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How TV journalism stages 'the news' — an editorial comment Rehabilitation of a water main by the slipline technique
Can a legally required report be used against you? UV disinfection of stormwater — a Canadian first
AQTE criticizes Quebec government for its inaction New technoiogies for PCB decontamination
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EXCLUSIVE CANADIAN REPRESENTATIVE
CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 SOUTH SERVICE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONTARIO L6L 6K3 TELEPHONE (416) 847-2740 FAX 416) 827-6984
ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY
May 1993, Vol. 6 No. 2 Issued May, 1993
(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY
Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 Western Canada and
Western US Rep.RDN GANTDN (604) 274-3849
When the news gatherers become the news makers By Tom Davey
Water Efficiency Initiatives in Waterloo By Ralph Luhowy
Rehabilitation of a water main by the slipiining technique
President STEVE DAVEY
Technical Advisory Board
By K. Grant Murphy
Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates
Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought
UV disinfection of stormwater in Nepean â€” a Canadian first
By Hugh Tracy
New technologies for RGB decontamination â€” Part I By Dr. Ian Webber
Egg-shaped digesters now in Canada By Nancy Bonham and Alan Armstrong
Operational control of groundwaters is now a reality
George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.
Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.
Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.
Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. DEE R.V. Anderson Associates
Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.
Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.
If you are required by statute or order to file a report or
perform a study, can it be used against you? By P. Douglas Petrie and Barry N. Spiegel
Where are the daughters of radon? By Dr. Maggie Merridew
R. Bruce Smith, LLB. Blake Cassels Graydon Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and in
Inhouse electrical generation from low temperature sources
dustrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distri
AQTE denounces Quebec government for dragging heels
Multi-speed pumping increases efficiency
By Ken Church
ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions
but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science
& Engineering, 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalScience& Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Farrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Weich Canadian Publications Mall Sales
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Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.
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Departments Industry Update
Reader Service Card
A custom-built high-technology centre is helping Britain's efforts to reduce air pollution. Photo shows one of the specially-designed Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC)testing chambers at the centre, where testing is carried out on exhaust-gas analysers manufactured by companies from all over the world.
The analysers are for use at 17,000 locations in Britain where annual road worthiness inspections on petrol-engine vehicles now include a check on exhaust gas emissions. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legai or professional advice.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Tom Davey
When the news gatherers become news makers
Britain and the United States are famous for their media barons but with their usual
penchant for modesty, Cana dians are unaware that their country has
produced some of the most colourful and powerful media personalities in the world. Canada produced Lord Beaverbrook, Lord Thompson and Conrad Black who trounced the British in their
loids, stopped feeding off the Royal Family momentarily before erupting with banner headlines warning of the Cancer Ship now docked in the Thames. Greenpeace got into the act next when it affixed a skull and crossbones sign to the ship's hull. The Greenpeace sign worked magni ficently. British dock workers, their finely honed reflex actions for spon-
roney's riding, perhaps invoking divine retribution for earlier prime ministerial patronage when the port facilities were upgraded. From an epidemiological point of view, few chemicals have been mon itored as well as PCBs.The fact we have
records on factory workers who had im mersion contact with PCBs for decades
gives reliable exposure data on humans. While there have been chloracne cases
A classic case of the news media creating news, rather than reporting it came about when a shipload of
reported from PCB exposure, not one death has been directly attributed to this chemical. Ironically, there have been thousands of lives saved because of the
long-lived fire retardant properties of
Canadian PCBs arrived in London for incineration at a
PCBs used in transformers and other
treatment faciiity in Waies.
electrical equipment which require sta ble, non-flammable coolants.
own backyard, London's famous Fleet Street. In one of the most ferociously competitive businesses in the world — newspapers — it was, untypically, Ca nadians who dominated.
academic side, Marshall
McLuhan produced the first cerebral in sights in the new television phenome non when he coined the phrase: 'The medium is the message'.Canadians also dominated U.S. television news far in excess oftheir numbers.Robert MacNeil
ofthe MacNeil Lehrer Report,Peter Jen nings, Morley Safer, Lome Greene and many others have ranked with the best United States' TV broadcasters and an
taneous industrial actions already in
place, refused to unload the vessel. So instead of disposing of the PCB wastes in a facility especially designed for the task,the ship was forced to return across the stormy Atlantic like a vessel carrying the plague while British workers then lost both thejobs and economic benefits of the project — in a country with three million unemployed. After a 6,000 mile return trip which certainly combusted tonnes of fuel which would negatively impact on the environment, Canadian demonstrators
become violent when the vessel attempt ed to dock at Baie Comeau, Brian Mul-
Indeed there is a growing tendency by the news media to create and stage news events, rather than reporting them. The most recent case involved contrived
pickup truck fires on the NBC Network when toy rocket engines were ignited by radio to cause gas tank fires in truck collision tests. During the recent Oscar awards, Billy Crystal got a big laugh when he suggested that NBC News might have been an Oscar contender for its special effects. Then there was the Hill and Knowl-
ton affair. This huge PR firm was a key player in the story where Saddam Hus sein's troops were reported to have bru tally taken sick babies out ofincubators
chors. During the Gulf War, the frank, open coverage of Peter Jennings on American TV, made him a favourite with both Canadian and American
viewers. By comparison, watching Dan Rather's eyes, following the teleprompter during the war coverage, made me feel like a tennis umpire. But much of the news coverage of en vironmental issues has been dangerous
ly incompetent. A classic case of the news media creating news, rather than reporting it came about when a shipload of Canadian PCBs arrived in London
for incineration at a treatment facility in Wales. PCBs had not been an issue in
Britain at that time and the ship had arrived from Canada and docked with out incident.
Then a Canadian journalist casually mentioned to two Fleet Street reporters in a pub one evening, that PCBs were a highly controversial issue in Canada. With that the grunge media,the UK tab12
Left, David Onley,City TV journalist, with Tom Davey,publisher Environmental Science and Engineering during a plenary session panel at the April '93 PCAO conference.
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993
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Editorial Comment,cont'd which were shipped to Iraq. Only after the war was over did the story emerge that the tearful testimony of the eye wit ness testifying in Washington was ac
tinguished for posterity. As for the oil covered cormorants pitifully strug gling in the slick? Well certainly there
tually a contrived affair. The 'witness"
least one avian species shown on TV
was a lot of wildlife casualties but at
testifying before a congressional com
was not native to the Middle East. One
mittee was later discovered to be the
engineer, recently returned from Ku
daughter of a Kuwaiti diplomat. Am nesty International is among the agen cies who doubted the veracity of the in
wait, suspected the dying bird footage was probably culled from stock footage from a tanker spill months earlier.
was extinguished in Kuwait. This time
Surely the Gulf War did not need any 'moral'justification by such blatantly fabricated propaganda? Yet a gullible media unquestioningly bought this story which was replayed many times world-wide as an example of
there was no doubt that it was the ret
Saddam's brutal treatment
Surely the Gulf War did not need any 'moral" justification by such blatantly fabricated propaganda? Yet a gullible media unquestioningly bought this story which was replayed many times world-wide as an example of Saddam"s brutal treatment of Kuwaitis. An even more contrived farce came later when the last ofthe 640 oil well fires
reating Iraqi troops who had set the wells ablaze,causing an eco catastrophe of global proportions. Billowing smoke, lurid flames, heroic fire fighters and pathetic birds struggling in oil slicks; all combined to make dramatic television.
But TV"s voracious appetite for specta cle required additional cosmetics.
The last desert fire had actually been put out days earlier. After the site had
been cleaned up the fire was actually relighted so the epic event could be ex
Inaccurate media coverage has often been expensive for Canadians. All too often it has produced unwarranted fears following news reports driven by enter tainment values, rather than ecological significance.In some cases,government reaction to these reports have resulted in actions which proved costly both to the environment and Canadian taxpayers. CITY TV journalist, David Onley
made a highly effective presentation at the recent Pollution Control Associa
tion ofOntario April Conference.When engineers expressed frustration at the improper way technical information was handled by the news media, he pointed out that they could, and should, complain to the CRTC. As for slanted newspaper coverage, the meeting was told that there were Press Councils es
pecially created to investigate inac curate news reports. He urged profes sional bodies to become involved in
liaising with news agencies to tell the technical side of environmental pro blems, hiring media professionals if necessary.
Thomas Jefferson, the third US Presi
dent was acutely aware of the need for legislative checks and balances and the power of the media. He wrote "IfIhad to choose between living in a world without newspapers orgovernments,Iwould choose the world which had newspapers." If the principal author of the Declaration of Independence could now see how today"s news media impact so powerfully on political decision making, he might wonder if we live in a world governed by the news media.
This commentis based on a presentation made at the annualPCAO conference in Toronto.
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Letter to the editor SERVING CANADA SINCE
I quite enjoyed your March issue, espe cially the article by James Higgins on page 24. It was brilliantly written, albeit short, probably due to editorial cutting. Only a fellow Irishman could have done so well.
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But I was most puzzled by the picture of the man you claim to be the author shown on page 46. Why,he appears to be so dishevelled! Surely he couldn't pos sibly have produced such a fine article. No doubt he'll be claiming that he's a fine upstanding man that never let a drop of strong spirits pass his lips too, but I know better.
Or maybe he'll come up with a cock and bull story about being Conference Chairman at the last CEIA conference, who flushed and out ofbreath from run
ning about for his duties was grabbed for a composite photo with some of his friends. And lo and behold, the head
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shot from that unexpected picture was blown up for your article. No one would believe such a story. Maybe you put in a picture of an Englishman by mistake? Anyway, keep up the good work with your fine magazine. Shamus O'Toole
Editor's note. Readers will by now have realized the author of this witty response is, of course, James Higgins, PhD.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 194
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Industry update Report finds underground contamination at haif of US tank farms A report released by the US Environ mental Defense Fund(EOF)found that one-quarter of that nation's 1-million above ground petroleum storage tanks and their piping are leaking, and more than half of the facilities have large un derground pools of petroleum which can migrate offsite if left unaddressed. The report, entitled LAST But Not Least: Leaking Aboveground Storage Tank Threats, Costs, and Attswers, says that un like leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), above ground tanks are vir tually unregulated. "Seek and ye shall find major leaks at facilities storing large quantities of pet roleum in aboveground tanks," said EOF engineer Lois Epstein, the report's author. "Because above ground tanks and their piping are essentially unre gulated, some of these facilities have leaked millions of gallons over a period ofdecades.The leaks have severely con taminated groundwater, damaged eco systems, decreased property values, and forced relocations of families."
Above ground tank farms are located throughout the US at refineries,govern mental installations, chemical plants, shipping terminals, alongside railroads and highways,and at metropolitan area
a'' ■■■ : k-• -
•- ■ ■I .E. > »-
From LUST to LAST. Underground petroleum tanks recently exhumed from Florida service station. Latest focus Is on leaking above ground tanks. ES&E Photo by T. Davey.
distribution depots for fuels used in transportation and heating. Many ser vice stations are moving their fuel stor age from underground to aboveground because underground tanks were regu lated in the 1980s, but aboveground tanks are still unregulated. "Prevention of leaks is clearly in everyone's interest, including the pub lic, fire fighters, and even industry, given increasingly aggressive state-level and community demands for financial pe
nalties against tank owners who have devalued properties near leaking facili ties," said Epstein. "Like underground tank leaks in the 1980s, above ground tank leaks in the 1990s won't be stopped or cleaned up without instituting a regulatory pro
gram that eliminates the 'let 'em leak' mentality. The Environmental Defense Fund believes the Moran/Robb Bill
takes the right approach to closing this storage loophole," said Epstein.
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Industry update Canadian Water
Resource Expertise Gains International
Acceptance Water resource engineering expertise gained in southern Alberta enabled UMA Engineering Ltd. to expand its ser
missioning of the systems. During 1991 and 1992, 15 solar pow ered drop leafgates were installed at test site locations in four States in Australia.
As a result of the performance of these installations, an additional 30 gates have been ordered for 1993. The drop
leaf gate is an open channel control de vice capable of performing upstream
vices to southern California; now these
level control, downstream level control,
services are also being exported to Australia and India. For many years, UMA has designed high-technology ir rigation canal automation systems for Alberta Irrigation Districts. A drop leaf gate developed by UMA Engineering in collaboration with Armtec, with partial funding through the National Research
or flow control. Its ability to perform upstream level control makes it an op tion for replacement of checkboards, long crested weirs or automatic hyd raulic gates. It has been successfully
Council, was introduced to California
trict main canal.
getting ES&E's Award of Merit for his R&D News column from Peter
used in Alberta since 1980 on canals
ranging from 20cfs laterals to the 3000cfs St. Mary's River Irrigation Dis
1 think,therefore,that it would be bet
ter if you deleted my telephone number shown at the end of each R&D News
in 1987 and to Australia in 1991.
The Rural Water Corporation of Vic toria, Australia, after seeking proposals worldwide, has selected UMA Engin eering to design and implement auto mation for several major water control structures and to integrate the sites into a central monitoring system. Represen
Photo shows Dr. Eisenhauer, left,
Letter to the editor Dear Tom:
As you know,1 have retired. However, 1 have arranged to have continued use of Environment Canada facilities for an
column, but keeping the Fax number (which will remain unchanged for now) as well as my address. I was pleased to read in the last issue of ES&E about your having been awar ded the Environmental Achievement Award in the Communications cate
gory. Congratulations â€” it is well de
over a four month period to develop a detailed implementation plan, define district-wide operational requirements and operational standards, then pre pare engineering drawings and specs,
additional two years for the purpose of preparing the R&D Newscolumn as well as continuing my responsibilities as Canadian Regional Editor of Water Re search.1 am pleased to be able to do this because it is a contribution to my profes sion which gives me a good deal of
Editor's note: ES&E gratefully accepts
and assist in the installation and com
ing a redundant task. Thanks. Hugh.
tatives from UMA will work in Australia
served! H.R. Eisenhauer
R&D News Editor CAWPRC
Dr. Eisenhauer's kind offer to continue
his column. His work is always on time and done with such care he makes edit
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For more information, Circle reply card No. 120
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993
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Industry update Mann Labs beats NAFTA to Mexico
Before Mexico, Canada and the United
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Beatriz and Pedro Cattori are the prin
cipal owners and directors of Control Quimico. Beatriz manages the day to
day operations and has been largely res for optimizing water filtration plant ponsible for the success ofthe company. performance,has only been recently She is anxious to develop a Stack Test explored. Particle counting is shown ing capability similar to Mann's and has to have a myriad of applications in purchased state-of-the-art equipment drinking water treatment. Particle and hired an engineer to develop the count and size distribution analysis technology. This is another similarity can present a detailed picture of fil tered water quality and changes between the two labs. Mann President, John Martin has therein both during the filter ripe visited Mexico City three times and is ning phase and during stable filter operation. It can also he used to excited about the association between the two companies. He is also confident assess the effects of varying coagu in the Mexican government's resolve to lant dosage and relocation of che solve the serious environmental pro mical addition points. blems that exist there. Particle counting is not simply a
supplementary analysis to turbidity.
Particle Counting in Water Filtration Plants The Water Supply Division ofMetro politan Toronto will be undertaking on-line evaluation ofa commercially available particle counter. Particle counting involves coun ting the number and determining the size of particles in a variety of sample matrices. Particle counting is an established technology com monly used in medicine, oceanogra phy, manufacturing processes and electronics. However,its application
Water of equal clarity is not always of equal quality. The future of this technology appears to be in integra ted on-line particle counting systems that will continuously characterize water quality and help in process control decision-making. These sys tems will be sensitive to submicron
particles,including bacteria,viruses, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. It is believed that Metro is among some of the first utilities in Ontario to conduct an evaluation trial of a
particle counter. Particle counting could become an important compo nent of Metro's quality control pro gram. A.D. Tadwalkar Reprinted from AWWA/OWMA Pipeline
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited Announcement K.A. Morrison,P.Eng.,pre sident, is pleased to an nounce the appointment of Peter J. Laughton, P.Eng. as chairman of the Board of Directors of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited.
Mr. Laughton joined the firm in 1966, and holds a B.A.Sc. and Masters degree in Civil â€” Environmental En
gineering from the Univer sity of Toronto, and a B.A. in Computer Science from Peter J. Laughton, P.Eng. York University. He is a recipient of the Bedell award, a diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, and an "Honourary Senior Fellow" in the School of Environmental Engineering, at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. He has also served as president of the Pollution Control Asso ciation of Ontario(1982-1983),and a member of the 1986-
one msu transportable safety handle secures a multitude of holes ÂŠ
1987 WPCF President's Executive Committee.
Mr. Laughton continues to sen/e the firm as a vice president and director of Environmental Engineering. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is an established, multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm, with a staff complement of 150,and has been engaged in civil, munici pal and environmental engineering since 1948.
MSU MISSISSAUGA LTD.
2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga Ontario L5J 2M4
For complete information 1-800-268-5336 Fox: 416-823-4947
For more information, Circie reply card No. 126 20
For more information, Circie reply card No. 127 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
WATER TREATMENT PLANT NEWFOUNDLAND
For the retrofit of this large
plant, we opted for the latest ozone technology, complete
■•'■ si' .1
computerized control system,
thus eliminating on-going m
problems with obsolete and inadequate equipment.
Last time we told
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT BARBADDS
you what makes
We knew the reefs were
being affected by pollution
us smile. Our
hut what are the sources,
clients are smiling
concentrations, conveyance mechanisms? These are the
because we are
innovation driven -
as we have been for
questions we are using GIS
modelling to answer so that we can provide the government with the optimal, cost effective solutions.
the past 40 years.
ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS VENEZUELA
Two cities totalling 400,000 -
people with no sewage treatment are being enhanced by the installation of two new biological nutrient removal (BNR) plants as well as five
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
new and sixteen retrofitted
A Total Quality Engineering and Project Management
pumping stations. The effluent will he used for irrigation.
Company with 12 offices across Canada, in the U.S.A. and ahroad
ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OFSTORMWATER DNTARID
Stormwater from urbanization
has resulted in pollution of area rivers. In particular,
Phone: (604) 385-8721 Fax: (604) 383-8099
bacteria has forced the closure
of beaches. In response, Delcan has designed the first of a kind, full scale facility for
David Brierley Phone: (416)441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131
the disinfection of urban
runoff, in the City of Nepean. For more information, Circie reply card No. 128
Industry update Reid Crowther/Brown and Caldwell to assess nutrient removal research needs The Research Foundation of the Water
Environment Federation (WEF) has commissioned a team of two of North
America's leading environmental en gineering firms, Reid Crowther & Part ners Ltd. and Brown and Caldwell, to
the industry to provide wastewater treat ment plant managers — faced with in creasingly stringent nutrient control regulations — with the most effective nutrient control alternatives.
salts or petroleum chemicals from high way runoffs, it is not desirable to allow the effluent from filtration facilities to
enter the aquifers. The innovative sys tem that G&S designed is a media with in a basin with a sub-drain collection
protects groundwaters from dissolved
from a 25 mm rainflow and overflow
A unique confined filtration facility rient removal (NR) from wastewater. (CFF) has been developed by Gore & The firms formed an alliance in Sep Storrie staff to protect regional aquifers tember, 1992 to share NR experience to from the dissolved salts and petroleum better serve their clients.The WEF com chemicals found in highway storm mission was announced in April. runoffs. The $50,000 (US) study will identify The system was developed while con and prioritize research needs regarding ducting a drainage study for the Ontario nitrogen and phosphorus removal from Ministry of Transportation on stormwastewater. The Reid Crowther/Brown water runofffrom a major Toronto area and Caldwell team will review research highway interchange. The scope of the on the performance ofexisting physical, study was initially to provide recom chemical and biological NR techni mendations for achieving quantity and ques,innovative approaches to nutrient quality control over discharges to re removal, problems of residuals solids ceiving streams. It was later expanded, disposal, and opportunities for improv however, to address the Ontario Minis ing process reliability, and simplifying try ofthe Environment's concerns about operations. the effects ofthese discharges on groundWEF hopes the study's results will be water quality as well. the basis of its 5-year NR program. Re Because filtration treatment does not search results will be shared throughout remove dissolved pollutants such as assess research needs in the area of nut
system.The filtered discharges collected in these basins are conveyed to surface receiving waters,so they do not infiltrate the groundwater aquifers. The facilities are designed to capture and treat runoff events exceeding this amount. The CFFs will be installed during construction of the drainage scheme and final grading of the Highway 404/ 407 Interchange.
A paper on the computer modelling and confined filtration system to be used for the stormwater runoff at the
Highway 404/407 Interchange was pre sented at the recentjoint USEPA/MOE/ ASCE Storm Water and Water Quality
Management Modelling Conference, February 24 and 25. This paper, titled "Stormwater Pollution Control at a Ma
jor Highway Interchange," was co-au thored by the co-developers of the con fined filtration facility — Mario Parente (G&S Urban Drainage Section) and Mike Hulley (G&S Water Resources Systems Division).
Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater
treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerrlClear.
From FI2S and corrosion control to water
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Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 in Canada (800) 387-5021 In USA
4h EAGLEBROOK' INC. of CANADA 22
For more information, Circle reply card No. 129
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993
Do you have untapped treatment potential? Then why not use it?
This graph shows the diagnosis of one wastewater treatment plant's capabilities.
Its actual capacity was greater than its rated capacity. A plant audit saved money here by enabling expansion deferral.
actual plant capacity c 0
rated plant capacity 70,000
D" CD c
A plant audit could save you money and energy too by letting you optimize your existing facilities. Plant optimization is good for the environment as well.
G&S has more combined expertise for conducting plant audits — water or wastewater — than any other consultant in Canada. So, if you want to save money and energy — and help the environment — call us.
(Preferably before you get to the design stage!)
Gore & Storrie Limited, Consulting Engineers, 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, l\/!2J 5B6 Telephone:(416)499-9000
With offices in Ottawa, Barrie, Mississauga, Thoroid, Cambridge, Kingston, and London For more information, Circle reply card No. 134 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Water Efficiency initiatives in Waterioo water efficient devices, namely a ULF toilet(6 litres) in 300 homes. Preliminary results from the Kit chener PilotProgram are very promi sing. On average, households with ULF toilets installed are using 30%
The Regional Municipality of Water loo draws from groundwater and surface water sources to service
approximately 350,000 residents. Annual supply from 120 wells is approximately thirteen billion gal lons of water (59 million cubic
meters). Surface water use began in June
To achieve a 30% reduction in the
1992 when the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant came on line.
Grand River water is drawn,treated and mixed with groundwater. This first phase ofthe Mannheim system gives the Region a potential capacity oflOmgd. Subsequent phases ofthe Mannheim system are envisioned to increase the potential maximum day capacity to 74.2 mgd. Currently, maximum day demand is 52 mgd.
Implications of Demand Management to Capitai Spending The Region's goal is to reduce water demand by 30% in all sectors by the year 2002. Water demand between the sectors is approximately 55% residential and 45% industrial, com mercial institutional (ICI). If this
garbage trucks? Thieves are knocking off New York City garbage trucks at a rate that baffles offi cials. The New York Post reports that 11
Industrial, Commercial, Institutio nal (ICI) sectors, the Region func tions as a facilitator. Regional staff and consultants, Commexus and GH2M Hill, produced a two-part manual for ICI use.
in the Tri-City area will drop from the current 52 mgd, to 36,4 mgd.
to 73.5 gallons. This challenging goal will he implemented over the
on the manual serve to educate as
next ten years.
well as encourage communication
Simply stated, a 30% reduction translates into a 30-year deferral of capital spending on additional water supplies. The wastewater treatment
and discussion about water effici
ency within the ICI sectors. The Region's experience to date is remarkable. Organizations within
infrastructure would similarly bene
the ICI sectors such as a Public
fit and energy demand would be reduced, although not significantly. These are the key benefits driving the Municipality to this program. The challenge will be to translate
School Board,a meat packing plant, a chemical producer, a rubber and plastic extruder, several foundry operations, and the local hospitals have all experienced savings bet ween 15% and 50%. These organiza tions are committed to building on
this prediction into a Region wide
nes, simply vanished in the past few
Kitchener Pilot Program This program was co-sponsored by the City of Kitchener Utility and Ontario Hydro. Essentially,the pro gram consisted of installing several
tion presented can be applied to water as well as wastewater,energy, and solid waste. Workshops based
reduced from the current 105 gallons
price tag, giving a new slant to the old English saying; "Where there's muck,
how to conduct an audit. Informa
Daily per capita demand would be
garbage trucks, each weighing 16 ton months. Each truck carried a $110,000
One section focuses on employee involvementin water efficiency.'The second section explains,step by step,
goal is met, maximum day demand
their successes and will continue to
look for innovative ways to reduce their water demand.
Ralph Luhowy, Region of Waterloo Reprinted from AVMA Pipeline
Groundwater Control For Both Worlds Griffin provides services for your groundwater or remediation problem it
Construction Dewatering Wellpoints Deep Wells Sewage Bypass Open Pumping
• Recharging • Eductor Systems • Slurry Walls • MAC Hydraulic Submersible Pumps
• Recovery Wells • Vapour Extraction • Remedial Dewatering • Biological Treatment • Air Stripping
Griffin Groundwater Control Services 24
For more information, Circle reply card No. 135
• Carbon Treatment
• In Situ Treatment
• Slurry Trenches • Landfill Gas Venting • Sludge Handling
GRS Griffin Remediation Services
Guelph, Ontario, 1-519-763-9400 Environmental Science (& Engineering, May 1993
There are many labs... not all are equal.
At EPL quality isn't just a slogan, It's part of everything we do â€” quality services, quality advice and quality data.
6850 Ooreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel:(416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399
For more information, Circle reply card No. 118
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Rehabilitation of a water main
by the siipiining technique
tial flow quantities through the pipe. In this project a 200 mm diameter — SDR 17,high density polyethylene(HDPE) main crossing under High 'liner pipe was sliplined inside the exist ing 300 mm diameter ductile iron water way #401 at the McCowan Road inter change. The break occurred under the main.The length ofthe water main to be east bound collector lanes of the high sliplined was 110 metres, the entire Highway #401 crossing. It should also way. SPUC (Scarborough Public Utili occurred on the 300 mm dia meter ductile iron water
ties Commission) crews shut the water main down and isolated the section of
water main along McCowan Road, from Corporate Drive to just north of Highway #401, which services cus tomers in northern Scarborough. The existing water main crossing in stalled in 1970, consisted of a 300 mm
diameter unlined ductile iron(Class 52) pipe encased inside a 600 mm diameter steel liner pipe. It was assumed that the cause of the break was due to corrosion of the ductile iron water main.
This crossing feeds a large portion of the developments south of Highway #401, such as the Scarborough Town
be noted that no service connections were located on this stretch of water
main and so this made the siipiining process much easier to complete.
Work began on November 18, 1992, with the SPUC forces being responsible for excavations and site restoration, while Cliffside was contracted to clean
the existing water main, supply, fuse and install the HDPE pipe for this project. Two access locations were excavated
by SPUC forces. An area to the north of
Centre and the Consilium Place Devel TRENCH SIDE WALLS ARE VERTICAL
side of the 401.
ofthe ductile iron water main but once a break occurs due to corrosion in ductile
iron pipe, more than likely further breaks will occur. With this in mind it
seemed sensible to completely rehabili tate the entire Highway #401 water main crossing. Siipiining a smaller diameter pipe in side the existing water main was con sidered the only alternative.Though the inside diameter ofthe water main will be
reduced, the smoothness of the pipe is increased and yet will still give substan-
P I T
the 401, adjacent to the north-east on ramp allowed for a large access pit to be dug. This area also served as a storage location for the fused lengths and equip ment. The liner pipe was to be inserted from the north pit and pulled to the south pit; the north access pit was dug at 2:1 slope along its length in order to allow for the HDPE pipe to be gradually inserted into the pipe (Figure #2). On the south side, the working area was more confined due to the six metre
high slope to the south and the shoulder NORIH
of the eastbound collector lanes of the
300 ■■ DUCTILE RON
INSTALL ING FROM
Figure 3 Installation
opment. Additionally, by not having this feed in operation it was difficult to guarantee the servicing requirements of the CFTO-TV complex on the north Due to constraints set by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation, it was not possible to proceed with any option that involved open trenching across the tra velled portion of Highway #401. It was also considered to try to repair a portion
250 ■■ HOPE L INER PIPE
401,to the north.The south pit served as the location from which the liner pipe was pulled.
water main. The existing 300 mm water main was cleaned to ensure that any tubercles that had accumulated on the
inside walls would not damage the liner in any way. Both a brush style scraper and a 1.2 metre long conical pig were used to complete the cleaning. The fusion process began on Novem ber 26 and was completed in one day. The HDPE pipe came in 15 metre lengths and each of the lengths were thermally fused together. The HDPE pipe was fused together by using a McElroy pipe fusion machine. This machine held the two pieces of pipe to gether in clamps, which were then brought together and a "hot plate" was placed between the pipes. The HDPE resin was heated above its melting point; this allowed the resin to flow under pres sure. The two heat-softened pipe ends were then brought together and held under pressure, for about 10 minutes. After a section of pipe had cooled, the liner would be pulled into the existing main and another piece of HDPE pipe fused.(Figure #3). The following day, after the entire length of the liner pipe had been pulled into the existing main, the HDPE re ducers were attached to the ends of the
liner. These pieces could not be pulled in along with the rest ofthe linerbecause they would not have fit inside the exist ing water main. The reducers were con nected to the polyethylene pipe by using a Victaulic coupling.(Figure #4). A Victaulic coupling was used instead of a thermal fusion coupling because the fusion machine could not fit inside
Lining process Once the water main was exposed,
the access pits. Once the reducers were connected to the HDPE liner pipe, the SPUC forces began work on preparing the liner for the pressure test. A 300 mm
sections of the main were removed to allow access into it. A cable was flushed
the water main in order to facilitate pres
through the water main from the south pit to the north pit; this cable was then used to facilitate the cleaning of the
valve was installed at the south end of
sure testing and chlorination while on the north end the water main was
capped,braced and a main cock installed
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By K. Grant Murphy,P.Eng* that would act as an air release, during the pressure test.
closer investigation, it was found that an improper coupling had been used by the contractor. When the proper Victaulic coupling was re-installed on the liner pipe the third attempt to pressurize the
Pressure test process The pressure test process was com pleted in two segments,the pre-load seg ment and the leakage test segment. Dur
â€˘HDPE LINER P I PE
water main was made.
On the third and final attempt, suc cess was attained. The pre-load and leakage test segments were completed
ing the pre-load segment,the liner pipe was pressurized to the recommended 150 psi in order to remove as much of the elasticity from the HOPE pipe as poss ible. This phase took three hours to complete, with checks being made every hour, to ensure the pressure was being maintained at 150 psi. Once the pre-load segment was complete,the actual leakage test process began and the liner pipe was subjected to another two hour test at 150 psi. It is important to note the differen ces in these pressure testing procedures as compared to the normal AWWA pro cedures. It is very important to remove as much ofthe elasticity from the HDPE pipe as possible or else the pressure test
00 mm RON HOPE
OUC I IL b
WA 1 ER
without incident and once the test was
completed the results showed the liner pipe had met the design criteria for the leakage test segment.
Figure 5 Final restorations
Once the pressure test had been passed, the SPUC proceeded with chlo rinating the water main. After obtaining the results ofthe chlorination and deter
mining that the water main was ready to be put back into service, final res torations began. The capped end was removed and re-connected to the exist
ing water main.
results will be invalid.
The pressure test was attempted three times before it was successfully com pleted. In the first two attempts, failure occurred in the initial stages of the pre load segment of the pressure test. During the first attempt, as the liner was expanding it caused the 300 mm valve to shift and separate from the main; pressure was lost instan taneously. The valve was re-installed and completely braced against move ment. A delay ofabout four days occurred while this work was taking place. Before the pre-load pressure was at tained during the second test, the Vic-
Though some degree of reinforcement was used to
secure the existing water main it was vital to firmly secure all fittings from any movement due to the highly elastic nature of the
polyethylene pipe. The annular space between the liner
pipe and the existing pipe was not
taulic connection on the south side
grouted, however, the ends of the old pipe were sealed in order to prevent fill
slipped off the HDPE liner pipe. Upon
material from entering this space.
Standard fittings were used to con nect from the new 250 mm HDPE liner
pipe to the existing 300 mm ductile iron water main. These fittings were all pro
perly restrained, according to SPUC specifications, to prevent movement due to expansion or contraction of the HDPE liner. On all ductile iron fittings, anodes were installed to cathodically
protect them from corrosion.The access pits were then backfilled anad compac ted. Further restorations were required on the southerly side due to the steep ness of the slope and reinforcement was used to prevent erosion of the embank ment in the spring. The water main was returned to ser
vice on January 4, 1993. Summary
This being the first attempt by the SPUC at sliplining an existing water main with a high density polyethylene liner pipe, we were quite pleased by the success of the project even though a few stumbling blocks did occur. The most important lesson learned from this project was that of restraining the water main from movement. This
can not be emphasized enough.Though some degree of reinforcement was used to secure the existing water main it was vital to firmly secure all fittings from any movement due to the highly elastic na ture of the polyethylene pipe. Secondly,the pressure test procedure must be followed carefully such that the results obtained measure only the actual leakage occurring and not the elastic expansion of the high density polye thylene liner pipe. If this procedure is not followed, erroneous results will be
obtained and will lead to incorrect con clusions about the condition of the
liner pipe. V ICTAUL I C
F IIIi NG
SPUC would again consider rehabili tating an existing water main by making
CONNECT I ON
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Due to increases in restoration costs in the future, there is no doubt that the
use of similar methods.
MAIN *Scarborough Public Utilities Commis sion, Ont. 27
UV disinfection of stormwater
in Nepean — a Canadian first
Last year. Delcan commissioned
system for stormwater. believed to be the first ofits kind in North America.Ofcourse. UV is not new to the world of waste treatment but does it
work for stormwater? And why would you disinfect stormwater anyway? These questions arose for the Longfields/Davidson Heights Stormwater Facility in Nepean. Ontario, a city of 108.000 people located in the National Capital Area and one of eleven munici palities that make up the Regional Mu nicipality of Ottawa-Carleton. The Longfields/Davidson subdivision is si tuated in the south growth area and comprises an area of approximately 915 hectares.
The drainage outlet for Longfields/ Davidson is the East Barrhaven Creek
that ultimately reaches the Rideau River, and as far back as 1975 the On
tario Ministry of the Environment had decreed that the River was particularly
sensitive to pollutants from stormwater runoff. Swimming beaches were closed on a regular basis because of high bac terial counts attributed to the impact of bacteria-laden runoff.
The new stormwater facility was in fact an expansion of an existing pond, designed originally to operate i n a batch mode, providing 72 hours retention for event capture and static settling before releasing the contents at a manually controlled rate. The Certificate of Ap
proval issued at the time placed no ef fluent quality limits on the discharge and permitted six overflows per swim ming season. The pond worked very ef ficiently and consistently achieved dis charge qualities in the range of 10 to 15 milligrams per litre of suspended solids and faecal coliforms of 150 to 300 per 100 millilitres.
Despite this level of performance,the new facility had to be designed to satisfy even tighter controls in response to the Ministry's new quality objectives issued in 1989 stating that in the absence of an effective plan to protect water quality and yet pennit development, it is necessary to reinstate the Ministry's non-degradation policy for the Rideau River in numerical terms ... in essence, this means that the ef fluentfrom stormwater treatmentfacilities requires disinfection. Translated, the facility had to achieve the following: Suspended solids
25 milligrams per litre 100 per 100 millilitres 1.000 per 100 millilitres
In many respects the evaluation was easier than for a wastewater plant of comparable size as operating costs took a back seat to other operating criteria such as suitability for automatic control in an unsupervised facility, personnel safety during routine inspection, public safety in the event of a system failure, etc. Operating costs were not disregar ded but less significant because of the fundamental difference in operation between stormwater and wastewater fa
cilities.the former being strictly batch in response to rainfall while wastewater of course, is usually a continuous Dow. This is not to suggest however, that operating costs for UV would have been, or are generally higher than those for other methods of disinfection when all cost factors are included.
UV is gaining widespread popularity because it works fast(retention times of a few seconds versus 30 minutes or so for
chlorine)and it leaves no toxic residual.
UV light is generated by low pressure mercury lamps at a wavelength of 253.7 Total coliforms nanometres and causes photochemical Needless to say. Nepean viewed these damage to the RNA and DNA of cel lular micro-organisms, effectively pre criteria — especially the reality of disin venting their replication; hence disin fection — with some concern as failure to comply would affect continued fection. growth in the south urban area. Rather If it's this easy, why isn't it used than argue the merits of disinfecting an all the time? In fact UV is being used more and individual stormwater outlet when so many are not. the City got on with the more; certainly the pendulum seems to job and gave Delcan authorization to be swinging in its favour. However, re proceed with a study of options. member that UV consumes a significant amount ofelectrical energy and becomes rapidly less effective as water turbidity increases. It is important therefore, to tailor the UV dosage rate as closely as possible to the flow rate and coliform loading, and to ensure that suspended Faecal coliforms
solids concentrations are low.
Being a first, pilot testing was used to demonstrate that UV could consistently achieve the finite discharge limits set by the MOE;most often the effectiveness of
UV is reported in terms of log-kill re lated to influent concentration. It was
also noted that the USEPA UV Design Manual suggests a faecal limit of 100 per 100 millilitres and 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids which are mutu ally exclusive in the case of wastewater effluents. Was there any reason to think that stormwater would be any differ
A dosage rate of 18,000 liW.sec/cm^ at the design flow of0.5 cubic metres per second resulted in a Trojan UV 3000 series,four-bank installation — two in each channel — and a total of 352 lamps with a total input power of approximately 35 kilowatts. 28
Early in 1990. Delcan supervised a pilot testing program conducted by Pollutech Environmental Limited to allay concerns and to provide design para meters for the full-scale facility. The ob-
Enviromnental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Hugh Tracy, P.Eng.* jectives for the study were: • Analyze the stormwater suspended solids settling characteristics and de velop pond design criteria to achieve the 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids discharge limit • Determine the UV dosage rate re quired to achieve the bacteriological discharge limits of 1,000 MPN (Most Probable Number)per 100 millilitres total conforms and 100 MPN per 100 millilitres faecal coliforms
The pilot tests produced a wealth of data and to some degree were too suc cessful as many ofthe UV tests yielded a "Not Detected" result. A series ofspiked tests countering this result produced some high-end effluent coliform counts and gave sufficient reason to consider lower dosage rates than the nominal 30,000 |iW.sec/cm^ suggested by sup pliers. As alluded to above,the incentive to tailor the design closely, stems from the fact that the number of UV lamps required is directly proportional to dos age rate; higher dosage rates, higher capital and operating costs. Delcan re commended that the design be based on a dosage rate of 18,000 gW.sec/cm^ and that the manufacturers not be required to guarantee effluent quality. This was a significant departure from the guaran tee clauses usually faced by manufac turers and reflected the "trail blazing" nature of the project. As it was, the dosage rate of 18.000 gW.sec/cm^ at the design flow of 0.5 cubic metres per second resulted in a Trojan UV 3000 series,four-bank instal lation — two in each channel — and a
total of 352 lamps with a total input power of approximately 35 kilowatts. Had the higher dosage rate been selec ted, the number of lamps would have risen to 590 or therabouts, with an input power requirement of 60 kilowatts. As UV systems are"off or"on"and cannot be readily modulated, this difference represented a considerable saving. Another key factor in the design ofthe facility was the control ofthe draindown flow rate. As the number of lamps re quired and power input was directly proportional to flow, this was another incentive to hold the flow constant ra
ther than accept the semi-regulated out put from a conventional flow restricting port commonly provided at the end of stormwater ponds.It was also necessary to draw water from the water surface to
effectively chase the 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids interface down through the depth. This was achieved by the installation of an overshot weir, positioned in res ponse to changes in water level with pre*Head, Environmental Delcan Corporation
Discharge to Stream
LL Overflow Weir
— UV Lamp Bank (typ)
UV Controller (typ)
Storm Pond Drain
16.6 metres (approx) Influent
Influent Flow Meter
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
Overshot Weir —' Controller
else accuracy. Although provision was made in the supervisory control system for closed-loop control of gate position, it currently operates on an inferred flow setpoint but with sufficient accuracy to keep the measured flow rate within a range from 0.48 to 0.52 cubic metres per second. The supervisory control system has to recognize several reasonably elusive parameters such as: • When has it started raining? • When has it stopped raining? • What should the system do if it starts to rain again? • How long should the period of static settling last? Although the pond has been in opera tion for one season, there is little "good" data available for dissemination. But in
answer to the question: "Did it achieve compliance?", the results can be sum marized as follows:
• Suspended solids in all cases were well below the 25 milligrams per litre limit and typically in the order of 8 to 10 milligrams per litre • Faecal coliforms in all cases were well
belowthe 100 MPN per 100 millilitres limit and typically 10 or less Costs for the UV portion of the facility including the draindown structure were in the order of $1M. Despite the price tag however, the City's options were quite simple — comply with the Ministry's discharge criteria or shutdown develop ment.
What does the future hold for storm
water discharges? It is reasonable to state that the Longfields/Davidson faci lity has not set the precedent for all stormwater facilities discharging to sen sitive rivers. In this case the loadings on the Rideau River are such that there is
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Longfields/Dovidson N Ultraviolet Disinfection
an immediate impact — the closure of beaches with all its negative con notations. The Longfields/Davidson facility however, is an excellent show case for innovation in the development of a Best Management Practice for spe cific quality concerns. With ackno\wledgements to Gary Craig, P.Eng., Director of Engineering for the City of Nepean, for his contributions to this article.
Circle reply card No. 259
Full cost pricing is thrust of new Canadian water and wastewater rate manuai A first-ever Canadian water/wastewater
rate manual was unveiled during Cana da's First National Water Conservation
Conference in Winnipeg, February 46, 1993.
Developed jointly by the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association and
the Rawson Academy of Aquatic Sci ence, the publication introduces a new and alternative approach to traditional rate setting methods. The "Municipal Water and Wastewater Rate Manual" may be ordered directly from the Canadian Water and Waste-
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(613) 238-5692, fax: (613) 238-5193. 29
New technologies for PCB decontamination — Part I
Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs, were developed by the Federal Phosphorus Company
vapor cleaning method to eliminate the The Industrial Manufacture of PCBs
and Swann Research Co. in
1929. Swann Research Co. was bought by Monsanto in the early 1930's and Monsanto remained the predominant supplier of PCBs in the US until the company voluntarily ceased production in response to growing environmental
natively, a drain and flush method makes it necessary to dispose of large quantities of flushing oil in addition to the original transformer volume of di
Batch Chlorinator alkali
electric fluid. The author has invented four chemi
cal reagents for the destruction ofPCBs. The earliest of these is the'sodium'pro cess in which dispersed metallic sodium
Raw AnocLOR Vacuum Distillation
The manufacture of PCBs involved
the addition of chlorine to biphenyl un til a required percentage of hydrogen was replaced. The process resulted in a product which contained PCBs with one or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to the molecule.
The family ofPCBs can contain from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms arranged within the molecule in 209 different ways. The different arrangements of a given num ber of chlorine atoms around the bi
phenyl rings give rise to distinct series of compounds. These compounds differ most importantly in their bioaccumulation, chemical reactivity and toxicity.
residual PCB contaminated oil in the transformer and assure that the unit can be reclassified as non-PCB. Alter
was used to remove chlorine from the
PCB and produce inorganic chloride.
The reaction tends to be slow and the
capacitors. The remaining 0.2% is in mineral oil contaminated in the range of50 to 500 ppm PCB.There are approx imately 90,000 askarel transformers still in use in the US and about 180,000.000
gallons of PCB contaminated oil dis tributed through more than 3,000,000
equipment used to apply the chemistry tends to be large. The application of the sodium chemistry is usually applied in 40' trailer rigs which cost about $800,000 each.
Real-world experience has shown that the eventful failure of electrical equipment containing PCBs is catas trophic in the sense that the equipment owner faces a typical cleanup cost in
excess of$20,000,000 and liabilities from
Numbering System for Nomenclature Cl
civil suits which are often many times more than the cleanup costs. An eventful
failure describes that mode of transfor mer end-of-life which leads to subse
quent damage as, for example, with PCB transformer fires. Ck
2,2',3,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyi Because of their physical properties, PCBs were used as a fire safety measure in electrical equipment.Their principal uses were in power transformers and capacitors, hydraulic machinery, va cuum pumps,compressors and heat ex changer fluids. The more chlorine that was used in the production ofPCBs,the greater the resistance to heat, moisture and electrical degradation but the more viscous the fluid became. In transfor
mer applications particularly there is a need for the dielectric fluid to dissipate
More recently, the invention of two alternative reagents have been found to react much more quickly than dispersed
[O2]- heat -HCI
sodium under similar conditions. The
inventions are currently in the patent process. This has allowed such a signifi cant reduction in the size of the equip ment necessary for their application that the current design for a mobile mi
The technology used for the PCB de contamination oftransformers depends upon the concentration of the con tamination. Transformers designed for ni-plant can be made to fit onto the back of a pick-up truck. use with mineral oil are not usually con The small unit offers several advan taminated with more than 500 ppm PCB,ifthey are contaminated at all,and tages over the use of a 40' trailer rig: can be serviced cost-effectively using a • The unit is an order of magnitude cheaper than a 40' trailer rig. chemical method to dechlorinate the • There would not be a need for com
heat and so PCBs were diluted with a hlend oftri-and tetrachloro-benzenes to
The cost-effectiveness of chemical re
panies to accrue liability in the form
reduce the viscosity ofthe fluid and pro
agent methods decreases as the concen
vide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfer. Mixtures of PCBs and chlorobenzenes were known
tration ofPCBs increases until, at about
of bulk tanks of PCB contaminated oil.
generically as 'askarels'. Approximately 99.8% of the PCBs used in electrical applications are con tained in askarel filled transformers and 30
2,000 ppm PCB,alternative disposal op tions become more attractive. At about the same concentration that
• The mini-plant can cost-effectively service individual transformers on an
as-needed basis as well as operate on
bulk tanks. chemical reagent methods begin to lose their advantage in disposal savings it • The liability of transporting PCBs is removed since the mini-plant is mobecomes increasingly necessary to use a
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Dr. Ian Webber bile and can be used on-site without
the need for a dedicated and costly tractor-trailor. • The decontaminated oil can be re
claimed to new oil properties either at the site or transported back to a cen tral facility as a PCB-free oil. There are three categories of PCB transformers under USEPA regula tions:
vent. then the remaining PCB concen tration in the bulk fluid can be calcu
lated using an expression derived from the dilution laws.
If one makes the simplifying assump tion that the fluid used to refill the trans
former becomes rapidly homogenized, then a transformer which initially con tains 500 ppm PCB needs only to be drained and refilled once if the residual fluid volume was 5% of the total. On the
Pi-ogre!>>ive Dechlonnuliuii otPCB^
• A PCB transformer is defined as one wfiioh contains
more ttian 500 ppm
PCB. • A PCB contaminated
oil with an initial concentration of2.000
transformer is one which contains
PCBs in the
other hand, if the draining operation leaves more than about 8% of the origi nal fluid volume then the refilling stage will produce a bulk oil concentration of greater than 50 ppm PCB and the unit would need to be flushed again. For an
ppm PCB. it would certainly be neces sary,in practical terms,to flush the trans former more than once.
concentration range 50 - 500 ppm PCB.
The conventional flush/drain pro
• A non-PCB
cedure suffers from several drawbacks:
• Firstly, the procedure requires that the retrofill operation is repeated at least twice for highly contaminated
contains iess than
50 ppm PCB.
oils and therefore incurs twice the
The retrofill of a highly PCB con
labor charge of a single pass.
taminated, or an askarel. transformer
• The volume ofPCB contaminated oil
involves the replacement of the organic
is multiplied by the number of times the operation is performed. • The volume ofoil trapped in the inter stices of the windings is not likely to be removed by a simple drain and flush procedure. Then, when the unit is put back into service,the trapped oil
dielectric fluid with a substitute oil. The
transformer is then put back into opera tion for 90 days and the bulk oil retested.
The main advantage to retrofilling is that an owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. In addition,record keep ing and reporting requirements are re duced or eliminated and servicing is
Conventional Transformer Retrofill
*Dr. Ian Webber obtained Bachelors de
grees In Chemistry and Physics in 1967 from the University of London, England and the University of Saiford, England. He also holds a Ph.D.from Carleton Uni
are therefore unable to reclassify as karel transformers for a satisfactory period of time. Experiments have been performed as a part of the author's research to deter mine how PCBs and chlorobenzenes
diffuse through the porous insulation of transformer windings. A mathematical model was developed which uses the experimental data to describe the mi gration of PCBs impregnated in the porous insulation into the originally uncontaminated retrofill fluid. The ma
thematical model was substantiated by data derived from the retrofill of a 270
gallon. 750 KVA askarel transformer. Trichlorobenzene Leaching
PCB CoaccDtraUon (ppm) Trichlorobenzene ConceDtTBtton( ppm) a
The simple process of draining a transformer of its fluid does not change
the classification of the transformer. The Completed Process
atiea after M daja
Recognizing this, the Institute of Scrap
;is as a PCB
/Shows < 2 ppm throughout the Leaching Period
Iron and Steel(ISIS) has recommended
to its members that transformers of un known classification should not be ac
cepted for disposal even if they are
I&IUaI lA^cblcf rate = 6 ppm
'Plnai' Lea^hXnf Rate a 1.3 ppm PCB/day
The retrofill of highly contaminated oil transformers by successive drain and refill operations in attempts to reduce the PCB concentration to below 50 ppm PCB is not a cost-effective procedure. The author has developed an extraction technique which avoids the need for the disposal of large volumes of flushing fluids and oils. The usefulness ofa method to retrofill
Leeching Time (h) Time After CoDTenUoael Retrofill SteadBTd B«(romi
The flush and drain process applied
the retrofilled oil to give an apparent leaching effect. Convective mixing
to an askarel transformer leaves about
alone is often sufficient to return the transformer to a PCB contaminated condition.
Fvery time a retrofill operation is per formed a power outage has to be ar ranged. This requires administrative costs, etc. and is usually either very
reclassified unit but one which will re
difficult to schedule or is. at hest.
main reclassified for a satisfactory period
When the coil assembly is impreg
transformer. Ifthe oil is drained out and the tank is refilled with clean oil or sol
MX ■•bb«r P
gradually mixes by convection into
highly PCB contaminated transformers and. more particularly,askarel transfor mers depends upon the extent of the processing necessary to yield not only a
The flush and drain procedure typi cally leaves 5-10% of the solvent in the
MX V«bb«r PrwcM
2.5% of the original askarel in the core/ coil assembly. For a typical 250 gallon askarel transformer this impregnated fluid amounts to about 6 gallons. A PCB concentration of 500 ppm PCB in 250 gal. is equivalent to about one coffee cup in volume.
If the trapped PCBs are able to leach out into the bulk retrofill fluid at a rate of
as little as I ppm PCB per day. it would need about one year before the bulk oil
nated with PCBs. as in an askarel
concentration had climbed above 500
transformer. PCB leaching is super imposed on the effect of convective mixing. Flush and drain procedures
ppm PCB and the unit would again have to be regarded as a PCB trans
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
PCB decontamination cont'd A new process has been tried on trans former materials impregnated with chlorobenzenes as a non-viscous sur-
chlorobenzenes in about 4 minutes at
room temperature. The products of re action are inorganic chloride ions and
(x+y) Cl •
porous support; room temperature; 4 minutes
WE CAN'T CHANGE THE FASTI BUT WE CAN HELP YOU CORRECT IT!
rogate for PCBs in order to quantitate biphenyl. An alternative disposal strategy in any observed leaching in a reasonable volves the complete dismantling of the experimental timeframe. The com pleted process allowed permanent reclas- transformer carcass. The cellulosic in sulation is stripped from the core/coil siflcation of the bulk retrofill fluid. It was found that the process could be assembly and drummed with other noncontinued to the point where leaching recyclable parts for incineration. The was completely eliminated. In actual winding wire is immersed in a vat of hot practice this level need not be achieved solvent and the metal cleaned to a per since the remaining useful life of a mitted level of residual PCB.The inter nal surfaces of the transformer tank are transformer is finite. The extent of pro cessing can be tailored to the level of also washed and the solvent redistilled reclassification required and the life- for further use. The process of solvent washing and distillation is able to recy expectancy of the transformer. The disposal of askarel drained from cle the metals into the secondary metals a transformer typically involves the market and remove the liability of transportation of drums of PCBs to an ownership of the original PCB Filled equipment. A similar process can be off-site incinerator. The author has de veloped a method of room temperature applied to the reclamation ofPCB-filled capacitors. askarel destruction which uses a cata lyst supported on an inert porous ma In Part 2, Dr. Webber will outline Itow terial. The preferred embodiment of the electrochemical reduction of PCBs can process is currently in the patent pro be made to occur under appropriate con cess. It has been shown to totally remove the chlorine atoms from PCBs and
ditions In the next Issue of ES&E.
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Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control
In a joint research project between the
sence in fish is discussed. Biological degradation in water and sediment ap pears to be the most important factor
Wastewater Technology Centre and the
limiting the persistence of tributyltin in
meter. A correction factor was for
University of Ottawa, A. Zaidi and col leagues investigated ultrafiltration(UF) and nanofiltration (NF) in advanced effluent treatment schemes for pollu tion control in the pulp and paper in dustry. Using a caustic stage bleachery
mulated for the determination of the
Advanced Filtration for Pulp Mill Effluent Treatment
A multi-exposure photographic method
effluent from a kraft mill pulping soft wood, the most promising UF mem brane gave an average permeat flux of 9 mVmVd for a volume reduction factor
VRF of one down to 70-75% at a VRF
of 30. Environmental Assessment of
their terminal settling velocities were proportional to a power of their dia
hydrodynamic properties of the aggre gates studied.
Settling of Digested Sludge Particle Aggregates
(VRF)of 30. As described in Water Sci ence and Technology, the associated COD rejections ranged from 85-95% at a
reased with increase in their size and
Photodegradation of Phenol The application of flash photolysis fol lowed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis of products was used by E. Lipczynska-Kochany and R. Bolton to investigate the photodegrada tion of phenol. As described in Environ mental Science and Technology, a single flash produces p-benzoquinone as the principal primary product of phenol photolysis with small amounts of hydroquinone being produced. After sev eral flashes, the quantity of hydroqui-
Tributyltin In Canada
none increased and the formation of
National Water Research Institute sci
2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone was also observed. These University of Waterloo scientists concluded that photochemi cal removal of phenol from alkaline so
entist R.J. Maguire has reviewed the aquatic chemistry, fate and toxicity of tributyltin in a paper published in Water Science and Technology. A summary is given ofinvestigations ofthe occurrence and persistence oftributyltin and its less toxic degradation products in water and sediment in Canada. Tributyltin was mainly found in areas of heavy boating or shipping traffic consistent with its use as an anti-fouling agent, and its pre
and image analysis were used by J. Namerand J.J.Ganczarczykto measure
the terminal settling velocities and some geometric characteristics of digested sludge particle aggregates. As described by these University ofToronto scientists in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, aggregates larger than 150 pm showed low settling shape factor values indicating their irregular struc ture. The density of the aggregates dec
lutions is more efficient than from neutral or acidic ones. Dechlorlnatlon of Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent
University of Waterloo scientists W.J. Parker and G.J. Farquhar together with
E.R. Hall ofthe Wastewater Technology
Ontario Conference ON THE Environment (formerly Ontario Waste Management and Industrial Waste Conferences)
June 13 - 16, 1993 ❖ Four Seasons ❖ Inn on the Park ❖ Toronto, Ontario
The Ontario Conference on the Environment will provide new insights into environmental problems and solutions. Pollution prevention ❖ 3Rs and waste reduction ❖ Multi-media technologies ❖ Eco-system approaches for cleaning up and restoring land, water and air Eor more information please contact: Ministry of the Environment, 12th floor, 2 St. Glair Ave., W., Toronto, Ontario M4V IL5
Atm.: Murray Cheetham, Conference Co-ordinator, Phone:(416) 323-5184 Fax:(416) 323-5031
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 109 34
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
R&D N6WS cont'd Centre have investigated the impact of nucleophilic substitution of biological ly mediated sulfide as a potential me chanism for dechlorination during
ponse parameters is required to ensure that data collected for performance analysis will be representative of the new operating conditions.
anaerobic treatment of kraft mill bleach
plant effluents. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search, sulfate supplementation, with subsequent production of sulfide by anaerobic fermentation, did not signi ficantly increase the extent of dechlori nation. These scientists concluded that
competition with other degradative mechanisms, such as reductive dechlo
Dyes In the Yamaska River A three-year study ofthe Yamaska River in Quebec by National Water Research
Institute scientist R.J. Maguire has re vealed the occurrence of 15 dyes in water, suspended solids and sediment samples downstream of textile plants.
the largest concentration of textile mills in the basin. As described in Water Sci
ence and Technology, most of the dyes found are expected to be moderately sta ble in aerobic environments but may degrade under anaerobic conditions. This study is the first demonstration of the occurrence of dyes in the Canadi an environment.
The'most contaminated area was down
Treatment of Pulp Mill Wastes by Ultra and Nanoflltratlon
stream of the city of Granby which has
In a joint research program,scientist, it
rination, was responsible for the reduced impact of sulfide on AOX removal in biological studies. Treatment of Landfill Leachate
J.-G. Bisaillon and colleagues charac terized a landfill leachate and found
that the concentration of phenolic com pounds,iron, oil and grease, COD,and BOD all exceeded the standards set by Environment Quebec. As described in
Sciences et techniques de I'eau,these Insti tute Armand Frappier scientists found that, although on site treatment in la goons was effective in reducing the pol lution, only iron met the standards. The results of aerobic and anaerobic treat
ment of the leachate, which improved the results, are reported.
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Effect of Heavy Metals on the Activated Sludge Process
A paper published by R.D. Tyagi and Y.G. Du in Environmental Technology describes the application of neural net work techniques for kinetic model build ing of heavy metals inhibition in the activated sludge process. These INRSEau scientists developed neural net work based models for cases involving
both unacclimatized and acclimatized
microorganisms.Case studies show that this emerging approach is capable of describing the complex kinetic patterns observed in wastewater treatment pro cesses with accuracy and robustness. Transition Periods in
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Five categories of transitions following changes in influent organic concentra
A service of the National Research Council, CISTI helps Canadian engineers and scientists in industry and the public sector access vital
tion, HRT and SRT in wastewater ex
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Lawrence Centre scientist R. Zalloum under conditions of controlled flow rates. As described in Environmental
Technology,experimental results showed that Danckwert's residence time dis
contact: Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information
tribution model adequately predicts the length of transition when changes in
at (613) 993-1600 or fax (613) 952-9112.
SRT at constant HRT are made. How
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ever, it is an inadequate estimator of equilibrium when influent organic con centration or HRT changes are imposed on the system at constant SRT.Monitor ing the establishment ofa steady level of MLVSS and other biological and resEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
To get you the information you need
M National Research Conseil national Council Canada
de recherches Canada
For more information, Circle reply card No. 114 35
R&D News cont'd the University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres and the Wastewater Technology Centre undertook the development and demonstration of cost-effective techno
logies for the elimination of toxic or ganic compounds in pulp and paper mill effluents. A paper published by L. Beaudoin and his colleagues in Sciences et techniques del'eau reviews the different technologies and presents an update of
the state-of-the-art in the application of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration applied to pulp and paper mill effluents. The experimental results obtained from about twenty commercial and experi mental membranes under various con
ditions are presented. Bioleaching of Metals from Sewage Sludge
R.D.Tyagi and colleagues at INRS-Eau have demonstrated that leaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge can be accomplished by indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacteria present in the sludge. As described at the 8th Eastern Regional CAWPRC Conference, the process was influenced by the sludge concentration, sludge pH, acid concentration, type of sludge, and bacterial growth and pro duct formation kinetics. The quantity of metal ultimately leached out into the liquid phase is determined by the pH of
volved. Since the sludge pEI is the only controllable variable ofthe two,the pro cess efficiency will depend on the level of sludge acidification achieved. Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge
state behavior of heavy metal con taminants under controlled conditions. Incremental increases of selected con taminants to the reactor from back
ground levels of about lOOpg/l to about 1000|ig/l resulted in an increase of ef fluent metals concentrations to about
The bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge can be accomplished by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria present in the sludge. R.D.Tyagi and his colleagues from INRS-Eau have evalu
500|ig/l. Solids retention time did not appear to influence metal removal effi ciency and hydraulic retention time ef
ated the effects ofvarious parameters on
fects were difficult to discern from the
confounding effect of influent metal
the performance ofthe bioleaching pro Dissolution of Aromatic cess. As described in a paper accepted forpublicationin Water Research^sludgt Hydrocarbons In Groundwater suspended solids concentration plays a University of Waterloo scientists M. major role in regulating the acid pro Poulsen, L. Lemon and J.F. Barker duction by influencing the nature of examined the effects of the "oxygenate" the pH drop in the system. Growth rates additives methanol and methyl tertofthe two bacterial species present in the butyl ether(MTBE)on the aqueous so system were affected by pH. A second lubility of benzene,toluene and xylenes paper develops a mathematical model (BTEX) from gasoline. For a gasfor the system. oline:water ratio of 1:10, up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gas Activated Sludge Process Response oline produced no enhanced BTEX so to Heavy Metals lubility. However, as described in Envi In a joint research study, H. Melcer, ronmental Science and Technology, at Wastewater Technology Centre, H. higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous Monteith, Enviromega Ltd., and S.G. methanol concentrations above 10% Nutt, XCG Consultants Ltd. operated enhanced BTEX solubility. The front of large scale activated sludge treatment a plume generated from high-methanol systems under dynamic loading con
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
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R&D News cont'd gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than one had high methanol content and ele
J.A. Oleszkiewicz and W.Trebacz ofthe
Advanced Filtration for Oilfield
University of Manitoba and D.B. Thompson of Boise-Cascade. As des
Wastewater Technology Centre scien
vated BTEX concentration.
cribed in Water Environment Research, these researchers found that the remo
vals of adsorbable organic halides In a paper published in the Journal of (AOX) and soluble organic carbon Great Lakes Research, Ontario Ministry (SOC)were directly proportional to the Bay of Quinte Pollution
tists A.Zaidi,K.Simms and S. Kok have
published a paper in Water Science and Technology reviewing the use of microfiltration and ultrafiltration for the
removal of oil and suspended solids
ofthe Environment scientist D.J. Poulin
biomass concentration and the solids
from oilfield brines. The most exten
reports on the results of a survey of the water and sediments of the Bay of
retention time of the process. Removals of AOX and SOC in the activated sludge reactors were inversely proportional to hydraulic retention time. AOX removal of up to 30% was achieved.
sively demonstrated membrane techno logy for oilfield brine treatment in
An Enhanced Oxidation Process for Groundwater Remediation
this technology are now in place; how ever their long-term viability is uncer tain. The key obstacles to cost effective application of membranes include low average flux rates, flux degradation and
Quinte and its tributaries. Point source
sampling showed that Domtar Wood Preserving at Trenton was a major con tributor of chlorinated phenols. Several sewage treatment plants were signifi cant sources of heavy metals but tribu tary metal loadings were generally higher than sewage treatment plant loadings.In the Bay of Quinte water,the provincial water quality objectives were exceeded only on a small portion of the samples for copper,cadmium, mercury, nickel, and lead. Detectable levels of PAHs were found in the sediments.
In a paper published in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada, Solarchem Environmental Systems scientist S.R. Carter and his colleagues describe the Rayox® water decontamination sys tem which provides enhanced oxida tion water remediation technology. The features of the system are discussed and the results from several case studies on
Wastewater from an integrated bleached kraft pulp and paper mill was treated in
experimental aerated equalization/ stabilization lagoon — activated sludge
rachloride, dichloroethane, trichloroethane and others in water to virtually
systems under various conditions by
any required discharge level.
Kraft Mill Wastewater
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groundwater treatment are described. The system is capable of destroying a variety of pollutants including refrac tory compounds such as carbon tet-
Biological Treatment of
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uncertain membrane life.
For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Pollution Re
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Nancy Bonham,P.Eng., and Alan Armstrong, C.E.T.*
Egg-shaped digesters now in Canada
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DIGESTED SLUDGE DISCHARGE
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trol Plant in the Regional Municipality
of Haldimand-Norfolk. The vessel con
struction is part of a $7.5 million plant expansion and upgrade,funded 75% by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment and 25% by the Region. The exist ing 4,100 mVd primary treatment plant serves a population of 5500; the expan ded,5,400 mVd plant will provide secon dary treatment for 7500 people. Com missioning of the new facilities is sche
RAW SLUDGE FEED
CONCRETE RINGWALL FOUNOATICH SAMPLE SINK EXHAUST FAN
duled for this summer.
Project History The Environmental Study Report (ESR)identified anaerobic digestion as
the preferred sludge stabilization option
for several reasons:
• The Region wished to continue to util ize their sludge on agricultural land. The higher nutrient values associated with anaerobically digested sludge
DAVIT MEAT EXCHANGERS
rendered it a more attractive alterna
tive to aerobic digestion. • Large storage facilities were required to comply with MOEE's current policy for providing 4-6 months of interim sludge storage.The initial lower capi tal costs of aerobic digestion would be offset by the extremely high operat ing costs. • The generation, recovery and use of methane gas was a process advantage that the Region found particularly ap pealing in an era of concern with res pect to energy conservation. • Anaerobically digested sludges have less odour producing potential than aerobically digested sludges; this was of particular importance in the selec tion of on-site storage facilities adja cent to a predominantly residential neighbourhood that has had a history of odour concerns.
Sludge volume projections indicated that only one primary digester would be required.The ESR recommended there fore that single stage high rate digestion be provided by one digester,and that the sludge storage tanks would be designed to provide the decanting capability which would otherwise be performed by a secondary digester. The decision to provide only one anaerobic vessel made it essential to minimize the need for in ternal maintenance and associated di
gester decommissioning, to optimize *Nancy Bonham,P.Eng.,is with MacViro Consultants and Alan Armstrong, C.E.T., is with the Regional Municipality of Haidimand-Norfoik.
HOT WATER RETURN IT WATER SUPPLY POTABLE WATER
the process performance and to reduce traditional tank cleaning requirements. During the preliminary design phase ofthe project,concerns were raised with respect to operational problems with conventional North American digester design. There is extensive literature do cumenting that conventional digesters have been plagued with problems asso ciated with inefficient mixing, resulting in process upsets, reduced digester volumes, settled solids accumulation,
and the requirement for periodic shut down for cleaning. In a study of 10 On tario digesters. Smart(1978) concluded that mixing was grossly inadequate; ob served mixing efficiencies varied from 11-90%, with an average of 45% dead space in the tanks studied. The WPCF(now Water Environment Federation)Wastewater Treatment Plant
Design Manual ofPractice No.8 recom mends that 25% additional digester vo lume be provided to account for solids deposition and scum blanket forma tion, and that tanks be cleaned out a
minimum of once every 3-8 years. Pro cedures for tank decommissioning and clean-out are cumbersome, complex, time consuming and expensive. The landfilling of debris from the digester cleanout is an additional concern.
In contrast, the design of ESD's has several recognized advantages: • the cone shaped bottom results in the
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
minimization of grit accumulation and provides a means to remove sol ids from the bottom of the cone(with out draining the tank)should deposi tion occur;
• equivalent volatile solids destruction and gas production is achieved with approximately halfthe mixingenergy of conventional vessels;
• concentrated mixing energy at the top of the vessel permits re-entrainment of most ofthe scum and foam.A scum
box at the top of the vessel provides a means of excess scum removal, if re
quired. Historically, the ESD
more capital intensive than the con ventional North American design due to the expensive European formwork required for the pre-stressed concrete design. Development of a competitive American method, and a surge in popularity of the steel con struction has significantly reduced the capital costs for the egg-shaped configuration. A cost comparison of conventional concrete digesters, and steel ESD's for the Port Dover WPCP
indicated no difference in capital cost estimates for the two systems. An ESD was recommended for the
Port Dover facility based on the concontinued overleaf 39
Egg-shaped digesters cont'd TABLE 1
Anaerobic Digestion Design Parameters Units
Sludge volume to digesters
Raw sludge solids: Total Volatile
Volatile solids destruction
Gas generation rate
m^/kg VSS destroyed
charge systems, the gas foam trap, and the associated interconnecting piping and appurtenances. The mixing was specified as external pumped recirculation with the requirement that all mechanical equipment be external to the vessel but within the enclosure of the vessel foundation. The successful
supplier is required to demonstrate that an active digester volume in ex cess of 90% is maintained over a mini
mum 30 day period as demonstrated by a lithium chloride tracer response test.
VSS Loading Vessel height Vessel diameter
Two North American ESD manufac turers were identified and invited to
quote on the preselection — CBI Walker
Inc. and Pitt-Des Moines Inc. — as well
as public invitations in local and trade print media.
*WPCF Manual of Practice #8
elusion that equivalent or improved process design performance could be achieved at an equivalent capital cost of the conventional design, while sig nificantly reducing both operating costs and the potential for process upsets. Preselection
Preselection specifications were developed for the design, supply, de livery, erection, testing and start-up of the egg-shaped anaerobic digester system. The specifications were based
on the digester system developed by CBI Walker Inc. with provision to bid on alternative systems, provided that the proposed system met the full in tent of the drawings and specifica tions. The successful supplier would become a designated subcontractor to
The steel egg-shaped digester vessel was designed to meet API Standard 620 "Design and Construction of Large Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks" which is used in the design oflow pres
the General Contract.
sure steel vessels world wide. Manufac
The documents provided for a complete system comprised of an in sulated steel vessel (to be supported by a concrete ringwall foundation), the digester mixing and heating sys tems, digested sludge and sciim dis
turing and construction procedures were developed to accommodate the de sign parameters and achieve the final vessel configuration using steel plate material. continued overleaf
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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 107 40
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Piping ivy flhe numbers^
• L& Hvnz~
:> (BY COKTR^ J JO' X 6* REB.-'
To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with Victaulic®. For example, to help you save time and reduce
So if numbers ore important to you, check into something you can count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company
overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division
of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or
offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the
coll 416-675-5575. RAX: 416-675-5729.
numbers. And it's fasti
ictaulfc' PiT-plaviYim^ u,i+h Victaulic saves tiweaM money
Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system. .. over TOO innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com
pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Victoulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Cornpony of Canada. ©1990 Victaulic. All rights reserved.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 106
Egg-shaped digesters cont'd Forming of the egg shape was accom plished using hydraulic pressing and rolling equipment at the Horton CBI manufacturing plant in Fort Erie. On tario. The formed sections were shipped to the Port Dover WPCP in the largest
practical sizes using truck transport. Sections of the egg were then ground assembled utilizing the previously de veloped procedures for fitting, welding and quality control. The sections were then erected into the final egg position
the layout of the digester utility room, mM.The vessel will be 17,3 m high and located within the ringwall foundation, will extend approximately 14 m above is provided in Figure 1. A summary of ground level with a maximum diameter the digester design criteria is presented of 8.5 m. Insulated metal cladding will in Table 1. be provided on the external vertical sec The egg-shaped digester is of steel tions of the vessel from its springline to construction, with a coal tar epoxy coat the ground. Mixing will be provided by two sludge recirculation pumps (one duty; one standby), each having a capacity of 25 L/s for a vessel turnover rate of 3.3 times
on the foundations,attached to the com
plete structure. Erection of the upper most section was completed on Decem ber 7th. 1992.
Process Design Co-settled primary and waste acti vated sludge will be fed to the ESD.with digested sludge being discharged to one of four in-ground concrete sludge stor age tanks. A sludge bypass line will allow for directfeed to the sludge storage tanks in the event of digester shut-down. Gas storage will be provided by a gas holder to equalize daily variations in gas production and demand. Biogas generated in the process will be stored and utilized in a dual fuel (natural and
digester gas) boiler to heat the digester and site buildings. Excess gas will be burned in a waste gas burner. A process schematic is provided in Figure 2 and
ing on the inside above the gas/liquid interface and extending approximately 2 m into the liquid level. The digester has a volume of 666 m' for a design solids retention time of 20 days and a volatile solids loading rate of 1.54 kg/ m^d.The design is conservative with res pect to MOEE Guidelines which re commend a minimum hydraulic reten tion time of 15 days and a maximum volatile solids loading limit of 1.6 kg/
per day. Sludge will be withdrawn at the periphery of the vessel, approximately one-third below the liquid level and reinjected at the bottom through the jet pump and/or the peripheral swirl mix feed point. Mixing will be enhanced by provision of a 350 mm diameter central draft tube extending the height of the vessel. There are four possible mixing modes tha^can be programmed by the plant operator for each half hour period of each day of the week as follows: 1) no mixing. 2)upward mixing from the bot tom of the vessel through the draft tube. 3) peripheral mixing through the side feed point, and 4)a combination of up ward and peripheral mixing. The pro grammed mixing modes can be selected at the control panel located in the diges ter utility room below the vessel,or at the operators" control centre. Digester heating will be provided by 2 tube-in-tube heat exchangers on the sludge recirculation loop,located down stream of the raw sludge feed point.The digester sludge temperature will be maintained between the limits of 34.7
and 35.3 degrees Celcius by control of the hot water feed rate to the heat ex BOILER
WASTE GAS BURNER
The General Contractor is Kenaidan DIGESTER
LEGEND PI. P2 RECIRCULATION PUMPS MANUAL VALVE
Contracting Ltd. of Mississauga, Onta rio. As a sub-contractor on the project, Horton CBI Limited of Fort Erie, Ontario, is responsible for the vessel design,fab rication, erection, start-up and testing. The Regional representatives on the pro ject are Eric R. D'Hondt,P.Eng. and Alan C. Armstrong, CET; the Consulting En gineers for the Environmental Assess ment process, design, and construction administration are MacViro Consultants
Inc. of Markham, Ontario. The Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk is located on the north
STORAGE - l^'^^STED SLUDGE TANKS
WATER SUPPL Y
UT L TY HOT WATER
the Ministries of Environment and Ener
gy have been combined into a single Ministry.
Figure 2 42
shore of Lake Erie, southwest of Hamil ton, Ontario.The Region is comprised of six area municipalities and twelve urban centres. The area of the Region is 7,450 square kilometres with a total population of approximately 94,000 people with water and sewerage servicing provided to 55,000 people. Since this was written
CONCRETE RINGWALL FOUNDATION-
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 110
Environmental Science cS: Engineering, May 1993
Product Review Mass flowmeters available
with secondary containment option connection for a pressure sensor to re motely signal the loss of integrity of the vibrating tube assembly. The M-Dot features a transducer with
patented dual omega-shaped flowtubes, providing outstanding accuracy and durability in mass flow applications. The Massmaster transducer has single straight-through flowtube technology, offering exceptional performance where density measurement is critical. The M-Dot and Massmaster offer
M-Dot™ and Massmaster™ Coriolis
mass flowmeters from Schlumberger Industries are available with an option al secondary pressure retaining capabi lity that conforms to the ASME/ANSI B31.3 chemical plant and petroleum re finery piping code. Both feature fully welded construction.
This advanced capability ensures that in the unlikely event of a tube fail ure, the instrument safely contains any internal leakage. The flowmeter has a
Intelligent control for SEW AC motors SEW is introducing a new digital con trol for general purpose three-phase AC induction motor applications. The new FR-A control offers high torque deli very, quiet operation, and compact de sign, with a unique "intelligent" opera tor interface.
In addition to the standard LED dis
play,the FR-A controls feature a unique optional parameter unit, offering the operator clear communications with the control, and monitoring of drive func tions. The optional parameter unit dis plays 2 additional sets of data side-byside on an LCD (liquid crystal display) screen. Data can be displayed simul taneously in digital and analog mode, and in graphic or text format,to suit the preferences of the operator. To guide the operator through pro gramming, operation, and trouble shooting,the FR-A interface is designed around an easy-to-understand promptbased programming system. The op tional parameter unit can be locally
remarkable fatigue resistance, with no moving parts. Their unrestricted flow paths produce extremely low pressure drops.They have both proven to exhibit exceptional tolerance to external vibra tion. Both flowmeters are available with a
range of flow computer options to suit any application cost-effectively, whe ther stand-alone batching or integration into a larger control system. Schlumberger Industries
increased flexibility by using a smaller HP drive in many applications. The magnetic flux vector control me
decessors,the FR-A controls are claimed
to be the most compact variable fre quency drive controllers in the world. Product features also directly re'sult in low operating noise and added unit reliability. The FR-A features a trip-free, current limiting function. If an overload is sus tained by the FR-A,the drive will protect itself and the motor by reducing its out put voltage and frequency. These new digital controls range from Vi to 75 HP. With a speed range ofO.Ol Hz to 400 Hz, the FR-A line is suited for a variety of constant torque or variable torque ap plications. SEW Circle reply card No. 176
New Flexgate Slurry Knife Gate Valve
Circle reply card No. 175
BACKED BY 40 YEARS OF
thod also provides better open loop motor speed regulation — within 1 per cent — under fluctuating loads. Should conventional frequency control be de sired by the operator under some cir cumstances, the operator can easily switch from magnetic flux vector con trol to standard frequency control. More than 50% smaller than their pre
Red Valve's new Flexgate Slurry Knife Gate Valve is a heavy duty,rugged valve, engineered for low maintenance,and excontinued overleaf
You didn't become a decision-maker in water
environment management overnight; you earned it through education and on the job growth. We understand; at MEO Valves, our recent expansion to offer a complete valve line for wasfewafer freafment projecfs is backed by 4 decades of steady growth in the supply of specialized valves.
WE'RE READY Recently we've earned further recognition in your marketplace with the addition of RED VALVES and CLOW FOR YOUR VALVES to the select group of manufacturers we represent. The next time you need valves for your project, we urge you us. Regardless of the requirement, you'll find that BUSINESS towe'recallknowledgeable, and responsive. l\low offering a complete line of valves engineered
. . , After all, we've spent the last 40 years getting ready for your business.
mounted to the control or connected
remotely using an optional cable. The FR-A is able to deliver a higher starting torque due to its unique mag netic flux vector control system which enables the motor to deliver 150% start
ing and running torque from 1 to 60 Hz. As a result, the end user can achieve the benefits of reduced size, lower cost, and
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
IIN^I NEO VALVES 465 Norfinch Drive, Toronto Ontario MSN 1Y7
For more Information, Circle reply card No. Ill
Product Review cont'd General purpose granular
absorbent New literature reviews the features of
ENVIRO-DRI, a general purpose in dustrial absorbent that completely ab sorbs spills of oil, grease, water and other non-aggressive liquids. ENVIRODRI is a granular product manufac tured from recycled wood utilizing a unique Canadian process. The product is non-WHMIS controlled and has an
absorption rate 40% higher than clay. Can-Ross Environmental Services Ltd.
cellent abrasion resistance. This pro duct was designed for rugged applica tions found in mining operations,power plants, pulp mills, wastewater treat ment, sludge, and abrasive slurry or solids handling plants. The Flexgate is designed for On/Off service.The valve closes like a knife gate valve. A heavy duty, stainless steel gate passes through two heavy duty cartridge reinforced rubber slurry sleeves. These rubber slurry sleeves provide a com pression interference fit resulting in a driptight seal. When the valve is in the open position, the full port design eli minates flow obstructions, keeping abrasive wear to a minimum.
Red Valve Company,Inc.
Circle reply card No. 177
A test for process control of nitrification in wastewater treatment has been devel
Circle reply card No. 178 Can-Ross 24 hour
emergency spill response
oped by Arthur Technology for use with its respirometers.The test will be of par ticular interest to wastewater personnel whose permits may now require the re moval of ammonia. The test makes it
cessary sorbents from their 48 outlets
possible to measure separately the amount of oxygen used in nitrification and the amount of oxygen used in car
bonaceous oxidation. This newest test,
The company maintains one of the largest inventories ofsorbents in the in dustry. By calling their 24-hour hotline in Oakville, Ontario (416) 847-7190, the spill site.
which determines how well the process of nitrification is proceeding, is the la test ofseveral short term process control tests developed by the company for use with its line ofrespirometers.Test results can be obtained in less than twenty
Can-Ross Environmental Services Ltd.
Can-Ross have introduced a 24-hour
spill response service to supply the ne
Can-Ross can direct an area dealer to
Circle reply card No. 179
Circle reply card No. 180
"The drive is down and we have no spare! A drive is the kind of component you never notice. Until it fails. Then its most critical attribute comes into play. How quickly will it be back up and running? Eurodrive means uptime â€” long term reliability plus 24 hour service response. Call us any time of the day or night. At Eurodrive, total service response times of a few hours are not unusual, in fact, they're company policy. We offer the largest selection of drives in the world from which to choose your exact replacement. In addition, our modular construction lets us
SSflC 24*Hour Service AFTER HOUR TECHNICAL SUPPORT
build your new drive in the least time
possible from parts right off the shelf. If you need a supplier who takes your downtime as seriously as you do, call Eurodrive.
EURODRIVE Toronto: (416) 791-1553 Vancouver:(604)946-5535 Montreal; (514)367-1124
For more information, Circle reply card No. 112 44
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
POLY-TITE GASKETED SEWER SYSTEM (100 mm-375 mm)
^ BIG '0'INTRODUCES ITS NEW BELL &
working for yotr^
LEAK-TIGHT JOINT PERFORMANCE
BOSS POLY-TITE: lechnlcal data
The key to the performance of the BOSS POLYTITE Sewer
• Certified to CAN/CSA B182.6, Profile Polyethylene Sewer
System is Its new gasketed connection. Designed and factory-tested to meet exacting CSA certification standards, the system provides the Beii & Spigot sealed joint required for sanitary sewer systems and storm sewers needing leak-
Pipe and Fittings • Manning's coefficient of 'n' = 0.010 at flow velocity of
• Chemical and corrosion resistant
• Minimum pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection • Ail-weather impact resistance for year-round installation
BOSS POLYTITE Bell & Spigot Sewer Systems are currently available in diameters of 100 mm to 375 mm. A full range of CSA-certified thermoplastic fittings completes the system. Larger diameter product is currently being developed, and
Ask for the BOSS POLY-TITE brochure now, and discover the benefits of the new Leak-Tight Sewer System. For complete testing guidelines and procedures, ask for the BOSS Installation Guide as well.
will be introduced in 1993.
BOSS POLY-TITE HOPE pipe combines a corrugated exterior for maximum strength with a smoothwall interior for optimum flow. A Manning's 'n' of 0.010 satisfies the hydraulic requirements of both sanitary and storm sewers.
Big '0' Inc. Head Office
6014 - 64th Street
254 Thames Road East
Taber, Alberta T0K2G0 (403)223-3521
Exeter, Ontario NOW! 1S3 1-800-265-2446
101 de Lauzon
34601 Vye Road Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 4N7 (604)850-0753
Bouchervllle, RQ. J4B1E7 (514) 449-5004 1 (800)361-1895
®BOSS is a registered trademark of Big '0' Inc.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 113
Product Review cont'd New helical bevel gearmotors & speed reducers and rigidity. Benefits include the ab sence of oil leakage, oil contamination and the problems associated with gear set misalignment. A wide selection ofhelical bevel speed reducers is available. There is an input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Scoop motor mounting.Platform motor mounting.C-Face and lEC input flange motor mounting. The Nord Helical gears meet AGM A 11-13 quality levels. From '/s to 200 HP are available. Output torques reach 212,000 lb. in. while output speeds range Nord Gear has recently introduced a series of helical bevel gearmotors and speed reducers that promise significant
energy savings. A company spokesper son says these gearmotors and speed reducers achieve energy savings of up to 50 per cent over conventional worm gears. These new Nord Helical Bevel de
signs also feature the exclusive Unicase construction. This means the gearcases are fashioned from a single block of gray cast iron to eliminate the need for a bolt-on cover or flanges. Internal rein forcements provide additional strength
Couplingsfrom 1"to 10' dia.
from 0.6 to 162 RPM. Gear ratios are from 10.73:1 to 4835:1.
All Nord gearmotors are available with two styles of adjustable speed drives. The NorDISC traction drive of
fers a 7:1 adjustable speed range for ap plications up to 7.5 HP. When adjust able speed applications up to 150 HP are required, there is the Titan belt-type drive with up to a 8:1 speed range. All Nord products now come painted with stainless steel paint in compliance to USD A,FDA regulations at no addition al charge. Nord Gear Circle reply card No. 181
which the level probe is subjected to vib ration or temperatures above 70°C (162°F), and is located within 40 feet of the controller.
In the other system, the Model 694L transmitter is separate from the 672L4 receiver/controller. The 694L can be
mounted directly onto the level probe or
remotely(up to 25 feet).The 672L4/694L system is intended for applications where the receiver/controller is separated from the level probe by up to 5000 feet. Great Lakes Instruments, Inc.
Circle reply card No. 183 Portable flow meter works
from outside a pipe
Straub couplings have many unique features. All pipe materials and any diameter are joined in minutes by tight ening two bolts. No machining, no grooving, no welding is required. The couplings are used in sewage and water treatment plants, valve chambers and watermains, mines, paper mills, smelt ers, off-shore drilling rigs and general plumbing. Tadco Manufacturing Inc.
Circle reply card No. 182
basic materials — 316L stainless steel
Two new microprocessor-based con Mount the PDFM-III ultrasonic sensor tinuous level measurement systems, on any pipe 1 inch (25 mm)diameter or offered by Great Lakes Instruments, larger, and this new Portable Doppler feature simple remote pushbutton cali Flow Meter shows flow rate instantly. bration and convenient built-in levelUse the simple, built-in 3-key calibra to-volume conversion tables for common tion system to enter pipe diameter and vessel shapes. The Model 672L3 and the PDFM-III will display in your 672L4/694L systems can be used to con choice ofgallons,litres or any engineer trol liquid,granular and interface levels. ing units. Standard features include a Other traits shared by these affordable 10-digit programmable totalizer, a 4systems include a Pulse Frequency Mo 20mA output and RS-232C serial out dulation (PFM) transmitter for highly put. reliable operation, large LCD display, The PDFM-III is recommended for three fully programmable relays, self- viscous liquids, slurries, chemicals and diagnostics capability and optional wastewater and works from outside
and extruded rubber — are procured
Straub Pipe Couplings are now made in Canada by Tadco Manufacturing Inc. The couplings are distributed across Canada and exported to the United States. Since 1987 the couplings have been imported from Switzerland and installed in every Province of Canada and several U.S. States in sizes from 1 inch to 10 feet diameter.
Straub couplings are manufactured under license from Straub Kupplungen
of Wangs, Switzerland. Tadco has full access to the Swiss technology, specifi cations and Quality standards. The
from Canadian and U.S. sources. The
plant is truly international or more spe cifically a North American operation. 46
The 672L3 system has a built-in trans mitter in the receiver/controller. This
system is intended for applications in
metal or plastic pipes, Greyline Instruments inc.
Circle reply card No. 184
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Product Review cont'd First 'Intelligent' actuator Rotork introduces its IQ 'intelligent' ac tuator for waterworks and sewerage utilities.
The IQ is the first actuator that can be
commissioned and interrogated with out removing electrical on-site covers. The IQ comes equipped with an infra red 'point and shoof setting tool which allows for the non-intrusive setting of torque levels, position limits and all other control and indication functions
Gundguard liners A series of patented 12 and 20 mil poly ethylene liners designed to meet con tainment needs. Gundguard has a coextruded, 3 layer structure, LLDPE/ VLDPE/LLDPE, that offers excep tional flexibility without sacrificing strength. Available in customized sheet sizes up to 200 x 200 feet. Gundguard is a cost effective choice for permanent and temporary applications ranging from: daily covers, decontamination pads, small pond and pit lining,landscaping, and secondary containment.
through a sealed indication window. A range of diagnostic functions can also be performed using the setting tool. Information can either be stored in
the actuator for later retrieval by the handheld device or transferred con
tinuously into the plant control system for use as part of a predictive main tenance program.
Rotork's unique double sealing fea ture which protects against dust, mois ture and the most severe environments
has been taken an important step fur ther with the development of this intel ligent range of three-phase, electric valve actuator.
tronically and travel measured digitally by counting magnetic pulses, the IQ does not require torque springs, levers, spiral helixes or nuts and screws to con trol torque and travel limits. Rotork
Circle reply card No. 188 Reminder
Use the Reader Service Card
to get information on products in this issue.
Because torque is controlled elec
Gundle Fabrication Division
Circle reply card No. 185
CSA approved fall arrest system
Hot Water Meter — EXT-M
Kent Meters, Inc. has a new meter for
monitoring low flow hot water for totali zation, i.e. physical plant maintenance, condensate return, submetering, apart ments, condominiums and office com
This %" EXT-M unit is a single jet (inferential) impeller meter with a bronze body. The meter consists of a bronze main
case, strainer, measuring chamber, im peller, removable top plate,o-ring and a magnetically driven register. The body is cast bronze with raised characters
showing direction of flow. The register is dust and moisture eva cuated thus eliminating fogging or con densation caused by variations of tem perature. It can be turned to any posi tion for easy reading. Kent Meters,Inc.
MSU Mississauga Ltd. reports that its #3152 safety slide rail system has been certified to Canadian Standards Associ ation standard Z259.1-1976 certification
• Attachment brackets fit any type of rung size or spacing, • Patented traveler operates smoothly (no slipping between notches),
of Fall Arresting Device Type 1 Class • All stainless steel hardware, B. • Simple to install, For use on towers, water tanks, chim • Unique splicing system joins rail sections permitting a rail ofunlimited neys and in deep underground struc
length, tures, the MSU system has many end• Available with integrated safety han user benefits including:
• Designed for use on ladders longer than 5m,
• All aluminum rail attaches to any type of vertical ladder or rungs.
dle extension, • All stainless steel hardware. MSU
Circle reply card No. 187
Circle reply card No. 186 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
to on-going service and support is an investment in our
Nowadays everyone talks about service and support. FLYGTdoes more. We operate 16 branches nationwide. These branches are staffed by experienced saies representatives, appiications engineers and service technicians who deiiver the fastest and most reiiable
on-site service and support in the water-handiing business.
The Service Edge. From initial technicai sizing and appiica-
tion support to equipment instaiiation and foiiow-up maintenance, FLYGT is committed to servicing and supporting every pump, mixer and controi system that carries the FLYGT name.
Every FLYGT branch has
the support personnel, the parts and the
quickly diag nose a situation
and handle any adjustments or repairs on-site or at the branch.
The Information Edge. Using a computer database cailed FLYGT SALES INFOR-
To ensure that installation at the site is fast and trouble-
free, we test and approve every pump in our special test tank before release.
The Follow-Through Network. it's easy to gain peace-of-mind. Ali you need is the teiephone number of the FLYGT branch nearest you: Western Canada: Coquitlam, B.C.
MATiON (FSi), our service speciaiists and engineers have access to up-to-the-minute reference data, a must for effecting a quick and thorough analysis of every pumping situation. FSi heips reduce downtime. And iess downtime means money in your pocket. The facts and figures contained in
(604)941-6664 □ Calgary, Alta. (403)279-8371 □ Edmonton, Alta. (403)489-1961 □ Saskatoon, Sask. (306)933-4849 0 Winnipeg, Man.
the FSi database can be retrieved by
(819)825-0792 o Quebec City, Qua. (418)667-1694. Eastern Canada: Moncton, N.B. (506)857-2244 o St. John's, Nfld. (709)722-6717 o Dartmouth, N.S.
personnei in every FLYGT branch. These speciaiists can aiso provide you with information about the complete range of
FLYGT products and systems, including short-and iong-term equipment rentais
Central Canada: Sudbury, Ont. (705)560-2141 o Hamilton, Ont. (416)561-3711 □ Etobicoke, Ont.
(416)675-3630 0 Nepean, Ont. (613)225-9600. Quebec: Pointe Claire, Qua. (514)695-0100 o Chicoutimi, Qua. (418)454-7605 oVal d'Or, Oue.
(902)468-3448. SALES o SERVICE □ RENTALS
and on-site service contracts.
Good Ideas Take Flygt.
minnl For more information, Circie reply card No. 115
Flygt ITT Fluid Technology Corporation
ITT Flygt, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, RQ. H9R4V5
Telefax: (514) 697-0602
Cool air sludge drying While heat pump technology is cer tainly not new,BEP Technologies claims to have found a new way ofapplying it to the problem of drying water-based in dustrial sludges and slurries.Their Hellman-Spehr Hygrex system uses dry-air generators to achieve cool drying within a closed-loop, recirculated air system. The system can be used for primary or secondary sludge treatment, with prepressed sludges reduced by up to a fur ther 70% in weight and volume,and dis posal costs reduced by up to 60%. In addition to comparitively high energy costs, one of the problems asso
Where your concerns are our concerns QUALITY - TURNAROUND - PRICE
5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9 416-890-8566 Toil Free: 800-263-9040 Fax:416-890-8575
BAS Labomtories Limited
ini lUM li
ciated with traditional heat-based dry
Environmental Analysis for Over 25 Years
ing processes is their use ofingoing and outgoing air. This can result in environ mental pollution and the annoyance of
Phone (416) 794-2522
14 Abacus Road
Brampton, Ontario Fax (416) 794-2338 Canada L6T 5B7
These drying processes usually have to be operated in open systems because the heated air they use for drying can only be used once to absorb moisture, after which it is exhausted into the
atmosphere. The cool air drying method uses an environmentally-friendly "closed loop system".The closed,recirculated air sys tem,combined with the heat pump tech nology, prevents heat losses caused by outgoing air in open systems. Dry air temperatures are generally between 30C and 45C and the drying actually occurs
The system also allows operators to take advantage of the surplus heat which is a free by-product of the system. This free heat can be used to supple ment building heating systems, or to
heat suitable process fluids. As the process is closed, no ingoing and outgoing air ducts have to be in
ume of these dewatered sludges by as
Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave
Hazardous Waste Characterization
Occupational Health & Safety
Tel: 604 734 7276
Fax: 604 731 2386
OVER 20 YEARS OF A N A LYTI C A L E X C E L L E N C E
Comprehensive • Complete MISA Parameters • Regulation 309 Compliance
• Air Analysis
• Soil Decommissioning
• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria
CANVIR® 50 Bachurst Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2G5 Tel: (519) 747-2575
stalled and there is no heat supply sys tem. All that is normally required are
interconnecting ducts and/or pipework. The system is applicable to a wide variety of wastes, including hazardous or toxic materials. In addition to pri mary drying,the system can also be used on sludges which have already gone through press or centrifuge dewatering, and might reduce the weight and vol
as a result of the reduction of the water
vapour pressure and the absolute air humidity, rather than applied heat.
Fax: (519) 747-3806
Chemex Labs Ltd. ►Water Potability Testing ►Contaminated Sites Testing ►Waste Characterization
►Sewer Discharge Sampling & Testing ►Acid Rock Drainage Prediction ►Accreditations with CAEAL and BCMOE
Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221
Mississauga, ON (416) 624-2806
much as a further 60%.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 150
Use the Reader Service Card
to get information on products in this issue.
A Marsh & McLennan Company
949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontario
Environmental Science c£ Engineering, May 1993
ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SERVICES Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Organics BTEX " Asbestos ■ PCBs Volatile Organics Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Panels • Isocyanates
Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged (513)255-9797
FAX (513)255-9304 49
Laboratories Setting the standard for
Patented process which brings new technology and new levels of perfor mance to WAS thickening. The system is highly adaptable and can handle a wide range offlow rate and
* turnaround time
PROTECTION LABORATORIES INC.
6850 Gorcway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX;(416) 673-7399
Meeting the needs and expectations of our clients with accurate defensible data
for environmental decision making.
feed concentrations without time-con
suming shutdowns. Performance is automated to require little or no operator attention. Here's what's new about the system: * Positive air pulse control of solids discharge. * Minimal sludge blanket in clarifica tion zone for better recovery.
* Closed-loop, fully automatic control adjusts to changing feed conditions. * Increased capacity with lower power
ENVIROCLEAN laboratories inc. (519)686-7558
Humboldt BIOLIFT™ advanced thickening system
* Single unit capacities to 1500 GPM. Control & Metering
FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES For more Information, Circle reply card No. 151
Complete analytical services conducted according to MOE,EPA, APHA, ASTM at competitive prices. ENVIRONMENTAL• ORGANIC• DRINKING WATER AGRICULTURAL* SOIL* INDUSTRIAL * INORGANIC WASTEWATER * METALS * FEED
Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,
prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days.
System (ADS) New CENTRIPRESS™ ADS Series
83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416) 574-4977
design increases capacity by up to 50%
compared to original CENTRIPRESS'"
Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality * Water Quality * Hazardous Waste • Complete MISA Parameters
» Emission Testing
• Reg. 309 Compliance
» Ontario Drinking Water Criteria
• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans
» Odorous Compounds
• Ambient Air Monitoring
» Rush Analysis Available
* Improved design offeed and polymer addition systems. * Up to 50% more throughput per ma chine size with "High Solids" perfor mance.
Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.
* Lower power consumption per GPM
Professional Analytical Services Since 1972
5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone; (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370
System of comparable size. New system has:
* Higher torque capability. * Decreased space requirements. * Offered in a range of capacity sizes to match your plant flow needs.
Control & Metering
Metals — Anions — Organics — PCBs — Volatiles Reg. 309 — MISA — Landfill Quality — Phytotox — Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-slte sampling available
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 152
CAEAL Certified For complete catalogue
with prices call Tel:(416)625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8368
ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES INO.
microalgae extracts XRAL ENVIRONMENTAL A DIVISION OF SGS SUPERVISION SERVICES INC.
MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste
Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's •Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"
1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3
Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152
Purified products extracted from mic roalgae are now available from Mikralgen, the French biotechnology com pany which recently developed an axenic microalgae culture process using a high performance continuous photobioreactor. Mikralgen is currently culti vating two varieties of microalgae, the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and the rhodophyceum Porphyridium cruentum,to extract substances whose diverse
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
properties are used in industries such as food business, cosmetics, medical diag nostics, and aquaculture.
ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES
Most ofthe substances extracted from
"QUALITY ASSURED—DELIVERY GUARANTEED"
microalgae are phycobiliproteins, high ly fluorescent proteins of high molecu lar weightthat provide superior marking in immunoassays and flux cytometry. Because of the excellent level of purity obtained through this culture process, these phycobiliproteins possess greater fluorescent properties than those of tra ditional properties, such as fluorescein
PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA
Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733
or rhodomine. IBTF
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 153
Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS
Insertion Flowmeters Heath Insertion Flowmeters provide leakage detection, hydraulic analysis and monitoring to help utilities run their systems and ongoing audits with the highest possible level of efficiency. Flowmeters may be used to measure the velocity of both gases and liquids in pipelines. The Heath Flowmeter is inserted into
a pipeline for measurementor withdrawn for inspection without interruption to the line flow or reducing pressure when fitted with an isolation valve. Its large operating ranges of up to 100 to 1 make the Heath Flowmeter an easy, accurate and economical alternative to conven
r Supply S Sewage Disposal • Roads S Bodges • Flood Coni'oi Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning
280 Pretty River Parkway
48 High Street
205 Dundas Street
(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391
Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573
Fax (705) 445-0968
Fax (613) 966-1168
Environmental Auditing and Management Planning
Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.
design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting
Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada
225Sheppard Ave. W., Wlllowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2
tional metering methods. The
smaller diameter pipelines or larger pipelines with restricted access and the
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited
Heath Waste Flowmeter for measure
ment of potable water provide utilities with a complete range of Flowmeter
consulting engineers and architect
tools. Heath Consultants Limited
Water Pollution Control
For more information, Circle repiy card No. 154
Gorman-Rupp lift stations Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature selfpriming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for depend able wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of clogs or maintenance of components. T-Series pumps are available in 3", 4",6", 8" and 10" sizes with capacities up to 3,200 gpm and heads to 130'. Rugged, economical fiberglass-rein forced enclosures house all equipment.
TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA
Environmental Planning Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Transportation Architecture Municipal Services WELLAND(416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)
AquaticSciences inc. UNDERWATER AND ENVIRONMENJAL SERVICES
• spill site investigations and cleanups
• underwater video Inspections
Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers
• impact assessments
• water quality monitoring
P.O. Box2205, station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6
They resist corrosion, mildew,mold and fungus and provide all-weather protec
tion. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 155 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
^ INTERNATIONAL BRITISH COLUMBIA SASKATCHEWAN ALBERTA ONTARIO
C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers
Epic's "new baby" makes light work of effluent monitoring.
Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmentai and Municipai Engineering
• Purpose designed 5 litre composite sampler for trade effluent monitor
115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,
ing. • Ultra-compact design, lightweight and easily carried. It is only 345mm (dia)X 400mm (high)and weighs only 9Kg(including battery). • Maintenance-free battery takes over 1000 samples per charge. • Easy to operate with 9 pre-set pro grammes to meet the most common composite sampling requirements. • Optional plug-in programmer can he used to set up individual automatic sampling routines.
Coliingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9
Cm^HILLi ENGINEERING Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton ♦ Vanqpuver • Lethbridge • Wastewater Collection S Treatment
• Hazardous & Solid Waste Management 'Water Resources & Environmental Planning
• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Fiow Measurement
• It is reliable, self-contained and wea
WINNER OF THE AWARD OF EXCELLENCE - WASTEWATER CANADIAN 1990 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS PROGRAM
FOR THE STUDY & DESIGN OF A MUNICIPAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Circle reply card No. 156
Autothermal sludge treatment process delivers six day holding times
SPECIALISTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING,INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, AND LABORATORY SERVICES
• Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remediations
A Marsh St McLennan Company
Ultra-compact waste water sampler
ENGINEERS' PLANNERS ARCMITECTS
• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services
Eastern Region Toronto Tel:(416)441-4111
• ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS S PLANNING • MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Calgary Tel:(4031 276-9B61
• PLANT DECOMMISSIONING
Fax:(403)277-6902 • SITE REMEOIATION
•SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
• WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT ANO DISTRIBUTION
Offices across Canada and Overseas
The Krtiger/Fuchs Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)process is recognized by the EPA as a process that can meet the new Part 503 sludge regulations for land application of municipal wastewater sludge. The ATAD system features a sludge holding time ofjust six days in most cases and the autothermal process re quires no additional heat, providing significant energy savings. A quick digestion cycle uses smaller tanks, further reducing capital costs. No added chemicals or expensive nit rification equipment are needed, either.
Sanitherm Engineering Limited
Circle reply card No. 157
SIILL©ni Professionai Consulting Services
Self contained water treatment
Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assemhied into self-
Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax • Sydney
easily transported and quickly in
Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Ye I i o w k n i f e • International 100 S h e p p a r d Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M 2 N 6 N 5 (4 16) 229-4646
stalled. Seventeen standard sizes are
available to treat from 20 gpm to 500
gpm,for municipal plants and wher ever additional or improved water is needed.
Consultants In The Environment • Environmental Planning • Ecological Science • Geosclence
Each Monopiant contains clarifi cation, filtration, chemical feed and
• Planning • Implementation • Monitoring
gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed,the Mon opiant produces water with an efflu ent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.
Gartner Lee TORONTO (416)477-8400 52
Ecodyne Ltd. NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716)285-5448
For more information, Circle reply card No. 158
Environmentai Science & Engineering. May 1993
COMPREHENSIVE CONSULTING SERVICES IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INTERNATIONALLY
systems Densyl Tape and Profiling Mastic pro tects pipes, flanges, valves and fittings. • No abrasive blasting • No special equipment or training • Goes on wet or corroded surfaces • No VOC's, non-toxic
50 offices throughout Canodo.
• More cost-effective than paints • Proven long service life
the United States, Australia and Europe. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA
• Meets AWWA Standard C217-90 for
cold-applied petrolatum tapes Denso
Circle reply card No. 159
Sewer anywhere and save The Environment One Grinder Pump powers the low pressure sewer system providing wastewater storage, grinding and pumping in a single unit.
Utilizing small diameter sewer piping
0 GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.
Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety
PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits
• Environmental Engineering •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design • Air monitoring • Air emission control • Indoor air quality •Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control •WHMIS • Asbestos
2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301
Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(416)858-4424
(32 mm -100 mm),shallow buried to the
terrain contour, the Grinder Pump sta tion can discharge the wastewater ver
Gore St Storrie Limilsed
tically more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up to 3.3 kilometres. Ontario Sewage Equipment
Consulting Engineers WASTEWATER • WATER •SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES•DRAINAGE WATER RESOURCES•ENERGY RECOVERY•ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
Circle reply card No. 160
LABORATORY SERVICES — ANALYTICAL & PROCESS R&D
Liquid Storage and Handling
255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6
Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687
The SCAT (Secondarily Contained Above-Ground Tank) system is said to
Ottawa•Thorold • Barrie•Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London
be a safe alternative to drums and other
portable containers for storage and/or dispensing of petroleum products, waste oils, chemicals and other liquids. SCAT,UL-142 Listed, has a bulk stor
1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5
Tel. (416) 522-0012 FAX (416) 522-0031
age tank,fully enclosed by a welded roof and containment reservoir to protect the
Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources
contents from rain water and airborne contaminants.
Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control
With capacities from 270 to 20,000 gallons, SCAT delivers cost-effective performance for any size operation,
Expert Systems • Neural Networks
industrial Environmental Supply, Inc.
Circle reply card No. 161
Environmental Management Consultants
for Water and Pollution Control Projects
Three Minute BOD The STIP BOD-M3 BOD monitor al
lows more direct monitoring and con trol of wastewater treatment by provid ing three minute continuous biochemi cal oxygen demand(BOD)analysis. Using the BOD-M3,the user can sup ply regulatory bodies with the real total BOD being emitted at any given time, rather than relying on time-consuming and less comprehensive composite BOD5 values. Industrial users can also
Brampton (416)459-4780 (416)459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330
■■ w* ■■
(705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750
Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5
use the direct BOD measurement to
closely control the wastewater treatment process, adding nutrients or diverting excess flows when necessary. Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.
Managing today's environmental issues. ■ Environmental Management Systems ■ Accounting I Assistance in M&A Negotiations ■ Disclosure & Financing Advice I Site Assessments ■ Due Diligence
■ Environmental Economics
■ Public Policy ■ TQEM
TO Environmenta! Services Inc. PO Box 31, Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 182 Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax: 416-777-3364
Circle reply card No. 162 Etivironmenta! Science & Engineering, May 1993
WFONFAINE, CDWIE, BUIMTTO & ylSSQClATES LIMITED Consulting Engineers
WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT » STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADS AND BRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
3260 DEVON DRIVE,WINDSOR,ONTARIO, NBX 4L4
FAX; (519) 966-5523
Isco Flow Meter line offers four measurement
MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX;(416)475-5994
Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment
The Isco 3200 Series Open Channel Flow Meters give a choice of four mea surement technologies. Choose from ultrasonic, submerged probe, bubbler and patent pending variable gate tech nologies to provide maximum measure ment accuracy in your specific monitor ing application. All 3200 Series Flow Meters feature built-in, dot matrix plot ters, rugged, watertight enclosures and internal data storage memory. Built-in conversions for a variety of weirs and flumes, the Manning equation or ma nually entered data points allow fast and easy set-up. The optional telemetry
•Hydrogeology •Waste management
•Environmentai audits MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975
•Site decommissioning & rehabiiitation
Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited
package and Isco FLOWLINK® soft Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners
ware allow fast, easy on-site data ret rieval using a lap top computer, or con venient remote monitoring from a cen tral computer via phone lines. Isco 3200
Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Oommerce Valley Drive East Thornhlll, Ontario L3T 7N4 (416) 882-1100 Fax: (416) 882-0055
TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby
Series Flow Meters are ideal for muni
cipal or industrial monitoring, and may also be used as part of an integrated storm water runoff monitoring system. Nortech
PROCTOR & REDFERN LIMITED
For more information, Circle reply card No. 163
Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists
New pump controller automates groundwater monitoring
Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment
Solid and Hazardous Waste iVIanagement Hamilton
Sauli Sie. Marie
New AccuWell 820 Smart Controller
from Isco is a portable, self-contained
45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 (416) 445-3600
Fax: (416) 445-5276
unit that automates groundwater mon
itoring programs with better results in less time.
The 820 features a multi-parameter flow-through cell that automatically monitors pH, temperature, DO, GRP. conductivity,pu mp flow rates and purge volume. And, based on client's preset programs, the 820 stops purging when the parameters stabilize and/or the se lected purge volume is reached. This precise purging can reduce purging time and purge water volume, resulting in time savings and reduced disposal costs.
All critical data is automatically 54
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
DDTtQ©©© SIMCOE ENGIIUEERIIMG GROUP LIMITED
Consulting Engineers & Arctiitects
WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL • DRAINAGE SCADA • ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES • ENERGY AUDITS
345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Teieptione 416-509-2285
TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 • ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS • IMPACT STUDIES • RISK ASSESSMENT • WASTE MGMT.
stored in battery backed memory. Stored data from up to 25 wells can be easily accessed in the field or office us ing a personal computer. The exclusive built-in printer generates accurate hardcopy reports of well setup and purg ing information on site. These reports make effective documentation for legal, enforcement, and chain-of-custody re quirements. Nortech For more information, Circle reply card No. 164
• SAMPLING & ANALYSIS
• SITE CHARACTERIZATION • DECOMMISSIONING
• INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
• PLANT COMPLIANCE AUDITS • UST REMOVAL • PERMITTING
• STACK SAMPLING • TOXICITY TESTING • MICROBIOLOGY
• AIR QUALITY
121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090
Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Controi & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controis
Environmentai Audits Water Resources Water Poiiution Control
• Environmental Planning
MILTON: Tel.:(416)875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.:(416)643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.:(613)247-0111
Portable PPM Dissolved
Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114
Complete Environmental Service
Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies
Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits
Solid Waste Management • MISA
TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221
COBOURG • TORONTO • KINGSTON • WATERLOO
BRACEBRIIX5E • OTTAWA •SAULT STE. MARIE • SIMCOE
TRITON ENGINEERING SERVICES LIMITED
MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORTATION WATER RESOURCES
Consulting Engineers HEAD OFFICE:
The Royce Model 900 Portable Dis solved Oxygen (D.O.) Measuring Sys tem is a rugged, waterproof instrument designed for the rigors of remote sam pling; and includes a proven Model 95
ORANGEVILLE • FERGUS • GRAVENHURST • KITCHENER
51 Townline. Orangeville. Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fox:(519)941-1830
UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007
This D.O. System introduces the
aquaculturist. conservationist, or lab/ industrial operator to the most reliable, portable, electronic water quality mea surement tool available.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & PROJECT MANAGERS
TO GOVERNMENT,INDUSTRY,PRIVATE SECTOR
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
HAUFAX-TORONTOOTTAWA-LONDON-SUDBURY-WINNIPEQ-REGINA'SASKATOON-LETHBRIDGE* CAUGARY-EDMONTON-BURNABY.WHITEHORSE-YEaOWKNIFE AND THE U.SJL
Product Review Drumshear rotating
rivers, streams, sewers and other open
fine screen Aer-O-Flo Drumshear rotating fine screen has removable screen panels which are a first in the industry. The
complete unit is manufactured of stain less steel.
A variable speed motor allows for fine
tuning to each application. Backwash
The system is very low maintenance and has only four wheels which are greased from a central greasing loca tion.
Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc.
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 166
Submersible, lightweight instrument constructed of high impact molded ma terials. is contoured for ease of handling during field use.
Data storage/recall capability and adjustable filter modes; fixed period averaging or time constant mode are
just a few of the design features of FloMate.
Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 167
Flowmeter provides telemetry New AC powered electromagnetic flow meter for permanent applications pro vides telemetry via built-in modem. Remote data communications now available from site to office. Five extra
data logging channels are provided for monitoring of peripheral devices,in ad
spray nozzles can be mounted inside
dition to the dedicated velocity and level channels. Communication provided by
Flo-Mate Portable Flowmeter
and/or outside the drum and provide for automatic operation.
laptop computer with MS/DOS based
The screens are available in a wide
New Flo-Mate Model 2000 incorporates
variety of sizes. The tightest screen of
proven electromagnetic sensor(with no moving parts) and is ideal for accurate and dependable spot check measure ments and velocity flow profiles of
fers a 45 micron opening. The unique
changeability of screens allows for quick adaptation to changes in the
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION
For more information,
Circle reply card No. 168
Bladder pump Geoguard® Master-Flo™ bladder pumps offer the highest flow rates ofany bladder pump due to its unique design.
• Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony
menu-driven software. Aer-O-Flo Environmental inc.
Offset center tube and external,oversize
• Design and Specification of Control Measures
check valves contribute to larger water
• Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Quarries, Presses, Blasting
that restricts the flow from conventional
flow path and eliminate tiny porting bladder pump designs. Geoguard Inc.
1720 Meyerside Drive, Mlssissauga, Ontario L5T 1A3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fa_x:(416)670-1698
Circle reply card No. 169
Laboratory services WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS
Enviroclean Laboratories Inc. provides chemical testing of environmental pol lutants, analyzing samples of water,
Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law. Land Use Planning and Development.
Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation
wastewater, soils, sediments and indus
4 King Street West, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario fvloH 3X2
trial wastes for a wide range ofinorganic and trace organic contaminants. Since 1968 Enviroclean has grown to
become one of Ontario's leading "full service" environmental analytical la boratories.
XCG Consultants Ltd.
Suite 904 50 Queen Street N
In our pursuit of best methods and technology we are charter members of
CAEAL and lAETL. Enviroclean
Circle reply card No. 170
Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental
Richard J. Rush MASc,PEng Principal
Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng Principal
PUT OUR FORTY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE ON YOUR TEAM
Use the Reader Service Card
to get information on products in this issue. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Operational control of groundwaters
Operational control of re
Is now a reality
charge and withdrawal in highly stressed aquifers is now effective,thanks to tech
nological and computational break throughs in system response calcula tions. Mounting pressure on water sup plies is reaching the critical stage in many parts of the world as growth and population densities rise. Groundwater is a primary supply source in many areas â€” and this source is often par ticularly sensitive to high demand. The ability to control groundwater opera tionally, therefore, is a major area for developing technology. Traditional techniques for solving problems of water supply, based on case-by-case well delivery capacity, are becoming less and less useful or ade quate. They give short term solutions with little or no insight into long term impacts, such as groundwater mining, regional depletion,and impacts on wellfields. As the stresses on aquifers in crease, these older techniques must be improved or replaced. Even considering the wellfield on a larger, regional basis has not avoided long-term problems completely â€” be
versity by Gore & Storrie's Dr. Charles Rowney. Quite different from classical models of groundwater analysis, the Groundwater Operational Control Sys tem is now being used to manage groundwater recharge over extensive areas and in highly stressed conditions in Florida.
This unique approach is a technological breakthrough, providing system response calculations accurately and rapidly. What makes the system unique is that its inter nal power is welded to external simplicity, providing a tool that can be used routinely by plant technologists and operators. The tools are designed for routine use, and the emphasis is on the environment of an operational recharge system. For example, variables that change only when there is new construction do not
require routine input. Variables such as recharge rates, rainfall, or withdrawal
rates, which change frequently and rapidly, are set for easy or automated input. Run times are short. Of particular benefit, the operator in terface is specifically designed for plant operation. Operators are provided with a visual map ofthe wellfield/recharge sys tem area, complete with locations of all
facilities and points ofreference,such as roads and lakes. The operator manipu lates the system by means of mousedriven menus.The system calculates the impacts ofa planned operation scheme, informs the operator of the expected re sults, which are compared to operation al criteria, and gives warning of viola tions or near-critical conditions.
Comparative testing of this com putational module of the Groundwater Operational Control System has shown it to perform at extremely effective levels of predictive accuracy; it has out-per formed traditional models applied to the same problem. Exciting new developments Research under way by G&S is tar
geted to further improving these capa bilities. Most exciting are developments relating to the system's ability to react to changes in the physical response of the groundwater system. Past versions re quired recalibration when changes, such as those induced by land develop ment, occurred elsewhere. Modules are
now being developed that will compute long term changes in the aquifer res ponse and provide internal compensa tion for those changes.
cause it results in increased confidence
in the aquifer, which adds additional stress to the system and pushes it to its limit. Aquifer withdrawals, which in
Schlumberger and Motorola form joint venture for remote reading of meters
clude the cumulative demands ofindus
try, populations, and agriculture, need now to be balanced by widescale pre cipitation, groundwater inflows,and interbasin diversion factors. Additional
problems keep being created as well. Artificially recharging the aquifer by addition ofstorm water or treated waste-
water poses problems of balance and control. Advances in desalination tech
nology can further stress or complicate conditions in the aquifers by making usable previously unacceptable waters in coastal areas where fresh water sup ply was difficult to guarantee. Desalina tion creates, in addition, the problem of brine disposal. In such areas as the North American
mid-west and mid-coastal regions, the Florida peninsula, and the island of Barbados, groundwater systems are stressed to significant levels because there is an imbalance between the re
charge and discharge of aquifers. As
Schlumberger Limited and Motorola,Inc. have announced that they have formed a joint venture to develop wireless electronic technology for remote and automated meter reading(RAMR).The joint venture, named Advanced Meter Reading Tech nologies, is a design centre that will develop wireless RAMR products and provide integrated solutions for water, gas, heat, and electricity utility meters on a global basis.
Focused on the growing global markets for RAMR, the design centre will be located in Atlanta and will become operational in the second quarter of this year. Products designed by the joint venture will be manufactured by Motorola with Schlumberger providing metering products, marketing, sales, and customer ser vices to utilities worldwide. The joint venture will be equally owned by both com panies with equal representation on its board. The formation of the joint venture will have no impact on either company's pre existing commercial relationships. In adition, Schlumberger and Motorola will continue to provide products and services to the utility market that fall outside the scope of the joint venture. The design centre will be responsible for designing wireless RAMR system solutions,products and infrastructure architecture and related systems integration. It will also offer a unique opportunity for utilities requiring second source alter natives; the joint venture intends to offer RAMR modules directly to utility meter suppliers to more rapidly open the market and give the utility industry several choices of supply. Currently, meter reading worldwide is accomplished primarily by on-site visual
demand comes closer and closer to the
inspection or with meter-by-meter reading via hand held data collection terminals.
limits of wellfield capacities, there is a need to actively manage groundwater
Both methods are labor intensive. Qnly recently has the industry begun to move toward remote meter reading. The joint venture is intended to develop the next
generation of cost-effective utility meter reading technology to better serve this
This is currently being done in Flo rida with new operational analysis and control tools developed at Queen's Uni
rapidly growing trend. For more information, Circle reply card No. 136
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
If you are required by statute or order to file a report or perform a study, can it be used against you?
Aggressive prosecution appears
to be the Ontario Ministry of Energy and the Environ ment's preferred method of achieving compliance. Zealous enfor cers are using mandatory spill reports and abatement studies as evidence
against corporations and their direc tors.'
The use of this information by inves tigators and prosecutors is discouraging to companies trying to develop rapport with Ministry officials, and negotiate effective, affordable abatement pro grams.
Management practices have evolved
over the last decade. Many companies now focus on protecting the environ ment by complying with the law and exercising due diligence. Industry's re sulting environmental responsibility reaps public relations benefits, while close attention to process control and waste management improves produc tion efficiency and profits. SPILL REPORTS â€” STATUTORY COMPULSION
A number of environmental protec tion statutes and municipal by-laws, most notably the Environmental Protec tion Act (EPA) and the Ontario Water
Resources Act(OWRA),require persons involved in spills to notify the Ministry and other agencies. Failure to report a spill or discharge is an offence. In one recent case,a company charged with failure to report argued that the requirement was unconstitutional. Since the reporting provisions do not protect a person from having the report used against him in a prosecution for a spill or discharge, the company argued the reporting sections violate the Cana dian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Al though the company won the battle, it lost the war.
In the Weil's Food Processing case.
Judge Brown found that the EPA and OWRA spill reporting provisions were unconstitutional to the extent they could force an individual to make a re
port that could later be used against him. Instead of declaring the laws inva lid, the judge found that the statutes could be interpreted as prohibiting the use of spill reports as evidence against an individual at his own prosecution. According to Judge Brown's decision,so long as the statutes are interpreted this way, they do not violate the Charter. Barry Spiegel This principle protects only indivi dered as evidence at the trial by the Mi duals who are charged and not cor porations. Since corporations cannot be nistry prosecutor. Bata's lawyers argued that the reports deprived of"life, liberty and security of the person" Section 7 ofthe Charter dots should not be admissible for two rea sons. Introduction of the reports would not apply to them. In another case, where a corporation infringe the Section 7 Charter rights of the defendants, both corporate and in was the only defendant, and no indivi dual directors, officers or employees dividual,as the lawyers in the Weil's case were charged,the court allowed use of a argued. Since Bata was ordered to pre spill report as evidence against the pare the material for abatement pur poses,it was unfair to force the company company. In Courtaulds Fibres Canada [reported to complete and pay for work and stu dies to clean up the property only to in Cynthia Sefton's article in the No have that information used against it in vember, 1992 issue of ES&E], the com pany sent written spill reports prepared the prosecution. Judge Ormston agreed with both ar for internal company purposes to the guments. He said that "one of the prin Ministry to satisfy government require ciples of fundamental justice is that a ments. The Crown argued that the re ports should be admissible as proofthat person should not be forced to provide evidence to be used against himself at the spills took place and that the defen dant did not take reasonable steps to his trial." Although corporations are not protected by Section 7 of the Charter. prevent it. Judge Ormston noted: Since only the corporation (and no a corporation is entitied to shelter individual) was charged,the judge held under the Section 7 umbreila if that the reports were fully admissible. the canopy of that protection is The company was not protected by the utiiized to protect the right to life, Charter. liberty or security of a human ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS â€” MINISTRY COMPULSION
In the Bata case, the Crown tried to
poration were being prosecuted at the
introduce a consultant's reports on soil
same trial, both the directors and the
and groundwater conditions as evidence against the corporation and three of its directors. The reports were com missioned by the corporation to comply with a Ministry of the Environment or der issued long before the charges were laid.
Douglas Petrie 58
being... Since individual directors of the cor
The company cooperated with the Ministry, conducting the required stu dies detailing conditions at the site, and delivering the reports. Although these reports (and the or der) all related to the clean-up of con tamination at the site, the reports were obtained by the Investigations and En forcement Branch (lEB) and were ten-
corporation were protected by the Charter.
According to the judge, it would be unfair for Ministry abatement officials to require cooperation for remediation purposes, including the preparation of incriminating reports, and then hand the incriminating material to enforcers for use as evidence against the com pany. Judge Ormston stated: In my opinion it was obvious that prosecution was going to ensue and that the functions of the
Abatement Branch requiring the cooperation of the proposed de fendants should be kept
Environmental Science d Engineering, May 1993
By P. Douglas Petrle and Barry N.Spiegel, Willms & Shier separate and apart in order to encourage the defendants' par ticipation for reasons of putDlic policy.
The Ministry's Deputy Director of Legal Servies, Stan Berger, does not agree. Mr. Berger recently wrote an edi torial for an MOE legal publication ar guing that "[forcing the Ministry] ... to gather evidence of non-compliance with the law, independent of any state ments or other evidence generated by or at the instance of the regulated busi ness is inconsistent with the 'polluter pays" principle and is simply redundant and wasteful." Mr. Berger also dis missed the argument that businesses should be encouraged to cooperate with
tial" on the document. This will notify abatement officials that it may be inap propriate to release the information to investigators or to the public in response to Freedom ofInformation Act inquiries. Plainly labelling documents in this manner will also support your lawyer's argument at trial that the material should not be used against you in evi dence.
vilege and thus protected from produc tion to prosecutors or at trial. ^Berger, Stan."Collecting Evidence For Both Compliance Monitoring And Pro secution: The Impact of Weil's Food". Legal Emissions. Ministry of the Envi ronment Legal Services Branch. Winter. 1992. p.3 Edltor's note:
'The use of documents which are not
subject to statutory disclosure, such as ordinary business records and environ mental audit reports is not covered here. The law is not yet clear, for example,on
The Ontario Ministries of Energy and Environment were combined in Feb
ruary. The term MOE is only used where the incidents predated what is now re ferred to as the MOEE.
the extent to which environmental au
dits can be subject to solicitor-client pri-
Circle reply card No. 137
abatement officials: Fear that these entities will not
cooperate with compliance au thorities, if they anticipate an al ternative use for the information
provided, is inconsistent with the
Supreme Court's recognition of the implied contract regulated businesses have entered with
government. Moreover,the law has already provided an en couragement for cooperation by making it an offence to fail to give notice of a spill or discharge or to comply with an administra tive order.^
Mr. Berger argued that "the right to silence should,if anything, be restricted in the regulatory context, not expan ded." He concluded that a clear pro nouncement of the law will have to wait
until the higher courts have ruled, but that the Ministry will continue the legal battle to use mandatory spill and abate ment reports as evidence. CONCLUSIONS
Ministry enforcers will continue to use mandatory spill reports and other information companies have been for ced to produce against them. Spill re ports will, in most circumstances, be admissible as evidence in the prosecu tion of a company. Spill response programs and com munication protocols should be de signed with this in mind. The primary goal of spill reporting legislation is to ensure that agencies respond to spills with enough information to act prom ptly and safely. The information repor ted to the Ministry mustcomply with the requirements of the EPA or OWRA,but it need not give details ofthe cause ofthe event that may later be used by the prosecution. When delivering information to the MOEE that has been prepared for abate ment purposes it is prudent to draw that to the attention of the Ministry both by covering letter and by marking "For Abatement Purposes" and "Confiden
Enviromnetnal Science & Engineering. May 1993
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Where are the daughters of radon?
The daughters of radon are
gone. They exist no longer, having been annihilated by the stroke of a gender-neutral bu reaucrat's gender-neutral pen. To me, the world will never be the
same. I always imagined the daughters of radon as the Valkyries of the atomic world,silver hair streaming in the ether winds, alpha energy crackling about them like halos. Far beyond the con
cerns of mortal man,or so they thought, they rode the Brownian waves, through
The sister-killers, the bureaucrats,
have played havoc with English. But what of French? I wait with malicious
However,you go too far when you tell me that I am no longer a member of mankind.I AM a man,in the first, prim ordial and greatest sense of the word. I am also that subtype of man which is
anticipation for them to take on la langue frantjaise. There, it seems to me, is a language of determination. She will woman. The word "woman," by the way, is not submit willingly to castration, but from the old English "wifman,"or"wifewill fight back with all her strength. I, also, must enter notice of battle to man."Indeed,ifI follow the examples in the Oxford English Dictionary correc the bureaucrats. Until gender-neutrality came along,it tly,"woman" did not necessarily mean female, just as "man" did not neces sarily mean male.This was only the case
the interstices of what we like to call
when the two words were used in con
trasting opposition, as "man and wo man." Of course, the speakers of Old English were of matrilineal habits,from which our current culture has, regret tably, lapsed. Still, similar patterns of usage remain in current English. For example, the words "guys" and "gals" on washroom
Now they are gone. In their place, we have radon progeny. Radon progeny! Try as I might, radon progeny comes to my mind's eye as little more than brown amorphous blobs, dull, squat and most decidedly neutered. As a woman, I used to live in a uni
verse that my mother tongue, English, colored in the most vivid of feminine and human hues. I felt as one with a
rainbow cosmos in which the avatars, the manifestations of mankind and
womankind were inextricably blended. Now the bureaucrats say the world must be gender neutral. Castrated, I call it.
I am glad I had my first motorcycle before the gender-neutral bureaucrats
The icebreaker, solid, strong, enduring, will be no longer she, but it; and the clipper ship may no longer lift her skirts to race free, with a fair wind following.
"For there is neither East, nor West, Nor border, nor breed, nor birth.
chrome and forest green, and I called her Greensleeves. She was small, quiet
When two strong men standface toface. Though they comefrom the ends ofthe
Together, we pinched our pennies and
bureaucratic verbicides. Leave alone
As a child, I assumed that Kipling
went anywhere: sun and rain,snow and
meant here the manifestation of that
ice, and roads and stream-beds and
clear flame which represents all that is good and strong and honorable in man kind.To me,he was saying that, were I to cultivate within my soul such a flame, I would see it in others and they would see it in me,though we came "from the ends
trails. In those long ago, magic days of early summer, Greensleeves and I danced in the sunshine on the roads of
our mother, the Earth.
How can you dance with an it?
Everywhere I look,the female images which link me to my dear and familiar world are, like the daughters of radon, being targeted and shot. To name but a few: Mother Earth her
self. Is she now obliged to shrink back into merely geological crust and bio logical contamination? The wind, once called Maria, may no longer keen in the mountaintops, nor finger the hair of the yearning listener, but must restrict her
selfâ€” itselfâ€” to simply blowing. The lady's slipper, that shy and deli cate flower, must now, I suppose, be come the nobility-slipper. The ice breaker, solid, strong, enduring, will be no longer she,but it: and the clipper ship may no longer lift her skirts to race free, with a fair wind following. I will miss you all, my sisters! 60
and females the latter. However,"Hey,
guys,guess what?" addressed to a mixed
group implies that the message to be conveyed is directed at all present, re gardless of gender. Maybe we will all never occurred to me that I was anything have to resort to being members of"guyother than a full, complete, and par kind," a horrible neologism indeed. I'd ticipatory member of the "Race of really must rather rejoin "mankind." Man." Kipling wrote: I would like to offer a suggestion to the
hit. She was a brand new Honda 100, all
and determined; in fact, a lot like me.
doors directs males to enter the former
of the earth."
Indeed, had you pushed me, I would have said that this passage transcended even"men"as"homosapiens"and refer red to all sapiens, wherever they might be in time or space. They could be hu
the linguistic heritage ofour matrilineal origins. Give us back the old words,the "man" words.
I'll even compromise a bit. If the bu reaucrats insist, they can keep "fire man." Fireman always sounded to me like someone who went around setting, or tending, fires. I must also admit I rather like the term "fire fighter:" it ap peals to my Celtic warrior blood. How ever, if I run a meeting, let me be a chairman, rather than a piece of furni ture. If I take a boat on to the briny deep, let me be a fisherman, rather than a
small furry animal with bad breath. If the bureaucrats simply cannot live with themselves unless they have some
words to kill, let me suggest a couple of
potential victims. can, as long as they had the requisite My first offering for the slaughter is strength of character. "hysteria" from "hystericus," Latin for Now the bureaucrats say that Kipling "belonging to the womb." This term didn't mean me, because he didn't spe arose from that most arrogant of pat cify my gender.Presumably the bureau riarchal cultures, ancient Rome. man or Neanderthal, Martian or Vul
crats will disenfranchise children and
The Romans, following after the
adolescents as well, because Kipling didn't specify age.
Greeks,assumed that a woman who was
And here,I draw the line. Kill and cas
trate the woman-images of my world if you must, and I will bow down, and cherish memory.
their beauty only in
upset could not possibly have a logical reason for her upset. Such a woman was, obviously, de ranged. And the cause of such derange ment? Why,equally obviously, because
of a wandering uterus: thus, hysteria. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Dr. Maggie Merrldew This linguistic absurdity we can live without. English already has "panick ing" for the lay meaning of "hysteria," and "conversion disorder" for the psy chiatric meaning, which between them cover the ground quite nicely. My second offering is "testify." Again
TERRATiiC SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
in ancient Rome, one was not con
sidered capable of rational witness un less possessed of testicles. If not so en dowed, one could not testify. However, current biological knowledge suggests testicles, and the products thereof, tes tosterone et aU are far more likely to be an impediment than an assistance to the calm application of logic,(Look up the gender-specific incidence rates of vio lent crime if you don't believe me.) In fact, I suspect the human brain operates more rationally under the steadying influence of level estrogen,
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Circle reply card No. 140
Circle reply card No. 139
such as is found in adult human females
in the follicular phase of their cycles. Men, poor souls, may be operating at a distinct disadvantage. On the basis of
biology, I am very tempted to suggest "ovarify" as a substitute for "testify," but I realize that this may cause political
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Maybe, if the bureaucrats really get
busy rooting the remains ofRoman sex ism out ofour language,they might give us back again our female avatars, our sister-images of strength and beauty and power. Maybe we could have the
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 141 SALES.SERVICE • RENTALS
male avatars back too; the mountains
thrusting up, the stallion's challenge and the cry ofthe Huntsman in nights of dark and storm. Let us once again see ourselves reflected in our world. We
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might look after it better. While we're at it, let us reclaim poetry and magic. Maybe, we can all, male and female alike,rejoin the race of mankind. Maybe the daughters of radon will ride again...
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2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y1Y7,Tel (416) 277-0331, Fax (416) 277-2588
For more information, Circle reply card No. 142
Maggie Merrldew Is the pseudo nym of a GP In British Columbia. This article Is reproduced by permission
from the Medical Post.
TECHNOLOGY FOR TANKS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Letter to the editor Dear Tom,
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For more information, Circle reply card No. 144 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
In-house electrical generation from low temperature heat sources turbines in power generation is rarely Tufboeipander
200°C. Below this point, improved per formance can be achieved by using an organic fluid in place of the steam.
At 150°C an ORC could return an
efficiency in the range of 15-17% and even at 100°C this efficiency would ap proach 8-10%.substantially higher than would be possible with steam. Recovery and conversion of energy is theoretical ly possible at temperatures as low as a few degrees above ambient although the low efficiency of operation would be unlikely to justify the expenditure. In practice a lower temperature limit is
The conversion efficiency of a Ran kine cycle is defined as;
riQ.I - Slrnplllled Flowsheel
The generation of electrical
power from waste heat is often assumed to require high or medium pressure steam. This
need not be the case and it is often viable
to generate power from low grade heat sources if one uses organic Rankine cycle(ORC)technology.
1. The Rankine Cycle
Readers will be familiar with the prin ciples of the Rankine thermodynamic cycle (fig. 1) and that water is an ideal fluid for heat recovery at higher tem
'H rankine =
peratures (i.e. )300°C). At lower tem
more theoretical Carnot efficiency is seen as the inclusion of the system in-
peratures however, its performance de clines dramatically and the use ofsteam
Qboiler and the difference between this and the
house power requirement.This parasitic demand reduces the Carnot efficiency
by up to 40% and it is therefore impor tant for the operator to recognise this
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For more information. Circle reply card No. 145 62
MacViro Consultants Inc., consulting engineers, planners and scientists specializing in the environment, re quires a Senior Specialist in Solid Waste Management and the 3Rs. Applicants should have a post gra duate degree with at least five years of related experience or equivalent. MacViro offers interesting work, excellent people to work with, enligh tened management,competitive sala ries, good fringe benefits,an employee bonus plan and an opportunity for shareholding. If you are interested in joining a dynamic and progressive organiza tion, send your resume to: MacViro Consultants Inc., 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R 4B9. Attention: Mr. David O. Merrll-
man, P.Eng. Vice President
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
By Ken Church, P.Eng.* 2. Efficiency Enhancements
In considering power generation from low temperature sources, ORC technology offers certain performance enhancing features over a comparable steam system.
Firstly, in a situation where the heat source gives up only sensible heat (ie. from a hot liquid or gas), the combina tion of both the high specific heat and the latent heat of vaporisation of water creates a pinch point(fig. 2). This pinch point limits both the quantity of heat recovered
(N.B. Although ammonia is not strictly organic it can be successfully used in these applications.)
The fluid selection process is integral to the ORC system design and requires detailed knowledge of the heat source and sink, the fluid properties, and turbomachinery design. Each heat recovery system is tailored to the heat source and its performanace maximized using a custom designed, high speed turboexpander unit.
4. The ORC Design The ORC is simpler in design than a steam system, with a number of aux iliary systems being redundant. For example there is no feed treatment, deaerator,orblowdown facilities. Depend
ing upon the fluid selected, the conven tional oil lubrication and separation systems, may also be eliminated. In its place, the organic fluid itself is used to lubricate the turbine bearings. The de sign process minimizes air in-leakage, as well as fluid loss from the system
steam pressure. An organic fluid has a lower latent heat and a lower specific heat and does not therefore incur this limitation. The boiler conditions can
TODAY, INDUSTRY MUST
approach closer to those of the heat
ALSO ADAPT TO THE
source and maximize the conversion
efficiency. Secondly, the ORC can take advan tage of improved condensing con ditions during the winter months.During this period the cooler conditions can
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are only some of
ind processes that are
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industry reduce turbine backpressure and im prove generating performance. The va pour pressure for organic vapours is more responsive to changes in tempera ture than is that of low pressure steam. Applications therefore, where the oper ator anticipates large fluctuations in the condenser coolant temperature, can be designed to accommodate,and increase the generation rate during these cooler periods.
tive is another. Survivors
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Almost any fluid can be used in an ORC although the following might nor mally be considered:
The National Research Council's
tion call our Business Develop
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3. Fluid Selection
Refrigerant 123a Trifluoroethanol / water
resources and capabilities that
Diphenyl / Blphenyl oxides Methylene Choride
Refrigerant 134 Propane Refrigerant 142b
de recherches Canada
*President, Ken Church Engineering Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
For more information, Circle reply card No. 146 63
Energy management cont'd through the inclusion ofcanned pumps, bellows seals etc.. all techniques that are currently applied to reduce fugitive emissions in chemical plants. Heat exchangers are of standard de sign and construction and use gaskets that allow for the nature of the fluid.
Likewise, the piping and valves are of similar standard to those required for chemical or power plants. An added in centive to minimize leakage is the fact that many of the fluids are significantly more expensive than boiler feedwater. 5. Safety The use of an organic fluid can raise concerns over its possible hazardous nature, principally its flammability and toxicity. If the fluid is flammable then
appropriate fire/explosion protection must be designed into the system. Cer tain fluids may however,be modified to mitigate the issue. For example, pure Trifluoroethanol
when combined with water the mixture
in Canada alone there exists a possible production of 1280 MWe from indus
trial waste energy sources. This is a sig nificant figure in itself and does not in clude such areas as condenser cooling,
sewage treatment, or ocean thermal
gradients where extensive development work is currently in progress. It should be appreciated here that the lower the temperature of the waste heat then the larger the size (and cost) or the com
ponents (chiefly the heat exchangers). In order to be economically acceptable for heat recovery, processes must ex haust large quantities of waste heat. Many industries do exhaust such quan tities. Examples are:
Bermuda NAS Bermuda Kurosoki
diesel exhaust demo
• diesel engine and gas turbine Table 1
TVpical ORC Operations
• condenser cooling water • kiln and drier exhausts
• condensing hydrocarbons • compressor intercoolers • hot water/fouled low pressure steam
ate on hot water or low pressure steam. Systems are also operating using ex haust gases from diesels. gas turbines, and process off gases from kilns and driers.
will not sustain combustion. Toxicity is • waste steam accounted for by minimizing operator • off gases contact. As with leakage control,the de • solar collectors sign might include canned pumps, her • sewage outfalls metically sealed turbines, bellows seals, • geothermal
drain lines and relief valves that are con nected to a central collection vessel, and
the minimizing of fluid inventory. 6. Applications A recent report (Ref.l) estimates that
ing a recent 39MWe isobutane system, have been installed in geothermal sites throughout the world, where they oper-
Many installations (Table 1). includ
Previous experience indicates most applications to be subject to two key criteria. The first is a minimum gener ated power level of 1 MWe(i.e. requiring between 7 and 20 MW thermal),and the second is an avoided electrical cost
greater than .08$/kWhr. Below these
limits it is likely that other attractions (environmental?) are needed to justify the project. Actual costs are application depend ent but a hypothetical 1 MW plant might have a typical cost of $2.35 mil lion. broken down as follows: Hardware
Engineering Site Integration/assembly
This assumes an ideal site with ade
quate indoor space and adequate cool ing capacity within an existing cooling tower system. Revenues from such a plant would be as follows: Power
Electrical cost O&M costs
(N.B. O&M costs do not allow for pos sible additional operating staff.)
COz for SFC 8^SFE Air Products' new ultra-high purity grade CO2 has been developed specifically for high-sensitivity SFC/SFE applications. • two performance-guaranteed grades • performance chromatograms with each shipment Contact us for information and literature
For more information, Circie reply card No. 147
From the information given above it can be seen that for low temperature heat sources, an organic Rankine cycle can offer a viable method for in-house
power generation. The technology can be used throughout the process indus tries with a view to reducing the overall energy expenditure for a plant. References.
1. On-site Generation Through Waste Heat Recovery — CEA Report No.8901 U 762
Environmental Science cS: Engineering, May 1993
OIL YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS FROM AER-O-FLO Free Oil
Aer-0-Flo Oil Coalescing Separators (DCS) treatment systems handle free oil down to 20 mic rons. Systems can be designed for bury or above ground installations in sizes from 1 to 3,000 USgpm. Circle reply card No. 130
Control and record your influent or effluent with continuous on-line oil-in-water monitoring.Instru ment measures in standard ranges of0 to 10,30 or 200 ppm with 4-20 mA analogue output signal. Complete systems available with sample pre conditioning to ensure accurate repeatable results.
Circle reply card No. 131 Emulsified
Aer-0-Flo Dissolved Air Flotation (DAP)technol ogy will remove emulsified and entrained oils down to levels less than 10 ppm.Sizing from 1 to 1,000 USgpm. Circle reply card No. 132
Systems Complete system technologyfor all your oil needs for removals down to less than 10 ppm from feed stock of over 100,000 ppm at flow rates to 1,000 USgpm. Refineries, Pulp and Paper, Manufactur ing, etc., are all clients of the Aer-0-Flo Solu tions Approach. Circle reply card No. 133
AER-O-FLO ENVIRONMENTAL INC. Your environmental solution company 1175 Appleby Line, Unit B2, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel:(416) 335-8944 Fax:(416) 335-8972 For more information, Circle reply card No. 123 Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993
AQTE denounces Quebec government for dragging heels
The 31st annual Conference of
the Association quebecoise des techniques de I'eau (AQTE), once again confirmed the as sociation's dominant position in Quebec water treatment technology. The 1993 Conference met the high expectations of delegates who gathered in the Auberge des Seigneurs de Saint-Hyacinthe. Over 1200 delegates registered on day one; some sessions attracted standing room only crowds,and the 1993 Salon de ieau (with 159 exhibitors) was com pletely sold out. The meeting was also a stage for the 2nd Provincial Conference on Zebra Mussels.
The main conference program dealt with topical subjects such as sludge ma nagement, price scale fixing, biofiltration,long term development,and potable water resource management. The ses sion on corrosion control for ductile
pipe,for which there was standing room only, evoked vigorous questions, which continued even after the session contcluded.
The panel on potable water quality also provoked animated debate when AQTE reiterated its position in favour of
the minister Pierre Paradis announced a
budget of $380-million for sludge ma nagement and other issues. Even the management structure of these pro grams is not yet defined. Also creeping along at a snail's pace is the urban sec tion of Quebec's program for agricultur al and industrial cleanup of its waters. In the face of Quebec's hesitation in
joining the federal government to fi Left, Denis Lapolnte, 1984-85 AQTE nance the second phase of the Saint-
President, chaired a session which included a paper on corrosion con trol for ductile pipe given by Normand D. Agnostinus, right. The session at tracted great discussion at the 1993 AQTE Conference. Photo Tom Davey
a new regulation that would take into account operator training. AQTE once
again launched an appeal for dialogue in order to achieve integrated water management that would allow Quebec to reach its quality and conservation objectives. The association deplored the slow progress being made in such matters as sludge management and water purifica tion by Quebec's governmental agen cies, pointing out that in January 1992
Laurent Action Plan,AQTE renewed its
encouragement to both governments to unite in bringing to a conclusion a pro ject that is already well underway. AQTE judged it essential that the se cond phase not only target industrial pollution, but adopt a more global vi sion of pollution sources. At the same time,it stressed the importance ofindus trial discharges, which remain a major source of degradation of Quebec's waterways.
This approach accords perfectly with the vision of watershed ecosystem ma
nagement that AQTE has championed for many years. AQTE is,therefore,sup portive of a renewed and extended Saint-Laurent Plan of Action.
Methane Gas Control Methane gas control programs by Heath are designed to help municipalities to minimize the risk of gas fires and explosions at landfill sites. Heath's complete turnkey service provides for expert evaluations of new and aging landfills including the design, installation, monitoring and ongoing operation of gas control facilities. Heath also offers a full range of monitors, alarms and control instruments to equip methane control facilities.
Contact Heath today for information on methane gas control and environmental problems at sanitary landfill sites.
Complete Plunger Bar
. creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses.
2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V 3S5
6923 Parrel! Rd. S.E. Calgary, Alberta T2H 0T3 (403)258-0151 Fax:(403)258-0577
Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Saskatoon, Sask.(306)242-1713 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9552 Toronto, Ont.(416)464-9107
For more information, Circle reply card No. 171
gaskets and fasteners like these •••amountto
ofthe year! It's a matter orrecord, Terminal City puts into circulation $422.66* every working day for Canadian-made fasteners, gaskets and associated rubber items used in the manufacture of 'T.C.' gate valves, fire hydrants and fittings . . . a|)art from steel, iron, bras,^ and other Canadian materials. This investment in the products of an important oross-section of Canadian suppliers** contributes to Canadian
payrolls, protects Canadian purchasing power and maintain,s' employment by other Canadian producers. Have you really looked at all the facts? At Terminal City we believe Canadian water should flow through Canadian products. ExpenditureJor the year 1992. .
Accurate Fwftb'er' Custom Gasket ■
Rubber ■ Pacitic Rubbeli Infasco ■ Refwspd Plastics ■ Wriason Seals I Anderson Of
MADE N CANADA Make the Right Connection...CALL
IRON WORKS LTD.
Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Vaives and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1
For more information, Circle reply card No. 124
Is environmental mismanagement
turning out the lights on your business?
As governments continue to strengthen regulations affecting industrial wraste and the workplace environ ment, the need for cost effective solutions becomes
ever more critical. That is why PMDS will feature CETECH, the only environmental technology show case that is specifically geared to the industrial envi ronment.
For the ever changing and increasingly demanding task of industrial environmental management there will be workshops on hazardous materials management for visitors during the show. You can register for these by contacting the Canadian Environmental Workshops at (416) 598-4811 or Fax (416) 598-7915.
v^L 11Lv-rl CANADA'S INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTAL SHOWCASE
Montreal Convention Centre FREE PASSES FOR ADVANCED REGISTRATION!
November 16, 17, 18, 1993
Regular show admission will be $10.00. Register in advance and we will send you a complimentary pass to this essential technology showcase. To pre-register, simply write PMDS on the back of your business card and send it to the address shown below, or circle the reader service number.
Plant Maintenance and
Design Engineering She
For more information, Circle reply card No. 172
REED EXHIBITION COMPANIES INC., BOO Oenison Street, Unit 7 Markham, Ontario L3R 5M9
Tel:(41B1479-3939 FAX: 1416)479-5144
Committed to Excellent
Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at(416) 727-4666
pH Recorders and
Link-Belt Screens New, 4-colour brochure illustrates the features and reviews the appiications for a wide range of Link-Belt industrial water and sewage treat
Controllers The Model RCP75,Is a pH Recorder and Controller with a strip chart re corder for a permanent record. One roli of chart paper wiii run approximateiy 1 month at 1' per hour. Modei RCDp75 is the same as the Model RCP75 with a Digital read-out. The Model 1CP75 is a pH IndicatorControiier if a permanent record is not required. Analytical Measurements of
ment screens. These include: Thru-
Clean Bar Screens,Tritor Screens for grit and screenings removal. Cog Rake Bar Screens for removal of
wastewater debris.Trash Screensfor removal of large debris and Fine Screens for removai of large quan tities of fine solids. PMC of Canada Limited
Material Handling Operation Circle reply card No. 200
Circle reply card No. 201
Grinder Pump Stations Low Pressure
The Environment One Grinder Pump powers the iow pressure sewer system providing wastewater stor age,grinding and pumping in a singie unit. Utilizing small diameter sewer piping (32 mm-100 mm), shaiiow buried to the terrain contour, the Grinder Pump station can discharge the wastewater verticaiiy more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up
Groundy^'oter Monitoring Instrunietitation
Instrumentation Sollnst high quaiity groundwater monitoring instrumentation includes: reliable water level Indicators, oil/ water interface probes, piaton-core sampiers and VOC, deep, and nar row diametergroundwater samplers. The patented Waterloo System al lows monitoring from multiple zones in a singie weli, discreteiy isoiated by
to 3.3 kilometres.
engineered seals to avoid cross-
Ontario Sewage Equipment Circle reply card No. 202
Sollnst Canada Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 203
IEEE 488 and
Data Acquisition and Instrument Control Free 1993 catalogue of measure ment and instrumentation products for PCs, workstations, and more.
Data Acquisition, and Analysis
Features new LabVIEW software for
Windows and Sun, and LabWin-
Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) is detaiied in technicai builetin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochiorite spray to oxidize organic odors.Other topics include: storage and air coi-
dows. Describes IEEE 488.2 Inter
faces, plug-In data acquisition boards, VXibus controiiers, DSP hardware and software, and signal conditioning accessories. Training
Colgate-Paimoiive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 205
ciasses aiso detailed. Includes tu
torials and glossary. National instruments
Circle reply card No. 204
A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS
Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one solution invoives the use of JAVEX-
12 sodium hypochiorite, which kiiis the iarvae. We are consuiting with experts to estabiish dosage ieveis and techniques best suited to heip controi their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the iatest information, piease contact us.
Colgate-Paimolive Canada inc. Professionai Products Division a-
Circie reply card No. 206
Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochiorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detaiied. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particuiariy appiicabie to metai re cover or refining operations. Colgate-Paimoiive Canada inc. Circie reply card No. 207
Multi-speed pumping increases efficiency The new Chelsea Heights Pumping Sta tion was designed to accommodate a major subdivision development and fu ture growth in the City of London, Ontario. The pumping station has a rated (and firm) capacity of 365 L/s (6.9 MIGD)and delivers sanitary sewer flow
operating efficiencies than altering the input frequency to vary motor speed. All losses associated with the variable speed drive equipment itself, are also eliminated with the use of
to the headworks of the Vauxhall Pollu
manually, fully automated, or with a combination of manual/auto settings. All modes ofoperation are possible with both, or just one of the wet wells in use.
Other user friendly features include:
Pumping capacity is provided by four Fairbanks-Morse pumps(model 6-5444) driven by two-speed (900/720 rpm) The Chelsea Heights Pumping Station motors. An Allen-Bradley program mable logic controller (PLC) controls multiple winding motors. the pump sequencing to combine • Cycled (on-off) pumping often allows smooth flow rate steps with efficient equipment to be selected to operate at pump operating points. or near the pump's best efficiency In many applications multiple speed point (HEP) rather than over a full equipment can offer increased wire-torange of operating conditions which water efficiencies over variable speed or may move considerably away from variable frequency drive (VFD) pump the BEP. The pumps' performance equipment,while providing comparable characteristics and the associated sys system flexibility. A paper entitled,"Va tem curve must be evaluated to ensure riable Speed Pumping Requires Careful that desired operating conditions Study of Conditions" was presented at are maintained. the recent Water Environment Federa • Centrifugal pumps running at low tion conference in New Orleans by speeds typically results in high power CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.It outlined consumption/costs per unit volume that there are operating speeds that opti of liquid pumped. Although low mize pumping performance and that pump operating speeds can reduce these speeds must be coordinated with wear and often provide a smoother, system conditions. Some characteristics longer service life, there is a point of of variable speed operation may be diminishing economic returns. The emulated by multiple speed pumping potential also exists, although not equipment with an increase in overall unique to variable speed drives, to operating efficiency. The efficiency in inadvertently operate pumps under a including: • Using multiple motor windings to vary speed results in higher motor
dead-head(no flow)condition if vari able speed pumps are operated at ex cessively low speeds or speeds not suited for the system conditions.
accurately measure the velocity of gases or liquids in pipelines Heath Consultants Limited is proud to introduce the Quadrina line of Flowmetersto Its wide range of water and gas related products and leak detection services. The
— Allen-Bradley 5/15 series PLC
complete with remote I/O panel and an EEPROM memory
— Fischer & Porter Copa-X magnetic flowmeter with integral indicating transmitter (instantaneous and totalized) The Chelsea Heights Pumping Sta
tion is owned and operated by the Cor poration of the City of London. CH2M
Hill Engineering Ltd. carried out the environmental assessment activities,
final design and construction manage ment services. Construction, valued at
approximately $1.8 million, was carried out by McKay-Cocker Construction Limited.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 191
65 64 69 61
Air Products Anal. Meas. Anthrafilter
45 61 ifc 61 68
Can. Am. Ins.
Cancoppas Candrum Cetech
Columbia Geo DBA Cons.
Eimco ENSR Env. Prot. Labs
Circle reply card No.192
16 18 21 22 16 obc 59 25 48
Heath Insertion Flowmeters pro vide leakage detection, hydraulic analysis and monitoring.
Eaglebrook Eco Equipment
Geneq Gore & Storrie
Gorman Rupp Griffin Gr. Water Groundwater Tech.
• Self-correcting PLC station controls with overriding alarm conditions, for example: — tilting ball float-switch signals, backup air bubbler liquid level 420 mA signals — upset/alarm condition time delays and multiple signal comparisons • Instrumentation and telemetry facili ties that enable operations staff to easily verify/assess equipment perfor mance and system status, including:
friendly. When in "Auto",the PLC nor mally cycles the pumps to essentially equalize the run times on all 4 pumps,
including the one 33% capacity pump which might otherwise be a lesser used standby unit.The station can be operated
tion Control Plant. Components of the pumping station include a bar screen on the inlet sewer,a two compartment open wet well with isolating sluice gates, four pumping units within a dry well (suc tion piping arranged to allow 3 pumps to draw from each wet well), and a 450 mm
crease is due to a number of factors,
Another benefit of the PLC con
trolled pump station is that it is operator
62 23 37 24 40
Hach Heath Cons.
Lakefield Research Lamson Macviro
Mann Testing Labs. MOEE Monitario
66, 70 32 15 62
14, 19 34 61
National Ins. Neo Valves NRC
Ont. Sewage Equip. Parkson R.V. Anderson
Schlumberger SEW Eurodrive
Syntechnics Tanknology Ter. City Iron Works Terratech Victaulic Wainbee Westech
43 69 18 20 ibc 44 69 38 61 67 61 41 32 13
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993
Introducing the New ADVANCE™ You asked for it. Schlumberger's got It. ADVANCE—the most advanced
handheld in the industry today. What makes the ADVANCE so
great is that it's designed with input from customers like you.
There's also the Schlumberger Information Systems Guarantee that assures expandability and guarantees compatibility within your system today and tomorrow.
The ADVANCE is a true hand
ADVANCE to the next level with
held computer featuring open architecture, easy-to-install adapters for reading popular encoder meters, user-friendly software, low weight, and
Schlumberger—the acknowledged leader in meter reading technology
MS-DOS® 5.0 for ease of
and the new leader in information :
management. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
user-programming. We designed the ADVANCE to be used for countless appli cations such as keyed, auto matic or radio frequency meter reading, service work orders, inventory management, customer service, or any field or office automation.
Schlumberger—An information Management Company Schlumberger
Industries Water Division
Hwy. 229 South
7275 West Credit Avenue
200 Ashford Center North
Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 5M9 (416)858-4211
Atianta, GA 30338 (404)913-1250
Tallassee, AL 36078
©Copyright 1993 Schiumberger Industries Inc.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 173
Undotiraiiis Deliver Air + Water Backwash Separate ducts for air and water and improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform fiew distribution AIR HEADER
WEEP ORIFICE ORIFICE SHIELD AIR DUCT
WATER DUCT WATER ORIFICE
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Highly UnlfiN*m Flow DIstPllmHon ReduGoil
The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately
No false Floop
metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative
design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.
<#EIMCO Process Equipment A Baker Hughes company 5155 Creekbank Road
Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 Tel;(416) 625-6070 / Fax:(416)625-3519
259 MIdpark Way S.E.
4940 Chlsholm St. / Ste. 1
Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2
Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812
Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837
Fax:(403) 256-7071 P.O. Box 300
1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Polnte Claire, Que. H9R 5N3 Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514)695-8099
Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801) 526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005 U.S. Patent #5019259
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 174