocarbons such as gasoline, fuel oil, or sol vents without exhausting volatile organic compounds into the air. Its PTFE bladder prevents contact between the pump air sup ply and the liquid. The pump's smooth op eration prevents over-driving and excessive agitation. Unlike other pumps, emulsification caused by mixing of product with wa

QED GroundWater Specialists For more Information, Circle reply card No. 157

Powdered activated carbon





M2N 6N5

(4 16) 229-4646


, Golder


ter and drive air does not occur. When free

product has been removed, the floating layer inlet can be exchanged for a total-fluids screen, for cleanup of contaminated ground water or sinking-layer hydrocarbons (DNAPLs) with the same pump.



The new WPX-Z is a powdered activated carbon. A bituminous coal-based product, WPX-Z offers a wide range of pore struc tures that make it effective in adsorbing the variety of organics regulated under OCPSF and NPDES, as well as refractory organics common to toxicity reduction requirements. The product has been designed specifically for use in Zimpro Environmental's PACT system. Calgon Carbon Corp. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158 Environmental Science cSt Engineering, March 1994

Offices throughout Cor^ada. the United States. Europe and Australia. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA

Tel: (604} 298-6623 Fax: (604) 298-5253 Tel: (905) 567-4444 Fox: (905) 567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSiONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits

• Environmental Engineering • Training programs > Legal compliance/designated substances • Ventilation assessment/design •Air monitoring • Air emission control • Indoor air quality • Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control • WHMIS ■ Asbestos

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III. Suite 301 MIssissauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada • (416) 858-4424

Telex: 06-218242

Fax: (416)858-4426


255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6 Ottawa • Thorold • Barrie •

Telephone (416) 499-9(XX) Fax (416) 499-4687 Cambridge • MIssissauga • Kingston • London 65


Product Review

Hydromantis,Inc. CJ-CJ-a

Consulting Engineers

1685 Main St. West. Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5 Tel. (905)522-0012 FAX (905) 522-0031

In-line check valve

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems • Neural Networks






Engineers & Hydrogeologists Serving the Groundwater Industry for Over 60 Years 342 Bayview Drive, Box 310,

Tel.: (705) 733-0111 Fax.: (705) 721-0138

Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 415

The Red Valve Series 39 Slurry Check Valve is designed with a heavy-duty reinforced elastomer duckbill sleeve and provides thruflow at minimum pressure drop across the valve at all times. Forward pressure opens the valve automatically, reverse pressure seals it. Wear and deterioration caused by continuous operation of abrasive slurries is

minimized. There are no mechanciai parts such as hinges, discs, or metal seats which


The unique elastomer check sleeve will seal

Environmental Consulting Engineers

on solids.

can freeze, corrode, or bind valve operation. Features include silent and non-siam-

ming operation; horizontal or vertical instal lation; cast iron valve body and epoxy coat ing available; and two clean out plugs or purge ports. The face-to-face dimensions meet ANSI Bi6.10 specs and the valve has thru-drilled flange holes. Available in sizes

'Hydrogeology ^Engineering Geology

* Geotechnical Engineering 'Geosynthetic Engineering

'Environmental Atid.it & Site Remediation 'Seioage System Design *Induatrial Mineral & Aggregate Reaotircea NEWMARKET OFFICE


130 Davis Drive. Suite 210

274 Fourth Avenue. Unit Orte

Fax (905) 853-1759

Telephone (905) 687-1771 Fox (905) 687-1773

Toll Free (800) 263-7419

Toll Free (800) 668-2598

i/8-in to 72-in. Neo Valve

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 159

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Faster computer system


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519)743-3330

■■WM ■■


(705) 679-5979 (705)679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Managing today's environmental issues. ■ Environmental Management Systems ■ Accounting

■ Assistance in M&A Negotiations ■ Environmental Audits

■ Environmental Economics

■ Disclosure & Financing Advice ■ Public Policy ■ Due Diligence • TQEM

A new 66 MHz module has been added to

the line of C-size VXIpc-486 embedded VXIbus computers. The Model 566 Series includes one-, two-, and three-slot, 486-compatibie modules. The VXI Starter Systems

give users a completely configured VXIbus controller kit. Options include an embed ded VXI computer preloaded with

Environmental Services Inc. PO Box 31, Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 132

LabVIEW or LabWindows software or an

Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax: 416-777-3364

MXIbus interface packaged with LabVIEW


Windsor, Ontario •




(519) 966-2250

FAX: (519) 966-5523




FAX; (519) 680-3582

or LabWindows. National Instruments

For more information, Circle reply card No. 160

PAC for flue gas treatment A new line of powdered activated carbon (PAC) products for flue gas treatment can help owners and operators of municipal waste combustors and medical and hazard

ous waste incinerators meet the imposing 66

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Product Review The optional HART interface permits long distance communication of meter pa rameters via a remote configuration device. Applications are found in most indus tries including the petrochemical industry to accurately measure low viscosity process fluids and wastewater plants to monitor and control methane gas. Fischer & Porter For more Information, Circle reply card No. 163

¥ regulations for the amount of mercury, dioxins and furans contained in flue gas that is discharged into the atmosphere. In Europe,the use of powdered activated carbon injected in dry or slurry form is an accepted method of fulfilling the strict Eu ropean discharge requirements. Calgon Carbon Corporation For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161

Improved Thickening and Dewatering of Waste Sludge A comprehensive brochure provides details on the newest technology in high solids centrifugation for the thickening of waste acti vated sludge and dewatering of digested sludge. Centrico/Westfalia Separator, has cre ated a new generation of high solids decant ers that produce dryer cake solids, thus re ducing disposal costs, with no emission of

ozonation Hankin has commissioned China's first

large scale ozonation system at the Dong Feng Water Treatment Plant in Daqing, ap proximately 600 miles northeast of Beijing. Since oil was discovered in 1959, Daqing has grown from a couple of scattered vil lages to a modem city of over 2.5 million. Two 200 lb/day ozone generators are the cornerstones of the water treatment system. Ozonation was selected because of its

biocidal properties and lethality against a variety of water borne human pathogenic organisms including Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Ltd. For more Information,

Accurate groundwater monitoring depends

on sanytle integrit}'. Tiinco bailers assure

the integrity of am my sample. Advancecl ed design di and manufacturing eliminates adliesives,

solvents and tapes that can affect sample accuracy. To prevent contamination, Timco™

bailers are individually cleaned, packed and factoiy sealed. Timco™ offers a wide

range of models -from our economical new

Geogrid for soil

Single-Use Bailer to Custom Bailer Systems designed for specific sampling situations.


(for sampling at specific

Circle reply card No. 164

Timco's Point Source®

depths) and Standard

For more Information,

models are available

Circle reply card No. 162


Sample With Integrity...

Sample With Timeo' Municipal potable water

aerosols. Centrico Canada Inc.

Remote mounting for


in Teflon®, PVC and stainless steel.

Timco™ bailers and

accessories proride speed and efficiency in die field. Bailer accessories include

winches, reels, cords,

The Vortex 4 line of fiowmeters for moni

toring or controlling liquid, gas or steam services now has an optional remote mount ing of the electronics up to 15 feet from the Vortex 4 primary. The electronics are both wall or pipe stand mountable and feature the company's standard 16 character/2 line LCD display. The microprocessor-based meters offer many enhanced design features including extended temperature limits, a complete range of sizes and wider flow rangeability. Built for high accuracy +I-J5% of rate and long-term stability, these meters are manufactured with all stainless steel wet

ted parts and no moving parts that require

The Stratagrid geogrid has been designed for the reinforcement of site-specific soils, offering developers, civil and geotechnical engineers and contractors advanced options for dealing with common civil engineering problems and difficult soils. Applications include retaining wall re inforcement, steep slope stabilization, re

bottom emptying devices and cases.


inforcement of embankments on soft

subgrades and base reinforcement on soft soil subgrades. The Stratagrid geogrid is manufactured in a stable geometric configu ration using advanced knitting procedures combined with a tough, proprietary method ofPVC impregnation which penetrates into the fibres.

High tenacity polyester provides the product with superior resistance to creep under a constant stress, abrasion resistance,


P.O. Box f

851 Fifteenth Street

Prairie du Sac, WI 53578 800-236-8534 608-643-8534 FAX 608-643-4275

elevated temperature stability and excellent chemicaFbiological stability. Armtec For more Information,

maintenance or recalibration.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Circle reply card No. 165

Circle reply card No. 191

Product Review Non-intrusive gas sensors

Manufacturers of precast reinforced concrete box culverts and box sewers completing compliance requirements reinforced concrete box culverts for cast-in-

place box culverts for Ministry of Transpor tation projects. Municipal and private sec tor projects may specify precast boxes in accordance with these standards.

Four precast concrete pipe plants are completing the necessary requirements for compliance with the new standards. When completed, Bestpipe U.V., Con Cast Pipe, Concrete Pipe Company,and Waterloo Con crete Products will be prequalified to sup ply precast boxes under OPSS 1821. The plants will also have their products included on the Ministry of Transportation's Desig

An optional non-intrusive calibration capa bility is now available from MSA to improve the efficiency and convenience of its com plete line of gas sensors.

nated Source Materials List and referenced

The line can be used with commercial

and industrial monitoring systems for the protection of workers and facilities, includ ing chemical and manufacturing plants, re fineries, storage areas, underground mines, steel mills, process streams, garages and

OPSS 1821, Material Specification For

in the Contract Estimating Document. Publication of OPSS 1821 (materials) and 422 (construction), marks the end of a lengthy approval process initiated by con crete pipe manufacturers, and the beginning of a new government/industry initiative for providing high quality precast reinforced

Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts

concrete box culverts and box sewers.

and Box Sewers, and OPSS 422, Construc tion Specification For Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts and Box Sewers, are the published standards. These standards

Specification of the new standard sized

In early 1993, precast box culverts and box sewer units in spans of 1800 mm,2400 mm, and 3000 mm were included in the Plant

Prequalification Program of the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association and published as Ontario Provincial Standards.

allow the contractor to substitute precast

boxes on drainage projects is expected to begin in the Spring of 1994. For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

structures built over landfills.

In addition to combustible gas, the sen sors can detect hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hy drogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide

(CO),oxygen (02), nitrogen dioxide(N02), chlorine (C12) and sulfur dioxide (S02). MSA Canada Inc.

For more information, Circle reolv card No. 167










For more information, Circie repiy card No. 245

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Product Review


Solarchem develops new solar water





Where your Concerns are our Concerns QUALin ♦ TURNAROUND ♦PRICE

Environmental Systems,

Markham, Ont., has invented a solar treat

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N9 (905)890-8566 1 -BGO-263-9040 Fax;(905) 890-8575

ment process for the purification of polluted water. Said to be faster than the best solar

water decontamination process currently available, Solaqua destroys organic pollut ants in water with sunlight and simple wa ter soluble photocatalysts. Similar to natural processes which de stroy pollutants in clouds, lakes and oceans, the process uses a non-toxic, water soluble iron compound which is said to absorb over five times as much sunlight as the best photocatalyst (ultraviolet and visible com ponents). This compound produces strong radicals which initiate the oxidation of waterbome contaminants to harmless sub

Environmenial Analysis Field Sampling Services


Drug Testing

Hazardous Waste

Comprehensive Analytical

CanTest Ltd. 1523 W 3rd Ave.

Vancouver, B.C. V6J 1J8


Air & Water Quality

Fax 604'731'2386 Tel B04«734'7276 1-800'665'8566

Accredited for specific tests by CAEAL & SCC

stances such as carbon dioxide and water.

Designed to destroy virtually any waterbome organic contaminant such as gasoline components (benzene), solvents (trichloroethylene), PCBs, dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the process offers an economical and safe method of restoring contaminated waters as well as a reduction in the production of greenhouse gases through savings in elec trical energy. Applications include contami nated groundwater, landfill leachates, indus trial process or waste water, agricultural runoffs and produced water from offshore oil rigs. Solarchem Environmental For more Information,

ahvh»® .Mt


.SottoeM^>s .onO'io


Setting the standard for

Circle reply card No. 153 * service

Logging rain gauge for tough environments


* quality * turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (905) 673-3255, FAX:(905) 673-7399

Compretiensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters

• Emission Testing

I Reg. 309 Compliance ' Polychlorinated Dibenzodloxins/Furans

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

I Ambient Air Monitoring

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1 PI Phone;(905)890-2555 Fax:(905) 890-0370

The new 674L Logging Rain Gauge exceeds National Weather Service specifications for measurement acctiracy. The gauge features a reliable, tipping bucket design for precise rainfall measurement and is factory cali brated to tip at either 0.01-in or 0.1 mm intervals. The 674L is ideal for general rain fall measurement,storm water runoff moni-


Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec (514)493-4733

Contlnued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994



Product Review toring, inflow and infiltration studies and

Ainley and


combined sewer overflow studies.


Watef Supply 8 Sewage Disposal • Roads S Bridges • Flood Coniro


Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning



/iVG I




280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371

205 Dundas Street (613) 966-4243

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573

Rugged,corrosion resistant construction ensures dependable operation. All metal parts are coated, plated, or painted. The compact, built-in data logger stores over 600 days of rainfall data for analysis. The builtin data logger records date, time, and other rainfall information. The totalizing inter val is user selectable from one second to

eight hours. Stored data can be retrieved

and viewed using an IBM compatible com Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Circle reply card No. 154

Combustion process analyzer

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

puter. Isco Environmental Division For more information,

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

(416) 226-0148 mmm

...VMiBtTEl ,

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect Water Pollution Control

Water Supply Water Resources TORONTO (416)497-8600 WELLAND (905) 735-3659



Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services OTTAWA


SUDBURY (705)671-9903 (Dennis ConsuKants) BROCKVILLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmith Consultants)

'Environmental professionals working with Industry to Improve water quality'


Aquatic Contaminant Remediation

Environmental Audits

Sewer Use Bylaw Consutting Water and Wastewater Engineering

Environmental Engineering Storrrrwater Management Impact Assessments

PO Box 2205, Stn B, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2M 6P6 Phone (906)641-0941 (Branch Office) PO Box 86, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7H8(519) 383-7822



Tunnels and Shafts

(613) 226-1844

A(fu0ilcSciencesInc. Toxicily Testing

Land Development


user interface with remote or manual cali

bration available. Applications include gas, oil or pulverized coal boilers, acid sludge furnaces,coke ovens, process heaters, soak ing pit furnaces and incinerators of all types. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 155

Septage toxiclty test



The Ametek WDG-HPII analyzer is de signed to measure net excess oxygen in high particulate process flue gas. It uses a unique extractive technique in which the sample is pulled from the process stream by an air operated aspirator and immediately returned to the process. No sample conditioning is required and the unit is entirely field serv iceable without removing the sensor from the process. The unit can be used in gas streams to 1530 degrees C (2800 deg. F). The microprocessor control unit simplifies


C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201, Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327


A bench scale respirometer performs a rapid results toxicity test of septage and other wastes trucked in to wastewater treatment

plants. The test is important to treatment plants that want to be able to accept these Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section caii ES&E at (905) 727-4666. Microtox® toxioity test applications in industry

Diffused aeration

products Parkson offers the widest range of diffused aeration products avaiiable. included are: Aeration Panels, a flex ible membrane system which pro duces superfine bubbles; Fiex-A-

A twelve page booklet from Microbics Corporation discusses specific appli cations of the Microtox® Toxioity Test in industry. Since 1979, laboratories worldwide have used fast, inexpen sive Microtox® to measure toxioity in process streams so they can maxi mize efficiency and reduce costs with the least production of toxic waste.

Tube flexible, membrane diffusers that produce intermediate size bubbles; FineAir ceramic disc and dome diffus

ers; Endurex stainless steel coarse

bubble diffuser, and the OxyCharger Static Aerator, a unique low-head, gravity-flow device to increase dis solved oxygen levels of influent wa

Microtox® also tests raw materials, wastewater, soils, and sediments, and provides key data for effective appli cation ofbiocides.

Microbics Corporation Circle reply card No.208

ter. Parkson

Circle reply card No.207 Prefabricated chemical The IDEAL choice for environmeiital


Waste reduction help from

storage facilities


Now you can store all your dangerous materials and liquids (acids, fuels, oils, etc.) and not be afraid of spills, In a steel storage facility away from your buildings. All models tiave secondary reservoirs (In case of spills) and feature explosion relief panels. All models may be heated, A/C, lighted, ventilated depending on your needs. The main advantage is that they are prefabricated and do not require any

A new literature guide from Ontario Waste Management Corporation describes two manuals and two videos designed to help companies establish and operate suc cessful waste reduction programs. An updated Third Edition of the Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction Manual and

two videos offer practical Information in clear, non-technical terms. Also available Is a new manual, the Practical Guide for

local additional construction. We also cus



Sampling Wastes and Industrial Proc esses, which discusses procedures for collecting trustworthy samples of the most commonly encountered situations. OWMC's publications make developing a waste reduction action plan easy.

tom build to your needs. IDEAL is CSA certified underWeldIng Bureau quality ISO 9002 and CAN 3-Z299.3-85 a guaranty of quality. [DEAL Environment

Circle reply card No. 209


Circle reply card No. 210




TDG Handbook The first real pocket-size TDG Hand

Complete line of Prochem® specialty mixers

book for vehicle drivers and ware

Robbins & Myers, inc. offers the Prochem® Specialty Mixer bulletin,fea turing intermediate agitators and port

house workers! This 3°" x 5" hand

book contains easy to read full colour charts showing the correct safety marks, iabeiiing and placarding re quirements for all TDG classifications, it also includes information required on a shipping document, the report ing procedure for dangerous occur rences and to whom these reports are to be made. An indispensibie aid for anyone who handles, offers for trans port or transports dangerous goods. Canwit Consulting Corporation Circle reply card No.211

Claymax geosynthetic clay liner

able mixers for industrial fluid process

ing applications. Prochem® Specialty Mixers have been designed and manu factured for efficient operation, and to withstand the unusual loads and se

vere operating conditions that are en countered in mixer applications. The 12-page bulletin incorporates fourcolour photography and describes product features and selection guide lines. Robbins & Myers,Inc. Circle reply card No.213

Kent Can

Claymax Geosynthetic Clay Liner is a cost-effective, environmentally com patible sodium bentonite liner when activated by water, this highly imper meable,chemical resistant product is effective in containing liquids in tank farm, landfill and industrial lagoon applications. Easy to install Claymax features seif-seaming and selfhealing characteristics. Contact Armtec for details. Armtec

Circle reply card No.212



A »»

Kent can reduce unaccounted for water Meeting AWWA standards, Kent's C-700 is perhaps the most technologi cally advanced water meter on the market today. The C-700 meter is a performance proven leader offering accuracy down to 1/8 gpm, the best linear accuracy and pressure loss of only 6.2 psi at 20 gpm. Kent Meters, Inc. Circle reply card No. 214

Product Review Trenchless pipe repair Leaking pipelines can cause exfiltration of pollutants and chemicals into the suirounding soil or groundwater. The proper repair and maintenance of pipes at industrial plants is, therefore, a key element of environmen tal management. The Insituform process is the environmentally responsible way to re build pipe systems without digging. This trenchless process extends the serv ice life of existing pipeline systems by cre ating a new structural pipe-within-a-pipe which is jointless and leakproof, thus pro viding total containment. Both exfiltration of pollutants Into the soil or groundwater and


of contaminants or

The process has been used to rehabili tate pipelines with up to 90 degree bends, as well as variations in shape and diameter. Because the finished Insitupipe is jointless and leakproof, the possibility of soil or groundwater contamination and infiltration into sewers, process lines, or stormwater pipelines is eliminated. With traditional excavation, soil erosion and runoff into streams and other bodies of

water can occur, and this has led to strin

gent demands on siltation control, which are

The Neptune® Flo Search'"' System pro vides a means for utilities to easily analyze customer flow versus time and resolve a

variety of application, sizing, and billing complaint situations. Schlumberger's TRICON® Systems were developed to help utilities effectively monitor and control their resources. Schlumberger Industries For more Information, Circle reply card No. 169

difficult to maintain and monitor. This is not a concern when Insituform is used be

cause excavation is usually not necessary. Insituform Technologies, Inc. For more information,

groundwater into the pipeline are elimi

Circle reply card No. 168


Insituform also provides the rehabilitated pipes with the necessary chemical resistance to prevent the possibility of leakage of haz ardous chemicals. By varying the resin sys tems, the pipe can be custom designed to handle specific chemicals, thus providing the required strength, corrosion resistance, and longevity to prevent leaks. Using standard, proven engineering equations, the pipe is designed to meet the structural needs of each specific project. Soil loadings, groundwater, effluent, tem perature, pipe condition, pressure, and size


are some of the factors that determine the

Schlumberger's analysis and instrumentation systems are designed to assist utilities in

final design.

better resource management through accu rate monitoring and controlling.

Decanters for oil skimmers Optional decanters provide an effective second oil/water separation step after ini tial skimming, assuring virtually 100 per cent pure oil and water ouput, of prime im portance if the user must pay for disposal on the basis of volume or if the skimmed


material is slated for reuse as a lubricant or

fuel. Mounted at the discharge end of the oil skimmer support channel, the decanter receives liquid directly from the skimmer. A sludge screen, easily removed for clean ing, prevents solids from entering the de canter. Based on the principle that oil floats on water, even a minute quantity of water is easily removed. At the same time, the lighter, floating oil is removed from the top. Both liquids are now essentially pure and can be disposed of as needed. The 1/2-gal, 1-gal and 5-gal models are easy to install.

Choose The World Leader In On-slte Remediation of Soil and Groundwater.

Full-Service Consulting and Remediation Contracting


□ Environmental Assessments and Audits

□ Geology and Hydrogeology □ Engineered Solutions □ Cost-Effective Remediation


□ Rapid Site Closures

Groundwater Technology Canada Ltd. / Ltee 65 Locations Worldwide


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 138



Groundwater Technology

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Product Review made of stainless steel, powder-coated steel, or fibreglass, and come with a 30 day money back guarantee. Abanaki Corp. For more information, Circle reply card No. 170

Rack mount CEM system The new 19-in. rack mount Continuous

Emission Monitoring(CEM)system for the parts per billion (ppb) direct measurement of Ammonia (NH3) is designed to be inte grated into new or existing CEM systems and is compatible with most dilution sam pling systems. The Ammonia CEM system is based on field-proven, patented Ion Mo bility Spectrometry(IMS)technology which provides the accuracy, specificity and sen sitivity needed to comply with stringent emissions regulations. For longterm stabil ity and reliability, it has no moving parts and requires few consumables. Environmental Technologies Group, Inc. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 171

SP500 A-C Drives Reliance Electric's SP500 Controller is a

compact,low cost A-C PWM inverter drive. Utilizing state-of-the-art digital microprocessing concepts and IGBT tran sistors, SP500 offers "tripfree" adjustable speed performance for A-C induction and synchronous motors. The SP500 is available in 230, 460 and 575 VAC 3 phase input with NEMA 1 or

Consultants Liquid phase carbon adsorption system The Cyclesorb FP-2 portable adsorption system consists of a polyethylene-lined FRP pressure vessel with 2000 lbs. of granular

activated carbon and all necessary piping for liquid treatment. The FP-2 features cor rosion resistant materials, 75 psig pressure operation, flexible pipe connections and a sturdy frame for shipping and spent carbon return. It can treat up to 60 gpm of liquid. Applications include small groundwater and


leachate cleanups, wastewater or product batch treatment, or pump tests and pilot plant studies. The product is available for sale or on a service basis which includes

spent carbon reactivation.

Calgon Carbon Corp. For more information. Circle reply card No. 174

3D software for managers LYNXview is a user-friendly 3D soft ware package for managing and visualizing

Forty years in this business has taught us that valves are critical to the reliability of your project and the long term cost-effectiveness of your plant.


Valves are not a component you want to corners on and risk compromising

IMPfnP DEAI^V yt^ur professional reputation. W E l%E l%EMIr I It's not a risk we're prepared to take either;

FOR YOUR BUSINESS Offering a complete line of vaives for water

with your reputation, or ours! When you specify l\IEO, you can be certain you are specifying quality valves without compromise. Regardless of the application, call us for immediate, expert attention to your valve requirements; support you should exnect ... and definitely deserve. We're ready for your business.

and wastewater


NEMA 4/12 enclosures.

Sterling Power Systems For more information.

Circle reply card No. 172

Remote data logger

NEOVALVES 430 Norfinch Drive, Toronto, Ontario MSN1Y4

Tel:(416) 661-6020 Fax:(416)661-6787


LAKEFIELD The new ZENO®-3200, a 32-bit data log ger, offers unprecedented power and flex ibility in remote data collection and stor age. The unit is capable of up to 18-bit AJ D resolution, 1 Mbyte of data storage and has low power requirements. Reliable and durable with a higher per formance to price ratio compared to tradi tional data loggers, it is designed for use in hostile, demanding environments. High level language ("C") allows complex proc esses to be performed easily and quickly. Coastal Environmental Systems For more information. Circle reply card No. 173






P.O. Bag 4300. Lakcficld. Ontario Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fa.x. 705-652-6365










MacVIro Consultants inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Maikham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(905) 475-7270 • TeleFAX:(905) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment


Product Review spatial information in site contamination, waste management and remediation projects. Managers can monitor and evalu ate projects, create on-line presentations or reports for clients, and quickly disseminate project information. This simple, cost-ef

•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geoiogy


•Environmentai audits MALROZ Engineering inc.

•Site decommissioning

168 Montreai St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tei:(613)548-3446 Fax;(613)548-7975

& rehabilitation

fective desktop solution for direct project access dissolves the high-tech mystique that surrounds geoscience software and offers information access to people who do not need or come from a computer modelling background. It has intuitive, easy to use mouse-driven Windows-Motif screens and, like most Windows programs,requires mini mum training to operate. Lynx Geosystems Inc. For more information,

Marshall Macklin


Circle reply card No. 175 Specialists in Environmentai Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East


Meteorological monitoring system

Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

(905) 882-1100

Fax:(905) 882-0055


The rugged new WEATHERPAK® CL2 me teorological monitoring system provides critical, real-time information about the po tential impact of an unplanned chlorine or ammonia release. Knowledge about wind speed, direction and concentrations of such

a release will result in prompt identifica SIMCOE ENCINEERINB GROUP LIMITED

tion of contaminated areas and other action-

Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. LtW 3W9 Tel: 905-831-1715 Fox: 905-831-0531

related assessments.

The sophisticated combination of com ponents (hardware and software) will also

assist in the day-to-day management of odour control and health risk assessments.

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES RISK ASSESSMENT








Consulting Engineers • Instrumentation & Controis

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Poiiution Controi

• Environmentai Pianning

• Water Suppiy



Tel.:(905)875-2144 Tel.:(905)643-8166 Tel.:(613) 247-0111

Circle reply card No. 176


121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090

• Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

Archived data is easily retrievable for com pliance issues. Coastal Environmental Systems For more information.

Fax:(905)875-2145 Fax:(905)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114

Quality control analyzers The new Series-73 analyzers have been developed for use in today's fast pace proc ess industries. The P73 pH analyzer and C73 conductivity analyzer provide easily accessible, verifiable process information. Unique activity logging provides the opera tor with service, maintenance and diagnos tic conditions. Ideal for use by manufactur ers seeking ISO certification because these analyzers provide essential documentation that is easily recorded and verified. Great Lakes Instruments, Inc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 177

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Product Review Drum pumps Versa-Matic drum pumps can handle the most difficult pumping jobs. Air operated, double diaphragm and self-priming with indefinite run-dry capability, they are de signed for safety and efficiency. Manufac tured to 1S09000 standards, each pump is engineered to handle a variety of viscosities, corrosives, oils, solvents, slurries and other

chemicals. Pump materials are available to suit each application with flow rates up to 35 USgpm. York Fluid Controls Ltd. For more Information,

Consultants Liquid phase activated carbon filters The diffusion system used in liquid phase filter Models FC-2, FC-3, FC-20 and

FC-30 provides even distribution of influ ent, utilizing 100 percent of the filtration media. These filters also include a mesh

screen to protect against potentially dam aging carbon backwash. The collection sys tem is specially designed to reduce channeling, enhance carbon usage, and in

Circle reply card No. 178


Nitrification testing


A new short term process control test which determines how well the process of nitrification is proceeding has been devel oped for use with Arthur Technology's respirometers. The test will be of particu lar interest to wastewater treatment person nel whose permits may now require the re moval of ammonia. The test makes it pos sible to measure separately the amount of oxygen used in nitrification and the amount of oxygen used in carbonaceous oxidation.


Flue gas treatment

existing systems. Canisters are doublesealed to prevent leakage, and serialized to aid in recordkeeping and rotation proce dures. Filcorp Industries

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 192


Water Supply • System Optimization • Wastewater Solid Waste Management • Environmental Assessment

TEL:(90S)668-9363• WHITBY • Fax (90S)668-0221

hubicki associates



Environmental Audits

Decommissioning & Ciean-up Ast>estos/PCB Management Waste Management Hydrogeoiogy

minutes. Arthur Technology For more information,

A new line of powdered activated car bon (FAG) products for flue gas treatment can help owners and operators of municipal

ters which accommodate pressure gauge and air vent, high-capacity 2" i.d., and NPT ports easily fitted with threaded bushings to match

MISA • Site Assessment & Remediation • SCADA

t o 11 e n sims

Test results can be obtained in less than 20

Circle reply card No. 179

crease the flow rate, field-tested at flows in excess of 15 GPM. Features include canis


1595 Clark Boulevard,Brampton,Ontario

Consulting Engineers

(905)793-9800 Facsimile(905)793-0641

Boston• Cambridge• Hamilton• London• Montreal• Ottawa• Sudbury Timmins• Thunder Bay• Winnipeg

waste combustors or medical and hazard

ous waste incinerators meet the imposing regulations for the amount of mercury, dioxins and furans contained in flue gas that is discharged into the atmosphere. In Eu rope, the use ofPAC injected in dry or slurry form is an accepted method of fulfilling the strict European discharge requirements. Most existing pollution abatement equip ment can be retrofitted, allowing solid waste combustion facilities to comply with tight ening regulations. Calgon Carbon Corp. For more information. Circle reply card No. 180


Flow control from

Cccupationai Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation

outside a pipe

Street West, Suite 900, Toronto. Ontario M5H 3X2

Mount the acoustic sensor on the out

side of a pipe and use this new switch to control pumps, alarms or valves. No pipe cutting is required and there is no obstruc tion to flow. The MES100 Microphone Flow Switch sensor acts like a "microphone" lis tening through the pipe wall to detect and amplify noise caused by the flow of liquids and solids, pellets, or flowable solids. Sen sitivity can be adjusted so that switching will occur at the required "noise" level. Ideal for flow/no flow control applications, the MES 100 includes a remote sensor, a water tight, dust tight NEMA4X electronics en closure, and a 5 ampere SPDT control re lay. Greyline Instruments Inc. For more information,

Innovative Consulting in Environmental Services XCG Environmental Services Inc. ' Corporate Environmental Policy Development • Land Application of Wastewater


Mississauga, Ontario XCG Consultants Ltd.

Tel:(519) 741-5774 Kitchener, Ontario

' Phase 1 Environmental Audits and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments

'Phase 3 Site Remediation and Decommissioning • Air Resource Assessment 'Hazardous Materials Management • Wastewater Treatment Optimization ' Waste Characterization and Minimization • Solid Waste Disposal and the 3Rs. 'Hydrogeoiogy and Groundwater Investigations

Circle reply card No. 181 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


Product Review Level-indicating flowmeter

Intelligent-Water Level Sensors A six-page TAVIS Corporation brochure out lines details on two types of water level sen sors: 1) Submersible, 2) Non-submersible or bubbler application. Designed for remote, year round opera tion in unattended stations, the DISI-1200

Series is temperature compensated from 40° to -i-50°C with an accuracy of 0.1% PS over the entire temperature range. Power required is 8 to 16 VDC. Com The new poly-level Model ERS91L echoranging flowmeter has been designed to measure the levels of liquids in wet wells,

munication is either RS232 or SDI-12 with

tanks, or virtually any vessel of known di

extremely low power consumption of less than 0.5 ma at standby and less than 35 ma during peak read (2.5 sec. max.).

mension. The instrument utilizes the non-

Technel Engineering Inc.

contact, ultrasonic technique of liquid meas urement to provide simultaneous volume

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 183

the exclusive Storm™ programming to en sure accurate first flush grab samples and flow-weighted composite samples. A rugged rain gauge provides accurate, on-site rainfall information. Isco Flowlink® software allows convenient on-site or remote

reporting of rainfall, flow, and sampling in formation. Isco, Inc. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 184

and level indication.

Available in both English and Metric units, it is completely microprocessor con trolled for versatility and adaptability and is field programmable for virtually any liq uid level application. There are no internal adjustments as all calibration is accom plished via the front panel keypad. User-friendly, the unit features passwork protection for security. SRP Control Systems Ltd. For more information,

Gircie reply card No. 182

Integrated storm water runoff monitoring system Isco Environmental Division has introduced

an integrated system for storm water runoff monitoring. A complete line of automatic samplers, open channel flow meters, and accessories allow customers to specify a system to meet compliance requirements for their industry. Isco 3700 Samplers are offered with a choice of bottle configurations, and include

Double pass system for stack emissions The United Sciences Model 500C Opac ity Monitor is a complete microprocessorbased double-pass transmissometer which provides precise continuous opacity moni toring of visible emissions from smoke stacks, incinerators, catalytic crackers and process sources in compliance with govern ment regulations. The unit has auto caliContinued overleaf

somego witH tHefCozv, ... otHers manage it, ... and then there are those who CONTROL it.

I Mueilef Canada I V^dve been CONTROLLING theflow ofwater to Canadiansfor over 80 years... 9{pt a Cot ofour competitors can say that. AWWA Valves • Century and Modern Centunon Fire Hydrants • Corporation Brass Products 74

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

Product Review bration with zero and span continuously adjustable for contamination which autoalarms if opacity or calibration exceeds setpoint limits. Remote microprocessor con trol provides a range of display, alarm, RS232C interfacing and diagnostic capabilities. An effective air purge system purges the optical system, and air operated shutters temporarily protect the head assemblies in the event of purge or power failure. Wilier Engineering Ltd. For more information, Circle reply card No. 185

VOC/SOC sampler

to percent oxygen. When the MSI 150 is switched on it au

tomatically calibrates itself to 20.9 percent oxygen and zero ppm carbon monoxide. An integral self test program checks all func tions and indicates malfunctions in the dis

play. Draeger Canada Ltd. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 188

Microprocessor-based controller The Model 6000 is a new microproces sor-based controller that can operate as a

Water Quality Analyzers AquaTronix ATI Dynaprobes are the most advanced and rugged pH/ORP/selective ion sensors available today. Their patented, solid state, large surface area reference provides unequalled stabil ity and reliability. Trouble free operation in even the most difficult applications will reduce maintenance time and costs. Our sensors can be used with various

indicating transmitters, such as the micro processor-based Transfax or tbe economi cal 800 series analyzers from Lakewood Instruments. AquaTronix Inc. For more information,

stand-alone instrument or as a Field Data

Station (FDS) in a Data Acquisition Net work (DAN)system. Designed for almost any facility requiring environmental moni toring or process control, the controller may initially monitor only a few points but can be expanded later with additional sensors. When the need arises, it can be easily linked to a DAN System Data Centre to collect, graphically display, create reports or trend information gathered by sensors. Applica tions include manufacturing and processing plants, mines, mills, foundries, sewage treat ment plants, refineries, pipelines and com bustible materials storage facilities. MSA Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 186

For more information. Circle reply card No. 189

The portable CKW samplers provide the effective and economical answer to the re

quirements for sampling VOC, SOC and other evaporative substances. Utilizing a patented all hydro-pneumatic extraction sys tem, sampling is achieved with absolutely no contact with air from extraction to analy sis. The samplers operate exclusively on compressed air requiring no electrical serv ice. Fully programmable air logic control provides sampling on a timed interval basis or a flow proportional basis. Quality Control Equipment Co. For more information. Circle reply card No. 190

Gas detection system Sieger gas detection systems are now distributed in Canada by Westech. Features include: reliable, accurate and

trouble free, 2-year warranty, CSA ap

proved, quality program ISO 9001 certified,

full range of sensors, combustibles, H^S, toxic, fast response, high resistance to cata lytic poisoning, low cost high performance design, true one person calibration. Prod ucts include single and multi-gas fixed sys tems, portables, infrared point and open path. Westech Industrial For more information. Circle reply card No. 199

Wastewater Classifier for

chemical spills


Wastewater Classifier can identify elements of wastewater spills quickly. It is a test strip which distinguishes chemical types through colour changes. An analyzing colour chart gives an ac curate determination of the chemical types present in the water, and tests simultane ously for the following risks: acid or base, lead, petroleum product, organic solvents, hydrogen sulphide and nitride.

Regulatory & investigative Testing ERCB Regulations

Toxicity Testing/Assessment Drilling Waste, Sump Fluids Soils, Sediments & Sludge


Water & Wastewater

Contaminated Site

Leachate & Runoff


Muititrophic Bioassays Battery Bacteria (Microtox) Fish (Rainbow Trout) Water Flea (Daphnia)

Fertilizer Requirements Pre-/Post-Testing Advice Data Evaluation &

Results Interpretation

M.J. International

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 187

Accredited by the Standards Councii of Canada and Certified by the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories Inc. for specific tests.

Portable combustion

efficiency monitor MSI 150 has been designed for heating and combustion engineers who need to meas ure oxygen, carbon monoxide, air and gas temperatures, while calculating simultane ously carbon dioxide, surplus air, combus tion efficiency and carbon monoxide related Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994



(403)291-2022 (403)329-9266 (604)530-4344 (204)982-8630

FAX (403)434-8586 EDMONTON (403)491-8294 FAX (403)291-2021 FAX (403)327-8527 FAX (604)534-9996 FAX (204)275-6019

For more information. Circle reply card No. 142


There ^e 100,003 good reasons to specify 561 hansformer fluid. Reason #1: Performance Transformers filled with 561™ transformer fluid from

Dow Coming offer you the superior performance of liquid over dry-type transformers, without sacrificing fire safety. The reasons for better performance? First, liquid-type trans formers are sealed, so they can go where dry-types can't. That makes them ideal for outdoor, dusty, and other harsh environ ments. Second, dielectric liquids keep windings and insulation cooler than the air cooling in dry and cast types. Lower tem peratures mean lower PR losses and longer insulation life. Third, liquids have higher standard insulation strength than dry-types, so they can withstand the unexpected spikes and surges that attack your system. And since dry-type transformers utilize the dielectric capability of resin as part of their insulation stmcture, any damage to the resin integrity will result in dimin ished dielectric capability and reduce BIL.

And silicone liquids give off far less smoke and noxious gases. In fact, 561 transformer fluid has a fire point in excess of 340X, which allows it to be listed as "less flammable" by both Factory

Mutual and Underwriters Laboratory.

The next 100,000 reasons: Reliability

That's how many transformers we estimate are using silicone transformer liquid today. Not one problem relating to fluidper

formance has been reported to us. A good reason for tfiis success

is the added reliability and longer service life you get from sili cone liquid-filled transformers. Silicone fluid offers exceptional

thermal, electrical and chemical stability versus other materials.

Need to know more? Call us at 1-800-268-5359 or (905) 826-9600 locaUy and ask for

Reason #2: Efficiency Silicone liquid-filled trans formers may cost a little more up front than some dry types, but down the road they can save you a bundle on energy costs. That's good for your

extension 5610. We'll send you a free video outlining the key features

Transformer EfGdenq' 750 KVA unit

and benefits of 561 transformer fluid. Or fill in and send us the


coupon below.


938 watts saved

bottom line and for the


r' "1~





■ Cast


% of Rated Load


load levels. And that's where liquid-filled transformers out-shine their dry-type cousins, by as much as 192%. (See chart above).

Reason #3: Safety Heat Release Rates Conunon Transfomier Insulation Materials

Please send me a free video tape demonstrating the key features and benefits of 561'" transformer fluid from Dow Corning. 1 am also interested in:

□ 561transformer fluid literature □ Speaking with a representative 1 am specifically interested in the following transformer applications: □ Indoor

Fire safety engineers



potential — the lower the better. As shown in the

graph, the heat release rate Material Type, Per ASTM E 1354-90 'R-Temp is a registered trademark of Cooper Power Systems, Inc.


- Prov. _

Phone (

-Fax (_



Maii this coupon to Dow Corning Canada inc. 6747 Campobello Road,

for silicone transformer

liquids is far lower than for

□ Other


critical in assessing a

Resin (R-Temp)' Oil

□ Pad Mount


confirm our own research: heat release rates are material's fire hazard

Silicone Polyester Epoxy HMWH Mineral





ditions at less-than-rated

Fluid (561) Resin

It takes the heat, so you don't have to.

Transformer Fluid

2250 watts saved


Efficiency is especially important when consider ing normal operating con

insulation commonly found in dry-type transformers—one-fifth that of epoxy resin and one- fourth that of polyester resin.


Mississauga, ON L5N 2M1. In a hurry? Complete and FAX to 1-905-858-6005.

©1992 Dow Coming Corporation. 561 is a trademark of Dow Coming Coiporation.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 193


Air Quality

By Paul D. Tinari, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Second generation air-stream biofiiters are approaching commercialization

Abouttwo decades ago it was dis

covered that air streams carrying a wide variety of undesirable air borne contaminants could be pu rified by passage through a porous bed con taining living bacteria. These bacteria, when provided with the proper nutrients, tempera ture and pH levels, would decompose the entrapped "xenobiotic" molecules into car bon dioxide and water. This approach, gen erally known as biofiltration, has been suc cessfully tested using various porous media including compost, mineral soil and peats. While in successful and cost effective use

in Europe for many years, biofiltration has only recently come to the attention of North American environmental consultants.

There presently exists an enormous, mostly unmet market for cost effective de vices that can filter environmentally harm ful contaminants from the air. The princi pal markets are for air pollution, VOC and general odour control in manufacturing plants, refineries, bakeries, composting & waste management facilities, paint/printing shops, aircraft and submarines. In the case of air quality inside aircraft cabins, the is sue has become a significant source of stress between workers and management in the airline industry. Common commercial sources of air pol lution include the public service industries such as dry cleaners where almost all of the solvent used in the process evaporates to the atmosphere. Other establishments or activities releasing pollutants to the atmos phere include restaurants, hotels, schools and hospitals. Many types of hydrocarbons

• Resist bed compacting, decay, channeling and water saturation.

• Avoid releasing potential pathogens into the passing air stream. First generation biofilter designs based on older European models sometimes have the active media placed in an open vessel. The problem with these "Boden Filters" is that it is difficult to determine the efficiency of operation. The majority of filters made in North America are therefore based on an

enclosed vessel design. High efficiency biofiltration is achieved with a strict con

trol over the inlet air temperature, How rate, and relative humidity. Ideally the humidity is maintained at 100% in order to prevent bed dryout and subsequent microorganism death, and the temperature kept within the range ideal for the metabolic activities of the specific bacteria in use within the filter. The choice of bacterial species will depend on the types of contaminants to be degraded in each particular application. On entering the biofilter, contaminant molecules are either adsorbed to the porous media or enter into solution in the water

present in the smaller capillary pores. As the bacteria exist chiefly in the liquid film

coating the smaller particles and bridging the smallest pores, the efficiency of the biofilter in dealing with a particular group of contaminants will be largely a function of the solubility of the molecules. The biodegeneration of adsorbed contaminants is a two stage process in that they must first enter into solution before they become ac cessible to the organisms. All existing commercial systems are sub ject to the Darcy pressure drop that must be overcome by fans driving or pulling the air through the bed. The greater the pressure drop, the greater the power consumed by the circulating fans. Pressure drops can be reduced by decreasing the superficial veloc ity of the air and/or by increasing the per meability of the medium. The permeability of the bed can be raised by increasing the void fraction, but this also leads to a reduc

tion in filtration efficiency. Since a certain minimum mass flow rate of air must be maintained in order to meet ventilation cri

teria, all existing biofiiters are subject to this trade-off between consumption of para sitic power and filtration performance. In theory, a 100% efficient filtration process can be achieved with the air taking an infi

are released from multitudes of industrial

processes related to the petroleum and natu ral gas industries or processes that use their products. All these applications need effective air filtration or remediation capability. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established that it is interested in tech

nologies that not only move contaminants from one media to another (i.e. from air to solid form), but that also at the same time

remediate the contaminants into biologically harmless form.

The porous medium in biofiltration ap plications must meet several strict criteria in order to be effective. The bed must;

■ Provide an optimized living environment for the microorganisms. • Have uniform properties such as porosity and permeability that remain constant over the long-term.

'Pacific Institute for Advanced Study

Discarded household paints used to be a high-volume, highly toxic waste disposal problem. Laidiaw Environmental has transformed this into an economic solution with its waste paint recy cling program. Recycling results in high quality paints formulated to strict parameters of con sistency, drying time, colour stability, alkali resistance, applicability, appearance and other fac tors. The author says biofiltration might be used in many processes including paint manufactur ing. Photo courtesy Laidiaw Environmental.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994


How can we




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Second generation blofilters, cont'd. nite amount of time to traverse the bed, but this is certainly not practical.

the air in flowing through the porous me dium is given by the simplified Darcy Law

The main problem with existing biofilters, regardless of medium used, is that

expression for steady state flows:



at the common mass flow rates of air for

operation of commercial devices, rapid evaporation of water will occur from the larger menisci in the porous medium, forc ing the liquid to retreat into the smaller cap illary throats. The bed can be visualized as a connected matrix through which the pores thread an irregular network of interconnect ing capillaries. Evaporation tends to upset the system equilibrium because the reduc tion of liquid mass will cause some menisci to retreat through a capillary throat. The new configuration of the liquid is unstable, so the liquid must make a discon tinuous "jump" into a new stable configura tion. Bacteria adhering to a solid phase sur face may suddenly find themselves exposed to the desiccating effects of the flowing air and they will die. The other bacteria, sus pended in the nutrient-containing liquid phase, will be drawn away from the con taminant molecules adhering to the outside surfaces of the solid particles. The liquid and bacteria are held in the pores by the significant forces due to capillary pressure,

age capillary radius of the bed is commonly given by the relation:

Kp where p = the viscosity of the fluid (air) flowing through the filter bed, = the per

meability of the porous medium and v^ = the superficial velocity of the air-flow through the bed. This velocity represents the volume rate of flow through a unit crosssectional area of the solid plus air, averaged over a small region of space. If the bed particles can be approximately represented as sphere-like particles with mean diameter D , then the permeability can be expressed in terms of the porosity according to the relationship:

where = the Leverett function for the par ticular porous material being used. Any liq uid present in the bed (along with its popu lation of resident contaminant-attacking bacteria) will be held in the pores by a cap illary pressure equal to; (Tcose


where a^ is a constant for the particular po rous medium,0 is the wetting (surface con tact) angle and a is the surface tension of the particular fluid in question (usually water with dissolved nutrients).

where e = the porosity (ratio of pore vol

Hand in hand with these physical fac tors, the success of any particular biofilter design will be critically dependent on the biological and biochemical effects influenc

ume to total volume,0 < e < 1). The aver-

ing the bacterial metabolism. Continued


Ko = l%o(x-ef

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so under these conditions, the bacteria will

have difficulties in gaining access to the organic molecules being deposited in the filter medium by the air stream. This effect greatly reduces the potential efficiency of this configuration of biofiltration reactor.

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Second generation blofllters, cont'd. Most if not all xenobiotic molecules are

subject to microbiological attack, given the correct environmental conditions and types of properly adapted microflora. The term "mineralization" is used to describe the com

plete microbiological biodegradation of or ganic materials to C02, water and simple inorganic substances. Some of the additional factors other than unfavorable environmen

tal conditions that cause biological recalci trance of many xenobiotic compounds in clude: • Unnatural chemical substitutions that are

not recognized by microbial enzymes. • Failure of the bacteria to produce the catabolic enzyme(s) required to break down a particular molecule. • Lack of the necessary transport protein (permeases) to allow the molecule(s) to en ter the bacterial cell.

• Limited bioavailability of the contaminant molecules to the cell because of molecules'

immobilization onto inorganic surfaces. • Severe toxicity of the contaminant or of its metabolic intermediates.

Biodegradation is commonly mediated by microbial communities containing sev eral different species of bacteria having dif ferent metabolic capabilities. In a success ful system, each bacterial species derives benefit from the others as a result of their

interactions. The metabolic by-products of one species become the food for another in a process known as "cascading" or "nutri tional assistance". Thus a wide variety of bacterial interactions will affect the perform ance of the mineralization process includI AcuFlow [l^


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ing commensalism, mutualism,competition and predation. Some of the mechanisms for nutritional assistance include:

. Increasing the availability of a bound or otherwise unavailable substrate by, for ex ample, the secretion of a biosurfactant to

ratio 100:10:1 and so the composition and mass flow of the nutrient solution must by adjusted accordingly. The engineering chal lenge is to get the nutrient mix to the bacte ria when they need it and in the proper pro portions. It should be noted that in the case of

release an insoluble contaminant.

lipophilic (fat loving) compounds such as

• Release of extra-cellular enzymes. ■ Production of utilizable substrates through

DDT and dioxin, for instance, the cell mem


taminants leading to a 10 to 100 fold in

Co-metabolism is the process where a bacterium is able to partially or totally trans form a non-growth substrate (i.e. a contami nant molecule) in the obligate presence of another organic molecule that serves as a growth substrate (i.e. carbon and energy source). The chemical intermediates pro duced by co-metabolism may be available for consumption as carbon and energy sources by other members of the microbial community. It is important to note that primary en ergy sources are usually required at levels of about 100 to 1000 times greater than that of the contaminants if the latter are to be

completely co-metabollzed. In such a case, for every kilogram of contaminant adsorbed into the biofilter bed, 100 to 1000 Kg of primary substrate (nutrients) can be required for complete mineralization to take place. It is found that bacteria require elements Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the


branes of bacteria can concentrate the con crease in the concentrations of these sub stances in the cells. Bacteria can therefore

be extremely effective at separating lipophilic contaminants from air streams. Many other factors will contribute to the successful growth and degradative capacity of the bacterial consortium including tem perature, pH, moisture levels, competing organisms, physical properties of the porous bed and so on. All of these factors must be

optimized for successful remediation of trapped contaminants to take place. Several U.S. companies are beginning to market biofilters based on naturally oc curring porous media such as peat and com post. While such materials successfully sup ply nutrients to the resident bacteria, they suffer from a number of limitations. These

include significant changes in the physical/ chemical properties of the filter bed with time, the imposition of relatively large pres-


Contlnued overleaf




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Second generation biofilters, cont'd. sure drops in the air flow, the tendency of the filtration material to clog when exposed to air flows laden with particulates, the in ability to efficiently biodegrade a significant number of common chemical contaminants

and the requirement for large bed volumes because of low filtration efficiency. At least one American company at tempted, in an EPA funded research project, to circumvent the problems associated with the compost based biofilter by using acti vated charcoal as a filter/bacterial support medium. The advantages of this system in clude:

• Properties that remain relatively constant over the long term. • Reduced pressure drops because of larger pore sizes and uniform properties through out the bed.

.Higher filtration efficiencies, allowing the use of smaller beds.

• Effective removal of large numbers of con

taminants from air streams.

This system also unfortunately suffers from a number of disadvantages including: Significantly higher costs than the compost system, susceptibility to media dry-out at high mass flow rates, difficulties in getting nutrients to the bacteria within the bed, the possibility of pathogen contamination of the outgoing air if the bed is allowed to satu rate and the ever present risk of perform ance degradation caused by air flow channeling through the porous bed. Research now proceeding at the Pacific Institute for Advanced Study in Vancouver, in cooperation with a number of Canadian and U.S. industrial partners, has indicated that it may be possible to develop a differ ent biofilter design which does not suffer from any of the disadvantages inherent in traditional systems. Consequently, it can offer high filtering efficiencies with surpris ingly small bio-reactor footprint and volume.

Wood preserving firm honoured for hazardous waste reduction The Guelph Utility Pole Company was recognized by the Ontario Waste Management Corporation with the 1993 OWMC Outstanding Waste Re

temperature in a recovery unit. The resulting steam is used to preheat the next batch of sludge to be processed in the recovery unit. The steam is then

duction Performance Award. Two other firms received Certifi cates of Merit for their waste reduction

condensed and the water is filtered in

efforts. They are Valeo Engine Cool ing of Stratford and the Woodbridge Foam Corporation and its plants in Cobourg, St. Marys, Tilbury, Whitby and Woodbridge. The selections were made by an in dependent panel ofjudges, headed by Boris Boyko, Assistant Deputy Min ister, Ministry ofEnvironment and En ergy. Other judges were Philip Byer, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of To ronto; Doug Cook, Ontario District Manager,Canadian Chemical Produc

Once the water has been removed from the distillation unit it is re-used

ers' Association; Deborah Orchard,

from the wood. The kiln utilizes a de-

Editor, Eco-Log Week; Edgar Schmidt, Project Manager, Facility Development,OWMC. Guelph Utility Pole Company Guelph Utility Pole Company pro duces utility poles treated either in an oil-pentachlorophenol (PCP)solution or under pressure in a chromated cop per arsenate-water(CCA)solution. Di mensional lumber is also produced under pressure. Among the major steps taken by the company was the development ofa new process to reuse 98 percent of the com ponents of the sludge produced in the thermal treatment of utility poles in PCP preservative. Sludge from the

humidification system and does not vent hazardous vapours. Heat pumps, which dehumidify the kiln, also pro vide heat to another building and to warm pressure-treating solutions.

treating tank is distilled under high

an oily-water separator and reused in the CCA pressure treatment facility.

in the CCA pressure treatment facility and the oil, which remains, is re-used

in the PCP thermal system. The re maining solids are stored on site while the company experiments with a bioremediation system to treat them. The company also developed a kiln to accelerate fixation of the CCA pre servative in treated lumber. Previously, the fixation process was allowed to oc cur naturally over weeks or months, with the risk of preservative leaching

And, while the costs of its waste

treatment efforts passed $2.6 million, Guelph Utility Pole has recovered much of that cost through savings in waste disposal and treatment charges. The company, in fact, says that it has

If successful, the new design will offer high filtration rates even at large air mass flow rates, low pressure drops (thereby re ducing the parasitic power required for air circulation), high resistance to dryout so that bacterial growth can be optimized and low cost compared to existing systems. These factors will consequently make the technol ogy accessible to everyone with an odour/ air contamination problem. A significant advantage with the new de sign is that the filter will be able to handle air flows heavily laden with suspended particulates as well as VOCs and other chemical contaminants. Exposed to such air flows, it has been demonstrated that exist

ing biofilters tend to clog and to cease use ful functioning within a relatively short time. The successful optimization of this new biofilter design is achieved by harmoniza tion of the fluid-mechanical parameters with microbiological requirements. The new de sign will allow all of the parameters that affect the growth of the bacteria to be optimized. These include nutrient transport, oxygen supply, temperature, environmental pH, removal of metabolic wastes, and substrate structure.

It is foreseen that the commercial sys tem will be sold as a tum-key "black box" system built with off-the-shelf, standard components to minimize costs. The cus tomer will only have to provide electrical power, a small amount of water, and occa sionally add a nutrient formula. The sys tem will be designed to minimize the need for maintenance. Any adjustments that will have to be made could easily be handled by the host site personnel. A comparison of costs between advanced biofiltration and traditional methods such

as carbon adsorption and catalytic incinera tion indicates that while the initial capital costs are about equal, the operating/main tenance costs are significantly smaller (less than halO in the case of biofiltration. As an example of the best biofilter per formance that can now be achieved in the

field, a test conducted by the EPA on an activated carbon based biofilter design us ing an inlet air stream with 5 to 40 ppm toluene, achieved a degradation rate of 80 grams of Toluene per cubic meter of bed per hour with a bed contact time ofjust over 1 second. The removal efficiency was found to be >95% .It is expected that second gen eration biofilter designs now under devel opment by the Pacific Institute will push re moval efficiencies to beyond 99%. In cases when heavily contaminated (>5000 ppm)or widely varying air streams

saved about $2.5 million to date since

must be remediated, biofiltration can eas

it no longer needs to use a hazardous $100,000 is being saved annually with the kiln, compared to the operating

ily be combined with activated carbon,con denser or thermal and catalytic oxidation technologies. In such cases, the hybrid ap proach is often the cheapest and most effec

costs oftraditional vented kilns ofsimi

tive alternative.

waste landfill for PCP waste. Another

lar capacity.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 230 82

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

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Put Pressure on


By Michael Walker, Fraser Institute

U.S. and Canadian regulations -comparisons are revealing

Oneofthe most contentious is ues

question, namely, that environmental pro

that arose in the debate about

tection is more advanced in the kinder and

NAFTA was the effect the agree

gentler Canadian legal framework. It turns out that such an assumption is

ment would have on the environ

ment in Canada. According to the critics,

incorrect - a fact which a number of lead

OSE/Environment One Low

the dominant U.S. influence in the deal

Pressure Sewer Systems and Grinder Pumps have been providing the viable

would cause a kind of environmental aver

ing-edge environmental protection supply firms are discovering as they find no mar

aging down. Canada would be forced by pressure of commerce, if not directly, to change its environmental protection laws to

alternative to conventional

accord to the laxer U.S. standards. The

sewers for over twenty-five years. Let us provide your servicing solutions by putting on the Pressure.

environmental accord which supplements the trade deal seems to have satisfied some,

but by no means all, of the critics. Is there a legitimate reason to fear this incursion of inferior environmental stand

ards? In response to questions such as this in the past, I have always quoted chapter and verse from the trade agreement and the side agreement, proving that no such envi ronmental averaging down is required, and that in fact the opposite is envisaged and provided for in the agreement. However, in doing so I have always im plicitly granted the basic premise of the

ket in Canada for services which are in ea

ger demand in the U.S. The reason is that U.S. firms are held to

a much higher standard of environmental compliance than are their Canadian coun terparts - at least in a number of very im portant areas.

The table attached shows the differences, and why we don't have to be concerned about averaging down - the Americans may justi fiably have such a concern because of the apparently laxer regulatory framework in Canada. At the very least, it's food for thought. The following table provides a compari son of U.S. federal regulations with exist ing Canadian federal and Ontario regula tions.

A comparison of U.S.federal regulations with Canadian federal and Ontario regulations Purpose

U.S. Federal




Ontario Regulations

Regulations Protect surface waters

CWA(1977)/ FWPCA (1972)/


MISA—primarily in morutoring stage—

FIRA—covers over


have established

Very little

120 priority pollutants and requires permits by all direct dischargers Protect groundwater by regulating

RCRA (1976)/ HSWA (1984)

guidelines for only single industry



generators, transporters, treatment,storage,

only covers tracking of imported/ exported

and disposal facilities


hazardous waste

Require generators

SARA (1986)

Reg347—mainly tracks shipments; does not set any comprehensive treatment standards


to disclose toxic chemical releases

air quality

AQA (1967)/ CAA (1970,1977,1990)

Protect and regulate drinking water

SDWA (1974/ 1986)—sets

Protect and enhance

Servicing Canada Coast to Coast Phone:905-632-3900 Fax:905-632-4848

OSE CANADA Burlington, Ontario

Regulate underground


maximum allowable

Only guidelines in Department place—eid'orcement of Health handled case by case

concentrations for

has set out

over 90 toxins



UST(1988)40 CFR

Draft interim

Part 280 of RCRA

guidelines in place

hazardous substance


Source: Tom Davey,Publisher,Environmental Science and Engineering.

For more Information,


Circle reply card No. 241

Environmental Science c£ Engineering, March 1994

For complex environmental problems

By James Lock*

Sonochemistry -a new and versatile tool temperatures in excess of lOO'^C and pres sures greater than 5 bar to obtain reason able results.

Harwell has recently investigated sonochemical hydrogenation using gaseous hy drogen with precious and base metal cata lysts. Such three-phase systems are com plicated in that the activation effects on the catalyst have to be balanced with the degas sing effect which removes the gaseous re actant from solution.

Insonation and hydrogenation were car ried out sequentially to overcome these prob lems and yields of60 to 80% of octane from 1-octane were obtained using a 3 pm Ni powder insonated for 1 h followed immedi ately by 1 h hydrogenation. The optimum range was 11 to 25°C. These results were reproducible, but appear to be very sensi

4'i to

tive to the selected combination of inson

Among the most interesting areas

PS Analytical's Merlin Plus Mercury Fluorescence automatic measurement system. of innovative development within the British chemical in

has carried out the reaction of bromopropane, lithium and benzaldehyde in the Harwell ultrasonic loop reactor at a scale of

dustry is that of sonochemistry. The application of ultrasound to promote chemical reactions has developed inten sively over the past 5 to 10 years as is dem onstrated by the creation of specialised sub ject groups such as the Royal Society of Chemistry's Sonochemistry Group and the European Society of Sonochemistry, whose

2 moles reactant in 20 litres of solvent. The

President is Professor Mason of the Divi

reactions in which the transfer of a hetero

sion of Chemistry at Coventry University. Ultrasound is now being applied to the development of novel reaction systems.

geneous solid or liquid phase limits the re action rate. In many cases ultrasound may be used in the place of phase transfer agents and catalysts which are often expensive and difficult to remove during product recovery and purification. Analogous applications in the process ing of suspensions and emulsions have also been investigated. A common set of reac tions in this category are N- and Oalkylations carried out with a solid base. Harwell has investigated the simple Nbenzylation of dipenylamine with benzyl

Peter Martin and Peter Cains of AEA Tech

nology', have described some of the work at Harwell in the area of heterogeneous chemistry in organometallic chemistry, phase mediated systems and in heterogene ous catalysis. Classically, the application of ultrasound to the many coupling reactions occurring via organometallic intermediates formed by re action of a metal with an organic halide has led to very marked improvements in reac tion rate and yield, and also in controllabil ity by reducing or eliminating induction periods. Induction Period

Harwell has shown that insonation elimi

nates or significantly reduces the induction period in the preparation of Grignard rea gents from Mg turnings and primary, sec ondary and tertiary bromoalkanes, and has initiated the formation of benzyl magnesium bromide in solvent containing 0.2% water. One of the reactions most intensively studied in sonochemistry has been the Barbier coupling of an alkyl halide with a carbonyl in the presence of lithium. Harwell

'Consultant Editor, Processing, London, U.K.

study showed that the encouraging labora tory results could be replicated at the larger scale, and that a significant improvement in energy efficiency is likely as scale-up proceeds. There are numerous examples of the application of ultrasound to phase transfer

bromide and KOH in tolene. Increased re

action rate was observed with increasing insonation intensities using both 20 kHz and 40 kHz ultrasound, with a fixed quantity of the phase transfer catalyst polyethyleneglycol methyl ether. Enhanced Insonation

The dispersive effects of ultrasound have been employed advantageously in a number

of reactions involving solid heterogeneous catalysts. The alumina catalysed Aldol con densation of ketones is enhanced by

insonation. Thus the hydrosilylation of alkenes and alkynes with Pt/C catalysts is substantially enhanced, with 95% conver

sion of styrene to the corresponding alkylsilane in 2 h at room temperature, compared with the non-insonated reaction that requires

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1994

ation, mixing and temperature conditions. Applications of high intensity ultrasound in polymer chemistry are being explored by Gareth Price at the University of Bath, by Philip Lorimer and co-workers at Coventry University, and Stephen Davidson at the University of Kent. Work has shown that a range of processes can be influenced where accelerations and increased yields can be obtained. However, the most significant effect is the modification of the molecular

weight distribution and hence material properties. Rapid Development Work in polymer chemistry and physics is achieving promising results in another field, that of conducting polymers. While

many of the polymers studied in the early 1980s were unstable and intractable, the

interdisciplinary nature of polymer research has facilitated the rapid development of new chemistry. This in turn has allowed con ducting polymers to be designed and synthesised almost on demand.

Electroluminescence is one important property of such polymers that will be ex

ploited in devices like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Physicist Richard Friend and his team in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cam bridge University are working with Andrew Holmes and his colleagues in the Universi ty's chemistry department under a LINK scheme funded by the UK Science and En gineering Research Council. Over the past couple of years this col laboration has resulted in a number of im

portant steps forward in the area of poly mer electroluminescence. Through Cam bridge Display Technology, a series of pat ent applications has been filed covering the materials, their new syntheses and construc tion of the devices.

Working Devices Their work could even mark the turning point in the development of plastic LEDs Continued overleaf 85

Sonochemistry - a new and versatile tool, cont'd. for use in large screen displays. Friend says they have so far made working devices based on a sandwich of poly (para-phenylenevinylene)(PPV) derivative as the filling. This is made to glow with a green light by the injection of charge: "Just half a milliamp is enough to make a one millimetre square pixel glow about ten times as brightly (500 Cd/m) as is needed for a laptop computer," Friend reports. The team has fine-tuned the chemistry to produce a red-orange glow and, most re cently, blue-shifted emission. A polymerbased blue LED is essential for a full-col Ad Index ABB Kent Aerzen Armtec

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our display. An "inorganic" blue LED has never been built.

Flolmes and his colleagues are describ ing a new method of polymer processing that allows them to make a greatly improved form of PPV. They found that by using this pre-ordering method ofPPV processing they could cause spectacularly large changes in the electronic structure of the polymer. Dramatic Changes They produced the polymer under con trolled conditions to form rigid-rod-conju gated segments connected by flexible-spacer groups. Then by heat treating with acid, they found that conjugation could be intro duced at the flexible spacers. This resulted in a high degree of intrachain order over relatively long-length scales (10 nm). This order resulted in the dramatic changes in electronic structure.

The changes induce a strong red shift in optical absorption and a corresponding blueshift in the photoluminescence of the mate rial compared with the conventionally pre pared PPV. The group also observed a five fold enhancement of the third-order non-lin

ear optical coefficients of the material. Further breakthroughs have been made in the application of spectrometry to the measurement of mercury. Used in many

commercially available mercury system based on vapour generation and fluorescence analyser. Encouraged by its success, PS Analytical developed the Merlin Fluores cence Detector specifically for the routine operation of mercury measurements. Pre vious methods using atomic mercury vapour were limited by sensitivity, linearity range and lack of automation, while the inherent

problem due to the use of a long path length further restricted and limited their use. PSA

has designed systems for use in many in dustries and for many products. Air Monitoring Initial interest was in the measurement

of inorganic and organic mercury in waste water, rivers and effluents. Newer areas

relate to the photographic, petrochemical and agrochemical industries. Recently, working with the University of Ghent, Bel gium, the area of application has been ex tended into air monitoring. Direct meas urements can often be made, although use of an intermediate trapping on gold sand can provide measurements of low levels in the ng/ml range within a sensible sampling pe riod of 10-15 minutes. Detection of mer

cury in natural gas has also been reported. The system can easily be configured for routine actuated systems for both laboratory and process line applications.



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In the summer of'31 we worked Saturdays. Some things never change. Saturday,the Fourth of July,

has happened since then(much

important historical tact is that

1931,the year Canada raised

of it on Saturdays),it's the next 75

Gore & Storrie enjoys long-term

tariff barriers on U.S. imports.

years we'd like to tell you about.

relationships with our clients.

Some of those relationships are

Gene Autry had a hit with "Got A Date With An Angei," and Gore,

Nasmith & Storrie designed the Lemieux Island Water Plant, near

Ottawa, Canada. Our new color

reduction techniques at Lemieux became the basis for fioccuiation

tanks now in use throughout Canada and the United States.

The company was 12 years old. Today we're 75 . Although a lot

Gore & Storrie is Canada's

pre-eminent water, wastewater and environmental engineering

even longer than our support tor the people who depend on the Lemieux Island plant.

consultant. Our expertise spans environmental planning, solid

What matters in the long run is

waste management, water and

that people's health and the

wastewater engineering tor

environment are protected. That's

municipalities and industries. We

what we are good at and why our

help analyze, test, and automate

clients keep us involved in their

water and sewage systems. We

plans, their projects and their

train the people who run them.

visions tor the next 75 years.

In ail those years we've invented

Gore & Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers

Gore & Storrie

1913 Seventy-five


People Knowledge Commitmentj

and adapted a lot of new

255 Consumers Road

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