Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL o

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Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

July 1992

A Davcom Business Publication

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Occupational health and safety in water & wastewater treatment Low bidding and quality data don't mix in iaboratories Landfiil methane now generating 23 megawatts Purifying stormwater — two approaches Deveiopments in flow monitoring Reports from the U.K.


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ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(416) 727-4666

June/July 1992, Vol. 5 No. 3 Issued July, 1992

CONTENTS

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

US lab team develops risk assessment curriculum

(416) 727-4666

B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 244-5502

14

A review of home water treatment devices

Article by Brian Doherty

18

Landfill methane now generates 23 megawatts

20

EC's blue flag designates safe UK bathing beaches Report by Tom Davey

23

Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

Allan Churcti, C.Chem.

Church & Trought Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeliow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept.

Value not price is vital in choosing environmental lab

25

services

Article by Tom Davey Ontario digester gas code Article by R.J. Willcocks

the debate continues

27

Purifying stormwater via a groundwater enhancement system

29

Article by John Van Egmond

34

AWWA water research is alive and well

R. Bruce Smith, LL.B.

Blake Casseis Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

Use of health risk assessment in the management of environmental liabilities

46

Article by Dave Whaley

Peter Turgoose, A.Sc.T.

New standards for testing water fittings for

Canron West Pipe (BC)

toxicity

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to EnvironmentalScience& Engineering,c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Mart^ham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Welch

Second Class Mall

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

Article by Bob Stevens

50

Waterloo recycling centre meets materiai diversion objectives

54

Conference Previews Cetech (Toronto Oct. 20-22) Aqua 92(Vancouver Sept. 9-11)

57-60

62

Development of flow measurement technology

78

Article by Peter Baker Departments Editorial Comment

4

Classifieds

Industry Update

6

Product Review

R&D News

39

52

Reader Service Card

65-74 64a

CHECK THE LABEL

Cover Story: Britain's inland waters need more mon itoring says a UK Royal Commission. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal played a significant role In the Industrial Revolution and the area was made famous by George Orwell's book. The Road to Wigan Pier. See UK report on page 76. Photo Tom Davey

If the date on the address label on the front cover

reads JUNE 92, your sub

scription has expired as of this Issue. To avoid missing the next issue, simply send

a cheque for $48.15(G.S.T. inc.)and the address label to ES&E.

Information presented in ES&E Is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material In ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

3


Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Will Gold's lustre be burnished or tarnished?

When Charles Darwin pub

origin.

lished his Origin of Spe cies. he posed the biggest

If Professor Gold's theory holds, there could be more gas and oil in the Pre-

challenge to conventional

thinking since Copernicus and Galileo

Cambrian Shield, which covers much of Eastern Canada, than the oil-rich Mid

postulated that our world was not the

dle East.

In 1989 the drill at Siljan indeed struck oil but only about 80 barrels was observed. "It was not coming up at a rate at which it was economically viable, but

centre of the universe.

Now a new challenger to orthodox thinking is emerging in the form of Tho mas Gold, a 71 year old multi-talented engineer who is presently a Professor Emeritus at Cornell University. He has served as a consultant to NASA,taught astronomy at Harvard and been prin cipal scientific officer at the famed Royal Greenwich Observatory in England. There are. he says, vast reserves of hydrocarbons available deep within the Earth which are not biological in origin. Conventional wisdom decrees that all

such fossil fuels were produced biolo gically. Indeed popular educational programs, as well as textbooks, unequivocably state that fossil fuels are bio logical in origin. His startling theses have often shaken the very pillars of the geology,chemistry and energy establishments. Unlike Ga

it showed there was oil down there." Professor Gold said.

In late 1991. a new drill hole was

Tom Davey

ration began in a geological formation known as the Siljan Ring where they originally planned to drill more than five kilometres deep in a search for oil or gas. The Siljan Ring is the site where an enormous meteorite impacted the Earth some 360 million years ago. The site there is believed to be similar

to the Canadian Shield. It is so old that it

lileo. he has not been threatened with

is believed no sedimentary rocks, the source of conventional hydrocarbons,

the rack unless he recants — but he has

could lie beneath it. Moreover,scientists

been subject to ridicule and the con temptuous dismissal of this theories. Professor Gold's startling theory is revolutionary. He says that most hyd

and geologists, supporting the abio

genic theory believe the impact crater could in fact be the seal of a vast reser

voir of gas or oil of non-biological

rocarbons were formed from non-bio

begun closer to the centre of the impact ring where there was even less sedimen tary rock. Small quantities of oil in the second hole were reached at a depth of about 3.8 kilometres, a depth which is still economically viable. Early in 1992. the drill hole passed the 4 kilometre mark and was still going. While still unproven. the abiogenic theory gives hope that many huge reser voirs of methane and oil could lie in

countries which are presently impover ished because they lack energy re sources.

But. if Professor Gold is wrong, a car eer rich in honors, including the 1984 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, might turn into a scientific culde-sac. If he is correct, the implications of a world with an abundance of clean-

burning methane will have profound environmental impacts. Both the economic and environmen

logical sources buried within the earth for some 4.5 billion years. He does not deny that some hydrocarbons were

tal potential of such new energy sources could be staggering. Any massive

formed from biological sources (biogenic) in the conventionally accepted

substantially reduce acid rain. and. as

manner. However, he postulates that there are vast reserves of (abiogenic) methane available at great depths where geologists have never thought to look. Abiogenic methane might also have 'leaked" from great depths into conven tional reserves.

One petroleum geologist responded sarcastically to this thesis: "It's on the same level — and I'm not being face tious — as saying the sugar plum fairies

switchover to methane from coal would the combustion of methane releases less carbon than either oil or coal, the

May 25, 1992

Dear Mr. Davey,

I ao pleased t I convey ny waroesc congraculatioi and best wishes to you ■n receiving a 1992 Environmental Achieveaent Award in tt-

CoBDunications category.

The efforts of individuals like you, and

organizations such as Environaent, Science and Engineering Magazine, serve as a reminder that the goal of sustainable development is within our reach. You aay take great pride in your achieveaents and in the recognition you have received as a winner in the Coaaunications category. You have contributed in a significant way to protecting, vlng and rehabilitating the <

American Gas Institute and the Swe

dish Power Board,drilling for abiogenic energy began in 1986 in Sweden. Explo-

sources of methane adds a third dimen sion to his thesis.

When Martin Luther challenged the powerofRome in 1517. he nailed his95

With every good wish.

theses to the door of All Saint's Church

at Wittenberg. Now Professor Gold has confidently, and irrevocably, nailed his

will cure cancer." More recent critics

include Lloyd Snowden of the Geologi cal Survey of Canada, who says the evi dence that oil and gas are biological in origin is overwhelming. But. with the financial backing of the

greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide build-up might be somewhat mitigated. As scientists now feel CO: build-up has begun profound climatic changes with a warming trend, the possibility of new

m story on page 44.

thesis to the doors of academe for his

peers and the world to judge. The drill bit at Siljan. both metaphorically and in reality, could be a revolution which

might herald the dawn of a new energyrich Industrial Age — or tarnish a dis tinguished academic reputation.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


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Industry update several years experience in this field. This type ofunit has been installed for a few months in the various filling cen ters of the Dehon Group in France. Bel gium. Switzerland and Spain. Each re clamation unit is made up of a distilla tion group and has storage and mix ing capacity. The distillation system removes the polluted product from the recovery cy linders(under the condition that it is not a mixture which cannot be reprocessed). Then the product is separated from the

Alliston WPCP submersible pumps running since fall of 1989

oil in a distillation tank.

Each station, dedicated to one type of refrigerant(R 12. R 22. R 502) reclaims the product which is then analysed in a laboratory in order to check sys tematically that the specifications of the product meet those required by the producer. So the product, when redistributed, always meets the original specifica tions.

Anaerobic technology The Alliston Water Pollution Control

Plant had four submersible sewage pumps, each with variable frequency, installed in its recent expansion. The Flygt submersibles were installed on the return sludge system. Two were Model CP 3127LT; each with 7 kw. 51 1/s at

8.45 m TDH.The other two pumps were Model CP 3085MT; each with 1.6 kw. 19 1/s at 4.1 m TDH. Each of the four

pumps has its own Eldurail variable fre quency drive which is tied into the main plant flow meter for automatic return

sludge flow variation. The two larger pumps have been running since the fall

Reclamation of CFCs

from New Brunswick

of 1989. The Alliston WPCP is owned and

operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Construction cost of the

expansion was approximately $9.1 mil lion and took almost two years to com plete. The 5681 m^ (1.25 MIGD) plant was commissioned in the summer of 1990. Proctor & Redfern carried out the en

vironmental study report, plant design, and construction supervision. Con struction was carried out by SutherlandSchultz of Kitchener.

to the specifications ofa brand-new pro duct. Indeed only this reclaimed pro

In France

duct will be available to maintain the

Distributors of CFCs have had to cope with new ecological requirements and consequently have set up a system of collection and CFCs.

reclamation of used

These products must be reprocessed

treats municipal and food processing waste

existing installations after the European CFC production stops in June 1997. COG AL.the engineering company of the Dehon group — a leader in distribu tion of refrigerants in Europe — has designed a reclamation unit based on

in California The City of Tulare. California, wanted "a simple, efficient, low-maintenance method of treating combined poultry/ dairy/municipal waste." when it began searching for a suitable system to add to its existing municipal wastewater treat ment plant.

Due to the expansions of the City's industrial park, and other factors, the existing treatment plant had to be up graded. A new system had to effectively treat 2.6 million gallons per day.consist ing of approximately 28% domestic wastewater and 72% dairy/poultry wastewater (Haagen-Dazs. Louis Rich. Adohr's. Kraft General Foods, Dairy men's Co-op).

After initial investigation by the City's consultant, it was concluded that anae robic treatment would be the most cost-

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Environmemal Science & Engineering. July 1992


Continuous Emission

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Solution Measured components include: NO,N0„ NOx,S0„ Hfl, TPS,HCl, HE,HCN, Cf C10„ CO,, CO,0„ THC,VOC,Opacity and MassElow. Whatevertheproblem,Westech has the experience and the equipment to provide the solution.

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Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


Industry update effective means of handling the increased loading and meeting effluent limits. Pilottestingofseveral systems indicated that the ADI-BVF® technology engin eered by ADIfrom Fredericton,NB would be the best choice for the City's needs. As a result, the City proceeded with instal lation of a full-scale BVF™ system. The BVF reactor is a 31 million gallon lined basin in which the organic matter in the wastewater is converted into bio-

gas and other end products. The reactor is covered with a floating, flexible, in sulated membrane cover which pre vents escape of odors and allows for collection and use of biogas. Sometime in 1992 a portion of the biogas will be burned in a 450 kw engine-driven ge nerator. It will supply the electrical

energy needs of the entire (municipal and industrial) waste treatment facili ties.

The system is providing BOD remov als of over 90 percent. The reactor is designed to handle up to 4.4 million gallons per day(at a COD of3700 mg/1). in anticipation of future industrial park expansions. The anaerobic system ef fluent is discharged into two aeration basins and four waste stabilization

ponds for polishing, and finally crop irrigation. Due to the large sludge storage capa-

MacViro recently held a successful 'beat the recession' reception at Its head office. Shown left to right are Sid Glllespie, President of MacViro Consultants, Jill Almond, P.Eng.,Assistant Project Manager, Marathon Realty,Howard Shrlmpton,P.Eng.,Vice

President of MacVIro, Nick Vardin, P. Eng., Commissioner of Public Works and the Environment, City of Toronto. Photo Tom Davey

city of the ADI-BVF reactor, sludge wasting is not anticipated for several years.

ADI provided all engineering ser vices. from pilot plant study through facility commissioning and start-up. in cluding design, development of specifi

cations and drawings, construction supervision, and production of a pro cess operating manual. The system was installed in 1989 for a cost of approximately S5 million, while the co-gen unit was added in 1991 at a cost of $1 million. ES&E

Letter to the Editor Dear Tom.

ROBERT B. SOMERVniEoo- mc.

Our corporate announcement in the February/March 1992 issue of your ma gazine went across very smoothly and leads us to believe that we have made the

correct decisions with respect to style and message to stimulate thought and comment on our activities. We have had

feedback from as far away as the Maritimes that our professional colleagues have noticed and commented on the announcement. Our friends closer to

home have also done so in great

We Go Under

numbers. The feedback reminds us that we have

many friends out there who wish us well.

It has also paved the way to some extent to the formation of some new friend

Major Hlgh"ways^

Conservation Areas

'Landfills

ships. Please accept our thanks for your

Rivers

input and advice on the development of what we consider to be a bold announ cement.One that has been so successful

Waste Sites

in its effect in carrying the message of our business launch.

For A Trenchless Environment '^Directional Drill" Canada — CAM TYHURST Phone: 519-776-8727 Fax: 519-776-6616

Thank you for your encouragement and good advice on these matters and for the other enjoyable philosophical

US. — FRED BRITT Phone: 903-784-0866 Fax: 903-784-2995

discussions we have shared.

H.A. Barran, P.Eng., M.B.A. Manager, Engineering Hardat A. Barran Engineering Inc.

For more iriformation, Circle reply card No. 186

Environmental Science d Engmeering, July 1992


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Industry Update Telecom funds two

Ontario air quality showed slight improvement in 1990 The number of ozone incidents des-

creased slightly during 1990 according to a report on air quality in Ontario re leased by the Ministry of the Environ ment. In 1990, there were 13 days where ozone levels exceeded the provincial air quality criteria of 80 parts per billion, down from 36 and 18 such days for 1988 and 1989 respectively. The report also states that undesir able air quality levels were reached on a

grad student projects Mark O'Neill, a doctoral student at Car-

drocarbons, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. In the early 1980s, there was an improvement for carbon monoxide and total reduced sulphur emissions, but in the last eight years average carbon mon oxide levels have remained constant.

In spite of a slight improvement, ground level ozone guidelines were ex

ceeded more often than the guideline of any other air pollutant in Ontario dur ing 1990. While naturally occurring number ofoccasions and that moderate ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial to to poor air quality was recorded for at life by shielding the earth from harmful

ultra-violet(U.V.)radiation given off by the sun. high concentrations ofozone at include such contaminants as ozone, ground level are a major health and en suspended solids, sulphur dioxide,total vironmental concern. At ground level, reduced sulphur, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, a component of smog, is injuri ous to species of vegetation and can hydrocarbons. According to the report, ambient air cause eye and lung irritation. The Ontario routine air monitoring quality in Metro Toronto was worse least one hour at all Air Quality Index

sites. The provincial air quality criteria

leton University, is studying the use of carbon dioxide in a supercritical state as a way of removing toxic substances from plastics. Judith Schneider, can didate for a master's degree in biology at the University of Ottawa, is looking at the impact of a commonly-used her bicide on aquatic life. Both are the first recipients of Environmental Research Scholarships offered by Telecom Canada.

Mr. O'Neill thinks supercritical car bon dioxide may be a very effective way

of removing toxic substances within plastics as well as the residue of those they may contain,e.g. plastic containers for pesticides. Carbon dioxide is super critical when it is above its critical tem

that in Montreal, Vancouver. Boston,

network has a total of 418 instruments:

perature and pressure. In this state it is a very dense gas that can penetrate solids, such as polymers, which are composed of densely-packed fibers. Supercritical

Atlanta and Chicago for the most recent comparable year, 1989. This was based on a system where each city was ranked according to five individual criterion contaminants (carbon monoxide, nit rogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulates) using all the data measured in the monitoring networks in each metropolitan area. Ten-year trends show a slight im provement for sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate levels and a sig nificant improvement in lead levels but little change in suspended particles, hy

279 continuous monitors and 139 hi-

carbon dioxide will make contact with

volume particulate samplers. Out of 48

the toxic chemicals within the fibers as

ozone stations, 45 recorded at least one

well as those adhering to them.

Bacteria-based biosensor â&#x20AC;&#x201D; better than fish? British researchers are developing a bio sensor that may detect a wider range of pollutants than present systems using fish. It will be able to monitor intakes at water treatment works.

The Water Research Centre (WRc),

Luton College of Higher Education and the Cranfield Institute of Technology claim to have developed a system that is cheaper,simpler and easier to maintain than conventional systems. The bac teria Synechococcus is immobilised bet ween inorganic filters on an electrode. The electrode is placed in a flow of water

occasion where the one-hour Air Qua

lity Index for ozone was exceeded. For suspended particles, 25 out of the 43 stations recorded levels of suspended particles in excess of the 24-hour cri terion.Copies ofthe rt-porUAir Quality in through the ministry's Public Informa tion Centre, at 135 St. Clair Ave. West.

able.

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current which can be monitored by

Ms. Schneider is examining the ef fects of a herbicide used extensively by

the forestry industry to prepare refores tation sites, and by utilities to control weeds on rights-of-way in wooded areas.

computer.

But after rainfalls, the herbicide may be

Any pollutant disrupting the meta bolic processes produces a measureable

carried by surface and underground

reduction in the electric current.

She says previous research has shown

water run-off into nearby waterways.

The scientists believe that the system

that the herbicide will kill off much of

will be more responsive to pesticides and herbicides. A field prototype will be available by the end of 1991. The WRc team is now ready to design a biosensor

the algae in streams and rivers, thereby reducing the number ofinsects that feed on it. To measure more precisely the

to monitor wastewater.

extent of this adverse effect,she plans to construct two sets of artificial channels in a stream. Into the different channels

VP Elected

in one set she will put varying concen

John F. Gartner, P.Eng., President of Gartner Lee Limited and a Consulting Engineering Geologist has been elected

trations of herbicide. The other control set will remain untouched.

Vice President of the Canadian Geos-

chemical mediator, potassium ferricyanide, are added to the water to activate

Mines and Resources National Indus

the bacteria and electrons produced by their metabolic processes are trans ferred from the mediator to the elec

trial Advisory Committee to the Geolo gical Survey of Canada. The Survey is celebrating its 150th Anniversary this

trode. This generates a small electric

year.

10

tract toxic substances from sand but

very little such work has been done on plastics. He favours carbon dioxide in its supercritical state because it is nontoxic. inexpensive, and readily-avail-

cience Council.This Council represents some 16.000 geoscientists in Canada.In addition, he was recently appointed Chairman of the Minister of Energy

drawn from the intake. A nutrient and

He says there has been some research on the use of supercritical fluids to ex

By comparing the diversity of insects, their number and size before and after the treatment. Schneider will determine

changes and consequently,any harmful effects the herbicide may have pro duced. Telecom

Canada

established

the

$2500 annual scholarships, one each at Ottawa's two universities,in 1991 as part of its 60th Anniversary celebration.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


Industry Update Pipe Association

leyfield. Quebec was elected Chairman of the Board. Wilf Gray, Concrete Pipe Company of Mississauga. Ontario is

formed

Vice-Chairman and Bob Wood. Con

Canadian Concrete

A group of some 30 producers of con crete pipe, and suppliers of materials has formed the Canadian Concrete

Pipe Association with its head office in Toronto. At the present time Quebec and Ontario concrete pipe producers have provincial associations (Tubecon in Quebec and QCPA in Qntario).

Those two groups are now affiliated to the new organization that will also

cond general meeting to be held in Quebec next June.

members are elected for a two year

Chairman Tache says"that coordina tion of research and development, pro motion. education and government re lations pertaining to the marketing of high quality precast concrete was

term.

tewater and storm drainage products in

Several proposals for possible course of action were formulated by the mem bership for immediate consideration by the Board of Directors who. after study, will submit an action program at a se

Canada, will be of benefit to. and in the best interest of all concerned" — the

Cast Pipe. Guelph. Ontario is Secretary Treasurer. All three executive board

industry,the specifiers,the builder(con tractor) and the general public". continued overleaf

maintain close contacts with its Ameri

can counterpart, the American Con crete Pipe Association.

The Board of Directors is composed of representatives from the Maritime pro

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Overflow studies David Suzuki,the TV personality and environmental scientist will give the Keynote Address, "Our Environment: New Challenges and New Technolo gies."

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Industry Update tions contractor for the space centre,

Cement Industry Tackles Waste Management At a Symposium entitled Cement Industry Solutions to Waste Management, engin eers and scientists from fifteen countries

will discuss current practices and new technologies in waste disposal. The Symposium will be held at the Conven tion Centre in Calgary. Alberta,October 7, 8&9, 1992.

The meeting will focus on the mul titude of ways that portland cement and concrete can be used to recycle, encap

sulate,stabilize or destroy a wide variety of industrial and domestic waste pro ducts. A special session will be devoted to energy and resource recovery from certain types of waste in the high tem peratures ofthe cement kiln,the key ele ment in the cement manufacturing process.

Dealing with the disposal of a broad range of waste products,from domestic garbage to hazardous industrial sludges, has become a major challenge for both the public and private sectors in Canada, and other countries. Portland cement

can be used to chemically or physically alter specific wastes to allow safe land filling. Concrete can be used for encap sulation or containment of waste to pro vide safe storage. Concrete has been

Solarchem cleans up space shuttle launches Solarchem Environmental Systems Inc. ofRichmond Hill,Ont.recently beat out three U.S.competitors to supply a clean up system for waste water created at the National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Solarchem's Rayox® system will treat

announced that Solarchem won the

$231,465 (U.S.) contract. The system will be built in Richmond Hill and should be delivered by Novem

sprayed over large volume wastes as a shield to reduce leachates to acceptable levels. These and several other topics will be addressed by symposium speakers. Organic wastes such as used tires, domestic garbage and waste petroleum products all contain potential energy that can be used as a partial fuel replace ment in the portland cement manufac turing process. Selected inorganic wastes can be recycled as raw feed for cement manufacturing. Speakers at the Sym posium will present cases where these processes are an integral part of the day to day cement manufacturing process. New research that is ongoing to find more and better ways to dispose of waste will also be presented. The Symposium is sponsored by the

ber.

Call for papers for PCA01993conference The Pollution Control Association of

Ontario will be hosting its Annual Con ference from April 4-7. 1993 at the Regal Constellation in Toronto.

A strong Technical Program is planned, encompassing diverse aspects of pollu tion prevention and control, including topics covering academic, legal, muni cipal and industrial fields. These will be held in conjunction with a large equip ment exhibit and an Operations" Challenge. Those interested in presenting a paper or poster on behalfof your organization, please FAX a one page abstract to the PCAO office at(416)502-1786,attention Mrs.Sandy Pickett. Abstracts should be received by September 30. 1992.

Canadian Portland Cement Associa

tion, representing the Canadian portland cement manufacturing industry. For more information,contact: Robert

W. Piggott P.Eng., Regional Director, Canadian Portland Cement Associa

tion, 201-1155 West Pender Street, Van couver, British Columbia V6E 2P4.

New directory gives

Phone: (604) 685-0582, Fax: (604) 6851574.

envlro-contacts Entries range from abandoned mines to zoo associations. They include govern ment departments — federal to munici pal — the acts they administer and the programs they run with all the contact

the water used to clean the launch pad of spent rocket fuel and other toxic che micals formed in combustion following each space shuttle launch. The system destroys toxic contaminents in the water by using ultra violet light to create hydroxyl radicals. These are atmospheric scavengers with an appetite for electrons and willing to break up toxic compounds to get them. EG&G Florida Inc., the base opera

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Environmental Science <& Engineering. July 1992


Industry Update ject or category of use. And for help with regulations and compliance there is a directory of lawyers practicing environ

Summa to represent Great Lakes Instruments in Eastern Canada

mental law.

The Canadian Environmental Direc

tory also provides statistics on our na tional performance, overview essays on critical issues and a chronology of events of the past year. $175. Canadian Almanac & Directory Publishing Co. Ltd. (416) 362-4088 Fax: 362-4181.

For more Information

Great Lakes Instruments have appoin ted Summa Engineering Limited to sell its product line. As GLLs Canadian re presentative east of Manitoba, Summa will be selling the complete product line with the exception oflevel instrumenta tion and the Zullig Dissolved Oxygen James D. Burke, GLLs International

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Thames — that he will not tolerate "excessive" returns to

shareholders because their money is locked into a cast iron

year as big water bills followed hard hivestmenl. The water firms are gradually changing their attitude to on bumper pay rises for the men at the their customers,althou^ according to Mr Byatt, there was

top.

still a long way to go. Ian Byatt, director general of the watchdog Ofwat. re However, be pointed out that many customers did not vealed today that complaints leapt by 130 per cent — to fuUy understand that water firms ntntded big profits to help

10.S3S. The vast majority were about Ui price of water,

them maintain the investment needed to provide pure Mr Byatt warned the water firros — led by Roy Warts's drinking water and clean rivers.

Privatized UK Water Boards hit the headlines in June with complaints up 130%. Angry home-owners bombarded the water industry watchdog with a record number of complaints last year as big water bills followed hard on bumper pay rises for the top executives. Ian Byatt. director general of the watchdog Ofwat. revealed in a June "92. report that complaints leapt by 130 percent — to 10,635. The vast majority were about the price of water. He warned the water firms that he will not tolerate "excessive"" returns to share

holders because their money is locked into a cast iron investment. However,he pointed out that many customers did not fully understand that water firms needed big profits to help them maintain the investment needed to provide pure drinking water and clean rivers. Many customers criticise the profits made by water companies and complain about large price increases. It is important that the companies should be profitable otherwise investors will not provide the funds essential for the completion ofthe £28 billion investment program.(Approximately $60 billion). More than 70 per cent of water firms" profits are reinvested. Although share holders need a return on investment, he said,"this should not be excessive given the low risk nature of the industry."" Mr. Byatt warned he will review the water industry"s prices in 1994. TD

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Environmental Science d Engineering. July 1992

13


us lab team develops risk assessment curriculum Fellow scientist John Knezovich, an environmental chemist and tox-

icologist, said the curriculum does not attempt to answer the question of how much is enough. Rather, the course is designed to give decision makers the skills necessary to gather facts on a caseby-case basis. Varied Skills Because each environmental inci

dent is unique, the model curriculum focuses on the scientific principles and procedures used to develop a realistic method for assessing potential health and environmental risks posed by Individuals assessing risk must examine a multitude of parameters, including, dis tance from the water table, type of waste and the probability of it reaching the popula tion. Photo by S. Davey

You're a city of icial who's dis

covered that an underground tank at a gas station has been leaking solvent into the soil for more than 10 years.Yourjob is to assess the risk to residents and draft a cleanup plan. You could make your recommen dations based on generic data found in handbooks,perhaps issued by a regula tory agency several years ago. Or, you could rely on specific data on the effects of the solvent on humans, the charac teristics of the soil in your area and the

most modern technology available for cleanup.

Assessing risk Five scientists at Lawrence Livermore

National Laboratory have taken on the job of providing tomorrow's decision makers with the knowledge and the tools to make more realistic assessments of risk to humans and the environment

from chemicals leaked, spilled or re leased into the soil, the water or the air.

The scientists, all specialists in envi ronmental sciences, have developed a model curriculum,"Realistic Methodsfor Risk Assessment." It is currently being taught at the UCLA's School of Engin eering and Applied Science.The course, which attracted 25 students this quarter, will be taught soon at Stanford Univer sity and the University of California, Davis.

Environmental sciences leader Lynn

Anspaugh said development of the model risk assessment curriculum will

be integrated into the new Risk Science Program to oe directed jointly by the 14

Lab and UC Davis at the Davis campus. Part of the funding for this effort comes from the Lab.

Risk assessment is not an easy job and debate continues to rage,even in the scientific community, over acceptable levels of exposure — if any — to chemi cals and radioactive elements.

chemicals.

The decision on how best to respond to an incident can be made only after all the facts are determined, Knezovich said.

Tom McKone, who brings his back ground in engineering and chemistry to the group, said there are no actuarial tables for assessing risks to the public from exposure to low concentrations of chemical substances in the environ ment.

So many complex mechanisms are

Bruce Ames, a noted cancer expert speaking at the Laboratory recently, said that many"religious-like" efforts to eliminate traces of synthetic chemicals that are carcinogens in water,food pro ducts and hazardous waste ignore the

involved — human metabolism, for

example — that it is impossible to build a generic model that will apply across the board, McKone added. Each of the members of the scientific

fact that the world is filled with natural

team is responsible for those portions of the curriculum falling into his area of

substances, half of which also cause

expertise.

cancer in high-dose tests with rodents. What's acceptable? According to Lab scientist Jeff Daniels, no one argues over the effect of a high dose ofa systemic poison,such as cyanide. The individual taking the poi son will probably die. On the other hand, if the poison is dumped into a landfill, the individual assessing risk must look at a number of things: the permeability of the ground, the dump's distance from a water table, the changes in the poison over time and distance, and the probability of its reaching a human being or the food chain and in what minute concentra tions.

Then comes the tough question, ac cording to Daniels, who holds environ mental science and engineering de grees: What minute fraction of what's left, taken in over what period of time constitutes an acceptable level of ex posure?

Knezovich, for example, deals with the fate ofchemicals in the environment as well as looks at risk assessment as a

tool for evaluating ecosystem impacts. Daniels deals with dose-response mod els and McKone researches human ex

posure through multiple pathways and the characteristics of air, water and soil as isolated media.

Anspaugh looks at the transport and fate of radionuclides as well as the dose, health effects and risk of radioactive

material in the environment. David Layton, the fifth member of the team, uti lizes his background in water re sources.

Lawrence Livermore National La

boratory, managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy,conducts research and develop ment important to national goals, in cluding national defense. Current re search programs include weapons, energy, biomedicine and the environ ment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


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The meeting will focus on the multitude of ways that portland cement and concrete can be used to recycle, stabilize or destroy a wide variety of industrial and domestic waste products. A special session will be dovoted to energy and resource recovery from certain types of waste in the high temperatures of the cement kiln. Dealing with the disposal of waste products, from domestic garbage to hazardous industrial sludges, has become a major challenge for both the public and private sectors in Canada,and other countries.Pordand cement can be used to chemically or physically alter specific wastes to allow safe land filling. Concrete can be used for encapsulation or containment of waste to provide safe storage. Concrete has been sprayed over large volume wastes as a shield to reduce leachates to acceptable levels. These and several other topics will be addressed.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

15


Worker Safety

Apricot paste causes fatal explosion

Worker safety is a primary goal of the industrial hygiene profession. Oc

casionally, we contribute to the body of knowledge related to

worker safety by determining the cause of unusual accidents after the fact. One

Clayton was supplied with samples of the apricot paste from the exploded drum and asked to determine what had

caused the drum to explode so violently. Our initial speculation was that a fer mentation process had produced high levels ofethanol. However,gas chroma-

such unusual, and unfortunately fatal, accident occurred in Windsor. Ontario.

Clayton Environmental Consultants" Windsor laboratory was consulted to

Slnce acids will react with

help determine the cause of the acci

metal, the paste should have been stored in a plastic or plastlc-llned drum according to Its material safety

dent.

A worker was opening several old steel drums known to contain an apri cot concentrate paste used to produce a juice blend. The drums were over five years old and the contents were to be dis posed of. The worker assigned to open

data sheet.

the drums found that the normal drum

opener would not work because the lids were deformed. He then tried a torch to

open the drums. While the worker was using the torch, a flash from one of the

tographic analysis of the residual paste in the drum's headspace showed no evi dence of fermentation. This fact was

drums occurred. He moved the drum, added some water, and used a hand

confirmed by another laboratory at a

grinder to cut the top off the drum.Dur ing this process,the drum exploded and

yzed the same paste. The apricot paste had a pH of3.5 indi cating that it was very acidic. Since acids

killed the worker.

large Canadian brewery which anal

Reader Feedback on Worker Safety Dear Tom, Your article on Charles Dickens'con

tribution to the early environmental movement(a great writer was felled by an early Punch â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Feb/Mar '92) was a fascinating piece. As you point out, had this article been published the environ mental movement may have started a century earlier. Your comments remin ded me ofsome ofthe early history ofthe chemical industry in my own home town Widnes in England where I got my firstjob as a laboratory technician in the mid-1950's. Even then the pollution was pretty grim since most of the chemical companies payed little attention to air quality. A century earlier, Widnes had been the largest chemical manufacturing town in the world and the air pollution was so bad that it was claimed that there

were very few days when it was possible to see the sun (the sun doesn't shine often in Widnes, anyway!). Apart from the general pollution of the environ ment, workers in the plants faced enor mously high levels of exposure to toxic chemicals.

the steel drum.

Some of the paste was placed in a small glass vessel with steel wool and heated in an oven to 60 degrees to ac

celerate any reaction. After 24 hours of this treatment, gas chromatographic analysis ofthe vapor in the headspace of the glass vessel showed a hydrogen gas content of over 90 percent. The paste was very thick, and during the period in the oven, pockets of gas had formed in the paste. The reaction of the paste with iron was confirmed by analyzing the residual paste from the explosion for its iron content. The analysis confirmed the presence of iron in the paste. Com mercial apricotjam purchased from the local supermarket and used as a control had no detectable quantity of iron. Based on the concentration of iron in

evidenced by the large number of dis carded bread crusts that littered the

plant. This situation was first brought to light at one of the earliest Government enquiries into industrial working con ditions. However, when some of the

workers were called upon to testify at the hearing, they had absolutely no com plaints about their working conditions.

In fact they were convinced that the ex posure to the acid fumes protected them against the much greater scourge of tuberculosis! It would also seem that even from the

earliest days ofthe industrial revolution, workers have been acutely aware of the health and safety hazards that they faced. However, due to social or eco

nomic conditions they usually had no other choices.I think it is important that journals such as yours attempt to bring some sense of realism into the environ

mental debate.To this end,the historical

perspective is important since it con firms that we have achieved major im provements in environmental quality. Keep up the good work.

In the muriatic acid (hydrochloric) Bernard Fleet Ph.D. plant the level of corrosive acid fuijies (Dr. Fleet is president of TRSI. Pro was so great that the workers there ra fessor at the University of Toronto, and pidly lost most of their teeth. This was an ES&E contributor.) 16

will react with metal, the paste should have been stored in a plastic or plasticlined drum according to its material safety data sheet. The initial reason for not using the apricot paste was that the paste had been shipped to our client in a steel drum in which the lining had eroded. A suggestion by one of the che mists with a food processing back ground led to the hypothesis that the explosion might have been caused by hydrogen gas produced by the reaction of the acidic apricot paste with iron in

the paste and the amount of paste in the drum, it was estimated that at least one

mole of hydrogen gas was present in the drum at the time of the explosion. The initial flame observed could have been

hydrogen gas trapped in a pocket at the top of the drum. The hydrogen gas may have been above the upper explosive limit due to the lack of air in the drum

headspace. After the drum was left open for a few minutes and air had diffused in

(and hydrogen gas diffused out), the concentration of hydrogen in the headspace was in the explosive range and sparks from the hand grinder set off the explosion. A subsequent coroner's inquest ac cepted and made recommendations based on these findings. The informa tion from Clayton Environmental Con sultants" accident investigation and the subsequent recommendations should help minimize such accidents in the

future. ES&E qi^qIq ^gpiy

i\Iq 256

For more information

on any of the products or services described in this

issue, use the Reader Service card.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


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Water supply management

A Review of In-Home Water Treatment Devices semi-permeable membrane which al lows water and small organic molecules to pass but traps larger molecules, such as salt and heavy metals. As with the car

drink

bon filters, the filter membrane must be

changed on a regular basis as it even tually will become clogged. Most reverse osmosis units include a sediment filter

and a carbon filter to remove organic material, so these filters must also be

changed on a regular basis. Reverse os mosis filters are very effective at remov ing heavy metals such as lead, alumi num and other trace metals. They will also soften the water to a certain extent

but very hard water will tend to clog the membrane. Reverse osmosis units de

pend very heavily on water pressure to function correctly. Although the mini mum operating pressure for these units is 40 PSl, the higher the pressure, the more effective the unit will be. Most

Public mistrust of municipal water supplies tias led to a boom in the bottled water industry. Potable water vending machines are common in parts of Florida.

home reverse osmosis units are very slow and will only produce up to one litre of water per hour,while the smaller units may take several hours to produce

Photo: Steve Davey

a litre of water. For this reason, most

Every so often Municipal water

removing a large percentage of odours, chlorine,THMs,organic chemicals and pesticides and smaller percentages of

units have a pressurized holding tank so that treated water is readily available. Reverse osmosis units are also very was teful as typically only 10 to 25 percent of the water going into the unit makes it past the membrane.The rest ofthe water goes down the drain. Some units also run all the time, even when the holding

door to door water filter salesman is on

aluminum. But the effectiveness of the

tank is full and this can also waste a

the loose. But have you ever taken the time to think about what these people are selling? Although there are many

filter is very dependent on the size of the

significant amount of water. Reverse os mosis is a technique used in full scale

suppliers will begin to receive a plethora of phone calls, gener ally from the same area, with questions regarding the quality of mu nicipally supplied drinking water. This is usually an indication that the local

trade names and manufacturers, there

are really only four different types ofinhome water treatment devices, granular

water but this only extends the life of the filter slightly, as it only removes a small percentage of what has been trapped by the filter. Carbon filters are effective in

filter and the contact time with the

water. The larger the filter and the lon ger the contact time,the more effective it will be at removing those substances. In

treatment plants. Its most common ap plication is in the desalination of seawater.

other words those small units that fit

activated carbon, reverse osmosis, dis tillation and water softeners.This article

right on the tap are totally useless. Gra

briefly describes each of these systems and explains what they will and will

remove lead or other heavy metals and

Water distillation units boil water, collect the steam and condense the

will not soften the water. The most im

steam back into water. Anything that

not do.

portant thing to remember about a car bon filter is that it must be changed on a regular basis. Once the filter is clogged it will not remove anything and may even release some previously filtered out ma terial back into the water.Clogged filters can also become a breeding ground for bacteria that would actually impair the water quality. Granular activated car bon is one of the techniques used at full scale water treatment plants where the source water is of poor quality.

will not go into steam is, therefore, re

Granular Activated Carbon

Granular activated carbon filters ty pically contain charcoal that has been activated by exposure to steam under intense heat. This process produces a vast array of tiny channels. As water passes through the filter, contaminants stick to the walls of the channels. These

filters will eventually become clogged and have to be replaced. Some systems provide a backwash system with hot

nular activated carbon filters will not

Reverse Osmosis

*AWWA Ontario Section Technical

and Research Committee 18

A reverse osmosis system works somewhat like a sieve. They contain a

Distillation

moved from the water. Distillation units

are very effective at removing chlorine, dissolved solids and heavy metals such as lead.They are typically not very effec tive against organic compounds such as pesticides and THMs. Other than a re-

gularcleaning,distillation units require no routine maintenance. Some units do include a carbon filter and in these

cases, the filter must be changed on a regular basis. Like reverse osmosis, dis tillation is also a very slow process with most household units producing some thing in the order of one litre per hour. Distillation is also relatively expensive

Envirottmenta! Science & Engineering. July 1992


by Brian Doherty* as typical units consume about 6 cents worth of electricity for each litre of water produced. One word of caution about these

and the customer is giving you a hard time, one of the points that you always should make is that drinking water only accounts for about twenty percent ofthe

treatment devices if you are thinking about using them at a location,such as a cottage, that is not serviced with treated drinking water. All three of the above devices will only work if all the bacteria

home water treatment devices is avail able from both the Provincial and Federal Ministries of the Environment.

In addition, the Canadian Consumer

drinking water oniy accounts for about twenty percent of the toxic chemicais that we absorb

has been first removed from the water so

toxic chemicals that we absorb into our

Magazine, 1990 no. 7 & 8, produced by

in an application such as thatyou would also require a unit such as a chlorinator

bodies. Eating and breathing account for the remaining eighty percent. Further information regarding in-

the Consumers Association of Canada,

or ozonator to disinfect the water.

contained an excellent article on this

topic.

Water Softeners Water softeners have been available

for a number of years and, although there are several makes available, most function in the same manner. It is dis

solved calcium and magnesium that makes water hard. Water softeners re

move these minerals by running the water through a resin bed that is satur

DISSOLVED OXYGEN TRANSMITTER

ated with sodium ions. The water ex

changes calcium and magnesium(hard ions) for sodium (soft ions) in the resin bed. Eventually the resin bed will be come saturated with hard ions and it

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must be regenerated. This is accom plished by running a brine solution through the resin bed.The hard ions are replaced by the soft ions in the brine

drain. The only maintenance required

DISSOLVED OXYGEN MONITOR

is the addition of salt to the unit on a

"For control applications

regular basis so the unit should be lo cated where it is easily accessible. Per sons on sodium reduced diets should be wary of drinking softened water as the process does add sodium to the water. In addition, soft water is usually more cor

where measurement

solution and then flushed down the

rosive and can leach the lead out oflead

solder-s, thereby, increasing the lead content of the water. Typical household units can remove about 20,000 grains of hardness between regeneration. Scar borough's water has a hardness of 9.3 grains per imperial gallon which means the filter would have to regenerate every 2,100 gallons and would consume about 2 kilograms of salt in the process. The amount of water used in the regenera tion process varies greatly from unit to unit, but some can use up to 300 gallons per cycle which is not only wasteful but could also get expensive if your family

mi u.u.

integrity is critical" The Model 5520 Dissolved Oxygen Monitor Is designed for continuous measurement of D.O. wherever accurate D.O. measurement is needed. Using a field proven galvanic membraned sensor, this new D.O. monitor can be programmed to provide a 4-20 mA output over any range from 0-2 to 0-20 PPM. Also provided is a separate 4-20 mA output proportional to temperature over ranges from 0-10 to 0-50 degrees C. Two programmable alarms are standard, with adjustable deadband for on/off control. For more information, Circle reply card No. 147

uses a lot of soft water.

If you do get enquiries about water quality and in-home treatment devices Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

utnma

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Energy from waste

Landfill methane now generates 23 megawatts

Eastern Power Developers de

veloped the concept, and is currently operating the Brock West Landfill Gas Power Plant

fI I I I

in Pickering east of Metro-Toronto. A 23 Megawatt facility, the plant will save over 2000 tons of acid rain emissions per year by displacing coal fired power.The project is the first of its kind in Canada, and is able to satisfy the electrical needs of6000 homes.The power plant is fuelled by landfill gas produced by the anae robic bacteria present in the refuse. This

I M 1 M I t I I M 1 I I

I M I

I I 1,1 I

resource would otherwise have to be

■»f i ^ I 1

flared (eg: wasted). Metro-Toronto and the Town of Pic

kering will be paid an estimated $14 million over the first ten years of opera tion in the form of royalties by Eastern Power Developers Inc. Ontario Hydro purchases all of the power produced by this facility, under a 20 year contract with Eastern Power Developers Inc. a wholly Canadian owned company,cur rently in the process of developing an other landfill gas fuelled power plant at

Two centrifugal blowers which draw 5000 ftVm each from the landfill site, and feed It to the burners on the boilers.

the Keele Valley Landfill Site in Maple, Ontario. Methane is one of the most potent

greenhouse gases and has been iden tified as a major contributor to global continued overleaf

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Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


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Landfill Methane continued BOILER BO. 1

warming. Landfill gas consists of 50% CO2 and 50% methane. This plant is an economically self sufficient greenhouse

FROH LAMDFILI

NDFILL

SITE

gas reducer. The process used at the Brock West Power Plant involves piping the landfill gas from the gas collection system to two boilers located in an adjacent power plant building. The landfill gas is burned in each boiler by a low BTU gas burner, thus heating the water to pro

STACK

BOILER NO. 2 LANDFILL GAS BLOWERS H GH PRESSURE STEAH

EASTERN POWER DEVELOPERS INC. TURBINE

Steam produced by the boilers is used to drive a full condensing steam turbine, which in turn drives a 23 megawatt syn chronous generator. The steam is con densed back to water by a wet surface

BASIC SCHEMATIC LOU PRESSURE STEAM

WET SURFACE AIR-COOLED CONDENSER

air-cooled condenser and returned to

feedwater and the wet surface air-cooled

condenser spray water is taken from two infiltration galleries near West Duffins Creek. The boiler feedwater make-up is further purified by a reverse osmosis unit and a mixed bed deionizer.

To maximize the efficiency of the plant, the flue gases from each boiler

GENERATOR

BROCK WEST POWER PLANT

duce steam.

the feedwater heating system before being reintroduced to the boilers. Make-up water for both the boiler

TO ONTARIO HYDRO

r

'

CONDENSATE PUHPS

pass through an economizer before be ing expelled up the stack.Three stages of feedwater heating using turbine extrac tion steam improve the plant efficiency. The plant is staffed by 13 licensed sta tionary engineers who operate and maintain the plant on a 24 hour/day, 7 day/week basis. The electricity generated by the plant

is stepped up from 13,800 V to 44,000 V by a transformer, and then transmitted to Ontario Hydro's grid. Air quality in both the Town of Pic kering and the Province of Ontario has improved as a result ofthis project. Prior

to the power plant going into service the landfill gas was burned in four flares. Now it is burned in two new boilers which

provide better mixing of the fuel which ensures more complete combustion. The higher point of discharge from the stack also results in better flue gas dispersion. By displacing 23 megawatts of On tario Hydro's coal fired power, the Brock West Power Plant has reduced

...is mass flow

MASS FLOW METERS

acid rain emissions(SO2) by over 2,000 tons per year and has reduced green house gas emissions (CO2) by over 250,000 tons per year. For more information, Circle reply card No. 249

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Environmentai Science & Engineering. July 1992


U.K. Report

by Tompavey

EC's blue flag designates safe UK bathing beaches the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066 in what was the first Battle of Britain.

"'•j"'' tVui.

BYPASS CONTRa

'fV-'-vrV

MANHOLE

L^3r.^«.^ r~..-

'.•'.r e'

STORMWATER OUTL£T MA^MOLE

UNDS^PLOW CXniETPlPE

drawn inwards and downwards to the STORM DISCHARGE

SANITARY SEWER CXMTROL MANHOLE

REG-LPFLO VORTEX VALVE

EXISTING DRY WEATHER FLOW BYPASS

Hastings has a two mile long outfall into the English Channel, giving additional beach protection. A major departure from the conven tional approach was the installation of five Storm King Overflows along with 10 Reg-u-Flo Vortex Valves(see drawings). With the Storm Kings, solids are

STORMWATER SEWER

REG^imO VORTEX VALVE

centre base and directed straight to the sewerage system with the comparatively clean water diverted from the system, into the streams and ultimately to the sea.

SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

MAX PSMITTED DISCHARGE

SANITARY SEWB1

TOWWTP

OF A TYPICAL STORM KING DYNAMIC SEPARATOR INSTALLATION

There's a new Battle of Britain

being fought on UK beaches — this time the prize is the covetted blueflag of the Euro pean Community.In 1976 an EC Direc

When first installed in 1984, the sys tems were comparatively new.Since the

flood control equipment was installed, the system has been monitored by con sultants on behalf of Southern Water, a STORMWATEH SEWER

privatized water board. Bexhill-on-

overloading of the sewerage system. A short sewage outfall was sealed and the flow diverted to Hastings where William

Sea's EC blue flag — still flying the sum mer of'92 — is the final seal of approval that the system has worked as designed. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 248

tive laid down strict standards before an

Announcement

EC 'blue flag', could be flown. The blue flags are an EC seal ofapproval,indicat ing those beaches which have EC safe water quality standards forbathing. Na turally there are strong economic con siderations for holiday resorts quali fying for the right to fly the blue flag. But even in 1992,many British beaches still could not meet the blue flag stan dards. When I was there in June, the

issue was a continuing media event sim ply because not qualifying for the flag can be costly to some resorts. A rival UK beach safety flag was being touted but I think the EC flag will be the one sought out by vacationers.

As in Canada, many factors can con tribute to beach water quality. In recent years,the(UK)Consumers Association carried out its own viral and bac

teriological tests on 15 beaches over a ten day period and only one,Bexhill-on-

Sea, a Kent resort on the English Chan nel, passed on both counts. A major factor in Bexhill's success was the minimization of animal fecal

matter being flushed into the sea during flood conditions. In addition to the en

gineering approach, Bexhill also sup plied additional litter bins and 'doggie

X Adei Ashamaiia, P.Eng

Donald Kemp, P.Eng

The President of MacViro Consultants Inc.,Sid Glllespie,P.Eng.,Is pleased to announce the appointment of Adei F. Ashamaiia, P.Eng., as Manager of the Water Resources Engineering Group and F. Donald Kemp, P.Eng., as Manager of the Water and Wastewafer Treatment Group. Mr. Ashamaiia has more than 25 years of diversified experience In Canada and abroad Including municipal engineering, water resources, hydrotechnlcal studies, stormwater management, and hydraulic and hydrologic analyses. Mr. Kemp has more than 15 years of experience In Industrial and municipal wastewafer treatment, water treatment and environmental planning. MacVIro Is a firm of consulting engineers, planners and scientists specializ ing In the environment.

bins'for animal feces while also forbid

ding some areas of beaches to dogs. Bexhill also undertook several public works, designed to relieve flooding and

MaeVIro Consultants Inc.

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 134

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

23


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Fighting the iow bid mentaiity

By Tom Davey

Value — not price — is vital in choosing environmental lab services

Imagine the scenario. Your worst fears have been realized and doctors

have recommended surgery. But, once sedated, your fears have given way to more reassuring thoughts as they wheel you along the corridors enroute to the operating theatre. You know you have had X-rays, brain scans and a bat tery of tests done on state-of-the-art equipment. Then results were inter preted by specialists with years of train ing. Moreover,as a Canadian you know that our medical teams are among the best in the world. As the anaesthetic is administered

you are surrounded by a team ofgowned masked experts, the cream of the medi cal profession, trained and dedicated to restoringyou to health. Collectively they represent decades of intensive research and training. As the anaesthetic takes over your mind, you replay this com bination of high-tech health expertise as a final reassurance. But suddenly a star tling thought occurs: after all this stateof-the-art training and technology, what

if the actual scalpel blade was chosen with price the determining factor? The situation is not as far fetched as it

seems. Many purchasers of environ mental laboratory services are driven by price, not quality. Considering the fact that millions, sometimes hundreds of millions of dollars, could rest on the

accuracy and integrity of environmen tal analyses, it is as senseless to drive down lab fees through a low bid ethos as it would be to 'low-bid' scalpel blade purchases. Literally and metaphorical ly lab fees are but the tip of the moun tainous costs of environmental remedi

ation projects, real estate deals, litiga tion, corporate reputations and other

Don Mackay, Ph.D, P.Eng, a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Toronto, wrote a brilliant article in the February 1989 issue of ES&E in which he coined the phrase: the incomprehensibility of tinyness. He also suggested remedial action in Canada was suffering from 'jurisdictional overkill' or, as he put it paralysis by analysis.

geon to perform a vascectomy?"* Put simply all labs are not alike.Some are better equipped than others; some are better staffed; others are simply bet ter run. Moreover the analytical field has seen quantum leaps in its capabili ties in recent years which are virtually unmatched in any field. What other sci entific profession could match this pro gress of upgrading testing capabilities from one part per ten thousand to parts per quadrillion in less than three decades? Dr. Don Mackay,writing in an earlier ES&E, called this The incom

prehensibility of tinyness: "We are now dealing with concentrations in the range of nanograms, picograms or femtograms per litre. Even scientists have difficulty remembering what these prefices mean," he noted.

Put simply all labs are not alike. Some are better equipped than others: some are better staffed: others are simply better run.

Canadian Association of Environmen

tal Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL); what about errors and omissions insur

ance on analyses performed; what about knowledge and coverage of envi ronmentally significant parameters? These are some of the questions clients should be asking before they come to the area of price. Value, not price, is your best safe guard. Earlier this year a BC man was jailed for 90 days for an environmental offence. But corporate executives face other hazards as well as jail terms. In a recent Ontario case, the court was criti

cal ofthe cost cutting measures imposed by a Vice President which "overloaded" one of his more junior officers, leaving him insufficient time to deal with en vironmental issues. Both the President

and Vice president of Bata Industries Limited were convicted offailing to take "all reasonable care to prevent the cor poration from causing or permitting an unlawful discharge" under the Ontario Water Resources Act.**

Not only were fines of $12,000 each

environmentally related projects. We are not talking about buying blin dly here.The lab industry is highly com petitive and there is nothing wrong with trying to get the best deal for your com pany. But quality control and quality as surance(QC/QA) — not mere price — should be the motivational factors. Re

cently I posed the question during a pre sentation at the Association of the Che mical Profession of Ontario annual

meeting: "Do your clients use the low bid scenario when contemplating a sur-

It cannot be stressed too strongly that the cost of analytical data is minuscule at the front end; the factors they apply to are often astronomically costly as end results.

Don't be afraid to ask some questions. Does your lab use published and ap proved methodologies recognized by such agencies as the EPA or MOE re garding recommended sampling fre quencies; what about round robin studies performed by Environment Ca nada, Environment Ontario or the

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

imposed, but the corporation was for bidden from indemnifying the two di rectors for the payment of their fines. While laboratories were not a factor in

the ES&E report ofthis case,the senten ces were a chilling reminder ofthe value of reliable analytical environmental data obtained from reputable labora tories.

* A reportofthls meeting was published in May '92 issue of ES&E, page 22. ** Both cases are reported on page 55, ES&E May '92. 25


fl

fmt CANVIRO, our quality program begins with your Initial contact with our laborator From sample container preparation through the reporting of your results, established QA/QC procedures are strictly followed. A dedicated QA/QC officer oversees and revlev

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26

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


Wastewater treatment operations

By R.J. Willcocks, P.Eng.

Ontario digester gas code â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the debate continues

Anumber of consulting engin

eers as well as suppliers of products and civil servants make up the committee which has worked on the preparation of the B105 Digester Gas Safety Code over the last number of years. It is the intention of the Regulators that the Code will be

come a national standard which would

parallel other CSA or Government standards.

There are a number of existing anae robic digestion systems in Ontario and elsewhere in the Country for that matter, that do not meet the requirements ofthe Code as is mentioned in the article. My question is whether or not systems which were installed during the late

1970's or 1980's to previous versions of the Code are really that "Unsafe". There has been pressure to issue a Code for digester gas safety which is enforceable and mandatory for some time.Previous versions ofthe Code have

been used by designers but compliance was optional. Designs for many MOE operated plants going back to the early 1980's required compliance with the Code. The MOE Design and Equip ment Section Issued Design Guidelines in 1983 for MOE operated plants which

Code compliant digester tanks at H.M. Baiiey Water Pollution Control Plant in Sas katchewan. Designed by Gore & Storrie, an 11.4 MUd expansion was completed late 1991.

problem areas are possibly the digesters

siderably more quickly than a relatively minor design change. By their nature, digester gas systems require propor tionally higher maintenance. Because it

basic digester gas safety questions are not that complex and were resolved by earlier versions of the Code. The real which have had no work done to them

is an Installation Code, there is little

were based on the B105-81 Code. These

since they were constructed in the early

Guidelines named specific equipment requirements and gave suggested sys tem layouts for the various components ofthe digester gas system.In some cases, systems and materials which were per mitted by the Code itself were not con sidered acceptable for MOE plants. As someone who has designed sys tems to meet "Codes" going back to the

1970's or before that. With the current state of Provincial

mention of maintenance requirements in the Code.There is no minimum oper

SR105 code in the 1970"s, I am con-

and Municipal expenditures, who is ex pected to complete this expensive work? How does Code enforcement raise the

money required? Any operator can tell you how difficult it is to get annual oper ating budgets approved even to allow for the recent changes in other regulatory requirements such as sludge disposal.

With the current state of Province and Municipal expenditures, who is expected to compiete

this expensive work?

cerned that successive revisions make

changes without apparent reason. Cer tainly the changes for the most part, are minor. Successive revisions give the im pression that previously accepted prac tices are now unsafe.The need for man

datory inspections gives this impression to the layman who has not followed the evolution of the Code. Designs of com plex systems evolve over time but surely *LaFontaine, Cowie, Buratto & Associates

let alone worry about routine main tenance of systems as they start to wear out. If an expansion at a plant is not planned,how is a costly expenditure for modifying the gas system incorporated into an annual budget? The cost would exceed the emergency reserve fund which most plants have to make major repairs. In an installed system, minor "design" changes can be expensive to implement.

ator qualification requirement either. The Ministry training programme gives courses in operation of digester systems and the licensing process may cover this requirement in Ontario. Other provin ces may not have a similar system. Let me deal with the implementation schedule. Aside from the economics,the

CGA has indicated that they are con

siderably behind schedule in the review of designs which are being submitted. As an example, drawings were submit ted to the CGA in January 1991 foranew

digester system which we designed to the 1987 version of the Gas Code. As of the

time the digesters were commissioned in April 1992, there was no formal com menton those drawings by CGA.In that time period, the 1987 Code was re placed. A field inspection by CGA staff of the installed system before com

missioning, revealed some relatively minor deficiencies in the design with respect to the new code as compared to the 1987 Code.

An example ofa deficiency is the need for check valve on the discharge from the low pressure gas booster to the boiler. This was not indicated as a re-

It seems to me that lack of main

tenance can make systems unsafe con

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

contlnued overleaf 27


Wastewater treatment operations con t quirementofthe 1987 Code but is shown on a schematic in the 1981 Code. CGA staff indicated that this 1981 schematic

is still applicable in spite of the many changes in the Code. I am not sure that anyone outside of CGA would even consider that such a situation exists.

Many people may not even have the 1981 Code.

The 1981 Code required gas boosters for all boilers even when it was not re

quired for some low pressure burners. On one ofour projects, we did not install the gas booster because the burner could operate at a pressure as low as 75

does not totally comply with the Code or as otherwise approved. The MOE Ap provals Branch was indicated as being the appropriate authority to apply to with respect to this deviation although the system is owned by the municipality. Having taken more than a year to get any comment on the gas system and knowing how hard pressed the MOE Approvals Branch is to issue a CofA for a project for systems with which they are more familiar, it would be interesting to see how the process would work. I ex pect, the path of least resistance would be to follow the letter of the Code. In the

spectors could use the lists for orders against municipalities for unsafe work places.This seems to be the real thrust of where the Gore and Storrie article was

pointing. In the project which I referred to, the Ministry of Labour gave their approval of the plant as originally de signed.The CGA staffsuggested getting a deviation for the check valve which

suggests their agreement to the system as installed. Who takes responsibility of arguing with the MOL inspector whe ther their directive is truly a safety issue? As soon as such orders are given,it is dif ficult for anyone to take the respon sibility to have it rescinded. If a Code is "Enforceable",it gives the

able to indicate to the CGA and the

meantime, these digesters are produc ing gas which is being flared off to the atmosphere which is of concern to an

connotation that the provisions of the

MOE (who operate the plant) that the

other Branch of the MOE.

Code are defensible in a court of law. It

mm of water column. Because the code

was not mandatory at that time, we were

booster was not necessary and this was

accepted. A gas booster may be required when the gas burner requires a mini mum operating gas supply pressure

This is certainly a minor variation and has very little to do with safety. If however there were an accident at this

which is above a minimum digester

operating pressure or there is too much line loss in the connecting line between the digester and the boiler. How this relates to safety I'm not sure. Burner controls are designed to be failsafe and

when gas supply pressure is lost the bur ner is shut off. Most burners will switch

to the back-up fuel automatically. To meet the new mandatory code, a compressor which is expensive and complicates the system considerably is required for all low pressure systems.

would be interesting to see how the courts would interpret the contradictory provisions ofthe newCode as compared to earlier ones especially in light of the permitted deviations aspect. As a start, permitted deviations could be given to all systems which have been installed and inspected using the 1981 or 1987

Our designs 15 years ago,

versions of the Code at least until the

were safer than American

implementation frenzy dies down or for some specific time frame. As noted

designs are now and I am not aware that there have been

major problems in the United States either.

above schematics in the 1981 Code

still apply. Operator safety was the underlying reason for the need for this Code going back 15 years. Any real hazards were addressed in earlier Codes and by the

New boilers must be located at least 15

MOE Guidelines.The lack of minimum

metres from the digester, and in most

maintenance requirements may be of more concern than design. Catas trophic failures in Ontario in anaerobic digesters have certainly been infrequent and possibly non-existent in my 20-year experience. Our designs 15 years ago, were safer than American designs are

cases, the gas booster will be required because of the line pressure losses. This is a technical consideration and should

not be a regulatory consideration. The next question is whether it is "safer" to allow the gas pressure to equalize back into the digester where it can be controlled(our design as recom mended by the boiler supplier) or to keep the gas at the higher pressure be tween the digesters and the remote boiler, where there is no means to re

lieve it except to atmosphere or through the boiler (1981 Code). This is of even more concern in larger plants where gas

is stored at high pressure. There is no means to vent stored gas to the waste gas burner and the sphere over-pressure re lief releases gas directly to the atmo sphere if the pressure is too great in the sphere. This is supposedly a "Prohi bited" practice although it is obviously a safety consideration under the pressure vessels code. For a high pressure system, the discharge check valve is technically required. There is provision to allow the operat ing authority to grant a deviation to the new Code for "minor" variations and

this was suggested in this case. Techni cally however, it is now "illegal" for the system to be in operation if the system 28

plant, even an unrelated one, what would the liability implications be? It certainly seems that the thought process in implementing the Code is incomplete and whenever it is tied to the legal sys tem it will certainly be complicated more. There is obviously a transition period as the CGA (Canadian Gas As sociation) receives frantic calls from operating authorities to do a back-log of inspections and this will self-correct

now and 1 am not aware that there have

been major problems in the United States either. The more complex that a system is made,the more difficult it is to properly maintain and operate. A num ber of the cover failures for example have occurred because ofoperation and maintenance which are not covered in

itself.

the code. It is too bad that the current code has been formalized at a time when cost res

traints will make it virtually impossible to comply with. That is not to say that Operator safety should be sacrificed for a cost. These ongoing inspections will simply sit in files until and unless an accident occurs when they will be used to delegate liability probably when the non-compliance with the code would have very little to do with the accident. I have already seen cases where the CGA deficiency list serves as the basis for operator safety committees to con sider to refuse to work in the digester area of a plant. Ministry of Labour in

What would prompt an owner to

spend considerable amounts of money to change what was accepted in the 1981 Code for example, when there are many systems in Ontario which were installed in the early 1970's which have not ex perienced problems? Commercial buildings do not totally revise natural gas installations when the natural gas installation code is revised. In both

cases workers are put at "risk" or are they? Certainly there are many homes with very old natural gas furnaces as well. There are more natural gas explo sions in homes than digester gas explo sions in sewage treatment plants. continued next page

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


New technologies

By John Van Egmond^

Purifying stormwater via a groundwater enhancement system

Flooding after rainfal s has in

fluenced many developments. Emerging design methods have included roof storage, on site

retention, infiltration, and storm water

quality.

street surface, channelization, inlet structures to divert water from the street

surface,and underground pipes systems to divert the water receiving bodies. Ex ceptions include unfiltered drainage

unit in this case. For peak capture the invert ofthe unit is set above the invert of the catchbasin lead. The unit diverts the

peak flow only shown in Drawing 4.

wells in some cities and the dissolution caves in others.

INCOMING DIRTY FLOW

EXISTING CATCH8ASIN

FLOOD, CATCHBASIN

The SAGES system includes easily removal fdters. a support grate, a well like device, and extraction chains. Fil

ters are graded from coarse to fine in the

direction of flow. The graded design re moves successively finer contaminants.

FILTERS

UNIT

CLEAN FLOW DRAWING

I

The graded filter resists premature cak ing. The support grate allows the filters to rest on a flat surface, thereby spread ing the media to fill the entire unit at depth.

RAIN

FLO\

Although several configurations are possible,those shown in Drawings 2.3.4 will suffice for discussion. In Drawing 2 is an existing system with catchbasin and storm sewer. Flooding flows

TIME EXISTING

SYSTEM

DRAWING

2

("flood)occurs when the capacity ofthe

The discharge through the SAGES filters will take principally one of two Depending on the design need, the unit forms, while partial flow develops inter can be used for pre-peak capture(Draw mediate cases. In both cases the total ing 3) or peak capture (Drawing 4). head available under storm conditions is then "fixed"except during partial flow For Pre-peak capture of storm water, catchbasin lead or sewer is exceeded.

The SAGES unit (Drawing 1) pre sents a new technology for municipal designer's options. The system can re duce the volume of storm water, the amount of erosion, and the contami

nant load reaching receiving bodies. A portion of the storm water is captured, then diverted at the point of origin, say at the catchbasin. from the system into the ground. Storm water management systems have large existing inventory. Most wes

the invert of the unit must be below the

invert of the existing catchbasin lead. Pre peak capture can be used when flows are too large for the existing sys tem. there is pollution and it must be treated at source, or when combined

tern storm water management systems

reaches the storm sewer until peak flows exceed the capacity ofthe unit. Peaks are

Wastewater treatment operations

The implementation of the Code

If the lowest filter has a permeability much lower than the upper filters,and if the "clogged" permeability of the upper filter remains greater than the per meability of the lowest filter, a constant/

sewers must be upgraded. No water

in North America include: shaping of the non-street surface, shaping of the

continued

conditions.

FLOOD INVERT PIPE INVERT SAGE

discharged into the existing storm sewer only when the invert ofthe pipe is below water. Flooding of the system will only occur when the hydraulic capacity of the system components are collectively exceeded. The hydrographs are shown in Drawing 3.

should not be over dramatized. It would

be my. opinion that more effort should be made in upgrading digester process design to make digester operation more predictable and efficient for sludge sta bilization. I would hope that those who are responsible for implementation

In some circumstances it may be de sirable to capture only Peak flows in the SAGES unit. In this case pollution cap ture must not be mandatory (say dis charge to storm water treatment plant is already in place downstream)in the pre-

SAGES RAIN

PRE

PEAK

CAPTURE

flow

would consider the real world realities.

peak phase. Flow is diverted to the exist

It seems that too many regulations are being implemented too quickly without consideration of costs. Certainly no operator should work in an unsafe

ing storm sewer system until the hy draulic capacity of the sewer or catch basin lead is exceeded locally. Only the peak flow is captured and treated by the

workplace but is it really unsafe? More dialogue should take place on the Code implementation. Perhaps this article will prompt some discussion.

near constant head outflow will result (Drawing 5). If the clogging ofthe filters *John Van Egmond is the inventor and is relatively rapid, and approaches that President of SAGES Storm Water of the lower filter with the lowest perProducts.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

TIME

EXISTING

SYSTEM DRAWING

WITH

SAGES

3

continued overleaf 29


New technologies con t contaminated, it is clear the total con

IFLOO INVERT SAGES INVERT PIPE

taminant load is washed into the storm

sewer system. As long as the flow reach ing the units is less than their hydraulic capacity, all of the sediment/contami nant load is captured.The sediment will lead to plugging,but not decreasing cap ture rates through the filter(unless there is a loss ofintegrity ofthe units).The for

RAIN

FLOW

TIME

MAINTENANCE

mation of interior cakes in the inter RAIN

STORM

media pores in deep filters may actually increase capture of contaminants.

SAGES PEAK CAPTURE

EVENT

DRAWING 5

Activated carbon is shown in most

SAGES configurations to be the bottom or last filter media. Carbon can remove

FLO\

dissolved and particulate matter.Freundlich presented a method for estimating the adsorption ofchemicals on receptor

TIME

EXISTING

SYSTEM DRAWING

WITH

SAGES

4

meability, decreasing flow will result. The units use mechanical and ad

sorption filters to remove contaminants. Mechanical filtration occurs by various mechanisms. These mechanisms in

clude interception, inertia, gravity, dif fusion, and hydrodynamic trapping. For adsorption chemicals attach them selves to free receptor sites and mecha nically to the filter media. While there is some debate as to if the

entire rain event or just the first flush is

sites of carbon as follows: X/M =

FfCg^''^. Based on Freundlich, and

tant.The unit provides the designer with another tool for flow reduction,flow di

version, erosion control, and pollution control and the technology provides enhanced opportunities in ground

data commonly available, it is possible

water management.

to estimate the life of these units once

Sources:

the

1. DRIVER, NANCY E.; Techniques for estimation of storm runoff loads, vo

average

contaminant

concen

trations are known. A minimum life of

one year is advocated. If unusual events occur additional filters may be added,or the unit may be disabled temporarily. Modern storm water design incor porates the lessons of 4,000 years of de sign effort. Recently, we have become more aware that storm water modelling is a whole system problem. Both flow volumes and contaminants are impor-

SERVING CANADA SINCE

lumes and selected constituent con centrations in urban watersheds in

the United States, US Department of the Interior, parer 2363), GB990.7 5 1990, USBN 890600400,1990. 2. TCHOBANOGLOUS, GEORGE ET AL: Water Quality, 1987, AddisonWesley, TD365.t38 1985, ISBN 0201 -05433-7, 1985. Circle reply card No. 258

Announcement

1978

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wastewater treatment

trol Instrumentation in both the Industrial

and Municipal field. The last position was held at Fischer & Porter Canada Ltd.

where he was the Marketing Manager, Disinfection Systems, responsible for

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the Introduction of the Fischer & Porter

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ultraviolet disinfection product line to the Canadian market. His many years of sales management experience will en force our plans for growth in the indus trial sector Canada.

In

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Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


.m:

New smoothwall interior

BOSS 2000: technical data

BOSS 2000 provides a corrugated exterior for superior strength, as weii as a thick smoothwall interior for maximum fiow. With a

Manning's 'n' value of .012, BOSS 2000 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics. Full size range BOSS 2000 is available in 4" to 36" diameters as non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCK™ filter. Custom fittings are available on request. Easy to Install BOSS 2000 is light in weight for ease of transporting, handling and installation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chain saw! Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemical attack in most applications. Head Office

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• Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s • Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM D2412 • Recommended for use in soils having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to corrosion • Excellent impact resistance under winter conditions for yearround installation

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Innovative techinology working for you


Making cement while protecting the environment nomically attractive opportunities have been exhausted. The next major poten tial opportunity is resource recovery

RELATIVE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

(per unit volume)

from wastes.

The cement kiln is a rotary furnace 4 to 6 m in diameter and 50 to 200 m long. In order to make cement clinker, the

cement kiln, by necessity, possesses several unique characteristics which also ensures the safe combustion of or

Primary

Plastics

Copper

Ceramics,

Steel

Advanced

Glass

Concrete

ganic wastes. • The gas in the burning zone of a kiln reaches about 2000°C for a period of

Extruded

Vjtrilied

Cement

three seconds. A commercial inciner

Aluminium

Clay

Products

ator by comparison often burns

The Canadian cement industry

has a huge potential to provide an environmentally friendly solution to the management of some of society's wastes. We believe our proposals are safe, conserve scarce energy resources, reduce the cost of manufacturing cement, and could re duce CO2emissions,a contributor to the

global warming problem. The proposal is the recovery of re sources from wastes in a cement kiln.

Resource recovery may be in the form of partial replacement of kiln fuel using or ganic wastes or in the form of partial re placement of materialsfor raw feed using inorganic wastes from other industrial

below 1000°C for about Wi seconds.

These high temperatures make the cement kiln one of the most efficient

By Peter Walsanen, P.Eng*

devices for combustion of organic clay, sand and gypsum are common

wastes available.

in

• Disposal of ash is eliminated as any

Canada.

incombustible material becomes in

The plants are usually located near the major raw material — the limestone quarry — as close to the major markets as possible.The raw materials are quar

corporated in the cement clinker or in

sources

for

the

materials

used

the cement kiln dust, a by-product. • Any changes in stack emissions bet ween making cement with fossil fuels

ried, crushed and blended for unifor

versus waste fuels are minimal, and

mity. The raw materials are then pro portioned depending on the type of cement being made, mixed, ground

may actually decrease. Consequently no significant additional emissions

and blended.

are added to the atmosphere. Tests may be required on a site specific

In an energy efficient plant, the raw materials are fed through a preheater

exists.

tower where the heat from the exhaust

basis for confirmation, if doubt

• Unlike many industrial furnaces, the

gases from the kiln is transferred to the

kiln's raw materials are alkaline and

Many waste materials can be utilized

raw materials to conserve kiln fuel. The

by the cement industry to replace the

raw feed passes through the kiln at a rate controlled by the slope and rotational speed of the kiln. Fuel is forced into the

trap both hydrogen chloride and sul phur oxides as stable compounds of

processes.

normally used constituents that are re

quired to make cement. By replacing a raw material with one that is perhaps partially or fully processed, the energy requirements of the kiln may be re duced. The waste that is incorporated does not have to be disposed of which reduces the demand on existing landfill or storage facilities. The specific treatment that will be examined in this paper is partial fuel replacement with organic wastes. The same technology applies to all organic

waste fuels such as scrap tires, refuse derived fuel from municipal garbage, solvents, wood wastes, some industrial

sludges and shredder fluff from auto mobile recycling. Concrete is made from sand, stone,

cement and water. I will be describing the cement manufacturing process, the gray powder — not concrete. To make cement, a source of lime, iron, silica,

alumina and gypsum are required. Limestone, steel manufacturing wastes,

lower end of the kiln. The materials are

These are the characteristics which

partially fused at temperatures around

make a cement kiln suitable for burning

1500° to produce a product called clin

organic wastes.

To give some scale to the potential for contributing to the waste management problem, 1 will give you some exam cement. ples. A major cost of cement manufactur • Ifevery plant in Canada replaced 20% ing is energy. In 1990 the industry used of its kiln fuel with tires, a typical re 52 million Giga joules of energy which placement rate, we could consume all is the equivalent of about 1.3 billion lit of the 26 million tires wasted each ker. After cooling,the clinker is blended with a small amount of gypsum, and ground very fine to produce portland

res of oil.

year.

Since the dramatic increase in energy • If the industry replaced 15% ofits kiln costs in the early 70"s, process changes fuel with Refuse Derived Fuel(RDF) have been made resulting in a 25% re assuming that 60% of garbage is re duction in energy use per tonne of cyclable and/or non combustible and production. the remaining 40% is suitable for During the same period a switch to RDF,the industry could use the RDF cheaper more available fuels occurred. from about 10% of Canada's 16 mil

• Bunker oil usage dropped from 39% to 2%.

• Natural gas usage dropped from 49% to 24%.

• While coal and coke usage increased

*Regional Director, Canadian Portiand Cement Association

32

cement clinker instead of contribut

ing to acid rain.

lion tonnes of municipal garbage. • Ifevery plant in Canada replaced 47% of its kiln fuel with hazardous indus trial wastes, we could use 100% of the one million tonnes available of or

ganic hazardous industrial wastes

from 12% to 74%.

-Further energy conservation is tech nically possible although the most eco

which are currently being treated offsite.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


AlOrOFPUMP WITHOUT A LOT OF NOISE

AUTO-START

GORMANBUPP

" •

i

Mobile Sewage Pumping Unit handles emergencies quietly and efficiently. Gorman-Rupp's new portable sewage pumping system has a sound-suppressing enclosure that reduces operating noise levels below EPA 76 DBA Standard. This makes it ideal for

emergency standby and sewage by-pass jobs in heavily populated areas. The unit features a 6" T Series self-priming, centrifugal solids-handling pump. It can pump up to 1,500 gpm and handle 3" diameter solids with heads to 120 feet. Pump will cycle automatically in response to signal from submersible trans ducer liquid level control - allowing reliable, unattended opera tion. The entire unit - including controls - can be locked for extra security and safety. Meets Transport Canada regulations. Other features include: A removable coverplate for easy access to pump interior that permits fast removal of clogs

without disconnecting piping or hoses. Centralized control panel with engine start switch, suction and discharge pressure gauges, elapsed running time meter plus other features. Steel frame with heavy-duty torsion bar suspension and hydraulic surge brakes. Removable canopy for easier servicing. Extra large capacity fuel tanks for 24-hour service. Full complement of running lights and reflectors for high road visibility. Contact us now for complimentary fully descriptive literature!

GORMANRUPP

For more information,

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Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ontario N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 • Fax:(519)631-4624• Telex: 064-73530 "Distributors across Canada"


Water Treatment

Water research is alive and weii in Ontario The Ontario Section AWWA is in

the process of preparing a series of articles focusing on research activi ties on practical process improve ments in water treatment and pro duct development. Two pilot plant studies being par tially funded by the Ontario Ministry ofthe Environment,Environmental Technologies Program include: membrane filtration of highly col oured soft water and the use of ozo-

nation and granular activated car bon for organics reduction. Operating authorities such as Metro Toronto and the MOE are

undertaking studies to lower alumi num residuals in treatment plants which use aluminum sulphate as a primary coagulant. Basic research of this pature, when combined with work being carried out by the AWWA Research Foundation, will provide considerable guidance to other ope rating authorities for future impro vements to water supply facilities. Future articles will provide details of

faced with a period of unpreceden ted challenges. The identification of new contaminants, emerging regu lations and heightened public aware ness of water quality have all contri buted to the situation.

To meet this challenge the indus try requires new responses. Alterna tive treatment technologies such as ozonation and granular activated carbon (GAG) adsorption must be investigated. Because these techno logies represent a significant depar ture from current practice, they will require a more thorough investiga tion than has been traditionally associated with treatment plant up grading. Since many utilities will be facing this situation, there is an urgent need and a potentially subs tantial market for a tested modular

drinking water treatment pilot plant which could be marketed in Ontario and elsewhere.

The Ontario MOE (Drinking Water Section),the Brantford Public

study results and contact individuals

Utilities Commission, the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton

from whom more data can be received.

and the Windsor Utilities Commis

Other topics to be covered include:sum mary of research activities related to

sion are developing and testing such a pilot plant in association with the University of Waterloo, with the funding from the MOE Environ mental Technologies Program. The study will also provide valuable data, particularly with respect to ozone,for possible process modifica tions at the three municipalities. Work on the project began in Novem ber 1990 and is anticipated to be complete by November 1993. The pilot plants will be"modular" in that any of the units within the treatment configuration can be added,removed or repositioned with little difficulty. Unit processes being considered include: presedimentation tanks, rapid mix chambers,

control of zebra mussels and oxidation

by-products

(e.g.,

ozonation

by

products).

Design,evaluation and marketing of a modular drinking water pilot plant for the 1990s The drinking water treatment industry in Ontario is currently

Drinking Water Conference The Fifth

National Conference on

Drinking Water will be held on Septem ber 13-15. 1992 in Winnipeg, Manito ba.

The theme of the conference is "Dis

infection Dilemma: Microbiological Control vs. Byproducts". The con ference technical program will consist oforal presentations and poster presen tations concerned with the issues of dis

infection technology, trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts, emerging regulations and guidelines, monitoring and anlysis. A public forum with the theme"How Safe is Our Drink

ing Water?" is also scheduled. Registration information can be ob

tained through the following: Fifth Na tional Conference on Drinking Water, Box 25172. 1650 Main Street. Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2V 4C8. Telephone: (204) 339-3330, Fax:(204) 334-9813. 34

flocculation/sedimentation tanks, flotation units,settled water storage tanks, ozone contactors, filters and GAC contactors. Parameters which will be moni

tored include: temperature, pH, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity, dis infectant residuals, U V,colour,total organic carbon (TOG), trihalo methanes (THMs) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), chlorine demand, major ions, coliforms, heterotrophic plate count (HPC) organisms, heavy metals, nitrogen compounds and phosphorus. Also being considered are: threshold odour number(TON), total organic halides(TOX)and total organic halide formation potential

(TOXFP), ozonation by-products (e.g., formaldehyde), other chlorination by-products, assimilable orga nic carbon (AGG), specific organics (volatile and extractable), Giardia and additional odour monitoring (flavour profile analysis and chromatographic sniffing). Aluminum in Metro Toronto's

drinking water The current debate on aluminum

in drinking water is affecting all the utilities using aluminum based coa gulants. While some researchers argue that the presence of aluminum in the brain cells causes Alzheimer's

disease, others hypothesize that the disease itself alters body chemistry to allow accumulation of aluminum.

Some researchers have proposed that an immediate goal should be set to reduce aluminum in drinking water below 50 q/L with a 5-year goal of 10 fj/h. The average aluminum levels in the drinking water in Metropolitan Toronto are well below the Ontario

Drinking Water Objectives(ODWO) guideline of 100 q/L. Metropolitan Toronto's Works Department is con sidering options to further reduce the level of residual aluminum in

drinking water to address healthrelated concerns and some of the

operational problems experienced in

tbe distribution system. Two inde pendentstudies for the Works Depart ment recommended optimizing the coagulation process by suppressing

pH by the addition of sulphuric acid which resulted in minimum soluble aluminum in the treated water. Further in-house bench-scale tes

ting was carried out to confirm the required dosages of sulphuric acid and to estimate the costs. It was

determined that 24 to 30 mg/L of sulphuric acid would be required to suppress the pH of water (after prechlorine and alum) to 6.9. Prelimi nary cost estimates indicate that the

cost of using sulphuric acid at Metro's filtration plants would be around $3 million, exceeding the current total budget for all the che micals.

Gurrently,Metropolitan Toronto's Works Department is investigating other options such as the use of nonaluminum based coagulants for water treatment. The final selection

of the process(es)is likely to be affec ted by the input from various public and government agencies. Report by the Technical & Reseach Committee Ont. Section AWWA.

Enviroumeiiial Science & Engineering. July 1992


Water Treatment

Lead is the hottest AWWA item in US cement of corrosion control. How

ever, this change will not have a prac tical effect for most water utilities

since statistically the 15ppb level would be expected to be achieved only after a year ofoperation with cor

m

much controversy and negotiations on other provisions in the bill. Most sub committee members expressed reser vations about the bill which they in tended to bring up at full committee. It is noteworthy that the subcommittee

rosion control rather than at the

members raised the concerns which

o'nset.

were expressed in grassroots letters from AWWA members — in some cases using

H.R. 2840 was reported out of sub committee on November 4, 1991, after

the exact words verbatim.

New lead standards may be impos sible to meet

Lead legislation remains the hottest item on the AWWA legislative agenda. H.R. 2840, The Lead Contamination Control Act Amendments of 1991 intro

duced by Rep. Waxman (D-CA) have been marked-up by the House Health and Environment Subcommittee and

reported out to the full committee. At subcommittee mark-up Rep. Edolphus Towns (D-NY) introduced amendments which were unanimously adopted by the subcommittee.The most significant change made in H.R.2840 by theTowns amendments was deleting the provision prohibiting EPA from using PQL (Practical Quantitation Limits). Other changes were an attempt to ad dress the impractical lead standards which trigger corrosion control or lead service

line

removal; however, the

changes will have no practical effect

We never know

what projects will come down the pipe.

since it is doubtful that the amended

level can be achieved by water utilities. In addition to removing the prohibition on the use of PQL, the Towns amend ments make the following changes: • Retains the Tap Water Lead Limit (TWLL) trigger of lOppb at one exceedance; however,it allows 1 sample to exceed lOppb for each multiple of sample sets taken. (The minimum number of required samples is de fined as 1 sample set.) • Corrosion control timeframes are ad

justed so that water utilities are not penalized by the failure of a state agency to act. This eliminated the re quirement to remove lead service lines if a state agency did not act with in the schedule mandated in the bill.

At the National Research Council's Institute

for Environmental Chemistry, we apply inno vative technology to environmental issues. lEC assists Canadian industry by creating

technology to safeguard the quality of our air, land, and water. Toward this goal, we perform market-driven R&D and transfer technology designed for environmental applications. To discuss partnerships, licences, and other ways we can benefit your organization, con tact our Manager of Business Development, Terry Kimmel, at (613)990-6618, or fax (613)952-1275.

However, the time allowed for corro

sion control studies essentially re mains unchanged. • Water utilities would have one year to reach the TWLL oflOppbatthe 99th percentile before lead service line re moval would commence if the lead

Making the environment our business National Research

Conseil national

Council Canada

de recherches Canada

NKCfOC Canada

concentration did not exceed 15 ppb at the 90th percentile after commenFor more information, Circle reply card No. 102

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

35


Water Treatment Chlorine ban proposed for water disinfection

CWWA adopts AWWA position statement

Throughout the summer of 1991, Greenpeace vessels dropped anchor

on home water treatment devices

in ports throughout the Great Lakes.

The purpose of the voyage was to promote zero toxic discharge into the Great Lakes System. The single

The Board of Directors of the Cana dian Water and Wastewater Asso

ciation has approved the adoption by CWWA of the position statement

most targeted chemical in the cam paign was none other than chlorine.

put forward by the American Water

The stated objective of the mission

treatment devices.

was to eliminate the manufacture

Public water supply authorities across Canada have expressed gro

and use of chlorine, including chlo

Works Association on home water

The position statement reads: "Home water treatment devices are

not required to protect public health when consumers are receiving water from a public water supply system that meets state, provincial, andfederal health standards or regu lations."

rine used for water disinfection.

wing concern with some of the mar

This summer's voyage ended in Traverse City, Michigan at the end ofSeptember to coincide with a meet ing of the International Joint Com

keting techniques used by some

Bonk, P.Eng., Executive Director,

home water treatment device sales

Canadian Water and Wastewater

agencies, particularly those which imply that local tap water supplies

mission (IJC).

are unsuitable or unsafe.

Association, 24 Clarence St., 3rd Floor, Ottawa, ON, KlN 5P3, Tel: (613) 238-5692, Fax:(613) 237-2965.

Ontario Section and other sections

in water treatment.

for the International Joint Commis

of AWWA to emphasize to the IJC, the enormous implications of ban ning chlorine from treatment of drinking water. Chlorine has been the leading defense against trans mission of diseases such as typhoid, diptheria, cholera and dysentry in water supplies. Extensive research

The costs in Canada of converting the vast majority of our water plants

sion, has advised that input of the

For further details contact: Steve

Submissions were made by the

to an alternate disinfectant such as ozone would cause extreme economic

hardship to customers ofcommunity systems. Benefits to the Great Lakes as a result of banning chlorine are

has been conducted to establish

less well defined than the benefits of chlorine in water treatment.

significant correlation of medical

The Honourable E.D. Fulton,

effects to chlorine at the levels used

Chairman of the Canadian Section

Ontario Section and others concer

ning the use of chlorine for water disinfection will be addressed in IJC recommendations. These recom

mendations will be made to the gov ernments of Canada and the United States in the Commission's Sixth

Biennial Report on Great Lakes Quality. (Ontario Section, Pipeline)

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Water Treatment

AWWA explores new communications strategy During an issues identification/ communication strategy session,

held recently in Chicago,30 key lea ders ofAWWA focused on the lack of

public confidence in water supplies and in the safety of drinking water. The group determined that in order

for the water supply community to improve its image, a two-way com munication strategy with the public could be very effective. Communication strategist Dr.

Peter Sandman of Rutgers University led the group in coming to the conclu sion that minimizing the possible health risks for drinking water, dis missing community reactions as irrational, and treating the public as if it were unable to understand the

scientific aspects of risk were not effective ways to achieve public con fidence. "One-way communication may be leading to an outraged public and stricter government regulation.''

Dr. Sandman's presentation argued that public reaction is foster ed more by outrage (non-technical factors) than by hazard (scientific data). For example, when people don't have choices, they become angry. People feel safer with risks that are natural versus industrial.

Less outrage is generated from a risk that is familiar than one that is not.

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• To the extent possible, involve the community in the decision-making process. After all, you need their support for rate hikes. They'll be more likely to vote with you if you concern to the entire community. • Identify and respond to the needs of different audiences. Although "public" is a collective word, there are in fact, many publics, each affected differently by an issue. Don't avoid environmental and pub lic interest groups just because they have been adversaries in the past. These organizations should be iden tified and spoken with about their concerns. You may find more com mon ground on source protection and other issues than you think.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


R&D News Zero Discharge Process

A process was described to delegates at the 27th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research which

treats all process streams and washwater at the Black Photo Corporation main processing plant in Markham.

the effluent clarification and sludge thickening processes that may occur in the sedimentation tank, and accounts

for the interactions occurring between the aeration tank and the final settling tank. A computer program is used to obtain design results.

Ontario. A.R. Keen and R.J. Sinukoff of

ALTECH Environmental Consulting discussed this system which provides total water reuse and a dry sewer. Before the system was installed, up to 70.000 USGPD of wastewater were discharged from the facility. The closed loop pro cess treats and recycles water resulting in a final system by-product of up to 200 USGPD of mixed photochemical con

Contaminated Sediments In Halifax Harbour

Institut Maurice-Lamontagne scientist J.N. Gearing, together with D.E. Buck ley and J.N. Smith of the Bedford Insti

tute ofTechnology, have extracted cores of the 15-20 cm of sediments that have collected in Halifax Harbour over the

past 100 years to develop a chronology

basis for control measures such that en

vironmental impact is minimized and guidelines are met. The paper in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering presents an impact assessment of chlo rinated wastewater discharges from two water treatment plants in Edmonton.

of contamination. As described in the

centrate which is incinerated. Black's has now achieved a 97% reduction in process water usage.

Canadian JournalofFisheries andAquatic Sciences, pollutant hydrocarbon con

Design of Activated Sludge Systems A computerized algorithm published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada was developed by O.Moreno.R. Leduc and R. Gehr for design and ana lysis of the steady-stage step-feed acti vated sludge system with secondary sedimentation. These University of Sherbrooke and McGill University sci

since about 1900. Aliphatic con taminants characteristic of sewage and urban runoff have had a steady expo nential growth over time, while aroma tic hydrocarbon combustion products are currently declining slightly. Heavy

entists took into account both the bio-

Plant Discharges The discharge ofchlorinated water from treatment plants to receiving water

degradation occurring in the aeration tank and the solids-liquid separation process. The algorithm also deals with

its toxic effects on aquatic biota and potential health hazards. A paper by University of Alberta scientists S.J. Stanley and D.W. Smith describes a transverse mixing model that incor porates both mixing and pollutant decay in assessing the environmental impact of these discharges. The results of such an analysis can be used as a

centrations have increased

100-fold

Metals In St. Marys River Sediments National Water Research Institute sci

entist A. Mudroch investigated the geo chemistry and distribution of several heavy metals in the bottom and suspen ded sediments in the St. Marys River. Ontario/Michigan. As reported in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Ca nada. elevated concentrations were ob

metals in the sediments increased from

served at the Canadian shore in the vi

1890 to 1970.

cinity of the Algoma Steel slag dump and near the Algoma Steel slip, par ticularly in the bottom sediment. Con

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centrations of Cr. Cu and Ni in sus

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Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

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R&D News at various locations along the river indi cating several different sources of these trace elements. The concentrations of

trace elements were generally con siderably lower in suspended sediments than in the bottom sediments.

Reduction In Pulp Mill Effluent Toxicity J.S. Gibbons and coworkers at the Pulp

developed to estimate chlorophyll a,

Wheeler and M. Kalin measured the

suspended minerals, and dissolved or ganic carbon concentrations simulta neously from a single measurement of the sub-surface volume reflectance spec trum in the optically complex waters of Lake Ontario. To estimate such aquatic

biological polishing of zinc and other heavy metals by perlphyton com munities at a polymetallic mine in Buchans. Newfoundland. As described at

the 27th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research,six polish ing ponds were constructed in series near the effluent creek. The perlphyton population,growing on branches in the polishing ponds, was able to concen trate zine by a factor of 500. and barium by a factor of 22.900 over ambient water levels. Periphytic algal populations with proper scale-up may therefore provide substantial polishing capacity in

and Paper Research Institute ofCanada have assessed the effect of biological treatment on the environmental quality of high-yield mechanical pumping ef fluents. As described in a paper accep ted for publication in fVater Research, untreated effluents from one chemither-

wastewater from

momechanical pulping (CTMP) and three thermomechanical pulping mills were acutely lethal to fathead minnows

lAWPRC

Fate of Immiscible Fluids in the Saturated Zone

and the water flea Ceriodaphnia with 48 h LC50 values of 2.2% to more than 50%. The effluents also caused chronic ef fects at concentrations of0.01% to 5.3%.

After biological treatment, acute lethal ity occurred only with Ceriodaphnia using the CTMP biotreated effluent. Remote Sensing of Lakes In a paper published in the Journal of

active and decom

missioned base metal mines.

In the sub-surface, significant quan tities of chemicals will be dissolved by groundwater in contact with non-aque ous phase liquids(NAPL) and can re sult in groundwater contamination. A suitable understanding of NAPL fate in the subsoil is required to evaluate sour ces of existing dissolved chemical plumes,to predict plume migration,and to evaluate purging strategies where

concentrations requires a quantifica tion. as a function of wavelength, of the amount of scattering and absorption that may be ascribed to a unit concen tration of each aquatic component. Cross section spectra are presented for Lake Ontario and Lake Ladoga in Russia.

Great Lakes Research, R.P. Bukata and

colleagues from the National Water Re search Institute and the USSR Academy

Removal of Metals by Perlphyton Communities

of Sciences describe a model which was

Barringer Research scientists W.N.

NAPL remains in the sub-surface. Uni

versity of Waterloo scientist N. Guiguer

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R&D News has developed a numerical model des cribing the fate of residual immiscible fluids in saturated porous media. A simulation presented in Water Science and Technology illustrates that immisc ible liquids can act as a continuous source of contamination in an aquifer for many decades. Oxygen Transfer in Diffused Aeration

In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, K.I. Ashley, D.S. Mavinic and K.J. Hall describe the results of their research undertaken to examine the effect of orifice diameter, air flow rate, and reduced tank surface area on

University of Quebec in Trois-Rivieres was to evaluate tadpole blood parame

tamination. As described in a poster presentation at the 27th Central Cana dian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, tadpoles were exposed to dif ferent concentrations of cadmium over

R.J. Tkacz revealed the occurrence of and sediments downstream from textile

mills. The dyes were found in 1985 and 1986,but not in 1987 possibly because of improved waste treatment procedures. As described in the Water Pollution Re

search Journal of Canada, the most con taminated area was downstream from

mance of a centre-fed clarifier. Two

indicators of cadmium contamination.

tion Research Journal of Canada, the re sults ofthe model simulations indicated

in both cases that clarifier performance is significantly affected by the unsteadi ness ofthe flow. A steady state analysis at the peak flow gave lower effluent con or the step increase in the MESS. Artificial Marshes for

Water Quality Control An artificial lake in the southern sector

of He Notre-Dame, Montreal includes a

lAWPR^^ Atmospheric Transport of Pollutants

In a joint Atmospheric Environment Service â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Freshwater Institute research

project, measurements of seasonally high concentrations of over 90 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and over 30 organohalogen pesticides were analyzed by R.M. Hoff, D.C.G. Muir and N.P. Grift. The seven cases of high est concentrations of pesticide species all point to long range transport from the south, especially the southern United States and the Caribbean. The

concentrations of PCBs and organohalogens were strongly dependent on tem perature. The results published in En vironmental Science and Technology indi cate that modelling predictions of the

Biomonitors for Cadmium

tration, and a sudden increase in the MESS. As described in the Water Pollu

centrations than either the diurnal flow

tration of textile mills in the basin.

The objective ofa research study under taken by S. Ricard and coworkers at the

Modelling of Clarlfler Performance University of Windsor scientist J.A. McCorquodale and U.S. colleagues used a computer program to predict the effects of unsteady flow on the perfor cases were considered: diurnal varia tion in flow at a constant MUSS concen

Granby which has the largest concen

Three dyes were positively identified in addition to a mutagenic degradation product of one of them.

particulate

various periods oftime. At the end ofthe

parameters.

fifteen dyes in water, suspended solids

of

test periods various blood parameters were determined. Preliminary results indicate that the blood parameters, mainly the erythrocyte length to width ratio and the proportion of thrombocytes. seem to be good quantitative

bubble diffused aeration system. These scientists from the B.C. Ministry of En vironment and the University of British Columbia found that increasing the flow rate significantly increased the

Dyes in the Yamaska River A study ofthe Yamaska River in Quebec during 1985-1987 by R.J. Maguire and

concentrations

matter.

ters as bio-indicators of cadmium con

oxygen transfer in a pilot scale coarse

overall oxygen transfer coefficient and standard oxygen transfer rate, but only marginally increased the energy effici ency and the oxygen transfer efficiency. Decreasing the orifice diameter signifi cantly increased the values of all four

air

600 meter beach with a swimming area of approximately 15,000 mE In order to maintain satisfactory water quality, a "filter-lake" complex was established consisting of four ponds of varying

depth where aquatic plants of different native species were introduced. As des cribed to delegates attending the 27th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research by G.Vincent of the Montreal Botanical Garden, in

take pipes draw water into the first marsh which then circulates by gravity through the three remaining marshes with substantial reductions in nitrate,

orthophosphate, ammonir.m, total phosphate,suspended solids, and filter able carbon.

Trace Metals In Drinking Water In a paper published in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. Dayton & concentration of PCBs in air can be Knight scientists I. Singh and D.S. made knowing the vapour pressure, Mavinic of the University of British temperature dependence, and expected Columbia describe the results of their

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development,

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Environmental Science <& Engineering, July 1992


R&D News research on the signincance of building and plumbing specifics on trace metal concentrations in drinking water. The

published in the Journal ofEnvironmen tal Quality, were examined to assess the

influence of various factors on trace

level up to 600 mm increased the nit rogen removal efficiency. The domi nant micro-algae(Chlorhonttidium) was strongly influenced by the water tem

metal

perature.

contact with forest soil.

ion Enrichment In Forest Snowmelt

For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso

concentrations

in

first

flush

drinking water samples and "running" hot water samples was investigated. Lead was influenced primarily by build ing type, copper by plumbing age and type, and iron by location. A substantial number of first flush samples exceeded regulatory levels, and there were even some such cases after prolonged flushing.

Forestry Canada scientists P.W. Hazlett

Lakes Watershed, Ontario. The results,

modifications to snowmelt water after

and N.W. Foster together with M.C. ciation on Water Pollution Re search and Control,Conservation English. Wilfred Laurier University, de termined ion concentrations in snow- and Protection, Environment Ca melt run-off. forest floor percolate, and nada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: mineral-soil percolate collected in a to (819) 953-9365, Fax: (819) 953lerant hardwood forest at the Turkey 9029.

Retardation of Phosphorus Losses in Runoff

Phosphorus loading in surface water bodies due to runoff from cropland is a major water quality concern. Losses of water, soil and different forms of phos phorus from five runoff plots treated with polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)were com pared to losses from five untreated plots by University of Guelph scientists M.H. Marsh and P.H. Groenevelt. As des

cribed in the Journal of Environmental Quality, run-off and soil and phospho rus losses were reduced as much as 80%

during the first year after application of PVA. and by 40% during the second year. Corn grain yield was 12% higher than on the control plots. Contaminated Sediments in Lake St. Louis

Particle size distribution, geochemical

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composition, and concentrations of a number of heavy metals were deter

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St. Louis by A. Mudroch and S.R. Joshi to assess the significance of the lake as a sink of contaminants transported through the St. Lawrence River. As des cribed by these National Water Re search Institute scientists in Revue des

sciences de i'eau. the concentration pro files of mercury in the cores indicated a continuous input ofthis metal along the southern shore of the lake. In contrast,

the mercury input into the northern part ofthe lake has decreased reflecting con trol of mercury losses implemented by industry over the past 15 years. Tertiary Treatment with Micro-Algae

J.B. Serodes and colleagues from Laval University evaluated design criteria for a pilot plant treating secondary munici pal effluents using filamentous bioflocculating micro-algae. Using a sequen tial batch reactor as described in the

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. the best removal rate was reached for

25% draw volume. At 20-22°C.up to four cycles per day could be achieved giving a removal efficiency of approximately 2 g of nitrogen per day per square meter of basin(200 mm deep)with negligible nit rogen residual. Increasing the water Enviromtiental Science & Engineering. July 1992

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Industry Awards

ES&E editor wins Environment Canada's

top communications award The Publisherand EditorofEnvironmen

tal Science & Engineering. Tom Davey has won Environment Canada's top award for

environmental

communications.

The Minister of State for the Environ ment. Pauline Browes, announced the

awards at an open air ceremony on Scarborough Bluffs at the Guild Inn. Toronto. The minister said in the citation that

Tom launched the magazine in 1988 with

his son Steve.

It is now ack

nowledged as the leadingjournal ofits kind for environmental professionals." she said. In hercitation she noted that Tom was the first Canadian ever to win a J.H.

Neal Award from the American Busi ness Press in New York. Later he be came the first writer outside the United States to win a Schlenz Medal from the

Water Environment Federation in Wa

shington. DC. He has now won 35 awards for his writing, including a pre vious Environment Canada Award and national awards from the Canadian Business Press and the Canadian Sci ence Writers Association.

The magazine was launched at

Finalists were unaware of the results until the announcements. At the ceremony Tom Davey, left, is pictured with his guest John Elliott and ES&E Sales Manager Penny Davey,just before the presentation. STD Photo

Steve's initiative in 1988 and the whole

family became involved. Steve had pre viously worked for Southam as Manag ing Editor of Water & Pollution Control and Process Industries Canada. Steve is Past President of the Ontario Pollution

Tom received a handsome award car

ved from Canadian shield granite. For mer environment minister Tom McMil lan was the Master of Ceremonies. He told the audience that he had had an

Control Association,(OPCEA) and a

article published in the very first issue of

Director of the PCAO.

ES&E

Tom's wife Sandra, who has edited

many environmental studies for the University of Toronto, became Associ

when

he

was

Environment

Minister. The other fi nalists were Oldies 900

ate Editor. She too holds an award from the PCAO for her editorial work on the

CJVI Radio of Victoria. B.C.. and Wally Longul of TV Ontario. The Awards were presented on May

history book Recollections and has

25 by the Minister of State for the Envi

edited the PCAO Newsletter for some 15

ronment. Pauline Browes.

years. She has also organized over 50 conferences PCAO.

and

seminars

for

the

Their daughter Penny joined the ma gazine as Advertising Manager and re cently was elected a Director of OPCEA.

Tom has given papers at countless seminars ranging from a World Health Organization Symposium in Rome. Italy, in 1982 to international conferen ces in Canada such as 'Waterscapes '91' in Saskatoon where speakers from 21 nations attended. Additionally he has

given papers at Queen's University, the University of New Brunswick and at

ogy North of the Northwest Territories. In the category of Corporate Environ mental Leadership, the winner was S.C. Johnson Wax. of Brantford. Ontario.

The company has been consistently in volved in environmental projects, and has set the pace in our country by offer ing consumer products with reduced environmental impact, implementing

internal recycling programs, and sup porting environmental projects throughout Canada. The other fi nalists were: Northern

Telecom of Brampton. Ontario and In the Lifetime Achievement category, Petro-Canada of Calgary. Alberta. the winner was Dr. Ian McTaggartIn the category of Environmental Lea Cowan. of Victoria. BC. A renowned dership by a Municipality,the winner was wildlife expert, he is credited with mak the City of Richmond. BC. Richmond ing wildlife management a branch of has implemented environmental pro applied science. Dr. McTaggart-Cowan grams in its own operations and for city has made major contributions to envi residents. It is also purchasing land for ronmental understanding over his long environmental protection and a muni career,serving government, universities cipal trails system. and non-government organizations. The other fi nalists were: the City of In the Non-Profit Organization cate Baie-Comeau. Quebec,the Township of gory. the winner was the Environment Ernestown. Ontario, and the City of Youth Alliance, of Vancouver. BC. an

environmental organization set up and run by young Canadians to involve high school students in environmental pro

Hull. Quebec. The Environmental Science Fair Project

given many lectures at the University of

tection. The other fi nalists were: the Bruce

award went to Kim Nguyen of Prince Rupert. BC. for a study of the environ mental impact of phosphate-free deter

Toronto.

Trail Association of Ontario, and Ecol

gents.

AWWA and PCAO conferences. He has

44

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


Higfilights of the Fenwick team, from left to right:

Through innovation, odr highly

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Dominique Levesque, M.Sc.

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Manager of Organics Thirteen years experience including five as chief analytical chemist with Environment New Brunswick.

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Dr. Julie Marr,Ph.D. Manager of Research Eight years experience, particularly in the

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time;ideal for MISA and other

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Dr. David Jomieson,PhD. Senior Scientist

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Shirley BdrgaC B.Sc.

imm

RCAp Inorganics Manager

Fourteen years experience, managing over 9

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Vice President and General Manager Twelve years experience, currently President of the Canadian Association for " Environmental Analytical Laboratories. Ross Kean, M.Sc. Manager of Inorganic Chemistry Fifteen years experience, seven as manager with the Ontario Research Foundation.

Dr. Ross McCurdy,Ph.D. President

Twenty years experience, professor and^^jg researcher at Dalhousie University omjQOH Technical University of

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I t A I t A t ^ AI I i A i i > I I A t . I * i i i I I A i


Occupational health & safety

Use of health risk assessment In the

management of environmental liabilities sures are within safe levels.

As a minor component, health risk assessments may also include at least qualitative consideration of other ef fects of environmental contamina tion of fi nancial concern, such as

damage to property (for example cor rosion of structures or land erosion

caused by vegetation loss in con taminated soil). In the U.S.A., such pol lution effects of economic concern are called "welfare effects".

Generally, health risk assessments

fall into one of three categories of scale, complexity and cost: • small in scale, qualitative, costing about Cdn $15,000/30,000;

• intermediate in scale, quantitative for exposure to a few indicator con taminants over the few most relevant

Diver entering confined space to check out zebra mussels problems — photo cour tesy Aquatic Sciences.

There are many instances when

private clients or government agencies would like to have a quantitative estimate ofthe de gree of risk of a particular set of cir cumstances to human health. This is

government agency or an independent consulting firm,to avoid any question of conflict of interest. Risk assessment can be conducted to

risks due to environmental contamina

sures from the news media. It is often

important for a business with such cor porate stakes to see that an exercise in risk assessment is performed by an ob jective scientific organization,such as a 46

consideration of environmental fate

and transport pathways for a suite of significant contaminants, costing about Cdn $80,000/120,000.

These are only broad guidelines of complexity and cost. Each risk assess

meet a variety of specific objectives,

ment situation has to be evaluated in

such as:

dividually, and customized for appro priate scope and budget. In general,the procedures used follow the approach of the United States En vironmental Protection Agency, which has led the world in the development of

particularly the case when assessing the • to determine the degree to which an adverse health impact is reduced by potential impacts associated with expo employing various environmental sure to hazardous agents in the environ clean-up options at a contaminated ment, mainly chemicals or radioactive site; materials. Such a quantitative risk esti mate is called a Human Health-Based • to develop a clean-up criterion for a contaminant in a particular environ Environmental Risk Assessment and mental medium (such as soil, air or may estimate past, present or future ex groundwater) where a credible clean posures and the likely resulting hazards up criterion does not exist; or to health. Such health risk assessments are then • to develop a less strict, site-specific clean-up criterion, based on reason considered together with cost, technical able and prudent scientific reasoning, feasibility ofclean-up and other societal when the criterion in general use is pressures to select preferred strategies not practical for implementation. for managing or remediating health tion. It is important that the scientific process of risk assessment and the re lated but different process of risk ma nagement be kept separate, preferably performed by different parties. A corporation can have a variety of stakes in managing an environmental liability, such as public image as a cor porate citizen, trust in its products or services, tort liability,clean-up orders or prosecutions by government or pres

environmental transport pathways, costing about Cdn $35,000/50,000; or • large, fully quantitative, complete

Usually a baseline risk assessment is

performed first, estimating the risk to health ifthe site is left in its current state,

the methods of risk assessment. The use

of these quantitative risk assessment methods is widely required by US regulations. In Canada, risk assessments are not

driven by regulation, but a variety of private and public sector stakeholders are realizing the value of supporting a risk management decision with a risk assessment, based on reasonable, pru dent assumptions and sound scientific principles.The risk assessment approach in Canada is presently able to be more creative than is permitted in the USA, where acceptable procedures are fairly standardized and legislated.

that is, the "do nothing" clean-up op tion. From there, the effects of applying different clean-up technologies or of cleaning up to various levels of cleanli Health and Welfare Canada is now ness can be estimated for comparison. considering the development of guide Conversely,the process can be run in lines for the conduct of risk assessments reverse, starting with exposure levels in Canada, but the drive to standardize considered safe, and reasoning back by is unlikely to gain strong momentum transport through environmental path until some Canadian jurisdiction be ways, to a level of contamination con gins to require risk assessment input sidered acceptable at the source (a into the decisions made by environmen clean-up criterion level). tal risk managers. Health risk assessment can also be

used to determine whether work expo

The first step in a health risk assess ment is called Hazard Identification

Environmental Science

Engineering, July 1992


By David A. Whaley,Ph.D., R.O.H., C.I.H. which involves ideniifying the most re levant contaminants of concern at a

particular site (usually chemicals or radioactives) and their likely sources of release. Examples ofsources would be a spill of fuel in the soil, emissions from an incinerator stack,or the discharge of untreated process wastewater from a factory into a nearby pond or stream. What then follows is a series of pro

skin), and showering (offgasing. caus ing exposure by inhalation), or is taken up by the roots of vegetables consumed by humans, or by the roots of forage or silage eaten by beef and dairy cattle or

based on the"weight ofevidence"classi fication system ofthe USFPA.This clas sification determines (qualitatively) how likely it is that a hazardous material could actually cause cancer in humans. Tests with bacteria or experimental animals may be suggestive, but do not prove that chemicals or radioactivity ac tually can cause human cancer. Of all the kinds ofevidence considered in such

a judgement, evidence coming directly from experience with humans is the most compelling, such as from an acci

cesses. described here as if all the needed data were available. However,

often the necessary information about a contaminant does not exist. This is

dental release to the environment,or an

where the creativity ofthe risk assessor is challenged â&#x20AC;&#x201D; to attempt the most rea sonable estimates of the missing infor mation. using information available for closely related toxic chemicals or radio-

unintended workplace exposure.There fore. a scientific judgement should be made as to how much weight to give the available evidence that a material may cause human cancer.

actives. Sometimes the information

It is widely acknowledged that the

exists, but is faulty or conflicting, requir ing careful scientific judgement to use

numeric estimates of risk derived from

the most credible information avail

by poultry which enter the human

able.

food supply. Each potential pathway should be evaluated for its relevance to a par ticular site. The most relevant pathways for a site are selected by weeding out those pathways which could not have a significant impact under the cir cumstances at that site. Where possible, this weeding out process should use cre dible quantitative information. For each remaining important environmen tal pathway, the potential exposure for

this process contain some uncertainty. At present, risk assessments are expec ted to provide a feel for how dangerous a situation is. within an accuracy of about 10-fold to 100-fold. So much key infor mation is unknown or only approx imately known at this time, that this degree of uncertainty in the values es timated is presently considered accept able. The current approach is to use a series of conservative assumptions throughout the process, to intentionally overestimate the risk. It is felt that, using this approach, if the level of risk cal

Once the contaminants of concern are identified, the health risk assess

ment proceeds to the next phase, called the Toxicity Assessment which deter

mines the following information for each contaminant;(1) the most impor tant toxic effect to appear at low expo sure levels and(2)the minimal exposure level to cause this toxic effect. From this

information.(3) a safe exposure level is then estimated for that contaminant.

Currently, such toxicity information is handled somewhat differently, depend ing on whether the contaminant ofcon cern is able, or is not able, to cause can

cer.The results ofthe toxicity assessment are inherent to the toxic materials being considered, and will not be different from site to site.

The next portion of the risk assess ment is called the Exposure Assessment. which is site-specific, that is. developed uniquely for a particular contaminated site. First, the most susceptible nearby individuals, called the "critical recep tors". are identified. Examples ofcritical receptors are nearby people, for exam ple. who live just outside the property boundary of the contaminated site. Other critical receptors could be highly susceptible persons,such as very young, elderly or sick people. Secondly,from each identified source ofcontamination,all possible pathways by which each contaminant of concern can move through the environment to expose a critical receptor person are identified and evaluated.

An example of a potential environ mental pathway could begin from con tamination of groundwater with oil from a leaking underground storage tank. The contaminated groundwater is then taken from a well for use as drink

ing water(exposure by ingestion). bathing(exposure by absorption through the

each contaminant of concern to each

culated is judged to be acceptable.'then

critical receptor is estimated quantita tively. The last portion ofthe risk assessment

conclusions, because of the conserva

is the Hazard Characterization, which

risk estimate.

we are reasonably confident with the

tive assumptions used to develop this However,as the science of health risk

At present, risk assessments are expected to provide a

feel for how dangerous a situation is

combines the exposure estimate with the toxicity information to arrive at an over-all estimate of risk. For each con

taminant of concern, the exposure to one or several critical receptors by all pathways are combined, and compared with the safe exposure levels, as pre viously determined by the toxicity as

assessment matures, we are already see ing considerable refinements, such as better information on toxicity. and on environmental fate and transport, assis ted by computer modelling. These new developments are enabling risk asses sors to approach progressively more ac curate and realistic estimates of risk.

For completeness, there is a second type of risk assessment, which evaluates the impact of an uncontrolled release or environmental contamination on wild life and its habitat. This is called an

ecological risk assessment. The science

sessment. The hazard characterization

ofecological risk assessment has not yet developed as far as the science of(hu

is specific for the site and provides the findings, generally quantitative, upon

often employed in a rigorous fashion.

which are based the fi nal conclusions of the health risk assessment.

A thorough risk assessment should include some key qualitative informa tion.such as the degree ofscientific con

man)health risk assessment, and is less The U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency has developed a Guidance Manual,forecological risk assessments. In Canada, many risk assessors antici pate that ecological risk assessments

fidence which the risk assessor has in

will be an area of future interest and

the quality of the information available to him to perform the risk assessment.In the case of cancer-causing materials, a

development, but at a slower rate than the anticipated rate of growth in health risk assessment. ES&E

qualitative classification should also be

For more information,

made for each contaminant of concern.

Circle reply card No. 250

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

47


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The Globe's timely mea culpa

The Globe & Mail has been a venerable

media

institution

for some 150 years and worthy to be ranked among the world's

great newspapers. Courage and fairness have always been Globe attributes, but now one might add a rare commodity in newspapers — humility. The Globe is not above a little self

Focus on real issues ing editorial. Where coverage on PCBs is concerned, the Globe repents freely and does not spare itself from critical Bravo for the editorial The Media's Ecofailure. It is very seldom that a news self analysis. The editorial drew plaudits from paper takes the time to question its own stories, and The Globe and Mail is to be Douglas Langley, President of Environ congratulated for doing so. ment Protection Laboratories. This edi torial, and Mr. Langley's letter are re Issues such as PCBs, incineration of produced below. wastes, dioxins and so on have been

deprecation as instanced in the follow

generally overblown and have deflected political and economic attention away from far more serious environmental

and social problems.

THE GLOBE AND MAIL CANADA'S

NATIONAL

Nfi-WSPAPER

The media's eco-fallure

Metals such as mercury, which have killed many and maimed thousands, are routinely found in our fish and food stuffs. Lead is known to be present in Toronto's tapwater, as well as in various foods, and its impact on the develop ment ofhuman intelligence is becoming well established. Chloroform — a mam

This newspaper has often criticized gov ernments that hurl public money at envi ronmental problems without sufficient study. We have been equally harsh with environmentalists who prod govern ments into hasty action with shrill warn ings and skewed information. What we have rarely done is examine the third culprit: ourselves. The news media's role in fuelling un founded environmental fears was under

lined last week by a landmark court judgment on urea-formaldehyde foam insulation. In dismissing the compensa

than try to determine the veracity of what they hear — as deadlines approach and editors scowl — reporters seek reaction from the accused party (usually a gov ernment or company) and print it along with the accusation. This Is known as objectivity.

ran 222 stories on the health risks of

UFFI in their houses, Mr. Justice Ren6

smoking,a habit that killed 38,357 Cana

Hurtubise of the Quebec Superior Court said that media organizations were as

dians In 1989.

much to blame as consumer activists for

That Is precisely the problem: the media deplore uncertainty. Mired in lazy habits, we prefer the cut-and-dried to the complex, the cry of outrage to the cau tious rumination. "Scientists unsure about health effects of UFFI" makes a

pallid headline. "UFFI home residents claim vomiting, headaches" makes page

This failure of perspective Is most ob vious in environmental accidents. When

a truck carrying leaky transformers spilled oil laced with PCBs along the Trans-Canada highway In 1985, news papers gave the story banner treatment. Many people were frightened and the government spent millions repaving the road. Surely this would have been the time to put the dangers of PCBs into focus. To their credit, some newspapers tried. Not hard enough. Six years later, governments are spending tens of mil

Douglas Langley

lions of dollars to remove PCBs from

sites across the country,largely because of unfounded public fears.

one.

None of this means that the media

Realizing this, many environmentalists have learned to serve up clear, unam biguous opinions, preferably couched In terms of an angry accusation. Rather

How many environmental stories has The Globe and Mail(or any other major paper) published about these com pounds? The public would be better ser ved by having attention focused on the problems that really exist and really af

So it is that The Globe and Mall pub lished 386 stories in the past six years about polychlorinated biphenyls, a family of substances whose only proven health effect is to cause acne, eye dis fect human health,rather than on PCBs charges and vomiting in people who in and dioxins, whose human impacts are gest\hem.In the same period.The Globe . either not documented or are trivial.

tion claims of homeowners who used

whipping up hysteria about the risks of UFFI — risks which he found unproven. "The physical and chemical effects of UFFI," said Judge Hurtubise, "remain the object of speculation and uncer tainty."

malian carcinogen — and other trihalomethanes are found in drinking water of most Ontario municipalities, often at levels higher than U.S. or World Health Organization guidelines.

should Ignore genuine environmental threats. It Is our job, however,to maintain a sense of proportion. So far, we are falling.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

The Globe and Mail has taken a bold

first step in recognizing its lack of per spective in printing environmental stories. We look forward to seeing an emphasis on the real environmental issues.

D.G. Langley President, Environment Protection Laboratories, Inc., Toronto 49


Water treatment

By Bob Stevens*

New standards for testing water fittings for toxicity

For many years, water supplies

in the United Kingdom were conveyed in traditional ma terials such as clay pipes and copper and brass tube. Joints were sealed with hemp,pitch,and solder.The

behaviour of these materials in contact

with water was quite well understood,at least to the level of toxicity awareness. National standards were established for

metal fittings in contact with water to ensure uniformity ofsize and durability and safety in use. The post-war years have seen enor mous changes, with plastics and pet rochemical products now being used for purposes that previously only tradition al materials could serve. Among these uses have been replacements for copper

and other metal piping systems,flexible hoses, plastic reservoir liners, valve bodies, washers, gaskets, sealants, and adhesives.

The novelty of these replacement ma terials means that they have no "track record" of safety as they have not been previously tested.The harmful potential of untested materials is great. For in stance, one fatal outbreak of Legion naires' disease in the U.K. has been

Materials testing In many countries,includingthe U.K.

and the United States, work has begun on testing and approving for use the many different items and formulations

The novelty of these replacement materials means that they have no "track record" of safety

traced to the growth oflethal bacteria on of nonmetallic materials for water ap the surface of nonapproved rubber gas kets in a hot water system. Furthermore, plications. In the U.K.,the end result is a the list of possible additives in these British Standard (comparable to the replacement materials runs to several American National Standards Institute pages,so that it is not feasible to approve [ANSI] standard in the U.S.), known as any intended application solely on the BS 6920 of 1990.This standard describes the tests which must be applied and ways of conducting them for a material to receive approval for use and subse quent entry to a national approved list of fittings. One of the first to be involved, Clay ton Environmental's U.K. laboratory is

basis of written details.

now one of three approved laboratories in the U.K. conducting this testing. Some 800 water fittings products are examined in the U.K.each year,at a cost

of around 800 pounds sterling per pro duct. The testing takes about 10 weeks, and is planned to simulate the con ditions which the material will encoun ter in its end use. The tests include:

• Taste and appearance of water after contact with the product • Growth of aquatic microorganisms • Cytotoxicity testing • Extraction of potentially toxic metals

Taste and appearance. Although listed first, this test is actually performed last, only after all other tests have been satis fied. Volunteers in our Birmingham la boratory have been assessed for their

sensitivity to the principal types of water taint, which have agreed-upon descrip tive names — chlorophenolic, "pen cils," rubber, musty, and so on. From these volunteers, a panel of 12 has been identified. Every week or so they are asked to leave their normal work for an hour to taste and comment

on the range oftest waters.Ofcourse,the water is never swallowed, and it is not

even tasted if there is any noticeable odour. Taste testing is done with the In-

*Public Analyst/Analytical Laboratory Head, Clayton Environmental Con sultants, Birmingham, England. The old and ne\w. Striking modern water tower combines aesthetics with efficiency in Metro Toronto. Gore & Storrie designed this water tower storage project. 50

continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


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ternational Standards Organization (ISO)wi ne tasting glasses,but no one yet has spoken of a water with "a preten tious nose belying its humble origins and relative youth." Not everyone has the required sen sitivity or ability to discriminate,and the job is complicated by the fact that we all tend to show an in-built preference for the water we grew up with. People who grewup with hard water find it more dif ficult to spot problems when the water tested is from Birmingham's soft water supply! Growth of aquatic microorganisms. This test assesses whether any sub stance can leach out ofthe material that

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antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium,iron, lead, manganese, mer cury, nickel, selenium, and silver which might have leached into water from coming in contact with the water fitting. This testing is performed using atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma instrumentation. In each case, maximum permitted levels of metals lost to the test water are set by the British standard.

The British standard is quite similar to ANSI 61 in the U.S. To date, we have

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ing to sell their products in the U.K.Test ing against the ANSI standard is an area we intend to explore this year. Conclusion

With increasing frequency, the com mittee that approves water fittings is asking for analysis for particular toxic or potentially toxic compounds in water,depending on the composition of the plastic used. This field of testing is very sophisticated, requiring gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS)facilities to be used. With the formation of the "Internal

Market"in Europe,work is underway at Centre Europeene pour Normalisation (CEN), the European equivalent of ANSI and the British Standards Insti

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testing water fittings. Of course, we be lieve the British way is best and will seek to persuade our partners to adopt it. ES&E

52

Circle reply card No. 257


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53


Solid waste management

Waterloo recycling centre meets material diversion objectives overall recycling efforts. The facility in corporates a floor area of 3,500 m^, ex cluding administration and Table 1 breaks down the material types and quantities processed. The MRC is designed to receive all materials inside the building. Separate

receiving/storage areas are provided for

/GLASS STORAGe/

newspaper, OCC, telephone books, mixed paper, source-separated glass and commingled material. Each of

[ STCRAGg/

these streams has a dedicated truck door

for access to the tipping floor area. Newspaper and OCC are separately front-end loaded from their respective tipping areas directly onto the baler feed conveyor. Contaminants are removed by hand prior to loading the conveyor. The bales produced are stored in the building, or are loaded directly into waiting transfer trailers, prior to ship

BALE SrORACE /

/FWE PAPEft SORTING/

ment to market.

The source-separated glass and com mingled materials undergo processing via their respective conveyor systems. The processing of curbside coloursorted glass focuses on contaminant removal, while processing of the com mingled stream includes contaminant removal,colour-separation of glass, fer rous and aluminum cans removal, and

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN

The Regional Municipality of Waterloo Material Recycling Centre (MRC) is designed to

receive, process, store and ship "blue box" material from single and multi-family residential units and apartments, and industrial,commercial and institutional recyclable materials, including corrugated cardboard(OCC) and, in the future, mixed office paper. Blue box

was completed in February, 1991. The facility was officially declared "open" May 31, 1991 by Ontario Environment Minister Ruth Grier. The official open ing featured local school children par-

colour-sorted glass is being processed, the operation is primarily restricted to contaminant removal. After separation, the sorted glass is conveyed to indivi-

tems and MacViro Consultants Inc.

In the case ofthe former, when curbside

materials include source-

separated newspaper including OCC and telephone books, curbside coloursorted glass, and a commingled compo nent comprising ferrous cans, alumi num cans,plastic containers and, mixed glass. The Materials Recycling Centre is owned by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo and is operated undercontract by Laidlaw Waste System Ltd. The building and building services were de signed by Reider, Hymmen and Lobban Architects and MacLaren Engineers Inc., while the processing equipment selec tion and layout were designed and com missioned by Resource Integration Sys 54

Construction of the facility began in the fall of 1989 and was completed by the end of 1990. Start-up and com missioning ofthe processing equipment

plastic(PET)bottles removal. Colour-sorting ofglass is achieved by conveying the mixed glass past manual sorting stations. Provision for sorting clear, coloured and mixed broken glass streams is provided for both conveyor lines;one handlingthe source-separated mixed glass, the other handling com mingled materials including some glass.

With over a year of operation now logged, the MRC has successfully met Its material throughput design rates and Is playing a key role In the Region's overall recycling efforts. ticipating in a clever recycling demon stration using the plant's equipment and set to music pointing towards the future â&#x20AC;&#x201D; "2001 A Space Odyssey". With over a year of operation now logged, the MRC has successfully met its material throughput design rates and is playing a key role in the Region's

dual roll-off storage containers located outside the building for delivery to market.

Separation of the ferrous, aluminum and plastic components of the com mingled stream is achieved by convey ing this material past a magnetic sepacontinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


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For more information, Circle reply card No. 129 Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

55


Solid waste management con't rator and manual sorting stations on a dedicated conveyor system. The ferrous material is collected using an overhead rotating belt magnetic separator. Fer rous cans, after magnetic separation, pass through a can flattener for volume reduction before being conveyed to a roll-off container located outside the

building. Aluminum and plastics are separated from the commingled stream by manual sorters. These separated materials are dropped into chutes then conveyed to portable storage cages lo cated inside the building. Plastic bottles are passed through a perforator prior to being caged. The perforator increases the storage capacity of the cages and ultimately improves the bales produced. When sufficient quantities of alumi num and plastics have accumulated,the respective cages are rolled to the baler feed conveyor and the contents dis charged onto the conveyor for baling. Although ferrous baling was not origin ally intended, if the ferrous market dic tates, the roll-off storage container is delivered into the building and its con tents unloaded onto the baler feed con

veyor for baling. Presently ferrous material is being baled. The heavy duty baler features an elec tric eye in the feed hopper to initiate bale production and an auto bale tying me chanism for hands-off operation. All

floor sorting operations. The control console is equipped with a programm able controller, programmed to start and stop equipment with the approp riate commands and in proper sequence. Light indication is provided for each piece of equipment on the console to denote status of operation. Adjustment of conveyor speeds(for those conveyors

state-of-the-art.

equipped with variable speed drives; namely the conveyors which pass by manual sorting stations) is from the control room as well. Local start/stop buttons are provided for each piece of equipment, allowing local overriding of the central control system. From the outset, numerous design features were incorporated into the MRC to ensure the facility is, and con tinues to be, state-of-the-art. Present

material quantities to be processed are such that primarily manual sorting is more

cost-effective

than

automated

TABLE 1

2010 DESIGN BASIS

tonnes/day

tonnes/yr

tonnes/day

tonnes/yr

tonnes/day

tonnes/yr

tonnes/day

News

8,546

34.2

11,503

46.0

9,000

36.0

7,712

443

occ

9.072

36.3

12,156

48.6

6,225

24.9

3.028

17.4

-

-

-

250

1.0

-

1991 EXPECTED

1991 ACTUAL(l)

1990 DESIGN BASIS

tonnes/yr

Mixed Paper

present and for the foreseeable future, several design features have been incor-

From the outset, numerous design features were incorporated into the MRC to ensure the facility is, and continues to be,

MATERIALS AND QUANTITIES PROCESSED AT MRC

MATERIAL

ing of the coloured glass component into "green" and "brown" streams if de sired.Space has also been allowed in the present layout to accommodate a second commingled conveyor sorting system, essentially doubling the plant capacity. Since manual sorting will be used at

-

-

Ferrous

1,139

4.6

1,.533

6.1

800

3.2

1,450

8.3

Aluminum

85

0.34

114

0.46

225

0.9

90

0.5

Plastics

285

1.14

384

1.54

125

0.5

83

0.5

Glass

2,563

10.2

3347

13.8

2,425

9.7

626

3.6

Totals:

21,690

86.8

29,137

116.6

19,050

76.2

12,989

74.6

porated to maximize operator efficiency. All sorting conveyors are provided with variable speed drives allowing optimi zation of speed settings depending on the number of pickers and the material mix. The variable speed capability also allows better control of conveyor mate rial depths which directly impacts sort ing performance. Spring loaded shear gates are provided on both the com mingled and source-separated glass feed conveyors to provide additional material depth control while minimiz ing breakage of glass. Other features in clude sorting platform height adjust ment, optional glass sorting techniques (hand picked or projection of glass against an impact plate using "pad dles"), and conveyor half-speed pedals at each sorting station. Operators can activate the half-speed switches when the conveyor burden depth becomes ex cessive. All of these features help to im prove the manual operations at the MRC,ultimately improving the overall operation's economics. Table 1 provides a breakdown of the materials processed at the MRC,includ

ing annual and daily tonnages. As shown in the table, total daily tonnages processed are comparable to the expec ted quantities established at the design phase. Processing totals for certain items have increased, while others have

(1) May through December, 1991(174 Processing Days)

decreased, reflecting changing market conditions since design was initiated in 1989.

baling system controls are located at the baler. The baler is operated indepen dently ofthe glass and commingled con veyor systems by a dedicated baler/forklift operator. Conveyor systems are manually oper ated from a control console located in

the process control room. The process control room is located on the mez

zanine level of the MRC, overlooking the conveyors. This arrangement pro vides clear viewing of the conveyor and 56

sorting. The equipment layout has been designed however to accommodate, in

With its first year complete,the MRC has successfully met its own recycling goals and is an integral part of the Re

the future, an air classifier for auto

gion's efforts to meet the Minister's re

mated plastics removal,an eddy current separator for automatic aluminum cans capture, and a vibratory screen for au tomatic separation of two size fractions of glass. Any or all of these features could be installed if future quantities dictate. In addition, the present glass sorting conveyor system will, with minor upgrading, allow for further sort-

cycling targets. The Regional Munici pality of Waterloo must be commended

for its initiative in developing this im portant project. Under the Region's leadership, the MRC's development by the private sector,including conception, design, construction and operation, provides an excellent model for others to follow. Circle reply card No. 259

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


CETECH A two day conference on Environmental

Solutions for Canadian Industry October 20& 21,1992 Toronto International Centre

6900 Airport Road This two-day conference organized by Envi ronmental Science & Engineering Magazine features legal and technical experts who will focus on the formidable environmental com

pliance problems that confront industry mana gers and engineers daily.

Who should attend: Environmental Affairs Director

CETECH

Environmental Engineer Plant Manager General Manager Corporate Affairs President

Conference Topics □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

Are You The Designated "Jaillee" Environmental insurance in Canada

Transportation of Dangerous Goods Indoor Air Quality and Outdoor Emissions

Conducting an Air Emissions Inventory A New CFC Recovery Technology Direct Industrial Discharges Pollution Prevention Strategies MISA, CAP and Safe Drinking Water Act Strategies for Hazardous Waste Management

□ High Efficiency Electrolytic Wastewater Treatment

□ Occupational Health & Safety □ Environmental Risk Assessment □ Could Backflow Contaminate Your Plant's Drinking and Process Water? □ Communications, the Achilles Heel of industry

Environmentally — what you don't know can hurt you Never before have senior industrial managers and engineers faced such formidable problems. Now, in

addition to complex economic and manufacturing situations, industries face increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Then there are air qua lity requirements inside the plant — as well as a host of occupational health and safety liabilities.

Expert advice can be expensive

— lack of it can be devastating

Environmental violators not only face heavy fines, but also jail terms. Yet, pollution abatement pro jects are sometimes prohibitively costly. To cope with the complexities of legal liabilities, compliance requirements and other factors, today's busy mana gers and engineers require the assistance of top experts from various disciplines. This conference delivers the experts — at a fraction of the cost of a consultation.


Technical Program (subject to change)

Environmental Science & Engineering magazine staff have put together a range of expert presenta tions — designed to help senior staff to cope with these issues.

This conference can help you avoid costly litigation, and perhaps even save money on process or other adjustments. For a fraction of the price ofa personal consultation, the presentations wiii enable you to hear and question some of the top experts in the country.

October 20, 1992 MORNING SESSION — Cost: $95.00 9:00 a.m. — 12:30 p.m.

Legal Liabilities — what you don't know can hurt you

Liability Issues In The 1990's Are You The Designated "Jaillee" The Beta case and its implications. This precedent setting case has far reaching impiications for ailsenior management people. The sentencing decision was unusual, both in the relative seve rity of the fines and particularly in the fact that the corporation was forbidden from indemnifying the two directors for the pay

MISA, CAP and Safe Drinking Water Act — How They Affect Industry Environmental regulations have been evolving in Canada over the past decade. There are great cycles of activity in the envi ronmental regulatory field, followed by more relaxed periods. The ebb and flow Is tied to economic reality, and to prevailing government's determination to regulate. This paper wiii review the current status of IVflSA, CAP and the Safe Drinking Water Act and other proposed provincial regulations; as well as some of the emerging federal legislation on environmental manage ment.

James N. Bishop, B.Sc. — vice president. Environment Protection Laboratories, formerly director of Water Resources, Ontario MOE.

Transportation of Dangerous Goods: The Regulatory Maze The transportation of dangerous goods is heavily regulated in Canada and there is considerable overlap In jurisdiction bet

ween the provincial and federal governments. This paper wiii provide an overview of the applicable regulatory frameworks and will address new and upcoming requirements imposed as a result of international agreements.

Speaker to be confirmed.

Lunch Break

ment of their fines.

Roger Cotton, LL.B., LLM.— partner and head of the Environmental Law Group at Fasken Gampbell & Godfrey.

AFTERNOON SESSION — Cost: $95.00 2:00 p.m. — 4:30 p.m.

Air Pollution Control

A Legal View of Environmental Insurance In Canada

The Blue Bottle — A Canadian

- Which policies apply at the time of an environmental "occur

Environmental Protection

rence" or loss?

- What coverage may be available under your comprehensive general liability policies? - What is the proper interpretation of pollution exclusion clauses?

- Does coverage extend to ciean-up costs imposed by statute? - Trends in American case law and the reaction of Canadian

Technology The Blue Bottle technology with world-wide patent protection facilitates capture and recycling of CFCs from both concentra ted and dilute emission streams. It has been developed to reduce CFC emissions to "zero" and to provide 100% recovery yield of high purity product suitable for direct reuse.

courts.

Data available from the first commercial scale trials to be car

- Future trends in Canada for insurance protection from envi

ried out in collaboration with SEARS and TRANE Engineering Service Agency wiii be discussed.

ronmental risk.

Bruce Smith, LLB. — partner, Blake, Gassels & Graydon.

Dusanka Filipovic, P.Eng., and Michaei Hirtenstein, Ph.D., Haiozone Recycling inc.

Free trade show pass Discover the latest technology, products, and services for prevention, minimization, control, handling and management ofpollutants at the CETECH exhibition. CETECHis a special exhibit section ofPMDS — Cana da's largest Plant Management & Maintenance/De sign Engineering Show. Over 10,000 industry person nel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PMDS in 1990. Registered conference delegates receive a free pass to the trade show.

Sources and Occurrence of

Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) increased awareness of the importance of indoor air quality (lAQ) has fueled much of the research over the past 10 years. The need to identify and measure airborne V^OCs in indoor environments because of potential deleterious effects on human health has been demonstrated. A variety ofindoor sources can emit a wide range of VOCs,some of which are potential irritants


and cause discomfort or more serious toxic effects. For the

investigator, understanding VOC sources, the character of emissions and their fate, can help solve lAQ problems.

Philip Feiiin, M.Sc. — principal and director. Concord Environmental.

Conducting an Air Emissions Inventory

Who should attend: Environmental Affairs Director

Environmental Engineer Plant Manager General Manager Corporate Affairs

The requirements for plants and manufacturing facilities to account for all their waste products are constantly being tighte ned. Until recently, most plants were required to account for their air emissions of contaminants on a per source and, typi cally, one time basis. This procedure was, in Ontario, handled through the familiar Certificate of Approval process, instituted many years ago by the Ministry of the Environment (MOB). Regardless of these regulatory initiatives, every industry should know what its atmospheric releases of materials are at any time, in this way, the degree of compliance with current regulations, and the impact of intended changes can be assessed. Any remediation work needed can then be done efficiently.

President

Alan D. Church, C.Chem. — environmental management consultant. Church & Trought inc.

Strategic Planning for Hazardous Waste Management

October 21, 1992

A review of critical issues facing any firm involved in planning a comprehensive, long-term strategy for managing hazardous chemical wastes. It aims'to address technical issues, including the selection of optimum treatment technologies and strategies

MORNING SESSION — Cost: $95.00 9:00 a.m. — 12:30 p.m.

Direct Discharge

as well as the economic factors involved in these decision

making processes, using the modern approach of "full-cost environmental accounting".

Bernard Fleet, Ph.D., M.Sc. — president. Toxics Recovery Systems international inc., and Adjunct Professor, University of Toronto.

Good Housekeeping Practices for Industry in the 1990's The purchase or sale ofindustrial property, or the expansion of an existing operation, frequently requires consideration that hazardous materials are present and the need for eventual site remediation. Sometimes the cost of cleanup can run into mil lions of dollars, implementing good housekeeping practices and practicing corporate due diligence now may help to mini mize clean-up costs in the future. The way existing industrial operations are managed can reduce, improve or compound the problems on site. Recommendations will be presented to assist with site specific business decisions including site planning, audits, operation, equipment purchase, and cost planning.

Reducing Environmental Impact: Is it a Waste? Many manufacturers and processors are facing tougher envi ronmental regulations, requiring expensive wastewater treat ment and solid waste disposal. Experience has shown that costs can be saved by altering the way processors look at their wastewater.

Water conservation, reuse, and the recovery of solids from wastewaters for reuse or feed to livestock, are examples of measures that reduce environmental impacts and costs.

George Crawford, P.Eng.

manager, industriai Wastewater Section,

Gore & Storrie Limited.

Ian McCiymont, P.Eng., and John Mcirvine, Ph.D., Proctor & Redfern Limited

Trenchless Pipeline Renovation — An Environmental Protection

High Efficiency Electrolytic Wastewater Treatment Test results and applications of this world-wide patented process for a wide variety of industrial wastes will be demons trated. The successful destruction of chlorinated benzenes and

PCBs is covered, together with the ESi closed-loop system for discharge-free operation. The importance of by-product hydro gen is referred to as a means of further reducing operating

Strategy Renovating service and process pipelines, especially those underground, is an important economic part of an environmen tal protection strategy. Over time, a leaking pipeline can cause widespread ground contamination leading to costly soil ciean-up. No-Dig renovation techniques such as deformed polyethylene liners, provide a new option for prevention and repair.

Ian J. Doherty, P.Eng. — technicai director, Samuel Pipe Liners, inc.

costs.

Michael E. Neaie, M.Sc., C.Chem., MRSC.(U.K.) — Effluent Strategies inc.

Lunch Break


AFTERNOON SESSION — Cost: $95.00

Communications, the Achilles

2:00 p.m. — 4:30 p.m.

Heel of Industry

Occupational Health & Safety

Environmental communications have become theAchiiies Heel

Environmental Risk Assessment Based on Human Health Industries or government agencies often need to have a quanti tative estimate of the degree of risk to human health in a particu lar scenario of exposures to hazardous agents, such as chemi cals.

of commercial enterprise, with perception dominating reality in today's media coverage. The paper wiii cover the basics of communications, including writing press releases for both marketing and other media announcements.

Tom Davey, publisher. Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

Such an estimate Is called a Human Health-Based

Environmental Risk Assessment. A Risk Assessment may esti mate past, present, or future exposures and likely resulting hazards to health.

About the organizers

David A. Whaiey, Ph.D., R.O.H., C.i.H., D.i.H. — environmental and industrial hygiene toxicologist.

This conference is sponsored by Environmental Science &Engineering magazine. Over the past 17 years, ES&E staffers have organized numerous conferences and seminarsfor the Pollution Control Association of Ontario, the Air and Waste Mana gement Association and Environment Canada, on pollution abatement, waste management and environmental legal affairs. In May 1992, Tom Davey, the magazine's publisher, was presented with Environment Canada's top award for envi

Your Plant Water System; Is it Safe? The water within your plant's distribution system should be both safe to drink and of high enough quality for processing requirements. Many case histories are on file where contamina tion of a product or sickness has occurred due to use or consumption of water that has become unsafe. Cross-connections within your plant's water system can allow such things as gasoline, anti-freeze, arsenic compounds, or even propane gas and wine to enter your supply piping.

ronmental communications.

Michael Birks — manager, Febco |Canada|.

HOW TO REGISTER: To register for the conference, please fill in and return the registration form below. For further details, contact Steve Davey (416) 727-4666. (Canceiiation deadline: October 12, 1992.) Price:

One Session

-$ 95.00

Three Sessions -$195.00

Two Sessions

-$150.00

Full Registration - $240.00

(GST included) (GST #122654049)

Note: Second delegate from each company receives a 50% discount.

Please fax or mail this form to Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora,ON,L4G 5N7, Fax:(416)841-7271. Please make cheques payable to Environmental Science & Engineering. Name:

Company:. Address:—

Phone:

Fax:.

Please register me for the following sessions: □ Legal Liabilities □ Air Pollution Control □ Occupational Health and Safety Account Number:.

□ Direct Discharges □ Cheque enclosed □ Please invoice □ VISA:

. Expiry Date:

.Signature: .


THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION FOR CANADIAN INDUSTRY DISCOVER THE LATEST ENVIRONMENTAL

TECHNOLOGY, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR

CANADIAN INDUSTRY AT CANADIAN

CETECH

MANUFACTURING WEEK

OCTOBER 20-22, 1992 TORONTO INTERNATIONAL CENTRE

CETECH is a special environmental exhibit section of FMDS — CANADA'S largest Plant Management& Maintenance/Design Engineering Show.With over 700 exhibiting companies and four shows at Manufacturing Week,this is a "Must Attend" event for engineers, consultants and other environmental decision makers.

A two-day conference organized by Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine features legal and technical experts who will focus on the formidable environmental compliance problems that confront industry managers and engineers daily. For further details on the conference,contact Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine, Tel:(416)727-4666, Fax:(416)841-7271. CETECH is co-sponsored by Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association Participating sponsor: Air & Waste Management Association (Ontario Chapter)

Reed Exhibitions is a member of the Reed Exhibition Companies(REC), the world's largest exhibition organizer.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON ATTENDING MANUFACTURING WEEK PLEASE CONTACT:

Reed Exhibition

Reed Exhibitions Inc.

Gompanies

800 Denison Street, Unit 7, Markham. Ont. L3R SM9

Teh (416) 479-3939

Fax:(416)479-S144

( o T7t m I t t f d

For more information, Circie reply card No. 136

I II

t X I

■ iI t


Aqua '92, Vancouver B.C.

AQUA '92 National Water Show and Conference List of Exhibitors ACTIVE CHEMICALS LTD.

DOUGLAS BROS. DIV. OF ROBERT MITCHELL

James C. Wilson, President Description; Oilsop will separate anytwo immersible fluids having different speci fic gravities. Booth #459

Paul Jones, Western Manager Description: Piping systems, metal fa

ALBERTA ECONOMIC

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE &

brication Booth #445

LYNCH RESOURCES LTD.

Roy Campbell, President Description: Water leak detection, pipe line and cable locating utility installa tions, sales & service crews Booth #345

DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE

ENGINEERING

MANCORP INDUSTRIAL SALES LTD.

Behrooz Sadre-Hashemi, Director —

Steve Davey, Sales Director Description: Publication Booth #579

F.G. Sheffer, President Description: Water treatment recyciing system, high pressure washers

Trade Show Promotion

Booth #405/406/408

GUNDLE LINING SYSTEMS INC.

APPLIED MICROSYSTEMS

Steve McBeath, Marketing Manager Description: Manufacture instrumenta tion for water monitoring Booth #242 AZCO INDUSTRIES LTD. Vladimir Stuchlik, President Description: Ozonation equipment for water purification Booth #231

Tanya Woodlye, Marketing Assistant Description: Pond Liners Booth #413 HONEYWELL LIMITED

Carlo Caponio, Marketing Com munications Specialist Description: Water quality control products Booth #412A

Booth #346/347 NALCO CANADA INC.

Priya Lalico, Product Specialist Description: Video and posters on water reuse/recovery Booth #240 NORECOL ENVIRONMENTAL CON SULTANTS LTD.

BOA INDUSTRIAL CONTROLS LIMITED

Frank Van der Have, Environmental

Niko R. Zorkin, Ph.D., President Description: Picture displays

Sales

brochures Booth #569

W.T. Crane, President Description: Package water & waste water treatment plants Booth #456

Description: Multi parameter water quality monitoring instrumentation by Hydro Lab Booth #307

BARTOSCH TIDECO INDUSTRIES

IDEAL DISTRIBUTORS LTD.

William Payne, General Manager Description: Piping systems, metal

Brian Carrell, President

HOSKIN SCIENTIFIC LIMITED

fabrication Booth #445

Description: Water filtration ozone ge nerators, controls for monitoring ozone

BLUE WHITE INDUSTRIES

chlorine & pH controls Booth #304

W. Heath Race, National Sales Description: Chemical injection pumps, flowmeters Booth #306

THE BOSS/WATER MARKETING CORPORATION

Neal Y. Beaumont, President Description: Bottled drinking from BC Booth #463 BRINECELL

Tim Themy-Kotronakis, President Description: Separating H2O and NaCI chlorozone generators Booth #578

y2"-24" diameter used for water & gas lines, slurry & conduit lines, etc.

J & L INDUSTRIAL TANKS LTD.

John Greig, Manager Description: Glass fused to steel tanks, poly tanks, reflectix insulation, Norgard fire retardant Booth #577

treatment Booth #349

John Castelli, Manager of Communica tions

Description: Activated carbon products, systems and services Booth #241 COLUMBIA GEOSYSTEMS LTD.

Neil McLeod, President Description: Manufacturer and installer

Greg Jackson, Marketing Manager Description: gear motors,gear reducers, mechanical and electronic adjustable speed drives, brake motors,torque mon itoring systems Booth #419

Don C. Ingram, President Description: Pipeline rehabilitation for sewer & waterlines Booth #318 & 319 SCHONSTEDT INSTRUMENT

KISEKI WASTEWATER INC.

COMPANY

Bill Elligson, President Description: Manufacture, sell and ser vice micro organism augmentation

O.K. Davis, Manager Locator Products Description: Magnetic & cable locators designed for detecting buried iron and steel objects and tracing underground cables and pipes Booth #421

Booth #230

LIMNOTECK RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INC.

SIERRA-MISCO

of geomembrane liner systems for water and waste containment pond liners, landfill liners — floating reservoir

Chris Perrin, President, Senior Aquatic Ecologist Description: Water quality and fisheries management consulting and research

covers Booth #457

services Booth #457

62

S.E.W. EURODRIVE CO. OF CANADA

SAMUEL PIPE LINERS INC.

JACUZZI CANADA

CORPORATION

Booth #423-B

LTD.

Serges Ouimet, Director, Sales and Dawn VanZant, Corporation Relations/ Marketing Business Development Description: Pumps and water systems Description: Ozone generator, water Booth #563 CARBON

POLYTUBES(WEST)INC. Brandon McCaffery, Sales Manager Description: Polyethylene pipe tubing

INTERNATIONAL PLASTICS LTD.

CALDERA RESOURCES LTD.

CALGON

POINT FOUR SYSTEMS INC.

Tjarda Barratt, Vice President Description: Oxygenators, water quality monitoring systems, aerators, engineer ing services Booth #550

Steve Little, Sales Manager Description: Joint restraint devices, Rainbird sprinklers, various plastic pip ing systems, PVC valves, water work accessories Booth #545B

water

and

James Sabran, Vice President, Marketing Description: Manufacture remote mon itoring for water & waste water man agement Booth #458

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992


Aqua '92, Vancouver B.C.

Tentative Program — September 9-11,1992 OPENING PLENARY Confirmed: John Cashore, Minister of Environment, Lands and Parks, Vic

toria. Invited: Kim Campbell, Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Ca nada; John A. Eraser, Speaker of the House of Commons, Canada

nois; Dr. Eerdinand Hager. Sonofloc.

Coodinator,B.C. Federation of Agricul

Vienna, Austria.

ture. Victoria. B.C.

SESSION 4: WATER CONSERVA TION CASE STUDIES SESSION 5: TREATMENT AND RE USE OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER Consultants Inc., Vancouver

AND POLICIES Confirmed: Bill Lightowlers, Canadian Environmental Industry Association, White Rock, B.C.; Bill Andrews, West Coast Environmental Law Association

Vancouver. Invited: Richard Taylor.

Union of B.C. Municipalities. Rich

(Note; The instmctors are the co authors of the Municipal Water Pric ing Guidelines)

QUES AND TECHNOLOGIES

SESSION 10: TRENCHLESS TECH

Confirmed: Michael Payne, Payne En gineering Geology, Sysney, B.C.; Bar ney Hiney, H-Two-O Environmental Service. Victoria; Kathy Wong. Advan

NOLOGY WORKSHOP

California; John Bell, Bell and Reading

SESSION 2: CLEAN AND SAFE DRINKING WATER

mental Canada,North Vancouver,B.C.; Donald Tate, Environment Canada.Ot tawa. Ontario

SESSION 6: INNOVATIVE TECHNI

ced Polymer Systems. Redwood City.

mond. B.C.

WORKSHOP Confirmed: Roger McNeill. Environ

Confirmed: Troy D. Vassos, Novatec

SESSION 1: NEW REGULATIONS

SESSION 9: WATER RATE SEHING

Engineering Ltd., Vancouver. Invited: Lome Mastin, Inonization Technol

ogy Corporation, Langley, B.C.

Confirmed: Michael Alldritt, Canadian Constmction Association. National Re search Council Canada. Vancouver;

Phil Coller, Iseld Inc.. San Diego, Cali fornia; Mike Smith, Trench Replace ment Systems, Inc., Calgary, Alberta; Jeffrey Addis, City of Vancouver. Vancouver

Confirmed: John Bell. Bell and Reading

Engineering, Vancouver; Dr. John Blatherwick. City of Vancouver; Dr. V.E. Mudie, Stanchem, Inc.. Etobicoke. On tario; Dr. Peter Huck, U of Alberta. Edmonton. Invited: Jack Bryck, Dayton

and Knight Ltd.,West Vancouver; Doug Neden. GVRD. Burnaby.

SESSION 7: INDUSTRIAL PER SPECTIVES ON WATER REGULA TION

SESSION 11: MANAGING WATER IN SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRIES Confirmed: Cristina Jacob.GVRD.Bur

naby; David Van Seters. Peat, Marwick,

SESSION 8: GROUNDWATER MA NAGEMENT AND PROTECTION

Stevenson and Kellogg, Vancouver, Canada.Invited: Lucy Keating. Partner, Commexus Inc., Waterloo. Ontario

SESSION 3: WATER TREATMENT IN MAJOR INDUSTRIES Confirmed: W.H. Goodman, Nalco

Chemical Company, Naperville. Illi

Confirmed: Richard F. McNichol, Pre

sident,CPI Group ofCompanies,Langley. B.C.; Robert Palmquist. Senior Geologist. Applied Geotechnology.Inc. Bellevue; Margaret Crowley, Policy

SESSION 12: PUBLIC INFORMA TION AND CONSENSUS BUILDING Confirmed: Lucy Keating. Commexus Inc.. Waterloo. Ontario

Exhibitors List SMARTTURNER LIMITED

WATERGROUP INDUSTRIAL

Glen Monaghan, Regional Manager Description: Munioipai and industriai

Bryan Laird, National Sales Manager Description; Commercial/industrial

pumps and mixers

water filters, water softeners, deionizers, delkalizers, reverse osmosis systems,

Booth #344

deaerators Booth #323

SESSION 13: CANADIAN MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 90s Invited: Tony Dorey, Chairman, Eraser Basin Management Board. Eraser Ba sin Management Program. Vancouver. B.C.

TERMINAL CITY IRON WORKS LTD.

Gordon Eden, Sales Manager

WATTS REGULATOR OF CANADA

Description; Manufacturer of water

Flyman Posner, Manager Description; Valves and regulators

fittings Booth #320

Booth #303 TYLER PIPE

Joel Blair, Utilities Sales Manager Booth #308

UV — WATERGUARD SYSTEMS D.F. Sommervilie, President

Description; Uitravioiet sterilization systems Booth #412 A right

WESTCOAST HYDRANT SERVICES LTD.

Bob Sheilds, President/General Manager

Description; Water main cleaning, fire hydrant & valve services, watts BFP's & ACV's Booth #570

SESSION 14: TRANSFERRING AND MARKETING TECHNOLOGY Confirmed: Aldyen Donnelly. SPARK. Burnaby, B.C.; Alan Cornford, Simon Eraser Univeristy, Burnaby, B.C.

Registration and exhibition informa tion contact: AQUA '92, P.O. Box

86278, North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 4S8. Phone 604-985-1143, Fax 604985-1192.

Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

63


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Leaders in engineering and technology in container systems For more information, Circie repiy card No. 137


Product Review Sampler survives submersion for 7-1/2 years! While conducting a monitoring project in Southern California in 1984,this Isco

Sampler was swept down a major trunk line. After an extensive search revealed

no sign of the sampler, it was pre sumed destroyed.

sampler still attached.The missing sam pler was retrieved intact! After its rescue,the sampler was close ly inspected for damage. The controller showed no signs of leakage! And, other than a radical change in color and a dead battery from being submerged in raw sewage for almost eight years, the Isco sampler seemed unscathed.The bat tery was replaced and the sampler was found to be completely functional.

meter probe measures temperature, pH, specific conductance, conductivity, re sistivity, TDS, redox, salinity, D.O., % saturation, and depth to 300 feet. It can spot check, log with a watertight display unit, connect to a laptop PC, or other RS-232 or SDI-12 device. Mea surement methods are U.S. EPA-

approved. Hydrolab For more information, Circle reply card No. 151

ISCO

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 150

Two Inch groundwater quality monitor

In January 1992, a sampling crew, conducting routine cleaning and main tenance on a siphon tube located down stream from the original sampling site, snagged a suspension harness with a

Making DSP more affordable for scientists

and engineers National Instruments announced that it

will include its NI-DSP high-level, ready-to go digital signal process (DSP) software library at no charge with its DSP plug-in boards for PC AT and

Hydrolab has introduced a new mon itor for 2 in. wells. Just one 1.7 in. dia-

Laboratories Environmental and Industrial Analytical Services Trace Metals, Organic and Inorganic Analyses Waters, Soil, Sediments, Vegetation, Rocks and Minerals, Air Particulates, MISA, Reg. 309, Decommissioning Guidelines, Drinking Water Guidelines, Sewer Use By-laws, Effluents, Industrial Waste, QA/QC, Special Projects and Methods Development. We have a team of highly professional and experienced staff \«ho would meet your specific requirements and standards.

Alpha Laboratories Inc. 285 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2V1

Tel:(416)449-2166 / Fax:(416)449-0816 "Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

BARRINGER LABORATORIES

L^r^ ||r 1

• environmental and discharge analyses • Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • Phytotoxicology and Water Quality

• fire assay and field sampling services

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, GO Kirkland Lake, ON

Timmins, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON Montreal, PQ

Macintosh NuBus computers. Scientists and engineers can use NI-

DSP to develop real-time digital signal and data processing applications on the company's AT-DSP2200, NB-DSP2305, NB-DSP2301,

and

NB-DSP2300

boards. NI-DSP includes a high-level software library of 32-bit, single-preci sion, floating-point analysis functions for Fourier and spectral analysis, digital filtering, waveform generation, statisti cal analysis, vector and matrix algebra, and numerical analysis. National Instruments

For more information.

Circle reply card No. 152

Excellence in ■nni —1, ihhh LsbowtonBs HI1

LintitBd

Environmental Analysis

SanBB Consulting

for Over 25 Years

■■■■■ Chemists

14 Abacus Road Phone (416) 458-4505 Brampton, Ontario Fax (416) 458-7303

Environmental

Canada L6T 5B7

New LabWIndows for DOS Version 2.2 National Instruments has announced a new version of its LabWindows soft

ware development system for DOSbased data acquisition and instrument control applications. LabWindows Version 2.2

features

many new enhancements to the analy-

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

65


Laboratories

Product Review sis libraries for real-time digital signal processing (DSP) using the AT-DSP2200 board, to the User Interface Lib

rary(UIL)for interactive graphics, and to the data acquisition library for sup port of the SCXI signal conditioning system. National Instruments For more information, Circle reply card No. 153

Pumps for abrasive slurries and liquids

CanTest Ltd Professional

cmTzSf

Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Environmental Analysis

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J8

Occupational Health & Safety

Tel: 604 734 7276

Fax; 604 731 2386

OVER 20 YEARS OF ANALYTICAL EXCELLENCE

Comprehensive

hNVIRONMENTAL

• Complete MISA Parameters

• Regulation 309 Compliance • Dioxons/Furans

• Air Analysis • Soil Decommissioning

Laboratories

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

CANVIR® Bathurst IJrive, Wacerloo, Oncario N'2V 2C5 Tel: (519) 747-2575

Fax (519) 747-380q

Chemex Labs Environmental Services ►Analysis of trace metals/lnorganics/organlcs/radlolsotopes ►Water & waste analyses ►Contaminated site and hazardous waste monitoring ►Certified by CAEAL/Registered with BG MOE ►On-site composite sampling services Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221 MIsslssauga, ON (416) 624-2806 Rouyn. PQ (819) 797-1922

Designed to handle the highly abrasive media found in mines, mineral process

ing plants, quarries, sand and gravel pits, the 5500 and 5600 series pumps from Flygt cover a wide range of flow

and can be submerged to a depth of 20m.

These pumps are equipped with new ly developed slurry seals and are de

signed for ease of access to internal components for minimum disruption

Clayton ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS

A Marsh & McLennan Company

949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontario N9A

1L9

ENViFtONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SERVICES

Regulation 309 • Ivtetals • Inorganics • Organlcs Volatile Organlcs • BTEX • Asbestos • PCBs Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Panels • Isocyanates

Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged

(519)255-9797

FAX (519)255-9304

and maintenance. The 5500 series is available in six alternative power capa^

cities, ranging from 2 to 44KW, with

three different pump housing options. The 5600 series has drive units ranging from 5.9 to 90KW. ITT Flygt For more information, Circle reply card No. 154

Conical bottom

storage tanks

OIILL©ini

M. M. DILLON LIMITED

Environmental Laboratories

YELLOWKNIFE

OTTAWA LONDON CAMBRIDGE

Certified by Canadian Association of Environmental & Analytical Laboratories MISSISSAUGA

(416)568-1414

FAX

(416)568-1339

TORONTO WINDSOR WINNIPEG

GCG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED EDMONTON

RED DEER

PORTER DILLON LIMITED HALIFAX

SYDNEY

Aco-Assmann has introduced a new

line-up of conical bottom storage tanks with capacities from 100-3500 gallons. Conical bottom tanks provide the most economical way to store bulk li quids. The full drain design allows utili zation of every last drop of liquid. Manufactured from either linear or

crosslink polyethylene, the uniform wall construction means excellent im

pact and corrosion resistance at a frac tion of the cost of stainless steel. 66

Setting the standard for *

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION LABORATORIES INC.

service

* quality * turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel; (416) 673-3255, FAX: (416) 673-7399 Environmenlal Science & Engineering. July 1992


Laboratories

Product Review

Analytical Laboratory A Division of Gore&Stonie Limited

• Environmental Analytical Services •Specific Analysis Certified by CABAL • MISA, Sewer Use Compliance Testing

All Ago conical tanks can be easily cleaned, and are virtually maintenance free. The complete discharge feature al lows for quick cleaning and minimizes the chance of contamination when

changing to a different product.

• Hazardous Waste Characterization

Aco-Assmann

•Site Decommissioning Guideline Testing

For more information, Circle reply card No. 155

55 Research Rd.,Toronto. Ont. M4G 2G8,Tel;(416)696-0390, Fax:467-5227 1-800-563-9275

Microprocessor-based, Comprehensive Environmental Anaiyticai Services

In-line turbldlmeter

Air Quality » Water Quality » Hazardous Waste

systems

• Complete MISA Parameters

• Emission Testing

• Reg. 309 Compliance • Polychlorlnated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

• Ambient Air Monitoring

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, MIsslssauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

Designed to meet the stringent require ments ofclean water applications,these ■new in-line turbidimeter systems mea sure ultra-low turbidity levels, as well as levels to 60 NTU's. They are suitable for

critical monitoring and controlling of final product clarity of aggressive or flammable chemicals where side stream

XRAL ENVIRONMENTAL

instruments cannot withstand operat ing parameters.

A DIVISION OF SGS SUPERVISION SERVICES INC. Since 1878

ANALYTICAL SERVICES

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES •QUALITY ASSURED-DELIVERY GUARANTEED" PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA

Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

A key feature of these new tur bidimeter systems is the LED pulsed light sources and photodetectors. The light sources are alternately pulsed, with the photodetectors alternately reading an active signal and a reference signal. A ratiometric algorithm eliminates error factors due to electronic drift light

Consultants

source aging, electronic gain, and photodetector scale factors.

Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment•Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning

Great Lakes Instruments, Inc. For more information, Circie reply card No. 156

Schlumberger introduces insertion-type vortex shedding fiowmeter

480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel. 416-595-2000•Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

Ainley and

A

Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS

INTEX 3500'" insertion-type vortex

Water Supply S Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges • Flood Conitoi Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning

COLLINGWOOD

BARRIE

BELLEVILLE

OTTAWA

280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

Box 917, R.R.5

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

(613) 822-1052

shedding flowmeters feature advanced, dual piezoelectric sensor technology. Accuracy is +1% of reading with 0.25% repeatability. 67


Product Review

Consultants

INTEX 3500 is recommended for in

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions

stallation in line sizes from 2" to 36"(51 to 915 mm). The meter has a high turn down, low-flow sensitivity, to 1.3 ft/sec

(0.4 m/sec), and a wide temperature range of-400 to 650°F (-240 to 343°C). They can be used to measure the flow

of gases,liquids and saturated or super heated steam.Its sensors are immune to

to the 4 Rs

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

fluid noise, maintaining a high level 225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

of sensitivity. Schlumberger

(416) 226-0148

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 157

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited 1-1/2" turbo-meter consulting engineers and architect

features built-in strainer

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Architecture Municipal Services

TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

WELLAND (416) 735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers

UNDERWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

Sensus' W-120-S Turbo-Meter has an

operating range of 4 to 120 gallons per minute (0.9 to 36 mVh) and complies

• spil l site investigations and cleanups

with ANSI/AWWA Standard (most recent revision).

• underwater video inspections

• impact assessments

C701

A v-shaped strainer is built into the bronze maincase to prevent debris from entering the measuring chamber and damaging the meter's rotor. The V/2" W120-S Turbo-Meter includes a down

stream test plug to make on-site mea surement accuracy testing more access ible and convenient. The Model W-120-S Turbo-Meter fea

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

(416)641-0941

INTERNATIONAL BRITISH COLUMBIA

SASKATCHEWAN

SERVICES

ALBERTA

ONTARIO

tures Sensus' patented Right Angle Magnetic Drive which eliminates con ventional worm or miter gears. A num ber of standard reading, and Electronic Communication Registers (ECRs) are

ASSOCIATED

ENGINEERING

available. Sensus

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 158

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

New pH monitoring system

Specialists In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

CHMHILL

Consulting Engineers

CH2MHILL ENGINEERING

Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vanqpuver • Lethbridge Wastewater Collection & Treatment

EC1000 Process pH Monitoring System is designed for monitoring and controll ing pH in many industrial and munici pal applications. The electrode assembly features a 68

Hazardous & Solid Waste Management Water Resources & Environmental Planning

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow Measurement

WINNER OF THE AWARD OF EXCELLENCE - WASTEWATER

CANADIAN 1990 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS PROGRAM

FOR THE STUDY & DESIGN OF A MUNICIPAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


Product Review

Consultants

li Clayton

SPECIAUSTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING,INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, AND LABORATORYSERVICES

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS A Marsh & McLennan Company

• Underground Storage Tank Management, investigations and Remediations • Environmental

WINDSOR [519)255-9797

II

TORONTO C41B}498-74'14

Assessments

I

Audits

• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services

Dames & Moore. Canada

■==!i^

the environmental professionals

Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology 7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario

L4T 2H5

Tel: (416) 671-9921 Fax: (416) 672-7784

Comprehensive consulting services in engineering and

unique reference electrode design that replaces conventional porous junctions with a free-flowing, non-clogging liquid/ liquid interface. Because there is no porous material to clog, free electrolyte flow is assured and the electrode lasts

longer

because it

cannot

become

fouled.

As the system is microprocessorbased, reliable sample monitoring cov ers the full 0-14 pH range. In addition to pH measurement, the system also measures millivolt (mV) po tentials and temperature. Hach Company For more information, Circie reply card No. 159

Hazardous Waste Site Monitor OVA Organic Vapour Analyzer is a light, portable instrument ideally suited to performing a variety of analysis re quirements, both qualitative and quan titative, for waste site management.

, Golder

Assocmtes

Offices fhoughouf North America, Europe andAustraiia.

environmental sciences

internationally

MISSISSAUGA

Tel: (416)567-4444 Fax: (416)567-6561 VANCOUVER

Tel: (604) 879-9266 Fox: (604) 879-5014

ENGIfsJbfcMS PLAMSJB=S AFOHTECJTS

» ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUOITS & PLANNING » MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • PLANT DECOMMISSIONING • SITE REMEDIATION • SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

» WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION

The dual mode OVA 128GC can de

termine THC or the extent of specific volatile organic contamination in air, water or soil; the level of respiratory pro tection required and can confirm the identity and concentration of chemicals

OIILL©n Consulting Engineers • Planrters EnvironmentaJ Scientists

present. M. M. DILLON LIMITED

OTTAWA LONDON CAMBRIDGE

TORONTO WINDSOR WINNIPEG

GOG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED EDMONTON

PORTER DILLON LIMITED HALIFAX

SYDNEY

RED DEER

YELLOWKNIFE

DILLON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES MISSISSAUGA

Other versions are available for fugi tive emission monitoring and other ap plications. All ova's are certified in trinsically safe for use in Class 1, Divi sion 1, Groups A,B, C and D areas. Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 160

Professional

TORONTO, ONT

(416) 477-8400

Services in

VANCOUVER, B.C.

(604) 299-4144

Environmental

Management

Gartner Lee

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992

NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716) 285-5449

Stack Gas

Monitoring System In response to demands for reliable, simple to use stack monitors, Nortech introduced the RF Series of instru

ments. Available as portable or station ary monitors, the RF Series uses an unique gas filter corelation technique to 69


Consultants

Product Review

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety

PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES: • Environmental Engineering 'Training programs •Legal compliance/clesignated substances > Ventilation assessment/design > Air emission control • Air monitoring 'Environmental audits •Indoor air quality • WHMIS • Noise monitoring and control

•Workplace and safety audits •Asbestos

GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.

Telex: 06-218242

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III. Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(416)858-4424

Fax:(416)858-4426

Bore S.Sborrie Limibed Consulting Engineers WASTEWATER • WATER •SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES•DRAINAGE WATER RESOURCES•ENERGY RECOVERY •ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING

offer users extremely stable and accur

LABORATORY SERVICES—ANALYTICAL & PROCESS R&D

ate readings. Instruments are not affec ted by vibration, absence of oxygen or the presence ofothergases in the sample

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499^687 Ottawa •Thorold • Barrie•Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston • London

stream.

Applications include monitoring car bon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen

(NO/NOx) sulphur dioxide (SO2) and others.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 161

Environmental Consultants

Ai INTERK

aAAA^ Environmental Division

• Hydrogeologic Investigations • Site Remediation

• Hazardous Waste Management

Unicase design solves three problems

OTTAWA

• Water Supply and Treatment

TORONTO

TEL: (613) 226-5442 FAX: (613) 226-5529

TEL: (416) 635-5882 FAX: (416) 635-5353

• Environmental Audits

• Groundwater Modeling

A Division of Inters Information Technologies (Canada) Ltd.

a

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

Knox Martin Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects

Nord integral gearmotor construction assures application matched perfor mance. With the Nord gearmotor de sign,the possibility of adding an under sized or oversized motor is virtually eliminated. These gear drives are also factory filled with oil to prevent damag ing dry start-ups. For added protection, Nord introduced the Quadrilip sealing system that provides twice the leakage efficiency offered by the double lip seals.

a

220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario. L6T 4J5 (416) 459-4780 Fax. (416) 459-7869 Kitchener (51 9) 743-61 1 1 Cobalt (705) 679-5979

1^ PONDAINE,CDWIE,BUR4nO &>lSBaaATES UMITED Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario

WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT • STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADSANDBRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANICALAND ELECTRICALSYSTEMS 3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X4L4

(519) 966-2250

BRANCH OFFICE-WOODSTOCK

FAX:(519) 966-5523

(519) 539-2015

Nord helical-worm gearmotors and speed reducers are available to meet a wide variety of application needs. An input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Scoop motor mounting, platform motor mounting C-face and lEC input flange motor mounting. Customers can choose from two styles

MacVlro Consultants Inc.

of adjustable speed drives. The Nordisc traction drive offers a 7:1 adjustable speed range for applications up to 5 HP. Nord also offers the Titan belt type drive 70

7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Morkham, Ontorlo. L3R 4B9 • Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX;(416)475'5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment Environmental Science d Engineering. July 1992


Consultants

Product Review

•Hydrogeology •Waste management •Engineering geology

MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

•Environmental audits MALROZ Engineering inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4

•Site decommissioning

Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

& rehabilitation

Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited

with up to a 6:1 speed range capable of handling speed applications up to 125 HP.

The wormwheels are made from high strength centrifugally cast bronze. All worms are carburized and precision ground. Bearings are rated for a mini mum 5000 hours B-10 life per AGMA standard 2001. Nord

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 162

Comminutors for solids reduction in wastewater

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

I

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4 (416)882-1100 Fax:(416) 882-0055

TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Proctor & Redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution

Pollution Control Inc., a manufacturer

of physical, chemical, and biological wastewater treatment equipment lo cated in Florence, Kentucky, offers a complete family ofcomminutors for the

Wastewater Collection and Treatment

reduction of solids in wastewater flows.

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

The PCI comminutors reduce the solids

Hamilton

Kenora

Kingston

Kitchener

St. Catharines Sault Sic. Marie

London

Sudbury

North Bay

Thunder Bay

Ottawa

Windsor

45 Green Belt Drive. Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Fax: (416) 445-5276

Tel: (416) 445-3600

in order to accelerate the biological phase of the process and assure the thorough treatment. The comminutors offered by Pollu tion Control Inc. feature heavy duty, corrosion resistant, cast aluminum con

struction. The low overall weight of the units assures ease of installation and 8IMCOE ENOINEERIIMO GROUP LIMITED

Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE • SCADA

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES

345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fox: (416) 286-1361 Ottawa

London

Cambridge Regina

Stanley

Saskatoon

Calgary Edmonton

Environmental

Vancouver

Engineers, Scientists, Project Managers

Enquiries:

Water, Air, Soils

(519) 622-3060

handling. The drives are weatherproof. Class No. 3 reduction type worm gear ing. The gearbox is protected from heavy shock loads by a torque clutch in the driveline minimizing the possibility of drive shaft damage in the event of blockage. The comminutor can be sup plied with additional protection if the optional control panel is supplied. The control panel contains automatic rever sing controls. Once the comminutor en counters a hard object obstructing rotation it will briefly reverse the motion of the cutting drum jarring the object loose. It will then resume rotation in the

normal direction. This optional feature minimizes the possibility of overload of the drive motor and structural damage to the unit. Pollution Control Inc.

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis

Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES RISK ASSESSMENT WASTE MGMT.

SAMPLING & ANALYSIS

• SITE CHARACTERIZATION • DECOMMISSIONING

• INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

• PLANT COMPLIANCE AUDITS

• STACK SAMPLING • TOXICITY TESTING

• UST REMOVAL • PERMITTING

Engineering. July 1992

Atomic Absorption Software

• AIR QUALITY

• MICROBIOLOGY

121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090 Environmental Science

For more information, Circle reply card No. 163

The DPIOOO software will collect and

analyze data from most models of atomic absorption instruments using either analog or RS232 data. Compa tible with graphite, flame, cold vapor 71


Consultants

Product Review and fiydride systems.

• Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

Software plots raw data, does base line and drift corrections, displays stan dard curves and produces customized reports. Can be used for standard addi tion and CLP protocols. Automatically

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

links to all LIMS and most other soft

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control

ware programs. Labtronics Inc. 400 Main Street East

Milton, Ontario

Tel:(416)875-2144 Fax;(416) 875-2145

For more information,

L9T 4X5

T,F: 1-800-263-4178

Circle reply card No. 166

Stationary MISA-grade Sampler

Complete Environmental Service

engineers architects

Water Supply ♦ Waste Water ♦ Needs Studies ♦

planners

Environmental Assessment ♦ Environmental Audits

sIms

♦ Solid Waste Management ♦ MISA TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITEY FAX.(416) 668 4045

hubicki

COBOURG ♦ TORONTO 4 KINGSTON 4 HUNTSVILLE 4 SIMCOE

totten

BRACEBRIDGE 4 OTTAWA 4 SAULT STE. MARIE 4 WATERLOO

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & PROJECT MANAGERS

TO GOVERNMENT,INDUSTRY, PRIVATE SECTOR HAUFAX'TORONTO-OTTAWA'LONDON'SUDBURY'WINNIPEQ-REQINA'SASKATOON-LETHBRIDQECALGARY-EDMONTON-BURNABY-WHITEHORSE-YEUOWKNIFE AND THE U.SA

ISCO 3700 Series Stationary Water

ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION

^ \

• Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony • Design and Specification of Control Measures • Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Quarries, Presses, Blasting

Consulting Engineers 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1A3

Samplers offer advanced features and reliability. Patented, non-contacting li quid presence detector achieves accu rate and repeatable sample volumes and will automatically compensate for

Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698 Halifax (902)455-3112 Waterloo (519)746-3415

changes in sample load. Easier to program than most VCRs. the two line,40 character display promts the user to the next step. A printer output and the ability to link the sampler to a

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS

computer eliminates guesswork during the sampling routine. Samplers are available in a variety of configurations and offer the user a choice of power sup

Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development. Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation Richmond Street West

plies and other sampling accessories.

Toronto. Ontario

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 171

MagMaster Flowmeter ABB Kent-Taylor has announced the

introduction of'MagMaster',a magnetic XCG Consultants Ltd.

flowmeter claimed to be so revolution Suite 904

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters

Engineering

Richard J. Rush MASc, PEng

Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng

Consultants

Principal

Principal

Environmental

PUT OUR FORTY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE ON YOUR TEAM

72

ary it could define new standards. This DC magmeter combines the benefits of DC mags with the noise re jection capability of AC mags. Microp rocessor signal processing enables this meter to achieve an accuracy of+/-0.2% with a 1000:1 turndown ratio.

ABB Kent-Taylor For more information. Circle reply card No. 170

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(416) 727-4666 Concrete Pipe Seals

pH Recorder and

Tylox super-seals do not require messy time consuming lubricant ap plications.Seals are automatically in jected with siiicone,allowing mantles to roll over the compressional area of gaskets, ensuring water tight seais. The mantle sections' final resting area is between the annular space, reducing extensive sheer forces. r\/laterial conforms to, or exceeds, C.S.A. or A.S.T.M. specifications.

Controllers The fvlodel RCP75,is a pH Recorder and Controller with a strip chart re corder for a permanent record. One roll of chart paper will run approx imately 1 month at 1' per hour,fvlodel RCDp75 Is the same as the l^odel RCP75 with a Digital read-out. The fvlodel 1CP75 is a pH Indicator-Con troller If a permanent record is not required.

Hamilton Ken

Analytical Measurements of

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Canada Ltd.

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Need a pump? Contact the experts first

CANVIRO Analytical tfERS/aiU

Laboratories Ltd. Our quality program begins with Ini tial contact with our laboratory. From

sample container preparation through the reporting of your results, estab lished QA/QC procedures are stric tly followed. A dedicated QA/QC of

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flow to 240 gpm these Versa fvlatic pumps move virtually any products that flow through a pipe including most chemicals, sludges, slurries,

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Super Press Sludge SUPERPRESS: SLUDGE

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sludge(municipal and Industrial) de pending on Its final destination: land fill, compost. Incineration. Superpress sludge belt filters are safe, easy, reliable and economical to operate. Throughput, dryness and chemical consumption guarantees are provided. Degremont Circle reply card No. 225

tamlnated and undisturbed; can be collected In clear PVC tubes to allow

viewing of stratigraphy, without dis turbing the sample. Solinst Canada Ltd.

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Instrument Control and

Data Acquisition J IEEE-488 and 2 VXIbus Control, 1 Data Acquisition, and Analysis.

Soil Core Sampler For microbiological or geochemical analysis of soil and porewater. Sam pler collects continuous 5' by 2"core samples without a drilling rig or the use of drilling fluids. Samples retain up to 98% pore fluids; are uncon-

Belt Filters Degremont offers a complete range

Free 1992 catalogue of Instrumenta

tion products for PCs workstations, and more. Features IEEE-488.2 in terfaces and software, plug-in data

acquisition boards, VXibus con trollers, DSP hardware and software and signal conditioning accessories. Application software for complete acquisition, analysis, and presenta tion of data,including graphical Inter faces. Application tutorials and train ing classes also detailed. National Instruments

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Instrument Rentals tnvironmratol I

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insobutyiene and other cal gas & support accessories. HAZCO Canada, Inc. Circle reply card No. 224


Product Review Flexscourâ&#x201E;˘ stainless steel ming pool for over three hours and hired a scuba team to take photos of the unit functioning underwater in adverse con ditions. After the photo shoot, the sam pler was disassembled to check for leakage. Not a drop was found â&#x20AC;&#x201D; even the humidity indicating paper had not changed colour! In addition to the environmentally

underdralns

sealed controller, Isco 3700 Series Sam

plers feature exclusive, STORM'" pro gramming to allow both first flush samples and flow weighted samples to be collected in the same sampler. The patented pump revolution counting sys tem and innovative LD90'" non-contac

Environmentally sealed Isco samplers Some sampler manufacturers claim their products are sealed against submersion. To make a point,Isco submerged a stock 3700 Series portable sampler in a swim

Capacitance systems for effective pump protection A dry pump can be a costly event on positive displacement pumps, par ticularly the progressive cavity type. When dry, these pumps will not run for long without overheating, causing cos tly repairs and downtime.

ting liquid detector provide precise sample volume delivery in any liquid.

Sequential and composite sampling models are offered with a variety of bot tle configurations for use in a wide range of applications. Isco Circle reply card No. 175

ted into being the sensor such as a clean out port.This has proved to be a very low cost, reliable technique. ARJAY Circle reply card No. 176

Underdralns are at the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years ofcon tinuous service. If not, the underdrain,

and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdralns provide a dur able, corrosion-resistant system for col lecting filtered effluent and accurately metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative design features elimi nate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems:improper sizing ofva riable diameter orifices, and media dis

placement by surging or irregular flows. Separate ducts for air and water and improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform flow distribution.

Want to upgrade your knowledge of environmental affairs-see page 57.

EIMCO Process Equipment Circle reply card No. 177

Portable waste water

sampler for hazardous environments

Capacitance detection circuits have proven to be an extremely reliable and low cost method of dry-pump protec tion. The probe is fabricated to form a capacitor with ground as one side and the pumped fluid being the medium dielectric.

The other side of the capacitor (re ferred to as the sensor) is connected to the control circuit. The physical con

figuration of the probe can suit the size and type of pump.The most common is to have the sensor plate and ground con nection imbedded in a PVC ring flange which mates to the inlet port of the pump. On some large pumps a part of the pump's construction can be conver74

Epic 1511 automatically extracts rep resentative samples ofliquids including crude sewage and some sludges for ana lysis.Powered by a separate intrinsically safe power pack, the 1511 can be pre programmed to control start times,sam pling interval (or flow impulse), run times, sample volume and number of samples per container. Operated in flow-proportional mode the 1511 can be initiated by an approved flow meter. Two interchangeable base modules cover sample container sizes up to 12L composite, or 24 individual containers. The sampler is operated by a plug-in programmer unit comprising an alpha numeric LCD display and four push button controls. Programming options include: choice of 8 European lan guages, security code access, diagnostic self-test routine, programmable sample routines and remote operation.

1

Cancoppas Circle reply card No. 178

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


Schlumberger Provides Solutions Schlumberger Neptune® ARB™ System Introduced in 1964,the Neptune® Automatic Reading & Billing Sys tem Is the encoder register of choice for over 400 water utilities today.

r,

• Easily mounted to any Neptune® meter,the ARB'"encoder system transmits the actual register reading,In an electronic data format to a remote, accessible location.

• Proven reliability In over 4,000,000 Installations throughout North America.

ARB'" suits all applications: • ARB V'" for Indoor settings

• ProRead ARB'" for pit Installations and large meter vault settings. • ProRead ARB'" for reprogrammable, utility defined metering In formation.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 188

Schlumberger Reading Systems Schlumberger Industries Is dedicated to the development of fVleter Reading Systems that will maximize the efficiency of your water utility.

• Neptune® Unlgun'" System — specifically designed for data cap ture and management with the ARB'" system. Eliminates routebooks and data entry through a hand held mini-computer and PC based software system.

• Central Meter Reading(CMR'")— Schlumberger offers both Out bound and Inbound telephone based systems for single or multlutllltles.

• Introduced ARB'" data transmission through Radio Frequency at the '92 National AWWA Conference In Vancouver.

• Schlumberger guarantees compatibility of ARB'" encoder regis ters with our present and future reading systems.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 189

Schlumberger FloSearch™ System The FloSearch'" System Is designed for profiling customer water usage patterns.

• Applications Include leak detection, meter sizing, demand meter ing and peak usage studies.

• The FloSearch'"transmitter and FloSearch'"recorder continuously

ri

sample and record usage data. • PC based software generates reports of flow vs. time and water usage vs. flowrate In both graphical and tabular formats. • Usage data files may be exported to word processors, spread sheets, DOS,etc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 190 ^Se/j/umbemeM

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UK Report

By Tom Davey

Royal Commission urges more monitoring of UK inland waters

While the European Com

munity's blue flag con troversy on the safety of Britain's ocean beaches

ways because its monitoring was'inade quate, subjective and piecemeal.' While the last decade has seen a

for bathers continues, a new study calls for more monitoring of the nation's inland waterways.

'small but real' deterioration in the qua lity of rivers in England and Wales, fol lowing an earlier two decade improve Professor Gareth Morris,a member of ment period, Britain relies too heavily the UK Royal Commission on Environ on its waterways as a convenient dump mental Pollution, launched a critical for waste, the report alleges. report Freshwater Quality* June 10, The People using inland waters for recrea study said the government had little tion and sport need the equivalent ofthe idea of the true state of Britain's water 'blug flag' scheme used by the EC to

designate safe beaches. Inland waters need such a scheme. For some reason,

the public had become very sensitive to water quality on ocean beaches, but lac ked the same sensitivity to fresh water areas where pathogenic organisms could be more durable. Professor Mor ris noted. Another commission member. Pro fessor John Lawton, said the commis

sion wanted a national monitoring and sampling program for British groundwaters. He called for biological mon itoring â&#x20AC;&#x201D; checking the health of life forms in and around the waterways â&#x20AC;&#x201D; rather than relying on limited chemical tests of the waters.

"It does not require a degree in che mistry to realize there are more than three kinds of things getting into the nation's waterways. Many aquifers were contaminated with industrial solvents

and leachate from landfdl sites,causing some authorities to abandon them as

drinking water sources," he said. The commission was critical of the

fact that there was no national program to check rivers and lakes for nutrient

discharges, such as phosphates, stem ming from agricultural and domestic wastes. Sewage treatment plants may have to be forced to strip out phosphates before discharging treated wastewaters into rivers, the report said. Small sewage treatment plants were singled out for being largely unaccountable for their discharges into streams. Indeed,a personal observation would

confirm this. While touring one inland canal in June, I noted some fish kills on a stretch of water downstream of a river

diversion which 'tops up'the canal sys tem as it loses water due to canal lock

operations. Anglers who regularly fished in the area said the fish kill was

sudden and severe,saying it almost cer

tainly had come from a pollution 'slug' entering the canal from the stream

British scientists from the Institute of Freshwater Ecology compare water colour images obtained from an airborne scanner in England'sfamed Lake District. Remote

diversion.

sensing estimates the concentration of algae by measuring the amount of light reflec ted from particles in suspension.The sensing can also help measure the'greenhouse effect.'The Lake District has other environmental roots.The poet William Wordsworth lived in the area, often visited by his friend Sir Humphrey Davy,the eminent chemist

meters of rivers in north-west England did not meet water quality targets be cause of untreated sewage overflows.

who invented both cathodic protection and the miners' safety lamp which did not explode in the presence of methane. His lab assistant, Michael Faraday, went on to

nowledged that the National Rivers Au

become the father of electricity and become both the first man to liquefy chlorine and the first to discover benzene in 1825. All modern electrolytic and electroplating pro cesses, as well as anything using electric motors, such as pumping stations, owe a debt to Michael Faraday's experiments with electrochemistry, electric currents and magnets.(See ES&E Oct.'91 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; page 13). 76

The report said that some 1,200 kilo

However,

the

commission

ack

thority was confronting many of the problems highlighted in the report. *Sixteenth Report of the Royal Commis sion on Environmental Pollution, Fresh water Quality', HMSG 57 pounds sterling.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1992


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compact and operator friendly. It will treat your waste for dimes not dollars.

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Environmental Science & Engineering. July 1992

77


By Peter Baker*

Instrumentation

Development of flow measurement technology 3. The advent of the "smart" pres sure transmitter, has permitted greater flexibility when using square law den sity dependant flow meters (pitot tubes, orifice plates, etc.). The ability to re motely re-range D/P flow transmitters allows production plants to ensure opti mum accuracy of a flow element when process conditions or fluids change. Enhancements to the electronics por tion of the transmitter enable the trans

mitter to perform flow calculations (ie. square root, enthalpy, control) without extra equipment. 4, The largest revolution in flow mea surement has been the development of coriolis mass flow meters. These meters,

operating on the principle ofthe coriolis force (the same force that causes a boomerang to return), measure mass

Accurate flow measurements are vital to efficient wastewater treatment operations

Precise measurement of flow is becoming an increasingly cri

tical factor contributing to the quality of a manufacturing plant's output. Repeatable and accurate flow metering also impacts the financial and environmental success ofindustrial

processes.In the 1900"s. mechanical and positive displacement flow meters are quickly becoming obsolete and cus tomers are searching for alternate me thods of flow measurement. Electronic

flow metering technologies are rapidly developing to provide the accuracy, re peatability and reliability companies require to compete globally. The pub lished specifications of these new meters suggests that the "art" of flow metering has matured to an exact sci ence. Four methods of metering flow whose popularity has literally exploded in recent years are: 1 Magnetic flowmeters. 2 Vortex flowmeters.

3 Smart D/P transmitters.

4 Coriolis mass flow and density metering. 1. Magnetic flowmeters (magmeters) have been used in the process industries to meter conductive fluids since the

1950"s. The early popularity of mag meters was chiefly the result of the per formance of the AC type magmeter.The DC pulsed magmeter, introduced later, overcame some of the inherent limita-

"Account Manager, ABB Kent-Taylor 78

tions of the AC magmeter (quadrature voltage,phasing,heating,zero shift etc.). The DC pulsed mag was however

limited to relatively clean processes in which "hydro-dynamic" noise was not present. The AC magmeter was still used in these "tough" applications(slur ries. medium and high consistency pulp, etc,). Recent developments in DC pulsed magmeters have changed this. Several companies have introduced a new high power/high signal DC mag meter that provides the user with all the benefits of a DC mag and the excellent signal to noise ratio benefits of an AC magmeter. Additionally, advances in digital signal processing allow the DC magmeters transmitter(the secondary) to effectively reject spikes caused by, among other things, cationic substan ces (chelating agents etc,). 2. When vortex meters were first in troduced, to the market in the 1960"s

some developed a poor image. This image was the result of the method that vortex meters used to sense the fre

quency of the vortices. New frequency sensing technologies have permitted the vortex meter to accurately and reliably measure a broad range of processes. Vortex meters work well measuring high temperature processes, for example,

flow directly without being affected by changes in viscosity, specific gravity or flow profile. They do not require tem perature or pressure compensation and can deliver repeatable accuracies better than .2%. Recent developments in cor iolis metering technology have resulted in sensors that are virtually insensitive to ambient vibrations and electronics

that can provide simultaneous mass flow, equivalent volumetric flow, den sity, viscosity and temperature outputs. Some manufacturer's electronics can

also perform alarm and control (FID and batch) functions on any of these measured variables.

In today's competitive marketplace, accurate, repeatable and reliable mea suring equipment is a necessity of a modern manufacturing facility. Devel opments in flow measuring equipment, when properly applied, give the manu facturer or processor implementing these innovations a competitive edge. Ad Index Aco-Assman Aer-O-Flo

64

ISCO

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Kent Taylor

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Analytical Meas

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steam. The vortex meter is not affected

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It'll cost you 11.5 million to get rid ofthis peak. So you'd better be sure it's real. All labs are not created equal.

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Mann's Quality Assurance and Quality Control program covers all aspects of sample processing. Sample integrity is rigorously recorded and controlled. Sample processing is continually recorded and monitored by our LIMS 3000 system. Sample test results are me ticulously validated via fortification studies, extraction blanks, analysis of replicates and much more. Assign your most important and challenging environmental testing

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Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) July 1992  
Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) July 1992