Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) November 1992

Page 1




Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

A Davcom Business Publication

November 1992

New treatment facilities instaiied at BC puip & paper plant

Landfill ieachates — a macabre legacy for our children? New technology for soil vapour extraction Courtaulds Fibres Canada found not guilty Corrosion control In aggressive soils Is chlorine really the evil element?

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ISSN-0835-60SX Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


October/November 1992, Vol. 5 No.5 Issued November, 1992

(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 294-5502

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, MASc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hublcki Associates

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redtern Ltd.

Our lakes reflect distorted economics

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Over 13,000 attend WEF in New Orleans

Vigorous debate at Air and Waste Management Association meeting By Tom Davey


Protecting metal structures in aggressive underground environments By Hank St. Onge


Courtaulds Fibres Canada not guilty on 13 spill counts

By Cynthia R.C. Sefton


Effluent toxiclty identification and reduction By Patricia On-


New technology for soil vapour extraction By Rene de Vries and Ian Spice


Canadians prominent in Australian conference on the use of cement kilns in waste management


Is chlorine really the evil element? By Dr. Don Mackay


Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem. Church & Trought

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodtellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LL.B. Blake Cassels Graydon

Dr. Eari Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat

CAEAL ready to launch accreditation program


Overwhelming demand for environmental auditors predicted 55

ment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.

What legacy are we leaving with future landfill leachates? By Diane Radnoff, Steve Hollingshead and Grant Anderson


New treatment facilities installed at BC pulp & paper plant


ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petcti Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to En vironmentalScience& Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary


Industry Update R&D News Classifieds

6 26 43

Product Review 35-43 Reader Service Card ...... 48a Literature Review 61 CHECK THE LABEL


If the date on the address ialsei on the front cover reads

Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

C*n*dtan Bintoets â– â– Prvu

Cover Photo: Fletcher Challenge's P&P plant at Elk Falls,80 recently completed major environmental treat mentfacilities.Story on page 62.Photo courtesy,Colum bia Geosystems, Ltd., Calgary Alberta.

OCTOBER 92, your sub scription has expired as of this issue. To avoid missing the next issue, simply send

a cheque for W8.15(G.S.T. inc.)and the address label to ES&E.

Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Editorial Comment

Our lakes reflect distorted economic realities

Engineers as a breed love sail

years ago, a primordial affinity for the water is imprinted on our subscon-

the natural beauty of the surroundings, there are ominous signs that some lakes are becoming stressed. Mesotrophy,the grim precursor ofeutrophy,that natural aging destiny of all water bodies, is clearly accelerating in some lakes, per haps stimulated by run-off from lawnfertilizing operations, or from poorly constructed septic systems. Patches of the ubiquitous eurasian milfoil are increasingly evident in shal lower waters,especially near shorelines. The sheer number ofsmall sailing craft, and indeed the sea planes themselves, are definite suspects as carriers in the increasing proliferation of weeds in


these lakes.

Certainly the lure of water is undeni able. Throughout the world, from the

While sailing, I was reminded of a great line from Cecil B de Mille's cine matic masterpiece. The Ten Com mandments: beauty can be a curse to our

ing. A natural propensity for mathematics makes it easy for them to adapt to navigational nuances and complexities. Being some what math-disadvantaged, I stick to windsurfing,or as correct nomanclature would have it, board sailing. Sailing in perfect weather, changing wind patterns present a stimulating challenge in tactile harmony with the ecosystem. Perhaps it's because we evolved from the first oxygen-producing stromatolites in our oceans billions of

French Riviera to Australia's Gold Coast; from Vancouver to Nova Scotia — and in countless freshwater lakes across Canada — waterfronts attract

development.People the world over will pay a great deal to view water from their homes — and no nation on earth is as

richly endowed with such a diversity of lakes than Canada.

The opulence of Canada can be breathtaking. To sail across our many lakes is to reveal an astonishing array of impressive homes,some with seaplanes moored at the edge oftheir lawns. While many are in architectual harmony with

women murmured one slave as soldiers

carted his daughter off, a profound statement also applicable to desirable waterfront locations.

Buildings in sensitive areas need stringent pollution controls. Without ef fective abatement technology, the de velopments can threaten the very water quality and scenic ambience which at tracted them in the first place. It need not be so. We have proven technology to protect, or restore most of the polluted,or stressed, waterways.The

recovery of Lake Erie is encouraging evidence of achievable remediation.

Yet repeatedly, practical proposals, based on proven treatment methods, take second place to more politically correct solutions which too often tran

slate into unending procrastination. A conservative estimate of the real estate values of one lake I sailed would

be in the region of$100 million, a value in large measure attributed to the scenic and recreational value of the water

fronts. Yet the amount spent on pollu tion controls, per home, to protect this ecological treasure, is less than the out lays on lawn care and gardening. For less than S250 per year, many lakeside homes receive piped water and sewerage services — a piffling sum com pared to other household expenditures. This is analagous to spending more on cosmetics than on preventative medi cine; or,in our particular case,spending more on cable TV than water and

sewerage services.(Unlike the water ser vices, the cable company does not filter out the rubbish before piping it into our home.) Recreational lakes, in fact, are mic rocosms of Canadian environmental

spending priorities. Underfunding means that valuable lakeshore proper ties will inevitably become less desir able, gradually losing millions in real estate values as they deteriorate ecolo gically. Priceless assets could become liabilities if remedial action does not

take place. Such devaluation has al ready taken place in many North American inner cities and it would be

ironic if the urban blight spreads to the covetted vacation properties in the country.

If the opulent homeowners on our lakes could only link the environmental facts oflife with economic realities,they would demand immediate action to res

The recreational value of our lakes for sailing and fishing alone Is worth billions. Pollution abate ment funds are minlscule. ES&E President Steve Davey enjoys an aftemoon of brisk sailing. Photo TPD

tore our precious water bodies.While public concern about the environment remains high, the truth is that actual spending on real pollution abatement projects and R&D is minuscule com pared to other costs, especially debt ser vicing costs. That we spend more on cable TV than on environmental protection is a tang ible indication that practical ecological projects — the tried and proven me thods which could actually clean up pollution — still rank among our lowest political priorities. ES&E

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Industry Update

Over 13,000 attend WEF in New Orleans Over 13,100 water experts from around the world attended the Water Environ

ment Federation (WEF) 65th Annual

Conference & Exposition opened in New Orleans on September 20, 1992. Exhibition bookings set records when 550 exhibitors displayed the latest in environmental technologies. The New Orleans Convention Cen

tre, unlike the Metropolitan Conven tion Centre, could handle a show twice


the size and was hardly taxed by this event.

For the first time a Canadian team

participated in the Operations Chal lenge in the United States, finishing twenty-second out of thirty-eight teams. As they all came from separate MOE plants in Sault Ste. Marie, Homepayne, North Bay,and Parry Sound,they could not practise together like the U.S.teams. Also they did not receive any employer funding or time off from work. Lisa Bumbaco, Don Gervais, Micheline ■ Martin and Ed O'Donnell are to be

heartily congratulated. Somehow ministries and municipali

Teny Matthews, PCAO President with Penny Davey, a Director ofthe Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association at The Great Canadian Icebreaker at the Waxworks Museum in New Orleans.

tinuous training and education. More

provides a most important service. Two new associations applied for

multi-million dollar water and waste-

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WEF, through operators' associations

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ties cannot understand that, to run


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992



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For information on any of these newsietter topics — or other consulting services please write, fax, or phone: Gerry Lynch (416)499-0090 Ext. 288

Gore & Storrie Limited, Consulting Engineers 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6 Telephone:(416)499-9000 Fax:(416)499-4687

Dedicated to safeguarding the environment through excellence in engineering and science For more information, Circle reply card No. 190

Industry update making WEF more international in scope,and moving towards the vision of

Lenders' environmental liability causing credit delays

the Federation as a truly world-wide one.

Flonourary memberships were bes towed on Robert Marini of the consult

ing firm ofCamp Dresser & McKee and John Moloney, a retired past president of the manufacturing firm of Envirex Inc.

Susan MacFarlane of Proctor & Red-

fern was the Masters Category student paper winner for her work on Techniques to Enhance Volatile Fatty Acid Production in Acidogenic Anaerobic Digesters. Although her award was actually pre sented to her at PCAO's annual con

ference in Toronto, it was again ack nowledged in New Orleans.

Pulp and Paper Industry's study finds little danger to fish The Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican) has released pre liminary results from an ongoing re search project concerning the impact of pulp mill effluents on aquatic organ isms.

"It is Patrican's mandate to identify whether environmental hazards are be

ing caused by the pulp and paper indus try's effluents and to share its findings with the government and with other in terested parties," said Peter Wrist, Pre sident, Paprican."The current research is part of an extensive study being car ried out under the Government of Ca

nada and the Paprican Environmental Memorandum of Understanding." The current study is examining the life cycle development of fathead min nows exposed in the laboratory to vari ous concentrations of biologicallytreated pulp mill effluents. The fathead minnow is a widely dispersed species in North American waters and is exten

sively used in laboratory experiments to test the potential impact of effluents in aquatic environments. Within the normal range of concen trations of effluents present in Cana dian waters no significant difference was found between the development of eggs hatched and reared in clean water and those which spent their entire life in the aquaria containing the treated efflu ents. Fish reared in the aquaria contain ing effluents reached maturity without any detectable abnormalities, and their second generation eggs were as viable as those of the control group. The Montreal-based Paprican also tested the minnows in concentrations

several times higher than the levels which normally occur below pulp mills.

Despite legislative changes in other countries, Canadian lenders remain liable for environmental problems in their debtors' operations — and this situation is putting pressure on the availability of credit, a Toronto chartered accountant who special

spreading the costs relative to envi ronmental clean-up." "Canada is still going down a road that the U.S. authorities are no

longer following due to the difficulty

of enforcement, and the extensive; non-productive litigation driven by izes in the environment said at the 'Superfund'. The ongoing unbalan Toronto Environmental Conference, ced pressure of lender liability in in early June. Richard Harris, Presi Canada is causing serious delays in the credit-granting process. Loans dent of KPMG Environmental Ser vices addressed the issues facing are only advanced after extensive, costly, due diligence/risk assess financial institutions when consi dering the environmental aspects of ment by the lender and/or consul credit risks.

tants retained to conduct environ

"Canada is out of step with the U.S.A.,U.K.,and Europe in terms of trying to lay the responsibility for historic environmental clean-up costs at the lenders' door. In April, the U.S. government relaxed its aggressive stand on lender liability

mental site assessments and report on the condition of the prospective

to allow a lender to deal with its

security without the fear of openended responsibility for environ mental clean-up. In the U.K. and Europe,if lender liability is introdu ced, it will be prospective, rather than retroactive. This is consistent


On the positive side,Harris noted that proposed amendments to Canada's Bankruptcy Act, which will exempt trustees from personal liability when dealing with toxic sites, are a welcome federal initia tive. "If passed,these amendments will go a long way toward resolving difficult problems and should help to reduce the number of 'orphan sites' in Canada," he said.

with the "polluter pay" approach to

Stormwater Management and Combined Sewer Control

Technology Transfer Conference January 19 & 20, 1993 Location: Regal Constellation Hotel, Etobicoke, Ontario 1-416-675-1500 Cost per delegate: $250.00

Stormwater Management:

Problem Description Pollution Control Planning and Implementation Rulemaking — How Clean

Pollution Prevention and

is Clean?

Government Positions Combined Sewer Overfiow Prevention and Control



Ontario Ministry ofthe Environment Environment Canada

Pollution Control Association of Ontario Municipal Engineers Association To register please contact: Ms. B. Pasian, Conference Manager Wastewater Technology Centre, P.O. Box 5068, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4L7• Telephone: 416-336-4588/Fax: 416-336-8912

continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 210

Industry update At these higher concentrations, there

Mexicans visit Mann

was a trend towards an increased male

to female ratio, with near absence ofegg production. Research is now focusing on identifying the responsible com ponents in the effluents so that approp riate controls can be developed. "We believe it is important to test at concen tration levels above those normally en countered downstream ofthe pulp mills in order to ensure that a sufficient mar

gin of safety exists both now and in the future," Mr. Wrist said.

I Overwhelming demand for environmental

auditors predicted The inaugural meeting ofthe Canadian Environmental Auditors Association

delighted organizers when over 150 pro fessionals registered,in the Toronto area Sept. 14. Brian Emmett, Assistant Deputy Mi nister, Corporate Policy, Environment Canada,said there was a clear need for

the auditing industry to make informa tion robust and comparable. He predicted the CEAA would play a key role in ensuring that practitioners became more competitive in a growing international auditing market.

John Martin, President Mann Testing. Beatriz Conzelmann, Mexico City and Mlsslssauga's Indomitable Mayor, Hazel McCalllon. ES&E Photo.

Mississauga's Mayor, Hazel McCallion joint ventures. delighted two Mexican scientists at the Mayor McCallion met with senior Mann Testing Laboratories with her ex Mann scientists as well as the Mexican tensive knowledge of politics, econo visitors. During discussions the visitors mics and NAFTA, along with recollec said their country had many severe en tions of her earlier visits to Mexico. She vironmental problems. Mexico had the also expressed pride in the Sheridan potential to be a huge market for Cana Research Centre. dian environmental technology, they Q Pedro Cattori Conzelmann and his

the extent to which responsibilities un

part of a commercial venture and train ing scheme initiated by Mann.Beatriz is

der environmental legislation and regu lations are being fulfilled. Compliance benefits the environment, but also keeps

boratory firm Control Quimico,Mexico City. The two firms will cooperate in

Environmental audits also indicate

businesses out ofcourt. Recently the Department ofthe Envi ronment published its General Protocol

for Environmental Audits ofLaboratories which provides detailed instructions to


wife Beatriz were at the Mann labs as

Mann President, John Martin dis

cussed some of the environmental pro blems and potential opportunities he had found during overseas trips and expressed optimism for Mann's latest

Director General of the Mexican La

Mexican initiatives.

assist environmental personnel in con ducting a thorough audit investigation at laboratory facilities. The Department of Public Works in this fiscal year, is

undertaking a SI million pilot(environ mental auditing) project. Using an inhouse Environmental Auditing Protocontinued overleaf

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John F Gartner, P.Eng., Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gartner Lee Limited is pleased to announce the appointment of Grant Anderson, P.Eng., to the position of President and Bob Leech, M.Eng.Sc., to the position of Vice-President.

As Gartner Lee approaches its 20th anniversary, the firm reflects on its achievement of establishing a leading multidisciplinary consulting practice that specializes in solving environmental problems for public and private sector clients internationally. The firm has grown to a staff of over 115 including environmental scien

tists, engineers and planners in Canada and the United States.

Representing over 20 dis ciplines, these professionals integrate their expertise to form the backbone of highly motivated multidisciplinary teams. Looking ahead, these teams will continue to focus on

better understanding client needs and will strive to exceed

their expectations by providing cost effective and timely solutions to environmental


Since joining Gartner Lee in 1973,Grant Anderson, P.Eng., has solved many complex earth science problems in volving terrain evaluation, engineering geology and hydrogeological principles. He is well recognized for his comprehensive waste management expertise. Currently, Mr. Anderson is Chairman of the Landfill Subcommittee of A.S.T.M. Committee D-34, on waste disposal.

Bob Leech, M.Eng.Sc., during the past 22 years, has managed numerous hydrogeological projects ranging from regional ground water resource evaluation projects to detailed contaminant studies.

Mr. Leech is

currently the President of the Canadian National Chapter of the International Association of Hydrogeologists.

Integrated services provided to the waste,energy,transportation,resource and land use markets include:

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Industry update Seventh Annual Toronto Environmental Tradeshow and Conference

Waste Commissioner addresses BO CEIA The October dinner meeting of the CEIA — B.C.was attended by 57 people, who came out to hear Dorothy Caddell, newly appointed Waste Reduction Commissioner. Ms. Caddell spoke of her background in recycling and project management, with the Recycling Coun

May 11-12, 1993 The 7th Annual Toronto Environmen

tal Tradeshow and Conference, for

ting up the BC Waste Exchange. After a brief discussion of the genesis of the commission and ofits role,she spoke of her mandate regarding close public consultation and invited those present to apply for a position on her advisory council, which is to include members

from all sectors affected by current en experience as a school trustee in Bur- vironmental legislation. naby, B.C. She was instrumental in set

cil of British Columbia, as well as her

mally known as Haztech Canada, will take place at the Toronto International Centre, May 11-12. Last year marked the 6th successful show which attracted the highest num ber of quality attendees and delegates since its inception in 1987. For information contact: Canadian Exhibition Inc. #240, 4936 - 87 Street,

Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5W3. Phone (403)469-2400 Fax (403)469-1398.

Tom McCaffrey,President of Canadian Exhibition Management Inc. is pleased to announce that Environmental Science

& Engineering magazine has been ap pointed to run the conference at the Seventh Annual Toronto Environmen tal Tradeshow and Conference,

ES&E has issued a call for papers.

Industry needs to comply with increas ingly stringent air pollution and toxic site remediation regulations. There's

Left to right: Jeff Stasulk, sales manager — Western Canada, Philip Environmental Group, —CEIA — B.C. board member; Dorothy Caddell, British Columbia's Waste Reduction Commissioner; Bill LIghtowlers, Senior Consulting Associate of Concord Environment Corporation and CEIA— B.C.President;and Murray Ward,CEIA—B.C.

also industrial discharges, process deve

lopments and many developments in the water and wastewater treatment

field. Papers will be considered on the above topics.

board member. Photo by Ron Ganton.

Please write or fax a 150 word sum

Environmental auditors

mary along with brief bio to: Tom Davey, Publisher, Environmental Sci ence & Engineering, 10 Petch Crescent,


Aurora L4G 5N7. Fax (416)841-7271.

equipment, Public Works is aiming to

Continued from page 10 and



complete an audit of approximately 40 per cent of the almost 400 office build

ings for which it is responsible. Don Eraser, Senior Environment Ad

visor at Ontario Hydro, and newlyappointed President of the CEAA,

Prescription for Trow Brampton

environmental headaches:


Cambridge Chicago

Call Trow

said:"We are witness to an irreversible


Site Assessments

change in society. It won't wash in the courtroom if you say you've had an



on the qualifications of the person con


ducting the audit." Alex Keen,President of Altech,stated



North Bay

audit done and didn't bother to check

Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd.

the need for standardization was urgent. Banks, real estate people and financial institutions were pressing for the estab lishment of "generally accepted" envi ronmental auditing standards. According to questionnaire results,


1595 Clark Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario

over 80 per cent of CEAA members fa

Thunder Bay


voured some form of certification.



Health and Safety Air Quality

Sudbury Timmins


outlined some of the organization's functions including: • opportunities for networking; • training bases; • establishing a common base for au diting techniques with CSA and; • investigating the potential for a cer tification program. David Estrin, environmental lawyer with Gowling, Strathy and Henderson

For more information, Circle reply card No. 141

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

There are many labs ... not all are equal.

When selecting a lab, you look for data quality, turnaround time, and price. You should also determine the lab's performance in independent QA/QC audits and round robins. Finally, check out deliverables like data

interpretation, sample bottles certified to be contaminant-free, and Errors and Omissions Insurance.


6850 Gorewoy Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

E- . .,oj. r- â– Âťr , Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 140

Industry update Record jail sentence

is left with more than 5,000 barrels of waste material,as well as storage

handed down

tanks filled with chemicals and con taminated soil. This includes 583

Varnicolor Chemical Ltd. president, Severin Argenton, has been senten ced to eight months in jail for envi ronmental offences committed at the

company's Elmira solvent recovery facility. This is the longest prison term ever handed down for an environ mental offence in Canada. It marks the second time an offender has

been sent to jail for breaking Onta rio's environmental laws.

Mr.Argenton was convicted July 9, 1992 of illegally storing solvents which have contaminated the com

pany's main processing site and the adjacent property. Today, the main processing site

four offences under the Environ mental Protection Act:

•failing, as the director of Varnico lor Chemical to take all precautions to ensure the company was not har ming the environment; •discharging industrial solvents — including toluene,ethylbenzene and dous and non-hazardous wastes. In July 1992,William Kowalchuk, xylene — which are likely to harm a planner with Varnicolor,was fined the environment; $15,000 in connection with the case. • operating a waste disposal site He must pay $1,250 monthly into a without ministry approval; trust fund to help cover costs incur •failing, as required by a ministryissued Director's Order, to adequa red by the ministry during the site tely reduce the volume of wastes at cleanup. leaking drums which have been uncovered at the solvent recovery site — the barrels contained paint and liquid solvents,as well as hazar

The ministry first was alerted to environmental wrongdoing at Var nicolor Chemical in 1990 by a com pany employee who subsequently was fired.

Mr. Argenton was sentenced for

the site.

The ministry's case included evi dence that contaminant-laden liquid wastes have already entered the shallow aquifer beneath the Varni color site.


Environmental Instruments

Slope Indicator Canada Oil Water Interface Indicator detects the presence of floating hydrocarbon product and provides depthto-product and depth-to-water measurements for determining the thickness of the product layer. It


also serves as an excellent water level indicator. New

Tefzel® coated tape has 1 miiiimeter graduations, resists most contaminants, and is easy to clean. For more information, Circie reply card No. 143

Water Level Indicator measures water levels in

standpipes and wells. Available with Tefzel® coated tape for work at contaminated sites. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 144

Down Hole Data Collector records water level and

temperature data from VS piezometers. It fits inside two-inch monitorings for compiete security, stores 10,000 readings, and operates up to twelve months on four alkaline 'D' celi batteries.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 145

McGill VS Piezometer provides high-resoiution measure ments of water ieveis. It is sensitive enough to resoive changes in water levels as small as 2.1mm with an accuracy of ±0.1% FS. Fdr more information, Circie repiy card No. 146

Slope Indicator Canada Tel: 604-276-2545 Fax:604-276-0190 In Ontario: Hoskins Scientific Ltd Tel: 416-333-5510 Fax: 416-333-4976

In Quebec: Geostructures Instruments, Inc Tel: 514-444-8420 Fax:514-444-8422

A two semester graduate program offering courses in groundwater and soil contamination; pollution transport, control and remediation;

and the impact of wastes on subsurface systems. Open to qualified students with degrees in en gineering or science related to the environment.


Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics McGill University 817 Sherbrooke St. West

Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6

(514) 398-6858 Fax (514) 398-7361 For more information. Circle reply card No. 147 14

l^r more information, Circie repiy card No. 148

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992




EST Standard 150# CI2 & SO2 Emergency Scrubber System EST Corporation now offers a standard, cost effective, Emergency Scrubber Sys tem to satisfy the requirements of the Uniform Fire Code. This compact system is 12 ft. high, 7 ft. long and 4 ft. wide. Additional applications include neutralization of chemical storage tank vent





Features 1. A highly reliable ejector-venturi scrubber entrains the gas with a neutralizing solution. A fan is not required. 2. A slight negative pressure is maintained in the room at all times preventing chlorine escape. 3. Chlorine room is scrubbed to below 1 ppm. 4. A chlorine leak detector automatically starts the system. 4. Corrosion resistant fiberglass reinforced plastic materials are used throughout.

Scopa of Supply



For more information, Circie reply card No. 182

Ejector Venturi Scrubber, Separator Storage Tank, Packed Tower, Pump, Recirculation Piping, Performance Characteristics.

Capital Controls New Line of Microprocessor-Based Water Quality Monitors Capital Controls Company, Inc., manufacturer of disinfection systems and water analysis instrumentation has introduced a new Series of microprocessor-based water quality monitors. The new product line, designated Series 9000, includes monitors for Dissolved Oxygen, pH/ORP Conductivity, and Temperature. All of the models in the Series include: • Microprocessor-based electronics for ease-of-use and configuration • 4-digit LED display with high digits for improved readability • Self-diagnostics for monitor and probe • NEMA 4X enclosures for demanding environments • Isolated 4-20 mAdc output for remote monitoring or control • Logging of minimum, maximum and average parameter values with reset for trend analysis

• Probe mounting up to 1000 feet {305 meters) from the receiver for versatile installations • Two programmable alarm levels for process control

• Process temperature indication on all models with ±1 °F accuracy • Front panel set up, alarm and control functions convenient for on-line adjustments • Standard monitoring ranges for each parameter

For more information, Circie reply card No. 183 SYSTEM LAYOUT

Chlor-A-Vac Submersible Induction Unit A revolutionary new design has made Chlor-A-Vac the most efficient means of mixing and feeding Chlorine and Sulfur Dioxide available today. Our submersible configuration allows the unit to be mounted directly in the con tact basin. As a result, all injectors, booster pumps, and potentially dangerous solution piping can be




The Chlor-A-Vac design uses a spinning impeller completely encased in a heavy-duty machined PVC assembly. Water is drawn down through inlet ports at a high velocity and forced through a venturi where a strong vacuum is created. This is the exact location of the gas inlet ports. Dry gas never makes contact with the metal components in the unit. Other chemicals such as Ammonia, Ozone, and Chlorine Dioxide can he fed using the Chlor-A-Vac as

ofcrnc CAai£


Benefits • Higher efficiency disinfection & dechlorination • Improved safety Required contact times can often he • Tremendous electricity cost savings reduced (along with smaller contact basins) • Capability to feed two or more gases simultaneously Uses less Chlorine and/or Sulfur Dioxide • Excellent Dissolved Oxygen revitalization Easy to install & maintain • Chlor-A-Vac units can "run dry" indefinitely without Reduced risk to operating personnel damage "All vacuum" gas transmission lines For more information, Circie reply card No. 184



328 NORTH RIVERMEDE ROAD, UNIT #9, CONCORD,ONTARIO L4K 3N5•Tel:(416)738-2355 Fax:(416)738-5520 For more information. Circle reply card No. 149

Industry update

Photo report by Tom Davey

CAP and global warming vigorously debated at Ont AWMA Fall Meeting

The annual fal meeting of the Ont. Section Air and Waste

Management Association (AWMA) was a rare blend of technical erudition, wit and fellowship that made the shared learning experi ence a pleasure. The Future Session,for example, ably chaired by Ed Piche, pro vided some witty exchanges as presenters fielded questions on global warming and other MOE strategies. Peter Camp bell's presentation contained some gra phic slides predicting emissions of va rious gases over the next two decades which made for dramatic viewing. Other issues, such as controlling sta tionary and mobile air pollution sour ces were raised and the meeting debated broader social trends which contribute

to global warming. This was a meeting with vigorous audience participation. Walter Chan, Conference Technical

Chair gave an overview of the Ontario Ministry's strategy. He said in August 1990, the MOE released a series of do

cuments for public comment called the Clean Air Program (CAP). Some CAP limitations were noted based on public feedback and internal review. CAP limitations:

• Addressed only stationary sources • Did not adequately address air issues, other than air toxics

• Did not encourage innovative ap

proaches to pollution abatement

On the shores of Lake Couchlching left to right, Ray Potvin, Ont. Section Chair, Tony Van derVooren,Conference Chair and Walter Chan,Technical Chair.The Fall meeting was held at the century old Fern Resort near Orillia, Ont.

• perceived to be extremely complex and costly to administer The preferred MOE abatement ap proach was the reduction or elimination of pollutant emission/discharge/gener ation through industrial processes or product changes. It also requires a multi-media approach which simulta neously considers the impact of pollu tion on air, land and water.

Peter Hess gave a US perspective based on his experience as ChiefOpera

ting Officer Bay Area, Air Quality, San Francisco. Pre planning is critical to success, he said. Strategic planning should be initiated as soon as possible and upper management policy makers should chart a clear course in order to direct and allocate resources. He said it

was apparent that there was no silver bullet, nor any individual strategy with sufficient emission reduction potential to attain an air quality standard. His jurisdiction is acknowledged as being at the leading edge ofair pollution regulatory leadership. P. DeAngelis MOE, Air Resources Branch, highlighted the new fees pro gram which began October 1,1992. Fees are applicable to all commercial,indus trial and private sector applicants and are in the amount of2 percent ofthe cost ofthe pollution control device.They can range from a minimum of$50 to a max imum of $100,000, he told the meeting. CALL FOR PAPERS

11th Ozone World Congress. August 29September 3, 1993. Abstract Deadline: January 8, 1992. The International Ozone Association is inviting one page abstracts on the following topics: the generation, reaction and application of ozone and alternative oxidants, or oxidant combinations. Send abstracts to: 11th Ozone World

Photos, left to right. Peter Brand, Hatch Associates, Gerard Ronan, MOE ADM and Jane Pagel, Ontario Hydro. The packed afternoon session was notable for strong audience participation and was chaired by Ed Piche who fielded the questions with insight and humour. 16

Congress, lOA — Pan American Group, 83 Oakwood Avenue,Norwalk,CT 06850; Fax (203)847-2683.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Nobody covers Canada like Armtec From Whitehorse to St. John's...

Armtec Geosynthetic Products are the underlying solution to design assurance. Armtec, with sales offices located throughout Canada, is proud to offer a wide range of premium geosynthetic products for civil engineering and environmental projects. There exists an extensive and rapdiiy growing range of applications for these highly versatile products. They include: base stabilization and soil separation of roads and yards, erosion control, subsurface drainage, soil reinforcement in embankments

UTTTk Construction Products

and retaining wails and the primary and secondary containment of hazardous

• Erosion Control Blankets and

Geocomposite Drainage Products


• Silt Fence

• Trevira Spunbond® Non-woven

in addition to our geosynthetic products, Armtec also offers design,fabrication, and on-site


• Giaymax® Geosynthetic Giay Liner

• Geoweb® Geiluiar Confinement


• Tenax® Ceogrids • Synthetic Industries Woven Geotextiies

technical services.

For details on how you can benefit from our geosynthetic products on your next project, contact your local Armtec Sales Engineer.

Protect your design with Armtec Geosynthetic Products. Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vahcouver, Edmonton, Calgary, lethbridge, Regina, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Gueiph, Toronto, Ottawa, iViontreai, Quebec City, Sackviiie, Dartmouth, St. John's and Bishop's Fails.

Solving the needs of Canadian Engineers for over80 years. For more information, Circle reply card No. 111

Corrosion prevention

Protecting metal structures in aggressive underground environments

Cathodic protection as a

control zones, it is nearly impossible to achieve uniform current density and po larized potentials to all surfaces. Epoxy coated steel requires only a few micro amperes per square foot as compared to

means of corrosion control

has been around for many years.There are relatively few companies specializing in cathodic pro tection and some tend to guard their technology by specifying integrated complex systems as a separate pack

500 times more for uncoated stainless

steel, copper or reinforced concrete. When you take into consideration the barrage of inconsistent materials speci fied, a power rectifier is probably the


Most "design and build" consulting firms depend on these specialists to re commend an appropriate system along with specialized testing and reporting. Such systems are usually costly if ret rofitted as an after thought to existing and new facilities.

best choice under the circumstances.

However, if the clarifier tank and

components were properly chosen to complement corrosion protection,signi ficant savings could be realized,initially and in the future.

Hank St. Onge

As an example let's consider a sewage treatment clarifier tank.

(i) Plant piping made of ductile iron or

Guidelines for selection of materials Consider the three environments in

stainless steel.


(j) Electrical grounding cables made of bare copper with copper and/or galvan ized steel ground rods. ponents have some degree of corrosion

1. Atmosphere(above ground materials) 2. Soil backfill (components in contact with soil) 3. Aerated raw sewage (components in contact with effluent)

tection. However in some cases the de

resistance, but if all are connected to


sign engineer allows the supplier of each component to select their own sup posedly acceptable product. Indepen denttest data often accompany and sup port this selection process. A typical 1992 clarifier structure may

gether to form the final structure you introduce serious potential problems.

Cathodic protection does not work in the atmosphere and therefore must be assessed differently. Materials should be weatherproof rather than corrosion

The exterior surface is in contact with

soil of varying substance; the internal surface and components are in contact with flowing and aerated effluent. Under such conditions one might think it would be important to build the structure with compatible materials and corrosion pro

stainless steel.

All of the above individual com

Metals such as aluminum, iron, stain

be constructed from components such

less steel and copper develop varying levels of voltage when exposed to soil or raw sewage. Aluminum and copper ex posed to raw sewage can develop 1000


milivolts between themselves. When

(a) Holding tank made of a sand blasted and epoxy coated steel shell; or

grounded together through the struc ture,direct current will flow causing one

it can be a reinforced concrete tank.

of the metals to corrode at an acceler

(b) Base slab or tank bottom made of

ated rate. All other metals develop simi-

Metals such as aluminum, iron, stainless steel and copper develop varying levels of voltage when exposed to soil or raw sewage. Aluminum and copper exposed to raw sewage can develop 1000 milivolts between themselves. reinforced rebar concrete or coated steel.

(c) Anti-flotation anchors made of uncoated steel imbedded in concrete or bedrock.

(d) Rotating arm and scraper blades made of galvanized angle iron and steel.

(e) Air piping and vertical drop pipe made of galvanized steel and malleable

lar problems. The selected combination of steel, iron, galvanized, stainless, aluminum and copper when immersed in certain aggressive environments might not be construed as a good design for the pro per application of cathodic protection. An effective cathodic protection sys tem must be capable of generating uni form current density to all metal sur faces to attain polarized potentials not exceeding the hydrogen evolution potential.

resistant. Also, dissimilar metal above

ground is not a serious problem. Ma terials such as aluminum,stainless steel,

galvanized or painted steel are suitable for this application. Soil Backfill Soil in contact with exterior metal sur faces causes corrosion cells and should

be protected. Avoid dissimilar metals such as stainless, aluminum or copper unless the exposed surfaces are coated with quality paint or epoxy and cathodically protected. Painted steel and iron with sacrificial modular anodes are suit

able for underground applications. When specifying concrete tank struc tures, it is suggested that the exterior soil side surface be coated with mastic or

other waterproofing dielectric coating. This would minimize rebar corrosion

and spalling. Cathodic protection would be optional. Buried piping and conduit can be plastic where possible. Anchor rods and tie bars should also be coated

less steel bolts.

recommend the use of automated im

with mastic or paint. Electrical grounding cables and rods can cause serious corrosion problems. Mandatory grounding standards deal primarily with safety and potentially hazardous situations, but little thought goes into its contribution to plant corro

(h) Stop gates made of aluminum or

pressed current systems with a series of

sion failure. As more and more under-

iron fittings. (f) Diffuser assembly and bubbler pip ing made of stainless steel or PVC. (g) Valves made ofcast iron, with stain


Although some corrosion specialists

Environmental Science <6: Engineering, November 1992

By Hank St. Onge* ground structures are specified with coatings and cathodic protection it is important to include a safe grounding network that does not interfere with the

protected structure. Fault current isola tion cells are available for this purpose. If direct grounding is necessary use plastic coated copper cables with gal vanized steel or pure zinc ground rods. Do not use bare copper rods or cable unless used in conjunction with an AC.

wherever possible. If stainless steel pipe

to be visually monitored Concrete base

is used make sure the outside surface is

floors and tank structure, when speci

painted after installation. This reduces the dissimilar metal and galvanic

coated with a wear resistant enamel or

effect. When an all steel tank construction is

specified, the inside surface must be sand blasted and painted with epoxy or other suitable coating. Mountsacrificial

It is very easy to be misled by

Fault isolation cell.

Aerated Sewage Aerated and moving raw sewage can be extremely aggressive to most metals.

All submerged metallic components must be protected in this environment. Avoid using uncoated dissimilar me tals where possible. The rotating arm and scraper blades can be made from regular steel construction and coated with epoxy or other quality product. Painted galvanized construction would also be acceptable. Provide corrosion protection by using sacrificial modular,zinc or magnesium

anodes, strategically placed and bolted to the rotating arm. Iron valves and fit tings should be coated after installation and fitted with steel cored sacrificial zinc nuts on each bolt.

Specify plastic piping(PVC or FRP)

manufactured corrosion

resistant products suitable for atmospheric use and fall to understand the detrimental effects that

occur when they are burled or submerged with other components.

plate type anodes around the inside pe riphery of the tank at locations that will not interfere with operation. Some tank manufacturers now specify factory at tached modular designs as part of their , price package. On large tanks,field attachment is the best approach. Conveniently placed re ference electrodes wired to a remote di

fied, should be properly cleaned and epoxy suitable for concrete surfaces. This is important to minimize rebar cor rosion and reduce galvanic effects bet ween the concrete structure and other

internal metals. Cathodic protection should not be necessary for well-coated reinforced concrete.


Consulting engineering companies should take a hard look at the way they

design metallic structures for under ground or submerged applications. It is very easy to be misled by manufactured corrosion resistant products suitable for atmospheric use and fail to understand the detrimental effects that occur when

they are buried or submerged with other components.

Impressed current power systems are suitable for older, existing or poorly coated structures and possibly as an after thought for new construction. The simplest and most effective way to provide long life construction is to take advantage of quality paint products and built-in modular sacrificial anode

design. It is not only economical. It is safe, logical and advanced. For more information, Circle reply card No. 113

gital voltmeter allows protection levels

*Duratron Systems

Robert Andrews joins Proctor & Redfern


We Go Under

Rob Andrews, P.Eng., has joined Proctor & Redfern as Vice-President of the firm's Water and Wastewater

Division at Head Office, Don Mills. He

is responsible for the operations and


Conservation Areas



■-Waste Sites-

services of the Division that consists

of five departments; Water Supply, Municipal Wastewater Treatment, In dustrial Waste Treatment, Hydrotechnical, and Chemical Services. Rob succeeds Frank Moir who was

appointed General Manager last


For A Trenchless Environment "DirectionalDrill" Canada — CAM TYHURST Phone: 519-776-8727 Fax: 519-776-6616

US. — FRED BRITT Phone: 903-784-0866 Fax: 903-784-2995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 112

Environmental Science & Engineering. November 1992

Mr. Andrews has proven leader

ship qualities acquired through fifteen years of corporate management ex perience in distinguished consulting engineering businesses. His position at Proctor & Redfern enhances the

overall ability of the firm to continue as one of Ontario's foremost consulting enterprises. 19

Legal affairs

By Cynthia R.C. Sefton*

Courtaulds Fibres Canada found not guilty

Asuccessful due diligence de

Thejudge,however,followed the 1991

fence led to an acquittal in R. v.

Toronto Electric Commissioners decision

Courtaulds Fibres Canada on 13 counts under each of the

based on a spill ofPCBs from a transfor mer into a sewer. The sewage treatment plant could not remove all of the PCBs

Environmental Protection Act (EPA) and the Ontario Water Resources Act

and some entered the waters of Lake

(OWRA) arising out of spills of oleic

Ontario. Judge M. Corbett decided that it was not the quantity of the substance, but its nature that determined its poten

acid and zinc into the St. Lawrence River.

Courtaulds manufactures rayon and other synthetic fabrics in Cornwall,On tario. MOE statistics released last year put Courtaulds in the top ten spill re

porting companies in the province. The acid recovery area of the plant, built some 40 years ago was, according

tial to harm the environment.Therefore, even minuscule concentrations ofPCBs

were sufficient to satisfy the OWRA test and result in conviction.

Cynthia Sefton

to the court decision, the source of the Cornwall plant who: spills. Comprised of about 80 tanks, 100 • retained an experienced environmen tal lawyer to conduct seminars for all pumps and a huge network ofpipes con management personnel from super structed ofsteel and lined with rubber or visors up; lead, the equipment was subject to cor rosion during 40 years of industrial use. • organized training sessions for all line employees; Instrumentation was lacking and tank levels had to be checked by eye. Failure • installed 96 level alarms on storage

of aging pumps and valves could easily result in a major chemical spill. There was no containment: any spills were channelled into the cooling water ef fluent pipes which discharged directly into the river.


tanks; and

• prepared a plan for further plant im provements and lobbied head office for funding. The judge concluded that the com

pany had exercised "continuing, and earnest, and widespread efforts" to ad dress its environmental problems.



Judge P.M. Fitzpatrick found that de spite the aging facility(built in 1948-52),

The judge reviewed factors to be weighed to determine how far back the company had to demonstrate due dili gence. These include:

and conditions which, he found, made

spills almost inevitable, recent, concer ted environmental management initia • the state of the facilities; tives satisfied the requirements of a due • the age of the facilities; diligence defence. He said: • the problems to be addressed; Reasonable care and due diligence do not • the scope of the actions taken to deal mean superhuman efforts. They mean a with the problem; and high standard of awareness and decisive, • the time the Company was engaged in prompt and continuing action. To demand remedial action. more, would,in my view, movea strict liabi In this case, the company's co-opera lity offence dangerously close to one ofab tion with MOE for several years and its solute liability. energetic attempt to upgrade its envi Despite the age of the facility and the ronmental problems in the 11 months lack of modern spill prevention technol preceding the first charge allowed the ogy,the judge recognized that for the 11 judge to acquit. months prior to the first charge the com WATER QUALITY IMPAIRED pany had made concerted and energetic The judge found that the spills of the efforts to train staff and improve the environmental management of the acid and zinc into the river had the po tential to impair the quality of the water plant. The judge also noted a co-opera tive relationship with MOE abatement and inflict damage on the aquatic life of officials for several years preceding the river. In the absence of due diligence the events.

During the 11 month period prior to the charges the company had seconded a highly experienced environmental manager from Courtaulds' New Jersey plant as senior operations officer at the

this would have resulted in a conviction under the OWRA.

The defence had argued that poten tially harmful concentrations of acid and zinc were almost instantaneously diluted to harmlessness by the waters of the St. Lawrence at the mouth of the

*Partner in

the Toronto environ

mental law firm of Willms & Shier 20

effluent pipes from which the dis charges entered the river.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 114

Judge Fitzpatrick, agreeing with this decision said that "... ifoleic acid and zinc may impair the quality ofthe waters, andI find on the evidence that they could have, then that constitutes the offence." SPILL REPORTS ADMISSIBLE AS EVIDENCE

The defence failed to persuade the judge that written spill reports filed with the MOE should not be used as evidence

against the company. The reports were admissible for the truth of their con tents.

Companies who use the same forms for internal investigations and MOE spill reporting may want to review their forms to ensure that MOE will receive

adequate and accurate information for abatement purposes, while avoiding distribution of inaccurate or irrelevant information. NOT LIABLE EOR EMPLOYEE ERRORS

Absolving the company from liability for employee errors. Judge Fitzpatrick said:

Once a worker is properly trained by the employerfor the tasks to be perfonned, it would be unreasonable to conclude that the

employershould be held responsiblefor an employee's error, which neither training nor anticipation could prevent orforesee. It is interesting to contrast this deci sion with the Bata Industries Ltd. case which resulted in the conviction of the

company and two directors. The wil lingness to meet environmental pro blems head on seems to be the deciding factor. The Bata convictions resulted

from failure to properly manage waste chemicals stored in barrels on the pro perty. The judge in that case concluded that reasonable and conscientious ef forts could have minimized or avoided

the damage. Judge Fitzpatrick in the Courtaulds decision, on the other hand, empha sized the value of training and continu ing, conscientious efforts to deal with existing environmental problems and planning and upgrading to prevent fu ture spills. ES&E

Environmental Science <4 Engineering, November 1992



-■ wy


New smoothwall interior

BOSS 2000: technical data

BOSS 2000 provides a corrugated exterior for superior strength,

• Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s • Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM 02412 • Recommended for use in soiis having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to corrosion • Excelient impact resistance under winter conditions for year-

as weii as a thick smoothwall interior for maximum flow. With a

Manning's 'n' value of .012, BOSS 2000 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics. Fuii size range BOSS 2000 is avaiiabie in 4" to 36" diameters as non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCK™ filter. Custom fittings are avaiiabie on request. Easy to install BOSS 2000 is iight in weight for ease of transporting, handling and instaiiation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chain saw! Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemicai attack in most applications. Head Office

Big '0' Inc. 254 Thames Road East

Exeter, Ontario NOM 1S3 (519) 235-0870

34601 Vye Road Abbotstord, B.C.V4S4N7 (604) 850-0753

round installation Make the move to BOSS 2000 now! Ask for the BOSS 2000 brochure

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S and SOCK are registered trademarks of Big '0' Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 115

Innovative technology working tor you

Effluent strategies

Effluent toxiclty identification and reduction TABLE 1: Sample treatments performed In Phase I TIE Treatment

Affects Toxicants That Are:

Conventional Techniques Graduated pH lonizable over a pH range of 6 to 9 Aeration


SPE(C18 column) EDTA Oxidant Reduction

Non-polar organics or metai chelates Gationic metals (e.g., Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) Reduced or compiexed by tiosulphate (e.g., chlorine, ozone, Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg,Se)


Associated with filterable material

pH Adjustment to 3 or 10® Susceptible to irreversible reaction (e.g., decomposition or precipitation) at extreme pH

(Non-selective sorption technique that is useful for tox icants that are not effectively altered by other treat ments)

Anion Exchange Cation Exchange

Anions Cations

Toxicity reduction in industrial

and municipal effluents can be accomplished following U.S. Protection

Agency (EPA) guidelines, called "Tox icity Reduction Evaluation"(TRE).The investigation identifies the cause(s) of effluent toxicity and the corrective ac tions necessary to reduce or eliminate toxicity.

A TRE is designed on a site-specific basis and is conducted in a step-wise fashion to narrow the search for effec

tive effluent toxicity control measures.A major component of the TRE is the "Toxicity Identification Evaluation" (TIE)in which fish or invertebrate tox icity tests are combined with chemical analyses to identify and confirm causa tive toxicants. Investigation of treatability options or process modifications can then focus on reducing or eliminat ing the contaminants of concern. TREs will meet the needs of dis

chargers required to eliminate effluent lethality in response to provincial and federal effluent toxicity regulations. Background Chemical monitoring of effluents is

useful to prevent the release of specific contaminants at concentrations that

may be toxic to aquatic biota or impair the physical quality oftheir habitat.Due to the vast number of chemicals that

may be present in any given effluent sample and the lack of toxicity data 22

diluted using a clean, laboratory water supply. Organism mortality is mon itored during the test and after a stan dard length of time the test is termi nated: 96 hours in the case of rainbow

trout and 48 hours for Daphnia magna. then plotted on a graph or statistically analyzed to estimate the effluent con centration that would result in lethality of 50% of the test organisms. This endpoint is expressed as the sample LC50in units of % effluent volume in dilution

^Solutions are re-adjusted back to circum-neutral pH prior to toxiclty tests.


series of effluent dilutions. Effluent is

Mortalities at each concentration are

Other Techniques Activated Carbon

tests using the invertebrate, Daphnia magna(or waterflea),are now frequently applied in addition to trout tests. Both tests measure the lethality of an effluent during an "acute" or short-term exposure. This is accomplished by ex posing a suitable number of organisms (usually ten) to each of a logarithmic


Effluent regulations for many indus trial sectors are currently undergoing available for many of those chemicals, revisions at both federal and provincial levels. For example, pulp and paper ef however,it is not practical or even poss ible to monitor all potentially harmful fluent regulations were promulgated in substances. In addition, comparison of May, 1992, under the Fisheries Act and comparable regulations for other sec the concentration of individual chemi tors are expected to follow. The Ontario cals does not account for potential inter active chemical effects (e.g., additive or Ministry ofthe Environment is also pre paring sector-specific regulations as synergistic effects). Consequently, aquatic toxicity tests part of their Municipal-Industrial Stra are used to provide a measure of the tegy for Abatement (MISA) program, the first of which (petroleum) was pro potential biological impact of an efflu ent in a receiving water. Since different mulgated recently. It is generally an ticipated that dischargers will be re species offish or invertebrates often res quired to eliminate acute lethality to fish pond differently to a given effluent sam ple (e.g., show greater or lesser relative (e.g., rainbow trout) and possibly also sensitivity),it is desirable to use a variety invertebrates (e.g., Daphnia magna). of test species to judge the toxicity of an This means that mortality in undiluted effluent. Standardized test methods (100%) effluent must not exceed 50%. Eacilities discharging effluent that is have been developed(by provincial en acutely lethal will be required to identify vironment agencies. Environment Ca and implement a means by which they nada, US,EPA,ASTM,etc.) for a num ber of marine and freshwater species can reduce or eliminate the substances that measure such responses as lethality, causing acute lethal toxicity in their ef fluent. This can be accomplished fol growth, or reproduction when those or lowing U.S. EPA guidelines, called ganisms are exposed to an effluent sam ple. Standard test species are selected "Toxicity Identification Evaluation" because they are sensitive to con (TRE). taminants, are representative of many Overview of TRE process receiving waters, are readily available, The US EPA has published five ^idare relatively easily maintained under ance documents to assist in the iden laboratory conditions, and are indica tive of specific niches in the food web. tification and reduction of effluent Rainbow trout{Onchorhyncus mykiss) toxicants: has been the most common fish species • Generalized Methodology for Con ducting Industrial Toxicity Reduc used in toxicity tests in Canada, and tion Evaluations(Eava et ah, 1989); until recently, was the only species re quired in regulatory testing. Effluent • Toxicity Reduction Evaluation ProEnvironmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

By Patricia Orr* tocol for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (Botts et al., 1989); • Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Iden tification Evaluations:

• Phase I Toxicity Identification Pro cedures (Norberg-King et al., 1991); • Phase II Toxicity Identification Procedures (Mount and Anderson-Carnahan, 1989); • Phase III Toxicity Identification Procedures(Mount, 1989). A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) is designed on a site-specific basis and is conducted in a step-wise fashion to narrow the search for effec

tive effluent toxicity control measures {Figure I).This is accomplished by iden tifying the cause(s) of effluent toxicity and the corrective actions necessary to reduce or eliminate toxicity. The specific activities involved in conducting a TRE are briefly outlined below.

Acquisition of Relevant Background Data The TRE should begin by acquiring any information and effluent data rele vant to effluent toxicity. This may in clude plant and process information, influent and effluent physical and che mical monitoring data, effluent toxicity data,and the use ofchemicals/materials in processing or treatment. For a sewage treatment plant this may also include data related to sewer use. These data

may be used to supplement data gener ated in the later steps of the TRE and may be useful at that stage to point to potential sources or treatment options. Evaluation of Facility Operations and Maintenance

has been treated to change specific chemical properties of the effluent {Table 1). Those treatments that reduce effluent toxicity assist in identifying the physical/chemical characteristics ofthe toxicant(s). Phase I techniques are ge

nerally applied to several (or many)ef fluent samples to identify whether the toxicant(s) change over time. Phase I

*Supervisor, Toxicity Identification Eval uations, Beak Consultants Limited, Brampton, Ontario.

treatability study on the final effluent and/or conduct a source investigation.

The number of tests and the nature of

ible to track the toxicant to its source

several physical-chemical treatments involved in a typical Phase I TIE make it difficult or impossible to use test organ

within the plant or municipal sewer grid. At the source, toxicant concen trations may be controlled by such me

isms such as rainbow trout, which re

thods as chemical substitution, process modification, treatment of process of influent streams (pretreatment), or eli mination of the process.

quire relatively large exposure volumes (e.g., 10 to 20 L). Small organisms such as Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, or fathead minnow larvae are preferred because exposure volumes of as little as 10 to 50 mL are required. Where effluent toxicity to rainbow trout is a concern, fathead minnow larvae may be used as a surrogate species in early investigative stages of the TIE, but tests must subse quently be performed to confirm that the chemical(s) causing fathead min now toxicity is/are indeed the same as that/those responsible for rainbow trout toxicity. Phase II usually involves chemical analyses that are designed to identify the specific chemicals suspected to be involved in effluent toxicity.In this way, analytical chemistry is focused on speci-

Treatability Evaluation Toxicity treatability evaluations are conducted to identify possible treat ment options that can effectively reduce effluent toxicity and may involve mod ifications or additions to the existing system.Treatability studies are typically conducted on a bench scale and then

pilot scale prior to construction of addi tional treatment or substantial mod

ification ofthe existing operation.These studies typically involve treatment tech niques similar to those described for the Phase I TIE.

Follow-up and Confirmation Follow-up monitoring should be con ducted to ensure that the toxicity control FIGURE 1: Steps in a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) method selected and implemented was effective in reducing effluent toxicity. TOXIC EFFLUENT


Advantages of the TRE The mostcommon historical approach to identifying the substance(s) causing effluent toxicity has involved com parison of measured effluent chemical concentrations to toxic concentration


data presented in the literature. While this approach may successfully identify correlations between elevated chemical





• Phase I Characterization; • Phase II Identification;

plished by conducting a battery of tox icity tests on a toxic effluent sample that

Based on the results ofthe TIE,a deci sion is made on whether to conduct a

Source Investigation If the specific causative toxic agents are identified in the TIE,it may be poss

The TIE is performed in three phases:

• Phase III Confirmation. Phase I Characterization is accom

icity mass balance, and comparative testing of additional species.

which chemical analytical methods to use in Phase II or it can be used to design treatability studies.

formed in order to ascertain whether the

Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE)

toxic concentrations and behaviour of the toxicant in Phase I treatments, tox

information can then be used to decide

This part of the evaluation is per facility is consistently well operated and whether effluent toxicity is the result of periodic treatment plant upsets, shortcircuiting,or some other operational de ficiency that may be causing or contri buting to the effluent toxicity. The results of this stage may lead to pre liminary strategies for source reduction, improvements in material handling and disposal practises, or substitution or re-use of a compound known to be highly toxic.

spiking experiments to confirm the

fic chemicals or groups of chemicals of concern, rather than using the shot gun approach to analysis that has often been taken historically. In Phase III, the identified toxicants

are confirmed using a number of pro cedures, including correlation of tox icity with chemical concentrations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

levels and toxicity, it does not prove that a given substance caused toxicity. Some chemicals may covary with the actual toxicant and may, therefore, be mis taken as the causative agent. However,a TIE(as part of the TRE)involves direct measurement of the effect on toxicity of altering the chemical composition of a sample. Possible causes or sources of toxicity are eliminated in the TRE,step by step, until a solution or control me thod is determined.EPA experience has shown that unnecessary delays and ex penditures in achieving reduced efflu ent toxicity are avoided by using the TRE approach to build a sound scien tific and engineering basis for selection

of a control method (U.S. EPA, 1991). Formore information, Circle reply card No. 116 23

Subsurface remediation

By Rene de Vries*, Ian Spice*

New technology for soil vapour extraction Central Projects Group (CPG) and Sunoco engineers are currently using soil vapour extraction as a remediation technology at the Sears Gas Bar in New market, Ontario. Prior to the site's re

development, an environmental inves tigation identified the presence of resi dual petroleum hydrocarbons at this lo cation in the immediate vicinity of the site's existing fueling system. These pet roleum hydrocarbons were encoun tered primarily in the vapour and ad sorbed phases and were likely there as a result of a build up of minor spillage during years of gasoline transfer and storage operations at this site. The following considerations have made soil vapour extraction the reme diation method of choice for this loca tion:

The Sears Gas Bar in Newmarket

Sunoco Inc., a regional refiner and marketer of petroleum

products within Ontario and Quebec, has committed itself to the developrnent ofcost-effective and environmentally sustainable technolo

gies to remediate subsurface impacts resulting from volatile organic com pounds(VOCs).Sunoco Inc. along with Sears Canada Inc.(national Sears Gas Bar network is managed by Sunoco), and Central Projects Group Inc., Con sulting Engineers, developed an inno vative approach to the management of VOC impacted soil identified at a Sears Gas Bar in Newmarket, Ontario.

The selected approach was that ofsoil vapour extraction(SVE)combined with thermal/catalytic oxidation of SVE sys tem effluent required to meet Ontario Ministry of the Environment air emis

sion quality guidelines. Soil Vapour Extraction Soil vapour extraction(SVE), also re ferred to as soil venting, is receiving widespread acceptance as an effective technology to remediate subsurface vo latile organic compounds such as gas oline or solvents. A basic description of soil vapour extraction is: a system which removes volatile soil contaminantsthrough the application ofa negative pressure on a system ofextraction wells which penetrate the VOC impacted soil.

*Rene A. de Vries, B.Env.Sc. is Project Manager for Central Projects Group Inc.

**Ian E.E. Spice, P.Eng. is Manager, Environmental Affairs for Sunoco Inc. 24

• Suitable site geology • Non-disruptive nature This relatively uncomplicated pro • Continued operation ofsite as a retail fuelling facility cess is often a very effective method of reducing soil and groundwater con • Cost-effectiveness tamination providing the system is pro • Compatibility with Sunoco/Sears commitment to the principle of sus perly designed. In situ soil venting is tainable development especially an attractive treatment op It is anticipated that the project in tion because the soil is treated in place, resulting in the rapid resumption of Newmarket will be completed early business with minimal site disturbance

1993. The subsurface conditions at that

while serving to recycle the affected

point are expected to meet Ontario's in terim remediation guidelines for operat ing fuelling facilities at a 50% costsaving as compared to the available landfilling option.

fill material.

Surprisingly,excavation and disposal of VOC impacted soil is still the reme dial tool ofchoice for the majority ofthe VOC remediation projects in Ontario. Most parties involved in VOC site remediations agree that landfilling is an

SVE Effluent Management The extracted VOCs ofvapour extrac tion systems were, until recent years, undesirable environmental remedia tion technology from the perspective of freely vented into the atmosphere in most Canadian jurisdictions. Regula sustainable development: tory concerns over air quality effects • it is disruptive have led to the application of soil • it takes up unnecessary landfill vapour extraction effluent systems. capacity In order to comply with stringent • it is a potential future liability Ontario Ministry of the Environment's • it is a source of VOC air-emissions • it requires the unnecessary replace (MOE)SVE air emission requirements, new technology for Canada in SVE ef ment of suitable fill materials with fluent treatment (ie. a combined ther imported "clean" materials Why is soil vapour extraction not be mal and catalytic oxidation process) is ing used more frequently in Ontario? It being applied at the Newmarket loca is felt that the reluctance of the industry tion. This innovative air effluent treatment to use SVE routinely on a wide scale in process was recently approved for use in Ontario is mainly related to uncertain ties regarding the effectiveness of SVE Ontario by the MOE approvals branch in specific hydrogeological and envi and offers a tremendous potential for ronmental conditions and the lack of the development of SVE as a viable op approved, cost-effective protocols for tion as compared to landfilling. With SVE effluent treatment and monitoring. the oxidation of the SVE effluent con Other factors which encourage the use taminants at source, the advantages of of landfilling alternatives include the soil vapour extraction over landfilling immediacy of excavation and disposal are obvious: and a regulatory regime that favours • Low profile, virtually non-disruptive technology. excavation and disposal of VOC impac ted soil.

continued on page 44

Environmental Science <£ Engineering, November 1992

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R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Laser Fluorosensor for

Oilspill Detection

A paper by R. Dick,Barringer Research, and M.F. Fingas, River Road Environ mental Technology Centre presented at the 15th AMOP Technical Seminar in Edmonton described the first results of airborne trials of a 64-channel laser

14th International Symposium on Wastewater Treatment, L. Keller briefly described the technology and provided an overview ofseveral pilot scale studies which were carried out between 1989

and 1990 using the Emergencies Engin eering Division's mobile enhanced oxidation.

fluorosensor for oil detection. During the spring of 1992,a series offlights were made over various targets comprising

Bacterial Leaching of Sewage Sludge

oil on water, on ice, and on simulated

In a paper accepted for publication in

beach material. The authors presented some of their 64-channel spectral data and reviewed the implications of the spectral responses for classification and

Couillard and G. Mercier describe the results of their research on the removal

using Thiobacillusferrooxidans in a con tinuously stirred reactor. Experiments involved the pre-acidification of the sludge and the addition of FeS04 • 7H2O. A minimal mean hyd raulic residence time of 18 h resulted in the solubilization of52% of the Cu,62% of the Zn and 78% of the Mn. The

leached sludge was more easily dewatered than the untreated sludge. A small quantity of lime was sufficient to precipitate the metals.

Water Research, INRS-Eau scientists D.

Tainting of Fish by Petroleum Products Freshwater Institute researchers W.L.

identification of oil in the context of

Lockhart and R.W. Danell investigated

remote sensing of arctic and marine

the relationship between exposure of


fish to oil in water and the development of tainting as measured by the sensory responses of taste panels. As described to delegates attending the 15th AMOP

Chemical Spill Clean-Up by Enhanced Oxidation

Environment Canada's Emergencies

Engineering Division has investigated advanced oxidation processes as a poss ible technology for chemical spill clean up. The similarity between spill solu

Technical Seminar in Edmonton, rain-


bowtrout and arctic char were exposed to mixtures of Norman Wells oil in

water over a period of 72 h, then trans ferred to clean holding tanks where they


tions and chemical landfill leachate

were held for a further 600-840 h. Oil

(and in some cases industrial streams)

tainting was sensitive to dosage of oil, duration of exposure, and duration of post-exposure time in clean water. Arc tic char can be expected to become tain ted after an exposure ofonly a few hours.

has enabled the Division to conduct

feasibility studies ofthis technology and to collect a database of information at

spill sites. In a paper presented at the

of metals and fate of nitrogen and phos phorus in the bacterial leaching of anaerobically digested sewage sludge

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

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R&D News continued and to remain tainted for over a month

following cessation of exposure. Achieving Low Effluent Phosphorus Concentrations Total phosphorus concentration limits

substantially lower than currently im posed on municipal water pollution control plant effluents may need to be achieved in specific areas of Ontario to protect water quality. The capability to achieve levels below 0.2 mg/L on a con sistent basis has not been widely de monstrated.To determine the feasibility

of achieving the concentration limits being considered,S.G. Nutt,XCG Con sultants Limited,has published a review in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada of the capabilities and innova tive technologies. A number of research needs have been identified.

Hydraulic Impact in UASB Reactors N. Kosaric and colleagues from the University ofWestern Ontario, BiopaqLavalin. and Poland used 20 litre UASB

reactors to study hydrodynamic influ ences on the accumulation and settling

characteristics ofgranules.As described in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, the settling characteristics of granules at lower upflow velocities were significantly different from those obser ved at upflow velocities of one m/h and above. A wide spectrum of settling velo cities was observed at lower liquid up flow velocities while granules became more uniform at higher velocities. The settling ofgranules was little influenced by different port configurations. Degradation of Concrete Potable Water Storage Tanks R.N. Coleman and I.D. Gaudet studied

the degradation of concrete tanks used for potable water storage in a small wes tern Canadian prairie town. Following PLEASE ASK FOR OUR CATALOG

commissioning of the small water treat ment plant, the pH of its finished water dropped by 0.5 units during the fourth year. Concrete surfaces of the storage tanks were degrading and submerged steel surfaces became colonized with

large rust-coloured nodules. As repor ted in a paper accepted for publication

The first Canadian made compiete portabie open channei fiow monitoring system. Infiltration & inflow

in Water Research, these Alberta Envi ronmental Centre researchers demon

strated that the problem was caused by the conversion of hydrogen sulfide in the raw water to sulfuric acid by Thiobacillus neopolitanus. The use of raw water containing low concentrations of hyd rogen sulfide solved the problem. Removal of Dichioromethane from Groundwater

studies Overflow studies

Sewer System evaluations

Monitoring of

In a joint project, C. Ladanowski and colleagues from the River Road Envi ronmental Technology Centre and Marshall. Macklin Monaghan Limited evaluated the applicability of steam stripping as a remedial technology to remove dichioromethane from con


taminated groundwater. Based on labo ratory trials,a six month pilot scale field


trial conducted

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Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion Process

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 104 28

In wastewater treatment, a major appli cation of dynamic models is to assist operational managers, especially in the development ofcontrol strategies for the entire municipal plant. Anaerobic di gestion is a typical biological process and is often used as a sludge treatment for the stabilization of primary and se condary sludges. Laval University sci entists B. Desjardins and P. Lessard have published a paper in Sciences et tech-

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

R&D News continued niques de I'eau reviewing the numerous dynamic models developed during the past 20 years and assessing their appli cability in municipal wastewater treat ment plant operational management.

touched and were monitored regularly. Oil remained on a number of plots and on the intertidal beach after the project ended and this was monitored periodi cally until 1989. This program provides a long-term data base for oil spilled on

attainable in each. A comparison of re sults obtained under a variety of con ditions, published in Water Science and Technology, indicated that higher re moval efficiencies of total and filterable AOX were achieved in the FSB and ASB

Removal of Trihaiomethane

an arctic shoreline.Some definitive con

than in the AS system. Data are also pre

Precursors from Eutrophic Water McGill University scientist R.Gehr and

sented to indicate the extent to which

South African colleagues investigated

clusions may be made from the data although some deficiencies have be come apparent. The results are dis

the use of dissolved air flotation for the

cussed in a recent Environment Canada

removal of trihaiomethane precursors from an eutrophic water source.The key parameters identified in a paper accep ted for publication in Water Research were inorganic coagulant dose, pH con trol, and possibly polymer addition. In pilot scale tests it was possible to effect an 80% reduction in the total(unfiltered)


Permeability of Activated Sludge Floes

The liquid flow through activated sludge floes from full-scale conven tional treatment plants was evaluated by D. Li and J.J. Ganczarczyk on the basis of the information obtained from

settling tests. As described by these Uni versity of Toronto scientists in a paper published in Water Environment Re search,only a part ofthe activated sludge floes was found permeable to fluid drainage in the samples of mixed liquor studied. The permeability of floes in

trihaiomethane concentration to less

than 0.1 mg/L. An analysis of various raw water quality parameters suggested that algae were responsible for a signifi cant proportion of the precursor con centration.


AOX Removal from Bleached Kraft Mill Wastewater

Crude Oil Spills in the Arctic

The Baffin Island Oil Spill Project was conducted at Cape Hatt at the northern end of Baffin Island from 1980 to 1983.

The project included experimental oil spills on an arctic beach and associated backshore areas. Cleanup methods were tested, but some plots were left un

influent AOX was removed by biodegradation, biosorption. and off-gas stripping.

Laboratory-scale activated sludge (AS), facultative stabilization (FSB), and aer ated stabilization basin(ASB)processes were operated by Wastewater Technol ogy Centre scientists E.R.Hall and W.G. Randle under controlled parallel con ditions to assess the AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) removal efficiencies

creased with an increase in the dynamic

sludge age and decreased with an in crease in the shear rate measured as the

mean velocity gradient in the aeration tanks. The most sensitive assumption for the estimation of permeability of the floes was the size of the primary par ticles in the aggregates.







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Enviromnental Science & Engineering, November 1992


R&D News continued Effect of Heavy Metals on

ogy. treatability parameters for each

Characterization of

Anaerobic Granules

VOC were estimated from these inves

C.F. Shen, N. Kosaric and R. Blaszczyk investigated the composition of anaero bic granules and their extracellular po lymeric substance (EPS) when the granules were exposed to long term de pletion of selected heavy metals in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, these University of Western Ontario scientists found that, when yeast extract was eli

tigations and used to calibrate TOXCHEM, computer-based steady state and dynamic models developed to pre dict the fate of VOCs in municipal acti vated sludge systems. The data suggest

Blofllm Development In aquatic systems with large bottom

minated from the feed,COD conversion

the origin and mass of a biofilm were An analysis of the sensitivity of the an derived primarily from bacterial acti nual thermal regime of Hamilton Har vity. In their paper accepted for publica bour to the depth ofintake of industrial tion in Water Research, these National cooling water was conducted by D. Lee Water Research Institute scientists con and colleagues from McMaster Univer clude that the approach of using the sity and the National Water Research major carbohydrate component of mic Institute using a one-dimensional therroorganisms to approximate the mass of modynamic model. As described in the a biofilm is justified. Canadian JournalofCivil Engineering,an intake of approximatelyl 20 mVs of cooling water from the bottom of the For more information,contact Dr. harbour only marginally reduced ther mal stratification and hypolimnetic H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

decreased significantly. The amount of carbohydrates extracted from granules was affected by the amounts of iron and yeast extract supplement. Most of the iron and cobalt in extracted EPS was in

the bound form which may be impor tant in bacterial aggregation. Fate of VOCs in Wastewater Treatment Plants

Wastewater Technology Centre scientist H. Melcer and colleagues J. Bell and D. Thompson of Enviromega Ltd. carried out pilot plant and full scale inves tigations to determine the fate of selec ted volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in activated sludge aeration basins. As described in Water Science and Technol

that the current models,calibrated with

pilot plant data, may produce useful predictions of the fate of VOCs in full scale plants. Thermal Regime of Hamilton Harbour

surface area relative to the volume of water,such as shallow streams or rivers,

the growth of biofilms often determines the rate at which environmental con

taminants are removed and degraded. D. Liu and colleagues used sequential acid hydrolysis and high pressure li quid chromatography analysis of bio films, bacteria, and algae to obtain the first direct biochemical evidence that

volumes in summer. A further sen

ciation on Water Poiiution Re

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

CFCs — THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD Destruction of the earth's protective ozone layer by Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)Is today's major environmental problem. Because the ozone layer gives protection against harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun,agents which are destructive to this fragile layer are of great concern. It has been estimated that a single CFC molecule entering the stratosphere destroys some 100,000 ozone layer mo lecules. CFCs are widely used in refrigerators and air conditioners, as industrial solvents, cleaning agents, and in the manufacture of foam products. Of the million tonnes of CFCs produced annually, more than 50% are vented to the atmo

sphere,either accidentally by leakagefrom equipment,or as part of manufacturing or service routines.

As a result of the United Nation's Environment Programme Conference, hosted by Canada in 1987, a worldwide effort to reduce CFC emissions was agreed to by 24 nations. This became known as the Montreal Protocol. Today, there are almost 70 nations committed to reduce CFC emissions to zero by 1995, to phase out CFC production completely by 1997, and to eliminate CFC use by the year 2000.

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and the Trane Service Agency(Toronto)through D'Arcy Sweeney Limited. ORTECH International and the University of Alberta will be Involved In the second generation product development.

Market Potential

for the capture and recycling of CFCs and CFC substitutes (FICFCs and HFCs), which have less ozone depleting activity.

Implementation of the Montreal Protocol by the 70 committed

The licence to exploit the Blue Bottle™ technology In Canada

long term global potential. New industries have been created since the late 80s to service the market needs for new refrigerants and retrofit machinery to facilitate the phase out of CFCs and the transition to HCFCs and HFCs, neither of which can be used without modification of existing equipment.

is exclusive to Halozone and grants Halozone the right of first refusal to acquire exclusive licences for the technology in ail other countries of the world except Brazil. Union Carbide owns the technology and Is responsible for defending the patent pro tected rights for the technology worldwide against any infringe ment. Royalty payments to Union Carbide will commence In 1994.

Award Winning Technology The Blue Bottle™ technology was co-developed by Halozone's President, Dusanka Filipovic,a Professional Engineer, while she was employed by Union Carbide Canada Ltd. as Manager of New Business Development for its LInde Division. It represents signifi cant research and development investment by Union Carbide and has been extensively tested by ORTECH International Inc. (for merly known as Ontario Research Foundation), an independent research organization servicing multinational companies since 1929. The three year research and development program, co-funded by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, demon strated the feasibility of the technology for the recapture of CFCs, their substitutes, HCFCs and HFCs, and other halogenated hyd rocarbons.The significance of Ms Filipovic's accomplishment and technological merits of the developed solution to the environmen tal Issue of global concern were recognized when she was recen tly awarded the Engineering Medal for Research and Devel opment from the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario and the Green Product Award of Distinction in the

Financial Post Environmental Awards for Business.(See photo back page)

Halozone's Blue Bottle™ technology uses a light, easily portable cylinder, packed with a proprietary zeolite matrix, Silicalite®, to capture CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs from residential, automotive, and large scale refrigeration and air conditioning units, and from industrial effluent airborne emissions (where CFCs are used as solvents or in various production processes). The filled Blue Bot

tle™ cylinders are taken to Halozone's recycling plant where the CFCs are recovered and purified using a proprietary process. Re

nations has created a vast new multi-billion dollar market with

The planned phase-out of CFCs and replacement by HCFCs and HFCs will necessitate a

high degree of recycling of existing CFCs to service the hundreds of miliions of ap pliances (e.g. refrigerators, home and

automotive air

conditioners) which wili be operational after 1997 and require maintenance and re pair long after CFCs are no longer manufactured. It is estimated


Non-fluorocarbon (30.0%)

that some 237

million cars will require ret rofits prior to 1997,and a fur ther 150 million will still re

quire service with recycled CFCs after the phase-out deadline. .:vx!.'-r-<.xv-:xV

Halozone's market will be en

hanced during the CFC phaseout programs,since it is essen tial to prevent escape of CFCs during decommissioning of existing equipment.


Long term implementation of recycling of refrigerants will be obligatory within the industry, driven both by the high price of HCFCs and HFCs and legisiation which wiii pro hibit emission of these poilutants into the atmosphere.

cycled CFCs and "purged" Blue Bottle™ cylinders are then ready for reuse.

The technology is capable of providing virtually zero emission and 100 percent recovery yield of CFCs for reuse without

chemical breakdown or degradation.The Blue Bottle™ process is equally applicable to the recycling of HCFCs and also HFCs,the newer substitutes which have less ozone deplet ing activity than CFCs. There is no other known technology today that exhibits all these characteristics.

It is estimated by the major producer of CFCs(see insert chart)that by the year 2000, 30% of the total needs for refrigerants will be supplied by use of recycled material. Since the total market need for refrigerants(CFC + HCFC -I- HFC)will not decrease substantially with time,there wiii be an ever increasing need for containment, recapture and recycling.

These strong market demands coupled with public awareness of the personal dangers to health as a result of the depletion of the ozone layer, and the Increasing legislative pressures will be Im portant factors in accelerating the rate of growth in the Company.

Commercial Demonstration Halozone Is commencing the commercial demonstration of the

Halozone's Business

Blue Bottle™ technology in cooperation with CEASA (Canadian Electronic Appliance Service Association), Sears Canada Ltd.,

Upon completion of its commercial field trials by late 1992, Halo-

INOLOGIES INC. zone will build the first-of-a-kind central processing plant in Ontario and will commence the commercial scale operation and

manufacture of the Blue Bottle™ products In early 1993. The business is expected to grow rapidly. Once established as a viable operation In Ontario, Haiozone plans to sub-license its processing and distribution operations across Canada,the USA, Europe and the rest of the world In cooperation with selected

When compared to existing CFC removal equipment — of ten referred to as"Vampire Units"—the Blue Bottle™ technol ogy Is far more advanced, practical,safe and user friendly to service personnel. Vampire Units, whose operation Is based on liquid transfer and/or compression of concentrated

CFCs, have limited capabilities when extracting CFCs from refrigeration systems.

strategic partners.

The ease of use makes the Blue Bottle™ the most practical

A primary source of revenue for the Company will come from sup

technology for servicing small household and mobile refrigeration and air conditioning units. For large refrigeration units the Blue

plying the Blue Bottle™ cylinders as a service to the refrigeration/ air conditioning Industry. Customers will pay a service charge

Bottle™ cylinder can be used by itself or in conjunction with a Vam

each time the cylinder is recycled at the Haiozone central plant.

pire Unit to recapture the last 10-15% of GFGs typically left in the system and subsequently lost to the atmosphere during

Haiozone will also sell Blue Bottle™ cylinders to major accounts


who wish to secure guaran


teed supply of the recovered

The Blue Bottle™ system is also the only technology available

CFC product and to llcencees who will operate their own local recycling plants under sub-

to capture and efficiently recycle CFCs from dilute air streams resulting from the purging of large scale refrigeration and air conditioning equipment and effluent from industriai settings.

llcence from Haiozone.

Initial target customer groups for the Blue Bottle™ service will Include: Service Technicians

Recycling (29.0%)



tors who service and decom

mission domestic refrigera tors, Contractors and En

gineers who Install, maintain and service commercial size

refrigeration and air con ditioning systems, and Ser vice Centres for automo

biles — typically organiza tions with national or Inter

national operations.


Source: DuPont

Finances initial financing has been arranged from private investors and

Haiozone expects to have a total of $2.5 million of equity funding during its current fiscal year. A grant of approximately $900,000 has also been obtained from the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment to support commercial field trial developments and it is expected that substantial funding will be made available by the Federal Government under its $100 Million Green Plan Initiative.

Supplementary financing will be obtained in the form of additional private placements, bank loans and leasing of equipment when ever appropriate.The shares of Haiozone Technologies Inc. will be traded on the Toronto over-the-oounter market in the fall of 1992

and a listing on a senior stock exchange is planned for early 1993.

Haiozone will derive a secon

dary Incomefrom the sale ofthe refrigerants recovered from the recycling process, which will be highly purified and supplied ready for reuse.

The Company will also supply custom-designed recovery and recyciing plants to contain and eliminate emissions of GFCs in industriai manufacturing sites which use GFCs either in their pro duction processes or as soivents or cieaning agents.

Company Vision Haiozone believes its technology Is of such high quality that it will be positioned to set the world standard for the capture and recycling of CFCs and its substitutes, HCFCs and MFCs. This belief and strategy is backed by independent scientific evaluations and substantial government funding, as well as Invitations to participate in specific overseas training pro jects sponsored and organized by the Government of Ca nada's Office for Training in the Environment.

Competition The Company will thus adopt a very aggressive expansion There Is no product or process on the market today which

policy to implement use of the Blue Bottle™ technology on a

directly competes with the Blue Bottle™ technology as It Is the

global scale. This strategy Is driven as much by environmental

only method which recycles GFGs, HGFGs and HFGsto produce 100% recovery yield with no breakdown products In a safe, non reactive environment. At the same time, In many cases the pro

consciousness as the desire for commercial success. There Is

ducts recovered by the Blue Bottle™ technology have higher levels of purity than that specified for the virgin product. Moreover,since it is an adsorption method,the CFCs are captured In the cylin der at atmospheric pressure,which significantly reduces the hazards of handling over other methods using pressure ves sels or fragile bags that are also bulky and cumbersome.

considerable government support for the concept of exporting commercial development of this Canadian technology,especially since Canada has taken a strong lead position In implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Moreover,It Is the only practical technol ogy available today which reduces GFG emissions virtually to zero, and has the capability to facilitate Implementation of global government legislation to achieve zero GFG emissions by 19952000.

Continued overleaf

Above:Attached to the back ofa refrigerator or air conditioner during servicing, the Biue Bot

tle"* canister collects the used CFCs, prevent ing their release to the atmosphere. Larger Biue

Bottle^'* cylinders are available for commercial applications.

Right: Once saturated, the Blue Bottle^'* canis ters are then returned to a central processing facility where the SillcallteÂŽ is regenerated and the captured CFC removed from the adsorbent and recovered for reuse.

A properly designed system ensures a high yield recovery operation in a safe, non-reactive environment, generating high purity products suitable for recycling and reuse.

Management Ms Dusanka Filipovic, P. Eng., is President and C.E.O. of Haiozone Technologies Inc. A graduate engineer of the University of Beigrade,Yugosiavia,she \was empioyed by Union Carbide for 17 years, where she heid senior technicai and marketing manage ment positions, most recently as Manager of New Business Deveiopment for its Linde Division, it was in this capacity that she pioneered the capture and recyciing of halogenated gases using a molecuiar sieve technoiogy and directed and motivated the mui-

tidiscipiinary team involved in the Biue Bottie™ project. Haiozone's Vice-President and C.O.O. is Dr. Michael Hirtens-

tein,a Ph.D. graduate in biochemistry of Southampton University, U.K. He brings to Haiozone wide experience in the internationai marketpiace. He has heid key positions in operations and market ing with muitinational high technoiogy companies and has exper tise in strategic pianning,venture capitai investment and in starting up and managing new companies.

Barry Hitchcock, P.Eng., President of the Association of Pro fessional Engineers of Ontario congratulates Dusanka Filipovic, P.Eng. on receiving APEO's Engineering Medal.

Haiozone Technologies Inc., 235 Yorkland Blvd., Suite 300, North York, Ontario M2J 4Y8 Tel:(416) 492-7282/ Fax:(416) 491-2757 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 107

Product review Monitoring Weii Products

VictaulicÂŽ introduces new iightwaii piping system

Solinst supplies bailers,lysimeters, well screen, casing and the full line of high quality monitoring well products manu factured by TIMCO. All lysimeters are available with Teflon or ceramic filter

and a full range of accessories. Solinst maintains stock of PVC,clear PVC and clear Teflon bailers, 2" well screen and

casing.Quick shipment is also available for well screen 1/2" through 12" in stain less steel or Teflon, with Timco Dekaseal or ASTM 480.Solinst Canada Ltd.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 153

Multipurpose valves provide high corrosion, wear, resistance Larox manufactures a line of valves that

are designed to remain watertight when used with abrasive or corrosive materi als.

The valves are intended for use as on-

off or control valves. A replaceable rub ber sleeve is the only valve component exposed to the flow.The valve body may be open or enclosed in steel or alumi num. The valves are available in dia

meters from 1 to 40 in. and with pressure ratings from 15 to 300 psi. Larox Inc. for more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Safety handle system

Victaulic Company of America has in troduced a new method of joining small-diameter lightwall pipe which eliminates the need for threading. Called Pressfit, the system includes a complete line of 3/4" through 2" coup lings and fittings that permit the use of lighter, more economical Schedule 5 steel pipe. Weighing 40% less than Schedule 10 and less than half of Sche

dule 40,Schedule 5 pipe is easier to han dle and install and less expensive to transport. And because it provides up to

ter-to-end or end-to-end dimensions,

thereby simplifying fabrication. Thejaws ofthe trigger-operated, port able electric assembly tool engage the entire circumference of the bead on the

housing and uniformly compress it to indent the pipe,providing a mechanical bond between pipe and fitting. In the process, the tool also compresses the gasket (rated to 230°F service) against the outside diameter of the pipe and the inside of the housing,creating a perma nent leaktight seal.

14% more flow area than Schedule 10

All components have at least a 3-to-l

pipe and up to 22% more than Schedule 40, it often can allow reduction in pipe

safety factor incorporated in the general service rating of 300 psi. The system is UL listed for wet and dry pipe automatic sprinkler systems and FM approved for wet pipe systems to 175 psi.


Made of carbon steel, Pressfit coup lings and fittings incorporate precisionmolded synthetic rubber O-rings. They also contain internal pipe stops to as sure uniform take-out from overall cen

Victaulic Company of America For more information. Circle reply card No. 150

Nord delivers exact

output speeds MSU #3100 safety handle system en sures that accessing and egressing man holes, pumping stations and any flush mounted opening will be done safely. Developed with safety and economy in mind,the #3100 safety handle system consists of permanently installed recep tacles and heavy duty portable handles. The handle will extend a minimum of

one meter above any opening making those first few steps safer than ever before. MSU

For more information. Circle reply card No. 151

Nord gearmotors feature the Unicase design.Instead ofthe conventional bolton output covers or flanges, the Nord gearcase is constructed from a single piece of gray cast iron. Internal reinfor cements are added to ensure strength and rigidity. This means oil leakage, oil contamination and misalignment ofset gears associated with conventional de signs are eliminated. Nord gearmotors also offer the Quadrilip sealing system to provide twice the protection over double lip seals. Prior to shipment, all Nord gearmotors come with factory filled oil to prevent damage

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

from dry start-ups. There is a wide range of Nord speed 35

Product review Wastewater sampler features Innovative technology


Optional Electronic Communication Registers (FCRs) for interfacing with automatic meter reading systems or for electronic reading by on-site reading equipment such as the TouchRead® System and visual display meter read ing devices are available. Sensus also offers a special program featuring free visual meter reading equipment with qualified purchases of meters. Sensus Technologies, Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 156

Aqua Guard® bar filter screen

Isco 3700 Series Samplers for use in a wide range of municipal and industrial monitoring applications incorporate innovative design features which ad vance sampling technology. The 3700 Series consists of sequential and com posite samplers in both portable and refrigerated versions. All 3700's feature the patent-pending, LD90 non-contact ing liquid presence detector that oper ates dependably in any liquid. The LD90 and patented Isco pump revolu tion counting system ensures accurate.

repeatable sample volumes, even with changing head heights. A two line, 40 character,alphanumeric LCD and real time clock provide simple, easy to un derstand programming instructions.Up to three sampling programs can be stored in internal memory. Totally sealed(NEMA 4x and 6)controllers and corrosion resistant construction guar antee dependable operation in harsh sampling environments. ISCO For more information, Circle reply card No. 155


reducers to meet diverse application needs. Reducers with an input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Scoop motor mounting,platform motor mounting,C-face and TEC input flange motor mounting are also available. All Nord gearmotors are available with two styles of adjustable speed

Aqua Guard®, manufactured by Parkson Corporation,is a continuous,self-clean ing bar/filter screen which automati cally removes a vast range ofsuspended materials from a moving stream. Wastewater treatment plants in Europe and North America have repor ted significant improvements on the general reliability of aspirating and jet aerators when fine-screening (3-6 mm) is employed in the activated sludge or

drives.The Nordisc traction drive offers

a 7:1 adjustable speed range for appli cations up to 5 HP. When adjustable speed applications up to 125 HP are required, there is the Titan belt type drive with up to a 6:1 speed range. Nord

lagoon-type treatment process. Aqua Guard® removes destructive elements

Sensus Turbo-Meters with specially de

domestic service. FireLine Assemblies

signed strainers for meeting fire service water line requirements are available in

include UL Listed, FM

4",6",8" and 10" sizes in two versions.The

along with a Sensus Turbo-Meter. A metered bypass includes a check valve

such as plastic and rags which tend to clog and damage aerators, while it effec tively reduces the labour costs associ ated with cleaning lagoon edges of floating matter. Extensive testing and field experience consistently demonstrate that Aqua Guard®'s self-cleaning feature permits efficient operation for extended, unsupervised periods of time and requires only minimal maintenance. Parkson

and smaller Sensus Turbo-Meter to re cord lower flows.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 157

For more information, Circle reply card No. 152

UL Listed, FM approved fire service turbo-meters

standard (ORES) version includes fire service rated strainers that are UL Lis

ted.The Compact Eire Service(CFS)ver36

sion features shorter laying lengths and meets requirements for being UL Listed and FM approved. Sensus also offers FireLine® Fire Ser

vice Assemblies in 4" through 10" sizes for water lines that supply both fire and approved

strainers and detector check valves

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Product Review Twin tank

Control corroslvity with new kit

containment system


Aco-Assmann has announced its new

Twin Tank Containment System. As the

number of government regulations in creased and the available plant floor space decreased, Aco-Assmann devel

oped a storage/containment system which uses a closed top storage tank set inside an open top tank. The outside tank acts as containment

basin in the event of spillage during filling/draining.The inside tank uses an internal pickup pipe for emptying. The unit comes with a standard 14" manway which allows for visual inspection and an entrance for routine maintenance.

Other options are available upon re quest. Aco-Assmann has units available

in sizes ranging from 400 Imperial Gal lons up to 5400 Imperial Gallons. Aco-Assman

For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

Series 2000 Rex Belt Filter

press brochure Off &n intelligent sclution to sludge dewatsring needs

Controlling corrosive conditions in water supplies to prevent lead and cop per leaching into the water is important to public health. Hach's new Corrosion Management Kit allows technicians to monitor hardness, alkalinity, pH, tem perature, TDS, orthophosphate and si lica, and help make efficient and timely water management decisions. This dur able kit can be used anywhere in the plant or distribution system and con

Controlotron's clamp-on

tains all reagents and apparatus neces sary for 100 tests. Because this kit measures TDS, the

analyst can calculate the Tanglier Satu ration Index as well as the Aggressive Index. Results indicate if calcium car

bonate scaling or dissolution is occur ring. Hach Company For more information. Circle reply card No. 168

( fr

four-channel flowmeter Controlotron's time proven Uniflow Series 990 Clamp-On Transit-Time


Flowmeter is also available in a dedi

T1ÂŤS2000e Bar FiUERfflESS

Series 2000 Rex belt filter presses pro vide sludge dewatering for municipali ties and industries such as tanneries,

pulp and paper, chemical processing, oil refineries and breweries. Both the Rex Series 2000-X with extended filtra tion area and the Series 2000-1 with in

dependent gravity drainage deck are il lustrated by diagrams and photos. General information is included on

their open frame design and hydraulic drive that contribute to easy cleanup. Complete information is provided about operating performance including adjustability to process changes, and long-term durability. Also covered is the extended testing of the system's design and the three filtration zones respons ible for the system's consistently effec tive results. Envirex

For more information, Circle reply card No. 167

cated four channel configuration. De signated the 994MN, the system offers simultaneous, independent, flow mon itoring for four separate pipes, which can be flowing different liquids. A single 994MN can directly replace

i S-'SK

four conventional intrusive flowmeters,

such as magmeters,venturi tubes or pro peller meters. The result is a significant cost reduction per monitoring point,plus the advantage of using a single technol ogy and supplier. System 994MN accommodates essen

tially any liquid in any application. Be cause of its non-intrusive design, it will deliver a long maintenance-free life with no periodic re-calibration required. Transducers install in minutes without

needing to cut the pipe or interrupt plant operation. Site programming is accomplished via a simple, menu-driven procedure with automatic optimization of set-up parameters. The operating program in cludes extensive self-diagnostics with easy to use system test and recovery rou tines. System 994MN includes all the

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992


industry-standard analog and digital outputs,including an RS-232serial port. A programmable LCD graphic display screen provides a comprehensive local display. Operating on pipes from Vi" to 48" in diameter. System 994MN reports flow rates up to 40 ft/sec with a sensitivity of 0.001 ft/sec, including forward, reverse and zero flow. Liquid temperatures can

range from -80°F to 450°F. Typical Ap plications range from Potable Water to

raw sewage, sludges and chemical pro ducts. Controlotron

For more information, Circle reply card No. 169 37

Product review Quebec town has new

eliminating the need for external floc-

water treatment process

culators and clarifiers. Parkson's Con

The Town of C6teau-du-Lac, Quebec

recently started up a water treatment plant using a new Contact Filtration process developed by Parkson Corpora tion to operate in conjunction with Parkson's well-known DynaSand® Filter technology. Contact Filtration is a process which allows coagulation, flocculation, and separation to occur directly within the deep-bed DynaSand® Filters, thereby

tact Filtration technology can reduce capital investment expenditures. Parkson

For more information, Circle reply card No. 158

Gundline HDW A new HDPE lining system that has an innovative reflective white surface. The


product consists of a thin white UV sta bilized HDPE surface co-extruded over

standard black HDPE in total thick nesses of 30-140 mils. The new liner

offers three significant advantages. It makes installation damage easy to see,it

is less prone to sun-induced expansion/ contraction and it protects against subgrade dessication. Gundle Lining Systems

Our Muffin Monster® line of grinders protects pumps and dewatering equipment in even

the most difficult sludge grinding applications. Put to the test, JWC Environmental's

For more information. Circle reply card No. 159

industry-acclaimed, dualshafted technology surpasses

Flygt's large propeller pumps

the competition in effective solids reduction, while pro viding cost savings in your dewatering process.

ITT Flygt has developed a new genera tion of Submersible Propeller Pumps designed for pumping large volumes of water at relatively low heads in a variety of applications such as storm water sta tions, sewage treatment plants and industries.

'Protects against damage to belts, rollers and coatings • Prevents rags from plugging equipment • Facilitates operation through fine grinding • Provides consistent sludge forfloculation

Protects centrifuge from rags and iarge solids Stands up to difficult primary sludge Delivers a uniform particle size Promotes efficient dewatering


16802 Aston Street, Suite 200 Irvine, California 92714


(714)833-3888•(800) 331-2227 For more information, Circle reply card No. 109


The pumps directly couple high per formance motors to high efficiency hyd raulic units resulting in a 80% wire-towater efficiency. As a result of recent research, the propeller pumps also fea ture swept-back blades that prevent clogging of the propeller without sac rificing hydraulic performance. The new geometry of the guide vanes at the pumps exit forces debris to the periphery where a deliberately des tabilized flow enhances self-cleaning.

■ ■ii

The pumps are available in motor ranges of 13 kW to 700 kW with flows up to 90,000 gal/m. and heads from 3 to 45 feet. ITT Flygt For more information. Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Through innovation^ our highly qualified team has established new industry standards in environmental testing for quality^ cost, sample size, and turnaround

Highlights of the Fenwick team, from left to right:

Dominique Levesque, M.Sc. Manager of Organks Thirteen years experience including five os chief analytical chemist with Environment New Brunswick.

Dr. Julie Marr,Ph.D. Manager of Research Eight years experience, particularly in the area of shellfish toxins.

Introducing Fenwick Laborpfcries... originator and exclusive provider of the nafionollji reCOgniZedRopid

time;ideal for MISA and other

Robert Boss, B.Sc. Manager of Development Thirteen years experience, developer of RCAp Dr. David Jomieson,Ph D.

regulatory programs

program (RCAp)

Senior Scientist

Forty-one years experience including fifteeg,. as leader of a Notional Research Council

analytical chemistry group.

Shirley Borgol, B.Sc. RCAp Inorganics Manager Fourteen years experience, managing over

one million pieces of analytical data yearly,

Sean Mullaly, B.Sc. Vice President and General Manager Twelve years experience, currently


President of the Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Laboratories. Ross Keon, M.Sc. Manager ofInorganic Chemistry Fifteen years experience, seven as manager


with the Ontario Research Foundation.

Dr. Ross McCurdy,Ph.D President

Twenty years experience, professor and researcher at Dolhousie Unlvereity and t Technicd:University of NovelScb^^

^m King, B5c. ^


Recipient of the silver medol, ChemiCffi^ Institute of Canada (CIC). Laboratories is a charter Member of

finwkk Is dM-serwke eUvkoni

Suite 200

lahmtfiry/l^ovi^ aunprehensi t^^^S^anadian Association for Environmental

5595 Fenwick StreetÂŽ^^

orgaiik mtliilorgam malytkal '^'^B^^^idlytical Laboratories. Fully certified in all -^Sf^r^j^ameters currently included in the CAEAL services.

Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada, B3H 4M2

Krtikation program.

Toll-free; 1-800-565-RCAp Tel:(902)420-0203 : Fox:(902) 420-8611

For more information, Circle reply card No. 110

1_JL iijlLj-jULLL JixLJ.JLJLijL

Laboratories Limlttd

Product review Type FF Flumag' Ceramic-lined mag meters approved for meat

mag meters

and poultry plants FLUMAG™ Type FM electromagnetic flowmeter from Schlumberger Indus tries Measurement Division has received

U.S.D.A. approval for use in meat and poultry plants.Type FM FLUMAGs are ceramic-lined (fused aluminum oxide) instruments in line sizes of5/32,1/4,3/8, 1/2, 1, 1-1/2, 2, 3, 4 and 6 in.

They have an exclusive selectable modulation feature. An on-board mic

rocomputer allows the user to choose between three different operating modes: slow, fast or dual. Dual modula tion optimizes response time, accuracy and noise filtration characteristics. The

Schlumberger Industries Measurement

Division introduces new Flumag™ Type FF electromagnetic flowmeters in 8", 10" and 12"(200, 250 and 300 mm)line sizes. Three flowtube liner options are

available: Teflon® polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyurethane or Rilsan® superpolyamide. Type FF flow rates range from 99 to 11,461 gpm (374 to 43,325 litres/min). All FLUMAGs reliably measure con ductive fluids with or without high so lids content. They offer the benefits of nonintrusive, straight-through design with no moving parts. The Teflon® PTFE-lined FLUMAGs operate costeffectively and reliably in corrosive flow, while the Rilsan® super-polyamide-lined





cessfully in water applications. Teflon® PTFE- and Rilsan® superpolyamide-lined FLUMAGs are recom mended with nonabrasive slurries,

while polyurethane liners stand up well with abrasive slurries. The Type FF series joins 10 Type FM ceramic-lined FLUMAGs ranging from 5/32" to 6"(4 to 150 mm)with flow rates from 0.04 to 2,370 gpm (0.15 to 8,971 litres/min).

Schlumberger For more information, Circie reply card No. 161

Cordless pH/temperature recorder

!T^ Simultaneously recording pH and Tem perature, on the same miniature chart. A crystal-controlled chart motor,pro40

effect is like having two meters in one. All FLUMAG meters feature straightthrough design with no moving parts, automatic zeroing and patented, select able fast, slow and dual modulation.

FLUMAG accuracy is ±0.5 to 1.0%,with ±0.1% repeatability. Output signal is linearly proportional to rate of flow in either direction. They instantaneously

display flow rate or pulse totalization,as well as diagnostics. Parameters are con figurable in situ without disturbing meter operation. Electronics may be built-in or remote.

Industries operating FLUMAG me ters include pharmaceuticals, dairy and food products and sugar refining and processing. Schlumberger For more information, Circle reply card No. 162

vides accurate chart timing. Time shar ing system with one galvanometer is used,to record pH on a scale of2-12 and Temperature 0-100c. The meter is enclosed in a glass rein forced polyester Nema case, with a swing out clear cover. The portablfe pH/ Temperature Recorder operated with a 6V rechargeable battery. Also available as A.C. operated and pH sampling meters Indicators and Recorders are available.

Analytical Measurements For more information, Circie reply card No. 163

Ifconfirmation ofpositive P/A tests is required, inoculum from the incubated P/A Broth test can be used to confirm

New P/A Broth Ampules speed total conform and E. coli testing

the presence of fecal coliforms,total co liforms and E. coii using other sim plified Hach methods. Hach Company

USEPA-approved Bromcresol Purple

Circle reply card No. 164

For more information.

Presence/Absence Test now comes in

single-dose ampules that can be stored for a minimum of one year. The P/A Broth Ampules make total coliform test ing easy for everyone, because each ampule contains prepared medium that pours easily from the ampule into the sample. Simply combine 100 ml ofsam ple and P/ABroth,incubate for24hours and check for a yellow color change. The distinct yellow color indicates the presence of total coliforms.

CSEEM for confined

space entry Confined Space fall arrest and rescue is featured in the CSEEM System which can retrieve an unconscious entry wor ker in seconds from virtually any kind of






CSEEM is much faster, safer and

more versatile than many other systems For simultaneous detection of total as it eliminates the need for tripods or T coliforms andE.coli, Hach offers Brom bars. This unique system still requires cresol Purple P/A Broth with MUG. only two workers for most confined MUG reagent enzymatically reacts with space entries. E. coli to produce fluorescence under York Fluid Controls Limited long-wave, ultraviolet light after a 24For more information. hour incubation.

Circle reply card No. 165

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992


Thirty-two years ago, The Gorman-Rupp Company built a pump manufacturing plant in St. Thomas, Ontario. Since then Gorman-Rupp has experienced steady growth and expansion. In the past two years, we have invested heavily in our second generation, state-of-the-art CNC manufacturing equipment. Over the years there have been many changes in the pump business through take-overs by conglomerates which have not always benefited the customer. Gorman-Rupp is still an independent, family-owned company whose only business is manufacturing pumps. We intend to stay that way. And, we intend to stay in Canada. We stock Canadian-made pumps and parts. Gorman-Rupp and its distributors across Canada know Canadian needs and

are eager to be of service. Let's all be "Pumped Up" about Canada. And, let's keep Canada strong by supporting quality Canadian-made products.


GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.

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Product review On-line, laboratory toxicity tests

Epic Independently awarded ISO certification Epic manufactures both portable and fixed-site automatic samplers for wastewater, effluent and sewage treatment applications. These include the 1030 sludge sampler designed to extract sam

Monitor influent wastewater to detect

toxic or inhibitory waste and protect the plant's microorganisms. Automatic lab and on-line respiro-meters by Arthur Technology offer two toxicity tests that use the microorganisms naturally pre sent at the treatment site and monitor

the immediate changes in their respira tion rates. A rapid results screening test is performed on-line and produces re sults in minutes.A longer term "Influent Toxicity Test" gives more specific infor

ples of sewage sludge from pipelines and tanks and the best-selling 1011 port able sampler, used by water companies for process control and monitoring at treatment plants, for investigational purposes and to sample trade effluents to determine water charge rates.It is also


commonly used in industry to monitor trade effluent to ensure consent con

ditions are being met and charges are being minimized. In 1990 Epic became the first manu facturer of waste water samplers in the UK to have its quality assurance pro cedures independently certified with the award of ISO 9001, the international

quality management standard. Epic is represented in Canada by Cancoppas Ltd., Oakville. Cancoppas For more information. Circle reply card No. 172

mation about the inhibition of the mic

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Metering pumps with remote monitoring and control capabilities ProMinent® PRCS remote control en ables the functions of Gamrna and

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New impeller flow sensors

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New VXI computers give users 486 performance at 386 price

Newly designed impeller flow sensors, available from Great Lakes Instru

National Instruments has a new line of

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C-size 486-compatible embedded VXI computers. The new VXIpc-486 line in cludes the high-performance Model 500

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greater application versatility including ultra-pure water applications. The sensors' design improvements include three wetted materials of con

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dual-ported RAM. National Instr.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Product review Industrial hygiene & hazardous material catalog HAZCO Canada, Inc. announces a 34-

page color rental catalog especially tar geted to the industrial hygiene and ha zardous




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The open bottom design allows debris which can potentially clog the diffuser to fall to the bottom of the tank rather than act as an obstruction for the air

flow and limit performance. It also al lows gritty abrasive materials to fall pre venting a scouring action. Pollution Control Inc.

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flow rates, permitting the use of a re duced hydraulic slope and smaller dia meter pipe in most applications.

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Rehau has introduced RauRib, its new seamless PVC storm and sanitary sewer

pipe. Constructed with concentric rein forcing exterior ribs and a smooth inner wall, RauRib's light-weight design is claimed to outperform heavier, solidwall pipe.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992










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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992


International affairs

Canadians prominent in Austraiian conference on the use of cement kilns

in waste management sen from Centre for Industrial Research

in Norway reported on the studies un dertaken in recent years to measure par ticles, metals and organic micropollutants such as PAHs, PCBs and PCDDs from hazardous waste incineration in cement kilns and concluded that these

emissions are more influenced by oper ating conditions than the fuel inciner ated. The session on North American Ex

perience was opened by Mike Benoit of Cadence Chemical Resources, USA

with a historical perspective and current overview of this technology in the United States. He reported that year 1992 marks the 20th anniversary of the first experimental use of chlorinated waste solvents as fuel substitutes in

Left to rigfit are: Dr. Ian McPhail, Executive Director, Commonwealtfi EPA,ACT,Aus tralia; Professor Roy Webb,Vice Cfiancelior, Griffitfi University,Queensland,and Pro fessor Philip Jones, Head,School of Environmental Engineering and Director of the Waste Management Research Unit, Griffith University,Queensland,formerly with the

An international conference University of Toronto.

was held on September 10-11,

in Brisbane on the role of cement kilns in solid and ha

zardous waste management. The con ference was organised by the Waste Management Research Unit of Griffith University and supported by the Ce ment Industry Federation of Australia and the waste industry. Total regis trations numbered 164 which included

135 registrations from Australia and the remainder from Canada,United States,

England, Belgium, Norway, New Zea land, Spain, South Africa, Korea,Indo nesia and Hong Kong. Introducing the conference.Professor Philip Jones, Head of the School of En vironmental Engineering, Griffith Uni versity, reported that many countries having far stricter environmental stan dards than Australia are using cement kiln technology for managing wastes and at the same time recovering the energy stored in them. He stressed the importance of mounting a conference to bring together all the world's experts in this area to present their experience in the use of this technology in an open forum to the public,interest groups and the politicians to gain support in intro ducing this benign and environmen tally friendly technology to Australia. Professor Jones was formerly with the University of Toronto. The conference was then officially 46

North American portland cement kilns, where 25% of its plant locations across the United States burn hazardous waste as fuel.

Brian Dawson of Cemtech, USA, re

ported that over 70% of waste directed to landfills has sufficient potential energy

opened by Dr. Ian McPbail, Executive Director of newly formed Common value to be utilized in cement kilns and wealth Environmental Protection Agen described in detail the technologies de cy in Australia. He described in detail veloped by his company in this regard. the functions of his organization and He said the raw material substitution the steps undertaken to implement the (RMS)from waste material such as fly recommendations of the Independent ash, petroleum contaminated soils, Panel on Intractable Wastes in Aus sludge waste from paper mills and foun tralia, one of which is the investigation dry sand is a growing trend in the United of cement kiln technology for disposal States. of intractable wastes. The third US speaker, Eric Hansen The Keynote Address was delivered ofAsh Grove Cement,who is also a Pre by Charles Coles of St. Lawrence Ce sident of the Cement Kiln Recycling ment Company in Canada. He stressed Coalition in the United States, reported the importance of determination to on an innovative method to use solid withstand the possible criticisms of this waste derived fuels such as whole tires technology and to aggressively address and containerized hazardous waste to the communication, public relations replace up to 40% of the energy require and political aspects of the project. ment in the cement kilns by introducing After an Introduction to Cement the fuel directly into the mid kiln. Manufacture by Don Woodcroft of Robert Schreiber of Waste Manage Queensland Cement Limited,the Euro ment International, USA, reported on pean session was presented with experi the activities by his company to focus on ences from Belgium. Norway and Swit technical development,operations,per zerland. Pierre Degre of Ciments mitting and regulatory compliance for D'Obourg in Belgium, reported that his waste recycling programs in conjunc company currently disposes of 172,000 tion with the cement industry. Robert tonnes of hazardous and non-hazar Holloway of the US EPA reported that dous wastes per year, replacing up to his agency has no data that indicate that 35% of its energy requirements, increas emissions from hazardous waste burn ing up to 50% in 1994. Holderbank in ing in a cement kiln pose a hazard to Switzerland has achieved 15% energy human health or the environment, or substitution from incinerating hazar that there is a measurable increase in dous wastes and dried sewage sludge in the level of toxic metals in the cement their plant. Experimentation using product. waste timber is underway. Rare KarstenThe North American Session was Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

International affairs concluded by Dr. Kathryn Kelly of En vironmental Toxicology International. She reported on a largest ever exposure study conducted in Midlothian, Texas which is believed to be the site of the

highest concentration of cement plants burning hazardous waste in the world having three cement plants all within 5 km of each other burning hazardous wastes. This detailed study has clearly indicated that no adverse health effects

Processing Service ofNew South Wales, Brisbane City Council, Cement Indus try Federation, Pacific Waste Manage ment and Environmental Toxicology International from USA. The lively in terest and enthusiastic participation of delegates during this session clearly in dicated the importance of implement ing this proven and environmentally friendly technology in Australia. The innovative free public session

would be expected in a community due to waste incineration in cement kilns. The North American Session was fol

This detailed study has clearly indicated that no

lowed by a Session on Pacific Rim Ex perience. Brian McGrath of Blue Circle

adverse health effects

would be expected in a community due to waste

Southern Cement in Victoria, Australia

reported on the initiatives undertaken by his company to use used lubricating oil and waste tires as kiln fuels. Ron

Pilgrim of Morrison and Cooper, New Zealand, stated that many of the pro blem wastes generated in New Zealand can be destroyed by this technology. However, he stressed the importance of educating the public in this regard. A Panel Session and a Workshop fol lowed with involvement of represen tatives from the Queensland Depart ment of Environment and Heritage, Queensland Conservation Council,En vironment Management Industry Asso ciation ofAustralia, Waste Recycling and

cians of the potential of this technology through open forums. The Chairman of Australia New Zea land Environmental Conservation Council and the Minister of the Envi

ronment for New South Wales, Hon.

Chris Hartcher was the guest dinner

speaker and the Minister of Environ ment and Heritage in Queensland,Hon. Pat Comben spoke as the conference guest lunch speaker. Clearly the cement kiln technology for hazardous waste management is being taken very seriously in high places Down Under. Editor's note:

The printed proceedings from this con ference are now availabie at a cost of

incineration in cement kilns.

following the above sessions proved to be highly successful. The session mod erated by Jan Taylor of ABC Radio in cluded several overseas speakers avail able to answer the public's questions and concerns in using this technology. Prior to the conference, a luncheon

AUS$ 100 pius postage. In addition, a video proceedings prepared in part from the presentations will be available. The pre-production price of this video is AUS$150 plus postage. Please contact Dr. David Moy on telephone -1-61 7875 5506 or Fax -1-61 7 875 5288 for furth er details.

was held in Brisbane to brief the media

on the use ofthis technology and to pre sent the objectives of the conference. The outcome of the conference clearly demonstrated the need to inform the

public, interest groups and the politi-

Environmental Law

Reminder Use the Reader Service

Card to get information on products in this issue.


The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: • • • • •

Environmental Assessments & Approvals Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings Waste Management & Disposal Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods Occupational Health & Safety

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Paul Rennick, M.A., MClP The president of MacViro Con sultants Inc.,Sid Gillespie,is pleased to announce that Paul H. Rennick, M.A., MClP, has joined the firm as Manager of Environmental Planning and Approvals. Paul brings over thirty years expe rience to MacViro including manage ment of his own firm, work with other


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992






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Guest comment

By Don Mackay, Ph.D., P.Eng.*

Is chlorine really the evil element?

The element chlorine has a

tunately for chlorine there are plenty of

severe image problem. Chlo rine has been implicated so fre quently as a participant in

other elements which can be trouble

some without its assistance — mercury, lead, chromium, and of course carbon

environmental disasters that a naive conventional wisdom has evolved: if we can rid the environment of chlorine it

in its multitude of forms, especially as hydrocarbons.

will be a happier, healthier place. It is increasingly politically correct to rid soci ety of this evil element. But the truth, as any chemist knows,is that chlorine,like

viewed as synonymous with trouble and toxicity. The Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment has recently named its top 21 chemical candidates for banning or phase-out.Twelve contain chlorine.The

It is thus understandable that chloro is

other elements, is merely one building block with certain unique and useful

U.S.-Canada International Joint Com

features, which can contribute to the

structure and properties of a diversity of molecules — some useful, others harm ful. Steel, which forms the murderous

mission,frustrated with lack of progress on Great Lakes clean-up has suggested that chlorine be phased out as a chemi cal feedstock.Greenpeace is mounting a vigorous campaign to eliminate chlo rine as an element in pulp and paper operations. BC has recently announcd its intention to ban chlorine from pulp

handgun, can also form the life-saving scalpel. Like steel, chlorine is neutral, neither good nor bad. It is how we as a society shape it and exploit it that deter

the evacuation of Mississauga,and con cern persists about the safety of trans porting this very poisonous and ironi cally green gas. Many of the most

mines the benefits and disbenefits.

troublesome chemical contaminants

mill effluents. Advocates ofthe chlorine

contain chlorine — polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated dioxins and furans, mirex, toxaphene, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol — the list goes on.The ozone layer is threated by chlorofluorocarbons. For-

ban are encouraging the use of "envi ronmentally friendly" chlorine-free paper in much the same way as re cycled paper. The beleaguered proponents of con

It is, however, remarkable how much trouble surrounds this element. A re

lease of molecular chlorine(CI2)caused

*lnstitute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto.

tinued chlorine use note that'chlorine

also brings enormous benefits. It is an essential element for human survival.


The oceans are about 3 percent sodium chloride. Disinfection ofdrinking water with chlorine has saved innumerable

lives, and has probably been the single greatest advance in promoting human health and well-being. Chlorine

WE ARE OEEERING YOU THE BEST! Like steel, chlorine is neutral, neither good nor bad. it is how we as a

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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, November 1992

tive means of household cleaning, whi tening and disinfecting. Most swim ming pools rely on chlorine to control algae and kill harmful bacteria. Dry cleaners exploit the non-flammability of chlorine-containing solvents to re duce the risk of fire and explosion.PVC (polyvinylchloride) is a very valuable plastic, especially when durable, rigid properties are needed as in vinyl siding, window frames and blinds.

On reflection, chlorine emerges as an element with certain very powerful pro perties which can be used beneficially or harmfully. It forms a series ofchemi cals such as CI2, chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite ion with strong oxidizing properties, that attack organic(carbon) compounds and convert them ultima tely to carbon dioxide and water. This proves highly beneficial if the carbon 49

Laboratories Is chlorine really the




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resistant to breakdown by bacteria. Every time a chlorine atom is sub stituted for hydrogen in a chemical such as benzene or phenol it causes the che mical to have a lower solubility in water by a factor of about 5. The vapour pres sure drops by a similar factor. As a result the chemical tends to partition more into the fat or lipid phases in fish or other organisms resulting in greater hioaccumulation and toxicity. The chlorine atom effectively "sucks" reac tivity from the molecule and renders it more stable to degradation.

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with the first two meetings held at McMaster University. Molecules can now he designed and built with chlorine as a component to have a desired set of properties. The key point is that chlorine changes properties incrementally and predictably — it does not impart the molecule with any radi cal, new and evil properties. Chlorine is a very powerful and valuable instru ment in the chemical orchestra, hut it

must he played with care. Certain environmental activists have

long held that certain chemicals such as

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chemicals should he identified, sub

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Laboratories/Consultants didate list of21.We should be grateful to activists for leading the way. Many of the candidates for banning contain chlorine because of the toxicity and stability which it imparts. But it is ludicrous to suggest that all chlorinecontaining, or even organo-chlorine, compounds should be banned.There is a spectrum of organo-chlorine chemi cals ranging from the thoroughly nasty candidates for banning — to relatively innocuous, useful, degradable substan ces. It is naive to brand all organo-chlorines as villainous.Elemental stereotyp ing is no more valid than racial stereo typing.

When chlorine is present in gas or liquid effluents or solid wastes in or gano-chlorine form as one of a mul titude of carbon-chlorine compounds (as distinct from its inorganic chloride form)it generally increases the toxicity and bioaccumulative properties of the effluent or waste. Unfortunately these


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effluents often contain numerous che micals of undetermined structure and

thus of unknown toxicity, although the "whole-effluent" toxicity can be mea sured. It therefore seems prudent and sensible to reduce the organo-chlorine content to a minimum by treating the waste, or preferably by adopting a "pol lution prevention"approach and avoid ing the formation of organo-chlorine chemicals in the first place.But it is clear that we can tolerate the presence of many organo-chlorine chemicals in ef

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"toxic" and the introduction of one

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992




environmental awareness, and an in

Ontario's MISA (Municipal Indus trial Strategy for Abatement) program has fallen badly behind schedule. Envi



In large measure this controversy has been fuelled by a reluctance of some industries to respond to the growth in ability ofgovernments to overcome selfgenerated inertia and act expeditiously

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certain chemicals, many of which, but not ail, contain chlorine. They see the need to reduce other organo-chlorine chemicals to levels in the environment

well below those known to cause toxicity or unacceptable bioaccumuiation. But they have faith that an enlightened, en vironmentally conscious society can be smart enough to learn to use chlorine, exploit its benefits and eliminate its harmful features. They see no merit in over-reacting and incurring severe eco nomic disruption to "solve" what may be a non-problem.Indeed over-reaction in the form ofa simplistic ban is likely to bring the environmental movement in to disrepute. The pulp and paper industry finds itself on the front line ofthis battle. This


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environmental indifference. Whereas

the petroleum industry responded proactiveiy, rapidly and thoughtfully to growing environmental concerns (with occasional lapses!), the pulp and paper industry has been slow to change. It, by far, is the largest industrial emitter of organo-chlorine chemicals into the en vironment, and it is now the target of a tack by Greenpeace, especially in On tario and EC.

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severe disruption of many chlorineexploiting chemical processes, notably in the pulp and paper industries. There would be severe impacts on several

The reality is that the industry has vir tually eliminated chlorinated dioxins from its effluents. By process change to substitute the more benign chlorine dioxide for chorine it is reducing or gano-chlorine emissions by a factor of about ten. It is implementing improved treatmentofeffluents to remove organochlorines as well as other organic wastes. With reasonably tight and thoughtful government regulation, the industry can be induced in the next 5 to 10 years to reduce steadily its discharge oforgano-chiorines to low levels — pos sibly even to zero should this prove necessary. There certainly remains a need to understand more fully the na ture,properties and effects ofthe chemi cal species it does discharge,but there is

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Consultants presently no demonstrated need to eli

minate chlorine entirely. In fact, a move to reduce organo-chlorines(designated AOX in the jargon of the industry) in effluents to zero could be economically disruptive,inflicting another blow to an industry already beleaguered by a reces sion and other economic ills and facing




competition from the US where AOX is not regulated.


There is considerable work underway to determine the nature ofthe chemicals

which comprise AOX, show how they behave in the environment, and estab

lish what effects they have on fish. What is known is that the organo-chlorine

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chemicals in AOX are numerous and


complex, have high molecular weights,


tend to associate or cluster with each other in solution and tend to adsorb or

stick tenaciously to any available solid surface.They appear to be fairly reactive









and short-lived in the environment.

They are fascinating substances be cause they are quite unlike any other well-studied pollutants. Fortunately they do not appear to be absorbed to any great extent by organisms or to bioaccumulate.They are thus very different in nature from PCBs or the other trouble

some persistent and bioaccumulative organo-chlorines.

One view is that we should adopt a precautionary principle and assume chemicals to be toxic until proved nontoxic. There is some justification for this view but it must be tempered by the pos sibility that eliminating one problem chemical usually involves substituting another chemical.In the pulp and paper industry, substituting ozone for chlor ine may ultimately prove as harmful,or even more harmful. The toxics on the other side of the fence from chlorine

may look greener now, but they may



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prove more deadly! There is a worrisome feature ofthis en

vironmental policy debate. There was once a widely held and arrogant attitude that important decisions on environ mental policy should be left to the ex perts, whether they be engineers, scien tists, economists or lawyers. The unin formed public were better kept in the dark, and should have faith in the wis

dom ofthese experts.The pendulum has swung towards greater public participa tion.Activists and the public are now lis tened to much more attentively. Few would question the desirability of this trend; it has opened up the decision making process to greater scrutiny and much needed accountability. But there are signs that the pendulum may have swung too far, and critical decisions will be based on misinformed perceptions of hazard fuelled by activists motivated by a deeper social agenda. When the toxicity or hazard ofchemicals is ranked on Continued on page 55


Environmental Science c& Engineering, November 1992

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Association news

CAEAL ready to launch Accreditation Program The Canadian Association for Environ

mental Analytical Laboratories held its third Annual General Meeting October


13,1992 at Queen's Park,Toronto when new initiatives were announced includ


ing an Accreditation component. The Association has been in existence

since only 1989 but already has certified some 80 analytical laboratories in Ca nada for specific tests. Phase 1 of CAEAL's plan was to establish a Cer tification program; this is now well es tablished. CAEAL is ready to move into the next phase which will involve site visits by qualified assessors leading to Accreditation for successful labora


Outgoing President, Sean Mullaly, explained to the members present that because the Association has now estab

lished its core(Certification)program it will be in a position to provide more ser vices as requested by the membership. He discussed an up-dated mission state ment for the Association along with goals and objectives to be attained. Key areas include improved com munications concerning the advan tages ofCAEAL accreditation to the end users of laboratory services including

0 a

Left to right: Dale Sutherland, Canviro Laboratories, Sean Muiiaiy, outgoing CAEAL President and Don Laberge, Chemex at the CABAL annual meeting. consultants, regulators and legislators involved with the collection and inter

pretation ofenvironmental testing data; the Association will strive to identify key areas of required research, to work in concert with other associations to ad

dress environmental testing matters, to better utilize the expertise within the Association for problem solving for members,and to provide members with

certified laboratories.

Dr. Neil McQuaker, who is on an in terchange assignment to CAEAL from the British Columbia Ministry of Envi ronment, discussed the development of

the Certification program over the past2

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Canadian commercial iaboratories form trade association Canada's environmental laboratories

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992


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Ray Clement, MOE (left) with Doug Langley.

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Douglas G. Langley, president of En vironment Protection Laboratories Inc.

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in Toronto, made a presentation to the lAETL Board on behalf of the Cana

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an association. It was proposed that lAETL Canada be formed to address

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Is chlorine really the evil element? continued from page 53


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Longterm leachate management

What legacy are we leaving with future landfill leachates?

Leachate production is a well re

cognized environmental impact associated with municipal landfills. It is produced when rain or ground water seep through the refuse and leach or dissolve different

minerals and compounds present in the waste. Engineered systems are often in stalled to manage and control leachate production and systems can be designed to treat the leachate itself. However,fu

ture changes in waste composition and the manner in which landfills are de

past trends. This article discusses how leachate characteristics could change in the future and provides some insight into innovations in landfill design that may have to be considered to deal with these changes. By Diane Radnoff. P.Eng. M.Eng., Chemical Engineer. Steve Hollingshead. P.Eng.. M.Sc.(Eng.). Senior Geological Engineer, and Grant Anderson. P.Eng, President Gartner Lee Ltd.

signed could also cause changes in the quality of leachate produced from mu nicipal sites. Ontario is very forward-thinking with respect to the long-term implications of landfill design. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) policy requires that a landfill proponent demonstrate that any engineered system, such as liners or leachate collection piping, ne cessary to protect the environmentfrom leachate impacts also be sustainable throughout the contaminating lifespan of the landfill (MOE, 1988). This has

ing of how leachate is produced and how it changes over time. Typically, landfill leachate generation has the pro file illustrated in Figure 1. It normally takes about 40 to 75 years for contami nant concentrations to begin to decline significantly. Leachates produced from domestic waste landfills generally have a high organic content.A wide variety of

resulted in leachate characterization

other constituents such as metals, sus

studies being an integral part of the landfill design process, and leachate production is becoming better under

pended solids and various inorganic compounds will also be present, de pending on the type(s)of wastes present in the landfill. As the age of the landfill increases, the wastes begin to biodegrade. Once this starts to occur, other compounds such as ammonia, nitrates and nitrites, which are products of re fuse biodegradation, will appear in the

stood from historical data that are now

available (Jones, 1991). However, it is equally important, and perhaps more important, to consider future trends in leachate characteristics since they are not necessarily a continuation of the

Leachate Quality At present we have some understand

leachate. The amount and strength of leachate produced will therefore be a function of the physical and chemical characteristics of the refuse, rate and

extent of biological activity within the landfill and the rate of infiltration into

the landfill. Therefore,anything that af fects these factors will have an impact on leachate quality. Changes in Waste Composition The typical residential waste stream currently consists of greater than 60% organic material with the remainder made up of primarily metals, plastic, and glass(MOE, 1991). The successful implementation of recycling, compost ing and waste banning initiatives will potentially remove most of the organic material (including paper, wood and food wastes), the metals, plastic, glass and hazardous materials from the waste

stream.In some jurisdictions,a fraction ofthe waste stream may also be inciner ated and the bottom ashes disposed ofin municipal landfill sites. Depending on the future success and magnitude of these programs, leachate produced from waste residuals will like ly contain mostly inorganic compounds such as chlorides and sulfates. These

compounds are very soluble in water and do not biodegrade. While this may

simplify leachate treatment somewhat, current technologies are not able to des troy these compounds. They can only concentrate the contaminants, produc ing a waste that still must be dealt with. Future treatment systems designed to deal with leachate will need to take these


changes into account and existing treat ment systems may require extensive modifications to remain effective.

(20 to 25 yrs) site operating lifespan

period of maximum contaminant flux

Engineering Design Existing and new municipal landfills are typically designed to minimize in filtration of rain or ground water. En gineering systems such as low permea bility covers are used to limit the infiltra

landfill becoming benign (40 to 75 yrs)


eactiate vo ume

tion of water into the landfill to mini

mize leachate production. Since infil contaminant

tration ofwaterinto the landfill is limited,


(60 to 130 yrs)

biodegradation of organic materials in the refuse may be inhibited since mic roorganisms will not have sufficient moisture to grow. Soluble compounds thatleach outofthe wastes will do so at a

much slower rate and will produce a higher strength leachate. Waste densities in landfills are stea

dily increasing as better compaction continued on page 60 58

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992



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Longterm leachate management,con't technologies come to the market. These are being quickly adopted as site opera tors work towards maximizing site capa

If present trends in landfill design continue towards lower infiltration

rates, higher waste densities and larger sites, the contaminating lifespan of density is achieved over time as the was landfills will be greatly increased. tes within the landfill settle. Higher The lifespan ofsome engineered sys waste densities will likely result in tems will not be sufficient to prevent slower percolation rates, longer resi environmental impacts over hundreds dence time in the waste and, hence, ofyears.In essence,our descendants will higher leachate concentrations. be forced to deal with the environmental Landfills are also tending to get larger. impacts ofour garbage,either by the res Regionalization of waste management ponsibility of operating and maintain responsibilities and the slow,expensive ing leachate management systems or by nature of the approvals process are the the need to remediate future leachate primary reasons. For example,searches impacts due to the failure ofthe systems are underway within the Greater Toron in the long-term. to Area for sites which could be as large cities. In addition, increased refuse

as 230 to 320 ha. These could be the

Possible Solutions

largest landfill sites in North America and there is little experience with the

In summary,leachate produced from municipal landfills is likely to change significantly in the future. Therefore, it is not adequate to continue to design

control and treatment of leachate at such a scale.

landfills based on past history of lea chate production and treatment. Land fill designers must be more innovative and carefully consider the implications of changes in quantity and quality of leachate over the long-term. While these design innovations are largely in the for mative stages, a few concepts that may have merit include: 1. Pre-treatment of waste residuals so that there are fewer contaminants available to be leached out of the

waste or specific problematic con taminants are better controlled. A considerable research effort is needed

to further develop these technolo gies. 2. Site future landfills in areas with suf

ficient natural containment capabi lity compatible with the leaching his tory of the waste and geochemical environments that are naturally more compatible with the leachate

characteristics.This option is consis tent with the current policies of the MOE which recognize the limita tions of engineered systems and pre



1992/1993 Directory & Buyer's Guide Issue

3. Design landfills to allow the infiltra tion of water into the refuse.This will

enhance biodegradation of the orga nic component of the wastes while flushing out soluble contaminants.

Sharpen the cutting edge of your fourth quarter marketing plan by advertising in our December/ January Issue. Competitively priced ads are an

Contaminants will be leached out of

the refuse at an earlier stage in the lifespan of the landfill and can be dealt with by treatment or other mea

economical and effective way to reach over

19,000 key environmental equipment and service specifiers.

sures. This will ensure that the ma

fl0 December/January Issue Ad closing date December 15, 1992

Don't miss out!!!

Directory and Buyer's Guide ES&E Directory and Buyer's Guide Is Canada's largest and most comprehensive reference for

Scheduled Editorial* Food Industry waste management Contaminated site remediation

environmental specifiers.

Backflow prevention strategies

• Directory of environmental consuiting engineers.

Workplace training Sludge management options Oil/Water separation technologies

• Itemized iists of environmentai products, equipment and services. • Directory of manufacturers and suppliers.

• Directory of iaboratories serving the environ mental field. This valuable reference source makes the issue a

'keeper' for some 19,000 environmental professio nals; unquestionably your best advertising buy of the year for goods and services.

Air pollution abatement Review of spill sorbents Developments In clarlfler design ' Leachate management ' Kingston chooses trenchless

Steve Davey

A1 Stiver

Ron Ganton

Sales Director

U.S. Representative (416) 294-5502

B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 180

Future changes in leachate quality v«ll provide a challenge to both landfill designers and regulators.It is important that we consider what these changes may be to ensure that municipal wastes and the pollution impacts associated with them are managed properly. Con siderable research will likely be needed in order to develop appropriate solu tions to these issues. It is not reasonable

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before December 15, 1992.

10 Retch Cr., Aurora,Ontario,Canada L4G 5N7

jority of leachate is produced while engineered systems are still func tional. Conclusion

Don't miss out on ES&E's largest issue of the year.


ments with characteristics that pro vide a high degree of natural con tainment.

In tough economic times, ES&E delivers key prospects to advertisers.

(416) 727-4666

fer that landfills be sited in environ

Penny Davey Sales Representative (416) 727-4627

to expect future generations to maintain the engineering systems we presently design for landfills or to remediate im pacts resulting from our lack of fore sight in engineering design. We must consider what legacy we are leaving for our children and grandchildren and take the appropriate measures now to prevent long term environmental pol lution. ES&E


References are available. Circle Reader Service Card No. 139

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Literature Review

For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(416) 727-4666 Diffused aeration



Diffused Aeration PRODICTS

Parkson offers the widest range of diffused aeration products available. Included are: Aeration Panels,a flex ible membrane system which pro duces superfine bubbles; Flex-ATube flexible, membrane diffusers that produce intermediate size bub bles; FineAir ceramic disc and dome diffusers; Endurex stainless steel coarse bubble diffuser,and the OxyCharger Static Aerator,a unique lowhead, gravity-flow device to increase dissolved oxygen levels of influent

Odor Controi Treating odors with Sodium Hypochiorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in technical bulletin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochiorite sprayto oxidize organic odors.Other topics include: storage and air col lection needs.

Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 220



Circle reply card No. 221

pH Recorder and Controllers


The Model RCP75,is a pH Recorder and Controller with a strip chart re corder for a permanent record. One roll of chart paper will run approx imately 1 month at 1' per hour. Model RCDp75 is the same as the Model RCP75 with a Digital read-out. The Model 1CP75 is a pH Indicator-Controiier if a permanent record is not required. Analytical Measurements of

Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochiorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal re covery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 222

Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 223


Accelerated sludge thickening The GDE Grid uses natural drainage and scrapers to produce a pumpabie,concentrated siuidge.The GDE Grid is simple to operate, easy to maintain and has low operating

IEEE 488 and

VXIbus Control,


Data Acauisition,

and Analysis

Data Acquisition and Instrument Control Free 1993 catalogue of measure ment and instrumentation products for PCs, workstations, and more. Features new LabVIEW software for

Windows and Sun, and LabWin-

costs. It can be used in small and

dows. Describes IEEE 488.2 inter

medium sized installations as a pre-

faces, plug-in data acquisition txtards, VXIbus controllers, DSP hardware and software, and signal condition ing accessories. Training classes

thickener before conventional de-

watering and for solid/liquid separa tion in industry. Degremont InflIco Ltd. Circle reply card No. 223


k imitmwtt

also detailed. Includes tutorials and

glossary. National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 224

Condensed Catalogue From Victaulic A condensed catalog for Victaulic Company's grooved mechanical piping systems includes a general overview plus sections on IPS coupl ings, valves,fittings and accessories, as well as hole-cut, Pressfit™, FIT® and plain-end piping systems. Also covered are systems for copper tub ing and AWWA ductile pipe and pipe preparation and tools. Victaulic Company Circle reply card No. 225


Environmental Science &

Engineering 1993 Directory and Buyer's Guide ES&E's Directory and Buyer's Guide is Canada's largest and most com prehensive reference for environ mental specifiers. This valuable re ference source makes the issue a

Ouvnftm ¥ti0»

Uw l*Nk« mf >MMr SM

'keeper' for some 19,000 environ mental professionals; unques tionably your best advertising buy of the year for goods and services. ES&E

Circle reply card No. 226

Cover story

BC pulp & paper plant Installs modern environmental equipment

Fletcher Challenge Canada

Limited at Elk Falls, B.C. pro duces 1400 TPD of newsprint,

600 TPD ofbleached Kraft and

240 TPD of Kraft Paper. The effluent from this mill enters the treatment plant from two caustic sewers originating in the TMP (Thermo Mechanical Pulp) and Kraft mill plus a Kraft acid sewer. The TMP and Kraft streams, with al most equal flows, are treated separately through the waste treatment process. Two 300' diameter x 13' SWD CXT

primary clarifiers supplied by EIMCO Process Equipment in Mississauga, re move the settleable solids from each of the two waste streams. These clarifiers have EIMCO drive unit rated at

1,200,000 ft-lbs. design torque and 4,193,000 ft-lbs. peak torque. The centre drive units support a 32' diameter feedwell constructed of304 S.S. Metalweave™

woven stainless steel material.This pro prietary feedwell design combines strength and durability with the benefits oflow maintenance and ease ofinstalla

tion. The rake arms are box truss design with a large centre sludge pocketto max

imize sludge consistency. Effluentfrom the Kraft primary clarifier is mixed with the Kraft acid stream

WastewaterTreatment Probtems? Call Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc

before entering a covered equalization basin with a capacity of 17,000,000 I.G. (76,500 m^). The liner is an 80 mil high density polyethylene and the cover is a 60 mil very low density polyethylene supplied by Columbia Geosystems Ltd. in Calgary, Alberta. The cover has a gas drawoffsystem that traps any generated gas which is treated by carbon filters. The TMP effluentflows directly to the TMP Unox reactor where it is treated

with 99-F % O2.The mixed Kraft effluent is pumped from the equalization basin to the Kraft Unox train. The Unox reac

Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc. can help to eliminate troublesome water pollution control headaches related to organic chemical compounds. Whether the job Is large or small, Calgon Carbon con provide a cost-effective solution to meet the treatment objective,

Activated Carbon Products-specifically designed to remove a wide variety of organic chemical types and concentrations. Adsorption Systems-standard off-the-shelf or custom designed systems to treat a wide range of flows: 250 t/m (60 gpm)fo 2500 i/m (700 gpm). Colgon Corbon Service- Under a monthly service arrangement, Calgon Carbon will Install and maintain at the treatment site a permanent or temporary treatment system. Treatment objectives con be achieved without major capital costs. Spent Corbon DIsposol-Calgon Carbon eliminates disposal problems by trans porting the spent carbon to a RCRA-opproved reactivation facility, where the organic chemical contaminants are thermally destroyed,thus eliminating future liability risks. For more Information, coll or write Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc., Suite 304,6303 Airport Rood, Mississauga, Ontario LAV 1R8, Tel (416)673-7137, Fox(416)673-8883.

tor is protected from upsets from the mill by a spill basin with 12 hour capa city. This lagoon is also lined with an 80 mil high density polyethylene liner. After biologial treatment, the mixed liquor goes to two 300' diameter se condary clarifiers supplied by EIMCO Process Equipment.These units are de signed with box truss rake arm support ing eleven 10" drawoff pipes per arm for secondary sludge return. The 48' dia meter stainless steel Metalweave™ Feedwell can accommodate future floccula-

tion devices. EIMCO's computer de signed rake blades ensure optimum sludge removal from the 70,000 sq. ft. of clarifier floor area. The plant has been operating since August 1992. For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 181 Reminder

Use the Reader Service CALGON CARBON CANADA INC.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 131 62

Card to get information on products in this issue.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1992

Schlumberger Provides Soiutlons Schlumberger Neptune® ARB™ System Introduced In 1964,the Neptune® Automatic Reading & Billing Sys tem is the encoder register of choice for over 400 water utilities today.

• Easily mounted to any Neptune® meter,the ARB'"encoder system transmits the actual register reading,in an electronic data format to a remote, accessible location.

• Proven reliability in over 4,000,000 installations throughout North America.

ARB'" suits all applications: • ARB V"for indoor settings

• ProRead ARB'" for pit installations and large meter vault settings. • ProRead ARB'" for reprogrammable, utility defined metering in formation.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 133

Schlumberger Reading Systems Schlumberger Industries is dedicated to the development of Meter Reading Systems that will maximize the efficiency of your water utility.

• Neptune® Unigun'" System — specifically designed for data cap ture and management with the ARB'" system. Eliminates routebooks and data entry through a hand held mini-computer and PC based software system.

• Central Meter Reading(CMR'")— Schlumberger offers both Out bound and Inbound telephone based systems for single or multiutilities.

• Introduced ARB'" data transmission through Radio Frequency at the '92 National AWWA Conference in Vancouver.

• Schlumberger guarantees compatibility of ARB'" encoder regis ters with our present and future reading systems. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 134

Schlumberger FloSearch System The FloSearch'" System is designed for profiling customer water usage patterns.

• Applications include leak detection, meter sizing, demand meter ing and peak usage studies.

• The FloSearch'"transmitter and FloSearch'" recorder continuously sample and record usage data. • PC based software generates reports of flow vs. time and water usage vs. flowrate in both graphical and tabular formats. • Usage data files may be exported to word processors, spread sheets, DOS,etc.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 135


t I Schlumberger { chlumberger Industries leasurement Division — Canada 275 West Credit Ave.

lisslssauga, Ont.

Regional Sales Offices 6555, boul. M^tropolltain est. 1209-59th Ave. S.E., Suite 140 Suite 402, Calgary, Alberta St-L6onard, Quebec

5N 5M9

T2H 2P6


116) 858-4211

(403) 253-0055

(514) 327-9998

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 136

Technical Service Group 7275 West Credit Ave.

MIsslssauga, Ont. L5N 5M9





. AH/watar V T



inatM â– s


Depurator. Removes emulsified oil and suspended solids from water. Low cost, high capacity. Efficient WEMCO Depurator fiotation machines are used

extensiveiy in the aiuminum, petroieum and petrochemical industry for wastewater and process water treatment.

Pacesetter. Used for oii/water

Sliver Band. High performance

separation in oil production appiications, and for liquid/iiquid separation in chemicai production faciiities. Unique Propack'" crossfiow plates achieve 99% efficiency with gravity-fiow separation. Compact, high capacity units have iow operating and

down-fiow media filter removes

maintenance costs. Pressurized

suspended solids and hydrocarbons from produced water. Sheii media resists

fouling, cleans water with 99% efficiency. Low media replacement rate. Fast (14 minute) media cieaning cycie. Simple installation, low maintenance.

units available for specific applications.

Separation and Filtration Equipment for Municipal and Industrial Operations




A Division of Boksr Hughos Csnsda Inc.

5155 Creekbank Road

259 MIdpark Way S.E.

MIsslssauga, Ontario

Ste. 220

4940 Chlsholm St., Ste. 1 Delta, B.C.

L4W 1X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel: (403) 256-6812 Fax: (403) 256-7071

Tel: (604) 946-0421 Fax: (604) 946-7837

Tel: (416) 625-6070 Fax: (416) 625-3519

V4K 3X2

For more information, Circle reply card No. 137

1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Que. H9R 5N3 Tel: (514) 695-9531 Fax: (514) 695-8099