Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) March 1993

Page 1





Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air poilution 3 drinking water treatment

March 1993

Previews of BCWWA•PCAO•AWWA•AWMA•Toronto Envt. Show meetings Private labs fight back,form lAETL Canada — an ES&E photo report Who speaks for our engineers & chemists? — an editorial comment

Biosolids handling options — an international perspective Air pollution across Canada — how are our provinces doing? Cobourg treats landfill leachate


Sludge Blanket

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Contronic Development's Ammonia Monitor Is based on use of an ion-selective electrode which measures the concentration of ammo

nia. The principle used involves raising the pH of the sample by the addition of alkali to con vert ammonium ions to ammonia. The instru

ment's microprocessor converts the electrode output signal to calculate ammonia concentration, while compensating for the temperature of the sample. The result is dis played as Nitrogen {NH4-N).

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Amperometric Chlorine Residual Analyzer

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

February/March 1993, Vol.6 No. 1 Issued March, 1993


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.

Every drop counts — Canada's first national


conference on water conservation

By Rod Holme Conference Previews — AWWA,BCWWA,AWMA,PCAO,

Toronto Env. Show


The value of water demands realistic pricing mechanism

By The Hon. Jean Charest



Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem.

Church & Trought

Behind the smokescreen: the state of Canada's air

A Pollution Probe Report


George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

Tough new regulations for Ontario's pulp and paper Industry 22 Biosolids disposal — an International overview of current


and future trends

By Brian Evans

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. DEE R.V. Anderson Associates

Staff training In health and safety Is vital By David A. Whaley


Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.

Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. R. Bruce Smith, LL.B. Blake Cassels Graydon Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication published by Davcom Communications inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel; (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalSciences,Engineering, c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Welch

Global environmental market could reach


$454 billion US by year 2000 By James Higgins

Laboratories fight back with the formation of lAETL Canada


By Tom Davey


Toxiclty monitoring using on-line resplrometry By Terry Innes A review of government and private laboratories legislation and data quality


By J.N. Bishop


Cobourg finds landfill leachate solution By G. Scott


Combined use of heat and oxidants for controlling Zebra Mussels



Industry Update


Product Review

R&D News


Reader Service Card



Literature Review

49, 59 56a


Canadian Publications Mall Sales

Product Agreement No. 181897 Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single Issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

Canadian BimoMt Ml Prvu

Cover photo shows the Lemieux Island Water Purification Plant, which serves the nation's capital. Currently under way is a $51 -million,six-year program,which began in 1989 to rehabilitate the plant and expand capacity to 400 fvlL/d. Major process works include a new low lift pumping station and six dual media filters. The low lift pumping station, now nearing completion, has been designed to accommodate an ultimate capacity of600 M L/d.The filters are expected to be constructed in 1994.The expansion is designed by Gore & Storrie Limited, which also designed the first 190 ML/d plant in 1929. See story on p. 70. Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

What about the voice appropriation of environmental professionals?

The world ofarts and let ers has entered a new area of con

work included Joan ofArc, was a multi ple'voice appropriation'offender,being

troversy: voice appropriation,

neither female nor French. Worse still,

the very latest fashion in politi cal correctness. Apparently women should not appropriate the voices of men

he was actually an Irishman with a su perb command of English. He used his genius in Pygmalion when he created the cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle, a clear cut case of voice appropriation.

when they create fiction; black men

should not capture the voices of white males and presumably tall whites should not write about short men.

If a picture can be worth a thousand words then a rejected painting vividly illustrates the voice appropriation phe

Then, as if to rub it in to the cultural

giving Shaw several cultural canon law citations.

The Canada Council, the closest

thing to cultural nationalization that we have, has examined the 'voice approp riation" issue. One report stated that, while formal guidelines were not the answer, "There should be a recognition that cultural appropriation is a serious is sue and requires ongoing debate by staff, juries and advisory committees, as well as the artistic community at large." As these Canada Council juriesjudge funding applications, the directive is a compelling warning to those writers and artists who are not yet fully weaned from their state stepmother. But the cultural community is not without its own powerful voices of rea son. The 'voice appropriation' issue re ceived a brilliant rejoinder from the pen of Alberto Manguel, 1992 winner of the Canadian Authors' Association Award

for his novel: 'News from a foreign country.'

"Cutting one person's tongue would not give another a voice, but turns the silencer into a dictator", he wrote in a

Globe & Mail column prior to his award.

He wrote that priests in ancient Egypt once held prerogatives on certain sub jects; that Chinese emperors had exclu sive use ofsome colours and that in Nazi

Germany, Jews were forbidden to write about'German' subjects. This moved me to ponder a possible ban on Charles Darwin — after all he

was not a monkey,even though he based his Origin of Species on the primates. Then my thoughts,too, began to evolve. I wondered about the staging oiHamlet, Shakespeare, not being Danish; then we might stop reading Gibbon's Decline and Fall ofthe Roman Empire,the author being English, not Italian. George Bernard Shaw, whose body of

than PCBs. But benzene has also been found in

analytical chemist that we can detect benzene at all, at the trace levels found

in drinking water. It is possible, likely even, to ingest a thousand times more benzene in a single day from breathing

told that, as a white woman,she "ought not to be painting coloured women at all." Writers also received similar stric

more toxic than PCBs. Benzene, for

example, a known carcinogen, is but one of several toxic compounds found in gasoline which are far more lethal

commissars, Pygmalion was reincar drinking water in minute quantities.In nated in the cinematic \nt My Fair Lady, deed it is only through the skill of the

nomenon. Artist Lyn Robichaud was


The protesters seemed blissfully un aware that the cars they drove contained chemical compounds which are far

For over two decades we

have been subjected to a deluge of drivel about environmental matters. The

spectre of polychlorlnated biphenyls(PCBs)has been repeatedly invoked to terrify society about risks which usually bear little relevance to epidemiology or toxicology.

downtown urban air,than one might get from drinking municipal water supplies during the same period of time, yet I have never heard any media activist put these health risks in perspective. In spite of viewing countless hours of environmental TV coverage, I have sel dom seen an engineer — other than a token academic — among the legions of talking heads commenting on ecologi cal issues. And despite the millions of words written about dangerous chemi cals,I have never heard a single analyti cal chemist quoted, or interviewed, in newspaper articles or on TV. What we have seen, ad nauseum on TV, are the

viewpoints of certain media environ mentalists, most of whom would be for

With his great love of phonetics and unmatched insights into English ac cents,Shaw was literally one ofthe great voice appropriators of all time. And he used his great literary gifts to campaign against war, poverty, social injustice and pomposity. But has anyone ever commented on the voice appropriation ofenvironmen tal engineers and chemists? For overtwo decades we have been subjected to a deluge of drivel about environmental matters. The spectre of polychlorlnated biphenyls (PCBs) has been repeatedly invoked to terrify society about risks which usually bear little relevance to epidemiology or toxicology. In one case, media hype by British tabloids resulted in a shipment ofCana dian PCB wastes being rejected in Lon don. Like some voyage of the damned, the unfortunate ship returned across the Atlantic to sail up the St. Lawrence."Vio lence erupted at Bale Comeau as protes ters tried to block the PCBs from being returned to Canadian soil. Ironically, the PCBs probably posed a lesser threat than the jostling crowds waving picket signs.

bidden, by law, to operate, let alone design, pollution abatement facilities. Environmental professionals have rightly concluded that their technical knowledge is best leavened by exposure to other, less focussed views. They have acknowledged that their critics, includ ing the arts fraternity, might well endow their scientific training with a broader, more ecosystemic vision. In short they feel they can learn from other 'voices' and viewpoints. For example. Dr. David Suzuki was a keynote speaker at a recent Western Canada "Water & Wastewater Associa tion Conference in Edmonton and

Colin Isaacs, formerly Executive Direc tor of Pollution Probe, was keynote speaker at the'92 AWWA drinking water conference in Niagara Falls. Seldom does either speaker spare their hosts from criticism.

Environmental professionals also in vite reporters and TV producers to par ticipate in, as well as report on, their conferences. This willingness to hear other voices shows a wisdom and gener osity of spirit which our cultural and media mandarins might well emulate.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

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Industry update


Anywhere and Save

Big 'O' Inc. signs Mexican joint-venture agreement Big 'O'Inc., a Canadian company spe cializing in the manufacture of cor rugated High Density Polyethylene pipes used in liquids gathering and con trol systems, announces the signing of a Joint-Venture agreement which will lead to the manufacture of pipe in Mexico.

The Environment One Grinder

Pump powers the low pressure sewer system providing wastewater storage, grinding and pumping in a single unit. Utiliz ing small diameter sewer piping (32 mm -100 mm),shallow buried to the terrain contour,

the Grinder Pump station can discharge the wastewater verti cally more than 28 metres or move it horizontally up to 3.3 kilometres.

The Agreement, signed with Tubos y Elementos Presforzados, S.A.(TEPSA) of Mexico City, provides for the transfer of Canadian technology and manufac turing process knowledge developed by Big 'O' over the last 25 years, together with training and on-going assistance in the operations of the business in Mexico.

The initial capital equipment that will be supplied by Big 'O" and other Cana dian companies will exceed $10 million. It is expected that future equipment sales to this venture will be significant as the Joint-Venture participates in the strong Mexican market for infrastruc ture products. The signing of this Joint-Venture agreement follows the commitment that was made by Big 'O' to pursue inter national markets for its technology,and has been encouraged by the oppor tunities that have been given to Cana dian companies under the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agree

Ontario Clean Water Agency.

The primary goal of this new Crown corporation will be to help municipali ties plan and develop water and sewage services in a way that protects human health and the environment. The agen cy will encourage the conservation of resources by promoting efficient use of existing facilities and will support pro vincial land use planning and growth and settlement objectives.

The Ontario Clean Water Agency will operate and maintain existing provincially-owned water and sewage facilities throughout Ontario and will develop new facilities, as needed, to meet future

water and sewer demands. The agency will enter into partnership with local governments by providing assistance for upgrading and new development of municipal water and sewer services. It will help co-ordinate and finance large projects shared by neighbouring mu nicipalities.

The agency will assist municipalities to plan and to develop water and sewage systems that will meetcurrent needs and future demands. It will be a source of

technical advice for the municipal sec tor, providing support for the improved efficiency of the operation of municipal water and sewer systems and for water conservation

measures. This Crown

corporation will be formally established through legislation.

Oxygen reduces


"Big 'O" was the first Canadian com pany to recognize the enormous poten tial for large diameter corrugated poly ethylene pipe for use in liquids gather

chlorine In Alberta

ing and control systems.The knowledge that has been developed in this market area is now providing the company with significant international market oppor

Praxair Canada Inc. (formerly Linde year, multi-million dollar contract to supply 31 tonnes a day of liquid oxygen

tunities, of which Mexico is the first to

to Alberta Pacific's new mill in Pros

be concluded," said Grant Kime, Presi

perity. The oxygen will be used by the

pulp mill Canada) has just been awarded a five-

dent of Big 'O' Inc., in Exeter, Ontario. mill for oxygen delignification, white Big'O'anticipates the Mexican JointVenture will create and maintain 50jobs in Canada and provide the resources required to continue the development of technology for use in Mexico and other international jurisdictions. Big'O'expressed gratitude for the as sistance provided by Townsend Trade Strategies of Ottawa and Toronto who conducted the initial assessment of the

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Mexican market opportunity, guidance on the search for the Joint-Venture part ner, and assistance in the development of the business agreements.

Ontario Forms

liquor oxidation and oxygen extraction bleaching. Alberta Pacific will be the first Alberta pulp mill to use oxygen for white liquor oxidation, "Not only will the oxygen save costs, compared with traditional chemicals used in the pulp bleaching process, it is more environmentally beneficial by re ducing or eliminating chlorinated or ganic compounds," according to Michael E. DeDomenico, President of Toronto-based Praxair Canada Inc,

This was extremely important to Al berta Pacific as ajointfederal/provincial environmental assessment board was

Clean Water Agency

Oakville, ONL6K2G5

On February 9,1993,the Premier ofOn

Fax: 416 845-6321 Circle reply card No. 142

tario announced the creation of the

concerned about the potential dis charge of chlorinated organic com pounds into the Athabaska-Peace River system, he added.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Industry update in small quantities might damage ner

Mercury free batteries

vous systems and, perhaps increase the

will reduce landfills'

risk of cancer.

toxic loading Battery Technologies Inc.(BTI) and the Ontario Ministry of Environment have announced successful completion of BTI's project to eliminate mercury from the new Rechargeable Alkaline Man ganese(RAM)battery system. Aded in

part by the Ministry's Environmental Technologies Program, BTI, through a patented process, has successfully manufactured and demonstrated mer

cury free RAM batteries in both labora tory and large scale commercial quantities. Traditionally mercury has been used in alkaline batteries to control the evolu

tion ofinternal gassing. Recently the use of mercury and other heavy metals found in batteries, including lead and cadmium, have come under close scru

tiny from government regulators and legislators because of health hazards and environmental implications. According to the Canadian Stan dards Association,over 13 metric tons of

mercury from batteries are disposed of annually in Canada. In the United States,an estimated 170 tons of mercury, 200 tons ofcadmium and 260,000 tons of lead,contained in used batteries are dis

carded annually.These metals may leak into ground water tables and,if ingested

As a low cost 1.5 volt alkaline battery with a 3-4 year shelf life. RAM products are completely interchangeable with today's household batteries. The elimi nation of mercury together with the re usable nature of RAM products will provide consumers with a more econo mical and environmentally safer alter native to both single use and recharge able Nickel Cadmium consumer bat teries.

BTI is licensing the manufacturing and marketing rights of the RAM tech nology to companies worldwide. To date, licenses have been signed by com

vestment is expected to create about 8,000 jobs. The announcement is part of a series of capital investment plans revealed by the Premier. Mr. Rae said about $6 bil lion will be invested in Ontario infras

tructure over the next ten years and create more than 100,000 jobs. He said that, ofthe $258 million allot ted to water and sewer facilities, more

than $90 million will be spent in 1993-94 in support of 120 projects and will put about 2,800 people to work. Mr. Rae praised the participation of Ontario municipalities in sharing the costs of developing new sewer and water facilities. However, he said, there was a

panies in Canada, Australia. Hungary and two in the US,including the Rayovac Corporation.

"growing realization" that the private sector could be an important partner in future projects. The Premier noted the participation

JobsOntario commits

lion expansion of the Ingleside sewage

of Kraft General Foods in the $12.5 mil

$258 million for sewer and water construction JobsOntario will invest $258 million in

treatment plant. There, in addition to a provincial contribution of $6.1 million and funding from Osnabruck Township of $1.4 million, Kraft is contributing $5 million,

the upgrading and construction of new sewer and water facilities throughout

Haion's phased out for fire extinguishers

Ontario. Premier Bob Rae said at the




Feb. 1.

With municipal and third party par ticipation, over $400 million will be spent over the next four years. The in-

Banning halon fire extinguishers may aid the ozone layer — but increase the dangers of fire. continued on page 10


A COMPLETE SERVICE — Reduce your sludge disposal costs by mobilizing the TRIMAX HI-SPEED CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING SYSTEMS for your next dewatering project. For Further Information Contact:

TRIMAX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LTD. Phone:(403) 466-7920 Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Fax: (403) 469-4465 For more information, Circle reply card No. 231

Industry update A recent agreement by 87 countries to phase out the manufacture of halon fire extinguishers will eventually eliminate a potent threat to the ozone layer. But experts believe that the ban will make some fires harder to put out and could

severe than originally believed, the

Lt;l.. speaking at a press conference in

schedule has been advanced several


times since 1987. most recently on Nov. 25 in Copenhagen.

Has Toronto become


a satirist's dream?

Halons are up to 10 times more effec tive in putting out fires than other

"Ozone molecules each consist of three

"Tax revolt is in the air... Just about every

oxygen atoms which protect us from the


harmful effects of the sun's ultra violet

Halons. unlike other fire extingui shers. not only extinguish fires swiftly but are chemically inert, nontoxic. and harmless to delicate equipment,includ ing computer circuits. No other extin guishers combine all these features. Like the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) chemicals widely used as refrigerants,in

rays. CFCs in the stratosphere are mical compounds, the most significant of which is chlorine. Chlorine strips one oxygen atom from the ozone molecule leaving one oxygen molecule. Free oxy gen atoms exist in the stratosphere which combine with the oxygen atom

aspect of Toronto governance seems to be in the grip of political crazies, from officials in the NDP provincial govern ment down into the Metro and local city governments. No satirist could imagine the gallery of Napoleons. Trotskyites.

sulators and solvents, the halon chemi

attached to the chlorine atom. This re

overgovernment," says the Globe &

cals used as fire extinguishers are so resistant to decomposition that once re leased. they can remain in the atmos phere for many years without break ing down. In 1987 an international agreement

sults in two oxygen molecules and frees the chlorine to destroy another ozone molecule. This process is repeated 100.000 times before that single chlorine

Mail's Terrence Corcoran.

cost lives.

broken down into their individual che

molecule is neutralized.

known as the Montreal Protocol set a

"Simply put — if all the ozone were brought down to the higher pressure

timetable for phasing out the produc

level at the earth's surface, it would be

tion and use of CFCs and a few other

compressed to the thickness of a 3 mm plate of glass. The chlorine atoms being released by the CFCs are in effect shoot ing bullet holes through that thin layer protecting us from the sun's harmful ultra violet rays." Bill Chalmers, P.Eng. HTS Engineering

ozone-destroying chemicals. The manufacture of halons is also to

be ended, although their use can con tinue until supplies are exhausted. But because the destruction of the ozone

layer has proved to be faster and more

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Industry update UK cuts off late payers The numberofUKhomes disconnected

has almost trebled in the past year to 21,286. The Office of Water Services is

trying to find how many of these cus tomers are in real financial difficulties.

Ian Byatt, Ofwat's director, said: "These are very worrying figures." In the Central British region, the number of disconnections multiplied more than 10-fold to 4,797.

Miss Anne Taylor, Labours shadow environment minister, said: "The in crease in domestic disconnection is a

scandal. The water companies seem to be all too ready to cut off people's supply when disconnections should only be a last resort with the permission of a magistrate." She called on Mr. Byatt to take legal action to prevent prices rising so steeply. "Bills have to be paid," he responded. "I will not permit companies to raise their charges to cover their bad debts.

hold electric heater. When combined

with a system for extracting vapors from the soil, the method shows promise for speeding the cleanup process. A small scale test of the electrical

heating-vapor extraction method was conducted recently at the lab's Site 300 test site according to Michael Buettner, an electronics engineering group leader.

put in place at gas dispensing areas to clean up existing spills and to stop spilled gasoline and other petroleumbased materials from spreading through the soil to the ground water.

The Queen would not be amused

He said this was the first demonstration

London's drinking water contains pes

of the technology at a contaminated

ticides and 34 reservoirs are sometimes


contaminated with sewage, the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate reported. Thames Water, the biggest supplier in

The test showed that the vacuuminduced extraction removal rate of the

common solvent trichloroethylene from soil was more than doubled by the addition of electrical heating. A large scale test is planned for later this year when electrical heating and vapor ex traction are to be combined with steam

injection for cleaning a gasoline spill from the soil and ground water at the Lab's main site in Livermore.

Buettner said such a system, when made economically feasible, could be

Britain, had the worst record of 29 water

companies studied.

Some 80 percent ofThames Water sup ply areas failed to meet statutory re quirements at least sometime during 1991, said the report. Since London is the largest UK water supplier, its record dragged down the UK average. Five per cent of all Thames Water samples failed to reach required standards compared to the national average of 1.3 percent.

This would not be fair to those who

have paid." Mr. David

Walker, Severn

Solace In Blunderland as


water board spokesman responded to the figures saying:"We always try to dif ferentiate between those who can't pay and those who won't pay." He added that the company had taken a relaxed position on late payers in the previous year, but was now catch ing up on some customers who have not paid for two and a half years. Mr.Byatt admitted that after the water industry was privatised, disconnections

Red Queen gets health folio cated the mine was ideal to accept railtransported garbaae from Metro Toronto

whichhad spentS5.6 million lookingfor a new dump and putting an option on the mine site.

Ironically, Mrs. Griefs policies have already resulted in Metro Toronto los ing some $225 million in tipping fees,

fell to a low in 1990-91 of9.205 before ris

ing to 15,255 last year and increasing by 177 per cent, in the later year. On average across Britain, one household in every thousand is discon nected each year — though water com panies say that about 80% are recon nected within a few days. "So it looks like it's won't pay. rather than can't pay," said Mr. Walker.

Electrical soil-cleaning process A new technology for cleaning gasoline and other solvents from soil and ground water has been successfully tested at Lawrence Livermore National Labora

tory's Site 300 experimental test facility near Tracy, Calif., and may one day come to local gasoline station or minimart gas dispensing areas. Electronics engineers and scientists at Lawrence Livermore are perfecting the art ofenhancing cleanup of soil and ground water contaminants by heating the soil electrically. In this process,elec tric currents flow through the soil heat ing it up in much the same ways as the heating element in a common house

because she refused to stop private firms shipping garbage to cheaper dumps in the U.S. At the same time she was ada mant that York, Peel and Durham Re

gions mustbe considered as repositories for Metro's rubbish.

This is the same NDP government which opposes the North American Free Trade Act in its mission to protect I was delighted to learn that Ruth Grier Canadian jobs. So far the province has was recycled from environment to health spent $27 million in searching for new minister in the latest NDP cabinet shuf dump sites in areas which vehemently fle. She had repeatedly rejected pro resist them. Simultaneously she denied posals to dispose of Metro Toronto's the real job creation benefits the Kirk garbage in a disused mine at Kirkland Lake where some 70 jobs might have been created in an area of high unem ployment. "Municipalities must look after their own garbage," she said, while insisting that Regional municipalities — just as politically autonomous as Metro Toronto — must accept Toronto's garbage. The proposed new landfill sites com prise .some of the best, and incidently

land Lake site would bring to an area which badly needs them. In his classic Alice in Wonderland.

Lewis Carroll created the Red Queen, now cited the world over as the epitome ofconvoluted reasoning. While now out of the environmental folio, Ruth Grier

still holds a cabinet position which must give her solace in the NDP's blunderland. Now Ruth Grier is Ontario's new

some of the most beautiful farmland in

health minister,I wonder ifshe will insist

Canada. By contrast,the Kirkland Lake

that Toronto's hospitals accept only those patients who became sick within Metro's borders? Tom Davey

site is a barren, wOrked-out mine. Pre

liminary hydro-geological studies indi

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Business update New environmental consortium targets U.S. site remediation market

Jean Charest (left) with Ruth Grier and Dusanka Fillpovich (right)

Environment Ministers

help launch new CFC collection and

recycling industry Jean Charest. Federal Environment Minister and the then Ontario Environ

ment Minister Ruth Grier joined Halozone Technologies Inc. at the official opening of a new pilot facility in Mississauga, Ont. to capture, purify and recycle CFCs. The Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment is providing $894,066 under its En vironmental Technologies Program to

A new Canadian firm. North American Environmental Services Inc.. has been

five thousand. NAES founders include: Hector Jac

incorporated by a founding group of highly qualified environmental engin eering, contracting and technical ser vice companies to undertake property clean up work collectively outside of Canada, primarily in the United States. Companies with the required experi ence and skills, and a proven record of delivery and capability, are being in vited to participate in this enterprise.

ques. President, Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited, Halifax; Bernard

Poulin. President, Le Groupe S.M.. Montreal; Douglas G. Langley, Presi dent, Environment Protection Labora tories Inc.. Toronto; Dr. Michael J. O'Connor. President. O'Connor Asso

ciates, Calgary, and John Bennett, Pre sident, Bennett Remediation Services Inc., Vancouver.

The selection of firms is aimed at a

Douglas G. Langley, Chairman and

balance of complementary capabilities to thoroughly remediate environmen tally contaminated sites. When fully subscribed it is anticipated that 30 to 40 companies will participate with com

C.E.O. and John Bennett. President,

formally announced formation of the new company which is opening an of fice in Washington, D.C., in early 1993.

bined annual sales in excess of $500

For information contact David C. Graham at 301 Metcalfe Street, Ottawa.

million and a technical and administra tive work force of between four and

Ontario. Canada. K2P 1R9. Tel. (613) 232-1949. Fax:(613) 232-9343.

Scepter, Canron combine plastic pipe businesses

The newbusiness is owned equally by

both parties and will conduct business under the name Scepter/Canron Inc. Thomas Torokvei, of Scepter, has been appointed Chairman and Chief Execu

support the Halozone Blue Bottle™ pro

Canron Inc.. Toronto, a wholly-owned

ject over the next three years to help cap ture ozone-destroying chlorofluorocar-

subsidiary of Ivaco Inc., Montreal and Scepter Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Toron

bons.The Montreal Protocol,established

to, have jointly reported closing of the previously announced combination of the Scepter and Canron plastic pipe

ron. has been appointed President and Chief Operating Officer. Prior to the merger both companies operated coast-to-coast in Canada and


were active in the United States market.

in 1987 by the United Nations, sets a 1995 deadline for ending international CFC production.

tive Officer and Paul Graddon, of Can

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Economic redevelopment Economic redevelopment plus environmental responsiveness are twin requirements of the 90s. G&S has the tools and expertise for the extensive long-term strategic planning required to achieve both sustained economic growth and ecological protection. Economic redevelopment doesn't have to come at the expense of the environment.

Beside the lake, beneath a park,Lome Park Water Treatment Plant in Mississauga is

North America'sfirst underground water works. It combines essential treatment ser

vices with aesthetic and recreational con

siderations — plus unrestricted access to the lakeshore. This plant is unmanned, being remotely controlled from nearby Lakeview WTP. it


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Our treatment plants and processes, while meeting the most stringent pollution abate ment regulations, are also energy-efficient, operator-friendly, and in harmony with their surroundings.

for innovative alternatives to environmental

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is delivered through energy-effi cient designs and low-mainten ance building systems.

Set between an urban community and the environmentally sensitive Joshua Creek, the 32,000 mVd Oakville South-East

WPCP quietly serves both residential and industrial communities of Oakville. Ontario.

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Telephone:(416)499-9000 Fax:(416)499-4687 With offices in Ottawa, Barrie, r\/lississauga, Thorold, Cambridge, Kingston, and London For more information, Circle reply card No, 235

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


Industry update bottled water. The Southern Water au

Saab's drive for cleaner air A car that actually removes smog from polluted city air has been developed.

thority declined to compensate con

sumers, saying it had been diligent in alerting people and keeping them in

puter-controlled engine management

generation of vehicles comply with exist ing Californian emission levels, the toughest in the world, and even those proposed for 1999. Trionic uses a mic

system are cleaner than when sucked in.

roprocessor capable of making two mil

said:"Three years ago no-one was even

It causes less pollution running from New York to Los Angeles than a gas lawnmower cutting grass for two hours.

lion calculations a second. The micro

testing for cryptosporidium.We are now carrying out routine analysis, although we do not have to. Back in April we

The emissions from the vehicle's com

A demonstration of Saab's Trionic en

gine management system and direct ig nition proves that such a car scrubs clean the traffic-polluted air that it takes in.

Engineers directed exhaust from a 40year-old two-stroke car emitting blue smoke straight into the air intake of a Saab 9000 fitted with the Trionic equip ment.

A pollution sensor was set up in the new car's exhaust. Pollution readings were a fraction of those of the fumes at the intake.

The Trionic system means Saab's new

CIDA drainage project for UMA UMA Engineering and a joint venture partner. W-E-R- Engineering Ltd. of Calgary recently concluded contract negotiations with the Canadian Inter national Development Agency(CIDA) to undertake an integrated five year drainage research project in the State of Rajasthan. India. The Rajasthan Agricultural Drain age Research Project(RAJAD)is a joint undertaking of the Canadian Govern ment and the Rajasthan State Govern

processor controls engine combustion by simultaneously monitoring and ad justing the ignition, timing, fuel injec tion and turbo boost pressure hundreds of times a second.

The microchip at the heart of the sys tem was first developed by General Mo tors of America. When CM took a 50 per cent stake in Saab in 1990 the chip be came available to Saab engineers, who advanced it significantly. Together with Trionic. Saab uses di rect ignition, which gives a more reliable multi-spark at every plug.The condition within every combustion chamber is monitored for optimum performance using a "super sensor". failures.

Some residents of the Isle of Wight discovered that compensation for water contamination is not guaranteed. Some 18.000 people living on the island had to boil their water for five days because cryptosporidium had contaminated the water. Customers had to boil or buy the


A spokesperson for Southern Water

detected it and immediately gave war

nings. We feel we have done ourjob and that preventative medicine is better than compensation afterwards. Of course, if there were regulations saying we should make a cash payment to customers who were affected we would be happy to abide by them."

A guaranteed standards scheme was agreed with the water companies when the industry was privatized in 1989. But in May OFWAT,the industry watchdog, proposed a revised scheme and a new code of practice about compensating customers. New regulations to the Sec retary of State for the Environment may be made. At the moment the existing scheme provides for a flat rate payment

of5 pounds in respect of each failure to meet guaranteed standards. Payments have to be claimed in writing by the cus tomer within three months of the inci

dent. There is nothing about compen sation in case of contamination.

ment. Canada's commitment is $62.07

million over a five year period. The 25.000 hectare drainage research initiative will be the first major applica tion of horizontal subsurface drainage technology in India. In addition to Ca nadian engineering and other pro fessional expertise provided through the UMA/W-E-R Joint Venture, CIDA

will also utilize the expertise of Cana dian drainage contractors to install over 10.000 km of drain piping. The project at peak will provide twenty Canadian professional advisors and researchers in the disciplines ofirri gation. drainage, and environmental engineering, human resources, social anthropology, agricultural economics, agricultural extension, agronomy, in strumentation and controls,soil science

and hydrogeology.

No compensation The UK Drinking Water Inspectorate

has reported that 98.7 per cent of 3.57 million water samples tested last year were acceptable. Thames Water author ity scored the highest proportion of 14

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Industry update Du Pont launches CFC substitutes In the us,Du Pont has announced com

mercial availability of three products to replace chlorofluDrocarbons(CFCs)in commercial refrigeration applications such as supermarket display cases and freezers, in refrigerated transport sys tems and in ice-making machines. The nonflammable substitutes are

the latest additions to Du Font's family of"Suva" refrigerants and follow start up of the company's facility in Deepwater, N.J., to produce millions of pounds annually of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-125.Two of the products,"Suva" HP80 and "Suva" HP81, are blends of

hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-22, HFC-125 and propane (R-290). They are 90 percent less ozone depleting than R-502, the CFC-containing product they replace, and offer an 80 percent reduction in global warming potential. The third alternative,"Suva" 125, is a

non-ozone-depleting product targeted to replace R-502 in other low tempera ture applications. These latest products offer super markets, in particular, an immediate option to move away from the CFCbased R-502, says the company. The easy equipment conversions these sub stitutes provide make the CFC phaseout

New UK rules on

genetically modified organisms New regulations governing the con tained use of genetically modified or ganisms (CMOS) came into force in Britain February 1. They are designed to provide adequate controls for any work conducted with such organisms,in con ditions intended to prevent their escape into the surrounding environment. Rules governing the deliberate re

and the types of organism used, in line with a prescribed system,carry out a risk assessment, and adopt controls,includ ing suitable containment measures. In addition, special plans must be drawn up to deal with any emergency, and the regulations insist that HSE be notified of any accidents involving GMOS.

New Industrial

Research Chair at U of O

lease of CMOS into the environment

will be covered by another set of rules planned to be set before parliament soon.

The University of Ottawa has launched

The latest regulations, based on wideranging consultations, implement a European Commission Directive. They

in membrane separation science and technology. Research conducted by the

a new $1.8 million dollar research chair

introduce for the first time in the UK a

British Gas/Consumers Gas/National

procedure through which consent must be sought for certain work with CMOS, as well as covering the human health and environmental protection aspects

Science and Engineering Research Council(NSERC)Industrial Research Chair in Membrane Separation Science and Technology will focus on the pro cesses surrounding the purification of natural gas. The chair's research may

of such activities.

The regulations stipulate that anyone intending to carry out GMO work must notify the Government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and, in certain cases classed as involving higher risks, wait for permission before beginning the work.They must classify operations.

much more feasible in the critical food

also lead to advances in environmental

cleanup technology such as water treat ment and purification. Following the inauguration ceremony a tour of the laboratories was led by chair-holder, Takeshi Matsuura.



supply industry.

Du Font's"Suva" HP refrigerants will minimize the cost for servicing existing systems because only limited changes are required in the conversion process. HFC-125 is targeted primarily foruse in new equipment.It also is under develop ment for use in sterilant gas applica



In 1993, Du Pont will commercialize

"Suva" HP62, a non-ozone-depleting blend of HFC-143a, HFC-125 and


HFC-134a. The product's high energy efficiency makes it the option with the lowest total global warming potential. It will be targeted for new equipment in the same industries currently served by

Stability, Aeration, Nitrification, Return Siudge


Du Pont has had "Suva" refrigerants commercially available since 1990 and has three commercial-scale plants operating. In addition to its "Suva" refrigerants, Du Pont has four other families of CFC

substitutes — "Formacel" foam expan sion agents, "Dymel" propellants, "Axarel"cleaning agents and "Solderel" no clean solder paste. The company has invested more than $400 million in the development and


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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Circle reply card No. 237 15

A "Solution" for ZEBRA MUSSELS We are therefore focusing much of our technical expertise on this subject. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control the

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Envirofunenral Science & Engineering, March 1993

Water treatment

By Rod Holme*

Every drop counts — Canada's first national conference on water conservation

Every Drop Counts",Canada's

which was jointly developed by the Canadian Water and Wastewater Asso

First National Conference and Trade Show on Water Conservation was held in

ciation and the Rawson Academy, has Full Cost Pricing and Conservation as principal objectives, and makes use of marginal cost pricing theory. It is avail able exclusively through CWWA in

Winnipeg from February 4-6. Spon sored by Environment Canada under the Green Plan, the Conference in

cluded participation by a broad range of federal and provincial agencies and as sociations, including the Canadian Water




The Water Audit Handbook is partly based on the audits undertaken last year at ten federal facilities, including the


which held its Annual Meeting in con junction with the Conference. Total attendance exceeded expec tations, with over 400 registrants rep resenting the public and private sectors across Canada, not to mention a strong international presence. Addressing the opening session, San

Centre Block of the Parliament Build

ings. This is available free from Envi ronment Canada, and outlines the

simple procedures that were used to identify significant potential savings at all the facilities that were studied.

dra Postel of the Worldwatch Institute introduced a theme that was to be heard

frequently throughout the Conference — paying thefull cost of water. She also commented on the fact that two thirds of

world water use is for agricultural pur poses. A modest reduction in this con sumption can make available signifi cant additional quantities for domestic

use, particularly in the developing world. A series of concurrent sessions over a

day and a halfcovered the role of Muni cipalities. Industry, Consumers and Agriculture in Water Conservation, prior to the delegates participating in 15 Workshops. These covered a detailed range of water conservation issues from education and training, to regulations, pricing, water audits, implementation and pollution prevention. The great value of these workshops was the opportunity to discuss ideas and experiences, since one of the main con clusions of the Conference was the ur

Rod Holme

overall water conservation awareness.It

Canada are too low!

Some of the strategies that need im provement involve replacement pro grams in municipalities, where low par ticipation can lead to small savings.The Region of Waterloo,Ontario, was one of the trade show exhibitors,covering their program to replace all fixtures in the homes of a designated group of volun teers, and to monitor electronically water consumption in these homes in comparison with a group where no changes were made.They are predicting reductions of 30% on this basis. Interes-

Have you thought of checking your water meter in the dead of night to see how much water your empty buiiding is using?

gent need for more effective informa tion transfer. There is an enormous

amount of duplication and re-inventing the wheel taking place. The proven suc cesses need to be more broadly com municated, and more importantly, the not so successful strategies need to be better understood.

Case studies presented at the Work shops demonstrated that water conser vation is real and achievable. Industry in particular was able to show very real savings with very fast paybacks, even with the recognition that water rates in

*Vice President,Water Supply,Proc tor & Redfern Limited and Chair, On tario Section,American Waterworks Association.

There is now a need to see the expand ing audit process translated into im plementation of projects, to actually achieve the savings, and to encourage is also interesting to note that the newly created Ontario Clean Water Agency has water conservation and demand man

agement as one of its mandates. It was also suggested at the Conference that the broad benefits and implications of water conservation — or efficiency as it is being called in some quarters — need to be better explained to a Canadian public who see vast quantities of fresh water all around them.

At the closing session of the Con ference,the Federal Minister ofthe Envi

ronment,Jean Charest, made three sug gestions to further the work at the Con ference. He commented that these sug gestions were practical, and able to be self financing through realistic pricing and the savings to be realized from re duced consumption. His suggestions were: • All sectors of the economy, private and public, should develop specific plans and programs to increase the

efficient use of water. tingly, many of the water audits under taken at industrial and government • Such plans and programs must pro pose clearly defined actions: that is. facilities over the last two years have pointed to minimum savings of the they must go beyond general goals and promises, so they can result in same magnitude. The Workshops also noted that water reductions that are measurable and can be wasted from some simple but tailored to the uses involved. long undetected causes. Water pipes • We must do a betterjob ofdisseminat flowing free to waste are more common ing information, avoiding duplica tion and enhancing co-operation. than any of us imagined. Have you thought of checking your water meter in Mr.Charest also made mention ofthe the dead of night to see how much water emphasis on realistic pricing and the your empty building is using? substantial benefits and short paybacks Two new publications were released for water conservation measures. There during the Conference. These were En appeared to be a consensus of those at vironment Canada's Municipal Water tending the Conference that economic and Wastewater Rate Manual, and their factors would be the driving force be

Water Audit Handbook. The Manual,

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

hind the success of water conservation. 16A

Conference special

Spring Conference Previews • New Environmental Technologies

Papers on:

• StormCeptor — A High Energy Gra vity Separator • Landfill Design, Construction and Operation Methods • Egg Shaped Digester Technology • Pilot Scale Testing of Systems for Ter Comes to Canada tiary Treatment of Landfill Leachate • Floating Diffuser Aeration Systems for Energy Efficient Upgrades • Anaerobic Treatment of Sanitary • The ZenoGem™ Process for Oily Landfill Leachate • Landfill Issues

• Landfill Leachate and Odour Control

Using RBCs

The 22nd Annual Conference

• Legislation and Public Education • MOE Policy Towards Future Servic ing of Communities • MOL Guidelines for Applying Waste on Land

Pollution Control Association of Ontario

April 4-6

Regal Constellation Hotel 900 Dixon Road, Toronto 22 Years of Technical Environmental

Leadership Monday April 5, 1993 — Opening Plenary Session Panel Discussions

• Our Changing Environmental En gineering Field • Public Perception, the Media and the Environmental Agenda

AWMA Ontario Section

1993 Spring Conference Environmental Management: Issues and Emerging Technologies April 25-28, 1993 College Inn, Guelph, Ontario

• Methods of Introducing Public Edu cation Programs in The United

Wastewater Treatment

• On-Line Phosphorus Analyzer • Evaluation of the Feasibility of Bio logical Excess Phosphorus Removal in the Halton Region • Water Audits — The Potential for Re

ducing Water Consumption • Full-scale,Side-by-side Comparisons of In-waste Oj Transfer Efficiency — Fine & Coarse Bubble Diffusers


• Investigations of Phosphorus Re moval Involving Use of the ClariConservation:The Waterloo Approach Cone Technology Tuesday, April 6, 1993 — Papers on: • Current Trends in Meeting Ontario's • CSOs — Stormwater Management and Treatment Stringent Phosphorus Limit • Commissioning of An Automated • Combined Sewer Overflow Control

• How to Educate the Public in Water

Wastewater Treatment Plant — A

Case Study • Reducing Costs in Wastewater Treat ment Plants

in Ontario

• Demonstration of Advanced High Rate Treatment for CSO Control in Metro Toronto

• The issue of Total BOD, versus Car • The Longfield Davidson UV Treat ment Facility for Stormwater bonaceous BOD, as a Parameter for • The Role of Tunnels in solving the WPCP Effluent Limits CSO Problem • Sludge Accountability — The Key to Control of Biological Treatment Pro- Contact Sandy Pickett (416) 502-1440 Fax:(416) 502-1786.

• Exposure Modelling in Epidemiological Studies • Providing Information on Health and the Environment to Canadians

with Special Reference to Human Exposure

Air & Waste Management Association

Concurrent Session 2 Bio-Remediation

• Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils

Opening Plenary Session: Today's Envi ronmental Management Issues • Corporate Environmental manage ment in Light of Today's Legal and Commercial Pressures

• Due Diligence • From Command and Control to

"Voluntary Compliance • The Total Quality Environment Paradigm: A Strategy for Global Competition Concurrent Session 1

Human Exposure

• Epidemiology and landfill sites • Models to Predict Exposure at Con taminated Sites

• Exposure Assessments: Ambient and Indoor Air 16B

• Bioremediation: Where do we stand



• Bioremediation of Contaminated Sediments • Biosurfactants and Soil Reme diation

• Removal of Volatile Organics from Waste Air Streams

Advances in

Site Remediation Technologies • Overview of Site Remediation Issues

& Technologies

Concurrent Session 3 Advances in

• In-Situ Vacuum Extraction & Treat

Air Pollution Control Technologies

• Paper from Inco • Wet Limestone FGD System at

Ontario Hydro — Lambton TGS • The Design of a Dry Absorption System For Cleaning Gas From Municipal Waste Incinerators • The Petroleum Industry's Response to Control of Air Pollution

Concurrent Session 4

ment Technology • Solvent Extraction Technology For Oily Soils • Membrane & Perevaporation Tech nologies For Groundwater Treat ment

• Photochemical Destruction of Pol lutants in Contaminated Water: The Advanced Oxidation Process

cont'd on top of next page

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Conference special Solid Waste Management: Technologies and Issues • Interim Guide for Air Issues at Landfill Sites • Leachate Collection and Treatment

• State of the Art Incineration

Technologies Contact: Cindy Lasage (416)923-2918 Fax:(416)923-7521

lie education program Tuesday, April 20 • Efficiency & effectiveness — public • Conservation & Recycling expectations of performance • Municipal Water Treatment • Building public relations using the • Industrial Waste media • Operations Forum II and Student • Gaining the confidence of the pub Papers lic • Municipal Water • Skills development programs • Developments in privatization (inter national perspective) • Partners in tendering or selection

• Municipal Wastewater • Communication and Public Involvement

Wednesday, April 21 processes • Water audits — City of Toronto Technology Transfer Seminars Contact Astrid Tallon, (416) 252-7060. (choose one) Fax:(416) 252-3908. • Sludge Recycling • Water Conservation Strategies & Experiences British Columbia Water and Wastewater Association 21st Annual Conference

April 19-21, 1993 Coast Vernon Lodge

1993 Joint Annual Conference American Water Works

Vernon, B.C

Association, Ontario Section Ontario Municipal Water Association

Citadel Inn, Ottawa May 2-5, 1993

Contact Catherine Gibson

• Tel:(604)936-4982 • Fax:(604)931-3880


Monday, April 19 • Municipal Water • Municipal Wastewater Treatment • Environmental Issues

Use the Reader Service

Card to get infonnation on products in this issue.

• Operations Forum I

Water — meeting today's realities through partnerships Topics include: • Treatment realities — quality and efficiency • The balancing act between disinfec tion by-products & microbial risks • Pilot plant study with Ottawa River water

• Plant rehabilitation vs new construc tion

• Composite correction program for water treatment facilities

• Distribution realities sustaining the infrastructure

• An integrated infrastructure manage ment plan — case study • Needs study experience • Partners in watermain rehabilitation

• Water quality and distribution system security for metropolitan Toronto • MNR — Water efficiency • OMWA political brief — municipal water works industry in the Province




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Canadian literature

ES&E included In The Dictionary of Canadian Quotations John Robert Colombo has come out

with a completely new collection of Ca nadian quotations; "thoroughly con temporary in its emphasis on the past few years, yet blending the modern with the eternal and the witty with the pro found." says the blurb. The Dictiouaty ofCanadian Quotations offers more than 6,000 quotations on some 900 subjects including some from Tom Davey. Some quotes are from his

they behave more like lovers — passion ately devoted, sincere in their love and highly suspicious of anyone whom they think might violate their beloved." Environmental Science & Engineering,

June-July 1990. "Environmental neglect is wide-spread across Canada, but no one does it with the elan and panache of La Belie Pro vince. Ignoring the constraints imposed

Dec. 1989.

by formal treatment processes,the Que-

"Government offices seldom operate at the vibrant pace of their counterparts in the private sector. Usually a languorous ambience pervades, as though bar biturates were being wafted through the

becois cleverly opted to harness the tur bulence of the St. Lawrence River in a

"The training of environmental engineers is no less rigorous than doctors or aero nautical technicians... Yet repeatedly en

Sewage (An art critic's view) "The strong WASP influence in Upper

spontaneous, free-form, high-volume, raw-sewage discharge mode. Inevitably, some critics carp about ineffectual treat ment; but all admit the Quebec effluent, like a good wine, retains its bouquet,that the effluent travels well, and that capital costs are negligible!" Environmental Science & Engineering June-July 1990 and also published in "AH

Canada ensured that waste treatment in

The Views Fit To Print"

vironmental decisions are based on the

Canada reached a high state of technical excellence. The final effluents though were rather sterile, lacking the variety, colour, and exuberance of a truly great artform.The resulting sludges are some what bland and generally lacking in bou quet. Pathogens too would appear not to travel well in the receiving waters. In fact the situation might be compared to the Bolshoi Ballet, where perfection of tech nique has been achieved at the expense of artistic spontaneity!" Environmental Science & Engineering,

book.^// The Views Fit To Print: others are

from regular ifScfeir editorials:

ducts like some Muzak."



Ail the Views Fit to Print(1985) Environmentalism

sayings — soothsayings might be a more appropriate word — of people with little formal training on the subjects." Environmental Science & Engineering, Nov. 1989.

"Then there's the ubiquitous spokesper son from Friends of the Earth and Energy Probe, and many other groups who seem to multiply like amoeba. Collec tively they produce more negatives than Eastman Kodak. I don't know why they call themselves friends of the Earth —

Engineering "Engineering still remains The invisible Profession — which, when it is not being ignored, is often scorned ... it must be really heartwarming being an engineer — getting blamed for environmental poli cies shaped by government lawyers — then taking the blame for environmental neglect across the country." Environmental Science & Engineering, Dec. 1989. Credit cards


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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

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By Jean Charest, P.O., M.P.

Guest comment

The value of water demands

realistic pricing mechanisms ince many of us pay so little for


water, we often don't think

about how much we consume.

But the underlying reality is

Indeed, in 1985 the Eederation of

Canadian Municipalities estimated a $7.5-billion shortfall in the money needed to repair and improve water sup-

that our water is a finite resource forever

being recycled, at an enormous cost. As one of millions of Canadians who make their home in the St. Lawrence

addressed. Under the Green Plan, we have made a

Basin, I have seen firsthand what hap pens when we take water for granted.

promising start, but there is still much to be done. And this is an issue needing action not by government alone but by all sectors of society. All of us use water daily, and all of us can and must help improve water quality and conserve

The St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes

constitute the largest freshwater reser voir in the world,but it is under strain as we draw on it to meet the demands of

unprecedented population growth and industrial activity. The same problems can be seen elsewhere in Canada — for

example, in the Eraser River Basin in

M. Charest with ES&E's Penny Davey at the 1992 AQTE Congress.

The challenge Is to enhance our prosperity by using water resources, but without depleting or degrading them.

ply and sewer systems. If more Canadi ans were paying a price in line with the real costs of supplying their water, more money would be available to help cover these costs. More realistic prices would also reduce consumption and lessen the demand on our water treatment sys tems. helping to avoid expansion and investment in new systems. At home, we only see water when it flows between the tap and the drain. What we don't see is the process before and after this stage. To provide water at the turn of a tap. it must be drawn from the source,purified, and distributed. Af ter it goes down the drain, it must be cleaned again in a sewage treatment plant before it is returned to the original source. In order to ensure adequate treatment and good water quality, the price consumers pay should include the

vation. One of the most notable of these

entire cost of this circulation, from source back to source.

is Tom Davey, Publisher and Editor of

Yet today, many urban centres still


The challenge is to enhance our pros perity by using water resources, but without depleting or degrading them.

That is the aim of programs such as the St. Lawrence Action Plan, launched in

1988. It is also one of the main goals of Canada's Green Plan. As Minister of the Environment. I have worked to see that

goal achieved — in particular, through the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Pollution Prevention Plan and the Eraser River Action Plan.

I am pleased to see many other Cana dians doing their share for water conser-

Environmental Science & Engineering.

Through this magazine, Tom has worked diligently to draw attention to water treatment and distribution issues.

In recognition, on May 25. 1992. Envi ronment Canada awarded Tom his se cond Environmental Achievement Award,

in the category of Communications. The award goes to Canadian authors,jour nalists. film-makers and broadcasters

who have significantly raised public awareness of environmental issues.

In the magazine's first issue five years ago.Tom MacMillan.then Environment Minister, wrote an article on the water

pricing issue. He argued that Canadians undervalue their water resources and

that municipalities, which are respons ible for water pricing, had to bring prices into line with the cost of supplying the resource.


Eurther. our rate of consumption is growing. At the current pace, our use of water may double over the next 20 years. This increase will push the cost of pro viding the resource even higher,jeopar dizing the quantity and quality offuture supplies. "These imbalances must be

water resources.

In Eebruary Environment Canada hosted Canada's first national con ference and trade show on water conser

vation in Winnipeg. It brought together representatives of municipal govern ments. industry, and agriculture to ex change information on realistic water pricing, water conservation programs and technologies, water efficiency and consumer education. There was also a

trade show bringing equipment sup pliers and buyers together. Eor Canada to preserve its abundance of clean water for future generations we shall inevitably have to move toward more realistic water pricing.

Florida doubles water

consumption every 15 years Elorida's population has been doubling every 19 years since 1830 when record keeping began. "The current 13 million residents will

foster indiscriminate water consump have 4 million new neighbours by the tion by charging consumers too little. year 2000 plus 20 million more by 2050. Eor example. Montreal and substantial said Allen R. Overman, an agricultural engineer at the University of Elorida. portions of other large cities such as Overman projects Elorida. now the Toronto,'Vancouver, and Calgary use a nation's fourth largest state, will be run low. flat rate for unlimited use. At an ning neck-and-neck with the current average of 36 cents for every 1.000 litres population leader California sometime of water,Canadians pay less than halfof in the next century. what Europeans pay. California also has been doubling its Since many of us pay so little, we con population every 19 years, but the Gold sume enormous amounts — an average en State is showing recent signs of a of 390 litres a day per person. And.only slowdown. Overman said. five per cent of this is actually used for Limited water supplies may be the drinking and cooking. The rest goes one thing standing in the way of a con down the drain, in showering, bathing, washing the dishes, doing laundry, and gested future in Elorida. Between 1950 and 1980, while population increased flushing the toilet. This consumption threefold, public water use and irrigation rate is high compared with the 200 litres increased eightfold. Since I960, public a day used in Britain and Sweden, and consumption of Elordia's water supply the 150 litres a day in Erance and has been doubling every 15 years. Germany. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

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Air pollution

Behind the smokescreen: the state of

Canada's air — a Poilution Probe report borne organics or heavy metals. Large industrial sources,such as the kraft pulp mill in The Pas, and smelters in Flin

Flon and Thompson create significant local air quality problems. These two smelters also contribute 540.000 tonnes of SOt to eastern Canada's acid rain

problem annually. The Manitoba Mi

nistry of Environment spends some what over 2.2% of its total budget on air quality issues.


Ontario's large industrial base and large urbanized population conspire to pro duce a rich mix of air quality problems in the province; urban smog, airborne toxic chemicals, acid rain, and green house gas emissions. According to the Ontario Ministry of Environment. To ronto's air quality in 1989 was worse than that of Chicago, Atlanta or Boston.

Increasingly VOCs are being cited in air pollution articles. Photo shows a catalytic converter used in the UK which destroys volatile organic compounds at lower tem peratures than conventional direct incineration methods.

British Columbia is blessed with spec tacular geography, but air pollution threatens to obscure many beautiful views. The Lower Eraser Valley is often shrouded in smog,and many valleys in the interior of B.C. experience smoke pollution from large-scale burning of forestry and other wood wastes. Aging pulp mills are major sources of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. To some extent, cities like Vancouver and

Victoria have made efforts to pick up the slack. The current efforts to develop a Clean Air Strategy for B.C. may indicate a shift in provincial priorities. The new vehicle emission and testing program in the Greater Vancouver Regional Dis trict is a very positive development, and should help cut ground-level ozone pol lution in that region. B.C. spends an estimated 10% of its environment bud

get on air issues. Alberta's air monitoring and public re porting services are of a far higher ca libre than those of British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. However,

Canada's oil patch is also the nation's largest per capita emitter of carbon dioxide, and lacks any clear strategy or reduction targets for controlling green house gases. As a consequence of largescale energy production and refining activities, significant quantities of vola tile organic compounds are released in Alberta. Alberta is the third largest emit ter of sulphur dioxide after Ontario and Quebec. Sulphur dioxide emissions are actually on the increase, and are being

deposited in sensitive regions, largely 20

outside provincial boundaries. It re mains to be seen whether or not the

much-heralded new Clean Air Strategy for Alberta results in concrete improve ments with regard to these and other air quality concerns. Alberta spends 3% of its environment department budget on air quality management.

Saskatchewan has a small population base, and an abundance of wide open spaces. As a consequence, the province seems to enjoy fairly good air quality. Unfortunately, since air quality reports are published sporadically for only two cities (Regina and Saskatoon), it is im possible to say whether industrial emis sion sources such as steel mills and

power plants result in locally degraded air quality elsewhere in the province. Carbon monoxide levels in Regina have on occasion exceeded guidelines, but otherwise, residents of these two cities

are able to breathe reasonably clean air. Dust can be a problem in rural areas. The province is preparing a Clean Air Strategy,but it is not expected to be com pleted for at least another year. The Sas katchewan Ministry of Environment and Public Safety spends about 3% of its budget on air related issues. Manitoba's air quality also benefits from both a limited industrial base and

a windy, dry climate, which helps to dis perse pollutants.The Province conducts only limited air monitoring in a handful of communities, and its air quality re port is four years out of date. Virtually no monitoring is carried out for air

On the positive side. Ontario spends a larger percentage (9%) of its environ ment budget on air quality issues than most other provi nces. which makes pos sible a comprehensive air quality mon itoring program. An aggressive acid rain control program, launched in 1985, is

projected to cut SOj emissions by 60% by 1994. Ontario's regulatory frame work forstationary airpollution sources is weak and outdated. The province has no strategy in place to fight urban smog, and badly needs a car emissions testing program. While new garbage incinera tors have recently been banned in On tario, 100 biomedical waste incinerators

continue to operate, without pollution controls, says the Pollution Probe report.

Quebec has a strong manufacturing and industrial base, and as a consequence, experiences significant point-source air pollution problems, especially in sec tors such as aluminum production. Urban smog is also a serious problem, particularly along the St. Lawrence Val ley. Strong regulations on acid rain ha ve resulted in encouraging reductions in SOjemissions. A number oflarge waste incinerators operate in Quebec, and very large new incinerators are pro posed. Up-to-date public information on air quality is not easy to come by in Quebec: no annual air quality reports have been produced till now for the pro vince. However, the Montreal Urban

Community does publish a report each year on its local air quality. The provin cial environment ministry's ability to protect air quality has very likely been weakened by the closing down ofthe Air Resources branch in 1991. and the divi

sion of its responsibilities into several services. In the year 1990-91, Quebec

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Air pollution spent 1.2% of its environment ministry budget on air quality issues. New Brunswick is experiencing con siderable acidic deposition. Unfor tunately.the watersheds in much ofcen

Even so. the Department of Environ ment's allocation of one-half staff per son to cover all air issues (including public complaints) seems inadequate.

tral and southern New Brunswick are

have been able to operate in P.E.I, with out permits and without monitoring.

sensitive to acid rain, while those in southwestern New Brunswick are ex

tremely sensitive. While New Brunswick is now taking action to control domestic SO2 emissions, provincial programs on ground level ozone and global warming are still very hesitant, and not reassur ing. Ground level ozone is a problem during summer months in Saint John and surrounding areas. New Brunswick has relatively high per capita COjemis sion rates, due to a predominance of primary processing industries, a high reliance on electric resistance space heating,and until recently,the export of power to the U.S. Open burning of gar bage still occurs on a regular basis at roughly 200 small dump sites across the province. The province's most recent annual air quality report is three years out of date, and covers only the city of Saint John. New Brunswick's Environ

ment Ministry has 125 staff,of which six

To-date. industries and incinerators

Nova Scotia's air quality is clearly not a priority issue for the Nova Scotia gov ernment. An air quality report has not been published for the province since

to local sources,such as the Newfound

land Processing Refinery near Come By Chance, and the Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Mill. Yukon and Northwest Territories: the

arctic has traditionally been viewed by Canadians as a pristine environment; the source of the "clean, cold arctic air

masses" that so often sweep down on

the mid 1980"s. Acid rain seems to be of

our southern cities. However, research

little concern, despite the fact that numerous rivers in the province have lost their salmon populations. Incinera tion of garbage is officially encouraged through provincial capital grants, and at least one major incinerator operates without any pollution controls. Nova Scotia has moved quickly, however, to regulate the capture and recycling of CFCs from refrigeration systems. The province is also beginning to consider the issue of global warming, and has released a tentative draft global warm ing strategy. The Nova Scotia Deparment of Environment spends 2.5% of its operating budget on its air quality

ers have for some time been observing that arctic plants and animals bioaccumulate a wide range of chemical con


are devoted to air-related issues.

Prince Edward Island has a population base much smaller than that of many Canadian cities, and 60% of its popula tion is rural. This fact, and the prevail ing ocean breezes combine to provide most islanders with good quality air.

very small industrial base, serious air pollution problems seem to be restricted

Newfoundland devotes a mere one per cent of its Environment Department budget to air quality. This low priority is reflected in the absolutely minimal levels of air monitoring and public in formation. Because the province has a

taminants. such as cesium. DDT and

toxaphene. This is of particular con cern to northern peoples, whose tradi tional diet relies very heavily on game and fish. Most of these contaminants

have been transported by air and water from distant regions, where they are used in industry and agriculture. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, countless horror stories have

come to light about appalling environ mental practices and conditions at faci lities all over the former U.S.S.R. Clean

up of these sites and updating of decrepit smokestack industries depends on massive infusions of international

aid. Until such funding is made avail able. the Canadian arctic will continue

to suffer from long-range air-borne transport of toxins. ES&E

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Pulp and paper regulations

Tough new regs for Ontario's Pulp and Paper Industry Environment Ontario has released a

comprehensive clean water regulation targeting a wide range of substances from Ontario's 26 pulp and paper mills, including organochlorines. Ontario's goal is for a zero discharge of organo chlorines by 2002. "We must safeguard health. More than 30 million people.6 million in On tario. depend on the Great Lakes for their drinking water. The Great Lakes can no longer sustain this kind of toxic

work together to ensure the environ mental and economic sustainability of our industry, our resources and our communities."

rine discharge for the eight kraft mills, measured by AOX*. is set at 1.5 kilo grams/tonne of pulp by Dec. 31. 1995 and at 0.8 kilogram/tonne of pulp by

All four categories of pulp and paper Dec. 31. 1999. In order to achieve the mills (kraft. sulphite/mechanical, cor goal of zero discharge of AOX by 2002. rugating. de-inking/board/fine papers/ the kraft mills must also submit AOX tissue) must meet the limits proposed in Elimination Plans to the government the regulation for all substances. Com under the following schedule: pared to 1990. a number of substances • initial AOX Elimination Plans to be will be reduced dramatically by 1995. produced 6 months after regulation including: is passed • chloroform. 96 per cent reduction overload." the MOL said when releas • interim plans by Dec. 31. 1995 and ing the regulation, Leb. 2. • phenol, 88 per cent reduction • final AOX Elimination Plans by Dec. In its 1992 report on the Great Lakes, • Biochemical Oxygen Demand 31. 1998. Copies of the Draft Effluent Limits the International Joint Commission (BOD).84 per cent reduction stated that organochlorines are "dan • toluene. 83 per cent reduction Regulationsfor the Pulp and Paper Sector gerous to the environment, deleterious The regulation includes limits that (PIES #2100) and supporting technical must be met by 1995 for the following materials including backgrounders and to the human condition,and can no lon ger be tolerated in the ecosystem, whe substances: Biochemical Oxygen De reports can be obtained by calling the ther or not unassailable scientific proof mand (BOD), total suspended solids, Ministry of the Environment's Public total phosphorus, chloroform, toluene, Information Centre at (416) 323-4321. of acute or chronic damage is univer sally accepted." phenol. 2.3.7,8-TCDD (dioxins) and Z3,7.8-TCDL(furans). Discharges from *AOX: Adsorbable Organic Halides, an The new environment minister Bud pulp and paper mills will also have to analytical method for measuring all orga Wildman said."We recognize the chal lenge this new regulation poses for our meet a stringent toxicity test; the waste- nochlorines collectively rather than In forest industry. We will be discussing waters must be safe enough for fish to dividually. Organochlorines are a family with them how to develop new technolo survive. of carbon-based compounds bound by In addition, the limit of organochlo- chlorine atoms. gies to meet those challenges. We must

New Low Cost SLUDGE DEWATERING System The DAB will dewater septage sludge to 20-28% dry solids, primary and secondary wastewater sludges 18-22% dry solids. When dewatering Incoming septage at 1 to 2 solids, COD, BOD, TSS, collforms, etc, removal rates are 93 to 99%, high

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Environmental Monitoring and Compliance

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U.S. Report

By Steve Davey

US FDA focusses on bottled waters

The US Food and Drug Administration has pro

posed tougher standards for bottled water along with new rules to ensure that the bottled product meets the same health standards as municipal water supplies.

FDA proposals will set uniform definitions for water des cribed as 'mineral",'spring",'distilled" and 'purified". In the US there is a general agreement that bottled waters are safe but a 1991 report by the General Accounting Office of the US Congress said the FDA would set tighter stan dards. FDA Commissioner David Kessler said: "We want to

ensure bottled water is labelled truthfully. Ifthe label says its mineral water, it should be mineral water. If it's from a

municipal source, the water should be so labelled." Established bottled water firms will probably welcome the proposals. In the US bottled water can be priced at up to 1.000 times the price of municipal tap water. In the US and Canada some consumer groups have argued there is some

This water vending machine customer spent $5 getting a week's supply for tiis family. ES&E photo

times little difference between certain bottled waters and

some tap supplies. But consumers have clearly voted with their cheque books in favour of bottled waters, now esti

Our own enquiries indicated the water charges in the area were significantly higher than those charged in the Greater

mated to be a S2 billion business in the United States

Toronto area.Certainly our own family water rates in Aurora are about half what the American family was spending on


FDA proposals will define mineral water as bottled water with at least 250 parts per million in total dissolved minerals. Additionally, it would have to originate from a protected groundwater source. Spring water would also have to origi nate from a protected underground source. Bottled water from municipal water supplies would have to be clearly labelled as such unless it was further processed so it could be designated as 'distilled" or 'purified" water. Bottled water which is not sterile and marketed for infants

must have this information on the label along with a state ment that the water should be used as directed,or according

vended water alone.

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FDA will also require that bottled waters meet current federal standards for municipal tap water but lead levels allowed in bottled water will be lower than the tap water standard of 15 ppb. The new proposals do not cover carbonated,seltzers,soda or tonic water products which the FDA considers to be


soft drinks.

Early reports did not mention drinking water vending machines where consumers fill up their own (US) gallon containers for 25 cents. These are almost as familiar as soft

drink machines at most Florida supermarkets. These machines are connected to the municipal supplies and. because of the benign climate are often installed out side the supermarkets with pop machines, giving 24 hour availability. Some are inside the buildings but the long store hours give consumers easy access to the vending ma chines. Some machines we saw had both reverse osmosis and

activated carbon, followed by UV as a disinfectant. These machines are extremely popular but — at 25 cents a US gallon — the cumulative costs make them expensive on a regular basis.

We questioned one man who spent $5 filling up large plas tic containers which he loaded up in his car. As he kept load ing the vending machine with quarters, he told us he did not like the taste of municipal water and estimated that he spent at least $250 each year on vended water for drinking

















See page 48 for further details

*asofFeb. 18. 1993

purposes. 24

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

May 11 & May 12

Presenting The 7th Annual Toronto Environmental Conference

and Workshops and Tradeshow at The International Centre, Toronto



A% f p

'93 The new regulatory challenges The new management standards Presented by Environmental

Science &

Engineering Magazine

One-day conference -i- One day of workshops featuring an essential update on Canada's new generation of environmental management challenges and standards including:

%/ The new MISA regulations and

The new National Pollutant Release Inventory Canadian

Ontario's new incentives for pollution prevention


Ontario's new waste reduction legislation

Regulation &

New CSA guidelines for environmental management

Compliance News

The New Standard for Environmental Auditing Chaired by

^ Spills reporting, response and clean-up requirements

Wiiims & Shier

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


May 11th The 7th Annual Toronto Environmental Conference

All ' *1 y 9:00 to 9:40 John R. Willms Willnis & Shier

9:40 to 10:20 Bruce P. Powers Ani>us



Compliance '93 Ontario's environmental laws and regulations: A compliance overview • The EiivironmeiUal Protection Act(EPA)- A compliance overview • The new MiSA regulations • Ontario's new streamlined system of orders and approvals • Air pollution Inventory requirements • Hazardous waste regulations • Waste reduction regulations • Soil contamination • Liability of plant managers and workers • Trends in regulation, enforcement and penalties

The new National Pollutant Release Inventory: How to comply • The equivalent of SARA: Title III in the US, the new NPRI requires polluting companies to compile and maintain inventories. Are you prepared? Here's the steps you need to take now. How to sample and analyze air, solid & liquid wastes. How to keep and maintain records for NPRI compliance and for inhouse .source reduction, record keeping and due diligence. Using computerized databases. 10: 20 to 10:40 am • 20 minute coffee break

10:40 to 11:20 Terry Stopps Ontario Ministry of Environment and


11:20 to 12:00 William (Bill)

Glenn, Waste Reduction Consultant

Ontario's new Pollution Prevention Program: How to reap the rewards The trend in government policy is to encourage pollution prevention. The latest government initiative: The Pollution Prevention Pledge Program is now up and running. Find out about this innovative new program and how your organization can reap the rewards of going beyond compliance.

Ontario's New Waste Reduction law: A simple compliance program Ontario's New Waste Management Act 1992 (Bill 143) requires companies to compile waste and packaging audits and to initiate programs to reduce, reuse and recycle. This presentation provides a summary of your responsibilities under the act and provides a step-by-step guide to establishing and putting in place a simple compliance program.

12:00 to 2:00 pm. Luncheon Break. Visit trade show exhibit area. 2:00-2:40 Alan Knight Cdn. Standards

Association (CSA)

New Canadian Standards for Environmental Management • The Canadian Standards Association will, in 1993, be publishing its Guidelines for the 'Voluntary Implementation of Environment Management Systems. EMS is a set of internationally-accepted

principles that outline the fundamentals of Environmental Management.What are those fundamentals and how can they be applied to your organization?

2:40 - 3:20 Richard Harris KPMG Environmental


Pulling together: The organization of an in-house environmental team Putting together an environmental management team to handle the many facets and functions of environmental compliance and liability. How should environmental responsibilities be distributed? What is the role of senior management? What is the role of outside consultants? What is the relationship between environmental management, occupational health and safety? How do you account for environmental costs and benefits'?

3:20 to 3:40 3:40 to 4:20 Ed Villeneuve Noranda Inc.

• 20 minute coffee break

A working environmental management system in practice • A policy/organizational structure • direct assistance to site and plant operations* environmental auditing • communications with employees at all levels • communicating regulatory information • reviewing capital expenditures • training and education in environmental matters • research.

4:20 to 5:00 Alex Keen Altech Ltd.

Practical steps to implement Environmental Management Systems Practical procedures to enable small and medium-size companies to implement the new Environmental Management Standard. • Gaining the support of senior management;• Environmental management planning; • Setting priorities; • Setting realistic budgets.

Registration form on page 28

Advance Notice .... May 12th .... One day only ... at:

The 7th Annual Toronto Environment Show

6 Essential 'Due Diligence' Workshops Choose from Track A,B, or 0



Canadian Standards Association

Introducing: The New Canadian Standard for

Environmental Auditing

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) in cooperation with the Canadian Environmental Auditing Association (CEAA) will be launching the new Canadian Standard for environmental

auditing in May. This Standard is set to become the universally accepted benchmark for environmental auditing practitioners across Canada. This morning workshop session will be one of the first to introduce the standard to environmental

professionals and provide participants with a guide to how it will work and how it will affect your environment auditing activities. Essential for environmental managers and consultants

I A double workshop session led by Marc Trudei ot KPMG Environmental

I and John Payne ot HBT AGRA Site Assessment - A

Phased Approach

This intensive practical twin workshop provides a step-by-step guide to site assessment, decommissioning and remediation. The first part of the workshop provides an overview of the 3-phase approach to site assessment including: Phase 1- Visual inspections; Phase 2Sampling & Analysis in Environmental Investigations and Phase 3- Resolution & Remediation.

Remediation Action Plans,

Decommissioning & Clean up

Step-by-step guide to preparation and implementation of remedial action plans, current decommissioning and site remediation techniques and technologies. An essential workshop for all those dealing with actual or potential contaminated land



MATERIALS AT WORK AND IN TRANSIT Two essential updates for superuisors S staff


The Complete Hands-on Course for all

The Comprehensiue and A workshop led by members of the


transport S plant personnel

3 a workshop presented by leading

consultants in practical spills response and clean-up

Spills Management, Reporting & Response Legal requirements regarding spills reporting in federal and provincial jurisdictions. What is a spill? When should it be reported? Who should be notified? Spills in transit Preparation, planning and due diligence measures -Essential first emergency response training for drivers and operators. In-plant spills • Building the spills response team • health and safety considerations for first responders • Spills procedures • Emergency response preparedness • The role of SAC, CANUTEC • Practical demonstrations & evaluations of current

spills response technologies.


A double workshop session featuring Harry

^ I OussorenotTrow Consulting, David Hunter ot the law firm Aird & Berlis and Dr. Eric

Smith. President ot PCS Disposal Inc.

Clean-up of small-scale

oil & gasoline spills

• Applicable legislation • Who is liable? • A review of current clean-up technologies and approaches to the clean-up of smallscale oil and gasoline spills. Illustrated by three case histories featuring typical spill situations and how they were successfully responded to and remediated.

Clean-up of small-scale PCB spills

Low-level PCB contamination resulting from leaking transformers pose a special problem for those seeking to maintain compliance and implement cost-effective clean-up solutions. What are the allowable limits? Who should you contact for clean up advice? Yoin questions answered.

A popular annual workshop led by Jan Ghymlk, President CANWIT CONSULTING.

WHMIS - Update & Refresher - Including WHMIS II - It's the law!

Refresh your memory and those of your key supervisory staff! Keeping up to date with WHMIS symbols and requirements is not only necessary to keep your employees safe, it is also the bedrock of compliance. This popular WHMIS refresher workshop will give you the opportunity to make sure you know the WHMIS hazard symbols; the WHMIS labelling requirements, and have a full understanding of Material Safety Data Sheets. Also, find out what's new with

WHMIS II recommendations regarding hazardous wastes. Get all the details in a

presentation you and your staff can enjoy.

A hands-on workshop led byJan Ghymlk, President GANWIT



Transportation of Dangerous Goods Update and refresher

Recent amendments to TOO Regulations require that "the person who is directed to handle, offer for transport or transport dangerous goods, be trained or work under the direct supervision or guidance of a trained person." The Regulations require that persons receive training every 36 months. Some retraining is required with each amendment schedule. Such a schedule was published in Cda. Gazelle Pt. /, Dec. 26th, 1992. This

refresher workshop will ensure you and your key supervisory staff have a good comprehension of new TDG classifications and safety marks, the documentation required for transporting dangerous goods, and the reporting of different occurrences. A MUST workshop for TDG workers, responders and those involved in supervisory roles.


10 Fetch Or., Aurora, Ontario Canada L4G 5N7 Telephone (416) 727-4666 / Fax: (416) 841-7271

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Location: Toronto International Centre


How to register: To reserve your place at the 7th Annual Toronto Environmental Conference and Trade Show, phone our registration desk at (416)727-4666 and speak to Steve Davey, or fax (416)841-7271. Then mail the completed Registration Form (below), accompanied by payment(cheques payable to Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine.) to Environmental Science & Eneineerine, 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora. ON L4G 5N7.

May 11

May 12

May 11 +12

The registration for the one-day

To attend Conference


The registration for your choice of one-day workshop sessions (choose from Track A,B, or 0 above) is just $295 per person. 1/2 day morning/afternoon workshop registration is $195 per



Compliance '93" on May 11 is just $295 per person.

plus Workshops (two days), total registration is just $395 per person. (You pay just $100 for the 2nd day of workshops)


Please note that refunds will be given for cancellations received in writing by April 21, 1993. We regret that refunds cannot be given after this time. Delegate substitution is permitted at all times. Please note, if you register for the seminar and do not attend, you are liable for the full registration fee, unless you cancel within the time period stated above. For further information

Should you have any questions or require assistance with registration, please phone the Registration Desk at (416)727-4666. N.B. Environmental Science & Engineering reserves the right to change the program content without further notice and assumes no liability for these changes.

7th Annual Toronto Environmental Conference and Workshops

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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Sludge Management

*By Brian Evans

Biosolids disposal — an international overview of current and future trends

Theimplemcntalion and under-

slanding of biosolids (sludge) management and disposal has undergone significant changes in recent times. Up to the mid I98()s environmental professionals oversaw the ultimate selection of biosolids dis

posal options. Alternatives were clearly evaluated on the basis of technical

merit, environmental impact and cost effectiveness. The focus fell heavily on the technical considerations and there

was typically minimal review by the public and treatment plant staff. Times have changed dramatically. Professionals involved in wastewater treatment now march to the beat ofa dif

ferent drummer. Typically, environ mental interest groups decide early on which disposal options they will not ac cept. Then by selective lobbying with support from politicians and aggressive lesial advisors, they may be able to su

perimpose their preferred


method on the environmental assess

ment process. While the evaluation pro cess has to consider «// alternatives, in

creasingly these become superficial with the realization that the option favoured by the outside interests in the environmental process will probabh have to be implemented. Typical examples can be found in Metropolitan Toronto where the three large treatment plants have safely and effectively been disposing of solids by incineration for many years. Now there is a strong move afoot to convert these plants to composting. Similarly, on the liquid side, treatment proposals are be ing generated all across the heavily pop ulated Golden Horseshoe of Lake On tario for marshland treatment ofincom

ing sewage in place of the existing sewage treatment plants. While it is easy to criticize the marshland concept be-



cau.se of its ineffectiveness in cold tem

peratures. and the absurdity of turning Lake Ontario into one giant wetland, it is more difficult to argue against the beneficial use of biosolids. The current trend in wastewater treat

ment to optimization, reuse and benefi cial use of biosolids has changed the focus dramatically.The public and poli ticians are in complete support of the above initiatives because they not only reduce capital spending but also are seen to be environmentally friendly. Clearly as environmental professionals we have to adopt a new approach to the future of biosolids disposal. Approvals Issues The selection of any solids handling train is usually governed by the ultimate disposal options selected. Key con siderations in this step are: • Long term viability Does the proposed option provide a long term solution with long term dis posal sites or variable markets for the products or is it likely to be phased out as a result of stricter environmental

Form of sludge Agriculture and lartdscape planting


Dewatered sludge—i- (not processed-



-Dewatered sludge-Fertilizer


-Dried sludge


-Compost —


regulations in the future? • Can it be approved? increasingly this is a problem with incineration. Public resistance will

probably prevent introduction of any Fertilizer Soil conditioner


- Granulated ash

'— Incinerated a


Gardening soil



,— Incinerated ash -

- (not processed]-

-Incinerated ash—i—Soil conditioning additive -Subbase course materials

-Subgrade materials -Aggregate of concrete — Asufaruto lira - Raw material of cement

I— Mudcap of reclamalion Granulation • burning Granulation ash

Melting • burning-

Light weight




-Permeability brick - Clay pipe Pressure forming- -Burned goods• burning —

Molten slag-

- Interlocking brick

-Molten slag

-Subbase course materials


-Formed slag —

-Tile - Decorations

TliicKened sludge -

Anaerobic digestion —Methane-

EElectric power generation Drive of blower Fuel

Dewa'ered sludge-

Multiple-effect evapolalion

So:id fuel -

Drying Incineration/Melting—Water heat-

- District air conditioning - Electric power generation

Reproduced from Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants, Vol. I and II. WEF Manual of Practice No. 8, ASCE Manual and Report on

Engineering Practices No. 76,1992.

w ith composting there is concern over odour production. • Sludge quality Will the faltering MISA (Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement) program result in a sufficient im provement of sludge quality to allow for continued beneficial uses of the

end product especially in large urban areas? If the high levels of heavy me tals and organics found in urban areas cannot be reiluced. will we be

forced to try and implement an al most unapprovable process such as incineration?

(rtot processed)—

Aggregate of concrets

^ Hneigy -

incineration in the near future while

• Viability of available markets Ifsludge management is privatized as is becoming increasingly common, will there be significant markets available at an appropriate price to Justify introducing the process or even privatization? • Storage requirements Most environmentally friendly dis

posal options require some form of winter storage. Will there be future *R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Toronto. continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


Sludge Management cont'd up in the ultimate solids disposal pro in philosophy will have a majoreffect cess. either in the form of ash or in on the quality of the solids because of sludge applied to land. The quality dressed then an ultimate disposal op the change in the RPS : WAS ratio. and quantityofthe.se solids will deter tion should be fairly easy to select. The impact of side streams is becom mine the feasibility of any disposal However, the ultimate option will be ing increasingly important. These option selected. heavily weighted towards options which side streams are generated from unit • Finally, a key process item which has can show beneficial use with minimal operations such as thermal con long been ignored but become essen capital outlay. Therefore the potential to ditioning. digestion and dewatering tial is the ubiquitous solids balance. privatize any option should receive high and provide a significant source of, An accurate and dynamic solids ba lance will provide operations staff TABLE 1 with an ongoing and immediate indi ESTIMATED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE PRODUCTION cation of the impacts of any process BY TREATMENT PLANT SIZE' change on solids handling and dis Percent Biosolids Produced posal. The increasing attention paid {dry tons/yr) Size (M USGPD) No. of Plants of Total to cost-effective operation will make tolerance oron-site storage?

Once these concerns have been ad

















Emerging Technologies There are many new emerging tech nologies which will receive much con sideration in the future when evaluating








beneficial use alternatives of biosolids







disposal. • Animal feed production In this process irradiation is used to destroy pathogens and bacteria. This final product is relatively low in me tals (depending on the overall bio solids quality). Testing on animals found slight elevations in iron and lead in livers, but these were judged to be insignificant. • Biobrick production In this process, sludge solids sub stitute for sawdust and the tempera ture of brick production stabilizes the sludge. This idea has been around for over 100 years and has good potential



this essential in the future.


Based upon analysis of data from the 1982 Needs Survey supplied by the U.S. EPA Sludge Task Force, 1983.

Reproduced from Activated Sludge Process Design and Control: Theory and Practice. Water Quality Management Library Volume 1. Technomic Publishing Company, Doncaster Penn. 1992.

priority. As has become evident from the pre vious discussion, the beneficial use of

biosolids should be the focus of any fu ture solids disposal philosophy. Figure I represents the most feasible beneficial use alternatives. Process Issues The nature of wastewater solids re

quiring disposal is affected by several in plant processes. These should be car efully considered before selecting an ul timate disposal option. • The ratioof raw primary sludge(RPS) to waste activated sludge (WAS). Ty pically the higher the ratio of RPS : WAS the easier the sludge is to handle with a greater propensity for energy recovery due to a higher volatile so lids content. However. RPS has signi

soluble BOD. Not only does this have the potential to overload aera tion systems, but has secondary im

pacts such as potential biofouling of fi ne pore diffusers. poor settling sludge in the final clarifiers and an increase in mixed liquid suspended solids.

in the future. The bricks look,feel and

The role of inorganic solids, largely ignored in the past, will play an in creasing role in the future. Inorganic solids basically remain in the treat ment process and with the exception ofa small quantity in theeffiuenl.end

smell like ordinary bricks and when tested with 15%-30% and 50% solids by volume,were found to be not as strong as the original but well within ASTM

ment.Traditional trends were to max

imize the process of handling raw sewage suspended solids in the solids handling train at the expense of the liquid train. Studies in Canada have indicated that the solids handling

mated to be equivalent to normal dis-




Percent of Sludge Managed by This Method by Plant Size Management Method

ficant drawbacks such as odour, a

health risk from pathogens and re quires many operational and health safeguards. • Direction of suspended solids treat

standards. However, costs are esti

Landspreading on food chain crops Landspreading on non-food chain

Large 10 mgd



<1 mgd

1-10 mgd











of Total


Distribution and marketing














Ocean disposal

Other, e.g., long-term lagooning TOTAL













costs on an annualized basis are

roughly equal to that ofthe liquid side

costs. Recent advances in process op timization and computerization have tilted the preferred process in favour of liquid side treatment. This change 30


Based upon data supplied by the U.S. EPA Sludge Task Force, 1983.

Reproduced from Activated Sludge Process Design and Control: Theory and Practice. Water Quality Management Library Volume 1. Technomic Publishing Company, Doncaster Penn. 1992.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

posal costs.

Cement from sludge The sludge is flocculated sequentially with carbon dioxide and calcium di

Sludge liming This unique process called N Viro.

wastewater treatment capabilities. In

uses cement kiln dust to stabilize

422.000 dried tons of stabilized sludge produced 158.000 were disposed of by various means. Of this quantity 122.000 dried tons or almost 80% were disposed of by agricultural utilization and of the remaining 20% a significant portion

1981 it was estimated that of a total of

sludge, rendering it suitable for land application. The process is allied to the liming of sludge, but farmer resis

oxide at which point it is fed into a kiln. The resultant clinker is ground with gypsum to produce portland ce ment quality. This process has par ticularly good potential in Canada.

tance to the addition of excess lime

may have a negative effect. An important, truly Canadian solu-

went to landfill with a smallest fraction

going to incineration and sea disposal. Throughout the 1980s as more treat ment has been introduced,largely in the province of Quebec, this quantity has risen significantly. Currently the major developments in wastewater treatments are occurring on



(1000 D.T. BIOSOLIDS/ANNUM) Agriculture





West Germany


















both coasts with Vancouver consolidat







ing its sewage treatment and in Mari







England and Wales























Austria Source:

time Canada communities such as Halifax. Saint John and Truro investi

gating advanced sewage treatment for the first time. Therefore the quantity of sludge produced per capita of sewered population is expected to rise through

WRC Survey of Engineer Sludge Treatment and Disposal Practices

out the 1990s. The trend will be towards

- 1984 data.

more beneficial uses ofend products via land utilization and composting.

Reproduced from Municipal Sludge Management: Processing, Utilization and Disposal. Water Quality Management Library, Volume 4. Technomic Publishing Company, Doncaster, Penn. 1992.

United States


tion which has not been considered as

Long maligned as a way to treat sludge, the use of earthworms is gain ing significant popularity, largely be cause of their use in backyard composters. Sludge is fed to the earth

important to date, will become increas ingly popular in the future. This option

worms at 50% moisture and the cast



for the Highland Creek Treatment

remaining 70% on sewered communal

clear-out areas of forest. Not only does this option meet the requirements of beneficial use and being environment ally friendly, but it is also a practical

qualities, with a wide range of uses. Oil from sludge This process was originally devel

process is currently being designed

the US rely on septic systems with the

is the use of solids as fertilizer in the

ings are used as soil conditioner. The final product has excellent fertilizer

oped in Germany and has been fur ther developed at the Wastewater Technology Centre in Canada. The

The overall breakdown of biosolids utilization in the United States is similar to Canada. About 30% of the citizens in

systems. Table 1 indicates that while most of

the treatment plants are in the small category, the largest percentage of sludge produced is in the large plant category. Table 2 shows the breakdown of ultimate disposal options. As can be expected, the smaller plants have a pre


In the early 1980s Canada was. for its

ference for beneficial end uses whereas

size, one of the most well serviced coun tries in the world. Of the estimated 25 million Canadians. 74% lived in sew ered communities of which 37% were in

the larger concentrate more on incin

Plant in Toronto and is being evalu ated for the future Halifax Sewage


In the US 42% of the disposal can be classed as beneficial, by far the largest


Treatment Plant in Nova Scotia. The Method of Disposal or Beneficial Use

dried sludge is heated to 30()°-350°C for 30 minutes in an oxygen free en

Sludge Type

vironment. The final volume of oil


and char is less than the original. The oil produced is a Number 5 fuel oil meeting ASTM standards and is suit able for use in boilers and blast fur naces. It is estimated that two barrels





Dumping 7.1


Composted Dried

334 10.5 8.0

Incinerated Ash

Metal Slag

of oil per dry tonne of sludge are pro

Total DS 1000 t/a


Total %

Aggregate production This process combines incineration

Agricultural and Landscaping






Other 195


54 3.9

0.5 32.0




14.5 789 6.2

3.4 157














Dry Solids 1000 t/a





1.1 57.9 0.5

1,364 1X.0

1988 data

Reproduced from Municipal Sludge Management: Processing, Utilization and Disposal. Water Quality Management Library, Volume 4. Technomic Publishing

of dewatered sludge and municipal refuse in a rotary kiln.The ash is fused at approximately 1 100°C and is suit able for use as road aggregate. How

Ontario. 23% in Quebec and 9% in Bri

category, while incineration is next at

ever. due to the lack ofincineration of

tish Columbia and Alberta. These ratios

27% and landfill third at 15%. Ocean dis

municipal rei'use. this process has lit tle potential in Canada at the cur

will have changed somewhat in the 1980s as communities in Quebec and the coastal provinces improved their

da. the trend in the US will be to convert

rent time.

Company, Doncaster, Penn. 1992.

Environ mental Science & Engineering. March 1993

posal accounts for only 4%. As in Cana continued overleaf 31

Sludge Management cont'd the larger plants to more beneficial land uses, phasing out incineration. Europe With the Increasing trends towards globalization. Canadian attention will focus on what Is being done In the large industrialized regions ofthe world such as Western Europe and Japan. In Eu rope.the countries are a m 1 xture of hIghly industrialized and largely agricul tural. In Table 3. the typical disposal quantities in the various countries are

North America and will probably en counter the same fate in Europe. The Increased use of landfill is noted

increased beneficial use of wastewater

solids in recent years. This Is exem

plified by the reduction in the number of incinerators installed. After a rapid In

especially in countries where there are large populations living In sprawling

crease up to 1982 when 102 were In

urban areas. These countries such as

stalled. the trend continued to 1987 with

Germany. France. Italy, contribute a significant portion to the overall sludge qtiantity and are all noted to have great er landfill use than agricultural or in cineration use. However, in communi

a total of 149 being operational. How ever this began to slow to the current time when LSI were in place. Recently Japan has also started moving away from the standard Incineration option

ties which tend to be more agricultural

and tended to focus more toward alter

outlined.Tho.se listed account for96% of

or have a greater affinity with the sea.the

native beneficial uses.

all the sludge produced. The WRc sur

use of agricultural and sea disposal is

As can be seen In Table 4. ofthe total

vey related that there were .S.5 million

obvious. These countries include the

dry tonnes ofsludge for disposal In vari

Netherlands. Spain. England and Wales. In a recognizetl environmentally conscious country such as Sweden.60% ol the sludge is disposed of by agricul

of 1.364 tonnes of blosollds requiring disposal, incineration remains the most popular disposal method accounting for 58% of the total. Dewatering is se cond at 32%. Landfill remains the most

ture. whereas In smaller industrialized countries,such as Switzerland and Aus

common disposal destination account ing for 82%.followed bv laml utilization

tria. incineration plays a larger role. Japan


ous ways.

• 37% was recycled to land Including agriculture, horticulture, land recla mation. forestry and parkland • 44% was disposed of at landfill sites • 9% was incinerated

• 7% was disposed of at sea • 3% was disposed of at other outlets including on-site at sewage works, la goons. stockpiling, sacrificial land, sludge farm, process products, and unrecorded outlets.

it can be seen ofthe major countries

producing sludge, that there are some significant differences between Canada and Europe. It should be noted that ocean dumping has been outlawed in

Japan has in recent years become

known as the most technically advan ced In environmental solutions and en

vironmental specialists tend to look to Japan for technical solutions. However, the country's overall environmental

record Is not as glamorous as portrayed and any Japanese solution will there fore be treated with some scepticism. The Japanese trend has been for an


25 Gal./hr.; 4 Tons/day: $98,000 US IDEAL FOR

• Remote Camps (Oil; Forestry; Mining) • Small towns with restricted budgets •

in central Canada will be towards Intro

ducing or converting to more environ mentally friendly options such as composting and land utilization. There will be an Increased awareness of new

emerging technologies which offer good future potential. Also It Is highly likely that the private industry will take an Increaslnginterest in privatizingbiosollds handling and disposal. In eastern and western Canada, many ofthe larger communities are receiving sewage treatment for the first time and other larger cities are looking to con solidate and improve their wastewater all these communities

more attention will be paid to options such as land disposal and landfill, de pending on which Is the most cost effec

Minimize hauling, landfilling, & risk Generate energy

tive. In eastern Canada, where landfill

space Is not as great a concern as in cen tral Canada, look for more use of land

fi ll disposal. In Western Canada, the

(heat, cooling, steam) •

The question that should be asketl at this juncture Is where will Canada be heading for the remainder of this de cade. Clearly, central Canada will have very little new development of wastewater treatment plants and hence solids disposal programs. The current trends

treatment. In

Hospitals and Industrial Parks


Future Trends

large metropolitan areas will probably follow similar practices to Central Ca

Stabalise costs;

nada with the more rural areas favour

maintain control

ing land utilization.

In conclusion, look for major devel opments in biosolids disposal to occur


No operator req.

on the east and west coasts in the short

Handles all wastes

term and for a total revamping of the

Fits on trailer

ficial use of biosolids countrywide. The increased involvement of politicians and the general public in the decision making process will alter the role of the engineer to that of implementing a pre

current processes to include more bene


EnEco Systems Inc. 2628 Granville St.

Van..B.C V6H 3H8

Tel:(604) 649-4518 32

Fax:(604) 224-3063

For more information, Circle reply card No. 120

ferred solution ratherthan recommend

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Eiiviroiinwnia! Science & Engineering. March 1993

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Health & Safety

staff training in Heaith and Safety is vitai under the Workers" Compensation Act. This includes providing first aid sta tions. each in the charge of an indivi dual trained in first aid by a recognized training agency. That individual's cer tificate of training must be promi nently displayed.

For companies whose staff work with hazardous waste in the USA. US law

requires that these staff people must complete the US OSHA 40-hour hazar dous waste course for Superfund(aban doned. badly contaminated) environ mental sites, as well as complete followup supervised work on one ofthese sites, plus complete annual 8-hour refresher courses. As well, supervisors at these sites must complete additional training. The handling of flammable liquids such as gasoline can be very dangerous if not conducted with proper work prac tices and equipment. It would be con sidered self evident due diligence that an employer of workers in Ontario who are handling such materials must en sure that those workers are approp

Sewer and water main projects can be hazardous without proper safety procedures.

Oneofthe key components of

an employer's Health and Safety Program is staff train ing. Or. starting from a dif ferent point of view, the most important type of training regarding liability ma nagement is often perceived to be train ing in health and safety. Staff training is provided with the intent to influence attitude and behaviour.

In my experience, health and safety training can be planned, developed and delivered most effectively if a few basicprinciples and approaches are kept in

for Industrial Establishments or for

It is a given that any work considered to require training of a particular group

Construction, whichever applies, under

of staff should also include the direct

and Safety Acts. As another example, workers respon sible for operating heavy vehicular machinery above ground in Ontario

supervisors of those staff members in the same training. A supervisor may claim to know all about the subject of the training. Even if that is so.it is wise for the supervisor to have experienced the

same person-to-person interactions and examples given, so they can be subse quently reinforced, directly with the work force.

In Canada, workers handling Con trolled Products in a manufacturing,

mind, as numbered below.

construction, mining,commercial, pro

First, an employer must be absolutely sure what training is mandated by law and.in a crunch, what is likely to be con sidered by a regulator or a court as clear evidence of due diligence, even if not explicitly required in law. Beyond these

fessional. or institutional workplace must be trained in the Workplace Ha zardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). Similarly, if workers are in volved in any hauling of Dangerous

minimum matters, there are a number

trained in the Transportation of Dan gerous Goods. This applies even when hauling from one workplace to another under the management of the same company, when that hauling occurs along a public thoroughfare,such as by truck, rail or water. Such training must contain information specific to those dangerous goods likely to be encoun tered by these workers. In Ontario, employers who pay pre miums into the workers compensation system have certain obligations speci fied by the First Aid Regulations made

of other matters which it is helpful to address in some form of staff training. Second, each type of training should

be planned for a defined target audi ence. Training time costs not only the expense of providing the expert trainer but also, in most cases, the expense of the time spent by trainees, usually dur ing business hours. Payroll overhead time costs may be particularly high for training of management and pro fessional staff. Costs may also include travel and accommodation. 34

riately trained. This would include training in the provisions of the Gas oline Handling Act and Code and the relevant provisions in the Regulations

Goods, then those workers must be

the provincial Occupational Health

should be aware of the requirements of the provincial Regulation for Roll Over Protective Structures. Similarly, the

Ontario Ministry of Labour Engineer ing Data Sheet on materials handling using Fork Lift Trucks requires exten sive training of truck operators. Such data sheets are treated as defacto regula tions by the Ministry in that they are used as the basis for Ministry orders.

Similar examples can be found in the other provinces and the territories. Third, the general goals and specific objectives of the training should be clearly written into the training plan, and clearly explained in the training itself. The training objectives should de fine who the minimum target groups should be. in order to meet the goals of fulfilling regulatory requirements of reasonable due diligence. Presentation of the objectives to those being trained helps them remain focussed on the main points (the forest) while they are dealing with details ofthe subject matter (the trees). Fourth, and much less important; specific, preferably quantifiable objec tives for training theoretically provide

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

By David A. Whaley, Ph.D., R.O.H., C.I.H., D.I.H. the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the training program. I put it in this very provisional way. because training gurus like to make it all sound cut and dried: that meeting specific, quantita tive objectives shows that the training was effective. In the real world it doesn't

often operate this way. Training in health and safety can bejudged effective if morale is good in the workforce and if. also, work-related accidents, hazardous

exposures and occupational illnesses are either prevented altogether or are significantly decreased since the train ing was introduced or upgraded. It is difficult to quantitate morale,but it is a very real phenomenon, having a large effect on absenteeism, work qua lity and output.(Obviously, work force morale does not depend only on the adequacy of health and safety training, but such training is a well advised com ponent of a conscious program to en hance work force morale.) As well, it is

particularly difficult to document the success of preventative training activi ties when no serious events have yet occurred and when success is defined as

the continuing absence of an adverse, unexpected event. Fifth,the above points emphasize that it is central to the success of a training program that top management is em phatically supportive. This support should be prominently displayed to all stakeholders in documents such as mis

sion statements, policies, company newsletters and the minutes of the Joint

Health and Safety Committee. What is needed is a management commitment

to effective training, not just the mini mum to demonstrate compliance or due diligence. If management understands both the importance of training and the great difficulty ofdocumenting its effec tiveness in preventing adverse out comes, a trainer can proceed. Without this support, roadblocks will have a

magical way of cropping up,just when the trainer thinks support has been achieved. This aspect may require some creative salesmanship. Sixth, an employer is very well ad vised to keep records of all stafftraining.

vocabulary the audience will understand: and use instructors who like people and have reasonably good "people skills". Ninth, the organization of the presen tation is important for effectiveness, in corporating selected repetition of main points for emphasis. The best way to present a topic is to start by summariz ing what you will cover, then explain with examples, then end by summariz ing what you have just said. Sometimes, necessary adjustments of schedule to accommodate questions

This should include, as a minimum,

make it difficult to follow all these

who attended(printed name plus signa ture), dates, outline of subject covered, where presented, who presented, as well as a separate file of the presenters' cre dentials and experience. All audiovisuals or printed materials used and

guidelines in a strict fashion,and,some

handed out should also be on file.

Seventh, the most effective training has two components,(1) a generic part, applying to a wide variety of situations and generally orienting those trained in the subject, and(2)specific material ap plicable to the workplace of the par ticular target audience. For example, WHMIS training should not only include universally ap plicable material on the relevant regu lations and the meanings of technical matters such as LDjqS or risk phrases, but also address the specific priority controlled products used at work by the particular target audience. Eighth, I would fivefundamental principles of training adults: Keep it simple; Tell the truth: Don't scare them; Use

times, the initial overview and final re

view get inserted into responses to ques tions. So,again,flexibility in presenting is important, but the general guideline remains valid.

Tenth,it is advisable to keep the num

ber of main points few, no more than three to four maximum,better only two.

It's fine to develop, explain and give examples, but the substantive content should be restricted to a few points at any one presentation event. From the point of view of providing effective training, it is important that the trainer ensure that management, who is res

ponsible for justifying the cost of train ing sessions, is clearly aware that effec tive training is spread out over time,into reasonable bite-sized pieces, that the memory can conveniently accept and retain. It is then up to the trainer, in developing his material,to plan for con tinuity, that is, developing a set of pre sentations which build on one another,

in sequence. Eleventh, the length of the training should be carefully planned to meet the goals and objectives identified. If dura tion of training is determined by other factors,such as cost or containment of a

confrontational labour relations pro blem, rather than actually enhancing the stated training goals or achieving objectives,then the training is less likely to be effective. In such cases,the money spent to deliver suboptimal training does not achieve the optimal "bang for the buck".Conversely,if the duration of training is tailored for the training need, to meet a broader operational objective, then it is possible for it to be effective.

For example, WHMIS training should be tailored to the complexity and scale ofthe workplace operation and the degree of possible hazard from use of the Controlled Products at that work

ES&E's editor at a Texas chemical plant which had strict safety precautions for workers and visitors.

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

place. In my experience, for staff en gaged in construction or industrial operations, or engaged in environmen tal investigations or clean-ups, initial WHMIS training should last for a mi nimum of a half day and is better ad vised to be allocated one full day. 35

Health & Safety cont'd Twelfth, the frequency of training .ses sions reviewing the same or similar

minutes. For example, interrupt the talking every 30 to 45 minutes with a

material must also be tailored to the

demonstration, audio visual material,

specific workplace operations.This.too.

or questions, or some other form of au

would reflect the scale and complexity of the operation and the general anti cipated level of hazard as determined from the material safety data sheets, and.perhaps,consultation with a health and safety professional. At the moment, the frequency of ref resher training for WHMIS is not speci fied by law. though I understand this matter is under regulatory review. It is generally agreed by health and safety professionals that annual WHMIS ref reshers should be provided, which can be considerably shorter than the initial training, say about one hour. First aid training and training in transportation ofdangerous goods must be repeated every three years. For environmental workers likely to

dience participation.

work at hazardous waste sites in the US.

the annual 8 hour OSHA refresher

course is mandated by US law. Thirteenth. I strive to organize presen tations to break them up into sections,or "pieces", which get shorter as the train ing day progresses, to avoid overly tax ing the attention span. It is best if each piece of a presentation does not last more than 30 minutes, at the most 45

Fourteenth, instruction is far more ef

nuinely interested in their health, safety and morale at work. Within that context,

however, it is important to not let the questions take over your presentation time window. This requires judgement, flexibility and sensitivity to the audien

fective. if shared by two instructors, ra

ce's reactions.

ther than if presented by only one in structor. This is more expensive, but far more effective. Different voices and per sonalities are taking turns in the pieces ofthe presentation,and.ideally,feel free to interject a thought oftheir own during the other's presentation.This helps con siderably to maintain genuine atten

Judgement is required to prioritize each unexpected issue raised by ques tions. and allot answering time in accor dance with the goals of the training. Flexibility is required in that substan tial time spent on the questions may require clipping some time from other planned parts of the presentation. The presenter has to be able to make these prioritized adjustments on his feet.


Fifteenth. I prefer to operate infor mally. There are two good strategies to assist in informality: keep the groups small and encourage interruptions with questions. Training groups tend to be most effective if they do not exceed 15 to 20 persons at a time.

Sometimes, a question is an oblique way of bringing up a very real and criti cal health or safety concern. If the pre senter can be sensitive to identify the real concern and address it to the best of

his ability, given the work circumstan

I also try to encourage spontaneous, thoughtful questions throughout the

ces. he will have furthered one of the

presentation. This definitely helps keep audience attention. Scheduling of the presentation should allow time for such questions.The flip side ofthis approach is that it can lead to delays in the sche dule. if not carefully managed. It is im portant that the presenter be perceived as a friend of those being trained, ge

worker morale.



goals, to


Sixteenth, a matter already alluded to above is that I try to intersperse oral pre sentation time with audio-visual mate

rials and participatory activities. You can use samples of materials or small continued overleaf

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Environmental Science

Engineering, March 1993

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The FMC equipment line includes: screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit collec tors, rectangular sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, flocculation

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Health & Safety cont'd equipment from the workplace or of a source material from nature, such as a piece of ore containing asbestos. Ideally, these objects are small enough to be handled. If the ma terials are toxic, make sure the containers are secure, but transparent.

For sensory experience of less portable or more complex topics, a presenter can intersperse spoken material with flip charts, wall charts, projection slides, overhead projections, videos, or audio recordings. But never dependon the visuals to do aiiyour training work. Nothing is more deadly than a long ses sion restricted to passive viewing, even if well produced. Vi deos can be very compact, that is. package a lot of information into a short time effectively, and very vivid (more easily remem bered). But there is no substitute for direct verbal interaction

between an instructor and the persons being trained. I know of one company which has marketed interactive video for WHMIS training. Such interactive video might be useless for initial group training in WHMIS, but can be quite useful, if made available to staff over a period of time, to be used by individuals during work breaks, say 15-20 minutes at a time. As such, interactive video can serve as a comprehen sive review and reinforcement. If an employer is going to invest in leasing or purchasing such equipment, he should also create incentives for staff to spend their work break time in this way. Properly used, this could be an adequate sub stitute for an annual review.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 117

Seventeenth, where training is mandated by law or con sidered a requisite of due diligence, it is important to issue to the staff who participated some evidence of attendance. This can take the form of a certificate, which can be displayed on the office wall; however,I find a wallet card generally more

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the type of training, date of training and be signed by the trainer. It may include the name of the company paying for the training. Eighteenth, it is a good idea to encourage (or require) attenders to fill out evaluation questionnaires, to be filled out anonymously, which must be submitted, in order to

receive a certificate or wallet card indicating attendance. This can provide very valuable feedback, to better hone and adapt future presentations, so they will better suit the needs of the staff. Nineteenth,Ihave not dealt here in detail with the content

of health and safety training because it will vary widely among different types of work operations. The overall goals

of the training program are to enhance a realistic sense of security among workers, and thereby enhance morale. In general, the first specific goal of health and safety train

ing is to identify potential hazards, whether they be ex posure hazards from chemical, physical or biological agents, or safety hazards. The second specific goal of health and safety training is to train workers in the choice, limita

tions, use and care of protective equipment, particularly pro tective fabrics and respirators. The third major goal is to

identify the safe practices by which to conduct work, and clearly indicate, also, what practices are unsafe. It can be

helpful to develop written work procedures, or even a pro

cedures manual.

Notice that the mode of presentation in verbal training and a written presentation, such as this one. are very dif

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ferent. For example,Ihave presented here 19 points of guid

ance. This would be far too much for a verbal presentation. In written communications, there are also rules for effective communication which writers are well advised to follow. For more information. Circle reply card No. 107


Quality products for monitoring the world's water 38

However, you have the advantage, as a writer, that your reader can stop in the middle, and take up again, once ref reshed. Also, the reader can readily come back to the earlier text to check on something that may not have sunk in. For several reasons, a written communication can hold a greater amount of substantive material than a verbal one. ES&E For more information. Circle reply card No. 250

R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Modelling the Activated Sludge Process

dioxide. Other methods of generating hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants,as

In a paper accepted for publication in fVarer Research, Laval University scien

well as other methods of oxidation that

tist P. Lessard and a U.K.colleague pre

water treatment, are also discussed in

sent the results for the evaluation of a model for carbonaceous and nit

this review.

have been suggested for organic waste-

rogenous substrate removal with refer ence to a comprehensive set of data ob tained from a 10-day monitoring study at the Norwich Sewage Works in eastern England. Substrate removal and the production, thickening, and recycle of biomass (suspended solids) were well replicated by the model. Sensitivity tests with the model suggest that recycled flows from a sludge consolidation tank were a significant factor in the longer

Precipitation of Phenols from Wastewater

Bacterial Leaching of Metals from Sludge

In a paper presented at the 8th Eastern Regional CAWPRC Conference,McGill University's J.A. Nicell described the work undertaken by himself and Uni versity of Windsor scientists J.K. Bewtra and K.E.Taylor on the development of a process for the polymerization and pre cipitation of phenols from wastewater by horseradish peroxidase enzyme. Batch and semi-batch experiments re vealed that the catalytic lifetime of the enzyme may be extended by maintain ing a low instantaneous enzyme con

INRS-Eau scientists D. Couillard and

centration in the reaction mixture. The

G. Mercier studied the biological solubilization of metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge in a con tinuously stirred tank reactor using Thiobacillusferrooxidans. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, a minimal mean hydraulic re

instantaneous enzyme concentration was shown to be an important para meter in the design of a waste treatment


term maintenance of aerator biomass concentration.

Oxidative Destruction of Organics in Wastewater National Water Research Institute sci

entist J.H. Carey has published a review of various processes that have been sug gested for the oxidation of organic com pounds in wastewater. As described in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada,the most widely applicable pro cesses are based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals by the photolysis of hydrogen peroxide,ozone and titanium

The leached sludge was more easily dewatered than untreated sludge. No sig nificant changes were observed in the total nitrogen and phosphorus content of the sludge which was a better quality product for agricultural use.

system. The process results in a con tinuous stirred tank reactor configura tion were also described.

sidence time of 18 hours resulted in the

Quality Assurance for Dioxin Analysis

solubilization of52% of the copper,62% of the zinc, and 78% of the manganese.

Environment Canada has issued a re

port on the internal quality assurance continued overleaf

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R&D News requirements for the analysis of dioxins in environmental samples. Developed by the Dioxin Quality Assurance Ad visory Committee, the report outlines those elements of a laboratory quality assurance program that are considered essential to ensure the reliability of dio xin data. Performance criteria by which data can be assessed are also estab

lished in this report. By focusing on principles and performance rather than procedural details, laboratories have the flexibility to follow specific sample processing procedures of their own choosing, and the need to develop re ference methods for individual environ

mental matrices is simplified or elimi nated.

Sediment Contamination In the St. Lawrence River Sediment data collected in Lac SaintLouis and Lac Saint-Pierre were ana

lyzed to determine the volumes and dis tribution of modern sediments and to estimate the volume of contaminated

.sediment. The estimates published by N.A. Rukavina and R.J. Delorme in a National Water Research Institute re

port are only preliminary but represent the first values for contaminated sedi

ment volume developed from a large


and consistent data set. Results will be

useful as a model for incorporating exist ing chemical data to permit the calcula tion of contaminant levels, and as a

structure for planning future contami nant surveys.

Natural Degradation of Kraft Bleachery Effluent

Changes occurring in the pH-stable fraction of the high molecular weight (HMW)fraction of combined C- and E-

stage bleachery effluent from hardwood and softwood kraft mills were followed

by L. Roy-Arcand and F. Archibald over a 16-week period. As described at the 8th Eastern Regional CAWPRC Con ference. the HMW adsorbable organic halogen(AOX)showed substantial and continuing mineralization by both day light-dependent and daylight-indepen dent mechanisms. The results of this


Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada study suggest that HMW kraft bleachery AOX degrades abiotically to release chloride over a relatively short time span under conditions similar to those typical of many receiving waters. Dynamic Model of the Anaerobic Wastewater Process

In a paper published in Wciut Science and Technology^ R.M. Jones and col leagues from the Wastewater Technol ogy Centre and McMaster University, present the results from a dynamic modelling study conducted on a pilot scale anaerobic fluidized bed. A model

structure was postulated based on the results observed in the dynamic expe riments. An extended Kalman filter

state estimation algorithm,employed to provide estimates of unmeasured pro cess states and parameters, improved the performance of the model, helped locate model inadequacies, and pro PALLETTANK BASIN WITH STEEL STAND


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model development. Phosphorus Transport in Agricultural Runoff H. Ng. J. Marsaiek and T. Mayer have undertaken a study on the Nissouri Creek agricultural watershed to deter

mine the temporal variation in phosophorus and to assess the role of sedi ments in transporting phosphorus in agricultural runoff. These National Water




found that somewhat more than halfthe

phosphorus runoff was associated with sediment particles while the remainder

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was in soluble form. Concentrations of

total and soluble phosphorus were higher by an order of magnitude in the spring and fall than in summer. Higher proportions of particulate phosphorus were observed during the early phases of runoff.

continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


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R&D News Reduction of Trihalomethane

tests conducted on a surface water sup

mented incidents of livestock and wild

Formation Potentiai

ply for a community in northeastern

life poisoning attributed to cyanobacterial toxins. In a paper published in Water Science and Technology. S.L. Kenefick and colleagues from the University

The UVOX process, developed to re duce the high concentrations of trihaiomethanes resulting from chlorine disinfection of surface waters, has been

described by C.R.E. Jansson. Jansson Consulting Services, in a paper pub lished in the Water Pollution Research

Journal ofCanada.The process involves irradiating the water supply with ultra violet light in air-cooled units to pro duce hydroxyl radicals from the photo lysis of hydrogen peroxide. Pilot plant

Saskatchewan were successful in reduc

ing trihalomethane formation potential to very low levels. The process also slightly enhanced the ability of ultra violet light to inactivate Giardia cysts. Contamination of Prairie Drinking Water Sources

Algal blooms in eutrophic lakes have been regarded by some as primarily an aesthetic nuisance for recreational and

drinking water uses despite well docu-

of Alberta and the Saskatchewan Re

search Council describe the results of a

survey conducted on three eutrophic water supply lakes and eight rural dug outs experiencing cyanobacterial blooms. Atnong other things,the results showed that cyanobacterial odourcausing compounds in water did not provide reliable warningofthe presence of the hepatotoxin microcystin LR in these cyanobacterial blooms. Determination of Chiorobenzenes and Hexachiorobutadiene in Sediments


Existing methods to extract chioroben zenes and hexachiorobutadiene in sedi

the most

ment samples are time consuming and produce large quantities of waste sol


vents. National Water Research Insti tute scientists H.B. Lee and T. Peart to

gether with R. Hong-You. Wastewater Technology Centre, have developed an improved method using supercritical fluid extraction in place ofconventional

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katchewan River downstream from two

water treatment plants in the City of Edmonton. As described by these Uni versity of Alberta scientists in a paper accepted for publication in Water Re search.environmental concentrations of

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TRC within the receiving stream body were found to be a function of the hyd raulic mixing characteristics of the re ceiving stream and of the chemical decay of the residual chlorine. First order decay coefficients for TRC were obtained by modelling the chlorinated plume mixing and fitting the decay co efficient to the observed field data. Model of the Anaerobic Granule Consortium

Biotechnology Research Institute scien tist S.R. Guiot together with University of Calgary's J.W. Costerton and a French colleague have provided a model of the anaerobic granule consor tium. Their paper in Water Science and Technology presents a synthetic review of studies conducted recently and con solidated by other literature insights that substantiate a multi-layered struc-

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

R&D News tured model ofthe population organiza tion in the anaerobic granule. Syntrophic bacteria associations would be located „ between an external, pre dominantly acidogenic. layer including also H2-consuming bacteria, and an aceticlastic core. Such a structural ag gregate is a stable metabolic arrange ment that creates optimal nutritional conditions for all its members.

Removal of Metals from Municipal Sludge J.F. Blais and coworkers at INRS-Eau

studied metal removal from municipal sludge in laboratory reactors by acid

league have traced environmental changes which have accompanied de velopment around the Rochester Basin

and rivers compare favourably with conventional methods.

of eastern Lake Ontario based on the

Settling of Fine-Grained Sediment

hydrocarbon content of sediments. As described to delegates attending the an

Knowledge of the settling characteris tics of fine-grained sediment is impor tant for designing and operating reser voirs and settling ponds. National

nual conference of the International

Association on Great Lakes Research,

the sediments prior to the mid-1800s contained low concentrations of hyd rocarbons that are dominated by landplant wax components. The concentra tions of these have continued to rise since the late 1800s as the erosion of soil and nutrients from watershed areas ac

celerated. Petroleum began to appear in

Water Research Institute scientist B.

Krishnappen has developed a computer model which can realistically predict the settling times ofsediments in a vari ety of settling ponds because it accounts for the previously overlooked process of flocculation. The model can be used to

treatment and two microbial leaching processes. As described in Water Science and Technology, the use of a microbial leaching process with elemental sulfur

the late 1800s and has become an im

evaluate the efficacy of ponds in trap ping fine sediments from agricultural

portant portion ofthe hydrocarbon con

and other sources.

and/or ferrous sulfate as substrate re

Acid Volatile Sulfide in Freshwater Sediments

quired less acid for metal extraction and reduced the metal content by 83-100%. A five day bioleaching process using sul fur oxidizing bacteria, with sulfur as the substrate, was superior to a 10-day pro cess using iron oxidizing bacteria with ferrous sulfate as substrate.

Pollution History by Sediment Core Analysis National Water Research Institute sci entist R. Bourbonniere and a U.S. col

tent of modern sediments.

For more Information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

I. Sekerka and J.F. Lechner have devel

oped a reliable, efficient procedure for determining acid volatile sulfide in freshwater sediments. The approach of these National Water Research Institute

scientists is based on converting the ionic sulfide into gaseous hydrogen sul fide by treatment with an acidic solution and then quantitatively monitoring the gas produced. The results obtained for

ciation on Water Pollution Re

search and Control, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819)953-9029.

sediments from various Canadian lakes

Newfor Wastewater Testing Optional self-cleaning By-Pass Y Strainer is now available to reduce clogging and fouling

Hach CL17

Chlorine Analyzer Around-the-clock monitoringforjust pennies per hour* The CL17 Chlorine Analyzer provides the contmuous, accurate, on-line monitoring

required for optimum chlorine residual control. Thousands of facilities have discovered that the CL17 is the affordable way to eliminate expensive overfeeding while assuring full-time compliance.

■ USEPA-approved DPD colorimetric chenustry (for drinking water and wastewater) ■ Operates unattended for 30 days between reagent changes ■ Dual programmable alarms ■ Selectable recorder output and optional computer interface kit *Based on five years of use excluding depreciation

For more information, request literature numbers 3879 and 1320. HACH COMPANY P.O. Box 389 Loveiand, Colorado 80539 U.S.A. Service Centre in Winnipeg

Sales outlets throughout Canada

Telephone:(303)669-3050 Fax:(303)669-2932

For more information, Circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


By James Higgins, Ph.D., P.Eng.^

Environmental economics

Global environmental market could reach

$US454 billion by year 2000

Theannual watersupply budget in the United States amounts

to US $100 to $150 billion. The Associated General Contrac

tors (AGC) estimate American water

and wastewater treatment area.

There is a continuing trend towards the use of more secondary sewage treat ment (biological bacterial degradation of dissolved organic solids) and tertiary

ment. BC has a poor record with only 55% primary treatment.20% with secon dary and a further 20% discharging di rectly into receiving waters with no treatment at all.

supply infrastructure needs $139 billion between now and year 2000. Potable water treatment facilities will require $4 billion in work annually and the water purification equipment and services

sewage treatment (chemical removal of nutrients, metals and dissolved inorga nics). The Atlantic provinces have the poorest records in the area of sewage

The U.S. government expects US $60 billion to be spent by the year 2000 in order to meet requirements of the Clean

treatment. Newfoundland,for instance,

pal wastewater treatment capital expen

market has been forecast at $8 billion

discharges over 80% of its sewage un treated even by primary treatment(me chanical removal of solids). Quebec also has a very poor record with 65% of sewage from communities over 1000 re ceiving no treatment and much less than 20% receiving only secondary treatment.(The province has. however, committed to provide at least some

ditures will total about $3 billion by 1995. with three times this amount being

annually in 1990.

In Canada, there are approximately 1500 sewage treatment facilities serving about two thirds of our population. The rest either are not connected to collec

Water Act amendments of 1987. Munici

directed towards operations and main tenance.The AGC estimate $508 billion

will have to be spent before the year 2000 on U.S. wastewater treatment infra

tor systems or discharge sewage di rectly into bodies of water. Although the percentage of Canadian communities with some form of sewage treatment in

treatment for all communities over 5000

Solid Wastes Handling and Control The Solid Wastes Handling and Con

creased from 63% in 1983 to 70% in 1989.

by 1995.) In Ontario the situation is

trol area involves the collection, han

over 700 ofthem will require new sewage treatment plants. These plus upgrades of sadly neglected existing facilities will

much better with over 60% of com

munities having some level of tertiary

dling. treatment and disposal of ordin ary solid wastes (municipal, industrial

treatment and a further 15%.secondary.

and commercial), hazardous wastes

provide long term opportunities for en vironmental companies in the water


On the prairies. Manitoba has the best

and a variety of special wastes (e.g.. nu

record with over 90% secondary treat

clear. toxic, medical)as well as facilities,

products and services involved with re cycling. incineration and other solid TABLE 1 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET BY TERRITORY

waste treatment facilities. Already American public spending for solid waste disposal amounts to US $7 billion annually while in Canada it amounts to

($US Billion) YEAR 1990

YEAR 2000

$600 million.




















21 15

36 34

















8 22



Air Pollution Control The Air Pollution Control area in

volves air pollution control equipment and instrumentation,scrubber technol

ogy and systems,pre-treatment technol ogy. combustion modification tech niques. continuous air monitoring and analysis systems and indoor air quality systems. With new legislative initiatives such as recent amendments to the U.S.

Clean Air Act and Ontario's proposed Clean Air Program (CAP), many feel par ticular growth will occur in this area over the next few years. Expenditures on air pollution abatement from mobile sources (e.g.. cars and trucks) totalled US $20 billion in North America in 1985

while a further $18 billion was spent on abatement from industrial, public and other stationary sources. Water and Wastewater Treatment The field of water and wastewater

treatment is a particularly broad area to REST OF WORLD






*Environmental Technologies Deve lopment Corporation, Toronto, On tario.


Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


J 1!^




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which society will have to pay particular attention in future. The Potable and In

few very large players (e.g., Laidlaw. Waste Management Inc.. BFI). Annual

dustrial Water segment involves water supply, purification, water disinfection,

revenues in North America for this sec

panies have diversified into the Envi ronmental Services sector,(e.g., Laidlaw

tor are already more than $30 billion.

with Tricil and WMI with Chemical

groundwater monitoring, laboratory testing and technologies for water treat ment. The Wastewater Treatment seg ment involves the collection, treatment

Many Waste Management .sector com

Waste Management).

Environmental Services Sector

Closely related to the Waste Manage

Environmental Equipment Sector

ment seetor is the Environmental Ser-

The supply ofequipment for the envi ronmental industry is a large, highly fragmented sector. There are thousands of firms which supply everything from

and disposal of industrial and munici pal wastewaters, wastewater treatment

technologies and the remediation of

instruments to incinerators. The North American market for this sector is at least $15 billion. Here in Canada the

contaminated water streams.

In Canada over 90% ofthe population — 2500 communities — are connected

market is already $1.4 billion, having grown a whopping 43% in the last five years. We believe the equipment sector (and the related environmental techno logies sector) will continue to show strong growth, becoming the predomi-

to some sort of water supply system. Water demand is growing at 12% per year, much higher than population growth. However,continuing deteriora tion of existing infrastructure, strong demands for new facilities, forecasts of

water shortages, conservation activities, and heightened public awareness of and concern for water purity will make water purification and supply a strong growth area during the 1990s. Waste Management Sector The Waste Management sector is the largest sector and involves the collec tion, handling, disposal and brokering of both hazardous and non-hazardous

wastes, and often the operation oftrans

nent sector in the environmental field.

Dr. Higgins

vices sector. This rapidly growing sector encompasses such areas as the opera tion of treatment plants, recycling plants, composters, specialty materials handling facilities, incinerators and used oil recovery facilities. Also includ ed are businesses carrying out water and air pollution monitoring services for industry. Annual revenues for this sec

fer stations and landfills. The sector is

tor in North America are in the $10 bil

fiercely competitive and dominated by a

lion range and growth rates are high.

Environmental Technologies Sector This is the largest sector and is a catch-all area which comprises a wealth

of processes, technologies, products, chemicals,organisms,catalysts and ma terials. Often it is associated with par

ticular types of equipment. It is the least evolved of the market sectors but is be

coming increasingly important as waste generators draw on new technologies to continued

Liquid and Diy Storage Systems with the "No Painting" Difference

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Environmental economics cont'd reduce pollution. Due to the variety of participants, this sector defies precise quantification and probably exceeds $5 billion per year.

Analytical Services Sector Over 1,000 companies make up this fragmented sector which is concerned with the analysis of samples to deter mine the existence,extent and character

Remediation Sector The remediation market sector is less

fragmented than others and involves fewer companies. It includes those that clean up waste sites, ones involved in decommissioning services, cleaning up oil, chemicals and other spills, and firms involved in asbestos removal and

disposal. The sector enjoys revenues of about $5 billion annually and growth rates average 10% in most of its subsectors, with some growing at 25% per year or more.

Consulting & Engineering Sector This sector involves several hundred

firms, usually relatively small and pri vately-held ones. It covers not only the design of pollution control facilities, but also consultation and interpretation on environmental laws, project engineer ing,environmental audits,environmen tal risk analyses, compliance audits, as sistance with obtaining environmental permits, and a host of other activities. Many firms have geographical and/or technical specialties. Sector growth rates are above 25% per year in many cases and the sector market is in the $12

billion range.

of contaminants. Competition is strong and is growing as more companies seek

The world market for

tions and many others. In some cases,

the services provided are only a part of the services the organization in total provides, (e.g., part of a law firm may devote itself to environmental law).This sector is worth at least a billion and pro bably worth several billion dollars an nually in North America. Global Environmental Market

products, technologies, processes, and services for cleaning up the environment

The world market for products, tech nologies, processes, and services for cleaning up the environment was esti

was estimated to be worth about US $255 billion in

in 1990 and is projected to grow at about 6% per year to $454 billion by the year

1990 and is projected to grow at about6% per year to $454 biiiion by the year 2000.

ready estimated to be anywhere from

mated to be worth about US $255 billion

2000. The total Canadian market is al

US $5 to 7 billion annually. We agree

with the latter figure and feel it will grow to exceed $12 billion by the year 2000. In the U.S., the environmental market was

worth $115 billion in 1990 and is grow

to compete in an already crowded mar ket currently worth about $2 billion in North America alone.

ing at about 5% per year. Indeed, the American market already makes up over 2% of GNP and this too is expected

to grow. In the European Community, the market is already worth about 51

Information Sector

This last sector is a grab bag of areas providing support services to the other environmental industry sectors and to the customers they serve. Included are market research companies, insurance companies, law firms, financial institu

billion ECU and there it is forecast to

grow at8% per year between now and the year 2000. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 116


Ontario Conference ON THE Environment (formerly Ontario Waste Management and Industrial Waste Conferences)

June 13 - 16, 1993 ❖ Four Seasons ❖ Inn on the Park ❖ Toronto, Ontario The Ontario Conference on the Environment will provide new insights into environmental problems and solutions.

Pollution prevention ❖ 3Rs and waste reduction ❖ Multi-media technologies ❖ Eco-system approaches for cleaning up and restoring land, water and air For more information please contact: Ministry of the Environment, 12th floor, 2 St. Glair Ave., W., Toronto, Ontario M4V 1L5

Attn.: Murray Cheetham, Conference Co-ordinator,

® Ontario

Phone:(416) 323-5184 Fax:(416) 323-5031 For more information, Circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, March 1993


/li bV 'v r/' 7th ANNUAL


May 11 & 12, 1993 Toronto International Centre of Commerce, Misslssauga, Ontario, Canada

BOOK YOUR EXHIBIT SPACE TODAYI For further information contact:

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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


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Product Review New auto-start, silent pumping unit

Canadian made aluminum access hatches MSU Mississauga has introduced the Type M Access Hatch. The watertight, gasketed drain chan nel keeps water out of underground structures; this is particularly important for drinking water reservoirs. The con tinuous piano hinges are attached with vandal-proof, stainless steel hardware. Gas springs are supplied with etich hatch to assure easy operation and max imum safety. The Type M is of flush design; the operator is not exposed to any trip hazards.

MSU Mississauga is certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau to CSA

Standard W47.2-m"1987. MSU Mississauga For more information, Circle reply card No. 172

New Product Recovery System

Gorman-Rupp has introduced a new. portable sewage pumping system de signed for emergency standby and sewage-by-pass operations.


The silent unit features a 6" T-Series

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The model Keck PRS-90 is designed for the efficient recovery of floating hyd rocarbons. It uses a stainless steel blad

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993



Product Review The PRS-90 is designed for field por tability and rapid installation.

Comprehensive • Complete MISA Parameters


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Eiivironmemal Science & Engineering. March 1993

Product Review water treatment process.

ditions such as for frost protection.

The laboratory and on-line instru ments report anticipatory wastewater operation data that mean protection for


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the biomass from toxic kill and shock loads, determination within 10-15 min

utes of inOuent treatability and fast readouts of the amount of food (BOD) present at any point in the treatment

troduced a new six page brochure des cribing its complete line of rotating screen systems for the removal of gross solids from municipal and industrial wastewater streams.

New brochure on

rotary screens Pollution Control Inc. has recently in

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

(416)226-0148 51

Product Review


mesh size to adapt the screening system to the prevailing characteristics of the wastewater stream.

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Smart flow transmitters

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

Seaflow".s new FT400 flow computer, when combined with their wide range in.sertion flow sensor, makes a powerful field adjustable How system. The FT400 flow computer is mounted in a module directly on the How sensor which is inserted into the pipe line by a

115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario 1.9Y 2L9 Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

one and one half inch or two inch con


Consulting Engineers


ClfMHILL, ENGINEERING 5 Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vanqpuver • Lethbridge

• Wastewater Collection & Treatment

■ Hazardous & Solid Waste Management • Water Resources & Environmental Planning

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow Measurement

nector. It is field programmable in eight digit digital display for rate and total. 4 to 20 milliamp output pulse output. Sensor/Computer range is from 2 gal lons a minute in a one and one halfinch

pipe to 7300 gallons a minute in a ten inch pipe (0.3 to 30 feet per second.)


Sealand Sales



For more information, Circle reply card No. 178



New on-line turbldlmeter



WINDSOR [519)255-9797 TORONTO (416)498-7444


• Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remedlations

Tile new Micro 200on-line turbidimeter offers the ultimate in ease ofuse. while at

' Environmental

the same time,offeringgrealer accuracy. The Micro 200 incorporates a mem

Assessments I

Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing Analytical Laboratory Services


brane keypad user interface, a long life, easy to change lamp module, conden sation-free measurement, and text help Enviroiimeiital Science & Engineering. March 1993

Product Review


screens to guide the user. This ensures that all routine maintenance from calib

ration to cleaning to lamp replacement is performed without any tools. The Micro 200 provides ±1% accur acy and 0.0001


on the

0-1.0000 NTU range. Full scale range is 100 NTU. The sensor configuration al lows for easy cleaning, no condensation and most importantly, an immediate response to a change in turbidity.



Eastern Region Toronto Tel: (416M41-4111


Fax: (416)441-4131


Prairie Region Calgary


Tel: (403) 276-9861


Fax: (403) 277-6902


Pacific Region




Tel: (604) 525-9333

Offices across Canada and Overseas

Fax: (604) 525-9458

HP Scientific

For more information, Circle reply card No. 179

PIILLOn Professional Consulting Services Planning Engineering

Display graphics for turbidity

Environmental Science

The new Micro 200 BW on-line tur-

hidimeter introduces display graphics to the measurement of turbidity. The unit provides a graphic history of tur bidity for the previous 24 hour period, often eliminating the need to review chart recordings. The Micro 200 BW also incorporates ESP (Extra Sensor Perception) to allow connection of the optional backwash sensor. Properly

Toronto * London • Cambridge • Windsor • Ottawa • Halifax • Sydney Fredericton • Winnipeg • Edmonton • Red Deer • Ye II o w k ni f e • International 100 Sheppard Avenue East. Toronto. Ontario M2N 6N 5 (4 16) 229-4646

Consultants In

used the backwash sensor will allow

• Environmental Planning • Ecological Science

operators to minimize the amount of

• Geosclence

• Planning • Implementation • Monitoring • Remediation

Gartner Lee TORONTO (416)477-8400

VANCOUVER (604)299-4144

NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716)285-5448


0.0001 resolution on the I NTU range. The Micro 200 BW will easily provide raw water, settled water, filter effiuent. filter to waste finished water, and back

wash turbidity measurement using one measurement system. HP Scientific



For more information, Circle reply card No. 180

Single point level detection system


• Engineering

water needed to backwash a filter while

ensuring that the filter has been cleaned to a predetermined standard. In the turbidity mode the Micro 200 graphically displays the current reading as well as the high. low. and average for the previous 24 hour period. The Micro 200 provides accuracy of ±1% and

The Environment


50 offices throughout Canada, the United States. Australia and Europe. BURNABY MISSISSAUGA

Tel: (604) 298-6623 Fax: [604] 298-5253 Tel: (416)567-4444 Fax: (416)567-6561

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Workplace and safety audits

> Environmental Engineering "Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances " Ventilation assessment/design • Air monitoring " Air emission control • Indoor air quality " Environmental audits • Noise monitoring and control •WHMiS

• Asbestos

20(X) Argentia Road, Plaza III. Suite 301 Mlsslssauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada • (416) 858-4424

Telex: 06-218242

Fax: (416) 858-4426


The new model I3L single point level detection system features high quality construction for superior performance

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6 Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687

Ottawa • Thorold • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston • London

in conductive and non-conductive ma-

Eiiviiviinieiilal Science & Engineering. March 1993


Product Review



1685 Main St. West, Suite 302 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 1G5

Consulting Engineers

FAX (416) 522-0031

Tel. (416) 522-0012

Water and Wastewater Engineering • Water Resources Modelling • Simulation • Integrated Computer Control Expert Systems • Neural Networks


Consultants for water and pollution control projects

Knox Martin Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects


220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario. L6T 4J5 (41 6) 459-4780 Fax. (41 6) 459-7869 Kitchener (51 9) 743-61 1 1 Cobalt (705) 679-5979

terials of all kinds. Its integral level sens ing element and special shield driver circuitry Ignore conductive material buildup on the level sensing element surface, providing reliable point level detection.

The 13L"s explosionproof enclosure and intrinsically safe level probe permit this system to be used in hazardous areas. FM and CSA explosionproofsys tem certification is pending. With its extremely rugged level probe, rated to 232°C(450° F).the system can be used in a wide variety of applications. Also, the probe's stainless steel and Teflon con struction permits use in highly corrosive media. Great Lakes Instruments

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 181


shallow well sampler

Environmental Management Consultants for Water and Pollution Control Projects Tel.


Brampton (416)459-4780 (416)459-7869 Kitchener (519)743-6111 (519) 743-3330


(705) 679-5979 (705) 679-5750

Ideal for purging shallow monitoring wells, the Model 5750 shallow well sam

pler from GEOGUARD. may also be utilized for cleaning GEOGUARD bladder pumps and tubing assemblies, or for any small volume pumping ap plications.

Consultants Limited Consulting Engineers, Pianners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario L6T 4J5


Windsor, Ontario



(519) 539-2015

The shallow well sampler is a port able. peristaltic pump with a 26 ft. lift which produces flow by squeezing a flexible %" ID silicone tube. The medi

cal grade silicone tubing is the only pump component that comes in contact with the liquid. The user can pump in forward or reverse as well as vary the

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Markham, Ontario. L3R 4B9 • Telephone:(416) 475-7270 • TeleFAX;(416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment


available. GEOGUARD

•Waste management


pumping rate with an adjustable motor speed controller. The unit is contained in a rugged ABS housing with an aluminum chassis, operating from a 6 Amp-hour. 12 VDC rechargeable gel cell battery; 115 VAC/ 12 VDC power converter; or 12 VDC power cords for connection to a car bat tery or lighter socket. An AC model (5751)for stationary applications Is also For more information,

•Engineering geology

Circle reply card No. 182

•Environmental audits MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilltatlDn

Clamp-On Flowmeter Clamp-On Flowmeter System 990N from Controiotron is ideal for upgrade

and retrofit applications as it requires 54

Environmental Science c£ Engineering. March 1993

Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited

Product Review


no process or flow shutdown for instal lation andean be installed in minutes — often with the old flowmeter left in-line.

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering. Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources

System 990N requires very little main tenance. since the flowmeter is com

pletely non-intrusive and there are no


moving or exposed parts to wear or he damaged by the flow stream.The paten ted MultiPulse measurement technique is entirely digital, and calibration ac curacy will not degrade over time. Sys

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416) 882-1100 Fax: (416) 882-0055

Proctor & Redfern Limited

tem 990N uses ultrasonic transit-time

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners


Environmental Scientists Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Sie. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay Windsor


45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 (416) 445-3600

Fa.x: (416) 445-5276


Stocking costs are minimized be cause System 990N is field programm able for pipe diameters 0.25" to 360". via a simple hand-held keypad. Accuracy is typically within 1% of flow rate over a How range of 1000 to 1. All industry standard outputs are avail able as well as RS-232C computer inter face. Digital, analog and graphics dis plays. with stripchart and datalogger screens, are optional. Controlotron


Consulting Engineers & Arctiitects WATER SUPPLY • SCADA

For more information,




Circle reply card No. 183

345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Telephone 416-509-2285 Fox 416-509-1361

Air operated pump control system

TECHNITROL• ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 • ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS • IMPACT STUDIES • RISK ASSESSMENT • WASTE MGMT.









121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems • Instrumentation & Controls

Environmental Audits Water Resources Water Pollutlon Control

• Environmental Planning

Water Supply

MILTON: Tel.:(416)875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.:(416)643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.:(613)247-0111

Environmenial Science & Engineering. March 1993

Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)247-0114 55

Product Review

Consultants engineers


Complete Environmental Service


Water Supply • Wastewater • Needs Studies


Environmental Assessment • Environmental Audits

Solid Waste Management • MISA



TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416)668 0221


environments, and makes installation





The Diagencx PCTrOOO pump control system aulomaticiiiiy controls and ad justs the air pressure to the feed pump in six individual preset stages oftime and pressure. The time and pressure ol'each stage is fully adjustable. The PCTrOOO comes in a water proof NEMA 4 enclosure to protect the mic roprocessor from the elements in harsh


quick and simple. The PChOOO can con

trol any air operated diaphragm feed pump. Internal components are easily accessible for maintenance and adjust ments.

Air or core blow dov\n can also be

automatically conlroiled by the PC60()()

if the filter press is equipped with the proper components. DIagenex

Consulting Engineers

For more information, Circle reply card No. 184



51 Townline, Orangeville, Ontario L9W IVl Tel:(519)941-0330 Fox:(519)941-1830

Pipe Inspection system



The Versa Trac pipe inspection system


consists of: Minilracs. colour CCD

• Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony • Design and Specification of Control Measures ' Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Consulting Engineers Quarries, Presses, Blasting 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario LS I 1A3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698 Waterloo (519) 746-3415

camera,onboard light. !()()() feet of conirol cable, power supply, joystick hand controller, powered cable winch, cable counter and camera mounts (for 6"

through 36" pipe). Each minitrac is individually pow ered by a built in motor which provides proportional speed eontroi in both for ward and reverse. To address 6" and H"

pipes the tracks are conllgured nose to WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS

tail with the camera mounted in front of

Environmental and Waste Management Approvals.

the lead track. In pipes 10" and larger, the tracks are configured side by side,

Municioal Law. Land Use Planning and Development.


4 King Street West. Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario M5H 3X2 (416) 863-0711 Fax:(416)863-1938





them.The system can be operated in dry or fiooded pipelines; the complete sys tem is depth rated to !()() feet. Inutstun For more iniormation,

Circle reply card No. 185

Sewer pipe surveying unit XCG Consultants Ltd.


Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

Kitctrener, Ontario

Fax 519/741-5627

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

MASc, PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


Tlie Model 1512 Pipe Profiling Sonar by Marine Electronics produces high reso lution eotour images of the interior of liquid filled pipes or boreholes. The image produced is effectively a crosssection through the pipe. The .sonar is moved through the pipeeitheron a float (if the pipe is not fully surcharged)or on skids or a conventional wheeled tractor

as used for camera surveys of sewer 56

Enviiviiiuciilal Science & Engineering. March 1993

Product review pipes. The sonar will only work when submerged in liquid unlike a camera system which requires the pipe to be drained before conducting the survey. Accurate quantified data is obtained unlike the subjective interpretation of a conventional camera picture. The images obtained using the sonar may be recorded live using a domestic video recorder in either PAL or NTSC for

mats. Additionally images may be saved to an internal hard disk drive which allows restoration of the full resolution

image at a later date. Hubbard Hume

RS232 data are collected from up to four instruments at a time and brought into the Labtronics Spreadsheet. Routines are then called that will automatically plot Standard Curves, using up to 10 unique standards, perform run correc tions,calculate unknowns,and generate QC Charts. Sample information can be dow nloaded directly from your LIMS and results can be sent directly back.

AAnalyze is a complete, flexible, ready to use package for IBM PCs and com patibles. Labtronics Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 186

Sensors cleaned

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 189

Uninterrupted pipeline flow ensured


10.26 pH turn canTROL PRntESS

^ra^lD.35 M OUTPUT

The Pipeline Delumper® has been de veloped to eliminate stoppages in pipe lines and clogging of pumps due to solids in the flow. The fluid type pre ssure rate Pipeline Delumper has the full put through capacity of the pipe to which it is connected. It breaks up clus ters, delumps agglomerates and breaks

rugged impeller teeth passing through a heavy bar grating to reduce the size of the product. The machine does not clog because the design uses rugged rotor teeth which completely clear the slots of the bar grating and at the same time clean the entire pipe cross section area. There is very little loss of pressure head.

Heavy and light sludge and slurries, including sewage sludges, are readily processed. Franklin Miller For more Information, Circle reply card No. 188

up globules. It ensures free flow.

The Pipeline Delumper® is an in-line fully enclosed, pipe tight machine oper ating under pressure, vacuum or gravity in liquid, pneumatic or dry systems. Its patented working principle employs

Afterburners oxidize Process Emissions Self-contained afterburners can effi

ciently oxidize a variety ofprocess emis sion gases to help meet air-quality re-

CORROSION PROTECTION SYSTEMS Utilizing an outside water, steam or cleaning solution source, the model

TB701 Analyzer/Controller can be pre programmed to activate the TBl-Bailey Hydraulic Sensor Cleaner for automa tic pH sensor cleaning. Designed to eliminate labour-inten sive manual sensor cleaning, the auto matic cleaner may be used in any submersible installation or when ap plied to a minimum 2 inch NPT backthreaded in-line process. The TB701 can be programmed through an intrinsic cycle timer (0-999 hours) for clean times from 0-999 se conds and recovery times from 0-999

seconds. A "hold outputs (yes/no)" function oversees the cleaning cycle without upsetting recorder and digital outputs. The BID controller automati cally holds its output. The TB701 pH Analyzer/Controller comes with sensor self-diagnostics and multiple control options,including a bi directional controller with adaptable gain, Elsag Bailey For more Information, Circle reply card No. 187

TOC Software

Pipes, flanges, valves and fittings can be buried — but not forgotten. Corrosion will attack, and repairs can be costly. So protect your valuable assets with Densyl Tape and Profiling Mastic. It's long-lasting protection that's easy to apply. • No abrasive blasting • No special equipment or training • Goes on wet or corroded surfaces

• No VOC's, non-toxic

• More cost-effective than paints • Proven long service life • Meets AWWA Standard C21 7-90

for cold-applied petrolatum tapes Call for a literature package. Or, we'll

send a technical representative for an on-site demonstration and analysis of your needs.

AAnalyze is a full featured package for collecting and analyzing TOC data.


Houston: (713)821-3355 Toronto: (416)940-8255 ©1993 Dense North T^merica Inc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 130

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


Product review gulations. These units are designed and manufactured by Lindberg. A Unit of General Signal. The afterburners help oxidize volatile organic compounds and incinerate process fumes at a pre determined and adjustable temperature

flow volume and transmits a 4-20 mA

signal for use with recorders, indicator and computer equipment. Model IRT provides instantaneous flow rate indication,totalization of flow

volume and transmits a 4-20 mA signal

(from 600 to 2000 F) in an FM/I.R.I.

for communications with recorders, in

approved combustion system. They are pre-piped and wired and have a remov able. wall mount type control panel for separate mounting and easy remote operation. Excess air operation provides the most effective incineration; adjustable air injector and combustion blower with

dicators and like equipment. The unit requires 24 VDC nominal power and has three wiring terminals for easy con nection. This product is unique because it is a fully solid state transmitter at tached directly to the meter for more precise accuracy and long term per formance. Kent Meters, Inc.

filter/silencer further enhance combus

For more information, Circle reply card No. 192

tion efficiencies. Ceramic fibre insula

tion conserves energy through its excep tionally fast heatup and recovery rates. Lindberg

Rate-of-Flow recorder features universal

For more information, Circle reply card No. 191


Kent's new IT & IRT

The Meter Master System III. Model 100

Integral Transmitters with 4-20 mA output

Rate-of-Flow Recorder is compatible with all meter types and small enough to fit inside residential meter boxes. The

Kent Meters. Inc.. has developed new integral transmitters with 4-20 mA out put for use with Model C-700 Positive Displacement and Model T-3000 Tur

ompact and portable System III. Model 100 includes a patented magnetic strapon sensor to log the meters magnetic pulse count without any alteration to the

bine cold water meters.

meter. The recorder is submersible and

Model IT provides totalization of

can be secured, if required.

The Model 100 System III Rate-ofFlow Recorder is easy to use and doesn't require a pc at the meter site or in the field. Capable ofstoring up to 20 records prior to downloading, the self-contained recorder interfaces with user friendly system software compatible with gener

ic hardware and disc operating systems. Reports are generated in standard ASCII format for graph generation and export to other database programs. Meter-Master Rate-of-Flow Recor

ders have helped water utilities increase revenues and reduce capital expen ditures. Applications include demand

monitoring, evaluating and proper meter sizing, customer rate structuring, leak detection, resolving customer dis putes and conservation programs. Sensus Technologies For more Information, Circle reply card No. 193

Versatile new leak-tight

Environmental Law

sewer system The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: • • • • •

Environmental Assessments & Approvals Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings Waste Management & Disposal Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods Occupational Health & Safety

• Insurance Claims • Environmental Audits

• Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) • Sale of Land & Secured Transactions

For more information contact:

With the introduction of its new Boss®

Poly-Tite Gasketed Sewer System. Big "O'Inc. has claimed a first for Canada's

polyethylene pipe industry. The key to the system is its new. gas keted pipe connection. Designed and factory-tested to meet CSA certification standards, the system provides the Bell & Spigot sealed joint required by sani tary sewer systems and those storm sewers needing leak-tight performance. Boss Poly-Tite leak-tight sewer sys tems feature the strength and durability of Big 'O' high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. A proven performer in the municipal pipe field. HDPE pipe combines a corrugated exterior for max-


Burton H Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400

Schlumberger Industries

John D Brownlie, Q.C. (416) 863-2400



Gordon Cameron

Aleck Trawick

(613) 788-2200

(403) 260-9600

Measurement Division


Marvin R V Storrow, Q.C. (604) 631-3300

Introduces new toll free numbers

Phone: I-800-3NE-PTUN(E) 1-800-363-7886


Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors

I-800-463-METE(R) 1-800-463-6383

Turn-key universal metering programs and Information management systems

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 131 58

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


Do you know the TAT for your lab? Does your lab know? At EPL, we view TAT as an essential part of our unique approach to quality, service, and capability. We will not only negotiate a realistic TAT with you, we will track it, report it, and meet it.

If accuracy and scheduling are important to you,call EPL. And if you want a TAT report for your projects ail you have to do is ask.



6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

For more information, Circle reply card No. 127

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


Product review imum strength and resilience with the smooth inner wall required to handle the optimum flow of sewer systems. It is currently available in diameters of 100mm to 375mm. A full range of CSA certified thermoplastic fittings completes the system. Larger pipe dia meters are now being developed, and will be introduced during 1993. For municipal engineers, the system is an excellent choice for either sanitary or storm sewer applications. Since all its components — both HDPE pipe and fittings — meet stringent CSA stan dards, the new leak-tight system pre

al sewer systems. Big 'O' Inc. For more iriformation, Circle reply card No. 194

Balers to reduce volume of domestic solid waste POM balers are suitable for compress ing raw garbage, domestic refuse, and industrial waste. The resulting bales are safe, cost effective and environmentally sound for removal to local landfills.

The baler — designed by COPEX of Erance — operates very simply. Materi al is fed into a hopper and compacted by

sents a viable alternative to convention

a hydraulic piston.The compressed and formed bale is then tied securely with flat bands and ejected for removal to a landfill site. Volume of waste is reduced

by five or six times. The baler's capacity is twelve to forty metric tons of waste per hour, with bales from 5.4 to 12.9 square feet in volume,depending on the model. A special system collects gases and leachates after compaction of the bales. The POM baler is claimed to reduce




transportation costs significantly be cause fewer trips are needed to deliver the compacted refuse to landfills. Se curely bound bales are readily stored in a holding area and removed as a group, ensuring full load trips to the landfill. Simple trailers or wagons can be uti lized to transport the bales, instead of more expensive garbage trucks or co vered vehicles. Smaller communities can share the use of a mobile POM

baler, which can readily be moved from place to place. The baler can improve the operating efficiency of landfill sites by stacking bales vertically up to twenty-six feet high,instead of dumping loose refuse in successive layers. Stacking bales en ables operators to handle fifty metric tons of waste per hour,and increases the useful life of the landfill by 20% to 40%. COPEX


For more information,

Circle reply card No. 195



Ammonia & nitrate monitors Contronic Development's Ammonia Monitor is based on use of an ion-selec tive electrode which measures the con

7900 Canadian Drive

Niagara Falls, Ontario, L2E 6S5 (416) 357-6424 FAX (416) 357-6447

ple by the addition of alkali to convert

ammonium ions to ammonia. The in

70 East Beaver Creek Road, Unit 24 Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3B2

strument's microprocessor converts the elctrode output signal to calculate am monia concentration, while compensat ing for the temperature of the sample. The result is displayed as Nitrogen (NH4N). Cancoppas


FAX (416)889-0078 •

148 Colonade Road South, Suite 205 Ottawa, Ontario, K2E 7R4

(613) 727-0216

FAX (613) 727-1806

For more information. Circle reply card No. 132 60

centration of ammonia. The principle used involves raising the pH ofthe sam

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 196

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


46' Floating Sludge Cover, Fergus, Ontario


SLUDGE HOLDING TANK COVERS The corrosion resistant solution for odour control.

Engineered covers designed to meet your project needs.



Expect the best...since 1872 Box 280, 1 CanbarSt, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 4A7 Telephone (519) 886-2880, Fax (519)886-5546 Visit our booth at the PCAO Conference for more details For more information, Circle reply card No. 128

Product review New sludge dewatering system good for septage




WE'RE MOVING AS OF FEBRUARY 15, 1993 Our new phone and fax numbers will be: Phone number:(416)878-2800 Fax number:(416) 878-7332


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel

Our new mailing address wiil be: P.O. Box 60069


300 North Service Road West


L6M 3H2

^20 Sharp Rd., R.R,#6, Brantford, Ont. N3T 5H6 Tel: (519) 751-1080 Fax: (519) 751-0617

Our new 24 hour spills response phone number:(416)878-2800

Circle reply card No. 133

Circle reply card No. 134


about 95% is evacuated and can be di



rectly introduced into a wastewater


treatment plant without requiring fur


"MiSA" Spec Appiications Support

temporary & permanent

ther treatment. Valoraction

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 199


A variety of sludges have been effec tively treated using the DAB Swedish technology,including biological, physi cal and chemical sludges from was tewater treatment plants, sludges from livestock transportation wastewaters, oily refinery sludges, pulp and paper mill green liquor and domestic septage. The system relies on the combined re sults of decantation and filtration using a patented membrane with collection piping to evacuate the water separated from the sludge. For septic tank sludges,the system in cludes a mixing bar screen, a storage reservoir, a sludge pump, a polymer mixing/metering system and the DAB dewatering unit. The filtrate, with its or ganic and solids fraction reduced by

63 Mclntyre Piace Kitchener, Ontario N2R 1G3 (519)748-8024

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 135

New 'high performancelow cost water pollution monitors


A new range of high performance, low

Environmental Specialists

cost, ion-selective instruments for mon

Wastewater Sampiers Groundwater Sampiing Levei Controi & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up



Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity Suspended Solids, Og, DO,(Conductivity


Known as the EIL8230 Series, these

2495 Haines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y1Y7, Tel (416) 277-0331, Pax (416) 277-2588 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 136 Plant Facilities & Mobile Services



Steel Grit




Aikyd Enamels Epoxy Coatings

Glass Bead


"Leaders In Quality & Performance"


Plastic Flame Coating


For more information, Circle reply card No. 137 ENWno^


microprocessor-based instruments comprise models for three types of mon itoring application — ammonia,nitrate and fluoride. They are aimed primarily where anti-pollution programmes call for optimum controi ofthe sewage treat ment process to ensure that discharges comply with strict consent limits and that potable water abstraction facilities are adequately protected.

Zinc Rich

Clarlfiers, Pipe, Tanks, Structural Steel, Concrete, Small Parts 42 Taber Road, Rexdaie Ontario

itoring or controlling sewage treatment and for monitoring river quality, efflu ent discharge and the purity of potable water has been developed by ABB Kent-

Candrum Sells DOT Approved

Advanced features normally associ ated with much more expensive instru ments include automatic two point ca libration, fault diagnostics and an optional serial communications link for remote interrogation and modification by a PC or main frame computer. As well as providing low-cost access to State-of-the-art pollution monitoring

Drums To The

Waste Handling Industry. Always In stock and ready to ship are thousands of open and closed top plastic and steel drums for new product or waste. Drum disposal available and approved by the M.O.E. Fast delivery always available. Free Brochure Call 416-841-8160 or 1-800-668-3786 Serving Ontario and Quebec

technology, the EIL8230 Series ionselective monitors incorporate several features for minimizing maintenance, thereby reducing the overall cost of ownership. ABB Kent Taylor For more Information, Circle reply card No. 197

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 138 62

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Analytical labs

Photo report by Tom Davey

Laboratories fight back with the formation of lAETL Canada hundred members expected in the near future. The Canadian chapter expects a similar rate of growth. lAETL has many roles where it strives to improve the state-of-the-art; it also plays a strong advocacy role in articulat ing the collective interests to Congress, state and federal regulators. With the advent of government 'fee for service" from government labs and other incur sions into the domain of private sector laboratories, a Canadian Chapter of lAETL clearly could fulfil a vital role as a militant voice for private sector labs. The meeting was not without its light


Douglas Langley President, Environment Protection Laboratories, Toronto, Ont.

Laboratories from the private sector



wide support at the founding meeting of the Canadian Chap ter of the International Association of

Environmental Testing Laboratories (lAETL).

er moments. When the interim board was introduced it was noted with sur

Treasurer Bill Neaves

prised good humour that at least three of the members of the board had gained their degrees or were connected with Dalhousie University: including Doug las Langley, President, Environment

Manager, Enviroclean, London, Ont,

"Credible laboratory data is one of the

Protection Laboratories, Bill Neaves,

cornerstones of environmental deci

Manager of Enviroclean, London, Ont. and Dr. Ross McCurdy, Fenwick

sion-making. That credibility is the re sult of combining standardization of methods, careful control of the analyti cal process, and accountability of the laboratory to the data user. In Canada the data user is virtually unprotected, with little chance of assessing objec tively the quality of information gener ated by any laboratory. Accredited commercial labs whose competence has been assessed through a nationally re cognized program will go a long way toward providing that protection. "For many types of goods and ser

Laboratories, Halifax NS.

Astonishingly, the first meeting drew attendees from Atlantic Canada to the

Pacific at the inaugural meeting in Brampton. Ontario, delighting the meeting's chair, Doug Langley. When he called for a motion from the floor which

would allow the present interim execu tive to continue until elections could be

carried out,the motion was unanimous

ly carried. lAETL was formed on January 20, 1988 when it was incorporated in the state of Virginia. The first annual con ference later that year attracted 70 regis trants. That it was a great success was shown by the fact that the 1989 con ference doubled its registration. Mem bership is growing steadily with several

Douglas Langley spoke forcefully when he outlined the steps taken. He said he firmly believed that lAETL Canada would create an economically stronger environmental testing industry through an improvement in the quality of data generated."A strong economic base will also enhance the industry's international competitiveness," he stressed.

He outlined projected membership benefits including the development of industry benchmarks, standard con tracts, errors and omissions insurance, reduction of accreditation costs and va rious discounts for lAETL members.

he said. In his address. Bill Neaves said that:

vices, Canadians have been served well

by the Standards Council of Canada and the National Standards System. This network of accredited Testing,Cer tification and Standards Writing Orga-

His vigorous call for mandatory nation al and international accreditation was

continued overleaf

clearly appreciated by the applause it generated. Dr, Barry Loescher said


worked on both sides of the fence, he

was convinced that the private sector could do work equally well, yet at sub stantially less real costs than govern ment laboratories. At the same time,the


Dr. Barry Loescher, President, Zenon Laboratories Burlington, Ont.

increased private sector work would promote and strengthen the com petitiveness of a high-tech Canadian industry sector, namely laboratories. "The recent Ontario government ini tiative of charging back municipalities for work done was an unfortunate step in the wrong direction. The MOE fee schedule was blatantly commercial and the unrealistically low prices would serve as a benchmark to "further dep ress pricing in our beleagured industry,"

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Board member

Alan Maynard Senior Partner, Analytical Services Laboratories, Vancouver, B.C. 63

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Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993

Industrial process

By Terry Innes*

Toxicity monitoring using on-iine respirometry The use of on-line respirometry for tox icity monitoring of the influent to the wastewater treatment plant at the Polysar Rubber Corporation Sarnia Ont. Manufacturing Plant was initiated from

the very beginning of treatment plant start-up in 1982. Over the past 10 years the on-line respirometer has assisted in preventing plant shutdowns and in maintaining the health of the micro organisms. The Polysar Biox Wastewater Treat ment Plant is an extended aeration type of biological treatment,and has an aver age inlluent How of 5 MGD. The plant includes the following processes: pH adjustment, oil-water separation, preaeration. aeration and final clarification.

Because of the number of units, and

the variety of chemicals in the influent, the Biox unit needed some sort of pro tection from toxic overload kill of the

microorganisms. Besides requiring an immediate warning of any unfavorable conditions which could prove toxic to the microorganisms, the operators also needed to know the potential health of the bacterial system under normal oper ating conditions. Polysar decided on a combination of an on-line Total Oraan-

Laboratories fight back nizations is recognized internationally, both as a member of the International

Organization forStandardization(ISO) and as a model of industry and govern

ment working together to ensure the quality and safety of products and ser vices in the marketplace. As a result, the CSA label is recognized throughout North America as a synonym for safety in consumer products while the Warnock Hersey certification label on con struction materials can be found in

nearly every commercial building in Canada.

"Ultimately,the public interest will be served best if all environmental mon

itoring data is generated within the National Standards System. The CAEAL (Canadian Association of En vironmental Analytical Laboratories) certification program is an important

first step in that direction. Through lAETL, commercial labs can work to

gether to help complete the process and ensure that the industry is effective in

providing the public with the credible information it needs." he concluded.

With nation-wide representation at its first meeting, it is clear that lAETL Canada has a bright future. For more information, Circle reply card No. 245

Instrument Mechanic Terry Innes checks the refilling cycle of the on-line respirometer manufactured by Arthur Technology and represented in Canada by Quontime Inc. ic Carbon (TOC) analyzer and an on line respirometer. The TOC analyzer works very well for reporting when the plant is getting a high organic loading, but it does not reflect the effect on the plant micro organisms. To monitor the potential "health" of the system, an on-line respirometer is used. The respirometer helps to deter mine whether the influent streams are a

good food source for the mic roorganisms.or toxic. The respirometer is fed a proportional mixture of Return Activated Sludge(RAS) and raw influ ent to form a Mixed Liquor Volatile Sus pended Solids (MLVSS) concentration that simulates upstream the conditions in the aeration tanks. The adjustable

cycle time of the respirometer is set on a twenty-minute cycle, so that each res piration test is twenty minutes in length. The respirometer pumps unfiltered sample automatically from the up stream seed tank into its 4-litre test

will happen in 3 or 4 hours in the aera tion tanks.

Under normal operating conditions, with a healthy bacterial system, and a good, non toxic food source,the respira tion rate is about 45 ml/I/hr.

When a slow increase in organics ap pears. the respiration rate will drop off slightly, then return to normal, even with extended periods of high organics. because the plant microorganisms will acclimatize themselves to the higher or ganic loading. This is one reason Poly sar feels that a TOC analyzer alone is not informative enough for their use. There can still be healthy "bugs" even with






roorganisms are not suddenly "shoc ked" with high toxics and organic load ings. and as long as the respiration rate remains around 45 ml/l/hr.operators at Polysar know they have a healthy sys tem. Thus far. the on-line respirometer has detected spills of toxins and periods of abnormal pH. When this happens, samples are collected to determine poss ible cause. A toxic kill would require replacement of the plant's mic roorganisms — a very costly process,

chamber, where the sample is tested. The instrument then discharges the sample, rinses itself, prints out the re sults and prepares to receive another sample. The test is repeated on fresh and one which would also involve shut samples every twenty minutes through ting down the wastewater treatment out the day. The output of the on-line plant for at least a month. respirometer is fed to a computer in a control room for analysis. Changes of *Waste Operations Dept. Polysar principal interest are low respiration rates, which would indicate toxicity. By Rubber Corporation, Sarnia, Ont. testing upstream a proportional mixture of RAS and raw influent, the res

pirometer tells the operator"now" what

For more information, Circle reply card No. 201 64A

Drinking water

A review of government and private labs — legislation and data quality

Ontario'sDrinking WaterSur

veillance Program, which began in the mid-80"s. is showing sig'ns of wear and tear. DWSP was initiated in response to growing public demand for readily ac cessible information on the quality of Ontario's drinking water. The program met these requirements in the form of annual reports on drinking water qua lity at many locations around the pro vince. However, the reports have become increasingly difficult to inter pret.and the real value ofthese reports is seriously diminished because the public at large, and the media, are simply una ble to interpret the data. This is pri marily due to the number of qualifying statements that the Ministry makes in discussing the levels of chemicals that

The 1990 DWSP reports make little effort to translate the data into language that the lay public can easily under stand.Instead,confusing data qualifiers are used, and a bewildering array of ab breviations and acronyms lace the re

is clear that this(T style of reporting is inconsistently applied within MOE's different laboratories.

leased toward the end of 1992. There are

numbers reported for municipal tap

two general problems with these reports. First, the data is presented in a confus ing. often obfuscating manner.

detection limit and should not be obfus

Second,the data is often not generally being acted upon. For example. King ston has significant detections of ben zene. toluene, ethylbenzene. and styrene in its treated drinking water. The report explains these by saying "the detection of benzene, ethylbenzene. toluene, and xylene. at low trace levels may be a la boratory artifact derived from the analy tical methodology". Well — it may be. and it may not be. Is it sufficient to sim ply shrug it off as a lab error? If it is a lab error, why was it reported? Is it time that MOE reviewed its QA/QC and report ing methodology? What if benzene and other organic chemicals are present but are mistakenly attributed to "labora tory artifacts"? In another example,desethylatrazine was reported at over 2,500 ng/L in the raw water at Kingston. Rather than ex pressing concern that this pesticide by product would be present in the raw drinking water for one of Ontario's major cities, and rather than try to track

cated by a(T qualifier. Furthermore, it

down the source of this material, the

DWSP finds.

ports. For example,the health guidelines for some chemicals are provided, but the source is unknowable, since the re

ports do not identify a key for the abbreviations used.

Nor do the reports follow a consistent approach in selecting a guideline. Sometimes the guideline will be conser vative, sometimes not.

However,the most puzzling numbers

are those qualified with a "{T". This symbol means"Trace", which is defined in the report as denoting "that the level measured is greater than the lowest level detectable by the method, but lies so close to the detection limit that it cannot he con

DWSP 1990 problems A series of DWSP reports was re

fidently quantified". However, the detec tion limits are sometimes five or six or seven or even ten times lower than the water. These levels are not close to the

Potable water.

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Environmental Science <& Engineering. March 1993

By J.N. Bishop^ report states:"This result was thought to be anomalous by the laboratory analyti

duct off the shelves. Some of them were

cal staff. If it was an anomaly, why was

into local sewers, and yet the levels they

the test not repeated? Why wasn't this result verified? If it is an anomaly, why was it reported? I don't know the an swers to these questions, but I do know that in the private laboratory sector, this would not be an acceptable comment on such a serious analytical outcome. And it should not be acceptable to the people in Kingston, who drink this water. Lindsay's treated water had benzene levels of 1.2 ppb,toluene at 2.4 ppb. and o-xylene at 1.3 ppb.The fact that each of these chemicals are found at the same

time of year consistently in treated and distributed water, but not in raw water, would indicate that the source of con tamination lies within the treatment

plant itself. Municipal staff are "still in vestigating". but the public has no way of knowing whether these chemicals will show up in their water again, or the level they might have to consume, or from what source. Also, since the pro blem results showed up in mid-1990.the

public has every right to know what the investigation showed, and whether they have been consuming benzene and other hazardous chemicals since 1990.

I would also point out that the level of benzene reported for some municipali ties. like the level of toluene, is in the same order that has caused bottled

water manufacturers to pull their pro-

prevented from putting their product were dumping were often lower than the level of benzene or toluene currently

being found in the tap water of cities like Lindsay.

Lindsay also had hexachlorocyclopentadiene reported in treated water and in its distribution system at levels

up to 170 ng/L. While this number is well below the U.S. EPA guideline, it is not much below the New York State

guideline. This underlines one of the basic problems with the DWSP pro gram. namely — these data should form the basis for instant response from both MOE and the municipalities when such chemicals are reported in the drinking water. These are not small blips mar ginally above a detection limit — these are major peaks indicating serious con tamination and warranting serious ac tion. They deserve more than just a comparison to the highest available guideline or a scientific shrug of the shoulders, accompanied by the refrain that the result was probably just bad MOE lab data.

Other DWSP problems

The DWSP program consistently re ports significant levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in treated water in all municipal water supplies. Levels vary, but they are always present and are

sometimes close to 350 ppb in some wa ter supplies. Of course, the Ontario Drinking Water Objective is currently 350 ppb. leaving Ontario and the rest of Canada as the only jurisdictions in the world with guidelines this high for this chemical. Recently, the Ministry of the Environment and Health and Welfare

Canada are said to be moving toward a lower guideline of 50 ppb for THMs. However, it is worth noting that there are many, many drinking water plants in Ontario that do not currently meet this guideline and the question must be asked: is the guideline going to be changed,and if so. will there be changes in the water treatment plants to help these municipalities meet the guide lines? Or will Canada and Ontario's

THM guidelines remain artificially high in order to avoid such expen ditures?

In closing. I believe that DWSP is a very worthwhile, environmentally use ful program. However, the data report

ing needs re-examination.The MOE lab needs to find a more consistent way to

report trace levels, and the Ministry needs to use the data it generates to act upon potential drinking water pro blems. instead of reporting problem data and then questioning the validity of their own data. ES&E

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By G. Scott, M..Sc., P.Eng.*

Leachate treatment

Cobourg finds landfill leachate solution A leachate treatment system is now un der construction in the Town of Co

bourg, Ont. which promises to solve a long-standingdifficulty for many ofOn tario's municipal pollution control plants. Cobourg was one of five municipali ties selected by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment(MOE)to participate in the Municipal-Industrial Strategy for


/I 16


Abatement(MISA) Sewer Use Control

Demonstration Project. Extensive sampling and analyses were carried out at both of the Town's Water Pollution Control Plants

(WPCPs). An industrial monitoring program was conducted as part of the study. Eighteen industrial discharges were monitored, including landfill leachate which is hauled by tanker truck to the Lucas Point WPCP from the

Town's Sanitary Landfill Site. A number of violations with respect to the current Cobourg Sewer Use By-law and pro posed Model Sewer Use By-law were confirmed. Most importantly, the land fill leachate was identified as a dis

charge which did not meet the sewer use by-laws and also as a discharge likely to have a significant impact on the stabi lity of WPCP operation. The Lucas Point WPCP is a conven

tional activated sludge plant with a ca pacity of 5,865 mVd. The plant consists of a single primary clarifier, aeration tank and secondary clarifier. The plant will be expanded to double this capacity in 1993 with the addition of duplicate primary and secondary treatment units.

Leachate Quantities and Strengths The volume of leachate delivered to

the WPCP is weather dependent, exhi biting high peaking factors.The average daily flows over the last 5 years range from 7.0 mVd to 362.6 mVd with an an

nual average of 26.8 mVd. Leachate is hauled to the 'WPCP when the 150 m'

holding tanks at the landfill are full. This increases the impact on the plant due to the shock loading effect. The BOD;(Biochemical Oxygen De mand)concentration in the leachate is high and typically varies between 4,500 mg/L during the wet spring period and 8,000 mg/L during the drier fall period. BOD; values of up to 20,000 mg/L have been recorded, indicating that leachate strength can vary greatly. TSS and Phe nol concentrations are also high and in excess of municipal by-law limits. Simi larly,TKN and NH;concentrations are greatly above desirable levels. *Totten Sims Hubicki Associates 64D


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Leachate Pretreatment Studies

As a result of the MISA monitoring program, a study was commissioned in 1990 to determine the impact of the leachate on the Lucas Point WPCP.

XCG Consultants Limited were engaged by TSH to conduct this study which was completed in May 1991. The study indi

cated that the BOD;of the leachate was predominantly soluble and likely to impose a high organic load on the aera tion tank. Frequently, BOD; loadings exceeded the aeration tank design capa city. In addition, the leachate exerted a high ammonia loading on the plant,

averaging 800 mg/L. Despite the fact the



addition to testing the SBR alternative it was decided to test a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) unit in parallel with the SBR.

As a first step in the study, leachate toxicity testing was conducted by mea suring respiration rates of leachate spiked MLSS (Mixed Liquor Suspen ded Solids). These confirmed the lea chate was not toxic.

Three 570 litre SBR reactor tanks

were operated in parallel. The tanks were batch fed from a common leachate

holding tank. Air was supplied from the WPCP blower to a coarse bubble diffuser in each tank. A sub-surface de

canting mechanism allowed decanting without withdrawal of floating scum. A impacting significantly on the plant and 24 hour cycle offeed: aerate:settle: decant jeopardizing operational stability. was maintained. Control was provided "The XCG study also considered me using a PLC. thods of pre-treating the leachate and The SBR study was divided into two recommended biological treatment us phases. In Phase I, the three SBR units ing Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) were operated at 10,000 mg/L MLSS and technology designed to bring the leach Food to Microorganism (F:M)ratios of ate strength within the Town ofCobourg 0.2,0.1 and 0.05. The units were allowed Sewer Use By-Law Limits. The report to reach equilibrium and then run for recommended a full pilot plant treata- one month. This phase determined that bility study be carried out to define the the optimum F:M ratio was 0.1. design parameters for the SBR. The During Phase II the optimum F:M Town accepted the recommendations of ratio of 0.1 was maintained in the three this study and decided to proceed with SBR's and the units were operated at the pilot plant study. 15,000, 10,000 and 5,000 mg/L MLSS. Due to the general lack of experience After establishing equilibrium the units with biological treatment of leachate in were run for two weeks. The Phase II results suggested an MLSS of 10,000 mg/L Ontario, the Ministry of the Environ ment expressed an interest in the Pilot as optimum. Plant Study and agreed to co-fund the The SBR's performed extremely well, achieving COD(Chemical Oxygen De study with the Town. Rupke and Associ ates Ltd, were engaged by TSH to carry mand) removal rates of 95% and amouttheon-sitepilotstudy inJuly 1991.In continued overleaf WPCP continued to meet its effluent

limits it was considered the leachate was

Environmental Science & Ettgineering, March 1993

Landfill leachate cont. monia removal rates of 99%. Full ef

fluent analyses confirmed that the SBR could readily achieve the desired results and pretreat the leachate to meet the sewer use by-law limits. A solids produc tion rate of0.6 grams solids per gram of BOD5 removed was predicted.The units experienced a foaming problem which will be mitigated using a defoaming agent in the full scale plant. Since the leachate was found to be phosphorus

to providing the process flexibility ne cessary for treatment of the highly vari able leachate. The end result of the

process is a design which solves the pro blem of leachate treatment for Cobourg and improves the operation ofthe Lucas Point WPCP.

SBR technology is an extremely flex ible process and allows maximum con trol over the treatment cycle. This cou

pled with the 'batch" type delivery of leachate to the plant makes the SBR process uniquely suited for this appli cation.

The design of the full scale unit is complete and construction is about to start. The unit is expected to be on-

stream by late 1993 and the project is seen as an exciting development in the field of leachate treatment.

deficient, phosphorus was added to pre


vent the reaction from becoming limited due to this factor. The full scale unit will

use phosphoric acid to maintain ade quate phosphorus levels. The RBC portion of the study in volved the use of a single 46.5 m^ fourstage pilot scale RBC unit. The RBC


unit was fed from the same leachate







storage tank as the SBR's and also con trolled using the PLC. The RBC results were not as promis ing as those from the SBR. The RBC unit was slower to start which would

make it less adaptable to the seasonal variation in inflow ofleachate. The unit was also unable to achieve nitrifica tion.





Based on the success ofthe pilot plant study the Town decided to proceed with design of a full scale SBR unit for lea chate pre-treatment.


Design of Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology for Landfill Leachate Pre-treatment

Landfill leachate presents quite a challenge for any biological treatment process. Highly variable flows and BOD5 strengths, high ammonia levels and low temperatures(during peak win ter and spring flow conditions)are by no










means characteristics of an ideal feed stock,

SBR technology has been suc cessfully applied to leachate treatment in the past and several other plants are currently in the design stage following successful pilot plant studies. Neverthe less. experience with operating SBR fa cilities for leachate treatment is limited.

Accordingly, during final design of the SBR.a great deal of attention was given

Toxic shock syndrome The biggest polluter in the US is the military's "toxic empire" — more than


20.000 sites contaminated with millions of tons of toxins and hazardous chemi

cals. according to recent reports. Of the 20.000 reported contaminated sites on U.S. Defence Department land, only 404 have been cleaned up. The Pentagon produces well over a ton of toxic waste every minute — an output rivalling that of the top five U.S. chemical companies combined, says the magazine Mother Jones.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


Guest comment

Media reporting criticized over Ontario Farm Groundwater Quality Survey ment.scientists and professionals in the groundwater industry have been aware of these contamination problems and attempting to find solutions to them

In early November 1992, results of the Ontario Farm Groundwater Quality

sampling of farm water supply wells

luted, tests show.40% on farms unfit for

bacteria contamination of domestic

Perhaps what is most disappointing

use", "Drinking Water Unfit in Many

farm wells and shallow groundwater re sources in agricultural areas is a signifi cant problem that deserves attention. However,this is hardly news as govern-

to our association in the media coverage

(1300 in total)and monitoring wells(144 Survey, funded by Agriculture Canada, in total) installed in adjacent farm were reported on in newspapers across fields. The study confirmed that nitrate and Canada with titles such as "Well pol

Ontario Wells", "One-third of Rural Ontario wells unfit for use",etc. The sur

vey report covered the results of a single

for decades.

of the survey report is the fact that im portant "good news' findings were not given equal billing with the 'bad news' findings. For example, little mention was made of the effective absence of

significant pesticide and herbicide con tamination in groundwater. which is contrary to the general perception that this form of contamination is a wides

pread and serious threat to human health in rural areas.

In our opinion, the survey findings suggest that proper construction prac tices and suitable water well locations .1

are of paramount importance in rural


areas. In other words, shallow wells

without casing or seals at surface are at a much greater risk of contamination than deeper drilled wells. Also, well locations near feed lots, manure piles or septic systems should be avoided. The survey results also suggest that agricul tural practices such as fertilizer applica



tion on farm fields be re-examined as a

step towards protecting a valuable na tural resource.

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J. Rennlson, President, Ontario Water

Australia has just launched three pla tinum bullion investment coins — to be known as the Australian Koala — inter

nationally, GoldCorp Australia says. GoldCorp Australia, operator of the mint that makes the coins for the Aus

tralian government, said it will intro duce the legal tender coins, which will contain two ounces, 10 ounces and one

kilogram of platinum. Apart from the mixing of Imperial measures with metric, we wondered if

the "kilogram" was a misprint or if they have sturdier pockets Down Under. Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


John Allen, P.Eng.

John Blanchet,P.Eng.

Dave Brierley, P.Eng.

Ken Collicott, P.Eng.

Division Manager,

Division Manager,

Senior Environmental



Division Vice President




Boh Curtis, P.Eng.

Euan Ferguson,P.Eng.

Naz Hijazi, Ph.D, C.Chem.

Boh Kieley, P.Eng.

Director & Division

Senior Environmental

Chief Chemist &


Manager, London


Environmental Consultant

St. Johns

Wouldn't you smile too?


Andy Liu, P.Eng.

Jim McGregor

Jose Paradela

Senior Environmental

Senior Process


Regional Vice President,




Latin America


Phone:(604)385-8721 Fax:(604)383-8099 EASTERN CANADA:

David Brierley Phone:(416)441-4111 Fax:(416)441-4131

i« Jeff Plant, M.B.A.,P.Eng. Indra Prashad,P.Eng. Division Manager Toronto

Environmental Engineer

Randy Rosin, P.Eng.

Hugh Tracy, P.Eng.

Senior Environmental

Chief Environmental Engineer


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Kent can streamline

product compat ibility, Kent can show you how "open design

your ordering requirements

architecture" can

With more than 23

protect your


metering future. Kent also provides the longest and most comprehen sive warranty program in the industry.

from St. Johns to Victoria who maintain stock

locally and are responsive to your individual needs Kent

is able to deliver your water meter orders

efficiently with daily shipments.

Change To Kent For The Future In Water Metering

Mississauga Ontario L4W 2S7 Canada

A 1111 mpip

Phone 416-238-9622 Fax:416-238-5640


Kent Meters, Inc. 1200 Aerowood Drive, Unit 35

For more information, Circie reply card No. 205 68

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


Need the address or phone number ofa consultant, equipment supplier


or lab, use ES&E's

January Directory issue

TSL is a comprehensive analytical lab certified by CAEAL,the govern ment of B.C. and ACPO.

Eimco Reactor Clarifier


EIMCO Reactor-Clarifier solids con


tact units combine chemical addition

and mixing, solids contact fiocculatlon, clarification and sludge removal in a single basin. They provide effi cient removal of suspended solids and are ideal for lime softening. A low speed turbine maintains large vol



umes of flocculated solids recirculat

ing within the conical reaction well. Influent water and chemicals are In

troduced directly into the recirculation stream, optimizing chemical usage and floe growth. Sludge set tles out and Is collected by a bottom rake whilst clarified water rises up and is collected by a launder




system. EIMCO

Circle reply card No. 242

T.S.L.*** An environment of Quality and Service For more information, Circle reply card No. 251

Outstanding Waste Reduction Pereormance Awards COMPETITION DEADLINE MAY 30,1993

■ Who is eligible?

■ Judging criteria

Organizations which have reduced hazardous or liquid

A panel of five waste management experts representing industry, government, education and the media will evaluate the applications. Entries will be evaluated on: • Quantity and toxicity of waste reduced, reused or recycled • Environmental benefits and cost savings • Evidence of involvement by both management and line personnel • Situation complexity and innovation employed • Applicability of the method to other companies

industrial waste are eligible.

Winning this award will demonstrate to employees, customers, shareholders and the local community that your

company is committed to protecting the environment. All companies in Ontario that have reduced large or small quantities of hazardous or liquid industrial waste since January 1, 1986 are encouraged to apply. There will be one overall winner and additional awards of merit.

■ Award presentation


Awards will be presented by the Minister of Environment at the Technology Transfer Conference. Employees who contributed to the program will be recognized.

Chrysler Canada's Windsor Assembly

■ For further Information

Plant won the

1992 award. OWMC

Mr. R. F. Nowina,

president, Donald Chant (left) presents award to plant environmental

Ontario Waste Management Corporation 2 Bloor St. W., 11" Floor Toronto, Ontario M4W 3E2

co-ordinator Sue

Tel:(416) 923-2918

Forest and Chrysler

Or call toll-free: 1-800-268-1178

e.xecutive R. A.



For more Information, Circle reply card No. 252

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993


[NVimiNii! PfflKINfi We're SSCAN-GRODYNE, with many

years of experience in providing industry with analytical and environmental measurement packages— from portable instruments to elaborate systems — permanent or mobile configurations.

Whether your requirements are for continuous emission monitoring, ambient air or water ,v

quality, we have the proficiency to recommend, design, and provide the start-up and commissioning of your project.

•' I

In addition, SSCAN-GRODYNE supplies only the finest, quality-built instrumentation. To

-• - "-fi'.j'- [gi ' '*-'



you, this means maximum system up time,

T"'*> '»*'•


-• •.'


■ '■■ '

superior product performance and lower cost

of ownership. Brand names include HORIBA, environnement SA, KURZ, PANAMETRICS, NOVALYNX.

So the next time you have a need for monitoring expertise, SSCAN-GRODYNE can

be quite instrumental to the efficiency and co.st-effectiveness of your installation. Call us

for full information on our products and systems -5- available nationally.



7222 Flint Place S.E., Calgary, AB T2H 1Y8 Phone: (403) 253-2241 Fax: (403) 253-2275

0 m





For more information, Circie repiy card No. 253 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993


AER-O-FLO ENVIRONMENTAL THE 4 R's • 98% Solids Reduction • 98% FOGs



• 80% BOD5

jQ-f 'f -


• $ Cost

„ 1

Utilizing the Aer-O-Flo fully automatic Chemfloat system, food processors across Canada are experiencing dra matic reductions in solids, fats, oils, greases (FOGs), BODs and costs. The PLC controlled, low maintenance, com pletely stainless steel process is easy to install.


compact and operator friendly. It will treat your waste for dimes not dollars.

This low retention time, non-biological process is another guaranteed solution by Aer-0-Flo Environmental, where our product is your satisfaction.

Aer-0-Flo — your environmental solution company

Aer-0-Flo Drumshear


The Proof

Fine Rotating Screen

Flotation System

& The Pudding



Circle reply card No. 143

Circle reply card No. 144

Circle reply card No. 145


Your environmental solution company 1175 Appleby Line, Unit B2, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel:(416)335-8944, Fax:(416)335-8972

For more information, Circle reply card No. 146

Report from the Third Int. Zebra Mussel Conference Combined use of heat and oxidants for controlling Zebra Mussels The objective of the research was to examine the combined use of heat and

chemical oxidants for controlling zebra mussels in power plants. Previous re search has shown that either chemical

oxidants or high temperatures are lethal to zebra mussels. Heat treatment is an

effective control option for power plants, but in some portions of power plants water can not be raised to lethal

temperatures for zebra mussels(e.g.,ser vice water systems). Studies were conducted at an Erie

County Water Authority's Raw Water Pump Station located along the Niagara

Donald K. Harrington, John Van Benschoten, James N. Jensen, and Thomas Brady, University at Buffalo; Don Lewis, John Sferazza, Aquatic Sciences Inc; Edward Neuhauser, Niagara Mohawk.

from the acclimation temperature to the desired exposure temperature over a period of approximately one hour. Oxi dants were introduced at the beginning of an experiment(chlorine) or approx imately 15 minutes prior to reaching the desired exposure temperature (ozone). Sampling(n = 10 mussels per replicate) was performed at defined intervals and

River in the Town of Tonawanda, New

mussel mortality was determined by vis

York. The addition of oxidants (chlo rine and ozone) at various concen

ible gaping and unresponsiveness to gentle probing roughly 48 hours after

trations (chlorine at 0.5 and 0.1 mg/L sampling. Study results showed that the com and ozone at 0.5 mg/L) were examined at elevated temperatures (25, 30, 32, 34, bined use of heat and oxidants can be and 36°C). Control experiments were more effective than either treatment alone. For example, mussels acclimated conducted using heat alone. The influ ence of acclimation temperature (0-5, to 0-5°C and exposed solely to 32°C 10-15, and 20-25°C) also was studied. required 11.4 hours to obtain 95 percent mortality. For the same temperature Experiments were conducted using Nia gara River water and continuous flow conditions but with 0.5 mg/L chlorine or stirred tank reactors. Most treatments 0.5 mg/L ozone, 95 percent mortality were run in triplicate with approxi was reached in 3.5 and 3.3 hours,respec mately 100 mussels per replicate reactor. tively. At a given exposure temperature, Water temperatures were increased the effectiveness of the combined use of

heat and oxidants increased with dec

reased acclimation temperature. Lor ex ample. at 32°C and 0.5 mg/L chlorine,95 percent mortality occurred in 3.5 and 5.9 hours for mussels acclimated at 0-5°C

and 20-25°C,respectively. At 36°C, mini mal differences were observed between

mortality due to heat alone and the com bined use ofheat and oxidant,suggesting that at or above 36°C heat treatment alone

is an effective treatment strategy. Laboratory data were compared to data collected from a field scale heat

treatment conducted during September, 1992 at Niagara Mohawk's Dunkirk Steam Generating Station. No oxidants were used during the treatment and mussel mortality was determined at va rious points in the plant. In general, good agreement was observed between laboratory and field scale results. At 3435°C for one hour, field scale treatment

resulted in 50 to 60 percent mortality compared to 40 percent mortality for laboratory experiments. Based on labo ratory studies, 95 percent mortality for the field scale test would have occurred

at 3.1 hr; with the addition of 0.5 mg/L chlorine the time for 95 percent mor tality is estimated at 1.7 hr. Circle reply card No. 249


S^pUilLSiUJI They are ail at stake when you select an environmental laboratory. Whether it's wastewater monitoring for AUSA compliance, evaluation of hazardous waste, or a full-scale site investigation

you need a lab that you can depend on to provide reliable data, quickly and cost-effectively.

For more than two decades Enviroclean has earned

a reputation for promptness and reliability as a full-service laboratory serving clients both in government and industry. That reputation has been built on a commitment to quality. Our quality assurance program is designed to ensure that every piece of analytical data is

scientifically correct and can stand up to scrutiny. And we back up that commitment with regular participation in interlaboratory quality assurance programs which test our performance against other labs. We don't claim to

be perfect, but when you choose Enviroclean, you can count on getting our best. Always.

ENVIROCLEAN Environmental Laboratory Services 74

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 150

921 Leathome St.

London, Ontario M5Z 3M7

Phone:(519)686-7558 Fax:(519)686-6374

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993



Attention Consultants, Plant Engineers, Plumbing Inspectors, Environmental Officials and Contractors!

Fibresep Limited offers a full line of Canadian


interception products that are cost effective, chemically inert and easy to install. The products facilitate sani tary sewer and storm sewer applications.

Advantages include : • Compact treatment chamber • No scouring • Easy to clean • Easy to install • Chemically inert

Applications include : • Service Stations

• Grocery Stores • Garages • Fast Food Outlets

• Machine Shops • Wholesale Food Outlets

Applications include :

• Factories • Restaurants

• Street sewers in road

• Fish and Meat Processors


• Service connections for: • Petroleum service stations • Factories

• Commercial, residential

& industrial parking lots

Interceptors For Sanitary Wastewater Separation The Fibresep line of oil & grease separators are of proven

design, capable of meeting cur rent regulatory requirements and able to accommodate wide variations in waste flow without loss of contents.

Fibresep Limited currently pro duces its products from Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic. In the summer of 1993 raw materials will be converted from

FRP to post-industrial thermo

The Stormceptor System For Stormwater Treatment

Advantages include : • large retention capacity for

The Stormceptor System is a

retained oil & solids

treatment device that removes

and locks up oil spills and sedi

• chemically inert and imperme

plastic using a new and unique manufacturing process. For more information contact:

Fibresep Limited, 2336 Royal Windsor Drive, Oakville, Ontario, L6J 4Z2

able to retained waste

ment in storm sewers at "the

source". The patented "lock up" feature allows for a compactsized treatment reservoir, and

prevents scouring of the trapped contents during periods of heavy stormwater flow.

• light weight for easy handling Telephone:

by contractors


• cost effective - can be installed


in 3 hours

• high strength to withstand below ground pressures

for more information, Circle reply card No. 147



Industrial solvents

Tougher regulations led to complete systems approach to surface cleaning sign, Dow offers a detailed system speci fication and price quotation package. Having evaluated many major equip ment manufacturers, Dow can make a

recommendation of the best cleaning process for the customer. In the third phase. System Implementation, Dow provides start-up assistance, "system optimization" and on-site training. Fol lowing these steps, ongoing systems support services, including supplies, training, process enhancements and equipment upgrades are offered. Customer Commitment

Dow has also developed the family of

PRIMACLEAN'"surface cleaning pro ducts. Customers are currently using these new aqueous, water rinsable (also known as semi-aqueous) and general cleaning products on trials. Dow also offers the resources of a new state-of-the

art Cleaning Technology Center at its Midland, Michigan headquarters, where cleaning products and equip ment








For more information, Circle reply card No. 248


Proposed regulations will require companies to seek alternative technologiesfor their surface cleaning processes.

The Dow Chemical Company has cre ated a new systems approach to help surface cleaners make an efficient tran

sition from 1,1,1-trichloroethane to an

alternative process. The Canadian En vironmental Act(CEPA)and the Mon treal Protocol are accelerating the need

to change to new cleaning products; yet, many companies do not have the re sources to develop alternatives. In addi

drop-in solution to surface cleaning.The only way to solve it is to assist in the onsite development of cleaning specifica tions and system design that is parti cular to each customer. By combining our existing R&D and technical exper tise with the cleaning equipment sup pliers we've created the Advanced Cleaning Systems."

tion, exclusive reliance on internal de

Systems Approach Targets Changing

velopment can be very costly,time con suming and questionably successful.


Marc Salatino, Dow Canada market

ing manager says: "Environment Ca nada's proposed regulations will require companies to seek alternative technolo gies for their surface cleaning processes. The need for understanding each cus tomer's manufacturing process require ments for surface cleaning is critical. This is radically changing the market ing approach because not all systems are compatible or suitable in all appli cations. There will be no offthe shelf or 76

Advanced Cleaning Systems can pro vide an integrated alternative clean ing system to chlorinated solvents. A service agreement may include the sup ply of equipment, technical services, and cleaning products or a combination of all three. This service approach con sists ofthree phases.In System Develop ment,the first phase,an on-site analysis of the customer's cleaning needs is con ducted. After extensive testing, an opti mum cleaning process is recommended. During the second phase. System De-

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd.is pleased to announce that Stan Kolanko, B.Sc., M.B.A., has joined us in the capacity of Marketing Special ist. Stan has over 15 years of pro gressive sales and marketing experi ence in Ontario with a good back

ground in the chemical industry and environmental regulations. With the addition of Stan's knowledge and ex pertise, CANVIRO Labs continues its commitment to providing superior service to current and potential clients.

CANVIRÂŽ For more information, Circle reply card No. 148

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1993





(416) S90-2555

Customer Service

Air Emissions

Environmental Analysis

Twentieth Anniversary of Quality Results on Time* • Occupational Health and Safety • Air Emissions Effluent Characterization • Soil, Water, Air and Food Residues

Call our Customer Service Department and let ttiem make your life easier! In Ontario Tel. 416-890-2555 Fax. 416-890-0370

In Alberta Tel. 403-462-6575 For more information, Circle reply card No. 149

Certified by CAEAL, CSA, Standards Council of Canada and New York State (ELAP)

Toll Free 1 - 800 - 563 - MANN 5550 McAdam Road Mississauga, ON L4Z IPl

Storage solutions

Tensioned geomembrane floating covers pass test of time for wastewater and potabie water appiications million gallon potable water installa tion serving Fairmont Hot Springs. B.C. where temperatures drop to -30 to -35C. and the lake freezes to 60 centimetres thick.

Two of the firm's largest installations are at the Halton Region sludge tank farm nearToronto and at Fletcher Chal

lenge Canada's Elk Falls paper mill, near Campbell River. B.C. At Halton. floating covers provide protection for some 64,000 cubic metres ofsludge contained in 8 in-ground tanks with operating depths of6.5 metres. The stabilized sludge, generated by seven wastewater treatment plants which pro cess over 40 million imperial gallons daily, is stored in the tanks over winter and spread onto fields during the plant ing months. The floating roofs contain odours, reduce the natural loss of nut rients and eliminate the influx of rain water.

The Fletcher Challenge Canada's Elk Falls paper mill uses a floating cover on a 20,000m^ chemical treatment basin.

With over 30 tensioned geomembrane floating covers in service throughout Canada, the concept for potable water and wastewater storage has passed the test of time. Columbia Geosystems,Ltd. a Calgary-based firm, pioneered the floating cover in the early 70's. Neil McLeod. Columbia Geosystems President says there are installations as large as 20,000 square metres. The com pany's first 1.430 square metre floating cover on a 500.000 gallon in-ground pot able water tank is still in service at

Grand Forks. B.C.and after 18 years has developed no tears or leaks.

The firm's RE'VOC® system is designed for in-ground and tank fluid storage at water utilities, wastewater treatment

plants, pulp and paper mills, pet rochemical and mining operations and food processing. Basically, the cover floats on the sur face of the liquid being stored. As the level moves up and down, so does the cover. A series of perimeter tension ca bles and counter-weights keep the lid flat and prevent it from rotating or shift ing with the wind. Although flexible,the covers — made of 60 to 80 mil low. medium and high density polyethylene and Hypalon — are far from flimsy. Some weigh 30 met78

ric tonnes or more.

Economics is an overriding con sideration in selecting a floating cover. Construction costs are only 10% the cost offixed structures while requiring much less time to complete. They require less maintenance and can withstand severe climatic conditions such as at the 1.2

The Elk Falls floating cover is on a 20.000 square metre chemical effluent treatment basin. The 7.5 metre deep basin is used to smooth out pH swings created by mixing dissolved chlorine and sulphides from the pulping process. The floating cover allows operators to contain odours, particularly hydrogen sulphide. The mill generates some 200.000 cubic metres ofeffluent per day. of which 100.000 pass through the equa lization basin. This mill was featured in the November 1992 ES&E as a cover

story. ES&E

Circle 256

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1993

Schlumberger Provides Solutions Schlumberger Neptune® ARB™ System Introduced in 1964,the Neptune® Automatic Reading & Billing Sys tem is the encoder register of choice for over 400 water utilities today.


• Easily mounted to any Neptune® meter,the ARB™ encoder system transmits the actual register reading,in an electronic data format to a remote, accessible location.

• Proven reliability in over 4,000,000 installations throughout North America.

ARB™ suits all applications: • ARB V™ for indoor settings

• ProRead ARB™ for pit installations and large meter vault settings. • ProRead ARB™ for reprogrammable, utility defined metering in formation.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 236

Schlumberger Reading Systems Schlumberger Industries is dedicated to the development of Meter Reading Systems that will maximize the efficiency of your water utility.

• Neptune® Unigun™ System — specifically designed for data cap ture and management with the ARB™ system. Eliminates routebooks and data entry through a hand held mini-computer and PC based software system.

• Central Meter Reading(CMR™)— Schlumberger offers both Out bound and Inbound telephone based systems for single or multiutilities.

• Introduced ARB™ data transmission through Radio Frequency at the '92 National AWWA Conference in Vancouver.

• Schlumberger guarantees compatibility of ARB™ encoder regis ters with our present and future reading systems. For more information. Circle repiy card No. 237

Schlumberger FloSearch System The FloSearch™ System is designed for profiling customer water usage patterns.

• Applications include leak detection, meter sizing, demand meter ing and peak usage studies.

• The FloSearch™ transmitter and FloSearch™ recorder continuously sample and record usage data. • PC based software generates reports of flow vs. time and water usage vs. flowrate in both graphical and tabular formats. • Usage data files may be exported to word processors, spread sheets, DOS,etc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 238


-ilumberger Industries

asurement Division — Canada

75 West Credit Ave.

isissauga, Ont.

Regional Sales Offices 1209-59th Ave. S.E., 6555, boul. M6tropolitain est. Suite 140 Suite 402, Calgary, Alberta St-Leonard, Quebec

^ 5M9

T2H 2P6



(403) 253-0055

(514) 327-9998

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 239

Technicai Service Group 7275 West Credit Ave.

Mississauga, Ont. L5N 5M9


Underdrawis Air + WErter Separate ducts fen air and water and improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform fiow distribution NEOPRENE









• Copposion-Resistant

HiM Unifopm Flow DtstpHnitlon ReAiced WastiWatop Use No false Floop

RoquiPed Ideal Retpoflt

The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.

^EIMCO Process Equipment A Baker Hughes company 5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4W1X2 Tel;(416) 625-6070 / Fax:(416) 625-3519

259 Midpark Way S.E.

4940 Chisholm St. / Ste. 1

Ste. 220

Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812

Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837

Fax:(403) 256-7071 P.O. Box 300

1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Pointe Claire, Que. H9R 5N3 Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514)695-8099

For more information, Circle reply card No. 240

Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801) 526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005 U.S. Patent #5019259