Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1993

Page 1





Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

Serving environmental professionals across Canada

September 1993

I i %


Chlorination and chloramination for municipal water supplies

Greenhouse gases control brewery wastewater pH in BC Could tree spiking be considered arboreal acupuncture? Fungal remediation technology for site clean up Advanced high rate treatment for CSO Control Modelling transients in complex pipelines California to host 66th WEF conference

Corrosion control for ductile iron pipe


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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

September 1993, Vol.6 No.4 Issued September, 1993


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4666

Could tree spiking be considered arboreal acupuncture?


By Tom Davey

Western Canada and

Western US Rep.RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849

Bacteria found to purify pulp & paper mill waste


Chemistry — an invisible profession with historical giants



(416) 727-4666

Technical Advisory Board

By Tom Davey

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Chlorination and chloramination for municipal water supplies By S.Y. Jasim

Using earthworms during biological testing for soil quality



By C.D. Wren, G.L. Stephenson and R.P. Lanno Demonstration of advanced high rate treatment for CSO Control

By G. Zukovs. W.C. Pisano. R.M. Pickett and P. Chessie


Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Don Kemp, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Modelling transients in complex pipelines By Bryan W. Karney


MacViro Consultants

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. R. Bruce Smith, LLB.

Resource Productivity as a new measure for industrial


By Seiichi Watanabe Fungal remediation technology for site clean up


California to host 66th WEF conference


Blake Cassels Graydon Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An ail Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial

coverage of Canada's municipal and in



By Steve Davey

dustrial environmental control systems

Corrosion control for ductile iron pipe with polyethylene

and drinking water treatment and distri



By Normand De Agostinis

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.

Greenhouse gases control brewery wastewater pH in EC By Brian Lemke P. Eng.


Time now for free trade within Canada



ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environmental Science& Engineering,c/c Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary

By John Coomey Departments Industry Update


R&D News


Classifieds Literature Reviews

Product Review


Ad Index

Reader Service Card


65 65



Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897 Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory &

Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

Cover Story (page 64) This wastewater treatment pilot skid is a 7'6" x 39'0" platform mounted on wheels and designed as a portable demonstration unit. A Drumshear (a

rotary fine screen),an Aer-0-Float(acavitation air flotation unit)and a Sludge Cannon (a sludge dewatering device) are mounted on this platform which can be shipped conveniently anywhere in the world. Aer-0-Flo photo Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

By Tom Davey

Editorial Comment

Could anti-logging spiking be considered arboreal acupuncture?

Now that vegetarianism has

Magazine. He contemptuously dis missed Canadians as cold soup."On a world menu. Canada would be Vichys-

gone from being a fad to a force there is increasing

focus on the environmental

soise. It's cold,half-French and difficult

impact of beef and mutton production. With their unerring propensity for the truly irrelevant. British writers leapt into the void with some witty advice on vegan dining room etiquette. Is it ethical for vegetarians to eat car nivorous plants? enquired a reader of a leading British newspaper.This is a fas cinating question to those who feel Brits have always been more concerned with table manners than what's actually on

to stir," he emoted haughtily. He pro bably thought that the main Canadian contributions to his newspaper were the trees used in newsprint. But Canadian bark is better than his bite.'Vichyssoise' Canadians stirred themselves long enough to dominate many UK news papers — including his own — ranging from the Lords Beaverbrook and Thomp

the table, or even how well food is

cooked. Some UK readers joined in the debate on botanical ethics with some

sensitive advice. After all, this is a na

tion where its explorers used to dress for dinner in the jungle; where Batman is an officer's personal servant, not a car toon character.

The first respondent advised that car nivorous plants might be eaten — but only in self defence. Another counselled that eating plants,such as Dionaea musc//;u/(7, the Venus Fly Trap, might be con strued as meat-eating by proxy. "Vege tarians should seek to peacefully per suade these plants to give up their car nivorous habits." It was also suggested that Linda McCartney — wife of former Beatle Paul — might be persuaded to endorse a range of nutritious'bite-sized' veggie snacks which vegans could drop into their fly traps to wean them from eating live insects. Prince Charles, too, was considered.

He is not only renowned as an eloquent environmentalist, but is reported to have actually talked to plants. While he would certainly add a regal presence to the cause, the Prince is unlikely to be persuasive with a carnivorous species whose first name is Dionaea.

Feeling overwhelmed by now, I con sulted an academic specializing in Rhe torical Bioethics. This is a brand new

discipline which evolved from environ mental protesters whose media mani pulation influences Canadian political reaction far more effectively than scien tific facts. The academic's face bright ened when she heard that ethical con

cerns could emerge if people ate car nivorous plants. There might be a thesis or two in this:perhaps it's evenfrivolous enough to qualifyforfederal Green Plan funding, she thought. After contemplating various aspects ofeco-ethics,she invoked some cerebral

Socratic precedents before posing her answers in a series of remorseless ques

tions.Ifeatingsuch plants Is meateating by proxy — surely eating meat from her bivores, such as cows and sheep, could be vicarious vegetarianism? Then what about the ethics of meat eating insects — such as black flies or mosquitoes — who feed so voraciously on us? What about the grass which sheep and cowsconsume, often caus ing serious erosion? In Australia, sheep have datnaged fields so much they have been called cloven footed locusts, she stressed.

Seeking to inject some reality into her arguments, I enquired about the ethics of activists who drive spikes in trees to stop logging? "After all, spiking can kill

or maim loggers or sawmill operators,"I said, confident that this was a real ethi

cal issue, not an academic debating point.

Activists may refuse their weifare cheques because they were printed on paper made from sacred trees.

Her reply was Swiftian in its response: "Spikes in trees could be construed as

merely arboreal acupuncture,'' she re plied, neatly skewering my argument while reducing human suffering to a semantic abstraction. This sort of rhe

torical obfuscation was clearly meat and drink to her. I now understood why Socrates had been given the hemlock, only to realize that hemlock too, is classed as vegetable matter. Man felled

by tree, so to speak. More dialectics on bioethics ensued. She emoted a profu sion of food-related metaphors which she deftly entwined like DNA spirals around all links in the food chain.

"Not only our bodies,but our thoughts and even our national identity — all are shaped by the food chain," she intoned, her thesis later confirmed by some pe jorative scribblings of a British reporter, Simon Mills ofthe London Sunday Times

son to Conrad Black.

Delve anywhere into the carnivorous plantissue anditbecomes apparentthat the distinction between predator, inter mediary and quarry, ultimately blend into singularities we call ecosystems. Now I am beginning to sound like a rhetorical bioethicist. Perhaps it's con tagious. The Globe & Mail also linked the UK

reporter's insults to food and national pride. The Globe urged its readers to be "tolerant and understanding of the inane spite that sometimes infects jour nalism in Britain — where what passes for cooking must sour even the sweet est temper." Personally I don't think it's British cooking, but the leaded gasoline that provoked hisjournalistic pique.The au tomotive soup urban Britons breathe is not a metaphorical "Vichyssoise, but an actual toxic brew which can have seri

ous neurological effects on people. Per haps this affected the reporter's temper more than British cooking. When I visited the UK a year ago,both unleaded gas and catalytic converters were rari ties, yet 'Vichyssoise' Canadians stirred themselves to adopt both environmen tal measures many years ago.

This brings the focus on carnivorous plant ethics full circle. It could be said we are also 'consuming' vegetable mat ter when we breathe the life-giving oxy gen from trees. The same trees later consume the carbon dioxide we exhale

which trees recycle into oxygen. Literal ly the cycle of life. A Toronto Star article,(Aug. 12) hin ted that certain activists may refuse their welfare cheques because they were prin ted on paper made from sacred British Columbia trees. If this practice spreads to Ontario, we may yet have a budget

surplus and Premier Bob Rae's Social Contract may not be worth the paper it's written on.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

i if

Com mil l ed to Excellence



Industry update MOEE trying to improve EA program Ontario Environment and Energy Mi nister Bud Wildman recently released a

report outlining administrative reforms to speed up and clarify Ontario's envi ronmental assessment(EA) program. Several of the administrative reforms

already are underway:

• The government review process for EAs has been streamlined.In 1991/92,

the government completed more EA reviews than it did in the previous four years combined. This rate was maintained in 1992/93.

• The system is being made clearer. Easy-to-read guidelines are being de veloped to guide project proponents

and the public through the process. • Public consultation is occurring at an earlier stage in the EA process. The ministry encourages this by having public and government agencies re

hearings are not needed at all.

tions came into effect on September 1,

The reforms outlined in Environmen


tal assessment reform:A report on improve ments in program administration came

To assist Albertans in understanding the new legislation the following are

out of the work of the Environmental


Assessment Program Improvement • A Guide to the Environmental Protection Project Task Force and the Environ and Enhancement Act mental Assessment Advisory Commit • Albertans respond to the proposed En tee (EAAC). vironmental Regulations:A Summary of The new reforms do not include the extension of the Environmental Assess

the public input received on the re ment Act to the private sector. Mr. Wildgulations and indicates how issues man pointed out that select privately were addressed by the government constructed municipal road, sewer and • Fact Sheets on the new regulations water projects have recently been made These publications can be obtained by subject to the municipal class EA pro calling Alberta Environmental Protection at: 1-800-661-5586.


For copies of Environmental assess ment reform: A report on improvements in program administration (PIBS 266le), as

well as EAAC's Reform to the Environ mental Assessment Program, call the MOEE's Public Information Centre at

(416) 323-4321.

such as the Waterloo landfill and the

Spadina Light Rail Transit projects —

Carboline, Denso sign distribution agreement Denso North America Inc.,a member of Winn & Coales International, and Car

boline Company,a subsidiary of RPM, Inc., have entered into a national dis

view EA documents at the same time.

Previously, the public review only came after the government review was completed. • Issues are being resolved early in the process through the use of alternative dispute resolution. This reduces the length of hearings. In many cases —

Public Comments, which summarizes

New environmental

legislation for Alberta The Province of Alberta has new legisla tion and regulations providing a com prehensive framework for environ mental protection and enhancement in the province. The new Act and Regula

tribution agreement for the sale of the Denso line ofanti-corrosion products in the United States and Puerto Rico.

Under the agreement, Carboline will provide marketing and customer sup port services for Denso petrolatum and bitumen tapes through the Carboline sales network of 130 representatives nationwide.


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biotreatment technologies With over 80 years in industrial and atmospheric gas technology and supply systems,Praxair holds the lead in oxygen expertise. At hazardous waste incineration sites across the country, Praxair's patented oxygen combustion technology is boosting performance,increasing efficiency and reducing emissions of incompletely burned organic compounds. Our Mixflo™ advanced oxygen dissolution technology, developed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, was selected for the nation's first in-situ slurry bioremediation program at a Superfund site. There it was shown to lower costs over conventional aeration methods, reduce toxic offgas emissions by 99%, and halve air monitoring expenses. Praxair's hazardous waste oxygen combustion technology (top) won the prestigious Kirkpatrick Award. The nation'sfirst in-situ slurry bioremediation program (inset) is running with Praxair's oxygen and Mixflo technology.

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An Atmosphere of Excellence

Industry update Novalab merges with Mann Testing

Lynn & Johnston will be merging with Novalab.The new Novalab will employ

65 people and will remain 100% Cana dian owned and operated. The combined annual sales of the or

ganization will now exceed $16 million, thus forming the largest privately held environmental laboratory group in Ca nada.The ChiefExecutive Officer ofthe

John Martin

Novalab Ltd.,of Montreal,Quebec,and Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.,of Mis-

sissauga, Ontario announced the mer ger of their laboratories. The combined resources will allow the organization to take advantage of national markets and international markets, such as Mexico.

The proposed NAFTA agreement will open many opportunities in Mexico for Canadian environmental service com

panies. Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. was established in 1972 by Mike Mann,for merly of the Ontario Department of Health Laboratories.The company em ploys over 150 people and is 100% Cana dian owned.

Simultaneously with this merger.

combined organization is John Martin, from Mann Testing Laboratories, while the Chief Financial Officer is Gerry Johnston from Novalab.The laboratory and analytical services to commercial operations in Mississauga and Mon and industrial clients in Canada and the treal will continue under their present United States. names. Each location provides a com EPL President, Douglas Langley prehensive range of environmental an (above) stated "the investment illus alytical-services, from tests as simple as pH to the most complex analysis for trates the confidence the government of Ontario has in the environmental test dioxins at parts per quadrillion. ing industry. EPL's laboratory has the capability to test for over 300 pollutants in soils, sludge and effluent wastes, water, air, Provincial High Tech tissue samples and commercial pro Agency makes Green ducts. The firm's services are designed

Investment in EPL Innovation Ontario Corporation has invested $500,000 in Environment Pro

tection Laboratories Inc.(EPL), one of the largest privately owned environ mental testing companies in Ontario. EPL provides environmental sampling

to meet Provincial, Federal and U.S.

EPA requirements and standards. EPL

will use the investment to buy new test ing equipment which will enhance the firms capabilities enabling it to provide expanded services to existing clients as well as pursuing new accounts.The firm currently employs 45 skilled workers.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

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Industry update ones would increase the bulk of bags thrown away by a factor of five, say US researchers. They would occupy 70-80% more valuable landfill space."

Environmental issues need

active management Companies need to manage environ mental issues actively in order to stay on-side with regulators and lenders, says environmental expert Richard

prosecutors come calling. It happens that this pro-active approach meets the needs of the lending community, which is having to factor environmental risk

Harris, President of KPMG Environ

into all credit decisions," he said.

mental Services Inc.

Speaking at the 7th annual Toronto

Environmental Conference, sponsored by Environmental Science & Engineering, Harris noted that most environmental

expenditures today are being driven by fear — either on the part of directors/ officers, who may be held personally responsible for corporate misdeeds, or by lenders/bankers, afraid that they may be held liable for the costs of site remediation,

"Many large corporations are putting together due-diligence programs in or

"Pollution is not only a crime but also an economic event," concluded Harris.

"Accordingly, both government and in dustry would be well advised to rethink their approaches to environmental is sues. If clear, consistent regulatory guide lines existed for corporations, they could better manage risk and demonstrate sound environmental stewardship — not so much out of fear, but rather in

pursuit of competitive advantage". 40% less energy than making a tonne of paper bags(about 27,000)..." "Making a polythene bag produces over 60% less air pollution than making a paper bag: 60% less nitrogen oxides

source of raw materials. In the mean

time it would do nothing."

and three times less carbon monoxide."

John S,P, Robson

"Replacing plastic bags with paper

Chemex Labs Environmental Services Announcement Or, Henk Blok, President of Chemex Labs Ltd.,is pleased to announce the appointment of Or, Parker Shieh as Su

pervisor of Environmental Services. Dr. Shieh has extensive ex

perience in the areas of or ganic, inorganic, and nuclear environmental chemistry. He

Parker Shieh, Ph.D.

"Priced rationally, landfill is cheap, be cause despite the moralistic fervour of the extreme greens there is no shortage of landfill sites. The entire projected waste ofthe United Statesfor the next 1,000years could be thrown into a holeforty-four miles byforty-four miles by 120feet deep: so that of Canada would require a hole less than 14 miles square by 120feet deep. If such a hole were located in, say, a remote part of Northern Ontario(or northern B.C.), how bad would it really be? If this ques tion is put to the people who actually live there, they have already said that they want the employment garbage process ing would bring. It should also be noted that, since technology is not static, such a dump would,as extraction techniques improved, slowly turn into a valuable


able care" defense should provincial

Matt Hoddon in Green Magazine points out the following in the paper vs plastic grocery bag comparison: "Making a tonne of polythene film bags (about 90,000 bags) consumes 20-

in this hole

He advised conference participants to develop an environmental manage ment framework for their organiza

der to be able to demonstrate a "reason

Plastic vs paper facts

A 1000 years of garbage could fit

joins Chemex after holding

management positions in two major environmental labs in

the U.S. Dr. Shieh received Doctoral and Masters degrees in Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry from the University of Idaho, and a B.Sc. in Chemistry from Eastern Washington


Eraser Forum

Environmental Recqgnitign

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Chemex Labs Environmental Services specializes In the chemical analysis of waters, wastewaters, soils, sludges and air for mainly inorganic parameters. Trace metal ana lyses,a particular strength of Chemex,are served by 3ICR's and a Graphite Furnace AA. Chemex is a wholly-owned Canadian company in its 27th year of operation with Cana dian offices in North Vancouver, BC and Mississauga, ON. Internationally, it is served by 5 offices in the U.S. and a new facility opened this year in Thailand.

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Association news

By George Powell

Great Lakes Water Quality Teleconference a first for WEAO The US EPA's Water Quality Gui dance for the Great Lakes System and Correction;Proposed Rules was the subject ofthe WEAO's first tele conference held in Toronto on July 13. Fifty Canadian environmental professionals participated. The Guidance is a dense, 245page document full of highly com plex scientific discussion. It is con sidered hy many in the US to be a modelfor setting water quality goals and is designed to ensure consistent protection of humans, wildlife and aquatic life, preventing further degradation of the Great Lakes sys tem and providing for its restora tion.

Of course, the Guidance could affect future Canadian and Ontario

water quality legislation very seri ously and, therefore, it attracted intense interest from Canadian

water quality specialists. The Guidance contains aspects which are new and which have the

potential to radically change the regulation and practice of water quality protection in the Great Lakes states. Some of these have not yet been proven in practical application. It is an attempt to translate broad Great Lakes policy, as developed under the Joint Agreement,into the US legislative process. As such,it is not necessarily appropriate to the demands of Canadian legislative practice. Further, we are not con vinced that it is always based on the best or most appropriate available science.

The Guidance contains six major

tect water quality in three main categories. A general category spe cifies that degradation must not be allowed to reach below what is

required to maintain any uses that have existed since 1975.

regardless of where they are located. A second category protects waters

designated as an Outstanding National Resource — waters where

no degradation will be allowed under any circumstances. Lake Superior is designated as such an area. A third category provides set con siderations, including an assess ment of treatability, pollution pre vention, and socio-economic need,

George Powell Director, WEF

which must be considered before

2)The second element ofthe Gui dance sets down criteria for the pro tection ofhuman health. It provides numeric criteria for some 20 chemi cals of concern in a manner similar

to that for aquatic life. It also defines criteria development for other chemicals.

3) The third element proposes water quality criteria for wildlife. If implemented,this legislation would be among the first to do so. This element specifies numeric criteria for four pollutants, with Tiers defi ned in a way similar to those for the human and aquatic life criteria. It considers the impact on five species at the top of their food chain; the mink, river otter, eagle, osprey and belted kingfisher. 4)The fourth element sets up pro cedures for deriving bioaccumulation factors. These are designed to


establish factors for chemicals

1) The first specifies how water quality criteria are to be set to pro tect aquatic life. Numeric criteria are provided for 16 chemicals and procedures are laid down for the development of criteria for other

which hioaccumulate as they are consumed and move up through the food chain; algae through to fish or animals, for example. Chemicals which hioaccumulate strongly are

"chemicals of concern".

chemicals of concern" (BOG) and are to he regulated as particular cases. Some known and potential

Criteria development is segrega ted into two tiers. Tier 1 criteria are

established when available toxicity data meet standards specified in the Guidance. If data are more limited. Tier 2 criteria can be established by applying factors to provide a mar gin for uncertainty. Tier 2 criteria are calculated to be conservative

and to consciously err on the "safe" side. While cheaper to develop, the basis for Tier 2criteria may be scien tifically less sound and possibly excessively stringent. Considerable discussion took place with respect to the soundness of using Tier 2 cri teria for regulatory purposes. 16


must he protected to this extent

considered to be "bioaccumulative

degradation is allowed. 6)The sixth and last element des cribes the implementation steps and sets procedures for control of pollu tants. Site-specific modifications, variances from standards, whole effluent toxicity,loading limits, etc., are some of the areas for which pro cedures have been established.

The Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System and Correc tion; Proposed Rules is truly a uni

que water quality setting guidance. Its wide scope requires comment from Canadians.


Canada will be discussing this legis lation with the EPA in August through the protocol setup in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agree ment.

The WEAO's teleconference gave our association an opportunity to comment on the proposed legisla tion. We were able to point out the need to recognize the protocols ofthe Great Lakes Water Quality Agree ment and expressed our regret that the Guidance reached a very advan ced state before we were invited to comment. A seven-hour video of the confe

rence is available from the WEAO.

BCCs are listed in the Guidance.

Contact WEAO at(416) 502-1440. Reprinted from the Water Environ

5) The fifth element is an antidegradation policy designed to pro

ment Association of Ontario Newsietter.


Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

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Industry update Bacteria found to purify puip & paper miii waste A University of Toronto chemical en gineer has identified the dechlorinating bacteria naturally present in a pulp mill treatment system which improve the quality of waste from pulp and paper mills.

"Identifying the bacteria responsible for the conversion and breakdown of

chlorinated substances is the first step toward maximizing the effectiveness of biological treatment systems and im proving the quality of effluent dis charged to rivers from pulp and paper mills." said Professor Grant Allen who

led the investigation with colleagues at U of T's Pulp and Paper Centre, Biological treatment systems,such as those in use at most pulp and paper mills, eliminate some of the organo-

chlorine from pulp mill effluents na turally — bacteria present in the system convert or break down harmful toxins.

However, little has been known about

the bacteria present in these systems and how they can be most effective. The U of T researchers have isolated

three species of bacteria —Ancylobacter aquaticus. a Pseudomonas species and an unidentified methylotrophic organism — in a pulp mill's biological treatment

system that break down simple chlori nated substances, reducing the overall levels of chlorinated organics in pulp and paper mill effluents. Most pulp and paper mills have bio logical treatment systems in place, typi cally consisting of aerated lagoons and settling ponds or activated sludge treat ments. The systems operate like an ac celerated environment with different

bacteria battling each other and speed ing up decomposition. Designed to reduce suspended solids and oxygen-consuming materials in the waste, these treatment systems are now also being relied on to reduce the toxicity of the effluent to fish and the over all levels of chlorinated organics in wastewater.

"Biological treatment systems are ef fective but inconsistent at reducing toxicity. They also remove a fraction of the chlorinated organics but little is known about the bacterial community and other mechanisms operating in these systems. The goal of our research is to make biological systems as effective as possible by not only identifying which bacteria are present in the system at a given time, but also which are most effi

cient at dechlorination and under what

conditions they work best," said Pro fessor Allen.

Analysing samples from a pulp mill at Dryden, Ontario, researchers iden

tified the different organisms making up the bacterial communities at dif ferent stages of the treatment system. They compared bacteria found in the aerated lagoon and settling pond with that of the inflowing river to determine species and community characteristics best suited to life in mill wastewaters.

"Tests revealed about 100 times more

bacteria in the treatment system than in the influent river. A. aquaticus and the unidentified methylotrophic bacteria were found in abundance in the mill

treatment system but not in the river. Their abundance in pulp mills is ex plained by the organisms" use of galactose, glucose, arabinose, acetate, for mate


methanol, all found


bleached pulp mill wastewaters and other carbon-rich environments.

"We also found plasmids in the ma jority of bacterial strains isolated from this system. Plasmids — fragments of DNA that are separate from the chro mosome — are often associated with


Consulting Engineers


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Industry update bacteria's ability to degrade certain ma nufactured compounds. High plasmid incidence could mean increased degrad ing ability." explained Allen. The release of chlorinated organic compounds to the environment is of concern because some of these com

pounds are persistent, accumulative and toxic. The pulp and paper industry is a major source ofchlorinated organics worldwide due to pulp bleaching. (Bleached pulp produces high quality, white paper.) Although discharges of chlorinated compounds have not been

Paper Centre,(416)978-8517.


The draft regulation will be imple

MDS acquires

mented as follows:

• venting of refrigerant CFCs. HCFCs and HFCs will be prohibited MDS Health Group Limited ("MDS") • as of Jan. 1, 1994, only certified per sons possessing an Ozone Depletion has acquired Enviroclean Laboratories


Inc. from SNC Lavalin Inc. No terms

Prevention Card will be allowed to

were disclosed.

handle, service and repair refrigera tion equipment containing fluorocar bon refrigerants. All equipment to be dismantled, destroyed or disposed of

Enviroclean is located in London,

Ontario and provides a broad range of environmental testing services for clients throughout Ontario. It is the fourth member of the growing MDS North

will have to be drained of CFCs and

tagged accordingly

correlated with toxic effects, the indus

American network of environmental

• as of Dec. 31, 1995, new model cars

try is facing increasing regulatory and market pressure to reduce these dis charges. Having isolated dechlorinating bac teria. researchers are now looking at

laboratories joining Reading Industrial Laboratories in Pennsylvania and Fen-

will no longer be fitted with air con ditioning units that contain CFCs

wick Laboratories in Nova Scotia and Fenwick Laboratories in Ontario.

and HCFCs.

ways to enhance their role in the treat

ment system through the addition of

GL&V wins Quebec Ontario's fluorocarbon

pulp and paper mill

regulation aims to protect ozone layer

waste treatment contract


The findings were published by Al len, Roberta Fulthorpe and Steven Liss in the Canadian Journal of Microbiol

ogy. The research was supported by a grant from the Ontario Ministry of Uni versities and Colleges" University Re

Environment and Energy Minister,Bud Wiidman,recently released a draft regu lation to prevent the release of tens of thousands of tonnes of fluorocarbons.

GL&V Out. has recently been awarded a contract for the effluent treatment sys tem at the James Maclaren Pulp and Paper Mill in Thurso, Quebec.

With this draft regulation and mea

This contract will consist of a 225 ft.

of 13 pulp and paper companies.

sures taken under the 1989 Ontario re

Contact: D. Grant Allen, Chemical En gineering & Applied Chemistry, Pulp and

gulation. 90 per cent of the sources of ozone-depleting substances will be con

dia. primary and two 215 ft. dia. secon dary clarifiers. Installation is scheduled

search Incentives Fund and a consortium

for 1994.






David Brierley Tel:(416)441-4111 Fax:(416)441-4131

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


and Industry

For more information, Circle reply card No. 177


Industry update New water/sewage program for Ontario The MOEE's newly-created Municipal Assistance Program will emphasize support for the planning and delivery of

environmentally sound, efficient and cost-effective water and sewage services throughout Ontario. Funding will be in the form of loans which municipalities will repay, plus interest,over the lifespan ofthe projects. Annual grants, equal to interest and


y Metering Pumps

principal payments, will be provided to municipalities to offset the cost of the loan repayment. The Municipal Assistance Program,

starts this year with the first project an nouncements expected in January 1994.

"There will now be predictability and consistency in the amount of money available from year to year for munici pal water and sewage projects, and the provincial government can amortize its capital expenditures over the life of the projects," said MOEE Minister Bud Wildman.

Under the new program, more types of projects will be funded including major components ofthe systems, water efficiency and system optimization stu dies and their capital projects,and com

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UMA Engineering Ltd., teamed with Jacques Whitford Environment Limited and Sheppard Hedges & Green Ltd., have been awarded a Department of National Defence contract by Supply and Services Canada to provide engin eering services for the design and cost estimating of the environmental clean up of 21 Distant Early Warning(DEW) Line sites in northern Canada. Under the North American Air Defence Mod

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The 21 sites included in this project are located on the remote Arctic coast line between Komakuk Beach in the

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ABB completes $110 million

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CEIA is your ticket to expanding environmental business. And it is time our industry sector had its own association. CEIA Ontario is here to work in your interest. Attend the next Environmental Business Opportunities Breakfasts (EBOBs). Get the CEIA Environmental Intelligence Faxletter. Join the next trade mission, and get involved with special events to improve your business while your business improves the

ABB Combustion Systems has just completed a $110 million state ofthe art chemical recovery boiler system for Crestbrook

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Skookumchuk pulp mill. The order for a chemical recovery

environment. Write:

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Gary T. Gallon, President Canadian Environment industry Association, Ontario

chuk pulp mill from Mitsubishi Canada Ltd. was to replace the previous Mit subishi supplied chemical recovery unit.That unit was 28 years old.The new system will be instrumental in reducing

Suite 139, 401 Richmond Street W. Toronto, Ontario M5V 1X3

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Arctum Environmental Is pleased to Introduce the latest additions to Its team of environmental specialists

t I J. Michael Osborne, MASc., P.Eng. Vice President, Ontario Region

Vice President, Environmental Risk Management Niagara Fails

Dr. Hans Tammemagi, Ph.D. Vice President, Waste Management Niagara Fails

consultant and as an Environmental Advisor for a

Mr. Horvatis has extensive experience quantifying environmental risk for financial institutions. He will spearhead the Arcturus Environmental Management Team and Phase 1

Dr. Tammemagi is a recognized expert with over 20 years experience as a consultant in nuclear waste management, site assessments and sediment remediation consulting in Canada and

major petroleum company.


the United States.

Paul Chapman, M.A., MCiP. Vice President, Planning Niagara Fails

Tony Hawke, B.Sc. Vice President, Quebec Region Arcturus Environnement Ltbe (Montreal)

Manager, National Capital Region

Paul has twenty years of land-use planning and management experience with provincial and local government agencies. He is directing the environmental planning program serving the private and public sector.

Mr. Hawke has over 12 years experience as a consultant performing assessments, remediation and hydrogeoiogicai investigations in the Qubbec Region.


Mr. Osborne has over 10 years experience in contaminant hydrogeoiogy, iandfiii assessment and monitoring and site remediation both as a

Peter Horvatis, M.B.A.


¥ Daniel J. Garand, B.Sc. Ottawa

Mr. Garand has over 8 years experience as a consultant performing site assessments, remediation and geochemicai studies. He brings this experience to Arcturus projects in the Nation's Capital.

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By Tom Davey

Editorial comment

Chemistry, the second invisible profession, also has its historical giants

AHamburg alchemist, Hennig Brand, is recorded as the first

chemist to have discovered an

element when he accidently discovered phosphorous while trying to transform base metals into gold around 1669. While he did not produce gold, perhaps he unwittingly laid the foun dations of the great German chemical industry which is one of the reasons Germany is a global economic power, a legacy which transcends gold in value. Over a century later, a French noble man, Antoine Lavoisier, was making great strides in his phosphorous expe riments when he was arrested by the Revolution. He pleaded with the tri bunal — not for his life — but for two

more weeks to conclude his experi ments. The tribunal denied his request saying: "The new state has no need for chemists." (Today the Ontario govern ment says there is no need for chemists to be licenced!)

Two years ago, Britain honoured Michael Faraday, a towering figure in science and chemistry. Called the father of electricity, his work also profoun dly affected water treatment. He was the first to liquify chlorine and also dis covered benzene in 1825. In a rare accolade for a chemist, his portrait

replaced that of Shakespeare on the reverse side of new 20 pound notes in the UK.

Had he survived the bloodbath he

able career when he helped to hire

might have done for French chemistry

Michael Faraday, later to become The

what Pasteur (also a chemist) did for

Father of Electricity'. Faraday, born in 1791, three years after Sir Humphry's birth,left school as a 14 year old. He was the son of a poor blacksmith, unlike Davy who came from parents who owned an estate. After working as a bookbinder, Faraday worked as Sir Humphry's assistant and soon achieved his own reputation as a leading chemist. He became the first man to liquify chlo

biology. The economic losses from La voisier's execution might still continue to this day. Sir Humphry Davy is famous for in venting the miners' safety lamp which saved thousands of lives by preventing methane explosions in British coal mines. He is less well known as a che

mist and father of cathodic protection. As a boy he saw the British warships

sailing out to master the high seas. Cop per bottoms on the wooden boats made the Royal Navy fasterthan its rivals. But he noticed that, when the ships re turned, the copper sheathing was often severely damaged through corrosion at the seams.

He experimented with sacrificial anodes and the problems were solved, an important step in Britain's mastery of the seas. Sir Humphry was a leading chemist in his day but is seldom remem bered as such. He was a friend of the

legendary poets Samuel Taylor Coler idge and William Wordsworth, both of whom he used as subjects for nitrous oxide experiments. He had artistic ten dencies and also wrote poetry.In spite of England and France being at war, he was awarded the Napoleon Prize from the Institut de France. Ironically his work negated one of Lavoisier's theories that all acids contained oxygen. Sir Humphry added to his memor22

rine, the first man to discover benzene and later became known as the father of

electricity and a scientific legend. During Faraday's bicentenary in 1991, Professor John Thomas said that

Michael Faraday changed the very na ture ofscientific thought."Newton's pic ture of the Universe explains celestial mechanics,the ebb and flow of the tides

and the basis of flight. It has nothing to say about the marvels of modern com munication.In his basement laboratory in 1845, Faraday demonstrated that light,electricity and magnetism were in timately related, now the basis of all modern communication. He later laid

the foundations for all oftoday's electric motors, generators, transformers and other electrical equipment so vital to

everyone knows the great Russian com poser Aleksandr Borodin,famous for h is striking harmonies — in such com positions as Prince Igor — which were unconventional in western European music.

But how many are aware Borodin held a doctorate in chemistry, being noted for his research in aldehydes? He also helped found medical courses for women in 1872, a century before politi cal correctness began. History notes him as a major classical composer yet he regarded music as a mere diversion from his scientific work in chemistry. When Antoine Lavoisier lost his head

to the Guillotine, it was a great loss to Erench science. Ironically, the British, in honouring Michael Faraday as the "Father ofElectricity," placed Faraday's head on the 20 pound note in 1991, 200 years after his birth. Previously Shakes peare had held place of honour on the banknote.

Pierre and Marie Curie helped to fill the vacuum left by M. Lavoisier when they jointly won the nobel prize in phy sics in 1903 for France. The Polish born Marie later became the sole winner of

ties. He also established the laws ofelec

the Nobel Prize forchemistry in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium and also discovered the element polonium, so

trochemistry through his experiments

named after her native Poland.

with the chemical effects of electric currents."

It is quite obvious that chemists have dramatically reshaped the world we live in. We honour poets, generals, prime

modern environmental treatment facili

Moving from motors to music,almost

Environmental Science cfe Engineering. September 1993

International events ministers, rock musicians, architects,

writers and a variety of scientists from all disciplines; but almost nowhere in

Cologne international Trade Fair for Waste Disposal and Recycling, 18th to 21st May, 1994

our culture can evidence be found ofthe

significant contributions of the chem ists. Great chemists are to be found in

Frank-Rainer Billgmann. chief execu

various reference sources, but usually in

tive of the Federal Association of the

roles other than as chemists. I cannot

German Waste Disposal Industry told a Toronto press conference that the waste disposal industry is Germany's No. 1 growth industry.

find any other learned profession whose professional skills impact so drastically on society in medicine,our judicial sys tem (through forensic science) and on the environment, yet whose members remain unlicenced. Perhaps chemists developed a formula to make their pro fession invisible.

It is obvious that the political and communications skills of chemists do

not match those they display in their analytical laboratories. Perhaps ACPO should increase the decibel level of its

clamour for licencing in its approaches to Ontario Attorney General Marion Boyd. Even in a dialogue with the deaf, at least some of the vibrations might get through to her.

*From a paper given to the Association of the Chemical Profession of Ontario, May,

He said 80 million Germans live in

just under 360.000 sq. km.,that is 224 per sq. km.In the FC as a whole the popula tion density is about 145 persons per sq. km.In contrast, approx. 248 million US Americans are spread over 9.3 million sq. km.,a density of27 persons in a com parable area. In domestic refuse alone. 30.5 million

tons were collected in Germany in 1990. That represented about 380 kilograms per head. To this must be added indus trial waste, road-building rubble, build ing site waste and the entire field of spe cial waste amounting to almost 300 million tons orabout 3.75 tons per inha bitant a year. The time has passed in which attempts were made with "end-of-the-pipe" tech nology to simply limit the worst excesses.

Today waste avoidance even begins in production. What cannot be avoided there, should be re-usable, or at least

recyclable. Because tough German environmen tal legislation is rapidly being copied — at least to an extent — in the other FC

countries,experience clearly shows that a boom in the waste disposal markets in neighbouring countries can be expec ted. where around 350 million Euro

peans live and need to be "freed"of their waste. Sewage, should also be urgently considered because according to the ex perts in Germany 60.000 kilometers of sewers need to be renewed or repaired — a gigantic task requiring investment capital of over DM 400 billion.

Entsorga will be held from 18 to 21 May 1994 in Cologne. It will be orga nized by the waste disposal industry itself and in 1994 will be the world's

largest show for this branch of industry. Details: Ms. Fdel Wichmann.Tel:(416) 598-3343. Fax:(416) 598-1840.


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For more information, Circle reply card No. 117 23

Drinking water treatment

Examining chiorination and chioramination for municipai water suppiies

Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies with gaseous chlorine is the most widely used method of disinfection. Other objectives

of chiorination are;

1. Controlling taste and odour in treated water.

2. Preventing the regrowth of micro organisms in the distribution system. 3. Preventing interference with coagula tion and flocculation processes. 4. Eliminating the potential for bacterial growth in the fdter media. The major factors affecting the effi ciency of the chiorination process as a germicide are; the chlorine residual con centration, contact time, pH and water

"V^en chlorine gas is dissolved in water it hydrolyses rapidly (1), HjO-

C**. Their main effect is as central ner

Alternatives to chiorination have to be

considered but must be equivalent in their disinfection ability and have no health threatening by-products. Chloramines are one of the potential replacements for chlorine. It is common knowledge that chloramines are slower in their effect against micro-organisms compared to free available chlorine.

vous system depressants. These compounds are formed when free chlorine combines with some pre cursors present in raw water.The concen tration of THMs depends upon the reac tion time, pH,temperature, total organic • Chlorine and ammonia react to form carbon present and chlorine dosage. The common precursors in the Great three types of chloramines; Lakes water are humic and fulvic acids

(2), algal biomass and algal excretions. It has been reported that algal substances increase the potential of THM forma tion. High pH and high chlorine dosage

HOCl + NHj NHj Cl

HOCl ^NHCl^ + HjO Dichloramine and

increase the rate of formation of THMs.

were much below THM MCL (Trihalomethane maximum contaminant level). Tables 1, 2(2), 3(5).

NHjCl + HjO Monochloramine

Values for THMs in Windsor,Ontario



chemicals as belonging to Cancer Group B2* and the last one in Cancer Group

NH^ Cl + HOCl

• NCI,



*Also known as Nitrogen Trichloride.

H+ + C1-+ HOCl Table 1

The fast rate of reaction is due to the reaction of the chlorine molecule with

Chloroform in Raw Water (ug/L), Windsor, Ontario

the hydroxyl ion rather than with the YEAR

Highest Value

Lowest Value














water molecule:

Clj + OH:

HOCl + Cl-

HOCl is known as hypochlorous acid and is classified as a weak acid, which

undergoes partial dissociation; Table 2

HOCl ^ H+ + OClTrihalomethanes in Raw Water (ug/L), Windsor Ontario

The amount ofhypochlorite ion(OCC) becomes appreciable when pH level is higher than 6, while molecular chlorine


Highest Value

Lowest Value














is non existent. The concentration of

(OCI") and HOCl is also known as the free available chlorine.The ease ofpenet ration of the bacteria cell walls makes

chlorine germicidally efficient. Great concerns have been expressed

THM's and Chloroform in 1986 were based on one value only.

THM in Raw water till June 1992 in Windsor Raw water is <0.5 ug/L(5)

on the use of free chlorine due to the for

mation of Trihalomethames (THMs). THMs are a group of chemicals consist ing ofthe following compounds;Chloro

Table 3

Concentrations in Treated Water, Windsor Treatment Plant in ug/L

form, Bromodichloromethane, Bromoform and Chlorodibromomethane. The U.S.E.P.A. has classified the first three



























USEPA Weight of evidence criteria for ciassifying carcinogens. *B2; Probabie Human Carcinogen (Suf


ficient evidence from animai studies and

inadequate evidence or no data on carcinogenicity to humans). **G: Possible Human Carcinogen (limi ted evidence from animal studies; no data). 24

* Till June 1992.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

By Dr. S.Y. Jasim* These reactions depend on tempera ture, pH,contact time and the chlorine to ammonia ratio. Monochloramines are formed when the chlorine to ammonia ratio is less than

The free chlorine residuals were rapidly neutralized within the GAG(Granulated Activated Carbon) filters but biological

has to be considered in making a deci sion to replace chlorine.

processes were unimpaired. Chloramines were more stable and residuals averaging

(1) White, Geo. Clifford, (1972). "Hand

5:1 and pH is 7.5 and higher.The effect of

0.1 mg/L were detected in the filter ef

Book of Ghlorination". Van Nostard and

the combined available chlorine was

fluent. HDC bacterial counts in the ef

Reinhold Company.

found to be slower in its germicidal effect compared to free available chlorine. Dichloramine is a more potent germicide

fluent of the pre-chloraminated filter (2) Bewtra, J.K.,(1991)."Use Impairment averaged 8.93 x 10^ cfu/ml, compared Associated With Drinking Water In The with 1.22 X 10* cfu/ml for the pre-chlori Great Lakes Basin" (State of the Great

than monochloramine. It is formed at a

nated filter efnuent.(3)

Lakes Basin Ecosystem). Report pre

lower pH than that required to produce

pared for the Joint Water Quality Board/

Other experiments(4) which involved pilot plant operations and laboratory tribute to the taste and odour problems. analysis using Ozone and PLROXONL Trichloramine is known to be an effective (Hydrogen Peroxide & Ozone) as the oxidizing agent. It has been used for the primary disinfectants were conducted. bleaching of flour, as a fungicide and for Two different water supplies were used. control of insect pests on fruits during The findings were that when chloramine storage. The use of this compound has was applied following pre-oxidation by the monochloramines. However,in water treatment, dichloramine could con

Science Advisory Board Task Force of the International Joint Commission, Windsor, Ont, March.

(3) Lechevallier, Mark N., Becker, William C., Schorr, Paul, and Lee, Roman G.,

(1992). "Evaluating the Performance of Biologically Active Rapid Filters", April,

been limited because it is considered to

either ozone orPLROXONL,total THMs

1991, Journal, AWWA,Vol. 84.

be toxic by ingestion and inhalation.

were produced at concentrations less than 2 mg/L in both waters while chlorination would produce much higher levels

(4) "Pilot — Scale Evaluation of Ozone and PEROXONE".The Metropolitan Wa

Monochloramines were first utilized as a water disinfectant in 1916,in Canada.

Although they are slower in their effect compared to free residual chlorine as a germicidal agent, their tendency to pro duce lower THMs make them very at tractive to be considered as a replace ment for Chlorine.

Recent stiidies(3) conducted to exam

ine the activities of hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chloramine on bac terial growth on different surfaces(glass, metal,granular activated carbon),showed that monochloramine penetrated and

of THMs in both waters.

ter District of Southern California and

James Montgomery Consulting Engineer ing Inc. Prepared for AWWA Research

A conclusion could be drawn that the use ofchloramine as an alternative to free

chlorine has some positive advantages as a disinfectant especially in water dis tribution systems. The longer contact time needed when using chloramines

Foundation, and American Water Works Association, 1991.

(5) Water Treatment Plant, Water Division, Windsor Utilities Commission, Windsor, Ontario.

inactivated biofilm bacteria more effec

tively than other disinfectants used. The effect of monochloramine was an im

provement on the effect of free chlorine in the disinfection of complex biofilm population. Experiments extended to a model of a flowing pipe system showed that using free chlorine dosage as high as 4 mg/L for two weeks(free chlorine resi duals 2.5 - 3.5 mg/L)on biofilm growth on iron pipes, had no significant effect on bacterial viability. Exposure of the biofilms on the iron pipes to 4 mg/L mon

ochloramine residual resulted in a)3 log die-off after two weeks of treatment.

Additional experiments comparing pre-chlorination and pre-chloramination were conducted also. When a free chlor

ine dosage of 5.0 mg/L was applied, the residual averaged 3.0 mg/L in the settling basin effluent. A ratio of(3:1)chlorine to ammonia was used to form chloramine.

Ammonia was injected into the pipe bet ween the settling basin and one of the filters. AOC (Assimilable Organic Car bon)levels in the pre-chloraminated fil ter effluent averaged 71.5 pg/L and in the pre-chlorinated filter effluent averaged 53 pg/L.


Deep Shaft Process Benefits: • Excellent O2 Transfer and Mixing • Space Economies • Mechanical Simplicity • Aesthetical

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The Innovative Method of Wastewater Treatment *Windsor Utilities Commission,Water Division, Windsor, Ontario. Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

For more information, Circle reply card No. 116 25

Soil management

Using earthworms during biological testing for soil quality portant point made was that the rationale for the actual numerical value of a SQC is in fact often poorly defined. The most common stated rationale

for establishing SQC is to protect the health of plants, animals and humans from risks associated with exposure to contaminated soil. To establish risk to a

target group one must know both ex posure and toxicity. Exposure is often estimated through modelling while tox icity can only be measured through tox-

icological bioassays. The CCME proto col requires a minimum amount of high-quality toxicity data on which to establish theirguideline. Unfortunately, soil toxicity data for even the most com mon chemicals (i.e., BTEX. PCBs) are often insufficient in terms of either

quantity or quality. When more uncom mon chemicals are considered there is

virtually no soil toxicological informa

During soil toxicity tests the worms are counted and weighed at regular

Soil quality ha.s become one of

tion available.

intervals to monitor mortality and growth. the



issues of the decade. Current

methods for assessing soil quality are based upon chemical ana lysis and comparison with literature values, placing little emphasis on the actual hioavailability of contaminants. This report describes soil toxicity tests and promotes their use for the ecologi cal risk assessment of potentially con taminated lands.

Soil quality criteria Soil quality is generally determined

entirely, at great cost to the investors, because of soil contamination.

using soil dwelling organisms such as earthworms and collembola, or by as lish standards to minimize the risk to sessing phytoxicity using seed germina the environment and to human health. tion and growth tests. The tests can in In general two levels of criteria have clude acute lethality or chronic subbeen developed for different classes of lethal exposure tests to determine effects on growth and reproduction. land-use, one for Agriculture/Residen The recent concerns regarding soil tial/Parkland,and one forCommercial/ Industrial. Higher concentrations of contamination have heightened aware ness and interest in the methodology some chemicals are permitted for Com used to assess soil toxicity. This is reflec mercial/Industrial land use since the direct exposure to humans or other ted by the increasing number of papers at scientific conferences and workshops biota is presumably less than in an agri addressing the effects of soil con cultural or residential setting. In Ontario, the Ontario Ministry of taminants on nontarget organisms. Environment and Energy (MOEE) However,the state of the art for soil tox has numerical criteria for approx icity tests is perhaps where aquatic tox imately 22 chemicals. Environment icity testing was 10 to 15 years ago. Envi Canada has developed federal SQC ronment Canada and the MQEE are through the Canadian Council of Mi rapidly moving to advance knowledge nistries of the Environment (CCME) in this area and attempting to identify with different criteria for site assess the most appropriate battery of tests for Soil quality criteria(SQC)have been developed by various agencies to estab

by measuring the levels of specific con taminants and comparing them with government criteria for acceptable le vels. If the concentration of a particular chemical in soil does not meet govern ment guidelines further action may be required by the owner or other respons ible party. Further action can involve decommissioning by appropriate tech nology including bioremediation, soil washing, or excavation and landfilling at a properly licensed landfill facility. For the most part decommissioning can be relatively expensive. Determination of soil quality is part

Quebec and New Brunswick. Sheppard et al (1992) provided a comprehensive review of the SQC development pro

of a Phase II audit where soil con


tamination is suspected as a result of preliminary (Phase 1) investigations. Environmental audits are now routinely carried out as a prerequisite to property transfers or development. A substantial number of proposed developments have been either placed on hold or deferred 26

Soil Toxicity Tests The toxicity ofcontaminants in soil to plants and animals can be assessed

ment, and for site remediation. Provin

contaminated site assessment.

ces that have developed SQC include

There are currently no specific bio logical test methods for assessing the

British Columbia. Alberta, Manitoba,

Brett Ibbotson provided a thought provoking review of the rationale for existing soil quality criteria in Qntario (ES&E, Dec. 1991/Jan. 1992). The article outlined some of the inherent limita

tions in the process of developing soil standards faced by all agencies.The im

toxicity ofsoil contaminants in Canada.

Although the federal government has sanctioned the European QECD earth worm test protocol,a fundamental limi tation of that test methodology is that it utilizes the compost worm, Eisenia foetida. which has a very limited distribu tion in Canada.The common earthworm

or nightcrawler. Lumbricus terrestris. is much more common and ecologically relevant to the Canadian environment.

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

By C.D. Wren, G.L Stephenson and R.P. Lanno* Seed germination tests involve the planting of seeds of a particular plant species in soil with known concen trations of a chemical(s) and monitor

ing the time to germination. Root elong ation and seedling growth are also often assessed. In Canada,the common plant species for testing are lettuce and radish. These are considered to be relatively sensitive to agrocheniicals and rep resentative of vegetable crops in that one is a root crop, and the other an above-ground crop. However,both spe cies are dicotyledonous plants that do not represent the major market crops grown in Canada. No monocotyledonous crop species such as corn. rye. oats, barley and wheat are currently required to provide the minimum data require ments for the development of SQC.

Soil is a very complex medium and the same characteristics that influence the chemical fate and behavior affect

soil toxicity by altering bioavailability. Parameters such as organic content, moisture content, redox potential. pH. soil texture and cation exchange capa city can potentially affect toxicity. Fur thermore. the dramatic variation in soil

composition across Canada empha sizes the importance of developing a site-specific approach for assessing the risk of potentially contaminated lands, rather than adhering to generic numeri cal values.

Soil toxicity testing should be suppor ted in government funded research pro grams to generate the toxicity data re quired for the development and valida tion of SQC. Furthermore, soil toxicity testing should be incorporated into a site-specific ecological risk assessment approach for determining the hazards

additive or antagonistic. Furthermore, there are literally hundreds of chemi cals for which soil quality criteria do not exist, and quite likely won't for several years, if at all. Soil tests can have a variety of appli cations. Recently, in situ earthworm bioassays were successfully used to identify "hot spots" at a contaminated superfund site in the United States(Callahan et ai 1991). Soil toxicity tests can also be used to examine the efficacy of site remediation techniques.The volume of soil required for a full earthworm

Experience In aquatic toxicology has shown repeatedly that it is virtually impossible to predict the toxicity of chemical mixtures

soil criteria in Ontario can cost several

thousand dollars. Toxicity tests with soil are still in the developmental stage and cost will depend on the type oftest being conducted. However,the results ofthese tests will measure the bioavailable frac tion of soil-associated contaminants and are. therefore, more useful for asses

sing risk than chemical data alone. The information derived can be invaluable

for determining risk and for subsequent disposition of properties. In conclusion, soil bioassays repre sent a cost effective technique for mea suring toxicity which is an integral component of assessing ecological risk. Therefore, soil toxicity tests should be combined with other methods includ

ing exposure modelling and chemical analysis to provide a comprehensive ecological risk assessment for con taminated soils. Literature Cited.

bioassay is approximately 9 to 12 kg. The length oftime required to conduct a bioassay varies with the type of test and test species. Acute worm lethality tests can be conducted in 7 days, with 28 days for a worm reproductive test. Some plant species will display seed germina tion within 2-4 days, while 21 days may be required for a full plant growth test. The time required for these tests should not be an issue where major decommis sioning projects are being assessed, but they could pose some limitations where immediate on-site decisions are re

quired. The cost ofsoil toxicity tests compares favourably with chemical analysis. A scan of soil for all 22 chemicals having

Cailahan, C.A. etal. 1991. On-site me thods for assessing chemical impact on the soil environment using earthworms; a case study at the Baird and McGuire superfund site, Holbrooke, Massachu setts. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.10(6):817826.

ibbotson, B. 1992. Soil guidelines in Ontario — are there more questions than answers? Environmental Science & En

gineering, Dec.1991 /Jan. 1992 4(6):7480.

Sheppard, B.C. et at. 1992. The devel opment of assessment and remediation guidelines for contaminated soils, a re view of the science. Can. J. Soil Sci. 72:359-394. {'T.Z.iri

associated with contaminated lands. We

would argue strongly that the mere pre sence of a chemical does not always imply hazard in an ecological context. Extensive decommissioning is not ne cessarily warranted just because the concentration of the particular chemi cal may exceed the current SQC.Qn the other hand,a soil may pose a toxicological hazard even though it is contamin ated by several contaminants that all fall below "acceptable" standards. In this instance, the effect of multiple soil contaminants should not be based on a

series ofsingle guidelines,but should be measured directly through toxicity test ing. Experience in aquatic toxicology has shown repeatedly that it is virtually impossible to predict the toxicity of chemical mixtures by simply measuring levels of contaminants. The toxicity of chemical mixtures may be synergistic.

*Ecological Services for Planning Ltd., Guelph, Ont.

The currently used toxicity test earthworm species Eisenia foetida (top) is smaller and much less common in Canada than the nightcrawler, Terristris lumbricus,(lower). The three small dots on the left are egg capsules pro duced by the worms during reproduction tests.

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


By Rod Holme*

International scene

Australian Water & Wastewater Association holds 15th federal convention on Gold Coast

The 15th Federal Convention of the Australian Water & Waste-

water Association (the "other" AWWA)was held on the Gold Coast, south of Brisbane, in sunny Queensland, in April. Held every two

years,the Convention features an exten sive technical program (papers and pos ters). special seminars and an equip ment exhibit("Ozwater"). The Convention also attracts a strong international presence, with the Ameri can Water Works Association. Water Environment Federation. International

Water Supply Association and the Inter national Association of Water Quality

being officially represented. I had the honour of representing the American Water Works Association,

and addressing the Qpening Session. This was in the august company of the

Sydney will host the 1995'Oz' AWWA Convention. Photo Tom Davey.

Governor General of Australia, the

Honourable Bill Hayden.

Keynote Speakers at the Opening Ses sion were Professor George Tchobanoglous. Professor of Civil Engineering from the University ofCalifornia. Davis, and Dr. Rufus Chaney. Research Agro nomist with the United States Depart ment of Agriculture and adjunct Profes sor of Agronomy at Penn State. Professor Tchobanoglous advocated more



work now in progress for major new water treatment plants, along with the removal of iron and manganese in a variety of surface systems. Of major ongoing concern is the eutrophication ofthe large inland river sys tems. This has significance beyond water supply,and has had a detrimental impact on agriculture, livestock and in dustry in the affected communities.


impacts of treatment plant effluent and stormwater discharge into the ocean and estuarine environments.

Using Sydney as an example, all wastewater treatment plants have se

condary treatment and ocean outfalls. Beach pollution problems persist, how ever. when rainfall events cause over

flows and storm discharges that virtually "skim" across the Harbour, out to the ocean, and onto the beaches.

terization. rather than the traditional

reliance on non-specific parameters such as BQD and Suspended Solids. He also strongly advocated plant design and lo cation to enhance effluent re-use oppor tunities. stating that regionalization of plants never takes re-use into consider ation.

Rufus Chaney delivered a strong de fense of the composting and land dis posal of sewage sludge, citing its dispo sal in landfill or by incineration as a waste of a valuable resource. He also demonstrated the benefits from recent

research, including data to show that perceived risks are low or non-existent. The technical program showed that many issues are similar to those being faced by the Water and Wastewater in dustry in Canada,but there was natural ly an emphasis on the more pressing needs of the day. In Water Supply, this emphasis included large scale pilot plant *Past Chair Ont. Section AWWA and a Vice President at Proctor & Redfern Limited 28

The most noticeable difference from the North American

experience was the issue of Water System privatization and major municipai "corporatization." The most noticeable differences from

the North American experience were the issues of Water System privatization and major municipal "corporatiza tion". In response to the need to build long planned surface water treatment plants, major metropolitan communi ties have elected for a version of priva tization with the oft quoted acronym "BOOT"— Build,Own,Operate,Trans

It is probably ironic to note that the

public in Sydney views its majestic beaches with mixed emotions. They are concerned about pollution, but they are even more concerned about sun expo sure and skin cancer. A suntan is now

seen as a sign of stupidity, not a sign of beauty. The more than 800 attendees at the Convention included a number of Ca

nadians who enjoyed not only the com prehensive technical program, but also a number ofsuperb social events.These were centred on the amenities and cli

mate offered by the subtropical Gold Coast. Australia's premier resort area. (Remember that in Australia, you have to go north to find the sun in the winter).

fer. In addition, the water and waste-

The next Australian Water and Waste-

water authorities in those municipalities are also forming separate entities to sell their services and expertise on a fee for service basis. This expanding exercise has been termed "corporatization".

water Association Convention is already

In the wastewater field, a lot of atten

tion was paid at the Convention to the

being planned for Sydney in April 1995. If the superb organization and variety offered by the very successful 15th Con vention is any indication, planning now to attend this 16th Federal Convention

would be a great idea.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Engineered water and wastewater treatment

equipment FMC provides practical solutions to your equip ment needs with one of the most complete lines of water and wastewater treatment equipment available. Our product design and development is the result of over 70 years experience with installations across North America and around the world.

The FMC equipment line includes: screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit collec tors, rectangular sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, flocculatlon

equipment, rotary distributors and auxiliary equipment. You can rely on FMC to meet your equipment requirements. Consult with us. FMC of Canada Limited, Material Flandling Operation, 650 Flood Road, Markham Ontario L3R 4S7

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Treating combined sewer overflows

Demonstration of advanced high rate treatment for CSO control

In 1990, Metro Toronto Works, in

conjunction with the Ontario Min istry of the Environment and The Great Lakes Cleanup Fund spon sored a major evaluation of advanced satellite CSO treatment technology. The project was conceived in four phases, including the construction and evaluation of a full-scale de

G. Zukovs, President, W20 Toronto, Ontario W.C. Pisano, Principal,





scale solids removal and disinfection

studies, development of a new pro cess evaluation model, SSAT, and preparation of a comprehensive plan for integrating advanced high-rate CSO treatment in the Don River Sewershed area of Metro Toronto.

Portions of Metropolitan Toronto are

presently served by combined sewers while other areas are only partially se

parated with on-site drainage directed to the sanitary collection system. Sewers overloaded with wet weather flows still

overflow to area waterways. Beach clos

ing and other water quality impacts have increased public and political awareness regarding combined sewer overflows(CSOs). Consequently, a new generation of public works plans were initiated to provide comprehensive con trol of CSO discharges while meeting future servicing needs. Planning has re-

the North Toronto Treatment Plant).

Havens and Emerson

Cadorna. Massey Creek. Victoria Park and Godfrey Fowler, permitting over

Boston, Massachusetts P.M. Pickett, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto

flow of excess wet weather flow.

The Don Sewershed is served by two

P. Chessie,

treatment facilities, the Metro Main

Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto

Treatment Plant located on the shoreline

monstration facility to be built at the Phase I activities were completed in 1992 resulting in detailed charac terization of CSO quantity and quality at North Toronto, extensive bench-

presenting details ofthe trunk sewer sys tem. The Metro Toronto trunk system in the Don Sewershed has five major CSO regulators. North Toronto (located at

of Lake Ontario and the North Toronto

suited in major proposed works totall ing over $500 million and requiring twenty years to construct. Because of the substantial costs and

long implementation horizon, other more economical and flexible solutions

were sought. The trend in Europe and the United States has been to implement

combinations of storage and "satellite" treatment facilities. Satellite facilities

appear better able to provide tailored solutions providing overall CSO control in a cost-effective manner. Accordingly, in 1990. Metropolitan Toronto Works in conjunction with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and The Great

Lakes Cleanup Fund sponsored a ma jor evaluation of advanced satellite CSO treatment technology. The project was conceived in four phases,including the construction of a full-scale demon

stration facility to be built at the site of the North Toronto Treatment Plant.

Key words Combined sewer overflow,satellite treat ment, vortex separator, sedimentation,

Study area description The sewershed tributary to the Main Treatment Plant (Don Sewershed) en compasses a substantial portion of Met ropolitan Toronto. Figure 1 presents the


boundaries for the sewershed as well as

Treatment Plant discharging to the Don River.

Satellite treatment configuration The preferred satellite treatment scheme emerging from an exhaustive evaluation of alternative configurations is presented in Figure 2. Vortex separa tors and sedimentation basins alone as well as in combination were evaluated

along with conventional retention stor age. The effect of coagulant addition upon sedimentation efficiency was also examined.Two disinfection alternatives were evaluated, chlorination and ultra

violet light irradiation. Dechlorination was included in the chlorination alter

native to preclude effluent toxicity. The preferred satellite treatment faci lity configuration is designed to capture small overflow events in the storage volume provided by the vortex vessel and sedimentation basin. Retained flows are returned to central treatment. Over

flows exceeding storage capacity are treated locally up to the capacity of the satellite facility. A substantially larger design capacity is incorporated in the vortex separator to provide partial treat ment to extreme peak flows. Disinfec-



By-Pass Sedimentation Tank By-p

(> "\








w\ t















Figure 1 Map of Study Area




Figure 2 Satellite Treatment Flowsheet

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Treating combined sewer overfiows tion is provided to the whole (blended) treated effluent stream. Storage is used to buffer underflow during periods of limited interceptor capacity. Study methodology The overall Phase I work program was multi-faceted and incorporated a number of major objectives including the comparative evaluation of the costs and environmental performance of sa

Table 1

Environmental Performance Deiags CSO




Storage Volume'









Godfrey - Fowler 11

Retention storage Vortex -f aedimcotation + disinfection

Retention storage

Victoria Park

Vortex & scdimeatation -f disinfection

Masscy Creek

Retention storage

























tellite treatment and conventional re

tention storage for the five major over flow locations. A previous study(UM A.

Vortex & sedimenlation + disinfection

Retention storage


1989) had examined overflow control at

the five major regulators and had re commended


Vortex & sedimentation + disinfection

Retention storage

North Toronto

















retention Vortex & sedimentation -E disinfection

storage facilities. Details of catchment

hydrology, dry weather flows and regu lator capacities were obtained from the UMA study. Monitoring carried out at

Retention storage


Vortex & sedimentation + disinfection





Notes: 1. Exclusive of vortex underflow. If underflow storage is included, the total volume of tankage = 62.600 m'.

the North Toronto overflow served to

ch aracterize CSO quality and to develop satellite treatment process data. The process data were incorporated into a recently developed analysis model termed SSAT which was employed to examine the performance of both the

Table 2 Total Costs


Capital Cost

Total O&M Cost

Total Annual Cost




satellite treatment facilities and conven

tional storage. Existing Performance The performance of the regulators at each of the sites was estimated using SSAT. Regulator capacities were based upon the Metro criteria (peak DWF + 0.26 L/s/ha).The North Toronto site was analyzed including an existing4,000 m^ storage facility. With the exception of North Toronto each of the regulators provides a low degree of control. Over flow frequencies are in the range of43 to 46 events with volumetric and pollution control in the range of 10%-20%. In con trast the relatively modest storage volume provided at North Toronto reduces overflow frequencies to nineteen events per year and affords a volumetric con trol level of 65%. Environmental Performance

Table 1 presents the capacities of the proposed satellite treatment facilities. The retention storage volumes have been included for purposes of com parison.The capacities and storage vol umes are all based upon a design suffi

Retention storage




Vortex + sedimentation + U.V.




Vortex + sedimentation + Cl2/DeC[2







m Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and wastewater treatment

cient to ensure no more than one uncon

trolled overflow per year. Including the North Toronto site,the retention storage option requires over 240,000 m'ofstorage


volume. In contrast, the satellite treat

ment alternative requires approx imately 62,600^ inclusive of vortex un derflow storage or approximately 25% of conventional storage requirements. Table 1 also presents measures of en-

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continued overleaf Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

16700 Bayview Avenue,Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X 1W1

Tei:(416)836-9490 Fax:(416)836-9070

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 101 31

Combined sewer overflow cont'd

control to one overflow event with cor

ciency given a blended effluent provided a solids capture of61% to 65%.The disin

alternatives. Coagulant usage, labour and Main Treatment Plant operating costs make up the most significant com ponents of the cost of operating the sa

responding high levels of volumetric

fection efficiencies for satellite treat

tellite treatment alternatives. Labour

control. The satellite treatment alterna tive would result in less volume dis

ment facilities and the Main Treatment

and Main Treatment Plant operating costs are in turn the most significant for the retention storage alternative. The retention storage alternative results in

vironmental performance for the reten tion storage and satellite treatment al ternatives. All the alternatives provide

charged through the Main Treatment Plant into Lake Ontario and greater volume treated and discharged locally. Because of the higher solids removal efficiencies afforded by the Main Treat ment Plant the retention storage alter native offers an overall solids capture of

80% to 85%.The satellite treatment alter natives with less overall removal effi

Plant are the same. Consequently,fecal coliform capture levels are reasonably similar for both the satellite treatment

and retention storage. Costs

Table 2 presents the aggregated capi tal and operating costs for each of the

ijLiuij iu/ Imi


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the highest annual and unit operating costs. The retention storage is also most expensive from the standpoint of both capital and total annual cost. The capi tal cost of retention storage for the Don Sewershed exceeds the most costly satel lite treatment alternative by $30 million. The same differential exists in the ag gregated total annual cost of between $3-4 million/year for each year of the 40 year project life. Application of ultra violet light irradiation for disinfection results in a costpremium of$10 million or about $1 million/year of project life. Summary

The satellite treatment facilities pro posed for the five major overflow regu lators in the Don Sewershed were com

pared to retention storage using a wide range of performance, cost and other criteria. Key findings of the analysis included:

• The retention storage and satellite Prevents rags and problem solids from plugging pumps during recirculation

Protects diffusers and mechanical aeration equipment in aerobic digestion Delivers homogeneous sludge and increases surface area for efficient digestion

treatment alternatives provide simi lar degrees of pollution control for all parameters studied other than sus pended solids. • The satellite treatment alternative

Promotes better mixing and increases digester life between maintenance Reduces cycle time by enhancing the digestion process

would require 62,600 m^ of tankage versus approximately 240.000 m^ for the retention storage alternative. The satellite treatment facility area re quirements would therefore be con siderably smaller. • Depending upon the disinfection al ternative selected, the capital cost of the five satellite treatment facilities is

from $59.6 M for Ch/DeCh or $69.8 M for U.V. In contrast, the retention

storage facilities have a capital cost of $99.9 M or 30% to40% greater. Operat ing costs show a similar trend. Acknowledgements The







nowledge the substantial contribution to the project of Dr. W.Cairns of Trojan Technologies Ltd. and Dr.H.Brombach of UFT. The efforts of the Water Pollu tion Control Division staff under Mr.

R.M. Pickett P.Eng. are also gratefully acknowledged. Mr. G. Zukovs was To ronto Area Manager for CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. at the time of the study. References

UMA Engineering Ltd.,"A Report on the Don Trunk Sewer System and Main Treatment Plant". November, 1989.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 102 32

Circle reply card No. 250 Environmental Science <6 Engineering, September 1993

Pq9ing by flhe numbers.

To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with VictoulicÂŽ. For example, to help you save time and reduce

So if numbers ore important to you, check into something you con count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company

overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division

of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or

offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide

call416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.

equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the

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pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out. Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

Victaulic is o registered trodemark of Victaulic Company of Canoda. Š1990 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 10

Designing pipe systems

Modelling transients in complex pipelines all pipeline transients. The kinetic ener gy carried by the fluid is rapidly conver ted into strain energy in the pipe walls and pressure in the fluid. The result is a pulse wave of abnormal pressure that travels along the pipe. The hammering sound indicates that a portion of the original kinetic energy is converted into acoustic form. This and other energytransformation losses(such as fluid fric tion) cause the pressure wave to gradu ally decay until normal (steady) pre ssures and velocities are once again restored.

Photo shows I REX workshop on Modelling Transients given by Professor Karney earlier this year.

Pressure pipe systems are sub

jected to a wide range of physical loads and operational requirements. For example, underground piping systems must with stand mechanical forces caused by fluid pressure, differential settlement and concentrated loads.The pipe musttolerate a certain amount of abuse during construction including welding stresses and shock loads. In addition, the pipe must resist various kinds of chemical

attack. The internal pressure require ment is of particular importance, not only because it directly influences the required wall thickness of large pipes, but also because pipe manufacturers often




strength of a pipeline by its pressure rating. Traditionally, pipeline engineers have emphasized steady state conditions

during design. In these applications, there is a balance or equilibrium bet ween many flow components:the rate of inflow to each segment equals the rate of outflow,the external forces acting on the pipe are balanced by the momentum changes, and the external work is com pensated for by internal losses of me chanical energy. As a result, the fluid generally moves in the direction of dec reasing hydraulic grade line elevations. Devices such as pumps, valves, and transitions cause local pressure changes that are easily accounted for. Be warned, however — in transient applications this orderly situation rarely exists. In stead, large and sudden variations of both discharge and pressure can pro34

pagate through the system,greatly com plicating analysis. Although this com plexity is often inconvenient for the analyst, it is nevertheless the behaviour of the pipeline during transient con ditions that often determines the suc

cess or failure of a given design or system. Transient conditions

The total force acting within a conduit is obtained by summing the steady state and water hammer (transient) pressures in the line. Transient pressures are most

It turns out that all changes in fluid velocity, whether gradual or sudden,are accomplished by water hammer pheno mena. The only difference is that very slow adjustments in velocity or pressure produce such small disturbances that the flow appears to be smoothly adjus ted. Yet, even in these near-equilibrium cases,it is travelling pressure waves that bring about the eventual changes in steady state flow. If water hammer waves were always small, the study of transient conditions would be oflittle interest to the engineer. This is not the case. Water hammer

waves are capable of breaking pipes, damaging equipment and have caused some spectacular pipeline failures. Ra tional design, particularly of large pipe lines, requires reliable transient analysis. Yet,despite their intrinsic importance for design, transient considerations are frequently relegated to a secondary role. That is, only after the pipeline's profile, diameter and desien discharge are cho-

Water hammer waves are capable of breaking pipes, damaging equipment and have caused some spectacular pipeline failures.

important when the rate of flow is changed rapidly, such as by closing a valve or stopping a pump. Such dis turbances, whether caused by design or accident, may create travelling pressure and velocity waves of large magnitude. These transient pressures are superim posed on the steady state values present in the line at the time the transient occurs.

Most people have some experience with water hammer effects. A common

sen is any thought given to transient conditions.This practice is troublesome. First, the pipeline may not perform as expected, possibly causing large reme dial expenses. Second, the line may be over-designed and, thus, unnecessarily expensive. This tendency of designing for steady state conditions alone has been particularly common in the water supply industry. There has been a wide ly held misconception that complex ar rangements of pipelines reflect or

example is the banging or hammering noise sometimes heard when a water

faucet is rapidly closed. In fact, what happens in this simple example typifies

*Associate Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, University of To ronto, Toronto.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

By Dr. Bryan W.Karney* dampen water hammer waves.Although wave reflections in pipe networks do occur, attenuation depends on many factors and cannot be guaranteed. Net works are not intrinsically better be haved than simple pipelines and some complex systems may even respond more severely to transient conditions. Challenges and solutions Although the problem of predicting transient conditions in a pipeline sys tem is of considerable practical impor tance. many challenges face the would-be analyst.The governing partial differential equations describing the flow are nonlinear, the behaviour of

even commonly-found hydraulic devices is complex, and data on system perfor mance are invariably difficult or expen sive to obtain. The often surprising character of pulse wave propagation in a pipeline only makes matters worse. Even the basic question of deciding whether conditions warrant transient

analysis is often difficult to answer. When simulation is required, the de tailed output of a transient analysis pro gram. with its seemingly endless se quence of head, velocity and other values, can be somewhat bewildering. Recently, a variety of programs have been created with these problems in mind. These software tools provide an interactive framework for editing, exe cuting and displaying transient con ditions in many pipelines. Although the complexity of the transient phenomena means that no single graphical sum mary completely describes a system's response, a broad range ofcomplemen tary images can usually be effortlessly created. Taken together, these different ways ofinterpreting unsteady flows pro vide considerable insight into the way pipe systems react to different hydraulic

focusing and other phenomena. All

facility provides physical insight and has significant implications not only for teaching pipeline hydraulics in various courses but also to the designers and operators of pipeline systems.

these cases can be easily analyzed, un derstood and interpreted using various execution and graphical options.Such a

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disturbances. Various kinds of respon ses are modelled including pump fail ure. sudden and gradual valve motions, waves on a reservoir, resonance, wave



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R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Fate of Volatile Organlcs in Wastewater Treatment

The fate of volatiie organic compounds (VOCs) in municipal activated sludge plants was investigated by W.J. Parker and coworkers at pilot and full scale. These scientists from Enviromega Limi ted and the Wastewater Technology Centre observed that more than 80% of the mass flow of nonchlorinated com

pounds was biodegraded while less than 20% was removed by stripping. Conver

study undertaken by University of Ma nitoba scientist S.K. Basu and a Japanese colleague was to define the system un der various hydraulic retention time and organic loading conditions. The re sults published in Environmental Tech nology show that. at an HRT of4.5 hours and organic loading of2 kg COD per m-' per day. maximum efficiency corres ponding to 93% and 94% of total and

Research, survival varied dramatically, from 0 to over 80%. at several sites, indi

cating that sediment samples must be collected on a number of different dates at each site if an accurate assessment of

potential toxic effects to biota is to be made. Although highly variable, the data suggest that the toxicity of Hamil ton Harbour sediments has been dec

reasing over the study period.

filtered COD removal were obtained.

sely.46% of the mass flow ofchlorinated

Fate of Metals in Wastewater Treatment Plants

compounds was biodegraded and 47% was removed by stripping. Adsorption of VOCs onto waste sludge was not a sig

H.D. Monteith and colleagues from En viromega Limited and the Wastewater Technology Centre dosed a solution of

nificant removal mechanism. In their

seven metal salts into batch and con

paper published in Water Environment

tinuous flow dynamic wastewater expe riments at bench- and pilot-scale to calibrate a computer-based model for predicting the fate of metals in munici pal water pollution control plants. As

Research, the researchers discuss pro cess operating characteristics. lAWP

Microaerophlllc Upflow Sludge Bed Treatment of Wastewater

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Microaerophilic Upflow Sludge Bed Reactor is a new wastewater treatment

Hamilton Harbour Sediments

process originally developed in Japan.

U. Borgman and W.P. Norwood. Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, assessed the toxicity

The process relies on the interaction be tween sulfate reducing bacteria and the microaerophilic sulfide oxidizing bac teria Beggiatoa which dominates in or ganic matter removal because of a limited oxygen supply in a sludge blan ket type bioreactor. The objective of a

Water Environment Re

search. the model accounts for both pre

Toxlcity of

of Hamilton Harbour sediments at fi ve sites on seven different dates over a three

year period using a static chronic tox icity test with Hyalella azteca. As des cribed in the Journal of Great Lakes

cipitation and so don onto primary and secondary sludges, and predicts the concentration of metals in the primary sludge, return activated sludge, and se condary clarifier effluent. Sampling at a full-scale treatment plant revealed that, except for lead, the predicted effluent concentrations agreed well with obser ved values.

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Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


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R&D News cont'd Dioxins in the Environment

R.M. Berry. C.E. Luthe and R.H. Voss

have compared the dioxins content of common everyday materials with that of pulps and papers. As described in En vironmental Science and Technology,

these Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada scientists found dioxins in such materials that are contaminated

with fine particulate matter (dust). The

concentrations, expressed as 2. 3. 7. 8TCDD toxicity equivalents, in some of these materials are often orders of mag

nitude higher than levels associated with pulps and papers, including those produced by recycling processes. A common homologue distribution in these materials indicates a common source.

Analysis of Trace Metals

In a paper published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research. J.O. Nriagu and colleagues at the National Water Re search Institute describe the pre cautions and procedures necessary for minimizing contamination artifacts during the collection,filtration and ana lysis of trace metals in fresh water. The techniques for proper decontamination of sample containers and labware and for field blanks are also described. Pre

liminary results obtained using the pro tocols described cast doubt on most of

the published data on trace metal con centrations in the Great Lakes.The pro

the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada include changes in flow regimes, storage pool volumes and flow velocities, achievable by structural changes in in let. storage and outlet structures; treat ment of runoff by sedimentation or filtration; enhancement of biological processes contributing to pollutant re moval through longer detention and in troduction of aquatic plants; and. improvement of aquatic life habitat.

170 to 230 hour lag was observed before removal of the phenol commenced. Modelling Spills

Attainment of Effluent Standards

A general two-dimensional spill model for the spread of liquids on grass and impermeable surfaces has been devel oped by R. Belore. S.L. Ross Environ mental Research Limited. University of Waterloo scientist J. Capka. and a U.S. colleague. As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, evaporative

A design-point method, or advanced

and infiltrative fluxes are estimated as

first-order second-moment technique, was used by M.Sharma and E.A. McBean for reliability-based analysis ofactivated

losses of fluid in combination with the

surface affinity depth and positioncomputing methods to develop timevarying spill profiles. Laboratory expe

sludge processes in meeting specified effluent standards. Together with a U.S. rimental results were used to demon colleague, these University of Waterloo strate the validity ofthe computer model scientists utilized flow, influent BOD using water and carboxymethyl cellu lose doped water to reflect different and influent suspended solids concen trations in evaluating the performance viscosities. of the activated sludge system. As des cribed in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering,two types offailure to attain specified effluent standards were con

In a joint research project. Queen's Uni

sidered. namely BOD failure and SS failure. The reliability of the activated sludge system was studied with respect

Columbia studied the behaviour and control of nutrients in the enhanced

to the volume of the aeration tank using the design-point method.

of the results in Environmental Technol

Characterization of Landfill Leachate

Enhanced Aerobic Digestion versity scientist B.C. Anderson and D.S. Mavinic of the University of British

aerobic digestion process. In the report ogy. it was concluded that chemical con

trol of the mixed liquor pH for the en hancement ofaerobic digestion is. at the

University of Waterloo scientists exa same time, an effective method for the mined estimates of leachate strength removal of nuisance nutrient species files on dissolved metal concentrations and its variance over time to provide a and a means of ensuring efficient over in the water column of Lake Ontario management tool for forecasting the all operation of the digester. show very distinctive source-dependent need for leachate treatment and groundfeatures obscured in earlier studies by water monitoring during the active phase Effects of Chlorinatlon poor data quality. of municipal solid waste landfilling. As on Nitrification described in the Canadian Journal of Chlorine is commonly used for filamen Removal of Phenol from Wastewater In a paper accepted for publication in CivilEngineering.S. Reitzel.G.Farquhar tous bulking control. T. Marstaller Water Research.}.K. Bewtra and cowork- and E. McBean used historical lysimeter (Reid Crowther & Partners). J.A. Olesz studies to develop regression curves kiewcz (University of Manitoba), and ers at the University of Windsor des characterizing leachate strength for a D.M. McCartney (Poetker Maclaren cribe the effect of the additive polyethy lene glycol (PEG) on the horseradish series of contaminants. For each of Ltd.) used two sequencing batch reac peroxidase(HRP)catalyzed removal of these, the time scale for the regression tors to investigate the effect chlorine has phenol from wastewater. The addition curves was normalized with regard to on the nitrification process. As des ofPEG had significant protective effect moisture addition and refuse mass,and cribed in Environmental Technology. once-a-day batch doses ofchlorine were on the activity of HRP. The amount of is presented as cumulative litres ofleach peroxidase required was reduced 40- and ate per kilogram of municipal solid applied to the reactors. Nitrifying bac teria were affected by a once-a-day dose 75-fold less than that required without waste. of 1.5 mg C12 per gram of SS. while Removal of 2-Nltrophenol by PEG for 1 mM and 10 mM phenol solu filamentous bacteria required sustained Activated Sludge tions respectively. The minimum doses of HRP and PEG required for at least In a research study undertaken at the doses of 2.5 mg C12 per gram of SS for University of Manitoba. A. Janeczko two days followed by six days of doses of 95% removal were determined for several 1.5 mg C12 per gram of SS to be af phenol concentrations. The reaction and J.A. Oleszkiewcz compared the re moval of 2-nitrophenol and oxygen fected. times for at least 95% removal from 1 mM and 10 mM phenol solutions were 5 consumption patterns in batch resMIrex In the Great Lakes pirometers with a constant level of easi hours and 3 hours respectively. Until 1988. mirex had been reported for ly biodegradable biogenic substrate si only a few locations in the Great Lakes, Stormwater Quality Control mulating municipal sewage. As des A paper by J. Marsalek. National Water cribed in Environmental Technology, in primarily Lake Ontario, and the St. Research Institute. W.E. Watt. Queens runs using acclimated sludge subjected Lawrence River due to several localized sources. In a recent paper in the Journal University, and D. Henry. Ontario Mi to batch doses of 2-nitrophenol. imme of Great Lakes Research. D.B. Sergent nistry of the Environment reviews ret diate conversion was observed which rofitting measures that can be taken to was not affected by repeated addition of and colleagues from the Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic provide water quality control in storm- the phenol after its complete disap water ponds.The measures discussed in pearance. With unacclimated sludge, a Sciences report new and confirmed 38

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

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R&D News cont'd measurements of mirex in water and

fish samples from Lakes Erie. Huron and Michigan, and Isle Royale on Lake Superior. The levels of mirex in water were similar among all the lakes. How ever. levels in fish were 100 to 200 times lower in Lakes Erie and Huron relative to Lake Ontario. The reasons for the

sudden appearance of this pesticide are

long history of water quality problems including high coliform bacterial levels, heavy surface algal blooms,dense weed growths, low water transparency, and dominance by coarse fish species. In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. University

applied routinely throughout the open-


of British Columbia scientist T.G. Northcote and B. Luksun of the Bur-

The effect of temperature gradient on the process of moisture movement with

water season due to continuous inputs

of nutrients from point and non-point

Landfill Leachate Production in Cold Climates

Deer Lake, located in the geographic

naby Planning Department review the in the landfill environment was inves water quality problems of Deer Lake, tigated on a laboratory scale by E.J. Leskiw. D.C. Sego and D.W. Smith. As summarize the results of various inves tigations and research on the system, reported in the Canadian Journal ofCivil and outline the attempts to improve and Engineering, these University of Alberta manage lake conditions. The role that scientists found that moisture migrates through the freezing refuse to form ice the community,senior levels of govern ment and educational institutions have lenses. The significance ofthis moisture played in the process is also discussed. movement during the cold weather is the increase in the leachate production which may occur within the landfill. Stormwater Quality Improvement Because of scale-up complexities, field J. Babin ofLimnofix Inc. and University investigations are necessary to verify the of Alberta scientists E.E. Prepas and Y. observed laboratory findings. Zhang have used lime and/or alum to reduce phosphorus concentration in stormwater retention lakes and to pre cipitate out particulate matter. As des For more Information,contact Dr. cribed in the Water Pollution Research H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Asso Journal ofCanada, a lime/alum mixture ciation on Water Pollution Re was better at controlling macrophytes and shoreline filamentous algae, but search and Control, Conservation alum was better at controlling plankton- and Protection, Environment ic algal growth and turbidity. Overall Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, water quality can be improved through Fax:(819) 953-9029. this treatment,however,the applications

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Lime Sludge Dewatering Effluents A paper published by H. Zhou, D.W. Smith and S.J. Stanley in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering presents the results of the characterization of lime

sludge dewatering effluents from a large scale water treatment plant. These Uni versity of Alberta scientists also present treatment and management options which were evaluated through bench-

scale experiments. The quality and quantity of supernatant effluents from the thickener and centrate from the cen

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Industrial strategy

By Seiichi Watanabe*

Resource productivity as a new measure for industrial performance Fig.1

energy consumption. This kind of development may point the way towards enabling us to find a way to maintain growth while still pre serving the environment. Taking the television as an example, one of the current models is compared with an hypothetical TV set composed ofvacuum tubes and another composed

(weriking hei«s®tiio!d

annual awerage p®? month)

food, housing, utilities, clothing, etc.

transportation/teiecommunications education, culture/entertainment, etc.



78,25 '


1960 ¥ 32,093



of discrete transistors. A television with 1975 ¥166,032


the same sophisticated functions as the current technologies provide but con structed by vacuum tubes would con sume enormous material and energy



52.0 7°/


resources. In this sense, the semicon


ductor industry has been able to create a great economic value from little re

> <

Expenditure for Physical Satisfaction

Expenditure for Mental Satisfaction


Traditionallylabor productivity

and capital productivity have been the major measures by which an industry or a com pany evaluated performance. The for mer describes the value added to a pro duct by a given amount of labor while the latter describes the value added by a unit of capital. The simple pursuit of these two productivities alone, however, is no longer satisfactory without full consideration of the environmental im

plications.Whatkind of measure should be applied to an industry or to a com pany to measure its environmental soundness and to encourage the eco nomy to gradually shift itself to one compatible with environmental preser vation.





by Sony was truly epoch-making. Ow ing to the much smaller size, weight and power consumption realized by transis tors,one could enjoy information,news, music and drama anytime and any where. Yet the price was much higher than the large immobile radios thatpeople were accustomed to. The new pro duct shifted the center of focus to the

programming transmitted by the radio and away from the radio itself. More people could have access to the intellectual satisfaction of listening to radio information, news, and sports programs. The industrial success of the transistor radio and of the transis

torized electronics products which fol lowed began to suggest an economic society where people find major eco nomic value in an intellectual satisfac

Intellectual satisfaction as the major

tion with very limited material and

According to economic theory, pro duction is defined as an activity which utilizes labor and capital to add econo mic value to raw material and energy. No mention is made of the inevitable

consumption of environmental resour ces in this definition and yet there is a real cost to the society in a macroeconomic sense.

My purpose is to propose Resource Productivity as a new measure for indus trial performance compatible with envi ronmental preservation. I hope that this will be taken up as a proposal and that it will trigger discussions towards developing a sufficiently fair and quan titative measure.

Resource productivity is defined as the economic added value multiplied by the lifetime over the sum of(in monetary value): i) The difference between the amounts of material consumed and recycled.

economic value

Recent changes in the spending pat terns of an average Japanese household have been plotted.In 1953,about 80% of the expenditures went to food, clothing and housing,to physical or material sa tisfaction, while only about 20% went to education,traveling,entertainment,etc.,

Hypothetical TV Sets Composed of

Current TV Sets

Vacuum Tubes


(Sony KV-29ST70)


30 m'







Consumption Energy




to mental satisfaction or, what 1 would

call, intellectual satisfaction. By 1990, more than half of all expen ditures had shifted to non-material commodities and I believe that this re

alignment will progress further in the coming years. Thus, while the total pro duction ofgoods and services has vastly increased over the last century,the shift in economic value away from large resource-consuming material items has kept this economic growth from over whelming the environment. The commercial success of the tran sistor radio which was launched in 1955 42


1400OO active elements Vacuum tubes: 6W/8lements Transistors: 0.1 W/elements

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Exploring remediation options ii)The energy consumed for produc tion and recycling. iii)The energy consumption by the average use over the product's life

Fungal remediation technology for site cleanup


If the technology for recycling is pri mitive and consumes a lot of energy, then the resource productivity will be low. The longer the lifetime, the better the productivity. The power consump tion will impact the environmental cost of using the product as well. Acceptance of intellectual satisfaction as the major economic value

It is not yet clear that an economy can sustain its growth under the constraints ofenvironmental preservation. Although technology will definitely help society direct itself toward that direction I be

lieve that the social mentality should change from demandingincreasingmnterial satisfaction to accepting intellectual satisfaction. Many of the efforts made in the elec

tronics industry have enabled people to base increasingly large economic value in intellectual satisfaction. Sony's first tape recorder was very large in size and consumed a lot of power.It evolved into Walkman products, into digital record ing machines and into the mini-discs machines introduced a short time ago. The newest model ofthe Walkman oper ates 15 hours with a small battery. In fact, there has been extensive downsiz

ing in all product lines over the last two decades. Because ofthis, as the industry enjoyed growth, its resource producti vity has improved as well.


Fungal Example

Heavy pelroieum hydrocorbons

Crude oil, API separator sludge

Light petroleum hydrocarbons

Benzene, toluene, xylene

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Creosote, coal tar


MEK, acetone


Polychlorinoted biphenyls^





Cr, Pb, etc.






Nonhalogenated phenolics


Chlorinated pesticides

Chlordane, lindane

in a short time nor by technological means alone. It is necessary to provide some social system which encourages the improvement of resource produc tivity in manufacturing and leads soci ety to an economy compatible with en vironmental preservation. *Director, Research Center, Sony Cor poration. Excerpted from the Canada/ Japan Symposium on Environmentally Sound Manufacturing Through the Prism of Management of Technology, Toronto.




Adapted from USEPA/540/2-91/002, "Underslandhg Bioremediation: A Guidebook for Citizens." 'Refers to practice of stimuloting naturally occurring microorgonisms (through the addition of nutrients, moisture and/or oxygen) to degrade the confominant.

^ Fungal products hove been used to treat some polychlorinoted biphenyls (PCBs); to dole, however, not oil possible PCB congener combinations hove been tested.

Groundwater Technology, Inc. has joined with Mycotech Corporation, a leading manufacturer of fungal pro ducts, to extend the use of fungi to the large-scale




taminated soils. This new technology has the potential to be highly efficient and cost-effective in the biodegradation of contaminants which have been resis

tant to bacterial remediation. Fungal remediation is thought to represent the next major advancement in biological site treatment solutions, it offers the cri

sioned,however,can neither be reached



•Suitable. Suitability demonstrated in lab and field triols. © Potentiolly suitable. Suitability may be limited by concentration or other environmental factor. C Suitability not effectively demonstrated, and/or not cost-effective.

treatment technologies. Like other on-

the design of electronic products for ef ficient end-life recycling. The economic society herein envi


and cresols

It should be noted that, while the elec

dity-like items such as aluminum or paper. We must rely on innovation in



tronics industry has been introducing ever smaller, more efficient products, the unit volume has increased in step. Thus, we must face the challenge to recy cle or reprocess the now widely dis tributed complex materials that we are producing. The efficiency of recycling these materials is, at present, quite a bit lower than that for the more commo

Aerobic Bacterial Remedlatron'


tical benefit of destroying contamina tion where it is, alleviating the lingering liability which accompanies excava tion, transport and off-site disposal. While bacterial bioremediation tech

nology has had a powerful, wide-rang ing impact on environmental cleanup,it has proven difficult or impossible to apply to certain contaminants.The only practical alternative has been costly in cineration or disposal as hazardous waste.

Fungal remediation, using naturally

occurring lignin degrading fungi,is par ticularly of interest in addressing envi ronmentally persistent, complex or ganic compounds for which bacterial

remediation methods have as yet been slow or ineffective. Contaminants that

may be amenable to fungal remedia tion are:

systems,fungal treatment offers drama tic cost advantages over excavation and incineration, at the same time eliminat

ing the liability of transporting con taminated soil.

Fungal treatments for contaminated

soil have been under laboratory inves tigation for a number of years. But until now,a major impediment to field appli cation to hazardous waste has been the

lack of manufacturing technology cap able of producing the appropriate fungi in the large quantities required for site remediation. To solve this problem, Mycotech adapted solid culture tech nology to an automated system that pro vides dramatically increased yields. This proprietary technology produces a non-toxic, fungal agent that is easily shipped and safely handled at the pro ject site. These products are the result of more than a decade of fungal research and technology development. As with conventional bacterial biore

mediation,the suitability offungal treat ment for a particular site will vary with soil and contaminant characteristics.

For this reason, the professional biore mediation staff of Groundwater Tech

nology are overseeing project evalua tion, and will recommend and imple ment treatability and pilot studies accordingly. Understanding of how fungi degrade organic contaminants in various soil types, coupled with experi

PCBs, coal tars, creosote, PCP, chlori

ence in soil remediation, enables the

nated pesticides, including chlordane and heptachlor,crude oil, API separator sludge, bunker fuels, lubricants, diesel fuels in high concentrations and more. Performed on-site in aboveground

design of treatment systems that opti mize cleanup processes.

Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1993

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 259 43




! ri






Jjlj i Jj

hMTi H

Laboratory, Portable or Process Testing

Hach's pioneering achievements in turbidity measurement have produced the world's be.st-selling laboratory and process turbidimeters. Now we've added yet another inno vation —the 2100P Poitable Turbidimeter.

The 2100P is the first portable turbidimeter to provide microproce.s.sor-ba.sed operation and a two-detector ratio optical system that

permits testing of a wide range of samples including colored solutions.

: c/:


> W






0 E w

Spectrophotometers and


Hach One pH/ISE Meter





Nobody knows water quality testing better than Hach. And nobody offers a more com prehensive selection of systems. Each system is designed for ease of use and comes com plete* with everything required for testing: reliable instrument, proven methods (many EPA approved), premeasured reagents, labware, clear instaictions and ongoing technical support.



Available for field or lab testing, Hach's pre programmed spectrophotometers and colori meters bring greater levels of speed, conve nience and accuracy to colorimetric analysis. BR/2000


E □

Electrochemical Instruments

Hach meters, electrodes and probes for pH,

a 0

ISE, ORP, Conductivity and IDS measure

ment offer fast response, proven accuracy, repeatable results and long life. Systems



include the Hach One"' non-clogging reference electrode, stability indicators and automatic buffer recognition.

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□ w






New 2100P Turbidimeter combines portability and laboratory-grade performance.


< w


Wastewater Testing Hach's two-hour COD test feamres USEPA-

Rea4y-t(huse COD vials eliminate reagent weighing and handling.

approved chemistiy and leak-proof sample vials. For BOD testing, Hach's complete system includes time-saving, ready-to-use buffer nutrient pillows, nitrification inhibitor,

□ C/l




H w

and bacterial .seed cultures.

d >3 a 1—(




P.O. Box 389


Loveland, Colorado 80539 U.S.A. Telephone: (303) 669-3050 FAX (303) 669-2932

Service Center in Winnepeg ■ Saies Outlets Throughout Canada





ALKALINITY HIBACTERIA n~BOD □ BROMINE □ COD □ CARBON BlOXro Digestion appiinitiis. If needed, may be ordered separately.

For more information, Circie reply card No. 111

Product Reviews


Rapid-Pulse™ DO

Grundfos Environmental

technology eliminates stirring



Solinst has been appointed Canadian agent for Grundfos Environmental Pumps. The small diameter of the Redi Flo 2

submersible pump allows easy access into 2" wells. Stainless steel and Teflon®

construction ensure optimum sample integrity. It combines a compact design

Geneq Inc. has been appointed Cana dian distributor by YSI Inc. for Water Quality Products. The YSI 6000 Environmental Moni

toring System helps monitor and assess water quality in lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries and coast waters. Because YSI

Rapid-Pulse(patent pending)dissolved oxygen measurement needs no stirring, this system is ideal for unattended monitoring.

It responds quickly, is easy to calib

with the power required for environ mental applications. Redi Elo 2 and Redi Flo 4 both allow purging and sam pling with the same pump. The easily adjusted flow rates range from 100 ml/min for sampling to 32 gpm for purging. Pumps can be either dedi cated or portable. Both ensure minimal sample bias and reliable performance. Ideal for purging, product recovery and VOC sampling. Solinst Canada Ltd.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 152

rate in air and is less affected by passive

fouling than




New Mini Monster

The YSI 6000 also measures conduc

tivity, specific conductance, salinity, temperature,resistivity,ORP,pH,depth and total dissolved solids. Geneq

For more information, Circie reply card No. 150

solids reduction equipment Accommodating a 150 GPM flow rate and 4-inch line connections, the new

Mini Monster grinder was made for light waste-grinding applications in

those areas where larger waste grinders are too expensive. Suggested applications include pump protection in small pump stations and package plants as well as light sludgegrinding. The unit handles the smaller solids volumes that can quickly build up to larger amounts and often cause plugged inlets and put higher stress on pumps and other equipment. Periodic changes of the cutter cart ridges can be accomplished while the grinder stays in-line and the unit can re sume operation after just a few minutes. JWC Environmental

For more information, Circie reply card No. 153

New HighwayVIEW™ for Windows Links PLCs


ABPLCS '.Feadn

gmmipg jf^.PressureHislogrwn

Where your concerns are our concerns QUALITY - TURNAROUND - PRICE

Selpon^' ■ 37.^ psi

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9

. . . Actual: j _37.&7 (psI Rei^TImB 4«-Ptessuf&s

416-890-8566 Toll Free: 800-263-9040 Fax:416-890-8575

CanTest Ltd

CTMNTTEST HighwayVIEW for Windows, a new LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI) lib

rary is used to control and monitor Allen-Bradley programmable logic controllers(PLCs) With the SEG HighwayVIEW VI lib

Environmental Analysis


Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

Occupational Health & Safety

V6J 1J8 Fax: 604 731 2386 Tel: 604 734 7276


rary and network driver. Lab VIEW can communicate with Allen-Bradley PLC5 and SEC 500-series controllers using the serial port of a Windows-based PC. With the new add-on VI library, users

can quickly create displays, panel con trols, production management tools, and statistical quality systems without sacrificing the reliability or ruggedness of PLCs. National Instruments

For more information, Circle reply card No. 151 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993



Product Review 950! Residual Chlorine Monitor

|B Chemex Labs Ltd. >-Water Potability Testing ►Contaminated Sites Testing ►Waste Characterization

►Sewer Discharge Sampling & Testing

►Acid Rock Drainage Prediction

►Accreditations with CAEAL and BCMOE

Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221

Clayton ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS 949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontario

MIssissauga, ON (416) 624-2806 Great Lakes Instruments. Inc.'s advan


Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Orgonics Volatile Organics • BTEX • Asbestos • RGBs Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Ponels • Isocyanotes

Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged

FAX (519)255-9304


N9A 1L9

Setting the standard for * service

* quality


* turnaround time


6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX: (416) 673-7399

ced microprocessor-based Model 95CI Residual Chlorine Monitoring System provides accurate measurements and allows exact additive feeding relative to demand.

The system measures total free resi dual chlorine, free residual chlorine, pH and C, and combines high reliability with high accuracy to offer several dis tinct advantages over conventional sys tems. Besides being extremely easy to install and calibrate, the system auto matically compensates for the influence of temperature and pH. and is ready for measurement within a short period. The Model 95CI analyzer receives three sensor inputs from the CI-IOOO sampling assembly. Summa

For more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Well caps and completions

for monitoring and remediation

Meeting the needs and expectations

of our clients with accurate defensible data

for environmental decision making.

ENVIROCLEAN laborai orif.s in( . (519) 686-7558















P.O. Bag 4300, Lakcfield, Ontario Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fax, 705-652-6365






QED GroundWater Specialists supplies a range of caps and completion pac kages designed for ground water mon itoring and cleanup wells, including en gineered completions for landfill leachate and condensate wells and dual

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters ' Reg. 309 Compliance ' Poiychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

' Ambient Air Monitoring

' Emission Testing ' Ontario Drinking Water Criteria ' Odorous Compounds ' Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

5550 McAdam Raad, MIssissauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370 46

(liquid/vapor) extraction systems. QED also stocks basic caps for casing diameters from 1.25" to 8". with quick turnaround on non-standard, oversize

or square caps; locking caps; lowclearance caps; waterproof seals; and a

full selection of enclosures, mounting

hardware, and accessories.

QED GroundWater Specialists

For more information, Circle reply card No. 155

Environmental Science c6 Engineering, September 1993

Product Review


Corrosion test kits To help municipalities and industries monitor the efficiency of treatment pro



grams. Hach offers several economical

test kits for screening parameters that contribute to corrosion.

Analysts can quickly verify the suc cess of corrosion control programs by screening samples with Hach's new model CM-1 Test Kit. This durable test

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's• Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

kit monitors hardness, alkalinity. pH. temperature.TDS.orthophosphate and silica anywhere in the distribution sys tem and contains all reagents and ap paratus necessary for 100 tests. • Portable testers read out pH and TDS

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152


values in seconds


• Wide-range, drop-count methods for alkalinity and calcium measure even the hardest water

• Calculation of both the Aggressive Index and the Langlier Index are possible • Monitors both phosphate- and silica-

Burlington, Ontario(416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

Ainley and

based treatment chemicals Hach


Circle reply card No. 156

LeadTrak™ Test Kit To safeguard public health and limit exposure to lead and copper in United States drinking water supplies, the USEPA has passed regulations identify ing maximum contaminant levels (MCLGs)for lead (50|ig/l) and copper (1.3 mg/1). Similarlimitations are being




280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573

Determine lead levels quickly in the 0150 |ig/l range with Hach's LeadTrak

Waste Management solutions


The test uses a DR 100 Colorimeter

(included with the kit) or a spectrophotometer and features a detection limit ofless than 5 pg/l. The kit includes a lead standard solution to verify accu racy and includes reagents for 20 tests.


Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

considered worldwide.

Test Kit.

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

to the 4 Rs Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2



Circle reply card No. 157

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Concrete cracks repaired using new low pressure injection method

consulting engineers and architect

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services

TORONTO (416)497-8600 WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544

OTTAWA (613)226-1844 SUDBURY (705)671-9903 (Dennis Consullanis) BROCKVILLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmith Consullanis)

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply

Sealtec Corrosion Protection Service.s.

using low pressure injection techniques, successfully repaired hairline cracks in a 3 million gallon water holding reser voir at the Lake Huron Supply System

Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Structures

in Grand Bend. Ontario.

According to Lake Huron Water Sup ply System Superintendent. A1 Scott. "Previous attempts using high pressure injection systems attained limited suc cess at a much higher cost." Virtually all crack applications either structural or water proofing,can be suc cessfully repaired by the low pressure injection system. Sealtec Ltd.





• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6

(416) 641-0941

Circle reply card No. 158 Environmental Science cfi Engineering, September 1993


Product Review


Energy savings for



WTP operations







C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

From 25%-50% of the huge amounts of energy used to operate aeration devices

115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

during the wastewater treatment pro

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

cess can be saved.

CONSULTING ENGINEERS • Wastewater Collection & Treatment > Hazardous & Solid Waste

Management ■ Environmentai



• Water Supply Strategies 'Water Resources &

Environmental Planning ■Analytical Testing > Fieid Sampling & Flow Measurement





(519) 579-3500

(403) 237-9300

(403) 488-2760

(604) 684-3282

Arthur Technology's energy savings system uses an automatic on-line respirometer to continuously monitor the varying respiration rates of the mic roorganisms and match their need for oxygen to the oxygen supplied. The instrument anticipates the need

for oxygen by sensing the amount of

incoming food, and then matches the oxygen supply according to oxygen de mand. The energy savings system targets the single largest expense in operating a wastewater treatment plant — from 6585% of the total cost — and makes it


possible to save from 25-50% of that cost


without harm to the microorganisms. This system may be used by any mu


• Underground Storage Tonk Management,

nicipal and industrial biological waste-


• Environmental Assessments and Audits

pressors or mechanical devices to force

WINDSOR (519) 255-9797 TORONTO (416) 498-7444

• Risk Assessments, Groundwoter Flow and Contaminant Transport Modeling

Arthur Technology

• Ambient Air Monitoring ond Source Testing

investigation and Remediotions

• Anolytical Loborotory Services

water treatment facility that uses com

oxygen into wastewater. For more information, Circle reply card No. 159

Fungal Remediation □ELCAN


Eastern Region Toronto Tel: (41B) 441-4111


Fax; (416) 441-4131




Offices across Canada and Gvarseas

Prairie Region Calgary Tel; (403) 276-9081 Fax; (403) 277-6902

Pacific Region Vancouver Tel; (604) 525-9333 Fax; (604) 525-9458

@iiiLL©rii Professional Consulting Services Planning Engineering

which have been resistant to bacterial remediation. The brochure lists the classes of che

micals which may be suitable for fungal remediation, helping site managers evaluate this advanced technology for their environmental projects. Some of the chemicals which may be treated using fungal technology include coal tars, creosote. PCP, chlorinated pes ticides. bunker fuels and lubricants,

Environmentai Science

among others.

Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax • Sydney

Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Yellowknife • international 100 Sheppard Avenue East. Toronto, Ontario M2N 6N5 (4 16) 229-4646


Groundwater Technology, Inc.. offers a new. 4-page bulletin on fungal remedia tion which is a new generation of biolo gical treatments for contaminated soil. This new technology has the potential to be highly efficient and cost-effective in the biodegradation of contaminants

Groundwater Technology

For more information, Circle reply card No. 170

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

Product Review The EnEco thermal

Consultants In The Environment

oxidation system An oxidation system employs partial pyrolysis as the means of waste reduc

Environmental Planning Ecologicai Science



The waste stream is introduced into the first of two chambers in an unsorted



TORONTO (416)477-8400

thermo-couples also allow for con tinuous monitoring of Chamber tem peratures which are kept at around

United States Environmental Protec

For more information, Circie reply card No. 160

New area velocity flow logger

NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716)285-5448

50offices throughout Canada, the United States. Australia and Europe.

, Golder

800° F.

tion Agency (EPA). Eneco

VANCOUVER (604)299-4144


cient for the oxidation to commence unaided, and the flame is shut off. The

This low temperature oxygenation creates no slagging of glass, aluminum foil and cans, tin cans or anything else. Accordingly, toxins and noxious gasses are well below the standards set by the


Gartner Lee

state. This Primary Chamber is then completely sealed air-tight and a flame

is introduced for a short period in order to begin the oxidation process. Thermocouples on the chamber walls advise when the temperature is suffi

Planning Implementation Monitoring




Tel:(604] 298-6623 Fax:(604]298-5253 Tel:(416]567-4444 Fax:(416]567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES:


'Workplace and safety audits

• Environmental Engineering •Training programs > Legal compliance/designated substances • Ventilation assessment/design • Air emission control > Air monitoring > Indoor air quality • Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control •WHMIS > Asbestos


2000 Argentia Road, Plaza 111, Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(416)858-4424

Telex: 06-218242


Gore Sk Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers WASTEWATER • WATER •SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES•DRAINAGE


255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa 'Thorold • Barrie • Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London

The new Isco 4150 Flow Logger pro vides maximum accuracy under the toughest open channel conditions in

cluding: submerged, full pipe, sur charged, and reverse flow conditions.

Patent pending Doppler technology allows the 4150 to directly measure average velocity in the flow stream. An integral pressure transducer measures depth of the liquid to determine flow stream area. The 4150 then precisely calculates flow rate by multiplying the flow stream area by the average velo city. The streamlined, low profile 4150 Sensor is easy to install in pipes, man hole inverts, and other open channels.

Hydromantis,Inc. □--CJ-HZ)

Consulting Engineers

1685 Main Si. West, Suite 302

Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5 Tel. (416) 522-0012 FAX (416) 522-0031

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control

The sensor sheds debris and withstands

corrosive flow stream chemicals. And,

unlike electromagnetic probes, the 4150 sensor resists fouling caused by grease and oil. Nortech

For more information. Circle reply card No. 161

Expert Systems • Neural Networks

ISIJagger Hims mm

•Ilyclrogaalogy * Engineering Geology Geotechniccti Engineering * Geosynllxeiic Engineering Utl Audit & Sit*: Remediation

* Seioage System Design

'Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources NEWMARKET OFFICE


130 Davis Drive. Suite 210 Newmarket, Ontario Canada L3Y 2N)

274 Fourth Avenue, Unit One

Telephone (416) 853-3303

Teiephone (416) 687-1771

Fax (416) 853-1759

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


Environmental Consulting Engineers

Toll Free (800) 263-7419

St. Catharines, Ontario Canada

L2R 6P9

Fax (416) 687-1773 Toil Free (800) 668-2598


Product Review

Consultants Environmental Management Consultants

Reciprocating piston flowmeter features wide turndown

for Water and Pollution Control Projects == ■==



Brampton (416)459-4780 (416)459-7869 ■■

KItcliener Cobalt


(519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330 (705) 679-5979 (705)679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Managing today's environmental issues. IEnvironmental Economics I Environmental Management Systems I Accounting I Disclosure & Financing Advice IPublic Policy ■ Assistance in M«feA Negotiations


I Due Diligence

IEnvironmental Audits

Model 682 Reciprocating piston flowmeter from Schlumberger features ac curacy of +0.1% over 200:1 turndown ratio.

It offers outstanding flexibility, wide turndown, and tbe ability to handle a wide range of viscosities witb accuracy.

Environmental Services Inc. PO Box 31, Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 182 Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax:416-777-3364



Windsor, Ontario










FAX; (519) 966-5523








(519)680-3580 FAX: (519)680-3582

MacVIro Consultants inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Morkham, Ontario. L3R 4B9 • Telephone: (416) 475-7270 • TeleFAX: (416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

• Hydrogeology


MALROZ Engineering inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 let: (613) 548-3446 Fax; (613) 548-7975

Global flow probe





(Si 9) 966-2250



Circle reply card No. 162

• Waste management

Tbe Global Flow Probe is a bigbly ac curate water velocity instrument for measuring flows in open cbannels and partially fdled pipes. It consists of tbe protected TurboProp positive displacement sensor, coupled by tbe expandable probe bandie to tbe digital readout display. Tbe Flow Probe incorporates true velocity averaging for tbe most accurate

• Engineering geology

flow measurements, and is said to be ideal for storm water runoff studies,

• Environmental audits

well as ditcbes and sewers. Geneq Inc.

• Site decommissioning

measuring flows in rivers and streams as

Circle reply card No. 163

Groundwater samplers

& rehabliltatlon

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

Tbe new Solinst Bladder Pump pro vides samples tbat meet tbe bigbest EPA

standards for groundwater monitoring. Features include stainless steel and

Teflon construction, easy decontamina

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

tion without tools. Gas driven DVP

Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby


80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhlll, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416)882-1100 Fax: (416)882-0055

samples depths to 2,000 feet witb tubes as narrow as 14" in diameter. A drive-

point DVP enables sampling without a drill rig. to depths of 65 feet. Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 164

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Product Review


Eurodrive enhances line of

Proctor & Redfern Limited

adjustable speed units

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners

SEW Eurodrive has announced signifi

Environmental Scientists

cant product enhancements to its line of

Varigear adjustable speed units. A double-cog belt design with notches

"Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution

on the inside and outside of the belt

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

increases belt flexibility, thereby increas ing the efficiency of the drive. The double-cog design also increases the running stability of the belt at oper ating speeds, leading to reduced slip

Wastewater Collection and Treatment Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sauli Stc. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay Windsor 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276

page and belt wear. In addition, the new

belt design features a molded profile with surface textile-fibre reinforcement,

further increasing belt durability. Conventional units use pulley halves that are balanced as a group,and gener ally only balanced at one set speed. Be cause pulley halves must open and close during operation,conventional balanc ing techniques can lead to noticeable

vibration during operation. In addition to design enhancements. Eurodrive now takes an additional step in balancing both pulley halves inde pendently. and at high speeds.


SEW Eurodrive

Consulting Engineers & Architects


For more information, Circle reply card No. 165


New graphical user Interface code-generation utility added to



345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Telephone 416-509-2285

Fax 416-509-1361


LabWindows® version 2.3

Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 IMPACT STUDIES









121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090

THORBURN PENNY National Instruments announced the new Version 2.3 of its LabWindows au

Consulting Engineers

tomatic code-generating software for DOS instrumentation applications.The primary enhancement to LabWindows

• Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

Version 2.3 is the new user interface

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply

CodeBuilder,an interactive prototyping and program-generation utility to help LabWindows users automatically design and build programs with graphical user

MILTON: Tel.:(416)875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.:(416)643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.:(613)247-0111

Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114

interfaces (GUIs). The new user interface CodeBuilder

automates the process of manipulating graphic panels and responding to events from these panels, overcoming many problems novice users had in getting started with event-driven program ming techniques. National Instruments

For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

Complete Environmental Service Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits



Solid Waste Management • MISA

TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221

hubicki associates

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993




Product Review



Consulting Engineers HEAD OFFICE:


^ I^

51 Townline, Orangevllle, Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fax:(519)941-1830

• Environmental Audits • Decommissioning «& Clean-Up • Asbestos/PCB Management • Waste Management • Hydrogeology


Calgon Carbon's Vapor Pac activated carbon system, used for the removal of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) at air emission sources, has been redesigned to reduce pressure drop by over 20%. Reducing the pressure drop involved replacing existing bituminous coalbased granular activated carbon with larger 4x10 mesh carbon. The redesign reduces power needed for blowing air through the system, which results in a significant energy savings for users. The system Is especially useful for short-term projects and treatment of flows up to 1000 cfm. containing low to moderate VOC concentrations.

Head Office 1595 Clark Boulevard. Brampton.Ontario L6T 4V1

Consulting Engineers

Improved activated carbon system

Telephone (416) 793-9800 Fax:(416)793-0641

Boston»Cambridge*Chicago*Hamilton*London»Markham*Montreal»North Bay Ottawa»Oshawa*Sudbury»Timmins*Toronto*Thunder Bay'Winnipeg

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone;(416)238-0007

Calgon Carbon

Circle reply card No. 168

Positive displacement blowers for vapor extraction soil remediation process




VIBRON Consulting Engineers

Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony Design and Specification of Controi Measures Road, Raii & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Quarries, Presses, Blasting

1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T IA3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698 Waterloo (519)746-3415

(VOC)from contaminated soil.

During this process, air is injected into the soil via inlet wells. As the air

passes through the contaminated soil, it becomes laden with volatile organic chemicals and is drawn by vacuum into extraction wells placed in strategic loca

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals Municioal Law, Land Use Planning and Development

tions at the site.

Occupational Health and Safety. Environmental and Civil Litigation

This VOC-containing air is then ven ted into the atmosphere or treated, de pending on the level of contaminants

4 King Street West, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario M5H 3X2


Vapor extraction is becoming an increas ingly popular remediation process for removing volatile organic chemicals

(416) 863-0711 Fax:(416)863-1938

and Federal, state, and local environ

XCG Consultants Ltd.

Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627 N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmentai Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

mental regulations. Stokes Positive Displacement Blowers can be used both for injecting air into the wells and for creating the vacuum in the extraction wells. Because they are positive displacement blowers, their ca pacity varies little with differences in vacuum or pressure. And since they can be V-belt driven, the speed (capacity) can be changed easily by using different

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

combinations. Thus one blower can be

MASc, PEng Principal

MEng.PEng Principal

adapted to the varying requirements of different contaminated sites.


Stokes Blower

Circle reply card No. 169 52

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


Product review


Technologies Inc.



Micro-Ozonation :A patantad process rocess

plains the benefits of WhiteWater'" Air Strippers from QED Treatment Sys tems. Compact,low-profile units rapid ly remove a wide range of contaminants

direct injection of billions of highly reactive tiny ozone bubbles.

• Liquid and Dewatered Application. • Digester and Lagoon Cleaning. • Contract Facility Operations. • Spills Response & Industrial Wastes.

With a transportable system from EnvirOzone Technologies you coxild biibble away more problems than

those of contamination; the smells,

Mali — P.O. Box 60069

Oakvllle, Ontario L6M 3H2

tank winter heating and the long waits associated with other types of treatment, all could be gone !

Location — W.A. Johnson Resource

Management Centre

4449 Hwy #25, Oakvllle, Ont. L9T 2X5

Trycode, P.O. Box 1082, Samia ON. N7T7K2. Tel.:(519) 332 8959 Fax.:(519)332 4666


Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 140


Plant Facilities & Mobile Services

DLAO I ALi BLASTAL COATINGS SERVICES INC. j ■ A i-t 0 n ^ )! Leaders in Quality & Performance"



cleaning Protective Coatings

'Sandblasting • Glass Baad * Alkyd Enamels * Epoxy Coatings • zinc ricm

Oiarlflers, Pipe, Tanks, Structural

Steel, Concrete, Small Parts

• Plastic Flame Coating

^/I O C /I 71 O

42 Taber Road, Rexdale Ontario


For more information, Circle reply card No. 141 SALES • SERVICE • RENTALS

Environmentzd Specialists Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity Suspended Solids, O2, D(j, Conduotivity

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y1Y7,Tel (416) 277-0331, Fax (416) 277-2588

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from water. QED GroundWater

Circle reply card No. 188

Ultra-compact waste water sampler Epic's "new baby" makes light work of effluent monitoring. • Purpose designed 5 litre composite sampler for trade effluent monitor ing. • Ultra-compact design, lightweight and easily carried. It is only 345mm (dia)X 400mm(high)and weighs only 9Kg (including battery). • Maintenance-free battery takes over 1000 samples per charge. • Easy to operate with 9 pre-set pro grammes to meet the most common composite sampling requirements. • Optional plug-in programmer can be used to set up individual automatic sampling routines. • It is reliable, self-contained and wea

therproof. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 189

Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up


air strippers Free, 12-page illustrated catalog ex

lor the treatment of waste water

rby (J

Biosolids and Waste Utilization

Guide to effective



Specializing in testing of Underground and aboveground storage tanks


Nationwide service offered

through offices in Montreal, Toronto and Edmonton

2650 Meadovwaie Blvd., Unit 12A, Mississauga, Ont. L5N 6M5,(416)819-8811

Edmonton (403)963-9403


For more information. Circle reply card No. 144

New dissolved

oxygen analyzer A new microprocessor based, con tinuous monitoring dissolved oxygen (DO)analyzer has been introduced by Royce Instrument Corporation. Typical applications for the Model 9000/95 System include the continuous monitoring of DO in aeration basins, lagoons, digesters, lakes and water ways.

The digital instrument is fully auto matic with features such as: 0-99.9 PPM

DO range, push-button automatic cali bration. automatic altitude and chlori-

nity correction, and self-diagnostic electronics. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 190





/1uUjCtOuJ/i/ CORP. 7 High Pressure Water Jetting Liquid/Dry Vacuum Services


L '


Tel: (416) 438-6706

^ Fax:(416) 438-1521

Waste Water Treatment

Sponge Jet Cleaning For more information. Circle reply card No. 145 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993



nthrafilter Media & Cool Ltd. ao ewtp fiOAD,RlR.*6.8RAN1F0RD.ONTAOO N3T SU

ia;<5l9}?5M080 FAX:<519) 751-0617


Circle reply card No. 146 53

Product review analysis in programs such as Microsoft Excel® and Lotus 1-2-3®. Nortech

Circle reply card No. 181

1-10 horsepower Tornado aerator The Tornado from Aeromix Systems. Inc. is a high-efficiency, totally self-con tained. horizontal mixing, aspirating

shows not only the gas concentration, but also the units(ppm.%. mg/m3. etc). A bargraph shows current gas readings graphically and up to 13.000 readings may be stored in the history log. Nortech

Circle reply card No. 183

Tideflex™ Check Valves


Recent design modifications have in creased aerator performance and eased maintenance. Notable modifications in

Flow Data Collectlon and

Processing Software

clude the addition of: a special seal module, a splash guard cone, a revised motor mount with break-away design,

Flowlink Software allows flow rate,

and hash marks to indicate desired

rainfall, and sampling data from Isco 3200 Series Open Channel Flow Meters to be quickly and easily collected,stored and analyzed. The package operates on IBM PC or compatibles, and allows the user to ini

mounting angles.

tiate the transfer of data from remote

monitoring sites to a central computer using telephone or short haul modems, or collect data on-site with a laptop computer. Flowlink is ideal for:

• Routine industrial and municipal monitoring • Sizing sewers • I & I studies

• Non-point source runoff studies • Billings It can generate a variety of informa tive graphs and reports including daily and monthly summaries. Data can also be exported in ASCII format for further





aerator by 35%. without compromising its ruggedness. Suited for wastewater treatment and VOC removal, the Tornado aerator is

unsurpassed when it comes to reliabi lity. performance, and ease of service. Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc.

Circle reply card No. 182

Infrared Analyzer ADC 7000 Series of Microprocessor controlled infrared analyzers offer userfriendly operating features for such di verse applications as monitoring:


all rubber check valve is de

signed for maintenance-free backflow prevention.The patented Tideflex Check Valve is available in sizes Vi to 90". in

slip-on. flanged and inline designs. Tideflex Check Valves are totally pas sive. have low headloss and seal on en

trapped solids with as little as 1 foot of

back pressure. The all rubber design of

the Tideflex™ will not warp or freeze and is completely maintenance-free. Tideflex™ Check Valves are used in a

• NO/NOx

• Sulphur Dioxide

• Methane

• Carbon Monoxide

variety of applications: sewage outfall lines, storm sewer lines, in-line slurry applications and are ideal for use on effluent diffuser systems.

• Ammonia

• Hydrogen Chloride

Neo Valve

• CFCs

• Carbon Dioxide

The large, backlit graphic display

Circle reply card No. 186

Advertisers' Profile

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc. Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc. is a manufacturer and

supplier of a wide range of water and wastewater mea suring and treatment equipment in Canada and inter nationally. Clients include industrial firms with diverse wastewater treatment needs, as well as municipalities with water and wastewater treatment responsibilities. Aer-O-Flo's commercial success and international mar

keting attracted the attention of the CBC who featured the company on its prestigious Venture program. Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc. advertised in the very first Environmental Science & Engineering magazine pub lished in February 1988.Since then, Aer-O-Flo ads have been featured in every issue of ES&E. Aer-O-Fio President, Harry Marshall says:"I find ES&E's articles are highly regarded by environmental pro fessionals. I also like its readership mix of municipal and consulting engineering staff along with industrial mana gers who have increasing environmental responsibili ties."

Harry Marshall

For all wastewater treatment needs, Aer-O-Flo En vironmental Inc. can be reached at 1175 Appleby Line, Unit B2, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9. Phone (416) 335-8944.

For advertising enquiries in Environmental Science

& Engineering Phone (416) 727-4666 or Fax (416) 841-7271.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 187 54

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


Book ioifrL)^,lillplt space Todaif! SIXTH ANNUAL




Calgary Convention Centre f0




#240,4936 - 87 St„ Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5W3 Phone:(403)469-2400 Fax:(403)469-1398

Phone:(403)258-0705 Fox:(403)255-7404

For more information, Circle reply card No. 191 Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993


WEF Highlights

California to host 66th WEF Annual

Conference & Exposition

Thelasttimethe WaterEnviron

ment Federation visited Cali

fornia was literally an earth shaking event — the 1989 San Francisco earthquake. The quake reached seven on the Richter Scale. No

one was injured from the Canadian de legation but we all returned with a heightened sense of Canadian camara derie. This year all the thrills can be experienced vicariously at Disneyland. Anaheim being the focal point of the 1993 WFF Conference. The Great Ca

nadian Ice Breaker on Sunday October 3 is another opportunity to foster cama raderie.

Registrants will love the exclusive party planned when the Federation has sole and unlimited use of Disneyland on Monday, October 4 from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. WFF guests will be the only ones plunging down Splash Mountain, tra velling through space in Star Tours, and flying with Peter Pan in Fantasyland. Admission to the park is included for those registering for the Full Con ference. Additionally, tickets can be purchased through WFF for $20 — about a third of the regular cost.

Members of the winning team at the Ontario Operations Challenge who won the right to compete at Anaheim (left to right) Don Gervais, Lisa Bumbaco and Marcel Lafrenier. The Operations Challenge. October 5 will be a combination of five exciting events to test skills in pump main tenance.process control,laboratory pro cedures and safety — the winners will be

Facility Tours Delegates can choose from eleven dif- Irvine Ranch Water District — the ferent site visits of municipal and indus award-winning 15 mgd Michelson trial plants and examine waste mini Water Reclamation Plant. mization procedures,treatment and dis posal of contaminated groundwater. October 6 sludge management and recycling, Orange County Sanitation Districts and more.

Water Factory 21 and Green Acres Pro ject — A water recycling facility that County Sanitation Districts of Orange processes 10 mgd of secondary effluent County — Main Street Pump Station through chemical clarification, recarLos Angeles County Sanitation Districts' bonation. multimedia filtration, carbon Joint Water Pollution Control Plant absorption, and reverse osmosis for deep well injection in a sea water October 5 Stringfellow Treatment Plant — Once a barrier. liquid hazardous waste disposal facility, Hunt-Wesson — This large producer of this plant now treats an average of 6.5 canned tomatoes, ketchup, and tomato million gallons a year of contaminated sauces has reduced the volume of wastegroundwater. water produced by 50%. Carbon Canyon Wastewater Reclama tion Plant — This plant achieves strin October 7 gent effluent nitrogen removal limits City of Riverside — Water Quality Con with the unique biological nitrogen re trol Plant — The plant employs biologi moval process employed for treating cal nutrient removal and is converting biosolids recycling. to Parkson Panel aeration. October 4

Hyperion Treatment Plant — City of Los largest printed circuit board manufac Angeles — This plant features a co-gener turers in Orange County. California. ation system of gas and steam turbines Waste minimization systems include that continuously converts methane copper recovery, deionization. and gas. heat, and steam to produce electri cal and steam power. waste segregation. Diceon Electronics, Inc. — One of the


North American Champions. While the actual Conference begins

October 3 golfers could start off with a game at Anaheim Hills Golf Course. October 1 at 9 a.m. The $100 entry fee includes cart, green fees, lunch and prizes. Proceeds from the4person select shot tournament go to the Water Envi ronment Research Foundation. Details

Steve McNalley (909) 383-8612. But at the main event — WFF's 66th

Annual Conference & Exposition fea tures presentations by the world's ex perts on water quality issues, techno logy. and research, plus an opening ses sion that focuses on professionalism, ethics, and social responsibility in the water quality field. In addition, com panies will exhibit related products and services on

more than

140.000 net

square feet of space.

Speakers for the opening session on October 4 include Walter Block, mem

ber ofthe College of Holy Cross Econo mics Department faculty, radio and television commentator, and syn dicated columnist,and Margaret Maxey. professor of bioethics at the University of Texas and former president of the National Institute for Engineering Ethics.

Carol Browner, administrator of the

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, also has been invited to address the

opening session. Lord Gathorne Cranhrook. chairman

of English Nature, an environmental protection commission in the United Kingdom, will speak at the Federation Luncheon on Tuesday. October 5.

Environmental Science d Engineering, September 1993

By Steve Davey*

Preliminary Program

Hazardous Waste Site Management Beneficial Use

October 2

Pumping Station Design Aquatic Criteria for Metals Information Systems Rotating Shift Work Wastewater Microbiology October 3 Industrial/Commercial Source Discharges

Collection System Management/ Rehabilitation

Groundwater & Hazardous Waste

• Laboratory Analysis • Management of Qdors and VQCs and

Managing Stormwater Impacts

Fate of Contaminants in Wastewater Treatment Plants I

International Trends

Water Reuse and Reclamation I: Policy and Planning Emerging Environmental Profession

• Innovative Concepts • Stormwater, NPDES and Pretreat-


• Full-scale BNR Experience/Plant Re-rating

Instrumentation, Control, and InformaSystems III Today's Wastewater Treatment Tech nology in a Nutshell Biological Nutrient Removal Physiochemical Treatment of Indus

ment Issues

• Advances in SSES

• Regulations • Nonpoint Source Toxicity Issues • Infrastructure Financing • Small Community Treatment Systems


trial Wastes

• Disinfection

Marine Water Quality Monitoring Wastewater Microbiology Base Bid Concepts

Selected Treatment Topics Monitoring/Planning from Agency Perspectives Management of Contaminated Soils

• Management of Qdors and VQCs and

October 4

Environmental Monitoring and

Environmental Effects


Aerobic Biological Treatment of

Sustainable Development

Industrial Wastes

Water Reuse and Reclamation II: Plan

Fate of Contaminants in Wastewater Treatment Plants II

For registration information phone 1 (703)684-2404.


Physical Hydraulic Modeling and

ning and Case Studies

Dear Steve:

SS Removal

Pollution Prevention

Construction Techniques and

Safety and Assessing Health Risks

Our Environment

Qperators Forum II

Abelated note to congratulate and thank you as well as other members of the "Davey Clan"and your staff for the pro

Landfill and Leachate Mangement Digestion Safeguarding Coastal Waters California Local Issues I

Public Education I: Teaching Kids and the Public

Natural Systems I: Innovative Uses for Sludge and Wastewater Treatment Instrumentation, Control, and Information Systems I

Surviving Organizational Change

duction ofthe 1993 Toronto Environmen

October 7 Attached Microbial Processes

Toxicity Reduction BNR Piloting and Modeling Pumping Station Qdor Control

Hazardous Waste Evolving Technologies Thermal Treatment

Advances in Site-Specific Water

Quality Permitting and Analysis Federal Facilities and Environmental

October 5

Multiphase Processes Anaerobic Biological Treatment of


tal Conference.

It was a sincere pleasure working with such an energetic group. The honesty and sincerity exemplified by your group during the production of this Con ference was a pleasure to experience. Thanks, once again, for an excellent Conference.

Sincerely yours, T.P.(Tom) McCaffrey President

Canadian Exhibition Management Inc.

Water Reuse and Reclamation III:

Case Studies/Qperation

Industrial Wastes

Biological and Chemical Phosphorus Removal

See us at

Sewer Rehabilitation: The State of the Art

the WEF Show.

Groundwater Treatment


Dewatering Lake and Stream Quality Techniques



Current Coastal Water Quality Issues California Local Issues II

Equipment Suppliers Specializing

Public Education II: Siting Facilities —

In Water & Wastewater Treatment

No Problem

Natural Systems II: Traditional Uses

Products Available Include:

For Wastewater Treatment

Instrumentation, Control, and Infor mation Systems II

Quality: Can We Manage It?

Bar Screens

Screw Conveyors Screening Press

Plate Settlers Belt Presses

Fiberglass Structures Composting Systems

Package Plants

Odour Control

Grit Classifiers

Oxidation Ditches

Sludge Centrifuges

Anaerobic Biological Treatment

Sludge Collectors


Wauklsha Pumps

Industrial Issues

Aerators RBC's Sand Filters

Chlorlnatlon Equip.

Vertical Lift Belt

Mussel Strainers Sluice Gates Slide Gates

Conveyors Package Wastewater

October 6

Biofilm Reactors and Hybrid Film/Floc Systems The Impact of CSQ Facilities *Steve Davey is President; Environmen tal Science & Engineering Publications

Pumping Stations


ARLAT INC. 44 Westwyn Court, Bramalea, Ontario, L6T 4T5 Tel;(416)457-1700 Fax:(416)457-1730

Inc. and a Director of the Water Environ ment Association of Ontario.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 192 57

Corrosion control

Corrosion control for ductile Iron pipe with polyethylene encasement

In 1664 King Louis XIV com

pipeline. If the rate of corrosion is im measurable over a period of time, that rate of corrosion is insignificant. It is

missioned a cast iron water main to

be constructed from Marly-onSeine to Versailles to supply water to the palace fountains and the town. This same cast iron pipeline was recen tly replaced after more than 325 years of

useful, then, to be able to analyze the environment into which a ductile iron

pipeline will be placed to determine its potential for corrosivity.

service, not because of corrosion, but

The rate of corrosion is a measure of

due to the need for greater flow capacity.

the amount of current leaving the metal at the anode. Faraday's Law tells us that the weight loss of a metal over time is directly proportional to the magnitude ofcurrent.The magnitude ofcurrent, by Ohm's Law. is directly proportional to the driving potential and inversely pro

This is not an isolated case. Some 19th

century installations are still in service today. And the Ductile Iron Pipe Re search Association(DIPRA)maintains a list ofsome 400 cities and utilities who have had cast iron mains serve them for

more than 100 years, and a growing list of those who have enjoyed at least 150 years of service.

As impressive as this is. there are utili ties that have iron pipelines that have suffered significantly from corrosion and have not been provided the kind of service life expected of our water pipe lines. Why the difference between King Louis XIV's cast iron pipe which lasted three centuries, and other iron conduits

which suffer adversely from corrosion? How can we identify potential problems and bring corrosion under control? We can begin to answer these questions by understanding the nature of corrosion, learning to identify corrosive environ ments and incorporating an effective and economical corrosion prevention system. In doing so. we can install duc tile iron pipe in practically any soil envi ronment with confidence that corrosion can be controlled.

The first step in controlling corrosion is to get to know your own system. Utili ties should keep good records regarding their water systems, to include under standing the difference between a pure ly mechanical break and one that re sulted from corrosion. By examining breaks one might be able to identify areas within a system where corrosive soils are present. For new installations in previously undeveloped areas, iden tifying potentially corrosive environ

ments before construction begins makes corrosion control a part of the design process, and helps minimize it as a maintenance problem. Therefore, it is important to know what causes corro sion to occur so that one might deter mine where to use polyethylene encase ment on ductile iron pipeline installa tions.

*Regionai Engineer, Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association, Anjou, Quebec 58

Normand D. Agostinis, (right) with Denis Lapointe,1984-85 AQTE Presi dent. This article is based on a paper

given at the 1993 Association quebecoise des techniques de I'eau confer ence.

Corrosion is an electrochemical phe nomenon that involves a flow ofelectric direct-current and a chemical reaction. For corrosion to occur there must be an

anode and a cathode that are electrically connected by a metallic path and im mersed in an electrically conductive electrolyte. If any of these four con

portional to the resistance of the circuit.

Underground pipeline corrosion is usually galvanic in nature, and there fore generally driven by very small dif ferences in potential. This makes the corrosion cell current more controlled

not occur.

by the resistance of the circuit than by the magnitude of the potential. And the most significant effect on resistance bet

Underground pipelines can be affec ted by two forms of corrosion: galvanic and electrolytic. Galvanic corrosion is generally driven by some naturally oc curring dissimilarity that results in a driving electrical potential between the

fering character of the soils into which the pipe is placed. This helps explain why iron pipe in one location may last in excess of 100 years, while a similar pipe in another

ditions are eliminated, corrosion will

cathode and the anode. The connection of two dissimilar metals in a common

electrolyte,or placing a metal in an elec trolyte of uneven composition could re sult in such a cell. A dry-cell battery is one example of a galvanic corrosion

ween installations comes from the dif

location suffers significantly from cor rosion. Since circuit resistance is the

most important variable in controlling corrosion, we are interested in the resis

tivity of the soil and whether environ ments that support anaerobic bacteria

While there are many possible causes of corrosion, this should not lead one to conclude that corrosion on

underground conduits Is Inevitable are present. Resistivity is a direct mea


Electrolytic corrosion has the same components as a galvanic cell; however, the driving force or electrical energy comes from an outside source. Stray di rect-current from an existing impressedcurrent cathodic protection system can be a source of electrolytic corrosion. â– While there are many possible causes of corrosion, this should not lead one to

conclude that corrosion on underground

sure of the soil's ability to conduct elec tricity and anaerobic bacterial activity tends to support corrosion cells by re moving polarizing films (thereby reduc ing the resistance at the cathode). With ductile iron pipelines, the pro cedure most commonly used to help identify potentially corrosive soils is the

10-point system described in Appendix A of the ANSI/AWWA C105/A21.5 Stan

conduits is inevitable because not all soil environments are corrosive to un

dard. "Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Piping for Water and

derground ductile iron pipe. The signifi cance of a potential corrosion problem will be dependent more on the rate of corrosion than on the theoretical possi bility that a corrosion cell exists on the

decessor. the Cast Iron Pipe Research

Other Liquids." "This system was origi nally developed by DIPRA's pre

Association, and has been in use since

1964. The evaluation procedure exam-

Environmental Science cfe Engineering. September 1993

By Normand De Agostinis, P.Eng.* ines five factors: soil resistivity, pH,oxi dation-reduction potential, sulfides,

ethylene encasement has been effec tively protecting millions of feet of cast

and moisture. It has been used to suc

and ductile iron pipelines. The success experienced with polyethylene encase ment led to the development of the first American National Standard for poly ethylene encasement in 1972 (ANSI/ AWWA C105/A21.5), as well as other international, industry and national standards. Polyethylene encasement is a globally accepted method of protect ing ductile iron pipe. Research by DIPRA has been exten sive and ongoing since the early 1950's at various test sites throughout the United States. The results have shown the longterm effectiveness of polyethylene en casement in all types of soil environ

cessfully evaluate conditions for more than 90 million feet of proposed pipe line installations. Should an environment be deter

mined to be potentially corrosive, there are several methods available to protect underground structures. For ductile iron pipe, polyethylene encasement has proven to be the most effective and eco nomical solution. It is a passive protec tion system installed at the construction site during placement of the pipe. The pipe is wrapped with a tube or sleeve of 8-mil thick loose polyethylene as des cribed in the ANSI/AWWA C105/A21.5

Standard. The polyethylene acts as an un-bonded film preventing direct con tact of the pipe with the surrounding aggressive environment and effectually limiting the electrolyte available for cor rosion to the small uniform environ


Further evidence of the effectiveness

of this system is found in the many field investigations of ductile and cast iron pipes installed in corrosive environ ments and protected by polyethylene

ment between the pipe and the wrap. The exchange ofgroundwater under the wrap is inhibited by the weight of the backfill material and surrounding soil.

encasement. The oldest such installa

The result is that the corrosion reactions

cently examined in 1990. The pipe was

that do occur eventually deplete them selves through oxidation. The first experimental use of poly ethylene encasement was in the United States in the 1950's. Since then, poly

found to be in excellent condition, even

tion of polyethylene investigated is in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. The pipe line was installed in 1958 and most re

Where problems have existed,they have been due to improper installation tech niques and could have been avoided. There are many advantages to using

ductile iron pipe. Utilities that appre ciate these advantages for systems as important as those that convey potable water to their customers need a means of

protecting their ductile iron pipelines from corrosion.The objective should be to minimize extra costs that may be as sociated with a corrosion control pro

gram while providing an effective installation. The initial cost of poly ethylene as a material is very low. Polyethylene is easy to install and re quires no additional or specialized manpower at the site. The only place it can be damaged is at the point ofinstal lation and it is easily and quickly re paired. It is a passive protection system that does not deteriorate underground and requires no maintenance. The Ductile Iron Pipe Research As sociation has been studying corrosion through various test sites in the United States for the past 60 years. Based on over 40 years of combined research and field studies, polyethylene encasement

soil. Numerous other sites have been

has proved its effectiveness in corrosive environments and its economy over al ternative protection methods.

investigated in a variety of corrosive en vironments with similar positive results.

Circle reply card No. 255

after thirty-two years in a very aggressive

The Corporation of the Township




of West Lincoln requires a



The Project Manager will manage all aspects ot Phase IV of the remediation of the former Chemical Waste Management Ltd.


(CWML) Site In Smithvllle. Reporting to the Managing Board of Directors, you will manage all activity associated with remediation of the site and any surrounding lands which have been con taminated by the chemical migration from theslte. You will be res ponsible for containment of contaminants In the bedrock below the site and Initiate research and development activity at the site tor the



ultimate removal of chemical contamination.

Location; Smithvllle, Ontario Applicants for the position will have proven project management experience with a demonstrated ability and skills for negotiating complex agreements, In administration and communication, a sound knowledge of all levels of government and many years of related environmental experience. Extensive experience in the ma nagement of technical consultants and contractors, pilot studies and field research projects. Proven abllityto supervise staff, manage within a budget and substantial experience In relating to media, general public, special Interest groups and elected officials.




This Is a contract position. Initially for the period ending March 31, 1995,and extendable on an annual basis. Salary will be determined by qualifications. A detailed job description will be made available to those Interested by calling the number below. Applicants are asked to submit their application to the under signed by October 15,1993. Rob Mens, Administrator, P.O. Box 400, Smithvllle, Ontario LOR 2A0 — (416) 957-3346.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993


Edmonton, Alberta

Tel: (403)221-0200

Tel: (403)465-0251

TbI: (6041545-8998




Fax: (403)221-0213

Fax: (403)468-1410

Fax: (6041 545-5227

Vernon, B.C.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 193


Drinking water quality

By Matt Uza and John Mills*

The facts about Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite commonly found in the waste of most mammals. Four spe cies are recognized; C.paruum is the major species responsible for cau sing cryptosporidiosis, a gastroin testinal illness, in humans and animals. Cryptosporidium oocysts (parasitic "eggs") are ingested and invade the intestinal tract where the

organism completes its life cycle. Oocysts are 3-5 microns in diameter and possess a tough outer shell which makes them environmentally stable. Oocysts are shed in the feces and transmitted via the fecal-oral route.

Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis linger for two to four weeks in heal thy people and include nausea,diar rhea and cramps. Cryptosporidium is similar to the Giardia organism, but it is more resistantthan Giardia

and about one-half the size. Cryp tosporidium is therefore harder to kill and more difficult to physically remove from water supplies than Giardia.

An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis *Ont. Ministry of Env. & Energy

was confirmed in late April 1993 in the Kitchener-Waterloo area. The Mannheim W.T.P. and several infil tration wells were shut down and

the population was supplied hy the Region's deep well supply. There is no standard analytical method for cryptosporidium; results can vary significantly among labo ratories. A complicating factor is that current analytical methods do

red to have the greatest risk of con tamination. Municipal groundwater supplies are generally considered to be at much lower risk of contamina

tion than surface water supplies. Disinfectants such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide are not effective

in killing the oocysts;results ofongo ing ozonation studies are encourag ing. Therefore, most plants provid ing disinfection alone are at consi

not discriminate between viable and

derable risk.

non-viable oocysts. Due to the inhe rent problems associated with moni toring and analysis, continuous monitoring of a surrogate cryptos poridium parameter is required to ensure the safety of potable water supplies. Particle counting offers the greatest potential for surrogate monitoring. All surface water supplies are susceptible to contamination in varying degrees. Water plants loca ted on rivers are subject to fluctua tions in raw water quality due to rainfall events, and intensively farmed areas are the most likely sources of cryptosporidium. There fore, plants located on rivers drai ning agricultural areas are conside

treatment for water plants is physi cal removal of the oocysts hy coagu lation, flocculation, sedimentation

The most effective

and filtration.

The degree to which a plant is

properly operated and optimized largely determines its effectiveness against cryptosporidium. Typical measures may include source pro tection, intake shutdowns, continu ous turbidity monitoring, filtering to waste, elimination of hydraulic surges, optimized backwash proce dures, media inspections and elimi nation of backwash supernatant recycling. Excerpted from Ont. Section AWWA/ OWMA Pipeline

... somego zuitH tHefCozu, ... otfiers manage it; and then there are those who CONTROL it.

[Mueller Canadaj ^dve Seen CONTROLLING theflow ofwater to Canadiansfor over 80 years... 9(pt a[ot ofour competitors can say that. AWWA Valves • Century and Modern Centurion Fire Hydrants • Corporation Brass Products 60

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 196

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, September 1993


probably have G&S Plant Audits can save thousands


of dollars by helping to optimize


facilities and deferring


expansion. Plant optimization is

UU itfIlLldl.* better for the environment too. G&S has more combined expertise in plant auditing and optimization, both water and wastewater, than

so why not use it?

any other consultant in Canada.

90 O O 0

â– .gx

_C0 ^ 3 c

Q. 0

to you, call us — before you

80 70

rated plant capacity

get to the design stage.

60 expansion deferral

50 CT 01

If saving money is important

actual plant capacity


Gore & Storrie Limited,


Consulting Engineers. 1960






This G&S Plant Audit confirmed that actual capacity was much

greater than rated capacity. The owner saved money by deferring costly expansion for several years.

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6.

Telephone (416) 499-9000, Fax (416) 499-4687. Offices in Ottawa, Barrie, Mississauga, Thorold, Cambridge, Kingston, and London

For more information, Circle reply card No. 140

Wastewater treatment

Greenhouse gases control brewery wastewater pH in BC

Early this year Delcan commis

sioned an underground pH control facility at Labatt Brew ing Company's New Westmin ster. B.C., brewery. The facility is the confluence ofseveral individual brewery process wastewater streams, and pro vides an opportunity to monitor total wastewater rate and volume from the

industry.The facility entraps prohibited wastes and affords sufficient detention

time to bring about pH correction. The Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District (GVS&DD) has re cently enacted the Sewer Use Bylaw which requires a pH correction process before wastewater is discharged.In fact,

wastewater with pH {10.5 and pH )5.5 is prohibited. Specifically, wastewaters containing glass, paper labels, six pack retainers and other plastics, are pro hibited. The Labatt facility retains these in its twin mixing tanks, to be removed once a month by vacuum truck. In this facility,fermenter gas,occasionally sup plemented by pure COj,is diffused into the mixing tanks. The resulting car bonic acid combines with the typically high pH wastewater, and a reduction in pH occurs. Usually, pH as high as 14 is reduced to 10.5 or less.

What causes this extremely high pH? One major contributor in the plant is

the bottle washing process. To soak off

Generation of CO2 from batch fer

labels and remove residue from bottles

mentation follows a bell shaped curve.

to prepare them for reuse,a highly caus cycled, but there is a limit to the degree

The ordinate ofthe curve is CO2concen tration in the exhaust gas stream and the abscissa is time. Collection of CO2 for

of reuse. Residue such as labels re

carbonation of beer is done in the cen

moved from the solution creates a high

tral part ofthe curve where COjconcen tration and purity are optimum. Gases generated in the time periods when con centration is increasing and decreasing were previously exhausted to atmo sphere. These impure and variable con centration gas streams are now directed to the pH control facility. Before they are

tic solution is used. The solution is re

pH effluent as it is dewatered. As well,

when the brewing,fermenting and aging vessels plus interconnecting piping are cleaned in an automated process, high pH effluent develops. Also, low pH ef fluent is sometimes generated by acid washes. Proprietary cleaning com pounds containing phosphates are used extensively, and these create a buffering effect and resistance to pH correction. Pure carbon dioxide is necessary to supplement fermenter gas when the wastewater is highly buffered, has high pH and/or when the fermenter gas con tains insufficient COj to bring about correction. Although controlled addi tion of various acids is an alternative to

correct high pH,COj was the chemical of choice in the New Westminster


Firstly, it is a common commodity used for carbonation of the finished

product. Secondly,large volumes of fer menter gas which contain impurities, e.g. water vapour, were formerly exhaus ted to the atmosphere.

used, the main contaminant, water va

pour, must be removed. This is accom plished in a simple entrapment device which is installed in the fermenter gas supply piping upstream of the pH con trol facility. The entrapment device was engineered by Labatt and Delcan en gineers. It is comprised of an enlarged section in the pipe where gas velocity is abruptly reduced. Condensed water va pour drains away by gravity through a water filled U tube which maintains a

closed system.

How is fermenter gas distributed in the wastewater?

A lobe type positive displacement blower then pressurizes fermenter gas which is piped underground to four spargers.Two in each detention tank are constructed of PVC piping similar to well screens. In fact the usual applica tion of slotted PVC is for well screens.

Except for special seals, the blower is conventional, a type found operating at extended aeration sewage treatment plants. The seals are designed for the denser than air carbon dioxide. Sup plementary CO2 is distributed similarly except the 1,380 kPa plant supply has to be pressure reduced and regulated. Dis tribution is through four sintered type 304 stainless steel spargers. Fermenter gas and COj piping is all type 304 stainless steel. This material is used extensively throughout the brew ery. The corrosive nature of the wastewaterjustified its continuance in the pH control facility. Control offermentergas flow, supplementary CO2 and caustic addition(when low pH pertains) is ini tiated by one of two pH transmitters.

180 scfm 15 hp fermenter gas blower, motorized butterfly valves and COj gas sup plementary supply apparatus.


*Senior Project Manager with Delcan Corporation

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

By Bryan L Lemke, P.Eng. Rising pH sensed at the downstream end of the detention/mixing tanks re lays to motorized butterfly valves which modulate flow rates. The position oftwo such valves in the fermenter gas system controls pressure and keeps the blower in operation. As pH continues to rise,

fied and located concealed services.

intact, water services, gas services and

These techniques are invaluable in situ ations where record drawings are in complete. missing or questionable.This

600V electric duct banks. A further com

site, where brewing activities have been •••••-



carried out for over a century, is one of these situations. When services had

and fermenter residue are under con

been located and tributary piping was identified, designs were prepared for re-

GVS&DD fees for discharge of exces


devices then actuate a conventional

chemical feed pump which distributes solution




stream. Monitoring and continuous chart recording of pH at upstream and downstream ends of the facility shows its effectiveness.

The pH facility is only one compo nent of a wastewater management sys tem engineered for Labatt by Delcan. Prior to its construction,brewery wastewater. storm water and sanitary wastewater entered the combined sewer sys tem of the City of New Westminster via 17 separate connections. Only five of these were accessible for sampling and flow measurement. The balance were

identified and located by no dig tech niques.

Video inspection,dye tests and a com bination of dye tests during video in spectionare techniques

Here it is installed in 500. 600 and 700

mm corrugated steel casi ng pipes.These sizes and proximity of cross services added to the challenge.The contractor's greatest challenge was installing the main interceptor section during a one week shutdown period designed by the brewery. That section included the rail way spur which had to be dismantled and reinstated within the designated period. Study continues at the brewery to bring about reduced water consump tion.BOD5 and suspended solids reduc tion. Water conservation by recycling and reuse shows good prospects. Cap ture. storage and reuse of brewery pro ducts such as yeast,spent diatomaceous earth filter medium, spent grain liquor

the pure COj stream cuts in. Its control valve responds to the transmitter and controller modules. When pH ap proaches the lower limit (pH 5.5). all CO2 sources shut down. The control


plexity was its installation longitudi nally beneath 80 metres of railway spur.


typlcal pH recbrcf."

plumbing. Objectives were to divert and separate sanitary wastes, stormwater and cooling water from wastewater generated by brewery processes. Process wastewater was intercepted by new sewers which paralleled the combined sewers. The interception sys

sideration. In the

near future, the

sive amounts of these constituents will

be a major cost of doing business at breweries and at other industries in Greater Vancouver.

tem had to thread between services left

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mounted on the skid. The skid is a self

contained,compact,but full sized work ing model of a typical system that AerO-Flo provides. On arrival, simply con nect to an electrical outlet, drop the effluent pipe into a drain and treatment can begin immediately. The skid was designed so that each piece of equipment can be operated in dividually, or in any configuration with the others.In a typical wastewater appli cation,the water would pass through the Drumshear first, where the largest solids would be screened out. It would then go to i\itAer-0-Float. where the finer solids would be floated out of the water. The

pH control is required because pH af fects how different solids flocculate.

Polymers and flocculants are added to make the fine solids hold together so they can be removed by the equipment. In order to accomplish this, the pilot skid has two mix tanks complete with mixers and pH sensors, and six chemi cal storage tanks complete with mixers and metering pumps. Three chemical storage tanks supply each mix tank,one each for acid and caustic (for pH ba lance) and one for polymer. The mix tanks are situated to provide chemical addition at virtually each step

of the skid's processes. The pH balance is available before and after both the

Drumshear and Aer-O-Float and poly mer addition is available before either

of these and into the sludge before it reaches the Sludge Cannon. With these different combinations, the pilot skid can offer virtually every combination of equipment and chemical addition that could be required by Aer-0-Flo"s

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All ancillary equipment, such as chemical storage tanks, pumps, mixers, mix tanks, piping, wiring, etc., are

eluded in the pilot wastewater treatment system.The two types of chemical addi tion available on the pilot skid are pH balancing and polymer addition. The

The skid was designed to be portable;

Circle reply card No. 258

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1993

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section caii ES&E at(416) 727-4666 pH Instrumentations

CSA Approved Fall Arrest System

Field & Industrial The Model 30WP is a portable pH Recorder in a glass reinforced poly ester case with hinged clear polycar bonate cover and complies with NEMA 1-2-3-4-4x12-13 require ments. A crystal controlled chart motor drive provides accurate chart timing and a gel type combination electrode encapsulated in 3/4" PVC nippied handle, provides a rugged sensing element. Rechargeable bat tery. Also available, pH and ORP sampling Meters, and RecorderControllers, indicator-Controiiers. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 201

COBOL£SS pH Recorder

Certified to CSA standard Z259.1-

1976 Type 1 Ciass B, the MSU #3152 Safety Siide Rail System as sures worker safety. For use on towers, watertanks,chimneys and in deep underground structures, the MSU system has enduser benefits galore: Designed for use on ladders longer


than 5m;Ail aluminum rail attachesto

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any type of vertical ladder or rungs; Attachment brackets fit any type of rung size or spacing; Patented tra veler operates smoothly(no slipping between notches).

Watertight Aluminum

Ultrasonic Level and Flow

Access Hatches

Specialist Brochure

The TYPE M Access Hatch is de

Magnetroi's Ultrasonic Level and

signed with the operator in mind.The watertight, gasketed drain channel keeps water out of underground structures — this is particularly im portant for drinking water reservoirs. The continuous piano hinges are at tached with vandal-proof, stainless steel hardware.Gas springs are sup plied with each hatch to assure easy operation and maximum safety. The Type M has a flush design — the operator is not exposed to any trip

Flow Specialist brochure is a 20 page, four color catalog which pro vides a method of selecting the cor rect level or flow control for your ap plication. A unique Feature and Se lection Guide shows the extensive

line of ultrasonic products available, both contact as well as non-contact,

with descriptions to assist with pro duct selections.

Magnetrol International Circle reply card No. 203


MSU Mississauga Circle Reply Card No. 202

Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment

plus Return on Investment

Grinder Pump Stations

plus Return on Investment

tion contracts for its anaerobic SBR

The Environment One Grinder Pump powers the low pressure sewer system providing wastewater stor age,grinding and pumping in a single unit. Utilizing small diameter sewer piping (32 mm-100 mm), shallow buried to the terrain contour, the Grinder Pump station can discharge the wastewater vertically more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up

technology for nitrogen removal,and

to 3.3 kilometres.

its new Covered Aerobic Reactor

Ontario Sewage Equipment Circle reply card No. 205

Low Pressure

Sewer Systems

PAYBACKS of three to five years, LOW O&M COSTS, and BiOGAS ENERGY are possible with the ADi-

BVF™ patented anaerobic reactor. The SPACE-SAVING tank type or the larger in-ground type are two popular

variations on the BVF'" system. ADi offers complete supply-and-instalia-

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ADI Systems Inc. Circle reply card No. 204 iEEE488antl^*

Data Acquisition and

i/XIbus Control, Data Acquisition,

Instrument Control Free 1993 catalogue of measure

fincl Analysis

Ad Index ADI Aer-0-Flo


Analytical Meas.


Anthrafilter Arcturus

54 54 21



Features new LabViEW software for

Big 0

Windows and Sun, and LabWin-

Campbell Sc.

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Can Ex. Man Can. Am. Ins.

ment and instrumentation products

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faces, plug-in data acquisition boards, VXibus controllers, DSP hardware and software, and signal conditioning accessories. Training



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Schlumberger SEW Eurodrlve Summa

Syntechnics T. City Iron Wks

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FMC Gartner Lee GL&V Gore & Storrle

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National Ins. Neo Valves


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classes also detailed. Includes tu National Instruments


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Tanknology Terratec

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Western Water


Guest comment

By John Coomey*

Time now for free trade within Canada

While the North American

tors come into Ontario and undercut and secure contracts. The Ontario Gov

Free Trade Act dominates

ernment to date has done little if any thing,to stop this practice which prevents

the headlines,trade between

Canadian provinces is anything but free. It is often easier for Canadian environmental suppliers to sell and install equipment in the United States than in other provinces. While most provinces have some restrictive practices,non matches Quebec's restric

Ontario contractors within their own

province, from securing some lucrative jobs that are undercut by Quebec con tractors.

Earlier this year. New Brunswick toughened its policy against Quebec construction companies and labourers. New Brunswick,in fact,copied Quebec's


The Ontario Pollution Control Equip ment Association has been vigorously working to reduce trade barriers bet ween the provinces. I commend the work done by some OPCEA Directors for their work in bringing this problem

laws so that Quebecers in most cases,are shut out from bidding on Government contracts.

The Federal Government is involved

John Coomey

to the attention of both the media and

our political leaders. Restrictions are not even in Quebec's

interests in the long run. Economic his tory shows that protected manufac turers ultimately stop being competitive; that short term gains become long term pain for both the manufacturers, their

communities ployees.

ultimately, em

There is also the matter of fairness.

The construction industry in Quebec has laws and regulations ensuring Quebecers are given priority for jobs. Other provinces state this acts as a barrier to construction

*Preslclent, Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association





Quebec. On the other hand, Quebec contrac-


in this procedure and has known about this situation as have all the other pro vinces for many years, but nothing has been done. Everyone is stalling, pro bably because of political reasons; no one ever wants to hurt people in Quebec and possibly lose votes in an election. This practice is absolutely ridiculous and hurts each and every Canadian in directly by allowing one province to ob tain contracts in Ontario without a re

ciprocal arrangement for Quebec. On a broader issue, the same thing applies to other products. Beer is a good example, and wine from B.C. where taxes are levied interprovincially. How can we talk about free trade with other countries when we ourselves in

Pipes, flanges, valves and fittings can be buried — but not forgotten. Corrosion will attack, and repairs can be costly. So protect your valuable assets with Densyl Tape and Profiling Mastic. It's long-lasting protection that's easy to apply. • No abrasive blasting • No special equipment or training

Canada are not practising what we are preaching? It is obvious to everyone that nothing will happen before we have another Fe deral Election. IfPrime Minister Camp bell fulfils her promises of reorganizing the Conservative Party and looking into misdemeanours such as the interprovincial tax situation (regardless of poli tical votes), then we might be getting somewhere. The



OPCEA attended a meeting recently in a

Deputy Minister's board room in To ronto with a Trade Policy Branch to dis cuss interprovincial trade barriers. The report we have received back is that no thing is going to happen overnight.

• Goes on wet or corroded surfaces

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readers on this and other topics. Any

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Use the Reader Service Card



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©1993 Dense North America Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 123 66

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1993

Introducing the New ADVANCE™ You asked for it. Schlumberger's got it. ADVANCE—the most advanced

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 147

High-Pepfopmance Stainless Steel Undepdpaii Ravivas Ailing Sand FHtaps A simple, cost-effective Flexscour™ retrofit dramatically Improves air/water back wash distribution, simplifies maintenance and improves filter performance.





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