Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1993

Page 1




Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air poliution & drinking water treatment

Serving environmental professionais across Canada

How TV journalism stages 'the news' — an editorial comment Rehabilitation of a water main by the slipline technique

Can a legally required report be used against you? UV disinfection of stormwater — a Canadian first

AQTE criticizes Quebec government for its inaction New technoiogies for PCB decontamination

May 1993

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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

May 1993, Vol. 6 No. 2 Issued May, 1993


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Manager PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 Western Canada and

Western US Rep.RDN GANTDN (604) 274-3849

When the news gatherers become the news makers By Tom Davey


Water Efficiency Initiatives in Waterloo By Ralph Luhowy


Rehabilitation of a water main by the slipiining technique



(416) 727-4666

Technical Advisory Board

By K. Grant Murphy

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

UV disinfection of stormwater in Nepean — a Canadian first


By Hugh Tracy


New technologies for RGB decontamination — Part I By Dr. Ian Webber


Egg-shaped digesters now in Canada By Nancy Bonham and Alan Armstrong


Operational control of groundwaters is now a reality


George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

If you are required by statute or order to file a report or

perform a study, can it be used against you? By P. Douglas Petrie and Barry N. Spiegel


Where are the daughters of radon? By Dr. Maggie Merridew


R. Bruce Smith, LLB. Blake Cassels Graydon Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Environmental Science & Engineering Publications Inc. An all Canadian publica tion, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and in

Inhouse electrical generation from low temperature sources

dustrial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distri

AQTE denounces Quebec government for dragging heels


Multi-speed pumping increases efficiency


By Ken Church


ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalScience& Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Farrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Weich Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897 Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.

Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)


Departments Industry Update




R&D News


Literature Reviews


Product Review


Ad Index


Reader Service Card


Cover Photo

A custom-built high-technology centre is helping Britain's efforts to reduce air pollution. Photo shows one of the specially-designed Electromagnetic Compatibility(EMC)testing chambers at the centre, where testing is carried out on exhaust-gas analysers manufactured by companies from all over the world.

The analysers are for use at 17,000 locations in Britain where annual road worthiness inspections on petrol-engine vehicles now include a check on exhaust gas emissions. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legai or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By Tom Davey

Editorial Comment

When the news gatherers become news makers

Britain and the United States are famous for their media barons but with their usual

penchant for modesty, Cana dians are unaware that their country has

produced some of the most colourful and powerful media personalities in the world. Canada produced Lord Beaverbrook, Lord Thompson and Conrad Black who trounced the British in their

loids, stopped feeding off the Royal Family momentarily before erupting with banner headlines warning of the Cancer Ship now docked in the Thames. Greenpeace got into the act next when it affixed a skull and crossbones sign to the ship's hull. The Greenpeace sign worked magni ficently. British dock workers, their finely honed reflex actions for spon-

roney's riding, perhaps invoking divine retribution for earlier prime ministerial patronage when the port facilities were upgraded. From an epidemiological point of view, few chemicals have been mon itored as well as PCBs.The fact we have

records on factory workers who had im mersion contact with PCBs for decades

gives reliable exposure data on humans. While there have been chloracne cases

A classic case of the news media creating news, rather than reporting it came about when a shipload of

reported from PCB exposure, not one death has been directly attributed to this chemical. Ironically, there have been thousands of lives saved because of the

long-lived fire retardant properties of

Canadian PCBs arrived in London for incineration at a

PCBs used in transformers and other

treatment faciiity in Waies.

electrical equipment which require sta ble, non-flammable coolants.

own backyard, London's famous Fleet Street. In one of the most ferociously competitive businesses in the world — newspapers — it was, untypically, Ca nadians who dominated.



academic side, Marshall

McLuhan produced the first cerebral in sights in the new television phenome non when he coined the phrase: 'The medium is the message'.Canadians also dominated U.S. television news far in excess oftheir numbers.Robert MacNeil

ofthe MacNeil Lehrer Report,Peter Jen nings, Morley Safer, Lome Greene and many others have ranked with the best United States' TV broadcasters and an

taneous industrial actions already in

place, refused to unload the vessel. So instead of disposing of the PCB wastes in a facility especially designed for the task,the ship was forced to return across the stormy Atlantic like a vessel carrying the plague while British workers then lost both thejobs and economic benefits of the project — in a country with three million unemployed. After a 6,000 mile return trip which certainly combusted tonnes of fuel which would negatively impact on the environment, Canadian demonstrators

become violent when the vessel attempt ed to dock at Baie Comeau, Brian Mul-

Indeed there is a growing tendency by the news media to create and stage news events, rather than reporting them. The most recent case involved contrived

pickup truck fires on the NBC Network when toy rocket engines were ignited by radio to cause gas tank fires in truck collision tests. During the recent Oscar awards, Billy Crystal got a big laugh when he suggested that NBC News might have been an Oscar contender for its special effects. Then there was the Hill and Knowl-

ton affair. This huge PR firm was a key player in the story where Saddam Hus sein's troops were reported to have bru tally taken sick babies out ofincubators

chors. During the Gulf War, the frank, open coverage of Peter Jennings on American TV, made him a favourite with both Canadian and American

viewers. By comparison, watching Dan Rather's eyes, following the teleprompter during the war coverage, made me feel like a tennis umpire. But much of the news coverage of en vironmental issues has been dangerous

ly incompetent. A classic case of the news media creating news, rather than reporting it came about when a shipload of Canadian PCBs arrived in London

for incineration at a treatment facility in Wales. PCBs had not been an issue in

Britain at that time and the ship had arrived from Canada and docked with out incident.

Then a Canadian journalist casually mentioned to two Fleet Street reporters in a pub one evening, that PCBs were a highly controversial issue in Canada. With that the grunge media,the UK tab12

Left, David Onley,City TV journalist, with Tom Davey,publisher Environmental Science and Engineering during a plenary session panel at the April '93 PCAO conference.

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Editorial Comment,cont'd which were shipped to Iraq. Only after the war was over did the story emerge that the tearful testimony of the eye wit ness testifying in Washington was ac

tinguished for posterity. As for the oil covered cormorants pitifully strug gling in the slick? Well certainly there

tually a contrived affair. The 'witness"

least one avian species shown on TV

was a lot of wildlife casualties but at

testifying before a congressional com

was not native to the Middle East. One

mittee was later discovered to be the

engineer, recently returned from Ku

daughter of a Kuwaiti diplomat. Am nesty International is among the agen cies who doubted the veracity of the in

wait, suspected the dying bird footage was probably culled from stock footage from a tanker spill months earlier.

cubator stories.

was extinguished in Kuwait. This time

Surely the Gulf War did not need any 'moral'justification by such blatantly fabricated propaganda? Yet a gullible media unquestioningly bought this story which was replayed many times world-wide as an example of

there was no doubt that it was the ret

Saddam's brutal treatment

Surely the Gulf War did not need any 'moral" justification by such blatantly fabricated propaganda? Yet a gullible media unquestioningly bought this story which was replayed many times world-wide as an example of Saddam"s brutal treatment of Kuwaitis. An even more contrived farce came later when the last ofthe 640 oil well fires

reating Iraqi troops who had set the wells ablaze,causing an eco catastrophe of global proportions. Billowing smoke, lurid flames, heroic fire fighters and pathetic birds struggling in oil slicks; all combined to make dramatic television.

But TV"s voracious appetite for specta cle required additional cosmetics.

The last desert fire had actually been put out days earlier. After the site had

been cleaned up the fire was actually relighted so the epic event could be ex

of Kuwaitis.

Inaccurate media coverage has often been expensive for Canadians. All too often it has produced unwarranted fears following news reports driven by enter tainment values, rather than ecological significance.In some cases,government reaction to these reports have resulted in actions which proved costly both to the environment and Canadian taxpayers. CITY TV journalist, David Onley

made a highly effective presentation at the recent Pollution Control Associa

tion ofOntario April Conference.When engineers expressed frustration at the improper way technical information was handled by the news media, he pointed out that they could, and should, complain to the CRTC. As for slanted newspaper coverage, the meeting was told that there were Press Councils es

pecially created to investigate inac curate news reports. He urged profes sional bodies to become involved in

liaising with news agencies to tell the technical side of environmental pro blems, hiring media professionals if necessary.

Thomas Jefferson, the third US Presi

dent was acutely aware of the need for legislative checks and balances and the power of the media. He wrote "IfIhad to choose between living in a world without newspapers orgovernments,Iwould choose the world which had newspapers." If the principal author of the Declaration of Independence could now see how today"s news media impact so powerfully on political decision making, he might wonder if we live in a world governed by the news media.

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Letter to the editor SERVING CANADA SINCE



Dear Tom:

I quite enjoyed your March issue, espe cially the article by James Higgins on page 24. It was brilliantly written, albeit short, probably due to editorial cutting. Only a fellow Irishman could have done so well.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipmentfor water and wastewater treatment

But I was most puzzled by the picture of the man you claim to be the author shown on page 46. Why,he appears to be so dishevelled! Surely he couldn't pos sibly have produced such a fine article. No doubt he'll be claiming that he's a fine upstanding man that never let a drop of strong spirits pass his lips too, but I know better.

Or maybe he'll come up with a cock and bull story about being Conference Chairman at the last CEIA conference, who flushed and out ofbreath from run

ning about for his duties was grabbed for a composite photo with some of his friends. And lo and behold, the head

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shot from that unexpected picture was blown up for your article. No one would believe such a story. Maybe you put in a picture of an Englishman by mistake? Anyway, keep up the good work with your fine magazine. Shamus O'Toole

Editor's note. Readers will by now have realized the author of this witty response is, of course, James Higgins, PhD.

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Industry update Report finds underground contamination at haif of US tank farms A report released by the US Environ mental Defense Fund(EOF)found that one-quarter of that nation's 1-million above ground petroleum storage tanks and their piping are leaking, and more than half of the facilities have large un derground pools of petroleum which can migrate offsite if left unaddressed. The report, entitled LAST But Not Least: Leaking Aboveground Storage Tank Threats, Costs, and Attswers, says that un like leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), above ground tanks are vir tually unregulated. "Seek and ye shall find major leaks at facilities storing large quantities of pet roleum in aboveground tanks," said EOF engineer Lois Epstein, the report's author. "Because above ground tanks and their piping are essentially unre gulated, some of these facilities have leaked millions of gallons over a period ofdecades.The leaks have severely con taminated groundwater, damaged eco systems, decreased property values, and forced relocations of families."

Above ground tank farms are located throughout the US at refineries,govern mental installations, chemical plants, shipping terminals, alongside railroads and highways,and at metropolitan area


a'' ■■■ : k-• -

•- ■ ■I .E. > »-

From LUST to LAST. Underground petroleum tanks recently exhumed from Florida service station. Latest focus Is on leaking above ground tanks. ES&E Photo by T. Davey.

distribution depots for fuels used in transportation and heating. Many ser vice stations are moving their fuel stor age from underground to aboveground because underground tanks were regu lated in the 1980s, but aboveground tanks are still unregulated. "Prevention of leaks is clearly in everyone's interest, including the pub lic, fire fighters, and even industry, given increasingly aggressive state-level and community demands for financial pe

nalties against tank owners who have devalued properties near leaking facili ties," said Epstein. "Like underground tank leaks in the 1980s, above ground tank leaks in the 1990s won't be stopped or cleaned up without instituting a regulatory pro

gram that eliminates the 'let 'em leak' mentality. The Environmental Defense Fund believes the Moran/Robb Bill

takes the right approach to closing this storage loophole," said Epstein.

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Industry update Canadian Water

Resource Expertise Gains International

Acceptance Water resource engineering expertise gained in southern Alberta enabled UMA Engineering Ltd. to expand its ser

missioning of the systems. During 1991 and 1992, 15 solar pow ered drop leafgates were installed at test site locations in four States in Australia.

As a result of the performance of these installations, an additional 30 gates have been ordered for 1993. The drop

leaf gate is an open channel control de vice capable of performing upstream

vices to southern California; now these

level control, downstream level control,

services are also being exported to Australia and India. For many years, UMA has designed high-technology ir rigation canal automation systems for Alberta Irrigation Districts. A drop leaf gate developed by UMA Engineering in collaboration with Armtec, with partial funding through the National Research

or flow control. Its ability to perform upstream level control makes it an op tion for replacement of checkboards, long crested weirs or automatic hyd raulic gates. It has been successfully

Council, was introduced to California

trict main canal.

getting ES&E's Award of Merit for his R&D News column from Peter


used in Alberta since 1980 on canals

ranging from 20cfs laterals to the 3000cfs St. Mary's River Irrigation Dis

1 think,therefore,that it would be bet

ter if you deleted my telephone number shown at the end of each R&D News

in 1987 and to Australia in 1991.

The Rural Water Corporation of Vic toria, Australia, after seeking proposals worldwide, has selected UMA Engin eering to design and implement auto mation for several major water control structures and to integrate the sites into a central monitoring system. Represen

Photo shows Dr. Eisenhauer, left,

Letter to the editor Dear Tom:

As you know,1 have retired. However, 1 have arranged to have continued use of Environment Canada facilities for an

column, but keeping the Fax number (which will remain unchanged for now) as well as my address. I was pleased to read in the last issue of ES&E about your having been awar ded the Environmental Achievement Award in the Communications cate

gory. Congratulations — it is well de

over a four month period to develop a detailed implementation plan, define district-wide operational requirements and operational standards, then pre pare engineering drawings and specs,

additional two years for the purpose of preparing the R&D Newscolumn as well as continuing my responsibilities as Canadian Regional Editor of Water Re search.1 am pleased to be able to do this because it is a contribution to my profes sion which gives me a good deal of

Editor's note: ES&E gratefully accepts

and assist in the installation and com


ing a redundant task. Thanks. Hugh.

tatives from UMA will work in Australia

served! H.R. Eisenhauer

R&D News Editor CAWPRC

Dr. Eisenhauer's kind offer to continue

his column. His work is always on time and done with such care he makes edit


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Industry update Mann Labs beats NAFTA to Mexico

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Beatriz and Pedro Cattori are the prin

cipal owners and directors of Control Quimico. Beatriz manages the day to

day operations and has been largely res for optimizing water filtration plant ponsible for the success ofthe company. performance,has only been recently She is anxious to develop a Stack Test explored. Particle counting is shown ing capability similar to Mann's and has to have a myriad of applications in purchased state-of-the-art equipment drinking water treatment. Particle and hired an engineer to develop the count and size distribution analysis technology. This is another similarity can present a detailed picture of fil tered water quality and changes between the two labs. Mann President, John Martin has therein both during the filter ripe visited Mexico City three times and is ning phase and during stable filter operation. It can also he used to excited about the association between the two companies. He is also confident assess the effects of varying coagu in the Mexican government's resolve to lant dosage and relocation of che solve the serious environmental pro mical addition points. blems that exist there. Particle counting is not simply a

supplementary analysis to turbidity.

Particle Counting in Water Filtration Plants The Water Supply Division ofMetro politan Toronto will be undertaking on-line evaluation ofa commercially available particle counter. Particle counting involves coun ting the number and determining the size of particles in a variety of sample matrices. Particle counting is an established technology com monly used in medicine, oceanogra phy, manufacturing processes and electronics. However,its application

Water of equal clarity is not always of equal quality. The future of this technology appears to be in integra ted on-line particle counting systems that will continuously characterize water quality and help in process control decision-making. These sys tems will be sensitive to submicron

particles,including bacteria,viruses, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium. It is believed that Metro is among some of the first utilities in Ontario to conduct an evaluation trial of a

particle counter. Particle counting could become an important compo nent of Metro's quality control pro gram. A.D. Tadwalkar Reprinted from AWWA/OWMA Pipeline

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited Announcement K.A. Morrison,P.Eng.,pre sident, is pleased to an nounce the appointment of Peter J. Laughton, P.Eng. as chairman of the Board of Directors of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited.

Mr. Laughton joined the firm in 1966, and holds a B.A.Sc. and Masters degree in Civil — Environmental En

gineering from the Univer sity of Toronto, and a B.A. in Computer Science from Peter J. Laughton, P.Eng. York University. He is a recipient of the Bedell award, a diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, and an "Honourary Senior Fellow" in the School of Environmental Engineering, at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. He has also served as president of the Pollution Control Asso ciation of Ontario(1982-1983),and a member of the 1986-

one msu transportable safety handle secures a multitude of holes Š


1987 WPCF President's Executive Committee.

Mr. Laughton continues to sen/e the firm as a vice president and director of Environmental Engineering. R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is an established, multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm, with a staff complement of 150,and has been engaged in civil, munici pal and environmental engineering since 1948.


2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga Ontario L5J 2M4

For complete information 1-800-268-5336 Fox: 416-823-4947

For more information, Circie reply card No. 126 20

For more information, Circie reply card No. 127 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993


For the retrofit of this large

plant, we opted for the latest ozone technology, complete

• -#

■•'■ si' .1

with state-of-the-art

computerized control system,

thus eliminating on-going m

problems with obsolete and inadequate equipment.

Last time we told


you what makes

We knew the reefs were

being affected by pollution

us smile. Our

hut what are the sources,

clients are smiling

concentrations, conveyance mechanisms? These are the

because we are


innovation driven -

as we have been for

questions we are using GIS

modelling to answer so that we can provide the government with the optimal, cost effective solutions.

the past 40 years.



Two cities totalling 400,000 -

people with no sewage treatment are being enhanced by the installation of two new biological nutrient removal (BNR) plants as well as five


new and sixteen retrofitted

A Total Quality Engineering and Project Management

pumping stations. The effluent will he used for irrigation.

Company with 12 offices across Canada, in the U.S.A. and ahroad



John Blanchet

Stormwater from urbanization

has resulted in pollution of area rivers. In particular,

Phone: (604) 385-8721 Fax: (604) 383-8099

bacteria has forced the closure

of beaches. In response, Delcan has designed the first of a kind, full scale facility for


David Brierley Phone: (416)441-4111 Fax: (416) 441-4131

the disinfection of urban

runoff, in the City of Nepean. For more information, Circie reply card No. 128

Industry update Reid Crowther/Brown and Caldwell to assess nutrient removal research needs The Research Foundation of the Water

Environment Federation (WEF) has commissioned a team of two of North

America's leading environmental en gineering firms, Reid Crowther & Part ners Ltd. and Brown and Caldwell, to

the industry to provide wastewater treat ment plant managers — faced with in creasingly stringent nutrient control regulations — with the most effective nutrient control alternatives.

salts or petroleum chemicals from high way runoffs, it is not desirable to allow the effluent from filtration facilities to

enter the aquifers. The innovative sys tem that G&S designed is a media with in a basin with a sub-drain collection

Innovative scheme

protects groundwaters from dissolved


from a 25 mm rainflow and overflow

A unique confined filtration facility rient removal (NR) from wastewater. (CFF) has been developed by Gore & The firms formed an alliance in Sep Storrie staff to protect regional aquifers tember, 1992 to share NR experience to from the dissolved salts and petroleum better serve their clients.The WEF com chemicals found in highway storm mission was announced in April. runoffs. The $50,000 (US) study will identify The system was developed while con and prioritize research needs regarding ducting a drainage study for the Ontario nitrogen and phosphorus removal from Ministry of Transportation on stormwastewater. The Reid Crowther/Brown water runofffrom a major Toronto area and Caldwell team will review research highway interchange. The scope of the on the performance ofexisting physical, study was initially to provide recom chemical and biological NR techni mendations for achieving quantity and ques,innovative approaches to nutrient quality control over discharges to re removal, problems of residuals solids ceiving streams. It was later expanded, disposal, and opportunities for improv however, to address the Ontario Minis ing process reliability, and simplifying try ofthe Environment's concerns about operations. the effects ofthese discharges on groundWEF hopes the study's results will be water quality as well. the basis of its 5-year NR program. Re Because filtration treatment does not search results will be shared throughout remove dissolved pollutants such as assess research needs in the area of nut

system.The filtered discharges collected in these basins are conveyed to surface receiving waters,so they do not infiltrate the groundwater aquifers. The facilities are designed to capture and treat runoff events exceeding this amount. The CFFs will be installed during construction of the drainage scheme and final grading of the Highway 404/ 407 Interchange.

A paper on the computer modelling and confined filtration system to be used for the stormwater runoff at the

Highway 404/407 Interchange was pre sented at the recentjoint USEPA/MOE/ ASCE Storm Water and Water Quality

Management Modelling Conference, February 24 and 25. This paper, titled "Stormwater Pollution Control at a Ma

jor Highway Interchange," was co-au thored by the co-developers of the con fined filtration facility — Mario Parente (G&S Urban Drainage Section) and Mike Hulley (G&S Water Resources Systems Division).

Inorganic Coagulants For water and wastewater

treatment, Eaglebrook has the product and the system, too. You'll get outstanding results with Eaglebrook's Ferrous Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Ferric Sulfate and FerrlClear.

From FI2S and corrosion control to water

clarification, Eaglebrook has the answer that's tested, proven and economical.

Find the solutions at Eaglebrook. Phone (800) 268-5317 in Canada (800) 387-5021 In USA


For more information, Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993

Do you have untapped treatment potential? Then why not use it?

This graph shows the diagnosis of one wastewater treatment plant's capabilities.

Its actual capacity was greater than its rated capacity. A plant audit saved money here by enabling expansion deferral.


actual plant capacity c 0


CC >

rated plant capacity 70,000

D" CD c



Q. O












A plant audit could save you money and energy too by letting you optimize your existing facilities. Plant optimization is good for the environment as well.

G&S has more combined expertise for conducting plant audits — water or wastewater — than any other consultant in Canada. So, if you want to save money and energy — and help the environment — call us.

(Preferably before you get to the design stage!)

Gore & Storrie Limited, Consulting Engineers, 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, l\/!2J 5B6 Telephone:(416)499-9000


With offices in Ottawa, Barrie, Mississauga, Thoroid, Cambridge, Kingston, and London For more information, Circle reply card No. 134 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993


Water conservation

Water Efficiency initiatives in Waterioo water efficient devices, namely a ULF toilet(6 litres) in 300 homes. Preliminary results from the Kit chener PilotProgram are very promi sing. On average, households with ULF toilets installed are using 30%

The Regional Municipality of Water loo draws from groundwater and surface water sources to service

. -V-'

approximately 350,000 residents. Annual supply from 120 wells is approximately thirteen billion gal lons of water (59 million cubic

less water.

ICI Programs

meters). Surface water use began in June

To achieve a 30% reduction in the

1992 when the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant came on line.

Grand River water is drawn,treated and mixed with groundwater. This first phase ofthe Mannheim system gives the Region a potential capacity oflOmgd. Subsequent phases ofthe Mannheim system are envisioned to increase the potential maximum day capacity to 74.2 mgd. Currently, maximum day demand is 52 mgd.

Implications of Demand Management to Capitai Spending The Region's goal is to reduce water demand by 30% in all sectors by the year 2002. Water demand between the sectors is approximately 55% residential and 45% industrial, com mercial institutional (ICI). If this


garbage trucks? Thieves are knocking off New York City garbage trucks at a rate that baffles offi cials. The New York Post reports that 11

Industrial, Commercial, Institutio nal (ICI) sectors, the Region func tions as a facilitator. Regional staff and consultants, Commexus and GH2M Hill, produced a two-part manual for ICI use.

in the Tri-City area will drop from the current 52 mgd, to 36,4 mgd.

to 73.5 gallons. This challenging goal will he implemented over the

on the manual serve to educate as

next ten years.

well as encourage communication

Simply stated, a 30% reduction translates into a 30-year deferral of capital spending on additional water supplies. The wastewater treatment

and discussion about water effici

ency within the ICI sectors. The Region's experience to date is remarkable. Organizations within

infrastructure would similarly bene

the ICI sectors such as a Public

fit and energy demand would be reduced, although not significantly. These are the key benefits driving the Municipality to this program. The challenge will be to translate

School Board,a meat packing plant, a chemical producer, a rubber and plastic extruder, several foundry operations, and the local hospitals have all experienced savings bet ween 15% and 50%. These organiza tions are committed to building on

this prediction into a Region wide

nes, simply vanished in the past few

Kitchener Pilot Program This program was co-sponsored by the City of Kitchener Utility and Ontario Hydro. Essentially,the pro gram consisted of installing several

there's brass."

tion presented can be applied to water as well as wastewater,energy, and solid waste. Workshops based

reduced from the current 105 gallons


price tag, giving a new slant to the old English saying; "Where there's muck,

how to conduct an audit. Informa

Daily per capita demand would be

garbage trucks, each weighing 16 ton months. Each truck carried a $110,000

One section focuses on employee involvementin water efficiency.'The second section explains,step by step,

goal is met, maximum day demand

their successes and will continue to

look for innovative ways to reduce their water demand.

Ralph Luhowy, Region of Waterloo Reprinted from AVMA Pipeline

Groundwater Control For Both Worlds Griffin provides services for your groundwater or remediation problem it


Construction Dewatering Wellpoints Deep Wells Sewage Bypass Open Pumping

• Recharging • Eductor Systems • Slurry Walls • MAC Hydraulic Submersible Pumps


• Recovery Wells • Vapour Extraction • Remedial Dewatering • Biological Treatment • Air Stripping



Griffin Groundwater Control Services 24




For more information, Circle reply card No. 135

• Carbon Treatment

• In Situ Treatment

• Slurry Trenches • Landfill Gas Venting • Sludge Handling

GRS Griffin Remediation Services

Guelph, Ontario, 1-519-763-9400 Environmental Science (& Engineering, May 1993

There are many labs... not all are equal.

At EPL quality isn't just a slogan, It's part of everything we do — quality services, quality advice and quality data.



6850 Ooreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel:(416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

For more information, Circle reply card No. 118

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993


Trenchless technology

Rehabilitation of a water main

by the siipiining technique

OnSeptember20,1992a break

tial flow quantities through the pipe. In this project a 200 mm diameter — SDR 17,high density polyethylene(HDPE) main crossing under High 'liner pipe was sliplined inside the exist ing 300 mm diameter ductile iron water way #401 at the McCowan Road inter change. The break occurred under the main.The length ofthe water main to be east bound collector lanes of the high sliplined was 110 metres, the entire Highway #401 crossing. It should also way. SPUC (Scarborough Public Utili occurred on the 300 mm dia meter ductile iron water

ties Commission) crews shut the water main down and isolated the section of

water main along McCowan Road, from Corporate Drive to just north of Highway #401, which services cus tomers in northern Scarborough. The existing water main crossing in stalled in 1970, consisted of a 300 mm

diameter unlined ductile iron(Class 52) pipe encased inside a 600 mm diameter steel liner pipe. It was assumed that the cause of the break was due to corrosion of the ductile iron water main.

This crossing feeds a large portion of the developments south of Highway #401, such as the Scarborough Town

be noted that no service connections were located on this stretch of water

main and so this made the siipiining process much easier to complete.

Work began on November 18, 1992, with the SPUC forces being responsible for excavations and site restoration, while Cliffside was contracted to clean

the existing water main, supply, fuse and install the HDPE pipe for this project. Two access locations were excavated

by SPUC forces. An area to the north of

Centre and the Consilium Place Devel TRENCH SIDE WALLS ARE VERTICAL

side of the 401.

ofthe ductile iron water main but once a break occurs due to corrosion in ductile

iron pipe, more than likely further breaks will occur. With this in mind it

seemed sensible to completely rehabili tate the entire Highway #401 water main crossing. Siipiining a smaller diameter pipe in side the existing water main was con sidered the only alternative.Though the inside diameter ofthe water main will be

reduced, the smoothness of the pipe is increased and yet will still give substan-









Figure 2

the 401, adjacent to the north-east on ramp allowed for a large access pit to be dug. This area also served as a storage location for the fused lengths and equip ment. The liner pipe was to be inserted from the north pit and pulled to the south pit; the north access pit was dug at 2:1 slope along its length in order to allow for the HDPE pipe to be gradually inserted into the pipe (Figure #2). On the south side, the working area was more confined due to the six metre

high slope to the south and the shoulder NORIH



of the eastbound collector lanes of the






Figure 1











Figure 3 Installation

opment. Additionally, by not having this feed in operation it was difficult to guarantee the servicing requirements of the CFTO-TV complex on the north Due to constraints set by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation, it was not possible to proceed with any option that involved open trenching across the tra velled portion of Highway #401. It was also considered to try to repair a portion


401,to the north.The south pit served as the location from which the liner pipe was pulled.

water main. The existing 300 mm water main was cleaned to ensure that any tubercles that had accumulated on the

inside walls would not damage the liner in any way. Both a brush style scraper and a 1.2 metre long conical pig were used to complete the cleaning. The fusion process began on Novem ber 26 and was completed in one day. The HDPE pipe came in 15 metre lengths and each of the lengths were thermally fused together. The HDPE pipe was fused together by using a McElroy pipe fusion machine. This machine held the two pieces of pipe to gether in clamps, which were then brought together and a "hot plate" was placed between the pipes. The HDPE resin was heated above its melting point; this allowed the resin to flow under pres sure. The two heat-softened pipe ends were then brought together and held under pressure, for about 10 minutes. After a section of pipe had cooled, the liner would be pulled into the existing main and another piece of HDPE pipe fused.(Figure #3). The following day, after the entire length of the liner pipe had been pulled into the existing main, the HDPE re ducers were attached to the ends of the

liner. These pieces could not be pulled in along with the rest ofthe linerbecause they would not have fit inside the exist ing water main. The reducers were con nected to the polyethylene pipe by using a Victaulic coupling.(Figure #4). A Victaulic coupling was used instead of a thermal fusion coupling because the fusion machine could not fit inside

Lining process Once the water main was exposed,

the access pits. Once the reducers were connected to the HDPE liner pipe, the SPUC forces began work on preparing the liner for the pressure test. A 300 mm

sections of the main were removed to allow access into it. A cable was flushed

the water main in order to facilitate pres



through the water main from the south pit to the north pit; this cable was then used to facilitate the cleaning of the

valve was installed at the south end of

sure testing and chlorination while on the north end the water main was

capped,braced and a main cock installed

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By K. Grant Murphy,P.Eng* that would act as an air release, during the pressure test.

closer investigation, it was found that an improper coupling had been used by the contractor. When the proper Victaulic coupling was re-installed on the liner pipe the third attempt to pressurize the

Pressure test process The pressure test process was com pleted in two segments,the pre-load seg ment and the leakage test segment. Dur


water main was made.

On the third and final attempt, suc cess was attained. The pre-load and leakage test segments were completed

ing the pre-load segment,the liner pipe was pressurized to the recommended 150 psi in order to remove as much of the elasticity from the HOPE pipe as poss ible. This phase took three hours to complete, with checks being made every hour, to ensure the pressure was being maintained at 150 psi. Once the pre-load segment was complete,the actual leakage test process began and the liner pipe was subjected to another two hour test at 150 psi. It is important to note the differen ces in these pressure testing procedures as compared to the normal AWWA pro cedures. It is very important to remove as much ofthe elasticity from the HDPE pipe as possible or else the pressure test

00 mm RON HOPE





without incident and once the test was

completed the results showed the liner pipe had met the design criteria for the leakage test segment.



Figure 5 Final restorations

Once the pressure test had been passed, the SPUC proceeded with chlo rinating the water main. After obtaining the results ofthe chlorination and deter

mining that the water main was ready to be put back into service, final res torations began. The capped end was removed and re-connected to the exist

ing water main.

results will be invalid.

The pressure test was attempted three times before it was successfully com pleted. In the first two attempts, failure occurred in the initial stages of the pre load segment of the pressure test. During the first attempt, as the liner was expanding it caused the 300 mm valve to shift and separate from the main; pressure was lost instan taneously. The valve was re-installed and completely braced against move ment. A delay ofabout four days occurred while this work was taking place. Before the pre-load pressure was at tained during the second test, the Vic-

Though some degree of reinforcement was used to

secure the existing water main it was vital to firmly secure all fittings from any movement due to the highly elastic nature of the

polyethylene pipe. The annular space between the liner

pipe and the existing pipe was not

taulic connection on the south side

grouted, however, the ends of the old pipe were sealed in order to prevent fill

slipped off the HDPE liner pipe. Upon

material from entering this space.

Standard fittings were used to con nect from the new 250 mm HDPE liner

pipe to the existing 300 mm ductile iron water main. These fittings were all pro

perly restrained, according to SPUC specifications, to prevent movement due to expansion or contraction of the HDPE liner. On all ductile iron fittings, anodes were installed to cathodically

protect them from corrosion.The access pits were then backfilled anad compac ted. Further restorations were required on the southerly side due to the steep ness of the slope and reinforcement was used to prevent erosion of the embank ment in the spring. The water main was returned to ser

vice on January 4, 1993. Summary

This being the first attempt by the SPUC at sliplining an existing water main with a high density polyethylene liner pipe, we were quite pleased by the success of the project even though a few stumbling blocks did occur. The most important lesson learned from this project was that of restraining the water main from movement. This








k -

can not be emphasized enough.Though some degree of reinforcement was used to secure the existing water main it was vital to firmly secure all fittings from any movement due to the highly elastic na ture of the polyethylene pipe. Secondly,the pressure test procedure must be followed carefully such that the results obtained measure only the actual leakage occurring and not the elastic expansion of the high density polye thylene liner pipe. If this procedure is not followed, erroneous results will be


obtained and will lead to incorrect con clusions about the condition of the


liner pipe. V ICTAUL I C










SPUC would again consider rehabili tating an existing water main by making



Figure 4

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Due to increases in restoration costs in the future, there is no doubt that the



use of similar methods.

MAIN *Scarborough Public Utilities Commis sion, Ont. 27

UV disinfection of stormwater

in Nepean — a Canadian first

Last year. Delcan commissioned

an ultraviolet(UV)disinfection

system for stormwater. believed to be the first ofits kind in North America.Ofcourse. UV is not new to the world of waste treatment but does it

work for stormwater? And why would you disinfect stormwater anyway? These questions arose for the Longfields/Davidson Heights Stormwater Facility in Nepean. Ontario, a city of 108.000 people located in the National Capital Area and one of eleven munici palities that make up the Regional Mu nicipality of Ottawa-Carleton. The Longfields/Davidson subdivision is si tuated in the south growth area and comprises an area of approximately 915 hectares.

The drainage outlet for Longfields/ Davidson is the East Barrhaven Creek

that ultimately reaches the Rideau River, and as far back as 1975 the On

tario Ministry of the Environment had decreed that the River was particularly

sensitive to pollutants from stormwater runoff. Swimming beaches were closed on a regular basis because of high bac terial counts attributed to the impact of bacteria-laden runoff.

The new stormwater facility was in fact an expansion of an existing pond, designed originally to operate i n a batch mode, providing 72 hours retention for event capture and static settling before releasing the contents at a manually controlled rate. The Certificate of Ap

proval issued at the time placed no ef fluent quality limits on the discharge and permitted six overflows per swim ming season. The pond worked very ef ficiently and consistently achieved dis charge qualities in the range of 10 to 15 milligrams per litre of suspended solids and faecal coliforms of 150 to 300 per 100 millilitres.

Despite this level of performance,the new facility had to be designed to satisfy even tighter controls in response to the Ministry's new quality objectives issued in 1989 stating that in the absence of an effective plan to protect water quality and yet pennit development, it is necessary to reinstate the Ministry's non-degradation policy for the Rideau River in numerical terms ... in essence, this means that the ef fluentfrom stormwater treatmentfacilities requires disinfection. Translated, the facility had to achieve the following: Suspended solids

25 milligrams per litre 100 per 100 millilitres 1.000 per 100 millilitres

In many respects the evaluation was easier than for a wastewater plant of comparable size as operating costs took a back seat to other operating criteria such as suitability for automatic control in an unsupervised facility, personnel safety during routine inspection, public safety in the event of a system failure, etc. Operating costs were not disregar ded but less significant because of the fundamental difference in operation between stormwater and wastewater fa

cilities.the former being strictly batch in response to rainfall while wastewater of course, is usually a continuous Dow. This is not to suggest however, that operating costs for UV would have been, or are generally higher than those for other methods of disinfection when all cost factors are included.

UV is gaining widespread popularity because it works fast(retention times of a few seconds versus 30 minutes or so for

chlorine)and it leaves no toxic residual.

UV light is generated by low pressure mercury lamps at a wavelength of 253.7 Total coliforms nanometres and causes photochemical Needless to say. Nepean viewed these damage to the RNA and DNA of cel lular micro-organisms, effectively pre criteria — especially the reality of disin venting their replication; hence disin fection — with some concern as failure to comply would affect continued fection. growth in the south urban area. Rather If it's this easy, why isn't it used than argue the merits of disinfecting an all the time? In fact UV is being used more and individual stormwater outlet when so many are not. the City got on with the more; certainly the pendulum seems to job and gave Delcan authorization to be swinging in its favour. However, re proceed with a study of options. member that UV consumes a significant amount ofelectrical energy and becomes rapidly less effective as water turbidity increases. It is important therefore, to tailor the UV dosage rate as closely as possible to the flow rate and coliform loading, and to ensure that suspended Faecal coliforms

solids concentrations are low.

Being a first, pilot testing was used to demonstrate that UV could consistently achieve the finite discharge limits set by the MOE;most often the effectiveness of

UV is reported in terms of log-kill re lated to influent concentration. It was

also noted that the USEPA UV Design Manual suggests a faecal limit of 100 per 100 millilitres and 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids which are mutu ally exclusive in the case of wastewater effluents. Was there any reason to think that stormwater would be any differ



A dosage rate of 18,000 liW.sec/cm^ at the design flow of0.5 cubic metres per second resulted in a Trojan UV 3000 series,four-bank installation — two in each channel — and a total of 352 lamps with a total input power of approximately 35 kilowatts. 28

Early in 1990. Delcan supervised a pilot testing program conducted by Pollutech Environmental Limited to allay concerns and to provide design para meters for the full-scale facility. The ob-

Enviromnental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By Hugh Tracy, P.Eng.* jectives for the study were: • Analyze the stormwater suspended solids settling characteristics and de velop pond design criteria to achieve the 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids discharge limit • Determine the UV dosage rate re quired to achieve the bacteriological discharge limits of 1,000 MPN (Most Probable Number)per 100 millilitres total conforms and 100 MPN per 100 millilitres faecal coliforms

The pilot tests produced a wealth of data and to some degree were too suc cessful as many ofthe UV tests yielded a "Not Detected" result. A series ofspiked tests countering this result produced some high-end effluent coliform counts and gave sufficient reason to consider lower dosage rates than the nominal 30,000 |iW.sec/cm^ suggested by sup pliers. As alluded to above,the incentive to tailor the design closely, stems from the fact that the number of UV lamps required is directly proportional to dos age rate; higher dosage rates, higher capital and operating costs. Delcan re commended that the design be based on a dosage rate of 18,000 gW.sec/cm^ and that the manufacturers not be required to guarantee effluent quality. This was a significant departure from the guaran tee clauses usually faced by manufac turers and reflected the "trail blazing" nature of the project. As it was, the dosage rate of 18.000 gW.sec/cm^ at the design flow of 0.5 cubic metres per second resulted in a Trojan UV 3000 series,four-bank instal lation — two in each channel — and a

total of 352 lamps with a total input power of approximately 35 kilowatts. Had the higher dosage rate been selec ted, the number of lamps would have risen to 590 or therabouts, with an input power requirement of 60 kilowatts. As UV systems are"off or"on"and cannot be readily modulated, this difference represented a considerable saving. Another key factor in the design ofthe facility was the control ofthe draindown flow rate. As the number of lamps re quired and power input was directly proportional to flow, this was another incentive to hold the flow constant ra

ther than accept the semi-regulated out put from a conventional flow restricting port commonly provided at the end of stormwater ponds.It was also necessary to draw water from the water surface to

effectively chase the 25 milligrams per litre suspended solids interface down through the depth. This was achieved by the installation of an overshot weir, positioned in res ponse to changes in water level with pre*Head, Environmental Delcan Corporation


— Effluent


— Foreboy

i—Bypass/Overflow Channel

Discharge to Stream

LL Overflow Weir

— UV Lamp Bank (typ)




□ centre,ler


Distribution Weirs


Influent from

Overshot Weir

UV Controller (typ)


Storm Pond Drain

16.6 metres (approx) Influent


Influent Flow Meter

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


Overshot Weir —' Controller



else accuracy. Although provision was made in the supervisory control system for closed-loop control of gate position, it currently operates on an inferred flow setpoint but with sufficient accuracy to keep the measured flow rate within a range from 0.48 to 0.52 cubic metres per second. The supervisory control system has to recognize several reasonably elusive parameters such as: • When has it started raining? • When has it stopped raining? • What should the system do if it starts to rain again? • How long should the period of static settling last? Although the pond has been in opera tion for one season, there is little "good" data available for dissemination. But in

answer to the question: "Did it achieve compliance?", the results can be sum marized as follows:

• Suspended solids in all cases were well below the 25 milligrams per litre limit and typically in the order of 8 to 10 milligrams per litre • Faecal coliforms in all cases were well

belowthe 100 MPN per 100 millilitres limit and typically 10 or less Costs for the UV portion of the facility including the draindown structure were in the order of $1M. Despite the price tag however, the City's options were quite simple — comply with the Ministry's discharge criteria or shutdown develop ment.

What does the future hold for storm

water discharges? It is reasonable to state that the Longfields/Davidson faci lity has not set the precedent for all stormwater facilities discharging to sen sitive rivers. In this case the loadings on the Rideau River are such that there is

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Longfields/Dovidson N Ultraviolet Disinfection


an immediate impact — the closure of beaches with all its negative con notations. The Longfields/Davidson facility however, is an excellent show case for innovation in the development of a Best Management Practice for spe cific quality concerns. With ackno\wledgements to Gary Craig, P.Eng., Director of Engineering for the City of Nepean, for his contributions to this article.

Circle reply card No. 259

Full cost pricing is thrust of new Canadian water and wastewater rate manuai A first-ever Canadian water/wastewater

rate manual was unveiled during Cana da's First National Water Conservation

Conference in Winnipeg, February 46, 1993.

Developed jointly by the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association and

the Rawson Academy of Aquatic Sci ence, the publication introduces a new and alternative approach to traditional rate setting methods. The "Municipal Water and Wastewater Rate Manual" may be ordered directly from the Canadian Water and Waste-

water Association CWWA/Rawson Member Price — $125.00; Non-Member

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(613) 238-5692, fax: (613) 238-5193. 29

PCB technologies

New technologies for PCB decontamination — Part I

Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs, were developed by the Federal Phosphorus Company

vapor cleaning method to eliminate the The Industrial Manufacture of PCBs

and Swann Research Co. in

1929. Swann Research Co. was bought by Monsanto in the early 1930's and Monsanto remained the predominant supplier of PCBs in the US until the company voluntarily ceased production in response to growing environmental

natively, a drain and flush method makes it necessary to dispose of large quantities of flushing oil in addition to the original transformer volume of di

Biphenyl CL



Batch Chlorinator alkali

electric fluid. The author has invented four chemi


cal reagents for the destruction ofPCBs. The earliest of these is the'sodium'pro cess in which dispersed metallic sodium


Raw AnocLOR Vacuum Distillation

The manufacture of PCBs involved

the addition of chlorine to biphenyl un til a required percentage of hydrogen was replaced. The process resulted in a product which contained PCBs with one or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to the molecule.

The family ofPCBs can contain from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms arranged within the molecule in 209 different ways. The different arrangements of a given num ber of chlorine atoms around the bi

phenyl rings give rise to distinct series of compounds. These compounds differ most importantly in their bioaccumulation, chemical reactivity and toxicity.

residual PCB contaminated oil in the transformer and assure that the unit can be reclassified as non-PCB. Alter

was used to remove chlorine from the

PCB and produce inorganic chloride.

Aroclor Product

The reaction tends to be slow and the

capacitors. The remaining 0.2% is in mineral oil contaminated in the range of50 to 500 ppm PCB.There are approx imately 90,000 askarel transformers still in use in the US and about 180,000.000

gallons of PCB contaminated oil dis tributed through more than 3,000,000

equipment used to apply the chemistry tends to be large. The application of the sodium chemistry is usually applied in 40' trailer rigs which cost about $800,000 each.

q(x-i) a,

qy Chemical



Real-world experience has shown that the eventful failure of electrical equipment containing PCBs is catas trophic in the sense that the equipment owner faces a typical cleanup cost in



excess of$20,000,000 and liabilities from

Numbering System for Nomenclature Cl

Cl Cl,

civil suits which are often many times more than the cleanup costs. An eventful


failure describes that mode of transfor mer end-of-life which leads to subse

quent damage as, for example, with PCB transformer fires. Ck


2,2',3,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyi Because of their physical properties, PCBs were used as a fire safety measure in electrical equipment.Their principal uses were in power transformers and capacitors, hydraulic machinery, va cuum pumps,compressors and heat ex changer fluids. The more chlorine that was used in the production ofPCBs,the greater the resistance to heat, moisture and electrical degradation but the more viscous the fluid became. In transfor

mer applications particularly there is a need for the dielectric fluid to dissipate

'^Cl M






More recently, the invention of two alternative reagents have been found to react much more quickly than dispersed

[O2]- heat -HCI


sodium under similar conditions. The

inventions are currently in the patent process. This has allowed such a signifi cant reduction in the size of the equip ment necessary for their application that the current design for a mobile mi


The technology used for the PCB de contamination oftransformers depends upon the concentration of the con tamination. Transformers designed for ni-plant can be made to fit onto the back of a pick-up truck. use with mineral oil are not usually con The small unit offers several advan taminated with more than 500 ppm PCB,ifthey are contaminated at all,and tages over the use of a 40' trailer rig: can be serviced cost-effectively using a • The unit is an order of magnitude cheaper than a 40' trailer rig. chemical method to dechlorinate the • There would not be a need for com

heat and so PCBs were diluted with a hlend oftri-and tetrachloro-benzenes to


The cost-effectiveness of chemical re

panies to accrue liability in the form

reduce the viscosity ofthe fluid and pro

agent methods decreases as the concen

vide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfer. Mixtures of PCBs and chlorobenzenes were known

tration ofPCBs increases until, at about

of bulk tanks of PCB contaminated oil.

generically as 'askarels'. Approximately 99.8% of the PCBs used in electrical applications are con tained in askarel filled transformers and 30

2,000 ppm PCB,alternative disposal op tions become more attractive. At about the same concentration that

• The mini-plant can cost-effectively service individual transformers on an

as-needed basis as well as operate on

bulk tanks. chemical reagent methods begin to lose their advantage in disposal savings it • The liability of transporting PCBs is removed since the mini-plant is mobecomes increasingly necessary to use a

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By Dr. Ian Webber bile and can be used on-site without

the need for a dedicated and costly tractor-trailor. • The decontaminated oil can be re

claimed to new oil properties either at the site or transported back to a cen tral facility as a PCB-free oil. There are three categories of PCB transformers under USEPA regula tions:

vent. then the remaining PCB concen tration in the bulk fluid can be calcu

lated using an expression derived from the dilution laws.

If one makes the simplifying assump tion that the fluid used to refill the trans

former becomes rapidly homogenized, then a transformer which initially con tains 500 ppm PCB needs only to be drained and refilled once if the residual fluid volume was 5% of the total. On the

Pi-ogre!>>ive Dechlonnuliuii otPCB^

• A PCB transformer is defined as one wfiioh contains

more ttian 500 ppm

ArodoL-1242: ST.4RT

PCB. • A PCB contaminated

oil with an initial concentration of2.000

transformer is one which contains

PCBs in the

other hand, if the draining operation leaves more than about 8% of the origi nal fluid volume then the refilling stage will produce a bulk oil concentration of greater than 50 ppm PCB and the unit would need to be flushed again. For an

iniilal decliloriiialion

ppm PCB. it would certainly be neces sary,in practical terms,to flush the trans former more than once.

concentration range 50 - 500 ppm PCB.

The conventional flush/drain pro

• A non-PCB

cedure suffers from several drawbacks:


• Firstly, the procedure requires that the retrofill operation is repeated at least twice for highly contaminated

contains iess than

50 ppm PCB.

coni)}]e(e dechloHnatioii

oils and therefore incurs twice the

The retrofill of a highly PCB con

labor charge of a single pass.

taminated, or an askarel. transformer

• The volume ofPCB contaminated oil

involves the replacement of the organic

is multiplied by the number of times the operation is performed. • The volume ofoil trapped in the inter stices of the windings is not likely to be removed by a simple drain and flush procedure. Then, when the unit is put back into service,the trapped oil

dielectric fluid with a substitute oil. The

transformer is then put back into opera tion for 90 days and the bulk oil retested.

The main advantage to retrofilling is that an owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. In addition,record keep ing and reporting requirements are re duced or eliminated and servicing is

Conventional Transformer Retrofill

*Dr. Ian Webber obtained Bachelors de

grees In Chemistry and Physics in 1967 from the University of London, England and the University of Saiford, England. He also holds a Ph.D.from Carleton Uni

versity, Ottawa.

are therefore unable to reclassify as karel transformers for a satisfactory period of time. Experiments have been performed as a part of the author's research to deter mine how PCBs and chlorobenzenes

diffuse through the porous insulation of transformer windings. A mathematical model was developed which uses the experimental data to describe the mi gration of PCBs impregnated in the porous insulation into the originally uncontaminated retrofill fluid. The ma

thematical model was substantiated by data derived from the retrofill of a 270

gallon. 750 KVA askarel transformer. Trichlorobenzene Leaching

PCB CoaccDtraUon (ppm) Trichlorobenzene ConceDtTBtton( ppm) a


The simple process of draining a transformer of its fluid does not change

Conventional Retrofill

the classification of the transformer. The Completed Process

atiea after M daja

Recognizing this, the Institute of Scrap


;is as a PCB

/Shows < 2 ppm throughout the Leaching Period


Iron and Steel(ISIS) has recommended

50% Process

to its members that transformers of un known classification should not be ac

/ A

cepted for disposal even if they are

I&IUaI lA^cblcf rate = 6 ppm


'Plnai' Lea^hXnf Rate a 1.3 ppm PCB/day

90% Process


The retrofill of highly contaminated oil transformers by successive drain and refill operations in attempts to reduce the PCB concentration to below 50 ppm PCB is not a cost-effective procedure. The author has developed an extraction technique which avoids the need for the disposal of large volumes of flushing fluids and oils. The usefulness ofa method to retrofill

Leeching Time (h) Time After CoDTenUoael Retrofill SteadBTd B«(romi

The flush and drain process applied

the retrofilled oil to give an apparent leaching effect. Convective mixing

to an askarel transformer leaves about

alone is often sufficient to return the transformer to a PCB contaminated condition.

Fvery time a retrofill operation is per formed a power outage has to be ar ranged. This requires administrative costs, etc. and is usually either very

reclassified unit but one which will re

difficult to schedule or is. at hest.

main reclassified for a satisfactory period


of time.

When the coil assembly is impreg

transformer. Ifthe oil is drained out and the tank is refilled with clean oil or sol

MX ■•bb«r P

gradually mixes by convection into

highly PCB contaminated transformers and. more particularly,askarel transfor mers depends upon the extent of the processing necessary to yield not only a

The flush and drain procedure typi cally leaves 5-10% of the solvent in the


MX V«bb«r PrwcM

2.5% of the original askarel in the core/ coil assembly. For a typical 250 gallon askarel transformer this impregnated fluid amounts to about 6 gallons. A PCB concentration of 500 ppm PCB in 250 gal. is equivalent to about one coffee cup in volume.

If the trapped PCBs are able to leach out into the bulk retrofill fluid at a rate of

as little as I ppm PCB per day. it would need about one year before the bulk oil

nated with PCBs. as in an askarel

concentration had climbed above 500

transformer. PCB leaching is super imposed on the effect of convective mixing. Flush and drain procedures

ppm PCB and the unit would again have to be regarded as a PCB trans

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

former. 31

PCB decontamination cont'd A new process has been tried on trans former materials impregnated with chlorobenzenes as a non-viscous sur-

chlorobenzenes in about 4 minutes at

room temperature. The products of re action are inorganic chloride ions and



(x+y) Cl •

porous support; room temperature; 4 minutes


r. I

rogate for PCBs in order to quantitate biphenyl. An alternative disposal strategy in any observed leaching in a reasonable volves the complete dismantling of the experimental timeframe. The com pleted process allowed permanent reclas- transformer carcass. The cellulosic in sulation is stripped from the core/coil siflcation of the bulk retrofill fluid. It was found that the process could be assembly and drummed with other noncontinued to the point where leaching recyclable parts for incineration. The was completely eliminated. In actual winding wire is immersed in a vat of hot practice this level need not be achieved solvent and the metal cleaned to a per since the remaining useful life of a mitted level of residual PCB.The inter nal surfaces of the transformer tank are transformer is finite. The extent of pro cessing can be tailored to the level of also washed and the solvent redistilled reclassification required and the life- for further use. The process of solvent washing and distillation is able to recy expectancy of the transformer. The disposal of askarel drained from cle the metals into the secondary metals a transformer typically involves the market and remove the liability of transportation of drums of PCBs to an ownership of the original PCB Filled equipment. A similar process can be off-site incinerator. The author has de veloped a method of room temperature applied to the reclamation ofPCB-filled capacitors. askarel destruction which uses a cata lyst supported on an inert porous ma In Part 2, Dr. Webber will outline Itow terial. The preferred embodiment of the electrochemical reduction of PCBs can process is currently in the patent pro be made to occur under appropriate con cess. It has been shown to totally remove the chlorine atoms from PCBs and

ditions In the next Issue of ES&E.

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R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

In a joint research project between the

sence in fish is discussed. Biological degradation in water and sediment ap pears to be the most important factor

Wastewater Technology Centre and the

limiting the persistence of tributyltin in

meter. A correction factor was for

University of Ottawa, A. Zaidi and col leagues investigated ultrafiltration(UF) and nanofiltration (NF) in advanced effluent treatment schemes for pollu tion control in the pulp and paper in dustry. Using a caustic stage bleachery

aquatic ecosystems.

mulated for the determination of the

Advanced Filtration for Pulp Mill Effluent Treatment

A multi-exposure photographic method

effluent from a kraft mill pulping soft wood, the most promising UF mem brane gave an average permeat flux of 9 mVmVd for a volume reduction factor


VRF of one down to 70-75% at a VRF

of 30. Environmental Assessment of

their terminal settling velocities were proportional to a power of their dia

hydrodynamic properties of the aggre gates studied.

Settling of Digested Sludge Particle Aggregates

(VRF)of 30. As described in Water Sci ence and Technology, the associated COD rejections ranged from 85-95% at a

reased with increase in their size and


Photodegradation of Phenol The application of flash photolysis fol lowed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis of products was used by E. Lipczynska-Kochany and R. Bolton to investigate the photodegrada tion of phenol. As described in Environ mental Science and Technology, a single flash produces p-benzoquinone as the principal primary product of phenol photolysis with small amounts of hydroquinone being produced. After sev eral flashes, the quantity of hydroqui-

Tributyltin In Canada

none increased and the formation of

National Water Research Institute sci

2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone was also observed. These University of Waterloo scientists concluded that photochemi cal removal of phenol from alkaline so

entist R.J. Maguire has reviewed the aquatic chemistry, fate and toxicity of tributyltin in a paper published in Water Science and Technology. A summary is given ofinvestigations ofthe occurrence and persistence oftributyltin and its less toxic degradation products in water and sediment in Canada. Tributyltin was mainly found in areas of heavy boating or shipping traffic consistent with its use as an anti-fouling agent, and its pre

and image analysis were used by J. Namerand J.J.Ganczarczykto measure

the terminal settling velocities and some geometric characteristics of digested sludge particle aggregates. As described by these University ofToronto scientists in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, aggregates larger than 150 pm showed low settling shape factor values indicating their irregular struc ture. The density of the aggregates dec

lutions is more efficient than from neutral or acidic ones. Dechlorlnatlon of Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent

University of Waterloo scientists W.J. Parker and G.J. Farquhar together with

E.R. Hall ofthe Wastewater Technology


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

R&D N6WS cont'd Centre have investigated the impact of nucleophilic substitution of biological ly mediated sulfide as a potential me chanism for dechlorination during

ponse parameters is required to ensure that data collected for performance analysis will be representative of the new operating conditions.

anaerobic treatment of kraft mill bleach

plant effluents. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search, sulfate supplementation, with subsequent production of sulfide by anaerobic fermentation, did not signi ficantly increase the extent of dechlori nation. These scientists concluded that

competition with other degradative mechanisms, such as reductive dechlo

Dyes In the Yamaska River A three-year study ofthe Yamaska River in Quebec by National Water Research

Institute scientist R.J. Maguire has re vealed the occurrence of 15 dyes in water, suspended solids and sediment samples downstream of textile plants.

the largest concentration of textile mills in the basin. As described in Water Sci

ence and Technology, most of the dyes found are expected to be moderately sta ble in aerobic environments but may degrade under anaerobic conditions. This study is the first demonstration of the occurrence of dyes in the Canadi an environment.

The'most contaminated area was down

Treatment of Pulp Mill Wastes by Ultra and Nanoflltratlon

stream of the city of Granby which has

In a joint research program,scientist, it

rination, was responsible for the reduced impact of sulfide on AOX removal in biological studies. Treatment of Landfill Leachate

J.-G. Bisaillon and colleagues charac terized a landfill leachate and found

that the concentration of phenolic com pounds,iron, oil and grease, COD,and BOD all exceeded the standards set by Environment Quebec. As described in

Sciences et techniques de I'eau,these Insti tute Armand Frappier scientists found that, although on site treatment in la goons was effective in reducing the pol lution, only iron met the standards. The results of aerobic and anaerobic treat

ment of the leachate, which improved the results, are reported.

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Effect of Heavy Metals on the Activated Sludge Process


A paper published by R.D. Tyagi and Y.G. Du in Environmental Technology describes the application of neural net work techniques for kinetic model build ing of heavy metals inhibition in the activated sludge process. These INRSEau scientists developed neural net work based models for cases involving


both unacclimatized and acclimatized

microorganisms.Case studies show that this emerging approach is capable of describing the complex kinetic patterns observed in wastewater treatment pro cesses with accuracy and robustness. Transition Periods in

Wastewater Experimentation

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ever, it is an inadequate estimator of equilibrium when influent organic con centration or HRT changes are imposed on the system at constant SRT.Monitor ing the establishment ofa steady level of MLVSS and other biological and resEnvironmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

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R&D News cont'd the University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres and the Wastewater Technology Centre undertook the development and demonstration of cost-effective techno

logies for the elimination of toxic or ganic compounds in pulp and paper mill effluents. A paper published by L. Beaudoin and his colleagues in Sciences et techniques del'eau reviews the different technologies and presents an update of

the state-of-the-art in the application of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration applied to pulp and paper mill effluents. The experimental results obtained from about twenty commercial and experi mental membranes under various con

ditions are presented. Bioleaching of Metals from Sewage Sludge

R.D.Tyagi and colleagues at INRS-Eau have demonstrated that leaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge can be accomplished by indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacteria present in the sludge. As described at the 8th Eastern Regional CAWPRC Conference, the process was influenced by the sludge concentration, sludge pH, acid concentration, type of sludge, and bacterial growth and pro duct formation kinetics. The quantity of metal ultimately leached out into the liquid phase is determined by the pH of

volved. Since the sludge pEI is the only controllable variable ofthe two,the pro cess efficiency will depend on the level of sludge acidification achieved. Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge

state behavior of heavy metal con taminants under controlled conditions. Incremental increases of selected con taminants to the reactor from back

ground levels of about lOOpg/l to about 1000|ig/l resulted in an increase of ef fluent metals concentrations to about

The bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge can be accomplished by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria present in the sludge. R.D.Tyagi and his colleagues from INRS-Eau have evalu

500|ig/l. Solids retention time did not appear to influence metal removal effi ciency and hydraulic retention time ef

ated the effects ofvarious parameters on


fects were difficult to discern from the

confounding effect of influent metal

the performance ofthe bioleaching pro Dissolution of Aromatic cess. As described in a paper accepted forpublicationin Water Research^sludgt Hydrocarbons In Groundwater suspended solids concentration plays a University of Waterloo scientists M. major role in regulating the acid pro Poulsen, L. Lemon and J.F. Barker duction by influencing the nature of examined the effects of the "oxygenate" the pH drop in the system. Growth rates additives methanol and methyl tertofthe two bacterial species present in the butyl ether(MTBE)on the aqueous so system were affected by pH. A second lubility of benzene,toluene and xylenes paper develops a mathematical model (BTEX) from gasoline. For a gasfor the system. oline:water ratio of 1:10, up to 15% MTBE or up to 85% methanol in gas Activated Sludge Process Response oline produced no enhanced BTEX so to Heavy Metals lubility. However, as described in Envi In a joint research study, H. Melcer, ronmental Science and Technology, at Wastewater Technology Centre, H. higher gasoline:water ratios, aqueous Monteith, Enviromega Ltd., and S.G. methanol concentrations above 10% Nutt, XCG Consultants Ltd. operated enhanced BTEX solubility. The front of large scale activated sludge treatment a plume generated from high-methanol systems under dynamic loading con


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R&D News cont'd gasoline equilibrating with groundwater at a gasoline:water ratio of more than one had high methanol content and ele

J.A. Oleszkiewicz and W.Trebacz ofthe

Advanced Filtration for Oilfield

University of Manitoba and D.B. Thompson of Boise-Cascade. As des

Wastewater Technology Centre scien

vated BTEX concentration.

cribed in Water Environment Research, these researchers found that the remo

vals of adsorbable organic halides In a paper published in the Journal of (AOX) and soluble organic carbon Great Lakes Research, Ontario Ministry (SOC)were directly proportional to the Bay of Quinte Pollution

Brine Treatment

tists A.Zaidi,K.Simms and S. Kok have

published a paper in Water Science and Technology reviewing the use of microfiltration and ultrafiltration for the

removal of oil and suspended solids

ofthe Environment scientist D.J. Poulin

biomass concentration and the solids

from oilfield brines. The most exten

reports on the results of a survey of the water and sediments of the Bay of

retention time of the process. Removals of AOX and SOC in the activated sludge reactors were inversely proportional to hydraulic retention time. AOX removal of up to 30% was achieved.

sively demonstrated membrane techno logy for oilfield brine treatment in

An Enhanced Oxidation Process for Groundwater Remediation

this technology are now in place; how ever their long-term viability is uncer tain. The key obstacles to cost effective application of membranes include low average flux rates, flux degradation and

Quinte and its tributaries. Point source

sampling showed that Domtar Wood Preserving at Trenton was a major con tributor of chlorinated phenols. Several sewage treatment plants were signifi cant sources of heavy metals but tribu tary metal loadings were generally higher than sewage treatment plant loadings.In the Bay of Quinte water,the provincial water quality objectives were exceeded only on a small portion of the samples for copper,cadmium, mercury, nickel, and lead. Detectable levels of PAHs were found in the sediments.

In a paper published in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada, Solarchem Environmental Systems scientist S.R. Carter and his colleagues describe the Rayox® water decontamination sys tem which provides enhanced oxida tion water remediation technology. The features of the system are discussed and the results from several case studies on

Wastewater from an integrated bleached kraft pulp and paper mill was treated in

experimental aerated equalization/ stabilization lagoon — activated sludge

rachloride, dichloroethane, trichloroethane and others in water to virtually

systems under various conditions by

any required discharge level.

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Biological Treatment of

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Biosolids management

By Nancy Bonham,P.Eng., and Alan Armstrong, C.E.T.*

Egg-shaped digesters now in Canada

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trol Plant in the Regional Municipality


of Haldimand-Norfolk. The vessel con

struction is part of a $7.5 million plant expansion and upgrade,funded 75% by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment and 25% by the Region. The exist ing 4,100 mVd primary treatment plant serves a population of 5500; the expan ded,5,400 mVd plant will provide secon dary treatment for 7500 people. Com missioning of the new facilities is sche




duled for this summer.

Project History The Environmental Study Report (ESR)identified anaerobic digestion as


the preferred sludge stabilization option


for several reasons:

• The Region wished to continue to util ize their sludge on agricultural land. The higher nutrient values associated with anaerobically digested sludge




rendered it a more attractive alterna

tive to aerobic digestion. • Large storage facilities were required to comply with MOEE's current policy for providing 4-6 months of interim sludge storage.The initial lower capi tal costs of aerobic digestion would be offset by the extremely high operat ing costs. • The generation, recovery and use of methane gas was a process advantage that the Region found particularly ap pealing in an era of concern with res pect to energy conservation. • Anaerobically digested sludges have less odour producing potential than aerobically digested sludges; this was of particular importance in the selec tion of on-site storage facilities adja cent to a predominantly residential neighbourhood that has had a history of odour concerns.

Sludge volume projections indicated that only one primary digester would be required.The ESR recommended there fore that single stage high rate digestion be provided by one digester,and that the sludge storage tanks would be designed to provide the decanting capability which would otherwise be performed by a secondary digester. The decision to provide only one anaerobic vessel made it essential to minimize the need for in ternal maintenance and associated di

gester decommissioning, to optimize *Nancy Bonham,P.Eng.,is with MacViro Consultants and Alan Armstrong, C.E.T., is with the Regional Municipality of Haidimand-Norfoik.


Figure 1

the process performance and to reduce traditional tank cleaning requirements. During the preliminary design phase ofthe project,concerns were raised with respect to operational problems with conventional North American digester design. There is extensive literature do cumenting that conventional digesters have been plagued with problems asso ciated with inefficient mixing, resulting in process upsets, reduced digester volumes, settled solids accumulation,

and the requirement for periodic shut down for cleaning. In a study of 10 On tario digesters. Smart(1978) concluded that mixing was grossly inadequate; ob served mixing efficiencies varied from 11-90%, with an average of 45% dead space in the tanks studied. The WPCF(now Water Environment Federation)Wastewater Treatment Plant

Design Manual ofPractice No.8 recom mends that 25% additional digester vo lume be provided to account for solids deposition and scum blanket forma tion, and that tanks be cleaned out a

minimum of once every 3-8 years. Pro cedures for tank decommissioning and clean-out are cumbersome, complex, time consuming and expensive. The landfilling of debris from the digester cleanout is an additional concern.

In contrast, the design of ESD's has several recognized advantages: • the cone shaped bottom results in the

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

minimization of grit accumulation and provides a means to remove sol ids from the bottom of the cone(with out draining the tank)should deposi tion occur;

• equivalent volatile solids destruction and gas production is achieved with approximately halfthe mixingenergy of conventional vessels;



• concentrated mixing energy at the top of the vessel permits re-entrainment of most ofthe scum and foam.A scum

box at the top of the vessel provides a means of excess scum removal, if re

quired. Historically, the ESD

has been

more capital intensive than the con ventional North American design due to the expensive European formwork required for the pre-stressed concrete design. Development of a competitive American method, and a surge in popularity of the steel con struction has significantly reduced the capital costs for the egg-shaped configuration. A cost comparison of conventional concrete digesters, and steel ESD's for the Port Dover WPCP

indicated no difference in capital cost estimates for the two systems. An ESD was recommended for the

Port Dover facility based on the concontinued overleaf 39

Egg-shaped digesters cont'd TABLE 1

Anaerobic Digestion Design Parameters Units

Sludge volume to digesters


Raw sludge solids: Total Volatile

Volatile solids destruction

Gas generation rate














m^/kg VSS destroyed






days kg/mVd


charge systems, the gas foam trap, and the associated interconnecting piping and appurtenances. The mixing was specified as external pumped recirculation with the requirement that all mechanical equipment be external to the vessel but within the enclosure of the vessel foundation. The successful

supplier is required to demonstrate that an active digester volume in ex cess of 90% is maintained over a mini

Egg-Shaped Digester

mum 30 day period as demonstrated by a lithium chloride tracer response test.

Volume SRT

VSS Loading Vessel height Vessel diameter


Two North American ESD manufac turers were identified and invited to



quote on the preselection — CBI Walker



Inc. and Pitt-Des Moines Inc. — as well

as public invitations in local and trade print media.

*WPCF Manual of Practice #8

elusion that equivalent or improved process design performance could be achieved at an equivalent capital cost of the conventional design, while sig nificantly reducing both operating costs and the potential for process upsets. Preselection

Preselection specifications were developed for the design, supply, de livery, erection, testing and start-up of the egg-shaped anaerobic digester system. The specifications were based

on the digester system developed by CBI Walker Inc. with provision to bid on alternative systems, provided that the proposed system met the full in tent of the drawings and specifica tions. The successful supplier would become a designated subcontractor to

Vessel Construction

The steel egg-shaped digester vessel was designed to meet API Standard 620 "Design and Construction of Large Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks" which is used in the design oflow pres

the General Contract.

sure steel vessels world wide. Manufac

The documents provided for a complete system comprised of an in sulated steel vessel (to be supported by a concrete ringwall foundation), the digester mixing and heating sys tems, digested sludge and sciim dis

turing and construction procedures were developed to accommodate the de sign parameters and achieve the final vessel configuration using steel plate material. continued overleaf

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 107 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Piping ivy flhe numbers^

• L& Hvnz~


:> (BY COKTR^ J JO' X 6* REB.-'

To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with Victaulic®. For example, to help you save time and reduce

So if numbers ore important to you, check into something you can count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company

overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division

of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or

offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the

coll 416-675-5575. RAX: 416-675-5729.

numbers. And it's fasti

ictaulfc' PiT-plaviYim^ u,i+h Victaulic saves tiweaM money

Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system. .. over TOO innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com

pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Victoulic is a registered trademark of Victaulic Cornpony of Canada. ©1990 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 106

Egg-shaped digesters cont'd Forming of the egg shape was accom plished using hydraulic pressing and rolling equipment at the Horton CBI manufacturing plant in Fort Erie. On tario. The formed sections were shipped to the Port Dover WPCP in the largest

practical sizes using truck transport. Sections of the egg were then ground assembled utilizing the previously de veloped procedures for fitting, welding and quality control. The sections were then erected into the final egg position

the layout of the digester utility room, mM.The vessel will be 17,3 m high and located within the ringwall foundation, will extend approximately 14 m above is provided in Figure 1. A summary of ground level with a maximum diameter the digester design criteria is presented of 8.5 m. Insulated metal cladding will in Table 1. be provided on the external vertical sec The egg-shaped digester is of steel tions of the vessel from its springline to construction, with a coal tar epoxy coat the ground. Mixing will be provided by two sludge recirculation pumps (one duty; one standby), each having a capacity of 25 L/s for a vessel turnover rate of 3.3 times

on the foundations,attached to the com

plete structure. Erection of the upper most section was completed on Decem ber 7th. 1992.

Process Design Co-settled primary and waste acti vated sludge will be fed to the ESD.with digested sludge being discharged to one of four in-ground concrete sludge stor age tanks. A sludge bypass line will allow for directfeed to the sludge storage tanks in the event of digester shut-down. Gas storage will be provided by a gas holder to equalize daily variations in gas production and demand. Biogas generated in the process will be stored and utilized in a dual fuel (natural and

digester gas) boiler to heat the digester and site buildings. Excess gas will be burned in a waste gas burner. A process schematic is provided in Figure 2 and

ing on the inside above the gas/liquid interface and extending approximately 2 m into the liquid level. The digester has a volume of 666 m' for a design solids retention time of 20 days and a volatile solids loading rate of 1.54 kg/ m^d.The design is conservative with res pect to MOEE Guidelines which re commend a minimum hydraulic reten tion time of 15 days and a maximum volatile solids loading limit of 1.6 kg/



per day. Sludge will be withdrawn at the periphery of the vessel, approximately one-third below the liquid level and reinjected at the bottom through the jet pump and/or the peripheral swirl mix feed point. Mixing will be enhanced by provision of a 350 mm diameter central draft tube extending the height of the vessel. There are four possible mixing modes tha^can be programmed by the plant operator for each half hour period of each day of the week as follows: 1) no mixing. 2)upward mixing from the bot tom of the vessel through the draft tube. 3) peripheral mixing through the side feed point, and 4)a combination of up ward and peripheral mixing. The pro grammed mixing modes can be selected at the control panel located in the diges ter utility room below the vessel,or at the operators" control centre. Digester heating will be provided by 2 tube-in-tube heat exchangers on the sludge recirculation loop,located down stream of the raw sludge feed point.The digester sludge temperature will be maintained between the limits of 34.7

and 35.3 degrees Celcius by control of the hot water feed rate to the heat ex BOILER





The General Contractor is Kenaidan DIGESTER




Contracting Ltd. of Mississauga, Onta rio. As a sub-contractor on the project, Horton CBI Limited of Fort Erie, Ontario, is responsible for the vessel design,fab rication, erection, start-up and testing. The Regional representatives on the pro ject are Eric R. D'Hondt,P.Eng. and Alan C. Armstrong, CET; the Consulting En gineers for the Environmental Assess ment process, design, and construction administration are MacViro Consultants

Inc. of Markham, Ontario. The Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk is located on the north









the Ministries of Environment and Ener


gy have been combined into a single Ministry.



primary clarifiers)

Figure 2 42

shore of Lake Erie, southwest of Hamil ton, Ontario.The Region is comprised of six area municipalities and twelve urban centres. The area of the Region is 7,450 square kilometres with a total population of approximately 94,000 people with water and sewerage servicing provided to 55,000 people. Since this was written


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science cS: Engineering, May 1993

Product Review Mass flowmeters available

with secondary containment option connection for a pressure sensor to re motely signal the loss of integrity of the vibrating tube assembly. The M-Dot features a transducer with

patented dual omega-shaped flowtubes, providing outstanding accuracy and durability in mass flow applications. The Massmaster transducer has single straight-through flowtube technology, offering exceptional performance where density measurement is critical. The M-Dot and Massmaster offer

M-Dot™ and Massmaster™ Coriolis

mass flowmeters from Schlumberger Industries are available with an option al secondary pressure retaining capabi lity that conforms to the ASME/ANSI B31.3 chemical plant and petroleum re finery piping code. Both feature fully welded construction.

This advanced capability ensures that in the unlikely event of a tube fail ure, the instrument safely contains any internal leakage. The flowmeter has a

Intelligent control for SEW AC motors SEW is introducing a new digital con trol for general purpose three-phase AC induction motor applications. The new FR-A control offers high torque deli very, quiet operation, and compact de sign, with a unique "intelligent" opera tor interface.

In addition to the standard LED dis

play,the FR-A controls feature a unique optional parameter unit, offering the operator clear communications with the control, and monitoring of drive func tions. The optional parameter unit dis plays 2 additional sets of data side-byside on an LCD (liquid crystal display) screen. Data can be displayed simul taneously in digital and analog mode, and in graphic or text format,to suit the preferences of the operator. To guide the operator through pro gramming, operation, and trouble shooting,the FR-A interface is designed around an easy-to-understand promptbased programming system. The op tional parameter unit can be locally

remarkable fatigue resistance, with no moving parts. Their unrestricted flow paths produce extremely low pressure drops.They have both proven to exhibit exceptional tolerance to external vibra tion. Both flowmeters are available with a

range of flow computer options to suit any application cost-effectively, whe ther stand-alone batching or integration into a larger control system. Schlumberger Industries

increased flexibility by using a smaller HP drive in many applications. The magnetic flux vector control me


decessors,the FR-A controls are claimed

to be the most compact variable fre quency drive controllers in the world. Product features also directly re'sult in low operating noise and added unit reliability. The FR-A features a trip-free, current limiting function. If an overload is sus tained by the FR-A,the drive will protect itself and the motor by reducing its out put voltage and frequency. These new digital controls range from Vi to 75 HP. With a speed range ofO.Ol Hz to 400 Hz, the FR-A line is suited for a variety of constant torque or variable torque ap plications. SEW Circle reply card No. 176

New Flexgate Slurry Knife Gate Valve

Circle reply card No. 175


thod also provides better open loop motor speed regulation — within 1 per cent — under fluctuating loads. Should conventional frequency control be de sired by the operator under some cir cumstances, the operator can easily switch from magnetic flux vector con trol to standard frequency control. More than 50% smaller than their pre

Red Valve's new Flexgate Slurry Knife Gate Valve is a heavy duty,rugged valve, engineered for low maintenance,and excontinued overleaf

You didn't become a decision-maker in water

environment management overnight; you earned it through education and on the job growth. We understand; at MEO Valves, our recent expansion to offer a complete valve line for wasfewafer freafment projecfs is backed by 4 decades of steady growth in the supply of specialized valves.

WE'RE READY Recently we've earned further recognition in your marketplace with the addition of RED VALVES and CLOW FOR YOUR VALVES to the select group of manufacturers we represent. The next time you need valves for your project, we urge you us. Regardless of the requirement, you'll find that BUSINESS towe'recallknowledgeable, and responsive. l\low offering a complete line of valves engineered

. . , After all, we've spent the last 40 years getting ready for your business.

for wastewater


mounted to the control or connected

remotely using an optional cable. The FR-A is able to deliver a higher starting torque due to its unique mag netic flux vector control system which enables the motor to deliver 150% start

ing and running torque from 1 to 60 Hz. As a result, the end user can achieve the benefits of reduced size, lower cost, and

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

IIN^I NEO VALVES 465 Norfinch Drive, Toronto Ontario MSN 1Y7

Tel:(416)661-6020 Fax:(416)661-6787

For more Information, Circle reply card No. Ill


Product Review cont'd General purpose granular

Nitrification Testing

absorbent New literature reviews the features of

ENVIRO-DRI, a general purpose in dustrial absorbent that completely ab sorbs spills of oil, grease, water and other non-aggressive liquids. ENVIRODRI is a granular product manufac tured from recycled wood utilizing a unique Canadian process. The product is non-WHMIS controlled and has an

absorption rate 40% higher than clay. Can-Ross Environmental Services Ltd.

cellent abrasion resistance. This pro duct was designed for rugged applica tions found in mining operations,power plants, pulp mills, wastewater treat ment, sludge, and abrasive slurry or solids handling plants. The Flexgate is designed for On/Off service.The valve closes like a knife gate valve. A heavy duty, stainless steel gate passes through two heavy duty cartridge reinforced rubber slurry sleeves. These rubber slurry sleeves provide a com pression interference fit resulting in a driptight seal. When the valve is in the open position, the full port design eli minates flow obstructions, keeping abrasive wear to a minimum.

Red Valve Company,Inc.

Circle reply card No. 177

A test for process control of nitrification in wastewater treatment has been devel

Circle reply card No. 178 Can-Ross 24 hour

emergency spill response

oped by Arthur Technology for use with its respirometers.The test will be of par ticular interest to wastewater personnel whose permits may now require the re moval of ammonia. The test makes it

cessary sorbents from their 48 outlets

possible to measure separately the amount of oxygen used in nitrification and the amount of oxygen used in car

across Canada.

bonaceous oxidation. This newest test,

The company maintains one of the largest inventories ofsorbents in the in dustry. By calling their 24-hour hotline in Oakville, Ontario (416) 847-7190, the spill site.

which determines how well the process of nitrification is proceeding, is the la test ofseveral short term process control tests developed by the company for use with its line ofrespirometers.Test results can be obtained in less than twenty

Can-Ross Environmental Services Ltd.

Arthur Technology

Can-Ross have introduced a 24-hour

spill response service to supply the ne

Can-Ross can direct an area dealer to


Circle reply card No. 179

Circle reply card No. 180

"The drive is down and we have no spare! A drive is the kind of component you never notice. Until it fails. Then its most critical attribute comes into play. How quickly will it be back up and running? Eurodrive means uptime — long term reliability plus 24 hour service response. Call us any time of the day or night. At Eurodrive, total service response times of a few hours are not unusual, in fact, they're company policy. We offer the largest selection of drives in the world from which to choose your exact replacement. In addition, our modular construction lets us








build your new drive in the least time

possible from parts right off the shelf. If you need a supplier who takes your downtime as seriously as you do, call Eurodrive.

EURODRIVE Toronto: (416) 791-1553 Vancouver:(604)946-5535 Montreal; (514)367-1124

For more information, Circle reply card No. 112 44

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993



Innovative technology

working for yotr^


BOSS POLY-TITE: lechnlcal data

The key to the performance of the BOSS POLYTITE Sewer

• Certified to CAN/CSA B182.6, Profile Polyethylene Sewer

System is Its new gasketed connection. Designed and factory-tested to meet exacting CSA certification standards, the system provides the Beii & Spigot sealed joint required for sanitary sewer systems and storm sewers needing leak-

Pipe and Fittings • Manning's coefficient of 'n' = 0.010 at flow velocity of

tight performance.

• Chemical and corrosion resistant

0.75 m/s

• Minimum pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection • Ail-weather impact resistance for year-round installation

Size range

BOSS POLYTITE Bell & Spigot Sewer Systems are currently available in diameters of 100 mm to 375 mm. A full range of CSA-certified thermoplastic fittings completes the system. Larger diameter product is currently being developed, and

Ask for the BOSS POLY-TITE brochure now, and discover the benefits of the new Leak-Tight Sewer System. For complete testing guidelines and procedures, ask for the BOSS Installation Guide as well.

will be introduced in 1993.

Flow capacity

BOSS POLY-TITE HOPE pipe combines a corrugated exterior for maximum strength with a smoothwall interior for optimum flow. A Manning's 'n' of 0.010 satisfies the hydraulic requirements of both sanitary and storm sewers.

Big '0' Inc. Head Office

6014 - 64th Street

254 Thames Road East

Taber, Alberta T0K2G0 (403)223-3521

Exeter, Ontario NOW! 1S3 1-800-265-2446

101 de Lauzon

34601 Vye Road Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 4N7 (604)850-0753

Bouchervllle, RQ. J4B1E7 (514) 449-5004 1 (800)361-1895

®BOSS is a registered trademark of Big '0' Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 113

Product Review cont'd New helical bevel gearmotors & speed reducers and rigidity. Benefits include the ab sence of oil leakage, oil contamination and the problems associated with gear set misalignment. A wide selection ofhelical bevel speed reducers is available. There is an input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Scoop motor mounting.Platform motor mounting.C-Face and lEC input flange motor mounting. The Nord Helical gears meet AGM A 11-13 quality levels. From '/s to 200 HP are available. Output torques reach 212,000 lb. in. while output speeds range Nord Gear has recently introduced a series of helical bevel gearmotors and speed reducers that promise significant

energy savings. A company spokesper son says these gearmotors and speed reducers achieve energy savings of up to 50 per cent over conventional worm gears. These new Nord Helical Bevel de

signs also feature the exclusive Unicase construction. This means the gearcases are fashioned from a single block of gray cast iron to eliminate the need for a bolt-on cover or flanges. Internal rein forcements provide additional strength

Couplingsfrom 1"to 10' dia.

from 0.6 to 162 RPM. Gear ratios are from 10.73:1 to 4835:1.

All Nord gearmotors are available with two styles of adjustable speed drives. The NorDISC traction drive of

fers a 7:1 adjustable speed range for ap plications up to 7.5 HP. When adjust able speed applications up to 150 HP are required, there is the Titan belt-type drive with up to a 8:1 speed range. All Nord products now come painted with stainless steel paint in compliance to USD A,FDA regulations at no addition al charge. Nord Gear Circle reply card No. 181

which the level probe is subjected to vib ration or temperatures above 70°C (162°F), and is located within 40 feet of the controller.

In the other system, the Model 694L transmitter is separate from the 672L4 receiver/controller. The 694L can be

mounted directly onto the level probe or

remotely(up to 25 feet).The 672L4/694L system is intended for applications where the receiver/controller is separated from the level probe by up to 5000 feet. Great Lakes Instruments, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 183 Portable flow meter works

from outside a pipe

Straub couplings have many unique features. All pipe materials and any diameter are joined in minutes by tight ening two bolts. No machining, no grooving, no welding is required. The couplings are used in sewage and water treatment plants, valve chambers and watermains, mines, paper mills, smelt ers, off-shore drilling rigs and general plumbing. Tadco Manufacturing Inc.

Circle reply card No. 182

Continuous level

measurement systems

basic materials — 316L stainless steel

Two new microprocessor-based con Mount the PDFM-III ultrasonic sensor tinuous level measurement systems, on any pipe 1 inch (25 mm)diameter or offered by Great Lakes Instruments, larger, and this new Portable Doppler feature simple remote pushbutton cali Flow Meter shows flow rate instantly. bration and convenient built-in levelUse the simple, built-in 3-key calibra to-volume conversion tables for common tion system to enter pipe diameter and vessel shapes. The Model 672L3 and the PDFM-III will display in your 672L4/694L systems can be used to con choice ofgallons,litres or any engineer trol liquid,granular and interface levels. ing units. Standard features include a Other traits shared by these affordable 10-digit programmable totalizer, a 4systems include a Pulse Frequency Mo 20mA output and RS-232C serial out dulation (PFM) transmitter for highly put. reliable operation, large LCD display, The PDFM-III is recommended for three fully programmable relays, self- viscous liquids, slurries, chemicals and diagnostics capability and optional wastewater and works from outside

and extruded rubber — are procured

PID control.

Straub Pipe Couplings are now made in Canada by Tadco Manufacturing Inc. The couplings are distributed across Canada and exported to the United States. Since 1987 the couplings have been imported from Switzerland and installed in every Province of Canada and several U.S. States in sizes from 1 inch to 10 feet diameter.

Straub couplings are manufactured under license from Straub Kupplungen

of Wangs, Switzerland. Tadco has full access to the Swiss technology, specifi cations and Quality standards. The

from Canadian and U.S. sources. The

plant is truly international or more spe cifically a North American operation. 46

The 672L3 system has a built-in trans mitter in the receiver/controller. This

system is intended for applications in

metal or plastic pipes, Greyline Instruments inc.

Circle reply card No. 184

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Product Review cont'd First 'Intelligent' actuator Rotork introduces its IQ 'intelligent' ac tuator for waterworks and sewerage utilities.

The IQ is the first actuator that can be

commissioned and interrogated with out removing electrical on-site covers. The IQ comes equipped with an infra red 'point and shoof setting tool which allows for the non-intrusive setting of torque levels, position limits and all other control and indication functions

Gundguard liners A series of patented 12 and 20 mil poly ethylene liners designed to meet con tainment needs. Gundguard has a coextruded, 3 layer structure, LLDPE/ VLDPE/LLDPE, that offers excep tional flexibility without sacrificing strength. Available in customized sheet sizes up to 200 x 200 feet. Gundguard is a cost effective choice for permanent and temporary applications ranging from: daily covers, decontamination pads, small pond and pit lining,landscaping, and secondary containment.

through a sealed indication window. A range of diagnostic functions can also be performed using the setting tool. Information can either be stored in

the actuator for later retrieval by the handheld device or transferred con

tinuously into the plant control system for use as part of a predictive main tenance program.

Rotork's unique double sealing fea ture which protects against dust, mois ture and the most severe environments

has been taken an important step fur ther with the development of this intel ligent range of three-phase, electric valve actuator.

tronically and travel measured digitally by counting magnetic pulses, the IQ does not require torque springs, levers, spiral helixes or nuts and screws to con trol torque and travel limits. Rotork

Circle reply card No. 188 Reminder

Use the Reader Service Card

to get information on products in this issue.

Because torque is controlled elec

Gundle Fabrication Division

Circle reply card No. 185

CSA approved fall arrest system

Hot Water Meter — EXT-M

Kent Meters, Inc. has a new meter for

monitoring low flow hot water for totali zation, i.e. physical plant maintenance, condensate return, submetering, apart ments, condominiums and office com


This %" EXT-M unit is a single jet (inferential) impeller meter with a bronze body. The meter consists of a bronze main

case, strainer, measuring chamber, im peller, removable top plate,o-ring and a magnetically driven register. The body is cast bronze with raised characters

showing direction of flow. The register is dust and moisture eva cuated thus eliminating fogging or con densation caused by variations of tem perature. It can be turned to any posi tion for easy reading. Kent Meters,Inc.

MSU Mississauga Ltd. reports that its #3152 safety slide rail system has been certified to Canadian Standards Associ ation standard Z259.1-1976 certification

• Attachment brackets fit any type of rung size or spacing, • Patented traveler operates smoothly (no slipping between notches),

of Fall Arresting Device Type 1 Class • All stainless steel hardware, B. • Simple to install, For use on towers, water tanks, chim • Unique splicing system joins rail sections permitting a rail ofunlimited neys and in deep underground struc

length, tures, the MSU system has many end• Available with integrated safety han user benefits including:

• Designed for use on ladders longer than 5m,

• All aluminum rail attaches to any type of vertical ladder or rungs.

dle extension, • All stainless steel hardware. MSU

Circle reply card No. 187

Circle reply card No. 186 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993



FLYGT's commitment

to on-going service and support is an investment in our


Nowadays everyone talks about service and support. FLYGTdoes more. We operate 16 branches nationwide. These branches are staffed by experienced saies representatives, appiications engineers and service technicians who deiiver the fastest and most reiiable

on-site service and support in the water-handiing business.

The Service Edge. From initial technicai sizing and appiica-

tion support to equipment instaiiation and foiiow-up maintenance, FLYGT is committed to servicing and supporting every pump, mixer and controi system that carries the FLYGT name.

Every FLYGT branch has

the support personnel, the parts and the


know-how to

quickly diag nose a situation

and handle any adjustments or repairs on-site or at the branch.

The Information Edge. Using a computer database cailed FLYGT SALES INFOR-

To ensure that installation at the site is fast and trouble-

free, we test and approve every pump in our special test tank before release.

The Follow-Through Network. it's easy to gain peace-of-mind. Ali you need is the teiephone number of the FLYGT branch nearest you: Western Canada: Coquitlam, B.C.

MATiON (FSi), our service speciaiists and engineers have access to up-to-the-minute reference data, a must for effecting a quick and thorough analysis of every pumping situation. FSi heips reduce downtime. And iess downtime means money in your pocket. The facts and figures contained in

(604)941-6664 □ Calgary, Alta. (403)279-8371 □ Edmonton, Alta. (403)489-1961 □ Saskatoon, Sask. (306)933-4849 0 Winnipeg, Man.

the FSi database can be retrieved by

(819)825-0792 o Quebec City, Qua. (418)667-1694. Eastern Canada: Moncton, N.B. (506)857-2244 o St. John's, Nfld. (709)722-6717 o Dartmouth, N.S.

personnei in every FLYGT branch. These speciaiists can aiso provide you with information about the complete range of

FLYGT products and systems, including short-and iong-term equipment rentais


Central Canada: Sudbury, Ont. (705)560-2141 o Hamilton, Ont. (416)561-3711 □ Etobicoke, Ont.

(416)675-3630 0 Nepean, Ont. (613)225-9600. Quebec: Pointe Claire, Qua. (514)695-0100 o Chicoutimi, Qua. (418)454-7605 oVal d'Or, Oue.

(902)468-3448. SALES o SERVICE □ RENTALS

and on-site service contracts.

Good Ideas Take Flygt.

minnl For more information, Circie reply card No. 115

Flygt ITT Fluid Technology Corporation

ITT Flygt, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, RQ. H9R4V5

(514) 695-0100

Telefax: (514) 697-0602

Product Review


Cool air sludge drying While heat pump technology is cer tainly not new,BEP Technologies claims to have found a new way ofapplying it to the problem of drying water-based in dustrial sludges and slurries.Their Hellman-Spehr Hygrex system uses dry-air generators to achieve cool drying within a closed-loop, recirculated air system. The system can be used for primary or secondary sludge treatment, with prepressed sludges reduced by up to a fur ther 70% in weight and volume,and dis posal costs reduced by up to 60%. In addition to comparitively high energy costs, one of the problems asso


Where your concerns are our concerns QUALITY - TURNAROUND - PRICE

5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1N9 416-890-8566 Toil Free: 800-263-9040 Fax:416-890-8575

BAS Labomtories Limited

ini lUM li

ciated with traditional heat-based dry

Environmental Analysis for Over 25 Years



ing processes is their use ofingoing and outgoing air. This can result in environ mental pollution and the annoyance of

Excellence in

Environmental Chemists

Phone (416) 794-2522

14 Abacus Road

Brampton, Ontario Fax (416) 794-2338 Canada L6T 5B7

bad odours.

These drying processes usually have to be operated in open systems because the heated air they use for drying can only be used once to absorb moisture, after which it is exhausted into the

atmosphere. The cool air drying method uses an environmentally-friendly "closed loop system".The closed,recirculated air sys tem,combined with the heat pump tech nology, prevents heat losses caused by outgoing air in open systems. Dry air temperatures are generally between 30C and 45C and the drying actually occurs

CanTest Ltd

The system also allows operators to take advantage of the surplus heat which is a free by-product of the system. This free heat can be used to supple ment building heating systems, or to

heat suitable process fluids. As the process is closed, no ingoing and outgoing air ducts have to be in

ume of these dewatered sludges by as

Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J8

Occupational Health & Safety

Tel: 604 734 7276

Fax: 604 731 2386


Comprehensive • Complete MISA Parameters • Regulation 309 Compliance


• Dioxins/Furans

• Air Analysis


• Soil Decommissioning

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

CANVIR® 50 Bachurst Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2G5 Tel: (519) 747-2575

stalled and there is no heat supply sys tem. All that is normally required are

interconnecting ducts and/or pipework. The system is applicable to a wide variety of wastes, including hazardous or toxic materials. In addition to pri mary drying,the system can also be used on sludges which have already gone through press or centrifuge dewatering, and might reduce the weight and vol

Analytical Services

Environmental Analysis

as a result of the reduction of the water

vapour pressure and the absolute air humidity, rather than applied heat.



Fax: (519) 747-3806

Chemex Labs Ltd. ►Water Potability Testing ►Contaminated Sites Testing ►Waste Characterization

►Sewer Discharge Sampling & Testing ►Acid Rock Drainage Prediction ►Accreditations with CAEAL and BCMOE

Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221

Mississauga, ON (416) 624-2806

much as a further 60%.

BEP Technologies

For more information, Circle reply card No. 150




Use the Reader Service Card

to get information on products in this issue.

A Marsh & McLennan Company

949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontario

Environmental Science c£ Engineering, May 1993




ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SERVICES Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Organics BTEX " Asbestos ■ PCBs Volatile Organics Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Panels • Isocyanates

Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged (513)255-9797

FAX (513)255-9304 49

Product Review

Laboratories Setting the standard for

Patented process which brings new technology and new levels of perfor mance to WAS thickening. The system is highly adaptable and can handle a wide range offlow rate and

* quality


* turnaround time


6850 Gorcway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX;(416) 673-7399

Meeting the needs and expectations of our clients with accurate defensible data

for environmental decision making.


feed concentrations without time-con

suming shutdowns. Performance is automated to require little or no operator attention. Here's what's new about the system: * Positive air pulse control of solids discharge. * Minimal sludge blanket in clarifica tion zone for better recovery.

* Closed-loop, fully automatic control adjusts to changing feed conditions. * Increased capacity with lower power

ENVIROCLEAN laboratories inc. (519)686-7558

Humboldt BIOLIFT™ advanced thickening system



* Single unit capacities to 1500 GPM. Control & Metering

FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES For more Information, Circle reply card No. 151


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,

prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days.

Advanced Dewatering

System (ADS) New CENTRIPRESS™ ADS Series

83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416) 574-4977

design increases capacity by up to 50%

compared to original CENTRIPRESS'"

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality * Water Quality * Hazardous Waste • Complete MISA Parameters

» Emission Testing

• Reg. 309 Compliance

» Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

» Odorous Compounds

• Ambient Air Monitoring

» Rush Analysis Available

* Improved design offeed and polymer addition systems. * Up to 50% more throughput per ma chine size with "High Solids" perfor mance.

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.

* Lower power consumption per GPM

Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

of feed.

5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone; (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370


System of comparable size. New system has:

* Higher torque capability. * Decreased space requirements. * Offered in a range of capacity sizes to match your plant flow needs.


Control & Metering

Metals — Anions — Organics — PCBs — Volatiles Reg. 309 — MISA — Landfill Quality — Phytotox — Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-slte sampling available

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 152

CAEAL Certified For complete catalogue


with prices call Tel:(416)625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8368




Since 1878


MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's •Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

Purified products extracted from mic roalgae are now available from Mikralgen, the French biotechnology com pany which recently developed an axenic microalgae culture process using a high performance continuous photobioreactor. Mikralgen is currently culti vating two varieties of microalgae, the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and the rhodophyceum Porphyridium cruentum,to extract substances whose diverse


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Product Review


properties are used in industries such as food business, cosmetics, medical diag nostics, and aquaculture.


Most ofthe substances extracted from


microalgae are phycobiliproteins, high ly fluorescent proteins of high molecu lar weightthat provide superior marking in immunoassays and flux cytometry. Because of the excellent level of purity obtained through this culture process, these phycobiliproteins possess greater fluorescent properties than those of tra ditional properties, such as fluorescein


Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

Ainley and

or rhodomine. IBTF


For more information, Circie repiy card No. 153


Insertion Flowmeters Heath Insertion Flowmeters provide leakage detection, hydraulic analysis and monitoring to help utilities run their systems and ongoing audits with the highest possible level of efficiency. Flowmeters may be used to measure the velocity of both gases and liquids in pipelines. The Heath Flowmeter is inserted into

a pipeline for measurementor withdrawn for inspection without interruption to the line flow or reducing pressure when fitted with an isolation valve. Its large operating ranges of up to 100 to 1 make the Heath Flowmeter an easy, accurate and economical alternative to conven

r Supply S Sewage Disposal • Roads S Bodges • Flood Coni'oi Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning





280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (613) 966-1168

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning


Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wlllowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


tional metering methods. The





smaller diameter pipelines or larger pipelines with restricted access and the

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Heath Waste Flowmeter for measure

ment of potable water provide utilities with a complete range of Flowmeter

consulting engineers and architect

tools. Heath Consultants Limited

Water Pollution Control

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 154

Gorman-Rupp lift stations Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature selfpriming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for depend able wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of clogs or maintenance of components. T-Series pumps are available in 3", 4",6", 8" and 10" sizes with capacities up to 3,200 gpm and heads to 130'. Rugged, economical fiberglass-rein forced enclosures house all equipment.

Water Supply


Water Resources

TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA


Environmental Planning Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Transportation Architecture Municipal Services WELLAND(416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)


• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video Inspections

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box2205, station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6



They resist corrosion, mildew,mold and fungus and provide all-weather protec

tion. Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 155 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993




At 51

Product Review


C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

Epic's "new baby" makes light work of effluent monitoring.

Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmentai and Municipai Engineering

• Purpose designed 5 litre composite sampler for trade effluent monitor

115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

ing. • Ultra-compact design, lightweight and easily carried. It is only 345mm (dia)X 400mm (high)and weighs only 9Kg(including battery). • Maintenance-free battery takes over 1000 samples per charge. • Easy to operate with 9 pre-set pro grammes to meet the most common composite sampling requirements. • Optional plug-in programmer can he used to set up individual automatic sampling routines.

Coliingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2527

Consulting Engineers


Cm^HILLi ENGINEERING Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton ♦ Vanqpuver • Lethbridge • Wastewater Collection S Treatment

• Hazardous & Solid Waste Management 'Water Resources & Environmental Planning

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Fiow Measurement

• It is reliable, self-contained and wea


therproof. Cancoppas


m Clayton

Circle reply card No. 156

Autothermal sludge treatment process delivers six day holding times




• Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remediations

A Marsh St McLennan Company

" Environmental

WINDSOR (513)255-9797


Ultra-compact waste water sampler

TORONTO (416)498-7444






• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services

Eastern Region Toronto Tel:(416)441-4111




Prairie Region

Calgary Tel:(4031 276-9B61


Fax:(403)277-6902 • SITE REMEOIATION

Pacific Region




Tel:(604)525-9333 Fax:(604)525-9458

Offices across Canada and Overseas

The Krtiger/Fuchs Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)process is recognized by the EPA as a process that can meet the new Part 503 sludge regulations for land application of municipal wastewater sludge. The ATAD system features a sludge holding time ofjust six days in most cases and the autothermal process re quires no additional heat, providing significant energy savings. A quick digestion cycle uses smaller tanks, further reducing capital costs. No added chemicals or expensive nit rification equipment are needed, either.

Sanitherm Engineering Limited

Circle reply card No. 157

SIILL©ni Professionai Consulting Services

Self contained water treatment

Planning Engineering

Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assemhied into self-

Environmentai Science





Toronto • London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax • Sydney

easily transported and quickly in

Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Ye I i o w k n i f e • International 100 S h e p p a r d Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M 2 N 6 N 5 (4 16) 229-4646

stalled. Seventeen standard sizes are

available to treat from 20 gpm to 500

gpm,for municipal plants and wher ever additional or improved water is needed.

Consultants In The Environment • Environmental Planning • Ecological Science • Geosclence

• Engineering

f-W Cj

Each Monopiant contains clarifi cation, filtration, chemical feed and

• Planning • Implementation • Monitoring

gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed,the Mon opiant produces water with an efflu ent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

* Remediation

Gartner Lee TORONTO (416)477-8400 52

VANCOUVER (604)299-4144

Ecodyne Ltd. NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716)285-5448

For more information, Circle reply card No. 158

Environmentai Science & Engineering. May 1993

Product Review


Corrosion protection


systems Densyl Tape and Profiling Mastic pro tects pipes, flanges, valves and fittings. • No abrasive blasting • No special equipment or training • Goes on wet or corroded surfaces • No VOC's, non-toxic

50 offices throughout Canodo.

, Golder

• More cost-effective than paints • Proven long service life

the United States, Australia and Europe. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA


Tel:(604)298-6623 Fax:(604)298-5253

Tel;(416)567-4444 Fax:(416)567-6561

• Meets AWWA Standard C217-90 for

cold-applied petrolatum tapes Denso

Circle reply card No. 159

Sewer anywhere and save The Environment One Grinder Pump powers the low pressure sewer system providing wastewater storage, grinding and pumping in a single unit.

Utilizing small diameter sewer piping


Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety

PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits

• Environmental Engineering •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design • Air monitoring • Air emission control • Indoor air quality •Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control •WHMIS • Asbestos

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301

Telex: 06-218242

Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada •(416)858-4424


(32 mm -100 mm),shallow buried to the

terrain contour, the Grinder Pump sta tion can discharge the wastewater ver

Gore St Storrie Limilsed

tically more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up to 3.3 kilometres. Ontario Sewage Equipment


Circle reply card No. 160


Liquid Storage and Handling

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687

The SCAT (Secondarily Contained Above-Ground Tank) system is said to

Ottawa•Thorold • Barrie•Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston • London

be a safe alternative to drums and other

portable containers for storage and/or dispensing of petroleum products, waste oils, chemicals and other liquids. SCAT,UL-142 Listed, has a bulk stor



1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5

Consulting Engineers

Tel. (416) 522-0012 FAX (416) 522-0031

age tank,fully enclosed by a welded roof and containment reservoir to protect the

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources

contents from rain water and airborne contaminants.

Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control

With capacities from 270 to 20,000 gallons, SCAT delivers cost-effective performance for any size operation,

Expert Systems • Neural Networks

industrial Environmental Supply, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 161

Environmental Management Consultants

for Water and Pollution Control Projects



Three Minute BOD The STIP BOD-M3 BOD monitor al

lows more direct monitoring and con trol of wastewater treatment by provid ing three minute continuous biochemi cal oxygen demand(BOD)analysis. Using the BOD-M3,the user can sup ply regulatory bodies with the real total BOD being emitted at any given time, rather than relying on time-consuming and less comprehensive composite BOD5 values. Industrial users can also


Brampton (416)459-4780 (416)459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330


■■ w* ■■


(705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5

use the direct BOD measurement to

closely control the wastewater treatment process, adding nutrients or diverting excess flows when necessary. Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.

Managing today's environmental issues. ■ Environmental Management Systems ■ Accounting I Assistance in M&A Negotiations ■ Disclosure & Financing Advice I Site Assessments ■ Due Diligence

■ Environmental Economics

■ Public Policy ■ TQEM

TO Environmenta! Services Inc. PO Box 31, Commerce Court West, Toronto M5L 182 Tel: 416-777-3778 Fax: 416-777-3364

Circle reply card No. 162 Etivironmenta! Science & Engineering, May 1993



Product Review

Windsor, Ontario




(519) 966-2250

(519)680-3580 FAX:(519)680-3582

FAX; (519) 966-5523

Isco Flow Meter line offers four measurement



MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX;(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

The Isco 3200 Series Open Channel Flow Meters give a choice of four mea surement technologies. Choose from ultrasonic, submerged probe, bubbler and patent pending variable gate tech nologies to provide maximum measure ment accuracy in your specific monitor ing application. All 3200 Series Flow Meters feature built-in, dot matrix plot ters, rugged, watertight enclosures and internal data storage memory. Built-in conversions for a variety of weirs and flumes, the Manning equation or ma nually entered data points allow fast and easy set-up. The optional telemetry

•Hydrogeology •Waste management


•Engineering geoiogy


•Environmentai audits MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabiiitation

Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited

package and Isco FLOWLINK® soft Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

ware allow fast, easy on-site data ret rieval using a lap top computer, or con venient remote monitoring from a cen tral computer via phone lines. Isco 3200

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Oommerce Valley Drive East Thornhlll, Ontario L3T 7N4 (416) 882-1100 Fax: (416) 882-0055

TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Series Flow Meters are ideal for muni

cipal or industrial monitoring, and may also be used as part of an integrated storm water runoff monitoring system. Nortech


For more information, Circle reply card No. 163

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

New pump controller automates groundwater monitoring

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste iVIanagement Hamilton


St. Catharines



Sauli Sie. Marie



North Bay

Thunder Bay


New AccuWell 820 Smart Controller


from Isco is a portable, self-contained

45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276

unit that automates groundwater mon

itoring programs with better results in less time.

The 820 features a multi-parameter flow-through cell that automatically monitors pH, temperature, DO, GRP. conductivity,pu mp flow rates and purge volume. And, based on client's preset programs, the 820 stops purging when the parameters stabilize and/or the se lected purge volume is reached. This precise purging can reduce purging time and purge water volume, resulting in time savings and reduced disposal costs.

All critical data is automatically 54

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Product Review



Consulting Engineers & Arctiitects


345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Teieptione 416-509-2285

Fax 416-509-1361

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 • ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS • IMPACT STUDIES • RISK ASSESSMENT • WASTE MGMT.

stored in battery backed memory. Stored data from up to 25 wells can be easily accessed in the field or office us ing a personal computer. The exclusive built-in printer generates accurate hardcopy reports of well setup and purg ing information on site. These reports make effective documentation for legal, enforcement, and chain-of-custody re quirements. Nortech For more information, Circle reply card No. 164







121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090


Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Controi & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controis

Environmentai Audits Water Resources Water Poiiution Control

• Environmental Planning

Water Supply

MILTON: Tel.:(416)875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.:(416)643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.:(613)247-0111

Portable PPM Dissolved

Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114

O2 System

Complete Environmental Service




Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies


Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits

Solid Waste Management • MISA

TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221

hubicki associates





Consulting Engineers HEAD OFFICE:

The Royce Model 900 Portable Dis solved Oxygen (D.O.) Measuring Sys tem is a rugged, waterproof instrument designed for the rigors of remote sam pling; and includes a proven Model 95


D.O. Sensor.

51 Townline. Orangeville. Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fox:(519)941-1830

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007

This D.O. System introduces the

aquaculturist. conservationist, or lab/ industrial operator to the most reliable, portable, electronic water quality mea surement tool available.




For more Information, Circle reply card No. 165 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993



Product Review Drumshear rotating

rivers, streams, sewers and other open


fine screen Aer-O-Flo Drumshear rotating fine screen has removable screen panels which are a first in the industry. The

complete unit is manufactured of stain less steel.

A variable speed motor allows for fine

tuning to each application. Backwash

The system is very low maintenance and has only four wheels which are greased from a central greasing loca tion.

Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 166


Submersible, lightweight instrument constructed of high impact molded ma terials. is contoured for ease of handling during field use.

Data storage/recall capability and adjustable filter modes; fixed period averaging or time constant mode are

just a few of the design features of FloMate.

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc.

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 167

Flowmeter provides telemetry New AC powered electromagnetic flow meter for permanent applications pro vides telemetry via built-in modem. Remote data communications now available from site to office. Five extra

data logging channels are provided for monitoring of peripheral devices,in ad

spray nozzles can be mounted inside

dition to the dedicated velocity and level channels. Communication provided by

Flo-Mate Portable Flowmeter

and/or outside the drum and provide for automatic operation.

laptop computer with MS/DOS based

The screens are available in a wide

New Flo-Mate Model 2000 incorporates

variety of sizes. The tightest screen of

proven electromagnetic sensor(with no moving parts) and is ideal for accurate and dependable spot check measure ments and velocity flow profiles of

fers a 45 micron opening. The unique

changeability of screens allows for quick adaptation to changes in the


Consulting Engineers

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 168

Bladder pump Geoguard® Master-Flo™ bladder pumps offer the highest flow rates ofany bladder pump due to its unique design.

• Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony


menu-driven software. Aer-O-Flo Environmental inc.

Offset center tube and external,oversize

• Design and Specification of Control Measures

check valves contribute to larger water

• Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Quarries, Presses, Blasting

that restricts the flow from conventional

flow path and eliminate tiny porting bladder pump designs. Geoguard Inc.

1720 Meyerside Drive, Mlssissauga, Ontario L5T 1A3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fa_x:(416)670-1698

Circle reply card No. 169

Waterloo (519)746-3415


Enviroclean Laboratories Inc. provides chemical testing of environmental pol lutants, analyzing samples of water,

Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law. Land Use Planning and Development.

Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation

wastewater, soils, sediments and indus

4 King Street West, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario fvloH 3X2


trial wastes for a wide range ofinorganic and trace organic contaminants. Since 1968 Enviroclean has grown to

become one of Ontario's leading "full service" environmental analytical la boratories.

XCG Consultants Ltd.

Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario


In our pursuit of best methods and technology we are charter members of

Fax 519/741-5627

CAEAL and lAETL. Enviroclean

N2H 6P4

Circle reply card No. 170

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush MASc,PEng Principal

Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng Principal




Use the Reader Service Card

to get information on products in this issue. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Groundwater management

Operational control of groundwaters

Operational control of re

Is now a reality

charge and withdrawal in highly stressed aquifers is now effective,thanks to tech

nological and computational break throughs in system response calcula tions. Mounting pressure on water sup plies is reaching the critical stage in many parts of the world as growth and population densities rise. Groundwater is a primary supply source in many areas — and this source is often par ticularly sensitive to high demand. The ability to control groundwater opera tionally, therefore, is a major area for developing technology. Traditional techniques for solving problems of water supply, based on case-by-case well delivery capacity, are becoming less and less useful or ade quate. They give short term solutions with little or no insight into long term impacts, such as groundwater mining, regional depletion,and impacts on wellfields. As the stresses on aquifers in crease, these older techniques must be improved or replaced. Even considering the wellfield on a larger, regional basis has not avoided long-term problems completely — be

versity by Gore & Storrie's Dr. Charles Rowney. Quite different from classical models of groundwater analysis, the Groundwater Operational Control Sys tem is now being used to manage groundwater recharge over extensive areas and in highly stressed conditions in Florida.

This unique approach is a technological breakthrough, providing system response calculations accurately and rapidly. What makes the system unique is that its inter nal power is welded to external simplicity, providing a tool that can be used routinely by plant technologists and operators. The tools are designed for routine use, and the emphasis is on the environment of an operational recharge system. For example, variables that change only when there is new construction do not

require routine input. Variables such as recharge rates, rainfall, or withdrawal

rates, which change frequently and rapidly, are set for easy or automated input. Run times are short. Of particular benefit, the operator in terface is specifically designed for plant operation. Operators are provided with a visual map ofthe wellfield/recharge sys tem area, complete with locations of all

facilities and points ofreference,such as roads and lakes. The operator manipu lates the system by means of mousedriven menus.The system calculates the impacts ofa planned operation scheme, informs the operator of the expected re sults, which are compared to operation al criteria, and gives warning of viola tions or near-critical conditions.

Comparative testing of this com putational module of the Groundwater Operational Control System has shown it to perform at extremely effective levels of predictive accuracy; it has out-per formed traditional models applied to the same problem. Exciting new developments Research under way by G&S is tar

geted to further improving these capa bilities. Most exciting are developments relating to the system's ability to react to changes in the physical response of the groundwater system. Past versions re quired recalibration when changes, such as those induced by land develop ment, occurred elsewhere. Modules are

now being developed that will compute long term changes in the aquifer res ponse and provide internal compensa tion for those changes.

cause it results in increased confidence

in the aquifer, which adds additional stress to the system and pushes it to its limit. Aquifer withdrawals, which in

Schlumberger and Motorola form joint venture for remote reading of meters

clude the cumulative demands ofindus

try, populations, and agriculture, need now to be balanced by widescale pre cipitation, groundwater inflows,and interbasin diversion factors. Additional

problems keep being created as well. Artificially recharging the aquifer by addition ofstorm water or treated waste-

water poses problems of balance and control. Advances in desalination tech

nology can further stress or complicate conditions in the aquifers by making usable previously unacceptable waters in coastal areas where fresh water sup ply was difficult to guarantee. Desalina tion creates, in addition, the problem of brine disposal. In such areas as the North American

mid-west and mid-coastal regions, the Florida peninsula, and the island of Barbados, groundwater systems are stressed to significant levels because there is an imbalance between the re

charge and discharge of aquifers. As

Schlumberger Limited and Motorola,Inc. have announced that they have formed a joint venture to develop wireless electronic technology for remote and automated meter reading(RAMR).The joint venture, named Advanced Meter Reading Tech nologies, is a design centre that will develop wireless RAMR products and provide integrated solutions for water, gas, heat, and electricity utility meters on a global basis.

Focused on the growing global markets for RAMR, the design centre will be located in Atlanta and will become operational in the second quarter of this year. Products designed by the joint venture will be manufactured by Motorola with Schlumberger providing metering products, marketing, sales, and customer ser vices to utilities worldwide. The joint venture will be equally owned by both com panies with equal representation on its board. The formation of the joint venture will have no impact on either company's pre existing commercial relationships. In adition, Schlumberger and Motorola will continue to provide products and services to the utility market that fall outside the scope of the joint venture. The design centre will be responsible for designing wireless RAMR system solutions,products and infrastructure architecture and related systems integration. It will also offer a unique opportunity for utilities requiring second source alter natives; the joint venture intends to offer RAMR modules directly to utility meter suppliers to more rapidly open the market and give the utility industry several choices of supply. Currently, meter reading worldwide is accomplished primarily by on-site visual

demand comes closer and closer to the

inspection or with meter-by-meter reading via hand held data collection terminals.

limits of wellfield capacities, there is a need to actively manage groundwater

Both methods are labor intensive. Qnly recently has the industry begun to move toward remote meter reading. The joint venture is intended to develop the next


generation of cost-effective utility meter reading technology to better serve this

This is currently being done in Flo rida with new operational analysis and control tools developed at Queen's Uni

rapidly growing trend. For more information, Circle reply card No. 136

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993


Legal affairs

If you are required by statute or order to file a report or perform a study, can it be used against you?

Aggressive prosecution appears

to be the Ontario Ministry of Energy and the Environ ment's preferred method of achieving compliance. Zealous enfor cers are using mandatory spill reports and abatement studies as evidence

against corporations and their direc tors.'

The use of this information by inves tigators and prosecutors is discouraging to companies trying to develop rapport with Ministry officials, and negotiate effective, affordable abatement pro grams.

Management practices have evolved

over the last decade. Many companies now focus on protecting the environ ment by complying with the law and exercising due diligence. Industry's re sulting environmental responsibility reaps public relations benefits, while close attention to process control and waste management improves produc tion efficiency and profits. SPILL REPORTS — STATUTORY COMPULSION

A number of environmental protec tion statutes and municipal by-laws, most notably the Environmental Protec tion Act (EPA) and the Ontario Water

Resources Act(OWRA),require persons involved in spills to notify the Ministry and other agencies. Failure to report a spill or discharge is an offence. In one recent case,a company charged with failure to report argued that the requirement was unconstitutional. Since the reporting provisions do not protect a person from having the report used against him in a prosecution for a spill or discharge, the company argued the reporting sections violate the Cana dian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Al though the company won the battle, it lost the war.

In the Weil's Food Processing case.

Judge Brown found that the EPA and OWRA spill reporting provisions were unconstitutional to the extent they could force an individual to make a re

port that could later be used against him. Instead of declaring the laws inva lid, the judge found that the statutes could be interpreted as prohibiting the use of spill reports as evidence against an individual at his own prosecution. According to Judge Brown's decision,so long as the statutes are interpreted this way, they do not violate the Charter. Barry Spiegel This principle protects only indivi dered as evidence at the trial by the Mi duals who are charged and not cor porations. Since corporations cannot be nistry prosecutor. Bata's lawyers argued that the reports deprived of"life, liberty and security of the person" Section 7 ofthe Charter dots should not be admissible for two rea sons. Introduction of the reports would not apply to them. In another case, where a corporation infringe the Section 7 Charter rights of the defendants, both corporate and in was the only defendant, and no indivi dual directors, officers or employees dividual,as the lawyers in the Weil's case were charged,the court allowed use of a argued. Since Bata was ordered to pre spill report as evidence against the pare the material for abatement pur poses,it was unfair to force the company company. In Courtaulds Fibres Canada [reported to complete and pay for work and stu dies to clean up the property only to in Cynthia Sefton's article in the No have that information used against it in vember, 1992 issue of ES&E], the com pany sent written spill reports prepared the prosecution. Judge Ormston agreed with both ar for internal company purposes to the guments. He said that "one of the prin Ministry to satisfy government require ciples of fundamental justice is that a ments. The Crown argued that the re ports should be admissible as proofthat person should not be forced to provide evidence to be used against himself at the spills took place and that the defen dant did not take reasonable steps to his trial." Although corporations are not protected by Section 7 of the Charter. prevent it. Judge Ormston noted: Since only the corporation (and no a corporation is entitied to shelter individual) was charged,the judge held under the Section 7 umbreila if that the reports were fully admissible. the canopy of that protection is The company was not protected by the utiiized to protect the right to life, Charter. liberty or security of a human ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS — MINISTRY COMPULSION

In the Bata case, the Crown tried to

poration were being prosecuted at the

introduce a consultant's reports on soil

same trial, both the directors and the

and groundwater conditions as evidence against the corporation and three of its directors. The reports were com missioned by the corporation to comply with a Ministry of the Environment or der issued long before the charges were laid.

Douglas Petrie 58

being... Since individual directors of the cor

The company cooperated with the Ministry, conducting the required stu dies detailing conditions at the site, and delivering the reports. Although these reports (and the or der) all related to the clean-up of con tamination at the site, the reports were obtained by the Investigations and En forcement Branch (lEB) and were ten-

corporation were protected by the Charter.

According to the judge, it would be unfair for Ministry abatement officials to require cooperation for remediation purposes, including the preparation of incriminating reports, and then hand the incriminating material to enforcers for use as evidence against the com pany. Judge Ormston stated: In my opinion it was obvious that prosecution was going to ensue and that the functions of the

Abatement Branch requiring the cooperation of the proposed de fendants should be kept

Environmental Science d Engineering, May 1993

By P. Douglas Petrle and Barry N.Spiegel, Willms & Shier separate and apart in order to encourage the defendants' par ticipation for reasons of putDlic policy.

The Ministry's Deputy Director of Legal Servies, Stan Berger, does not agree. Mr. Berger recently wrote an edi torial for an MOE legal publication ar guing that "[forcing the Ministry] ... to gather evidence of non-compliance with the law, independent of any state ments or other evidence generated by or at the instance of the regulated busi ness is inconsistent with the 'polluter pays" principle and is simply redundant and wasteful." Mr. Berger also dis missed the argument that businesses should be encouraged to cooperate with

tial" on the document. This will notify abatement officials that it may be inap propriate to release the information to investigators or to the public in response to Freedom ofInformation Act inquiries. Plainly labelling documents in this manner will also support your lawyer's argument at trial that the material should not be used against you in evi dence.

vilege and thus protected from produc tion to prosecutors or at trial. ^Berger, Stan."Collecting Evidence For Both Compliance Monitoring And Pro secution: The Impact of Weil's Food". Legal Emissions. Ministry of the Envi ronment Legal Services Branch. Winter. 1992. p.3 Edltor's note:

'The use of documents which are not

subject to statutory disclosure, such as ordinary business records and environ mental audit reports is not covered here. The law is not yet clear, for example,on

The Ontario Ministries of Energy and Environment were combined in Feb

ruary. The term MOE is only used where the incidents predated what is now re ferred to as the MOEE.

the extent to which environmental au

dits can be subject to solicitor-client pri-

Circle reply card No. 137

abatement officials: Fear that these entities will not

cooperate with compliance au thorities, if they anticipate an al ternative use for the information

provided, is inconsistent with the

Supreme Court's recognition of the implied contract regulated businesses have entered with

government. Moreover,the law has already provided an en couragement for cooperation by making it an offence to fail to give notice of a spill or discharge or to comply with an administra tive order.^

Mr. Berger argued that "the right to silence should,if anything, be restricted in the regulatory context, not expan ded." He concluded that a clear pro nouncement of the law will have to wait

until the higher courts have ruled, but that the Ministry will continue the legal battle to use mandatory spill and abate ment reports as evidence. CONCLUSIONS

Ministry enforcers will continue to use mandatory spill reports and other information companies have been for ced to produce against them. Spill re ports will, in most circumstances, be admissible as evidence in the prosecu tion of a company. Spill response programs and com munication protocols should be de signed with this in mind. The primary goal of spill reporting legislation is to ensure that agencies respond to spills with enough information to act prom ptly and safely. The information repor ted to the Ministry mustcomply with the requirements of the EPA or OWRA,but it need not give details ofthe cause ofthe event that may later be used by the prosecution. When delivering information to the MOEE that has been prepared for abate ment purposes it is prudent to draw that to the attention of the Ministry both by covering letter and by marking "For Abatement Purposes" and "Confiden

Enviromnetnal Science & Engineering. May 1993

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Guest comment

Where are the daughters of radon?

The daughters of radon are

gone. They exist no longer, having been annihilated by the stroke of a gender-neutral bu reaucrat's gender-neutral pen. To me, the world will never be the

same. I always imagined the daughters of radon as the Valkyries of the atomic world,silver hair streaming in the ether winds, alpha energy crackling about them like halos. Far beyond the con

cerns of mortal man,or so they thought, they rode the Brownian waves, through

The sister-killers, the bureaucrats,

have played havoc with English. But what of French? I wait with malicious

However,you go too far when you tell me that I am no longer a member of mankind.I AM a man,in the first, prim ordial and greatest sense of the word. I am also that subtype of man which is

anticipation for them to take on la langue frantjaise. There, it seems to me, is a language of determination. She will woman. The word "woman," by the way, is not submit willingly to castration, but from the old English "wifman,"or"wifewill fight back with all her strength. I, also, must enter notice of battle to man."Indeed,ifI follow the examples in the Oxford English Dictionary correc the bureaucrats. Until gender-neutrality came along,it tly,"woman" did not necessarily mean female, just as "man" did not neces sarily mean male.This was only the case

the interstices of what we like to call

when the two words were used in con

solid matter.

trasting opposition, as "man and wo man." Of course, the speakers of Old English were of matrilineal habits,from which our current culture has, regret tably, lapsed. Still, similar patterns of usage remain in current English. For example, the words "guys" and "gals" on washroom

Now they are gone. In their place, we have radon progeny. Radon progeny! Try as I might, radon progeny comes to my mind's eye as little more than brown amorphous blobs, dull, squat and most decidedly neutered. As a woman, I used to live in a uni

verse that my mother tongue, English, colored in the most vivid of feminine and human hues. I felt as one with a

rainbow cosmos in which the avatars, the manifestations of mankind and

womankind were inextricably blended. Now the bureaucrats say the world must be gender neutral. Castrated, I call it.

I am glad I had my first motorcycle before the gender-neutral bureaucrats

The icebreaker, solid, strong, enduring, will be no longer she, but it; and the clipper ship may no longer lift her skirts to race free, with a fair wind following.

"For there is neither East, nor West, Nor border, nor breed, nor birth.

chrome and forest green, and I called her Greensleeves. She was small, quiet

When two strong men standface toface. Though they comefrom the ends ofthe

Together, we pinched our pennies and

bureaucratic verbicides. Leave alone


As a child, I assumed that Kipling

went anywhere: sun and rain,snow and

meant here the manifestation of that

ice, and roads and stream-beds and

clear flame which represents all that is good and strong and honorable in man kind.To me,he was saying that, were I to cultivate within my soul such a flame, I would see it in others and they would see it in me,though we came "from the ends

trails. In those long ago, magic days of early summer, Greensleeves and I danced in the sunshine on the roads of

our mother, the Earth.

How can you dance with an it?

Everywhere I look,the female images which link me to my dear and familiar world are, like the daughters of radon, being targeted and shot. To name but a few: Mother Earth her

self. Is she now obliged to shrink back into merely geological crust and bio logical contamination? The wind, once called Maria, may no longer keen in the mountaintops, nor finger the hair of the yearning listener, but must restrict her

self— itself— to simply blowing. The lady's slipper, that shy and deli cate flower, must now, I suppose, be come the nobility-slipper. The ice breaker, solid, strong, enduring, will be no longer she,but it: and the clipper ship may no longer lift her skirts to race free, with a fair wind following. I will miss you all, my sisters! 60

and females the latter. However,"Hey,

guys,guess what?" addressed to a mixed

group implies that the message to be conveyed is directed at all present, re gardless of gender. Maybe we will all never occurred to me that I was anything have to resort to being members of"guyother than a full, complete, and par kind," a horrible neologism indeed. I'd ticipatory member of the "Race of really must rather rejoin "mankind." Man." Kipling wrote: I would like to offer a suggestion to the

hit. She was a brand new Honda 100, all

and determined; in fact, a lot like me.

doors directs males to enter the former

of the earth."

Indeed, had you pushed me, I would have said that this passage transcended even"men"as"homosapiens"and refer red to all sapiens, wherever they might be in time or space. They could be hu

the linguistic heritage ofour matrilineal origins. Give us back the old words,the "man" words.

I'll even compromise a bit. If the bu reaucrats insist, they can keep "fire man." Fireman always sounded to me like someone who went around setting, or tending, fires. I must also admit I rather like the term "fire fighter:" it ap peals to my Celtic warrior blood. How ever, if I run a meeting, let me be a chairman, rather than a piece of furni ture. If I take a boat on to the briny deep, let me be a fisherman, rather than a

small furry animal with bad breath. If the bureaucrats simply cannot live with themselves unless they have some

words to kill, let me suggest a couple of

potential victims. can, as long as they had the requisite My first offering for the slaughter is strength of character. "hysteria" from "hystericus," Latin for Now the bureaucrats say that Kipling "belonging to the womb." This term didn't mean me, because he didn't spe arose from that most arrogant of pat cify my gender.Presumably the bureau riarchal cultures, ancient Rome. man or Neanderthal, Martian or Vul

crats will disenfranchise children and

The Romans, following after the

adolescents as well, because Kipling didn't specify age.

Greeks,assumed that a woman who was

And here,I draw the line. Kill and cas

trate the woman-images of my world if you must, and I will bow down, and cherish memory.

their beauty only in


upset could not possibly have a logical reason for her upset. Such a woman was, obviously, de ranged. And the cause of such derange ment? Why,equally obviously, because

of a wandering uterus: thus, hysteria. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By Dr. Maggie Merrldew This linguistic absurdity we can live without. English already has "panick ing" for the lay meaning of "hysteria," and "conversion disorder" for the psy chiatric meaning, which between them cover the ground quite nicely. My second offering is "testify." Again



in ancient Rome, one was not con

sidered capable of rational witness un less possessed of testicles. If not so en dowed, one could not testify. However, current biological knowledge suggests testicles, and the products thereof, tes tosterone et aU are far more likely to be an impediment than an assistance to the calm application of logic,(Look up the gender-specific incidence rates of vio lent crime if you don't believe me.) In fact, I suspect the human brain operates more rationally under the steadying influence of level estrogen,



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such as is found in adult human females

in the follicular phase of their cycles. Men, poor souls, may be operating at a distinct disadvantage. On the basis of


biology, I am very tempted to suggest "ovarify" as a substitute for "testify," but I realize that this may cause political





distress. How about"depose" as a neut Flow IVIeter Calibration

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Maybe, if the bureaucrats really get

busy rooting the remains ofRoman sex ism out ofour language,they might give us back again our female avatars, our sister-images of strength and beauty and power. Maybe we could have the


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male avatars back too; the mountains

thrusting up, the stallion's challenge and the cry ofthe Huntsman in nights of dark and storm. Let us once again see ourselves reflected in our world. We

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might look after it better. While we're at it, let us reclaim poetry and magic. Maybe, we can all, male and female alike,rejoin the race of mankind. Maybe the daughters of radon will ride again...

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Maggie Merrldew Is the pseudo nym of a GP In British Columbia. This article Is reproduced by permission



from the Medical Post.


Letter to the editor Dear Tom,

I would like to take this opportunity to personally thank you for helping me compile the article for publishing in the January 1993 issue.

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Energy management

In-house electrical generation from low temperature heat sources turbines in power generation is rarely Tufboeipander



heat sources


200°C. Below this point, improved per formance can be achieved by using an organic fluid in place of the steam.

A1 lernolor

At 150°C an ORC could return an

efficiency in the range of 15-17% and even at 100°C this efficiency would ap proach 8-10%.substantially higher than would be possible with steam. Recovery and conversion of energy is theoretical ly possible at temperatures as low as a few degrees above ambient although the low efficiency of operation would be unlikely to justify the expenditure. In practice a lower temperature limit is

0 L


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The conversion efficiency of a Ran kine cycle is defined as;

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The generation of electrical

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need not be the case and it is often viable

to generate power from low grade heat sources if one uses organic Rankine cycle(ORC)technology.


1. The Rankine Cycle

Readers will be familiar with the prin ciples of the Rankine thermodynamic cycle (fig. 1) and that water is an ideal fluid for heat recovery at higher tem

'H rankine =

peratures (i.e. )300°C). At lower tem

more theoretical Carnot efficiency is seen as the inclusion of the system in-

peratures however, its performance de clines dramatically and the use ofsteam

Qboiler and the difference between this and the

house power requirement.This parasitic demand reduces the Carnot efficiency

by up to 40% and it is therefore impor tant for the operator to recognise this



effect. If omitted, the generated power

will appear somewhat optimistic.


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man, P.Eng. Vice President

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

By Ken Church, P.Eng.* 2. Efficiency Enhancements

In considering power generation from low temperature sources, ORC technology offers certain performance enhancing features over a comparable steam system.

Firstly, in a situation where the heat source gives up only sensible heat (ie. from a hot liquid or gas), the combina tion of both the high specific heat and the latent heat of vaporisation of water creates a pinch point(fig. 2). This pinch point limits both the quantity of heat recovered

and the


(N.B. Although ammonia is not strictly organic it can be successfully used in these applications.)

The fluid selection process is integral to the ORC system design and requires detailed knowledge of the heat source and sink, the fluid properties, and turbomachinery design. Each heat recovery system is tailored to the heat source and its performanace maximized using a custom designed, high speed turboexpander unit.

4. The ORC Design The ORC is simpler in design than a steam system, with a number of aux iliary systems being redundant. For example there is no feed treatment, deaerator,orblowdown facilities. Depend

ing upon the fluid selected, the conven tional oil lubrication and separation systems, may also be eliminated. In its place, the organic fluid itself is used to lubricate the turbine bearings. The de sign process minimizes air in-leakage, as well as fluid loss from the system


steam pressure. An organic fluid has a lower latent heat and a lower specific heat and does not therefore incur this limitation. The boiler conditions can


approach closer to those of the heat


source and maximize the conversion

efficiency. Secondly, the ORC can take advan tage of improved condensing con ditions during the winter months.During this period the cooler conditions can


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industry reduce turbine backpressure and im prove generating performance. The va pour pressure for organic vapours is more responsive to changes in tempera ture than is that of low pressure steam. Applications therefore, where the oper ator anticipates large fluctuations in the condenser coolant temperature, can be designed to accommodate,and increase the generation rate during these cooler periods.

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Refrigerant 123a Trifluoroethanol / water

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*President, Ken Church Engineering Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

For more information, Circle reply card No. 146 63

Energy management cont'd through the inclusion ofcanned pumps, bellows seals etc.. all techniques that are currently applied to reduce fugitive emissions in chemical plants. Heat exchangers are of standard de sign and construction and use gaskets that allow for the nature of the fluid.

Likewise, the piping and valves are of similar standard to those required for chemical or power plants. An added in centive to minimize leakage is the fact that many of the fluids are significantly more expensive than boiler feedwater. 5. Safety The use of an organic fluid can raise concerns over its possible hazardous nature, principally its flammability and toxicity. If the fluid is flammable then

appropriate fire/explosion protection must be designed into the system. Cer tain fluids may however,be modified to mitigate the issue. For example, pure Trifluoroethanol


flammable, but

when combined with water the mixture

in Canada alone there exists a possible production of 1280 MWe from indus

trial waste energy sources. This is a sig nificant figure in itself and does not in clude such areas as condenser cooling,






















sewage treatment, or ocean thermal

gradients where extensive development work is currently in progress. It should be appreciated here that the lower the temperature of the waste heat then the larger the size (and cost) or the com

ponents (chiefly the heat exchangers). In order to be economically acceptable for heat recovery, processes must ex haust large quantities of waste heat. Many industries do exhaust such quan tities. Examples are:


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diesel exhaust demo






















Travale 21










• diesel engine and gas turbine Table 1


TVpical ORC Operations

• condenser cooling water • kiln and drier exhausts

• condensing hydrocarbons • compressor intercoolers • hot water/fouled low pressure steam

ate on hot water or low pressure steam. Systems are also operating using ex haust gases from diesels. gas turbines, and process off gases from kilns and driers.

will not sustain combustion. Toxicity is • waste steam accounted for by minimizing operator • off gases contact. As with leakage control,the de • solar collectors sign might include canned pumps, her • sewage outfalls metically sealed turbines, bellows seals, • geothermal

8. Economics

drain lines and relief valves that are con nected to a central collection vessel, and

7. Installations

the minimizing of fluid inventory. 6. Applications A recent report (Ref.l) estimates that

ing a recent 39MWe isobutane system, have been installed in geothermal sites throughout the world, where they oper-

Many installations (Table 1). includ

Previous experience indicates most applications to be subject to two key criteria. The first is a minimum gener ated power level of 1 MWe(i.e. requiring between 7 and 20 MW thermal),and the second is an avoided electrical cost

greater than .08$/kWhr. Below these

limits it is likely that other attractions (environmental?) are needed to justify the project. Actual costs are application depend ent but a hypothetical 1 MW plant might have a typical cost of $2.35 mil lion. broken down as follows: Hardware


Engineering Site Integration/assembly

250. 350.

This assumes an ideal site with ade

quate indoor space and adequate cool ing capacity within an existing cooling tower system. Revenues from such a plant would be as follows: Power

1 MWe

Operational hours

8000 hr/yr

Net revenue



4.2 years

Electrical cost O&M costs

.08 $/kWhr

80000 $/yr

(N.B. O&M costs do not allow for pos sible additional operating staff.)


9. Conclusions

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1-800-267-7427 64



For more information, Circie reply card No. 147

From the information given above it can be seen that for low temperature heat sources, an organic Rankine cycle can offer a viable method for in-house

power generation. The technology can be used throughout the process indus tries with a view to reducing the overall energy expenditure for a plant. References.

1. On-site Generation Through Waste Heat Recovery — CEA Report No.8901 U 762

Environmental Science cS: Engineering, May 1993


Aer-0-Flo Oil Coalescing Separators (DCS) treatment systems handle free oil down to 20 mic rons. Systems can be designed for bury or above ground installations in sizes from 1 to 3,000 USgpm. Circle reply card No. 130


Control and record your influent or effluent with continuous on-line oil-in-water monitoring.Instru ment measures in standard ranges of0 to 10,30 or 200 ppm with 4-20 mA analogue output signal. Complete systems available with sample pre conditioning to ensure accurate repeatable results.

Circle reply card No. 131 Emulsified

Aer-0-Flo Dissolved Air Flotation (DAP)technol ogy will remove emulsified and entrained oils down to levels less than 10 ppm.Sizing from 1 to 1,000 USgpm. Circle reply card No. 132

Systems Complete system technologyfor all your oil needs for removals down to less than 10 ppm from feed stock of over 100,000 ppm at flow rates to 1,000 USgpm. Refineries, Pulp and Paper, Manufactur ing, etc., are all clients of the Aer-0-Flo Solu tions Approach. Circle reply card No. 133

AER-O-FLO ENVIRONMENTAL INC. Your environmental solution company 1175 Appleby Line, Unit B2, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel:(416) 335-8944 Fax:(416) 335-8972 For more information, Circle reply card No. 123 Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1993


Quebec report

AQTE denounces Quebec government for dragging heels

The 31st annual Conference of

the Association quebecoise des techniques de I'eau (AQTE), once again confirmed the as sociation's dominant position in Quebec water treatment technology. The 1993 Conference met the high expectations of delegates who gathered in the Auberge des Seigneurs de Saint-Hyacinthe. Over 1200 delegates registered on day one; some sessions attracted standing room only crowds,and the 1993 Salon de ieau (with 159 exhibitors) was com pletely sold out. The meeting was also a stage for the 2nd Provincial Conference on Zebra Mussels.

The main conference program dealt with topical subjects such as sludge ma nagement, price scale fixing, biofiltration,long term development,and potable water resource management. The ses sion on corrosion control for ductile

pipe,for which there was standing room only, evoked vigorous questions, which continued even after the session contcluded.

The panel on potable water quality also provoked animated debate when AQTE reiterated its position in favour of

the minister Pierre Paradis announced a

budget of $380-million for sludge ma nagement and other issues. Even the management structure of these pro grams is not yet defined. Also creeping along at a snail's pace is the urban sec tion of Quebec's program for agricultur al and industrial cleanup of its waters. In the face of Quebec's hesitation in

joining the federal government to fi Left, Denis Lapolnte, 1984-85 AQTE nance the second phase of the Saint-

President, chaired a session which included a paper on corrosion con trol for ductile pipe given by Normand D. Agnostinus, right. The session at tracted great discussion at the 1993 AQTE Conference. Photo Tom Davey

a new regulation that would take into account operator training. AQTE once

again launched an appeal for dialogue in order to achieve integrated water management that would allow Quebec to reach its quality and conservation objectives. The association deplored the slow progress being made in such matters as sludge management and water purifica tion by Quebec's governmental agen cies, pointing out that in January 1992



Laurent Action Plan,AQTE renewed its

encouragement to both governments to unite in bringing to a conclusion a pro ject that is already well underway. AQTE judged it essential that the se cond phase not only target industrial pollution, but adopt a more global vi sion of pollution sources. At the same time,it stressed the importance ofindus trial discharges, which remain a major source of degradation of Quebec's waterways.

This approach accords perfectly with the vision of watershed ecosystem ma

nagement that AQTE has championed for many years. AQTE is,therefore,sup portive of a renewed and extended Saint-Laurent Plan of Action.




Methane Gas Control Methane gas control programs by Heath are designed to help municipalities to minimize the risk of gas fires and explosions at landfill sites. Heath's complete turnkey service provides for expert evaluations of new and aging landfills including the design, installation, monitoring and ongoing operation of gas control facilities. Heath also offers a full range of monitors, alarms and control instruments to equip methane control facilities.

Contact Heath today for information on methane gas control and environmental problems at sanitary landfill sites.





Complete Plunger Bar

. creative environmental solutions to liquid and energy losses.

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(519)659-1144 Fax:(519)453-2182

6923 Parrel! Rd. S.E. Calgary, Alberta T2H 0T3 (403)258-0151 Fax:(403)258-0577

Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Saskatoon, Sask.(306)242-1713 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9552 Toronto, Ont.(416)464-9107

For more information, Circle reply card No. 171


gaskets and fasteners like these •••amountto


ofthe year! It's a matter orrecord, Terminal City puts into circulation $422.66* every working day for Canadian-made fasteners, gaskets and associated rubber items used in the manufacture of 'T.C.' gate valves, fire hydrants and fittings . . . a|)art from steel, iron, bras,^ and other Canadian materials. This investment in the products of an important oross-section of Canadian suppliers** contributes to Canadian

payrolls, protects Canadian purchasing power and maintain,s' employment by other Canadian producers. Have you really looked at all the facts? At Terminal City we believe Canadian water should flow through Canadian products. ExpenditureJor the year 1992. .

Accurate Fwftb'er' Custom Gasket ■


Rubber ■ Pacitic Rubbeli Infasco ■ Refwspd Plastics ■ Wriason Seals I Anderson Of

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Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Vaives and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1


For more information, Circle reply card No. 124


Is environmental mismanagement

turning out the lights on your business?

As governments continue to strengthen regulations affecting industrial wraste and the workplace environ ment, the need for cost effective solutions becomes

ever more critical. That is why PMDS will feature CETECH, the only environmental technology show case that is specifically geared to the industrial envi ronment.

For the ever changing and increasingly demanding task of industrial environmental management there will be workshops on hazardous materials management for visitors during the show. You can register for these by contacting the Canadian Environmental Workshops at (416) 598-4811 or Fax (416) 598-7915.







November 16, 17, 18, 1993

Regular show admission will be $10.00. Register in advance and we will send you a complimentary pass to this essential technology showcase. To pre-register, simply write PMDS on the back of your business card and send it to the address shown below, or circle the reader service number.



Plant Maintenance and

Design Engineering She

For more information, Circle reply card No. 172


REED EXHIBITION COMPANIES INC., BOO Oenison Street, Unit 7 Markham, Ontario L3R 5M9

Enviromental Technology

Tel:(41B1479-3939 FAX: 1416)479-5144





Committed to Excellent

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section cali ES&E at(416) 727-4666

pH Recorders and

Link-Belt Screens New, 4-colour brochure illustrates the features and reviews the appiications for a wide range of Link-Belt industrial water and sewage treat

Controllers The Model RCP75,Is a pH Recorder and Controller with a strip chart re corder for a permanent record. One roli of chart paper wiii run approximateiy 1 month at 1' per hour. Modei RCDp75 is the same as the Model RCP75 with a Digital read-out. The Model 1CP75 is a pH IndicatorControiier if a permanent record is not required. Analytical Measurements of

ment screens. These include: Thru-

Clean Bar Screens,Tritor Screens for grit and screenings removal. Cog Rake Bar Screens for removal of

wastewater debris.Trash Screensfor removal of large debris and Fine Screens for removai of large quan tities of fine solids. PMC of Canada Limited

Canada Ltd.

Material Handling Operation Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Groundwater Monitoring

Grinder Pump Stations Low Pressure

Sewer Systems

The Environment One Grinder Pump powers the iow pressure sewer system providing wastewater stor age,grinding and pumping in a singie unit. Utilizing small diameter sewer piping (32 mm-100 mm), shaiiow buried to the terrain contour, the Grinder Pump station can discharge the wastewater verticaiiy more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up

Groundy^'oter Monitoring Instrunietitation

Instrumentation Sollnst high quaiity groundwater monitoring instrumentation includes: reliable water level Indicators, oil/ water interface probes, piaton-core sampiers and VOC, deep, and nar row diametergroundwater samplers. The patented Waterloo System al lows monitoring from multiple zones in a singie weli, discreteiy isoiated by

to 3.3 kilometres.

engineered seals to avoid cross-

Ontario Sewage Equipment Circle reply card No. 202


Sollnst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 203

IEEE 488 and


VXIbus Control,

Data Acquisition and Instrument Control Free 1993 catalogue of measure ment and instrumentation products for PCs, workstations, and more.

Data Acquisition, and Analysis


Features new LabVIEW software for

Windows and Sun, and LabWin-

Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) is detaiied in technicai builetin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochiorite spray to oxidize organic odors.Other topics include: storage and air coi-

dows. Describes IEEE 488.2 Inter

iection needs.

faces, plug-In data acquisition boards, VXibus controiiers, DSP hardware and software, and signal conditioning accessories. Training

Colgate-Paimoiive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 205

ciasses aiso detailed. Includes tu

torials and glossary. National instruments

Circle reply card No. 204

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS

Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one solution invoives the use of JAVEX-

12 sodium hypochiorite, which kiiis the iarvae. We are consuiting with experts to estabiish dosage ieveis and techniques best suited to heip controi their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the iatest information, piease contact us.

Colgate-Paimolive Canada inc. Professionai Products Division a-

Circie reply card No. 206



Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochiorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detaiied. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particuiariy appiicabie to metai re cover or refining operations. Colgate-Paimoiive Canada inc. Circie reply card No. 207

Plant operations

Multi-speed pumping increases efficiency The new Chelsea Heights Pumping Sta tion was designed to accommodate a major subdivision development and fu ture growth in the City of London, Ontario. The pumping station has a rated (and firm) capacity of 365 L/s (6.9 MIGD)and delivers sanitary sewer flow

operating efficiencies than altering the input frequency to vary motor speed. All losses associated with the variable speed drive equipment itself, are also eliminated with the use of

to the headworks of the Vauxhall Pollu

manually, fully automated, or with a combination of manual/auto settings. All modes ofoperation are possible with both, or just one of the wet wells in use.

Other user friendly features include:

diameter forcemain.

Pumping capacity is provided by four Fairbanks-Morse pumps(model 6-5444) driven by two-speed (900/720 rpm) The Chelsea Heights Pumping Station motors. An Allen-Bradley program mable logic controller (PLC) controls multiple winding motors. the pump sequencing to combine • Cycled (on-off) pumping often allows smooth flow rate steps with efficient equipment to be selected to operate at pump operating points. or near the pump's best efficiency In many applications multiple speed point (HEP) rather than over a full equipment can offer increased wire-torange of operating conditions which water efficiencies over variable speed or may move considerably away from variable frequency drive (VFD) pump the BEP. The pumps' performance equipment,while providing comparable characteristics and the associated sys system flexibility. A paper entitled,"Va tem curve must be evaluated to ensure riable Speed Pumping Requires Careful that desired operating conditions Study of Conditions" was presented at are maintained. the recent Water Environment Federa • Centrifugal pumps running at low tion conference in New Orleans by speeds typically results in high power CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.It outlined consumption/costs per unit volume that there are operating speeds that opti of liquid pumped. Although low mize pumping performance and that pump operating speeds can reduce these speeds must be coordinated with wear and often provide a smoother, system conditions. Some characteristics longer service life, there is a point of of variable speed operation may be diminishing economic returns. The emulated by multiple speed pumping potential also exists, although not equipment with an increase in overall unique to variable speed drives, to operating efficiency. The efficiency in inadvertently operate pumps under a including: • Using multiple motor windings to vary speed results in higher motor

dead-head(no flow)condition if vari able speed pumps are operated at ex cessively low speeds or speeds not suited for the system conditions.

accurately measure the velocity of gases or liquids in pipelines Heath Consultants Limited is proud to introduce the Quadrina line of Flowmetersto Its wide range of water and gas related products and leak detection services. The

— Allen-Bradley 5/15 series PLC

complete with remote I/O panel and an EEPROM memory

— Fischer & Porter Copa-X magnetic flowmeter with integral indicating transmitter (instantaneous and totalized) The Chelsea Heights Pumping Sta

tion is owned and operated by the Cor poration of the City of London. CH2M

Hill Engineering Ltd. carried out the environmental assessment activities,

final design and construction manage ment services. Construction, valued at

approximately $1.8 million, was carried out by McKay-Cocker Construction Limited.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 191


65 64 69 61

Air Products Anal. Meas. Anthrafilter

Aqua Pak


Big 0

45 61 ifc 61 68

Can. Am. Ins.

Cancoppas Candrum Cetech

Colgate Palm.


Columbia Geo DBA Cons.

Heath Consultants

Eimco ENSR Env. Prot. Labs

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16 18 21 22 16 obc 59 25 48



Heath Insertion Flowmeters pro vide leakage detection, hydraulic analysis and monitoring.


Eaglebrook Eco Equipment

Geneq Gore & Storrie

Gorman Rupp Griffin Gr. Water Groundwater Tech.


• Self-correcting PLC station controls with overriding alarm conditions, for example: — tilting ball float-switch signals, backup air bubbler liquid level 420 mA signals — upset/alarm condition time delays and multiple signal comparisons • Instrumentation and telemetry facili ties that enable operations staff to easily verify/assess equipment perfor mance and system status, including:

Ad Index

Heath Flowmeters


friendly. When in "Auto",the PLC nor mally cycles the pumps to essentially equalize the run times on all 4 pumps,

including the one 33% capacity pump which might otherwise be a lesser used standby unit.The station can be operated

tion Control Plant. Components of the pumping station include a bar screen on the inlet sewer,a two compartment open wet well with isolating sluice gates, four pumping units within a dry well (suc tion piping arranged to allow 3 pumps to draw from each wet well), and a 450 mm

crease is due to a number of factors,

Another benefit of the PLC con

trolled pump station is that it is operator

62 23 37 24 40

Hach Heath Cons.

Lakefield Research Lamson Macviro

Mann Testing Labs. MOEE Monitario


66, 70 32 15 62

14, 19 34 61

MSU Mississauga

38, 20

National Ins. Neo Valves NRC


Ont. Sewage Equip. Parkson R.V. Anderson

Schlumberger SEW Eurodrive


Syntechnics Tanknology Ter. City Iron Works Terratech Victaulic Wainbee Westech


43 69 18 20 ibc 44 69 38 61 67 61 41 32 13

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1993

Introducing the New ADVANCE™ You asked for it. Schlumberger's got It. ADVANCE—the most advanced

handheld in the industry today. What makes the ADVANCE so

great is that it's designed with input from customers like you.

There's also the Schlumberger Information Systems Guarantee that assures expandability and guarantees compatibility within your system today and tomorrow.

The ADVANCE is a true hand

ADVANCE to the next level with

held computer featuring open architecture, easy-to-install adapters for reading popular encoder meters, user-friendly software, low weight, and

Schlumberger—the acknowledged leader in meter reading technology

MS-DOS® 5.0 for ease of

and the new leader in information :

management. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

user-programming. We designed the ADVANCE to be used for countless appli cations such as keyed, auto matic or radio frequency meter reading, service work orders, inventory management, customer service, or any field or office automation.

Schlumberger—An information Management Company Schlumberger

Industries Water Division

Measurement Division-Canada

Internationai Division

Hwy. 229 South

7275 West Credit Avenue

200 Ashford Center North

Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 5M9 (416)858-4211

Atianta, GA 30338 (404)913-1250

Tallassee, AL 36078

(205)283-6555 1-800-645-1892

©Copyright 1993 Schiumberger Industries Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 173

Undotiraiiis Deliver Air + Water Backwash Separate ducts for air and water and improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform fiew distribution AIR HEADER







• Coppos on-Restetant

Highly UnlfiN*m Flow DIstPllmHon ReduGoil

VlhishlllbtBP Use

The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately

No false Floop

metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative


design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.

Ideal Retpoflt

<#EIMCO Process Equipment A Baker Hughes company 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 Tel;(416) 625-6070 / Fax:(416)625-3519

259 MIdpark Way S.E.

4940 Chlsholm St. / Ste. 1

Ste. 220

Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812

Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837

Fax:(403) 256-7071 P.O. Box 300

1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Polnte Claire, Que. H9R 5N3 Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514)695-8099

Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801) 526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005 U.S. Patent #5019259

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 174