Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1993

Page 1






Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment Serving environmental professionals across Canada

November 1993



9 m

Implementing a storm water management program

MiSA regulations for Ontario pulp and paper mills Gas detection important to confined space entry Hydrant maintenance and trouble shooting Pilot studies for on-site leachate treatment

Gatineau's new sludge disposal system Treatment plant odour control WEF Conference report


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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(905) 727-4666

November 1993, Vol. 6 No. 5 Issued November, 1993


Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (905) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep. RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 President STEVE DAVEY

(905) 727-4666 Office Manager DENISE SIMPSON

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Over 12,500 delegates attend WEF conference in California Photo report by Steve Davey Why is price a major factor in anaiytical services whiie lab accreditation isn't required? ES&E position paper


Tan or bum - a look at liability By David Brennen


Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Jim Bishop Environment Protection Laboratories Pierre Beaumier

Mann Testing Laboratories Allan Church, C.Chem. Churoh & Trought George V. Crawford, P.Eng.

Strong environmental presence at New Orleans industrial hygiene conference By David Whaley


Hydrant maintenance and trouble shooting By Dale Baldry


Portable gas detector selection for confined space entry By Ross Humphry


Putting the lid on off-gases


Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfeiiow Goodfeiiow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng., DEE

Transforming an environmental problem into an economic solution - Laidlaw's paint recyciing faciiity By Blake Higgins


R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a

bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribution. ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and engi neers, key provincial and federal environ

Pilot plants can determine feasibility of on-site leachate treatment

Landfill closings force alternate sludge disposal process at the Communaute Urbaine de L'Outaouais' sewage plant


Puip and Paper mills By Steve Black and Susan Liver

mental officials, water and wastewater treat

Implementing a storm water management program for water quality By M. Mansfield

Product Agreement No.18197 Second Class Mali

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be repro duced by any means without written permis sion of the publisher. Yeariy subscription rates: Canada S45.00 for one year, S80.00 for two years, S8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. (G.S.T. extra)


MISA regulations anticipated for Ontario

ment plant operators and contractors. Ail advertising space orders,copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering, c/o Prestige Printing, 41 industrial Pkwy. S., Unit #3, Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 3Y5. Canadian Publications Mali Sales


By R.G. Coulter



Industry Update


R&D News Product Review Reader Service Card

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46 56a

Classifieds Literature Reviews. Ad Index


. 22. 42 62

Cover Story

Transforming an environmental problem into an environmental solu tion is the uitimate ideal in remediation technology. Here waste paint

has been transformed from being a disposal problem into high grade paint made to stringent manufacturing standards. Photo courtesy Laidiaw Environmental Services.

Send orders to: Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel:(905) 727-4666, Fax:(905)841-7271.

Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agen

cies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

By TomDavey

Editorial Comment

Sewer 'speed bumps'give severe headaches to taxpayers

Oscar Wilde once described

deed low bid selection penalizes die very labs which have the most sophisticated equipment and die higliest calibre staff. Ironically, lab work is usually only a

Niagara Falls as: The young bride's second biggest disappoinlinent. Few are aware dial

die celebrated Irish writer and wit enjoyed

minute fraction of die total cost of most en

a long stay in Canada where he lectured on aesthetics and craftsmanship. Widi his un rivalled epigramniatical flair Wilde also noted diat: Nowadays,people know the price of everything and the value of nothing. His statement migilt profitably be carved in stone in every govemment and munici pal office where environmental goods and services are specified. It is time that some buyers of environmental equipment,consult ing and laboratory services understood die difference between price and value. Ironi cally it is less of a problem in die private sector, even in diese tougli economic times. Plant managers well understand the real value of reputation, reliability and the true costs of lost production time. My daily reminder of value engineering

vironmental projects. Considering die enor mous legal and economic consequences of poor lab data, it is incredible diat price is ever a major factor when purchasing ana

is not carved in stone, but in asphalt; for diere is a short stretch of road nearby which gives me a tactile reminder of Wilde's witty insiglil every time I drive along it. Tlie road bears die scars of regular road repairs which cut across die pavement at riglit angles to the traffic flow. They are a jarring reminder of previous sewer repairs. So many sewers have failed - and are still failing - along diis stretch dial some visitors have die illu

sion dial they are driving over engineered speed butnps. Tlie origins of die fiasco are interesting. Instead of concrete, iron or plastic pipe, someone specified a rather cheap non-tra ditional product. A workman restoring die

lytical services.

This was brouglit home forcibly when my daugliter bouglit an older home which she has now renovated (rebuilt would be a

Many times in this same area I have seen die flashing liglits of the emergency crews working long into winter evenings with trucks, backlioes and shovels, trying to al leviate the misery of homeowners; some

saved trifling sums, perhaps $10 per house hold, when the subdivision was constructed.

The cost of repairing the failed pipe niiglit be in die $2,500 range per house, he said. Local work crews I spoke to also arrived at the same estimate as die engineer. Wliile this was being written, three trucks, sev

consider that even if die lab fees had been

unable to use dielr washrooms, some with

doubled, the costs would be still be trifling

sewage in dieir basements. How do you put a price on exposure to disease, homeown

compared to the value of the lab data, her peace of mind and die safety of those work ing and living in the house. Know thyself said the philosopher. Kttow thy paint says die modem toxicologist, lead emerging as a

ers' loss of amenities and die inconvenience

to neiglibours tmd road users? Yet properly constructed sewers and watermains give decades of trouble free service. Indeed the September issue of ES&E revealed that King Louis XLV com missioned a cast iron water main to supply water to the Palace of Versailles which

lasted 325 years! Some sewers which failed in die area under discussion had lasted less dian diree

real direat these days. Consultants and suppliers also affected

Consulting engineers and equipment suppliers are also plagued widi die low-bid mentality which hampers irmovation, dis courages engineering quality and equipment after sales service; often while ignoring such

decades, not diree centuries. But, let us not

vital factors as low maintenance costs or

forget,someone saved die Town a few bucks years ago when diey emphasized price over

long service life. Tlie actual engineering design work costs of even large complex

someone saved the Town a few bucks years ago when they emphasized price over quality. Later generations are paying so dearly for these savings now.

latest sewer failure, showed me a brittle

cardboard-like pipe which apparently had been impregnated with a tar-like substance. Now the actual savings in the original installation were minor. One municipal en gineer told me he was well aware of diis type of pipe which his department had wisely avoided purchasing years ago. He es timated diat those who had purchased it had

more appropriate word). Before renovations began she wisely had some paint samples analyzed for lead. Tlie lab's findings were reassuring. Tlie analyses - done by a higlily reputable lab - cost about one tendi of one percent of the value of die property. But

quality. Later generations are paying so dearly for these savings now. Incidently, die galvanized culvert pipe at this location probably installed at die same time - seemed as good as new when uneardied while the cheap sewer pipe had failed miserably. One worker who lived nearby said diat on his street, only four houses had not ex perienced sewer failure. I saw die cmmbling sewer line replaced widi PVC pipe which I

projects is often widiin one and a half per cent of die life cycle costs of die project. In

short, good engineering pays for itself.

Many pfbtlucts come with an after-sales service which is beyond price. Some hydrant and coupling manufacturers, for example,

Labs also affected

frequently respond to late weekend calls to keep services running. Now fire protection of life and property obviously has a profound economic value which, regrettably, is sel dom reflected in die purchase price. 'Wlien die low-bid ethos prevails, die buyers niiglit be unwittingly getting poor value for those

inconvenienced, as traffic was diverted,add

But sewers are only one factor where die low-bid edios fails to reflect quality and value for money. Labs offering quality ana

diey serve. Put simply, we need to seek value in equipment and services - not merely the low

ing further to the costs of this pipe failure.

lytical services are often affected also. In-

est price.

eral men and one backhoe were at the site,

the operator skillfully direading his backhoe between water, gas and cable services. One false move and additional expenses could occur if these other services were damaged. Motorists and odier homeowners were also

am confident will outlast die home it now serves.

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

The Commitment Continues >"-â– "Kl


C o niini11e cl to Ex c e 1 1 e n c e

Our name has changei Our commitment remains the same Excellence in people, products and service. It's always been ttiat way at Scepter/Canron.


1 I*

and will continue

that way at IPEX. Now, and in the future.



For more news, call: B.C. (800) 663-5864, Alberta (403) 468-4444, Ontario (800) 268-4664, Quebec (800) 363-4343. Wlaritlmes (800) 561-74'

For more information, Circle reply card No. 132. *.


Photo Report

By Steve Davey*

Over 12,500 attend WEF in California

The WEF Conference keynote ad

dress, 'Ethics and professionalism and tlieir roles in the water qual ity issues' was a clear indication

tliat tlie Water Environment Federation is

addressing tlie new sociological and politi cal challenges its members now face. Dr. Margaret Maxey, Professor of Bioethics in the Biomedical Engineering Program at the University of Texas focussed on: "the apparent consumer move toward controlling less and less pollution at greater and greater expense until we are spending everything for notliing." She said tliat according to tlie Joint Iiconomic Commission of the US Congress, the 1993 budget for federal environmental regu lations is $562 billion, which is double tlie

1992 defense budget. "A common belief is that tliere is no safe

dose of any carcinogenic material, tlierefore there must be zero pollution. I ask you to consider this: death is no longer natural; death must have a cause; there must be

someone to blame. This is tlie mentality tliat has caused a plethora of environmental laws. "Part of tlie cause is also tlie tyranny of

Hollywood gave us Back to the Future. Elmco took its guests Back to the Past at a Medieval Times Banquet. Left to right, Dennis Mitchell, President British Columbia Water and Wastewater Association, Hew McGonnell, WEF Director of BCW&WA and Judy McGonnell were among the Canadians at this spectacular event. safety. "Is safety now our secular form of

Was it ever sunmied up better? Tlie WEF's 66th Conference attracted

*President, Environmental Science & En-

salvation. Tlie ethical question is not how safe is safe enough, but how fair is safe enougli?." "Hie healtli of nations is directly linked

gineermg Inc.

to the wealtli of nations," she said.

Environmental Software used by Canadian Industry Environmental Auditor Employs CSA guidelines for EA Detailed Criteria: legislation Provincial, Municipal & Federal, EMS (CSA, BSI), & Industrial Codes of Practice.

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can be.

i was only kidding Our September Editorial Comment was ti tled: Could anti-logghig spiking be consid ered arboreal acupuncture? As part of this satirical approach I dreamed up a female Rhetorical

Margaret Maxey Ph.D, a professor of

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Environmental Software Associates Ltd. Suite 318, 99 Atlantic Avenue, Toronto, M6K 3J8 (416)516-2337 (416)516-9892

Editorial comment cont'd. Loss of water and sewerage services can result from tlie low-bid mentality. Sewage in taxpayers' basements is too often tlie out come of the bargain basement shopping for the lowest price at the expense of quality. My recent encounters with the sewer speed bumps are a piersonal reminder of just how costly a price-driven purchasing mentahty

the Water Environment Federation was

Menu driven, pop-up lists & on-line fielp Electronic import of lab & MOEE MIDES data

Waste classification (provincial/federal) and inventory

Continued overleaf

Bioethiolst. Imagine my surprise when I leamed that one of tlie keynote speakers at

Calendar for tracking reports & monitoring

Export of data to printer, file, MOEE MIDES and NPRI Report Writer and Graphiic package

and suppliers exliibiting.

character whom I called a

Environmental Data Manager^"^

Equations for air emission rates & dispersion models

12,686 delegates to Anaheim, Califomia October 3-8. with over 576 manufacturers

Bioetliics at the University of Texas. Dr. Maxey is a Bioetliicist, (not like my

fictional Rhetorical Bioethicist )working in the Biomedical Engineering Program at the University of Texas. She examined the apparent consumer move towards control

ling less and less pollution at greater and greater expense until we are spending eve rything for nothing. Talk about relevance. ES&E staff who attended tlie conference said

Dr. Maxey's presentation was a timely and thought provoking message for all environ mental professionals. Etiviromnental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Environmental Services introduces a new form ofconfidence Laidlaw Environmentars no-frills

indemnification program assures you worry-free waste management from a partner you can trust. ~,_We take the waste. We take the title. We take tfie risk.


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Over 12,500 attend WEF continued Tlie Great Canadian Ice-Breaker - with its Mexican theme - had over 200 Canadi

ans attending. A particular higlilight of tlie evening was tlie digital imaging photogra phy which transformed many eager attendees into their alter egos. The WEAO's* Peter Nicol and WCW&WA's** Bill Borlase are to be conmiended for ar

ranging such a great evening.

of WEAO and President of Gore & Storrie


Limited, was invited to serve on tlie Execu

WEF member associations from across Canada attended a Canadian Leaders Fo

tive Conmiittee of tlie WEF. Teclmical sessions were so well attended

rum, convened by WEF President Qiuck Sorber and chaired by incoming President Phil Gerwert. Based on this meeting. Ca nadian members will request permission to

tliat more space will be needed for 1994. Eleven pre-conference workshops and semi nars were held with topics ranging from "Design of Wastewater and Storniwater Pumping Stations" to "Implementation of Shift Schedules Using Total Quality Man agement".

In the WEF Research Foundation's Fun

Run,Gord Thompson,P.Eng once again was first past tlie finishing line. He has won otlier runs, including a first at the Toronto WEF Conference two years ago. Gord is General Manager of Edmonton's Capital Region Sewage Conmiission. Colleen Davey of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine came first in her class in tlie wom en's competition.

At tlie Poster Session, an Honourable

Mention was given to a poster prepared by WEAO's S. Liver, C. Eraser, I. Stephenson. and S. Bessada on,'On-site pilot investiga tion of activated sludge treatment for a groundwood/supercalender paper mill.' Hie Ontario Nerds - Don Gervais, Lisa Bumbaco, Marcel Lafrenier and Sean

Federation Affairs The Board of Control gave approval to tlie WEF vision statement: The Water En

George Powell P.Eng, a Past President

• Expanding quality service to its members. • Building alliances with other organiza

Bill Borlase and son

enjoying Medieval Times, set up a WEF Canadian Affairs Leaders

McGliee represented tlie WEAO.in tlie Op erations Cliallenge finishing tliirteentli in their category against the best in North

vironment Federation will be the pre-emi nent organization dedicated to the preser vation and enhancement of the global wa

Forum. Tliis forum would include Cana

ter environment.

dian member associaton directors and would

WEF is committed to tlie following prin ciples: •Providing technical information to a world

meet at least twice per year to facilitate com munication among Canadian MA's and to provide coordinated Canadian input on WEF

'Water Environment Association of On



wide audience.


Hie 1994 Annual Confemce will be in

Qiicago Oct. 15 - 20. tario "Western Canada Water & Wastewater



(Top left) Left to right. Andrew Hutton, Eco Equipment, Euan Ferguson, Delcan and Al Vivian, GL&V at the icebreaker. (Top right) Colleen Davey. (Bottom left) Gord Thompson. (Bottom right) The Ontario Nerds - Marcel Lafrenier, Lisa Bumbaco, Albert Cunningham (Peacock*) Don Gervais and Sean McGhee represented the WEAO, in the Operations Challenge. 'One of the event's sponsors. Emiromnenlal Science & Engineering, November 1993

Industry Update New water treatment

agement Seminar in Calgary, Alberta, Feb ruary 3-4, 1994. Tire seminar's tlieme is

ness' initiatives in waste reduction have cre

publication from CWWA

Hie Business of Water/Wastewater Manage ment — today's trends and opportunities. The program will focus on tliree current water and wastewater management topics which are significant to this theme: - Or ganizational Options, Public/Private Part nerships and Conservation/Rates & Pricing. A slate of speakers from across Canada has been arranged. For a full program and registration package or publication details,

North America."

The Canadian Water and Wastewater Asso

ciation (CWWA) announces the availabil ity of a new pubhcation, Water Treatinem

Principles and Applications. This 365-page manual for the produc tion of drinking water has been prepared by Health and Welfare Canada as a compan ion document to tire Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. A first-ever Canadian publication on water treatment, it addresses all current drinking water is sues and treatment technologies. A particu larly unique chapter,"Treatment Options for Specific Contaminants", conveniently overviews treatment techniques for over 100

contact: Canadian Water and Wastewater

Association, 24 Clarence Street, 3rd floor,

Ottawa, Ontario KIN 5P3, Phone: (613) 238-5692, Fax: (613) 238-5193.

Laldlaw Environmental


Water Treattnent Principles and Appli cations is priced at $95.00 to CWWA mem bers, $120.00 to non-members (shipping/ handling and GST extra). Currently avail able in english only. A french language ver sion is expected to be available late in 1993. For order forms, fax (613)238-5193.

CWWA announces

national management The Canadian Water and Wastewater Asso

ciation(CWWA)will host a National Man

Eric Hunter, Director of Special Projects for Laidlaw Environmental, said a "persist ently sluggish economy coupled witli busi

7 m®

"Tlie reality is that rotary kilns operat ing within the North American environmen tal services sector are mnning at an average of only 70 percent of available capacity. The time has come and gone when Ontario's needs require a 20,000-tonne-capacity ro tary kiln in the province. The service can be provided in otlier ways," he said. Hunter noted tliat, under existing and projected market conditions, Laidlaw En vironmental could provide effective treat ment services more economically by offer ing waste generators access to rotary kilns already in operation in the Nortli American market and by continuing to pursue waste minimization opportunities witliin the prov-

Laidlaw Environmental Services has an

nounced it will not proceed with its pro posal to construct a hazardous waste rotary kiln incinerator at its Lambton Facility, near Samia, Ontario, pointing to insufficient market need and the availability of alterna tive technologies as tlie key reasons for can celling tlie project. The company will not pursue its application before the province's Environmental Assessment Board.

seminar in 1994


cancels kiln project

ated an excess of rotary kiln capacity in


The Backflow Prevention Specialists

BCW&WA conference announcement British Columbia Water and Wastewater As

sociation will be holding their 1994 confer ence at Victoria Conference Centre, Victo

ria, on May 8, 9, 10 & 11, 1994. Confer ence theme is Share the wealth of knowl edge. Contact Catlierine Gibson for infor mation; Tel: (604) 936-4982, Fax: (604) 931-3880.

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Industry Update Can plants clean up

for nickel, in an analogous way to that for

contaminated soils?

Backed financially by the European Community, the Leverhume Trust and the US Army, scientists in Britain and New Zealand have been carrying out field experi

British scientists believe that plants could decontaminate polluted soils; they have dis covered that a small but growing number are capable of accumulating very high con centrations of metals in their stems and

leaves. More tlian 70 species are now clas sified as hyperaccumulators. Hiese contain hundreds to thousands times larger metal concentrations in their above-ground parts than normal, and range from herbaceous flowering plants to trees.

Dr. Steven McGraph from Britain's In stitute of Arable Crops Research at Harpenden,near London,recently told a UK conference that the discovery of an increas ing number of hyperaccumulator plants has opened up tlie prospect of seeing contami nated and abandoned sites "growing clean" with a cover of yellow and white flowers of hyperaccumulator plants. At present there are no techniques for such a clean-up which are low cost and retain soil fertility after the metals contamination has been removed.

He says examples of hyperaccumulator plants include Sebertia acuminata, which is native to nickeVchromium-rich soils in New Caledonia. The latex in tliis tree con

tains more than 11 percent nickel and is blue because of tills. He continued: "An obvi

ous application would be to tap such trees


ments on a site where metal-contaminated

land AL5 2JQ, Fax: +44-582 760981.

Trees used to pump and treat groundwater

sludge from London had been spread for 20 years. Ten species of plant were grown to test their efficiency for removing metals in

Bowser-Momer, Inc., Dayton, Ohio, claims

above-ground biomass.

its TreeMediation™ is a cost-effective, bio-

Dr. McGraph said,"This metliod shows promise for cleaning a modestly polluted

remediation program that replaces pump & treat technology in many situations.

site, in situations where tlie remediation can be considered over a number of years. Mix

tures of species might be grown in future rather than the monocultures used in our

tests, in order to remove several metals si

multaneously where there is tlie usual mul tiple contamination." Because hyperaccumulator plants are still relatively rare and found only in remote areas, the doctor said there was an urgent

TreeMediation uses trees and vegetation to

pump out groundwater and treat contami nants in soil and water througli natural bio chemical processes. Cost and efficiency advantages over standard pump and treat systems, include: • Use of trees and vegetation to assimilate contaminants or enhance tlieir degradation in subsurface environments.

• Environmental compatibility with ecosys

need to collect and cultivate them, and to


establish a gemiplasm facility for their largescale production. Future work could involve genetic engineering to further improve metal-uptake characteristics once the genes

• Low-tech processes and procedures. • Low maintenance and low capital cost. The program takes advantage of remediation methods that utilize plants for remediating soil and groundwater (i.e. phyto- or agro-remediation). However,

for metal accumulation had been identified.

The possibility then existed to transfer genes for metal hyperaccuniulation into a produc tive but inedible host plant. Details: Dr. Steven McGraph, Agricul-

Please ask for our FREE catalog

TreeMediation takes these bio-remediation

techniques a step further by utilizing trees as an altemative to groundwater "pump and treat" technology. The program takes ad

vantage of the extensive root systems of trees and otlier vegetation to extract water from aquifer systems.

Developed by Dr. Edward G. Gatliff of

Bowser-Morner, the TreeMediation pro

We have what you need

gram has been field-tested to demonstrate

• Water quality systems • Laboratory & field equipment

tliat it is a viable, cost-effective and effi

cient approach to remediating soil and groundwater. The TreeMediation program has been utilized to remediate aquifers up to 20 feet deep and may be practical in some deeper aquifers. Low yielding aquifers are particularly suited for this methodology.

• Water level indicators

• Flow loggers • Portable gas chromatographs • GPS global positioning systems • pH meters

TreeMediation offers an ideal mechanical

• Ozonators • Weather stations

pumping system, whereas tlie design of tra ditional pump and treat systems for tills type of condition has proven problematic. A large

• Data loggers • Gas detectors

number of trees are planted in close prox imity over the contaminated aquifer (or as a barrier around the site). The trees then simulate a large number of very small wells that draw water upward througli what is, in many applications, a contaminated soil col-



Contact: Gerald H. Degler, RE., BowserMomer, Inc. (513) 236-8805 ext. 289.


Thailand to spend $10 billion to clean up

GENEQ inc. AT YOUR SERVICE FOR 20 YEARS □ 8047 Jarry E., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1J 1H6 Tei: (514) 354-2511 Fax: (514) 354-6948 □ 223 Signet Drive, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9L 1V1 Tei: (416) 747-9889 Fax: (416) 747-7570 □ 2628 Granviiie St., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6H 3H8 Tei: (604) 739-0889 Fax; (604) 731-9445


tural and Food Research Council, Institute

of Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted Ex perimental Station, Harpenden, Herts, Eng

For more information, Circie reply card No. 117

environment Tliailand's market for environmental prod ucts and services will be US $ 10 billion over

the next 10 years, providing Canada's envi-

Enviro7i7nental Scie7ice & Enghieeri/ig, Nove7nber 1993

DIN T lEUEVE WHAT WE SAY AIGUT lUR Will. RELIEVE YGURSEIF. At Environment Protection Laboratories we believe

the unique combination of our professional people, our rapid turn-around time and our dedication to

providing superior service mokes us one of the best analytical laboratories in Canada.

In fact, we're so confident of our leadership status that we'll give you the opportunity to judge for yourself how we measure up. Just call or FAX us to request our FREE

In just minutes, you'll be able to measure your lob's performance against ours. Sure, we believe we're Number One. But don't take our word for it. Take the Test.


Call now


and get your FREE copy of from EPL.

Contact Jim Bishop, For more information, Circle reply card No. 118

Vice-President Soles & Service at

(905) 673-3255, or FAX (905) 673-7399


Advertisers' Update

1993/'94 Directory & Buyers' Guide issue Recognized as the most comprehensive directory of goods and services available to Canada's environmental professionals In these tough economic times ES&E's ads have proven to be recession breakers. They reach some 19,200 quaiified readers, pius many hundreds of additional readers through bonus copies picked up at shows and semi nars. Print run for the Directory issue wiii be over 21,000 copies. In addition to Directory listings, this issue wiii contain a range of feature articies and news

""y 1993

reports of this growing industry. Then there's our award winning Editorial Comment, R&D News and other must reading for key specifiers. Being a vaiuable reference tool, this issue is a keeper with a iong shelf life for your ad.

December/January Issue Ad closing date December 22,1993

Don't miss out!!!

Directory and Biiyer*s Guide ES&E Directory and Buyer's Guide is Canada's largest and most comprehensive reference for environmental specifiers. ♦ Directory of environrrtental consulting engineers. equipment and services. • Ditectorv of manufacturers and snp|-.iiers. • Directory of laboratories serving the environ mental field.

Scheduled Ediloria!'^ Ground water remediation Hazardous wastes

Oil/water separation

♦ Bonus section ~ Specifiers can find out who

Trenchless technology

you reprt^st.-nt. This valuable reference source makes the is

Wastewater treatment

sue a 'keeper' for some 19,000 environmental professionals; unquestionably your best ad vertising buy of the year for goods and serv

Water treatment and disinfection


To reserve space,or for further details, phone us before December 22,1993. Steve Davey President

(905) 727-4666

Penny Davey Sales Manager (905) 727-4666

Ron Ganton

B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849

10 Patch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 5N7 Teiephone: (905) 727-4666, Fax: 841-7271 12

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Industry Update ronmental industry with significant oppor tunities.

Thailand's Deputy Prime Minister, Dr. Amnuay Viravan, told representatives from 75 environmental organizations that Tliailand is seeking Canadian environmental and energy efficiency companies to supply tech nologies and products to help improve en vironmental conditions in Thailand. Dr.

Viravan was speaking at a Toronto seminar on opportunities for Canadian companies in Thailand's environmental sector.

Last year Tliailand passed the most far reaching package of environmental protec tion legislation in Asia. Brian Smith, Di rector, Enterprise Thailand Canada,a CIDA funded organization promoting Thai Cana dian business partnerships, said that there are enormous opportunities for Canadian companies in Thailand, m environmental and other business sectors. ETC was re

cently instrumental in bringing togetlier a joint venture between Hatfield Consultants and a Thai company to provide testing and environmental assessment in Tliailand.

1994 Environmental Tradeshow showcases

potential of multi-billion dollar industry The 1994 Toronto Environmental Tradeshow and Conference is now book

ing exhibit space for its 8tli aimual event, to be held May 11 & 12,1994, at the To ronto Intemational Centre in Mississauga. Toronto Environmental Tradeshow &

Conference is designed to facilitate tlie promotion of products and services, as well as to furtlier die development of special ized knowledge through technical ses sions. Leading manufacturers and suppli ers of environmental instrumentation,

equipment and services, will display their wares. Diis hands-on tradeshow provides buyers witli an opportunity to evaluate die many products and services on display and is organized by Canadian Exhibition Man agement(CEMI).Tom McCaffrey,Presi dent, states: "Tlie 1993 Tradeshow, with

For further information: Brian Smith

an increase of over 50% in both exliibit

(416)861-3486; Jim Bruce(416)363-4174, (416) 920-3135.

space and exhibiting companies, reflected die growth pattem dirougliout die environ mental industry. This newest Canadian industry seems to have turned die comer from the infancy stage to an established mature industry." For the second consecutive year. Envi ronmental Science & Engineering maga

UK helps desert water search Universities in Britain, Greece and Egypt are joining forces to provide expertise that will enable the Egyptian city of Assuit to expand into the surrounding desert. The old city of Assuit, which sits on the banks of tire Nile, has a population of one million people and any further developments

zine has been appointed to produce the 1994 two-day Conference. Tliis Confer ence will again blend the practical side of die Tradeshow with a learning exfierience from some of Canada's leading experts. Mr. McCaffrey states, "due to die excel lent results obtained by Environmental Science & Engineering in producing the 1993 Conference, we are most pleased to be associated with them again." For further exliibition information,con

tact: Tom P. McCaffrey, President, Ca nadian Exhibition Management Inc. (403) 469-2400,Fax:(403)469-1398. For con ference information, contact Steve Davey Fax: (905) 841-7271.



there will involve tire reclamation of the desert. This means that water detection and

tire management of new water resources have become a priority. The University of Assuit has consider able experience in water detection but lacks the necessary equipment to carry it out. Tliis has led to its forging collaborative links with tire electronics department at York Univer sity in nortliem England and the geophysi cal laboratory at tire Greek university of Thessaloniki.

Under this EC funded project, York Uni versity (UK) will co-ordinate the Assuit project by linking its own expertise in rel evant instrumentation and processing with Thessaloruki's know-how in managing ar chaeological and desert sites, and Assuit University's water detection knowledge. York's electronics department will be involved in the design and development of novel technology for monitoring bodi the environment and geophysical aspects of upper Egypt and it is hoped that techniques that emerge from this work will be suitable not only for Egypt but also other countries in the region. The York scientists will pro duce their environmental assessment of tire

Assuit expansion with the aid of such tilings as satellite photographs of the area's terrain.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and wastewater treatment

CANADA WIDE REPRESENTATION 8070 Jarry Est Anjou, Que, HI J 1H5 Tel:(514)351-4632 Fax:(514)352-3711

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

16700 Bayview Avenue,Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X1W1 Tel:(905)836-9490 Fax:(905)836-9070

For more information. Circle reply card No. 119


Industry Update Molten Metal

Technology opens recycling demonstration facility

Dusanka wins $100,000 Manning prize

cial-scale demonstration of Catalytic Extrac tion Processing (CEP), Molten Metal Tech nology's breaktlirough technology for recy

Ms.Dusanka Filipovic, P.Eng.,of Toronto, received the 1993 Manning Principal Award ($100,000) and Dr. David Schindler of Edmonton, Alberta was tlie recipient of tlie 1993 Award of Distinction ($25,000). Maiming Awards, named in honour of former Alberta Premier Ernest C. Maiming, recognize and encourage excellence in Ca nadian irmovation. Since its inception in 1982, the program has recognized 50 Cana dians for their achievements in a variety of disciplines througli the presentation of $1.5

cling hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.

million in awards.

Molten Metal Technology officially opened its $15 million Recycling Research and Development(R&D)Facility Sept. 20. This event was the commencement of commer

This state-of-the-art Recycling-R&D Facility houses seven CEP systems,the larg est of which is a commercial-scale proto type capable of recycling up to two tons of waste per hour. The company has received permits that allow these CEP systems to demonstrate recycling of a wide array of industrial, government, and post-consumer wastes. The Facility was opened in Fall River, Massachusetts.

Molten Metal Technology (NASDAQ: MLTN) is an environmental technology company commercializing a breakthrough proprietary recycling and pollution preven tion technology known as Catalytic Extrac tion Processing (CEP). CEP makes valu able products from wastes by dissolving them in a molten metal bath. Broadly ap plicable to a wide variety of hazardous and

Dusanka developed and patented what has become known as the "Blue Bottle"

technology, which eliminates emissions of CFCs from equipment being repaired or abandoned.

Tlie Blue Bottle is a hglit, easily port able cylinder packed with an absorbent molecular sieve. It is the only existing sys tem which can capture essentially all CFCs (and harmful but less damaging CFC sub stitutes) in a system, preventing any escape to tlie atmosphere.

Former Environment Ministers Jean Gharest and Ruth Grier with Dusanka and Blue Bottle. boards at the same time. She is now Presi dent and Chief Executive Officer of

Halozone Technologies Inc. Dr. Schindler now is Killam Memorial

Dusanka has served as a Trustee of Ont. Section AWWA and as a Director of tlie Water Environment Association of Ontario.

Professor of Ecology in the Departments of Zoology and Botany at the University of

No otlier person was ever elected to both

terest is the ecology of mountain lakes.

non-hazardous wastes.

ing, HCFC-141b emerged as the most vi

Contact: Ian Yates, Molten Metal Tech


Alberta, where one of his main areas of in

able and effective alternative for CFC-11.

"Today, improved polyiso insulation is manufactured with HCFC-141b,an effective


Polyisocyanurate manufacturers win international ozone

CFC substitute that will dramatically reduce depletion of the ozone layer, and is compa rable, in terms of tliermal and mechanical

properties, to tlie CFC-blown product." said Jared Blum.

protection award

Terraprobe Limited

Is pleased to welcome

Rescan Consultants

DAVID SAWiCKI P.Eng. Brampton office. Mr. Sawiciri joins Terraprobe with more than 15 years of government and consulting experience in ground water engineering, contaminant hydrogeology, environmental geology and geological engineering. He enhances the firm's ability to provide specialized

The Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufac turers Association (PIMA) is the recipient of the 1993 EPA Stratospheric Ozone Pro tection Award in recognition of its leader ship role in the successful elimination of CFCs from polyiso insulation. PIMA was one of only five associations worldwide to receive this award presented by the U.S.

services in the fields of waste

Environmental Protection Agency during

management, landfill evaluation and monitoring, ground water and soil remediation and ground water supply and development.

the October 1993 International CFC and

tal audits and site assessments, waste man

Halon Alternatives Conference in Washing

agement planning, occupational health and safety, oceanographic services, and hazard

Terraprobe is a consulting engineering firm that specializes in geotechnical engineering,soil and

fects of CFCs on tlie ozone layer moved to

To recognize the company's achieve


the forefront of the US environmental

ments, Tom Hockin, Minister for Interna

decommissioning, hydrogeology

agenda. At that time, CFCs were a critical component in the production of polyiso in sulation. PIMA members tlien pledged to eliminate the use of CFCs in tlieir products by December 31, 1993, a schedule years ahead of Federal and international require ments." stated Jared Blum,PIMA president. To meet its phase-out goal, the industry had to marshall significant technological and financial resources. After tliree years of test

tional Trade, presented Rescan Consultants Inc. with a Canada Export Award on Octo ber 4, 1993. The Canada Export Award honours Canadian companies tliat have ex celled in exporting tlieir products and serv ices to countries around the globe. This year, there were 166 applicants from across the country. Ten companies received the 11th annual award, presented by Extemal Affairs and International Trade Canada (EAITC).

as an Associate based in the

groundwater and




inspection and testing.

2565 Sleeles Ave. E.

Brampton, OnL


230 Bayview DrÂŤ Barrle, OnL


L4N 5E9

(905) 793-2650

(705) 739-8355

ton, DC. "In the 1980s, the debate over the ef

inc. wins Canada

Export Award Rescan Consultants Inc. works witli com

panies around tlie globe. Founded in 1981, Rescan offers a variety of environmental consulting services, including environmen

ous waste treatment and control.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Industry Update UK launches Contract Chemicals is among Britain's faster-growing chemicals manufacturers and lays emphasis on its own research and de velopment to introduce new technology. By workingjointly with York University's(UK) Chemistry Department,Contract Cliemicals has developed four catalysts under tire trade name Envirocats, to replace conventional catalysts such as aluminum trichloride in a wide range of organic synthesis reactions.

Envirocats offer a significant break through in environmentally-friendly chem istry and are stimulating interest through out the world's pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries. They are said to cut gaseous emissions by 75%, and have no aqueous effluent, while solvents - in par ticular chlorinated solvents - can also be

eliminated. Tlie non-toxic powders can be charged using conventional facilities and are non-corrosive, allowing the use of stainless steel or glass-lined reactors. Metal residues and unwanted by-products are not formed and the accidental ingress of water is less serious. The amount of catalyst required is reduced, additional plant for quenching the reaction is unnecessary and,according to tlie developers,Envirocats are often recoverable





Biosolids and Waste Utilization


• Liquid and Dewatered Appiication. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.



Mail — P.O. Box 60069

Oakville, Ontario L6M 3H2



Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Medkj & Coal Ltd.

Management Centre

20SHXSP ROAD.R.R. #6.HJANIFORD.ONIAiaO Nil5l8 m;(519)751-1080 FAX:(519) 761-0617

4449 Hwy #25, Oakville, Ont. L9T 2X5


For more information, Circie repiy card No. 120

For more information, Circle reply card No. 130


Environmental Specialists Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flov/metering Plant Air Clean Up


Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidit);


Suspended Solids, O2, DO, Conductivity

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7,Tel (905) 277-0331, Fax (905) 277-2588

For more information. Circle reply card No. 121

and re-usable.

Tlie combined advantages of these novel catalysts are claimed to provide a much bet ter cost and environmental and safety op



tion than conventional so-called Lewis ac

ids, of which aluminum trichloride is one.


The possible implications of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease, and die enormous

environmental pressures to limit waste dis charges are making such chemical processes unacceptable. The catalysts have an esti mated European market of 50,000 tonnes a year. The total world market for Envirocat technology has a potential value of $200

• Specializing in testing of Underground and aboveground storage tanks

• Nationwide service offered

through offices in Montreal, Toronto and Edmonton

2650 Meadowvale Blvd., Unit 12A, Mississauga, Ont. L5N 6M5,(905)819-8811 Edmonton (403)963-9403

Montreal (514) 593-9993

For more information. Circle repiy card No. 122




Ecodyne awarded Iran

/1uolxX^/Ccui/ CORP.


water contract

High Pressure Water Jetting Ecodyne Limited of Oakville, Ontario has been awarded a major contract to supply water treating equipment to a fertilizer com plex in Iran. The value of the contract is

Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services


Ml H 2X8

Tel: (416) 438-6706

^ Fax:(416) 438-1521

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more Information, Circle reply card No. 123

over $8 million.

The water treatment plant will take al most 3,000 gpm of water from a nearby lake and through die processes of clarification, filtration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange will produce ultra-pure water to be used in the generation of high pressure steam. Contract purchasing is by Kawasaki Heavy Industries of Japan. Plant engineer ing by M.'W. Kellogg of London, England.


^ WaterGroup

The ovraer is Kliorasan Petrochemical Com

pany, Iran. The majority of the equipment


will be fabricated in Ontario.

Envirotimemal Science & Engineering, November 1993

For more information. Circle reply card No. 124


Industry Update istry of Transportation Ontario, and the Ministry of Environment & Energy. A concrete pipe plant prequaiificatlon program has existed in Ontario since 1965.

Ontario regs aim for 50 percent waste reduction

At tliat time, the Ontario Water Resources

Ontario Environment and Energy Minis ter Bud Wildman announced new regu lations that will simplify approvals for recycling facilities, save waste disposal costs and,by the year 2000, divert an esti mated extra 2 million tormes per year of Ontario waste from landfill.

Hie new regulations will require: • Blue Box recycling,leaf and yard waste composting and home composting pro grams for all municipahties with a popu lation greater than 5,000. • Annually updated waste audits, waste reduction workplans and recycling pro grams for large industrial, conmiercial and institutional waste generators. Tliose af fected include large construction and demolition projects, retail complexes,hos pitals, schools, hotels and motels, restau

rants, and manufacturing establishments. • Packaging audits, updated every two

years, and packaging reduction workplans for Ontario manufacturers, witli more than

100 full-time employees or their part-time equivalent, in food, beverage, paper and allied products, and chemical products. Approvals for recycling facilities will

Conmiission and tlie Ontario Concrete Pipe Manufacturers established a plant pre quaiificatlon program.

Hie intent of tlie program was to set uni form fabrication standards, procedures and quality controls to ensure that a higli qual ity product was delivered to all projects. Hie program was administered by the OWRC and subsequently. Ministry of tlie Environ ment staff.

also be streamlined.

Hie regulations became law in August 1993, but most of the provisions will be gin to apply six to twelve montlis later. Municipalities in Northern Ontario will have until July 1996 to implement their recycling and composting programs to ac commodate. the greater challenges they face because of longer distances to mar kets for recyclables.

In 1990,tlie Ministry of tlie Environment terminated its direct involvement in tlie ad

ministration of the program and the Plant Prequaiificatlon Committee picked up where tlie MOE left off. Witli this change in administration, the program was en

hanced as more agencies with direct inter est in the program became active members of tlie Committee.

Several advantages were realized by tlie

Concrete pipe plant prequaiificatlon program logo is

In November, 1992,the Ontario Concrete

modified Hie function of the Plant Prequaiificatlon Program is to ensure tliat concrete pipe sup-

Announcement Geneq Inc., distributor of environmen tal related instruments, is proud to an nounce the opening of their third sales office. The new office is located in Van

couver, B.C., at 2628 Granviiie St.

Stephen Biduk is in charge and is looking after giving the best support to our B.C. customers. You can reach him

at tei:(604) 739-0889 or fax:(604) 7319445.

plied for infrastructure is dependable and of the highest quality available. Hie pro gram's triangular symbol stamped on each pipe, is the industry's assurance of quality.

Pipe Association welcomed the Ministry of Transportation as a member of the Plant Prequaiificatlon Program. The recent merger of the Ontario Ministry of Energy with the Ministry of the Environment also effected change. Subsequently, tlie logo of tlie program has been modified to show tlie MTO's participation and the new acronym

for tlie f^istry of Environment and Energy. The Plant Prequaiificatlon Conmiittee, responsible for implementation of the pro gram, consists of representatives from the Ontario Concrete Pipe Association, the Municipal Engineers' Association, the Min

formation of tlie new Prequaiificatlon Pro

gram in 1990. Hie new hnk with specifiers through the M.E.A. made the industry more responsive to market needs and changes. The inspection and testing of O.C.P.A. mem ber pipe producers is performed by an inde pendent consulting engineering firm that reports directly to the Prequaiificatlon Committee.

This program is in addition to the strin gent requirements of CSA A257M for manu facturing concrete pipe. Joint dimension tolerances are confirmed for every pipe pro duced, and structural and hydrostatic per formance is verified.

The Plant Prequaiificatlon Program cov ers 150 nmi to 900 mm diameter concrete

pipe. In 1993, precast box culverts and box sections in spans of 1800 nmi,and 2400 mm, and 3000 nmi were added to the program.

PROVEN MONITORING SOLUTIONS From the High Arctic to the prairies, and from the summits of the Rockies to offshore Newfoundland, Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corporation offers proven soludons to a wide range of measurement and control applications. Our dataloggers are direcdy compatible with sensors used to measure a variety of parameters. Applications range from environmental, forestry, agriculture, transportation and indusu-y. Data retrieval, remote programming, real time monitoring and control are available via hardwire links, RF Telemetry, telephone (line and cellular) and satellite links (GOES, ARGOS). Bathhurst Island N.W.T.


Let our 15 years experience work for you.

Campbell scientific(canada)corp. 1 1564 149 St. edmonton ■ alberta ■ T5M 1W7 ■ (403)454 2505 ■ fax (403)454 2655 192 St clair st ■ Chatham ■ Ontario ■ N7L 3J6 ■ (519) 354 7356 ■ fax (519)354 1558 16

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 125

Environmejnal Science & Engineering, November 1993

Price vs quality

ES&E position paper

VJhy is price a major factor in anaiyticai services whiie iab accreditation isn't required?

Both private and government laboratories are involved in

gathering information on water quality in the Great Lakes Basin. Government laboratories,

principally those of the Ontario Minis try of the Environment and Energy (MOEE).and the Environment Canada laboratory at Burlington (CCIW). are responsible for maintaining databases

tor uses in attempting to meet environ mental quality criteria. Examples are Regulation 347, with its requirements for waste characteristics for landfilling or other means of disposal, the Decom missioning or Phytotoxicological Guidelines which are used for con

When governments develop guide lines or regulations for environmental protection, one would expect that they would be concerned that the data ob

tained. whether from government or from private labs, be the best quality data that can be economically obtained.

taminated site clean-ups. and the Pro vincial Water Quality Objectives which

However, this is almost never the case.

consultinsiensjineers and industries use

Problems with government environmental contracts

At its peak, MiSA caused the Ontario private sector's share of anaiysis to go from around 30 miilion (pre-MiSA) to approximateiy 50 m Hiion doiiars in 1989-90. regarding water quality of the Great Lakes, and inland rivers emptying into the lakes, and government owned and operated direct dischargers into the lakes such as sewage treatment plants. Some municipalities have laboratories to provide information on sewage ef fluent and drinking water quality. Private laboratories maintain data

to compare to surface water and receiv ing body quality. Finally, the Drinking Water Objectives of the Ministry of the Environment and Energy and/or Healtli and Welfare Canada are also used, mainly by companies in the business of selling bottled water or point-of-u.se devices for treating tap water, and for groundwater quality evaluations.

bases for the thousands of industries around the Great Lakes, as well as

1989-90. After 1990. as the MISA mon

itoring phase of the program was ended and the rest of the MISA program lost momentum, the Ontario analytical market shrunk back down to around

$35 million a year. While Ontario does not have many legislative programs that specifically drive private testing, there are some pro grams and policies that the private see-

accreditation of the "analyst" or the la boratory is needed. As Tom Davey re cently wrote: "The govenimetu is more

concerned about protecting its front poor haircuts or bad hot dogs then it is about pro tecting both the public and the environtnent from uiuiiialified chemists."(ES&E Jan. 93). Certification is generally regar ded by federal and provincial govern-


others who use the water around inland lakes and rivers for industrial or com

mercial purposes. Private laboratories also provide analytical data to support various government programs through contracts. Finally, there are other data bases maintained by private industries large enough to operate their own la boratories. Many private laboratories have joined the International Associa tion of Environmental Testing Labora tories (lAETL). Nearly all of this analysis is driven by legislation. As an example, we can look at the impact that a program like MISA* had in Ontario — as a legislated analyti cal program — on private lab loadings. At its peak. MISA caused the Ontario private sector's share of analysis to go from around 30 million (pre-MISA) to approximately 50 million dollars in

Lack of Laboratory Accreditation Analyses in support ofenvironmental regulations can be carried out in Ontario by anyone who wishes to do so. No li cense is required,and no certification or


Thomas P. Kowalski

Thomas P. Kowalski has been named

N.H. (Naz) HIjazI, Ph.D., C.Chem has

president and chief executive officer of Clayton Environmental Consultants, Inc., Novi, Michigan. Mr. Kowalski was formerly Chief Operating Officer, of McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineer ing Corporation. Clayton was recently acquired by Kidd, Kamm Equity


Partners, L.P. from Marsh & McLennan

Companies, Inc. Clayton is an interna tional provider of industrial hygiene, environmental consulting, and labora tory services. Providing services to clients since 1954, Clayton has 14 offices in the United States, Canada,

and the United Kingdom.

*Municipal & Industrial Strategy for


Vice President and

General Manager of Clayton Environ mental Consultants, Ltd. Dr. Hijazi was formerly Executive Vice President of Delcan Environmental Consultants, Inc., Chairman





Canadian Environmental Industry Association - Ontario Chapter (1991 1992). Naz brings to Clayton over twenty years of experience in the environmental field.



Enviroimiental Science & Engineering, November 1993


Price vs quality, continued ment officials as being too costly, too

boratories(C AE AL).or by the Standards

the laboratory association,a prerequisite to being asked to quote on environmen tal work. In fact, many municipal and provincial requests for quotations do not include information regarding QA/ QC. specific methodologies to be used,

Council of Canada. This certification

or other indications that the data were

costs a great deal of money. Even when laboratories spend the time and money to be accredited through these agencies, the Canadian governments(municipal, provincial, or federal) do not provide themselves with more accurate and pre cise data by requiring that only accre dited labs perform their contract analysis.

worth paying for in the first place. As a result, much of the data arising from these low bid contracts are scientifically

Contract decisions based on price


cess in place, or if they did business exclusively with laboratories that can

Conflict between low priee and data quality

demonstrate at least some form of ac creditation via the CAEAL. New York

Ontario's environment legislation specifies guidelines or other criteria for soil, tissue, water,etc. Presumably,these guidelines are based on some science, and they are regarded by the Ministry as being realistic numbers that need to be met. However, neither the Ministry nor industries who must meet MOEE regu lations require that their contract labo ratories demonstrate any accreditation, or any quality control capabilities. Nor

State, or other recognized certification process. This approach would cost the government absolutely nothing, and it would generally provide better quality data. By not having it the message from government is clear — fill in the blanks

environmental labs and Canadians de

are the labs asked to use certified metho

serve to have data that are reliable and

dologies. Accordingly. Ontario is being

of demonstrable quality.

cumbersome and too difficult. However,

laboratories can be certified by the State of New York or by the Canadian Associ ation of Environmental Analytical La

Canada needs and deserves a single accreditation program for its environmentai tabs and Canadians deserve to have

data that are reliabie and of demonstrable quality.

Related to above is the fact that gov ernment makes decisions to obtain ana

lytical data based on tendered quota tions. and ultimately they make the decision based nearly exclusively on cost. Neither MOEE. Environment Ca

nada nor the municipalities have made accreditation or membership in lAETL. Essex-Windsor

Waste Management Board

Steering Committee Requires a

General Manager, Solid Waste The Essex-Windsor Waste Management Board is a newly established board responsible for the continued progres sive approach to the reduction of solid waste through recy cling, composting and other environmentally safe alterna tives. The Board is also responsible for quality service in providing environmentally sound Landfill sites and perpetual

Appointment Notice

Environmental Scientists



360 Fairview Avenue West

Essex, Ontario N8M 1Y6

Applications accepted up to December 3,1993. Only applicants selected for interviews will be acknowl edged. Freedom of Information Act

Personal information provided is collected under the au thority' of the Municipal Act R.S.O. 1980, and will be used to determine eligibility for employment. Equal Opportinity Employer 18

Employment Opporlunity

Senior Engineer/ Project Manager

Solid Waste Master Plan.

• University degree desirable with extensive experience at the management level. • Ability to communicate effectively with persons at all lev els, both orally and in writing, when consulting with per sons both insitde and/or outside the organization. • Knowledge and experience using various computer pro grams ie. database, spread sheets, etc. • Leadership, organizational abilities and ability to motivate people. Comprehensive Benefit Package Apply In Confidence to: Corporation of the County of Essex Human Resources Department

you like and it's okay with us. Canada needs and deserves a single national accreditation program for its


Reporting to the Waste Management Board of Directors will be responsible for administering the activities of the


on those forms, use whatever numbers

Consulting Engineers - Planners

care of closed sites.

The Manager will be responsible for: • Developing, recommending and implementing programs, projects and policies. • Preparing and administering budgets. • Human resource planning needs and directing activities of subordinate personnel. • Negotiating, recommending, administering contracts with consultants, contractors, municipalities. • Providing technical advice to the Board and/or various

provided with large databases for com pliance or non-compliance on soil, tis sue. drinking water, bottled water,efflu ents. and so on.that are of questionable and indeterminant quality, and which could never be integrated into a useful province-wide database. These problems could be alleviated if the municipal, provincial, and federal governments had a lab certification pro-

Water Treatment and Supply

wastewater treatment, solid waste man

Due to a promotion, we require for our London (Ontario) environmental engineer ing office a senior engineer/project man ager specializing in water treatment/wa ter supply engineering. Applicants should have at least 12 years' progressive experience, preferably following a post-graduate degree, in the planning, design and construction of wa ter treatment and water supply facilities. Experience in process design and project management of a multi-discipline team Is

agement, water treatment and water sup ply projects In Ontario, Alberta and the

desirable. Excellent verbal and written communication skills are essential.

Northwest Territories.

Dillon Is a major employee-owned firm of consulting engineers, planners and en

Dillon Consulting Engineers, Planners and Environmental Scientists are pleased to announce the appointment of Roland Welker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., as Manager of our London Environmental Engineering Office. Roland has 17 years of progres sive experience with Dillon in the plan ning, design and construction of

In the past six years, Roland has been a senior engineer and project manager responsible for projects such as the Re gion of Waterloo Mannheim Water Treat ment Plant; the London Area Water Sup ply Study; the Elgin-Middlesex Second ary Water Supply System; and energy op timization studies for the London-Lake

Huron Water System. Roland's appointment reflects Dillon's commitment to environmental manage ment and providing superior service to our clients.

vironmental scientists and offers excellent

working conditions. London Is a first-class city and offers excellent educational, cul tural and recreational facilities and afford

able housing. Please mail or fax (519-672-8209) your resume to Dillon, Consulting En gineers, Planners and Environmental Scientists, Box 426, Station B, London, Ontario N6A 4W7, Attention; Mike Provart, P.Eng., Director, Environmen tal Engineering Division.

Enviromnei^tcd Science & Engineering, November 1993

PRAXAIR delivers...

economical Incineration and

biotreatment technologies With over 80 years in industrial and atmospheric gas technology and supply systems,Praxair holds the lead in oxygen expertise. At hazardous waste incineration sites across the country, Praxair's patented oxygen combustion technology is boosting performance,increasing efficiency and reducing emissions of incompletely burned organic compounds.

Our Mixflo™ advanced oxygen dissolution technology, developed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, was selected for the nation's first in-situ slurry bioremediation program at a Superfund site. There it was shown to lower costs over conventional aeration methods, reduce toxic

offgas emissions by 99%, and halve air monitoring expenses. Praxair's hazardous waste oxygen combustion technology(top) won the prestigious Kirkpatrick Award. The nation'sfirst in-situ slurry bioremediation program (inset) is running with Praxair's oxygen and Mixflo technology.

Looking ahead,our new Liquid Oxidation Reactor(LOR)process,jointly licensed with ABB Lummus Crest Inc., will help chemical manufacturers reduce solvent consumption and the emissions associated with oxidation processes, making them more cost-effective and better for the environment.

For economical environmental solutions that make sense in both the short and long-term, contact Praxair at 416-803-1600 or write Praxair Canada Inc., 1 City Centre Drive, Suite 1200, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5B 1M2.

IPRAXAIR Praxair is the new global identity for Linde-Union Carbide Mixflo^ is a trademark of Praxair Technologies, Inc.

For more information, Circie reply card No. 171

An Atmosphere of Excellence

Legal affairs

By David Brennen*

Tan or burn? - a look at liability

Taking the sun on the relaxing

years the damage had spread and became

shores of the Caribbean it all

unmistakable in tire creeks surrounding tire

seemed so long ago. It had been

property. Let's say tlrat tire coring opera tion, altlrouglr tlrorouglr, simply missed tire contaminated area. The analysis of groundwater seepage samples, which would have cauglrt tire problem at tire time of tire sale if done by a competent chemist, had been improperly done by a low paid techni cian working in the laboratory.

a hard meeting for tire owners of tire varnish factory tlrat cold November day back in Ontario when tire decision to close

up had been made. But life was good now. At least here.

Back tlren it didn't look like tire prob lems would ever end. Tire recession had

cut sales in half. The company had re sponded early and aggressively by cutting

Wlro could be liable?

costs- tire second shift employees were laid off. lines were shut down, adirrinistrative

salaries had been rolled back, and manage ment compensation was down to tire point where the kids were buying day tickets at tire ski club instead of aimual passes, but tire doors were still open. Until tlrat cold November day when tire bank declined to renew tire company's credit facilities. It was a security problem. Even tlrouglr it was tire only tiring to do - insur ance prenriunrs on paint and solvent were almost as higlr as the cost of the inventory itself- management's decision to go witlrout inventory insurance left the bank with tire plant land and building as the only se curity and tire bank was not prepared to go along. It knew about that little spill last year. And the company had been invited to

results as being correct. Tlris raises the question of who bears

responsibility for tire negligent acts of an employed individual. Under employment law. an employer is responsible for the neg ligent acts of its employees if tlrey were act ing witlrin tire course of tlreir employment. An employer is not only responsible for what tire employee does, but is also responsible for the way tire employee does it. If a chem ist widr average skills and training, acting reasonably in tire choice and application of available metlrods of detection would have


find otlrer bankers.

So.realizing tlrat tire cost of cleanup was

Aside from legislation like the Environ

more than tire land was wortlr, tire doors

mental Protection Act and other environ

closed. And the equipment was sold. And altlrouglr it nriglrt not have been quite riglrt to not tell tire consultants about the spill (it had been so neatly and quickly bulldozed under), tire real estate had somehow gotten through tire environmental audit, was certi fied safe and was sold for cash. Altlrouglr tlrey were still fighting back home about who was liable for tire damages tire purchaser suffered when tire spill was discovered, tire sun was shining in tire Caribbean.

mental statutes and regulations, all Cana dian provinces but Quebec operate under tire conmron law system. Under tlris sys tem. parties who have been wronged by tire actions of otlrers have the right to be com pensated for damages tlrey suffer. Negli gence is tire failure to do sonretlring that a reasonable person, who is reasonably care ful and pradent in any given set of circum

Tlris is tire sort of scenario all consult

ants and professionals worry about. It's ob viously fictional, but it gives a framework for an analysis of the liability issues tlrat we all deal witlr on a regular basis. Let's suppose tlrat in selling the real es tate tire company hired a lead consultant to produce the environmental audit that tire owners knew tlrey would need to sell this property. To get tire job. the lead consult ant bid a very low price, and then tendered for independent consultants to do site map ping and surveying, reconnaissance, and appropriate sampling,and laboratory analy sis. All subcontractors were told that price was tire only issue tlrat counted, even if it meant a sacrifice in quality. Mistakes were made and tire spill was missed. After a few

necessarily heavy reliance on expert detec tion and analysis of tlrose substances, the standard of care will be very high indeed. Performing to tire expected standard will nonrrally safeguard professionals, even where damages are suffered by someone. Tire law recognizes tlrat no one is perfect. In our example, tire contractor who under took tire coring aspect of tire audit would likely not be held responsible if it took a pattern of samples according to accepted methods designed to ensure tlrat tlrey were representative of tire whole property, and if it was not specifically told by tire lead con tractor to do otlrerwise. Tire analytical labo ratory nriglrt not be so lucky however, since in our example tire technician nrissed sometiring tlrat a reasonably competent chemist would have cauglrt, and tire lab certified tire

stances. would do. Tire standard of care that

must be followed is detemrined by the cir cumstances of time, place, person and fact. Wlren a duty to follow tlrat standard of care applies and is breached, if someone else suffers damages tlrat were foreseeable as a result, tlren tire injured party is entitled to be compensated, usually by tire payment of money.

Tire duty can be either a duty to tire pub lic at large (for exanrple. tire duty not to drive a car dangerously) or it can be a duty aris ing under a contract. In eitlrer case, tire duty comes into play whenever tire relationship or circumstances between the two parties produces a risk of foreseeable Iramr that can only be avoided if one of tire parties con forms to a particular standard of care. Tire standard varies. Tire higlrer the in herent risk of harm, tire higlrer the standard

called a positive on tire samples, tlren tire employer of tire technician in our example will likely be negligent. Once tire lab certi fies those results as correct it will be re

sponsible if tlrey're not. and no amount of explaining that it was told to do the work cheaply is going to help. It is also true, but less conmronly understood, tlrat the indi vidual employee can also be held liable by tire persons who have suffered tire damage, including the employer. Tlrere is a different general rule that a person who retains another as an indepetident contractor is not responsible for the negligent acts of tlrat contractor. This rule is subject to tire important limitation that where a contractor hires a subcontractor to do work that harm will flow from in the

normal course unless protective measures are taken to ensure against tlrat harm, tlren it falls to the person retaining tire subcon tractor to see tlrat tlrose measures have been

taken. Following tlris logic to its conclu sion in our exanrple, responsibility for tire loss may well also work its way up to tire lead contractor for not having ensured that tire low-bidding laboratory it hired had ad equately trained staff and QA procedures in place to prevent tlris type of error. Any person holding itself out as having specialized knowledge or expertise in a par

tlrat must be observed. It follows tlrat where

ticular area will be held to the standards of

*David Brennen is a partner in the

the mix of circumstances includes high

Toronto law firm Brennen Partners.

priced real estate, toxic substances, and a

competence expected from particiContlnued on page 24


Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

OVAMANN /NTERNATIONAL MANN TESTING LABORATORIES Ltd., of Mississauga, Ontario andNOVALAB Ltd., of Montreal, Quebec announce the merger oftlieir laboratory facilities to form NOVAMANN International. Tlie newly fonned company is one of Canada's largest and best equipped contract laboratory networks, and combines more than twenty years of expertise in trace chemical analysis at each location. ^Dioxins/Furans by High Resolution GC/MS ♦ Municipal,Provincial and Federal Regulatory Packages ♦Stack Emission Testing and Analysis (Mobile Laboratory) *Aqua-PAK- Potable Water Quality Package ♦ Air Analysis )N'


l^OVAMANN Quebec*s Technical Service Team

*Priority Pollutants (Volatiles andSemi-volatiles) ^Petroleum Hydrocarbons

■A. -sr

*Pesticides/Herbicides, PCB's

^Analysis of water, waste, sludge, soil, air, tissue and sediment

NOVAMANN Ontario s Technical Service Team

* TechnicalSupport *Long-termproject management and CustomizedReporting

The merger brings with it an exchange of long standing expertise previously possessed by the individual finns, back-up support for each location, increased automation and uniform Quality Control and Assurance. Individual laboratories are accredited or certified by: CAEAL, Standards Council of Canada, New York State-DOH and MENVIQ (Quebec) for specific analytical parameters.



Mississauga, Ontario L4ZIPI

Tel. (90S) S90-2.SS5 Fax (90.S) 890-0370

NOVAMANN (Quebec) Inc. 9420 Cote de Liesse

S540 McAdam Road

Canadawide TollFree: 1-800-563-6266 Offices/Laboratories in: Toronto, Montreal, Edmonton, Guelph, Nk^ara Falls, AmherstNY

For more information, Circie reply card No. 172

Lachine, Quebec H8T1A1

TeL (514) 636-6218 Fax (514) 631-9814

Health & Safety

By Dr. David A. Whaley

Strong environmental presence at New Orleans Industrial Hygiene conference

The American Industrial Hygiene

Conference & Exposition was held

in New Orleans, Louisiana, earlier

in botli areas. Tills makes some sense, be

lated activities at these national conferences

cause industrial hygiene combines the dis ciplines of analytical chemistry, toxicology

has been clean-up of abandoned hazardous waste (Superfund) dump sites. Consider

tliis year. Tliere is a growing ac tive involvement in tliese large annual con

able attention has also been devoted to in

dustrial and municipal waste minimization and management, including air emissions, wastewater effluents, and liquid and solid industrial waste. Other strong interests have included environmental health, espe cially health risk assessment and risk man

ferences witli environmental matters. Tlie

Parent Organization is the American Indus trial Hygiene Association (AIHA), whose original mandate was to protect tlie health & safety of workers. The main focus of in dustrial hygiene is to prevent workplacederived illness or injury from ever happen ing, before tlie fact. This is in contrast to the prevailing medical approach, which identifies a health problem tliat is already

agement. How does all this affect Canada ? Tlie

manifest, and institutes treatment, which

might delicately be described as damage control.

With the huge growtli of public aware ness in tlie USA of environmental priori ties, new environmental legislation, and Superfund clean-up activities in the last decade, a growing number of companies began to group workplace health & safety together with environmental staff in the same departments, often asking the same professional industrial hygienists to work

French Quarter, New Orleans. Photo John Elliott,

and engineering, all of which apply, also, to environmental matters. As well, many of the same toxins of concem are present in botli the environment and tlie workplace. Hie main tlimst of environmentally re

AIHA is not just American; it is also partly Canadian. It has several local chapters in Canada, such as the Alberta Qiapter, and many individual members from Canada. Many of these Canadians are well integrated into tlie major AIHA working conmiittees. Hie Ontario Cliapter cut loose several years ago to form an independent organization, tlie Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario, which provides its own active pro grams of continuing professional education and public service, but maintains close li aison with tlie AIHA.

Hiese AIHA conferences have a strong Continued overleaf

Literature Review Diffused aeration


lERJSED Aeration Pkoni'i'TS



Parkson offers the widest range of diffused aeration products available. Included are; Aeration Panels,a flex ible membrane system which pro duces superfine bubbles; Flex-ATube flexible, membrane diffusers that produce Intermediate size bub bles; FIneAIr ceramic disc and dome diffusers; Endurex stainless steel coarse bubble diffuser, and the OxyCharger Static Aerator,a unique lowhead, gravity-flow device to Increase dissolved oxygen levels of Influent

Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) Is detailed In technical bulletin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochlorlte spray to oxidize organic odors.Other topics Include; storage and air col lection needs.

Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Circle reply card No.208



Circle reply card No. 207 Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment

plus Return on Investment

plus Return on investment PAYBACKS of three to five years, LOW OaM COSTS, and BIOGAS ENERGY are possible with the ADI-

BVF" patented anaerobic reactor. The SPACE-SAVING tank type or the larger In-ground type are two popular

variations on the BVF" system. ADI offers complete supply-and-lnstallatlon contracts for Its anaerobic SBR



Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochlorlte(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes Is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal re covery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Circle reply card No.209

technology for nitrogen removal,and Its new Covered Aerobic Reactor

(CAR'") that will improve the perfor mance of aerated lagoons In cooler climates

ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No.210 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

What Is The Value Of Prochem* Mixer And

Moyno'Pump Reliahilify? Cost-Effe<tive Efficiency. The company that brought you proven, high-quality Moyno Sludge Pumps, now brings you technologically advanced Prochem Mixers and cost-effective Prochem Specialty

Mixers. Whatever your wastewater treatment applications, Moyno Pumps and Prochem Mixers are the reliable, cost-effective solutions.

Moyno 2000 Pumps:


•Crowned gear universal joint drive assembly for field-proven superior life.

Specialty Mixers:

•K-37 ceramic-coated rotors with 55

durometer nitrile stators for unusually abrasive sludges. •Shaft sleeve for economical maintenance.

•Fiber deflector to prevent ragging.

Heavy duty features in a portable package. Higher pumping rates with less energy consumption.

Direct and gear drive models. Ideal for polymer mixing and chemical blending. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 212

For more information, Circle reply card No. 211

Prochem Mixers: •Top- and side-entry mixers. •Energy conservation with unique Maxflo high efficiency hydrofoil impellers. •Extensive range of sealing variations.

•Ideal for raw sewage and sludge mixing for solids suspension and sludge and chemical blending. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 213

Prochem In-Line Mixers: •Highly efficient - mixes sludge and lime right in the pipe. •Cost-effective - no separate tank needed. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 214

JROBBIN5 HMYERS The Value of Reliability. For more information, call:

Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd. 8032 Torbram Road

Brampton, Ontario, Canada L6T 3T2 Telephone:(905) 793-6800 Fax:(905) 793-9434

Prochem® and Moyno® are registered trademarks of Robbins & Myers, Inc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 176

Industrial Hygiene international representation, especially from Europe, Latin America and Australia. In

formation for registrants was published in French, Italian and Spanish in the confer ence program,and a reception was provided for international attendees on the first

nity grassroots environmental advocacy or ganizations. Environmental lead is a hot topic in tlie

were distributed. Hiese are necessary steps in the development of a self-governing pro

US and tliere was a half-day roundtable on


healtli effects of low levels of environmen

Also included was a fascinating roundtfble on midtiplc chemical sensitivi ties, sometimes also called 20th century dis ease or chronic fatigue syndrome. Hlis ill-

tal lead on children. Also included were

evening. Hie AIHA has close ties witli tlie U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA), which has been tlie source of an explosion of research and developing technology for controlling environmental releases, evalu ating environmental contamination and clean-up of messy sites. Many USEPA staff have given presentations at these confer ences on new developments and are active in tlie life of the AIHA. Science and tech

nology developed by the USEPA has been made readily available to Canada and has been exceedingly helpful in development of private and public sector environmental management programs in Canada. One of tlie keynote opening speakers was Dr. Barry Johnson of tlie Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), created by tlie US Congress. The ATSDR is perhaps best known for development of its Toxicological Profiles, documents de scribing tlie latest toxicology information on 275 substances most hazardous to healtli and

conmionly found at Superfund sites. How ever, Johnson described tlie otlier interest

ing work of the ATSDR,including building environmental healtli capacity in state and local public health departments, offering training for healtli care providers, promot ing voluntary research by private industry and enliancing conmiunication witli commu-

Tan or Burn? A look at

liability, continued pants in the field involved. Hie less acces sible tlie required knowledge or skills are to tlie general public or to tlie customer or client, the greater will be tlie standard of care expected from tlie contractor or pro fessional undertaking tlie work. If tlie lead

All these patterns of health complaints are poorly under stood at this time, but appear to be caused, or at least

triggered, by exposure to an environmental chemical... half-day teclinical sessions on asbestos man agement. lead, confined spaces (including how workers were protected in a Chicago flood and guidelines for hot work), skin exposure assessment, protective cloUiing & equipment, and a well prepared mock trial

Guidance Document for the Code of Ethics

defined condition appears to severely dis able a small number of people at very low levels of chemical exposure, levels which have no effect on most people. It is intrigu ing lliat a number of tlie features of this con dition overlap witli the complaints of occu pants in sick buildings and witli healtli com plaints in episodes of mass psychogenic ill ness.

All tliese pattems of healtli complaints are poorly understood at this time, but ap pear to be caused, or at least triggered, by exposure to an environmental chemical or mixture of chemicals. Hiis roundtable was

on some etliical issues.

Otlier sessions included roundtables on environmental lead and environmental

health risk assessment, a half-day forum on managing confined space entries, and two technical sessions on hazardous waste, as

well as technical sessions on lead, man-

made mineral fibres, agricultural healtli & safety and biological monitoring to assess chemical exposures. Hie Canadian Registration Board of Oc cupational Hygienists(CRBOH)held a Fo rum, updating on its activities and tliose of industrial hygiene associations in Quebec and Ontario and branch Chapters of the AIHA elsewhere in Canada in developing exclusive licensing rights to practice in Canada. Quebec colleagues are consider ing joining tlie CRBOH. At tliis Forum, tlie newly fmalized CRBOH Code of Etliics, and drafts of Implementation Procedures and a

careful to present botli sides of tliis spirited controversy from four different professions: law, allergists/immunologists. occupational physicians and psychiatry. Hiis roundtable was jointly sponsored by tlie AIHA Com mittees on Occupational Medicine and In door Air Quality. Environmental professional and service companies (who are not already doing so) would do well to keep an eye on tliese an nual AIHA conferences as the place where significant new information, equipment and policy issues first emerge, which are impor tant for tlie environment. Hie next one will

welcome you to Disneyland, in Analieim California, on May 21-27. 1994.

Dr. Whaley was commissioned by ES&E to cover this conference. For further de

tails, please contact Dr. Whaley, Whaley En vironmental Services,(416) 245-0495.

Accreditation by caeal

contractor had insisted that the client sat

isfy itself about the choice and capabilities of a competent analytical laboratory, it miglit have insulated itself from liability in our ex

AsÂťc-! cTonoi

ample. It is incumbent on any contractor or pro

CAEAL (the Canadian Association

fessional to make the limitations of its ca

for Environmental Analytical Laboratories) for specific tests registered with the Association.

pabilities known to a jierson properly rely ing on an assumed standard of competence, and to plainly report any qualifications or caveats tliat it wants to attach to results that

Dale Sutherland (on the right),

it certifies. Clauses limiting liability in tlie line print of a contract can only be counted on for protection where a clear understand ing has been reached about tlie presence and ofieration of tliose clauses. Hiis area is complex and tliere are dan gers. But we can take heart in the knowl edge tliat our friend in tlie Caribbean is fic tional and this sort of tiling wouldn't hap pen in the real world. Isn't tliat right? 24

After passing an onsite audit by a team of qualified assessors, CANVIRO received accreditation by

CANVIRO's Director of Dioxin

Technologies receives the certificate from Serge Villard, President of CAEAL, at the Annual General

Meeting, October 29, 1993.

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd.

Phone:(519) 747-2575

Fax:(519) 747-3806

For more information, Circle reply card No. 196

Piping by the numbers^


To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with VictaulicÂŽ. For example, to help you save time and reduce

So if numbers ore important to you, check into something you con count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company

overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division

of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or

offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide

coll 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.

equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the

ctsaulic Pi^-planning uii+h Victaulic aaws tiweaM money.

numbers. And it's fast!

Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system.., over TOO innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com

pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out.

Victaulic Is o registered trodemork of Victaulic Company of Canada. Š1990 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 106


By Dale Baldry*

Hydrant maintenance and trouble shooting

Hydrants,the silent sentinels,

Material used in tlie manufacture of fire

hydrants is very important. All critical op erating components mating togetlier must be

poised for action, which we hope will never be required. Fire hy drants tend to serve a variety of

of non-corrosive material. For tliis reason

uses. The main functions, of course, are to

brass or bronze is used in operating stems,

quench fires and protect human life and property. For these initial reasons, fire hy

outlet nozzles and main valve, seats. All

drants must be in proper operating condi

grey or ductile cast iron. Stainless steel is

tion at all times.

used where higlier stress is applied. Rub ber or uretliane compositions are in many valve facings tliat seat against metal valve seats. This allows for a positive sealing ac tion and guards against damage to tlie valve seat from foreign material. Design features of the modem fire hy drant include a frangible connection near the ground line. This cormection is designed to break away upon impact. This feature re duces damage to the hydrant castings. Tlie operating section below ground (compres sion style hydrant)remains in tlie closed po sition. Tliis also allows for quick and easy replacement of damaged units witliout ex cavating. Tlie responsibility does not end with the manufacturer. Once the fire hydrant has

main barrel or housing castings are usually

Tlie responsibility starts witli the fire hy drant manufacturer. A set of standards for

design, material, and testing are in place and tlie manufacturer must comply. The most recognized is the American Water

Works Association Standards of Dry-Barrel and Wet-Barrel Fire Hydrants. Because of this tlie fire hydrant is subjected to a set of testing procedures before it leaves tlie manu facturer's facility.

Tlie fire hydrant must be able to operate at a working pressure of 150 psi. At this working pressure, the operating mechanism shall have a factor of safety not less tlian five. Tlie operating mechanism must also be able to witlistand a torque of 200 ft-lbs at the operating stem nut. After which, the hydrant has to operate smoothly witlioul dif ficulty.

Two factory tests are applied to every fire hydrant before it leaves tlie assembly area.

Dale Baldry A mechanical test of the completed assem bly ensures proper operation of the fire hy drant. In tliis test the hydrant is cycled fully open from a closed position with an operat ing torque, not greater tlian 20 ft-lbs. A hydrostatic test of tlie hydrant assem bly with water pressure of 300 psi ensures that all connections and castings are prop erly assembled and show no leakage. Tliis test is applied once witli tlie entire interior of tlie hydrant under pressure, and again with tlie main valve closed and pressure applied

All external bolts should be checked for

from tlie inlet side.




arrived on site to be installed it should be

checked again. Tliis inspection will ensure tliat no damage has occurred during transit.

tiglitness. A cycle of the hydrant tlirough tlie full open and full closed position should be made to ensure, no internal damage, to any of the operating mechanisms. Make sure that the correct operating movement, either clockwise or counter-clockwise, to open is used.

Fire hydrants are vital to the community they


serve; therefore, it is the responsibiiity of ALL the


individuais invoived to


make sure that proper instaliation, operation


and maintenance

practices are adhered to.



Tliere is not one standardized pumper outlet hose thread specification in North America. To accommodate tlie tliread speci fications of the fire fighting equipment used in each area several different threads are


used. Make sure tlie pumper tliread matches that of the fire hydrant equipment used in


your area.


Fire hydrants are vital to the community they serve; therefore, it is the responsibility

WESTERN WATER Calgary, Alberta

Edmonton, Alberta

Vernon, B.C.

Tel: 14031221-0200

Tel: 14031465-0251

Tel: 1604)545-8998




Fax: 1403)221-0213

Fax: (403)468-1410

Fax: (604) 545-5227

of ALL the individuals involved to make

sure that proper installation, operation and maintenance practices are adhered to.

'General Manager, Terminal City Iron Works, Vancouver.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 260 26

For more information, Circle reply card No. 107

Ejwironmenlal Science & Engineering, November 1993


CHECK-OUT A GORMAN-RUPP REPLACEMENT PUMP! Lower Operating Costs. Whether you need pumps for handling industrial wastes or municipal sewage, the long-term record shows significantly less downtime and repair cost for users of Gorman-Rupp pumps. Over the years, innovative, superior design and advanced manufacturing technology have produced efficient, high performance pumps that cut pumping costs.

O Reduced Maintenance Costs. Moving wear parts and seals are easy to get at and replace on Gorman-Rupp pumps. A removable coverplate allows most service work to be done in minutes with common hand tools — without special know-how and without removing a lot of fixed piping. From cleaning out clogs and debris to replacing impellers, bearings and other working parts, Gorman-Rupp pumps save you time and money.

CH Time-Saving Parts Supply. Right across Canada, Gorman-Rupp Distributors offer you a broad range of genuine Gorman-Rupp parts right-off-the-shelf, plus factory-trained service back-up. And, Gorman-Rupp's modern Canadian plant can ship you parts in 24 hours or less from a large in-stock inventory, if necessary. Just look in the Yellow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp Distributor.

EH Tlie Right Pump for Your Job. For almost60 years, GormanRupp has introduced trend-setting innovations for all types of pumping applications. These include pumps to handle dirty water and iimited solids, sludge and sand dewatering, abrasive liquids and slurries, high pressure applications, waste water and sewage, corrosive liquids and slurries and clear liquids. Gorman-Rupp makes the pump that's a perfect match for your job.

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GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burweli Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870•Fax:(519)631-4624•Telex: 064-73530 Distributors across Canada. Consuitthe YeliowPages foryournearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.



For more information, Circie repiy card No. 108


> ^

Health & Safety

By Ross Humphry*

Portable gas detector selection for confined space entry

Entryinto Confined Spaces haslong

been a dtmgerous fact of life for workers in botli the municipal and industrial fields. Witli tlie continu

In tlie past tlie primary concerns of Con fined Space workers were combustibles and

including one or two toxic sensors(typically for hydrogen sulphide and carbon monox

oxygen deficiency. Little attention was paid to toxics otlier tlian hydrogen sulphide and

ide). Instruments are now available with plug-in sensors for up to 9 different toxic gases. However recalibration upton sensor change is necessary in all but one model and tliey can still only monitor for two or tltree toxics at a time. Unfortunately tliese gas detectors, although complex and sophisti

ing introduction of new and more complex

carbon monoxide.

chemicals and solvents, hazards associated

Portable gas detection followed this trend and models were produced for com bustible and oxygen with newer versions

willi confined spaces are far greater tliat they have ever been.


EFFICIENT GAS DETEaiON. WESTERN DELIVERS SIEGER. Sieger-The World's Largest manu facturer of Gas Detection Systems is now distributed in Canada by

cated, tend to ignore tlie wide variety of otlier toxic gases found in today's workplace. Before committing yourself and your em ployees to a specific instrument you need to know what types of hazards may be found in your particular confined space and tlien choose an instrument with tlie sensors best

suited to your application. Combustible Gas Sensors

Tliere are two combustible gas sensors used in portable instruments; Catalytic and METALLIC QXID6 SEMICONDUCTOR (M08)

Westech. Sieger is committed to the application of the latest technology. Their goal is to provide customers


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• Low cost high performance design • True one person calibration • Products include single and multi- gas fixed systems, portables, infrared point and open path Sieger-a safer world.


Solid State. Eitlier will do the job, how ever tlie catalytic is susceptible to sensor poisoning, bum out and is relatively costly to replace. Tlie Solid State is inexpensive, resists poisoning yet is non-linear (not a problem in portables). Oxygen Sensors Tlie predominant oxygen sensor in port able instruments is tlie electrochemical fuel

cell. It is moderately expensive, yet is reli able and rugged but can be damaged by freezing. Toxic Sensors

Uiere are two main sensor technologies currently in use in portable instruments. They are the Wet Chemical (Electrochemical) and Broad Range Solid State. Each of these sensors have tlieir own

For more information contact your nearest Westech Office:

unique characteristics and tliey are described below.









(Chemically Specific)









Hiere are a variety of wet chemical sen sors available on tlie market. They can be relatively expensive and are generally

Wet Chemical

Continued overleaf

"Canadian Safety Equipment Inc. 28

For more information, Circle reply card No. 109

Enviromnemcd Science & Engineering, November 1993





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Confined space entry cont'd. chemically specific, altliougli this can be a negative. A portable instrument witli one or more wet chemical toxic sensors will only detect and alarm to tliose gases that tlie sen sors are designed to detect, ie: a four sen sor portable witli a combustible sensor, oxy

gen sensor, one Hydrogen Sulphide sensor and one Carbon Monoxide sensor will only detect tliose two toxics (carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide). In sewers where all sorts of unknown toxics such as solvents,

gasoline (a major hazard as a toxic) and organics are present tliese sensors offer no pro tection.

It is true that an oxygen sensor will de tect tlie presence of a toxic gas by tire displacement ofoxygen. However an instrument with a 19.5% oxygen alarm point will require approxi mately 60,000 PPM of a displace

ment gas to set off the alarm and 60,000 PPM of most any toxic will

Tlie current TLV (Tliresliold Limit Value) for gasoline is 300 PPM. Gasoline ignites at 12,000 PPM and a portable gas detector calibrated to methane will not alarm on

gasoline until 5,000 to 7,000 PPM, well in excess of tlie TLV. It is important to note tliat many combustible gases are toxic long before tliey are combustible. Hierefore al ways keep in mind tliat even if your instru ment has a combustible sensor, it may not protect you from llie toxic effect of some combustible gases. Both Municipal and Industrial workers face tliese problems, altliougli storm and sanitary sewers/manholes have a greater

charge? • Does the instrument include a case

and strap? • Are video-training tapes available from the supplier and how much are they? • Is the display simple and easy to un derstand?

• Is the instrument simple to operate ie: a minimum of switches or buttons to

push? • Are all the sensors operating and func tional at the same time?

• If any sensor fails during use is there an alarm?

• How long will the sensors last, what is their warranty and what is their replacement cost? ELECTROCHEMICftL TOXIC SENSOR

• Is the instrument certified intrin


sically safe by a recognized labo ratory, not just designed intrinsi cally safe by its manufacturer? • If the instrument has plug-in in terchangeable sensors does the unit require recalibration each



KILL you several times over. Solid State

(Broad Range) Tlie Solid State sensor is a non


specific broad range gas sensor, tliat while calibrated against a specific gas,(such as hydrogen sulphide), will detect and alarm to a wide range of toxics. Tliis sensor is significantly less expensive tlian the wet chemi cal sensors yet will provide a much

greater degree of protection. Its

• How often does the manufac turer recommend that the instru ment be calibrated and/or have its calibration verified?





downside,is tliat it cannot tell the user

just exactly what toxic gas is present, only tliat tliere is one and it is haz ardous.

Hie new OSHA standard in the United

potential for unknown toxics tliat an indus trial workplace where tlie toxics are gener ally well defmed. Purchasing Questions If you are considering tlie purchase of gas detection equipment tlien the following questions will help you make a valued and

States, which became effective April 15 of tills year states that the broad range sensor is the best suited for sewer entry. It can be true tliat a tliree sensor gas de tector that utilizes a broad range toxic sen sor can provide more protection than a four

infomied decision.

sensor unit with two wet chemical sensors.

• Is the Instrument rugged enough to

As mentioned earlier there may be a wide variety of toxic gases present in workplaces. For instance if you are in a storm or sanitary manliole or sewer, gaso line may be present. Do not assume tliat your combustible sensor will protect you.

time a sensor is changed out.


take the abuse it would receive in con

fined space entry? • Is the case all-metal or metal lined to

• Does the manufacturer/distribu tor offer a maintenance contract

and does he stock parts? • Can the instrument be easily op erated while wearing gloves? • Do you know what toxics might be in your confined space? • If the instrument includes toxic sen

sors, what will they detect? And more importantly, what won't they detect? And does the gas detector you are about to purchase or use test for what may be there? As worker safety is now one of society's top priorities, tlie selection of appropriate safety equipment is increasingly important to managers and supervisory staffs.

prevent RF interference? • Are the batteries re-chargeable; and how long will they last on an overnight

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 250





• Treatability' Assessment • Comparative Process Evaluation • Process Optimization

♦ Municipal Sewage ♦ Landfill Leachate • Industrial Wastewaters

For information contact: R. Coulter (519) 673-0510 / J. Gemin (519) 895-0230 / E. Mahoney (416) 445-3600 30

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 111

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Pulp and Paper Effluent Impacts: Assessment and

problems affecting drinking water from tlie NortJi Saskatchewan River. Tlie numbers

in Sediments

Remediation A special issue of tlie Water Pollution Re

of actinoniycetes in tlie water from tliis river,

A study by National Water Research Insti

tlie colour of the water and tlie flow rate of tlie river were all found to increase coinci-

tute scientists J.L. Metcalfe-Smith and S.P.

dentally witli tlie onset of the spring runoff. Tlie actinoniycete organisms, which were shown to produce odorous compounds in

tist J.C. Merriman, examined the relation

search Journal ofCanada is devoted to pa pers on tlie assessment and remediation of

tlie environmental impacts of effluents from pulp and paper mills. Tlie papers in this volume were originally presented at a sym posium on tlie identification and control of pulp mill effluent impacts sponsored by tlie Canadian Association on Water Pollution

Research and Control in February, 1991 and reflect the state of knowledge at tliat time. Topics include novel treatment processes, new analytical techniques, fate and effect of pollutants, and management strategies. Copies of the special issue are available for $40.00 each.

treated water, were found to be resistant to disinfection witli chloramine under condi

tions conmionly encountered in water treat ment processes. Odour problems could re sult from having these organisms become established in tlie distribution system.

Bioavailability of Metals

Batchelor. and Environment Canada scien

ships between concentrations of metals in sediments and freshwater mussels from tlie Ottawa River to determine whetlier mussels

could provide useful information on the bioavailability of sediment-associated met als. Sediment and two species of mussels were collected from several sites on tlie river

and analyzed for residues of nine metals. As described in the Water Pollution Re

Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent Treatment

search Journal ofCanada, significant posi

Scientists from E.B. Eddy Forest Products

mussels and sediment were observed for

tive correlations between concentrations in

Ltd., Diversified Research Laboratories,and

only four metals (Cd, Cr, As, Se).

Zenica Bio Products undertook a compre Treatment of Oil Sands Condensate Wastewaters

The AOSTRA Taciuk process is used for bitumen recovery from oil sands. Effluents from the system are fractionator sour water (FW5) and processor preheat steam vent water (Preheat). Wastewater Technology Centre scientists W.K. Bedford and H.

Melcer assessed the feasibility of using bio logical activated sludge systems to treat

hensive study of a 2-cell aeration stabili zation basin system for the treatment of tlie effluent from a state-of-the-art bleached

kraft mill. As described by J. Fein and coworkers in tlie Water Pollution Research

Journal of Canada, tlie system removed 88% of the BOD,62% of tlie COD,47% of tlie TOC, and 56% of the AOX. Tlie ma jority of tlie removal occurred in the first cell which also removed all tlie acute toxic

these effluents. As described in the Water

ity entering the system. Most of tlie sus pended solids removal (69%) occurred in

Pollution Research Journal of Canada,

tlie second cell.

Review of Immunoassay Techniques In a paper published in Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, National Water Re search Institute scientist J.P. Sherry re viewed immunoassay techniques applied to environmental chemistry. Tliese techniques, which are widely used in clinical chemis try, can be used as screening tools for the quantitative detection of a broad variety of pollutants. Some of tlie most promising fea-

aerobic treatment of the Preheat wastewater resulted in BOD and ammonia removals

greater than 95%. Although nitrification was not established with the PW5 wastewater, BOD removals of about 90% could be achieved. Tliis effluent, which was

also toxic to anaerobic microorganisms, still contained 200-400 ma/1 of residual carbon.

Toxicity Tests using Salmonid Fish

Methods recommended for performing tox icity tests tlrat measure effects on salmonid embryos, alevins, and swim-up fry are de scribed in a report issued recently by Envi ronment Canada. Tliree tests are described:

an embryo test for frequent or routine moni toring, an embryo/alevin test for measuring tire effects of toxicants on multiple phases of development, and an embryo/alevin/fry test for more definitive investigations. All



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three metliods start witli the onset of em

bryo development and measure the devel opment and survival of early life stages. The report describes tire species tliat can be used and provides detailed procedures for con ducting the tests. Saskatchewan River Odour Problems

In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research. S.E. Jenson and colleagues from tlie University of Alberta and the City of

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 101


R&D News cont'd. tures of immunoassays are tlieir ability to detect target contaminants selectively at very low concentrations in small volume samples tliat require little or no preparation.

The Use of Peat in Wastewater Treatment Peat has been widely used in tlie treatment of wastewaters. INRS-Eau scientist D.

Couillard. in a review paper accepted for publication in Water Research, has outlined tlie potential of using peat in wastewater treatment witli special attention to tlie fol lowing topics: the properties of peat, the pretreatment of peat, tlie principles involved in tlie removal of wastewater pollutants by peat, and tlie applications of peat to the re moval of impurities from wastewater.

Treatability of High-Yield Sulfite Spent Liquor Several higher-yield sulfite pulp mills in Canada discharge untreated spent cooking liquor containing substantial amounts of dissolved organic pollutants. The Wastewater Technology Centre has con ducted a study on tlie chemical characteri zation and biotreatability of spent liquor from high-yield sulfite (HYS) and ultrahigh-yield sulfite (UHYS) pulping opera tions. As described by A. Schnell,E.R. Hall and S. Skog in the Water Polhttioti Research Journal of Canada, batch bioassays re

vealed a higli degree of aerobic treatability, including filterable COD removals of 60-

fying pulping or waste treatment processes

65% and''70-75% from HYS and UHYS re

tliat eliminate these effects. In a recent re

effects detected in wild fish and on identi

spectively. Anaerobic treatment was found

port, J.H. Carey and colleagues at the Na

to be much less suitable.

tional Water Research Institute and the De

Sedimentary Phosphorus in the Bay of Quinte Scientists from Queen's University and tlie Rawson Academy of Aquatic Science meas ured phosphorus distributions in sediments of tlie Bay of Quinte. The amount of phos phorus incorporated in the sedimentary biomass increased during tlie summer at tlie time of higli microbiological activity, fol lowed by a sharp decrease and another slower increase in late summer. As de

scribed by G.W. vanLoon and coworkers in tlie Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, tliese and other results were consistent witli a picture of phospho rus cycling in which forms of tlie elements are first incorporated in the biomass, but are later released to tlie water column or to

available sites on tlie sediment upon decom position of tlie biomass.

Physiological Effects of Pulp Miil Effluents Tlie federal government has set a higli pri ority on identifying tlie compounds in pulp mill effluents that are responsible for the

partment of Fisheries and Oceans review the data which prompted the federal goverrmient studies and outline recent significant fmdings on the effects of pulp mill discharges.

Activated Sludge Accumulation at Low Temperatures It has been reported that low temperature operation of tlie activated sludge process increases the yield of volatile suspended solids. However, little quantitative data are available and an explanation for the phe nomena is lacking. McMaster University scientists S. Tian, L. Lishnian and K.L.

Murphy, in a laboratory study using sequencing batch reactors, verified tlie hypotliesis tliat tlie observed yield increased at lower temperatures for two levels of in fluent suspended solids. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search. tlie lAWPRC activated sludge model was adapted to estimate the fractions of vi able organisms, accumulated influent particulates, and endogenous decay prod ucts. Simulations were utilized to estimate

the additional waste sludge production dur ing cold weatlier at typical treatment plants.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993









Pioneers in the design, manufacture and direct marketing cf T.C.' Waterworks Products dating back to 1906,Terminal City Iron Works today, is the only Western Canadian manufacturer of a complete line of Flanged Grey Iron Waterworks Fittings. These superior quality T.C.' Grey Iron Flanged Fittings conform to the ANSI B16.1 Specification and are available in sizes 4" through 24". Contact our experienced Sales Staff for prompt and efficient customer service.


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R&D News confd. Heavy Metal Concentrations

rials. Additional conditions and procedures

in Lake Sediments

are stipulated for tire specific test samples.

Surficial sediments from 189 sites in 52

Included are instructions on culturing con ditions and requirements for the test spe

Quebec and Ontario lakes were analyzed by D.J. Rowan and J. Kalff for heavy metals

by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. Empiri cal models used sediment texture (water content), site morphology (depth), and ge

ology (categorical variables) to predict tire sediment concentrations of tire heavy met als. Tliese models, described in Water and

Soil Pollution, explain botli between-site and between-lake variations in sediment metal concentrations. Due to an observed

lack of geologic influence on most metals, the models may be valid for other regions. The models appear promising as a means to identify point source contamination with out assumptions about tire relevant sediment fractions or inter-element relationships.

cies, sample handling and storage, test fa cility requirements, and specific details on tire procedures and calculations.

Chemex Labs. Cr-Cio alcohols are used as

indicator compounds to circumvent prob

Treatment of Activated Sludge

lems associated with contamination arising

with Zebra Mussels

from plasticizers at an industrial site. Tlie approach combines GC/MS analyses of se lected samples with information from a prescreening GC/FBD technique. The detec tion limits are O.I mg/1 and Ipg for water and soil samples respectively.

G.L. Mackie and C.A. Wriglit have investi gated the ability of zebra mussels to biodeposit and remove phosphorus and BOD from diluted activated sludge. The mussels were suspended in sediment traps within lOL containers for 96h in up to 30% acti vated sewage sludge. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search, tliese University of Guelph scien tists found that tire mussels significantly reduced the turbidity and phosphorus lev els for all concentrations of activated sew

Toxicity Tests using

age sludge tested. Tire BOD levels in con

Green Alga A recent Environment Canada report de scribes recommended methods for determin

ing chronic toxicity of effluents, elutriates, leachates, receiving waters, or chemicals to the green alga Selenastrutn capricornutnm using the microplate technique. General or universal conditions and procedures are outlined for conducting a chronic growth inliibition test using a variety of test mate

phtlialate esters and adipates in surface and ground water samples are limited by back ground contamination. An alternative ap proach is described in tlie Water Pollution Research Journal ofCanadahy J.V. Headley of the National Hydrology Research Insti tute and D. Krause and C. Swyngedouw of

tainers witli less than 3% sludge were also substantially reduced. The results indicate tire potential use of zebra mussels for re moving turbidity, phosphoms and BOD by means of biodeposition. Phthalate Plasticizer Contamination in Water and Soil Current methods for the analysis of

Environmental History of Hamilton Harbour Silicious microfossils (diatoms,

chrysophytes, and freshwater sponges) pre served in a radiometrically dated core from Hamilton Harbour were analyzed qualita tively and quantitatively to assess the ef fects of human activities during the past 330 years. Changes in trophic status, tempera ture, and organic and heavy metal contami nation are reported in tlie Journal of Great Lakes Research by University of Waterloo scientists J.R. Yang and H.C. Duthie, and L.D. Delorme of the National Water Re

search Institute. Changes in the microfossils reflect early settlement effects, the begin ning of deforestation and farming, and early industrial development and urbanization. Accelerated pollution over the past 60 years is clearly evident in tlie fossil record. Bloaccumulation of

Organochlorines by Fish In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans scientists I.H.

Rogers, J.S. Macdonald and M. Sadar as sess die uptake of selected organochlorine contaminants in fishes resident in the Fraser

River Estuary. Hie residues most conmionly detected in the fish were PCBs, and tetra-

and pentachlorophenols. Although PCBs appear to have declined markedly in die Polyethylene Sheeting Being Manufactured at Columbia's Calgary Plant

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Lower Fraser River from values published in die early 1970s, diere is a need to meas

ure the coplanar fraction to understand their toxic significance in the food chain. Tetraand pentachlorophenols have declined fol lowing a change by industry to the use of alternative sapstain prevention treatments.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Air Quality

Putting the lid on off-gases Covering grit tanks to contain off-gases normally creates operational difficulties when they have to be uncovered for servicing. Not so at Metropolitan To ronto's Main Treatment Plant, where they now have the best of both worlds: containment for venting and treating, plus easy access.

Aerated grit tanks in wastewater

treatment plants are one source that is particularly susceptible to off-gassmg - not only of hydro gen sulfide, which is easily detected by its colour, but also of volatile organic com pounds. For the most part, however, these off-gases remain uncontamed and untreated. Canada's NOx/VOCs Management Plan may well put the lid on these emissions before tlie century is out. NOx are nitrogen oxides: VOCs are vola tile organic compounds. The NOx/VOCs Management Plan, drafted by tlie Canadian


Council of Ministers of the Environment

(CCME), aims to reduce emission to tire atmosphere of all malodorous and contami nated off-gases produced by the degradation of organic matter. Wliile many such emis sions are produced naturally (swamps and forest fires, for example), today's major manufactured offenders are, in order of de

creasing severity, vehicle exhaust, volatile liquids and refineries, chemical plants, paints and varnishes, dry cleaning opera tions, incineration, and wastewater treat

ment plant processes. As part of tlie Plan, tliree areas of the country are currently under study: the Wind sor-Quebec corridor, tlie Lower Eraser Val ley in B.C., and the area of St. John. N.B.

Aerated grit tanks at Metropolitan Toronto's Main Treatment Plant are covered to contain off-gases, but the covers are easily removed by remote control for craneoperated clam servicing.

of processes that vent discharge contami nants directly to tlie atmosphere, still more improvements are required. Despite aerated grit tanks' susceptibil ity to releasing volatile organic compounds, tliey remain uncovered in most of the coun try's treatment plants, so the gases go straight into the atmosphere. One of the problems is that tanks serviced by craneoperated clams cannot be pemianently cov-

ing, venting, and treating these grit tank offgases has been implemented at Metropoli tan Toronto's Main Treatment Plant. Tlie

hinged covers, activated via remote control panels, are made of liglitweiglit. corrosionresistant aluminum and operated by pneu matic cylinders with compressed air pres sure at 700 kPag. Counter weiglits on the lids reduce tlie amount of pneumatic power required. All influent and distribution chan nels are provided with fixed covers. Be sides containing odour and gas emissions, tliese covers allow the emissions to be ex

Despite aerated grit tanks'susceptibility to releasing volatile organic compounds, they remain uncovered in most of the country's treatment piants, so the gases go straight into the atmosphere.

hausted to treatment.

This project was carried out in conjunc tion with a total air and ventilation upgrade at tlie plant's primary treatment facilities. Continuous monitoring instrumentation

alerts of any VOC and hydrogen sulfide Following the studies, it is likely that legis lation will be introduced on an industry-byindustry basis. Tlie NOx/VOCs Management Plan, drawn up in 1990, follows two decades in which public education and awareness about tlie health hazards of air pollution increased dramatically. These two decades have seen the evolution of gradually more stringent regulations to protect against offensive emis sions. While wastewater treatment plant operators are already having to contain and

ered, as access is required regularly for cleaning and grit removal. As a result of the NOx/VOCs Manage ment Plan, there, is likely to be increasing pressure on all wastewater treatment plants to contain and treat their aerated grit tank emissions. We estimated that by the end of tlie century it will be mandatory. Tlie ideal solution is a cover tliat can be opened and closed quickly and easily, witli reduced la

treat emissions from an increasing number

A higlily convenient metliod for contain-

bour and down-time and which when closed allows odours to be vented to treatment.

E7ivironme7xtal Scie7ice & E7igi7ieeri7ig, Nove7nber 1993

emissions witliin the building. Also, in an emergency,a ventilation system will exhaust tlie gasses from tlie building.

During servicing of the grit tanks, the crane operator works in an environmentallycontrolled cabin; and because the lids are

opened and closed by remote control, no personnel are required in tlie grit tank build ing during this operation. Existing aerated grit tanks can be retro fitted in this manner witli minimal disrup tion to operations. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 249 35

Charting a path for household waste paint recyciing

By Blake Higglns*

Transforming an environmental problem into an economic solution

An increasing number of munici palities are looking to the envi

ronmental services sector for

help in expanding tlie recycling options available for conmiunity household hazardous waste(HHW)management pro

grams. Hie municipal concem stems from a growing public interest in the 3Rs(reduce, reuse and recycle), witli less emphasis on direct disposal. Household hazardous waste is defined

as any material in the home tliat may, be cause of its chemical nature, endanger hu man health or the natural environment if not

properly managed. It is estimated that Ca nadians generate about 60,000 tonnes of HHW each year. Motor oils, lead-acid bat teries and propane cylinders represent 16 per cent of the total HHW collected. Sur face coatings represent 70 per cent of the total HHW volume. Alkyd and latex waste paints represent 80 per cent of the surface coatings (Table 1). Initially, only motor oils, lead-acid bat teries and propane cylinders had recycle op tions. Of the HHW remaining, the alkyd and latex waste paint offered opportunity for di version into a recycling stream. A variety of paint exchange programs were tried, but with little success.

To explore this potential, Laidlaw Envi ronmental initiated a waste, paint recycling program in 1989 (Table 2). Production tri als were perfomied to evaluate the feasibil ity of preparing a reusable product from these waste paints collected through ongo ing HHW programs. The results of tlie pro gram indicated tlrat approximately 80 per cent of alkyd and latex waste paints can be recovered and converted to recycled paint products. As well,the trials suggested it was possible to prepare a product which could consistently meet, or exceed the safe-use, quality and performance criteria established

for conmiercially available pairjts. The pro gram had to consider many aspects of paint properties. The general term "paint" describes a wide variety of complex,chemidal mixtures, not all chemically compatible. If diverse waste paints are blended,the result is a nonrecyclable flammable sludge, which has to be treated through incineration. In addition, paint formulas may contain potentially haz ardous components,including lead, mercury and PCBs. Waste paint may also contain hazardous compounds added by the user. The preparation of a safe,recycled prod*Facllity Manager, Peel & Niagara facilities, Laidlaw Environmental Services 36


Recycled paints being containerized for shipment. uct, therefore, requires careful handling, analysis of blended alkyd and latex paints controlled mixing and processing,combined for environmental and health and safety with a required QA/QC protocol involving parameters confirmed tliat tire products were frequent sampling and analyses. safe for use. Field application trials were also per In total, more than 200,000 litres of waste paint were processed and evaluated during formed on various substrates. The field ap plications were successful in every respect. the Laidlaw Environmental trials. All waste The Theological properties exhibited no sig paint received in containers of one-litre ca nificant performance differences between pacity and larger were included in the pro gram. The procedures developed for the trial tire recycled paints and virgin LQS and HQS paints. On average, good hiding was program have since been tested against ac tual and ongoing HHW collection and achieved at a ratio of one litre of latex paint processing conditions and found to be valid. per 20 square metres. Multi-coat applica The blended products were stored in 205- tions indicated that tire paint has excellent litre drums. Each week, composite samples hiding power and bleeding of the primer layers was not observed. were taken from tire 205-litre drums. These The spreadability of tire alkyd paint was "batch samples" represented a minimum of determined to be approximately 33 ml. per 1,000 litres of blended paint. During the first six-month period, an square metre and multi-coat applications analytical program was developed, which indicated good hiding power. Tlrere was good adhesion to cement addressed environmental, health and safety concems,and which included procedures for block substrates by both the alkyd and la tex coatings. The coverage was much lower paint quality testing and analyses. The qual ity of the blended paints was compared due to the porosity of the concrete. A ratio against high quality standard(HQS)and low of 300 nil. of paint per square metre was quality standard (LQS) commercial aUcyd observed with both alkyd and latex. These rates were comparable to those obtained and latex paints. The hazard and safety control protocol with virgin LQS product. The latex paint included testing for suspected hazardous' was also applied to untreated, wooden stairs compounds, including PCBs, isocyanates in higlr-traffic, outside areas with good re and lead. The QC/QA analysis involved tire sults. The next phase was to expand the pro testing of the recycled paint to evaluate the specific coating characteristics. The detailed duction trials into a large-volume commerEnvironmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

FLYGT's intelligent water-handling systems are

engineered for superior performance, cost-effectiveness

and reliability.

In municipal, sewage, and dewatering applications, you've come to rely on the name FLYGT. And with good reason. Our submersibie pumps are buiit tough, incorporating many

POWER CAPACITY..from 2 Kw to 525 Kw CUTLET SIZE...from 80 mm to 600 mm

INSTALLATION ...wet or dry pit If you're designing a dry weii sewage lift station or a raw water intake, you'll

innovative features. The same

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can be said of our pump controiiers and "SCADA" systems, all of which are designed specificaiiy for water-handiing.

floodproof, preventing motor damage


due to spiilage. They're aiso seif-cooiing, eiiminating the need for expensive ventiiation systems in the station design. Best of aii, our submersibies can save you money: your iift station can be buiit smaiier, resuiting in a much iess expensive project without infringing on the quality of the equipment.

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ITT Fluid Technology Corporation ITT Flygt, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, RQ. H9R4V5 (514)695-0100 Telefax:(514)697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■

Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Claire ■ Quebec ■ Val d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. John's (Nfld.)

For more information, Circle reply card No. 112

Waste Paint Recycling conm tion bin. Recycling options for the billets are currently being investigated.


Percentage of

Household Hazardous Waste

total stream

From tlie processing unit reservoir, tlie collected paint is filtered and transferred into drums by a filling process that is metered and timed. The full drums are then

sampled before being sealed for storage or shipment.

Architectural Coating 30% 26%



iiiiiii Waste Oils



8% 1%

Ifi i ||;i;frapsifipidh|!^tOli|||i| llllllslliiillpBpi;8rakll^lplllilll11^

Each drum of recycled base paint prod uct is tested for a range of paint perform ance and safety parameters. Drummed quan tities of tlie collected and tested base paint stock are tlien forwarded to a paint manu facturer, Scarfe Paints Limited, of Owen

Sound, Ontario, for fmishing, canning and



Horticultural Wastes (herbicides, pesticides,



|;f AcldsiPi||||drieยง|p|iii||i||Mf||i




Pharmaceuticals (drugs, cosmetics)




||- Gasi:byi!n|l^|(prpjpp||||ij|ii|6ia::^ TOTAL

cial operation. Tlie knowledge gained dur ing the production trials was reviewed by a project engineering team, which configured tlie equipment for an automated processing system. Segregation protocols, employee healtli and safety, fire and building codes, pollution control requirements and other en vironmental regulations all had to be con sidered in the design. Higli-volume, higli-

iiililii 100%

liglit alkyd, and coatings that are not recy clable.

Each processor is a fully enclo.sed unit, encompassing a tapered, auger-cru.sher that is driven by a hydraulic motor. The paint containers are torn open, witli the contents drained into a collection tank. Tlie collected

efficiency processing capabilities, with minimal need for manual handling, were in corporated into tlie design. Installation of the system began at Laidlaw Environmental's Peel Facility in

paint is blended, agitated and pumped to tlie filling stations, as required. nie remaining steel from the paint con tainers is tlien compressed into a dense bil let. Any remaining liquid and paint pig ments are forced from tlie containers by tlie high pressure action of tlie auger. Tlie ma

Mississauga, Ontario,in November of 1991,

terial drains into tlie collection tank, to be

witli conmiissioning completed in Fall 1992.

mixed witli tlie liquid paint. Tlie steel bil let is extruded tlirougli a nozzle and trans ferred, by drag conveyor, to a steel collec

To begin tlie recycling process, drums or boxes with paint containers are placed in one of three unpacking stations. These stations are equipped with hydraulic ma nipulators to tilt the drums for ea.sy access. Paint containers are placed on sorting ta bles and segregated by paint type and col our. Empty drums are fed by conveyors to a storage trailer for reuse. Waste products which demonstrate a higli risk of contami nation are sorted from the process. Tlie segregated paint containers are fed into one of five paint processors via another

Many safety features are built into tlie design of tlie Peel Facility system. Lifting devices,emergency stops and interlocks are provided for employee safety. Tlie paint processing units and drum filling stations are fully ventilated, with fumes collected and filtered through activated carbon scrub bers. Automated fire detection and suppres sion systems are mounted on each unit. The building has a sprinkler system with low expansion foam for fire extinguishment and all electrical equipment is fully explosion proof. Peel Facility capacity is designed to pro duce 1.5 million litres of base paint stock annually, using a single shift operation. This capacity is comparable with the estimated aimual volumes of HHW paint collected in Ontario. Tlie volume represents about four per cent of tlie annual amount of paint sold in Ontario.

Currently, tlie volume of HHW collected

includes an accumulation from many years of home paint storage, as well as tliose waste materials generated from recent purchases. Based on Ontario's experience, the average household is estimated to have a total of

about 25 kg. of hazardous waste in storage and to generate in the order to 22 litres per year. Based on tliese assumptions, about 40

million litres of waste alkyd and latex paint are stored in Ontario homes currently, with an additional 8 million litres generated an nually.



The objectives of laidlaw Environ mental's waste paint recycling program were:

conveyor system. This conveyor is a revolv

ing feeder, approximately 18 metres long and 2.4 metres wide, witli a series of com

partments. Each compartment is designated for one of five paint groupings. Tlie group-

6. To investigate the .needs for additives orjl.'-eatment required to stabilize and

inss include dark and liaht latex, dark and 38

Envirojimental Science & Engineering. November 1993

Waste Paint Recycling confd. TABLE 3

CGSB 1-GP-138M Test Results

ScatTe Paints" 50% Recycled Latex Paint Detailed Results TEST

Consistency {Krebs Unit) Dry time, dry hard (HB) Gloss




Pass Pass

Maximum 20 after 48 hrs.

Fineness or grind, Hegman Minimum of 2 Hegman

Pass Pass

Volatile matter

Maximum 55%


Hiding power Colour uniformity

Black & White squares not visible


No colour difference between rubbed




OolQur stability P,-1-.S

Freeze-thaw stability

2 Cycles of 17 hr at -18°C 7 hr at ambient temperature. Change in consistency will not exceed a KU, shall remain smooth and uniform

Alkali resistance



liq;;|||i|||g|:;wihil:|h Pass Shower resistance

Exposed ccntinuousiy to water spray


for five minutes. Ftim dried for 1 hour. At O^C dried film bent over 6.4 mm


product standard tests CGSB I-GP-138M (TABLE 3). Tlie specifications are widely used by govemment agencies, when procur ing paint products. Products are presently available for purchase under a separate paint label in a variety of container sizes. Tlie challenge is now to increase tlie vol umes of recycled paint sold in the market place. Critical to tliis process will be the system's ability to continue to consistently maintain a high-quality product tliat is safe for use. Many government agencies are now poised to approve tliis recycled paint and specify it as a preference in a range of pub lic projects. At tlie same time, improvements in collection metliods will be also necessary to help ensure access to sufficient quanti ties of waste paint for recycling. In the final analysis, however, the future direction of waste paint recycling will not hinge on technical process capability, but on consumer attitudes, as well as industry and govemment support for a recycling proc ess and product. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 259

mandrei. Shall shew no cracking or



Accelerated weathering Wooden Panel Asbestos Cement Panel

than No.8 ASTM chalking.


2Q0Q cycles, paint dried 4 hr. No more


than 13 mm of undercoat exposed. Suitable consistency, good brushing properties, good ftow, no sagging,





colour difference between roller and Pass

Sensitivity to water

Film dried 2 hours then exposed to fog

jnigilliiill evidence of disintegration.

Laidlaw Environmental's recycled paint stock has been used by Scarfe Paints to de velop a number of latex paint products,rang ing from a block filler to an exterior top coat. To ensure a consistently higli-quality product, Scarfe completes a series of per formance tests on each batch of its finished

product. Product safety is ensured by repeat ing the testing for contamination that was originally performed on tire base recycled stock. As well, Scarfe Paints fine filters the

paint, does viscosity adjustments and adds select volumes of other ingredients to sta bilize paint performance. LQS recycled paints can be produced through controlled blending of base stock volumes, while tlie production of HQS recycled paints requires additional finishing steps performed by the paint manufacturer. From an economic point of view, the re cycled stock provides for the production of a quality paint, while reducing the costs of

virgin material ingredients. As a result, lire final recycled products can be priced very competitively with regular paints. Recycled content varies from 50 per cent to 99 per cent, depending on tire specification require ments of the finished product. A base tint stock can be established for most products. Tlris enables reproduction of a wide range of colours from universal tinting equipment,

Degreniont Infilco Ltd. announces they have recently opened a new office in Burlington, Ontario, headed by Brian Gage. He is a graduate of tlie University of To ronto and conies to Degreniont witli more than 12 years of experience in water & wastewater treatment. He is a member of

die WEAO, OPCEA and the WEE. Mr.

Gage worked as an Application Engineer and most recently as Product Manager in die Ontario wastewater industry. As Ontario Sales Manager, he will serv ice Ontario's municipal and industrial wa

which is an important factor in determining a paint product's marketability. Tlie latex product does have some limi tations. Because of tlie blending procedure used to maximize volumes recycled, produc tion of white is not possible. Also, the prod uct is not available in semi-gloss or gloss, since botli lines require tlie use of expen

Degreniont Infilco Ltd. and its associate company Infilco Degreniont Inc. in Rich mond, Virginia, USA. Degreniont Infilco has been established in Canada providing water & wastewater treatment services and engineering products

sive additives.

since 1960.

ter & wastewater customers for both

Alkyd products are presently being tested and the first recycled alkyd paint is expected soon.

The paint has successfully passed paint

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

^OegreiHOKt infilco Itee 39

The International


May 10 & 11, 1994 Toronto International Centre of Commerce, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

An ideal opportunity to present your company's technological advancements, equipment and services for environmental


hook iourE^hlhltSpace Todaifl For further information contact:

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E 5W3

Phone: (403) 469-2400 Fax: (403) 469-1398 Calgary phone:(403) 258-0705 Fax: (403) 255-7404

For more information, Circie reply card No. 113

Metrohm pH/lon Meter automates ion analysis... F", NH/, and more

■ Automatic multiple standard addition ■ Automatic generation of calibration curve ■ Connect a printer or PC for complete GLP documentation

Check here for

□ Demonstration

□ Literature

Please fill in name and address on reverse side.

,1^ Metrohm BRINKMANN


Quality products for research and control.

Buchi Soxhiet Fat Extractor...

fast, safe and simple ■ True Soxhiet method minimizes extraction time

■ Collect solvent for recycling or safe disposal ■ Six extraction places simplify handling ■ Aluminum block heated by steam or oil replaces electric heater for increased safety ■ Choice of extraction tube sizes

Check here for

□ Demonstration

□ Literature

Please fill in name and address on reverse side.


BRINKMAr4N QuaJrty products lor research arxl control

Metrohm Titration Workstations... versatile, compact and easy to use ■ End point seeking and set point titration modes

■ Perform all your titrations; acid/base, Karl Fischer, precipitation, redox, complexometric ■ Method storage ■ Windows'^" based software for data handling ■ Send data to a LIMS for GLP documentation

■ Only 11 inches wide to save space

Check here for

J Demonstration

□ Literature

Please fill In name and address on reverse side.

Metrohm C0701.603-2


Oualtly products lor



Company -

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Address .






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*R.G. Coulter, M.Sc.

Pilot plants can determine feasibility of on-site ieachate treatment

Acritical decision for public and

private sector landfill owners, or wastewater managers, is the se

lection of the most appropriate


and cost effective options for the treatment

of leachate or other wastewaters. Pilot plant assessments as outlined generally constitute a small fraction of full-scale project costs, yet they can be important tools in establish ing technical feasibility and cost effective







â– Assign WteciMO ~ non^ompksnes ÂŤnn



Two alternatives for managing leachate are co-treatment of eitlier raw or pretreated leachate at municipal wastewater plants. Co-treatment ofraw leachate is tlie predomi nant practice in Ontario at tlie present time. A tliird and more recent option is treatment



0 10




time - days

in dedicated facilities at landfill sites to a

degree which will permit discharge to nearby surface waters. Depending on such factors as site hydrogeology and available land witli minimal slopes. LA/R (Land Application/Recirculation) systems may con stitute a viable supplemental technology to *Proctor & Redfern Limited

Announcement Novamann International

Figure 1: Effluent NH3-N Concentrations (mg/l) Versus Time For Three Aerobic Leachate Treatment Processes Followed by Sand Filtration.

any of the first lliree options. On-site treatment for surface water dis

charge has the technical merits of source

logical treatment, and sand filtration.

abatement and applying wastewaler-specific technologies for the removal of pollutants or classes of pollutants for which munici pal plants have not been expressly designed. On-site treatment may also be cost-effec

Typically landfill leachate is low in phos phorus and phosphoric acid is added to com pensate for the deficiency of tliis nutrient. Active pH control is available in several stages of tlie overall treatment system. The plant is housed in a 130 nr building, pro viding reasonable working conditions and tliernial control for process purposes. Tlie di.scharge criteria established for tlie small receiving stream are: 5/10 nig BOD/

tive in cases where tlie distance to munici

pal plants of suitable type and sufficient capacity results in higli costs for llie conveytuice of raw or pretreated leachate. System Development Leachate characteristics vary with such

factors as landfill age (hydraulic through

Novamann International - formerly MANN Testing and Novalab - an nounces. that Richard Urbanski has

joined the staff of the Novamann Inter

national team as an advisor and spe cial projects manager of the Air Emis sions and Control Department. Richard brings over 20 years of ex perience In various senior technical, marketing and administrative capacities in the environmental service business.

He wi l l work exclusively with Novamann International In a major ex pansion of source emission measure ment services and technology; includ ing the development of high end labo ratory technology for direct field appli cation.


aeration. pH adjustment and metals precipi tation. tandem anaerobic and aerobic bio

put), season, daily and final cover materi als. and refuse inventory. The first step in determining llie feasibility of. and technol ogy for. on-site treatment is to develop a rea sonably representative qualitative ;ind quan

1. 5/10 nig SS/l. 0.3/0.7 nig TP/l.^and 1/3 nig NH,/1 (values are design objectives for summer/winter operating periods). Due in particular to llie stringent requirement for effluent ammonia relative to raw leachate

titative characterization of the leachate. The

levels of approximately 200 nig NH ,/l. three different aerobic biological reactors were incorporated in the pilot facility for com

second step is to determine, in consultation

parative evaluation.

with regulatory autliorities. appropriate ef fluent quality criteria for the receiving

Pilot Plant Operation High and fiuctuating levels of chloride tmd reduced sulphur compounds appeared

stream in question.

Leachate characteristics and treatability

to contribute to slow bioniass acclimation

can. ;md do. vary substantially between

during the start-up period. Ammonia levels also fluctuated significantly. Figure 1 shows tliat the effiuent in NH,N concentration following sand filtration

landfills. Pilot scale treatability as.scssments can tlierefore play an important role in es tablishing feasibility, determining appropri ate teclmologies. and confirming appropri ate loading rates for cost-effective full-scale implementation. A pilot plant owned and operated by Proctor & Redfern was recently employed for this purpose in work carried out on be

half of the Essex-Windsor Waste Manage

from all tliree aerobic units was well below

tlie effluent discharge criteria of3 nig/1. The average influent ammonia concentration

during tliis time period was approximately 100 nig/1.

During the eiglit niontli monitoring pe riod following start-up. tliere were signifi

ment Committee in developing a Regional Landfill Site in Ontario as one component of an overall 25-year solid waste manage

These differences were reflected to a lesser

ment master plan. For this application, tlie

degree in the respective final effluents

pilot plant was configured to comprise pre-

Continued overleaf

Environmenlal Science & Engineermg, November 1993

cant performance differences between tlie tlirec aerobic biological reactors tlieniselves.


On-site leachate treatment following sand filtration. This difference can be seen in Table 1, which displays effluent qualities before and after filtration for tlie three systems tested.

NHj 1



ment to stringent, or at least highly specific,

effluent porometer


aerobic module


criteria is feasible, and served as the basis












It is instructive to note that all three aero

bic biological systems have been success fully employed elsewhere in full-scale leachate treatment applications. Tliis under scores tlie value of carrying out pilot scale testing on a landfill and leachate specific basis.

The projected 400 mVday leachate gen eration rate(annual average)of tlie proposed Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill exceeds the leachate co-treatment capacity of the majority of municipal facilities in Essex















EFFLUENT QUALITY(units in mg/i) (1) Initial module effluent (2) Effluent after sand filtration County, and tlie distance and therefore con veyance costs to tlie remaining candidate facilities is considerable. The pilot plant

for life cycle cost estimates tliat indicate tliat on-site treatment is also the cost effective

option. In general, pilot scale investigations can be carried out to examine treatability, as sess alternative processes, and determine optimum loadings for a given process. Tliis can be an important initial step in develop ing cost-effective full-scale systems for treating not only landfill leachate. but a va riety of industrial effluents and municipal wastewaters.

assessment demonstrated that on-site treat

For more information,

Circie reply card No. 241

Literature Review Computer-Based Instrumentation Free 1994 catalogue of hardware and software for computer-based instru

AuloTrace SPE WariisiBilons

This technical bulletin outlines the au

mentation. Features instrumentation

tomation of Environmental appli

software for Windows, Windows NT, Macintosh, UNIX, and DOS, includ ing LabVIEW, LabWindows, and the

cations such as:

• GPC Cleanup including Florisil and Acid Cleanup • Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of large volume water samples for PAH's, EPA505, Nitrogenous, Chlo

new LabWindows/CVI. Describes

IEEE 488 and

VXIbus Control, Data Acquisition

and Analysis

Automated Environmental Workstations

IEEE 488.2 interfaces, plug-in data acquisition boards, VXIbus control lers, and signal conditioning acces

rinated Pesticides

sories. Customer education classes also detailed. Includes tutorials and

• Microwave Digestion •Acid Digestion forTrace Metals

glossary. National Instruments Circle reply card No.200

• Concentration Workstation for Pes

ticide Analysis. ZymarkLtd.

Circle reply card No.201 DISI-1200 SERIES WATER leVBL St

Intelligent-Water Level Sensors

The six pageTAVIS Corporation bro chure outlines details on two types of water level sensors: 1) Submersible, 2) Non-submersible or bubbler appli cation. Designed for remote, year round operation in unattended sta tions, the DISI-1200 Series is tem perature compensated from -40^ to

+50^ with an accuracy of 0.1% FS over the entire temperature range. Power required is 8 to 16 VDC. Com munication is either RS232 orSDI-12

i TAViSCorporation

with extremely low power consump tion of less than 0.5 ma at standby and less than 35 ma during peak read (2.5 sec. max.). Technel Engineering Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

Unk-Bett Screens

Link-Belt Screens New, 4-colour brochure Illustrates the features and reviews the applica tions for a wide range of Link-Beit industrial water and sewage treat ment screens. These include: Thni-

Clean Bar Screens,Tritor Screens for grit and screenings removal, Cog Rake Bar Screens for removal of

wastewater debris.Trash Screens for removal of large debris and Fine Screens for removal of large quan tities of fine solids. PMC of Canada Limited

Material Handling Operation Circle reply card No. 204

Wilkins Backflow

• W/L/C/A/S—= Backflow Preventers

Preventers Wilkins - the one name that for over

80 years is synonymous with quality in manufacturing products that deliver "Performance under Pressure". Spe cialists in the production of vaives for backflow prevention, Wilkins tests every valve before it leaves the fac tory under conditions far more severe than it will encounter in the field.

Wilkins offers a complete selection of backflow preventers for residential, industrial, irrigation and fire protection. Features include: low head loss, in line serviceability, compact design, and unitized components. Zurn Circle reply card No.203 Valve Selection Guide for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Red Valve Company now has avail able a "Valve Selection Guide for WastewaterTreatment Plants". This

16 page four color guide highlights specific wastewater applications such as: controlling sludge, lime, grit, raw sewage and backflow prevention. Specific valve recommendations are made for the individual applications. These valves include Pinch Valves, Control Valves, Check Valves and Knifegate Valves. This brochure is

designed to assist consulting engi neers and plant operators to find the proper valve for their exact applica tions. Neo Valves

Circie reply card No.205


Envirotmienml Science & Engineering, November 1993

latrodudrig Super'Gor^ SUPER'COR® marks the arrival of

a whole new generation ofstructural plate corrugated metal products for use in large-scale construction appKcations. For

jobs such as tunnels, culverts, bridges, sewers and underpasses where strength, durability, diversity, and affordability are Super*important. AIL Super»Cor® is the newest and strongest corrugation on the market today

Sound interesting? Send us your business card by mail or fax today, and in

return we'll make sure that you get a copy

Atlantic Industries Limited Head Office P.O. Box 220

of our detailed product brochure, outlming the many advantages of Super'Cor®

Dorchester, New Brunswick

and, as a token of our appreciation for

Telephone:(506) 379-2428 Fax:(506) 379-2290

your interest, a Super*Gorduroy cap with our compliments.

Canada EGA IMO

Armstrong, B.C.; Westlock, Alta.; Ayr, Ont.; Almonte, Ont.; Louiseville, P.Q.; Dorchester, N.B.; Eastem Passage, N.S.; Deer Lake, Nfld.; Mount Pearl, Nfld.

For more information, Ciroie repiy card No. 173

Biosolids management

Landfill closings force alternative sludge disposal process at the Communaute Urbalne de L'Outaouals'sewage plant

Landfills provide a convenient so

lution for the disposal of waslewater sludge...until they reach tlieir ma.ximum capacity and are closed, or costs become prohibitive. Upon the closure of a landfill, the wastewalcr treatment management is faced witli deciding whetlier to continue tlie shortterm solution and expense of using anotlier landfill or to invest in a long-term disposal system. The




L'Outaouals (C.U.O.) sewage plant in Gatineau, Quebec,produced armually an es timated 16.000 metric tons of anaerobically digested 21.5 percent solids sludge, which it sent to landfill. In 1987. tliey were noti fied tliat tlieir current disposal site, tlie Cook sanitary landfill in Aylmer. would reach maximum disposal capacity in 1990. and be closed at tliat time. If lire C.U.O. chose

another landfill as a short-term disposal solution, the costs would have drastically increa.sed. Otlier concerns were the uncer

tainty of upcoming government regulations affecting landfilling operations and increas ing public awareness of tlie overall prob lems of municipal waste management. A long-term solution, which provided an al

ternative to landfilling. could reduce and stabilize tlie cost of sludge disposal. Tlie C.U.O. immediately formed a coun cil to investigate an alternative, long-term sludge disposal metliod. Several processes were studied, including composting tlirough various metliods; re-using the sewage by spreading it on famihmd; burying sludge in a site specifically developed for tills pur pose; and tlie drying and granulating of the sludge into fertilizer pellets. A disposal solution which could trans form sludge into a marketable product at tracted the C.U.O."s attention. The con

struction of a system to produce a nitirketable commodity - pellets for use in tlie nitmufacturing of fertilizer or fuel - could be costjustified by the C.U.O. when compared to increasinglandfillingcost. Sludge disposal, in lliis situation, could generate revenues offsetting tlie operating costs of tlie drying unit and eliminating landfilling charges.

Tlie C.U.O. Council, in 1990. selected llie Berlie/Swiss Combi™ drying process by Berlie Technologies Inc. of Montreal, which transforms dewatered sewage sludge into a dry and pasteurized granulate (pel lets) suitable for a wide variety of uses. Berlie Technologies Inc. completed the in-

stallation and began start-up of the system on December 17. 1992.

In tlie Berlie/Swiss Combi™ process, tlie dewatered sludge from tlie wastewater treat ment process, containing at tliis point about

25 percent solids, is transferred to a further process stage, drying. "The goal of llie Berlie/Swiss Combi™ drying process is to increase tlie percentage of solids content through a therniostabilization process to achieve an average of 92 percent solids." said Francois Beauvais. sales and marketing director for Berlie Technologies Inc. C.U.O. uses tliree parallel "high solids" centrifuges to produce 55 dry metric tons per day of sewage sludge. Tliis dewatered sludge is rouglily 32 percent solid matter. Before feeding dewatered sludge into the drying drum, it is mixed with recycled dry sludge, to form a homogeneous, free fiowing material. Tlie entire drying cycle, after removing tlie dewatered sludge from tlie centrifuges, is monitored by a computer and requires very little human supervision. Tlierefore. tlie re liability of tlie equipment in llie overall sew age treatment chain is essential to its suc cess.

First, the C.U.O. used an existing screw conveyor, to move the sludge at 32 percent solids concentration from the dewatering stage to tlie drying unit, C.U.O. experienced an inconsistent sludge flow, affecting the

physical properties of the produced pellets which resulted in too many fines (less than 2nmi granules), and tlie overall efficiency of tlie system. In discussing possible solutions. Rene Raby. mechanical division chief. C.U.O. suggested replacing tJie screw conveyor with



Raw sewage from the Communaute Urbaine de L'Outaouals enters the sew age plant through clarifier ponds. Sludge, which develops when solids from the sewage settle at the bottom of these basins, proceeds to the sludge disposal process through hoppers. 44

a Robbins & Myers Moyno® 2000 progress ing cavity pump, which had been used suc cessfully for nearly a year in anotlier phase of tlie wastewater treatment process. The crowned gear universal joint, which is su perior to cardan, pin-type and flexible shafttype universal joints,enables Moyno® 2000 pumps to provide excellent pumping per formance in even liiglily viscous, abrasive, corrosive or shear-sensitive applications. "Maintenance time on the Moyno® 2000 Series PC pump had been nil. resulting in substantial savings in replacement parts and labor costs." said Raby. Three months into the installation,

C.U.O. switched from the screw conveyor

to tlie progressing cavity pump to move llie dewatered sludge at 32 percent solids, from

E/iviroiwieiital Science & Engineering. November 1993

Biosolids management the 'high solids" centrifuge. "Tlie Moyno pump is now providing a stable and con stant supply of sludge," he said.

Tlie raw sewage that is received by tlie C.U.O. challenges tlie dependability and durability of a pump. "Our goal was to in stall a high performance, low maintenance pump." said Raby. "Tliis Progressing Cav ity Pump really has surpassed our expecta tions."

One of the most distinctive features of

tliis pump is the combination of a ceramiccoated rotor and a 55 durometer nitrile stator. which resists abrasion better than

most metals and platings. "Our process contains higii quantities of grit and sand, so ceramic was the ideal choice," reported Raby, "In a 24-hour period, more than 100m3 of sludge goes tlirougli the pump." Altliough deceptively simple, tlie pro gressing cavity pump operates on a geomet ric principle of operation, which appears complex. Tlie progressing cavity pump is a single helical rotor turning eccentrically in a double helical stator of twice tlie pitch

contact witli combustion gases. Coming out of the drying drum,tlie gran ules are separated from the air/steam mix ture in a cyclone with integrated bag filters.

pletes tlie process of sewage treatment of tlie Conmiunaute Urbaine de L'Outaouais

and is designed to be a practical tuid an eco logical solution to tlie disposal of tlie sludge Hie granules are sieved into three sizes: from tlie sewage plant in Gatineau. large, medium or fine. Hie medium-sized Robbins & Myers is a technology-based granules(average particle size is 2 to 4 mm) industrial products company witli plants in are conveyed as finished product to the dry Canada, Belgium and tlie United States. granulate silos, and are cooled in Berlie Technologies Inc. is a Canadian counterflow ambient air to prevent conden wastewater treatment equipment specialist sation in the storage silos. Hie large and and mtmufacturer. fine grimules are re-circulated back into tlie sludge-mixer prior to tlie drying drum. For more information, Hie Berlie/Swiss-Combi™ Process com Circle reply card No. 251

Guest Comment

Environmental opportunities in Mexico • Mexican people tliroughout tlie country are now environmentally conscious and regard less of tlie acceptance of NAFTA, tlie ecol ogy will continue to improve. On tlie subject of NAFTA,I believe tliat it has a very good chance of passing. Hiis was not my feeling six months ago. Simply put, if we don't have NAFTA,then less will


Tlie key pump components ensuring con sistent flow are the rotor and stator. Tlie

rotor is a single external helix with a round

cross-section, precision machined fromhigli strength steel and coated with a layer of

be done for the environment in Mexico. A

ceramic for abrasion resistance. Hie stator

recent article from the Globe and Mail re

is a double internal helix molded of a tougli, abrasion-resistant elastomer, permanently bonded within an alloy steel tube.

clean up pollution, and possibly a North American development bank. It seems to

ports the establishment of a trust fund to

Elastomers provide abrasion resistance,

John W. Martin, P.Eng., C.Chein.

me tliat NAFTA is alive and well and tlie

since tliey can deform to accommodate large

CEO, NOVAMANN Testing Laboratories Ltd.

infrastructure to assist is now being dis

particles. These compounds enable a conipressive fit to be engineered between tlie rotor and stator. which generates a selfpriming capability and allows gaseous, low and higli viscosity fluids to be pumped. As tlie rotor turns witliin the stator, a

series of sealed cavities, 180 degrees apart, are formed, which move along tlie pump from suction to discharge. As one cavity opens, tlie opposing cavity decreases in size at exactly tlie same rate to produce a nonpulsating, positive displacement flow. Hie continuous seal between the rotor and tlie

stator helices keeps tlie fluid moving stead ily, at a fixed flow proportional to tlie rota

tional speed of tlie pump. A progressing cavity pump contains no pistons, valves or timing gears to wear out or gum up. This simplifies maintenance and minimizes costs.

Hie sludge drying process is accom

plished through convection in a rotating drum where a heat-transmitting mixture of air and steam reaching a temperature of 450 C (842 F) promotes tlie evaporation of the water contained in the sludge. A heat ex changer using biogas from digesters, or natu

ral gas burners, provides tlie energy for dry ing to the heat-transmitting mixture of air and steam. This closed circuit steam/air

drying system has no emission of odors, no emission of dust and tlie sludge is never in

Wehave continued our study on

Mexico and tlie enviromiiental issues tliere and both sen

ior staff and I have recently been to Gudalajava, Monterrey and Mexico City. Recently we have had tlie pleasure of tlie Mexicans visiting us.


Hiere is a lot of business pending on tlie ratification of NAFTA. Be prepared for a flood of activity in Mexico once NAFTA is ratified, particularly from the U.S.A. In order for Canadian companies to be successful in Mexico, I tliink that a local

partner is a valuable asset and tliat is Matm

Testing Leiboratories Licl.'s direct experi

Hie Mexican environmental movement

ence. We have worked well witli Control

continues to be very strong even tliougli tlie

Quimico in Mexico City and tlie relation ship is continuing to build. Hiere are many direct opportunities in Mexico on tlie table riglit now. PEMEX is asking for tenders on five wastewater treat

economy tliere has been in recession like everywhere else in the world. NAIHA is a very serious issue and with President

Clinton's environmental push, tlie Mexican government has maintained an accelerated

pace to improve their ecology as recently reported in tlie Globe and Mail.

A few facts about tills pace: • Mexico has 143,(X)0 registered businesses and tliey will be inspected to see that tliey meet environmental laws;

• 2.000 government inspectors have been hired to do tliis job. half of tliese inspectors are located in the Mexico City area, 400 are along tlie Mexico-U.S. border; • Approximately 1,150 companies are cur

rently under "close" scrutiny,some partially closed, 4 permanently closed; • 87 new NORMS (regulations) on the en vironment are expected to become law within a year;

Envirotvnenlcd Science & Engineering, November 1993

ment plants and SEDESOL has tenders out for production of CRETI "NORMS". Hiis is the writing of regulatory standards for sample handling, storage, etc.. of hazard ous wastes. Many Canadian companies

have been successfully bidding on these types of projects. Be aware tliat you should be registered with tlie National Environmental Institute, now known as SEDESOL, to conduct envi ronmental studies in Mexico. Also, make

sure tliat you obtain a working visa prior to leaving Canada. If you are interested in getting to know the market in Mexico better, I suggest you attend Environmental Trade Shows or join a trade mission.


Backflow prevention

Backflow prevention assemblies required for complete water supply protection Canadian communities are increasingiy concerned about unpieasant or toxic substances entering the potabie water system. This concern has changed the way water suppiiers, health agencies, and piumbing contractors have installed water systems. Cross-connection protection is necessary wherever backfiow of pollutants and contaminants in the water sup ply occur. Any bypass arrangements, jumper connections, removabie sections, swivei or change-over devices which couid aiiow "backflow" are considered to be cross-connections.

Cross-connections in water suppiy systems are of two generai types: hazardous and nonhazardous. Hazardous cross-connection control is essential wherever material dangerous to health (health-hazard) is ban died in tanks, piping systems or any other non-potable water supply that can intersect the potable water supply. Nonhazardous cross-connection control is needed wherever backfiow from steam, food, beverages, or other materiai wouid constitute a nuisance (non heaith-hazard) if backfiow occurred. The following is a review of backflow prevention devices availabie for various appiications.

FEBCO introduces a new

Reduced Pressure

generation of backflow prevention valves

Detector Assembly Sizes 4"-6"-8"-10" Offering tlie combined features of a reduced pressure backflow prevention assembly and a detector check, tlie Hersey Model 6CMRPDA helps control cross-connections that present a health-hazard, while also detect ing leakage or unauthorized use of water. file mainline unit consists of two inde

pendent spring loaded, poppet-type, check valve assemblies, and a relief valve, all



(Shown in vtrtlcal position.)

Tlie "N"and "V"configurations provide fea tures never before available to engineers and

mounted in a common body. The relief valve is a diaphragm actuated, spring loaded as sembly. Mueller Canada For more information. Circle reply card No. 184


Engineers will now have access to a

backtlow preventer that offers a patented check design for extremely low head loss, 100% epoxy coated ductile iron for long life, and extremely compact design for space sav ings. For installation options, available are numerous body configurations for both ver tical and horizontal installations, sizes

DN65,DN80,DNIOO, DN150 and DN200, and DN250.

Contractors will quickly realize the to tal installation cost savings for botli inside and outside installations. Tliis is accom

plished through designs which eliminated botli materials and labor requirements. FEBCO

For more information. Circle reply card No. 181

Wilkins backflow

Reduced Pressure

Wilkins offers several backflow devices to

detect and prevent backflow created by backpressure, backsiphonage or back pressure and backsiphonage acting togetlier. Every valve is factory tested under con ditions far more severe than it will encoun

ter in the field, assuring reliability. Zurn For more Information, Circle reply card No. 183 46

valve and tlie second check valve as all tlie

water in tlie reduced pressure zone is re leased to the atmosphere. For use at cross-connections when the

danger from backflow presents a health-haz ard. Mueller Canada

For more information. Circle reply card No. 182

Ontario code requires water pressure reducing

Backflow Prevention


Assembly Sizes

In a move designed to encourage water con servation and limit costly water tax in creases, Ontario introduced a Building Code revision, effective luly 1st. 1993. Tlie Ontario Building Code Part 7 Revi

- V - VA" - V/2" - 2" Tlie Hersey Model FRP II Reduced Pres sure Backflow Prevention Assembly fea tures the exclusive Hersey AergapÂŽ system. Tliis design provides tlie highest level of protection against backflow. Tlie unit consists of two independent spring loaded poppet-type check valve as semblies, and a relief valve. The relief valve

is a diaphragm actuated,spring loaded, dou ble seat valve assembly. Isolation valves and four test cocks for field testing com plete the basic features. Normal oijeration - The independent, spring loaded check valves remain closed until tliere is a demand for water. The re lief valve remains closed because of the dif


a few pounds of the supply pressure. Tills causes tlie relief valve to open,and backflow is discharged. Backsiphonage-If tlie supply pressure drops to atmosphere or lower tlian the re duced pressure zone, tlie relief valve will open, creating an internal air gap at least twice tlie diameter of tlie inlet pipe. This air gap is maintained between tlie first check

ferential between the supply pressure and the reduced pressure in tlie zone between the check valves.

Backpressure - In the event pressure increases downstream, tending to reverse direction of flow, both check valves are

closed to prevent backflow. If the second check valve is prevented from closing tightly, leakage into the reduced pressure zone increases tlie zone pressure to witliin

sion states tliat "Where tlie static

pressure exceeds 550kPa (80psi), a pres sure reducing valve shall be installed to limit tlie maximum static pressure to not more tlian 550kPa (80psi)in areas tliat may be occupied." Tliis revision aims to limit tlie otherwise

ever growing demand for water and delay costly municipal/provincial water supply capital projects tliat would be required to satisfy tliis demand. Without water conser vation measures, Ontario municipalities would be faced with spending billions to increase water supply capabilities. According to Watts Industries (Canada) Inc., complying with tliis code requirement is relatively easy. Watts offers a free, in formative brochure on the subject, as well as an inexpensive Water Pressure Test Gauge,and a complete range of Water Pres sure Reducing Valves. Watts Industries (Canada) Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 185

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

Introducins a

highly-efficient killer Fischer & Porter's new

Open Channel Ultraviolet System uses 20% less energy than competing UV disinfection systems. We began with the concept of UV disin fection — a proven and dependable method of wastewater treatment with

significant advantages over other methods. Then we improved it. By boosting energy efficiency. Prolonging lamp life. Adding sophisticated controls, assuring compati bility with process control systems includ ing our DCI System Six.™ And by design ing it to he the most durable, easiest-toservice UV system available — further saving on use and maintenance costs.


Fischer & Porter's Ultraviolet Disinfection System uses an innovative ballast — precisely matched to germicidal lamp operating specifica tions — to save energy



and lower lamp mainte-

nance costs. Energy sav

ings also means that the UV lamps operate in a less stressful environ ment, thereby prolong ing their useful life. The Fischer & Porter

UV System saves main

tenance time by allowing one person to do what previously required twolamp rack removal and lamp or sleeve replace



The UV system can be monitored and con

trolled independently or by Fischer & Porter's DCI System Six™ or by an existing process con trol system.

For more information about Fischer & Porter's UV

System, call 1-800-663-7097.

m Fischer & Porter (Canada) Ltd. 134 Norfinch Drive Downsview, Ontario Canada M3N 1X7 ® 1993 Fischer & Porter Company

Circle reply card No. 174


Product Review Heated head pumps for gaseous sampling

Tavis Corp.s Bubbler Model DISI 12(X)and

tion on process applications to 500 degrees F in condensing liquids, and to 600 degrees F in non-condensing liquids and for use in liquids with specific gravities from O.Il to

Submersible DISI 1210 water level trans


ducers have a range from 0-.5ni to 0-50ni of water witli an accuracy of 0.1% F.S. Tlie bubbler measures the back pressure caused when a constant flow of gas is forced out of a tube inmiersed in liquid. Tlie depth

is available as a two-wire loop powered unit or witli 4-20 niA output and 120 VAC power

Intelligent water level transducers

to which tlie end of tlie tube is beneath tlie

Tlie new Dia-Vac healed head pump prod uct line for moving heated gas samples has applications in power, co-generation, waste to energy, refinery and continuous emission

surface of the liquid is in direct relation ship to tlie back pressure measured. Tlie submersible measures pressure in direct relationship to tlie "head" of water between tlie transducer port and tlie level of the liq uid. Technel Engineering For more Information, Circle reply card No. 188

It has remote mounted electronics and

supply. Tills series can be equipped with an ana log meter. Magnetrol International For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 193

Wafer style pressure sensor

monitoring. Units witli self contained heated heads

are either controlled electrically or steam

Low cost industrial

traced for hazardous areas. Other options


include elevated or extended heads for in

Unitec's new SCADA AT-RTU industrial

sertion into heated compartments, ensuring an integrated sample and gases above dewpoint. Head temperatures range up to 400 degrees F without transferring heat to pump bearings or the motor. Units are avail able witli general purpose or explosion-proof

controller has 200 times more processing power and speed tlian a standard RTU (re mote terminal unit), and is no bigger tlian, and costs only half tlie price of, a PLC(pro grammable logic controller). Applications include the control and monitoring of water and wastewater treat ment plants, reservoirs, pumping stations, sewer systems, electric power generation and distribution stations, petrochemical processing facilities, oil and gas welUieads,

motors in either standard or Micro Mini models.

Performances reach up to 28"HG, 40 PSIG and Hows to 3 CFM. Cancoppas For more information, Circle reply card No, 186

Versatile sand filters Toveko CX compact, continuous sand fil ters are designed for treatment of drinking

and other essential services and industries. Uiiitec Canada Ind.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 189

water, surface water, industrial and munici

pal wastewaters, witli or without chemical precipitation. Operating continuously, us ing a moving sand bed, and assembled in a compact unit, the filters offer operational and installation advantages in addition to

Liquid level transmitters Magnetrol has aimounced a new higli tem perature series for its EZ Electronic Modulevel Liquid Level Transmitter prod uct line. Tlie series is suitable for installa

Red Valve's Series 48 Pressure Sensor pro tects and isolates instrumentation, eliminat

ing plugging and fouling lliat can occur in slurry and hard-to-gauge liquid applications. Hie series is designed to fit inside tlie bolt pattern of the pipe flanges, allowing for ease of installation and reducing tlie size of the unit. Sensors are designed to fit in side Class 150 and Class 300 flange drill ing, DIN, or BS NPIO piping systems, are available in sizes 2-in. tlirough 48-in., and are supplied with a standard gauge. Neo Valves

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 192

reduced investment costs. Constructed in a

rectangular module, which minimizes space requirements,and witli only 2.3 metres over all filter heiglit, they are easily installed in new or existing buildings. Tlie sand is purified by rubbing and rins ing simultaneously as the sand washer moves longitudinally to and fro over tlie fil ter. Clean sand is redistributed evenly on top of the sand bed resulting in a continu ous uninterrupted flow of filtrate and reject (backwash)water,and eliminating problems of varying pressure drop and "short circuiting" in tlie sand bed where resistance is lower.

Filters are designed to automatically ad just sand bed turnover to maintain a con stant pressure drop over tlie filter. As a re

sult, the filter can cope witli higher tlian normal or fluctuating solids loading. Feed to the filter is by gravity. Dagex Lie. For more Information, Circle reply card No, 187 48

Integrated software for instrumentation National Instruments has developed a com plete, multiplatform C development envi ronment for instrumentation in a variety of test, laboratory, and industrial applications. Tlie LabWindows/CVI automatic code-gen eration software may be used to integrate data acquisition, analysis and presentation using tlie ANSI C progranmiing language under Microsoft Windows and Sun Solaris.

It is a 32-bit development environment that includes a built-in ANSI C compiler,linker, debugger, variable trace display, memory checking capabilities, and libraries for data acquisition, analysis and presentation. Programmers design graphical user in terfaces witJi tlie User Interface Editor and

set up and control GPIB, VXI, and RS-232 instruments using more tlian 300 instrument drivers and the company's instrument inter face hardware. Hie development environ-

ment for Windows also controls tlie compa ny's data acquisition(DAQ)and SCXI sig nal conditioning hardware. Hie Analysis Library has over 200 functions for signal processing, filtering, windowing, statistics,

curve, fitting, interpolation, and matrix al gebra. LabWindows/CVI has TCP/IP and dynamic data exchange capabilities for interprocess conmiunication.

Users can incorporate C source files, object modules, and dynamic link libraries into LabWindows/CVI programs. Programs developed witJi LabWindows/CVI are port able between Windows and Solaris. DOS-

based Lab Windows C programs can run in LabWindows/CVI under Windows or Solaris. National Instruments

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 191

Environmentcil Science & Engineering, November 1993

Product Review peaks. Optimized sensitivity of substance peaks is obtained witli multisegnient analy

Unaccounted-for-water is no longer affordable

sis. Brinkmann Instruments

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 153

Metrohm Titrator Model 716 Dynamic addition gives precise and ac curate titration results in the shortest time

possible. Determine up to nine end points with tlie end point seeking mode, or titrate to two set end points. Perform amperometric or voltammetric titrations with the inte

grated polarizer. Couple with a printer, balance and sam ple changer to complete your titration work station.

New Brinkmann Windows™ based soft

ware allows cormection ofup to four titrators to a PC for data storage or for easy transfer

Unaccounted for water in tlte range of 10% to 30% is commonplace on many municipal water systems. Water leakage can repre sent as much as 70% of tlie accounted-for-

water. Heatli persormel use state-of-tlie-art instrumentation to identify and pinpoint tlie location of water leaks. Repair of these leaks can regain the lost capacity, as well as

avoid the related problems of cave ins, road wash outs or flooded basements. Proper identification of leak locations allows for

planning of repair work ratlier dian emer gency response and for generally smaller road cuts. Heath

of results to a DIMS. Windows™ is a trade

mark of Microsoft Corporation. Brinkmann Instruments (Canada) Ltd. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 154

Add the sample, read the

For more information, Circle reply card No. 150

result, Metrohm Ion meter Couple witli a Metrohm Dosiniat to auto mate standard addition or subtraction, or use

Continuous monitoring strip chart recorders

Trace and ultra-trace

The Qiessell 4200 multipoint recorder in cludes continuous monitoring features and software for emissions monitoring applica tions. Tlie microprocessor-based strip chart recorder provides a low cost reporting sys tem witliout tlie cost and complexity of a computer-based system. Tlie system merges a specially developed software package and modification into tlie capabilities of the recorder, including event inputs, timers, logs, totalizers and derived variable calculations. Wilier Engineering For more information, Circle reply card No.180

The 693 VA Processor for trace and ultra-

analysis made easy

determine concentration.

trace analysis of inorganic and organic sub stances determines chromium to 0.02 ppb, copper and lead to 0.05 ppb. All voltanmietry methods including di rect current (DC), differential pulse (DP), square wave(SQW)and cyclic voltanmietry (CV)are incorporated into tlie mstrument. New software allows individual and size

optimized representation of substance

By using direct measurement with stand ard addition,results are not affected by elec trode drift, and the analysis is not a single point. Accuracy and precision are main tained over a wide dynamic range using multiple addition techniques. Tlie results can be printed or sent to a LIMS. Brinkmann Instruments (Canada) Ltd. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 151


BARRINGER Metrohm Karl Fischer

a calibration curve witli up to 19 values to


Where your concerns are our concerns QUALITY - TURNAROUND - PRICE

TItrator Model 701 This optimum Metrohm Karl Fischer work

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9

station is now the smallest Karl Fischer

titrator. Metrohm Model 701 is equipped

416-890-8566 Toll Free; 800-263-9040 Fax:416-890-8575

for true bidirectional communication. All

titration parameters can be selected via RS232C interface or alphanumeric display, making the Model 701 the simplest Karl Fischer titrator to use. In 30 seconds it au

tomatically detemiines tlie titer, blank, drift or sample water. A buret resolution of 10,000 pulses cou pled with drift compensation makes the Metrohm Model 701 extremely accurate. Brinkmarm Instmments (Canada) Ltd. For more information.

Circle reply card No. 152

CTMxrnsT Environmental Analysis

CanTest Ltd Professional

Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver. B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

; V6J U8

Occupational Health & Safety

, Tel: 604 734 7276

Fax: 604 731 2386


Enviromnenml Science & Engineering, November 1993


Product Review


Metrohm Coulometric low-level moisture

determinations without a



diaphragm Metrohm Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrator Model 684 detects moisture content as low


as 10 pg. Ideal for solvent analysis, phar maceuticals, petrochemicals, chemicals, fats and oils witli results displayed in ppm or percent in 30 seconds. Model 684's cell operates without a dia phragm to clean or clog. Only one reagent is used. Spent reagent can be easily si phoned off and new reagent added by using the Metrohm Pump Stirrer Model 703. Model 703 eliminates the handling of rea gents for clean operation and increased safety. And, since reagents are exchanged


Chemex Labs Ltd. ►Water Potability Testing ►Contaminated Sites Testing ►Waste Characterization

►Sewer Discharge Sampling & Testing ►Acid Rock Drainage Prediction ►Accreditations with CAEAL and BCMOE

Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221


MIsslssauga, ON (905) 624-2806

Circie repiy card No. 155

Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Organics Volatile Organics • BTEX • Asbestos • RGBs Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Panels • Isocyanates


Terbuthyiazine registered for industrial water

system use

Inquiries obout additional analytical services ore encouraged

N9A 1L9


Brinkniann Instruments (Canada) Ltd. For more information,


Windsor, Ontario

and samples introduced without opening the cell, the effects of atmospheric moisture are

FMC Corporation has announced that terbuthyiazine has received registration by

FAX (519)255-9304

the California Environmental Protection

Setting the standard for

* quality


* turnaround time

LABORATORIES INC. 6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (905) 673-3255, FAX: (905) 673-7399

needed treatment alternative."

Meeting the needs and expectations of our clients with accurate defensible data

for environmental decision making.

ENVIROCLEAN laboratories inc (519) 686-7558









P.O. Bag 43(X). Lakcfield. Ontario Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-<>52-2000 Fa.x. 705-652-6365








Corrosion meter

water and other conductive environments.



Additional benefits of terbuthyiazine include compatibility with otlier water treat ment products (including poljmeric anionic scale inhibitors and dispersants), non-foam ing and non-corrosive properties. FMC For more information, Circle reply card Nc. 156

MS 1000 Corrosion Meter provides instan taneous corxosivity level measurements of

WITH OUR COMPLETETESTING FACILITIES - site evaluation and characterization


Agency (EPA) for use in Cahfomia to con trol algae in industrial water systems. Terbuthyiazine may be used in chlorin ated or non-chlorinated recirculating cool ing towers and in decorative and omamental fountain water systems to control algae and prevent re-establishment of algae. "Due to environmental costs," said John Lepke, market development manager for the Proc ess Additives Division, "a number of algal control products are being withdrawn from the marketplace. Terbuthylazine's strong performance and its availability in Califor nia will give water systems operators a

Used with two or three electrode probes, the instrument produces general corrosion and pitting measurements in mils per year readings. The easy-to-use, portable meter operates off a rechargeable battery and measures corrosion rates using the linear polarization technique. In the past, coupon testing was the primary method used to

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993


Product Review

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality » Water Quality • Hazardous Waste • Emission Testing

• Complete MISA Parameters • Reg. 309 Compliance

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furarls • Ambient Air Monitoring

mm PiPi

• Odorous Compounds

• Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.


Professional Analytical Services Since 1972


5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1 PI Phone:(905)890-2555 Fax:(905)890-0370

measure corrosion rates; however, because

of the lime requirements for conducting these tests, coupon testing is not feasible in many cases. Corrosion probe readings can


be taken as often as needed without having to withdraw tlie electrodes from your sys

tem. Daily fluctuations which miglit occur due to corrosion inhibitor adjustments can be measured instantaneously, tliereby allow ing tlie operator to make changes to correct potential problems. Metal Samples Co.


Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788

Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808

Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 157

Ainley and


Ultrasonic non-contact

transmitter provides


continuous level, flow, or volume measurement







280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Qundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371

(613) 966-4243

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573

MS mm)

Max.spen 34 FmI

(10.3 M)

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning


Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Standard Sensor Mounting - Level/Volume

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

Environmental and occupational tieaith and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada


225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiilowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect Figure 2 Standard Sensor Mounting •Flow

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply

Magnetrol® announces tlie sales release of

Water Resources

tlie Echotel III Series 341 Ultrasonic Con

TORONTO (416)497-8600 WELLANO (905) 735-3659 OSHAWA (905)434-2544

tinuous Level, Flow or Volume Transmit ter. Tlie Series 341 consists of a transmit

Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services

Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Structures




(705)671-9903 (Dennis Consultants)

BROCKVILLE (613) 498-1206 (Sexsmrlh ConsuHanIs)

ter enclosure, housing the microprocessorbased electronics, and a remote mounted sensor. Tlie non-contact design of the Se

ries 341 is unaffected by process variables such as shifting specific gravity or dielec trics, viscosity, or conductivity and can be mounted up to 500 feet from the electron

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


spil l site investigations and cleanups

impact assessments


Features of the Series 341 include an in

tegral front panel keypad providing an easyto-use operator interface with a sixteen char acter display of all parameters. Dis-

• underwater video inspections

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

(905) 641-0941 51

Product Review


play may be configured in units of level, flow, volume or a multiplier factor may be set to display in desired units, i.e. inches, feet, cubic feet, centimeters, meters, gallons, liters, or petroleum barrels, A customer defined security code prevents unauthorized tampering of calibration parameters, Magnetrol International





For more information,

Circle reply card No. 158

New chlorine analyzer

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

CONSULTING ENGINEERS > Wastewater Collection & Treatment • Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management 'Environmental



> Water Supply Strategies ■Water Resources &

Environmental Planning ■Analytical Testing ■ Field Sampling & Flow Measurement





(519) 579-3500


(403) 488-2760

(604) 684-3282

The CHLORTROL 5000 is a new indicat

ing and transmitting residual chlorine analyzer with bare electrode cell from Fischer & Porter, This amperometric de vice continuously measures the concentra tion of residual chlorine in water or




Regulation 347 • Metals • Inorganics • Organics Volatile Organics • BTEX • Asbestos • RGBs TCLP • Onsite Services • Isocyonotes


inquiries about odditiond onolytical services ore encouraged

949 McDougdl Avenue Windsor, Ontorio

(519) 255-9797

N9A 19

FAX (519) 255-9304

wastewater. Response time is within five seconds.

Hie new analyzer uses a flow-through measurement cell containing two dissimi lar metal electrodes. Eitlier free or total

chlorine residual may be measured by

proper reagent selection. Containers for a two-month reagent supply are provided. A current is generated which is directly proportional to chlorine concentration as the water sample flows past the electrodes. An electric motor rotates one of the electrodes,

Eastern Region


Toronto Tel; (416) 441-4111


Fax: (416) 441-4131


Prairie Region




Offices across Canada and Overseas

Calgary Tel: (403) 276-9861 Fax: (403) 277-6902

Pacific Region Vancouver Tel: (604) 525-3333 Fax: (804) 525-9458

and tills imparts a swirling velocity to the water sample. Hie electrode rotation at con stant speed assures reproducible electrolj^ic conditions and renders the cell independ ent of sample flow variations. Also, inert plastic, nonabrasive pellets in the cell keep the electrodes clean through scouring action. Easily maintained, the new analyzer has no need for expensive cabinets and instru mentation. Reagent cost is minimized by an automatic reagent feed system. Fischer & Porter

SIIILIL©ini Professional Consulting Services Planning Engineering

New literature on series 1700 chlorinators

Environmentai Science Toronto • London • Cambridge * Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax * Sydney Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Ye II o w k ni fe • International 100 Stieppard Avenue East, To ro n to, Ontario M 2N 6 N5 (4 16) 229-4646


For more information, Circle reply card No. 159

A six page, two colour brochure describing Series 1700 Chlorinators (or gas dispenser) is being offered by Fischer & Porter (Canada) Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Product Review


The new literature is available in two

versions: one features industrial applications and the otlrer highligltts municipal applica

Consultants In The Environment


• Environmental Planning • Ecological Science

Photo, schematics and charts are em

ployed to explain why tliese calculations are tlie best choice for controlled gas chlorination. Among the many features are low maintenance, wide range of capacities, pin point precision,ultimate reliability and more options for present and future field configu

• Geosclence


• Planning • Implementation • Monitoring

• Engineering

^ 1M

• Remediation

Gartner Lee TOreONTO(905)477-8400

VANCOUVER (604)299-4144

NIAGARA FALLS. NY(716)285-5448


A primer on how to select the best unit for specific applications is another part of tire helpful information, making it easy for potential users to determine their needs. Fischer & Porter (Canada) Ltd. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 160




1 jl

50 offices throughout Canada,

the United States, Australia and Europe.


Laidlaw implements use of Corrosltex in U.S.,

BURNABY Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax;(604)298-5253 VlCllVS MISSISSAUGA Tel:(416)567-4444 Fax:(4^6)567-6561

Envlronmental/Occupationai Health and Safety

Canada and Mexico InVitro Intemational (IVI) has announced that Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc., the world's second largest hazardous waste disposal company, has selected the new CORROSITEX™ corrosivity testing sys tem to spot check customer shipments in order to comply with the U.S. Department

of Transportation (DOT) regulations that




• Workplace and safety audits • Environmental Engineering •Asbestos •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design


•Air monitoring •Indoor air quality • Noise monitoring and control

• Air emission control • Environmental audits •WHMIS

20CX) Argentia Road, Plaza ill, Suite 301

Telex: 06-218242

Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(416)858-4424

take effect October 1, 1993. CORROSITEX is the only in vitro


Bore St Storrie Limited

(nonanimal) test approved by the DOT for classifying corrosives into UN Packing Groups I, II or HI, as required by law. Laidlaw plans on implementing


CORROSITEX test kits at 50 locations


throughout the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Because it is a rapid, cost-effective method to accomplish this objective, Laidlaw Envi ronmental Services will purchase between

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6



Telephone (416) 499-9(X)0 Fax (416) 499-4687 ' Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London

250 to 1,000 CORROSITEX test kits over

the next 12 montlis, representing an invest


ment of $200,000 to $800,000. InVitro International

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 161


Consulting Engineers

1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5 Tel. (905)522-0012 FAX(905)522-0031

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources

Press for rotary sludge dewatering Rotary Press for sludge dewatering in mu nicipal and industrial applications. Tliis simple, slow-moving press dewaters sludge efficiently producing a cake with a higli sol ids content. With most primary municipal sludges, it is possible to obtain a cake dryness of 38% or more say the manufacturers. The continuous process is totally enclosed and produces no noise and vibration. The capture rates are higli. Its low maintenance cost and low energy consumption make it a viable alternative.

Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems '• Neural Networks

ISIJagger Hims ■I


Environmental Consulting Engineers 'Rydrtigeology 'Engineering Geology ' Geotechnical Engineering

* Geosynthetic Engineering

'Environmental Audit & Site Remediation 'Sexoage System Design 'Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources NEWMARKET OFFICE


130 Davis Drive. Suite 210 Newmortcet. Onforio Canada L3Y 2N1

274 Fourth Avenue, Unit One St. Cothorirtes. Ontorio Conoda 12R 6F9

Les Industries Fournier

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 162 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Fox (905) 853-1759

Fox (905) 687-1773

Ton Free (60O) 263-7419

Toll Free (800) 668-2598


Product Review


Isco announces a

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.

breakthrough in pH and temperature monitoring


Brampton (905) 459-4780 (905) 459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519)743-3330




(705) 679-5979 (705)679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Pianners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Managing today's environmental issues. ■ Environmental Management Systems ■ Accounting ■ Environmental Economics ■ Assistance in M&A Negotiations ■ Disclosure & Financing Advice ■ Public Policy ■ Environmental Audits ■ Due Diligence ■ TQEM Tlie new PAL 1110 Parameter Actuator and

Logger from Isco accurately measures and records pH and temperature on-site to meet monitoring regulations. It is designed and built for dependable operation in rougii en vironments,including sewers. With the Isco

08® Environmental Services Inc. PO Box 31, Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 1B2 Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax:416-777-3364










Windsor, Ontario















(S19) 966-2250

(519)680-3580 FAX:(519)680-3582

FAX: (519) 966-5523


PAL you can: continuously monitor tempera ture and pH in your flow stream; log data at preset time intervals and; activate your au tomatic sampler when pH exceeds preset limits.

The PAL 1110 features a tactile keypad,

a large LCD and self-prompting controls for fast, easy programming. Calibration can be performed in tire field or in tlie laboratory without an attached sampler. Components are housed in an environmentally sealed NEMA 4X,6 enclosure to withstand mois ture, dust,corrosion and accidental submer

sion. Tbe pH probe is specifically designed for horizontal installation to reduce clogging and snagging debris. A separate tempera MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Roor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 489• Telephone:(905) 475-7270 • TeleFAX:(905)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

ture probe provides maximum accuracy. All temperature and pH data are stored in bat tery-backed memory. The built-in commu nications interface allows you to generate

reports on-site or in the office using a PC or an Isco Field Printer. Tlie PAL can be used

as a stand alone logger, or as an actuator for almost any sampler on tlie markef Isco


For more information,

•Waste management


Circle reply card No. 163

•Engineering geology Mercury free float level • Environmental audits

MALROZ Engineering inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 lei:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation Marshall Macklin

concem,it offers a low cost solution to wide

differential applications. The patented mov ing ballast causes a flipping motion of the float to provide positive switching action


Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(905) 882-1100


switch Magnetrol announces its TIO float level switch for municipal and industrial appli cations. An ideal replacement for the mer cury filled float switches commonly used in pumping stations, where risk of toxicity is a

Fax:(905) 882-0055

even under turbulent conditions. Recom

mended for use in either clean or dirty liq uids, it is suitable for use in sump pump control, wet well applications and pilot sys tems. It is easily wired for automatic empty or fiU cycles, where its adjustable differen-

Eiivironmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Product Review

Consultants Proctor & Redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution


Wastewater Collection and Treatment


Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay


45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600


Fax: (416) 445-5276

*. Pump

• Automatic Empty (Pump Down) shown aljov®. The T10 can be used (or Automatic Pill applica

tions by changing the wiring as shown on Page 4 of this brochure.

tial eliminates the need for latching devices and double switching with two units. 10 A at 240 VAC SPDT contacts are provided. CSA approved units are available for quick shipment. Ranges up to 60 feet are offered. Magnetrol International For more information, Circle reply card No. 164 WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL



Return sludge pumping


Consulting Engineers & Architect 1815 Ironstone Manor, Suite #10, Pickering, Ont. L1W 3W9

The Smith and Loveless Wet Well Mounted

Pump Station can now be used as a return sludge pump. The Wet Well Mounted Pump

Station is modified to pump sludge by add ing a double mechanical seal and a fresh water seal lubrication system. Although each pumping station is dif ferent, the Wet Well Mounted Pump Sta tion can be adapted to fit the needs of any activated sludge handling requirement. Every biologically activated sludge plant needs sludge pumps. Wet Well Mounted Pump Stations work with any system with a clarifier. They can manage up to five per cent sludge solids. An activated sludge wastewater treat ment clarifier separates the biomass from

Tel; 905-831-1715

Fax: 905-831-0531

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 • ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS • IMPACT STUDIES





121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090


the clean water. The Wet Well Mounted

Consulting Engineers

Sludge Pump Station eitlier pumps the set tled biomass sludge to a waste storage tank, or retums it to the aeration system for proc ess control. Hie pumping rates available with a Wet Well Mounted Fhimp Station can vary between 50 and 2,000 gallons per minute, depending on process requirements. A major advantage of the Smith & Loveless Wet Well Mounted Pump Station is tliat it provides easier accessibility to pumps, pip ing and controls. Stainless steel construc tion is available in either 304 or 316 type materials to pump corrosives. Designed witli all mechanical equipment located above grade away from tlie sludge, this model can draw a suction lift of up to 20 feet. Smith & Loveless, Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 165

•Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

' Environmental Audits ' Water Resources ' Water PollLrtion Control

• Environmental Planning

'Water Supply





Tel.: 1905 643-8166 Tel.: 613 247-0111

Fax:(90^ 643-6171 Fax:(613) 247-0114

Complete Environmental Service Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits



Solid Waste Management • MISA

TEL(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221

hubicki associates

Eiivirojmieyjtal Science &. Engineering, November 1993




Product Review

Consultants TRITON


Environmental testing procedures in handy



Consulting Engineers HEAD OFFICE;




51 Townllne, Orangeville, Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fax:(519)941-1830

• Environmental Audits • Decommissioning & Clean-Up • Asbestos/PCB Management • Waste Management • Hydrogeology


Head Office 1595 Clark Boulevard.Brampton,Ontario L6T4V1

Consulting Engineers

Telephone (416) 793-9800 Fax;(416)793-0641

Boston*Cambridge*Chicago*Hamilton*London*Markham*Montreal»North Bay Ottawa*Oshawa*Sudbury*Timmins»Toronto*Thunder Bay*Winnipeg

wall chart Essential criteria for soil and groundwater sampling and analysis, abstracted from many volumes of US state and federal envi ronmental agency manuals,is now presented as a single, quick-reference wall chart. Tlie chart, available from GTEL Environmental

Laboratories, is an important time-saving tool for environmental engineers,geologists, hydrogeologists, and project managers re sponsible for collecting soil and groundwater samples and purchasing labo ratory services. The chart presents a series of tables which identify compound classes and meth ods of analysis, as well as instructions for collecting, storing and preserving samples. GETEL Environmental Laboratories, Inc.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 166

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone;(416)238-0007

Fungal remediation capabilities


Groundwater Technology, Inc., a leader in


on-site remediation of contaminated soil and

groundwater, offers a new, 4-page bulletin emphasizing the Company's pioneering



Consulting Engineers

• Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony > Design and Specification of Control Measures 'Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Quarries, Presses, Blasting

1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1A3 Tel:(905) 670-4922, Fax:(905) 670-1698

Waterloo: (519) 746-3415

work in fungal remediation. Fungal remediation is a new generation of biological treatments for contaminated soil, exclusively available from Groundwater Teclmology througli its mar keting agreement witli Mycotech Corpora tion, a leading manufacturer of fungal prod ucts. Groundwater Technology has ex tended the use of fungi to the large-scale remediation of contaminated soils. This

new technology has the potential to be highly efficient and cost-effective in tlie biodegradation of contaminants which have been resistant to bacterial remediation.

Groundwater Technology, Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 167

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, L^ind Use Planning and Development,

Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation

High-Flow remediation bladder pumps QED's Eliminator pumps are jipw available in two new models tliat can deliver flow

rates exceeding 5 GPM (five times the flow of lire standard models). Tliese pumps are ideal for mstallations that require higher flow, but still need the emission-free, reli XCG Consultants Ltd.

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

Suite 904

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

Providing Senior Consultlhg Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

able performance of the original Elimina tor.

N2H 6P4

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

M/ASc, PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


Two new bladder materials are

optimized for superior performance in dif ferent applications - one for hydrocarbon recovery, the other for total-fluids and VOCcontaminated ground water pumping. Both pumps are available with top or bottom in lets. QED GroundWater Specialists For more information,

Circle reply card No. 168 56

Environmental Science cSo Engineering, November 1993

Pulp & Paper

MISA regulations anticipated for Ontario Pulp and Paper mills By Steve Black, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., Gore & Storrie Limited

and Susan Liver, M.Eng., P.Eng., CH2M HILL Engineering Limited

The Municipal Industrial Strategy

for Abatement (MISA) is an ini tiative of tlie Ontario government which targets tlie "virtual elimi nation" of tlie discharge of toxic contami nants on a sector-by-sector basis. Tlie pulp and paper sector is the second industrial sector regulation (after the petroleum in dustry) under tlie MISA, and is anticipated by early fall. B.C. and Quebec have al ready passed comparable environmental regulations affecting the pulp and paper industry in tliose provinces. Hie Ontario Draft Effluent Limits Regulation for the Pulp and Paper Sector was released for tlie 60-day public comment period in February. Tlie potentially far reaching implications

of tlie regulation, however, have developed into a controversy, holding up its final re lease. AOX

Tliere is growing concern in nortliern communities tliat tlie regulation may result in mill closures. AOX (a bulk analysis of chlorinated organics found in tlie effluents from pulp and paper mills which use chlo rine bleaching) is at the centre of tlie con troversy. Recently the Alliance for Respon sible AOX Regulations was formed by a coalition of mayors, unions and pulp and paper companies demanding to see tlie sci entific evidence upon which the regulation is based. Tlie Alliance questions tlie need

Fletcher Challenge's P&P plant at Elk Falls, BC recently completed major environmental treatment facilities. (ES&E, Nov. 1992) Photo courtesy, Columbia Geosystems, Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. B.C. and Quebec have mandated tlie reduc

mills have switched all or some of their

has gone one step furtlier. By calling for tlie total elimination of AOX by the year

chlorine bleaching from molecular chlorine (CD to chlorine dioxide (ClOJ in response to concems over the generation of certain chlorinated organics, 2,3,7,8 TCDD (a dioxin) and 2,3,7,8 TCDF (a furan). It is no secret tliat tlie past few years have been tougli times for the pulp and paper industry in Canada with depressed product prices and ever increasing competition from new, high production mills in tlie U.S. and around tlie

2000, B.C. has essentially banned tlie use of chlorine bleaching of any kind at mills in tliat province. (Table I) Ontario

for tlie elimination of AOX. which tlie in

Ontario has tried to find a middle ground between a precautionary approach to AOX and tlie potential impact of tlie regulations

dustry estimates will more tlian double tlie

on the livelihood of the one third of

cost of meeting tlie otlier requirements of llie MISA regulation, to greater tlian $1 bil

Ontarians living in tlie nortliem part of tlie province who depend on tlie forestry indus try. In effect, however, tlie draft regulation pleases neitlier party. Tlie regulation neitlier requires the elimination of AOX nor


Tlie Federal Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations promulgated in May last year did not regulate this parameter. This

millions of dollars, many Canadian kraft

tion of AOX in mill effluents. But B.C.

guarantees tliat mills will be allowed to con-

By calling for the total elimination of AOX by the year 2000,

B.C. has essentially banned the use of chlorine bieaching of any kind at mliis in that province. resulted from a Federal research review-

tinue using chlorine. It merely requires that

which found no correlation between AOX

an AOX Elimination Plan be submitted

levels in tlie effluent and biological effects in tlie receiving environment. In response to growing concerns over the potential for toxic chlorinated com pounds to persist in tlie envirormient. how ever, two otlier provinces have already regu lated AOX as part of more stringent pro vincial regulations for tlie industry. Both

without a legal requirement to enforce it. Environmental groups are left without a clear commitment from tlie provincial gov ernment while mills are left with furtlier

world^. If the move to zero AOX is en

forced, tliat equipment will become obso lete long before it is depreciated''. Other Parameters

Other components of the regulation, some precedent setting in tlieniselves, have taken a back seat to tlie AOX issue in both

tlie news media and industry publications. More stringent limits are established for BOD and suspended solids for each of tlie four sub sectors in the industry. Botli Fed eral and tlie draft Ontario regulations re quire that tlie two most toxic dioxins and furans, 2,3.7,8TCDD and 2,3,7,8TCDF are non-measurable, and tliat whole effluent is

non-toxic to trout and daphnia niagna. But other Provincial limits are substantially

uncertainty in uncertain times. To boot, many in tlie industry felt that they had already addressed the issue of

lower tlian tlie Federal criteria, as shown in

chlorine use. At the cost of hundreds of

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1993

Table 2.

The total phosphorus limit has been tlie


Pulp & Paper regulations realized. Sublethal effect limits are seen

Table 1

increasingly in discharge permits in the U.S.

Provincial AOX Regulations PROV.



(based on monthly average daily limit) Ontario

MISA - Draft

2.50 kg AOX/tonne- day 1 1.50 kg AOX/tonne-Dec., 1995 0.800 kg AOX/tonne - Dec., 1999 1999 submit AOX Elimination

Plan(AEP) (includes scheduleand annual update) for elimination by 2002 B.C.

Regulation (Jan 17, 1992)

2.5 kg AOX/tonne - date set on millby-mill basis 1.5 kg AOX/tonne - Dec. 1995 (exempt if accelerated elimination) elimination - Dec. 2000

- submit plan by June 30, 1992


Regulation (Sept. 16, 1992)

2.5 kg AOX/tonne - immediate. softwoods


1.0 kg AOX/tonne- Sept. 1995, hardwoods

0.8 kg AOX/tonne - Dec. 2000 all pulps

Sublethal Monitoring The Federal Regulation addresses the measurement of chronic effects in the re

ceiving water through the Environmental Effects Monitoring program. This includes sublethal testing on fish, invertebrates and plants quarterly, for one year in every three 58


Ure Protocol requires substantial docu mentation and monitoring of stormwater generated on the mill site. It includes meas urements of all the parameters regulated in the provincial regulation (including 2,3,7,8 TCDD and TCDF), in stormwater from various regions of tlie mill site. This could involve substantial monitoring costs, espe cially over large sites. Hie Study Protocol goes on to require an assessment of pre vention and control altematives, and re

1.5 kg AOX/tonne - immediate. 2.0 kg AOX/tonne - Sept. 1995,

subject of considerable discussion between the industry and government. Wliile some aerated stabilization basin(ASB)treatment systems exceed the limit due to excessive suspended solids, even more sophisticated high rate systems may have difficulties in meeting the limit if the amount of phos phorus in the wastewater is extremely vari able. Pulp and paper effluents are usually nutrient deficient, requiring the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain biologi cal growth. Influent phosphorus concen trations resulting from boiler feed water treatments, and possibly the raw material itself (trees!), can be highly variable. As a result, controlling the effluent level of phos phorus while maintaining a healthy treat ment system can be extremely difficult. Chloroform, toluene and phenol are also regulated as a result of the data generated during the MIS A monitoring program in 1990. In general, meeting the limits on these compounds is not considered to be a concem as they are removed during aero bic biological treatment which is, in most cases, required to meet the toxicity limits.

Storm Water Study Like sublethal monitoring, the Storm Water Control Study Protocol, which is in cluded in the draft regulation,is anotlier step away from the conventional approach to pollution prevention. The conventional approach is to address point sources of pol lution — the end-of-pipe approach. How ever non-point sources, such as stormwater, have long been recognized as another sig nificant contributor to environmental pol

as part of a study of the receiving water habitat, bentlios and fish communities. The

effluent plume area is compared to a refer ence site to determine any impacts on the receiving water environment. Two of these three sublethal tests,

Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow, are to be perfomied twice a year under tlie pro vincial regulations at a cost of approxi mately $6000 per year. Botli these regula tions are part of the increasing shift toward

quires the submission of a report detailing tlie results of this analysis, project sched ules and mitigation costs, and long-term monitoring plans. Although the proposed regulation ad dresses several parameters not previously regulated for the pulp and paper industry in Ontario,and includes an approach to nonpoint source pollution from mill sites, AOX remains the key issue in contention. Tlie draft regulation plans.of the way toward eliminating these chlorinated organics will most certainly be hotly debated until the bill is finalized.

'Toronto Globe & Mail, July 22, 1993. ^Effluents from Pulp Mills Using Bleach ing, October 1991 '^Financial Times Survey, May 7, 1993 "Pulp & Paper Canada 93:10 (1992)

measurement of sublethal effects — the

For more Information,

implications of which are yet to be fully

Circle reply card No. 255

Table 2 on Monthly Average, Daily Limit Suspended Solids Total Phosphorus kg / tonne kg / torme kg / tonne product product product

Effluent Criteria based


Federal Regulation



Ontario - Kraft








Ontario - Corrugating








Ontario - Sulphite /

Ontario - Dernking* / Board / Fine Papers / Tissue

'Limit of 5.0 kg BODj/torme for Noranda Forest

Envirojimental Science & Engineering, November 1993

Who says a Multi-Gas Monitor has to be big!

TMX410... the ultimate in

safety,fiexibiiity and reliability Now there's a portable, multigas monitor that fits snugly in the palm of your hand. Available

One,Two,Three or Four Gas Monitoring |_ILEL or Methane


And/Or One or Two Toxic Sensors: board with real time clock

ydrogen Sulfide Itrogen Dioxide

from Industrial Scientific, the

TMX410 is small enough for easy, convenient handling, yet big enough to provide the ultimate in personal safety. Packed in a durable, stainless steel case, the TMX410 monitors up to 4 gases continuously and simultaneously. Audible and visual alarms warn of potential danger. How you use the flexible TMX410 is up to you. There's one, two, three or four gas monitoring and a choice of up to two toxic sensors to meet specific needs. Changing sensors is quick and easy. The instrument automatically acknowledges which sensors you have added or deleted and identifies selected sensors on the display screen. For more sophisticated monitoring, the TMX410 can be upgraded to a hygiene instrument. An optional hygiene

Carbon Monoxide . Suifur Dioxide

calculates and records STEL

and TWA readings. The TMX410 is powered by a Ni-Cad battery pack that can be charged on or off the instrument. An optional batteryoperated sampling pump is available for use in confined space applications. Call today for ordering information on the TMX410,the latest addition to Industrial Scientific's expanding family of personal monitors.

Distributed Exciusively in Canada by:

GH SSCAN TECHNOLOGIES A Division of Safety Supply Canada 90 West Beaver Greek Road

Ricfimond Hiii, Ontario L4B1E7 Tel:(905)731-8975, Fax:(905)731-4723

For more information, Circle reply card No. 127

Stormwater management

By M. Mansfield, REng.*

Implementing a storm water management program for water quality

The beaches in tlie greater Metro

politan Toronto area are frequently posted as unsuitable for swimming which is a state of affairs tliat pro duces annual mutterings of discontent in tlie local media. This condition, together with a growing public awareness of envirormien-

guiding principles:

Toronto Area Watershed Management Stra tegic Studies committee (TAWMS) in tlie early 80's. Tlie mandate of this group was to examine the causes for the water quality problems tliroughout the Don and Humber

Policy Recognizing that storm water is a re source which can be utilized to improve our physical environment,the City is un dertaking a program to manage the col lection and transport of storm water in a manner designed to reduce pollution in the receiving waters while enhancing the physical environment as much as reasonably possible in an economic and well planned fashion. This program will consider the safety and welfare of resi

River watersheds and to recommend solu

dents with due consideration for envi

tal issues, caused the Province to create the

tions. TAWMS membership included all local municipal Works,Healtli and Plarming Departments and representatives from vari ous provincial ministries. TAWMS quietly expired in 1987 after producing many detailed technical studies. Little moral and no financial support was offered by the Province to implement the proposed TAWMS solutions. In 1989,in response to water quality con cerns by Uie International Joint Conmiission on the Great Lakes, a new organization was created: the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The Toronto Area RAP is essentially a re prise of TAWMS but with a wider member ship which now encompasses public, politi cal and scientific representation as well as tire requisite federal and provincial agency representatives. Based on the TAWMS track record and its own achievements to date it can be ex

pected that RAP too will fade away into obscurity. Combined sewage overflows (CSO) were the favourite preoccupation of both

groups for a number of years. Wliile CSO undoubtedly has a negative influence on water quality, beaches are often closed af

ronmental, sooial and legal impacts and within the framework of applicable fed eral, provincial and municipal statutes, bylaws and policies.

other means.

5. To practice and enforce erosion and sedimentation controls during all phases of development, redevelopment or other construction.

6. To reduce the number of storm drain

age outlets to the receiving waters whenever possible while making provi sion for storm water treatment facilities

wherever possible.


1. To minimize the risk and threat to life

and destruction of property from urban runoff.

2. To protect, and wherever possible, enhance the quality of storm water run off into the receiving waters. 3. To protect and enhance the function ality of the City's waterways. 4. To re-establish the natural hydrologic cycle as much as possible. 5. To implement the Storm Water Man agement Program with due regard for the ecosystem. Guiding Principles 1. To ensure that an adequate major and minor system is provided and main tained for the drainage of surface wa ters.

2. To ensure that storm runoff controls

are designed and implemented with due regard for volume,frequency and dura tion.

3.To prevent development in areas sus ceptible to flooding during major storms and areas of unstable slopes. 4. To take a natural approach to water course design and construction by re stricting the use of artificial hard sur faces to only those areas where ero sive conditions cannot be controlled by

At tlie heart of tlie Etobicoke Storm Wa

ter Management Program is tlie concept that urban drainage practices can be altered to reflect pre-urban conditions. Tlie original conditions cannot be re-created nor should

we expect tliat water from tlie Humber River will ever be drinkable. Much can and should

however be done to improve present condi tions.

Implementation Prior to presenting tlie Storm Water Man agement Program to Council we requested conmients on tlie draft document from tlie

provincial ministries of Environment and Natural Resources, tlie federal ministries of Environment and Fisheries & Oceans as well tlie Toronto area Conservation Author

ity. Tlie opinions of oilier groups were also solicited: several leading consultants in tlie field of storm water management and a number of environmental groups con-

ter rainfall events that are too small to cause

such overflows. Only in tlie last several years has tlie realization dawned that storm water runoff is the basic mechanism for

transporting pollution loadings to tlie local waterways and hence to Lake Ontario. Furtlier hindering progress is the ideological baggage tliat RAP has burdened itself with: facile slogans such as everyone is a polluter or source control, not etid ofpipe. Tlie City of Etobicoke (in the western portion of Metro) embarked on its own course to address the problems of storm water quality improvements. The philo sophical core of the Etobicoke approach is the Storm Water Management Program ap proved by Council in 1992 and shortly there after incorporated into the City's Official Plan. The Program is comprised of a state ment of policy, five goal statements and six *Director, Utility Division - Engineer ing Works Department, City of Etobicoke. 60


Backhoe exposes corrugated storm culvert pipe as a crew begins to repair one of the many failed sewer pipes on a short stretch of road in Aurora, Ont. Failed sewer pipe was being replaced by PVG pipe. See Editorial Comment tor a further viewpoint. Enviromnental Science

Engineering. November 1993



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Stormwater manaqement continued cemed with the condition of our aquatic re sources. All agreed with the proposed Pro gram although we did not to seek to attain consensus on all points: in tliat direction lies

the storm sewer to be made but the onus is

on the builder to prove tliat there is no fea sible altemative.

Developments/redevelopments must

gridlock and inaction as amply demonstrated

make a cash contribution to tlie City in pro

by TAWMS and RAP,

portion to die estimated cost of a future cen tralized treatment system for that particu-

Etobicoke Works Department carmot by itself nor should it implement all tlie activi ties that a the Storm Water Management Program entails. Beautification. cleanup, tree and vegetation plantings and fish re stocking are examples of activities that are best carried out by others. Many groups have an interest in the community and should be encouraged to take a part in the restoration of our aquatic resources. Schools, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Service groups and Ratepayer Associations are a few

examples that come to mind. Tlie "AdoptA-Creek" concept begun in the United States is a good example of how local groups could take over responsibility for specific Tlie Etobicoke Storm Water Manage ment Program is being undertaken without any separate or additional funding beyond

what is already provided in the Capital Budget for watercourse improvements and storm drainage works. We are convinced that many improvements can be accom plished without necessarily spending money. Achievements to Date

Within tlie first full year of the Storm Water Management Program Etobicoke has modified its Sewer Use Bylaw; completed several projects; is about to start several

more later in the season and is planning other major ones for the near future. The Sewer Use Bylaw now forbids the

connection of private property drainage sys tems to the municipal storm sewer. Effec

tively tills means that downspouts and foun dation drains must discharge to grade. The net result is more infiltration and suspended solids are reduced by tlie grassed areas be fore tlie overland drainage reaches the mu nicipal drainage system. Tliere is a net cost

reduction to the builder: a sump pump is much cheaper than a sewer connection al though more inconvenient. There still is a Bylaw provision that allows connections to

for at least 100 years - the time that It will take us to complete our planned system rehabilitation. lar subwatershed. If die site has a lower runoff coefficient than a stated standard value dien die cash contribution is lowered

proportionately. Storm sewers have been installed on sev

eral streets togedier widi die new Etobicoke Exfiltration System with several more

early 1994. The Etobicoke Exfiltration Sys tem for pervious soils is made up of a stand ard storm sewer system combined widi per forated pipes installed underneath the storm sewer. Water from catchbasins enters the

conventional pipe but drops down to the perforated pipe at the next downstream manhole and is exfiltrated into the stone filled trench and hence into die surround

ing soils. The perforated pipe is plugged at the downstream end and wrapped in filter cloth to retain the suspended solids for pe riodic removal. The system is designed to absorb up to a 15 mm rain event and will also capture winter snowmelt. All

catchbasins are equipped with goss traps to allow oil and fioatables recovery. One storm sewer has been completed with the Etobicoke Filtration system de signed for use in areas of impervious soils. In this application the goss trapped



Aer-O-Flo Atlantic Ind.


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Brinkman Ins.


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Western Water


naturalization efforts.

Lastly the City has undertaken a PainrA-Fish program widi local schools for two years now. Tlie second year included the

distribution of explanatory leaflets to adja local residents to die meaning behind the

while die standard 200 mm lead is conven

tionally cormected to die storm sewer but is connected to the catchbasin at a level above

that of the 125 nmi pipe. Trench backfill to above the top of die perforated pipe is a fine

catchbasin and is filtered dirougli die pierforated pipe into the crushed stone. A con ventional 100 mm foundation drain pipe

System, larger flows will be treated as in a conventional system. Althougli the standard storm sewer de


an underlying sanitary trunk sewer in a very confined area. Tlie City also provided plant material to a group of disgruntled residents who were very upset about the appearance of an adjoining berm. A berm beautifica tion plan was developed by the residents with some professional advice from our Parks Department and the planting carried out by die residents as a conmiunity effort. The result is that the residents are now hap pier and have a stake in the success of die

suddenly decorated catchbasins.


Neo Valves Praxair

and shrubs and extensive wildflower seed

ing. The construction costs were a little bit lower than die original gabion based design. Maintenance will be virtually zero since a naturalized setting precludes grass cutting. In diis case the original gabion channel had to be destroyed to pemiit reconstruction of

lead is connected to a filter wrapped perfo rated pipe above the main stomi sewer pipe

collects the filtered and cooled water and

17 18

10 27

constructed from a gabion lined channel to a completely naturalized watercourse that involved planting hundreds of native trees

cent homes to raise the awareness of the

Groundwater Tech. 32 IPEX 5 Laidlaw 7 Ivlann Test. Labs. 21


Ego Equip.


Geneq Gorman Rupp

emnient and in co-operation with the Prov ince and Etobicoke. A 1.5 km stretch of creek has been re

catchbasins have two leads: one 125 nmi

clear crushed stone. Runoff flows from the

Ad Index

as contractors become more familiar with

this approach. A three year formal evalua tion of the effectiveness of these systems has just begun,financed by die Federal gov-

The Etobicoke Storm Management Program will be in place

scheduled for installation in late 1993 or


sewer is to be constructed in any case. Tlie extra costs appear to be in the range of 15 to 25% although that may be reduced in time

discharges it into the storm sewer at the next downstream manliole. As in die Exfiltration

sign could be reduced due to the absorption capacity of the extra system we have cho sen to view the extra capacity simply as a somewhat higher level of service than of fered by the conventional approach. The extra costs for this approach to Storm Wa ter Management are not clear. The two sys tems are only being installed where a storm


Althougli we are still only at the begin ning of our Storm Water Management Pro gram it is clear diat many improvements can be made to die traditional approach to ur ban drainage at only a modest cost. Once we abandon the thought that any problem can only be solved by providing a 100% solution then many interim steps can be taken, often in conjunction with odier works diat must be carried out in any case. We would rather achieve a 25 or 60% percent improvement now and in many places than wait for a perfect solution at some time in the future.

Don't forget that today's problems took many years to create. The Etobicoke Storm

Management Program will be in place for at least 100 years - the time that it will take us to complete our planned system rehabili tation. The benefit is that for every one of those 100 years we will see improvements.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1993

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