Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) July 1993

Page 1







Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

Serving environmental professionais across Canada

July 1993


Groundwater supply development for pulp and paper mill Drinking water technologies for the 1990's and beyond Quebec chooses biofiltration for wastewater treatment

What to look for when buying analytical services New technologies for PCB decontamination Is chlorine the sorcerer's apprentice? Sludge dewatering options


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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

June/July 1993, Vol. 6 No. 3 Issued July, 1993


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4666 Western Canada and

Western US Rep.RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849

Environment Canada's creative funding is a mission improbable


Editorial comment by Tom Davey Are we headed for the ultimate synthesis?

Greenhouse retrospective by Tom Davey



(416) 727-4666

Technical Advisory Board

Biofiltration process for secondary wastewater treatment chosen in Quebec


New technologies for RGB decontamination — Part II By Dr. Ian Webber


Is chlorine the sorcerer's apprentice? By Dr. J.R. Vailentyne


Robert B. Baker, MASc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Precast concrete infrastructure helps


alleviate environmental concerns

By Derek Guberney and Dean Coffin

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. DEE

Drinking water technologies for the 1990's and beyond By Richard J. Kariin


Is your water distribution system safe? By Michael Birks


What to look for when buying analytical services By Dr. Ian Webber


Pilot scale sludge dewatering tests


R.V. Anderson Associates

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. R. Bruce Smith, LLB.

Blake Cassels Graydon Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and in dustrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distri

By Tony Petrucci and Volker Masemann

Corrugated containers recycled into high quality fine papers 56


ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ron mental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.

Development of 20 MIGD (1050 L/s) groundwater supply for ^^ Canfor's Prince George Pulp and Paper Mills By John A. Harris, Gary A. Kuehl and Allan A. Riddell

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions


but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con

Industry Update

tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalSciences Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Ivlarkham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Welch

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Literature Reviews Ad Index

62 62

Cover Photo

Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897

it is often forgotten that water and sewer mains are the arteries of

Second Class Mail

our environmental systems. Photo shows Canadian made pipe

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.

Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

being installed on a project in New York State. Photo courtesy of IPEX,formerly Scepter/Canron.

Information presented In ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only

conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Environment Canada's creative

funding is a mission improbabie

Agraduate student has won a

$36,000 grant from Ottawa's Green Plan Eco-Research Pro

ject to study: A bioregionalist approach to the settlement story in prairie fiction.WhWe there are 30 other grants in

a $1.3 million funding program of doc toral fellowships, this one stands out because of its focus on hioregionalism fiction. Now in the interests of political regio nalism. perhaps other researchers might transfer their focus from the prairies to Prince Edward Island for the next liter

ary incursion funding.



As a tribute to former Environment

Minister Jean Charest. I suggest a play be funded, dramatising Green Plan spending, entitled: Jean of Green Fables. The plot,loosely based on the play. Wait ingfor Godot, focusses on a consulting engineer pursuing a fantastic dream: that one day Green Plan Money might actually be spent on pollution abate ment. Some publishers have already

dismissed this story outline as wildly improbable. Another creative possibility is the story ofthe Ontario Waste Management Corporation(OWMC)with a variation on the theme From Here To Eternity. This is based on a true story of a renow ned scientist. Dr. Donald Chant, the father of Pollution Probe. In the late "60s. his scientific credentials, elo

quence and TV persona made him the foremost critic of Ontario government environment policies. But as philosopher Herbert Marcuse once noted. Capitalism often absorbs critics into its infrastructure. In a bril

liant political move. Conservative Pre mier Bill Davis, persuaded Dr. Chant to head the crown corporation as Presi dent in 1981. But after a dozen years, he has found that criticizing the Augean Stables of industry was much easier than cleansing them. In Greek mythology. Hercules cleansed the Stables of Augeas during his 12 Labours by diverting the river

Alpheus to flow through them. OMWC has so far not emulated the Herculean

feat even after diverting rivers of red ink into waste management problems. After spending over $100 million in 11 years. OWMC has yet to treat any wastes. Worse still. Dr. Chant, the former

Prince of Protest, was savaged by his own intellectual progeny when some protesters turned on him during site se lection meetings. On the credit side. OWMC has kept legions of lawyers off the streets.

Several years ago. after an exhaustive evaluation process, OWMC opted to destroy toxic industrial wastes in an ad vanced rotary kiln incinerator. But con

struction has been delayed for years because of complex environmental assessments and other legal processes, few of which are OMWC's fault.

Meanwhile, having survived through successive Conservative. Liberal and

NDP governments, the OWMC might yet find its incineration project dumped by NDP dogmatists, who loathe incin eration with the same passion they nor mally reserve for commercial success. This brings to mind another title

UK privatization experiences attract keen interest at Ottawa AWWA/OMWA conference

which could serve for creative fiction

Quaker Oats Company of Canada put the human environmental perspective

research: The Quest For Fire.The original film was based on a prehistoric tribe whose standard of living,and comfort dramatically declined when they lost the use of fire. Cold, hungry and fright ened.a small group wandered across the bleak landscape seeking ways to capture

into a dramatic time frame. "If the his

or create flame.

A suggested sequel might be called The Quest For Ire. It might portray former

Privatization of water utilities in the UK

tory ofthe earth were represented in a 24 hour day. mankind has been here a mere 8.6 seconds." he said. He urged

was a subject of vital interest to both the

business executives to take into account

Ont.Section AWWA and Ontario Muni

the environmental implications of eco nomic decisions, noting that his own firm had found great benefits from im plementing recycling and other environ mental initiatives into regular opera tions. "Ecological considerations were as important as economic decisions in today's business world." he said. As water suppliers are often misrep

increasingly high EC standards. How ever he felt that UK style privatization was unlikely to occur in North America. Jon K. Grant. Chair and CEO of the

cipal Water Association.Eugene O'Malley. Vice President of Marketing of Severn Trent Environmental Services

Inc. reviewed the British experience after 12 years of operation. His firm is a subsidiary of Severn Trent PEG. one of 10 UK private water companies created in 1989. In Britain, he said, the ground work for privatization was laid in 1974 and evolved into steps for complete privatization in 1989. Aging infrastructures and financially strapped municipalities were part of the reasons for private sector involvement. The new UK companies did not have to pay income tax for the first five years. This resulted in huge dividends, which attracted investment and funding to im prove the systems. Moreover British sys tems had to be upgraded to meet the

resented in the newsmedia,the sessions





stalking across the province with the obduracy of an ecological Margaret Thatcher,stamping out all proposals for garbage incineration. It could conclude with a poignant scene as the camera scans an unbroken vista of empty fac tories with the minister atop the CN Tower, defiantly reciting a litany of3 Rs like a mantra. Ironically,she herself was recycled from the Environment folio, to the Ministry of Health. Perhaps, like

on public partnership attracted dele 'Donna'Quixote,she tilted at one incin gates seeking tips on how to relate with erator too many. The $36,000 grant to study Bioregionthe public and the newsmedia. A stand ing room only audience heard experts alism in Prairie Fiction clearly reveals a outline solutions to the many asp.ects of profoundly creative talent in proposal writing: it also gives fiction an official media reportage and public participa

tion which today's water producers must face. So great was the concern at this meeting, and so intense were the questions,that this topic will definitely be a feature at future annual meetinas.

status in the much vaunted Green Plan.

With so many absurdities in environ mental politics, and policies, other doc toral candidates can now anticipate a new field which is virtually recession proof.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Committed to Excellence

Our name has changed Our commitment remains the same.

Excellence in people, products and service.

It's always been that way at Scepter/Canron and will continue

that way at IPEX. Now, and in the future.

For more news, call: B.C.(800)663-5864, Alberta (403)468-4444, Ontario (800)268-4664, Quebec(800)363-4343, Marltlmes(800)561-7473WS!

For more information, Circle reply card No. 132

Industry update Feasibility Study Generally Accepted Standards for

Environmental Investigations Consuilmg Engineers of Onioro

based primarily on the engineering and law firms' practical experience in the field. A bibliography is included. This report: • Discusses "standards" in environ

mental investigations. • Recommends who should conduct

environmental investigation activi ties. • Recommends standards for docu

mentation.including format,content, and opinions. • Discusses confidentiality aspects of environmental investigations.

Consulting Engineers of Ontario sub • Recommends definitions and content for three broad types of environmen mitted an unsolicited proposal to the tal investigations: liability assess Ontario Ministry of the Environment in June 1990. The proposal dealt with ments. audits, and risk assessments. a study into the feasibility of develop • Includes a reference bibliography. ing environmental auditing stan Based on this study, the committee dards. to meet the growing needs of concludes that: industry and other interested groups. • Environmental investigations are ty pically multi-disciplinary activities. The Ministry reviewed the proposal • Several types of investigation can be and authorized the study. standardized. Initial phases of liabili Opinions, conclusions and recom ty assessment are particularly amenmendations in this 100 page report are

able to standardization.

• Environmental investigations are an

important part of an effective envi ronmental management program. • Additional work to develop investiga tion standards will enhance the value of these services to stakeholders.

• The development of standards will establish the consistency in practice and furtherenhance the usefulness of

environmental investigations. Copies of this report are available from CEO at (416) 425-8027.

Bob Ferguson honoured by APWA

PCAO changes name at 22nd annual conference The 22nd annual Pollution Control As sociation of Ontario conference ended

up with a change of name and a record registration of over 700. Thanks to co operation with the Ontario Pollution

derway. a concurrent session on the use of wetlands drew a standing room only audience, indicating real interest in wastewater treatment working within an ecosystem framework. A plenary session with non-technical people gave a new dimension to the as sociation's focus and attracted vigorous audience participation. Session Mod erator. Tom Davey. said that the newsmedia had too often gone from report ing events to actually staging them. Mil

Robert Gordon Ferguson. Com missioner of Works for Metropolitan Toronto, was named one of 1993's top ten public works leaders by the Ameri can Public Works Association. The or

ganization selects worthy candidates across North America annually.

OPCEA's 2nd Golf Tournament

lions saw the 'last" ofthe 640 oil well fires

extinguished in Kuwait but the "last oil fire" shown on TV the world over had

Control Equipment Association, the exhibitors' space was completely sold out. with additional booths ending up in the registration area. Outgoing PCAO President. Terry Matthews (above), announced a name change following a ballot. Terry now becomes the last PCAO President and also the first in the new Water Environ ment Association of Ontario. The new WEAO President Jim Green-

shields praised conference chair Bill DeAngelis and his wife Lora, who chaired the spouses program for what he termed was a truly outstanding organization.

actually been relighted for what was not news but a staged event." he said.(See editorial comment May ES&E). DavidOnley.a Toronto journalist with CITY TV and environment reporter for CEIUM EM,gave valuable tips on deal ing with the media. He noted that some press conferences were scheduled at time slots which made coverage virtual ly impossible for TV stations. Sche dule press conferences or news releases at times convenient for television, he

advised. He urged that advice from media professionals was often neces sary when dealing with the press. Where inaccurate coverage of drinking water stories occurred, he told the meeting that they should complain to the Paul Muldoon. a counsel with Pollu tion Probe said the Ontario Environ

bers ofthe conference team for their tire less efforts.

mental Bill of Rights was a major step forward in Ontario's protection of the environment.

Control Equipment Association's Golf Tournament was held at Kleinburg Golf Club. Sixty-six golfers teed off in great weather seeking a hole in one at the Par 3. second hole, where Canadian Air lines International had offered a round

trip air fare for two. anywhere in Ca nada. Alas, no one succeeded.

John Coomey. President of OPCEA,

opened the prizegiving ceremony with Larry Madden. OPCEA Marketing Di rector. handing out the prizes with his usual sharp humour. Results:

Low Scratch — Rick Smith. C.B. Engin eering - 79 Low Net — Ralph Davidson, Gore & Storrie - 63

Closest to hole(2nd)— John Stevenson, Gore & Storrie - 2 ft.


Ele cited Brian Evans and other mem

While the first plenary session got un

The second annual Ontario Pollution

Closest to hole (8th) — Wayne Hayworth. Permashell - IB inch

Longest drive — George Govan, Cancoppas - 260 yd. George Govan organized the tourna ment.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

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Industry update

Clean water regulation for pulp and paper industry reieased The Ontario government has released a comprehensive clean water regulation targeting a wide range of substances from Ontario's 26 pulp and paper mills, including organochlorines. New strin gent limits will greatly reduce those chemicals that pose a threat to human health and the environment. Ontario's

goal is for a zero discharge of organo chlorines by 2002.

Pulp and paper mills are responsible for more than 90 percent of the organo chlorines discharged into the Great Lakes and Ontario's waterways. In its

1992 report on the Great Lakes, the In ternational Joint Commission stated

that organochlorines are "dangerous to the environment, deleterious to the hu

man condition, and can no longer be tolerated in the ecosystem, whether or not unassailable scientific proof of acute or chronic damage is universally

accepted." All four categories of pulp and paper mills (kraft, sulphite/mechanical, cor rugating, de-inking/board/fme papers/ tissue) must meet the limits proposed in the regulation for all substances. Com

pared to 1990. a number of substances will be reduced dramatically by 1995. including: chloroform. 96 percent re duction; phenol, 88 percent reduction; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), 84 percent reduction; toluene, 83 per cent reduction.

The regulation includes limits that must be met by 1995 for the following substances: Biochemical Oxygen De mand (BOD), total suspended solids, total phosphorus, chloroform, toluene, phenol, 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxins) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF(furans). Discharges from pulp and paper mills will also have to meet a stringent toxicity test; the wastewaters must be safe enough for fish to survive.

In addition, the limit of organochlorine discharge for the eight kraft mills, measured by AOX(Adsorbable Organ ic Halides. an analytical method for measuring all organochlorines collec tively rather than individually), is set at 1.5 kilograms/tonne of pulp by Dec. 31, 1995 and at 0.8 kilogram/tonne of pulp by Dec. 31. 1999. In order to achieve the

goal of zero discharge of AOX by 2002, the kraft mills must also submit AOX

Elimination Plans to the government under the following schedule; — initial AOX Elimination Plans to be

produced 6 months after regulation is passed. — interim plans by Dec. 31, 1995. and — final AOX Elimination Plans by Dec. 31. 1998. All kraft mills in Ontario are curren

tly operating at levels below the 2.5 kilo grams/tonne limit of AOX as required by existing control orders. The draft limit regulations, which were developed through a consultative process that began in 1986 under the MISA program (Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement), are available for a 60-day public comment and re view period. Copies of the Draft Effluent Limits Re gulations for the Pulp and Paper Sector (PIBS #2100) and supporting technical materials including backgrounders and reports can be obtained by calling the Ministry of the Environment's Public Information Centre at (416) 323-4321.

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Industry update CH2M Hill honoured by General Motors CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., of Water loo. Ontario was among the top one per cent of worldwide suppliers recognized by General Motors through its 1992

Warren. Michigan. CH2M Hill was doubly honoured by being the only en vironmental engineering consulting

straints to meet GM's critical planning deadlines, without sacrificing quality of

firm to receive the 1992 award.

Q.S.P. awards were given to the best suppliers worldwide of specific pro

The Q.S.P. award was presented to CH2M Hill in recognition of the firm's performance on environmental assess

Quality, Service, Price (Q.S.P.) awards

ments conducted atGM facilities in On

program. The awards were presented recently at GM's Technical Center in

tario during 1992.The assessments were conducted under difficult time con-



ducts or services in the areas of: metallic,

electrical, chemical, machinery and equipment, sales and marketing, con sulting services, and indirect material. This is GM's first worldwide supplier awards program to recognize com panies for their excellence in quality, service and price — the three key com petitive success factors used in GM's sourcing strategy. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. is an em ployee-owned Canadian company,pro viding full consulting engineering ser vices in all aspects of water, wastewater and waste management. Established in

Calgary in 1977, the firm has principal offices in Alberta. Ontario, and British Columbia. Canada-wide, CH2M Hill




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Oil/Water Discharge Problems? OIL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS

rokvel. Chairman and CEO,said:"Now

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

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For more information, Circie repiy card No. 125 Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993


Industry update Alberta Ethylene plant will be energy efficient Dow Chemical Canada's $600-million

Ethylene Plant in Fort Saskatchewan. Alberta will have parts and equipment from





and Petro-Canada.will separate natural gas liquids into a variety of hydrocar bons. including ethane that Dow will use. As well, expansion of the present Polyethylene Plant will more than dou ble its production. Work on all three facilities should be complete by mid-

Europe. When it begins operation in late-1994,the Ethylene Plant will be one of the most energy efficient facilities of its kind. It will also use a special "offthe-river" recycling process to avoid any wastewater discharge into the nearby


North Saskatchewan River. A 200-acre

Federal Science Minister Tom Hockin

wildlife greenbelt. complete with nature trails and a viewing area, is on the

ernment contribution of $350,000 to as

same property.

The plant is one of three phases of the $800-million Hydrocarbons Project at Dow's Western Canada Division, just north of Edmonton. A Eractionator

Plant, a joint venture with Shell. Gulf

Feds fund UV wastewater treatment

system has announced a repayable federal gov sist an alliance led by Trojan Technolo gies Inc.. of London. Ont. to demon strate leading-edge ultraviolet (UV) technology for use in treating domestic, municipal and industrial wastewater. Trojan will construct a mobile unit

DECKMA OCD Oil Content Detector

that will be used to demonstrate to po

tential users that high intensity UV is a commercially viable process for treating low quality wastewater. such as com bined sewer overflow. CSO is the peri odic discharge of raw sewage into streams, rivers, lakes and oceans that

occurs when sewage handling systems are overloaded during periods of heavy rain. UV technology offers significant ad vantages over existing chlorination methods of treating CSO. The UV tech nology eliminates the need for large amounts of chemicals and. as a result,

does not produce the toxic residuals and byproducts associated with traditional chemical based treatment methods.

The project will initially create lOperson years of work in the two-year de monstration phase and is expected to create up to 150 jobs when full produc tion is underway in 1997. Total esti mated export sales of the system over three years is approximately $22 mil lion.

Trojan's alliance partners include Abuma Manufacturing Ltd.. a London based manufacturer of stainless steel

components. Ontario Electronic Ser vices. a supplier of electronic hardware and software, as well as end users of the

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draft regulation to help protect the ozone layer. The regulation is designed to prevent the release of tens of thou sands of tonnes of fluorocarbons.

With this draft regulation and mea sures taken under the 1989 Ontario re

gulation. 90 per cent of the sources of ozone-depleting substances will be con trolled. These sources include foams,

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handle, service and repair refrigera tion equipment containing fluorocar bon refrigerants. All equipment to be dismantled, destroyed or disposed of will have to be drained of CFCs and

tagged accordingly • as of Dec. 31. 1995. new model cars

will no longer be fitted with air con ditioning units that contain CFCs and HCFCs.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 127

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Industry update In 1986, Ontario used about half of the 20.000 tonnes of CFCs that were

found to experience greater hearing loss and balance problems in a noisy en

generated in Canada annually. It is esti


mated that 40,000 tonnes of CFCs are

currently in use in refrigeration equip ment in Ontario. Fluorocarbon


rigerants can escape into the environ ment when this equipment is leaking or is discarded. The chlorine components present in CFCs can remain active for 70 to 100 years and have the potential to destroy up to 100 times their weight of ozone in the Earth's upper atmo sphere. "We are pleased that industry, the government and other groups are work ing in partnership to solve this serious environmental problem," Mr. Wildman said. "This draft regulation was devel oped in consultation with the key stake holders and we continue to work with

industry to develop the necessary train

overseas Manchester Guardian, May 30.

Oxford's department of zoology con sidered the directive and concluded:

Details: Dr. David Ray, MRC Tox "The situation is unsatisfactory." It ap icology Unit. Woodmansterne Road, pealed to the National Radiological Carshalton. Surrey, England SM5 4EF.

Oxford Morons? A safety officer at Oxford University in structed academics to flush radioactive

material down the drains and dispose of solid waste in local authority containers after removing any warning labels.

Protection Board — the advisory body on nuclear safety — to intervene. Whis tle blowing academics, surprised by the cavalier attitude to radioactivity, some of which would end up in the Thames water supply,sent a "Radioactive Waste Bulletin" — issued by Dr. Keith Walker — to the Guardian.

While credit must go to the zoologists' actions, perhaps the English professors The university's safety officer. Dr. might take the next step and designate Keith Walker, issued the instructions to .safety officer as the latest in oxymorons. some 300 registered users of radioac This could be followed up by some aca tivity to save money after a landfill site, demic poet who might wistfully change licensed to take such waste, withdrew the "dreaming spires' to "the glowing the facility, reports Paul Brown in the spires of Oxford'.'"

ing and certification programs and con sumer information programs." The regulatory requirements will af fect people working in automotive and refrigeration appliance service and re tail industries where they are in contact with equipment containing fluorocar bon refrigerants.

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Increased brain damage

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Researchers at the UK Medical Research

VAC wall-mounted units.

Noise can lead to

Council's (MRC) toxicology unit near

Flow data can be stored in

London have identified a link between

sobd state logging devices, paper chart recorders or transmitted "via analogue signal. The Model 251 Open

noise and the brain's susceptibility to damage from toxic chemicals. Dr. John Cavanagh first identified a potential link between sound and chemical neu-

rotoxicity in rats in 1990 and later it was found that rats exposed to normal la boratory noise produced fewer lesions when the sound was reduced. When the


left ear was subjected to a faint whisper rather than

normal conversation


showed less lesions than those on the


other ear exposed to normal speech.

tory noise in both ears, lesions again appeared in areas that had previously been protected from noise.




requirements of the MISA

His colleague Dr. David Ray, report ing on the latest developments in this field to MRC News, says when the rats were again exposed to normal labora


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Dr. Ray says this means that while exposure to a toxic chemical such as 1,3dinitrobenzene or DNB was barely suf ficient to produce brain damage in a quiet environment it became markedly more damaging in a moderately noisy



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Support for the hypothesis has come from an investigation in Brazil where workers exposed to the common toluene chemical used in industry have been

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Tel: (416) 335-8944; FAX (416) 335-8972 For more information, Circle reply card No. 128


Industry update

Liberal leader attacks NDP on sewerage and water funding,'equity' quotas and incineration The NDP government has legislated its

funding is for sewer and watermain

pro-union reforms to the Ontario La


bour Relations Act. Liberals value the

The $90 million in funding under OCWA this year is significantly less than the $155 million spent on sewer

private sector as the engine ofgrowth.As a government,we will put that value into action, by repealing any or all sections ofthe OLRA that continue to put people

and water funding last year. Will fund ing for existing projects be added on top

out of business and out of work.

of the $90 million? How can anyone

The NDP government has imposed a series of constraints on the ability of local communities to manage their gar bage: no burning;and no transporting it to another community that is a "willing host." We are fighting for the right of

form a partnership with questions like that still up in the air? There are other questions about the capital corporations as well. Is the gov ernment's intention to ensure that needed infrastructure is better funded and that

communities to make their own deci

sions about waste management, with all the alternatives on the table.

We are concerned the government will impose a quotas-based system of employment equity on the province's

By Lynn McLeod, Ontario Liberal Leader of the Opposition. Excerpted from an address to the Ontario Sewer and Watermain

Contractors' Association, Toronto

businesses and institutions.

Liberals disagree with this particular direction because it sacrifices our value

of equality of opportunity in order to achieve equality ofoutcome.That's why we're fighting for an approach to equity that doesn't involve quotas — that doesn't close doors to some in the name

of opening doors to others. Common sense suggests that when you're looking for partners tojoin you in

a venture, you tell them how the partner ship is going to work ... The NDP isn't doing that in the establishment of the Ontario capital corporations,including the new Ontario Clean Water Agency. We support the concept of a Sewer and Water corporation. But the establish

planning and approvals go through more efficiently, or is it all just an ac counting trick — a shell game to try to hide billions of dollars in expenditure

from the public? Will the capital cor porations be imposing user fees? Will these offset existing taxes, or just add to them? And we must ask. even

though we recognize the need for new infrastructure, what measures are in

creen for reducing funding. No one

place to make sure these new agencies don't get out of control and become debt traps? Common sense questions like these require answers. Liberals, in the Legis lature and outside, will be pressing to get

seems to know what the overall level of

these answers for all of us.

ment of OCWA must not be a smokes

And. talking about common sense, does it make sense to include "stress" as

Gartner Lee Celebrates 20th Anniversary

part of the definition of a work-related injury? The WCB is already burdened with a more than $10 billion underfunded

liability that rises $100,000 dollars a month; employers are already con cerned about the level of WCB pre miums. An increase in the number of

injury categories would mean more payouts and even higher premiums. "This particular category is something which can't be objectively defined or measured; it could affect every aspect of the workplace; and to a large degree, it can't be prevented and can only be cor rected by not working.

DEW Line Clean-Up Study Awarded To Alberta Consultants

In celebration oftwo decades ofenvironmental science and engineering consulting. Gunner Lee Limited invited some 275 clients and staff for an evening sail on board the Empire Sandy.Perfect weather prevailed, with the sunset highlighti ng the Toron to skyline as guests enjoyed the hospitality and an unrivalled view of a waterfront fireworks display.

LIMA Engineering Ltd.. teamed with Jacques Whitford Environment Limited and Sheppard Hedges & Green Ltd., have been awarded a Department of National Defence contract by Supply and Services Canada to provide engin eering services for the design and cost estimating of the environmental clean up of 21 Distant Early Warning(DEW) Line sites in northern Canada.


Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993


PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS A Manual for the Production of Drinking Water This companion document to the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality\s the first comprehensive water treatment publication produced entirely in Canada. It addresses Canadian conditions — particularly the treatment technologies which are most appropriate for meeting national and provincial drinking water criteria. The manual's section on 'Treatment Options eor Specieic Contaminants' is unique. It provides the reader with ineormation not normally available in such a convenient

EORM. Condensed treatment overviews are listed for 4 microbiological parameters, 27 INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS, 30 ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS, 47 PESTICIDES, AND 5 RADIONUCLIDES.

This 365-page publication is an essential reference textbook for anyone involved with any aspect of drinking water quality and treatment — students, academics, waterworks employees, consultants, researchers and government agencies. It is currently available in English only. The French language version is expected to be available late 1993.



Please send me.

CWWA Member Price ^ Non-Member Price:

copies of "Water Treatment Principles and Applications".

$ 95.00 + $9.50 shipping/handling + $7.32GST = $111.82 $120.00 + $12.00 shipping/handling + $9.24 GST = $141.24

* Applicable only to members of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association.






Mail this form, together with your cheque to: Canadian Water and Wastewater Association 24 Clarence Street, 3rd Floor Ottawa, Ontario K1N 5P3

GST #R106868607

2)238-5193 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993


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Air pollution

By Tom Davey

Are we heading for... the ultimate synthesis? monoxide and other lethal gases every day. The daily continental sulphur di oxide fallout from industry greatly

Only in recent years have the popular news media discovered the green house effect in global warming — yet Tom Davey first wrote about it 25 years ago. His article remains a most prescient projection into the future. China's economy,along with Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and other Asian Tiger nations, has ieapt ahead dramatically as Tom conjectured. China's population has leapt from

exceeds 100.000 tons.

It has been shown that sulphur diox ide concentrations of one to two parts per million — just below the threshold of odour detection — decreases human

ability to inhale and exhale. But some scientists

800 million to 1.2 billion since he

wrote the following piece. There is also a real Biosphere now in Arizona where a human community is attempt ing to live in a self sustaining controlled



again, there are too many variables to specifically indict particular con

Tom's first editorial comment and is

taminants as yet.

reproduced exactly as written a quar ter of a century ago.

Ultimately,there is no escape — wind

While scientific knowledge






reaching the polar regions. And when Afro-Asia's teeming millions achieve

is increasing at a pace un thinkable a generation ago, there is a startling

near future. Stringent government con trols and enforcement,tax incentives for

anti-pollution devices, more co-ordi nated research; these are the basic re

quisites for tackling the problem. More important, perhaps,is public awareness of how rapidly the problem is acceler ating.

industrialization, the threat of intoler able contamination becomes more than

mere conjecture. Eight hundred million Chinese could create a fair pollution problem merely by striking matches. What happens if they emulate the West and start driving eight cylinder autos? If this seems remote, remember Japan transformed from a primitive agrarian economy to a sophisticated industrial

lack of correlated data on the environ

mental effects ofair pollution.Years ago. Huxley said Man was squandering na tural resources with the gay abandon of a sailor on a drunken weekend spree. We may yet be grateful that some resour ces — such as fossil fuels — are irre-

placable. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has risen approximately 14% in little over a cen tury with some ecologists speculating that oxygen regeneration is being reduced at a disastrous rate. But scientists, almost

literally, wax hot and cold on fun damental points. Some say continued increases in carbon dioxide will prevent heat from rising into space, to a point where polar ice caps will melt. This would cause massive flooding with sub sequent shrinkage ofsurface land. More

Otherwise we may be forced into a mode of living epitomised by Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome at the

post Expo show, Man and His World. There,fairgoers vicariously enjoy foun tains, trees and a bird sanctuary amid

the great indoors, now significantly re named "the Biosphere." Only last year. Expo "67 was a culmi

nation in little over two decades.

nation of man's cultural and manufac

One encouraging trend is the emer gence ofinter-disciplinary environmen tal study facilities where scientists can research in teams instead of the present fragmented faculty programmes. An

turing achievements. Perhaps this year, the Biosphere symobolises the future protection he will need from the resi dual effects of his productive genius as he increasingly moves towards the ulti

other is the belated awareness at all

mate synthesis. ES&E

Letter to the editor Dear Mr. Davey: Re: November 1992 Issue

recent trends foresee a colder earth

based on theories that air borne pollu tants will increasingly block out the ,

But although statistical evidence is j damning, conclusive proof of how air pollution affects health is generally not forthcoming, in spite of unprecedented


than those found in rural districts. But

Indoor environment. This article was



taminants, acting singly or together, are of greater significance as pulmonary ir ritants. There is widely based evidence that lung cancer mortality rates are from two to four times higher in urban areas

levels of government that air pollutants roam freely over their puny boundaries. While jurisdictional squabbling has de layed implementation of watershed controls, meteorologists are already talking of "air sheds" in attempts to master temperature inversions which prevent effective pollutant dispersal. Economists and history have chan nelled our creative energies into incre dibly sophisticated production tech niques with pollution control subor dinate to profit. Unless this order of pri orities is reversed, the ecological conse quences will exact a heavy toll in the

I havejust had the opportunity to read the November issue of your publication. I have been receiving your magazine since shortly after its inception some years ago and try to read it faithfully, but neverbefore have I come across an issue

tential for environmental damage. Having come to this field from a tech

nical background makes it relatively easy for me to understand the implica tions of environmental actions. How

ever, neither the prosecutors nor most of my fellow investigators have the benefit of this exposure. Well written, under

so chockfull of timely, pertinent, and

standable, balanced articles such as are

research. For scientists attempt a bur

informative articles, news releases and advertisements.

den of proof far beyond that which their legal colleagues would accept as reason

block I am in the enforcement field. One

found in your magazine go a long way towards filling the gaps in everyone's knowledge base.In this issue,I found no less than six pieces which I have clipped for inclusion in my files for future re ference plus one for my husband who is

able circumstantial evidence. Addition

ally, the problem is compounded be cause it concerns total environment

with meteorology, medicine, chemistry, engineering and other disciplines play ing significant, but largely separate, roles.

Meanwhile,in North America alone, almost 100 million motor vehicles emit

As you can see from the signature of my major job functions is the pre paration and presentation oflegal briefs to the Department of Justice for con sideration for prosecution. Along with

in the electrical distribution business. I wish there were more out there like

the evidence of an environmental of


fence it is necessary to impart to the pro secutors the environmental significance

Yours truly,

of the offence; the actual, immediate

Senior Environmental Investigator Enforcement & Emergencies Branch

harm,the future damage,and/or the po

Vivian Chamberlain

approximately 250,000 tons of carbon Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993


Wastewater treatment

Biofiltration process for secondary wastewater treatment chosen in Quebec

The City of Chateauguay, located near Montreal,


hired Pellemon as its consultant to design a plant capable of treating wastes produced by a popula tion of 53,000. Average flow was 27,200 m-Vd (7.2 mgd) with a peak design flow of 83,800 mVd (22 mgd) with suspended solids loadings of3730 kg/d (173 mg/1)and BOD loadings of 2130 kg/d (78.3 mg/1).







Due to the very dilute nature of the raw wastes combined

with the degree of effluent treatment required,(BOD and suspended solids of less than 15 mg/1), conventional acti vated sludge systems were immediately eliminated. More over,the plant had to be flexible enough to treat dilute wastes for a critical period and then immediately handle much more concentrated wastes without decreasi ng treatment effi ciency and without a period of adaptation.







After consideration, the choice was made to use the

BIOFOR® Upflow Biological Filter System for the Chateau guay sewage treatment plant, making it the first facility in North America to use this technology. ES&E editor Tom Davey toured a wastewater facility outside Paris over a year ago where the operations personnel were pleased with the process.

This treatment system is a biological fixed-film system that employs a proprietary media which acts both as a bio logical contactor as well as a filter, eliminating the need for separate clarification. By eliminating a clarifier, operational BOD.


ing of2 meters of Biolite. The filters were designed to operate at a maximum filtration rate of 8 m/h with both one filter

out-of-service and one being backwashed. In the fall of 1991, the Chateauguay sewage treatment plant officially opened. Since its start-up in October 1991, the plant has consistently met its treatment guarantees. Ac tual flows were much higher than the design levels. Average flows were 38,000 m^/d (10 mgd) compared to a design of 27,200 mVd (7.2 mgd). During the months of March and April 1992, average flows were around 55,000 mVday (14.5 mgd). The maximum flow conditions were exceeded in M arch with one day havi ng a peak flow of 102,000 mVday(27 mgd).


During the twelve months of 1992 which included cold Raw


Witef Btofor Influent

winter conditions and high spring run-offs, raw influent BOD concentrations averaged 85 mg/1 compared to the design concentration of78.3 mg/1. Suspended solids averaged 85 mg/1 versus the design of 137 mg/1.

20 Biofor Effluent

92 Mar


May Jun



Sept Oci


Dec Jan 93

problems,that can accompany normal treatment processes, disappear.The primary advantages of the system compared to conventional activated sludge systems include less space, no secondary clarifiers, treatment of cold and dilute was

tewater, rapid start-up and fully automated operation. The Chateauguay facility comprises four treatment stages: degritting/degreasing, primary clarification, biological fil tration and ultraviolet disinfection.

Following the mechanical screening stage in the headworks, wastewater is sent to two Degremont Infilco aerated degritter/degreasers,each 12,5m x 4.8m.The degritting zone is mixed using VIBRAIR® medium bubble diffusers. Degreasing occurs by flotation which is facilitated by the use of fine bubble turbines.

In the next stage, primary settling occurs in three Degre mont Infilco rectangular clarifiers, each 43m x 14m. Each clarifier, equipped with a traveling bridge,conveys sludge to a sump from which it is sent to a Degremont Infilco

In the final treated effluent leaving the filters, average con centrations of 14,3 and 13.5 mg/1 respectively, were obtained for BOD and suspended solids which represented removal efficiencies of 83% BOD and 84% suspended solids.

The filters have produced a better than required effluent even with filtration rates exceeding 8 m/h. With design filtra tion cycles of 48 hours between backwashes, maximum headloss has never been reached which ensures exception al operational flexibility. Reliable operation is being achieved at Chateauguay with a minimum of operator intervention. SUSPENDED SOLIDS ,(363),

mgrt. 120



100 S.




/ /

Raw VViler



Biofor Influent


Twelve BIOFOR® type biological filters, each having a surface of 49m^(527 ft^) were supplied. Clarified water and process air pass upwards through a filtering media consist18

Biofor Effluent

Feb 92 Mar









Dec Jan 93

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Nuclear contamination B10FOR®isanupnowbiological sys tem which has been developed to take advantage of the positive aspects of fixed-film biomass while advancing the state-of-the-art in other areas. The in

fluent wastewater and process air both flow from the bottom of the unit in an

upwards direction. The upflow direc tion is important for several reasons. First,the introduction ofthe wastewater at the bottom allows the water with the

highest pollutant load to contact the media where the dissolved oxygen con centration is the highest. Second, the introduction of the process air at the bottom of the media does not allow the

air bubbles to coalesce,thereby giving a very efficient oxygen transfer rate. Next, the positive distribution due to the in fluent entering the bottom of the filter forces an even, homogeneous flow ac ross the entire surface area. Last,there is little odor at the surface of the filter due

to the highest biological activity taking place toward the bottom halfofthe filter and there is no external noise source.

All operations of the BIOFOR® Sys tem are automated. It operates much like a potable water filter. Backwashing normally occurs once every 24 to 48 hours and can be controlled based on time and headloss across the filter bed.

The depth of the bed is normally 10 feet and the area of each filter cell can be

custom designed to fit into existing spaces.

The appropriate applications for this system are; carbonaceous BOD removal as a secondary treatment process or ter tiary treatment for nutrient removal, in cluding nitrogen and phosphorus. In stallations are currently operating in a range from 0.1 to 110 mgd. ES&E For more information,

Circie reply card No. 115

Studying hazards from sunken Russian subs An environmental scientist and a nu

clear engineer from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Califor nia are teaming up to assess the poten tial health hazards posed by 16 Russian naval nuclear reactors lying on the

Mount estimates the current amount

of radioactivity in the dumped waste is under 900,000 curies. A curie is a mea

sure of radiation equal to the disintegra tion of 37 billion atoms per second. To put the situation in the Arctic in per

ocean floor in the Arctic Circle. The reactors are from seven sub marines and the icebreaker Lenin that

spective, the 1986 accident at the Cher nobyl nuclear power plant is believed to

the Soviet Union sank beginning in

into the atmosphere. The isotopes re leased in the Chernobyl accident have a relatively rapid decay rate and the cur

1965 in the Kara Sea, north of the Rus sian mainland.

have released 50 million curies directly

Lab nuclear engineer Mark Mount rent estimated radioactive residue is and Lab environmental scientist Dave

believed to be about 2 million curies.

Layton is examining the potential for human exposure to the radioactive Mount is determining the inventory of wastes. Although the reactors them

Layton are trying to determine the po

tential hazards of the sunken reactors.

radioactive materials present and Layton is making preliminary assessments ofthe potential harm to humans and the

selves are isolated, Layton is concerned that the fish from the area may be con

taminated and th at would pose a h azard if local populations consume seafood Both Mount and Layton stress that caught in the area.

marine environment.

their assessments are only as good as the information they receive from the Rus sians and the assumptions based on that information. In, a promising develop ment recently. Mount met in Washing

Based on the information he has now,

Layton says the immediate threat to humans is probably low. "The severity of nuclear submarine reactors buried in the ocean is nothing ton, D.C. with Aleksei Yablokov. Rus compared to the Chernobyl accident, sian President Boris Yeltsin's top where radiation was deposited directly environmental advisor, who headed the onto soil and crops over a very wide team that wrote the Russian report de area," Layton said."With the reactors at tailing the nuclear waste dumping.Dur the bottom of the sea, the only way peo ing that meeting, Mount gave Yablokov ple could become exposed is by con a copy of his preliminary estimates of suming contaminated seafood. There is the current radioactivity in the sunken no exposure to external radiation, con submarines. tact with drinking water and no inha Mount and Layton are specialists in lation. their diverse fields. In their collabora Nevertheless, additional monitoring tion, Mount has obtained information

studies are needed to evaluate the extent

from Russian literature on the reactor

of Arctic contamination — not only

core history of the icebreaker. For the submarine reactors containing spent fuel, Mount has made assumptions on

from the naval reactors but also from

the types of submarines that were sunk.

industrial areas on the mainland.

the discharges of niajor rivers such as the Ob that carry toxic substances from

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PCB technologies

New technologies for PCB decontamination — Part II This Is part 2 of the article which began in the May issue of ES&E.

fate of the chlorine as well as other resi

In general chemical terms the reduc

tion of organically bound chlorine in PCB into inorganic chloride re quires electrons. The PCB will be

reduced whether the electrons come from metallic sodium or radioactive

dual organic compounds such as ben zene. The experiments were then ex tended to include the more complex case




Aroclor 1260, which is a complex mix ture of highly chlorinated biphenyls, was chosen for a series of reductions conducted at different initial concen

trochemical reduction of PCBs can be

trations. Finally,the technology was ap plied to a concentrated extract of PCBs derived from a highly contaminated organic soil. The application of the process to organohalogen compounds in water was developed as follows. A methanol solu

made to occur under appropriate con

tion of monochlorobenzene (MCBz)


added to water gave an initial emulsion of39,400 ppb MCBz. A supporting elec trolyte was added and a low D.C.current passed into the mixture. The tempera ture of the system remained at about ambient throughout the reaction while the pH of the solution decreased from

electron sources or by electrochemical reaction with current passed through a solution. Electrochemical systems have found use in wastewater treatment for

the precipitation of heavy metals. Elec

A research program was initiated to investigate the applicability of an elec trochemical technology to the wastewater streams of different industries. As

a part of the investigation, a logical se quence of reactions was demonstrated to completely destroy organo-halogen compounds in water. The technology is uniquely effective, safe and cost-effec

an initial value of 7.4 to about 3.0. Sam

ples were withdrawn at regular intervals for analysis by GC/ECD to determine


the concentration of MCBz as a func

Firstly monochloro-benzene was used as a well-defined single com pound, similar to the typical con stituents of an askarel, to investigate the

tion of time. The reaction had gone to completion before the first sample was taken



minutes. The



The effectiveness of the electrochemical technology is clearly shown relative to conventional practice. Conventional


















Electro. Treated .

35 .. .ODS


were found in the reacted mixture. A trace of benzene was observed in the ini

tial solution and was not present in the reacted mixture. Monochlorobenzene at trace concen

trations, like other chlorinatet( aromatics, tends to adsorb to surfaces. Experi mental artifacts such as this and the

possibility that the compound had volatalised from solution were taken into consideration. However, since the re

moval had been so complete in such a short time, it is not likely that volatalisation had occurred. The work was logi cally extended to determine the effect of electrolysis on a solution of hexachlorobenzene (HCBz). The initial HCBz emulsion in water

was 11,500 ppb. The electrolytic con ditions and the temperature paralleled the earlier experiment. The emulsion was completely broken after 5 mins. and the pH decreased from an initial 7.4 to 4.0 in the same time. The first sample withdrawn was after 30 mins. and it was

discovered that the process had gone to

completion in less than 30 mins. The HCBz concentration had decreased by

a factor of 1000 from 11,500 ppb to 11.3 ppb. However, within the trace quantity of remaining HCBz the chromatograms showed evidence of the formation of

partially dechlorinated intermediate re action products. The shift in the chro matograms was more than could be ex plained by the differences in aqueous solubility of different isomers. It ap peared that the HCBz was being dechlorinated in a stepwise fashion, as expected from earlier work by the

























After 30 minutes reaction time there is




a dramatic change in the concentration


1 J




been reduced from 39,400 ppb to 0.54 ppb in 15 minutes without additional heating. No other chlorinated species

Cadmium Chromium Cobalt




, <Oi)l

























Molybdenum Nickel

Silicon Silver Titanium Vanadium



1 1

Zirconium Sulfate






0.05 .









0.026 .




































5.0 -


of HCBz, while the concentrations of

penta-, tetra- and tri-chlorobenzenes were greater than in the starting solu tion, albeit at only 4-5 ppb or less. The lower chlorinated congeners were below the detection limit of the analytical method.

Interestingly, a trace of Aroclor 1260 is evident in the starting solution. This may have been caused by carry-over contamination by the laboratory during the analytical procedure but the sample taken after 30 minutes reaction time

showed that the peaks attributable to the more highly chlorinated congeners in Aroclor 1260 are either missing or are much reduced. Peaks attributable to the


Table I

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

By Dr. Ian Webber* constituents of Arocior 1242 are missing from the original chromatogram but some are present in the sample after 30

Representative results obtained with the electrochemical

technology show a dramatic reduction of pollutants in the

minutes reaction time.

treated water.

It was concluded that the electrolytic process was highly effective for the treat


Raw Effluent

Electro. Treated

ment of chlorobenzenes. Since chlorobenzenes are less reactive than PCBs. it

PCBs (Arodor 1248)



was expected that the technology could also be applied to the destruction of

PCBs (Arodor 1260)



PCBs (Arodor 1260)



PCBs (Arodor 1260)



PCBs (Arodor 1242)










0.5 (ppt)

< 0.03 (ppt)








1 1 1 1 1 1

Oleic add Isopimaric add Abietic add Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Barium


< 4.4


< 3.3

PCBs in water at concentrations which would be useful for the treatment of

wastewaters and. in particular, soil extracts.

An experiment was conducted which used the same experimental conditions as in the chlorobenzene investigations. An initial emulsion of 22.500 ppb Aro cior 1260 was formed in water with methanol as a solvent. After about 5 minutes the emulsion had become a clear solution, and after 30 mins. the PCB concentration had

decreased by a factor of 1,000 from 22.500 ppb PCB to 27.9 ppb PCB. The last sample taken from the solu tion was found to contain 7.1 ppb PCB but the analysis was not straightforward because the pattern of peaks resembled


< 3.7

3.0 X lO'/mL

< 1/mL

2.1 X lO'/mL

< 1/mL





< 0.004



< 0.006



< 0.01




a mixture of Arocior 1260 and Arocior 1242.

The reduction in concentration by three orders of magnitude after 30 min utes reaction time is very similar to the reduction observed in the HCBz experi

• The process induces reductive dechlorination which is not conducive

tion was therefore repeated with an Aro

towards the formation of toxic by products. • The electrochemical technology is inherently safe and easily controlled since an electrical system failure

tially one order of magnitude more con centrated. The initial starting emulsion of 254,000 ppb (254 ppm) Arocior 1260 was reduced to 4.6 ppb PCB in 30 minutes. This result is important from both an economic and environmental

point of view. For example, a closedloop soil washing system would be able to re-use the treated wash solution after

a very short reaction time. The final rinse water could be brought to a PCB concentration which would be so low

that it would meet discharge require ments.

Based on a review of the monochlorobenzene. hexachloro-benzene and ini

tial PCB results, the experiment was repeated with an order of magnitude higher PCB concentration and minor reaction condition changes. An emul sion of 3.300 ppm Arocior 1248 in water, which had been produced as an extract from PCB contaminated soil, was re

would result in instantaneous shut down.


Extensive research has been conduc

ted on the effectiveness of the process towards a wide range of industrial ef fluents. The parameters studied include dissolved heavy metals, anions. acids, high molecular weight polymeric com pounds as well as PCBs. PCDDs and PCDFs.

fold decrease.

ing water objectives(ODWO)and the

The electrochemical process by its nature is easily controlled and safe. • The system is closed and has no

cleanup obtained using current indus

• Reaction occurs at ambient temper ature.


Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD)is not compound specific but is a para meter which is often used to assess the

level of organic chemical contamina tion in water. A sample of pulp and paper mill raw effluent had a value of 1.590 ppm. The electrochemical tech nology reduced the COD from 1.590 ppm to 80 ppm. Conventional technol ogy in use today at pulp and paper plants applied to the same effluent reduced the

There is no observable precipitation of polyphenyls or other organic residue. Indeed, the total organic carbon(TOC) COD to 690 ppm. remaining in solution after the reaction Other benefits of the technology on is extremely low.This points to a further the treatment of wastewater. are not dis advantage of the technology that not cussed in detail here but include the only are the PCBs and other organo- following: halogen compounds removed, but si • The process has been shown to reduce multaneous reactions occur which also resins and fatty acids in wastewater to below the analytical method detec remove other contaminants from the

duced to 0.2 ppm PCB in 30 minutes at ambient temperature. This is a 16.500-



Concentrations in ppm unless otherwise noted.

ment discussed above. The PCB reac cior 1260 concentration which was ini


Table I compares the Ontario drink raw effluent values with the level of trial treatments and the electrochemi

cal technology. The sample was derived from a kraft-mill pulp and paper plant.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, July 1993

tion limit. • Nitrosamines in water are reduced to

below the analytical method detec tion limit.

• Micro-organisms of concern to pub lic health, in particular escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. are eliminated. ES&E

*Dr. Ian Webber obtained Bachelors de

grees in Chemistry and Physics in 1967 from the University of London, England and the University of Saiford, England. He also holds a Ph.D.from Carieton Uni

versity, Ottawa.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 117 21

By Dr. J.R. Vallentyne*

The debate continues

Is Chlorine the

Sorcerer's Apprentice?

In the November. 1992. issue of

Environmental Scieitce& Engineering Dr. Donald Mackay presented a seemingly balanced account of chlorine and its compounds in relation to human society. I compliment Dr. Mackay and the editor of Environmen

tal Science & Engineering for focusing attention on this important issue. How ever. after examining the premises and arguments I became convinced that the whole sense ofthe article was wrong and suggested a debate which took place March 4. this year. At the start of his article in ES&E. Dr.

Mackay wrote: "Steel, which forms the murderous handgun,can also form the life-savingscalpel. Like steel,chlorine is neutral, neither good nor bad." The comparison ofchlorine to steel is geochemically absurd. Once discarded, both the handgun and scalpel degrade to harmless oxides of iron — the same

tural Products 55(10): 1353-1395) he commented: "In addition to the wide

spread antibiotic activity of many organohalogen compounds, antitumor. antifungal. insecticidal. herbicidal. and other potentially valuable biological activity has been observed." Apparen tly. organohalogens (iodine excepted) tend to be useful in getting rid of enemies.

Time lags between industrial produc tion of chlorine and some of its organic compounds and the discovery of sur prising. unpredicted and harmful sideeffects have ranged from a decade for

Professor Mackay's case

would be strengthened if no alternatives to chlorine were

available or if the power of human imagination to create them were somehow

chlorine and its organic compounds will turn out to be far too costly a burden for society to bear. Proactive policies based on weight of evidence and scien tific intuition will make more sense.

The environmental position is not as Professor Mackay suggested: "a mis guided conviction that all chlorine con taining chemicals are evil." It is that chlorine and its organic compounds be come uncontrollable once set loose in

the Biosphere. Hence the International Joint Commission's recommendation for a class ban.

Professor Mackay's case would be strengthened if no alternatives to chlo rine were available or if the power of human imagination to create them were somehow paralyzed. Neither is the case. In every instance, alternatives to chlo rine exist. And the power of human imagination to produce them is im mense. particularly under the threat ofa ban. "Depend on it Sir." wrote Samuel

minerals from which they arose. In con trast. once chlorine and its organic com pounds enter the environment they create ecosystem havoc through tox-


Johnson,"when a man knows that he is

organochlorine insecticides such as

icity. unexpected transformations,longrange transport and bioaccumulation in the upper levels of food chains. Hu

DDT. to four decades for CFCs and PCBs. and to seven decades in the case of chlorine as a disinfectant of water

to be hanged in a fortnight, it concen trates his mind wonderfully." Above all. Dr. Mackay fails to recog

man society loses control and nature takes command. The image is that of The Sorcerers Apprentice — technol ogy out of control. Although calling for "prudent and sensible" actions, and praising "a pre cautionary principle". Dr. Mackay's bottom line is the need to: "... identify,

supplies and sewage effluents. With continued use under the present system, more surprises can be expected. Hence the need for proactive policies based on weight of evidence rather than reactive policies dependent on absolute proof

the harm from exposure to organoha logens is a risk in large part knowingly imposed on unsuspecting victims,

of harm.

Professor Mackay's reactive, after-thefact philosophy is of 19th century vin tage. His advice to contemporary society is misguided at best.

ganochlorine chemicals ..." But. how can society know what the nastiest che micals are. when the harm can only be known through use? Who predicted the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica? Dr. Mackay's linear and reactive philo sophy might have been hailed in the 19th century,but it is hardly appropriate for the present era when, through

This is not equivalent to throwing sci ence out the window. It is merely saying that on important social and environ mental issues a cut-off point of P = .05 for scientific reality is absurd. To reject causal correlations with probabilities that they could be due to chance bet ween P = .05 and P = 0.2 is equivalent to playing Russian roulette with our plan etary life-support system. Dr. Mackay does not mention the

downward causation, the walls of the

horrendous costs associated with the

Biosphere are closing in. Is there something inherently toxic

current requirement for absolute proof

about the element chlorine in forms other

damage and rehabilitation costs to human and ecosystem health, these costs include opportunity costs associ ated with time lags between use and dis covery of harm, monitoring, research,

control and even ban the nastiest or-

than chloride ions? Eight ofthe "elusive eleven" and more than half of the 362

other persistent toxic chemicals iden tified in the Great Lakes are organohalogens. Twelve of the 21 chemicals identified by the Ontario Ministry ofthe Environment for "sunsetting" are organochlorines. Gordon Cribble may have the answer. After citing more than 1500 naturally occurring organohalogens(1992. J. Na 22

of harm. In addition to irreversible

nize that the chlorine issue transcends science. Nowhere does he mention that

human or otherwise. The chlorine issue is thus an ethical issue. For the above reasons. I believe that

Mack Vallentyne, Research Scientist Emeritus with the Department of Fish eries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario.

Author's note

Dr. Mackay and I formally debated the chlorine issue on March 4,1993, where copies of Dr. Mackay's ES&E article were made available. The debate was

These social, economic and environ mental costs need to be calculated in detail. When that is done I believe that

chaired by Dr. Henry Regier and spon sored by the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto. A TV-tape of the debate and ensuing discussion is available for $42.00 including taxes and mailing costs, payable in Canadian funds to the University of Toronto, by writing to "Chlorine Debate", Institute of Environ mental Studies, Haultain Building, 170 College St., University of Toronto, Toronto

one-by-one. after-the-fact treatment of

M5S 1A4.

task forces, the work of environmental

organizations, meetings, legislation, lobbying and so on.

Environmental Science & Engineeritig, July 1993


Advertisers' Update

August/September Issue Important Dates

â– miz


Ad closing date: Aug. 31,1993 Film/artwork deadline: Sept. 3,1993



WHEN When Environment Canada wished to honour

Canada's top environmental communicators for 1992-1993, the judges gave Tom Davey their highest award. When the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association (OPCEA) wanted a President, they elected Steve Davey for the 1991-1992 period. When OPCEA held an election in 1992, Penny

Davey was elected to the board. She is now OPCEA Newsletter Editor.

When the Pollution Control Association wanted an

Editor for its Newsletter,they asked Sandra Davey to renew her contract for the 15th consecutive year.


'^ovv TV """"awaf

Sandra received a special award from the PCAO for her editing work on its history book 'Recollections'.

When the Ont. Section AWWA wanted editors for

its publication Pipeline, Tom and Steve Davey were again invited to perform editorial duties for the 7th consecutive year.

Scheduled Editorial*

When the Water Environment Federation came to

Canada in 1991, Tom Davey was asked to write the cover story for its prestigious publication Water Environment Technology.

Contaminant hydrogeology Corrosion prevention and control Energy conservation Hydrant and valve maintenance Ontario's new pulp & paper regs.

When the Canadian Embassy in Washington, DC wanted an environmental overview for its 100,000

circulation magazine, they commissioned Tom Davey to write the piece.

When suppliers of environmental equipment, analytical services and consulting engineering services wish to reach the most influential buying audience in Canada, they

Pipe specification and installation Purchasing laboratory services Reviewing spill sorbants

advertise in Environmental Science &

Trenchless technology

Engineering. After all, can any other magazine match ES&E in experience and

WEF (Anaheim) convention preview


To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before August 31, 1993. Steve Davey President

(416) 727-4666

Penny Davey Sales Manager (416) 727-4666

10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 5N7 (cancellation deadline: September 3, 1993)

Ron Ganton Western Canada

Representative (604) 274-3849

Telephone: (416) 727-4666,

Fax: 841-7271

*Subject to change

Waste management

Precast concrete infrastructure helps alleviate environmental concerns closely with production and quality control staff at Con Cast Pipe to ensure that each structure supplied to the sub contractor, Advice Contracting, met


stringent material, manufacturing, and dimensional specifications. During production of the precast in frastructure, periodic plant inspections were made by Region authorities to en sure that proper usage and placement of hardware, epoxy coated concrete rein forcement, and sulphate resistant ce ment was being maintained. The first phase of the project required sixteen specialty structures ranging in

■ ■■ ■.

diameter from 1500 mm (60") to 3000 mm (120") and depth from 2.58 m (8.45') to 6.8 m (22.31'). There were more than fifty openings in the sixteen struc tures that required pre-installed hard ware as well as close monitoring to en sure that all dimensional requirements were being maintained. The level of quality control that went into the production of the precast con

Preparation of base leachate collection maintenance manhole.

by Derek Guberney and Dean Coffin

The operational facilities at the Con Cast Pipe



crete infrastructure for leachate collec

Due to the uncertainty of leachate chemistry, all precautions were taken when specifying the job to ensure the containment of effluent. A senior testing and laboratory technician worked

tion and transportation contributes to the high standards of design and con struction at the Halton Waste Manage ment Site.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 118


Halton's Waste Management Site are examples of leading

edge technology. Located on Highway 25, south of Milton, Ontario, the 300 acre

site was constructed after 15 years of careful planning, engineering, and ri gorous scrutiny through stringent envi ronmental approvals. After a lengthy hearing under the Consolidated Hear ings Act, the Ministry of the Environ ment and Joint Board established con

ditions of approval to ensure that the waste management site would be de signed, constructed and operated to the highest standards. The leachate collection and transpor tation system that runs for five kilo

Features of the Halton Waste Management Site Hydraulic Trap Concept used in cell design Subliner contingency layer to en sure maintenance of tiydraulic trap Five kilometers of leachate collec

tion pipes under cell 1

paved roads 35,000 scrap tires were used to

produce rubberized asphalt for the roads

Volume of cell 1 excavation is

600,000 m^ (approximately 75,000 tandem dump trucks)

Volume of two storm ponds is 16,100 m^ (equivalent of 11 Olym pic swimming pools)

Eight meter high berm for noise

Surface water control for Regional


meters under cell 1, is one of the many

Storm Event

features of the site designed to alleviate

Cell 1 will contain 250,000 m^ of

Volume of off line storage pond is 35,000 m3

environmental concerns. Various con

figurations of precast concrete were de signed by Proctor & Redfern Limited to

Two kilometers of leachate main

be utilized as collection, flow monitor

Clay liner is 1.2 m thick

ing, control structures, and pumping stations. The precast units provide the infrastructure through which leachate is collected and transported from the base of the landfill cells to holding tanks and receptacles. From there it is trucked off site for final treatment and disposal. 24

attenuation and visual barrier

Volume of earth berms is 350,000

geotextile material (covers 30 foot ball fields) Six kilometers of 3.6 m high se curity fence

Cell 1 required approximately 120,000 tonnes of olearstone granular material

1.6 kilometers of 5 m high litter

Site contains 3.75 kilometers of

the site


4,690 trees have been planted on

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

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union. Add-ons, changes, and

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water treatment, lift station or

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For more information, contoct

your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada Limited, Rexdale, Ontario M9W Only Victaulic has a complete line oj i-OupUngs,

fittings, and valvesfor AWWA ductile and IPS steel, stainless, aluminum, or PVC pipe.

5N7. Or call 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 102

Victaulic is certified to 1S09002 and CAN 3-Z299.3. VicauUc and Vic-Plug are registered trademarks ol Victaulic Company ol Canada Limited.

Š1989 Victaulic. All rights reserved.


Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poiiution Research & Controi

Metal Mining Water Pollution Control Environment Canada has issued a sta

tus report which assesses compliance by Canadian metal mines with the federal

Melal Mining Liquid Effluent Regulations and associated guidelines in 1990 and. for some mines, in 1991. The report is based primarily on industrial monitor ing data reported to federal, provincial and territorial regulatory authorities. Compliance was assessed on the basis of monthly quality data and standards. In 1990. 102 metal mines were operating in all provinces and territories except Alberta and Prince Edward Island. Of

these. 99 were subject to either regula tions or guidelines. Fifty of them achieved 100% compliance and the over all rate of compliance with the regula tions or guidelines was nearly 85%.

guidelines.The results were described to delegates attending the 28th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollu tion Research. Using existing technolo gies. the process removed 99% of the suspended solids in the dredged slurry

by naturally occurring hydrocarbons. Similarsamplingin southern Ontario is being considered for petroleum explor ation.

and achieved a metal removal efficiency

Identification of Oil Spills National Water Research Institute sci

ranging from 93% for nickel to 99% for iron. Volatile organics in the treated ef

entists S. Lesage. H. Xu and S. Brown have developed a novel analytical tech

fluent were below levels of concern.

nique which measures petroporphyrins that are found in petroleum crudes and partially refined products such as diesel oil. This new technique, which can be

applied to oil spills, can differentiate between sources of petroleum. As des


cribed at the 28th Central Canadian

Symposium on Water Pollution Re search. the new method is simpler than

previous techniques because the porphy-


rins can be detected and separated with Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons

out removing the metal component of the compounds. Because they break

B. Danesh and colleagues from Acres

in the Environment

down very slowly in the environment,

International Ltd. and the Wastewater

The many petroleum-bearing for mations in southern Ontario provide a source of natural hydrocarbon con tamination in shallow groundwater aquifers. As described to delegates at the 1992 International Association of Hydrologists Conference. National Water

Contaminated Sediment Cleanup

Technology Centre have.undertaken a demonstration project involving the dredging and treatment of approx imately 230 m' of industrial mill scale and contaminated clayey silt sediments from a section of the Welland River.The

industrial deposits and sediments con

Research Institute scientists l.Noorand

tained elevated concentrations ofseveral

L. Benner analyzed groundwater in the Niagara Falls area and determined the extent of groundwater contamination

metals, phosphorus, and oil and grease exceeding provincial sediment quality



petroporphyrins are better markers than many other petroleum hydrocar bons.

Biological Test for Sediment Toxicity An Environment Canada report has been issued which recommends meth

ods for performi ng static 10-day tests for sediment toxicity using one or more spe cies of marine or estuarine sediment-

burrowing amphipods. The biological end-point for the test is percent mor tality at Day 10. Additional (sublethal) end-points that measure the percentage of surviving amphipods that emerge from the sediment at Day 10 (i.e. avoid

ance response), and/or the ability of the amphipods to re-bury when transferred to the sediment,can also be determined

using this test. The test is performed in one-litre glass vessels with 175 niL of solid phase sediment and 750 mL of overlying seawater. Effect of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents on Fish

Hepatic metallothionein (MT) levels

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and

and mixed function oxidase(MFO)ac

tivity were measured in fingerling rain bow trout exposed to sublethal concen trations of various pulp and paper mill effluents. F. Gagne of Analex Inc. and

wastewater treatment

Centre Saint-Laurent scientist C. Blaise

found that most effluents produced a significant effect on these parameters regardless of mill process or effluent lethality and chemical characteristics. Limited chemical data suggested that there were classes of chemical com


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pounds present capable of producing the MT/MFO responses. In a paper ac cepted for publication in Water Research. the authors propose refinements of this combined sublethal bioassay procedure to provide an effective means of detect ing hazardous chemicals in industrial wastewaters.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 101 26

continued on page 28

Environinenta! Science & Engineering. July 1993

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R&D News cont'd Determination of Chiorinated Phenoiics in Sediments

Chlorinated phenoiics are detected in water and sediment samples downstream from pulp mills which use the chlorine bleaching process. National Water Re

deltamethrin in natural water is only a partial detoxification step since it pro

Niimi and H.B. Lee measured the bioconcentration factors in rainbow trout

duces an isomer which retains some ac

which were exposed to nine different resin acids. These factors ranged from less than 25 to 130 in fish exposed to con centrations of 0.7-3.6 pg/L for 20 days.

tivity towards mice, insects and Daphnia magna. Aerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludges

search Institute scientists H.B. Lee. and

As described in Environmental Toxicol

T.E. Pert, together with R.L. Hong-You of the Wastewater Technology Centre, have developed a new analytical method using an in situ technique in conjunction with supercritical fluid extraction with

A paper published in Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering by Queen's Univer sity scientist B.C. Anderson and D.S. Mavinic of the University of British

carbon dioxide. As described in a Na

Columbia describes the results of their

tional Water Research Institute report,

pilot-scale research on the aerobic di gestion of waste-activated sludges. The

the new method, which uses less solvent





ogy and Chemistry, the study also con

results indicated that volatile mass re

cluded that these acids have a half-life

of less than four days. Reduction of Snowmelt Pollution

In a joint research program. University of Ottawa scientist R.L. Droste and J.C.

Johnston of Kostuch Engineering Ltd. analyzed various pollutants in the snow and snowmelt from four snow dump sites in the Ottawa-Carleton Region. The process of snow melting reduced

Aquatic Fate of Deltamethrin

duction was severely curtailed at low mixed liquor pH but could be signifi cantly improved by pH control. While it was not possible to suggest an optimized

In the Environment

chemical and dose, it was concluded

suspended solids from the dump by 50-

Deltamethrin is a powerful pyrethroid insecticide which is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. National Water Re search Institute scientist R.J. Maguire has reviewed the aquatic environmental fate ofdeltamethrin in a paper published in Water Science and Technology. Major routes of degradation or dissipation in natural water are chemical and photo

that this process had a very real poten tial for full-scale implementation as an effective and simple method for rehabi litation of poorly functioning digesters.

70%. As described in the Canadian Jour

cedures. is also more efficient than con

ventional techniques.

chemical conversion to a mixture of in active and active stereoisomers. and

hydrolysis with subsequent oxidation of the products. Sunlight photolysis of

nal of Civil Engineering, a snowmelt set tling process successfully reduced sus pended solids and metals by more than 90% in two to six hours.

Resin Acids in Rainbow Trout

Although resin acids are some of the

more toxic components of pulp and paper mill effluents, little is known about the capacity of these materials to bioconcentrate. In a joint research pro ject between Bayfield Institute and the National Water Research Institute. A.J.

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The Alberta Environmental Centre and

Alberta Agriculture have embarked upon a major program aimed at the use of grass carp as agents in the control of aquatic weeds in irrigation canals and dugouts. In a paper presented at the 28th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research. J.W. Moore

and E.D. Lloyd described some of the results of their research. During three months in summer,the rate ofgrowth of fish in both dugouts and canals was fast with fish increasing in weight by about 60%. The percentage of weed control ranged from 16 to 77 depending on the species of plant, stocking rate, and temperature.

To determine the impact of nutrient loading from a sewage treatment plant and from aquatic macrophytes on river bed chemistry. National Hydrology Research Institute scientist P.A. Cham

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the concentrations of most metals and

bers and E.E.Prepas ofthe University of Alberta undertook a study in the South Saskatchewan River. The five sampling sites were located upstream and down stream of a municipal sewage outfall with differingbiomassesofaquatic mac rophytes. The results, described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, showed that effluent loading and aquatic macrophytes may cause significant changes in the chemistry of riverbed sediments.The authors suggest that, for shallow slow-flowing rivers, benthic nutrient exchanges represent a critical component in water quality modelling. continued on page 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

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R&D News cont'd Sublethal Marine Toxiclty Test

Methods recommended for performing a sublethal marine toxicity test using gametes obtained from sea urchins or

from the model were in good agreement with experimental data under different operating strategies.

of granulated anaerobic bacteria in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket batch reactor. As described to delegates at the 28th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, the granules suffered some slowly reversible damage. Investigation of settling properties in dicated that high sulfate concentration caused the granules to become slightly smaller but heavier — a phenomenon

sand dollars are described in an Envi

Measurement of

ronment Canada report issued recently. In the test,sperm are exposed to the sub stance being tested. Eggs are then added

Fecal Contamination

The identification of sources of fecal

and the success of fertilization under

sewers is often difficult since fecal con

continued exposure is measured. The end-point is decreased success of fer

tamination events are frequently epi sodic and have ceased before a survey

tilization described in terms of the con

can be undertaken. As an alternative to

centration estimated to cause a specified lowest-

sampling water or natural sediments, sediment bags suspended in the water

observed-effect and no-observed-effect

column retain coliform bacteria after

Heavy Metals Solubilization

concentration. The test is quick and is amongthe most sensitive of marinesub-

their initial sorption to the sand sub strate and act to integrate water quality data with respect to fecal coliform con centrations. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search. P.G. Nix. M.M. Daykin and K.L.

A biological process of heavy metals solubilization and sewage sludge stabi

percent inhibition, or the

lethal tests.

Dynamic Modelling of Substrate Degradation

L. Fernandes. K.J. Kennedy and Z. Ning have developed a dynamic model for sequencing batch anaerobic reactors (SBARs)to describe substrate degrada tion under non-steady-state conditions. The simulation results described by these University of Ottawa scientists in a paper to be published in Water Research.

showed that product inhibition of methanogenesis and substrate degradation in the SBAR process can be expressed by modified Haldane or non-competitive inhibition functions. Simulated results

pollution in urban streams or storm

Vilkas of EVS Consultants Ltd. were

thereby able to identify contaminant

sources even when the sampling survey was carried out after the pollution event.

Effect of High Sulfate on Granules In UASB Reactors

A study by University of Western On

lization was studied in a batch reactor

by R.D. Tyagi and coworkers at INRS-

Eau and Institut Armand-Frappier. As described in the CctnacUan Journal of Civil Engineering, the acclimatized leaching thiobacilli microflora resulted in substantial metal solubilization after

10 days. The bioleaching process also caused a significant decrease in sludge suspended solids and volatile suspen ded solids. After filtration orcentrifugation of the leached sludge, the solubilized metals could be precipitated by

tario scientists R. Anani. N. Kosaric and

lime neutralization. The results demon

R. Blaszczyk was aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of high sodium sul fate concentration on the performance

strated that the process of sludge diges tion and metal leaching can be con ducted in parallel in the same reactor. Characteristics of Digested Sludge Particle Aggregates A multi-exposure photographic method


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and an image analysis system were used to measure the terminal settling veloci ties and some geometric characteristics of digested sludge particle aggregates. As described by University of Toronto scientist J.J. Ganczarczyk at the 28th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, the aggre gates showed specific characteristics re lated to their origin and to the digestion process. Low shape factors of the aggre gates reflected their highly irregular forms especially for a characteristic length range of 300 to 400 |im. The morphological properties of digested sludge particle aggregates could be cha racterized as statistically self-similar fractals.

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Environmental Science <& Engineering. Juiy 1993

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By Richard J. Karlin P.E.

Water treatment

Drinking Water Technologies for the 1990's and Beyond

Current drinking water treat

ment technologies have been in place with only minor modifications for several de

cades. However, the changing regula tory climate coupled with changing ex pectations on the part ofthe public,have resulted in revolutionary; not evolu tionary changes in the drinking water industry. The resulting "high-tech" ap proaches to water treatment will inevi tably lead to increased costs for water purveyors and the customer. For many years, so-called conven

tional treatment was applied to surface water and ground water was. for the most part, distributed with little or no treatment. Traditionally defined con ventional treatment consisted, and still

consists, of presedimentation (storage in a reservoir where gravity removes larger particles); coagulation/flocculation (chemical conditioning of fine par ticles to allow them to form larger par ticles which will settle and/or to ease

their removal by filtration); filtration (passage through sand or similar ma terial to remove fine solids); and disin fection (addition of a disinfectant, usu

Based on a presentation at the Ont. Section, AWWA/OMWA Annuai Conference in Ottawa,this article reveals the range and sophistication ofthe AWWA Research Foun dation. Appropriately the photo shows the downtown capital area and the Lemieux Island Water Purification Plant which serves the nation's capital. The plant is owned by the Region of Ottawa-Carieton. Currently a $51 million expansion program, designed by Gore & Storrie Limited, is underway to bring capacity to 400 ML/d.

ally chlorine, to inactivate any patho genic microorganisms which have sur vived the previous steps). While there is a great body of science G&S Photo involved in the optimum application of these several technologies, the basic fects in humans at extremely low doses. core of this treatment scheme is fairly Whether this is actually the case or not. well understood. The discovery of pre regulations force utilities to operate viously unidentified human pathogens, their facilities in such a way as to mini such as Gianlia and Ciyptosporidiiim. mize by-product formation. along with the identification of by For every silver lining there is a dark products formed by the addition of dis cloud, however,and the very steps taken infectants to water, changed the rules of to control chlorination by-products the game. No longer can utilities rely on (ozonation.forexample)produce disin fection by-products of their own. In a the proper operation of existing facili ties to provide drinking water of accept recent Research Foundation sponsored study conducted by Bill Glaze at the able quality. University of North Carolina. Chapel Technological advances have affec Hill, dozens of ozonation by-products ted every step of the conventional treat ment train and even added a number of

were identified. One of these, bromate.

steps to the process. Pretreatment has evolved from simple quiescent storage to active intervention in water quality. Application of strong oxidants such as

has the potential to drastically limit the application of ozone to drinking water

ozone or chlorine dioxide is often used to enhance disinfection, control taste

and odour, and to destroy precursors (naturally occurring humic materials) which, when reacted with chlorine,form

by-products, such as trihalomethanes. These by-products cause cancer when fed at high doses to lab rodents and are therefore assumed to have similar ef32

While the particular organisms in ques tion are not generally pathogenic, they are certainly capable of producing pro blems in the distribution system. A po tential solution to this problem is the inclusion of a treatment step at the treat ment plant where organ isms are utilized under controlled conditions, to meta bolize this food source before it is re

leased into the system. Forexample. the filter bed itself could be used as a mic

robiological contactor where organisms utilize




natively. a separate biological contac tor. either sand or activated carbon, could be added to the treatment train. In either case there are a number of un

treatment. Chlorine dioxide also has its

answered questions which will need to

own set of by-product concerns,so there doesn't appear to be a silver bullet on the

be addressed. Several Research Foun

near-term horizon.

dation projects are looking at the opti mization of oxidation, biological treat

A more subtle outcome ofthe applica tion of ozone to drinking water to des troy precursors is the break-up of large organic molecules which are suitable for making chlorine by-products into

logical stability(how can one determine the potential for regrowth of bacteria in a given water supply) and other issues associated with this technology.

smaller organic molecules which are suitable for feeding microorganisms.

continued on page 34

ment. measurement methods for bio

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

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Drinking water technoiogies cont'd Pretreatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is also being considered by a number of utilities as a method for removal of precursors and/or taste and odour causing chemicals. While this approach has fewer downstream down sides. it also has less efficacy in precur sor control and adds to the volume of

waste product(sludge) generated at the treatment plant. This waste product is sue will be addressed elsewhere. Foun

dation sponsored research at the Uni versity of Illinois is looking into the ability of PAC to deal with trace or ganic chemicals. All of the previous discussion centres on treatment steps taken in the realm of the treatment plant prior to a point where any active intervention in water quality was previously employed. The first traditional treatment step is coagulation/flocculation. As previously de scribed. this treatment step is intended to precondition particles for either

sedimentation or filtration. Traditionally designed treatment plants sent water from this step to a settling basin where the now large particles settled to the bot tom.thence to a sand or coal filter where

smaller particles were captured by the media. Newer technologies eliminate the settling step and go directly to the filter bed after coagulation/flocculation placing a much greater burden on the plant operator. Elimination of the se dimentation step shortens the time, and therefore the margin for error, between water entering and leaving the treat ment plant. A long sedimentation time provides a much more forgiving process than so-called direct filtration.

An alternative to settling particles prior to filtration is dissolved air flota tion. In this process, particles are pre conditioned to attach to air bubbles and lloat out of the water rather than settle

out. While this is a fairly well established technology in Europe, it is in its infancy

Markets in the '90s

in North America. A University of Mas sachusetts study funded by the Research Eoundation looks at this process. The filter media itself has undergone evolution over the past twenty to thirty years. Simple sand media has been re placed by anthracite coal and/or coal, sand, garnet mixtures. In a more radi cal recent development, thin plastic membranes are replacing these media. Membrane technology, traditionally applied only for removal of chemicals by reverse osmosis, is seeking a place in the particle removal arena. Lest one dis miss such an application as a futuristic myth, it should be pointed out that full scale applications are in place in France. A number of Research Foundation pro

jects are looking at the optimization of this process for particle removal. Mem brane filtration has the advantage of not requiring chemical pretreatment and therefore lessening the concern over by product formation, etc. Direct particle measurement is emerg ing as a substitute for turbidity measure ment as an evaluation tool for water

quality. Turbidity indirectly measures people to take these projects over has particles in water by examining their By Stuati L. Smith become an essential way of doing busi RockCllffe Research and Tech. Inc. effect on light passed through the water. ness, particularly for major installations Particle counters actually count the The seventies and eighties were decades in developing countries. number of particles in various size This Build-Operate-Transfer method of ranges in the water.This technology can when environmental problems were doing business is an advantage to com identified faster than solutions were de give a much better picture of the nature panies who can claim experience not of particles in water. How many are in veloped. Until such time as there is an accepted only in building plants but in operating the size range of virus? Gianlia? Cryptosmethod of factoring environmental cost them. Countries where the operation of poridium? These questions are unan into the price of goods, environmental large installations has been privatized swerable by turbidity measurements but equipment markets will remain fragile, for some years, thereby gain an advan are the very target of particle counters. dependent as they are on the willingness tage over countries like Canada where This new tool has the potential to pro of governments to enforce regulations. almost all large wastewater installa foundly affect how treatment plants are Even as times improve and enforcement tions. for example, are operated by pub evaluated and operated. lic authorities. Now that so many strengthens, manufacturers of environ No single public health measure in mental equipment will find that their Canadian municipalities are short of human history has had as pronounced traditional end of pipe solutions lose money, they may well turn to private an effect on public health as the disin companies to build and operate plants, fection of drinking water. And for a long favour as more companies chose to re design their methods of manufacture.In thereby giving Canadian firms a basis time, the more disinfectant applied the rethinking every industrial process, from which to enter international better,as long as you could still stand the some parts are eliminated,some sent to markets. taste. In the early 1970's chlorination by In summary.despite current setbacks, products discovered in treated drinking other geographical locales and some al tered so as to avoid the creation of waste the environmental industry will con water radically changed this thinking. tinue to grow; it will become the playing The trick became to optimize the products in the first place. The markets that are likely to survive field of large international consortia amount of disinfectant to assure proper in the long run are the ones that deal wherein Canadian firms with niche inactivation of disease producing or with the genuine threats to the health of technologies and specialized skills will ganisms while minimizing by-products. people and to the global environment work with other partners. Since Cana Recent regulations have become much rather than with what are essentially dians are not actively engaged in the more prescriptive on what parameters political problems,such as incineration redesign of manufacturing processes, must be controlled and how. But the and landfill.

we may find that some of our producers

trade-off between disinfection and dis

In approaching markets around the world, it has become virtually man datory to enter marketing alliances or consortia. Project management com panies. engineering and construction firms, specialized engineering con sultants. technological specialists and equipment manufacturers combine for ces in order to bid on major contracts. The capability to do turnkey projects, operate them for a time and train local

of end-of-pipe solutions will lose out to foreign companies who provide a total redesign. Given the large amount of

infection by-products will drive the drinking water utility for the foreseeable


water in Canada and our enormous ex

perience in all forms of science related thereto, we can position ourselves to participate successfully in the drinking water and wastewater markets in par ticular — but we will need to give our companies more experience in the ac tual operation of large public facilities.

future. The Research Foundation has con

ducted 65 research projects worth nearly $20M in this area. Issues include by product identification and control, use of alternative disinfectants, disinfectant

efficacy against pathogens, risk modell ing. animal cancer studies and the like. Every process in the treatment train af-

Environmental Science <ÂŁ Engineering. July 1993

ISCOy fects. or is affected by, measures taken to impact disinfection/ disinfection by-products. The application of ozone to destroy precursors, the addition of granular activated carbon to re move them,and the use of membranes all hold promise,but at a cost both in terms of water quality and price. Recent, more experimental approaches to the problem in clude ion exchange resins which function like a home water softener but on a different "breed" of chemicals, namely or ganic precursors of disinfection by-products. The use of photocatalysis on specifically engineered media is also heing examined by Foundation projects. So far. this paper has focussed on the application of new technologies to traditional treatment processes.There are also a series of new problems to be addressed. The control of lead

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in drinking water has led to a much closer look at the control

of corrosion by the application treatment chemicals. Several of these chemicals contribute to the regrowth of organisms in the distribution system by providing necessary nutrients such as phosphorous. Corrosion control also requires pH adjust ments which may be counterproductive to disinfection by product control. For every action there is an equal and oppo site reaction or. you can't win for losing. North American treatment practice has had the absence of microbiological life throughout the treatment train as a cor nerstone principle. New developments have put this cor nerstone in jeopardy. The use of biological treatment to control the entry of regrowth causing nutrients into the dis

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tribution system or to remove contaminants such as nitrate is

of growing interest on this continent. Europeans have long utilized this technology and the Research Foundation acts as a conduit of information from this source.

All treatment processes generate by-products, some of

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which remain in the water, some of which are removed and

must be disposed of. The technologies discussed previously produce residuals, sedimentation and filtration produce sludges as does membrane filtration, granular activated car bon eventually wears out(is saturated with organic chemicals) and must be disposed of or regenerated, powdered activated carbon (PAC)increases sludge volume, biological treatment produces a biomass which has to go somewhere,etc. Residual disposal has been and will continue to be. a focus of much research. In fact, issues and solutions to problems surround ing residual disposal have been the subject of numerous Foun dation conferences and reports. This presentation has focused on the removal of particles and microorganisms from surface water. This hardly exhausts the issues. Arsenic, until recently believed to be an interesting, but hardly important drinking water contaminant, has loomed on the horizon as a potential internal organ carcinogen in man. If this is the case the potential is for an enormous pro blem fora huge numberofutilities. Radon in drinking wateris especially important in New England and has shown no sign of going away. The list goes on and on. "This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive delineation of the issues and technologies that are emerging in the drink ing water industry. Rather it is intended to give a Favour for the climate in which water utilities must operate. While the technologies discussed are diverse and not necessarily direc tly related to one another, they do have three things in com mon: they are capital intensive, they require greater opera tional expertise than existing technologies and they require complex maintenance. These commonalities add up to in

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creased cost. It remains to be seen whether the consumer is

willing to bear this cost. However, there is no doubt that the water industry will continue, as it always has. to meet the demands that are placed upon it.


Mr. Karlln is Deputy Executive Director, AWWA Research

Quality products for monitoring the world's water


For more information, Circie reply card No. 109 Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Company Review

Largest Canadian made pipe fittings now cast by Western Canada foundry Terminal City Iron Works Ltd., has now introduced its first T.C. 30-inch mecha

nical joint fittings. Produced in its Van couver facility. these extra large castings are the only Canadian made water works fittings of this size. They are all to AWWA C110-82 standard, and are cast

in ductile iron for a 250 psi pressure rating. The latest product line invites a his torical flashback as the firm is conclud

ing its ninth decade with an unbroken line ofsuccession which is unique to the environmental industry. TC was foun ded in Vancouver in 1906 by James Mason. His son Clifford later succeeded

him. followed by his son Stanley who remains President to this day. Stanley Mason.P.Eng. has always been a strong supporter of environmental associa tions. He has served as President of the Federation of Associations on the Ca

nadian Environment (FACE) and was President ofthe British Columbia Water

Denso North America Inc.

While the news media is dominated by poiitical debate on plans, studies and prom ises to purify water, this photo shows the reality of environmental manufacturing. Without such industrial capabilities,even the most eioquent environment statements are meaningiess. While Canada is losing much of its industrial base,it is refreshing to see a foundry,created and owned forthree generations by the same family,transmut ing ore into hydrants, valves and fittings. ES&E photo by Tom Davey. & Wastewater Association. An AWWA

Fuller awardee. Stan has always been noted for his contributions to pro fessional environmental associations.

Ken Hicks, President. Denso North

America Inc..is pleased to announce the appointment ofJoel R.Pepin to the posi tion of Regional Sales Manager, based in the Markham. Ontario office.

Mr. Pepin comes to Denso with a broad international background in technical sales and management ac

quired over a 20 year period in the field of environmental controls.

His primary function with the Denso organization will be the sale of the Denso corrosion control materials to

the water and waste water industry in which the Denso anti-corrosion pro

ducts play a critical role. With offices located in Markham. Ontario and Houston. Texas. Denso North America Inc. is a world leader in

corrosion protection products and sys tems supplying environmentally safe solutions

problems. 36




On the company's 60th anniversary,a major expansion took place. The first phase of this expansion was completed

Today, foundry equipment includes an Ajax coreless-type electric induction melting furnace which gives flexibility to produce both grey iron and ductile iron castings more efficiently. Com puter aided equipment was also installed to control the new furnace. The most

in 1968 and saw an increase of 1505

recent addition in the foundry has been

square metres (16.200 sq. ft.) in foundry space, and the installation of a new channel-type induction electric melting furnace, which replaced an earlier cokefired iron melting furnace. Pro gressively new moulding equipment was installed in the foundry, making the diverse casting products more versatile

a computer controlled sand mixing sys tem for mould and core making. Envi ronmental Science & Engineering staff have toured the plant with Stan seeing the valves and other water works equip ment being cast at its present location

to suit diverse water and wastewater

applications. More recently, the age of computer technology was introduced with equip ment installed in the machining opera tions area at Terminal City. As far back as 1981. the firm installed its first CNC

(Computer Numerical Controlled) lathe. After seeing the results and poten tial for this type of equipment, a second CNC lathe was purchased to aid in the increased workload demand.

on Franklin Street.

Recently the machine shop installed a new CNC machining centre complete with a dual-pallet loading system, de

signed to take rough castings and machine them to a finished state in only one set-up. By continued plant enhan cement. Terminal City plans to meet, or exceed, evolving changes in manufacturine standards.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 110

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Product Review Geotextile reduces silt

in NB bridge project When New Brunswick's Department of Transportation decided to build a bridge across the Miramichi River at Newcastle,they realized it was critical to

protect the quality of the river's water. The Miramichi River is world-famous

for its salmon fishing, making it par ticularly sensitive to contamination. The silt generated by construction ac tivities posed a threat of contaminating the river. To prevent contamination,the government incorporated the use of a geotextile as a turbidity curtain to con tain any silt laden water due to the con struction. The Department ofTranspor tation specified the use of a nonwoven geotextile with high puncture resistance and excellent filtration characteristics.

The geotextile selected was TreviraÂŽ SpunbondType 1135(350 G/M^)manu factured by Hoechst Celanese Corpora tion. This unique polyester, continuous filament geotextile can resist ultra violet degradation over prolonged periods of time and it readily sinks in water due to its high specific gravity. The contractor. Atco Construction

Limited, fabricated the curtain by nail ing the geotextile to the floatation logs and weighing the bottom of the geotex-

The curtain's effectiveness in containing silt is evident. tile with chains hemmed to the fabric.

The fabrication process,of700M x4.6M deep turbidity curtain, took one day. The curtain's separation and filtra tion performance met all expectations. According to Charles Leblanc. an Armtec construction products' sales engin eer. the turbidity curtain performed ex tremely well and was a highly successful

application of the Geotextile. In

addition, the



cessfully installed TreviraÂŽ spunbond type 1120(200 G/M-)on the river's em bankment to control shoreline erosion.

The fabric, placed beneath the riprap stone, protected the underlying soil from the erosive forces of wave action.

Circle reply card No. 160

Newlog universal data logging moduie The perfect tool for the remote location...

The Heath Newlog and Heath Newlog 4 data logging modules provide a fast and economical alternative to conventional analogue charting equipment. Advanced Newlog technology Interfaces with all Industry standard outputs and offers endless applications for water and gas utilities. Heath Newlog can be deployed in large scale surveys where conventional equipment would prove too costly. The Newlog requires no battery changing or charging. Newlog is equipped with military specification connectors and electrical outputs making it ideal for remote locations. It can be read by portable or pocket computer and can easily be linked by telephone to a central computer. Newlog's "black box" design gives it immunity to harsh environmental conditions and eliminates the need for

fragile components. Newlog comes with a "watchdog" timer function to prevent system bursts from disrupting the operation of the data logger.


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Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Saskatoon, Sask.(308)242-1713 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9552 Toronto, Ont.(416)464-9107

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 111 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993


Product Review ware and a bright easy to read,two line X 40 character alphanumeric display.The operator can interrogate test functions to assure proper operation without dis rupting the normal collection ofdata. In addition, the test and diagnostics are

Sand/Bentonite Injector

measured and alarmed if"out of limits".

This self checking feature assures valid data collection and a minimum of data

loss since problems in operation are instantly flagged. All operator functions are available through a bi-directional RS232 inter face. This powerful feature allows for local or remote interrogation of each analyzer with a terminal or computer. The complete listing of variables, tests and diagnostics can be analyzed re motely to determine instrument status.

New Sand/Bentonite Injector from Solinst precisely places bentonite seals and sand filters in boreholes. Dry injec tion system delivers bentonite and sand through a tube to pre-determined depth. Allows maximum swelling of bentonite once in place. Eliminates bridging, voids and short-circuits. Quality of Kent's new IT & IRT

Integral Transmitters with 4-20 mA output Kent Meters, Inc.. has developed new integral transmitters with 4-20 mA out put for use with Model C-700 Positive Displacement and Model T-3000 Tur bine cold water meters.

Model IT provides totalization of flow volume and transmits a 4-20 mA

signal for use with recorders, indicator and computer equipment. Model IRT provides instantaneous flow rate indication, totalization of How

volume and transmits a 4-20 mA signal for communications with recorders, in

dicators and like equipment. The unit requires 24 VDC nominal power and has three wiring terminals for easy con nection. This product is unique because it is a fully solid state transmitter at

backfilling is greatly improved over other methods. Able to access narrow

diameter boreholes. No grout mixing required. Eliminates uncertainty with clean differentiation between seals and filters. Solinst Canada Ltd.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 150 tically more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up to 3.3 kilometres. Ontario Sewage Equipment

For more information. Circle reply card No. 152

In addition, the bi-directional feature means that new variables can be entered from a remote site.

The API design allows for ease of troubleshooting and low downtime. All designs have a significant degree of commonality. The highly reliable API design enables the company to offer a two year warranty on all of its CPU analyzers. Westech

For more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Clamp-on, dual-path, transit-time, uitrasonic fiowmeter

Air quality measurement

Controlotron's Models 990DBN and

tributorship agreement with Advanced

990DBP are precision Dual-Path. Uni versal. Clamp-On. Transit-Time Ultra

Pollution Instrumentation Inc. The API

sonic Flowmeters of NEMA 4X and

line ofair quality analyzers includes US EPA approved units for SO, (Model 400). H,S(Model 101). NO.NOx(Model 200) and Ozone (Model 400). In addi

Portable construction respectively. Sys tem 990DB is claimed to outperform Turbine. Venturi. Magnetic and Four-

tion. API introduced their new CO

meters in their best applications and provide all industry standard analog and digital data outputs. LCD Digital or Graphics Display, including integral Datalogger and Stripchart printout. Flow is precisely measured by means






Analyzer (Model 300) in March and

plan to have EPA approval in the fall of 1993.

User friendly operation ofeach unit is accomplished with multi-tasking soft

tached directly to the meter for more

Two-wire Intrinsically safe

precise accuracy and long term per

ultrasonic transmitter

Path Wetted Chordal ultrasonic flow-

formance. Kent Meters, Inc. The Ultra-II Series 352 offers true two-

For more information. Circle reply card No. 151

Grinder pump powers low pressure sewer system This Environment One Grinder Pump powers low pressure sewer systems, pro

viding wastewater storage, grinding and pumping in a single unit. Utilizing small diameter sewer piping (32 mm - 100 mm),shallow buried to the terrain contour, the Grinder Pump sta tion can ilischarsze the wastewater ver 38

wire loop power, operating on 24 VDC and provides a 4-20 mA output. In addi tion, the unit can be configured as a single point level switch, providing either an 8 or 16 mA output. All para meters are entered by means of a series of six rotary switches and three dip switches housed within the unit. Intrin

sically safe.two-wire operation provides for installation in hazardous locations

when installed with an approved intrin sically-safe barrier. Dedicated echo loss and fault LED's along with a 21 mA

signal generation provides the user with immediate operating status of the unit. A unique self test feature checks the in tegrity of the sensor and related elec tronics to provide for trouble-free operation. Magnetrol International Circle reply card No. 153

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Product Review of two orthogonal ultrasonic beams making the system extremely resistant to flow profile distortion, crossflow or

Handheld field computer retrieves data in

flow swirl errors, normally caused by

harsh environments

upstream bends, gate valves or short straight run conditions. The microprocessor-based flowmeter features easy menu driven set-up via its 995T Hand-Held Terminal, with auto

matic optimization of set-up parame ters and automatic Reynold's Number compensation. Flexible analog outputs, computer interface capability, and selfdiagnostics are provided. Installation can be accomplished in minutes without cutting the pipe or shutting down operation. Summa For more information, Circle reply card No. 155


& ^'\

Treatability Testing

New 583 Field Computer from Isco is built for use in harsh environments. Handheld unit retrieves data from Isco

3700 Series Samplers. 3200 Series Flow

Completely automatic Respirometer offers wastewater treatment plants an opportunity to perform their own treata bility tests. Benchtop unit also offers a 15-20 minute method of screening truc ked in wastes, the results of which can

serve as a basis for establishing service charges. Treatment parameters, such as the Inhibition Threshold and the EC-50

can be determined with longer term tests. Additional cost saving can be real ized with Arthur Technology's Treat

ment Time'" respirometry test to elimin ate excessive aeration. The technology offers training in test methods and inter pretation of results, and provides un limited technical support. Arthur Technology

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156

Versatile new leak-tight sewer system With the introduction of its new Boss'"

Poly-Tite Gasketed Sewer System. Big 'O'Inc. has claimed a first for Canada's

polyethylene pipe industry. The key to the system is its new. gas keted pipe connection. Designed and factory-tested to meet CSA certification standards, the system provides the Bell & Spigot sealed joint required by sani tary sewer systems and those storm

hours of continuous operation be tween charges. Large, flexible memory stores level, rainfall, and sample data from up to 17

Meters, and the PAL 1110 Parameter

flow meters; with each flow meter stor

Actuator/Logger. Data can then be transferred to a PC for analysis. Isco

ing 3 days of level and rainfall data at 1 minute intervals, plus 128 sampling events. Retrieving stored data from the 583 is easy: simply connect the cable and data is automatically transferred, eliminating hand written log sheets and errors caused by manual entry. ISCO

also offers software to enable the 583 to retrieve data from other manufacturers'

monitoring instruments. Features include a rugged, watertight, dust-tight, shock resistant enclosure that can withstand accidental submer

sion and a rechargeable nickel-cad mium battery that provides up to 40

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 157

sewers needing leak-tight performance. Boss Poly-Tite leak-tight sewer sys tems feature the strength and durabi lity of Big'O' high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. A proven performer in the municipal pipe field. HDPE pipe combines a corrugated exterior for max imum strength and resilience with the smooth inner wall required to handle the optimum fiow of sewer systems. It is currently available in diameters of 100mm to 375mm. A full range of CSA certified thermoplastic fittings completes the system. Larger pipe dia meters are now being developed, and will be introduced during 1993. For municipal engineers, the system is an excellent choice for either sanitary or storm sewer applications. Since all its components — both HDPE pipe and fittings — meet stringent CSA stan dards. the new leak-tight system pre

Turbldlmeter handles hot, corrosive samples

sents a viable alternative to conven

tional sewer systems. Big 'O' Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158

Hach has modified its popular Surface Scatter 6 (SS6) Turbidimeter for severe

environment applications, such as paper mills and other industries which require on-line turbidity measurements of hot and/or corrosive samples. New SS6 Severe Environment (SE)

model incorporates several features for withstanding unfavorable sampling en vironments and harsh samples: • Separate sample and control units — sample unit can be placed close to the source and the control unit can be

placed in a more convenient or favor able environment (within 20 feet).

• Neither the light source nor the detec tor come in contact with the sample, which reduces corrosion problems. • Instrument parts that contact the sample are made of316 stainless steel. CPVC or Norprene. Hach Company

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 159 39





Produced in British Columbia,'TO.' is the dnly Canadian manufacturer producing castings in this size range. All 30"(750 mmKfittings are to AWWA C110-87 standard, and are cast in ductile iron for a 250 PSI(3450 kPa) pressure rating, and are available with mixed or flanged end connectionisrFor service and delivery that will satisfy ALL your waterworks demands, call our experienced Sales Staff today! At Terminal City we believe Canadian water should flow through Canadian products.

MADE IN CANADA Make the Right Connection...CALL



Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Valves and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C.V5L1R1


For more information, Circle reply card No. 112



Product review Model 900 Portable

Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring System


Where your concerns are our concerns


Royce Model 900 Portable Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring System is a water proof. microprocessor based analyzer designed for the tough conditions where portability is required. Designed and


5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9 416-890-8566 Toll Free: 800-263-9040 Fax:416-890-8575

manufactured by Royce Instrument

Corporation, typical applications are conservation, aquaculture, remote mo nitoring, groundwater studies, aeration basin monitoring, and other activities that require a hand-held DO analyzer.

BA5 Laboratories Limited

ini ifiii li

The system incorporates features such as: programmability, reading to 99.9 PPM,readings in PPM or% satura tion, readings in degrees C or F of tem perature, single-button calibration,out puts for a recorder and/or datalogger, and it uses one standard 9V battery. The

Excellence in

Environmental Analysis for Over 25 Years

Consulting Environmental Chemists

14AbacusRoad Phone (416) 794-2522 Brampton, Ontario Fax (41 o) 794-2338 Canada L6T 5B7

instrument and sensor are made of ma terials that will withstand the continual

abuses expected in remote monitoring applications — the materials are glass filled nylon (instrument case) and flex ible urethane epoxy (sensor), and all

Canlest Ltd Professional


Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Environmental Analysis

materials are resistant to saltwater cor

rosion. Construction of the analyzer was a primary consideration during its development,it is extremely rugged and is completely waterproof, meaning that it will actually operate while fully sub merged. It is designed to float ifinadver tently dropped in the water. Cancoppas

For more information, Circle reply card No. 161

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J8

Occupational Health & Safety

Tel: 604 734 7276

Fax: 604 731 2386


y-, Comprehensive • Complete MISA Parameters


• Regulation 309 Compliance • Dioxins/Furans

Laboratories Rate-of-Flow Recorder Features Universal

• Air Analysis • Soil Decommissioning

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

CANVIR® 50 Bathurst Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2C5 Tel: (519) 747-2575

Fax: (519) 747-3806


Chemex Labs Ltd.

The Meter Master System III, Model 100 Rate-of-Flow Recorder is compatible with all meter types and small enough to

►Water Potability Testing ►Contaminated Sites Testing

fit inside residential meter boxes. The

compact and portable System III, Model 100 includes a patented magnetic strap-on sensor to log the meter's mag netic pulse count without any alteration to the meter. The recorder is submers

ible and can be secured, if required.

►Waste Characterization

►Sewer Discharge Sampling & Testing ►Acid Rock Drainage Prediction ►Accreditations with CAEAL and BCMOE

Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221

The Model 100 System III Rate-ofFlow Recorder is easy to use and doesn't require a pc at the meter site or in the field. Capable ofstoring up to 20 records


prior to downloading,the self-contained


recorder interfaces with user friendly system software compatible with generic hardware and disc operating systems. Reports are generated in standard ASCII format for graph generation and export to other database programs.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontorio N9A 1L9

Mississauga, ON (416) 624-2806


Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Organics Voiatiie Organics • BTEX • Asbestos • RGBs Gas Bog Analysis • Odour Poneis • Isocycnates

Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged


FAX (519)255-9304


Product review


Meter-Master Rate-of-Flow Recor

Setting the standard for * service

* quality


* turnaround time

ders have helped water utilities increase revenues and reduce capital expen ditures. Applications include demand monitoring, evaluating and proper meter sizing, customer rate structuring, leak detection, resolving customer dis putes and conservation programs. Sensus Technologies

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel; (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 162

Surveying GPS/GIS

Meeting the needs and expectations


of our clients with accurate defensible data

for environmental decision making.

ENVIROCLEAN labor^moriks inc. (519)686-7558




Q «


The GPS SRVYII.is the newest receiver


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample)

world. The unit combines tremendous

With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,

prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977 WE CAN'T CHANGE HISTORY! BUT WE HELP YOU CORRECT IT! WITH OUR COMPLETE TESTING FACILITIES






DIVISION OF FALCONBRIDGE LTD. P.O. EJag 4300. Lakcficld. Oniano Canada KOL 2H0 Telephone 705-652-2000 Fa.v 705-652-6.365








from Garmin. By using GPS signals from space, you can tell where you are within a few minutes, anywhere in the



internal data storage and differential GPS accuracy with unmatched por tability, convenience, and value. The GPS SRVYII can store up to 18 hours of pseudorange data in its exten sive internal memory, which can be downloaded to a PC and processed. Ac curacy of 1-5 metres using static dif ferential techniques and 3-10 metres using dynamic differential techniques. Alternatively, the unit can store up to 200.000 3D positions in memory. In ad dition to its data storage capacity, the unit provides 250 3D waypoints with description, attribute and statistics. The unit eliminates the need for exter

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services • Reg. 309 Compliance

' Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

nal data loggers and has an enhanced keypad with operational procedures that are specifically designed for ease of survey and mapping operations.

• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

' Odorous Compounds ' Rush Analysis Available

Geneq Inc.

Air Quality * Water Quality * Hazardous Waste ' Emission Testing

• Complete MISA Parameters

• Ambient Air Monitoring

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 163

Odour control formulation EcoCare'" — a natural fermentation



Metals — Anions — Organics — PCBs — Volatiles Reg. 309 — MISA — Landfill Quality — Phytotox — Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-site sampling available CAEAL Certified For complete cataioque with prices call Tel:(416) 625-1544



formulation that powerfully biodegrades organic sewage odours — eliminating the smell. Claimed to be 100% safe for

use around people and the environ ment. Not a perfume or coverup. Effective odourelimination in sewage

plants from .5M to 500MGD. Nature Pius, Inc.


For more information,

Circle reply card No. 164 42

Environmental Science c£ Engineering, July 1993


Product review Eurodrive Unveils Drive


Rebuiid Program



^^1: i

analytical services

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152



prehensive rebuild program for SEW drives at their Toronto. Montreal, and

Vancouver plants. The 31 point inspec tion, rebuild, and testing program cov ers the gear reducer, motor, and brakes. To eliminate potential repair com

Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec (514)493-4733

promise, wear items such as bearings are automatically replaced. Defective stators are replaced, not rewound. Using

Ainley and


originally specified replacement parts and the latest SEW rebuild guidelines.


Eurodrive will restore each drive to its

original condition, backed with a com prehensive"as-new" 12 month warranty. The program's standard turnaround time is 7 days. For emergencies. Eurod rive is offering 24 hour round-the-clock repair at each facility in Vancouver. Montreal, and Toronto. SEW Eurodrive

For more information, Circle reply card No. 165




280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168


Box 917. R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning


Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

Methane gas control for sanitary landfill sites

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting

The impact of soil and ground water

pollution at both closed and in-use

225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

landfill sites is a major problem for many cities, towns and municipalities. Evaluation procedures and instrumen tation are available through the Heath

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

Landfill Site Division to ascertain and


methane, carbon



leachate, and other potential pollution problems at landfill sites. Following an initial investigation of a given site, re commendations can be presented and control systems designed to limit in herent problems associated with me thane gas,leachate and other pollutants. Heath can provide monitoring instru mentation. train municipal staff in monitoring procedures,and to establish

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply Water Resources

Environmental Planning Transportation Municipal Services

Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Structures

TORONTO (416)497-8600


WELLAND (416) 735-3659

SUDBURY (705)671-9903 (Dennis Consultants) BROCKViLLE (613)498-1208 (Sexsmilh Consultants)




AquaticSciences Inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


and maintain a continuous monitoring

program, if required. The company is equipped to perform subsurface evaluations with auguring equipment or back-hoes coordinated by experienced operators. Its drafting de partment can provide stratigraphic pro files from bore hole logs of areas desig-

• spill site investigations and cleanups • underwater video inspections

• impact assessments • water quality monitoring

P.O. Bqx2205,Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

(416)641-0941 43

Product review


nated for study.Samples ofcombustible gases, toxic gases and leachate can be


collected and submitted for analysis,





C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

both quantitatively and qualitatively, at various approved laboratory facilities located throughout Canada. Installa tions include test points, purge points, and all types of methane gas vapour barrier and ventilation systems. Soil studies and hydrology evaluations are available through our network of spe cialized organizations. Heath Consultants

For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

AC powered open

115 Hurontarlo Street, Suite 201,

channel flowmeter

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705H44-2327

CONSULTING ENGINEERS > Wastewater Collection & Treatment

•Water Supply Strategies

•Hazardous & Solid Waste

Environmentai Pianning • Anaiytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow

Management • Environmental Assessments/Audits



(519) 579-3500



•Water Resources &

Measurement EDMONTON


(403) 237-9300 (403) 488-2760 (604)684-3282






tromagnetic Open Channel Flowmeter provides telemetry via built-in modem.



Remote data communications are ea



• Environmental Assessments and Audits

WINDSOR (519) 255-9797

and Contaminant Transport Modeling • Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing

sily accomplished from monitoring site to your office central computer. Five extra data logging channels are pro vided for monitoring of peripheral de vices such as temperature,conductivity. pH sensors,rain gauges,etc., in addition to the dedicated level and velocity chan nels. Communication provided by lap

• Analytical Laboratory Services

top computer with Flo-Ware™, MS/

V^^RONTO (416) 498-7444


• Underground Storoge Tank Management, Investigation and Remediations • Risk Assessments, Groundwoter Flow

DOS based menu-driven software. Aer-O-Fio



Eastern Region Toronto Tel:(416)441-4111


Fax:(416) 441-4131


Prairie Region Calgary


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 167

Ultrasonic level and flow

Tel:(403) 276-9861


specialist brochure

Fax:(403) 277-6902 • SITE REMEDIATION


Pacific Region Vancouver


Offices across Canada and Overseas

Tel:(604)525-9333 Fax:(604)525-9458

Magnetrol's Ultrasonic Fevel and Flow Specialist brochure is a 20 page, four color catalog which provides a method of selecting the correct level or flow con trol for your application. A unique Fea ture and Selection Guide shows the ex

@iiLiL©ini Professional Consulting Services

tensive line of ultrasonic products avail able, both contact as well as non-con

tact, with descriptions to assist with pro

Planning Engineering

pacitance. bouyancy or thermal disper

Environmental Science

sion. and selection of level and flow

Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax • Sydney Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Ye 11 o w k n i f e • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6N5 (4 16) 229-4646


duct selections. For ultrasonic. R.F. ca

measurement products in the industry contact Magnetrol.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 168 Environmental Science <6 Engineering. July 1993

Product review


Eagle Richer presents a newly updated environmental sampling guide

Consultants In The Environment • Environmental Planning • Ecological Science

Eagle-Picher has updated and released

• Geoscience

anewWastewaterand Solid Waste Field

• Engineering

For more information, Circle reply card No. 169


• Remediation

Gartner Lee

Sampling Guide in a convenient poc ket slide chart form.The guide provides planning, buying and sampling person nel with a cross reference ofthe required parameter sample volume,preservative, holding time and the recommended precleaned sampler container for the applicable EPA method. Eagle-Picher supplies a complete line of sample con tainers to EPA protocols to support all the sampling methods described in the guide. Eagle-Picher has also released a new 1993 catalog expanding its product line on precleaned and certified glass and plastic sample containers. Various styles and sizes are available with Teflon liners or silicone septa, which meet or exceed stringent requirements specified by the EPA.Color coded field preserva tion ampules are also available in vari ous sizes. For a free Field Sampling Guide or Catalogue contact Eagle Richer

• Planning • Implementation • Monitoring


VANCOUVER (604)299-4144

NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716)285-5448


, Golder Associates

50 offices throughout Canada, the United States. Australia and Europe. BURNABY MISSiSSAUGA

Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax:(604)298-5253 Tel:(416)567-4444 Fox;(416)567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES:


> Workplace and safety audits

• Environmental Engineering 'Training programs > Legal compliance/designated substances > Ventilation assessment/design > Air mcnitoring 'Air emission control > Indoor air quality • Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control 'WHMIS > Asbestos


2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301

Telex: 06-218242

Mississauga, Ontario L5N IVO Canada •(416)858-4424


Bore St Storrie Limited

Environmentally responsible coatings for pipelines


Denso North America has introduced a

range of environmentally responsible surface coatings for corrosion protec tion of pipelines, valves and structural steel. New Protal 5900 Series Coatings

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6 Telephone (416) 499-90(X) Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa •Thorold

' Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London

are solvent-free and have no free iso-

cyanates in the base resin or hardener. The coatings are said to be safer for operators to apply and eliminate the risk of iso-cyanate pollution caused by spraying or accidental spillage. Protal 5900 Coatings provide corro



1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S IG5

Consulting Engineers

Tel. (416) 522-0012 FAX (416) 522-0031

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources

sion protection in underground or aboveground service. They are flexible, impact resistant and withstand a wide range of chemicals, including solvents. Protal 5900 Coatings resist cathodic disbondment, even



peratures of up to 175°F (80°C). They also exhibit excellent adhesion, passing the 0.5" mandrel bend, ASTM D1737.

Both spray and weldcoat grades are easy to apply and have a pot life of up to 20 minutes at 68°F (20°C). They can be applied to heated pipes in cold weather and are unaffected by light rain three to four minutes after application. Denso For more information, Circle reply card No. 170 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems • Neural Networks

ISIJagger Hims mU


Environmental Consulting Engineers 'Sydrogeology 'JBngincering Geology

• Geotechnical Engineering •Geosynthetic Engineering *Environmental JLudit & Site Remediation * Sewage System Design *Industrial Mineral & Aggregate Resources NEWMARKET OFFICE


130 Davis Drive, Suite 210

274 Fourth Avenue. Unit One

Newmarket. Ontario Canada L3Y 2N1

St. Catharines, Ontario

Telephone (416) 853-3303

Telephone (416) 687-1771


L2R 6P9

Fax (416) 863-1759

Fax (416) 687-1773

Toil Free (800) 263-7419

Toil Free (800) 668-2598



Product review

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.

Interface Code-Generation

Utility Added to LabWindows® Version 2.3


Brampton (416)459-4780 (416)459-7869 Kitctiener (519)743-6111 (519)743-3330 Cobalt (705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

National Instrument.s has announced the new Version 2.3 of its LabWindows

Consultants Limited

automatic code-generating software for DOS instrumentation applications.The

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

Version 2.3 is the new user interface

primary enhancement to LabWindows

CodeBuilder,an interactive prototyping and program-generation utility to help LabWindows users automatically de sign and build programs with graphical

Managing today's environmental issues.

user interfaces(GUIs). LabWindows 2.3 ■ Environmental Management Systems ■ Accounting ■ Assistance in M&A Negotiations ■ Disclosure & Financing Advice ■ Site Assessments ■ Due Diligence

■ Environmental Economics ■ Public Policy ■ TQEM

also includes enhancements to the User

Interface Library, new graph and cursor controls,and new hardware control and

memory management features in the

MSEnvironmental Services Inc.

Data Acquisition Library. The new ver sion will control only IEEE 488.2-compatible boards to take advantage of the

PO Box 31. Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 182 Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax: 416-777-3364

latest standard for instrument control


specifications. The new user interface CodeBuilder

Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario

simplifies somewhat complicated fea tures ofearlier versions of LabWindows










— having to learn event-driven pro gramming techniques to manipulate the graphic displays. National Instruments



(519) 966-2250

(519)680-3580 FAX:(519)680-3582

FAX: (519) 966-5523


For more information, Circle reply card No. 171

New 30" mechanical

joint fittings MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor. Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9. Telephone:(416) 475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers. Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment


•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geology •Environmental autlits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabliltatlon Terminal City Iron Works Ltd., has now introduced its first T.C. 30-inch mecha

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited


nical joint fittings. Produced in its Van couver facility,these extra large castings are the only Canadian made water works fittings ofthis size. They are all to

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

AWWA CI10-82 standard, and are cast

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga. Wtiitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416)882-1100 Fax:(416) 882-0055 46

in ductile iron for a 250 psi pressure rat ing. Terminal City Ironworks

For more information, Circle reply card No. 172

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Product review


Pneumatic pump minimizes product/water

Proctor & redfern limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners


Environmental Scientists Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kencra Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay Windsor 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel; (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276

Solo® automatic pneumatic pumps from QED are engineered to provide effective hydrocarbon recovery, while reducing the burden on treatment sys tems. Special top-inlet adaptors collect all free-phase product from the well; the pump removes only enough water to achieve the desired draw-down. The

pump's smooth action (with no high speed impeller) reduces mixing offloat ing product with water. Oil/water emul sions produced by electric submersible pumps can pass through oil/water sepa rators. greatly increasing contaminant loading of treatment systems. Positive protection against the over-driving keeps air out of the discharge, providing even more protection against emulsifi cation than first generation pneumatic


Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL • SCADA


345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

QED GroundWater Specialists

Teleptione 416-509-2285

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 173

Monitoring System Features Dissolved

Oxygen Technology The new YSI6000 Environmental Mon

itoring System helps monitor and access water quality in lakes, rivers, wetlands,

estuaries and coastal waters. RapidPulse (patent pending) dissolved oxy gen measurement needs no stirring, responds quickly, is easy to calibrate in air. and reduces passive fouling.



Fax 416-509-1361

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 • SITE CHARACTERIZATION • DECOMMISSIONING







121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090


Consulting Engineers

The YSI 6000 also measures conduc

• Supervisory Controi & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Audits • Water Resources • Water Pollution Control

will function unattended for weeks in as

• Environmental Planning

• Water Supply

little as a few inches of water or as deep

MILTON: Tel.;(416)875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.;(416)643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.:(613)247-0111

tivity. salinity, temperature, resistivity. ORP.depth and total dissolved solids. It

as 500 feet, and data will be secure in the

non-volatile memory. Its small size (3.5" diameter and 18" length) makes it 20% smaller than com parable units — means the 6000 will fit in 4-inch monitoring wells. The wet on/ off switch automatically turns on the


monitor when submersed.

Geneq Inc.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 174



Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114

Complete Environmental Service


Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies


Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits

Solid Waste Management • MISA

TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221

hubicki associates



Product review


Motor options for soil vapor extraction blowers



I ^

51 Townline, Orangeville, Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fax:(519)941-1830

• Environmental Audits • Decommissioning & Clean-Up * Asbestos/PCB Management


• Waste Management


•HeadHydrogeology Office 1595 Clark Boulevard,Brampton.Ontario L6T4VI

Consulting Engineers

Telephone (416) 793-9800 Fax:(416) 793-0641

Boston*Cambridge*Chicago»Hamilton*London»Markham*Montreal*North Bay Ottawa*Oshawa»Sudbury*Timmins*Toronto*Thunder Bay*Winnipeg

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007

Gast full line of blowers range in size from 1 to 10 horsepower, maximum va cuum to90" H2O and airflow rate to410 cfm. Product features include sealed air

stream, rugged construction and low maintenance.

Electric motors used on the regenera tive blowers are UL recognized and CSA certified, available in single and three phase. 50 or 60 Hertz and are ex plosion proof. Blower accessories in clude in-line filters, vacuum gauges,

check valves, moisture separators and ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & PROJECT MANAGERS

relief valves.

Gast blowers are warranted against


failure regardless of the reason for one year from date of shipment.


Walnbee Limited

For more information, Circle reply card No. 175

ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony Design and Specification of Control Measures Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Consulting Engineers Quarries, Presses, Blasting 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T IA3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698 Waterloo (519)746-3415


Signal processor gives Corlolls mass flowmeter

Improved performance

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SGLICITGRS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development. Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation 4 King Street West, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario M5H 3X2

Schlumberger Industries M-Dot Coriolis flowmeter is now available with the

new Datamate 2100™ signal processor. With this processor the M-Dot is cap able of higher temperature resolution (±0.01 °C) and higher density and per cent solids accuracy (±0.00! g/cc). The Datamate 2100 also features an Automatic Gain Control for the driver circuit that maintains constant sensor

XCG Consultants Ltd.

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

Suite 904

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters

Richard J. Rush Environmental

Engineering Consultants

MASc, PEng Principal

levels and produces faster recovery time from upsets caused by entrained air. The M-Dot offers a range of measure ment and control capabilities in a single package.It measures mass,density,tem perature. percent solids/concentration

Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng

and volumetric or solids flow rate and


total. Schlumberger Industries


For more information, Circle reply card No. 176 Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Product review Magnetic flowmeters for

the GSM I and removable credit card

Applications described are: raw water (influent), chemical feed, sludge flow,

sized memory cards.The cards will hold data and/or datalogger programs i n bat tery backed memory.The memory cards are easily exchanged and transported to a PC for data retrieval. Minimal power consumption and a wide operating range (-40 to -l-60°C) allow the module to be used in remote, battery powered appli cations. The system supports JEIDA4

filter rate of flow, filter backwash and

and PCMCIA standard memory cards

treated water (billing). Fischer & Porter produces magmeter primaries varying in diameter from 1/25 to 120 inches, measuring flow rates ranging from 12 cubic centimeters per minute(cc/min)to 1.600 million gallons per day (mgd). For a free copy, circle reader reply card

in sizes from 128 Kb to 2 Mb.The Card

water treatment A new technical bulletin (No. IOD-23).

from Fischer & Porter covers typical flowmeter applications in water treat ment for which magnetic llowmeters are well suited.

number 177.

Units are available in flow rates from

2 to 8 litres/min.(4.3 to 17 .scl"h). Wilier Engineering Limited

For more information. Circle reply card No. 181


consulting opportunities

Storage System is compatible with the

CRIO'! 2IX and CR7 dataloggers. Campbell Scientific

For more information, Circle reply card No. 180

An established consulting engi neering firm seeks to enhance its capabilities in some or all of the following areas: • ecology • environmental sciences

Cooler strips water from stack gases

Model 707. large 7". 0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged portable shock proof case. Practically unbreak

Universal Analyzers" electronic gas sample cooler is designed to remove water from stack gases without losing any of the measured gases. The unit functions like an electronic gas impinger. and has no moving parts except

able polyethylene shielded electrode.

its fan.

Ideal for unskilled users.

It has full proportional control with digital temperature display and LED fault alarm indication, and is designed

"Big Scale" pH meter for lab or plant

Economical,includes probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH and ORP Indica

• water quality, and • hydrogeoiogy.

If you are a small firm and you would like to join us, please sub mit your corporate profile and the CV's of your senior partners in confidence to department C, ES&E, 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, On tario, L4G 5N7,fax:841 -7271. No agencies please.

for continuous duty.

tor-Controllers available.

Analytical Measurements of Canada Ltd.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 179

Ultraviolet disinfection

systems Fischer & Porter(Canada) Ltd. is offer

ing a new. eight page, four colour book let on its ultraviolet disinfection sys tem.

The systems utilize patented integrat ed ballast technology to optimize the performance of UV germicidal lamps — for maximum energy efficiency and com ponent life. Other features include individually isolated lamps, remote mounted ballast, plug-in ballasts. 5 mA GFI. easy handling of individual racks and all stainless steel construction.


For a copy of the booklet circle reader reply card number 178.

SOILS Environmental Damage Soils, Sediments a Sludge Fertilizer Requirements Reclamation Requirements TOXICITY TESTS Fist), Daptinia, Miorotox artd Plant Bioassay WATERS Drinking Water Quality


Industrial Wastes



Metals a Organics MICROBIOLOGY Foocb

Waters a Sludges FEEDS Nutritional Value SEEDS Purity a Germination SUMPS & WASTES

RESEARCH a DATA INTERPRETATION AccrediteKi by the Standards Coundl of

Canada and certified by the Canadiah

Association for Environmehtai AnaiytUc^f iLaboratories fine.)for specific tests a

Memory cards for data storage Campbell Scientific (Canada) Corp. has announced a new Card Storage Module system for data storage and ret rieval. The system consists of a micro processor-controlled read/write module.

V jMiHOUR RESPONSEi(^03)445-151iy lANGLEY (604)530-4344 FAX (604)534-9996



Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

(403)327-8527 (403)434-8586

CALGARY (403)291-2022 (403)291-2021 WINNIPEG (204)982-8630 FAX (204)275-6019

For more information. Circle reply card No. 130 49

Safeguarding potable water

Is your water distribution system safe?

Thegeneral public relies on the

Water Purveyor to deliver safe, clean,drinking water.The con

sumer does not realize, how

ever. the complexity of the regulations and the various levels of jurisdiction that are involved in this process. In January of 1990 MacLeans Maga zine had the following headline on its cover — Danger in the Water. The maga zine featured stories surrounding con cerns over the contamination ofgroundwater supplies. The magazine also di.scussed the increased use ofbottled water

homa,The problem occurred during the filling of a two hundred gallon tank that contained a mixture ofthese chemicals. A hose was left in the tank,

and a break in the line caused a drop in pressure and a back siphonage of the chemicals. The water lines were

Hushed first with chlorine then caus

tic soda and finally with a detergent used by the dairy industry to clean milk lines. The detergent treatment was repeated three(3)times. The cost to Arpelar. Oklahoma, was approxi mately SI0.000.

due to the "National anxiety over what

• In October of 1991. parasitical worms

comes out of the tap". If there is a had water complaint the consumer will contact the person that is selling him (or her) that product. Water is a product and the supplier of that item is subject to liability resulting from ad verse affects resulting from its use.

were found in the water in two (2) homes in Southgate. Michigan. The

Case histories; There are numerous case histories on file as a result of contamination of the

public water supply. The Pacific North west section of AWWA produces a Sumnutry ofBack/low Incidents. • In July of 1985 a break in a water line

caused the back siphonage of a mix ture of chlordane. malthion. savin

and diazanon into a portion of the water system serving Arpelar. Okla

confined to North America. In Sep tember of 1992. in Melbourne. Aus

tralia. the state Health Department of Victoria. Occupational Health and Safety Authority, along with Mel bourne Water, were alerted by media reports to chemical contamination of drinking water in a city building. The building was subsequently inspected by all three organizations. These in vestigations indicated that in late August, a corrosion inhibitor (con taining chromium)in the building air conditioning chilled water supply system entered the drinking watersystem after the chiller had been off line

around in his bathtub". The reason

for cleaning. Shortly after this occur red. a yellow discolouration of the drinking water was observed.The sys

they were found in the bathtub and

tem was Hushed and was modified to

not at other fi xtures was because the

prevent a recurrence.

tub had no screen or filter that would

The contamination happened be cause of an inappropriate connection

homeowner found them "swimming

prevent them from coming through the fixture. The problem arose due to an improper installation of an atmo spheric vacuum breaker on a lawn irrigation system. The lawn sprinkler installation had not been inspected as the contractor did not apply for a per mit. This problem caused only an noyance but illustrates that it is no good having regulations if they are not followed.

• The problems with backflow are not

between the air conditioning and

drinking water systems in the build ing. This incident was not unique, but was the most recent in a series of

similar incidents in buildings. There are numerous other case his tories that we could examine. • October 1979 — 2 million dollars

worth of pork was contaminated at a packing plant in Marshalltown. Iowa.

• August 1987 — employee of a ply wood mill sustains chemical burns

1993 BCW&WA Conference

following backHow of an alkaline cleaning compound in Willamina. Oregon. • June 1987 — eleven (11) workers hos

pitalized after drinking water con taminated with nickel in Kitchener. Ontario. These case histories show that in some incidents the cost was minimal

but in others personal injury and material costs resulted. In all cases, however, there was a cost to the Water

Department in terms of lost man hours investigating the complaint and in some cases the cost of clean up as well. Let us now examine how water pur veyors can reduce liability exposure.

At the 1993 BC Water & Wastewater Association Conference in Vernon, B.C.the new

executive took over. Left to right; Neal Carley — WEF Trustee; DaveSwanson — Past President; Doug Neden — Vice-President; Frank Belfry — Secretary; Jack Bryck — AWWA Director; Dennis Mitchell — President; Murray McLeod — Conference Com mittee; Prad Khare — President Eiect; Catherine Gibson — Executive Director; and Hew McConnell — WEF Director. 50

Safety Program A legitimate safety program has five basic ingredients. They are as follows: l.The organization must accept res ponsibility for the applicable rules or laws concerning the safety of its cus tomers. employees or residents. If water purveyors do not accept the responsibility for water quality then the balance of this program is academic. In British Columbia on October 1. 1992.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

By Michael Birks* the B.C. Safe Drinking Water Regulation

try standards then — reasonable care has

came into effect. This means that there

been provided. If you exercise reasonable care you have a defendable position. . A Measurable Safety Program for

now are regulations, not guidelines, for water quality.

2. The organization must provide Hand books. Guidebooks or Policies for

cross-connection control is a cost of de


livering safe, clean drinking water. This

This work has been done for you.The

cost is no different from other costs in

AWWA has a cross-connection control manual.The British Columbia Govern

to get information on this article. Circle #256




Our new phone and fax numbers will be: Phone number:(416)878-2800 Fax number:(416)878-7332


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel

Our new mailing address will be: P.O. Box 60069


300 North Service Road West


L6M 3H2

20 Sharp Rd.. R.R.#6, Brantford,Ont. N3T 5H6

Tel: (519) 751-1080 Fax:(519)751-0617

Our new 24 hour spills response phone number:(416)878-2800

Circle reply card No. 139

book" brochures aimed at school chil

Circle reply card No. 140 Plant Facilities & Mobile Services


"Leaders in Quality & Performance"


Steel Grit




Alkyd Enamels Epoxy Coatings

Glass Bead


Zinc Rich

Plastic Flame Coating

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 141

cause you have not followed all the


elements of a total safety program. You can gamble on your future by doing nothing and hope that a problem does

Environmentetl Specialists

not occur.

The best policy is, however, to invest in a legitimate safety program to protect the people (your customers) and your assets from liability. Safety is a joint responsibility: a. The authority must regulate b. The consumer must comply. A legitimate safety program must be

Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidit)f


Suspended Solids, O2, DO,(Conductivity


2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y1Y7, Tel (416) 277-0331, Fax (416) 277-2533

For more information. Circle reply card No. 142

measurable. You must:

a. Anticipate foreseeable circumstances b. Apply industry standards. If you have anticipated foreseeable circumstances and have applied indus-


• Specializing In testing of Underground and aboveground



*Febco Canada, Moffat, Ontario. Based on a paper presented at ttie British Columbia Water & Waste-

Use the Reader Service Card


intended audience.

5. The organization must survey for compliance, provide and maintain appropriate records, and con tinuously audit. This is the most important aspect of a safety program. If you are the purveyor, do not survey for compliance,or ensure that this is done,you are not in a defendable position if a problem occurs be



On airlines the Safety Card is printed with very little or no writing at all. The reason is that this safety card is part of the total on board safety program. AWWA produces envelope stuffers aimed at the consumer and "picture


Pubillus Syrus

volved such as. chlorination. pumping, mains repair, etc.

ment publishes a Plumbing Code and. as mentioned previously, has a safe drinking water regulation. 3. The organization must identify the specific hazards and provide suit able warnings. This is difficult as you cannot label water unless you sell it in litre bottles. You can. however, provide your con sumers with envelope stuffers or other educational type hand-outs warning of the dangers of cross-connections. 4. The organization must provide an education program suitable for the

dren on a variety of topics. The question is; How many water works operations are utilizing these educational mater

I will close with this quotation: "A wise man avoids evil by anticipating it.

storage tanks

• Nationwide service offered

through offices in Montreal, Toronto and Edmonton

2650 Meadovwale Blvd., Unit 12A, Mississauga, Ont. L5N 6M5,(416)819-8811

water Association, Annual Con ference, Vernon, B.C. Environmental Science <6 Engineering. July 1993

Edmonton (403)963-9403

Montreal (514) 593-9993

For more information. Circle reply card No. 143 51

Choosing a laboratory

What to look for when buying analytical services poor,the indicated values may be a long way from the true value and therefore inaccurate.

In the US. the certification procedure for a lab includes an initial review ofthe

company's credentials, proficiency sample testing and an on-site audit. In the absence of Canadian certification

programs similar to those run by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USLPA) and the New York Depart ment of Health, there are no easily ap plied. common criteria which a buyer


can use with all laboratories to assess

the validity of analytical results. Under these circumstances, it is re

commended that a buyer might use the following approach: • Ask to see the laboratory's Quality Assurance/Quality Control(QA/QC) manual. If it is not available then you may be buying a commodity"number for a dollar".

The buyer of analytical services today must become more tech nically sophisticated because

ofthe need to minimize costs as

well as environmental liability. Analyti cal services can be expensive and the liabilities associated with analytical data can be extremely costly. Every la boratory customer who hopes to obtain the greatest value from the information bought must either be able to assess the quality assurance of the data or hire someone to evaluate both the data and

the laboratory.

Regulatory pressure is the driving force behind a rapid increase in the de mand for laboratory services. Because the demand has grown so quickly,there

has not been time for managers requir ing the service to learn what to ask for, what to look for and what to avoid. As a

consequence, the lab industry has moved off-centre towards a commoditybased business. To the laboratory cus tomer concerned mainly with the bot tom line, the lowest bid is the best. This

makes the daring assumption that all things are equal and that the analytical data represent nothing more than a number for a dollar.

To give the purchaser of analytical data the maximum return on each dol

lar spent, three criteria must be con sidered. They are. listed in order of priority: 52

• Ask to see an example of a data pac kage produced for the type of analyti cal test you are interested in buying. The data package should include the QC steps which support the reported results. • Ask what certifications the lab holds.

• Quality assurance • Customer service

Are the certificates of certification

• Cost.


Laboratory services begin before a customer places an order. Analytical data need to be adequate

for their intended purpose. This means, in part, that the requested tests should not be more comprehensive than neces sary. The more specific a test becomes, the more expensive the analytical equip ment and its operator tend to be and therefore the more expensive the test. The types and ranges of tests necessary to meet data requirements are a part of

• Ask how the lab performed during the last round of performance evaluation samples sent by the certifying body? A performance evaluation sample is an example of a single-blind QA sample in which the composition is not known to the analyst but it is known that the sample is a test of both the analyst and the chemical procedures and equipment used. Data are accu mulated from a large number of labs and appropriate statistics applied to

the service advisement function of a la

assess the "correct' result. Labs are

boratory. In other words,one of the cri

then graded according to how closely

teria to be used in the choice ofa lab is —

their individual results fit the norm. A

does the lab have technically proficient staff who are also thoroughly familiar with current environmental regulations to be able to provide assistance in the design of testing programs? Laboratory certification programs are intended to achieve a level of quality assurance which will yield data that are both accurate and precise. Accuracy indicates how close a mea

report is sent to each lab which des cribes how well they performed. Ask to see it. If a lab fails a particular type ofanalysis on two consecutive perfor mance evaluations it will lose its cer

tification for the failed parameter. • The fact that a lab does not hold a cer tification in Canada should not. ne

cessarily. exclude it from considera tion. It is important for you as a buyer

sured value is to the real, or true, value.

to determine whether the lab can mi

Precision,on the other hand,is expressed in terms of reproducibility. A poorly ca librated analytical instrument might give duplicate results which are very close together and therefore highly pre

nimize your environmental liability by supporting its analysis with QA/

cise but. because the calibration was

QC data.

• It is sometimes useful for a purchaser to include a similar-looking known sample with an unknown. This is

Environmental Science c6 Engineering, July 1993

called a double-blind sample because

which a lab can provide. Do not ask for a

it looks identical to the unknown

one week turnaround time if two weeks

samples being submitted for analysis and is not identified to the analyst as a performance evaluation sample. It is particularly difficult to provide soil samples as double-blind samples be cause ofthe variety ofsoil types. Slight

will do. However,a good lab will see to it that the agreed upon turnaround time

differences in soil matrices tend to make an obvious, visual difference between the known and 'real' sam

ples. However,soils which have had a known amount of contaminant pur posely added or duplicate samples taken in the field can act as adequate double-blind samples. • If it is necessary for a lab to do an ana lysis by an accepted method it must be able to produce the QA/QC docu mentation in support of it because it is a requirement ofthe method.There is a significant cost associated with the implementation of QA/QC require ments in lab operations.The extent of your requirements for documenta tion as a purchaser should therefore be limited to the minimum necessary to achieve analytical data which are adequate for their intended purpose. Do not expect the lab to provide a level of QA/QC which is so sophis ticated that an otherwise routine ana

is met.

routine sample will be delayed. The la boratory should have a person whose job it is to communicate with the client before, during and after an analysis has been purchased. If the results are to be

Large demands foranalytical services to be delivered by a laboratory within a specified turnaround time can be ac commodated operationally by increas-

know that it will happen and not be left to find out that it ha.s happened. Part of the turnaround problem en countered with analytical services is often alleviated by laboratory com

Do not expect the lab to provide a level of QA/QC which is so sophisticated that an otherwise routine

analysis turns into litigation-proof information unless that is the intention.

ing resources in terms of manpower and/or equipment,sending some of the work out to a sister facility, or subcon tracting to another laboratory. Some of these alternatives can require substan tial financial commitments on the part of the lab. The extent to which a lab can

reasonably be expected to accom

lysis turns into litigation-proof in

modate a buyer obviously depends

formation unless that is the intention. On the other hand,do not ask the lab

upon the extent of the analytical ser vices to be bought. Every manager ima

to cut costs and improve its turn around time by abandoning its QA/ QC. At best, the request is unethical and can expose both the purchaser and the lab generating the com modity to devastating environment al liability.

gines that the set ofsamples which are of importance to their project is of equal

• Turnaround times can be dramatical

ly affected by the level of computerenhanced data generation used in the lab. Ask ifthe standard operating pro cedures for analysis. QA/QC and cor

late, for whatever reason,a client should

importance to the laboratory. Fast turn around usually involves a premium cost. If the lab is operating at close to its functional capacity, then a batch of "rush" samples which are to have an ex pedited turnaround time will cause a non-rush sample to be set back in the line. Clearly,if this happens enough,the

puterization of results. Laboratory in formation management systems(LIMS) have been developed in recent years which follow the guidelines of good la boratory practice. They are able to pro vide analysts with standard operating procedures and remove the bottleneck of QA/QC acceptance, result calcula tions and data deliverables. Informa

tion can be captured in the LIMS system directly from the analytical instrument. The danger of the computer driven out put is that it is generated without a pro per audit trail. For example, the com puter can force a straight line correla tion through a series of points lying along an S-bend. It is therefore essential forthe success ofan analytical project to use laboratory professionals who are personally motivated to follow the prin ciples of their profession and who are able to apply informed corrective ac tions to deliver QA/QC supportable data which are adequate for their pur pose. Dr. Ian Webber obtained Bachelors de

grees in Chemistry and Physics in 1967 from the University of London, England and the University of Salford, England. He holds a Ph.D. from Carleton Univer

sity, Ottawa.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 260


rective actions are available electro

nically to the analysts. Data updates and the downloading of completed reports can be done with a modem and the final hardcopy, signed, stam ped and delivered at a later date.


• Does the lab have someone who will

act as a liaison to discuss analytical needs, help to determine a reasonable cost analytical solution to the data you need and communicate informa tion on a timely basis? A purchaser needs to be aware of some of the operational difficulties




which labs encounter. Increases in the

turnaround time of sample data report ing caused by increased analytical de mand in the laboratory operation can be resolved by throwing more man power at the problem. In some cases, labs have responded by reducing their

A n opportunity to participate in a panel discussion on "Potable Water — A Dwindling Resource" — If you are so inclined, please contact Janice Taylor at (403) 259-4041.

normal level of QA/QC. Fast tur naround time is only a part ofthe service

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993

Forfurther conference information please contact same. For more information. Circle reply card No. 131 53

By Tony Petrucci, P.Eng., MacViro Consultants Inc. and Volker Masemann,P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Pilot scale sludge dewatering tests The Duffin Creek WPCP is an integral component ofthe York-Durham Sewage System which was initiated in late 1972 by the Project Development Branch of what is now the Ministry of Environ ment and Energy (MOEE). The plant treats wastewater collected from the 150

kilometre trunk sewerconnecting major centres in both York Region and Dur ham Region. In 1988. it was determined that the

plant should be expanded from a design • Anaerobic digestion with digester gas utilization. capacity of 182.000 mVd (40 MIGD). Phase I to 364.000 mVd (80 MIGD). • Sludge dewatering. and Phase II to accommodate future growth • Incineration with heat recovery. Since commissioning of the new in both Regions. Under the current Phase sludge dewatering equipment. Duffin II expansion, which is nearing comple tion. sludge handling was given priority Creek WPCP operating staff have en and new sludge dewatering equipment countered a number of operational pro blems with sludge handling. In parti was commissioned in 1990. Sludge han dling facilities at the Duffin Creek cular. recent unforeseen equipment downtime in both dewatering and in WPCP include: cineration operations and a subsequent increase in sludge inventory put stress on both the liquid and solids treat ment processes.

Rupke&Associates joins

WheeiJorator EOS.

Sludge Study In August 1992 MacViro Consultants Inc. conducted an investigation of the sludge handling capabilities and a study and report on optimization of sludge handling operations. A steering committee was set up to oversee the study, and consisted of representatives from: MOEE. York Region. Durham Region.Counsel EngineeringCo.(YorkDurham Sewage System coordinator), and Proctor & Redfern Ltd.(Expansion design consultants). The steering committee identified several operational concerns that had to be addressed:

• Inconsistent feed sludge quality to dewatering equipment.

• Difficulty in dewatering digested sludge alone, and • Higher than anticipated downtime

Wheelabrator EOS Inc., one of

North America's largest private providers of municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment, proudly announ ces the acquisition of Rupke and Atssociates, Newmarket,Ontario.

Rupke and Atssociates is a contract

operator and provider of maintenance and consulting services for municipal and industrial water and wastewater

treatment plants in Canada and the U.S. Rupke and Associates will add sig nificant capabilities and capacity to Wheelabrator EOS, which treats over

350 million gallons of water daily.

Vheelabrator EOS Canada Inc. lupke Division 471 D'Arcy Street, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 1M9 Tel.: 416-853-1223 A WHEELABRATOR TECHNOLOGIES COMPANY

For more information. Circle reply card No. 192 54

with some equipment. A thorough review of the sludge han dling capacities and current process performance, led to the recommenda tion that additional sludge dewatering units would be advisable to bring the "firm"capacity ofthe sludge dewatering

operations up to 364.000 mVd (80 MIGD) under the current Phase II ex pansion.

Current sludge dewatering operations involve a blend of 60% raw sludge and 40% digested sludge fed to the mem brane-equipped. recessed plate presses with polymer conditioning of the sludge. The Sludge Study identified two op tions for dewatering operations.The first using digested sludge alone fed to the filter presses, and the second option us ing the current scheme of dewatering a blend of raw and digested sludge. A sub stantial reduction in sludge volumes as sociated with handling digested sludge alone, was identified. The potential im pact on the capital cost associated with fewer dewateringunits in comparison to equipment requirements for the current mode of operation, could not be


Continued on page 58

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Employment opportunities EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

Hydraulic/Hydrologic Engineer W2O is seeking an experienced hydraulic/hydroiogic Engineer to join their Mississauga office. The position requires an experienced individual with strong computer and program ming skills, a background in urban drainage, combined sewer manage ment, stormwater management and knowledge of current hydraulic/hydrologic modelling tools. A back ground in wastewater treatment pro cess engineering would be an asset. Well developed communication skills are essential. Eligibility for APEO cer tification is required. W2O is a Canadian employee owned firm specializing in municipal water and wastewater engineering and wa ter resources management. Interested candidates should for ward their resumes to:

Mr.P.Gray,P.Eng. W2O Inc., 1 Port Street East, Mississauga, Ontario, L5G 4N1.


CUSO, a Canadian International Development Organization, is recruiting for a two and a half year contract for A Manager of Hydrogeology and Construction for a "Water for Life" project in the north of Ondo State, Nigeria. The project aims to strengthen village and gov ernment institutions to enable 50,000 rural inha bitants to better meet their water and sanitation

needs,and to improve their socio-economic con ditions. Please Note: Ttils is not a cooperant position. SUMMARY: Under the direct supervision of the Project Manager, the Manager of Hydrogeology and Construction is primarily responsible for advising on all rural hydrogeological matters

the design, field implementation and evalua tion of water point improvement projects; • extensive hands-on experience in the develop ment, implementation and evaluation of com munity-based sustainable handpump main tenance and repair programs;

• very strong hands-on experience with: a) mas ter contract, subcontractor administration, b) field supervision, c) monitoring techniques, d) the proven ability to control drilling contractor operations in the field; • demonstrated strong leadership, com munications and team work skills.

A detailed position description can be obtained from Human Resources Department.

(rural water supply systems)and,on behalf of the

Qualified candidatesshould support theirappli-

Project, in supervising the principal technical contractor in al l hydrogeologic and related tech

catlon with a current resume, the names and addresses of three references and a short state

nical works.

ment on how they see themselves contributing to CUSO's work in this particular position.


Forward the above to CUSO Human Resources

The ideal candidate will have:

Department, 135 Rideau Street, OTTAWA, On tario, K1N 9K7 — FAX:(613) 563-8068. APPLI

• appropriate university degree; • several years management level experience in







Calgary Convention Centre Novemtoer 2 and 3, 1993 EDMONTON:


#240,4936 - 87 St., ' )Phone:(403):258-0705 ^ Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5W3 ^ Fox:(403)255-7404 : f Phone:(403)469-2400. ( Fax:(403)469-1398

For more information, Circle reply card No. 193 Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1993


Pulp & Paper

Corrugated containers recycled Into high quality fine papers Domtar Inc. unveiled a new proce.ss to

• The decontamination efficiency var

recycle old corrugated containers into high quality fine papers at its Research

ies between 95% and 99%, compared with 90% for conventionally deinked pulp. • Printing and writing papers that in clude this recycled pulp will have pro duct characteristics virtually undistinguishable from virgin fibre paper.

Centre in Senneville, Quebec. Cleaner and more economical than

the traditional deinking technique, the new process will result in stronger and brighter recycled paper, says Domtar. This process is the result of numerous tests performed by the company at its Research




plants. Among other things, the process makes it possible to dramatically reduce the quantity of reject sludge produced by conventional deinking. one of the major drawbacks to this manufactur ing technique. • The new fibre is twice as strong as

fibre produced by the conventional deinking process. • The new pulp would result in a degree ofbrightness6 to 16 times higher than is possible with conventionally deinked pulp.

Recycled Bleach Containers (RBC) process overview OCC repulping & contaminant removal Collected bales ofold corrugated con tainers(OCC)are transported from in ventory storage areas into a pulper via lift trucks and a belt conveyor system. Inside the pulper. mixing OCC with water and agitation produces a low consistency pulp mixture containing recycled fibres and



means of a junk trap. High density cleaners remove smaller heavy con taminants such as staples and paper clips. A system of holed and slotted screen

ing is used to remove fragmented debris such as hot melts, stickles and fiber re

jects. Cleaners are used to remove light weight contaminants and smaller stick les.

Low consistency cleaned pulp is thic kened and then stored in a high density tank. Filtrate from the pulp thickening is again used for the OCC repulping.

Repulping and screening rejects are dewatered. Filtrates and cleaner rejects are clarified. Resultant clear filtrate is

recycled to the process and dewatered solids are landfilled.


taminants,e.g., baling wire,large strings

Removal of residual llgnin and trace

of plastic, etc.. are removed from the pulper via a ragger. Large heavy ma


terial and plastic debris are extracted by


Oxygen,caustic and steam are used to remove most of the lignin from the

cleaned OCC pulp product. Proprietary pulp pretreatment and delignification techniques are used to preserve the fibre strength and to solubilize all residual contaminants. Pretreated and deligni-

fied pulp is washed and cleaned before entering the bleach plant. Wash liquor containing inorganics and organics is


recovered and reused.

Bleaching for brighter pulp


v Donald Kemp, P.Eng

Adel Ashamalla, P.Eng

The President of MacViro Consultants Inc.,Sid Glllesple,P.Eng.,is pleased to announce that Adel F. Ashamalla, P.Eng., and F. Donald Kemp, P.Eng., have been elected as new members of the Board of Directors.

Mr. Ashamalla has more than 25 years of diversified experience in Canada

and abroad including municipal engineering, water resources, hydrotechnical studies, stormwater management, and hydraulic and hydroiogic analyses. Mr. Kemp has more than 15 years of experience in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment, water treatment and environmental planning.

MacViro is a firm of consulting engineers, planners and scientists specializ ing in the environment.

MacViro Consultants Inc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 196 56

The cleaned and delignified OCC pulp is subsequently bleached in a mod ern four stage bleach plant using con ventional bleaching chemicals such as oxygen, peroxide, caustic and chlorine dioxide. A brightness similar to that of full bleached virgin kraft pulps or higher than 87 ISO can be produced. Chlorine gas will not be used and the bleach plant effluent will meet all cur rent environmental regulations. Fully bleached RBC pulp is combined with fully bleached hardwood kraft pulp for making top quality Ecologo fine paper grades.

Recovery of spent pulping chemicals and dissolved organics

As the source of energy and caustic, the OCC process draws steam and white liquor from the existing hardwood kraft mill. The spent liquor from the washing of oxygen delignified pulp, which con tains both dissolved organics and in organics. is returned to the existing kraft mill for recovery of chemicals and energy. ES&E

Environmeiiial Science & Engineering. July 1993

Some things nevkchange.

MDS Environmental Inc,

is a new company created by MDS Health Group Ltd. that fuses the expertise ofseveral companies, each well-established in its own right, to the task of providing high quality laboratory services for environmental decision-making. MDS Health &oup is a major Canadian provider of medical ^agnostic testing services. The company is committed to leadership in customer service and to applying new technology in order to provide efficient, reliable laboratory services. As a venture capital company,MDS is also an innova tor in incubating new,technology-based businesses.



Laboratories Ltd., Halifax, Nova Scotia Formed in 1990, and serving clients in industry, consulting and govemment in Atlantic Canada and in New England. Fenwick is also well-known for introducing clients to innovative technologies such as RCAp(Rapid Chemical Analysis program) that deliver rapid,low-cost testing while at the same time maintaining the high standards of rehahihty necessary for environmental decision-making. The members of the

MDS Environmental Inc. seeb to excel at under

standing and delivering to its clients. , _ what is important _


MDS Environmental Laboratory network are:



MDS Laboratories, Reading,Pennsylvania Providing a full range of industrial hygiene and

With over 80 chemists and support staff, the network gives clients access to an extraordinary depth of

Envirociean Laboratories Inc., London,Ontario One of the pioneers in providing commercial

environmental testing services to chents in New York, New lersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware since 1978.

technical expertise and experience. Individual

environment^ laboratory services in Ontario.

laboratories within the group are certified either

Serving clients in Southwestern Ontario since 1968,

MDS Environmental Laboratories,

through the Canadian Association of Environmental Analytical Laboratories, or any ofseveral State accrediting agencies in the U.S.

Envirociean has earned a reputation both for consistent technical excellence and for responsiveness to individual client needs.

Mississauga, Ontario Formed in 1989 by M.M Dillon Ltd.,serving clients in the greater metropolitan Toronto area.

ENVIROCLEAN LABORATORIES INC. London, Ontario, Canada N5Z3M7 Tel:(519)686-7558 Toil free: 1-800-268-7396 Fax:(519)686-6374 For more information, Circie repiy card No. 241

Sludge dewatering cont'd A combination of operational con cerns and the significant difference in capital cost associated with the two op tions led to the conclusion that further

Allied Colloids(Canada) Inc.. the cur rent polymer supplier, provided various polymer formulations for testing. Once the schedule for the pilot study program was firmly established,operat ing staff from the Duffin Creek WPCP assumed the operation of the pilot filter press and provided concise documenta

study of the sludge dewatering process at the Duffin Creek WPCP was required. In January 1993, MacViro Consultants Inc. coordinated an extensive sludge dewatering test program to address the tion of the results for the various feed sludge scenarios, including: following issues: • Determine the dewaterability of di • 100% raw sludge (co-settled primary and waste activated). gested sludge and the impact on in • Various blends of raw and digested cineration. sludge, and • Use pilot scale equipment to test vari ous blends of raw and digested sludge • 100% digested sludge. A careful evaluation of all operating to optimize the mixture. data from the test trials along with ex • Evaluate performance of various po lymers. ferric chloride and flyash pre- tensive analytical reports from various coat system to condition feed sludge feed sludge, filter cake and filtrate sam and improve quality of filter cake, ples. resulted in the following obser vations and conclusions:


• Develop sound design criteria for any • Dewatering 100% digested sludge pro duced problems with cloth blinding, future equipment upgrades and/or poor cake release and high moisture plant expansions. content. Proper conditioning of di A pilot filter press,500 mm by 500 mm gested sludge was difficult. recessed filter plates creating two cham bers. was used to conduct a series of 83 • Blending raw and digested sludge improved the quality and dewaterabi tests during the months of January and lity of the feed sludge and produced a February 1993. Initially Edwards and much improved filter cake which can Jones Ltd. and Asdor Ltd. provided as sistance in the installation and start-up

be incinerated more economically.

of the pilot unit along with conducting • Conditioning with polymers provides an acceptable feed sludge quality with the initial trials to provide guidance for little to no improvements from ferric the remainder of the pilot study work.

chloride conditioning or flyash precoat of feed sludge. The recommendation made in the

Pilot Study, is to maintain the current 60% raw sludge and 40% digested sludge blend to the filter presses and continue with polymer conditioning of the feed sludge. The importance of maintaining consistent raw and digested sludge qua lity was reinforced, along with the po tential impact on dewatering. incinera tion and liquid treatment operations. The pilot study program provided useful design criteria that can be used for future sizing of additional dewater ing equipment as well as answer some very important process questions re garding sludge conditioning alter natives. optimum sludge blends and filter precoating. Consideration is being given to the acquisition of a pilot unit to facilitate future tests of sludge blend scenarios and to keep abreast ofthe most advanced chemical conditioning tech nologies.The overall objective is for con stant improvement of the dewatering process, through operator involvement. In closing,the efficient execution and successful completion of these studies, is owed in large part to the cooperation and guidance received from the Region of Durham, and Duffin Creek WPCP

plant operating staff. Circle reply card No. 251


A COMPLETE SERVICE — Reduce your sludge disposal costs by mobilizing the TRIMAX HI-SPEED CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING SYSTEMS for your next dewatering project. For Further Information Contact:

TRIMAX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LTD. Phone:(403) 466-7920 For more information, Circle reply card No. 145 58

Fax: (403) 469-4465 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

Introducing a

highly-efficient killer Fischer & Porter's new

Open Channel Ultraviolet System uses 20% less energy than

competing UV disinfection systems. We began with the concept of UV disin fection — a proven and dependable method of wastewater treatment with

significant advantages over other methods. Then we improved it. By boosting energy efficiency. Prolonging lamp life. Adding sophisticated controls, assuring compati bility with process control systems includ ing our DCI System Six.™ And by design ing it to be the most durable, easiest-toservice UV system available — further saving on use and maintenance costs.


Fischer & Porter's Ultraviolet Disinfection System uses an innovative ballast — precisely matched to germicidal lamp operating specifica tions — to save energy

and lower lamp mainte-



nance costs. Energy savings also means that the UV lamps operate in a less stressful environ ment, thereby prolong ing their useful life.


The Fischer & Porter

UV System saves main

tenance time by allowing

one person to do what previously required twolamp rack removal and lamp or sleeve replace ment.

The UV system can be monitored and con

trolled independently or by Fischer & Porter's DCI System Six™ or by an existing process con trol system.

For more information about Fischer & Porter's UV

System, call 1-800-663-7097.

Fischer & Porter (Canada) Ltd. 134 Norfinch Drive Downsview, Ontario Canada M3N 1X7 © 1993 Fischer & Porter Company

Circle reply card No. 144


It's a family affair

Canada's top award winning magazine for environmental professionals has unmatched industry involvement Steve Davey is the co-founder and President ofEnvironmen tal Science & Engineering Publications Inc. He is a former Ma naging Editor of Water & Pollution Control magazine and Process Industries Canada. He has worked on several environ

mental studies, including a report on Third World Environ mental Technologies for CI DA.A winner of a Southam/tuwvs' ofExcellence for his environmental articles. Steve is a Past Pre sident of the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Associa tion and a Director of the Water Environment Association of

Ontario(formerly the PCAO).Steve(right)is shown with 1992 OPCEA President Rob Warren (left).

Sandra Davey. Associate Editor, has edited many reports and studies for the University of Toronto, consulting firms and the federal government. She has administered over 50 seminars and conferences for the Water Environment Associ ation of Ontario and has been its Newsletter Editor for over 16

years. She is shown (left) with George Powell. President of Gore & Storrie Limited and Past President of the Water Envi ronment Association of Ontario. Sandra worked for the

Canadian High Commission in London. England before emigrating to Canada. She received an award from the Water Environment Association of Ontario for her editorial work on

"A History of Pollution Control in Ontario."

Penny Davey. Sales Manager, shown with the then Envi ronment Minister Jean Charest at the "92 AQTE Congress,in Montreal. Penny graduated with a degree in English Litera ture from Queen's University.She was elected as a Director of the Ontario Pollution



of Ontario

(OPCEA)in 1992. She is now the OPCEA Newsletter Editor and also serves on a WEAO committee on Communications.

Penny is ES&E"s Sales Manager. Her territory covers Eastern Canada and the United States. Colleague Ron Ganton covers sales for Western Canada and the US West Coast.

Tom Davey. ES&E Publisher, has worked as a journalist in

England. Australia and Canada, winning 36 writing awards, the most recent being Environment Canada's 1992/93 Commmncations Achievement Award. Tom's international honours

include two J.H. Neal Awards from American Business Press in New York. In 1980. Geoff Scott. President of the Water Envi

ronment Federation (left) presented Canada's first Schlenz Medal to Tom in Las Vegas. His 36 awards include eight na tional and three international honours. Tom is a Past President of the Canadian Science Writers Association and an Associate of the U of T's Institute for

Environmental Studies. He has given presentations at Queen's University, the University of Toronto and at a World Health Organization Conference in Rome. Italy. He has also given lectures and papers at the University of New Brunswick,at the international 'Waterscapes' meeting in Saskatoon and to the BCW&WA in Victoria.

Groundwater development

J.A. Hams,P.Eng., G.A. Kuehl, B.Sc., AA Ridden,P.Eng/

Development of a 20 MIGD(1050 L/s) groundwater supply for Canfor's Pulp and Paper Mills in Prince George Analysis of the available data indi cated that two Horizontal Collector

Wells could be developed at the sites of TW 5/88 andTW 10/89 each with a yield of 790 to 1050 L/s (15 to 20 MIGD). Construction

In July of 1989. International Water Supply Ltd, was contracted by Canfor to install a Horizontal Collector Well for

Prince Georae Pulp and Paper Mills at the site ofTW 10/89. The Collector Well

would have to be completed, and cap able of supplying groundwater to the mill in time for the 1990 spring runoff. Construction began August 2. 1989 with the forming of the cutting shoe on the first caisson section. Each caisson

section was cast in place using 30 MPa reinforced concrete. After removal of the forms, the caisson was sunk to

ground level by excavating material from inside the caisson. The forms were

Pumplng test at Prince George Pulp and Paper Mills

Prince George Pulp and Paper Mills, owned and operated by




Ltd.. manufacture a variety of high grade pulp and paper products. The mill is situated on the north shore of

the Nechako River where it joins the Eraser River within the City of Prince George. British Columbia. Mill process water during full plant production is 2100 L/s(40 MIGD). and is taken from an intake in the Nechako

River. During a 6 week period in the spr-

ingofeach yearthe mountain snowmelt increases (low in the Nechako River

then erected to begin another section. The caisson was completed to a depth of 35.2 m. comprising 10 sections. A rein forced concrete plug was then tremied into place to create a bottom seal. Horizontal projection work began on

for process water would permit the mill to maintain production of high grade pulp during the spring runoff period. Groundwater investigation A water table sand aquifer with a wet ted thickness of greater than 39 m was identified. Testing indicated an average aquifer Transmissivity of 3700 mVday and a Permeability of98 m/day.There is evidence that the aquifer is hydraulically connected to the river. Water quality was found to be generally within accepted guidelines except for manga nese which was slightly elevated.

substantially. Water quality then be comes unusable for the production of high grade pulp. Lower grade pulp pro duction is not economically desirable. In April 1988. International Water Supply Ltd. began an investigative test drilling program to determine the fea sibility of developing a large capacity Horizontal Collector Well on property owned by the mill, adjacent to the Ne chako River, immediately upstream of the river intake. A groundwater supply

*lnternational Water Supply Ltd. Barrie, Ontario. This is based on a poster presenta

Tier A. November 9. 1989. After install

ing 12 laterals, projection work then moved to Tier B.By March 2.1990 a total of 940 m of lateral projections, consist ing ofthe two tiers of 12 laterals each was completed. Each lateral was construc ted using 190 mm O.D. stainless steel wire wrapped well screen. The total open area installed in the 24 laterals was 116 m-. An additional 12 ports are lo cated on Tier C. These were not projec-










tion at the American Water Works

Association, Ontario Section, Annual Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, May,




Emiwumental Science & Engineering, July 1993


Groundwater development cont'd ted due to time constraints but are avail

able for future expansion if Canfor wishes to increase the groundwater supply. Testing A final test of the 24 laterals was com

pleted in March 1990. A 72 hour cons tant rate test at 970 L/s(18.5 MIGD)was conducted, followed by a step draw down performance test. Test pumping equipment was left in the Collector Well to allow production of groundwater to the mill during the spring runoff which began in early April 1990. Final pumphouse construction and permanent pumping equipment installation were

Literature Reviews

completed later in the fall.

MIGD)based on continuous operation of the Collector for one year. The addi


tion of 12 laterals on Tier C would add

The Horizontal Collector Well cais

son contains 24 laterals comprising a total length of940 m with 116 m- ofopen area. This represents 84% of the target screen open area required to obtain a

mechanical design capable of produc ing 1050 L/s (20 MIGD) at design en trance velocities. The reduced screen

open area is a result of finer formations encountered during the horizontal pro jection work. The Collector Well will provide an average daily flow of 885 L/s (16.8

approximately 47 m- of open area and bring the mechanical design limit to 1250 L/s (23.7 MIGD). The Horizontal Collector Well pro vides a superior quality of process water to the mill at lower cost. It is typically used for a 6 to 8 week period during spr ing runoff and has been occasionally employed to offset the high temperature

in the Nechako River during especially warm summer periods. For more information, Circle reply card No. 255 Ad Index

Continuous self-cleaning

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51 11

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Straightline Sludge Collectors New, 4-colour FMC brochure fea tures Straightline Sludge Collectors for rectangular primary and secon dary settling tanks. FMC Sludge Col lectors have an impressive perform ance record of up to 30 years con tinuous operation without replace

Windows and Sun, and LabWindows. Describes IEEE 488.2 Inter

faces, plug-In data acquisition boards, VXIbus controllers, DSP hardware and software, and signal conditioning accessories. Training





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Odour and VOC Control

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via Biofiltration Biofilters are widely used in Europe


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cally cleans Itself. Parkson Corporation Circle reply card No. 200

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seals in boreholes and wells. Places

posting facilities, waste water treat ment plants, rendering and food pro cessing plants, and for a variety of VOC producers (e.g. printing, spraypainting). A biologically active filter layer breaks down and eliminates problem compounds. Backed by German engineers, Ambio designs, builds, and installs biofilters of all types and sizes tailored to your

dry sand and bentonite through tube to precisely the required level. Reli able placement eliminates uncer tainty. Eliminates bridging, voids and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1993

ProRead™ ARBŽ Setting New Standards. CAPABILITY


- An EERROM chip inside the register allows you to customize information at

each service. Now you can program information such as account ID, the number of

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Available with superior moisture protection and pit mount receptacles, ProRead


ARB is ideal for harsh

environments such as pit or vault settings. And, the receptacle may be located up to 500 feet from the ProRead register.

The ProRead ARB Field

Programmer is user-friendly and programs in two ways. By interfacing with the register terminals or right through the receptacle, re-programming is easily done both in the meter shop


ProRead ARB is backed by Schlumberger's Information Systems Guarantee assuring expandability and guaranteeing compatibility within your system today

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Schlumberger ilndustries Measurement Division HEAD OFFICE



6555, boul. Metropolitain est

7275 West Credit Ave

1209-59th Avenue S.E.

Mississauga, Ontario

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For more information. Circle reply card No. 147

High-Perfopmance Stainless Steel Undepdrah Reytves Alhig Sand FUteps A simple, cost-effective Flexscour™ retrofit dramatically improves air/water back wash distribution, simplifies maintenance and improves filter performance. NEOPRENE SEAL AIR HEADER




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Eliminates mudbaliing, channeling and media displacement Requires no gravel er surface washers No false floor 50% backwash water reduction

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control system for granular media filters to achieve truly uniform distribution of simultaneous air and water backwash. Most operating and maintenance problems associated with inadequate media cleaning are eliminated, simplifying operation and improving productivity. Flexscour underdrain components are quickly and easily installed directly on the filter floor, making them an ideal selection for new or existing equipment. Complete shop fabricated and assembled units are available for gravity or pressure filtration.

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 148