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ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

September 1992

m.

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Expensive solutions to non problems — an eloquent BC viewpoint New effluent limits hit pulp and paper Industry In hard times Edmonton and Toronto use microtunnelling In sewer rehab work Consultants under fire — an editorial comment


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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 294-5502

Technical Advisory Board

August/September 1992, Vol. 5 No.4 issued September, 1992

CONTENTS

New effluent limits hit pulp & paper industry in tough times By Steve E. Bessada and Susan F. Liver

18

Trenchless rehabilitation techniques for sewer and watermains

Review by Peter Coxon and Les Parr

20

Expensive solutions to non-problems — a creative waste of public money Comment by Dr. F.J. Blatherwick

25

Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Toronto CETECH Conference and Tradeshow Preview

33

US lab scientist reports radiation facts

47

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem.

Church & Trought Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Di l lon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Watermains — Specs, preferences and prejudices Article by Stan Holden

50

Bridging instrumentation experience of the past with technology of the future Article by Jack Barber

52

New elevated water storage tank for Alliston

55

Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LLB.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

Toronto and Edmonton opt for microtunnelling technologies in sewer rehab projects

57

Did lead cause the decline of great empires?

58

Peter Turgoose, A.Sc.T.

Canron West Pipe (BC) Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.

ES&E's readers Include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalSciences Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Welch

Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed In Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single Issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

BEai

Buwvest ■ Pitm

Japanese and Egyptian waste management practices International report by Ken C. Bradley Expert tips on hydrant and gate valve maintenance Article by Stanley Mason

60-63

73

Departments Editorial Comment

8

Classifieds

59

Industry Update

13

Product Review

R&D News

39

Reader Service Card

Literature Review

65-71 64a

69

CHECK THE LABEL If the date on the address

Cover photo; A UK consulting firm is developing tech nology to reduce diesel engine partlculates and NOx. Our story on page 49 is particularly appropriate tor this issue with its focus on the CETECH Conference. See

page 33 tor conference details.

label on the front cover reads

SEPTEMBER 92, your sub

scription has expired as of this Issue. To avoid missing

the next Issue, simply send a cheque for $48.15(G.S.T. Inc.)and the address label to ES&E.

Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the Information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Editorial Comment

Consulting profession under fire They are spending millions on consultants — for God's sake! Media pundit on TV discussing munici pal spending.

The statement was tossed off

with the arrogance typical of certain media types, many of whom are certifiably illiterate in engineering economics. Seldom does ignorance ofcomplex problems restrain them from pontificating, with great as surance, on subjects clearly beyond their intellectual capabilities. Economic illiteracy also seems con tagious.Shortly after I heard this pejora tive reference to consultants from the

media pundit, other proposals emerged from some councillors. They felt they could save money by having in-house engineering staff do much of the work currently done by consultants and pri vate sector laboratories.

Ignorance is pervasive. The media pundit unwittingly labelled major con sulting projects as 'frills' that could be severed from municipal budgets with out impacting on municipal infrastruc tures. He could not have been more

wrong. The roads he drove on that day. the water he drank, the air he breathed and even the structures and transmis

sion equipment of the station from which his imbecilic drivel was being transmitted: all had been profoundly influenced by private labs and consult ing engineers. Had he wandered through a typical consulting firm, he might have noted the pictorial displays of vital projects that consultants have designed over the years. Not only roads,bridges and storm

water management schemes, but also airports,industrial complexes,drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. If one could magically obliterate them with a wave of a wand(only temporarily of course), the nation would immedia tely grind to a standstill while waterborne epidemics would ravage the

Another legendary figure was the To ronto born Dr. G. Nasmith. He held an

M.A., Ph.D., D.P.H. and D.Sc., all from

the University of Toronto. From 1902 to 1909 he was a chemist and bacteriologist to the Ontario Board of Health. Serving in World War I, he rose to Lieutenant-

Colonel, and devised field methods of

land.

purifying army drinking water for both

Philosopher George Santayana, said that those who ignore the lessons of his tory are doomed to repeat its mistakes. And the history of Canadian consulting engineering should be writ in marble on the walls of municipal offices. For it is a story ofremarkable endeavours and ser

the Canadian and British Armies. He

vice to society. Well before the turn of this century,

Willis Chipman,probably Canada's first consulting engineer in private practice, was deeply involved in what was then known as sanitary engineering — a dis cipline which undoubtedly saved more lives than did all the luminaries of the

medical profession. He and other envi ronmental pioneers were designing life saving facilities over a century before most of the present day activists groups were formed.

The world rightly honours Dr. Chris tian Barnard whose pioneering work led to the first heart transplants. While a triumph of surgical dexterity, the num ber oflives saved by heart transplants is minuscule when compared to the lives saved by the environmental pioneers such as Thomas Keefer, Willis Chipman, Dr. Albert Berry and many others.These people laid the foundations of drinking water and wastewater systems which first curbed, then wiped out cholera, ty phoid and other killer diseases of the day which ravaged Canadians.

was given the C.M.G. for distinguished services to the British Army in health and sanitation. When World War I

ended, he formed a partnership in 1919 with two engineers, William Gore and William Storrie, which has grown stea dily over seven decades and is now known as Gore & Storrie Limited.

Pioneering consultingengineers such as Proctor & Redfern, MacLaren, R.V. Anderson, M.M. Dillon (Mlurray Dillon

had been a Deputy Quartermaster Ge neral in the Canadian Army) La Fon taine Cowie Buratto, Marshall, Macklin

and Monaghan, ADI,SNC,UIS^,Asso ciated Engineering and many others have served Canada better than it

knows. Their legacy endures while be ing unknown to the public they serve and protect. It is clear that some remarkable engineers,chemists and scientists helped to create what is now the Canadian con

sulting engineering profession, a body well suited and equipped to tackle the formidable environmental problems now emerging on a global scale. One remarkable civil servant. Dr.

Albert Edward Berry, recognized their value. After serving as a 2nd Lieutenant in World War I, he spent most of his life as a civil servant,ultimately heading the Ontario Water Resources Commission

from its first day of creation in the midfifties. Later OWRC evolved into the

present Ministry of the Environment. Dr. Berry's work led to international ac claim. He is still the only man ever to have served as President ofthe American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation. AWWA and

WEF are the largest bodies in the world dealing with water and wastewater treat

i

ment and his feat was a signal honour

for Canadian expertise in the environ mental disciplines. Dr. Berry presided over the largest single development of water and wastewater treatment plants in the world during the fifties, sixties and seventies. I believe that no other political jurisdic tion in the world has ever matched the

size and scope of Ontario's massive en vironmental construction surge during Trunk sewer in what is now Metro Toronto was designed almost 70 years ago. Photo courtesy Proctor & Redfern.

this era. As I stated at a recent CEO/ MOE seminar,it was a most remarkable

Environmental Science d Engineering, September 1992


By Tom Davey symbiosis of skilled government engin eering staff working in harmony with engineers from the private sector.** Significantly,Dr.Berry did not use inhouse staff for most design work but retained the design services of con sultants during this epic feat. When he died at the age of90, he could look back at a province which had 95 percent of urban communities served by modern sewage treatment plants — most ofthem

Britain in his quest for scientific and

was the second APEG President. When

tal and health matters. He was widely published in his day and worked tire lessly for the professional associations, traits which seemed common among these engineering greats, and inciden tally, is still a tradition among con

he died in 1929, his Iron Ring, denoting the calling of the engineer, was buried with him. He knew the younger Dr. Albert Berry — destined to become an environmental legend who was also a founding member of APEG. What about using in house engineer ing staff? Well, I yield to no man in my admiration for most municipal engin eering staff. Simply running the com plex public works projects in today's municipalities, especially with media and public pressures, is tough demand ing work. But can municipal engineers also be expected to be experts in rapidly changing high-tech water and wastewater processes, hydrology, site reme-

sultants.

In 1901, he formed what was Cana

da's first consulting practice, Chipman

with nutrient removal. Even more im

and Power at the dawn of the 20th Cen

portant, 98 percent of urban dwellers had treated drinking water. Worldrenowned experts at a World Health Organization meeting I attended in

tury. Ontario during this period had the dubious distinction of having typhoid rates of24.4 per 100,000 people when the

1982,in Rome,were vastly impressed by this record.

Even before the Chipman era, engin eering giants such as Thomas Keefer had made significant progress in the design

Professional Engineers of Ontario. He

technical information on environmen

European average was 8 per 100,000

Like the Keefer Brothers, Willis Chipman was deeply involved in pro fessional development and became a founding member of the Association of

continued overleaf

and construction of waterworks pro

jects, some on a consultative basis. One of his water pumping stations, built in 1859, near Hamilton, is still in perfect working order and the site of regular pilgrimages when environmental pro fessionals hold meetings in the area.

Mueller Lineseal III® Butterfly Valve The combination of features

adds up to the best value

Thomas Keefer was born in Thorold, Ontario,in 1821, worked both as an em

ployee and consultant on many projects and was appointed chiefengineer ofthe Montreal Water Works. He worked on

;:V''

projects for Montreal, Quebec City, St. Catharines, Hamilton,Ottawa,London

and Dartmouth, NS. Not only did he

design several water supply systems across Canada, he also introduced civil

engineering to McGill and became its first professor of Civil Engineering in *5';

1856. His half brother Samuel Keefer, born in 1811, was also a remarkable en

■ -

!^ tifesdlF'

w

gineer who worked on the first Welland Canal,designed one ofthe first link sus pension bridge systems in North Ame

-E-.;

rica in 1836,and engineered many other eminent public works. Thomas Keefer, while not a consul

S":

tant as we know the profession today, definitely provided consulting services and laid the bedrock for education in

civil engineering before he died in his 94th year in 1915. In 1887, when the Ca nadian Society of Civil Engineers was formed, with head offices in Montreal, Thomas became the first President.Two

years later Samuel was elected to the same high post* Willis Chipman, a remarkable man who could trace his lineage to William the Conqueror, was almost certainly Canada's first consulting engineer as practised today. Born in Ontario, Willis Chipman graduated from McGill with

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first class honours in civil and mechani

cal engineering. During the 1890's, he designed many water and wastewater treatment systems,travelling across Ca nada and the United States and Great

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Editorial comment con t diation. hydro-geology, corrosion pre vention and trenchiess technology, to name a few?

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been estimated that the costs to remedi

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Put simply, consulting firms and pri vate sector labs form pools of special ized expertise which is unavailable in most municipal offices. Then again, would you expect a brain surgeon, der matologist or other medical specialist to be routinely available at your family medical practice? Of course not. Take hydrogeological problems for instance, a growing area of concern. It's

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ate the sites of leaking gasoline tanks could rival our federal deficit. And we

have Canadian consulting engineers with world-renowned expertise in this area. Isn't it more cost-effective to hire

the best hydro-geologists to analyze pro blems. recommend solutions, pay their fees and implement their recommenda tions?

Consultants have professional res ponsibilities for the engineering quality of their work, often relieving clients of many legal and employment liabilities — definite plus in hiring consultants. Other advantages come when con sultants design complex water and air treatment systems. Consultants impose no immutably fixed staff costs to muni

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cipalities; moreover their knowledge is continually cross-fertilized with the di verse problems they encounter on other projects. This means the state-of-the-art is always improving as new processes and equipment are employed,tried and modified. Moreover, clients — munici

palities. governments and industries — incur no long term liabilities such as severance problems or other employee benefits;or finding enough work to keep employees busy during work load fluc tuations.

Toxicity/Treatabillty/BOD

These benefits equally apply to pri vate analytical laboratories. It would be folly for a municipal lab to have all the

CONTROL

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latest, prohibitively expensive equip ment — plus the highly trained staff needed to operate it — unless required

'Test microbial respiration rates in unrdlluted liquid samples.

on a daily basis. But because private labs have diverse clients spanning wide geographical areas, unit costs of using highly sophisticated analyses drop dra matically. But the public does not know how well it has been serviced by the environ mental professionals from the private sector.So I am not surprised by the latest

> Real time anticipatory data helps avoid fines or surcharges. > On-line respirometer monitors up to 3 sources - even upstream - in timed sequence. 'Early warning on organic loads, toxiclty, treatabillty.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Industry Update Canadian Environment

Industry Association Ontario Chapter Conference, Oct. 15 This year's Conference will again be held at the Ontario Science Centre. The Conference theme is: "Canada's Envi

vices for laboratories,recycling, munici

• solid and hazardous waste firms, 15-

pal water and sewage treatment plants

21 per cent. At present, exports to other provinces and countries account for up to 25 per cent of industry product sales and 10 to 15 per cent ofservice sales. According to the report, areas for expansion in the coming decade are in the United States, Mexico and Europe.

and the treatment of hazardous waste.

The solid and hazardous waste manage ment industry predicts the fastest rate of growth in materials recovery, site de commissioning and hazardous waste destruction.The expected annual growth rates over the next five years according

ronmental Industry — Meeting the Competitive Challenge." Ontario Envi ronment Minister Ruth Grier will open

• air pollution control companies,9-13

the conference and federal Environ ment Minister Jean Charest will be the

• water pollution control companies,

to industry are: per cent;

Bugs reactor mops up wool Industry wastes Environmentally harmful wastes from

10-15 per cent;

luncheon speaker. The morning plen ary session will focus on the nature of the environmental challenge. After lunch there will be break-out sessions on Finance, Markets, Innovation and

Through Technology

Policy. This will be followed by a Clos ing Plenary, CEIA's annual meeting and a cocktail reception.

Contact Steering Committee Chair Jane Pagel at(416)231-41II Ext.6279 or James P. Higgins, Conference Chair man at(416)674-0582.

Ont. environmental

protection Industry to grow by 14 per cent for next five years Tighter government regulations and in creased environmental awareness by

business and consumers will keep the environmental protection industry growing at an estimated 14 per cent per year for the next five years, according to a report by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The environmental pro tection industry, which employs about 30,000 people, is creating new jobs in hydrogeology, environmental science and air quality chemistry, according to the study, prepared by management consultants Ernst & Young. "The need to prevent and reduce toxic discharges and solid waste is producing major economic spin-offs in the form of jobs and new technology. The environ mental protection industry not only will allow us to hand over a cleaner and

environmentally safer world to the next

generation, but also will offer new and challenging career opportunities," said Environment Minister Ruth Grier.

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In 1990,Ontario's environmental pro tection industry had total annual sales of about $2.5 billion, or roughly 40 per cent of the estimated $6 billion in total annual sales for the Canadian environ

mental protection industry. An earlier study for the ministry estimated total revenues for Ontario's environmental

protection industry to be S2 billion in 1987.

Major areas of growth between 1987 and 1990 included products and ser-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

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Industry Update the wool industry may soon be disarmed by a special blend of microbes housed in

are mainly the pesticides used in sheep dips and under a $2.2 million clean-up project. Prof. Burns and his colleagues are isolating microbes from various UK wool industry sites. Many of the mic

on-site reactors. Research that will lead to the establishment of the first such reactor in Britain within the next 18

months is being carried out by Professor Richard Burns from Kent University. His microbiological and biochemical work is backed by a group of wool scour ing companies and a $1.2 million finan cial support from the UK Government. The wool industry's waste products

robes have been found to be unassociated

with the industry but thrive where exten sive contamination by pesticides over many years has left the land barren.

Kent University laboratories, the aim is to reproduce these conditions in a reac tor that can be set up on the site to treat waste pumped directly into it from wool scouring plants. The reactors will be scaled-up ver sions of Prof. Burns" laboratory experi ments and will be built by the March Consulting Group, whose environmen

Once the bugs best able to degrade the

tal research laboratories are located

wastes have been identified and their

within Kent University's chemical labo ratory. Also involved in the design ofthe reactors is the University of Manchester

ideal growth conditions refined in the

Prescription for Trow

environmental

Brampton

headaches:

Institute of Science and Technology. Prof. Burns commented:"At present, wool industry effluent is discharged di rectly into sewers, used in landfill sites or incinerated. These processes are cos tly, time-consuming and increasingly unfriendly to the environment — disad vantages that will be overcome by the introduction of the new on-site reactors

Boston

with their specially selected blend of

Cambridge Chicago

microbes."

Call Trow

Hamilton London

Site Assessments

Markham

Remediation

Montreal

1992 Calgary Environmental

Tradeshow and

Audits

North Bay

Conference, October 20-21, 1992

Health and Safety Air Quality

Ottawa

Oshawa

The Calgary Environmental Tradeshow expands the format of Haztech

Sudhury Timmins

Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Canada to cover the whole environmen

Toronto

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tal spectrum. As a specialist tradeshow and con ference for environmental and pollu

Thunder Bay

tion control industries, it serves as a

For more information, Circle reply card No. 141

forum for decision-makers and buyers to view available products and to be introduced to new technology on envi ronmental management, waste reduc tion and pollution control and preven

AUSTRALIA WANTS YOU

tion.

Details: Lois McCaffrey, Canawest Meeting Planners Inc., 27 Mardale Cres cent, Sherwood Park, AB T8A 3N4. Phone: (403) 449-2090 Fax: (403) 4492090

ALL OCCUPATIONS Earn up to 50% more Many Extras & Benefits Call 714-573-9247

^

Australian University

gets $A1 m for Waste Management Griffith University's new School of En vironmental Engineering in Queen sland is to receive a grant of $1 million

from Pacific Waste Management, the Australian arm of the world's largest waste management group.

General Services Center

Open 8 AM to 4 PM P.S.T. 14

The grant is the largest of its kind received by the University. It will be used for the accelerated development of the School's teaching and research pro gramme in waste management. Pay-

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Industry Update ment of the grant will be spread over five years.

The School has strong Canadian con nections. It began in February 1991 with the appointment of Professor Philip Jones from the University of Toronto as the Foundation Professor and Head of

School.Peter Laughton. VP of Anderson Associates, flew over to assist Dr. Jones

in curriculum developments. Early plans include the mounting of a postgraduate program leading to the degrees of Graduate Diploma in Waste Management and a Master ofEngineer ing Science in Waste Management. In addition,a number ofscholarships

vironment,Energy and Northern Mines and Development. According to the report;

• Inco,whose total project cost increased by more than $100 million to $600 million, expects a net annual savings of $90 million a year from the new technology — some of which is now up and running. Smelting operations emitted 572 kt of sulphur dioxide in 1991.

sions to 75 kt at full operating capacity. • In 1991 Ontario Hydro emitted 167 kt of sulphur dioxide and 223 kt of sul phur dioxide and nitric oxide com bined. Both were below the corpora tion's limit for the year. Further, On tario Hydro, which expects to invest about $2.7 billion by the year 2000 to cut acid gas emissions, spent about $305 million in 1991.

• Falconbridge, which emitted 69.6 kt of sulphur dioxide in 1991, says that by 1998 it hopes to reduce its emis

Details; The Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Public Centre; 1-800-565-4923.

Information

is to be offered to excellent students en

tering the undergraduate program, as well as a three year scholarship for Doc toral studies and research. It is not the first time Dr. Jones has been involved in the creation of new

academic ventures. He was the driving force in the founding of the U of Ts Institute for Environmental Studies. A

contributor to ES&E. he has long been known for his outspoken views.

TECHNOLOGY O.C. THE PROBLEM;

Your BC conrpany would like to allocate more funds to research and development. The long term success of your company may depend on it. Yet a tight budget can force R and D plans down the priority list. What can you do about that? THE SOLUTION:

Technology BC! THE PROGRAM:

Ontario acid rain

program on schedule Ontario's four biggest contributors to acid rain say they will meet the 665 kilotonnes(kt)cap on sulphur dioxide emis sions for 1994 set by the Countdown Acid Rain program, according to a re port released by the Ministry of the Environment.

Under the six-year-old program Inco Ltd., Falconbridge Ltd., Algoma Steel Corporation Ltd. and Ontario Hydro must reduce their combined sulphur dioxide emissions to 665 kt by 1994 from the 1986 total legal limit of 1,389 kt. Specifically: • Inco mustcut its annual sulphur diox ide emissions from its copper and nic kel smelter complex in Sudbury to 265 kt in 1994 from 685 kt limit in 1986;

• Falconbridge must cut its annual sul phur dioxide emissions from its cop per and nickel smelter complex in Sudbury to 100 ktin 1994from the 154 kt limit in 1986:

• Algoma must cut its annual sulphur dioxide emissions from its iron ore

sintering plant in Wawa to 125 kt in 1994 from the 180 kt limit in 1986;

• Ontario Hydro must cut its annual sulphur dioxide emissions from its oil and coal-fuelled generating stations to 175 kt in 1994 from the 370 kt limit

in 1986 and its combined sulphur di

Technology BC is a research and development assistance program administered on behalf of the Ministry of Advanced Education, Training and Technology by the Science Council of British Columbia. There is no limit on the

value of that assistance, although most projects receive from $30,000 to $300,000 a year. THE BOTTOM LINE:

Technology BC support may be used to cover salaries, equipment, materials and other direct costs related to the research. Support is in the WHY YOUR

GOMPANY SHOULD TECHNOLOGY RC

form of grants, an investment in your prof itability. Your success is expected to provide KNOW AOOOT jobs and profits to help strengthen the provincial economy. THE STRATEGY:

There are two programs within Technology BC. The Industry based Research and Development Program will support research aimed at the development of new products and processes, prototype evaluation projects and technol ogy transfer. The program provides up to 50 per cent of the cost of such a project. The resultant product or process becomes the property of your company. The Core Research Program supports projects at an earlier stage in the innovation process. Groups of companies, uni versities, colleges and not-for-profit agencies and research institutes can receive up to 100 per cent funding for approved projects. Research results must be made available to all interested parties. THE PROCESS:

Your application to Technology BC will be reviewed in con fidence by the Science Council of British Columbia's volun teer peer review committees. From application deadline to the announcement of winners takes just over three months. All applications for the next Technology BC competition must be received no later than 5 p.m., Friday, October 30,1992,

Science Council of British Columbia

Suite 800,4710 Kings'way Burnaby, B.C. V5H 4M2 Telephone (604)438-2752 Call toll free 1-800-665-SCBC (7222) Facsimile (604) 438-6564

THE DETAILS:

Contact us for full information about Technology BC. Science Council programs staff will be pleased to discuss your plans and advise eligibility and procedures.

oxide and nitric oxide emissions to 215 kt from the 430 kt limit in 1986.

The report is a review of the com panies' twelfth semi-annual progress reports for the six months ending Ja nuary 1992 by the ministries of the En Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

Bi'disb Cclumbid

Science STechnology Fund

Ministry of Advanced Education Training and Technology

For more information, Circle reply card No. 142 15


Industry Update throughout the world and certified in trinsically-safe to international stan dards, the sampler can be programmed to take liquid samples in hazardous areas containing potentially explosive gases such as sewers, petrochemical works and process plants. As effluent monitoring is becoming increasingly necessary for all types of industry, particularly for complying with local discharge regulations. Epic

Privatized UK Water

Board makes Epic purchase Profound changes occurred in the UK in 1989,when the ten public water authori ties serving England and Wales were privatized. Now some of these newly privatized groups are not only aggres sively marketing their expertise world wide but also getting into the equip

introduced the 1022 fixed-site waste'

The 18,000 sq. ft. Epic building

ment business.

The Northumbrian Water Group, for example, has acquired Epic Products, now the largest UK manufacturer of au tomatic wastewater samplers. Epic also exports some 33 percent of its output through 22 distributors world wide, in cluding Cancoppas Ltd., of Oakville,

Ont. in Canada. The acquisition puts a half billion dollar company behind Epic's marketing thrust. ES&E publisher Tom Davey visited the brand new Epic building close by the Manchester Ship Canal and not far from where Ardern and Lockett devel

oped Activated Sludge methodology around 1914. The Davyhulme sewage treatment plant,where Activated Sludge was first implemented,is still in use and now spanned by a modern motorway

which allows motorists a good view of the historic facility, most of whom are oblivious to its historical significance. Epic manufactures both portable and fixed-site automatic samplers for wastewater, effluent and sewage treatment

applications. These include the 1030 sludge sampler designed to extract sam ples of sewage sludge from pipelines and tanks and the best-selling 1011 port able sampler, used by water companies for process control and monitoring at treatment plants, for investigational purposes and to sample trade effluents to determine water charge rates.

In 1991 Epic launched the 1511, the world's first battery-powered, intrinsi cally-safe portable waste water sampler for Zone 1 hazardous areas. Patented

water sampler which comes as a com plete wall-mounted package. The 1022 is simple to use, with sufficient ver satility to monitor all types of flow con ditions, yet can be installed quickly and at low cost.

The 18,000 sq. ft. Epic plant was ex pressly designed to build samplers and dubbed The house that MISA built'.

George Levey, Epic's Managing Direc tor, was interviewed by ES&E in Eng land. A flip chart in his office was evi dence he is brushing up his French in spare moments.

This is the third report on UK activities following a recent ES&E tour.(EC's blue

flag

designates safe

UK

bathing

beaches — page 23 July issue — and Royal Commission urges more monitor ing of UK inland waters — page 76 July issue).

Circle reply card No. 245

AQUATIC SCIENCES INC. John A. Hibberd

CALGARY ENVIRONMENTAL TRADESHOW AND CONFERENCE Formerly Haztech Canada

OCTOBER 20 & 21,1992 Convention Centre, Calgary, Alberta

1 EXHIOITS

WOF8KSHIOF=»S CO LSI RER EN CE

WARNING!I Missing this Tradeshow & Conference could

be hazardous to your business. Show hours: 10 AM.- 5 PM. daily Call:

EDMONTON (403) 469-2400 FAX (403) 469-1398 Managed and Produced by i

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 143 16

a wide range of practical experience whiie working with a variety of engineering consult ing companies. Mr. Hibberd's responsibilities at Aquatic Sciences will include project engineering, pro cess design, industrial environmental consult ing and project management. Aquatic Sciences inc., is a young and ag gressive environmental consulting company which has been providing industry with inno vative and realistic solutions to complex envi ronmental problems since its inception in 1987. The firm has extensive and successful

CANADIAN EXHIBITION MANAGEMENT INC.

Carmen Sfarazza, President and General Ma nager of Aquatic Sciences Inc., is pleased to announce the appointment of John A Hibberd as Project Engineer. This important addition to our staff of environment professionals refiects the company's continued growth in the field of environmental consulting. Prior to his appointment Mr. Hibberd was with Steico Steei's Technical Support Group where he acted as environmental engineer for Stelcc's Hilton Works. In addition he has gained

experience dealing with all aspects of indus trial water quality Issues, offering clients solu tions reflecting a welcome combination of pure and applied science. Solutions are practi cal, effective and quickly developed.

AquaticSciencesinc. UNOEFWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Elver feel everyone 99

knows the answer

...until you have a problem? I Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition.

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Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA CIIO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TER-MECH or TYTON

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Phone(604)253-7525

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 127

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

17


New effluent limits hit pulp & paperindustry

New Federal Pulp and Paper

Effluent Regulations, which came into effect in May 1992

By Steve E. Bessada, B.Sc., and

Susan F. Liver, M.Eng., P.Eng.*

under the Fisheries Act, are

pushing many mills to install biological secondary treatment systems, despite tough economic times. These regula tions, which limit biochemical oxygen demand(BOD),suspended solids(SS), and toxicity, apply to all mills — unlike the 1971 regulations which included a grandfather clause for existing mills. As over 90 percent of the country's current mills existed before 1971,the 1971 regu lations have carried little weight, and effluent treatment has largely been dic tated by provincial standards. The new regulations link discharge limits to mill production:BOD to 7.5 kg/ tonne ofthe mill's finished product,and SS to 11.25 kg/tonne. Mills that were in operation prior to November 3,1971 will be eligible to apply for an authorization to discharge at higher limits, but even

vides a year's grace, deferring the com pliance date to DecemberSl,1993. Mills may apply for a further extension to this Transitional

those limits have been made stricter.

Authorization,

which

would allow the compliance date to be pushed further ahead to December 31,

Toxicity limits also are being stipulated. 1995.To receive this extension,however, Effluent must be non-acutely lethal to . a mill must prove there are extraor rainbow trout and Daphnia magna. dinary circumstances beyond its control "Non-acutely lethal" means that less that prevent it from meeting the earlier than 50 percent of these organisms die deadline. Such circumstances might include fi after a standard exposure time in ICQ nancial hardship, technical delays, or percent effluent. competing environmental priorities. Financial hardship considerations in Deadline extensions The discharge limits in the new Pulp clude the extent to which the capital and Paper Effluent Regulations will investment required would undermine come into force December 1, 1992. It's both the long-term viability of the mill unlikely that any Canadian mills will be and its obligations to equity or debt able to meet this compliance deadline holders. Technical delays may include unless they already have treatment sys the need to complete treatability studies, construction delays, strikes and lock tems in place. Accordingly, a mechan ism exists whereby mills may apply for a outs. Corporations with many mills and Transitional Authorization, which pro- insufficient funds to provide treatment at all their facilities may have to priori tize their total environmental needs.

ANNOUNCEMENT

Halozone's Award Winning Blue Bottle^^ Technology For Capture and Recycling of CFCs Gains Government Support

Halozone Recycling Inc., recently signed a contract with the Ontario

Compliance would be prioritized where the needs are greatest — to mills on par ticularly sensitive receiving streams,for example. Key dates under the regula tions are highlighted in Table 1. Environmental Effects Monitoring The BOD,SS,and toxicity levels serve

Ministry of the Environment for a grant under the Ministry's Environ mental Technologies Program.The grant,which will provide supportfor the commercial field trials, will provide up to approximately $900,000, which represents one third of total project costs.

comply. Where sensitive receiving envi ronments warrant it, more stringent

CFC Recycling Using The Blue Bottle™ System in Commercial Field Trial Stage

limits will be set based on the results of

The commercialfield trials will be carried out in coliaboration with strategic partners chosen by Halozone. Sears Canada, and D'Arcy Sweeney Ltd. (Trane Service Agency in Toronto) will participate in the fieid trial program, using their service

(EEM) studies. These studies include

technicians to test the Blue Bottle™ in specific application areas under rigorous con ditions in a commercial demonstration program to iast until the end of the year. Over

100 Sears technicians wiii be using the Blue Bottle™ products in their daily routine servicing of refrigerators and residentiai air conditioners. D'Arcy Sweeney Ltd. wiil be collecting CFCs normaliy lost to the atmosphere when purging commercial scale air conditioners.

as a baseline with which all mills must

Environmental

Effects

Monitoring

the sampling of fish, sediment, and water in the receiving body, and are re quired to be conducted every three years.

The EEM requirement will even tually be extended to other industrial sectors — the mining sector being the next one scheduled. Few Canadian

CFC Recycling Plant Under Construction Halozone has started the fabrication of the first recycling facility for CFCs, where

the refrigerant captured in the Blue Bottle™ cylinders will be recovered and purified ready for reuse. This first plant wiil be constructed at the ORTECH International site in

Mississauga, Ontario. Engineers and scientists from ORTECH will be collaborating with Halozone to run this first facility and with the running and evaluation of the field trials.

Halozone plans to construct a mobile skid-mounted CFC recycling unit designed to capture dilute air-borne CFC emissions for use in industrial plant applications, where CFCs are lost to the atmosphere during manufacturing process e.g. of foam products.

Blue Bottle™ cylinders will initially be available in 3sizes,specifically designed for the immediate application areas; i.e. residential refrigerators and air conditioners, automotive air conditioners and commercial scale purge operations. Contact: Halozone Recycling Inc., 235 Yorkland Blvd., Suite 300, North York, Ontario, M2J 4Y8, Tel.(416)492-7282, Fax.(416) 491-2757.

companies, and none of the mills, have the capability ofperforming all the sam pling and analysis work required under an EEM,so it is likely the major envi ronmental consulting companies will team up to provide full EEM services B.A.R. Envtronmental Inc. and Gore &

Storrie Ltd. have already formed an af filiation for providing such services. Dioxin/furan issue

Besides the new Federal Pulp and *Steve Bessada is a Project Engineer and Susan Liver a Pulp & Paper Coor dinator in the Wastewater Technology Division at Gore & Storrie Limited.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 146 18

Circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


dressed by the regulations are adsorbable organic halogens (AOX). a mea surement for chlorinated organics. AOX is not covered under the new

clude activated sludge treatment using air or oxygen, aerated stabilization ba sins, fixed growth biofilter reactors,oxi dation ditches — even anaerobic systems

Federal Pulp and Paper Effluent Regu lations' — perhaps because a Federal report. Effluents from Pulp Mills Using Bleaching, which was leaked to the press

on certain streams,followed by aerobic polishing. All such technologies have been successfully applied within the pulp industry.

in October 1991. found no correlation between AOX levels in the effluent and

its effect on the receiving environment. As a result of the report's recommenda tion. however, effluent from pulp mills using bleaching is now classified as a Steve Bessada

Paper Effluent Regulations under the Fisheries Act, there are two new regula tions under the Canadian Environmen

tal Protection Act (CEPA) that affect pulp and paper mills. They address the much-publicized dioxin and furan is

sue. One controls the use of polychlorinated phenols(PCPs)and defoamers that contain dioxins and furans (al though most defoamers are now furan-

and dioxin-free). The second applies to mills that use chlorine for bleaching. It

has a relatively well-understood ther-

a precedent-setting move, because to date only single, measurable substances

momechanical pulp(TMP)wastewater, G&S designed three parallel 5-10 L/d bench-scale activated sludge reactors to confirm that the effluent treatment per formance and design parameters were

such as lead have been classified under

similar to those at other TMP mills. At

this Act. Research, which is currently underway, may lead to regulations in a few years.

another mill having a groundwood, supercalender wastewater, a 36 mVd pilot scale activated sludge treatability study is under way for determining the sitespecific effects of clay on wastewater treatment, the resulting sludge proper ties, and the effects of seasonal toxicity variations on the treatment process. The new Federal Pulp and Paper Ef fluent Regulations will go a long way towards improving the quality of the receiving environment. They do. how

toxic substance under the CEPA.This is

Treatment options While a few newer mills are working towards the concept of zero discharge with technologies such as freeze crys tallization and evaporation, most older

requires that no measurable concen trations ofthe two most toxic dioxin and

furan congeners (2.3.7.8-TCDD and 2.3,7.8-TCDF)be present in the effluent. These compounds are being regulated because they are extremely toxic and have a high potential for bioaccumulating.

ever. come at a difficult time for most

Canadian mills. With pulp prices dep ressed. and many older mills struggling to survive against competition with newer, high-capacity mills, the regula tions pose a difficult challenge, but one that must be met.

Market pressures Market pressures provide an addi

'AOX is covered, however, under some provincial regulations. British Columbia

tional incentive for mills to reduce

molecular chlorine usage. Reportedly, environmentally-concerned purchasers are willing to pay premium prices for pulp and paper manufactured with technologies that reduce or eliminate chlorinated organics. Certainly the trend in Europe is towards not just re ducing molecular chlorine usage, through substituting chlorine dioxide, but a totally chlorine-free manufacturing process. For example, according to Ca nadian Water Watch, many German papermakers now accept nothing but chlorine-free kraft pulp. In Sweden, pulp mills have until 2010 to switch to bleaching processes that eliminate dis charges of organochlorines entirely. Says Canadian Water Watch '. "This trend in Europe is of vital importance for the Canadian pulp and paper industry as most Canadian paper is produced for export." The publication goes on to warn that one B.C. pulp and paper pro ducer reported losing $5.5-milIion in

Gore & Storrie has worked on a vari

ety of effluent treatment approaches for pulp wastewaters. At one mill, which

requires that mill effluent meet a limit of

Susan Liver

mills have closed and buried sewer sys tems — and relatively high water usage — so this is not a viable option. Biologi cal treatment, then, is usually the treat ment of choice; but choosing the opti mal technology is usually site-specific. Biological treatment technologies in

1.5 kg AOX per air-dried tonne by 1995 and that it contain no AOX by the year 2002. Draft provincial regulations for Quebec limit discharges to 1.5 kg AOX/ tonne for bleached pulp and 2.5 kg AOX/ tonne for bleached pulp produced from wood that is more than 50 percent softwood.

TABLE 1 ACTIVITY

DATE

August 31,1992

Mills must submit information to a regional authorization officer regarding mill ownership,emergency spill response plans, finished product production rate, and effluent outfalls.

December 1, 1992

BOD,SS,and toxicity effluent limits come into force; routine effluent monitoring begins

December 31,1993

Latest date for expiry of a Transitional Authorization

sales because it could not meet German

demands for chlorine-free paper.

December 31, 1995

Latest date for expiry of an extension to a Transitional Authorization.

Precedent-setting move for pulp mills

April 1, 1996

First Environment Effects Monitoring (EEM)report due.

using chlorine Another controversial topic, not ad

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, September 1992

19


In situ pipe remediation

By Peter Coxon, P.Eng., & Les Parr, P.Eng.*

Trenchless rehabilitation techniques for sewer and watermains

Canada has over 100.000 km of sewer pipes and approx imately 200.000 km of water pipe installed underground.

The total value of this infrastructure is in the order of $60 billion, with some

where between 30-50% ofthe infrastructure needing repair. In the current tough economic times, maintenance dollars are hard to find.

Even in good times, minimal amounts of public funds are devoted to under ground infrastructure. This is often the case, as the maintenance of under

ground infrastructure is not perceived to be a priority by the public and because the rate and extent of deterioration of the infrastructure is not realized or un derstood. For these reasons,the amount

of money(as a percent of the infrastruc ture value) dedicated to infrastructure maintenance has decreased over the

years while the distribution networks Unlined ductile Iron pipe and lined ductile iron pipe (right)

have increased in size.

One of the challenges facing munici palities. consultants and contractors is to find more economical and efficient

means of carrying out routine main tenance on our aging infrastructure. Modern techniques like TV inspections have enabled engineers to identify areas of weaknesses in a water or sewer pipe, before structural failure or collapses oc cur. Computer based networks enable engineers to identify deterioration in supply and distribution systems, before hydraulic failures occur. This in itself is an advance in infrastructure

main-

This cost effectiveness is offset only to a degree by some loss of the cross sec

tional area of the pipe. Methods used in the rehabilitation of

sewer and watermains may be divided into four categories. 1) Inversion Relining 2) Insertion or Sliplining 3) Modified Sliplining 4) Pipe Spraying Inversion relining consists of a polyes ter tube impregnated with a resin, which is inverted under pressure into the pipe

now well established in Canada and has

been used to refine many sewers. Al though it has notyetgained thesame accep tancefor watermain relining, it is interest ing to note that it is listed in theANSI/NSF Standard 61 "Listed Drinking Water Sys

tem Components". It should therefore only be a matter of time before it gains recognition as a suitable watermain fi ner.

Inversion techniques are available for diameters in the range of 100 mm to 1500 mm. Refining of sewers is under taken from manhole to manhole. Tech

niques are available to remotely cut out lateral connections. It is therefore poss ible to refine a sewer with no excavation

The total value of this infrastructure is in the

required. Refining of a watermain does

order of$60 biilion, with somewhere between 30-50% of the infrastructure needing repair.

require the excavation of access pits

to be refined and forced onto the pipe

tenance. Often the next step in the pro cess is to replace the deteriorated section of the network, using economic ration ale that money spent now. will save greater costs later. However, techniques are available to rehabilitate the line in situ,for most pipe material and sizes and in particular,for non-person entry pipe sizes, as is the case for the majority of water and sewer installations. In many cases, rehabilita

forms a new smooth fining to the pipe, thus reducing the friction factor within the pipe and improving the hydraulic characteristics of the overall system. Any structural improvements to the system will be a function of the ad

tion is more cost effective both short-

herence of the finer to the existing pipe

wall. The tube or "sock" is sized to suit

the existing pipe I.D.The resin is usually set thermally by heating water, pumped into the finer. The hardened material

and long-term than pipe replacement.

and the material used for the finer itself.

*Proctor & Redfern Limited

Insituform developed in the UK is an example of an inversion refining that is

20

or shafts, every 100 to 300 m.The system is good for pipes out of round and may be easily used for systems with bends. Insertion or sliplining is probably the oldest form ofin situ pipe rehabilitation. Quite simply it involves the insertion of a new pipe in the existing pipe. The an nular space is then grouted to ensure an integral system. This system offers a finished product that is structurally su perior to that of the inversion refining technique, but with a drawback of a re latively large loss (up to 20%) in crosssectioned area. However,due to a reduc tion in friction factors, and other im

provements like the reduction in infil tration in sewers for example, most often the sliplined system has increased hydraulic capacity over the original sys-

Environmental Science

continued overleaf

Engineering, September 1992


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

21


HOT WATER CIRCULATION HOSE

Trenchless Rehabilitation

Techniques, con't tern. Other drawbacks include the reconnection of laterals and the need for

good access to feed long pipe lengths. The requirement of good access, can be overcome if short lengths of plastic pipe are individually inserted and welded, screwed or jointed by some other me thod. The grouting of the annular space requires good working conditions and an understanding of the process. Des pite the drawback of this technique, it may be used to reline pipe relatively cheaply, using average construction equipment and crew. The Buttress-Loc system is an example of such a system

STAGE 2

INVERSION

HOLD BACK ROPE

HALF COMPLiTEO

and is available in Canada.

Modified sliplining refers to a technique that is an enhancement ofthe basic sliplining process. The essential difference

of the existing pipe, as it is being

is that the liner is sized and installed to

wound.

fit firmly against the existing pipe thus eliminating the annular space and re ducing the loss in cross-sectional area. This technique has been used for pipe diameters ranging from 150 mm to

This method has the advantage of minimum disruption and a relatively fast installation time. Annular space grouting is required in some installa tions and for most refining techniques,

1000 mm.

lateral connections have to be made

There are two basic types of modi fied slipliners.

good. Rib Loc is an example of such a system and is available in Canada. These systems have chiefly been devel

The first involves a reduction in the diameter ofthe liner to enable it to enter

the existing pipe. Once in place, it is reverted to its original size to fill the internal diameter of the existing pipe. One technique, developed by British Gas and now used in Canada,is to pass a P.E, pipe through a reduction die and rely on the memory of the plastic to re vert or relax to its original size. Another technique, called U-Liner involves the manufacture ofP.E. pipe in a"U"shape

oped for smaller diameter pipe. Appli cations for larger diameters are expected in the near future.

Spray refining systems are the fourth basic technique available for the reha bilitation of pipelines. Spray liners can be utilized for either structural or non-

structural applications and consist of cement mortar or epoxy materials, de pending on the type ofservice.These are suitable for sewer, water, gas and indus-

Current pipeline rehabilitation projects are primarily driven by structural and/or hydraulic inadequacies in the pipes.

ductile iron watermains, where cus

tomers complain of musty tastes, dirty water appearance or water staining.The system may be structurally and hydraulically sound, but be in need of a cleaning program. While cleaning will remove scale and corrosion buildup and generally reduce customer com plaints, it will leave the pipe wall un protected from future corrosion. It is therefore desirable to protect the pipe wall and cement motor lining is an ideal application, particularly in areas of ag gressive water. As outlined, there are many systems available for the rehabilitation of water

and sewer pipelines. Depending on the condition ofthe existing system and the required service of the rehabilitated sys tem,one technique will be more suitable rect technique is critical. Current pipeline rehabilitation pro jects are primarily driven by structural

trial applications. Advantages include a small loss in pipe cross-sectional area and little reconnection work required for lateral connections, as the spray sys

the bottom of a sewer manhole Xor

be fixed before spraying. Continuous inflow to the pipe during spraying could result in the liner being thinned out and/

22

liners is to be found in old cast iron or

than another. The selection of the cor

using a thermo-mechanical tool. This pipe is transported to site and installed through the existing pipe. A heat/pres sure treatment procedure "unfolds" the pipe and pushes it tightly against the wall of the existing pipe. These liners result in improved hydraulic and structural performance and are suitable for most types of service, including sewer and water applications. The second type of modified slipliner called spiral winding,is suitable forgravity applications only. The system is based upon a special T-ribbed extruded plastic profile, with interlocking edges. When fed through a machine located in example, a spirally-wound tube or pipe is formed and advances along the length

or not adhering properly to the existing pipe wall. A particular application for spray

tem maintains the connection without

blockage. Good preparation ofthe existing pipe is essential, before the spray may be ap plied. The pipe bore has to be cleared of any material buildup or encrustation. Often, particularly in the case of old watermains,a cleaning agent is required to soften the scale and corrosion build

up, before cleaning can commence. After cleaning, the line must be inspec ted for infiltration leaks and these should

and/or hydraulic inadequacies in the pipes. Implementation of rehabilitation using the above techniques also results in improvement in water quality in water distribution systems. Public con cern regarding water quality in general is stimulating demand for advanced water treatment technologies and it is anticipated that these same concerns may provide further impetus for rehabi litation, particularly in older unlined cast iron systems. Additional benefits derived by the public in the implemen tation of the above techniques, include the absence of air and noise pollution, surface disruption, traffic delays and subsequent surface settlements usually associated with conventional open-cut excavation.

Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1992


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Biomedicai waste & site remediation

Dr. F.J. Blatherwick*

Expensive Solutions to Non-Probiems — a creative waste of public money

Everybodyis moreenvironmen

tally conscious today than a decade ago and surveys tell us that the public is prepared to pay to clean up our environment. But,is the public willing to pay large tax dol lars to resolve non-problems? This pre sentation will look at a couple of very expensive solutions to non-problems. The expensive solution will work be cause there is no problem to start with. People do not lie awake at night won dering where their hospital garbage is going. However, when asked,they auto matically assume hospital garbage is more hazardous than domestic garbage. Unfortunately,so do some public health officials, engineers and politicians. Thus when expensive systems are put in place to handle hospital garbage, the public assumes that this is good public policy. The United States Congress commissioned a report on The Public Health Implications of Hospital Garbage which concluded that hospital garbage

poses no greater harm to public health than domestic garbage. The medical li terature supports this non-problem finding. Therefore, do we need to spend multi-million dollars handling hospital garbage as a special waste? No. Are we? Yes.

With its spectacular waterfront, Vancouver is seen as a Utopia by many ... We will spend huge sums of money trative system has been created to en washing the dirt at Expo, yet we have sure that dirt is purged ofoffending con tamination before use.

As Medical Health Officer, I have

been heavily involved in planning the movement of dirt from the former Expo site. The site has a few hot spots for con tamination, but generally is level "A"

still not sited a proper contaminated waste site for storage and disposal in the Province of B.C. Therefore, all the

household pesticides, insecticides, paints, grease and oils coming into the Province remain here, either going into

Something closer to the construction industry is the movement of dirt. We

dirt on the Expo site was around $12

our landfills, sewers, rivers, oceans or in our streets. Last time Vancouver collec

million. The actual cost to date for the

ted household'toxic" wastes, we shipped

excavate dirt to build new buildings and new housing. We conceive of some dirt

first 3 of7 parcels stands at $55 million. I will discuss what you get for $55 million dollars (washed dirt) and the serious cost consequences as we expand the Expo site perceptions to all construction

dirt. The initial estimate to handle the

as being "toxic"in that things in the dirt could leach out into drinking water and conceive that such dirt should be han

dled in a different way than ordinary dirt. We categorize such contaminated and hospital waste as "special waste". Toxic dirt has been categorized into resi dential dirt(level "A", unrestricted use); industrial dirt(level "B" — unrestricted use in industrial areas); and level "C" dirt which has to be cleaned before be

sites.

what we collected to Sarnia — does this

make any sense? The public in surveys tell us they want clean air. clean water, reduced waste,

more recycling and a cleanup of the en vironment. Rather than just moving on

With finite resources, we must learn to

these issues, we have, however, become

spend our dollars well, and not waste

paralyzed in taking action.PCBs are not good for the environment, they are not good for humans to drink or swim in — but in the ways humans are normally exposed to PCBs, they have absolutely

them on non-issues. Some environmen

tal threats undoubtedly deserve atten tion, but if we are not to run out of am munition, we must learn to aim before we shoot.

ing used anywhere. A massive adminisHospital Garbage & Washing Dirt From 1950 to 1990, we scared the pop

been shown to not be harmful to hu mans. We know how to collect PCBs

and to destroy PCBs and thus rid our selves of the problem, but in B.C. we do not. We store them — we spend

*Dr. John Blatherwick Is Medical Health

ulation with the threat of nuclear wars.

Officer for the City of Vancouver. He gra duated In Medicine from the University of Alberta In 1969. His career In public

health began as Assistant Medical Of

In the 1980"s, we began to scare with environmental disasters, depletion of the ozone layer, destruction of the rain forests, global warming, and the like.

to avoid using the known solution of destroying them. You have the classic

ficer In Vancouver In 1972. He has been

Both the nuclear threat and the environ

case of the Quebec PCBs being sent to

Surgeon Commander In the Naval Re serve for 30 years and Is the author of

mental threat are man-made threats

and both can be changed with consider

11 books.

able effort.

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1992

more and more money(now in the mil lions) to store them and always manage

continued overleaf

25


Expensive solutions to non-problems, continued England for destruction — refused in England — and ending up in the Prime

mobiles despite 1.6% of people dying in automobiles (1600 people in 100,000).

Minister's riding of Baie Comeau and a show of force being required to land the

It's a risk level we all accept.

materials. For all I know, the PCBs are still there! Alberta with its Swan Hills

site is the only province to tackle the issues.

People are an interesting species; 25% of them smoke despite knowing that 1 in 4 ofthem will die from doing it. That works out to 1 in 16 people know ingly killing themselves slowly. Vir tually 100% of people travel in auto

In environmental issues,some people are asking for zero risk. When com pared to automobile travel, let alone smoking,the risks currently are already virtually zero. But because we can test to parts per million, billion and trillion, we want the lab test to read zero despite a part per quadrillion being one second in 32,000 years! One example of the demand for en vironmental improvement sits in the

heart of Vancouver — the former Expo lands.These lands on the north shore of

False Creek are where industry was first established in the city. Railway tracks covered the area and one corner had a

coal burning electrical generation plant.

Slowly as the old industry moved out, the south shore of False Creek was transformed into a residential area,and

following Expo the north shore area was to be developed. When the lands were sold, one clause

in the sale put the onus on the Provin cial Government to clean up the envi ronmental contamination on the site

before development of the site could take place.'When this was made public, it was estimated that the cost ofthe clean

up would be about $12 million with

Ordering

much of this work needing to be done as part of the normal site development

the most

anyway.

However, British Columbia had no

soil standards to base this clean up on

up-to-date

and thus standards were established for what is now called the Pacific Place

inrorrnation

in the world

In environmental issues,

some peopie are asking for

is as easyas ordering

zero risk. When compared to automobile travel, let alone smoking, the risks currentiy are already virtually zero.

this.

Development. Standards from Quebec and the Netherlands were merged with American

and

Canadian

data.

Throughout the development of these standards, an ultra, ultra conservative

approach was taken leading to huge projected costs for the "cleanup" to bring it in line with these standards. Those costs currently stand at some

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where between $40-$75 million and

could be much higher. With commonsense, they could be slightly lower but, not by much,as the picture of the "toxic Expo soils" has been etched in the minds of the community and the poli ticians.

The City of Richmond passed a high ly restrictive by-law to prevent all but the dumping of pure soil in its community. This by-law prompted other municipa lities to also enact restrictive by-laws, and now the madness ofthe "toxic Expo

at (613) 993-1600 or fax (613) 952-9112. To get you the information you need while it's hot, we'll even deliver!

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So let us take a step back and see what it is we are protecting the public from with these standards: obviously toxic

For more iriformation, Circle reply card No. 114 26

compounds, such as lead, arsenic, and Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Expensive solutions to non-problems the dreaded Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs).While most peo ple know that arsenic is harmful to humans and lead may be harmful, how can they harm humans if they are in the ground? To do harm, they must have a way of getting into a person's body ei ther through absorption, ingestion or respiration. For the heavy metals there is no such route short of eating the dirt. While eating the dirt might be a route

for young children, this is not a pro blem if a suitable layer ofcovering soil is brought in. But what about the environment? If

these heavy metals were left in the soil, would they not eventually leach out into False Creek and damage life in that body of water? Considering the levels of these metals, this is not a big risk. The PAHs can only harm humans if they are left on their bodies for long periods. A bath or a shower removes the PAHs and no damage is done. Since PAHs are readily found in nature (in huge amounts following a forest fire) why are we so eager to clean them up to some magical safe level? The bottom line in all ofthis is that the current standards are ultra conservative

and are based more on the ability of laboratories to detect toxins than on any

evidence ofthe levels which might harm humans or the environment. Leaving

many of the contaminants in place with minimal remediation is good public policy to ensure there are funds to do other work. In the Pacific Place case, because the Provincial Government is

Since PAHs are readily found In nature (In huge , amounts following a forest fire) why are we so eager to clean them up to some magical safe level?

present or future harm to human health or to the environment. There is a great danger in extending the zero level clean up from the Pacific Place site to other sites which will cost the taxpayers and private developers huge sums of money for so called clean ups where no danger truly exists. Background Hospital garbage is basically hotel/ restaurant garbage with some medical garbage thrown in. For the past century, hospital garbage has gone to landfills around the Province. Many hospitals at one time had incinerators but as they became obsolete, what they burned pre viously started going to landfill. In 1988. with the introduction of the Burnaby incinerator, transfer stations were intro duced to the lower mainland. This was

paying for the clean up. cost does not

to reduce traffic to the Burnaby inciner ator and to recycle material in the gar

seem to matter. Cost should not matter if

bage. Unfortunately, hospital garbage

there is a true hazard. But. is there a hazard? I submit there is not and that we

also went to the transfer stations and

are chasing laboratory test levels rather than removing any hazard. A risk management approach must be taken for all these major projects.The possible contaminants need to be iden tified,quantified and assessed as to their

some medical garbage was found. This

was not the start of concern regarding hospital garbage but it precipitated fas ter action. Hospitals on the North Shore, in Burnaby and in New West minster had to now carefully separate continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

27


Expensive solutions to non-probiems, continued out their medical garbage and their hotel garbage. The medical or fancy name, biomedical waste, was now sent

in special boxes to an incinerator in Bellingham at great expense to the hos pitals. The Ministry of Health stated at the time that they did not pay for gar bage disposal! Since the issue of hospital garbage was a province wide problem, a provin cial task force was set up.That task force reported its findings and out of that, an agreement was arranged between the GVRD and the Province to call for pro posals to handle hospital garbage throughout the province. The agree ment was to look at all existing technol ogy and not just get set on incineration. It was acknowledged that fmdinga loca tion for the incinerator if one was pro posed would be difficult, Biomedical Waste/Medical Garbage The major problem with this whole exercise is finding a solution (expensive solution) to a non-problem. All hos pitals must comply with certain guide lines as to the handling of human tis sues and infected materials. All labora

tories know how to handle infected

materials rendering them safe. Beyond the esthetics of how human tissues are handled and the real need for labora-

... The author eloquently argues that there Is no Utopia called zero risk

tories to autoclave specimens before they are put into the waste stream, hos pital garbage presents no public health risk to the population. Tubing with old blood inside is not a public health hazard; needles, properly stored in

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puncture-resistant containers are not a problem. AIDS did much to raise con cerns about hospital garbage but our knowledge after a decade of Al OS is suf ficient to allow us to know that AIDS is

not spread through hospital garbage even from hospitals with large numbers of HIV positive patients. The entire world worries about hospi tal garbage from time to time and the United States Congress received a re port on The Public Health Implications of Medical Waste in September 1990 pre pared by the Department of Health and Human Services Atlanta, Georgia,That report concluded: "Research Indicated medical waste

does not contain any greater quantity or different type of microbiological agents than does residential waste, and viruses present In solid waste tend to absorb to organic matter and

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Additionally, properly operated sani tary landfills provide microbiological environments hostile to most patho genic agents. Therefore, untreated medical waste can be disposed of In sanitary landfills, provided pro cedures to prevent worker contact with this waste during handling and disposal operations are strictly em ployed",

A Medical Health Officer's Perspective 1, Hospital garbage should not be han dled excessively. It should be put out side the hospital in an orderly manner. The hospital should handle human tisand laboratory specimens in a proper manner. The hospital should handle its continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


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Expensive solutions to non-problems, continued sharps in a proper fashion (but realize

probably cleaner biologically than

non-threat. This will start a large new

that human error does occur) and thus gloves to prevent puncture wounds

one's home dishes. Once autoclaved.

industry and make some huge profits for somebody. The taxpayers will pay for this solu tion and hospital garbage as a danger

should be used to handle hospital garbage.

is another biomedical waste that we are

now spending large dollars to have in cinerated in Bellingham. This tubing, even with old blood INSIDE, poses no

2. Once outside the hospital,the garbage should go directly into a garbage truck with no handling and that truck should proceed directly to a landfill site or in cinerator. Under

they are just pieces of plastic that were once used in a laboratory. Plastic tubing

health risk if handled as noted above.

no circumstances,

should that garbage go to transfer sta tions or should anybody muck about in the garbage.

GVRD and Vancouver Landfills and

the Burnaby incinerator currently can not accept this medical garbage because it is classified as hazardous material.

The solution is to unclassify it as hazar dous material, not find expensive solu tions to non-problems. An incinerator

3. If delivered to a landfill, the garbage would be dumped and covered imme diately. If delivered to an incinerator, it

for handling all hospital garbage is not

is considered best to be able to send the

opposed by the Medical Health Officers

material directly into the fire pit.

but is probably much more expensive than using landfill sites. It also produces ash which is currently classified as a

4. If the above rules are followed, work

ers are not exposed to even potential risk at either the landfill or the incinerator.

The present practice of trying to sepa rate out hospital garbage puts hospital workers at some risk mainly due to un expected puncture wounds. The Debate

Some of the material currently con sidered biomedical waste includes things like Petri dishes from laboratories that have been autoclaved. While I would

not want to eat off these dishes, they are

hazardous waste.

Future

Once we have an expensive solution to this non-problem, we will be able to extend that solution to other non-prob lems. We can require doctors to have their garbage picked up and taken to the incinerator thus adding costs in that area as well. We can add all private hos pitals. all labs and people piercing ears to the list to protect the public from this

will become firmly entrenched in our laws and in our minds. When cutbacks

are needed in health care, they will not come in the area of handling garbage but in cataract surgery for the elderly and hernia operations. An area to seriously consider is that probably one ofthe largest generators of medical garbage is the public them selves. Diabetics use syringes and we can add to the cost of diabetes treatment

by requiring them to bring in their need les for safe disposal. Home care services use many items considered medical waste and we can require that that be transported safely to the incinerator. The possibilities of making this industry really huge are only limited by how safe we want to make the public and how much we want to spend our limited re sources on this issue and forgo spending on real public issues. Recommendations

1. Handle garbage as outlined under

the Medical Health Officers guide lines; minimal human handling and direct to disposal site. 2. Hospital garbage go directly to a landfill or an incinerator.

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3. Since medical waste can go directly to a landfill safely, there is no reason why medical waste put through an autoclave and then ground up could not also go directly to landfill. This material is currently going to Calgary! 4. Since landfilling hospital garbage is perfectly safe, the City and the GVRD should consider sending hos pital garbage to existing landfills (with or without autoclaving) as one of their responses to Bill 52. If inci neration must be used, the use of the

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Government must simply no longer classify hospital garbage as special waste.

Hospital / Medical / Biomedical waste is not a public heaith problem. It is being made a problem and expensive solutions are being found for this nonproblem. A few members of the public may be concerned about garbage going to landfill, many, many more will be concerned about large expenditures of tax dollars to no benefit of the public. Those dollars should go to health care. Conclusion

There is no Utopia called zero risk â&#x20AC;&#x201D; living is a risk every day. Reasonable steps need to be taken but the money lost on non-risk items needs to be reduced.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 117 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


OIL LEAKAGE WAS THE PROBLEM.

ASAN ANSWER,KITTY LITTER WASN'T EXACTLY THE CATS MEOW.

%ep in the mountains of British Columbia was a major company with a sizeable problem. Their gear reducers were leaking oil. Enough for one man to spend considerable time refilling the reducers and mopping up the oil with an oil absorbent "kitty litter". There were hundreds of reducers involved so this meant a lot of kitty litter. But the days of the kitty litter troubleshooter were numbered. So was sewage contami nation, down time and higher maintenance costs.

T

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WQTC American Water Works Association

Water Quality Technology Conference November 15-19, 1992 Toronto, Ontario AWWA's Water Quality Technology Conference (WQTC) is the premier annual event for water quality analysts and treatment professionals. It's the only conference of its kind dedicated solely to water quality analysis and laboratory operations. The intensive five-day program includes a full lineup of seminars, technical sessions, training courses and a unique product exposition. Hear the latest on water quality analyses, the new drinking water regulations, and laboratory operations. It all adds up to the biggest conference on water quality in the nation. Don't miss it. For more information and registration materials, contact:

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 119


CETECH A two day conference on Environmental

Solutions for Canadian Industry October 20& 21, 1992 Toronto International Centre

6900 Airport Road This two-day conference organized by Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Magazine features legal and technical experts who will focus on the formidable environmental com

pliance problems that confront industry mana gers and engineers daily.

Who should attend: Environmental Affairs Director

CETECH

Environmental Engineer Plant Manager General Manager Corporate Affairs President

Conference Topics □ Are You The Designated "Jaillee" D Environmental Insurance In Canada

□ Transportation of Dangerous Goods □ Indoor Air Quality and Outdoor Emissions □ Conducting an Air Emissions Inventory

D A New CFC Recovery Technology Direct Industrial Discharges Pollution Prevention Strategies MISA, CAP and Safe Drinking Water Act Strategies for Hazardous Waste

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□ Communications, the Achilles Heel of Industry

Environmentally — what you don't know can hurt you Never before have senior industrial managers and engineers faced such formidableproblems. Now, in addition to complex economic and manufacturing situations, industries face increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Then there are air qua lity requirements inside the plant —as well as a host of occupational health and safety liabilities.

Expert advice can he expensive — lack of it can be devastating Environmental violators not only face heavy fines, but also jail terms. Yet, pollution abatement pro jects are sometimes prohibitively costly. To cope with the complexities of legal liabilities, compliance requirements and other factors, today's busy mana gers and engineers require the assistance of top experts from various disciplines. This conference delivers the experts — at a fraction of the cost of a consultation.


Technical Program (subject to change)

This conference can help you avoid costly litigation, and perhaps even save money on process or other adjustments. For a fraction of the price ofa personal consultation, the presentations will enable you to hear and question some of the top experts in the country.

Environmental Science & Engineering magazine staff have put together a range of expert presenta tions — designed to help senior staff to cope with these issues.

October 20, 1992 MORNING SESSION — Cost: $95.00 9:00 a.m. — 12:30 p.m.

Legal Liabilities — what you don't know can hurt you

Liability Issues In The 1990's Are You The Designated "Jaillee". The Beta case and its implications. This precedent setting case has far reaching implications for all senior management people. The sentencing decision ivas unusual, both in the relative seve rity of the fines and particularly in the fact that the corporation was forbidden from indemnifying the two directors for the pay

MISA, CAP and Safe Drinking Water Act — How They Affect Industry Environmental regulations have been evolving in Canada over the past decade. There are great cycles of activity in the envi ronmental regulatory field, followed by more relaxed periods. The ebb and flow is tied to economic reality, and to prevailing government's determination to regulate. This paper will review the current status of MISA, CAP and the Safe Drinking Water Act and other proposed provincial regulations; as well as some of the emerging federal legislation on environmental manage ment.

James N. Bishop, B.Sc. — vice president. Environment Protection Laboratories, formerly director of Water Resources, Ontario MGE.

Transportation of Dangerous Goods: The Regulatory Maze The transportation of dangerous goods is heavily regulated In Canada and there is considerable overlap in jurisdiction bet ween the provincial and federal governments. This paper will provide an overview of the applicable regulatory frameworks and win address new and upcoming requirements imposed as a result of international agreements. Jack Shaw — Laldlaw Environmental

Lunch Break

ment of their fines.

Roger Cotton, LL.B., LL.M. — partner and tiead ot ttie Environmental Law Group at Fasken Campbell & Godfrey.

A Legal View of Environmental

AFTERNOON SESSION — Cost: $95.00 2:00 p.m. — 4:30 p.m.

Air Pollution Control

Insurance In Canada

The Blue Bottle — A Canadian

- Which policies apply at the time of an environmental "occur

Environmental Protection

rence" or loss?

- What coverage may be available under your comprehensive general iiabiiity policies? - What is the proper interpretation of pollution exclusion clauses?

- Does coverage extend to ciean-up costs imposed by statute? - Trends in American case law and the reaction of Canadian

Technology The Blue Bottle technology with world-wide patent protection facilitates capture and recycling of CFCs from both concentra ted and dilute emission streams, it has been developed to reduce CFC emissions to "zero"and to provide 100% recovery yield of high purity product suitable for direct reuse.

courts.

Data available from the first commercial scale trials to be car

- Future trends in Canada for insurance protection from envi

ried out in collaboration with SEARS and TRANE Engineering Service Agency will be discussed.

ronmental risk.

Bruce Smith, LL.B. — partner, Blake, Cassels & Graydon.

Dusanka Flllpovic, P.Eng., and Michael Hlrtensteln, Ph.D., Halozone Recycling Inc.

Free trade show pass Discover the latest technology, products, and services for prevention, minimization, control, handling and management ofpollutants at the CETECH exhibition. CETECHis a special exhibit section ofPMDS — Cana da's largest Plant Management & Maintenance/De sign Engineering Show. Over 10,000 industry person nel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PMDS in 1990. Registered conference delegates receive a free pass to the trade show.

Sources and Occurrence of

Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) increased awareness of the importance of indoor air quality (lAQ) has fueled much of the research over the past 10 years. The need to identify and measure airborne l/OCs in indoor environments because of potential deleterious effects on human health has been demonstrated. A variety of indoor sources can emit a wide range of VOCs,some of which are potential irritants


and cause discomfort or more serious toxic effects. For the

investigator, understanding VOC sources, the character of emissions and their fate, can help solve lAQ problems.

Philip Feiiin, M.Sc. — principal and director. Concord Environmental.

Conducting an Air Emissions Inventory

Who should attend: Environmental Affairs Director

Environmental Engineer Plant Manager General Manager Corporate Affairs

The requirements for plants and manufacturing facilities to account for all their waste products are constantly being tighte ned. Until recently, most plants were required to account for their air emissions of contaminants on a per source and, typi cally, one time basis. This procedure was, In Ontario, handled through the familiar Certificate of Approval process, instituted many years ago by the Ministry of the Environment (MOB). Regardless of these regulatory Initiatives, every industry should know what Its atmospheric releases of materials are at any time. In this way, the degree of compiiance with current regulations, and the Impact of Intended changes can be assessed. Any remediation work needed can then be done efficiently.

President

Alan D. Church, C.Chem. — environmental management consultant. Church & Trought Inc.

Strategic Planning for Hazardous Waste Management

October 21, 1992 MORNING SESSION — Cost: $95.00

A review of critical issues facing any firm involved In planning a comprehensive, long-term strategy for managing hazardous chemical wastes. It alms to address technical Issues, including the selection of optimum treatment technoiogies and strategies

9:00 a.m. — 12:30 p.m.

as weli as the economic factors involved In these decision

Direct Discharge

Good Housekeeping Practices for Industry in the 1990's The purchase or sale of Industrial property, or the expansion of an existing operation, frequently requires consideration that hazardous materials are present and the need for eventual site remediation. Sometimes the cost of cleanup can run Into mil lions of doliars. Implementing good housekeeping practices and practicing corporate due diligence now may help to mini mize clean-up costs In the future. The way existing Industrial operations are managed can reduce, improve or compound the probiems on site. Recommendations wlil be presented to assist with site specific business decisions Including site planning, audits, operation, equipment purchase, and cost pianning.

making processes, using the modern approach of "fuli-cost envlronmentai accounting".

Bernard Fleet, Ph.D., M.Sc. — president. Toxics Recovery Systems international inc., and Adjunct Prolessor, University of Toronto.

Reducing Environmental Impact: Is it a Waste? Many manufacturers and processors are facing tougher envl ronmentai regulations, requiring expensive wastewater treat ment and solid waste disposal. Experience has shown that costs can be saved by altering the way processors look at their wastewater.

Water conservation, reuse, and the recovery of solids from wastewaters for reuse or feed to livestock, are examples of measures that reduce environmental impacts and costs.

George Crawford, P.Eng. — manager, industrial Wastewater Section, Gore & Storrie Limited.

Ian McCiymont, P.Eng., and John Mclrvine, Ph.D., Proctor & Redfern

Trenchless Pipeline Renovation

Limited

— An Environmental Protection

Strategy

High Efficiency Electrolytic Wastewater Treatment Test results and applications of this world-wide patented process for a wide variety of industrial wastes will be demons trated. The successful destruction of chlorinated benzenes and

PCBs Is covered, together with the ESI closed-loop system for discharge-free operation. The Importance of by-product hydro gen Is referred to as a means of further reducing operating

Renovating service and process pipelines, especially those underground, is an Important economic part of an environmen tal protection strategy. Over time, a leaking pipeline can cause

widespread ground contamination leading to costly soil clean-up.

No-DIg renovation techniques such as deformed polyethylene liners, provide a new option for prevention and repair.

Ian J. Doherty, P.Eng. — technical director, Samuel Pipe Liners, Inc.

costs.

Michael E. Neale, M.Sc.,C.Chem., MRSC.(U.K.) — Ellluent Strategies Inc.

*** Lunch Break *** continued on page 38


CETECH Exhibitors(As ofSeptember2,1992) Chem-Serv Associates Inc., P.O. Box 1254,6 Seapark Dr.,St Catharines, ON L2R 7A7 Booth # 3106 Chem-Stor,323 10th Ave. S.W., Calgary, AB T2R 0A5 Booth # 3518

Concord TWF Recycling,532 Riviera Estate Dr., P.O. Box 681, Belle River, NOR 1 AO Booth # 3617 Continental Canada Air niters, 744, rue Cure Boivin, Boisbriand, PQ J7G 2A7 Booth # 4117

Two-Wire

Correpro (Canada) Inc., 3405 American Drive, Unit 8, Mis sissauga, ON L4V 1T6 Booth # 3017 CPG Consulting,250 Shields Crt., Unit 15, Markham,ON L3R 9W7 Booth # 2807

Environment Canada, Unit 100, Asticou Centre, 241 Cite des Jeunes Blvd., Hull, PQ K1A 0H3 Booth # 3000 Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, 10 Petch Crescent, Aurora, ON L4G 5N7 Booth # 2802 Farr Inc.,2785 Francis Hughes Blvd., Laval,PQ H7L 3J6 Booth # 2816

FIbresep Ltd.,2336 Royal Windsor Drive,Oakville,ON L6J 4Z2 Booth #2917

nexonlcs Ltd., 134 Nelson St. West, Brampton, ON L6X 1C9 Booth # 2900

G & S Analytical Laboratory, 55 Research Rd., Toronto, ON M4G 2G8 Booth # 3104

Geneq Incorporated,7978Jarry Street, Montreal,PQ HI J1H5 Booth #2910

Magnetiol

Groundwater Technology Ltd., 23922 Research Dr., Farmington Hills, Ml 48335 Booth # 3212 Grundfos Pumps Corporation, 5647 McAdam Rd., Mis sissauga, ON L4Z 1N1 Booth # 2811 Gundle Lining Systems Inc., 19103 Gundle Road, Houston, TX 77073 Booth # 2911

Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 80539 Booth For more information, Circle reply card No. 101

# 3101

ABB Instrumentation Inc., 1825 Dundas St E., Unit 7, Mississauga, ON L4X 1L6 Booth # 3015 Alchelin-Stahl, 111 East Pacific, KIngsville, MO 64061 Booth # 2905

Air & Waste Management Association of Canada,145 Marlee Ave., Ste. 1006, Toronto, ON M6B 3H3 Booth # 3005 Airflow Developments(Canada) Ltd., 1281 Matheson Blvd., East, Mississauga, ON L4W 1R1 Booth # 3107 Anachemla Solvents Ltd.,3549 Mavis Road,Mississauga,ON L5C 117 Booth #3110

Aquablast Corp.,52 Production Drive, Scarborough, ON Ml H 2X8 Booth # 3109

ACG Technology Limited,2291 Dunwin Dr., Mississauga,ON L5L 3S4 Booth # 2907

Barrlnger Labs Ltd., 5735 McAdam Road, Mississauga, ON

Intrinsically

L4Z 1N9 Booth # 2805

BCD International, RR #4, Lot 10, Concession 1, Tottenham, ON LOG 1W0 Booth # 3625

Brim Pumps and Systems Ltd., 1320 Britannia Rd. East, Mis sissauga, ON L4W 108 Booth # 3206 Brissenden Equipment Sales Inc., 9011 Leslie Street, Unit 301, Richmond Hill, ON L4B 3B6 Booth # 3001 BAS Laboratories Limited,14 Abacus Rd., Brampton,ON LOT

ye

5B7 Booth #3112

BEP Technologies, 5925 Airport Road, Mississauga, ON L4V 1W1 Booth # 3011

Canadian Environmental Directory, 134 Adelaide St. E., Ste. 207, Toronto, ON M5G 1K9 Booth # 2915 Can-Ross Environmental Services Ltd., 2270 South Service Road West, Oakville, ON L6L 5M9 Booth # 3500 Canmet, 555 Booth St., Room 341, Ottawa, ON K1A 0G1

Magnetiol

Booth # 2904

Chem-KIng Inc., Snow Valley Road, RR #3, Barrie, ON L4M 4S5 Booth #3615

For more information, Circle reply card No. 102

36

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


CETECH Exhibitors Liquid Carbonic Inc.,255 Brimley Rd.,Scarborough,ON Ml M 3J2 Booth # 3006

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd., 5550 McAdam Road, Mis sissauga, ON L4Z 1 PI Booth # 3012

McCarthy Robinson Inc.,321 ProgressAve.,Scarborough,ON M9P 2Z7 Booth # 3607

Mechanical Engineering Services, RR #1,Churchill, ON LOL 1 KG Booth # 3621

Millar-Williams Hydronics Ltd., 4060 Fairview St, Unit 12, Burlington, ON L7L 4Y8 Booth # 3522

Contact Ultrasonic

Montgomery Environmental,110 Christena Or., Ajax, ON LI S 6A5 Booth # 3013

National Research Council, BIdg. M-58, Montreal Road, Ot tawa, ON K1A 0R6 Booth # 2813

Nord Gear Limited,30Strathearn Ave., Brampton,ON LOT 4L8 Booth # 3506

Ontario Hydro-lnd'l Programs, 700 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G 1X6 Booth # 3210

Ontario Pollution Control Equip. Assoc., Box 137, Midhurst, ON LOL 1X0 Booth #2804

Ontario Waste Management Corp.,2 Bioor Street West,11 th Floor, Toronto, ON M4N 3E2 Booth # 2801

Orwak Waste Systems(Canada)Inc.,2320 Bristai Circle, Unit 8, Oakvilie, ON L6H 5S2 Booth #3216

Republic Environmental Systems Ltd., 1455 Lakeshore Road, Suite 201N, Burlington, ON L7S 2J1 Booth # 2901 Seprotech Systems Inc., 2378 Holly Lane, Ottawa, ON K1V 7P1 Booth #3116

Staroba Plastic & Metal Products Ltd., 57 Galaxy Blvd., #3, Etobicoke, ON MOW 5P1 Booth # 3619

Magnetiol

Sylval Sealings Inc., RR #2, Anderson Road, Ingleside, ON KOE 1 MO Booth # 3601

Tech Bilt Environmental Systems, 17 Edvac Drive, For more information, Circie repiy card No. 103

Hayward Gordon,7505 Bath Road, Mississauga,ON L4T1L3

Brampton, ON LOS 5X8 Booth # 3115 Tiger Vac Inc., 11600,6e Avenue, R.D.P., PO,HI E1 SI Booth # 3007

continued overleaf

Booth #3113

Hazardous Materials Mgmt. Assoc., 401 Richmond St. W., Suite 139, Toronto ON M5V 1X3 Booth # 2916

Integra Environmental Inc., 5035 North Service Road, #07, Burlington, ON L7L 5V2 Booth # 2817

J.J. Health & Industrial Products Ltd., P.O. Box 167,Stouffville, ON L4A 7Z5 Booth # 2909

John Crane Canada Inc.,423 Green Rd., Box 3248,Station 0, Stoney Creek, ON LBN 7L3 Booth # 3010

Laidlaw Environmental Services Ltd., 265 North Front Street, Suite 502, Sarnia, ON N7T 7X1 Booth # 3001

Landa/Clean Ontario,6-598 Cataraqui Woods Drive, Kingston, ON K7P 118 Booth # 3518

LCI Environmental Inc.,2421 Cawthra Road,Mississauga,ON L5A 2W9 Booth # 3016

Echotel Series 352

CETECH on DISPLAY AT

ENVIRONMENTAL EEATURE AREA

ISA'92 B

O

O

T

H

#2425

Magnetiol The level and flow specialist Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

6291 Doman fld., Mississauga, Ontario L4V-1H2 For more information. Circle reoiv card No. 104


AFTERNOON SESSION — Cost: $95.00

Communications, the Achilles

2:00 p.m. — 4:30 p.m.

Heel of Industry

Occupational Health & Safety

Environmental communications have become the Achilles Heel

Environmental Risk Assessment Based on Human Health Industries or government agencies often need to have a quanti tative estimate of the degree of risk to human health in a particu lar scenario of exposures to hazardous agents, such as chemi cals.

of commercial enterprise, with perception dominating reality in today's media coverage. The paper will cover the basics of communications, including writing press releases for both marketing and other media announcements.

Tom Davey. publisher. Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

Such an estimate is called a Human Health-Based

Exhibitors, continued

Environmental Risk Assessment. A Risk Assessment may esti mate past, present, or future exposures and likely resulting

Trenton Environmental Equipment Ltd., 9011 Leslie Street, Unit 301, Richmond Hill, ON L4B 3B6 Booth # 3200 Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd., 1595 Clark Boulevard, Brampton, ON L6T 4V1 Booth # 3204 Varian Canada incorporated, 6705 Miilcreek Drive, Misslssauga, ON L5N 5R9 Booth # 3014 Walker Laboratories, P.O. Box 100, Thorold, ON L2V 3Y8

hazards to health.

David A. Whaiey, Ph.D.. R.D.H.. C.I.H.. D.I.H. industrial hygiene toxicoiogist.

environmental and

Your Plant Water System: Is It Safe?

Booth #3214

Water & Pollution Control Magazine, 190 Main Street, 2nd Floor, Unionville, ON L3R 2G9 Booth # 2912 Wilier Engineering Limited,422 Consumers Rd., Wlllowdale,

The water within your plant's distribution system should be both safe to drink and of high enough quality for processing requirements. Many case histories are on file where contamina tion of a product or sickness has occurred due to use or consumption of water that has become unsafe. Cross-connections within your plant's water system can allow such things as gasoline, anti-freeze, arsenic compounds, or even propane gas and wine to enter your supply piping.

ON M2J 1P8 Booth # 2906

Workplace Health & Safety Agency, 121 Bloor St East 9th floor, Toronto, ON M4W 3M5 Booth # 3105

Zorbit Technologies Inc., 49 Spadina Avenue, Suite 207, Toronto, ON M5V 2J1 Booth # 3603 ZENON Environmental Inc., 5555 N. Service Rd., Burlington,

Michael Birks — manager, Febco (Canada).

ON L7N 5H7 Booth # 3004

4-R Technologies,105 Northland Drive,#E,Waterloo,ON N2V 1Y8 Booth # 3114

HOW TO REGISTER: To register for the conference, please fill in and return the registration form below. For further details, contact Steve Davey (416) 727-4666. (Cancellation deadline: October 12, 1992.) One Session

-$ 95.00

Three Sessions -$195.00

Two Sessions

- $150.00

Full Registration - $240.00

Price:

(GST Included) (GST #122654049)

Note: Second delegate from each company receives a 50% discount.

Please fax or mail this form to Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora, ON,L4G 5N7, Fax:(416)841-7271. Please make cheques payable to Environmental Science & Engineering. Name:

Company: Address:

Phone:

-Fax:.

Please register me for the following sessions: □ Legal Liabilities □ Air Pollution Control □ Direct Discharges □ Occupational Health and Safety n Cheque enclosed □ Please invoice D VISA: Account Number:

. Expiry Date:

. Signature:


R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Removal of Chlorinated Organics from Pulp Mill Effluents Laboratory scale treatability studies were undertaken by Wastewater Tech

in a recent Environmental Protection secondary effluents under different con Series report. Because such early life- ditions of light and temperature to stages are usually a sensitive part of the evaluate the potential and limits of the life cycle of a fish,the test should be con epilithic filamentous cyanobacterium sidered as a powerful and meaningful Phormidium bohneri(Schmidle)forbiotsublethal assay. The test may be run reatment of domestic wastewaters. The with five concentrations of test material results described in a paper accepted for

nology Centre scientists W.G. Randle and E.R. Hall to monitor and optimize activated sludge (AS), facultative stabi- . lization basin (FSB), and aerated stabi

to determine the threshold effect,or with

lization basin (ASB) treatment for re

one concentration as a regulatory or

moving absorbable organic halogen (AOX)and chlorinated phenolics from bleached kraft combined mill effluents.

Experiments conducted at various oper ating temperatures and solids retention times indicated that the higher removal

publication in Water Research indicate that the strain used prefers elevated tem peratures and can withstand consider able variation in light intensity. The removal of ammonia and phosphate at 30°C was equivalent to that reported for unicellular chlorophytes. Complete ex haustion ofthese nutrients was achieved

after 3 and 5 days respectively.

efficiencies of total and Filterable AOX were achieved in the FSB and ASB treat

ment systems than in the AS system. As described to delegates at BIOFOR/

Fate of Toxic Contaminants In Wastewater Treatment

The Wastewater Technology Centre has developed a suite of models called TOXCHEM which will predict the fate of

BIOQUAL "92,the extent to which AOX

and chlorinated phenolics were re

lAWPRC

moved by biodegradation, biosorption, and off-gas stripping was also examined.

Aquatic Toxiclty Test with Fathead Minnows

Methods recommended by Environ ment Canada for performing toxicity tests of seven days" duration that mea sure growth and survival of very young (larval) fathead minnows are described

toxic contaminants in wastewater treat

pass/fail test. Procedures are given for culturing fathead minnows in the labo ratory. obtaining eggs,and hatching the young for use in the tests. Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater with Cyanobacterium Laval University scientists P.Talbot and J. de la Noue carried out experiments on

ment plants. Based on plant charac teristics and influent characterization data, it can forecast whether con

taminants are stripped from the was tewater, sorb to waste sludge, biologi cally degrade, or pass through. As des cribed to delegates at BIOFOR/BIOQUAL "92 by H. Melcer,simulations for continued on page 42

The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged moving parts.

In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.

At Degremont Infiico we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have developed the self-cleaning

Advantages:

climber screen.

Our climber screen is easy to install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from 1'6" to 30'0". It can discharge screen

ings at great heights and can be

STEP 3 STEP1

scraper blade • Ease of installation

• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts • Easy maintenance

Cleaning comb

i', container

«;/. or j>'. conveyor

^Degremont

installed in deep channels.

Infiico Ltd.

Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all moving parts are above water.

160-D St. Joseph Blvd., Lachine Quebec H8S 2L3 (514)634-8011 4325 Steeles Avenue West, Downsview Ontario M3N 1V7 (416)661-5521 300 205 - 9th Avenue S.E., Calgary Alberta T2P0G8 (403)237-6859

STEP 2

For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

Circle reply card No. 105

39


Gore & Storrie..|uiilding Design Services Iric .A

.. -, 11 It . ^: J r\ ii ti r T7 „ « I I*,:L i^n „ #» „ o f tf " 9sr

» 1* r !i i l[;+ 'S. p r t c A

^ Britannia Water Treatment Plant, Ottawa

4 Operating gallery in Britannia Plant Extension

s Hi-tech link between old and new

Britannia filtration plants

Metropolitan Toronto's largest water filtration facility, the R.C.Harris Plant, variously dubbed as "the queen of water filtration plants" and "the Palace of Purification," A grand and gracious monument to public service, this venerable plant Is now extolled for Its splendid architecture - created by G&S in-house architect, Thomas C. Porhphrey in 1929. The buildings are

classical Beaux Arts with an Egyptian stylistic motif popular with Toronto

^I^S^^^'^rchltects in those,days.-,

I

6 Metro Toronto's Mam Treatment Plant's

personnel facilities

'more information, Circie repiy card No. 106


Gore & Storrie

Building Design Services Inc. Gore & Storrie Is renowned for Its engineer ing projects In water and wastewater treat ment, having won numerous national

awards for Innovative design In more than 70 years of practice. In addition, we offer a full range of architectural and building design services, which are available to both clients and other design firms. G&S maintains In-house all

disciplines needed for any design and contructlon project: • architectural • structural • HVAC • mechanical

• 3-D CADD modelling and rendering • construction management and adminis tration

• instrumentation and computer control • electrical

Aerial view of Britannia facility

.

SAward-wlnnIng Leslie Pumping Station In Markham, Ont.

Middle right.

We are dedicated to clients' needs while

Toronto's Rosehlll Ave. Resenroir lies beneath

being sensitive to environmental require ments. Because of our experience In design ing for harsh environments, we frequently

landscaped

code requirements. As a result, we place great Importance on the Occupational Health and Safety requirements of workers, as well as the protection and operational efficiency of sensitive control equipment.

parkland with

striking sculpture (right)

^

have to satisfy the most stringent of building

Better than most, we understand the

iSPtS-

importance of appropriate use of advanced SNew water treatment facility, Niagara Falls, New York

building technologies such as lighting, energy, and climate-control systems, as well as aesthetics. All are important — whether the project is a community centre, a com

mercial complex, an Industrial building, or a public works facility.

Whether working In liaison with other

design firms or directly with municipal and

industrial clients, we design award-winning buildings that are energy-efficient, costefficient, and In architectural harmony with their respective environments. 7Glass arch at Main Treatment

Plant N' -'

:^ . .

Contact: Dinshaw Kanga, B. Arch., O.A.A., M.R.A.I.C. (416) 499-0090, Ext. 241

or Erik Dullerud, P.Eng. (416) 499-0090, Ext. 284 Head office: 255 Consumers Road, North York,

Ontario, M2J 5B6,Telephone:(416) 499-9000, Fax:(416)499-4687


R&D News continued using a modified rotating biological contactor with polyurethane foam at tached to the disks as porous support media to biodegrade a petroleum re finery wastewater. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the total chemical oxygen de

tists M.M.Poulsen and B.H. Kueper was

Protection Series report describes a re ference method for the analysis of ad sorbabie organic halogen (AOX) in aqueous solutions which was developed jointly by Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre and the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada.It focuses primarily on process streams and effluents from the pulp and paper industry although it is applicable to all aqueous media. Two methods for analyzing such samples, namely the

undertaken to examine the effect of

column method and the shaker method,

the activated sludge treatment of wastewater containing contaminants typi cal of pulp mill effluents show that se lection of aeration equipment type and

process operating conditions signifi cantly influenced the fate and transport of some contaminants.

mand and oil concentration were re

Behavior of Tetrachioroethyiene

duced by at least 87% and 80% respec-

in Unsaturated Porous Media

A study by University of Waterloo scien

source release rate and porous media heterogeneity on the spatial distribution of pure liquid-phase tetrachioroethy

are described in detail.

Chlorophenois in RIght-of-Way

CAWPRC

iene in the unsaturated zone of a na

turally occurring sandy aquifer. The results published in Environmental Sci ence and Technology demonstrate that immiscible liquid migration in sandy deposits is extremely sensitive to varia tions in permeability and capillary characteristics and that the ultimate

depth of migration is a function of both source release strength and porous media structure.

Biodegradation of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater A laboratory study was conducted by

R.D. Tyagi. F.T. Tran and A.K.M.M. Chowdhury to assess the feasibility of

Ditches

M.T. Wan sampled utility and railway right-of-way ditches flowing into sal mon streams in the lower mainland of British Columbia to determine the oc

lAWPRC

tively for all hydraulic loadings studied by these INRS-Eau scientists. The removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, phenol, hydrocarbons, and suspended solids was generally better than that achieved with a conventional rotating biological contactor. Method for Determination of

Adsorbabie Organic Halogen A recently published Environmental

currence and levels of chlorophenois. While chlorophenois were not detected by this Environment Canada scientist in ditches of pristine watershed areas and parklands,they were found in farm land, utility, and railway right-of-way ditches originating from treated hydro poles,railway ties,etc. As reported in the Journal of Environmental Quality, the chlorophenol levels found in ditch wa ter adjacent to treated poles exceeded the 96-hr LC50 of salmonids. while those found downstream were within the

range reported harmful to fish and aquatic invertebrates.

ROBERT B. SOMERVRLEco mc.

Dechiorinatlon of Kraft Mill Effluents

At the recent BIOEOR/BIOQUAL '92

Annual Meeting, a paper by E. G-H. Lee, M.E. Crowe and H. El-Rayes des cribed the work B.C. Research has been

conducting in the development of a se quential two-stage anaerobic-aerobic lagoon treatment process for dechiorin atlon of kraft mill effluent. Bench scale

studies conducted in the first year re sulted in over 70% removal of total AOX from whole-mill kraft effluent. In con

trast, only 20% to 35% was removed by the control aerobic lagoon. These re

We Go Under

sults translate into a reduction from 5.5

Major Highways

Conservation Areas

Rivers '

Tandfjlls

For A Trenchless Environment ''Directional Drill" US. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; FRED BRITT Phone: 903-784-0866 Fax: 903-784-2995

For more information, Circle reply card No. 107 42

ate AOX removal efficiency from whole-mill kraft effluent.

Waste Sites

Canada â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CAM TYHURST Phone: 519-776-8727 Fax: 519-776-6616

kg to 1.5 kg AOX per air-dried tonne of pulp produced. A pilot scale anaerobicaerobic lagoon has been built to evalu

Digestion of Municipal Sludge for Land Application Municipal sludges may be used as amendments for soils provided that soil productivity is not adversely affected and that the health ofusers and the pub lic is protected. At the recent BIOFOR/ BIOQUAL '92 Annual Meeting, H.G. Kelly described the work undertaken by Dayton & Knight Ltd. on the autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion procontinued on page 44

Environmental Science & Engirteering, September 1992


Wastewater Treatment Equipment Company Ltd. ChetKarpowiczispleased to announce thatENVIROCANis the exclusive and

authorized representative for the fol lowing U.S. based manufacturers of wastewater treatment equipment for the municipal, industrial and institu tional marhet place.

CHflNN€L MONST€R«

JWC Environmental • Muffin Monster — a two shaft low speed, high

torque grinderfor municipal,industrial and insti tutional applications including sludge,scum and screenings.

Andritz-Ruthner Inc. ' CPF belt filter presses, screw presses, gravity table and rotary screen thickeners for sludge dewatering. I The PDC(Polymer Dosage Controller) system to optimize polymer usage rates in sludge dewater ing appiications. ' High intensity presses used for secondary dewa tering of sludges after belt presses, centrifuges and vacuum fiiters.

'Drum Drying System (DDS), a triple pass direct type siudge drying system, which produces granuiar, uniform sized materiai at drynesses greater than 90%.

Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc.

• Channel Monster System, incorporating a hori zontally rotating screen with a Muffin Monster grinder. Used in pumping stations and at the headworks of a treatment plant.

Mass Transfer Systems Designers and manufacturers of JET AERATION/ JET MIXING SYSTEMS,for industrial and muni

cipal applications including aerated lagoons, activated siudge processes, equalization tanks and aerobic digesters. Designed for liquid depths up to 50 ft., MTS offers TOTAL SYSTEM ENGINEERING including in-tank FRP jet aera tors,stainless steel supports, liquid recirculation pumping systems, air compressor and air distri bution systems, piping, controls and expert field service. Complete turnkey systems are available.

•Aqua Jet direct drive, axial flow aerator — the most widely used surface aerator, with more than 18,000 in operation. • Aqua DDM mixer — a fioating direct drive, down flow unit used for applications requiring: back mixing, directional mixing, biomass suspension, equaiization, disinfection and neutraiization. •Aqua ASPIJet aspirating aerator — avai lable with fixed or flotation mountings. •Aqua Automatic Backwash Filter(ABF),atravelling bridge tertiary sand filter —availabie in builtin-place concrete and steel package units. •Aqua Modified Sequential Batch Reactor(MSBR), a proprietary process technology integrating the continuous flow activated sludge process and the sequencing batch reactor to yieid a conti nuous flow, constant level SBR.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT COMPANY LTD.

JPS/Oiltrol • Floating diversion curtains, both heavy duty and standard duty, used in industrial and municipal aerated lagoons and activated siudge processes, to a maximum depth of 40 feet. • Floating oil booms are available from stock in 12" through 36" size.

'EQUIPMENT CO.

• Freeman ram style hydraulic dewatering presses for industrial rejects and sludges. •Sidehiil screen — agravity flow stationary screen for applications up to 2000 GPM.

26 McCauley Drive, Bolton, Ontario L7E5R8 Phone:(416) 880-2418, Fax;(416) 880-2327 For more information, Circle reply card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

43


R&D News continued cess which provides both sludge stabili zation and pasteurization. The totally enclosed handling, high temperature digestion, and operational simplicity which are inherent in the process, com bine to ensure a safe, stable and disease

free product for use on soils.The process is capable of meeting provincial guide lines for a high grade retail product.

oped by N. Biswas, G. Zytner and J.K. Bewtra to assist in the evaluation of re

medial options in case of a spill of vola tile organic compounds, such as perchloroethylene, in a soil environment. This model, published by these Univer sity of Windsor researchers in Water En-

Technique for the Study of Microbiai Aggregates

Light microscopy methods are frequen tly used to measure the size and evaluate the morphological parameters of mic robiai aggregates. In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, Uni versity of Toronto scientists J.J. Ganczarczyk, W.M. Zahid and D. Li de scribe an improved technique for the physical stabilization of such samples. The technique involves an application of membrane filtered agar and allows the use of an image analysis system for observations of aggregates down to the size of individual cells. For microtome

sectioning of microbiai aggregates, em bedding in glycol methacrylate resin was preferred and provided better, un perturbed specimens. Modelling Desorption of Volatile Organlcs from Soils A mathematical model has been devel

CAWPRC

Effect of Fiuidization on Upfiow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactors Wastewater treatment processes such as

upfiow anaerobic sludge bed-like reac tors are strongly dependent on the ag gregation of biomass into macroscopic granules which settle well. Biotechnol ogy Research Institute scientists S.R. Guiot and Y. Arcand together with C. Chavarie of Ecole Polytechnique studied the effect of upfiow velocity on the mean granule size and on the hyd rogen, acetate, propionate, and glucose specific activities using sugar was

tewater. The liquid upfiow velocity had a significant positive effect on granule mean diameter and on the hydrogen, acetate and propionate specific activi ties. The details of these, and other ef fects, described in Water Science and

lAWPRC

vironmem Research, has been verified to

predict the adsorption, desorption, and leaching of perchloroethylene from four types of soil and adsorption media. The generalized model can also be used for compounds similar to perchloro ethylene in other soil environments pro vided that Freundlich isotherm adsorp tion constants for the particular chemi

cal and specific soil characteristics have been determined.

Wastewater Treatment Problems?

I

Call Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc.

Technology, support the so-called mul tilayer arrangement of anaerobic granules. Analysis of Benzene Compounds in Groundwater

University of Waterloo scientist J. Pawliszyn and coworkers applied solidphase microextraction to the analysis of benzene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes in groundwater. As described in Environ mental Science and Technology, this inex pensive method reduced the sample preparation time to 15-30% of that re quired for the purge and trap methods. The relative standard deviation ranged from 3 to 5% and limits of detection as

low as 1-3 ppb could be achieved. The linear range extended from 15 to 3000 ppb. Solvents have been completely eliminated from the sample preparation step.

Bloieaching of Metals from Sewage Sludge

pollution control headaches related to organic chemical compounds. Whether the job Is large or small, Calgon Carbon con provide a cost-effective solution to meetthe treatment objective. Activated Carbon Products-specifically designed fo remove a wide variety of organic chemical types and concentrations. Adsorption Systems-standard otf-the-shelf or custom designed systems to treat a wide range of flows: 250 n/m (60 gpm)fo 2500 i/m (700 gpm). Calgon Carbon Service- Under a monthly service arrangement, Calgon Carbon will Install and maintain at the treatment site a permanent or temporary treatment system. Treatment objectives can be achieved without major capital costs. Spent Carbon Disposal-Calgon Carbon eliminates disposal problems by trans porting the spent carbon to a RCRA-approved reactivation facility, where the organic chemical contaminants are thermally destroyed,thus eliminating future liability risks. For more Information, coll or write Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc., Suite 304,6303 Airport Road, MIsslssauga, Ontario LAV 1R8, Tel (416)673-7137, Fox(416)673-8883.

Two papers accepted for publication in Water Research by J.F. Blais, R.D. Tyagi and J.C. Auclair describe the research

by these INRS-Eau scientists on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms for leaching of metals from sewage sludges. Two thiobacillus species, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans proved to be the most efficient. Using five different sewage sludges, five days of incubation in shake flasks re sulted in a decrease of the pH to about 2.0 which solubilized the toxic metals.

In the second paper,it was demonstrated that the growth ofleaching bacteria was the rate-limiting step for metal solubilization and that the metal removal

from sludge was strongly influenced by the temperature of the bioreaction. continued on page 46 Reminder

CALGON CARBON CANADA INC.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 109 44

Use the Reader Service

Card to get information on products in this issue. Environmental Science cS: Engineering. September 1992


UOUID CARBONIC BREAKTHROUGH TO CONTROL EMISSION POUi/TION

MEET CLEAN AIR COMPLIANCE AND GENERATE ADDED INCOME The new Liquid Carbonic Vapor Recovery System safely reduces emission pollution at point of transfer. With this new technology you get a host of advantages: ■ Low capital investment ■ Recovery of valuable chemi cals to improve your cash flow ■ Fast response to changing

petroleum liquid terminals

Use the coupon below to get details on Liquid Garbonic's advanced solution to vapor pollution.

and tank farms,

manufacturing and process ing plants using solvents, and solvent manufacturing plants.

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stream flow rates and concentrations

■ Economical and

easy operation ■ Low power requirements ■ Low maintenance—replacing expensive adsorber/absorber

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For further information, write for Form

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

45


R&D News continued Aquatic Toxiclty Test with Ceriodaphnia Methods recommended by Environ

test. In addition to the toxicity data com piled by National Water Research Insti tute scientists K.L.E. Kaiser and V.S.

National Water Research Institute sci

ment Canada for performing chronic three-brood toxicity tests with the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia

Palabrica, this

entist R.J. Maguire has published a re

index

reviews

cor

Environmental Impact of Organotin Compounds

relations of the luminescent bacteria

view in the Water Pollution Research

toxicity data with a multitude of other acute toxicity tests on aquatic and ter restrial species, with emphasis on the 96-hr acute lethality data of 200 indivi

Journal ofCanada on the uses, methods of analysis, environmental occurrence, and aquatic toxicity of non-pesticidal organotin compounds in Canadian

dual chemicals to the fathead minnow.

commerce. These include monomethyl

terials. Additional conditions and pro

Toxin Release from

tin, dimethyl tin, monobutyl tin, dibutyl tin, monooctyltin, and dioctyltin which

cedures are stipulated which are specific for assessing samples of chemicals, ef

Cyanobacterlal Blooms Cyanobacterial blooms in surface water

are scheduled for assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection

fluents, elutriates, or receiving waters. Included are instructions on culturing conditions and requirements, food pre

bodies can cause livestock and wildlife

Act. It is likely that the most important route of entry of these compounds into the environment is through leaching. In general, it appears that these species would not be persistent in aquatic en

dubia are described in a recent Environ

mental Protection Series report. General or universal conditions and procedures are outlined for undertaking this chronic

toxicity test using a variety of test ma

paration, sample handling and storage, test facility requirements, procedures for preparing test solutions and test ini tiation, specified test conditions, appro priate observations and measurements, end points, methods of calculation, and

poisonings due to toxins produced by the microorganisms. In a paper presen ted by University of Alberta scientist S.E. Hrudey at the Water Quality Inter

the use of reference toxicants.

Toxicity Data Index

no release was observed when the cells

A toxicity data index published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Ca nada gives a compilation of some 1350 acute toxicity data ofindividual organic compounds for the luminescent marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum.

were untreated or treated with lime.

These findings indicate that copper sul fate should not be used to treat poten tially toxic cyanobacterial blooms in water to be consumed by humans or animals within a few weeks following

commonly known as the Microtox™

treatment.

HELP STOP WATER POLLUTION AT ITS SOURCE

Clean Water Regulations for Ontario's Petroleum Refineries Under the Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA),the Ministry of the Environment has developed a draft regulation that will limit what petroleum refin eries can discharge into Ontario's waterways. This is the first of a series of effluent limit regulations

being developed for major industrial sectors. The Minister of the Environment would like to know

what you think about the draft regulation for petroleum refineries. Comments can be submitted until October

17, 1992 by writing to: Ruth Grier, Minister of the Environment, 135 St. Glair Ave. W., Toronto, Ont. M4V IPS.

For more information, or to get a copy of the draft regulation, please call any of the numbers listed below: 1-800-565-4923

519-336-4030(MOE Sarnia Office), 416-844-5147(MOE Halton-Peel Office), 416-521-7640(MOE Hamilton Office).

® Ontario For more information, Circle reply card No. 111 46

vironments with half-lives estimated to be less than a few months at 20°C.

national '92 conference, the effects of

chemicals used to control algal blooms were described. Cells treated with cop per sulfate released the majority of the toxin present within three days whereas

,

For more Information,contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Pollution Re

search and Control, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Fax:(819) 953-9029.

Open Channel Flow Monitor with Built in Data Logger

Measures Flow through any Flume or Weir • Non Contacting, Intrinsically Safe Sensor • Simple, User-Friendly 3-Key Calibration system • MISA Calibration certificate

• Displays Flow Reports • Transfers Flow Reports to Computer or Serial Printer • RS-232C Serial Output • Isolated 4-20mA Output • Password Protected

• 10-Digit Totalizer Display • 3 Programmable Relays • ± 0.25% Accuracy OCF-III Open Channel Flow Monitor

NOW! PC Software Utilities included with each OCF-lil

Transfer and View Flow Reports on a PC Computer Generate flow formulae for non-standard flumes and weirs

800 Campbell Street Cornwall, Ont. K6H 6L7 Tel: 613/938-8956 Fax: 613/938-4857

'instrumEnfs~inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 112

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Radiation

us lab scientist reports radiation facts Radiation is often misunderstood by the public. This is partly the result of the complicated terminology usually used to explain radioactivity and its effects on people, according to health physicist David Myers of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a U.S. Depart ment of Energy-funded facility in Cali fornia. He explains thatsome important facts about radiation are relatively easy to understand.

Ionizing radiation, he said — radia tion with enough energy to remove elec trons from atoms — is most commonly emitted by unstable atoms seeking to become stable. It can also be produced, however, by such equipment as X-ray machines.

Ionizing radiation can be potentially hazardous if it interacts with living tis sue. The ionization of biological mole cules may result in chemical changes which, if not repaired, can result in damage to the living cell. Measurement Units

If the damage is great enough,the cell may die. Smaller amounts of damage to the cell's nucleus may alter the genetic material, which could eventually lead to cancer.

"Fortunately," Myers says,"the latter effect is extremely unlikely." He ex plains that radiation dose is measured in "rem" — a unit that accounts for both

the total energy the radiation transfers to the body and type of radiation in volved. The same amount of energy de posited by radiation can be more or less hazardous depending upon how it is deposited. The rem is a relatively large enough radiation dose — it has been thought — to increase the risk ofdeath by cancer by roughly one in 10,000. So radiation doses are usually measured in millirem,a unit equal to a thousandth of a rem. He said a recent government report on survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan during World War II shows,how ever, that the risk may be higher than previously thought. The study found that subjects drawn from those in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings had three times more malignant tumors and four times as many cases of leu kemia as earlier analyses predicted. Studies of radiation-related cancer

mortality have concentrated on highdose victims. Solid evidence is not avail

able for those exposed to lower levels of radiation, he says. Regulators and scientists most com monly assume risk is proportional to the dose. That is, half as much exposure produces half as much cancer risk. The exact relationship, however, isn't pre

cisely known. This means predictions

the Lab's philosophy is to maintain ra

about low-dose radiation effects are

diation doses as far below the limits as

based on extrapolations. Background Source David Myers says the average person is exposed to about 360 millirem of background and medical radiation yearly. The largest source of this radia tion dose (about 200 millirem) comes from radon, a radioactive gas produced by the decay of uranium in the soil. Radon accumulates in buildings — es-

are reasonably achievable. The new evidence shows that radia

tion may be more hazardous than pre viously thought, leading to recommen dations for various new restrictions on

radiation

exposure

to

radiation

workers. One recommendation calls for a max

imum allowable dose of 10,000 millirem every five years. Another would estab

lish a lifetime cap of 1,000 millirem per

The study found that subjects drawn from those in the Hiroshima and

Nagasaki bombings had

three times more malignant tumors and four times as

many cases of leukemia as earlier analyses predicted.

year of age. He noted that current Lab policies are stricter than federal standards. Lab

workers currently have a maximum administrative dose guideline of 2,000 millirem per year, which is monitored through the use of personal dosimeters, which all employees and many visitors to the Lab are required to wear.The per sonal dosimeters have a detection threshold of 10-15 millirem.

According to personal dosimeter readings at the Lab, 9,488 workers had no detectable exposure and no workers received doses above the 2,000 millirem

pecially in tightly sealed, energy-effici ent ones — and is thought by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to result in about 10 percent as many cases oflung cancer as are caused by smoking tobacco products.

limit in 1991, he says. Two workers had doses between 1,500 and 2,000 millirem, 18 had doses of 500 to 1,500 millirem, continued overleaf

The amount ofradiation dose received

from exposure to radon depends on several factors, including building ven tilation and the amount of uranium in the soil where one lives or works. In

GARTNER LEE

ANNOUNCEMENT

general, radon concentration is greater on lower floors because they are closer to the source.

In 1990, a radon measurement pro gram at the Lab indicated that the radon concentrations in Lab buildings were well below EPA guidelines, Myers said. Dose Limits

Radiation used for medical purposes (mostly X rays and nuclear medicine techniques) accounts for about 60 mil lirem of the average individual's year ly dose. The average person gets 40 millirem yearly from radioactive substances na

turally occurring in food (like potassium-40 in bananas and other foods),30 millirem from radioactive materials in the soil and 30 millirem more from cos mic radiation. doe's annual dose limit is 100 milli

rem for the general public and 5,000 millirem for radiation workers, Myers said. These limits are applied at the Lab because it is a DOE facility. Since there is presumed to be some risk associated with any radiation dose.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

Paul Manley, P.Eng. Paul Manley, P.Eng., has joined Gartner Lee Limited as a senior

environmental engineer, and will provide leadership in a broad spectru m of the firm's national and international markets, including solid waste processing and diver sion, integrated waste manage ment planning and site remedia tion. Previously, Mr. Manley was Vice President of Engineering for Airite Environmental Industries.

Gartner Lee Limited is an engin eering consulting firm offering pro fessional services in environmental

planning and management, with offices in Markham, Ontario, Van couver, British Columbia, and Niagara Falls, New York. 47


Alum sludge dewatered to 54% dry solids with E&J Diaphragm Filter Press E&J Diaphragm Filter Press Model AOHT1500 with 80 chambers operating in Statesville, NC

'! ^ I' ji

•;(

f:* ejh

This Edwards & Jones filter press installation in the Statesville Water Treatment Plant is successfully dewatering alum sludge which could not be dewatered using standard fixed recessed filter plates. Alum sludge from backwash filters is treated at a flow rate of 6 mgd yielding 4,000 lbs. of dry sludge, 50%-54% by weight with no conditioning chemicals or polymers. Solids capture is 99.8%. Operating at 150 psig, this E&J filter press has been dewatering this sludge in 2-hour cycle times consistently since January 1985.

54% dry solids filter

In all there are more than thirty installations worldwide employing Edwards & Jones filter presses to dewater municipal water treatment plant sludges. Edwards & Jones Inc. 25 Main Street

1255 Nicholson Road

Belleville, NJ 07109-3057 Tel: (800)387-3635

Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 7V1

Tel:(416)836-7700

Additional water treatment plant dewatering facilities at:

•Ann Arbor, Ml

•Jersey City, NJ

•Chester, NC

•Quarles, GA

•Columbus, GA

•Wyckoff, GA

iy

s JonEs INCORPORATED

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For more information, Circle reply card No. 113


Cover story Radiation effects continued from page 47 and 46 workers had doses between 100 and 500 millirem.

UK researchers in quest for cleaner engines

Radiation Effects

Radiation effects depend not only on the amount of radiation energy an indi vidual receives but also on the type of radiation to which the individual is

exposed.

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons. Generated by the de cay of plutonium among other substan ces, alpha particles give up their energy very quickly when they come into con tact with matter.

This means that it's easy to shield against alpha radiation. Alpha particles emitted outside the body usually spend themselves in the layer ofdead skin cells called the epidermis and don't penetrate the living tissue. The rapid energy transfer makes al pha radiation more hazardous if it does

interact with living tissue â&#x20AC;&#x201D; if alphaemitting radioactive material enters the body, for example, through a cut or by being ingested or inhaled. The first few cells the radiation encounters absorb its

energy, whereby their natural repair processes are more likely to be over whelmed.

Beta particles can be electrons or posi trons, the electron's antimatter twin.

Beta radiation results from the decay of strontium-90 and other substances. It

penetrates further than alpha radiation (it typically takes a sheet of plastic to stop it), and spreads its energy out among more cells, making the effect ofa given amount of energy deposited by

The heavy duty truck industry has un dergone a technological revolution dur ing the past 20 years. New laws and

beta radiation less hazardous than a

consumer demand are factors that have

comparable amount ofenergy deposited by alpha radiation. Neutrons are uncharged nuclear par

brought about a range ofimprovements â&#x20AC;&#x201D; lower exhaust emissions being one of the most important. At a British consulting company, which is at the forefront of diesel engine technology, tests are being carried out during investigations into emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOJ and particulate

ticles that have more mass than beta

particles but less mass than alpha par ticles. A given amount of energy depo sited by neutrons will damage the body less than the same amount of energy deposited by alpha radiation but more than an equal quantity of energy de posited by beta radiation. Neutrons, depending on how much energy they have,can penetrate sheets of aluminum or even lead, but are stopped relatively easily by water, polyethylene or other hydrogenous materials. Gamma rays and X rays both are more

strongly penetrating than alpha or beta radiation, but are less hazardous than

alpha radiation per unit of energy de posited in living tissue. Gamma and X rays are high-energy forms of elec tromagnetic radiation.'Visible light is a less energetic form.

levels.

Legislation in various countries is be

coming increasingly stringent and this represents a huge challenge to the world's truck manufacturers and to

Their investigations have enabled them to define a list of engineering technologies that vehicle designers now have to incorporate into projects in or der to meet with future legal require ments. These include higher pressure fuel injection equipment,specifically at low engine speeds; electronic control of

injection rate of fuelling/timing; vari able geometry turbocharger,very low oil consumption

and

exhaust

after-

treatment.

Recent research by the company, based on a modified 12 litre, six-cylin der production engine enabled them to achieve results that were well inside

some of the strictest legislative levels. Continuing studies involve diesel en

companies such as Ricardo Consulting Engineers, of 'West Sussex, southern gines for use in smaller vehicles. This England, which advises automotive, cover photo is particularly appropriate aerospace and power organisations on for ES&E's CETECH issue which fodesign and development. cusses on the manufacturing sector. One important aspect of the com pany's research work involves helping automotive manufacturers to reduce Details: Ricardo Consulting Engineers emissions levels â&#x20AC;&#x201D; while at the same Ltd., Bridge Works. Shoreham-by-Sea, time maintaining efficiency and engin West Sussex, BN43 5FG, United eering reliability. Kingdom.

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1992

49


Watermains â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Specs preferences and prejudices

The specification and instal a

tion of watermains in today's market is impacted by three(3) factors:

material

AWWA standard or are more costly

â&#x2013;

materials.

Asbestos Cement (AC) pipe had been used extensively in North America from the 1930's through to the early 1980's. AC pipe was banned in many jurisdic tions in the early 1980's based on a con cern about the carcinogenic character

standards,

standard specifications, and the pre ference and prejudice ofthe client or the firm involved in a project. This presen tation touches on the existing standards, specifications used, and the pipe mate

istics of asbestos fibres. A recent court

ruling in the U.S. has overturned the ban. making AC pipe available once again for use. Unfortunately, the ban and persistent negative bias towards AC pipe means it will probably never re cover its previous market. There is no doubt that the pipe's manufacture pre

rials available but also takes a closer

look at some ofthe personal preferences and prejudices involved in the industry. Watermain pipe standards established by the American Water Works Associa

tion (AWWA) over the years provided the most often referenced and accepted basis for specifying watermain materi als. Additionally, material standards are established by the Canadian Stan

sented health risk but there never was

By Stan Holden, P.Eng.*

dards Association and American Soci

any evidence to justify concerns about the ingestion ofasbestos fibres and their impact on the digestive system. Ductile Iron (DI) pipe has been avail

ety for Testing and Materials, and generally apply to materials associated

cution) and defines "what is required",

with the watermains such as concrete,

Generally, there are four (4) water-

early 1960's. The pipe can be manufac

main materials available for use in

tured in sizes from 75 to 1625 mm dia

today's market.These materials are duc tile iron, polyvinyl chloride, concrete pressure pipe, and steel pipe. Other

been limited to the 100 to 600 mm dia

steel and plastics. The main standards for the watermain as a conduit of pot able water are the AWWA standards.

Standard specifications used for the

able on the Canadian market since the

not "how it is to be done".

installation of watermains are the Na

materials,such as cast iron and asbestos

tional Master Specification(NMS)and the Ontario Provincial Standard Speci fications. Most consultants generally use a variation ofthe NMS.This specifi cation is written in a 3-part. imperative format. This format consists of three (3)

cement, have "come and gone". Cast iron has been replaced with lighter and stronger ductile iron and asbestos ce ment has unfortunately been banned,

parts (e.g.. General. Products and Exe-

as discussed. Other materials, such as

polyethylene, polybutylene. and fibre reinforced plastics, either lack the

meter. In Ontario, its use has generally

meter range. Use of DI pipe has been steadily declining in favour of polyvinyl chloride and concrete pipes. This de cline is due partly to the misuse of this pipe. e.g.. use of unprotected DI in a cor rosive soil or in an area highly exposed to stray electrical currents. Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC)pipe first star ted gaining acceptance in the I970's when it was approved by AWWA for the 100 to 300 mm diameter sizes. More re

cently. approval of sizes 350 to 900 mm diameter have opened up a potentially larger market for this material. PVC pipe has many attributes that have re

m

sulted in its increased use.

Concrete Pressure Pipe(GPP)has been available for over 40 years as a water supply conduit.CPP is available in sizes from 400 to 3600 mm diameter. This

pipe is well suited for the high volume transmission and has dominated the

market in most of the pipe sizes ma nufactured.

Steel Pipe is available in two forms: a welded steel pipe with cement mortar lining and concrete encasement, or

spiral welded, bell and spigot steel pipe with epoxy or cement mortar lined in terior and a polyethylene wrapped ex terior. Steel pipe is generally used for large diameter mains of900 to 3000 mm diameter. The concrete encased steel

A 12 Inch water main connected to ductile Iron at valve chamber base at Klelnburg Ont. MacVIro Consultants designed the project with the contractor, Clearway

*Project Manager, MacVIro Consultants

Construction.

Inc., Markham, Ont.

50

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1992


pipe has been used almost exclusively by Metropolitan Toronto, whereas the wrapped steel pipe gets more use in the United States and is widely used inter nationally. The preference for certain pipe ma terials enters into every watermain pro ject that is conceived. The material pre-

both steel and CPP merit consideration.

Valve Chambers. For small diameter wa

CPP makes it difficult for steel to com

pete where comparable specifications

termains there is a definite preference to use DI pipe in the valve chambers. DI

are used.

pipe provides the strength, adaptability,

Conversely,in Metropolitan Toronto, there is a clear preference for cement

and flexibility. PVC becomes brittle in cold temperatures, cannot handle

mortar lined, concrete encased steel

thrusts, and the connections to valves are less than a desirable arrangement.

Preference for certain materials or methods will continue

to exist in the industry but will continue to change to reflect increasing experience and material limitations.

ference or prejudice in some cases impact most aspects of a project. Most are dictated by experience and common sense ofthe specifiers involved. A few of these preferences and prejudices are

diameter and less; Medium, which is

pipe and except for one experiment with CPP, steel pipe is used exclusively. While steel pipe is perceived by many to be the Cadillac of pipes it is hard to dis pute Metro's success. No failures in hundreds of kilometres of steel pipe in almost 40 years is clear evidence of suc cess, but higher initial costs are the price paid. Fittings. Almost all pipe manufacturers will make fittings which are compatible

350 to 600 mm diameter; and Large,

and intended to be used with the water-

which is greater than 600 mm diameter. PVC pipe is being used more and

manufactured but seldom used. Here

discussed:

Pipe Size. Presently in the marketplace there are three (3) size ranges in watermain pipes: Small, which is 300 mm

more for small diameter watermains.

Increased use is primarily the result of economy ofthe pipe and the installation cost. In most cases, both PVC and DI

will work equally well but only PVC is specified. Why? Sometimes the Munici pality will dictate that only PVC be used or the specifier is convinced that DI would not be competitive.

main. For PVC pipe, PVC fittings are grey or cast iron fittings are used. Al though a standard for PVC fittings now exists they are not readily available and

main of this size does not excite most

watermain specifiers. Maybe we barken back to the plastic toys of our youth and how easily they broke,therefore,we can not imagine building a watermain that big out of plastic. The larger a watermain gets the more security the specifier seems to want. In general, a sense of security seems to

we must use the standards available in

the industry and clearly specify what materials can be used and how they are installed. Preference for certain materi als or methods will continue to exist in

the industry but will continue to change to reflect increasing experience and material limitations. In the current en

vironment of reducing revenues and shrinking budgets there will be a ten dency to look closer at cheaper alter natives to stretch every available dollar. This climate could lead to tomorrow's

straight runs but not through the "cor

so, it is vital to avoid short-term gain at

ners" where there is a lack ofconfidence

the price of future pain.

A humorous look at pipe specs 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

than plastic. Common sense and "gut feeling" can and often do overrule theory in deciding on a watermain

9.

Large diameter watermain will be built as CPP or steel pipe. In sizes of600 to 1050 mm diameter CpP is almost ex clusively specified because DI is not readily available and not price competi tive. Steel pipe is similarly not competi

exist with contractors and material

suppliers. As specifiers of water supply systems

problems if the pipe material chosen is not a proven long-term product. When dollars are tight, and will likely remain

come in the form of CPP or DI rather

material.

The use of thrust flanges, flange adap tors with a serrated edge to dig into the pipe, and numerous ties and supports for valves, has not gained wide accep tance with specifiers. These highlights are just a few of the preferences and prejudices that exist in the waterworks industry. Other biases

have not been specified very often. Spe cifiers seem willing to use PVC for the

For medium sized watermains. the material choices are not as clearcut since DI, PVC and CPP are available.

This size range has been primarily dom inated by DI and CPP but PVC manu facturers are trying to make inroads in this area. Although a standard exists for PVC watermain up to 900 mm diameter, the thought ofinstalling a plastic water-

in PVC performance.

However,in Ontario, the availability of

standard Pipe Specification â&#x20AC;&#x201D; M80-1 Quality Assurance #WAP-007 Page 1 of 1 Revision 0 All pipe is to be made of a long hole, surrounded by metal centred concentrically radially around the hole. All pipe is to be hollow throughout its entire length. All pipe is to be of the very best quality, preferably tubular or pipular. O.D. of all pipe must exceed the I.D., otherwise the hole will be on the outside of the pipe. AM pipe must be supplied with nothing in the hole so that water, steam, brine, or other stuff can be put inside at a later date. All pipe is to be supplied free of rust,since this can be added more readily at the jobsite. All pipe is to be free of any covering such as mud, tar, barnacles, or any form of manure, before putting in place, otherwise it will make lumps under the paint. All pipe over 500'in length must have the words Long P/pe clearly painted on each end, so that the fitter will know that It Is long pipe. Pipe over 2 miles in length must have the words Long Pipe painted in the middle, so that the fitter will not have to walk the full length of the pipe to determine that it is in fact a long pipe or not.

10. Ail pipe over 6" In diameter is to have the words Large Pipe painted on it, so that the fitter will not use it for small pipe. 11. Ail pipe fittings are to be made of the same stuff as the pipe. All pipe closers are to be open on one end. 12. No fittings, such as elbows, are to be put on the pipe unless specified. If you do, then straight pipe becomes crooked pipe.

tive. In sizes about 1050 mm diameter

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

51


By Jack Barber*

Developments in Instrumentation

Bridging instrumentation experience of the past with technoiogy of the future

In the past, many laboratories have

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The History of Instrumentation Instrumentation systems have always

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able room for clerical errors. Today,

computer technology is radically changing instrumentation systems and offering greater accuracy and efficiency.

DewPoint

VeWeBeek' RunLength

with calculators, and wrote the results

into a report. These steps were tedious and time-consuming, leaving consider

os

rmutions lUindoujs Tools

834 GC flpp.3 Panel

relied on unautomated instrumen

tation systems fortheirtest and mea surement systems. They gathered test data by hand, performed analysis

Controls

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0 B all GC lines closed

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leveraged off widely-used technology. In the 19th century, the jeweled move

5-8 «■> all "sample' l^s to OC closed, all

"flush' lines open,

standard lines (5-8)

ment of the clock was first used to build

analog meters.In the 1930s,the variable capacitor, the variable resistor, and the

Plenum

open, sequentially.

- 0.08

vacuum tube from radios were used to build the first electronic instruments.

copes and analyzers. Finally, modern personal computers have high-perfor mance computation and display capa

Display technology from the television

bilities.

puter connection and programming

The first computerized instrument systems of the 1960s were difficult to build because they required custom

was a tremendous achievement, and laid the foundation on which instru-

has contributed to modern oscillos-

*National Instruments Corp.

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For over 30 years, Vaughan Company has remained commit ted to making your waste handling more efficient. Heavy indus tries such as Chemical, Pulp and Paper, Steel. Aluminum, Petro Chemical, Food Processing, Automotive, and Hazardous Waste, as well as many municipal wastewater treatment facilities have solved their most difficult pumping problems using Vaughan Chopper Pumps.

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Developments in instrumentation ment systems would be built for the next 20 years. In addition, the BASIC pro gramming language was a significant contribution to programming technol ogy that would grow along with instru mentation through the 1970s and 1980s. Recently, further improvement was made for software with the introduction ofSCPI.

In the 1980s, digitizers and computer plug-in data acquisition boards became widely accepted. These instruments are versatile, because the ultimate instru

ment functionality of the system is de termined by the computation done on the data rather than bv some fixed func

w:

tion ofthe instrument.

The Vis can also include routines to

The Future of Instrumentation

The key to an instrumentation system

analyze the data and can present the results through intuitive user interfaces. By building their own Vis. engineers

model is the software. Instrumentation

and scientists can create instruments

software should support all aspects of an instrumentation system, including data acquisition and control, data ana lysis. and data presentation. LabVIEW® is a graphical programming system with these capabilities. With this type of software you can build your own in struments to exactly match a particu lar application. The system can acquire data from plug-in boards and control instruments.

that are easy to configure, easy to use. and match their specialized measure ment needs.

Software Instrumentation In Action

The Environmental Group at Chev ron Research and Technology Com pany (Richmond. CA) is using this system to develop improved wastewater treatment methods. The goal of their research program is to improve the quality of water discharged by Chevron

Corporation. A Macintosh Ilfx system running LabVIEW with five National

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Wafer QuaJjty ata Systems ^j.^one,3^t/2 inch diamete!i|)l situ measurements to * 150 meters in fresh water,

iseawater, and groundwater ■

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Instruments I/O boards monitors about

100 analog channels and controls se veral metering pumps, valves, and other analytical instruments in their "pilot" plant. This plant consists of a series of bioreactors that accept process effluent, which is broken down over a period of time by bacterial oxidation. Because the experiments run continually, they de veloped a system that has the ability to achieve, extract, and view the data from

any channel without disturbing data collection. In addition to data acquisi tion. they developed process control modules to control and operate up to 12 bioreactors. The researchers are using statistical software for data analysis. At the Lawrence Livermore National

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Laboratory, they are experimenting with directed energy devices such as electron accelerators and ultraviolet

flashlamps for destruction of chlorin ated solvent vapors in air streams to reduce dependency on carbon. Evalua tion of these experimental systems, and development of optimum operation re quires on-site monitoring systems cap able of giving investigators rapid quan titative analysis of vapor concentrations and convenient display of relevant phy sical parameters from the extraction system. Conclusion

By building on the experience of the past and the technology of the future, one can satisfy the needs of a wide range of applications including those in the ra pidly expanding environmental engin eering industries. To meet this rapid change, PC-based instrumentation sys tems can be adapted. These automated systems offer improved lab productivity and quality control, while reducing cle rical errors and time. And with the right automation tools, engineers and scien tists can efficiently build their own in struments that match their application needs. Thus, PC-based instrumentation

systems already represent the future of instrumentation in the 1990s — where

the software really is the instrument. Circle reply card No. 123 Environmental Science <& Engineering. September 1992


Water supply

New elevated water storage tank Alllston the Town's six wells and the grade level storage/high lift pumping facility. The new elevated tank, in conjunc tion with the existing grade level storage, will provide the Alliston area with emergency, equalization and fire stor age for an equivalent population of 15,000 persons.This equivalent popula tion includes the water demands of the

Town's two major industries; Honda Canada and Baxter Travenol Ltd. The

completed tank will also provide a general increase in system pressure which will eliminate the current need

for pressure boosting in the north end of Alliston.

The completion of stage II of the Pro ject will allow residential development to proceed north and west of Alliston. "Three future contracts included in the

Stage II water works, will provide a

Old stand pipe goes down, then new storage tank goes up.

seventh well, associated trunk water

The restructured municipality of the Town of New Tecumseth is currently proceeding with a staged upgrade of its water supply, storage and distribution

be substantially complete by October, 1992, including painting. During the construction of the ele vated tank, the Works Department of

system in the Alliston area of Simcoe

the Town of New Tecumseth, under the

County. The works are being provided with financial and management assis tance from the Ontario Ministry of the

direction of John Crosbie, is operating the water works system as a closed sys tem. This entails a mailual operation of

mains and upgraded treatment works at the existing grade level storage facility. The Stage I and Stage II water works is being financed by the Ministry of the Environment (56%) and the "Town of New Tecumseth (44%). Previn Court Homes Limited (V. Rizzardo) con tributed $250,000 toward the cost.ES&E

Environment under a Direct Grant Pro

ject. The Town is currently in Stage II of a four Stage, $7,000,000, Project. Con tract No. 5 of the Project involves the demolition ofAlliston's 50 year old,steel water standpipe and the construction,

"Corrosion Fighting" Specialty Fittings

on the same site, of a 4540 cubic meter

elevated water storage tank.

ROBAR

Ainley and Associates Limited of Collingwood, Ontario, as the Town's

Consulting Engineer,has been involved in the town's water system since the mid 1970's. General drawings and specifica tions for a composite design, concrete pedestal and steel tank were prepared

Robar's specialty waterworks fittings are manufactured with corrosion-resistant

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and the structure was tendered in March, 1992.

The $1,400,000 design and build con tract was awarded to Dywidag Systems International Canada Ltd. (DSl) of Concord, Ontario, at the end of March,

1992. DSI retained the services ofSoprin Inc. of Longueuil, Quebec to design the composite structure type, elevated tank. The old standpipe was demolished in May and the new foundation construc

Bronze 2706 Saddles Corrosion Protective

With Wide SUInless

Coating 1506 Couplings

Steel Straps.

With Stainless Steei Bolts.

ted in June 1992. The contractor was

forming and pouring the 13 m diameter concrete pedestal at the rate of approx imately 2.3 m every 24 hours. When the pedestal was completed by Zedco, GedVen began to assemble the steel tank at the base ofthe pedestal. A major portion ofthe steel tank will be assembled on the

ground and then raised into position on top of the pedestal. The tank floor and

For further details, please contact

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roof will then be added and the tank will

be painted.The contract is scheduled to Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 124 55


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Uniform wall thickness, factory quality control and our experienced engineering mean you can rely on U-Liner to hold up the load — even in collapsing, cracked and badly deteriorated sewers.

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Trenchless pipeline installation

Toronto and Edmonton opt for microtunnelling technologies in sewer rehab projects

The 1990 success of microtun

nelling in Toronto, Ontario is now being repeated in Edmon

ton, Alberta,in 1992. In Toron

to, contractor S. McNally & Sons used a 1,000 mm O.D. Iseki Unclemole to drive

the second microtunnel project in Ca nada. In Edmonton,Alberta,contractor

IGL Limited Canada is currently con structing the first microtunnel in wes tern Canada, using a 780 mm O.D. Iseki Unclemole.

Keele St. Sewer, Toronto Toronto had a need for more storm

sewer capacity to avoid long-term pollu tion of Lake Ontario, particularly dur ing wet periods. The City of Toronto Department of Public Works designed the Keele Street Road Storm Sewer,with

750 mm and 600 mm I.D. pipe,to relieve some of the load on the main combined sewer and treatment facilities.

The original design called for both tunneling and open-cut work along a congested through-route in Canada's biggest and busiest city during midWinter. A number of obstacles, includ

ing heavy traffic(Keele Street is a desig nated 'Metro Route" for cross-city traf fic), underground utilities, and overhead trolley wires prompted the contractor to opt for microtunnelling exclusively, using a single pipe size. The company leased an Iseki 1,000

f ;1 Workers jack 2.5 m concrete pipe behind the Unclemole In the 4 m diameter jack ing shaft.

installed every hour, on average. An in termediate jacking station was installed to decrease the maximum jacking force applied to each pipe on the longer drive (154 m), but, with the use of good lub rication, it was never actually required and the maximum jacking force reached was 230 t.

Laurier Heights Sanitary Sewer IGL Canada Limited, contractor for

750 mm I.D., 2.3 m long concrete pipes with drives up to 154 m long, in ground sisting of fine sand with some clayey

this work, is using a 787 mm O.D. Iseki Unclemole system to install 1,053 m of 610 mm I.D. concrete pipe through this busy residential area in the City of

silt.

Edmonton. The

It was decided to do the work in three

drives with two jacking pits and two re ceiving pits. The drive shaft installa tions were restricted to a narrow strip at the side of the street, but the resultant

disruption to traffic flow was as nothing compared to that anticipated for opencut work. The sheet piled jacking pits were 7.2 m by 4.1 m, and the circular steel liner plate reception shafts were 2.4 m in diameter.

The first drive of 123 m was completed on target in approximately 12 working

days, with one 2.3 m long pipe being

IGL is using liner plate for jacking shaft construction and steel casing for reception shafts:they have built a gantry over the jacking shaft for pipe and other materials handling, thus reducing their craneage utilization. The jacking pipe with square buttend joints and steel band sealing ring are similar to those used earlier in Toronto.

in Edmonton

mm O.D. Unclemole to install 400 m of

conditions below the water table con

are 4.0 m in diameter and the reception shafts are 2.4 m in diameter.

Another innovation used for the first

time in North America is the RGS steer

working, with drive lengths of up to 120 m, through ground conditions consist ing of clay with some silt and gravel. The work is being done for the City of Edmonton; I.D. Engineering Company Limited is the consulting engineer on the project. IGL is using an Iseki Uncle

ing system supplied with the Uncle mole.The RGS permits the operator not only to see the position of the machine relative to line and grade at all times,but also the line along which the machine is currently being steered. At press time,two drives, the first 100 m long and the second 59 m long, had been completed, with a machine pro gress rate of 2.5 m per hour. Pipes en tered the reception shaft on line and

mole new TCZ microtunnel shield,

level. Ten additional drives are antici

which is capable of being "split." This, together with the use of ISEKI's com pact jacking system, enables the ma

pated. The job, estimated to take approx imately six months, started in late June and is expected to be completed in

Unclemole

will

be

chine to be launched and recovered

from very small shafts.The pipe lengths to be installed are 2.5 m;jacking shafts

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

December 1992.

Circle reply card No. 132 57


Did lead cause the decline of

Theissue oflead poisoning as a

great empires?

major threat to human health has once again surfaced — this time due to health problems that have emerged coincident with to day's increasingly popular practice of . home renovation. Houses built more

than 40 years ago usually contain sub stantial amounts of leaded paint; even houses built as recently as 1980 may contain paint with some lead in it. Dis turbance of surfaces containing leadbased paint creates a definite health hazard when paint dust and fine par ticles are released into the air and inges ted through breathing. Lead poisoning seems to have been common throughout history. Some his torians linked the downfall of the

Roman Empire to the use of lead pipes and vessels for conveying and contain ing their drinking water — and there is medical evidence for this in the form of

bone analysis. The importance to the Romans of lead, and many other ele ments, is evidenced by the Latin-based scientific abbreviations we use for them

The Roman Forum,once the centre of a mighty empire — did lead poisoning contri

— for example,Pb for lead, taken from the Latin plumbium. At a lead awareness seminar spon sored by Gore & Storrie the manager of the company's Hazardous Waste Ma-

bute to its decline?

nagement Section, Henry Miyamoto, outlined some other less well known but

fascinating facts about the history of

Was Franklin expedition a victim

the National Water Institute at Canada's Centre for Inland Waters,it can be caused

of lead pollution? While lead pollution may have played a profound role in the decline of ancient empires, a more recent example may emerge in Canada next year. Recently,a British Royal Naval officer, Lt. Ernie Coieman, 32, believed he found the grave of Sir John Franklin who died trying to find the elusive North West Passage. On May 19, 1845, two British ships under his command,Erebus and Terror

had set out from England to find the North West Passage to Asia. Though heralded asthe best equipped expedition ever,sailors mysteriously be gan dying at sea. Sir John died on June 11, 1847, and, after the ships became icebound in the North West Territories, the surviving 106 crewmen set out southward in a vain attempt to save their lives. While the remains of Sir John and the vast majority of his crew were never

58

lead poisoning. Gout was common in both the Roman and British Empires. While that afflication was, in the past, attributed to gluttony, this may not be the case. According to Jerome Nriagu of

found, a few bodies were found in 1981 and 1982, preserved by the permafrost. Autopsies by a forensic anthropologist, Owen Seattle, indicated that lead poi soning from canned food was a likely cause of the Franklin disaster.

While the sailors would have great na vigational skills it has been conjectured that lead poisoning might have caused disorientation, causing the survivors — led by Captain Francis Crozier — to lose their way and perish in the bitter climate.

Lt. Coleman's recent permit did not allow him to dig the mound he thinks was Sir John's grave but a Canadian archeologal team may visit the site on King William Island in 1993. The results will

fascinate historians and archeologists as well as today's environmental profes

by lead damaging the kidneys. Not only did the Romans distribute potable water in lead pipes, they also used lead pans to boil down fruit juices to create syrup, the pans reacting with the acids in the fruits to form lead ace

tate.This syrup was then used to sweeten wine and was listed as an ingredient in 85 outof450 recipes in the Roman's pop ular Apician Cookbook. Not to be outdone, the Britons also

tried to sweeten their wines by adding litharge, lead monoxide. Bottles of wine from 1825 have been analyzed and show levels of about 1 mg/L — or approx imately 100 times the Canadian Drink ing Water Quality Guideline for lead, which is 0.01 mg/L. In addition, people drank this wine from pewter mugs. While the modern formulation of pew ter is an alloy oftin and copper and does not contain lead,its old formulation was tin and lead. Other, more insidious,

sionals.

sources of lead were present in pottery glazes, cosmetics, and even medica

Tom Davey

tions.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


and abatement techniques, and recom mended safety precautions for worker and occupant protection during home

Some historians now think England's George III (1760-1820) suffered from lead poisoning. He had severe illnesses, complicated by mental disturbances,

day,expecially for children under six,is ingestion of the dust created by strip ping and sanding of old paint during home renovations. Speakers at the G&S

which eventually left him blind and in

lead awareness seminar examined vari

sane. It seems the king was very fond of

ous methods available for testing the

that lead poisoning may be as much a

lemonade and sauerkraut, both of

presence oflead in paint and other coat ings,the risks associated with disturbing surfaces containing lead-based paint.

threat to us now as it was to the an cient Romans.

which are highly acidic and could have dissolved lead from the vessels contain

renovations.

This seminar was a timely warning

Circle reply card No. 133

ing them. It was in his reign that Eng land lost its American colonies.

These days, we have other sources of lead. Although lead water pipes are slowly disappearing,there are still some regions where lead pipes are used for potable water connections. Until recen tly, even copper pipes could be installed using lead solder for their connections. Not so long ago,toothpaste came in lead tubes, and today you can still find im ported food cans where lead solder has

One of the most pervasive

and major causes of lead poisoning today, especially

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ingestion of the dust created by stripping and

sanding of old paint during home renovations.

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been used to seal their seams. Until

banned by regulations, tetraethyl lead used in gasoline as an anti-knock agent was a source of airborne particulate lead. Dishes are all glazed, and many glazes have lead in them.If fired correc tly at high temperature,the lead evapo rates; if not fired properly,however,that lead can leach into foods. It can also

leach out of lead crystal decanters into liquor that is stored in them for exten ded periods of time. In addition, many mugs and drinking glasses are decor ated with lead-based paints.

Plan to Visit Complete Digester Lagoon Cleaning

October 20-21.

Land Application Systems

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Program Development

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In 1976, the Federal Government le

gislated that paint and liquid coatings

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manufactured in Canadafor interior use

may legally contain no more than 0.5 percent(5000 ppm)lead. Exterior paints, however, were not included in the legis lation, although stricter labelling was required for them. But according to the Canadian Paint and Coatings Associa tion(CPCA), most Canadian consumer paint no longer, in fact, contains any lead. In the past few years, the CPCA has been encouraging its members(who collectively produce about90 percent of all paint sold in Canada) to eliminate lead entirely from their consumer pro

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ducts. As far as the CPCA can deter

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ES&E's Conference

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

59


International report

Japanese Waste Management has some curious problems and practices Japan used to be looked upon as a world leader in the recycling of unwanted or waste materials. Years ago, when the Japanese currency was low and labour poured into the cities from the coun tryside to keep the supply high and the cost low, recycling made economic sense.Systems were set up to collect and

recycle newspaper and I'm told, about 90% ofthis cheap,low grade paper is still recycled. Unfortunately in those early days ofthe rise of the recycling industry, there was, I believe, insufficient waste

ness forms everywhere, office paper waste has grown enormously and yet only about 30% of this high grade, high value paper is recycled. \Vhy? It seems that the yen and Japanes labour costs

office paper to support a widespread fine paper recycling system. Now, with fax machines, photocopiers and busi-

fine paper and many other materials can be imported for much less than it

have increased in value so much that

costs to set up and operate a system to recycle them.

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According to the Clean Japan Centre (an institution sponsoring and com municating waste exchange and other waste management issues in Japan), there are only a few recycling com panies still operating. Some months ago, while assisting the UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) with a waste minimization workshop hosted by Japan for southeast Asian developing nations,I toured a large industrial treatment and disposal com plex near Osaka. The largest volume of

waste appeared to be construction/ demolition rubble, but sewage sludge and heavy metal solids from plating wastes were also prominent. This huge modern complex had chemical solidifi cation equipment where small bricks of

'stabilized' wastes were processed. It

early 70's

also had a small (5,000 tonne/year) ro tary kiln with extensive gas cleaning equipment.

• Over 5000 monitors in

operation

• Demonstrated reliability in power station, chemical plant, offshore platform,

The very large disposal area consisted of a diked-in section of the ocean where fishermen worked their boats on both

sides ofthe dike. It was to be all filled in

effluent and boiler

by the end of 1992 and because of the

condensate applications

concerns of the fishermen, the next

• Explosion proof and chemical resistant materials available

stage is intended to include a second layer of deposits three metres higher. The Japanese, I was told, reclaim more land from the sea every year than the Dutch.

Send for free information today!

In contrast to Germany,where recent

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(1989)changes in the legal definition of hazardous wastes tripled the volume of materials, Japan does not recognize nearly as many materials as being hazardous.

The spokesman for the Osaka Indus trial Waste Treatment and Disposal plant was pleased to report that his fees for the small industrial waste generators had not been increased for the last 10

years. Does that rival our sewer use by law 'maximum concentration level' re

gulations as an incentive to produce wastes or doesn't it?

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 134 60

*Wastart Ltd,

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


By Ken C. Bradley, B.Sc., MBA* We were told that Japan also has about 2000 municipal incinerators. Landrdls,in spite ofthe need to reclaim land from the sea, are hard to come by, so refuse is incinerated leaving a residue of ash perhaps only one tenth of the original volume. Rows of vending machines lined the narrow streets beside shops in many of the mixed residential/commercial areas

of Kyoto where I was staying. You could buy three or four different disposable cameras from these machines, or hot

and cold drinks (including coffee and beer)in simple or composite metal cans from vending machines at any time of day or night. Containers to receive the empty cans and other recyclables were typically missing or stacked all together

none was evident. To demonstrate an incentive for waste

incinerator stack outlet (effective stack

minimization. Dr.Takatsuki took us for a tour of a small waste chemical inci

dow level),and the aroma ofchloroform

height approximately at top floor win

nerator in a courtyard at Kyoto Univer sity. Generators of laboratory wastes were directly charged for the destruction of those wastes based on quantities de livered. As this charge was included in individual department project costs, there is an incentive for the researcher to

in the area during our tour. I would hope that this evidence of local atmospheric pollution also serves as a stimulus for the researchers to avoid chemical waste

incineration when possible. I admire Dr. Takatsuki for his efforts

at educating us in resource conservation through his programs and his cartoons,

minimize quantities ofincinerable was tes generated. Even I noted corrosion on

butlam concerned that the forces of the

the window air conditioners around the

continued overleaf

at the end ofthe commercial areas. Uni

versity or government personnel at our workshop in the area told us that mer chants claimed there was no space available to collect recyclables. I asked about batteries. Apparently efforts at re cycling them are droppi ng off. Professor Hiroshi Takatsuki (pen name: High Moon) of Kyoto University's Environ mental Preservation Center gave me one of his books'Cartoon Gomic",pub

SIMPLY, MEASURE FLOW AER-O-FLO/Marsh-McBimey offer a -wide range of flowmeters to measure flow in open-channel and full pipe applications. Models include battery powered portables to 120

lished in 1987. I've extracted one of his cartoons for illustration.

VAC wall-mounted units. Flow data can be stored in

Current thrusts in Japan are in the direction of product development to

solid state logging devices,

minimize the inclusion of hazardous

materials in the product and improved treatment and disposal to minimize the

paper chart recorders or

transmitted -via analogue signal. The Model 251 Open

threat to the environment. In this con

nection. mercury levels in batteries and in fluorescent lights are lower than be fore, and municipal incinerators are said to be very sophisticated. In fact, the main Kyoto incinerator not only had the appropriate commonly used gas scrubbing system, but had recently ac quired a mercury recovery system. Dur ing my visit in December 1990,1 was told that just under 200 kg of mercury were collected in the previous year, the first full year of measurement after installa tion ofthis novel system. Unfortunately, because of the heterogeneity of munici pal garbage, no one knew how much mercury was fed into the system, so re covery efficiency calculations were not possible at that time. I thought of taking the mercury content of the average bat tery and fluorescent tube, multiplying by the 2'/2 billion batteries and perhaps ÂĽ4 billion tubes used per year and plug ging in the population serviced by this incinerator as a fraction ofthe total pop ulation. but I'm going to leave that for

Channel

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someone else.

With the Japanese people's experi ence with Minimata disease a few de

cades ago, I would think there would be some concern over directing batteries and other mercury containing products to the municipal solid waste stream, but Environmental Science <& Engineering, September 1992

For more information, Circle reply card No. 144 61


International report more appealing? A significant number of the Japanese professionals that I met expressed con cern over greenhouse gases and their own image as consumers of rain forests for building materials and ofcourse,for chop sticks. We visited a power plant in Osaka that ran on environmentally friendly liquified natural gas. Even so, there was a small pilot unit examining the removal ofCO2from the stack gas by absorption in diethanolamine. Per sonally, I think I prefer a lot of CO2 in the air to a little bit of diethanolamine. Several months later, while on vaca

tion in Bali and then speaking at a con ference in Jakarta, I heard that one en

HtgVi Moon "Excuse me, we have to add this section here. It was just

decided in the board meeting. consumption philosophy are just too great.

Cartoon reproduced by permission. 3. Stainless steel knives, forks and spoons

One day we ate lunch at the nearby university cafeteria. We had our choice of cutlery; 1. Fresh, bright, new, clean-looking, wooden chop sticks

I went along with the major minority and chose plastic. Do you know the feel ing when you are driving an old unreli able car and most everybody around you is in a new one? Wood looks better

2. Re-usable, used, dishwasher clean,

and holds the food better, but wouldn't

dull, grey, slightly battered looking plastic chop sticks

you think plastic chop sticks could be made in ivory white to at least look

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tire Mangrove swamp was slated to be converted into chop sticks for the Ja panese. Mangrove roots protect the Indonesian islands from soil erosion by the ocean and the Indonesians are upset by the destruction of this plant. Our environmental problems are truly global in extent. Circle reply card No. 137 Reminder

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


By Ken C. Bradley* B.Sc., M.B.A.

Some Observations on

Waste Management Practices in Egypt While in Egypt advising management staff at two cement plants in the art of waste minimization (using new UNEP/ UNIDO 'Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and Wastes" as

a guide),I took the opportunity to make some observations about waste man

agement in Egypt. This task was not an easy one. Much of the information one

hears is contradictory. I have so far observed three techni

ques for dealing with municipal gar bage:

1. Deposition in an 'organized'landfill be side the road near the outskirts ofgreater Cairo. Em told that water is added to

assist the fermentation process, gas that is generated is collected for fuel and the residue is sold for fertilizer.

Much of this work is accomplished by hard labour. The odour is not pleasant and I was told that the area(s) where these activities are car ried out may be moved further from

highly populated centres which are growing all the time. This disposal technique seems to present a rather curious contrast to

the current North American ap proach.In Egypt, water is deliberate

--

Cardboard recycling (old shoe boxes?) in Maadi. of the road and adjacent country side.

3. Physicalsegregation,separation and re cycling by many small independent operators. In Maadi, part of Metro Cairo,I took a photo ofa donkey cart

ly added to landfills to assist in the

filled with flattened cardboard that

decomposition of garbage. In Onta

had all the appearances of flattened shoe boxes. I believe this to represent part of a cardboard recycling pro

rio, where there is usually a good source of natural moisture readily available,all efforts are made to keep our buried refuse dry to minimize leachate production. This results, of course, in a very long decomposi tion process. 2. Deposition with open fire burning on land near the roadside just outside

The black smoke from open air burning of the occasional tire adds significantly to the smoke from the wasteful

open burning of garbage. Cairo on the way towards Suez City. Along this highway there are a num ber of small processors of desert limestone where lime is produced using various fuels including rubber tires. The black smoke from open air burning of the occasional tire adds significantly to the smoke from the

wasteful open burning of garbage. The partially oxidized residues are left uncovered to remain on the side

Cairo, I passed a donkey cart carrying glass jugs and drinking glasses, fa shioned I was told, from recycled glass. These articles are made of very soft glass, and are somewhat non-uniform but still they appear very attractive in colourless, light green and amber shades.

ply disposal. Several days later,I came across the following article title on

Aside from municipal garbage and commercial wastes,I have much greater concerns with respect to industrial was tes. For example, no one seems to be concerned about liquid industrial and

page 3 ofthe March 27/92 issue ofthe

hazardous wastes. There was consider

Saudi Gazette: 'earning a living by recycling rubbish in Cairo". For de

able agreement among my acquaintan ces that regulations, no matter how

cades, the article says, rubbish col

good, were not likely to be enforced. I

lectors have combed the streets with

asked the newly appointed technical director of a pharmaceutical firm in Cairo what was being done with hazar dous wastes in Egypt. His rather surpris

cess, but was assured that it was sim

donkey carts looking for recyclable material to take back to their houses

where they and their families sort through piles of rubbish by hand. About 15,000 in one impoverished corner of Cairo survive in this indus

try serving the city"s 5 million inhabi tants by separating paper, alumi num, plastic, glass and cotton and selling to factories or in some cases, recycling the material themselves into paper blocks, raw cotton, ma chinery parts and pots, pans, bowls and cooking utensils. "These latter items they sell to local shops, and even export some to Libya and Su dan. Food scraps are fed to the pigs, donkeys, geese and dogs which wan der through the littered dirt roads of

ing response was that he didn"t know and that this question had never before come up. We briefly discussed some

benefits of'cleaner production", I gave him my card,and asked him to call if he

needed any help. Unless knowledge and attitudes change in Egypt, I doubt very much if he will avail himself of my services.

On the positive side, the cement in dustry seems to be enthusiastically em bracing the 'waste auditing for reduc tion" approach. There are ample oppor tunities in Egypt for industrial waste reductions, recycling and environmen tal controls.

this area. *Wastart Ltd.

"While driving to the United Nations Development Programme Office in

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

Circle reply card No. 138 63


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Product Review

Laboratories ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

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point and repair the problem. In fact, complete primary pipe runs can be re placed from the surface without requir ing costly and disruptive re-excavation, representing significant savings and For more information, Circle reply card No. 151

The Deep Shaft Process The Deep Shaft process is an activated sludge process. It is effective in the treat ment of waste streams from high-strength industrial waste to domestic municipal sewage.

Installed by conventional shaft place ment methods, the Deep Shaft process works by circulating wastewater in a self-contained. sealed. bio-reactor which is divided into downcomer and

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mixed liquor travels down the downcomer section and back up the riser sec tion. Compressed air is added into both the downcomer and riser sections such that circulation is maintained while the

oxygen required for treatment is pro vided for the suspended biomass. A head tank,located at the top of the shaft allows spent gases to be separated from the circulating liquor and vented to atmosphere. Solids separation is achieved by either flotation or gravity clarification. Deep Shaft Technology. For more information, Circle reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering. September 1992


Laboratories/Consultants

Product Review User-friendly new flow meter works from outside a pipe

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Big O has developed portable kits for

SPECIAUSTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING,INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, AND LABORATORY SERVICES

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS A Marsh & McLennan Conipany

• Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remediations • Environmental

WINDSOR (519)255-9797 TORONTO (416)498-7444

■^ll&

Assessments /

Audits

• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services

Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology

68

environment.

In Europe, there is an environmental

the environmental professionals

L4T 2H5

Tel: (416) 671-9921 Fax: (416) 672-7784

tentially hazardous materials. In the event of a spill or leak the kits allow quick, effective containment and clean up, protecting both the scientists and the

sensitivity, extending well beyond gov ernment programs. Already, transpor ters of hazardous waste in Europe are expected to carry clean-up equipment

Dames & Moore. Canada

7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario

scientific laboratories dealing with po

with them.

Big O developed a compact emergen cy kit, which can be easily carried by truck drivers and other hazardous ma

terials transporters. In case of an acci dent, the kit can prevent chemicals from seeping into drains — averting serious

damage and eliminating huge clean up costs. Big O Circle reply card No. 156

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Literature For information on advertising in this section cail ES&E at(416) 727-4666

TIMCO

Monitoring Well Products

High Flow Bladder Pumps

Solinst supplies bailers, lysimeters, well screen,casing and the full line of high quality monitoring well products manufactured by TIMCO. All lysime

Solinst supplies versatile, high flow bladder pumps with a 5 year warran ty. Suitable for protocol sampling,

ters are available with Teflon or cera

min.; purging.Including pumping low yield wells to dryness; total fluids re mediation; landfill ieachate pumping and sampling. Field replaceable Vi-

with variable flows down to 100 ml./

mic filter and a full range of acces sories. Solinst maintains stock of

PVC, clear PVC and clear Teflon bailers, 2" well screen and casing. Quick shipment is also available for well screen W through 12" In stain less steel or Teflon, with TImco DekaSolwst

ton or Teflon bladders. Electric or

Dm Syttwi den II

OtAslta or PorUUtl

pneumatic controller â&#x20AC;&#x201D; buggy mounted air compressor. The Coiler is available for use with bladder

seal or ASTM 480. Solinst Canada Ltd.

pumps to prevent kinking or tangling or tubing coils.

Circle reply card No. 180

Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 181

Continuous seif-cleaning

Instrument Control and ; IEia':-488 and

I VXIbus Gontrolj-

j Data Acquisition, ^nd Analysis

Data Acquisition

bar/fiiter screen-head

Free 1992 catalogue of instrumenta tion products for PCs workstations,

The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter is a con tinuous, self-cleaning device which utilizes a uniquely designed filterrake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and suspended materials from a moving liquid stream. Identical filter-rake elements are mounted horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts, to form an endless moving belt which collects, conveys and dis charges all solids greater than the

and more. Features IEEE-488.2 in

terfaces and software, plug-In data acquisition boards, VXIbus con trollers, DSP hardware and software and signal conditioning accessories. Application software for complete acquisition, analysis, and presenta tion of data.Including graphical Inter faces. Application tutorials and train ing classes also detailed.

W,

ilfiua Guard Screen

^ nyucsoNCCttroaAiiOK

National Instruments

Architectural, buiiding and design services Gore & Storrie Building Design Ser vices Inc. maintains all disciplines needed for any design and construc tion project. Services Include archi tectural, structural,electrical, mecha nical, HVAC,3-D CADD modelling & rendering, construction manage

llifMMillll;

e/isAnii

Plastic Air

Qaphragm Rjmp

thousands of diaphragm pump ap plications for over 21 years. As spe cialists In this industry, we have an extensive background and service to all types of industries in Canada. Availablefrom V-i'to 3"sizes and flow

ment & administration, and instru

to 240gpm these Versa Matic pumps move virtually any products that flow through a pipe including most che micals, sludges, slurries, solvents, etc. Versa Matic is stocked in Canada

by York Fluid Controls Ltd.

Gore & Storrie

York Fluid Controls Ltd.

Building Design Services inc. Circie repiy card No. 184

Circie repiy card No. 185

Blue Bottle

S-

Need a pump? Contact the experts first York Fluid Controls has handled

'/!" & r

Engineered

mentation & computer control. Award-winning buildings that are energy-efficient,cost-efficient,and in architectural harmony with their res pective environments.

ill L.

selected mesh size. It then mechani

cally cleans itself. Parkson Corporation Circie repiy card No. 183

Circle reply card No. 182

environmental\

CFCs are in the process of being phased out by government regula tions, creating a global market for recycled chlorofluorocarbons. Halozone believes its Blue Bottleâ&#x201E;˘ tech nology Is positioned to set the world standard for the capture, cleansing

November issue Topics Include: Sludge management options, con taminated site remediation, backflow prevention strategies, reviewing pot able water standards, air pollution technologies, Ieachate manage

and reuse of CFCs and CFC sub

ment.

stitutes, from refrigerators, air con ditioners, industrial cooling equip ment and manufacturing processes. Literature also describes market and

growth potential. Haiozone Technologies Inc. Circie repiy card No. 186

Environmental Science &

Engineering

CFC recycling

ES&E

Circie repiy card No. 187 Purttytng Ofntopmen!! h now morttortng


Product Review

Consultants

□ELCAIM

New generation of backflow prevention valves

ENGIfSJEB=«

F=lA^s^JB=S AFOTTECTS

■ ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS & PLANNING • MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT ■ PLANT DECOMMISSIONING • SITE REMEDIATION

• SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

• WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION

133 WYNFORD DRIVE. NORTH YORK. METROPOLITAN TORONTO. CANADA M3C 1K1 'TEL: WIBJ 441-4111 • FAX: C4163 441-4131

OIILIL©ini Consulting Engineers ♦ Planners Environmental Scientists

PORTER DILLON LIMITED HALIFAX SYDNEY

GCG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED EDMONTON

M. M. DILLON LIMITED

OTTAWA LONDON CAMBRIDGE

TORONTO WINDSOR WINNIPEG

RED DEER

DILLON ENVIRONMENTAL

YELLOWKNIFE

LABORATORIES MISSISSAUGA

Professional

TORONTO, ONI VANCOUVER. B.C.

(604) 299-4144

Environmental

Management

vides features never before available to

engineers and contractors. These backflow preventers offer a patented check design for extremely low headloss, 100% epoxy coated ductile iron for long life, and extremely compact design for space savings. For installation options, avail

(416) 477-8400

Services in

able are numerous body configurations

NIAGARA FALLS, NY

Gartner Lee

Revolutionary "N" configuration pro

(716) 285-5449

for both vertical and horizontal instal

lations, sizes 2'/2", 3", 4", 6", 8", and 10". Contractors can realize total installa

tion cost savings for both inside and out side installations, accomplished through the unique design, which eliminates both materials and labor requirements. FEBCO

Circle reply card No. 171

Comprehensive consulting services in engineering and

Golder Associates Offices ffioughouf North America, Europe and Austraiia.

environmental sciences

GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.

MISSISSAUGA

VANCOUVER

Tel: (604) 879-9266 Fox: (604) 879-5014

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety

PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: > Workplace and safety audits • Asbestos

> Legal compliance/designated substances > Air monitoring • Indoor air quality > Noise monitoring and control

' Environmental Engineering • Training programs ' Ventilation assessment/design • Air emission control ' Environmental audits > WHMIS

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada • (416) 858-4424

Telex: 06-218242

Fax: (416) 858-4426

Gore Si Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers WASTEWATER • WATER • SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES • DRAINAGE WATER RESOURCES • ENERGY RECOVERY • ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING LABORATORY SERVICES-ANALYTICAL & PROCESS R&D

255 Consumers Road, Nortli York, Ontario M2J 5B6 Ottawa • Thorold • Barrie •

70

helical gearmotors

Tel; (416) 567-4444 Fax: (416) 567-6561

internationally

©

NORD Parallel in-line

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston • London

All Nord gearmotors feature the exclu sive Unicase design. Instead of the con ventional bolt-on output covers or flanges, the Nord gearcase is construc

ted from a single piece of gray cast iron. Internal reinforcements ensure strength and rigidity. This means oil leakage, oil contamination and misalignment of set gears associated with conventional de signs are eliminated. Nord gearmotors also offer the Quadrilip sealing system to provide twice the protection over double lip seals. Prior to shipment, all Nord gearmotors come

with factory filled oil to prevent damage from dry start-ups.

NORD

j-gply

y 72

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Product Review

Consultants

PCB Portable Field Lab Bioman Products Inc. announces the

availability of a completely portable PCB field lab for soil sample testing. The PCB diagnostic kit can be used as a reliable and rapid screening tool to identify the presence of the more pre valent aroclors to a sensitivity level of3.3 ppm. Like all Bioman Products" diag nostic kits, it is an immunoassay which

0 Knox Martin Kretch Limited

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

Consulting Engineers, Pianners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario. LOT 4J5

(416)459-4780 Kitchener (51 9) 743-61 1 1

Fax. (416) 459-7869 Cobait (705) 679-5979

yields qualitative results in less than fif teen minutes.

W FONDMNE,CDWIE,BUR^HO &>iaBQaATES UMITED

The company also offers Envirodiagnostic kits for an array of pesticides, her bicides. fungicides, and insecticides. Agridiagnostic kits developed for the agricultural and food processing indus tries include mycotoxins. antibiotics, hormones, and bacteria such as vomitoxin. sulfamethazine. DES. and sal

monella. respectively. Kits are available

Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario

WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT • STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADS AND BRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICALSYSTEMS

3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X 4L4 (519) 966-2250 FAX:(519) 966-5523

BRANCH OFFICE-WOODSTOCK

(519) 539-2015

in both on-site and in-lab formats with

sensitivities as low as ppt depending on the contaminant. Bioman

Circle reply card No. 173

Data logging open channel flow meter MacViro Consultants inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Morkham. Ontario, L3R 4B9 » Telephone:(4t6)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(4t6) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Envlronnnent

MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geology •Environmental audits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Dot. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

Model OCF-111 Open Channel Elow Monitor features a built-in 122-day data logger, and a simple user-friendly calib ration system. Formatted flow reports can be transferred through the flow meter's RS-232C serial output, or printed directly on a serial printer. The operator can display reports directly on the flow meter including the date and time of minimum and maximum flow, average flow and total flow for each day.

& rehabilitation

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

80 Commerce Valley Drive East

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Other features include an intrin

Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416) 882-1100 Fax:(416)882-0055

sically safe, non-contacting sensor, a watertight NEMA4X electronics enclo sure. an isolated 4-20mA output, and 3

PROCTOR & REDFERN LIMITED

programmable control relays. A tem perature compensation sensor is builtin for system accuracy of ± 0.25%. Se

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

lection of flume, weir and calibration

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution

units are through a simple menu pro gram built into the flow monitor. Calib ration data is password protected and flow data and totals are saved through power interruptions. Greyline Instruments Inc. Circle reply card No. 174

•Site decommissioning

Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay Windsor 45 Green Bell Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992

Pax: (416) 445-5276

71


Product Review

Consultants

Ammonia & nitrate monitors

■ Environmental Management and Audits ■ Waste Management ■ Contaminant Management

Contronic Development's Ammonia Monitor is based on use of an ion-selec tive electrode ■which measures the con

■ Environmental Monitoring

centration of ammonia. The principle used involves raising the pH of the sam

■ Heritage Resource Management Offices in Calgary, Cambridge, Edmonton, Ottawa, Saskatoon, Surrey and Winnipeg

ple by the addition of alkali to convert ammonium ions to ammonia. The in

strument's microprocessor converts the electrode output signal to calculate

SEISTTAR

SENTAR Consultants Ltd. Enquiries (519) 622-2522 A member of the Stanley Technology Group

ammonia concentration, while com

pensating for the temperature of the sample. The result is displayed as Nit

DDTTD©®©

rogen (NH4-N). Cancoppas

SIMCOE ENGINEERING GROUP LIMITED

For more information, Circie reply card No. 175

Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY SCADA

New submerged probe flow meter

flow, and can print flow summary re ports on command or at selected time intervals. The internal memory can store up to 10,000 data readings. An optional telemetry package and

POLLUTION CONTROL

• •

DRAINAGE ENERGY AUDITS

TECHNITROL • ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963

surement. Built-in conversions for a va

record of level, flow rate, and totalized

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES

345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Telephione 416-509-2285 Fox 416-509-1361

Isco 3220 Flow Meter uses a submerged probe level sensor to provide accurate, temperature compensated level mea

riety of weirs and flumes. Manning equations or manually entered data points allow fast and easy set-up. The built-in plotter provides a printed

RISK ASSESSMENT

• SITE CHARACTERIZATION • DECOMMISSIONING • PLANT COMPLIANCE AUDITS

WASTE MGMT.

• UST REMOVAL

SAMPLING & ANALYSIS

• PERMITTING

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AIR QUALITY STACK SAMPLING TOXICITY TESTING MICROBIOLOGY

121 HYMUS BLVD., POiNTE-CLAiRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL. (514) 697-3273 FAX: (514) 697-2090

software allow convenient remote mon

itoring from a central computer via phone lines, or fast, easy onsite data ret rieval using a lap top computer inter rogator. Nortech Control Equipment

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Systems

Circle reply card No. 176

Environmental Audits Water Resources Water Pollution Control

• Instrumentation & Controls

• Environmental Planning

New refrigerated wastewater sampler A new full-function refrigerated wastewater sampler, engineered to provide a simple, four-button opera tion, has been introduced by Ed mund Buhler GmbH.

Geneq says that it is the lowest priced full-function sampler avail able anywhere. Features include the ability to switch from discrete to composite in a few minutes, glass or plastic bot tles, Teflon tubing, and adapter kit for sampling toxics. Geneq Inc. Circle reply card No. 177

Water Supply

MILTON: Tel.: (416) 875-2144 STONEY CREEK: Tel.: (416) 643-8166 OTTAWA: Tel.: (613) 591-1986

totten

Fax:(416)875-2145 Fax:(416)643-8171 Fax:(613)591-9998

engineers

Complete Environmental Service

arctiitects

■Water Supply ♦ Waste Water ♦ Needs Studies ♦

planners

Environmental Assessment ♦ Environmental Audits

♦ Solid Waste Management

♦ MISA

sims

TEL. (416) 668 9363 'WHITBY FAX.(416) 668 4045

hubickl

COBOURG ♦ TORONTO ♦ KINGSTON ♦ HUNTSVILLE ♦ SIMCOE BRACEBRIDGE ♦ OTTAWA ♦ SAULT STE. MARIE ♦ WATERLOO

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone; (416) 238-0007

For more information

on any of the products or services described in this

issue, use the Reader Service card.

72

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & PROJECT MANAGERS

TO GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRY, PRIVATE SECTOR HAUFAX-TORONTO-OTTAWA-LONDON'SUDBURY-WINNIPEG-REQINA-SASKATOON-LETHBRIDGE* CALGARY-EDMONTON-BURNABY-WHITEHORSE-YELLOWKNIFE AND "WE U.SA

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Distribution system maintenance

By Stan Mason P.Eng.*

Some expert tips on hydrant and gate valve maintenance

There is no doubt in anyone's

not completely drained then con sideration should be given to con verting the unit to a non-drain style which will require pumping out after

mind that fire hydrants require

maintenance. It seems to be

that the problem is how often do they require attention for possible non-operational conditions.

each use. This is preferable to a fro zen hydrant in wintertime. Remem

The National Fire Code of Canada

ber the water level in a drained fire

very clearly states that "Hydrants shall be inspected semi-annually and after each use and shall be tested annually."

hydrant is at the same level as the water table in the surrounding ground. If the hydrant has any of the faults that the Spring service call covers, then maintenance should be proceeded with. If it passes the Spring service call, then tidy it up with a coat of paint. "The Fall maintenance call is getting ready for Winter and should also incor porate the Spring service call. On the maintenance project all internal operat ing parts should be removed for inspec

The code also states that "records of

inspections and testshall be retained for examination by the authority having jurisdiction." If a municipality or a private-installa tion neglects sub section 6.6.4 of the Na tional Fire Code then they could be subject to litigation in the event of a fire hydrant being inoperable at the scene of the fire.

Most manufacturers of fire hydrants

in North America publish literature on the correct service procedures to be fol lowed to "maintain" their product. Pre ventive Maintenance is money much better spent rather than waiting for the eventual break down and failure of the

equipment. After the initial servicing, particularly if it's been 10 years or so since the hydrant waslooked at,thejob is not a large one. Once the service people have put the hydrant back into good working order, the second time around

Stan Mason, P.Eng. President, Terminal City Ironworks, Vancouver

caps and place your hand over the nozzle — you should feel a suction which indicates correct drainage B)after the hydrant is completely drained (5 to 10 minutes depending upon the bury and surrounding soil) listen for leakage passing the main valve seat

C)suspend a plumb-bob through the open port to check for the water level in the hydrant. If the hydrant is

operate. What are the best times for the "semi

Shut off the isolating gate valve (count the number ofturns to be sure of full closure)

Fully open the hydrant and re move all internal parts as instructed continued overleaf

ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION • Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony

becomes routine maintenance such as

replacing a worn damaged seat rubber or being sure,through cleaning and lub rication, that the hydrant is easy to

tion and lubrication. This form of maintenance should also be done after use at a fire:

^ UllUnmi ^ ^■IBiluH \

* l^^sign and Specification of Controi Measures • Road, Raii & Air Traffic, Manufacturing

Consulting Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Engineers Quarries, Presses, Blasting 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1A3

annual inspection"? This should be in the early Spring,after the snow and frost problems are gone, and in the Fall be

Tel; (416) 670-4922, Fax: (416) 670-1698 Halifax (902) 455-3112 Waterloo (519) 746-3415

fore winter conditions set in.The follow

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICiTORS

ing Spring service call should detect damage that may have occurred over

Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development.

Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation

winter:

4 King Street West, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario fvlSH 3X2

Open the hydrantfully (count the number of turns to be sure you are

fully open) allowing air to escape past a loose cap. With the hydrant body under pre ssure (no water flowing) one can in spect for: A)a hard stiff operation B)a leaking drain mechanism C)foreign material trapped in the

XCG Consultants Ltd.

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

elbow under the valve mechanism

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice

(too few turns to open) D)leaking nozzles, caps, stuffing

on Environmental Matters

box and seals

After pressure inspection shut the hydrant off (count the number of turns to be sure of complete closure) A)remove one of the IVi inch outlet

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

Suite 904

Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

MASc, P Eng Principal

M Eng. P Eng Principal

PUT OUR FORTY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE ON YOUR TEAM

Environmental Science & Erigineering, September 1992

73


Distribution system maintenance, con t by the manufacturers maintenance

worn, cut, soft main valve rubber.

manual.

Drain seats should be replaced if

A)check all packing — both flax and "O"ring types, make sure all"O"ring grooves are clean. Make sure all flax is soft and pliable. B)check for worn, stripped or offpitch threads on the operating rod. Check for worn threads on the out

lets and caps C)check for damaged seat ring and Ad Index 10

Adamis

60.61

Aer-O-Flo Anthrafilter

Aquatic Science

16 10 48

Arthur Tech. Asdor AWWA

32 15 53 4

BC Science Council

Big 0 Caigon Carbon Can Am Ins Can. Ex. Man

16 2 48

Cancoppas Cetech

Magnetrol Mann Testing MOE Monitario

MSU Mississauga

36, 37 12 46 23 9

National Ins. Nord Gear

69 31 26

69

wise stated, in the manufacturers main

should

tenance journal. this repacking is done with the valve in the full open position. Most spindle damage is done by the use of an oversize "T" handle operating key. One should bear in mind that a 6 inch valve is operated with 12 inch dia

Samuel Pipe Liners Schiumberger

56 75

Envirocan Fenwick Labs

43 29

Seneca Solinst

30 69

Fibresep

12 11 47 14

Sterling Power

62

Summa Eng. Ter. City Iron Works

13

Groundwater Tech. Hach Hazco

Hydroiab

Liquid Carbonic

21 27 74 54 45

These characteristics can often save

time and they let the service department

39

Greyiine

Maintenance people like to have operating characteristics to work with.

recommends that each valve be oper

ated through one complete operating cycle and returned to its normal posi tion on a schedule that will prevent build up of tuberculation and other de posits that tend to make the valve in operable. Generally speaking it will be a repacking job that is required on gate valves. All underground valves meeting the AWWA standard are designed to be repacked under pressure. Unless other

zone in on the trouble area.

76

41.42 46

ple to do their job more efficiently. Gate valve servicing is not as in depth as fire hydrant servicing, but a yearly inspection should be instituted. AWWA

Re-assemble the hydrant and then perform the Spring service call.This will automatically require you to turn the isolating gate valve back on (count the turns to be sure of full opening) as the Spring service call inspects the hydrant under pressure. Records should be kept of the fin dings of the Spring service call and of the replacement of worn damaged parts

R.V. Summerville Robar

Degremont

Generai Services Gore & Storrie

teristics will assist the maintenance peo

74 28 42 55

Eimco

Fisher Scientific Gartner Lee

D)lubricate all revolving or sliding parts.

on the Fall maintenance call.

Mueiler

NRC Parkson PETA Purestream

cut

5) hydrant would not drain 6)incorrect or poor fitting outlet threads Mentioning the operating charac

Terratech Trimax

Trow Cons.

Vaughan Pumps Victaulic Waterloo Concrete York Fluids Westech

17 21 14 52 45

62 69 24

Firemen or operators of hydrants note

for

their

maintenance

people: 1) stiff operation 2) water flowing up through the ground when hydrant open 3) water leaking out the bonnet or top of hydrant 4) hydrant would not stop running when shut off

rents PERFORMflNCE

meter handwheel. This is the correct

length for the handle of the valve key — not a 20 inch long handle. It is not good operational practice to have one valve key for all sizes of gate valves. ES&E

MORE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CHEMISTRY FOR THE NON-CHEMIST

Featuring live chemical demonstrations!

.U"

Buffalo, NY November 16-17, 1992

m a

Qeveland, OH November 19-20, 1992 TTris ever popular educational course is being presented in an expanded two-day format by Tom Wray, "The HazMat Chemist" and Bill Bunner, a nationally recognized trainer. This

RENT ALL THE INSTRUMENTS YOU NEED when delivery, performance and reliability of vital instruments are a must for the success of your project. Call HAZCO, your one-stop instrument rental shop! Expedited Shipping, Service and Technical Expertise are included.

HflZCO Canada, Inc.

'e.ss®'

6547D Mississauga Road Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1A6 RENTAL HOTLINE: 416-858-3215

For more information, Circle reply card No. 164 74

seminar features live chemical demonstrations, chemical com-

patabiiity information, outstanding written materials,and lunch both days. Don't miss this special presentation; space is limited. For more information, call Sheri with

PEll

Professional Environmental Trainers Associafion

1-800-788-7464

For more information, Circle reply card No. 165

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1992


Schlumberger Provides Solutions Schlumberger Neptune® ARB™ System Introduced In 1964,the Neptune® Automatic Reading & Billing Sys tem Is the encoder register of choice for over 400 water utilities today.

• Easily mounted to any Neptune® meter,the ARB™ encoder system transmits the actual register reading. In an electronic data format to a remote, accessible location.

• Proven reliability In over 4,000,000 Installations throughout North America.

ARB™ suits all applications: • ARB V™ for Indoor settings

• ProRead ARB™ for pit Installations and large meter vault settings. • ProRead ARB™ for reprogrammable, utility defined metering In formation.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

Schlumberger Reading Systems Schlumberger Industries Is dedicated to the development of Meter Reading Systems that will maximize the efficiency of your water utility.

• Neptune® Unlgun™ System — specifically designed for data cap ture and management with the ARB™ system. Eliminates routebooks and data entry through a hand held mini-computer and PC based software system.

• Central Meter Reading(CMR™)— Schlumberger offers both Out bound and Inbound telephone based systems for single or multlutllltles.

• Introduced ARB™ data transmission through Radio Frequency at the '92 National AWWA Conference In Vancouver.

• Schlumberger guarantees compatibility of ARB™ encoder regis ters with our present and future reading systems. For more information, Circle reply card No. 167

Schlumberger FloSearch System The FloSearch™ System Is designed for profiling customer water usage patterns.

• Applications Include leak detection, meter sizing, demand meter ing and peak usage studies.

• The FloSearch™ transmitter and FloSearch™ recorder continuously sample and record usage data. • PC based software generates reports of flow vs. time and water usage vs. flowrate In both graphical and tabular formats. • Usage data files may be exported to word processors, spread sheets, DOS,etc.

For more information. Circle reply card No. 168

Schlumberger

Schlumberger Industries

Measurement Division — Canada 7275 West Credit Ave.

MIsslssauga, Ont.

ndustrles Regional Sales Offices 1209-59th Ave. S.E., 6555, boul. M^tropolltain est, Suite 140 Suite 402, Calgary, Alberta St-L6onard, Quebec

L5N 5M9

T2H2P6

(416)858-4211

(403)253-0055

H1P3H3

(514)327-9998

For more information. Circle reply card No. 181

Technical Service Group 7275 West Credit Ave.

MIsslssauga, Ont. L5N 5M9

(416)858-4211


Underdrains Air + Vfeter Separate ducts for air and water and improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform fiew distribution NEOPRENE SEAL

AIR HEADER AIR ORIF CE

WEEP ORIFICE ORIFICE SHIELD AIR DUCT

WATER DUCT WATER ORIFICE FILTRATE

FLUME PLATE FLUME CHANNEL

Corrosion-Resistant

HigMy Uniform Flow Olstrilnitlon Reduced WashWater Use

BACKWASH

The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis

tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately

No false Heer

metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative

Required

design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.

Ideal Retrofit

^EIMCO Process Equipment

259 Midpark Way S.E.

4940 Chisholm St. / Ste. 1

Ste. 220

Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812 Fax:(403) 256-7071

Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837

1 Holiday Street

P.O. Box 300

5155 Creekbank Road

5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Que. H9R 5N3

Mississauga, Ontario L4W1X2 Tel;(416) 625-6070 / Fax:(416) 625-3519

Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801)526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005

Tel:(514) 695-9531 Fax:(514)695-9088

U.S. Patent #5019259

A Baker Hughes company

For more information, Circie reply card No. 169

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1992  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1992