Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment
A Davcom Business Publication
Vancouver — home of 1992 AWWA Annual Conference
AQTE — PCAO — AWWA Ont. Section — photo reports Maintenance programs for treatment plant pumps Remediation of contaminated groundwaters Trenchless technology — a case history
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April/May 1992, Vol. 5 No. 2 issued May, 1992
ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY
(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY
Controlling zebra mussels with potassium permanganate
Consistent monitoring and sampling highlight success of EPA regulatory program
Sales Director STEVE DAVEY
(416) 727-4666 B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 244-5502
Collingwood PUC makes successful switch to metering
Western Canada makes great strides in Biological Nutrient Removal
Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hublcki Associates
George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrle Ltd.
Sparging can reduce VOC remediation costs in groundwater ^ m
Rod Holme, P.Eng.
Proctor & Redfern Ltd.
Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates
Allan Church, C.Chem.
New economic initiatives are designed to protect the environment
Article by Bernard and Nilima Sharma Fleet
Church & Trought Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.
Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LLB.
Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Peter Turgoose, A.Sc.T.
Canron West Pipe (BC) Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.
Vancouver: Spectacular home of 1992 AWWA Conference
Exhibitors, trade show floor plan, technical program
Legal decision on Bata case highlights officers' and directors' _ _ responsibilities
Article by Jonathan Kahn Avoid extravagant pumping costs with proper maintenance programs Article by Bob Pitchers and Ernie Pelham
Hydrocarbons in cooling water now detected in ppb range T^icle by Steve Whitney
Badly deteriorated sewer rehabilitation using continuous folded polyethylene line
Article by Otka Hudoba
Regional Conference Reports â&#x20AC;&#x201D;
ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.
ACPO chemists demand licensing CEIA hosts post Globe 92 meeting PCAO focusses on industry at 21st annual conference AWWA told that water wasting technology will not sell abroad
22 22 24 26
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AQTE celebrates 30th Annual Conference
but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science
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Cover photo: Vancouver's spectacular vista from Grouse Mountain. AWVIA delegates can take the ski tram there, winter or summer,for a dining experience with an unrivalled view. During Globe '92, ES&E staffers took a helicopter ride around the mountains for a memorable visual experience. Photo courtesy Tourism Vancouver.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
By Tom Davey
Honestly, I'm lying â&#x20AC;&#x201D; my political career depends on it
In British Columbia environmen
talists are often compared to water melons; green on the outside, pink
on the inside. Not so in Ontario.
Lacking EC's benign climate, a curious political mutation seems to have oc curred. Currently, Ontario cabinet min isters reversed the order being pink on the outside and very, very green on the inside.
The mutant species seems to have oc curred after a political genus, known as
the Big Blues, were dominant for 40 years. They were affectionately known by geneticists as The Big Blue Genes.This was an ironic label as they were more like stuffed shirts. Then, without warn
ing, the Big Blues were overcome by a species known as The Peterson Reds. nicknamed after the Liberal's election colours and Premier Peterson's necktie.
The Peterson Reds, politically com atose for years, except for some fake in dignation during question periods, ex ploded into political life like a cholera outbreak when elected. With their na
tural enemies laid low and the political
species. David Suzuki was notified im mediately and Spain and Portugal were ordered to stop catching Blues' until stocks recovered. Some geneticists, with a touch ofgallows humour,were unable to resist the sartorial link, renaming the genus The Faded Blue Genes. When entrenched in office, the Peter
son Reds had lived up to their name by flooding Ontario with red ink through profligate spending. Had they been us ing water on the same scale,an environ mental assessment would have been
needed. But they were following the well established
deficit traditions of the
Federal Liberals whose leader, Pierre
Elliott Trudeau, could paralyze fiscal critics with a simple shrug. He tried to bind the nation together by issuing gov ernment bonds. Now we are held in
bondage to foreign banks. The Peterson Reds,following the feder al Liberal tradition, continued to bribe
the electorate with its own money.They then consulted the pollsters and called an early election. A bad move. They
The term 'gut feeling'is believed to have emanated from this practice. Not for the first time, the pollsters turned out to be false prophets. The Peterson Reds were eviscerated, following the Big Blues into political oblivion when the Rae Pinks swept in with a massive majority. It was the start of the Brave New
World Aldous Huxley had predicted. En vironment Minister Ruth Grier proudly proclaimed that every Ontario cabinet minister would also be a minister of the
environment in a new and glorious green government. We were all to have bread and circuses, be politically cor rect, pure of heart, rescue sunset indus tries at $200,000 per Job, win money in government casinos and watch the eco nomy grow.
After a quick retrofit from acerbic cri tic to provincial premier. Bob Rae, pro mised with great fanfare, to enforce strict standards of conduct for his cabi
net 'which would herald a new era ofpoliti cal integrity'. There were to be no com mercial considerations to taint socialist idealism in this brave new cabinet. The
balance of nature disturbed, the Peter
would have done better to have con
son Reds thrived mightily for seven years. Big Blues became an endangered
sulted the entrails of a chicken, much as
premier's clarion call is increasingly offkey in the wake of various scandals and
Roman politicians did two millenia ago.
continued on page 6
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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Editorial Comment,conrd cabinet resignations, ex-cabinet minis ters now totalling a sizeable alumni. I was vividly reminded of the pre mier's proclamation ofcabinet integrity
when their deceptions are revealed. Ms Martel used high technology to pro claim her lack of veracity, perhaps start ing a new fashion in machine-enhanced
when Ontario northern affairs minister,
Shelley Martel, proclaimed that she really had told the truth when she said she had lied. She later 'proved' she had lied through polygraph tests. This must be the first time in recorded history a poly graph has been commissioned by some one to prove she was lying and analo gous to a rat swimming towards a sink ing ship. Most politicians reluctantly admit it
The furor began after Ms Martel claimed she had seen the file of a Sud-
bury dermatologist. Dr. Jean-Pierre Do nahue. whom, she said, was to face
charges over his OHIP billings under the Ontario government health plan. The NDP seems to have great difficulty in differentiating between MD's billings and actual salaries. Later the minister
apologized to Dr. Donahue, claiming
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she had fabricated the story of actually seeing his file. This is the most unlikely political farce since John Profumo, then British minister of defence, shared the favours of Christine Keeler with a Russian spy. But unlike Ms Martel. who is clinging
tenaciously to her office, British cabinet ministers (in the mother of all parlia ments) promptly resign when even minor breaches of ministerial integrity,
or improprieties are revealed. The British public might have toler ated defense minister John Profumo
having an adulterous liaison; they might even have shrugged off the un likely fact that their defense minister was unknowingly sharing his mistress with a Russian spy; but the fact he had lied in the House ofCommons about the
affair was more unforgiveable than his sexual antics; so he was out of British
politics for good. Ms Martel, far from emulating Pro-
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fumo's tragic, but politically correct break with politics, is clinging to office with the tenacity of a zebra mussel. The fact that a minister ofthe crown resorted
to a lie detector test to actually prove she lied will surely enter the record books
one day. As in the Profumo Affair, a medical
practitioner's career. Dr. Jean-Pierre Donahue, has also become tainted,
thanks to Shelley Martel's political an tics which read more like those of a Se
cond City character, than a govern ment minister.
It is interesting that, months after her admission of lying, Ms Martel is still in Cabinet while John Kormos — whose
indiscretions included posing, fully clothed, for the Toronto Sun as a SUN-
shine boy,was unceremoniously booted out of the cabinet by the premier. While naive and politically incorrect perhaps, his actions were minor blemishes, mere
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years of creative satire. How could it possibly market its gentle, subtle wit when politicians like Shelley Martel, can present, with complete spontaneity, a political farce of such breathtaking creativity?
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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Industry update Ontario's Countdown
Acid Rain program on scheduie Four companies which produce more than 80 per cent of Ontario's sulphur dioxide continue to meet the targets set
by the six-year-old Countdown Acid Rain program.
The program has capped total sul phur dioxide emissions at 665 kilotonnes(kt)by 1994 for Ontario Hydro,Inco Ltd., Falconbridge Ltd. and Algoma Steel Corporation Ltd. Further,Ontario Hydro has a limit of 280 kt on its com bined sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide
1991. The plant was running at 86 per cent capacity. Falconbridge expects to be able to meet its Countdown Acid
Rain target while running at full capacity. The government reviewers are con cerned that one of the process changes may result in heavy metals such as chromium leaching into nearby water bodies. The reviewers recommend the
company test the slag to find out if any metals are leaching into the groundwater or local waterways. Ontario Hydro has to meet an interim
annual sulphur dioxide emissions tar get of 240 kt and a combined sulphur dioxide plus nitric oxide emissions limit of 280 kt for 1990-93, followed by a sul phur dioxide emissions cap of 175 kt and a combined sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide cap of215 kt after 1993.The Crown corporation's emissions of sul phur dioxide were 79.3 kt and emissions ofsulphur dioxide and nitric oxide were 107.1 kt for the first six months of 1991. The reviewers are concerned that the
The report is a review by a team from the ministries of the Environment,
Energy and Northern Development and Mines,ofthe semi-annual progress reports required by Countdown Acid Rain. Highlights ofthe report for the six months ending July 1991 include: • increased budgets for the sulphur dioxide abatement projects at Inco and Falconbridge's copper and nickel smelting operations in Sudbury; Inco's budget has risen to about $600 million from $494 million and Fal
conbridge's capital budget has risen
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• Ontario Hydro's plan to install limes tone slurry scrubbers which will re duce sulphur dioxide emissions at the Lambton generating station by 1994 at a cost of $537.5 million;
• the possibility that Falconbridge may be able to cut its sulphur dioxide emissions by one quarter of its 1994 target to 75 kt by 1998; • report from Ontario Hydro of a 77 per cent cut in imported electricity for the six months ending July 1991 over the same period in 1990.This has resulted in only minor quantities of net elec
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program Inco has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of265 kt after 1993.The
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about the concentration of sulphur dio xide at the ground level once two new smokestacks start operating. The smokestacks, which are shorter than
Inco's super stack,are part ofInco's pro cess changes. The reviewers are worried that concentrations of sulphur dioxide at ground level may increase once the smokestacks are functioning.
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Further,the reviewers asked the com
pany to report on whether or not the now completed mill rationalization program has met its objectives. Falconbridge has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of 100 kt after 1993.The company's sulphur dioxide emissions were 43.2 kt for the first six months of
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Summa Engineering Limited 1275 Eglinton Ave., East, Unit 49, Mississauga, Ontario L4W 2Z2 Tel:(416)624-3188 Fax:(416)624-1293 For more information, Circle reply card No. 131
Industry update Countdown acid rain, cont'd
cost of installing scrubbers at the Lambton generating plant had increased to $537.5 million from $430 million and
asked the utility company for details. Algoma Steel's iron ore sintering plant in Wawa has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of 125 kt after 1993. For the first six months of 1991, the plant's sulphur dioxide emissions were 33.4 kt. The company continues to meet its tar gets because ofproduction cuts and pro cess changes.
For copies of the report. Countdown Acid Rain: Government Review ofthe Ele venth Progress Reports (July 31. 1991) by Ontario's Four Major Sources ofSulphur Dioxide,(PIBS 646E11), please contact the Ministry of the Environment's Pub lic Information Centre at 135 St. Glair
A strike for the environment A 150-year tradition of match making has been abandoned by Britain's lead-
BCA INDUSTRIAL CDNTRGLS LIMITED
ing match manufacturer following its success in replacing chemicals that are thought to be damaging the environ ment. Bryant and May, which produces many match brands says smokers and other match users in Britain alone strike
a staggering 100 million matches a day. each one using a tiny amount ofsulphur to help it catch fire. Sulphur,the chief culprit in acid rain, has been part of the head of a match since the earliest days of match making. Without it, the match flame would not
burn bright, but tend to fizz like a sparkler. The bulbous match head not only contains sulphur but also toxic zinc oxide that is used to stabilise the glue binding the head materials together. It also ensures good performance by the
match in high humidity areas like kit chens.and controls the smell of another REPRESENTED AND SOLD IN WESTERN CANADA BY BCA
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compound in the mix, phosophorous sesquisulphide. Match manufacturing also devours large areas of forest when it is con sidered that an average size tree is used
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mulations. Bryant and May has re placed the sulphur in its safety matches
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5 compartment, 4-stage advanced technology hy draulic mass mixing and
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matches to make them easier to strike. Glue, which came from animal hides,
has now given way to a vegetable starch and scrap gelatine waste from phar maceutical companies that produce capsules. The new British formula for matches
A cordial welcome to delegates attending the AWWA convention. See us in Booth 2203. ror more
information on our
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is now being patented and all future Bryant and May output using it will be branded with a special Green Check flash.
Bryant and May says all those trees being used for matchmaking is not an environmental disaster because the
wood used is aspen, a prolific form of poplar that grows in Canada and other countries. Such trees regenerate them selves naturally, faster than they can be used, by growing suckers from the exist ing root system. Forest management en sures that the volume cut each year does not exceed the rate at which the
For more information, Circle reply card No. 132 10
trees are renewed.
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
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Industry update New Canadian
cial scale refrigeration equipment and to capture air-borne industrial emis
company can capture
sions.The Blue Bottle'" process has also
and recycle CFCs
proved effective for capture and recycl ing of the newly introduced CFC sub
Halozone Recycling Inc. has licensed
the Blue Bottle'"technology from Union Carbide Canada Limited and plans field trials and full scale commercializa
tion shortly. This award winning tech nology uses a proprietary adsorbent and a special patent protected process to capture and recycle the ozone-destroy ing CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) from any source.It will be made available for service ofboth residential and commer
stitutes known as HCFCs and HFCs. Most CFCs are vented into the earth's
rigerators and air conditioners. When filled, the cylinders are taken to a pro cessing centre, where the CFCs are re moved and purified for reuse. When
Blue Bottle'" technology is used in con
atmosphere where they ultimately can damage the ozone layer. Dr. Michael
junction with existing equipment.Halo-
Hirtenstein, Halozone's Vice-President
captured from large scale refrigeration units during servicing. Present methods can only capture up to 90% of the CFCs and reuse of the CFCs is often imposs
estimates that every year 10,000 tonnes of CFCs escape into the Earth's atmo sphere from Canadian sources alone.
zone says that 100% of CFCs can be
The world-wide estimate is some 500,000 tonnes annually.
ible because of contamination with air
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will result in capture of the remaining 10%, and purification of the CFCs for
AQTE honours the late Patrick O. Bourgeois at 30th Convention
or oil. Using the Blue Bottle'" process
Contact; Dr. Michael Hirtenstein Tel & Fax 416-508-0769.
The late Pat Bourgeois was remembered Status for AWWA and WEF. by a commemorative award in his name Highly regarded throughout Canada, by the association quebecoise des tech Pat was later elected as President of the niques de I'eau (AQTE)at its 30th An Federation of Associations on the Ca niversary Conference. The award was nadian Environment (FACE) which presented to M.Kama!Karazivan,MEN- was the precursor to the present Cana VIQ,in Montreal.
proprietary zeolite adsorbent, are used to extract CFCs from residential ref
dian Water and Wastewater Association.
Eloquent and witty in French and Pat died, somewhat dramatically in English, Pat was a founder member of Quebec City in 1982 immediately after AQTE and its first AWWA Section Di receiving AQTE's first Honorary Pre rector when AQTE broke away from sident's plaque. what was then the Canadian Section Other awards presented to dis AWWA,to form its own Section in the tinguished Quebeckers included the '60s'. AQTE also became a Member As AWWA's Fuller Award, which was pre sociation in its own right of the WPCF, sented to M.Denis Lapointe, Consultant (now the Water Environment Federa LBCD de Valleyfield and the WEF Bedell award was presented to M. Gab tion). Prior to the AQTE initiative,Canada, riel Meunier,John Meunier Inc. Federal
was represented by a single Director on Environment Minister Jean Charest the AWWA board and a Single Director and Quebec Environment Minister on the WEF board. Now in effect, Ca Pierre Paradis both spoke at the con nada has five regions,each with Section ference. T. Davey
Rolls-Royce seeks "Green" turbines Rolls-Royce hasjoined forces with three other organizations in a UK Govern ment-backed research programme aimed at reducing toxic emissions from gas turbines. The scheme involves the industrial and marine gas turbines com pany of Rolls-Royce, materials special ists Johnson Matthey,the Cranfield In stitute of Technology in eastern England and Bath University in south west England. The partners aim to adapt and apply their expertise in the mathematical modelling of catalytic combustion sys tems that could eventually be applied to industrial gas turbines to substantially reduce nitrous oxide emission levels.
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Ecodyne awarded Alberta P&P contract Ecodyne Limited has been awarded a
contract for the design and supply of four (4) large waste treatment clarifiers for installation at the new Alberta-Paci fic Industries Inc. mill in northern Al
berta. The two(2)Primary Clarifiers are 52 metres in diameter and the two (2) Secondary Clarifiers 60 metres in dia meter.
The late Pat Bourgeois,left, with Stan Mason of BC in Vancouver.Dedicated engineers have been advancing the state ofthe art for generations through their professional associations. Countless hours of leisure time have been freely given bythese and other professionals in pursuit ofa t}etter environment. 12
They will be installed this summer and form part of the overall environ mental control system of the mill. The contract is worth more than 1 million dollars.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
AWMA Conference Report
MOE's new strategic direction for muiti-media poiiution prevention
Pollution prevention is not a
radically new approach to en vironmental management, Gerard C. Ronan, MOE Assist
ant Deputy Minister told the Air & Waste Management Association's Spr ing Conference in Toronto. It has been used successfully in the past in many environmental programs. Early exam ples include the decision in the early seventies by the detergent manufac turers to phase out the use of phospho rus in their product. This action was taken because of the linkage of phos phorus with eutrophication, the resul tant algal blooms anad oxygen deple tion, and the negative impacts it had in our lakes, particularly Lake Erie. Another extremely successful initia tive is the Countdown Acid Rain Pro
gram which commits the province to reduce its SO2emissions at the 1980 base
case level by 60% by 1994. The four ma jor SO2 generators which account for over 80% of Ontario's SO2 are regulated and have undertaken measures to re
duce their acid gas emissions, and they are on target.
An important illustration of the pol lution prevention principle was the re cent accomplishment of Northern Telecom in reducing their use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by changing their electronic board production pro cess, obviating the need to use a CFC solvent for cleaning purposes. These examples graphically illustrate pollution prevention driven direct ac tion to alleviate a perceived environ mental threat. In a nutshell, they
represent what pollution prevention is all about.
Pollution prevention in a generic sense has always been a central princi ple ofsound environmental planning.It is an integral element of the environ mental assessment process. Proponents are required to assess all the down stream impacts of the proposed under taking to minimize environmental impairments. 'Ton may ask why all the hullabaloo about pollution prevention ifit is simply an old dog with a new coat? Some cynics see it as merely a new trendy mantra to be intoned at regular intervals as evi dence ofbeing environmentally correct. Others see it as the ultimate bromide
that will finally cure all our pollution ills. The answer likely lies somewhere in the middle.
In Ontario we have primarily relied upon end-of-pipe controls to manage
pollution. This has been achieved through a variety oflegislative and regu latory instruments, including control orders,regulations,guidelines and stan
rate air, water and waste programs. In the area of standard setting a multi media approach was adopted, and in special prgrams such as Acid Rain an integrated, inter-disciplinary process has been successfully followed. These programs however were the exception rather than the rule. It is fair to say that overall the ministry programs have lacked an integrated, multi-media perspective. In Ontario we have experienced ex tremely widespread environmental stresses on air, water and land resources.
Consequently there is generally more urgency in achieving substantive reduc tions in pollution loadings to the dards, and abatement and enforce stressed ecosystem. ment activities. Pollution prevention is not restricted The regulatory command and control to the industrial sector. The principles approach has provided an essential can be advantageously applied to nonbaseline for mounting an attack on pol point sources. The Ontario farming lution. There have been some substan community,on their own volition,are in tive successes. Inroads have been made the early stages of developing pollution in slowing down the rate of pollution, prevention plans for every farm in the and in reducing the pollution loading to province. the environment. Ontario is committed to making pol Despite these successes, there is ge lution prevention work. We are looking neral consensus that the end-of-pipe forward to working as partners with in command and control approach has dustry and other governments to ensure not provided the needed level of envi the success of this important new pro ronmental protection. Current ap gram direction. ES&E proaches, with some notable exceptions, still primarily rely on treating wastes ANNOUNCEMENT after the fact, after they have been pro duced. The focus has been on costly, non-value added end-of-pipe treat ment technology. What is significant about the move towards pollution prevention is both government and industry are in agree ment that it is potentially a much more cost effective way to reduce pollution. Furthermore in many instances indus try is taking the lead in implementing Thorburn Penny is pleased to an pollution prevention in their plant nounce the opening of their new operations.There exists the opportunity branch office in Stoney Creek. for a partnership between government David Clancy will serve as the and industry in developing this strategy. manager. Another major difference is that On tario Environment Minister,Ruth Grier, Opening date May 1, 1992. has been an outspoken advocate of pol Thorburn Penny lution prevention. She has changed the Consulting Engineers thrust and direction of Ontario's muni 903 Barton Street, Unit 21 cipal solid waste management program Stoney Creek, Ontario by placing major emphasis on reduc tion of waste.
Ruth Grier has also requested that all the key programs of the Environment Ministry be re-shaped to reflect pollu tion prevention principles. Traditional ly the ministry has functioned with a single medium perspective with sepa
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
L8G 1K1 Tel: 416-643-8166 416-643-8171
Industry update AWMA told of CFCs Phaseout
Rob Warren becomes OPCEA President
Ontario's program to control ozone de pleting substances has two major ele ments, the Air and Waste Management Association conference was told in To
ronto, April 26-29. 1. to eliminate the use of CFCs;
2. to capture and reuse existing CFCs. Gerard Ronan, Assistant Deputy Mi nister, MOF, said "legislation and re gulations are in plaee which provide for a ban on the manufacture and import of products that employ CFCs as propellants in aerosol sprays or as blowing agents in the manufacture of foam packaging. 'The phaseout from use of CFCs in the manufacture of flexible foam and
rigid insulation foam will be completed by the end of 1993. A mandatory recov ery/recycling program for mobile air conditioning systems and refrigerated vehicles was implemented in July/91. "A recovery/recycling program for stationary refrigeration systems is under development, he said.
Rob Warren,left. Allied Colloids,is the 1992/3 President ofthe Ontario Pollu
tion Control Equipment Association. He presented the presidential plaque to Past President Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering. Shortly For more information
afterwards,Steve was elected a Director of the Pollution Control Association
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of Ontario along with the MOE's Reg Ranton. TPD Photo
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Perennial technology solves a new problem
Fighting the zebra mussels with potassium permanganate
Zebra mussels haveinvaded the
Great Lakes,and the chemical
originally developed as a dis infectant in 1859 may adapt to the needs ofthe environment by dealing with the mussels.
Since the turn of the century, the che
mical potassium permanganate has
tems of power plants and utilities that use lake water, they not only attach themselves to well walls, piping, intake cribs and screens, but to each other,cre
ating layers upon layers that obstruct pipes and screens and block water flow. Physical removal requires continual scraping or high pressure hosing. It is now a major problem in Canada and
been used by water treatment plants as an oxidizer(like chlorine). Through the years its use has expanded steadily, as water utilities recognized the power of potassium permanganate to destroy organics that cause taste, odor,color, and other water quality problems. Evidence
zebra mussels can be controlled by the
has now led some water utilities to con
use of the oxidizer chlorine, for exam
sider that potassium permanganate may be the answer to an otherwise long and costly fight to keep systems free of the newest water problem, zebra
ple, may lead to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). Potassium permanganate, however, has been used successfully without adverse reactions, it is claimed by the Cams Chemical Company, La Salle, Illinois. During 1990, the sightings of zebra mussels in Lake Michigan had the staff of the Racine(Wisconsin)Water Utility
The mussels, small freshwater mollusks native to Russia but now found
throughout Europe, are extremely pro lific. Quickly invading the intake sys
the U.S. Tests have shown that infestations of
use of various oxidizers.The problem is to control the mussels without con
taminating the water supply. Excessive
Commercial Diver with under water video camera for under ice inspection. concerned about the infestation. In
April 1991, Racine's intake system, in cluding 90 feet ofa 54-inch intake pipe,a 26-foot- and 10-foot-wide well and a
600-foot-long tunnel about eight feet in diameter, was emptied of water. Mike Kosterman, the facility's Water Resource Chemist and a trained biolo
gist, reports that when he climbed down into the 10-foot shore well to inspect the walls and intake openings, he dis covered zebra mussels on the wall near
the 54-inch opening. When Kosterman and others entered the 54-inch pipe,
more mussels were found. The mussels,
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Mr. Kosterman then inspected the pipes and walls of the suction well and found no evidence ofbiological forms of any sort.
The staff believe the likely answer to the absence of mussels is the use of po tassium permanganate, which is fed into the small shore well via an 800-foot, Wi in. feed line. Mr. Kosterman found
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all of the zebra mussels before the point where potassium permanganate is added to the water and none after.
A similar experience has been repor ted by the Avon Lake Water Treatment Plant in Avon Lake,Ohio.In November
of 1989, according to Assistant Director Rick Fberle, the application point of their potassium permanganate feed line was moved 2,000 feet to an intake in Lake Erie. Intended to control taste and
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odor,the permanganate seems to be pre venting biological infestation.Although an occasional dead mussel,stained with
the identifiable color of permanganate, will come down the intake pipe, there has been no drop in intake pressure to indicate the infestation mussels. ES&E
For more information, Circle reply card No. 136 16
Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1992
Consistent monitoring and sampiing highiight success of EPA pretreatment reguiatory program
An EPA pretreatment program
in Tempe,Arizona,to regulate pollutant and toxic discharges
from commercial and indus
trial facilities, has grown from monitor ing 23 to 70 industries for a wide variety of substances, including BOD, COD, TSS. heavy metals, acids and caustics. Although their primary function is to enforce federal and local standards for
water entering the publicly owned treat ment plant, the role of the Tempe De partment has expanded to include sur veying oflocal waterways for non-point runoff and control of hazardous waste
disposal. A key factor in the success of the Tempe program has been their aggres sive sampling program, according to Industrial Waste Supervisor Alan Jen sen."We sample each industry we mon itor four times per year as a minimum. Each sampling event consists of four full days of sampling,so we get a full 16 days of samples per year on each com plying industry. If the industry is in vio lation, the number of sampling events increases."
Samples are normally collected at the end ofthe processing cycle,just after the water has passed through the industry's pretreatment program and is on its way towards the public treatment works. Sometimes, however, samplers will be placed upstream and downstream from the plant to monitor how successful the industry program has been in meeting specified standards and to detect illegal discharges, without alerting the indus try to the fact that it is being monitored. The Department prefers to perform their own sample collection, rather than rely on the industry to take the samples. They also prefer flow proportional sam pling methods using pH meters to mon itor sudden changes in pH which could contribute to odour problems and pipe corrosion. Tempe uses American Sigma portable samplers for this program, selected for
reliability and flow-proportional sam pling capabilities and the capability to select discrete or composite sampling modes. The delay start option is also a significant feature, as it allows the De partment to install a sampler on Thurs day and set it to begin sampling on Saturday, when the industry is in opera tion and possibly issuing illegal dis charges. Tempe has two employees committed
Industrial Waste Supervisor, Alan Jensen and Industrial Waste Technician, Michael Golden perform lab analysis of sample liquid. full time to the sampling operations who are responsible for installation of sam plers,sample collection,and tracking of sampling paperwork. Although the In dustrial Waste Department has its own preparatory lab, most analyses are per formed by outside labs to avoid bias against industries. When violations are discovered, the
industry is notified immediately. If ne cessary,a representative from the Indus trial Waste Department will meet with representatives from the industry to dis
cuss the problem. The Department is strictly a regulatory agency, however, and does not get involved with consulta tion or solution of the problem. The in dustry is resampled after 45 days. If the problem has not been alleviated, charges may be laid and notices pub lished in local newspapers. If problems persist and the industry does not seem to be making sufficient effort to rectify the situation, sewer service may be ter minated. All money collected in fines is re-invested in the program for new equipment and training. The Department is also responsible for monitoring six metering stations for billing purposes and for identification of potential problems by new industries or changes in existing industries. In addition to industrial monitoring, the program has grown to include an extensive storm water (non-point) run off sampling schedule. Currently this includes collecting grab samples of
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
runoffdischarges after every rain.These are tested for BOD, COD, TSS, heavy metals, herbicides, insecticides and
phenols. The Department is consider ing using a flow-proportional sampler which can be set to sample automati cally when water levels reach a given point. The water sampling program also in cludes monthly sampling of several lakes located in the local park and golf course.These lakes collect surface water
runoff from the neighboring area. The Industrial Waste Department is con sidering using these lakes as a deposi tory for effluent water. By measuring the water quality now, they hope to estab lish baseline standards to compare to readings they will take after the addition of the effluent water. Determining the water quality will help the Department minimize effects of the effluent on the
Tempe's Industrial Waste Depart ment has also become actively involved in environmental protection concerns, such as hazardous waste clean up and emergency response to spills and fires. The Department works very closely with the local police and fire departments to discuss which areas or industries are
being pressured to clean up hazardous waste.These target areas are kept under close surveillance for possible illegal acts, such as illegal dumping, illegal transportation or arson. Circle reply card No. 255 17
Distribution System Management
Collingwood PUC makes successful switch to metering
Collingwood meter reader
John Palmer pauses briefly at each home. He places the tip
of a TouchRead System elec tronic reading gun to a remote TouchPad mounted on an exterior wall and
The TouchRead System has been used to read Collingwood's water and hydro-electric meters since January of 1990. When it was installed, it brought about a major change from just a few years ago when most of the town's 6,500
depresses a button on the gun's handle.
residential water services were not me-
In less than two seconds, the home's
tered at all. Back then,the hydro-electric meters were read visually using paper route-books,and the data was manually keyed into a computer following the reading process. It was also a process that sometimes produced billing
water meter reading data is transferred through the gun to a solid state interro gator (SSI) where it is automatically stored
memory. Later, the data will be down loaded to a personal computer at the utility office. Next, he utilizes the SSI's built-in
keypad to manually enter data from the home's hydro meter into memory. For both the water and electricity readings, the SSI automatically verifies that the data has been received and stored.
Although he is completely familiar with Collingwood's meter reading routes,the SSI can be programmed with route information to guide him along. The program utilizes the SSI's LC dis play to show the exact location of each meter and its remote pad contact or other information, such as warnings about route hazards.It is also capable of alerting the meter reader whenever an abnormal entry is made, signalling a possible mistake or service problem.
Before adding water meters, most re sidential and light commercial service water customers paid a flat rate. As the community grew and water consump tion steadily increased, it became clear that solving future water and environ mental problems would require new conservation measures and the addition
John Palmer using Touch Read
of meters. Flat rates for unlimited water
supplies were on the way out. In 1983, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment had issued new guide lines directing all water utilities using surface sources to have filtration sys tems in operation within ten years. Col lingwood's raw water source was located at the southern end of Lake Huron's
Georgian Bay. Water quality had his torically been so good that filtration had
not previously been considered neces sary, but chlorination was used. Officials began planning for the fil tration system addition. As a pre liminary step toward reducing sus pected unaccounted-for water losses and making billing for amounts used more equitable, the PUC began requir ing that water meters be included for all new or upgraded services. The metering program also provided an opportunity for upgrading the uti lity's meter reading and billing process to an electronic system â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one that would be capable of on-site reading for both the new water meters and existing
hydro meters. Also, it had to be one that could be compatible with the PUC's existing mainframe computer, so data from the meter readings could be easily
downloaded. Several brands of water
meters and automatic meter reading systems were examined.
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munications touch-type registers and remotes were installed in 1986.
"The system has increased our oper
ating efficiency by more than 4,000 manhours a year," says Ed Houghton. "We used to have two people reading the hydro meters. One has since retired and was not replaced. With the new equip ment,John Palmer is able to read all our
hydro and water meters." For more information, Circle reply card No. 123 Circle reply card No. 254 18
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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Environmental Science <6 Engineering. May 1992
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Western Canada makes great strides in Bioiogicai Nutrient Removal
Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) is alive and well and expanding in Western Cana
da. Several cities either have
the BNR process installed, are in the process of converting to it or currently considering conversion. In a recent tour of three operating facilities in Western Canada, Brian
Evans and Peter Laughton of R.V. An derson Associates Limited noted how
the BNR process is accepted in Western Canada. The fact finding tour of the Kelowna Sewage Treatment Plant (22 700 mVd),the newly commissioned Penticton Plant (18 200 mVd) and the West Bank Sewage Treatment Plant (3 400 mVd)all located on Lake Okana-
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gan, revealed that these plants were pro ducing excellent quality effluent. All the plants consistently achieved effluent BOD and suspended solids of less than 5 mg/L, total phosphorus of less than 0.4 mg/L and a total nitrogen of less than 5 mg/L. According to Stanley Associates in Vancouver, the plants have been instru mental in expanding Canadian based BNR technology to the United States at two facilities in Kalispell, Montana and Atlanta, Georgia and overseas in Eu rope at Friedericksvaerk, Solrod and Tarby in Denmark. On the Canadian front two plants, namely the Calgary Bonnybrook Plant has a 100 000 mVd module for BNR under design and the Edmonton Goldbar Plant with a cur
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sulted in the requirement for more advanced technologies. • The reduced hydraulic retention time is now comparable with the conven tional activated sludge system. • The increasing tendency to include ammonia reduction in the effluent either for nutrient reduction or tox-
icity reasons has meant that an in creasing number of plants have to allow for nitrification. Once plants have been adapted to nitrification with longer hydraulic and sludge re tention times, it is relatively simple to
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
convert to biological nutrient remov al by the addition ofan anaerobic and anoxic zone up front. These zones, which allow denitrification to occur,
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• The stricter effluent standards required by sewage treatment plants have ne cessitated the introduction of tertiary treatment in many cases. Typically these entail total phosphorus levels of
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• The impact of a sewage treatment plant effluent low in nutrients (car bon, nitrogen and phosphorus), and the resulting overall impact on receiv ing waterbody quality makes a strong case for this process. The more tradi tional chemical methods ofremoving phosphorus generally result in the addition of heavy metals to the sew age and while most of these are re moved in the activated sludge pro cess, the potential for reducing the discharge of these metals to the re ceiving waterbody remains an attrac tive option. • If a sewage treatment plant has land disposal of sludge, the further reduc tion in heavy metals by a non-influent source may make certain land spreading operations more feasible. With all these issues in its favour, who
can wonder that a new era of Biological Nutrient Removal may well be upon us. ES&E
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Environmental Sdence & Engineering. May 1992
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ACPO Chemists demand licencing The Association of the Chemical Pro
industry capable of exporting value
fession of Ontario is urging the govern ment to licence chemists in the province. The call was made repeatedly during ACPO's annual meeting. Various dele gates complained that chemists had enormous responsibilities for public health and safety; yet government agen cies had not responded to the pro fession's requests for licencing. ES&E Publisher Tom Davey was lunchtime speaker. He said it was ridi culous that one could not sell hot dogs in Toronto without a licence — yet govern ments were deaf to the idea of licencing chemists. When he was a boy in Eng land. chemists were synonymous with healing. People went to the chemists shop — the drugstore — for a variety of healing potions. The chemist was a re vered figure, a person of science who ranked alongside the doctor in social rank and importance. Today the very
added services on the international market. Moreover we cannot restore our environment without a vibrant lab in
word chemical is seen as a noxious
word, a perjorative synonymous with toxic.
"Today your profession can routinely find toxins at parts per trillion with the capabilities of detection in the parts per quadrillion range — virtually NASAca-
libre technology — yet various govern ment agencies and some purchasing agents are trying to buy these complex
"If South East Asians can ship cars and steel by the tonne across the Pacific, surely it should be possible to export analytical services in containers weigh ing a few grams. After all we can fly to most places in North America in a few hours. Put simply, a healthy lab indus try could help the economy while pro tecting the environment. "But the lab industry is bleeding from vicious bidding wars. Government poli cies at many levels unwittingly are stifl ing this vital high-tech environmental business where quality of equipment
services with low bid tenders which are
and staff education count for little if
more appropriate for the purchase of sand and gravel.
price is the key determinant. Ironically, the cost of lab services is virtually petty cash compared to the capital costs ofthe
Incoming ACPO President Dr. Pierre Beaumier, Mann Testing, (left) v\/ith out going President Denis Bayley. Photo TPD
"I know that Canadian chemists rate
highly around the world — except in Canada ofcourse. We have government programs which will rescue bankrupt sunset industries with massive bail outs,
sometimes valued at $200,000perjob.Yet with analytical chemistry we have a high-tech, knowledge industry; a clean
projects requiring analyses. It is idiotic
to quibblgpver a hundred bucks in sav ings on a toxic real estate deal,or even a treatment process, where the capital value of the project could run into mega millions. continued on page 78
CEiA hosts post Globe '92 meeting with international delegates
Apost Globe'92breakfast meet
ing in Toronto organized by the Canadian Environmental
Industry Association was a sell out affair. There were substantial
delegations from Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zea
land, all eager and willing to see what CEIA members could offer. Many dis appointed people were unable to attend the capacity breakfast meeting. Drew Blackwell, Assistant Deputy Minister, Environment Ontario, spoke of the problems affecting governments.
He said we did not expect to face the pre sent fiscal crunch, pointing out, that a little money spent upfront to change a process can save costly clean ups later. Governments usually have to finance clean ups, he noted. Touching on reuse and recycling, he noted that primitive societies were al ready extensively practicing the 3 Rs but noted ruefully that we were not such a society.
At an evening reception, Ed Philip, Ontario
Trade and Technology,stressed that en vironmental protection and job crea tion could and should go hand in hand; that ecological considerations can ac tually create new jobs. The breakfast, and subsequent even
ing reception, gave CEIA members and government officials a chance to net work with these overseas delegates. The organizers of this successful meeting, Odette Corbu P.Eng., ISTC, David Reid, MITT and Bob McArtbur,City ofToron to, must be given full credit for planning this highly successful Globe '92 follow up.
Odette Corbu P.Eng, and David Reid at the CEIA breakfast meeting 22
Photo report by Tom Davey
Environmental Science <& Engineering, May 1992
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PCAO focusses on industry at 21st annual conference
The 21st PCAO Annual Con ference drew some 530 dele
gates along with a trade expo
never before market.
"There is potential in Eastern Europe,
sition believed to be the best-
where the iron curtain lifted to reveal an
ever in terms of member flow through and quality of exhibits. This year the
infrastructure system that is well out of date, and a pollution problem that is beyond belief. There is also potential in the third world, where developing coun tries are looking to improve their stan dard of living with new sewage and
Pollution Control Association of Onta
designed to commercialize Ontario technologies. For example, SCIEX, along with its partners the University of Toronto and the Perkin-Elmer Corpora tion, has been given a five-year grant to design instruments for measuring minute amounts of chemical pollut
rio gave a sharper focus to industrial pollution problems. Norm Jamison, MPP told the plenary session that the Ontario environment industry employs nearly 30,000 people and generates over $2 billion in sales, playing a major role in creating high-value, high-wage jobs. He was standing in for Ed Philip, Minis ter of Industry, Trade and Technology. The environmentindustry has the po tential to undergo tremendous growth,
"Ontario's environmental protection industry enjoys an international edge in several service and niche-product mar
he told the Toronto audience.
one of seven Centres of Excellence, the
ation of the commercialization and fi
"There is potential here. Tough envi ronmental programs like Ontario's Municipal/Industrial Strategy for
Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Re
nancial plans and the managerial
search. The Centre is studying methods to prevent, control and clean up groundwater contamination caused by septic tanks, gasoline, industrial spills and agricultural chemicals." He poin ted out that the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Lifelines program, will
Abatement(MISA)are setting new stan dards for pollution prevention,generat
ing an increased need for new pollution prevention technologies. There is also potential in the US,where by the end of the decade pollution control will be an estimated $170 billion a year industry. (Editor's note Lucien Bradet gave higher projections later, see Industry Update). "There is potential in Western Europe â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which currently accounts for onethird of the global market for environ mental technology. In fact, a couple of weeks ago our Ministry led a small trade
kets like water and wastewater treat
ment and control, sampling and moni toring equipment. "The Ontario government created, as
invest one-third of a billion dollars over
the next decade in rehabilitating muni cipal water distribution and sewage systems.
"Another important part of Ontario's technological infrastructure is ORTECH International whose activities
include technology development re lated to wastewater treatment."
mission of Ontario wastewater firms to
Mr.Jamison focussed on Industry Re search Program (IRP), which provides
Italy. The participating companies had
up to 50 percent of the cost of research
Another program which is more di rectly focused on the environmental protection industry is the Environmental Technologies Program (ETP), he said. "The program, which is delivered by the Ministry of the Environment, pro vides up to 50 percent of the cost of de velopment, refinement and demonstra tion of new products and processes. MITT's role in the program is the evalu
"In keeping with our environmental and economic priorities, the program gives preference to technologies that emphasize pollution prevention and which can be marketed globally. The guidelines stipulate that the technolo gies must be commercialized by an Ontario firm â&#x20AC;&#x201D; this is in keeping with
our "developing home-based com panies" fundamental. "Two studies examining marketing opportunities and strategies in the United States and Europe 1992 for the Ontario environmental protection in dustry found that these two areas of the world will offer a combined environ
mental protection market of $275-billion dollars by the year 2000."
Left to right, Larry Madden, Control & Metering, one of the organizers of the conference exhibition; Erv Mclntyre, MOE,retiring PCAO President with Susan Macfarlane,winner of the 1 st place Masters Category,WEF Student Paper Competition; Conference Chair Dusanka Flllpovic, Halozone Recyling Inc. and Anton Davies, Rowan Williams Davles & Irwin Inc., President Air and Waste Management Association. Doug McTavlsh, MOE,won the Bedell Award with the Hatfleld going to Larry Edwards. Bob PIckett, Metro-Toronto, Phil Parry, G&S and ES&E's Tom Davey received the prized Gold Shovels from former PCAO President Peter Laughton. Elmco's Terry Mathews took over as President. TPD Photos 24
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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KCAp Inorganics Manager Fourteen years experience, managing ov
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Sean Muliaiy, B.Sc. Vice President and General Manager
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Environmental Analytical Laboratories. Ross Keon, M.Sc. Manager of Inorganic Chemistry Fifteen years experience, seven as manage with the Ontario Research Foundation.
pOr. Ross McCurdy,Ph.D. # President
Twenty years experience, professor on . researcher at OalhoffiW itHverslty and Technical University of NfiÂĽB"Scotla.
ykm King, B.Sc. â&#x2013; PCApOrganics Manager
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Wafer wasting technology will notsellabroad
The "92 Annual AWWA*/ OMWA conference in
gara Falls attracted over 700 delegates, a clear indication that water purity is a recession proof industry. In a guest address, Colin Isaacs, a former Executive Director of
Pollution Probe pulled no punches when he said that obtaining public ap proval is much more complex than ap provals from the Ministry of the Envi ronment. In many municipalities a two year lead time is turning into half a decade or more of lead time, and that
will only get longer in the future. Those bigger pumps, new wells, and longer pipes frequently come with an econo mic,if not environmental,cost that many communities are just not willing to pay, yet water remains on essential public service. Water conservation is finding its
way on to the public policy agenda in all kinds of new ways. Concerns about wa ter quality continue to arise, month after month, year after year, and they will not go away, he said. User pay means that conservers save. Only through a user pay system will the person who does the right thing for the environment be a winner, he said stress
ing that in many parts ofthe country,the small user is, directly or indirectly, sub sidizing the larger user. "The joy of'true user pay' is that the less people pay the more the approach is doing its job. Failing to protect the envi ronment will cost jobs, because we can not support a healthy economy in a pol-
luted environment.On the positive side, today the world is industrializing at an
There are tremendous opportunities for
incredible rate. Most of that world suf
cess fees, saleable permits, and many more in helping to shift our pattern of water use from an environmentally un sustainable to an environmentally sus tainable mode. Once the public sup ports the goal, the opportunities to achieve the goal are tremendous."
fers from even greater shortages ofclean water than we experience here in Cana da. Water wasting technology won't sell in the developing world or in Eastern Europe. If we want the opportunity to sell technology and know-how to help meet the incredible demands of a ra
pidly changing world, it is absolutely
essential that we show that we have the
The Ontario Municipal Water Associa
most water conserving technology that is available world-wide. It is failing to
tion was in a militant mood over the Greater London Area Arbitrator's Re
take into account the needs of the envi ronment that will best ensure that we
have no jobs in the future," he said. On metering, he noted that the public was cynical about almost everything that government does. "We have not done a good job of helping the public to understand why we must make more efficient use ofwater. When government goes out with programs to meter pre viously unmetered water, or to charge more for water,or to encourage reduced
water use, many in the public and small business fight back. "Once we have got the public on side, once people are demanding water con servation programs, the principles of User Pay, Polluter Pays, and the use of economic tools to achieve environmen
tal goals become viable. Of course peo ple should be paying the full cost for every drop of water they use. Of course we should increase water and sewage
treatment pricing to realistic levels just as we have done with landfill tipping
*Ont. Section American Water Works Association.
use of economic instruments, water ac
fees. Of course discounts for bulk use
should be substantially eliminated.
port to abolish the London PUC.Letters have been sent from the Ont. Section AWWA and OMWA to Ontario Premier
Bob Rae, Municipal Affairs Minister David Cooke, Environment Minister
Ruth Grier and others â&#x20AC;&#x201D; including leaders of the Conservative and Liberal
Parties, asking that the draft legislation to abolish the PUC be withdrawn. The
Executive passed the following resolu tion during the '92 Annual Conference in Niagara Falls. "The Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion opposes the abolition of the London PUC as recommended in the Greater
London Area Arbitrator's Report; on the ground that it was done without any stu dies as to the merits of abolishing the London PUG; without consultation of the London PUC; without any beforehand notice;
and further, that dismissing the London PUC Commissioners without public con sultation and approval of the local elec torate, has stripped the people of London of their inherent democratic right to elect those they wish to represent them."
I Left to right, Fuller awardee Marsh Rasberry of M M Dillon after his wife Brenda presented him with the covetted pin; Roger Tomlinson, Barrie PUC, winner of the Hatfield award. Herschel Guttman, Anderson Associates, newly elected Vice Chair of the Ont. Section AWWA received a membership award from AWWA Chair Dr. Ken Roberts. Rod Holme of Proctor & Redfern takes over the Chairfrom Dr. Roberts. Windsor won the Pipe Tapping Contest. Over 700 attended the joint AWWA/OMWA conference. TPD Photos 26
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Sparging can reduce VOC remediation costs in groundwater contamination
soil and groundwater contamination had been reduced by 98%. Brown acknowledged that there are still reservations within the industry over the use of air sparging. These fall
more projected for start up in 1992, and a regula tory closure already on the books,Groundwater Technology,Inc. claims that its air sparging used in con
into two areas of concern. The first is
junction with soil vapor extraction is now the primary treatment technology
that the accelerated vapour travel cre ated by sparging presents the potential
for vapours to be drawn into nearby re ceptors (e.g., basements). This problem is resolved by using venting systems in areas with potential vapour receptors. A second concern is that, under spe cific conditions, a misapplied sparge system could actually push the con-
ofchoice for soils and groundwater con taminated with volatile organic com pounds(VOCs). Richard Brown, Ph.D., Director of Remediation Technology for Groundwater Technology, Inc., says:"Sparging extends the effective volatilization prin
ciples applied in soil vapour extraction (venting) to high zones of contaminant concentration â&#x20AC;&#x201D; adsorbed chemicals in the saturated zone or below the water table. These were inaccessible to vent
ing. This technology often makes it pos sible to reduce by as much as 50% the typical cost of treatment as well as the treatment period for sites contaminated with VOCs.
Air sparging is the highly controlled injection of air into contamination in the saturated zone. Air bubbles traverse
horizontally and vertically through the soil column, creating a transient airfilled porosity in which volatilization can occur.
Air sparging effectively creates a crude air stripper in the subsurface,with the soil acting as the packing. Air is in jected and allowed to flow through the water column over the "packing". Air
A UTTLE BIRD TOLD US YDU WERE HAVING CDRRDSION PRDDLBIAS.
bubbles that contact dissolved-/ad-
sorbed-phase contaminants in the aqui fer cause the VOCs to volatilize.
The volatilized organics are carried by the air bubbles into the vadose zone, where they can be captured by a vapor extraction system. Moreover, the sparged air maintains a high dissolved oxygen content, which enhances natu ral biodegradation. Air sparging also creates turbulence and increased mixing in the saturated
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ween groundwater and soil. This will result in higher concentrations of the VOCs in the groundwater, which can be recovered by pumping or stripped by sparging.
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Brown said that one of the first com
mercial air sparging/venting systems to be employed by Groundwater Technol ogy was used to treat dry cleaning sol vent contamination along with some residual heating oil. Contamination onsite ranged from 40,000 ppb VOC con tamination near the former tank pit to less than 1,000 ppb elsewhere. After 125 days of operating the treatment system,
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Distributor inquiries Weicome
For more information, Circle reply card No. 112 27
Sparging, cont'd Elements of Air Sparging System
Compressor Air Sparge
lieves that it is very likely that this type of mounding will be shown to have little, if any, effect on groundwater flow. He says that while the capital equip ment associated with a sparge system is often quite simple,compact, and low in cost compared to previous generations oftreatment systems,the evaluation cri teria, design tolerances and systems en gineering are far more exacting. There fore, implementation of sparge systems calls for a very sophisticated analysis of site hydrogeoiogy and careful engineer
fluid column. While this phenomenon is now being studied. Dr. Brown be
Pumping Well (Optional)
Vent Point for Trench
VOC Capture Air Flow
yV, • ••• Contaminated Soil
/ sparge Points Placed Below
ing. He concludes; "With the advent of
Area of Contamination
commercially viable air sparging and its use in conjunction with soil vapour ex
Air injected into groundwoler effectively vololilizes conlominonts which ore then captured by soil vapor extraction. Based on numerous Groundvrater Technology treatment sites, air sparging in conjunction with soil vapor extraction, reduces treatment time and costs of soil and groundwoter remediation by up to 50%.
tamination away from the site. For example, a clay barrier above the zone of injection could cause this to happen. Uncontrolled flow could also be caused
by pressurization of the system beyond the soil's capacity to accept a smooth flow of injected air. Therefore, restric tive geological conditions and optimal system operating pressures must be de termined by meticulous testing prior to system implementation. In the event that barriers and low permeable for
mations are found, groundwater recov ery may be necessary to prevent the spread of dissolved contamination. It has also been observed that sparg ing results in mounding of the water table. Under normal hydrogeoiogicai conditions, mounding can accelerate the flow of groundwater and, hence,the spread of dissolved contamination. However, with sparging, the mounding is typically caused by the displacement of water with air,resulting in a less dense
traction, the most efficient prifnary technology VOC site closures are now based on the movement of air through the various zones of contamination rather than the movement of fluids. Not
only is air-based treatment excep
tionally cost-effective, but its dramatic reduction of treatment periods signifi cantly reduces the potentially respons ible parties' (PRPs') window of maxi mum exposure to liabilities — typically to less than a year." Circle reply card No. 251
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Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, May 1992
The Global approach
thw economic initiatives are designed to protect the environment
With al the publicity over industry adopting a new "green" image one might think that most of the world's pollution problems were well on the way to being solved. This perception, however, is far from reality although it is tme that many companies, especially the larger public companies are beginning to realize the economic benefits of adopting a more positive approach to their waste management strategies. Others, however are stalled in their efforts due to the current economic recession. Others may be looking to relocate their manufacturing operations to third world countries such as Mexico where already lax environmental laws are at best only feebly enforced. Also for the smaU to medium sized companies, which are responsible for a major portion of all toxic waste generated, a green corporate image is a luxury they can rarely afford. In this poor economy, many of these smaller firms are already facing tough competition fiom companies in less environmentally sensitive regions which also enjoy the benefits of much lower labour costs.
However,the situation is not all doom and gloom. The last two decades have seen some major improvements in the quality of the environment. There is also a clear indication that the future shows
real promise for further gains in environmental quality and that this may be due in a large part to the adoption of more enlightened, or possibly even radical thinking on environmental economics.
In the past most environmental legislation was based on a command and control approach where regulations specified permissible emission or effluent limits and backed these up by the threat of legal enforcement action. This approach was devised to take care of large industrial generators which were relatively easy to police and control. But as we now know, the real environmental concems are quite different. First there are the large number of small companies or small quantity waste generators for whom the cost of enforcing compliance can often outweigh social and environmental benefits. Then there are the global, intemational issues such as ozone depletion and stratospheric climate change, acid rain, trans-border shipment of toxic wastes and the stripping of natural resources in third world countries, all of which carmot be controlled by the traditional regulatory processes. In order to solve these complex problems some radical
approaches need to be adopted. It is here that the use of some novel economic instruments or market-based incentives need to
be introduced to support the existing policies and regulatory processes.
cost-effectiveness in the consistent application of the Polluter-Pays Principle and a more effective use of economic instruments in conjunction with regulations". The recent report of the working committee identified over 150 economic instruments that have been tested so far by the member countries . Furthermore, in the introduction to a recent study by the US Environmental Protection agency (USEPA) on economic incentives; options for environmental protection, the director William K. Reilley admitted the limitations of the traditional command and control poUcies and pledged the agency's commitment to the wider use ofeconomic incentives . Economic Incentives
Tbe use of economic incentives or economic instruments (El's)
either as an altemative to or to support existing environmental legislation is not a new phenomenon. Its origins can be traced to the beginning of the environmental movement in the mid-1960's. It has been studied most seriously in Europe which has long followed the Polluter Pays Principle in environmental legislation. North America,in contrast has taken a slightly different route. By enforcing strict legislation which defines technical solutions by way of best available technology industry is being forced indirectly to pay for its pollution. A number of different types of economic instrument have been studied, including charges, financial incentives, deposit/refund schemes and market creation. Charges have included user fees, which are the most common type of economic instrument and effluent charges. Effluent charges have been studied as an incentive for improved water pollution control in the Netherlands and Germany. Basically, a fixed charge is established for a company to meet the permissible discharge standard. If the company can improve the quality of its effluent below the standard,the charge is proportionately reduced. In the area of monetary incentives the most detailed study has been carried out by the State of California They have examined the use of grants, soft loans and tax incentives to assist the implementation of more effective waste management by industry. Although this study is focussed on probably the most environmentally sensitive region in the world, the findings can be adapted to other less affluent, less sensitive areas.
Deposit/refund systems have been proposed for many areas of waste management including toxic wastes. It has been proposed for pesticide containers (of which the US uses over 10 million each year)and for cadmium/mercury batteries. The practicality of this approach is open to question due to the wide range of collection systems required to allow the user to be refunded.
At a meeting of the OECD Environment Committee in June 1985, environment ministers of the member nations agreed to "Seek to introduce more flexibility, efficiency and * Toxics Recovery Systems Intemational, Rexdale, Ontario and the University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry /Institute for Environmental Studies 30
Trading Pollution Rights The most controversial area of economic incentives is
imdoubtedly the concept of creating a maiket in pollution rights. The provision of pollution rights, being seen as a right to pollute combined with charges being viewed as the price of pollution, automatically leads to the creation of a maiket where these Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
by Bernard Fleet, IVi.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R. and Nllima Sharma Fleet, B.A.* privileges can be traded. The trading in permits to pollute whereby a company can either buy or sell a license to pollute has caused widespread public concem. In principle, however, the approach has many attractive features including the ability of the generator to have a wider selection of treatment strategies. Traditional command and control based policies can be viewed as stifling to the development of advanced pollution control technologies. In contrast, the market creation approach, since companies can actually gain a financial reward for reducing their pollution, should encourage the development of new resource recovery or minimal discharge treatment technologies.
Experience in market creation is almost entirely confined to the US where the main commodity exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade, recently inaugurated a private market for rights to emit sulfur dioxide. This approach has its origins in the problems in implementing the Qean Air Act in 1970 when a large proportion of utility companies experienced problems in meeting emission standards. The Chicago commodity trading program could provide useful pointers for other jurisdictions considering similar initiatives in other waste management areas. California, for example, is considering setting up a computerized market for business permits to emit volatile organics compounds (VOCs). Several other cities in the US, which are hard pressed to meet air quality guidelines are also exploring market based approaches to more effective regulation ofsmog producing pollutants. Recently the UN proposed the creation of a global market in pollution permits. This plan aims to set national quotas on emissions and would,for the first time, set a price on one or more of the pollutants blamed for global warming. It is anticipated that the plan wiU be formally endorsed in June at the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Although the trading of pollution rights arguably does create possibilities for more innovative, cost effective pollution abatement options, the formidable problems of developing and administering these policies has caused governments and environmental agencies to move slowly and cautiously. Supporters, however argue strongly that emissions trading has enabled economic growth to continue in areas of high pollution and that in several areas impressive air quality improvements have been reported. However, a large sector of the public and most environmental groups continue to oppose emissions trading on the fundamental argument that the availability of clean air is a basic inalienable right. They view trading in emission reduction credits as a light to pollute. More dispassionately, however, emissions trading is only marginally different from the present direct regulatory approach, which allows controlled pollution to take place via a permit. Environmental Economics
There is no doubt that environmental economics is a complex area one where traditional government financial planners and the new breed of environmental economists have wide areas of
disagreement. Consider the issue of industrial waste management. In managing industry's toxic wastes there are two sets of costs to consider, private and social. Private costs are those that industry bears and include the capital cost of waste management equipment and associated operating costs such as Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Protesters at Globe '92 in Vancouver. New ways to measure 'green' economic activity are being developed. Missing are signs saying that Dupont has also developed CFC substitutes. Photo Steve Davey.
labour and utilities. The second group of social costs are the costs which are met by society to support these waste management activities. These might include the subsidized costs of industrial water supply, sewage treatment and landfill disposal. Then there is a third, even more intangible group of social costs which
include public health care costs and lost productivity fiom pollution related diseases and the damage to the natural environment. These costs of consumption of environmental quality represent a major portion of the real costs of industrial pollution. The current argument is that industry should assume an
increasing portion of the social costs of environmental protection but the real difficulty emerges as how to measure and agree on these costs. There are now a number of economic arguments on this issue which attempt to solve the problem from both a national and an industry standpoint.
Traditionally, industry has evaluated its environmental projects using the same financial approach it has used for other projects. This uses a standard financial analysis which considers readily quantifiable costs such as capital equipment cost, operating costs and any obvious cost savings or recoveries. These are then set out
in a typical finandal spreadsheet format over the time period of the project which might typically vaiy from five to ten years. The project value is then computed using financial indices such as net present value(NPV),return on investment(ROl) and break even
point However,this conventional approach ignores most societal costs and does not consider other intangibles such as future legal liability or corporate image. Towards a "Green" GNP
At the national or intemational level, several European countries, lead by the Netherlands and Germany have started to develop a Green GNP which sets out an altemative approach to the traditional measine of economic activity by subtracting a figure for the harm that economic activity does to the environment . Its proponents claim that by ignoring or disguising the cost of economic production on the environment, the gross national products of many countries have been distorted or grossly inflated. They claim, for example, that the costs of measures which are
designed to protect the environment such as sewage treatment plants are incorrectly tallied as growth. The approach is an continued overleaf 31
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Economic Initiatives, cont'd scarce financial resources so that the a convincing cost benefit analysis has to be presented.
Most major industrialized countries have ambitious environ mental projects underway. Significant progress has also
A powerful new tool for the environmental manager is the use of a method known as full-cost environmental accounting. This approach, developed by scientists and economists at the General Electric Corporation, is based on a much more comprehensive analysis of environmental costs . These include using a much longer 10-20 year window for environmental projects, anticipating the cost impacts of much stricter discharge standards and also attempting to quantify a range of less tangible social cost elements. These may include such issues as future legal liability costs and the real economic benefits of an improved environmental image. Employee health and morale and associated productivity benefits may also be measured.
been made in workers' protection has in recent years, espe cially in countries like Canada,but much remains to be done. Davcom photo.
closely parallels the trends in national level environmental
ambitious one and involves first attempting to measure the costs for all toxic emissions and discharges along with the
disappearance of plant and animal life and other environmental changes. These figures will provide a set of costs for achieving sustainable economic development which will then be subtracted from the current GNP to attain the Green ONP.
That these arguments are taken seriously is evidenced by the fact that most of the major industrialized nations including Japan, the US, Germany, France, Norway and Sweden all now have ambitious projects under way to calculate the economic impact of environmental degradation. Although Canada in its recent Green Plan stresses the role of sustainable development and the links between the environment and the economy there is no evidence that it is adopting a Green GNP policy or that its thinking is anywhere near as advanced as its European partners. Recent evidence has also shown that the level of pollution is
directly related to a country's economy. According to the study by Grossman and Krueger from Princeton's Woodrow Wilson Institute, air pollution is most severe for countries vvith an economic output of $4,000 to $5,000 per person and less severe
What we are seeing in full-cost environmental accounting economic policies. This reflects the need to make industry bear a larger share of the costs of damage to the environment. For example, a company may be using a cost effective but highly polluting manufacturing process. Altematively, it could consider the use of a less polluting but more costly manufacturing process. The prediction of overall costs using the lull- cost environmental accounting approach are shown in Figure 1, where Process A is the lower cost, highly polluting process and Process B the more
environmentally benign, but more expensive production process. The decision by a firm to switch from Process A to Process B is dependent first on the environmental legislation in force, and second on their ability to accurately predict their tme waste management costs. Process B
/ (less polluting)
Cost of Production
for considerably poorer and considerably richer countriesj Cost of
Full Cost Environmental Accounting
While concepts such as the Green GNP are all very interesting, there is the important question whether they have any real impact on grass roots industrial waste management decision makers. Arguably they do - just as in the basic philosophy of the Green GNP,the underlying arguments supporting the wider acceptance of waste rrimimization, resource recycling and the adoption of clean technologies is that the current costs of industry's waste management practices are artificially low and do not reflect long term liabilities and other societal costs. Industry now seems to be accepting this challenge and maybe as the first step we are seeing the emergence of a new type ofenvironmental manager,often one with board level responsibility. In order for these managers to convince their management or their stockholders of the benefits of improved environmental policies, their arguments have to be presented in economic terms; serious waste management requires serious financial analysis. Furthermore, waste management investments may often be competing with other projects for Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Future Risk Cost
In this respect, environmentalists have long supported the claim that a more comprehensive analysis of waste management costs would convince indusOy that the modem approaches of waste elimination, waste reduction, resource recycling and the use of clean technologies would be both economically and environmentally beneficial. One interesting idea to emerge from this approach is the notion of afiUure risk cost. When attempts to work out a fiill environmental cost analysis are made it is evident that the various waste management strategies can be ranked on the basis of theirfuture risk cost. For example, one company may decide to handle its waste generation by a combination of waste reduction linked to onsite recovery and recycling. Such an approach would have a minimal risk cost in that the only 33
Economic Initiatives, cont'd possible risk might come from an accidental discharge. However, if a company relies on off site transport and land disposal for its wastes there is a real possibility for future legal liability resulting fiom landfill leakage causing a poOution of a public watercourse, etc. Such a strategy then should have a maximum future risk cost
Loss of Clients
The important breakthrough made by MacLean and his colleagues at GE is that they have developed a model which
A poOution infraction, by causing a plant shutdown whOe the problems are rectified,can lead to loss of production. In industries such as electronics manufacturing, where rapid deOvery of product is critical, it can even cause loss of key cOents. Furthermore, many companies wOI avoid suppUers with a questionable environmental record forjust these reasons. Another key consideration is that for public companies, adverse publicity resulting from a pollution incident can have a negative impact on
allows the risk cost to be calculated for a wide range of waste
their stock price.
management strategies . As an example, in the disposal of toxic heavy metal sludges fiom electroplating and electronics plants, fftsfuture risk cost of disposing of these wastes in one of the rapidly dwindling landfill sites is estimated at $380(US) per
...adverse publicity resuiting from a pollution
assigned to it.
ton. When this cost is added to the current disposal costs ranging from $200 to $600 per ton, then the higher capital costs of recovery and recycling waste management options appear much more attractive.
It is also possible to extend these arguments to estimate the real cost benefits of a positive coiporate environmental image. Any company convicted of a pollution offence now faces various penalties ranging from fines, to temporary or permanent plant shutdowns, or even jailing of chief executives. Intentional poOution in the US which was formerly a civO offence is now a criminal offence and some chief executives of convicted
companies are now facing felony charges. This has led to a new definition of chief executive officers, or CEO's as CJO's or chirf jailable officers!
incident can have a negative impact on their stock price. Conversely, many companies have now realized the increased sales potential of taking a positive stance on environmental issues. One of TRSI's clients for example, a major California electronics company, has replaced the background music on its telephone system with a 2-minute message describing the benefits it has achieved from its million dollar investment in a state-of-the-art
waste management system.
Qearly,the impact of these various cost factors wiU vary widely depending on the size of a company,its location and the nature of its business. However, a major feature of full cost environmental accounting is that in addition to providing hard costs on many of these factors, it also allows a company or waste generator to apply
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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1992
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Economic Initiatives, cont'd models,in various forms, have been fairly widely used to estimate environmental costs [5, 7-9]. Most of these studies have been
. V '-v; % ,"Âťfr
The craggy cliffs and relatively pristine waters of Lake Huron have an Intrinsic value beyond measure.Overseas visitors are
quite broad in scope and focussed on issues such as public water supply costs and the lolative costs of land disposal. A few studies have been directed at more specific issues such as a comparison of costs for land disposal vs incineration  or the GE risk assessment model . The author's group recently completed a study for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment which described the use of a computer model that would allow generators of toxic metal wastes such as electioplaters, electronics companies or mining firms, to compare the costs of altemate waste management options . While this model worked well for industries where waste streams are quite well defined such as the semiconductor or printed circuit board industries, it was not so
often amazed at the clarity of this lake, but pressures on our
successful for industries where there was a wide variation in waste
water resources leave no room for complacency.
generation practices. Electroplaters as well as gold mining companies fell into this category. Since the optimum waste management strategy for many firms is often critically dependent on intemal decisions on corporate environmental policy, the authors concluded that a better solution might result from the use of an expert systems approach .
their own weighting on the relative importance of the various cost elements.
Small Business Problems
While most large companies will probably have the technical and management resources to invest in a full cost environmental accounting approach, what of the small or even medium sized
firms? The majority of these companies invariably lack the qualified environmental engineers or even the financial expertise to adequately measure their waste management costs. One solution to this problem is provided by the many environmental advisory agencies which have been set up by over 30 US states and the four or five groups here in Canada. The best of these such as the State of California Department of Health Services (Toxic
Control Division), the Mirmesota Technical Assistance Program or the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources can provide technical advice on practical waste management issues including capital equipment and operating costs . In addition
these groups can often assist in directing a company towards sources of finance to meet the costs of new waste treatment
equipment, including grants, subsidies and state guaranteed, low interest or long term loans. The authors can provide additional information and contacts.
Computer Models and Expert Systems Yet another approach is the use ofeconomic models. Computer
The application of expert systems in environmental engineering decision making has recently become very popular and there are now close to 100 proven examples and case studies . Expert systems are computer programs which allow a body of knowledge compiled by experts in the field to be intelligently accessed by a relatively uninformed user. They typically consist of two parts, a knowledge base which contains aU of the relevant information on the given topic and the inference engine which is an interactive program allowing the user to input some basic information on their problem and then leads through a series of questions and answers to reach one or more solutions. In the case
of toxic waste management strategies, the knowledge base would consist of a compilation of proven waste treatment systems and industry case studies covering a wide range of waste streams, industries and sizes of company. The inference engine would first reqirire the irser to input data on their varioirs waste sources, the
size and profrtabUity of the plant and the permissible local discharge standards. Further questions would allow the user to apply their own weighting to factors such as potential for plant expansion, corporate environmental image or the importance of
WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development,
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For more information, Circle reply card No. 103 36
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
future risk cost factors. The output fiom the system would then consist of one or more examples or case studies of appropriate waste management options. Debt-for-Nature Swaps
Environmental economics also offers hope for solving some of the environmental problems of the third world including the environmentally ravaged regions of the former Soviet Union and
government action. This wide gulf between perceived environmental risk and reality was most clearly demonstrated by the situation in Times Beach, Missouri. After a dioxin scare in the
mid-1960's, the whole township of Times Beach was evacuated and the area designated as a major toxic waste Superftmd site. However, as EPA officials recently admitted, the toxicity of dioxins, which was admittedly made on the best scientific evidence available at the time, now seems to have been wildly
Eastem Europe. Most of these countries now face massive pollution problems but lack either the financial or the technical
resources for their solution. Deht-for Nature Swaps is an innovative financial mechanism for leveraging conservation funds which provides a mechanism for the developed nations to apply their uncollectible third world debts to some practical purpose . Typically, what happens is that an investor or donating agency purchases a debt instrument of the debtor nation, usually
have cost at least several hundred million dollars.
The US EPA has now established a major program to develop a coherent,long term assessment of environmental risk in relation to economic factors.
for a fraction of its value. The investor, or a local environmental
Once the current projects are off the ground, it should start to eradicate some of the biiiions of dollars In debts owed to the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund. agency then exchanges this asset with the government of the debtor nation in exchange for a commitment to implement some environmental remediation program. So far these programs have been quite small and targeted at conservation projects such as the protection of Mexico's and North America's last remaining rain forest.
However, the US Environmental Protection Agency
recently announced that it was adopting the plan and claimed that as much as $12 billion in foreign aid loans could fiee up as much as $100 million per year for environmental conservation projects. More importantly, if successful the approach could be used as a model for other governments, notably fixrm Europe and Japan which also hold large amounts of debt to third world countries. Some serious barriers still remain, especially the widely differing tax, accounting and regulatory regimes faced by the world's commercial banks which place several obstacles on the cheap sale or charitable donation of debt. Also,few examples of swaps aimed at industrial pollution projects have been put in place. One exception is the program financed by the Bank of the Netherlands to fund a study on cleanup of Poland's badly polluted
It is clear that the use of economic initiatives or market-based
incentives to provide more effective options for environmental protection shows tremendous promise. Both the recent OECD report and the EPA study on economic incentives indicate a clear national commitment to this type of program. Since Canada, the US and most industrialized countries are projecting that the proportion of GNP devoted to environmental protection will grow dramatically from its current 1-1.5% to around 3% by the year 2000 and that most of this money will come from the private sector, it is desperately important that new,innovative solutions to these problems be identified. References 1. 2. 3.
A different economic is posed by the need to reach some form of measuring the tme cost of achieving various levels of environmental risk. Uiere is also the fact that what scientists
regarded as the most serious environmental risk were often quite different than those that excited the public and thus stimulated Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
Options for Environmental Protection,
M. Simons, "Europeans Begin to Calculate the Price of Pollution", New York Times. December 9, 1990.
R. W. MacLean,"Motivating Industry Toward Waste Minimization and Clean Technology", in Waste Minimization and Clean Technology; Moving Towards the 21st Century. ISWA-EPA Conference Proceedings, Geneva, pp... 72-82. 1989.
Financial Analysis for Waste Management Alternatives, GE Corporate Environmental Programs, Fairfield, CT.
R. M. Schechter, "Federal/State Cooperative Programs and Opportunities to Encourage Waste Minimization", in Hazardous Waste Minimization, Government Institutes Inc., Washington, D.C., 1988.
B. Fleet, "The Economics of Resource Recycling, Zero-Discharge,
Waste Management Technologies and Strategies for the Heavy Metal Generating Industries", in Waste Minimization and Clean Technology; Moving Towards the 21st Centuiv. ISWA-EPA Conference Proceedings, Geneva, pp 534-543, 1989. 8.
ICF Technology, "A Comparison of True Costs of Landfill
Wastes, Report for
Environmental Policy Directorate, Office of Secretary of Defense,
Defense Environmental Leadership Project Office, Washington, D, C., 1984.
B. Fleet, J. Kassirer and T. Sanger, "A Study of the Economic Factors Relating to the Implementation of Resource Recycling or Zero-Discharge Technologies for Heavy Metal Generating Industries in Canada" Project # for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Final Report pp 5-12(1989).
Reference 7, pp 5-12(1989),
Environmental Risk - Perception Vs Reality
USEPA,21-P2001. March 1991.
in debts owed to the World Bank and the Intemational Monetary
Fund. If the optimists are right, the only limitation will be finding environmental projects that meet the basic constraints of
J. B. Opschoor and H. B. Vos, "Economic Instruments for Environmental Protection". OECD,Paris 1989.
Despite the problems, debt-for-nature swaps are gaining widespread acceptance. Once the current projects are off the ground, it should start to eradicate some of the billions of dollars
This mistake, based on an incoirect risk
assessment and fuelled by public pollution phobia, is estimated to
11. J. M.
Hushon (ed), "Expert Systems for Environmental
Applications", ACS Symposium Series #431. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.(3., 1990. 12. S. Fidler, "Trade-off of a Heavy Burden", Financial Times(UK), May 22nd, 1991.5
For more information, Circle reply card No. 250 37
Vancouver. Spectacular home of the 1992 AWWA Conference commonly reffered to as the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). From a technical perspective,it is inter esting to note that all of Greater Van couver's water is collected from three
closed mountain water sheds, which to
tal an area of about 585 square kilo metres. The Greater Vancouver Water
District, a division ofGVRD,began dis tributing water in the 1880"s. It now con sists of 500 kilometres of supply mains up to 2800 mm in diameter, 18 pump stations, and 21 storage reservoirs of up to 135 million litres in size. Water
treatment involves coarse screening and chlorination at the source with three rechlorination and chloramination sta
FewAWNA host cities can match Vancouver's scenic grandeur. With its boating facili ties and snow capped mountains, the city is a paradise for outdoor sporting facilities. It is ideally situated as a gateway to the growing Pacific Rim market. Photo T. Davey
Vancouver was favoured by the
arts and crafts not to mention bushels of
mountains overlook the blue,
fresh Eraser Valley fruit and vegetables, and seafood caught practically at the doorstep. Or travel to the Steveston docks, where fishermen sell the day's
white-capped harbour, lead ing to the Pacific Ocean.Seagulls swoop and soar over fishing boats, sea lions sunbathe on the shore, and whales may be seen from ferries to Victoria, capital of British Columbia, on Vancouver Island.
It has a laidback L.A. lifestyle — without the smog,and the metropolitan excitement of New York City — without the crime. One of the most beautiful
cities in the world, Vancouver reflects
both the natural grandeur of its sur roundings and the friendliness of its inhabitants. Even Vancouver's downtown core re
flects the city's open, friendly atmo sphere. Glass and steel buildings reach skyward, sparkling with reflected sun light and lush green parks are crowned by the 1,000 acre Stanley Park, North America's largest city park. There's so much to see and do in Van
couver, that sometimes even residents
don't know where to begin. There's plenty to explore just in the city core. The CNIMAX theatre at Canada Place
offers indoor sights as spectacular as those overlooking the sculpted sails. From there,stroll down the cobblestone streets of old Vancouver in Gastown.
Further along is the vibrant activity of Chinatown,the second largest in North America. Explore the limits of your imagination at Science World on the old Expo site. The public market at Gran38
ville Island offers a rich variety of local
gods. Imposing snow-capped
catch from their boats.
There are five botanical gardens in Vancouver, including the Dr. Sun Yat Sen Gardens,an oriental fairyland.And of course, there's Stanley Park, a play ground for all ages. Nestled in these 1,000 acres of forest and fields are a zoo,
an Aquarium, a miniature railway, an outdoor theatre,and a seawall stretching nearly five miles. Cross Lions Gate Bridge to the North Shore and your eyes will be drawn to Grouse Mountain. A popular ski hill in winter,the skyride to the summit offers a panoramic view of the city and ocean year-round that will leave you breath less. While on the North Shore,test your courage crossing the Capilano Suspen
sion bridge,the longest suspended foot bridge in the world! Getting places in Vancouver is half the fun. Cross Burrard Inlet on the Sea-
bus. Glide through the city on the Skytrain,Vancouver's rapid transit system as clean and safe as the city. For a real treat, sail up Howe Sound on the M.V. Brittania. You can take the trip home on the Royal Hudson, an old-fashioned
tions servicing three areas in the system. GVWD is currently undertaking predesign and planning studies for pro posed water treatment facilities for im proved disinfection, corrosion control and possible filtration plants. GVRD also collects sewage via 400 kilometres of mains and 35 pumping stations. Although primary treatment is presently utilized at all four facilities,an upgrade by 1997 will result in the con struction of one of the largest secondary treatment plants in Canada. Transportation around Vancouver is best accomplished via the public transit system. Skytrain, North America's lon gest fully automated rapid transit sys tem, forms the backbone of this inte
grated land-sea-rail approach. Seven teen stations along the 24.5 km Skytrain route link four municipalities stretching from Waterfront Station in downtown
Vancouver to Scott Road in Surrey. Uti lizing banks of computers and televi sion screens to control the automated
from point to point at speeds of up to 80 km/h.From the terminus at Skytrain the Seabus departs for the 20 minute jour ney across Burrard Inlet to the North Shore.
The conference was 12 years in plan ning. ES&E would like to thank Don Enns of Cantest, Doug Neden of GVRD and Debbie Reynolds of Tourism Van couver for providing copy, photos and other data. Our thanks are also due to
many other Canadian AWWA members for their generous assistance in obtain ing exhibition data and other material for this special issue. Exhibition details were the latest available at press time. For more information on the
conference contact American
Water Works Association, 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver. CO 80235. Tel:(303) 794-7711
The metropolitan population of 1.6 million is spread over 18 municipalities.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
A BTR Company 39
Guide to AWWA Exhibitors 114
Asdor, Edwards and Jones
A, B, C
Association of Boards of Certification 414
Autocon Industries Inc.
AVK Holding A/S
3M Sample Preparation Products 3M Telecom Systems Group A.O. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc. A Y McDonald Mfg. Co. Action Threaded Products, Inc.
AWWA Research Foundation
Badger Meter, Inc. Utility Division Badger Meter, Inc. Industrial Division Bailey Division of CMB Industries
726,728 1311, 1313
Bingham & Taylor
Byron Jackson Pumps Calgon Carbon Corporation Cambridge Brass Camp Dresser & McKee Inc.
124, 126 315,317
Canadian Environmental Protection
1921, 1923 Canron Pipe 1011, 1013 Capco Pipe Company Inc. 1204, 1206 Carus Chemical Company 2113 Cascade Waterworks Mfg. Co. 2019 Cathodic Protection Services, Water Works DIv. 1817,1819 Chicago Bridge & Iron Company
1621, 1623 219 517 319
Arka Stainless Bolt Inc.
BW/IP International —
Anglian Water Apac Products Apco Valve & Primer Corp. Applied Biochemists Inc. Aqua Data Inc. Consultant Aqua Freed Inc.
Brooks Products, Inc.
1920, 1922 2003, 2005
1928 2102 222
Ames Company, Inc. Ametek, Inc. Plymouth Products Division Ametek, Microfoam Division
2123 2203 2014 2017
Bibby-Ste. Croix Foundries
Bennett & Williams Bermad Inc. Bermex Inc.
Ads Environmental Services Inc.
BOA Industrial Controls Limited
Advance Products & Systems Inc. American AVK Company American Cast Iron Pipe Company American Chemicai Corp. American Concrete Pressure Pipe Assoc. American Norit Company Inc. American Pipe Lining Inc.
AWWA'S 1992 ANNUAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION • JUN
ENTRANCE 1 628
1 818 917
IXHIBIT HALL 1 614
1 .u 313
1 1014 1113
LOADING ■ DOCK i
1102 1201 1
I I I I -L^
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
AWWA Exhibitors CBI Walker, Inc. GDR Systems Corporation Certalnteed Corporation Pipe & Piastics Group Chemetrics, Inc. Ctiemtrac Systems, Inc. Cherne Industries Incorporated Chicago Steei Tape Co. Chlorinators Incorporated Church & Dwight Co., Inc.
Data West Corporation DBS Manufacturing Inc. Degremont Infiico Ltd.
1818, 1820 316
1002 706 113 801 2201
1012, 1014 618,620
Conbraco Industries, Inc.
Control Microsystems, Inc.
Eimco Process Equipment Co. EMA Services, Inc. Emery-Trailigaz Ozone Company Enmet Corporation
Cornell Pump Company CPC Engineering/Microfloc Products
EBAA Iron Inc.
Eaglebrook East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.
Conservatek Industries Inc.
Dezurik, A Unit of General Signal 612,614 Digitech Systems 604 Dowell Schlumberger 1318, 1320 Dresser Manufacturing Div., Dresser Ind. 1807, 1809 Drew Industrial Div, Div of Ashland Chemical 213 Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association 519 Dyk Incorporated 2305 E H Wachs Company 1319, 1321
Click & Go Ltd. Clow Con-Tech Industries Inc. Future Flush
1919 1604 702
Dense North America Inc. Dense North America Inc.
C.I.M. Industries Inc. CLA-VAL Canada Ltd.
General Filter — Envirex
CRC Press/Lewis Publishers
Crescent Pipe Tongs, Inc. Cretex Specialty Products Crispin-Multiplex Culligan International Culligan International
Environmental Flealth Laboratories Envirotrol Inc.
F.B. Leopold Company, Inc. F.S. Brainard & Company Fairbanks Morse Pump Corporation Febco, Div. of CMB Industries Fischer & Porter Company Fisher Research Laboratory Flomatic Corp. Fluid Conservation Systems
921,923 1509, 1511 1507
418,420 1417 824 914
22,1992 • VANCOUVER TRADE AND CONVENTION CENTRE I
1 326 1425
1 2128 2227
1 1524 1623
1 322 1421
i 1324 1423
1 2124 2223
1 1420 1519
1 1418 1517
1318 1417 1
AREA 0 1518 1617
1 1614 1713
1 2014 2113
1 1412 1511
1 3 10 1409
1 308 1407
1302 1401 1
i 1402 1501 t 1
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
1902 2001 1
2002 2101 i
1 2206 2306
RESTAURANT 2302 2401
AWWA Exhibitors Footage Tools
Force Flow Equipment The Ford Meter Box Company, Inc. The Ford Meter Box Company, Inc. Pipe Formulabs, Inc. — Water Management DIv. Piqua, OH
713 1225, 1227 1223
Heath Consultants Limited DFW/HPI
Henry Pratt Company Hersey Products HF Scientific, Inc.
G,H,I GA Industries, Inc. Gardiner Equipment Company, Inc. General Chemical Corp. General Chemical Corp. General Filter Company — Envlrex
1824 701 2112, 2114 2110 1622, 1624
Geotelec Inc. GIrard Industries — Flow Services
Gladwall Engineering Svc.
Gore & Storrle Limited Consulting Engineers 2128 GPK Products, Inc. 1711,1713 Great Lakes Instruments, Inc. 2106
Grid SystemsA/Vestech Information Systems 2327 Griffin Pipe Products Co. 1126,1128 Gundle Lining Systems, Inc. 1802 Hach Company 1219,1221 Hancor Inc.
Hays/Lee Brass Company Head Manufacturing Co., Inc. Heath Consultants Incoporated
HIac/Royco Particle Counters Honeywell Limited HSQ Technology Hydra-Shield Manufacturing, Inc. Hydra-Stop, Inc.
1518,1520 1205, 1207 1021, 1023 1421, 1423 2107 326
1722, 1724 1017
In USA Inc.
Industrial & Environmental Analysts Inc. Inflico Degremont Inc.
1610,1612 1723 2205
International DIoxclde Inc.
International Flow Technologies, Inc. International Ozone Association
Int'l Assoc. of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials IPSCO (International Piping Services Co.)
1001,1003 1519, 1521
Ionics, Incorporated Itron, Inc.
Handy Chemicals Ltd.
Hansen Software Inc. Harco Waterworks CP
Harmsco, Inc. Upflow Cartridge Filtration The Harrington Corporation The Harza Companies
224 1614 2008
J-M Manufacturing Co. Inc. Jaeger Products, Inc. James Jones Company JCM Industries, Inc.
Jones & Henry Engineers, Inc./J&H Software Inc.
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treatment, odour control, cyanide removal. COLGATE-PALMOLIVE CANADA INC.
99 Vanderhoof Avenue,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4G 2H6
Tel. (416) 421-6000. Fax (416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver
For more information, Circie reply card No. 105 42
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Piping by flhe numbers.
To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with Victaulic®. For example, to help you save time and reduce overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the numbers. And it's fast!
So if numbers are important to you, check into something you can count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or coll 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.
ictaulic Pi^-plaimi«5 wii+h Victeulfc aaws tiweaM rnoney.
Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system... over TOO innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com
pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out. Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
Victaulic is o registered trcdemork of Victaulic Company of Canodo. ©1990 Victoulic. All rights reserved.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 106
AWWA Exhibitors JPS Elastomerics Corp.
Kent Meters Inc.
Kinetico Incorporated The Kjell Corporation Knapp Polly Pig Inc. Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Kop-Coat Division of Carbollne KoppI Company Krofta Engineering Corporation Kupferle Foundry Company Kvaerner Hydro Power Inc. Landmark Structures, Inc. Layne & Bowler Layne-Western Company, Inc.
1925 1410 1117 1917
1304,1306 1717,1719 325 822
919,917 818,820 426
Le-Ron Plastics Inc.
Leeds & Northrup
Liquid Metronlcs DIv. Milton Roy(LMI) Lowell Corporation
Michigan State University Mid-States Plastics Co. Inc.
Miller Pipeline Corporation Mllltronlcs, Inc. Milton Roy Company —
Flow Control Division
Hersey Products — Mueller Co. Multl Fittings Nappco Natgun Corp. National Automated Clearing House Assoc.
M3I Systems Inc. Marsh McBlrney Inc. McCrometer DIvlslon/Ketema, Inc.
Metal Samples Co. Inc. Metrltape Inc. Metron Technology Metrotech Corporation
1125, 1127 214 2314 1709 1822 2304
Niagara Conservation Corporation American Norit
Northwest Filter Company Northwest Pipe & Casing Company
NSF International NSS Industries
NSW Corporation Nusonlcs, Inc.
OCV Control Valves
218, 220 1825, 1827 1007, 1009 1810, 1812
McGard inc. Special Products Division (SPD) Memtec America Corporatlon/Memcor Division Met One Inc.
National Lime Association
1913, 1911 1903, 1905 1606, 1608
Orcom Systems Madison Chemical Industries Inc.
1522, 1524 1025, 1027
Orec Ozonia North America
Palmer Environmental Services
Parkson Corporation PCI Ozone & Control Systems, Inc. Peabody Floway, Inc. Peabody Techtank, Inc.
2023 1910 321
Paico Linings, Inc.
P A C Pumps/Dlv. of Pacific Alloy Castings P A C Pumps
2407, 2409 2111 2228 1022
The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged moving parts.
In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.
At Degremont Infiico we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have developed the self-cleaning
• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts
• Easy maintenance
Our climber screen is easy to install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from1'6" to 30'0". It can discharge screen ings at great heights and can be installed in deep channels.
Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all moving parts are above water.
• Ease of installation
V/' o"" conveyor
^Degremont Infiico Ltd. 160-D St. Joseph Blvd., Lachlne Quebec H8S2L3 (514)634-8011 4325 Steeles Avenue West, Dovi/nsvlew Ontario M3N 1V7 (416)661-5521 300 205 - 9th Avenue S.E., Calgary Alberta T2P0G8 (403)237-6859
STEP 2 bar screen
for more information, 44
Circle reply card No. 107
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
AWWA Exhibitors Philadelphia Mixers Corporation Phillips 66 Co. Phillips Driscopipe Inc. Phllmac Valves and Fittings Phlpps & Bird Phox Systems Inc. Pipeline Inspection Co. Inc.,(SPY) Pipeline Pigging Products Inc. Pipeline Products Pipeline Seal and Insulator, Inc.
Reed Manufacturing Company Inc.
Reeves Rubber, Inc. Resources Conservation, Inc. Rexa Corporation
1607,1605 313 1202
RJN Computer Services, Inc. Robar Industries Ltd.
PItt-Des Molnes, Inc.
PIttsburg Tank & Tower Co., Inc.
Plastic Trends Inc.
Plastics Pipe Institute
Pollution Control Inc.
Poly Pipe Industries Inc. Polyken Technologies
Price Brothers Company
1008, 1010 1024, 1026 1426, 1428
Prominent Fluid Controls Inc.
Public Works Publications
Purac Engineering, Inc. PW Pipe
Rio Linda Chemical Co.
2003, 2005 826,828
Q,R,S, T, U,V, W,X, Y,Z Raco Manufacturing and Engineering Co., Inc. 425 Radlodetectlon Corporation Radix Corporation 1019 Hydro Group, Inc. — 1212, 1214 Ranney Method Western Hydro Group, Inc. — Ranney Method Western 1210
Rice Hydro Equipment Manufacturing
1502, 1504 804,806
Roll Seal Valve Co. Romac Industries
Rosemount Analytical Inc. Ross Valve Mfg. Co., Inc. Roy F. Weston, Inc. Royal Pipe Co.
718,720 708,710 413
Rustrak Instruments S & B Technical Products
Floyd S. Salser, Jr. and Associates, Inc. Sanmar Corporation
Scepter Manufacturing Company Limited Schlumberger Industries Schlumberger Industries, Inc. Schlumberger Industries, Inc. Schonstedt Instrument Company
422,424 1912, 1914 2325
1326, 1328 1712
Schott/Great Lakes Instrumentation
Water & Wastes Digest Sensus Technologies, Inc. Serpentlx Conveyor Corporation
Severn Trent PLC Sierra MIsco Inc.
SIgma/Nappco Singer Valve Inc. Smith-Blair, Inc. Sonoco Products Company Star Pipe Products Speed Shore Corporation Splnlello Construction Co.
1104, 1106 322, 324 1714
1725 1401 2006
It's what you don't get that makes the 1720C the world's best-selling on-line turbldimeter! ■ l\lo Dirty Cells
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■ l\lo Stray Light
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eliminates the need for a
■ No False High Turbidity Readings ■ No Gas Bubbles
this smooth surface to an
■ Wo Loss of
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Sales Outlets Throughout Canada •Instrument Service Center In Winnipeg
FAX:(303) 669-2932 Telephone:(303) 669-3050
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 108
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
AWWA Exhibitors Stanley Hydraulic Tools Star Pipe Products
2225, 2227 1403,1405 1107, 1109
Steel Plate Fabricators Association Sternson — Water Treatment Chemicals
Stiles — Kem Division, 1303, 1305 Met-Pro Corporation 910,912 Stoner Associates, Inc. Suburbia Systems Corp. — "A Unifilt Company" 905 Synex Systems Corporation 1726, 1728 1708, 1710 T T Technologies, Inc. Tank Industry Consultants, Inc. 1609 TOW Services, inc. 808,810 1525, 1527 Technical Products Corp. Tek-Rap Inc. 2101, 2103 1412, 1414 Temcor 2214 Terminal City Iron Works Ltd. Thane-Coat, Inc. 2018 821 The PQ Corporation 1004, 1006 Thompson Pipe & Steel Co. 904 Thor Enterprises, Inc. 523 Thuro Services(Western) Ltd. 1718, 1720 Tnemec Company, Inc. Tokheim Automation Corporation, Houston TX 2307 419
2411, 2413 1402, 1404
Traffix Devices, Inc. Transmate/Division of Romac Industries Trenchless Replacement Systems Trojan Industries inc. Troy Valve Trumbuli Industries, Inc.
2226 2403 714
Trusco Tank Inc.
Tyler Pipe Industries, Inc. U S Environmental Protection Agency United States Pipe and Foundry Go. United States Pipe and Foundry Co.
1312, 1314 1220, 1222
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association Uni-Flange Corp. Unifilt Corporation Unimin Corporation U.S. Filter Corporation Utility Service Assoc. Inc. Val-Matic Valve & Manufacturing Corp. Vaico Technology, Inc. Vanguard Plastics, Inc. Vulcan Rivet & Bolt Corp. Wachs Canada Ltd.
Wallace & Tiernan, Inc. Waltron Ltd.
Warminster Fiberglass Company Water Company of America Water Quality Assoc. Certainteed Water Works Manufacturing American Flow Control Div. of Amer. Cast Iron
1804, 1806 1926
2125, 2127 2310
1508,1510 2317 1902 1627
1418, 1420 817 1505 2206 513 221
Watersaver Company, Inc.
Watts Automatic Control Valve
Watts Regulator Company
Wedron Silica/Best Sand
West Bay Instruments Inc. Westcoast Hydrant Services Ltd. Westvaco — Carbon Department
Wilkins Regulator Div., Zurn Industries Inc. 1721 1625 Apco/Willamette Co. Water Specialties Corporation 1611,1613 Water & Wastewater Equip. Manuf. Assoc. WWEMA X-Pando Products Company 1909
GASURVEVHn A technological breakthrough In Gas Detection The new range of Gasurveyor instruments uses the latest in microprocessor tech nology to produce a lightweight gas detection/monitoring unit that is easy to operate yet gives better field utilisation than previously available. Built from modular components,the Gasurveyor is portable, rugged and offers low individual capital and maintenance costs. It can be automatically checked and re-calibrated in the field which greatly extends its utilisation time in operation. Combining this with sensitivities of 10 ppm to 100% gas, it makes the Gasurveyor the single instrument for your entire utility operations. Second generation instruments now provide Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide detection capabilities.
Call Heath today for complete information, sales and service on the entire line of Gasurveyors.
iv HEATH Consuftants
... creative solutlons to liquid and energy losses.
2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V3S5
6923 Parrel! Rd. S.E., Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Calgary, Alberta T2H0T3 Saskatoon, Sask.(308)242-1713 (403)258-0151 Fax:(403)258-0577 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9515
For more information, Circle reply card No. 109
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Ever feel everyone "knows the answer"
...until you have a problem? Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition.
-Push Joint D.I.
- MechanicalJoint D.I.
TER-MECH - Mechanical Joint Grey Iron
Terminal City provides you with access to technical product data through factory consultation.
Terminal City provides you with a complete fitting lineCompact Ductile Iron-AWWA C153, 4 inch through 16 inch; DITYT® or DIMECH®
Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA CIIO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TER-MECH or TYTON
Ductile Iron and Grey Iron—ANSI BI6.I, 3 inch through 30 inch; Flanged Fittings Terminal City also provides a variety of "Special" fittings for specific installation needs. One "Special" will do the work of two or more standard fittings.
Make the Right Connection...CALL
iron works ltd.
Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Valves and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1
For more iriformation, Circle reply card No. 110
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
High-Tech ' Solutionsfor Down-to-Earthi Problems
Preliminary Technicai Program Friday, June 19
30. Aid to Developing Countries: An Update to NCO Activities
MORNING 1. Opening General Session
32. Selling Your Birthright:
31. Management Internationalization of the Water
Soil Soil Augers/Core Samplers/ Soil Recovery Augers Good for any type of soil sampling, disturbed or undisturbed.
2. Leak Detection and Water Audit
3. Computer Modeling and Data Base 4. Emergency Planning Policy Issues and Operational Impacts 5. Distribution System Research 6. Industrial Water Supply 7. Ozone, Chloramines and Biological Control 8. Can We Rescue Primacy?
33. Energy Management and Conservation
34. Small Water System - Alternative Solutions
35a. Conservation Potpourri 35b. Conservation: ULVs
36. Organics Removal: Adsorption and Biodegradation 37. Utilize Your Surface Water Supply
Do We Want To? 9. Product Information Forum I
Automation and Computerization
A self-contained truck or trailer mounted
method of purging wells or extracting ground water samples.
Saturday, June 20
Manual or hydraulically-operated portabili ty for purging wells and extracting samples.
10. Upgrading Water Treatment Plants
to the Max 38. Corrosion Control to Meet the
Lead/Copper Regulations 39. The Role ofEducation in Achieving
Compliance With the Safe Drinking Water Act 40. Drinking Water and Health in 2000
11. Public Officials Session:
Discrete Liquid Sampler Sample below the surface of liquids at any predetermined depth or pull a series of samples from various depths for a composite sample.
Regionalization Policy Issues 12. Regulatory Update
Monday, June 22
13. Croundwater Resource Protection
14. Tailoring the Treatment Process to Minimize Disinfection
41. Distribution System Maintenance 42. Drought Surcharges and Water Conservation Pricing
New Dual Valve Liquid Sampler
15. Product Information Forum II —
Recover samples from the bottom ofany container or ground water wells to check
16. Universities Forum I
43. Particle Removal/Conservation
for contaminants heavier than water,
44. Water Resources — Implementing Projects 45. Optimization of Water Treatment
Distribution and Operation
Gas Soil Gas Vapor Probes/ Dedicated Vapor Points
18. Section Officers' Forum
19. The Management Approach to
Precious Resource — Volunteers
Monitor underground storage tanks.
46. Using the Association's Most 47. Talking With the Public
20. Dual Distribution Systems
21. Conjunctive Use of Surface Water
Pre-site investigations for soil gas or for tracking vapor plumes.
and Croundwater for Water Supply 22. Modern Approaches to Distribution System Management
We specialize in custom
23. Product Information Forum III —
48. Water Industry Technical Action Fund (WITAF): Overview, Accomplishments, the Future
design applications to meet your specific needs.
Quality and Treatment 25. Water Quality
49. Conservation Networking Session 50. Water Rights — What Can We
Sunday, June 21
Do With Them? 51. Cross-Connection Control
24. Universities Forum II
52. Automation for Your Utility
1942 Art's Manufacturing & Supply 105 Harrison
American Falls, ID 83211
1-800-635-7330 For more information,
Circie reply card No. 122 48
26a. Conservation: Plumbing Retrofit 26b. Conservation: Evaluation and
Planning 27. Ozonation Research Symposium
28. Alternative Water Supplies — Desalting and Reuse 29. Citizen Monitoring: Building
Operations 53. Safe Drinking Water Act Implementation Issues 54. Innovative Treatment for
Note: This is a tentative program —
papers and speakers are subject to change.
Teams to Monitor Water Sources
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Armtec sluice gates meet the rigorous demands of water control. Armtec's wide range of gate products will help you control or
For more than 75 years Armtec has been building a reputation for producing high quality sluice gates and accessories for sewage plants, water treatment projects, flood control, power stations and irrigation.
divert flow or maintain critical
water levels. For design or sales information, please contact your nearest Armtec Sales Office.
Armtec Water Control Products:
• Heavy Duty Sluice Gates (AWWAC501) • Fabricated Slide Gates
• Flap Gates • Radial and Roller Gates
• Overshot Gates • Miscellaneous Gates and Accessories Gate Construction • Cast Iron • Galvanized
• Painted Carbon Steel • Aluminum
• Stainless Steel
Gate Operation: • Manual
• Hydraulic • Electric
• Automated Control Systems
Heavy Duty Sluice Gate
Fabricated Slide Gate
For more information, Circle reply card No. 116
11 k\ Water Control Products
Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Reglna, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Stratford, Guelph, Toronto, Ottawa, St. Augustin, Beloeil, Dartmouth, Sackville, St. John's, Bishop's Falls, and Fresno, California.
Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control
Inhibition of Methanogenic Consortia W.J. Parker and colleagues from the University of Waterloo and the Waste-
long-term average ammonium, nitrate, total organic nitrogen, and total phos phorus export offorested streams in the
water Technology Centre completed a systematic investigation of the inhibi tion exerted by kraft pulp mill bleach plant effluents on a methanogenic con sortium. A significant portion of the
cribed in the Journal of Environmental Quality, these scientists employed ma thematical transformations of geology, physiography, hydrology, and annual
inhibition, which correlated with the
areas, the one receiving sludge pro duced a significantly greater quantity of oats than that which did not. Conven
tional equipment could be effectively used for sludge spreading. The paper published in Sciences et techniques de I'eau discusses the economic benefits for
the City and for the farmers. The City of Jonquiere has decided to continue im
wastewater AOX,was present in the per
plementation ofthis process for the next
meate from ultrafiltration. As described
in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, treatment of the was
tewater with powdered activated carbon prior to biomass exposure removed its inhibitory effects on the biomass. A methanogenic consortium was found to acclimate to a wastewater volumetric
fraction of80% v/v. The wastewater vol umetric fraction did not affect the over
all time required for acclimation. lAWPRC
Phosphorus and Nitrogen Export
The ability to predict export ofalgal nut Land Application of Wastewater Siudge
rients from forested stream catchments
is essential to estimate background levels of nutrients in lakes and therefore
gauge the effects of anthropogenic acti vities on the trophic status of Ontario lakes. Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment scientists P.J. Dillon and W.A.
Schneider, together with York Univer sity researcher L.A. Molot have devel oped empirical regression models of
In the spring of 1990, the City of Jonquiere, Quebec conducted tests on the use of biological wastewater sludge for spreading on agricultural land. As des cribed by municipal scientists A. Laluminere and G. Gagnon,this method of disposal was both feasible and benefi cial. Comparing two oat producing
Treatment of Dairy Process Waste D.Thirumurthi and colleagues from the Technical University ofNova Scotia,the Farmers Co-operative Dairy Ltd., and UMA Engineering Ltd. investigated the process used to treat a dairy waste which had been plagued with problems. The facility consists of an equalization tank and two lagoons aerated by surfacemount, aspirating type units. As des cribed to delegates attending the Cen tral Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, the study con cluded that the treatment problems were the result of insufficient oxygenat ing capacity to reduce the BODs to the required effluent standard. New higher capacity surface-type aeration equip ment corrected the problem and con trolled odour generation due to im provement in mixing and oxygen input. Determination of Biomass
M.R.Gray and colleagues at the Univer sity of Alberta evaluated a thermogravimetric analysis method for the determination of biomass in the pre
Environmental Law The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: • Environmental Assessments & Approvals
• Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings • Waste Management & Disposal • Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods
amounts of Escherichia coli or phenol degrading anaerobic sludge were mixed with activated carbon and samples of these were pyrolysed at 550°C under a nitrogen atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer.The amount of
biomass \yas expressed as volatile solids. The method, which gave rep roducible results, should have applica
• Occupational Health & Safety
tions in biomass determinations for
• Insurance Claims
other activated carbon-containing bio logical treatment processes.
• Environmental Audits
• Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) • Sale of Land & Secured Transactions
Biosorptlon of Chlorophenols University ofOttawa scientists K.J. Ken nedy, J. Lu and W.W. Mohn studied the
For more information contact:
sorption of a number of chlorophenols by anaerobic sludge granules in order to understand more completely the fate of chlorophenols and their degradation products on upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Sorption by the sludge
Burton H Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400
John D Brownlie, Q.C. (416) 863-2400
Marvin R V Storrow, Q.C. (604) 631-3300
granules was considerable and, as des-
Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors
Use the Reader Service
Card to get info on products in this issue.
For more information, Circle reply card No. 157 50
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
R&DNews cribed in a paper accepted for publica
Activated Sludge Kinetic Model
non-aerated reactors.The model correc
tion in Water Research, most chloro-
A generalized activated sludge kinetic model with the capacity for modelling the biological processes of car bonaceous energy removal, nitrifica tion, denitrification, and excess phos phorus removal has been published in Sciences et techniques de I'eau by McMaster University researcher P.L. Dodd. The model merges modifications of the
tly simulates the organism mass dis tribution and tracks the changes in cer tain key parameters such as soluble phosphorus and nitrate concentra
phenols had linear sorption isotherms which were defined by simple distribu tion coefficients. Sorption of two chlorophenols was highly reversible, but it was not for a third chlorophenol tested.
Impact of Wastewater Soil Infiltration E.A.T. Environnement Inc., scientists J-
P. Dube and C. Roy, together with J. de Villiers of Hydro-Quebec, are monitor ing wastewater treatment systems in volving soil infiltration in the James Bay area where permafrost is present. As described in Sciences et techniques de
lAWPRC model and the Wentzel polyP
organism culture model. The model provides acurate simulation of a range of activated sludge system con figurations incorporating aerated and
Organochlorine Contaminants in Southern Ontario Lakes
Hydrophobic organochlorine con taminants were surveyed in net plank ton from 33 lakes in southern Ontario by University of Waterloo scientist W.D. Taylor and colleagues from the Nacontinued overleaf
I'eau, the wastewater was distributed to
the soil infiltration surface by a low pre ssure distribution system. After eight months the water table can rise to very high levels under certain conditions. A zone of biological growth had become established which effectively purified the wastewater. Insulating the infiltra tion systems with polystyrene to main tain the temperature above 5°C proved to be successful in normal operating conditions, although the temperature was significantly affected by the vents installed to bring fresh air into the bio logical growth zone. Removal of Phenols in Sequencing Batch Reactors
IMPORTANT NOTICE for USERS OF INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS If you use any of tfie following cfiemicals as solvents: 1,1,2-trlchloroethane (Beta 7) 2-ethoxyettianol (Dowanol, Cellosolve, Oxitol, Poly-solo) 2-nitropropane (Ni-Par, S-20, S-30)
you sfiould know about a proposed categorization as fiazardous waste by the Ministry of the Environment.
Regulation 309 made under Ontario's Environmental Protection Act, states the requirements for the handling and disposal of wastes as scheduled. Schedule 11s a list of some of the processes in which hazardous chemicals are used. In the case of the chemicals listed above fhese would be processes in which thev were used as solvents.
J.A. Oleszkiewicz, A. Janeczko and W.
Trebacz investigated the removal of simple phenolics in aerobic and denit rifying sequencing batch reactors. These University of Manitoba scientists used orthochlorophenol as a model phenolic together with combinations of other substrates. The addition of cosubstrate had no effect on the ortho
chlorophenol removal rate in fully aerated reactors but enhanced the per
Schedule 2 Is a list of the hazardous chemicals themselves.
The proposal is to add ail three of the chemicals listed above to Schedule 1, and to add 2-ethoxyethanol to Schedule 2, where the other two already appear. Regulation 309 provides for a careful review of any proposal to add to these schedules, first by specialists in waste management within the Ministry, and finally by an external Hazardous Waste Advisory Committee. This Committee seeks input from interested parties. This notice offers an opportunity for you to contribute your views on the proposal. If you would like to have further Information please complete the request form below. Send it by mall or facsimile transmission to:
Spent Solvents Categorization and Review Ministry of the Environment
formance of anoxic/aerobic reactors. The increase in volumetric reaction rate
was proportional to the increase in
Public information Centre
solids retention time. These and other results are discussed in Environmental
135 St. Clair Avenue West
Toronto, Ontario M4V 1P5
Please send further information concerning the proposed categorization of the following solvent(s).
Fate of Aldicarb in Groundwater
Aldicarb is a systemic pesticide that has been used in the Maritimes primarily on potato crops to control aphids and the Colorado potato beetle. National Water
184C vol. 2,4
1840 vol. 3,6
Research Institute scientist J.P. Much
Name of company or organization
1840 vol. 1,5
and coworkers undertook a 5-year
groundwater-aldicarb monitoring pro gram at three field sites on Prince Ed
Street City/Town _
ward Island. The results, which indicate
that aldicarb residues are persisting much longer than had been expected, suggest that the oxidation of ammoni um based fertilizer applied to the field sites may be inhibiting the degradation
□ frangals □ All 3 chemicals 1840
_P.O. Box_ Postal Code ' EnvironfTiental Science and Engineering
Pour obtenir des renseignements en frangais, composer le (416)323-4321 a Toronto ou composer sans frais le 1-800-565-4923.
of the aldicarb residues. These and
other results will soon be published in an Inland Waters Directorate report.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Environment Environnement Ontario
Science and Engineering
For more information, Circle reply card No. 117 51
R&D News tional Water Research Institute and
York University. The relative concen
up to 5 minutes were required for inac tivation in natural waters. As described
in a paper accepted for publication in
trations of twelve common organo-
chlorines were generally similar suggesting that they derive from a com mon source, probably atmospheric transport. The results, discussed in the Canadian JournalofFisheries andAquatic Sciences, indicate that lakes with low
plankton biomass had high organochlorine concentration in that biomass,
suggesting that a large proportion ofthe variation among lakes in the concentra tion ofcontaminants in plankton can be
Inactivation of Giardia muris
Water Research, it was found that resi
Cysts with Ozone Factors influencing the inactivation of Giardia muris cysts using ozone were examined by C.W. Labatiuk, M. Belosevic and G.R. Finch using 48 indepen dent,experimentally designed trials in a bench-scale batch reactor.In laboratory trials, these University of Alberta scien
dual and utilized ozone both had im
tists found that inactivation occurred within two minutes while contact times
portant influences on G. muris cyst in activation. It was more difficult to
achieve inactivation in natural waters at 22Â°Cthan at5Â°C.
UV Disinfection of Wastewater At the recent Water Pollution Control
Federation conference, Trojan Techno logies scientist W. Cairns and U.S. col leagues described the evaluation of a UV disinfection system using both fil tered and unfiltered secondary effluents under field conditions.The system con sisted ofthree plug flow reactors operat ing in a cascading series configuration. Four low energy UV lamps, encased in quartz sleeves, were submerged in the wastewater parallel to the flow direction
in each of the plug flow reactors. Filtra
"Services For The Earth And Environmental Sciences"
tion followed by a UV dose of about 115 mW-s/cm^ was effective in reducing the coliform to acceptable levels.
BARRINGER LABORATORIES is one of the largest
The fourth in a series of reports on in
Canadian Industrial Water Use
environmental laboratories in Canada offering one of the most extensive collections of state-of-the-art instrumentation and a full
range of analyses following government-authorized protocols
WE OFFER competitive pricing
dustrial water use in Canada will soon
be published by the Inland Waters Di rectorate. This report, by D.M.Tate and D.N. Scharf, summarizes the results of
the 1986 Survey ofIndustrial Water Use. It presents statistical data and discus sion on various physical parameters of water used by industry, such as recirculation and discharge, as well as basic economic patterns such as output vol ume and value and water cost. It also contains a detailed discussion of water use in mineral extraction and thermal
power sectors, and of time trends obser ved in industrial water use.
highest quality analysis helpful, experienced staff guaranteed rapid turnaround
complete sample bottle kits at no charge custom hard copy and electronic reports available laboratories and sample reception throughout Canada
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT DANA BORTOLIN OR ALAN PARKER
PHONE (416) 890-8566 FAX (416) 890-8575
Analysis of Acids in Precipitation Samples V. Cheam has recently investigated the application of an isocratic anion chromatography method for the determina
tion of organic and inorganic acids in precipitation. His National Water Re search Institute report on this research provides the results of the method as well as a comparison with those ob tained when analyzing the same sam ples by the gradient method and an ion-exclusion method. This compara tive study has established that, while each method has strengths and defi ciencies respecting particular acids, the gradient and ion-exclusion methods should be used jointly whenever all acids ofconcern are to be determined in
OR TOLL FREE 1-800-263-9040 Adsorption of Pollutants on Clay Minerals
In a paper accepted for publication in For more information, Circle reply card No. 118 52
Water Research, scientists at the Univer-
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
FEBCO Is the
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R&D News con't sity of Quebec in Rimouski describe their studies on the adsorption of trace metals and phenolic substances on sus pended clay minerals. C. Gagnon, M. Arnac and J.-R. Brindle found that there
were interactive effects between the pol lutants when more than one was present in the system.Thus,cadmium ion would compete with nickel for the same ad sorption sites. Although less vanillic acid was adsorbed than eugenol, the phenolic compounds generally enhan ced the sorption of metallic cations on the clay minerals studied, while the pre sence of metallic cations increased the
sorption of phenolic compounds. Properties of Aerobic Biofilms University of Toronto scientists T. Oga, S. Suthersan and J.J. Ganczarczyk stu died the attachment properties of nit rifying and heterotrophic biofilms in laboratory rotating biological contac tors by measuring the development of biofilm thickness, biofilm density, acti vity, and detachment caused by shear stress. As described in Environmental
Technology, it was found that the nitrify ing organisms formed denser and thin ner biofilms.They also exhibited poorer attachment properties and were more easily detached than the heterotrophic microorganisms.
Treatment of a Sulphuric Acid Spill In February 1986,fifteen tanker cars ofa southbound CP Rail freight train de railed near Beer's Lake in northern On tario. The tanker cars each contained 86 tons of96% sulfuric acid. The total esti mated acid loss was about 300 tonnes. Gartner Lee scientist T. O'Neill des cribed the neutralization and remedia tion measures taken at the Water Pollu tion Control Foundation conference. This included neutralization of acid on land as well as in the lake. Within one
month,all known areas ofdepressed pH had been successfully neutralized. Ex tensive follow-up monitoring of water quality, sediment, fish, and aquatic in vertebrates confirmed that no signifi cant long term impact had occurred. Measurement of
leased when the iron is reduced. Typical results for the Trent River suggest that
about fifty percent of the ferric iron in riverine particulates is in the hydrated oxide form. The particles were found to release considerable concentrations of
phosphate into the water column after they settled into the anoxic Bay of Quinte sediments. MIcroblal Leaching of Metals
R.D. Tyagi and F.T. Tran studied microbial leaching of metals from digested municipal sludge in a continuously fed bioreactor using an adapted strain of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. As described by these INRS-Eau scientists in Environmental Technology,the pH of the feed sludge was adjusted to 4.0 and leaching was conducted at 30°C. Acceptable levels of metals in the sludge were reached with a residence time of five
Redox-Sensltlve iron National Water Research Institute sci
entist P.G. Manning has completed a comparative study of techniques for measuring the amount of hydrated fer ric oxides in sediment particles. As des cribed in Canadian Mineralogist, the techniques ranged from simple chemi cal extraction to analyzing Mossbauer spectra obtained at liquid helium tem peratures. This type of iron forms com plexes with phosphate which are re
days compared with 7-12 days in the batch process.
For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Pollution Re
search and Control,Conservation and Protection, Environment Ca nada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (819) 953-9365, Fax: (819) 9539029.
39th ONTARIO CONFERENCE
ON THE ENVIRONMENT sponsored by
ENVIRONMENT ONTARIO June 14-17, 1992
The Prince Hotel, Toronto
Formerly titled tfie "Ontario Waste Management Conference", this 39th conference has been
broadened in scope to reflect a greater emphasis on waste reduction using a multimedia approach COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL ANALYTICAL SERVICES
• Reg. 309
Sewer Use Bylaws
• Decomissioning Guidelines
Soils & Sediments
• Field Services
• Air Quality
In pollution prevention. Presentations of many papers In plenary sessions will be by authors expert In the field of pollution prevention or reduction,recycling,treatment and disposal, and will address all three environmental media (I.e. air, water and land).
The conference will provide Insights to the environmental problems and solutions facing Industry and society In the 90's decade, and will be of Interest to many stakeholders. Additional information and registration data may be obtained from:
TELEPHONE OR FAX Harold Laser
WALKER LABORATORIES P.O. BOX 100, THOROLD, ONT. L2V 3Y8
Waste Management Branch, 12A,2 St. Clair Avenue West Toronto, Ontario M4V 1L5 Attn: M.F. Cheethom,
FoxTdiil 323 5031 Fox: C416) 323-5031
PHONE:(416) 227-1158 FAX: 680-1916
For more Informatiott, Circle reply card No. 120 54
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
By Jonathan W.Kahn*
New legal decision on Bata case highlights officers'and directors' responsibilities policies be implemented. He had placed
nifying the two directors for the pay ment of their fines. The implications of the site for its day-to-day management, this decision on the relationship bet and he always inspected the operation ween corporations and their officers an experienced director and officer on
when he was on site. The Court found
and directors should be considered.
that this was a sufficient "system" upon which he was entitled to rely.
The Ministry ofthe Environment has routinely been charging officers and directors, as well as corporations, with environmental offences. The statutory provisions under which the Bata direc tors were charged and the reasons in the case itself will not only increase the fre
However,the other two directors were
not as fortunate. The president, who vi sited the site approximately once a
month, had the chemical storage pro
Arecent Ontario case has high Jonathan Kahn
lighted the fact that corporate
blem brought to his personal attention. He appears to have given instructions that the problem be dealt with, but the
court found that"due diligence requires him to exercise a degree of supervision
officers and directors can no
and control that demonstrate he was
longer ignore the environ consequences of the cor
exhorting those whom he may be nor
poration's actions,and are personally at risk ofbeing prosecuted and convicted if they fail to take pro-active steps to pre vent environmental problems. The case,R. v. Bata Industries Limited et
mally expected to influence or control to an accepted standard of behaviour. He
had a responsibility not only to give in structions but to see to it that those in structions were carried out in order to
minimize the damage." He was conse
al, involved charges of illegal waste storage and of permitting a discharge of
quently convicted. The vice-president was based at the
liquid industrial waste. Three directors of the corporation — the Chief Execu
site and was directly responsible for its operation. The court found that he had an obligation to ensure that the site operated within environmental laws and the company policy.The Judge held
tive Officer, the President and a Vice-
President — were charged personally under the Ontario Water ResourcesActfor
failing to take "all reasonable care to prevent the corporation from causing or permitting an unlawful discharge."Two of them — the President and the Vice-
President — were convicted, and sen
tenced to pay fines of $12,000.00 each. Further, Bata Industries, which was fined a total of $120,000.00, was ordered
not to indemnify the two directors with respect to these fines. Bata Industries was also ordered to publish the fact that the company and the two directors had been convicted on the front page of its international newsletter.
This was the first significant decision which interpreted provisions in the On tario Water Resources Act and the Envi-
ronmental Protection Act which impose a duty on officers and directors to take"all reasonable care"to prevent the corpora tion from causing or permitting the un lawful discharge of contaminants. The court acquitted the Chief Execu tive Officer because of evidence that he was aware of and had fulfilled his en
vironmental responsibilities. He had is sued written directions through a com pany newsletter which had been dis tributed to Bata companies throughout the world directing that environmental *Member of Black Casells & Graydon's Environmental Law Group In Toronto.
that if the Vice-President made the deci
sion to delegate, he had a responsibility to ensure that his delegate received the training necessary for the job and that he received detailed reports from that delegate. The court was critical of costcutting measures imposed by the Vice-
quency of such charges, it will also put officers and directors who do not have
"hands-on" responsibility at risk. Po tential penalties against individuals un der environmental legislation include very large fines, imprisonment and ex pensive restoration orders. Consequen tly, directors and officers, as well as less senior agents or employees of cor porations, must take steps to ensure that their business is operated with a view to preventing environmental problems. Boards of directors should adopt policy statements establishing a commitment to protect the environment and the health and safety of the corporation's employees. Management should be di rected to take all reasonable steps to comply with relevant laws and to de velop programs to implement the direc tors' policies. A system ofreporting must be instituted to ensure that officers ad
vise directors on the implementation of the environmental policy; directors may not simply issue a policy without rea sonably following up on its implemen
President, which "overloaded" one of
his more junior officers and left him
The development and implementa tion of appropriate environmental poli cies is the key to avoiding or defending against environmental charges. The Bata case highlights the costs of failing to have effective environmental pro
insufficient time to deal with environ mental issues.
The sentencing decision is unusual, both in the relative severity of the fines and particularly in the fact that the cor poration was forbidden from indem
grams in place.
BC resident jailed under Waste Management Act A resident of Courtney, Randy T. for. DeMacedo,has become the first person As a result. Randy DeMacedo was to receive a prison sentence for offences charged with a total of 29 counts for under the province's Waste Management incidents that took place on southern Act(WMA).
Vancouver Island between November
He received a 90-day sentence Feb ruary 28,following an investigation into the unlawful transport of waste oil, which is defined as a Special Waste under BC's Waste Management Act.
1990 and May 1991.
Ms.Tetarenko said that 18,000 gallons of oil was involved, some of which was later traced to local greenhouses, where
it had been used as heating fuel. Ap
Diane Tetarenko, Enforcement Offi proximately 10.000 gallons ofoil remain cer with BC Environment in Nanaimo, unaccounted for.
said the investigation started in January Local greenhouses are permitted to 1991, when a survey oflocal garages and use waste oil as a heating fuel only ifthe auto repair shops revealed that a large fuel meets strictly-regulated content re quantity of waste oil was unaccounted
quirements for lead.
Circle reply card No. 252
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
By Bob Pitchers and Ernie Pelham
Avoid extravagant pumping costs with proper maintenance programs
Asenergy and waste manage
ment becomes increasingly more important and tighter
fiscal controls reduce funds
for new equipment and maintenance, both suppliers and end users must examine their responsibilities in the selection and maintenance of pump ing installations. The supplier, or design engineer, has a responsibility for selecting the best pump for the application. For example, a pump that is larger than is required might be selected. This pump might re quire a large reduction in impeller size to meet the pumping conditions. As a result it will not be running at peak per formance efficiency. Consequently, it will require more power which is added operational cost and may require a higher capital outlay.
Sometimes,the choice of materials to
be used in pump construction may be made with the purpose of reducing ini tial costs of units. While this purpose may be achieved, the long term result could mean accelerated wear causing frequent downtime and higher main tenance costs â&#x20AC;&#x201D; perhaps even a much shortened working life.
Until recently, pumps used in muni cipal and plant service on water were of Some service companies have extensive machine shopfacilitiesfor pump reclamation. cast iron construction with bronze inter
nals. Today, because of the changes in the pH values of intake water brought about by toxic substances getting into rivers,lakes and streams,pumps are now often made with stainless steel.
Another possible alternative to stain
head requirements resulting in lower pump efficiency. More importantly, clogged intake screens and suction strainers could cause cavitation to oc
cur, resulting in rapid erosion of the pump impeller and casing volute. Routine maintenance of the pump
brought back to design standards. Changes in ammeter and pump dis charge pressure gauge readings could also be a result of a falling off of pump performance due to internal wear. In all of the cases mentioned,compe tent service facilities have the expertise
less is cast iron construction coated with
can be divided into three main areas.
stainless steel. The capital cost is mini mized while needed metallurgical pro perties are maintained. For existing installations it is the res ponsibility of the maintenance staff, with help from the supplier,to introduce maintenance programs in an attempt to
1. Monitoring of instruments. Following start-up and after a suit able running in period, all instrument readings should be noted and used as a base for comparison.Changes in instru ment readings usually denote some
reduce the amount of downtime and to
change in the pump performance and
2. Pump stufTing boxes/gland packaging. Pump stuffing boxes are usually sealed by use of mechanical seals or gland packing, with the latter being most com monly used except where a fire or toxic hazard could be caused by the leaking
should be investigated before the situa
fluid. In such cases mechanical seals are
tion becomes critical. An increase in
be aware of new technology which could extend the life of the pumping plant. Routine maintenance programs are es sential for good performance and long life of pumping equipment. Such pro grams should also cover associated equipment which could affect pump performance. For example, clogged intake screens or suction strainers will adversely affect the performance of the pump,reducing flow rate while increasing the discharge
to carry out on-site investigation and make recommendations.
bearing temperature or vibration could be an indication of faulty lubrication or bearing wear which, if corrected quic kly, would stop possible damage to shaft journals. A reduction in suction pres
The correct installation and main
*Manager, and Tech Specialist,
strainers and early rectification of this condition would stop the possibility of cavitation and resulting erosion of the impellers and casing. High shaft or cas ing vibrations may indicate increased internal clearances at the wear ring areas requiring the pump to be taken out
tenance of gland packing is vital. When fitting new packing rings, the joints of the rings should be staggered a mini mum of 90Â° apart. Rings of packing should be pushed into the stuffing box using pushing rods and not by using the packing gland and tightening the ad justing nuts. A regular drip of fluid should be observed through the packing when the pump is running and the gland adjusting nuts should only be finger tight. Over tightening of glands
Peacock Industries Service Centre
of service to have these clearances
causes excessive wear on shaft sleeves
sure could be the result of blocked
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
and an increase in horsepower re quirements with increased power costs. Worn packing causes increased leakage and waste and could spray water into the bearing housings causing bearing failure.
3. Bearings. Bearings usually will be of either the sleeve or anti-friction type â&#x20AC;&#x201D; oil or grease lubricated. Oil lubricated bear ings will be fed from either a separate lubricating system or an integral oil bath. With the separate lubrication sys tem, pressure drop across the filters should be monitored regularly as well as the system pressure.An increase in pres sure drop across the filters indicates the filter requires cleaning or renewal. A reduction in system pressure usually in dicates wear in the system oil pump and this pump should be checked. With an integral oil bath, the oil level should be regularly checked.Low oil levels reduce the amount of oil picked up by the oil ring and will result in overheating and premature failure of the bearing. When grease lubrication is used with anti-fric tion bearings, the most common cause of overheating is over greasing. After initial packing of the bearing with grease and commissioning ofthe pump, two shots of grease per week from a grease gun are usually sufficient for the bearing but check the manuals for par ticular pumps. Oil company or lubrica tion systems suppliers can easily calcu
this overhaul is carried out in-house or
at a reputable service facility. In-house overhauls are usually limited to replacing worn components by new parts and putting pumps back into service. Where pumps have given good working life and the conditions for which they were originally designed have not changed,this type of overhaul is generally sufficient. However,experi ence over almost a century as a service company has shown us that often con ditions for which the pumps were de
When we consider components such as shafts, impellers, or sleeve bearings, reclaimation is sometimes appropriate. This is usually carried out by applying weld overlays, modern spray coating technologies, chrome plating or the rebabbitting of bearings. In summary,a sound in-house main tenance program can reduce down time, extend service life ofthe equipment and reduce the chance of catastrophic fail ure, reducing plant operating costs.
The role of the repair facility is to service, repair, rebuild and upgrade the pumping plant using the kinds of equipment, technologies and special skills that few plant maintenance shops possess. The role of the repair facility is to ser vice, repair, rebuild and upgrade the pumping plant using the kinds ofequip ment, technologies and special skills that few plant maintenance shops
signed have changed. A competent ser vice facility is usually able to carry out some redesign to improve the wear life of the pump. Also, sometimes a major service facility is able to reclaim worn components that a maintenance shop might replace with new components. The redesign work would normally be in the area of metallurgical changes to wear parts. New materials can enhance service life by combatting the effects of corrosion and erosion. Additionally, hard coatings can be used in those areas subject to exceptionally high wear
The knowledgeable blend of sound in-house maintenance programs with a competent service facility that offers a wide range of technology,expertise and dependable 24-hour service is a key to keeping your plant operational costs at the optimum level. Circle reply card No. 258
late the exact amount of lubricant re
quired for any bearing service. Water from badly sealed stuffing boxes is not usually a problem for grease lubricated bearings but it can get into the oil bath of oil lubricated bearings. This becomes apparent when the oil begins to turn white in colour or takes on the look and consistency of mayon naise. Then oil should be changed and new packing fitted into the stuffing
Groundwater Monitoring Whatever your monitoring appiication and needs Soiinst can provide the equipment.
Vertical pumps, if they are of an ear lier vintage, could have oil lubricated bearings fed from tubing inside the ver tical casing. This arrangement some times allowed trace oil to get into the pumped fluid, causing environmental
variety ot high quality monitoring instruments, including: Water Level Meters Piezometers Bailers
Purge Pumps Sampling Pumps Weil Screen and Casing Water Quality Monitors Complete Monitoring Systems UST Monitoring Devices
A change to selflubricated bearings is often a sound recommendation to sur
mount this problem. Routine maintenance programs will ensure that the time between major overhauls will be kept to a maximum. However, major overhauls requiring pumps to be taken out of service and completely dismantled will eventually become necessary. This should be a planned outage, not a breakdown situa tion, provided proper instrument mon itoring and routine maintenance pro grams have been followed. At this time the decision has to be made whether
Enviroiunental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Soiinst manufactures and supplies a wide
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Soiinst Canada Ltd. (416)873-2255 515 Main Street, Glen Williams, Out. L7G 3S9
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 127 57
Direct discharge management
By Steve Whitney*
Hydrocarbons in cooling water now detected in ppb range
To detect hydrocarbons in the
dryer and into the gas chromatograph where the analysis is performed. A sam ple analysis takes about 15 minutes. The system software package oper ates the analyzer, sparger and sample system.It also includes on-line diagnos
parts-per-billion (ppb) range, the Shell Canada refinery in
Sarnia, Ontario, has installed an on-line process gas chromatograph. The chromatograph monitors cooling water discharge to the St. Glair river for benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl
tics, a user maintenance interface and a
variety of user-definable alarms. The system also has a data reporting package.
The ability to rapidly identify even trace amounts of hydrocarbons means that corrective actions can be taken im
How the system was chosen Shell Sarnia has considerable experi
mediately. Monitoring cooling water streams of up to 20,000 gallons per minute,the system can detect as little as 0.00002 gallons per minute of possible contaminant. This is comparable to the level ofanalysis to which drinking water is subjected. The previous detection method,use of lab chromatographs to analyze grabsamples, was too slow. Results took as much as 24 hours.
The gas chromatograph analyzes three separate streams of cooling water discharge. The sample points are lo cated just prior to two oil-water separa tors and a clean water outlet. The
chromatograph is housed in an envi ronmentally controlled building. The maximum distance from a sample point to the chromatograph is 100 ft. The minimum distance is 30 ft.
From the shelter, a digital highway runs about 2500 feet to the operators' control room.In the control room,a per sonal computer (PC) dedicated to the plant chromatograph system monitors the instrument's performance. There are actually 5 chromatographs linked together on the highway loop. *Shell Canada
ence with process chromatographs and has standardized with a preferred ven dor. The vendor has an established in frastructure in North America that af
fords easy access to replacement parts and service capabilities. For the cooling water application an important point was that the unit was designed for Divi sion 1. Class I environments.
The Optichrom Advance Gas Sparging Chromatograph
The other four units perform process control. The chromatograph com municates the analyzer results to the plant mainframe computer through an interface unit. How it works
The gas chromatograph sparging sys tem (or sparger) is designed to strip a repeatable percentage of hydrocarbon volatiles from a liquid stream. The li quid stream is directed through the sparger vessel at a constant flow and controlled temperature. An inert gas bubbled through the liquid carries with it a portion of any volatile hydrocarbon present and some moisture. The en riched inert gas stream is fed through a
Meters Made Easy Meters Made Easy was prepared by the CWWA to help system owners and operators determine whether the intro duction of meters is likely to produce long-term savings in their community. It is a tool that permits system owners or operators to analyze the costs and benefits ofinstalling meters in their sys tems. It is intended for use in com-
munitites that vary greatly as to the number and mix of customers served
some data are not available from local sources.
Volumes I & II: Benefit cost analysis
was found to be too low to allow the self-
cleaning filters to perform correctly. After the flow was increased, the system performed as specified. The Optichrom Advance gas sparger was supplied by Westech-Applied Automation. On-line operation Calibration is the most significant system maintenance task and is per formed every few weeks. A known mix ture of volatile hydrocarbons in water must be pumped through the system. A
Tool and User's Manual: Technical
master calibration blend of a thousand
Support information S96.00 for mem
parts per million ofvarious components in methanol is made up. The 2 ml ofthe blend is mixed with 20 litres of organic free water. Three or four cycles are run on each analyzer stripper."Total calibra tion time is typically 3-4 hours.
bers. $120.00 for non members. Volume
III: National Data Base of Municipal Water Metering $48.00 for Members,$60 for non members. Add 10 percent for postage and handling, plus GST on sub total. Make cheques payable to Cana
and the age and condition of the sys dian Water & Wastewater Association tems. The computer model is very flex (GST Registration 106 868607) ible â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the degree of detail aboutsystems can vary greatly, and because ofthe"de Contact: Canadian Water and Wastefault" values available in the program, water Association, 24 Clarence St., 3rd the results still will provide a basis for Floor. Ottawa, Ontario. KIN 5P3, Tel: sound decision-making, even when (613)238-5692, Fax:(613) 238-5193. 58
Installation took approximately four weeks, with Shell Sarnia personnel per forming most of the work. The start up. which was essentially uneventful, took approximately three days with the assis tance of vendor service personnel. The system, including the software, was fac tory-configured. The supplier's sample conditioning system, installed between the sample delivery system and the sparger, filters out very fine sediments found in what was essentially river water. Initially, the flow to the sample conditioning system
Shell Sarnia can now confirm and
document just how good it is in detect ing hydrocarbon leaks into cooling water.Ifa leak were to occur,a sewer sys tem can divert cooling water discharge to holding ponds until the situation is normalized. Water in the holding pond can then be reprocessed. ES&E
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION FOR CANADIAN INDUSTRY INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS AND MANUFACTURING APPLICATIONS FOR
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OCTOBER 20-22, 1992
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co-sponsored by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association Participating Sponsor Air & Waste Management Association(Ontario Chapter)
DISCOVER THE LATEST TECHNOLOGY, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES FOR PREVENTION, MINIMIZATION, CONTROL, handling AND MANAGEMENT OF POLLUTANTS.
THE'ONLY ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE DEDICATED TO CANADIAN INDUSTRY CETECH is a special exhibit section of PMDS ~ Canada's largest Plant
Management ^ Maintenance/Design Engineering Show. Over 10,000 Industry personnel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PAADS In 1990. ON-SITE CONFERENCE
ES8s£ will host a two day conference featuring experts who can focus on the formidable environmental compliance problems that confront Industries dally. ES8s£'s wide ranging program will review the MISA program, environmental audits, toxic spills, pollution abatement processes and occupational health and SEifety issues ~ ail subjects industrial staffers must know in the 90's. Reed-Macgregor Exhibitions Is a member of the Reed Exhibition Companies (REC), the world's ieirgest exhibition organizer. lETECH produced by: REED-MACGREGOR EXHIBITIONS INC.
800 Denlson Street, Unit 7 Markham, Ont. L3R 5M9 Tel.: (416) 479-3939
conference produced and managed by ENVIRONMENTAL
Science & Engineering Magazine For more Information, please contact: 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ont. Canada L4G 5N7 (416) 727-4666
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The Model 2500 has no moving parts and can be virtually maintenance free. Request Bulletin 2500. Cancoppas
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Microprocessor-based dissolved oxy gen analyzers with features such as au tomatic calibration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel
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The 1511 Zone 1 portable waste water
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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Product Review Effluent sampler The EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler is de signed to extract samples ofliquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite con tainer or sequentially into an array of 24 X 1/2 litre containers for subsequent retrieval and analysis. Typical Applica tions;• Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent • Raw sludge • Most industrial effluents. Cancoppas For more information, Circie repiy card No. 204
Ammonia & nitrate monitors
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Monitor is based on use of an ion-selec tive electrode which measures the con
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HALIFAX • SYDNEY
Setting the standard for
strument's microprocessor converts the electrode output signal to calculate ammonia concentration, while com
pensating for the temperature of the sample. The result is displayed as Nit rogen (NH4-N). Cancoppas
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 200
* turnaround time
F LABORATORIES INC.
6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399
Black Tape products protect pipelines Denso North America Inc., a manufac
turer of anti-corrosion systems includ ing tapes and high tech epoxy urethane coatings for the protection ofgas and oil transmission pipelines, recently re ceived some positive results on strict laboratory testing of their line of cold applied rubber bitumen tapes. These tests were carried out over a six year period and were tested to end users'cri
FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES
Complete analytical services conducted according to MOE,EPA, APHA, ASTM at competitive prices. ENVIRONMENTAL• ORGANIC• DRINKING WATER AGRICULTURAL• SOIL• INDUSTRIAL•INORGANIC WASTEWATER* METALS• FEED
Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977
teria. Results indicate the line of black
tape products will indeed remain in place for the lifetime of a pipeline. Black tape products have been used to protect and rehabilitate pipelines, marine piles and so on from corrosion for the last 25 years in North America. This black tape is a strong cold applied bitumous pipewrap consisting of an ad hesive rubber bitumen compound on a fabric reinforcement laminated to an 85 micron conformable black P'VC back
ing for extra flexibility. A plastics inter leaving ensures clean handling and is used in conjunction with a primer.
Analytical Laboratory A Division of Core&Storiie Limited
• Environmental Analytical Services •Specific Analysis Certified by CABAL • MISA, Sewer Use Compliance Testing • Hazardous Waste Characterization
•Site Decommissioning Guideline Testing 55 Research Rd.,TDronto, Ont. M4G 2G8,Tel;(416)696-0390, Fax;467-5227 1 -800-563-9275
Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters
For more information.
Circle reply card No. 156
' Reg. 309 Compliance
* Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans ' Ambient Air Monitoring
• Emission Testing • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria
• Odorous Compounds
• Rush Analysis Available
Use the Reader Service
Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.
Card to get info on products in this issue.
5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone; (416) 890-2555 Fax; (416) 890-0370
Environmental Science <£ Engineering, May 1992
Professional Analytical Services Since 1972
Residual chlorine monitor for free or total residual chlorine measurements EIT's Series 5100 Residual Chlorine
Call Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc. Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. can help to eliminate troublesome water pollution control headaches related to organic chemical compounds. Whether the job is large or small, Calgon Carbon con provide a cost-effective solution to meet the treatment objective. Activated Carbon Products-specifically designed to remove o wide variety of organic chemical types and concentrations. Adsorption Systems-standard off-the-shelf or custom designed systems to treat a wide range of flows: 250 i/m(60 gpm)fo 2500 Vm (700 gpm), Colgon Corbon Service- Under o monfhiy service arrangement Calgon Carbon will install and maintain at the treatment site a permanent ar temporary treatment system. Treatment objectives con be achieved without major capital costs. Spent Corbon Disposal-Calgon Carbon eliminates disposal problems by trans porting the spent carbon to a RCRA-opproved reactivation facility, where the organic chemical contaminants are thermally destroyed,thus eliminating future liability risks. For more information, coil or write Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc., Suite 304,6303 Airport Rood, Mississougo, Ontario L4V1R8, Tel (416)673-7137, Fox(416)673-8883.
CALGON CALGON CARBON CANADA INC.
Monitors provide reliable and accurate monitoring ofchlorine concentration in water, wastewater,cooling towers,swim ming pools, and disinfecting wash water. These monitoring systems are based on a direct sensing polarographic sensor which eliminates the need for the chemicals used in conventional colori-
metric or amperometric monitors. For many applications, the sensor may be immersed directly in the flow stream. Installation is extremely simple and lit tle maintenance is required. The Series 5100 monitors are microp
rocessor based instruments providing a digital display of chlorine concentra tion. The standard unit provides an iso lated 4-20 MA output over ranges 0-1, 0-2,0-3,0-5,0-10, and 0-20 PPM.Output
range is operator selectable from the front panel. All calibration and alarm setpoint adjustments are also controlled from touch sensitive switches on the
front panel. Summa For more information,
For more information, Circie reply card No. 126
BIOLAC Wastewater Treatment System
Circie reply card No. 158
FEBCO Introduces the Model 800 Detector Check FEBCO announces a new Detector
Check specifically designed to prevent the reversal of flow and monitor water
loss in fire sprinkler systems. 1. FLOAT ASSEMBLY
3. DOWNCOMINGAIRTUBE CD
The new 800 Series is available in 4",
6", 8", and 10" sizes and has a working pressure of 250 psig. It incorporates a
patented new spring loaded "swing check" design which ensures reliability yet creates minimum head loss through the valve.
i 1Â°: .
BIOLAC is an innovative biological system which
provides the lowest-cost solution for many municipal and industrial wastewater applications. The significantly improved mixing efficiency
provided by the moving aeration chains is the key to the Biolac System's conservative design approach and unique longer sludge age treatment capability. Call us for our brochure.
PARKSON Represented in Canada by Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives. 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, Quebec, H9P 2M8 Tel.:(514)636-8712 Fax.:(514)636-9718
The ductile iron body ofthe 800 Series is lightweight and resistant to freeze damage. Febco utilizes an advanced fusion epoxy process in accordance with A.W.W.A. C550-90, and corrosionresistant metal internals. The 800 Series
is designed to provide trouble-free per formance for the life of the product. The 800 Series will be offered either as
a complete Detector Check Valve with bypass/meter installed, or as a Single Check Valve with an optional bypass/ meter kit available. Bypass/meter sizes will be
. 1". IVi", and 2", and meter
options will include Neptune GPM, CFM, Badger remote GPM, Rockwell GPM and CFM foot or a "spool" fitting in lieu of meter. FEBCO For more information,
Circie reply card No. 159
For more information, Circle reply card No. 129 62
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Laboratories New Isco Field Printer
XRAL ENVIRONMENTAL A DIVISION OF SOS SUPERVISION SERVIOES INO. Since 1878
MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste
Eiemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"
1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3
Nowit is possible to obtain on-site hard copy reports of sample and program
Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152
ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES
information with the new Isco Field
Printer. It connects directly to an Isco Model 3700 or 3710 Sampler, and can create two different reports: a Sample Results Report and a Program Settings Report. On-site reporting capability
"QUALITY ASSURED-DELIVERY GUARANTEED" PROVIDING COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ACROSS CANADA
Burlington, Ontario(416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733
makes the Field Printer an excellent
way to verify sampler operation and compliance. The reports also provide effective documentation for legal or enforcement purposes. The dot matrix printer pro vides a complete record of the sampler setup, program parameters, and the sampler operational status. A rugged, NEMA 4X, 6 rated environmentally sealed enclosure ensures dependable performance.ISCO For more information, Circie reply card No. 160
Integrated storm water
Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management* Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel.416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's * Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver
runoff monitoring system
A ler Supply
Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS
Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges • Flood Conin
Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Or,
OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND ALL ASPECTS OF CIVIL. MUNICIPAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Land Use Planning
280 Pretty River Parkway
48 Higli Street
BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street
Fax (705) 445-0968
Fax (705) 726-4391
Fax (613) 966-1168
Isco introduces a new integrated system for storm water runoff monitoring. A complete line of automatic samplers,
Environmental Auditing and Management Planning
Waste Management solutions
open channel flow meters, and acces sories allow customers to specify a sys tem to meet EPA compliance require
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.
ments for their industry. Isco 3700 Sam plers are offered with a choice of bottle configurations, and include the exclu
Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada
sive STORM™ programming to ensure accurate first flush grab samples and flow-weighted composite samples. A choice of ultrasonic, submerged probe,
Box 917, R.R.5
(613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573
to the 4 Rs Wastewater Treatment
design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting
225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2
and bubbler flow meters satisfies a wide
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited
range of monitoring requirements. A rugged rain gauge provides accurate,
consulting engineers anrd architect
on-site rainfall information. Isco Flow-
link® software allows convenient on-site
Water Pollution Control
or remote reporting ofrainfall, flow,and sampling information. Isco
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts
WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)
Product Review HALOZONE RECYCLING INC.
Michael D. Hirtenstein, Ph.D. has joined Halozone Recycling Inc. as Vice Presi dent and Chief Operating Officer. He Is a businessman with 20 years of experi ence In developing technology, with an end product and markets In mind. He obtained his doctorate In biochemistry In England and worked In the food and brewing Industries for 5 years while stu dying for his MBA, which he completed In 1976.
Byjoining Pharmacia AB In Sweden In 1977, he expanded his horizons to the International field and was a key player In the development of the Biotechnology
market place In the late 1970s and early 1980s. Mike progressed to become a senior vice president of the company, holding Important posts In Sweden and with their subsidiaries In France and In Canada
from 1983 through 1987. Mike left Pharmacia In early 1988 to start up a new high technology company In Toronto, Canada, which he combined with building up a thriving consulting business together with his wife, who also has an MBA In International marketing. He has worked on a number of signifi cant environmental projects. Including alternative power sources for northern.
Ontario, and non Invasive methods to measure Impairment due to drugs or
"Two Machines in One", Vaughan Chopper Pumps,successfully chop and pump heavy solids. Items such as: trash, rope, plastic, gloves, bones,jeans,feathers, hair, hide, scum and metal strapping are just some of the heavy solids that Vaughan Chop per Pumps handle. Heavy industries such as Chemical, Pulp and Paper,Steel, Aluminum.Petro Chemical, Food Processing, Automo tive, and Hazardous Waste, as well as
Mike met Dusanka Flllpovic, P. Eng. when he was working with one of the major venture capital groups. He recog nised the business potential of the Blue
many municipal wastewater treatment facilities have solved their most difficult
pumping problems using Vaughan Chopper Pumps. Vaughan For more information, Circle reply card No. 162
Bottle™ technology and decided to work with Dusanka to build a new com
pany, based on her award-winning CFC recovery technology. The complementary experience and skills of the partners has resulted In the
Isco bladder pumps for low submergence wells
rapid development of Halozone Recycl ing Inc. to where It Is today, a fledgling company which will shortly be starting to
supply Blue Bottles™ to the CFC recov ery market.Tangible progress In translat ing this CFC recovery process Into viable field operational technology Is already underway.
Sampling Pumps from Isco are ideal for
purging and sampling from 2" and larger diameter wells having low re charge rates or water levels. Zero-sub mergence pumps utilize a unique, pa tented design that allow them to pump at higher rates in low submergence conditions.
This makes the zero-submergence
pumps especially useful for sampling from low recharging wells, or near the surface ofthe liquid. Several models are offered for use in a variety of applica tions. ISCO For more information,
Circle reply card No. 163
Monitoring Whether you require a simple single component system or a complete multicomponent package with data acquisi tion and mass flow, Westech provides a single source for all C.E.M. needs: • Applications Staff Training Engineering Qualified Service Installation • Systems Design Testing • Assembly
Sierra-Misco's ground water tracking. Because sometimes divine guidance just isn't enough.
• Start-up & commissioning Measured components include: NO,
NO2, NOx, SO2, H2S, TRS, HCl, HF, HCN, CI2, CIO2, CO2, CO, O2, THC,
Sierra-Mlsco Inc., 10461 Old Placervllle Road, Suite 110,Sacramento, California U.S.A. 9S827 Tel:(916)363-4271 Fax:(916)363-1886
Slerra-Mlsco Environment Inc., 850-999 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V6C 2W2 Tel:(604)684-7754 Fax:(604)684-8099
VOC,Opacity and Mass Flow. Westech
For more information,
For more information, Circle reply card No. 130 64
Circle reply card No. 164 Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
Product ReviewBreakthrough in Gas Detection New range of Gasurveyor instruments uses the latest in microprocessor tech nology to produce a lightweight gas de tection/monitoring unit that is easy to operate yet gives better field utilisation than previously available. Built from modular components,the Gasurveyor is portable, rugged and of fers low individual capital and main tenance costs. It can be automatically checked and re-calibrated in the field
which greatly extends its utilisation time in operation.Combining this with sensi tivities of 10 ppm to 100% gas, it could make the Gasurveyor the single instru ment for utility operations. Second generation instruments now provide Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide detection capabilities. Heath
Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers
UNDERWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
• spill site investigations and cleanups • underwater video inspections
• impact assessments • water quality monitoring
P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6
SASKATCHEWAN ALBERTA ONTARIO
Circle reply card No. 181
New submerged probe flow meter Isco 3220 Flow Meter uses a submerged
probe level sensor to provide accurate, temperature compensated level mea
C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Speclalsts In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Mmicpal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,
surement. Built-in conversions for a va
Coiiingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9
riety of weirs and flumes. Manning equations or manually entered data points allow fast and easy set-up. The built-in plotter provides a printed
record of level, flow rate, and totalized
flow, and can print flow summary re ports on command or at selected time intervals. The internal memory can store up to 10,000 data readings. An optional telemetry package and software allow convenient remote mon
itoring from a central computer via phone lines, or fast, easy onsite data ret rieval using a lap top computer inter rogator. Nortech Control Equipment Circle reply card No. 182
New open channel flow
transmitters New Isco 3000 Series flow transmitters
provide economical flow monitoring in a variety of applications with a choice of two different models. The 3010 Ultrasonic Transmitter is
ideal for applications where a non-con tacting sensor is required. A stream lined,low-profile probe makes the 3020 Submerged Probe Transmitter ideal for locations where wind, steam, foam, or
turbulence are present. Both models feature a backlit LCD and built-in conversions for weirs and
flumes. Standard outputs include: a sampler relay to control an Isco sampler for precise flow proportioned sampling, and a 4 to 20 mA output to drive a chart recorder or process control equipment. Nortech Control Equipment Circle reply card No. 183
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Sierra-Misco. How to avoid those annoying little surprises that are always just around the comer. Sierra-Misco Sierra-Misco Inc., 10461 Oltl Placerviile Road,Suite 110,Sacramento, California U.S.A. 95827 Tel:(916)363-4271 Fax;(916)363-1886 Sierra-Misco Environment Inc., 850-999 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V6C 2W2 Tel:(604)684-7754 Fax:(604)684-8099
For more Information, Circle reply card No. 137
Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(416) 727-4666
FUa CONTINUOUS SCALE
r L0H6 0-T4
a pH REAOABIUTT
"Big Scale" ph Meter For
Lab or Plant Model 707, large 7", 0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged port able shock proof case. Practically unbreakable polyethylene shielded
electrode. Ideal for unskilled users.
Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed In technical bulletin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochlorite sprayto oxidize organic odors.Other topics Include: storage and air col
Economical, include probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH and ORP Indi
Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 220
Analytical Measurements of Canada Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 219
A "Solution for
Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of JAVEX-
in ilr. 111,1 iii}ri
Cyanide Removal CYANIDE REMOVAL
12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the latest information, please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.
Using Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal re covery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 222
Professional Products Division
Circle reply card No. 221
Dow CorningÂŽ 561 Silicone
Instrument Control and
Transformer Liquid IEEE-488 and
ferent factors must be reviewed and
Data Acquisition, nd Analysis
weighed: fire safety, toxicity, costs, insurance, electrical performanace, environmental safety, size, noise, overload capacity. This colour bro chure presents in detail how transfor mers filled with Dow ComingÂŽ 561 silicone transformer liquid compares with other types, including mineral oil, H.M.W. Hydrocarbon, dry ven Tm wii; miutIon
Selecting the best indoor transformer can be a daunting task. Many dif
Free 1992 catalogue of Instrumenta tion products for PCs workstations, and more. Features IEEE-488.2 in
terfaces and software, plug-in data acquisition boards, VXIbus con trollers, DSP hardware and software and signal conditioning accessories. Application software for complete acquisition, analysis, and presenta tion of data,including graphical Inter faces. Application tutorials and train ing classes also detailed.
tilated, and cast resin.
Dow Corning Circle reply card No. 223
Circle reply card No. 224
Portabie Water Treatment Plants Graver Monoplant packaged water treatment systemsfrom Ecodyne are pre-englneered and factory built, readily transportable and quickly in
Industry Service Centres
stalled. Seventeen standard sizes
are available to treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm, for municipal plants and wherever potable water is required. Each Monoplant contains pre-treatment, chemical feeds and filters, a solids recirculation type high rate (Floe Barrier equipped) clarifier and gravity backwash filter system. Ecodyne Ltd. Circle reply card No. 227
The bulletin outlines the services Industry Service Centers
available to completely overhaul or rebuild rotating machinery such as pumps, compressors, turbines or similar plant equipment. Thermal coatings, balancing and babbitting are special plant features. On-site machining and field service are spe cialties. Five service plants are stra tegically located across Canada. Each has a complete range of fitting and machining capability. Peacock
Circle reply card No. 228
WEMCO SEPARATES PROB LIQUIDS EFFECTIVELY RESULTING CLARIFIED
OUTPUT MEETS and EXCEEDS COMPLIANCE REGULATION
Oepurator. Removes emulsified oil and suspended solids from water. Low cost, high capacity. Efficient WEMCO Depurator
Pacesetter. Used for oil/water
flotation machines are used
extensively in the aluminum, petroleum and petrochemical industry for wastewater and process water treatment.
Silver Band. High performance
separation in oil production applications, and for liquid/liquid separation in chemical production facilities. Unique Propack'" crossflow plates achieve 99% efficiency with gravity-flow separation. Compact, high capacity units have low operating and
fouling, cleans water with 99% efficiency. Low media replacement rate. Fast (14 minute) media cleaning cycle. Simple installation, low
maintenance costs. Pressurized
down-flow media filter removes
suspended solids and hydrocarbons from produced water. Shell media resists
units available for specific applications.
Separation and Filtration Equipment for Municipal and industrial Operations Process
EIMCO Equipment A Division of Bsker Hughes Canada Inc. 5155 Creekbank Road
259 Midpark Way S.E.
4940 Chisholm St., Ste. 1
Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6821 Fax:(403) 256-7071
1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Que. H9R 5N3
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 138
Environmental Science (6 Engineering, May 1992
Design station offers comfort and space optimization
Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vanqpuver • Lethbridge
• Wastewater Collection 8 Treatment
• Hazardous 8 Solid Waste Management • Water Resources 8 Environmental Planning
• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling 8 Flow Measurement
WINNER OF THE AWARD OF EXCELLENCE ■ WASTEWATER CANADIAN 1990 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AWARDS PROGRAM
FOR THE STUDY & DESIGN OF A MUNICIPAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
SPECIAUSTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING,INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, AND LABORATORY SERVICES
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS A Marsh & McLennan Company
" Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remedlations • Environmental
• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services
Available as a complete design station including work surface, or configured as a free-standing unit to stand behind an existing drafting table, attached to a desk or to a wall, the innovative design integrates computer, monitor(s), and worksurface into a compact, self-con
^■[= Dames & Moore. Canada the environmental professionals
Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology 7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario
It provides an ergonomically adjust able work environment where operators can directly intereact between the CRT screen(s) and the drawings. Unnecessary physical movements are eliminated resultinginimproved opera
Tel; (416) 671-9921 Fax: (416) 672-7784
tor concentration, fewer errors, and
dramatically increased productivity. Available in both sitting and standing heights, the unit suspends the CPU, pe ripherals, and single or multiple mon itors over the worksurface. Drawings and blue prints can he edited on the computer with hard copy documents and system control devices convenien tly located on the worksurface below. For users who require use of large digi tizer hoards, framing may he ordered in lieu of the worksurface. The Ergotron system can also he configured for the
■ ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AUDITS & PLANNING » MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT ■ PLANT DECOMMISSIONING • SITE REMEDIATION
» SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT • WATER SUPPLY. TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION
133 WYNFORD DRIVE, NORTH YORK. METROPOLITAN TORONTO. CANADA M3C1K1 • TEL: CA16] AAI-4111 • FAX; C41 S3 441-4131
Consulting Engineers • PlcUiners
M. M. DILLON LIMITED
OTTAWA LONDON CAMBRIDGE
TORONTO WINDSOR WINNIPEG
panel systems. Bidlnoff Marketing Inc.
GOG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED EDMONTON RED DEER
Circle reply card No. 184
PORTER DILLON LIMITED HALIFAX
Compact gearmotor design for tight spots
DILLON ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES
MiniCase right angle gearmotors and speed reducers from Nord are de
Piofessional Services in
H Gartner Lee
TORONTO, ONT (416) 477-8400 VANCOUVER, B.C. (604) 299-4144 NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716) 285-5449
signed for applications where space restrictions are a problem. The housing is made from corro sion resistant single piece aluminum alloy. Internal reinforcements pro vide additional strength and rigidity. Unicase construction eliminates oil
leakage. Minicase is filled with synthetic lub ricant and permanently lubricated for life.
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Product Review The Nord MiniCase integral gearmotor is said to ensure applicationmatched performance over years of reliable service. This design dras tically reduces any chance of adding
Comprehensive consulting services in engineering and
an undersized or oversized motor.
There is a generous selection of speed reducers to accommodate a variety of application needs. MiniCase speed reducers are available with an input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Customers can
solid shaft or hollow shaft. For direct
mounting to driven equipment, a machined output face can be speci fied. Nord Gear
Circle reply card No. 185
Assodales Offices thoughout North America, Europe and Austraiia. MISSISSAUGA
choose from either an lEC or C-Face
motor mounting flange. C-Face units are supplied with a motor coupling. MiniCase gear drives are available for foot or flange mountings with
Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES:
• Environmental Engineering •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design •Air emission control «Air monitoring •Environmental audits • Indoor air quality •WHMIS > Noise monitoring and control
'Workplace and safety audits • Asbestos
GOODFELLOW CONSULTANTS INC.
2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(416)858-4424
Circular Clarification Gore St Storrie Limited
Processes in New Envirex Brochure
WASTEWATER • WATER •SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES•DRAINAGE WATER RESOURCES•ENERGY RECOVERY•ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING LABORATORY SERVICES-ANALYTICAL & PROCESS R&D
255 Consumers Road, Nortli York, Ontario M2J 5B6
Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa• Niagara • Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga• Kingston
The complete line of Rex circular scra per sludge collectors for municipal and industrial water and wastewater treat
ment applications is described in a new, 16 page brochure from Envirex. Information is presented about the several types of Rex circular collectors and their mechanisms, including half and full bridge designs, floc-clarifiers, gravity thickeners, and surface skim ming. Design concepts and parameters such as inlet energy dissipation, sludge settling characteristics and effluent col lection are discussed. Application pho tos and detailed drawings for each are also included.
The brochure discusses the variety of ways access bridges,influent dispersion wells, sludge scraper arms, scum ports and skimming and effluent weirs can be arranged for each circular design, and some of the options available to the designer. The complete range of Rex skimming
equipment is outlined, including full radius skimmers, revolving trough skimmers and ducking skimmers, with
fully described drawings and applica tion photos for each. Envirex
• Hydrogeoiogic investigations • Site Remediation
• Hazardous Waste Management TORONTO
OTTAWA TEL (613) 226-5442 FAX:(613) 226-5529
TEL (416) 635-5662 FAX: (416) 635-5353
• Water Supply and Treatment • Environmental Audits
• Groundwater Modeling
A Division of Inters information Technologies (Canada) Ltd,
Consultants for water and pollution control projects
Knox Martin Kretch Limited
Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario. L6T 4J5
(416) 459-4780 Kitchener (51 9) 743-6111
\A POMAINE,CDWIE,BUR^TTO &>lSQaATES UMITED Consulting Engineers
WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT • STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADSANDBRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICALSYSTEMS 3260 DEVON DRIVE,WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X 4L4
Circle reply card No. 186
Fax. (416) 459-7869 Cobalt (705) 679-5979
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
(519) 539-2015 69
Ground Breaking Technology Shunned
Badly deteriorated sewer rehabilitation using continuous folded polyethylene liner
Innovative engineering does not al
ways mean ground breaking tech nology. In fact Hamilton-Wentworth engineering deliberately avoided breaking ground to rehabilitate a 250mm sewer under Herkimer Street
in Hamilton, Ont. Instead, trenchless
technology was successfully used to re condition the 80 year old clay pipeline. In a 134 metre stretch, the combined
sewer exhibited just about all the pro blems that can plague old municipal sewer infrastructure. TV inspection clearly revealed root intrusion, dis placed joints, extensive cracking, broken pipe, soil voids and collapsing sections of clay pipe. In one location, entire sidewall segments ofthe pipe had vanished. The resulting void was lead ing to accelerated failure of the sewer. Analysis of the video report made for the Region by Uniflo Enviro-Tech Inc.
ated to aid decisions on replacement
installation via a small bore hole from
versus rehabilitation elsewhere.
Key Engineering Considerations The most pressing considerations were: structural strength of the liner, hydraulic capacity of the lined sewer,
the road surface. The hole position was verified with the TV camera positioned in the old pipe and scanning the void. The diameter change, from 250mm to 300mm was solved by inserting short
soil voids and an undocumented dia
PVC sections from the downstream
meter change. This last point, a size in
manhole prior to insertion of the liner. These provided an even backstop for the expansion of the liner.
crease from 250mm to 300mm occurred about 6 metres from the downstream manhole.
Structural & Hydraulic Considerations The 250mm pre-fold polyethylene
line(U-Linerâ&#x201E;˘ System)can be provided in various wall thicknesses from 7.6mm
(DR 32.5) to 14.7mm (Dr 17) with a cor responding increase in stand alone structural load capacity. Increasing the
wall thickness needs to be weighed against reduction in the final inside diameter of the sewer and hence re
was undertaken very soon, major dis ruption to homeowner services would occur.The problem section ran between
duced flow area. After reviewing video tapes, assessing loading conditions and reviewing similar installations else where, Samuel Pipe Liners (the Cana
two manholes, a distance of some 134 metres. An initial evaluation concluded
a DR 26 liner with a wall thickness of
indicated that unless remedial action
that rehabilitation using a pre-folded polyethylene liner was both technically and economically feasible. The Herkimer Street sewer, although an especially severe case, represented a cross section of problems that are typi cal of the city's older sewers. Informa tion gathered, and in particular, as sessment of the salient technical con
siderations for this project could be generalized to other sewers needing at tention. Useful information was gener
dian U-Liner distributor)recommended 9.7mm. It was expected that the high flow co-efficient ofthe polyethylene and
the absence ofjoints would compensate for the reduced diameter â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and this turned out to be the case.
Soil Void & Size Change Uniflo Enviro-Tech Inc., who installed
the liner in conjunction with Samuel Pipe Liners, proposed innovative me thods for solving both problems without excavation. The void was to be grout filled simultaneously with the U-Liner
Project Installation Since 34 house laterals would be tem
porarily out of service,(downtime was estimated at 15-20 hours), the Region issued notices to all residents advising the timing and nature of the work to be performed. The notice also requested that water use be minimized on the day of installation. Because this is a combined
sewer, provision was made to delay the installation only in the event of rain. The project work fitted into three stages. Stage 1 was to prepare the line, removing debris, roots and any obstruc tions that would impede the liner. Care was taken not to dislodge loose sections of pipe that were collapsing down or deflected inward. The liner in its folded
shape would have enough clearance to be inserted, while its expansion was ex pected to push the hanging clay sections back into position. Stage 2 was to winch the liner into position and expand it using low pressure steam. Stage 3 was to restore the house connections by boring out the liner at each service lateral using the internal, TV guided cutter. Hamilton-Wentworth Engineering Techni cian, Palmo Stumpo, on site during the installation, monitored the work and
assured that any inconvenience to the residents was minimal. Actual installation of the liner com
menced on Thursday, November 21, 1991. Because upstream flow was quite low, no over pumping was required. Flow continued to pass the folded liner during the one hour winching process as the continuous reeled liner was
pulled in through the upstream man hole, through the 250mm clay pipe and out at the downstream manhole. Low
I U-Llner ready for Installation. 70
pressure steam from a mobile boiler was immediately injected into the liner. The steam heating, expansion and cool down process was controlled by a tech nician provided by Samuel Pipe Liners. The processing lasted just under three hours and followed a specific program worked out for this project. At the completion of cooling, the ex panded liner was opened to upstream flow and the TV camera was sent in to
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
By Otka Hudoba* inspect the initial results. The video pic HERKIMER ST.. HAnilTON
tures showed a smooth liner, formed
DEFORHFD POI VFTHYI FNF 5FWFR 1 INFR INSTAI I ATION
tightly to the inside surface of the old clay pipe.The desired restoration objec tives had been achieved and the pipe was ready for opening service connec
U-Lmer DeSivereC from
factory on Reel
Restoring house services was a two step operation. First, each lateral was Hanbo
located and the remote controlled la
teral cutter opened a 50mm temporary
til i.t jatera: connect
hole to restore flow. All 34 laterals were
re-opened for flow within 20 hours.
With the immediate pressure off, the lateral cutter was put to work to open all service lateral connections to full size Existing Sanitary Sewer 250 mm Clay
and shape. Two lateral cutters were al ways on hand in case of mechanical
U-Liner'" 250 mm
After expansion with low pressure steam.
U-Llner'" 250 mm
failure. The installation finished off
Wall thickness 9.7 mm
with manhole benching and a final vi deo inspection ofthe white polyethylene U-Liner under normal flow conditions.
the trenchless rehabilitation of the aged Assessment of Results
Once installation is complete, the liner stands as a pipe-within-a-pipe, a glass smooth uniform wall with mini mal diameter reduction that provides optimum flow rates. It is important to acknowledge that
*Planning Engineer, Wentworth Region
and deteriorated combined sewer on Herkimer Street was a successful and
cost effective operation,considering the good condition of the road ie; (a con crete base road with an asphalt sur face). In light of budget constraints and public attitude, it is also very important that the Region receives quality mate rials and workmanship that will last
many years along with the less costly and time saving methods of repairing old municipal sewer infrastructure. Based on personal observation, there
is little doubt that for the price, quality and ease of installation, lining sewer pipes will be my future recommenda tion wherever such a method can be
applied. ES&E For more information,
Circle reply card No. 260
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Telephone(519)886-2880 Fax No.(519)886-5546
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Fdr more information, Circle reply card No. 139
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
— Product Review
New refrigerated wastewater sampler
MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416)475-5994
Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment
MALROZ ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
•Hydrogeoiogy •Waste management •Engineering geology •Environmental audits
MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613) 548-3446 Fax:(613) 548-7975
•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation A new full-function refrigerated wastewater sampler, engineered to provide a simple, four-button opera tion, has been introduced by Ed
Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners
mund Buhler GmbH.
Geneq says that it is the lowest priced full-function sampler avail
Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON
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Proctor & Redfern Limited
able anywhere. Features include
Consulting Engineers Architects Planners
Circle reply card No. 187
Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay
45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600
Fax: (416) 445-5276
SIMCOE ENGINEERINO GROUP UMITEO
Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL
DRAINAGE • SCADA
345 Kingston Road, Pickering. Ontario L1V 1A1
Tel: (416) 286-2285
Fax: (416) 286-1361 Ottawa
switch from discrete to composite in a few minutes, glass or plastic bot tles, Teflon tubing, and adapter kit for sampling toxics. Geneq Inc.
A new generation of ultrasonic Detectronic water flow/quality monitoring instruments has been introduced by Ramsay Lake Industrial. Adoption of microprocessor control has enabled more powerful and versatile instru ments to be produced in a smaller and neater package. The new Q Stream is typical. Designed for monitoring flows in open channels or partly filled pipes, the system can utilize a variety of velocity or depth sen sors to cope with liquids of differing characteristics.In addition to recording real-time flow,the unit displays totalised flow and can generate a flow propor tional pulse to control sampling or dos ing equipment. A major advancement with Q Stream is its ability to accept and interpretinput from specialised quality monitoring transducers. These are used to measure
pH, conductivity, turbidity, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, or other conditions for which proprietary
transducers are available.
Environmental ^ Engineers, Scientists, Project Managers
Water, Air, Soils
Ramsay Lake Circle reply card No. 188
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
[Mueller Canada lnc.l
Built-in reliability. Built-in Quality Built in Canada! At Mueller, we're proud of our age. We've been manufacturing and distributing fire hydrants, valves and fittings since 1912. And, with this experience behind us, our products have set the standards in the water works industry. And, because we're committed to quality, our products conform to AWWA, ULC and FM standards. As a result of this attention to detail, Mueller has
been chosen, again and again, for municipal and fire protection applications across Canada.
We're never far from reach. Our services are nation-wide with our main
manufacturing facility and head office in Milton, Ontario and foundry in St. Jerome, Quebec. So, wherever you are, and whatever your needs, our experienced representatives are ready to serve you, from coast to coast! Canada Valve
Hydrants & Corporation Brass
For more information, Circle reply card No. 147
"Darling" Valves & Hydrants
Device catches polluters 24 hours a day
TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES
RISK ASSESSMENT WASTE MGMT. SAMPLING & ANALYSIS
• SITE CHARACTERIZATION • DECOMMISSIONING • PLANT COMPLIANCE AUDITS • UST REMOVAL • PERMITTING
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• STACK SAMPLING • TOXICITY TESTING • MICROBIOLOGY
121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090
THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •
• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition A new device called the Point Com
400 Main Street East
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UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007
posite Pollutant Indicator(Point)is now available in Canada. The Point traps lighter than water pollutants and retains a small sample of water for further la boratory analysis. The Point is designed to be placed in sewage drain lines. By placing the Point in various sites throughout a town or city, municipal inspectors can deter mine the precise location of a polluter. This will enable authorities to prosecute
polluters thereby reducing pollution of our lakes and rivers. Mondex
For more information, Circle reply card No. 171
New water clean-up system by Solarchem Solarchem Environmental Systems of Richmond Hill, Out. launched a new
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS & PROJECT MANAGERS
system for water clean-up at the Petro-
TO GOVERNMENT,INDUSTRY, PRIVATE SECTOR
Safe'92 Conference and Trade Show,in
Houston, Texas. Custom designed to meet the needs of the Petroleum Indus HAUFAX-TORONTO-OTTAWA-LONDON-SUOBURY-WINNIPEQ-REQINA-SASKATOON-LETH8RIDQECALQAHY-EDMONTON-BURNABY-WHITEHORSE-YEaOWKNIFE AND THE U.SA
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony Design and Specification of Control Measures Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Consulting Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Engineers Quarries, Presses, Blasting 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1A3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698
WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municioal Law, Land Use Planning and Development.
Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200,Toronto. Ontario M5H 1Z4
try. it destroys dissolved contaminants from gasoline (BTEX. MTBE. etc.) which have leached into groundwater from leaking Underground Storage Tanks (UST's). The unit is completely automatic and can operate without onsite supervision. Based on Rayox®, Solarchem's prop rietary UV/oxidation technology, the new 10 kW unit can destroy greater than 99.9% of contaminants at a rate of up to 20 gpm. Many features set it apart from earlier UV based systems, including a proprietary high intensity UV lamp,and an automated UV lamp cleaner. An on-board computer (PLC) en sures failsafe control, with telephone dialer feedback and modem as standard
equipment.The unit is compact(2' x 5'), only needs access from one side for ser vicing, and consequently can be placed outofthe way in a corner ofan operating service station, or other buildings. For more information,
Circle reply card No. 172 74
Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992
New smoothwall interior
BOSS 2000: technical data
BOSS 2000 provides a corrugated exterior for superior strength, as weil as a thick smoothwali interior for maximum flow. With a
Manning's 'n' vaiue of .012, BOSS 2000 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics. Full size range BOSS 2000 is available in 4" to 36" diameters as non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCK™ filter. Custom fittings are available on request. Easy to Install BOSS 2000 is light in weight for ease of transporting, handling and installation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chain saw! Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemical attack in most applications.
254 Tfiames Road East
34601 Vye Road Abbotstord, B.C. V4S 4N7 (604)850-0753
Exeter, Ontario NOM 1S3 (519) 235-0870
TM BOSS and SOCK are registered trademarks of Big '0' Inc.
Big '0' inc.
• Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s • Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM 02412 • Recommended for use in soils having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to corrosion • Excellent impact resistance under winter conditions for yearround installation Make the move to BOSS 2000 now! Ask for the BOSS 2000 brochure
... your introduction to a new era of optimum hydraulics, installation ease and dependable performance.
6014 - 64th Street
101 de Lauzon
Taber, Alberta T0K2G0 (403)223-3521
Bouchervilie, P.O. J4B 11j6 (514)449-5004 1 (800) 361-1895
For more information, Circle reply card No. 148
Innovative technology working tor you
Cement Industry Tackles Waste Management A Symposium entitled Cement Industry Solutions to Waste Management, engin eers and scientists from fifteen countries
will discuss current practices and new technologies in waste disposal. The Symposium will be held at the Conven tion Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Cana da, October 7, 8 & 9, 1992.
The meeting will focus on the mul titude of ways that portland cement and concrete can be used to recycle, encap sulate,stabilize or destroy a wide variety of industrial and domestic waste pro ducts. A special session will be devoted to energy and resource recovery from certain types of waste in the high tem peratures ofthe cement kiln,the key ele ment in the cement manufacturing
and other countries. Portland cement
can be used to chemically or physically alter specific wastes to allow safe land filling. Concrete can be used for encap sulation or containment of waste to pro vide safe storage. Concrete has been sprayed over large volume wastes as a shield to reduce leachates to acceptable levels. These and several other topics will be addressed by symposium speakers. Organic wastes such as used tires, domestic garbage and waste petroleum products all contain potential energy
ronment Canada, Alberta Environ ment, Canadian Prairie and Northern
Providing Senior Consulting Advice
Institute. For more information,contact; Robert
SI9/74I-5774 N2H 6P4
on Environmental Matters
Canadian Portland Cement Associa
tion, representing the Canadian por tland cement manufacturing industry. Co-sponsors include the University of Calgary, Canada Centre for Mineral & Energy Technology (CANMET), Envi
Suite 904 50 Queen Street N
that can be used as a partial fuel replace ment in the portland cement manufac turing process. Selected inorganic wastes can be recycled as raw feed for cement manufacturing. Speakers at the Sym posium will present cases where these processes are an integral part of the day to day cement manufacturing process. The Symposium is sponsored by the
Section of the Air & Waste Manage ment Association, Alberta Special Waste Management Corporation, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering and the Alberta Chapter, American Concrete
XCG Consultants Ltd.
Dealing with the disposal of a broad range of waste products,from domestic garbage to hazardous industrial sludges, has become a major challenge for both the public and private sectors in Canada,
Richard J. Rush
MASc, PEng Principal
PUT OUR FORTY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE ON YOUR TEAM
W. Piggott, P.Eng., Regional Director, Canadian Portland Cement Associa
tion, 201-1155 West Pender Street, Van couver, British Columbia V6E 2P4.
Phone: (604) 685-0582, Fax; (604) 6851574.
Badger Meter 80 Years of Flow Measurement Experience Badger Meter is dedicated to the
development and manufacture of
quality instrumentation for water and wastewater
Pressure pipe, open channel,• non-full pipe, retrofit or new
applications. Badger has the expertise and knowledge to insure success.
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Compound Measurement •CLOSED PIPE Pressure Transit-Time Ultrasonic/Flow
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For more information, Circle reply card No. 149 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
We know that as a specifier of testing services, there are two issues of para mount importance to you-accuracy and fast turnaround. And Bondar-Clegg delivers on both.
Using the latest instru mentation and methodolo
gies, our expert staff can perform the trace organic and inorganic determinations required in the analysis
of water, waste water,soil and air. Our scientists provide accurate
and precise, defensible data for use in evaluating projects that involve water potability, municipal water supply, effluent discharge, air monitoring, land reclamation and hazardous waste dis
posal, in accordance with nationally and internationally recognized stand ards. We use method protocols such as EPA, Ministry of Environment Ontario,Environment Canada and the American Public Health Association.
At Bondar-Clegg, we've built our reputation on results that can with stand your scrutiny and turnaround you can count on.
Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. Ottawa, Ontario
Tel:(613) 749-2220 Fax:(613) 749-7170 North Vancouver, B.C. Tel:(604) 985-0681 Fax:(604) 985-1071
Bondar-Clegg Inc. Sparks, Nevada Tel:(702)359-9330 Fax:(702) 359-9386 Chimitec Ltee
Ste-Foy, Quebec Tel:(418)683-1777 Fax:(418) 683-7791 ACCURACY AND Precision Through Discipline
BONDAR-CLEGG Environmental, Geological AND Industrial ANALYTICAL Services A DIVISION OF mCHCAPE INSPECTION AND TESTING SERVICES
For more information, Circle reply card No. 150
Photo report by Tom Davey
AQTE celebrates 30th Annual Conference The Association quebecoise des tech niques de I'eau (AQTE) celebrated its 30th anniversary with record atten dance at its annual conference in Mon
treal April 8-10. Conference chair Johnny Izzi, said some 1,300 had atten ded the conference and exposition. Federal Environment Minister Jean
Charest and Quebec Environment Mi nister Pierre Paradis both attended the
meeting. Mr. Charest took the oppor tunity to make a major policy announ cement on the state of the Canadian
environment simultaneously with the results of a significant federal report. He said Canada's freshwaters were
threatened from coast to coast by pol lution. He said large areas of eastern Canada were exposed to destructive
Quebec Environment Minister Pierre Paradis with Marie Meunier. dards and current economic, social and climatic trends could cause water
second woman to become President of the association. She took over from
acid rain, despite the Canada/US air
quality standards to drop further.
quality pact. Other highlights from his report in
• In the Great Lakes, more than 360 chemical contaminants have been
Michel Lalonde who completed his term at a high point of the association. As always, the AQTE meeting attrac ted great attention from the media with
• Pesticide contamination had been found in wells from Prince Edward Island to British Columbia. In New Brunswick alone,500 wells have been
found with studies suggesting that ex posure to a mix of toxic substances may be more damaging than the ef
radio and television coverage compet
contaminated by petroleum tanks. • Water quality in the Prairies at many
Quebec Environment Minister Pierre
ing with front page newspaper headlines in both Erench and English papers.It is true to say that AQTE wields more poli tical clout than any comparable body in
Paradis congratulated the incoming
Canada. Environment ministers who
locations is close to minimum stan-
AQTE President, Marie Meunier, the
ignore AQTE do so at their peril.
Chemists demand licencing
fects of individual toxins.
After a brief speech at the exposition,
continued from page 22
"When I began in the environment area,I heard much talk about engineer ing,less talk about biology and no talk at all about analytical chemistry. Today chemists are rightly taking their place alongside engineers in the environmen tal hierarchy; but the intrinsic worth of analyses is vastly undervalued. The low bid ethic takes no account of the quali ty of the data, the interpretive skills of the chemists or the environmental expe rience and service skills ofthe staff. This
low bid scenario is dealing a devastating blow to the environmental lab industry.
There are few things potentially more costly than questionable data. Clients should realize that instead of pursuing savings which are often minuscule com pared to what is at stake." Tom said that the roll call of illus trious chemists: Brand, Krafft, Gahn,
Scheele, Boyle, Kunchel and Lavoisier
pleased to announce the appoint ment of Phil Sidhwa to the position
Graydon 50 BondarClegg 77 Calgon Carbon 62
Environmental Ltd. is
Since joining Terratec in 1988,Phil served as Vice President of Market
ing, and previously as Sludge Man agement Co-ord inator atthe Regional Municipality of Halton. Terratec is one of Canada's largest Biosolids handling firms, offering turnkey consulting and contracting services for agricultural utilization. Terratec has earned a reputation as the leader in Digester Clean-outs at wastewater treatment plants across
Samuel Pipe Liner
Colgate Palmollve 42, 66
64, 65 57
T. City Iron Works
Ontario. The state-of-the-art clean-
out system is augmented with our most recent technological innovation, the "Mobile Sludge Solids Screening and Dewatering Process".
Dow Corning Ecodyne
air time and headlines while the voice of the chemist remains mute."
TERRATEC l\^ SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
For more information,
Env. Prot. Labs Envlroclean
to name but a few, was ample evidence
cal toxins from certain (but not all) self styled environmentalists who display little understanding of either chemistry or epidemiology. All too often they gain
that the profession has a brain. What it lacks is a voice."It is nauseating to listen to some inaccurate drivel about chemi
Arts Mfg.Supp. 48 Badger Meter 76 Barringerlabs 52
Circie reply card No. 151 78
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
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REGULATOR "THE PREFERRED SOURCE"
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BURLINGTON,ONTARIO TEL: 1 (416)827-3189 FAX: 1 (416)332-7068
WOODBRIDGE,ONTARIO TEL: 1 (416)851-8591 FAX: 1 (416)851-8788
For more information, Circie reply card No. 152
Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
Underdrains Air + Vtaler Separate ducts for air and water and Improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform flow distribution NEOPRENE
AIR ORIFICE WEEP ORIFICE
ORIFICE SHIELD AIR DUCT
WATER DUCT WATER ORIFICE FILTRATE FLUME PLATE FLUME CHANNEL
Highly Uniform How Distribution Reduced WashWdter Use l\lo false Floor
Required Ideal Retrofit
The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.
^EIMCO Process Equipment
259 MIdpark Way S.E.
4940 Chlsholm St. / Ste. 1
Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2
Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812 Fax:(403) 256-7071
Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837
1 Holiday Street
P.O. Box 300
5155 Creekbank Road
5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Cue. H9R 5N3
Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801) 526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005
Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 Tel:(416)625-6070 / Fax:(416) 625-3519
Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514) 695-9088
U.S. Patent #5019259
A Baker Hughes company
For more information, Circie repiy card No. 153