Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) May 1992

Page 1





Focussing on industrial/municipal wastewaters — hazardous wastes — air pollution & drinking water treatment

A Davcom Business Publication

May 1992


Vancouver — home of 1992 AWWA Annual Conference

AQTE — PCAO — AWWA Ont. Section — photo reports Maintenance programs for treatment plant pumps Remediation of contaminated groundwaters Trenchless technology — a case history

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TELEPHONE (416) 847-2740

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April/May 1992, Vol. 5 No. 2 issued May, 1992

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY

Controlling zebra mussels with potassium permanganate


Consistent monitoring and sampling highlight success of EPA regulatory program


Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 727-4627 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 244-5502

Collingwood PUC makes successful switch to metering


Western Canada makes great strides in Biological Nutrient Removal


Technical Advisory Board Robert B. Baker, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. Totten Sims Hublcki Associates

George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrle Ltd.

Sparging can reduce VOC remediation costs in groundwater ^ m

Rod Holme, P.Eng.


Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

Allan Church, C.Chem.

JL /

New economic initiatives are designed to protect the environment


Article by Bernard and Nilima Sharma Fleet

Church & Trought Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LLB.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Peter Turgoose, A.Sc.T.

Canron West Pipe (BC) Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.

Vancouver: Spectacular home of 1992 AWWA Conference

Exhibitors, trade show floor plan, technical program



Legal decision on Bata case highlights officers' and directors' _ _ responsibilities

Article by Jonathan Kahn Avoid extravagant pumping costs with proper maintenance programs Article by Bob Pitchers and Ernie Pelham


Hydrocarbons in cooling water now detected in ppb range T^icle by Steve Whitney


Badly deteriorated sewer rehabilitation using continuous folded polyethylene line


Article by Otka Hudoba

Regional Conference Reports —

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.

ACPO chemists demand licensing CEIA hosts post Globe 92 meeting PCAO focusses on industry at 21st annual conference AWWA told that water wasting technology will not sell abroad

22 22 24 26

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

AQTE celebrates 30th Annual Conference


but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material. Environmental Science

& Engineering, 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora, On tario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 7274666 Fax:(416)841-7271. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be

Departments Reader Service Card


R&D News


Editorial Comment


Literature Reviews


Industry Update


Product Reviews



Ad Index

60-74 78

sent to Environmental Science & En

gineering, c/o Pro-Art Graphics, 70 Ferrier St. Markham, Ontario, Canada, L3R 2Z5, attn: Gary Welch Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.(G.S.T. extra)

Cover photo: Vancouver's spectacular vista from Grouse Mountain. AWVIA delegates can take the ski tram there, winter or summer,for a dining experience with an unrivalled view. During Globe '92, ES&E staffers took a helicopter ride around the mountains for a memorable visual experience. Photo courtesy Tourism Vancouver.

CHECK THE LABEL If the date on the address label on the front cover

reads MAY 92, your sub

scription has expired as of this issue. To avoid missing the next issue, simply send

a cheque for $48.15(G.S.T. inc.)and the address iabei to ES&E.

Information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

By Tom Davey

Editorial Comment

Honestly, I'm lying — my political career depends on it

In British Columbia environmen

talists are often compared to water melons; green on the outside, pink

on the inside. Not so in Ontario.

Lacking EC's benign climate, a curious political mutation seems to have oc curred. Currently, Ontario cabinet min isters reversed the order being pink on the outside and very, very green on the inside.

The mutant species seems to have oc curred after a political genus, known as

the Big Blues, were dominant for 40 years. They were affectionately known by geneticists as The Big Blue Genes.This was an ironic label as they were more like stuffed shirts. Then, without warn

ing, the Big Blues were overcome by a species known as The Peterson Reds. nicknamed after the Liberal's election colours and Premier Peterson's necktie.

The Peterson Reds, politically com atose for years, except for some fake in dignation during question periods, ex ploded into political life like a cholera outbreak when elected. With their na

tural enemies laid low and the political

species. David Suzuki was notified im mediately and Spain and Portugal were ordered to stop catching Blues' until stocks recovered. Some geneticists, with a touch ofgallows humour,were unable to resist the sartorial link, renaming the genus The Faded Blue Genes. When entrenched in office, the Peter

son Reds had lived up to their name by flooding Ontario with red ink through profligate spending. Had they been us ing water on the same scale,an environ mental assessment would have been

needed. But they were following the well established

deficit traditions of the

Federal Liberals whose leader, Pierre

Elliott Trudeau, could paralyze fiscal critics with a simple shrug. He tried to bind the nation together by issuing gov ernment bonds. Now we are held in

bondage to foreign banks. The Peterson Reds,following the feder al Liberal tradition, continued to bribe

the electorate with its own money.They then consulted the pollsters and called an early election. A bad move. They

The term 'gut feeling'is believed to have emanated from this practice. Not for the first time, the pollsters turned out to be false prophets. The Peterson Reds were eviscerated, following the Big Blues into political oblivion when the Rae Pinks swept in with a massive majority. It was the start of the Brave New

World Aldous Huxley had predicted. En vironment Minister Ruth Grier proudly proclaimed that every Ontario cabinet minister would also be a minister of the

environment in a new and glorious green government. We were all to have bread and circuses, be politically cor rect, pure of heart, rescue sunset indus tries at $200,000 per Job, win money in government casinos and watch the eco nomy grow.

After a quick retrofit from acerbic cri tic to provincial premier. Bob Rae, pro mised with great fanfare, to enforce strict standards of conduct for his cabi

net 'which would herald a new era ofpoliti cal integrity'. There were to be no com mercial considerations to taint socialist idealism in this brave new cabinet. The

balance of nature disturbed, the Peter

would have done better to have con

son Reds thrived mightily for seven years. Big Blues became an endangered

sulted the entrails of a chicken, much as

premier's clarion call is increasingly offkey in the wake of various scandals and

Roman politicians did two millenia ago.

continued on page 6

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

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Editorial Comment,conrd cabinet resignations, ex-cabinet minis ters now totalling a sizeable alumni. I was vividly reminded of the pre mier's proclamation ofcabinet integrity

when their deceptions are revealed. Ms Martel used high technology to pro claim her lack of veracity, perhaps start ing a new fashion in machine-enhanced

when Ontario northern affairs minister,


Shelley Martel, proclaimed that she really had told the truth when she said she had lied. She later 'proved' she had lied through polygraph tests. This must be the first time in recorded history a poly graph has been commissioned by some one to prove she was lying and analo gous to a rat swimming towards a sink ing ship. Most politicians reluctantly admit it

The furor began after Ms Martel claimed she had seen the file of a Sud-

bury dermatologist. Dr. Jean-Pierre Do nahue. whom, she said, was to face

charges over his OHIP billings under the Ontario government health plan. The NDP seems to have great difficulty in differentiating between MD's billings and actual salaries. Later the minister

apologized to Dr. Donahue, claiming


she had fabricated the story of actually seeing his file. This is the most unlikely political farce since John Profumo, then British minister of defence, shared the favours of Christine Keeler with a Russian spy. But unlike Ms Martel. who is clinging

tenaciously to her office, British cabinet ministers (in the mother of all parlia ments) promptly resign when even minor breaches of ministerial integrity,

or improprieties are revealed. The British public might have toler ated defense minister John Profumo

having an adulterous liaison; they might even have shrugged off the un likely fact that their defense minister was unknowingly sharing his mistress with a Russian spy; but the fact he had lied in the House ofCommons about the


affair was more unforgiveable than his sexual antics; so he was out of British

politics for good. Ms Martel, far from emulating Pro-


fumo's tragic, but politically correct break with politics, is clinging to office with the tenacity of a zebra mussel. The fact that a minister ofthe crown resorted

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to a lie detector test to actually prove she lied will surely enter the record books


one day. As in the Profumo Affair, a medical

practitioner's career. Dr. Jean-Pierre Donahue, has also become tainted,

thanks to Shelley Martel's political an tics which read more like those of a Se

cond City character, than a govern ment minister.

It is interesting that, months after her admission of lying, Ms Martel is still in Cabinet while John Kormos — whose

indiscretions included posing, fully clothed, for the Toronto Sun as a SUN-

shine boy,was unceremoniously booted out of the cabinet by the premier. While naive and politically incorrect perhaps, his actions were minor blemishes, mere

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


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Industry update Ontario's Countdown

Acid Rain program on scheduie Four companies which produce more than 80 per cent of Ontario's sulphur dioxide continue to meet the targets set

by the six-year-old Countdown Acid Rain program.

The program has capped total sul phur dioxide emissions at 665 kilotonnes(kt)by 1994 for Ontario Hydro,Inco Ltd., Falconbridge Ltd. and Algoma Steel Corporation Ltd. Further,Ontario Hydro has a limit of 280 kt on its com bined sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide

1991. The plant was running at 86 per cent capacity. Falconbridge expects to be able to meet its Countdown Acid

Rain target while running at full capacity. The government reviewers are con cerned that one of the process changes may result in heavy metals such as chromium leaching into nearby water bodies. The reviewers recommend the

company test the slag to find out if any metals are leaching into the groundwater or local waterways. Ontario Hydro has to meet an interim

annual sulphur dioxide emissions tar get of 240 kt and a combined sulphur dioxide plus nitric oxide emissions limit of 280 kt for 1990-93, followed by a sul phur dioxide emissions cap of 175 kt and a combined sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide cap of215 kt after 1993.The Crown corporation's emissions of sul phur dioxide were 79.3 kt and emissions ofsulphur dioxide and nitric oxide were 107.1 kt for the first six months of 1991. The reviewers are concerned that the

continued overleaf


The report is a review by a team from the ministries of the Environment,

Energy and Northern Development and Mines,ofthe semi-annual progress reports required by Countdown Acid Rain. Highlights ofthe report for the six months ending July 1991 include: • increased budgets for the sulphur dioxide abatement projects at Inco and Falconbridge's copper and nickel smelting operations in Sudbury; Inco's budget has risen to about $600 million from $494 million and Fal

conbridge's capital budget has risen

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to $35 million from $30 million;

• Ontario Hydro's plan to install limes tone slurry scrubbers which will re duce sulphur dioxide emissions at the Lambton generating station by 1994 at a cost of $537.5 million;

• the possibility that Falconbridge may be able to cut its sulphur dioxide emissions by one quarter of its 1994 target to 75 kt by 1998; • report from Ontario Hydro of a 77 per cent cut in imported electricity for the six months ending July 1991 over the same period in 1990.This has resulted in only minor quantities of net elec

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program Inco has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of265 kt after 1993.The

company emitted 336 kt ofsulphur diox ide in the first six months of 1991. Government reviewers are concerned

about the concentration of sulphur dio xide at the ground level once two new smokestacks start operating. The smokestacks, which are shorter than

Inco's super stack,are part ofInco's pro cess changes. The reviewers are worried that concentrations of sulphur dioxide at ground level may increase once the smokestacks are functioning.

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Further,the reviewers asked the com

pany to report on whether or not the now completed mill rationalization program has met its objectives. Falconbridge has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of 100 kt after 1993.The company's sulphur dioxide emissions were 43.2 kt for the first six months of

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Summa Engineering Limited 1275 Eglinton Ave., East, Unit 49, Mississauga, Ontario L4W 2Z2 Tel:(416)624-3188 Fax:(416)624-1293 For more information, Circle reply card No. 131

Industry update Countdown acid rain, cont'd

cost of installing scrubbers at the Lambton generating plant had increased to $537.5 million from $430 million and

asked the utility company for details. Algoma Steel's iron ore sintering plant in Wawa has a sulphur dioxide emissions target of 125 kt after 1993. For the first six months of 1991, the plant's sulphur dioxide emissions were 33.4 kt. The company continues to meet its tar gets because ofproduction cuts and pro cess changes.


For copies of the report. Countdown Acid Rain: Government Review ofthe Ele venth Progress Reports (July 31. 1991) by Ontario's Four Major Sources ofSulphur Dioxide,(PIBS 646E11), please contact the Ministry of the Environment's Pub lic Information Centre at 135 St. Glair

(416) 323-4321.

A strike for the environment A 150-year tradition of match making has been abandoned by Britain's lead-


ing match manufacturer following its success in replacing chemicals that are thought to be damaging the environ ment. Bryant and May, which produces many match brands says smokers and other match users in Britain alone strike

a staggering 100 million matches a day. each one using a tiny amount ofsulphur to help it catch fire. Sulphur,the chief culprit in acid rain, has been part of the head of a match since the earliest days of match making. Without it, the match flame would not

burn bright, but tend to fizz like a sparkler. The bulbous match head not only contains sulphur but also toxic zinc oxide that is used to stabilise the glue binding the head materials together. It also ensures good performance by the

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matches to make them easier to strike. Glue, which came from animal hides,

has now given way to a vegetable starch and scrap gelatine waste from phar maceutical companies that produce capsules. The new British formula for matches

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is now being patented and all future Bryant and May output using it will be branded with a special Green Check flash.

Bryant and May says all those trees being used for matchmaking is not an environmental disaster because the

wood used is aspen, a prolific form of poplar that grows in Canada and other countries. Such trees regenerate them selves naturally, faster than they can be used, by growing suckers from the exist ing root system. Forest management en sures that the volume cut each year does not exceed the rate at which the

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Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992


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Industry update New Canadian

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sions.The Blue Bottle'" process has also

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tion shortly. This award winning tech nology uses a proprietary adsorbent and a special patent protected process to capture and recycle the ozone-destroy ing CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) from any source.It will be made available for service ofboth residential and commer

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Blue Bottle'" technology is used in con

atmosphere where they ultimately can damage the ozone layer. Dr. Michael

junction with existing equipment.Halo-

Hirtenstein, Halozone's Vice-President

captured from large scale refrigeration units during servicing. Present methods can only capture up to 90% of the CFCs and reuse of the CFCs is often imposs

estimates that every year 10,000 tonnes of CFCs escape into the Earth's atmo sphere from Canadian sources alone.

zone says that 100% of CFCs can be

The world-wide estimate is some 500,000 tonnes annually.

ible because of contamination with air

Blue Bottle'" cylinders, containing a

will result in capture of the remaining 10%, and purification of the CFCs for

AQTE honours the late Patrick O. Bourgeois at 30th Convention

or oil. Using the Blue Bottle'" process


Contact; Dr. Michael Hirtenstein Tel & Fax 416-508-0769.

The late Pat Bourgeois was remembered Status for AWWA and WEF. by a commemorative award in his name Highly regarded throughout Canada, by the association quebecoise des tech Pat was later elected as President of the niques de I'eau (AQTE)at its 30th An Federation of Associations on the Ca niversary Conference. The award was nadian Environment (FACE) which presented to M.Kama!Karazivan,MEN- was the precursor to the present Cana VIQ,in Montreal.

proprietary zeolite adsorbent, are used to extract CFCs from residential ref

dian Water and Wastewater Association.

Eloquent and witty in French and Pat died, somewhat dramatically in English, Pat was a founder member of Quebec City in 1982 immediately after AQTE and its first AWWA Section Di receiving AQTE's first Honorary Pre rector when AQTE broke away from sident's plaque. what was then the Canadian Section Other awards presented to dis AWWA,to form its own Section in the tinguished Quebeckers included the '60s'. AQTE also became a Member As AWWA's Fuller Award, which was pre sociation in its own right of the WPCF, sented to M.Denis Lapointe, Consultant (now the Water Environment Federa LBCD de Valleyfield and the WEF Bedell award was presented to M. Gab tion). Prior to the AQTE initiative,Canada, riel Meunier,John Meunier Inc. Federal

was represented by a single Director on Environment Minister Jean Charest the AWWA board and a Single Director and Quebec Environment Minister on the WEF board. Now in effect, Ca Pierre Paradis both spoke at the con nada has five regions,each with Section ference. T. Davey

Rolls-Royce seeks "Green" turbines Rolls-Royce hasjoined forces with three other organizations in a UK Govern ment-backed research programme aimed at reducing toxic emissions from gas turbines. The scheme involves the industrial and marine gas turbines com pany of Rolls-Royce, materials special ists Johnson Matthey,the Cranfield In stitute of Technology in eastern England and Bath University in south west England. The partners aim to adapt and apply their expertise in the mathematical modelling of catalytic combustion sys tems that could eventually be applied to industrial gas turbines to substantially reduce nitrous oxide emission levels.

The Johnson Matthey company is a proven manufacturer of car exhaust

catalysts. Cranfield will offer its exper tise in combustion and combustors —

particularly for gas turbines — and Bath University has unique experience in modelling catalytic combustion. RR will undertake rig testing of concepts to verify predictions of the mathematical model.

Ecodyne awarded Alberta P&P contract Ecodyne Limited has been awarded a

contract for the design and supply of four (4) large waste treatment clarifiers for installation at the new Alberta-Paci fic Industries Inc. mill in northern Al

berta. The two(2)Primary Clarifiers are 52 metres in diameter and the two (2) Secondary Clarifiers 60 metres in dia meter.

The late Pat Bourgeois,left, with Stan Mason of BC in Vancouver.Dedicated engineers have been advancing the state ofthe art for generations through their professional associations. Countless hours of leisure time have been freely given bythese and other professionals in pursuit ofa t}etter environment. 12

They will be installed this summer and form part of the overall environ mental control system of the mill. The contract is worth more than 1 million dollars.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

AWMA Conference Report

MOE's new strategic direction for muiti-media poiiution prevention

Pollution prevention is not a

radically new approach to en vironmental management, Gerard C. Ronan, MOE Assist

ant Deputy Minister told the Air & Waste Management Association's Spr ing Conference in Toronto. It has been used successfully in the past in many environmental programs. Early exam ples include the decision in the early seventies by the detergent manufac turers to phase out the use of phospho rus in their product. This action was taken because of the linkage of phos phorus with eutrophication, the resul tant algal blooms anad oxygen deple tion, and the negative impacts it had in our lakes, particularly Lake Erie. Another extremely successful initia tive is the Countdown Acid Rain Pro

gram which commits the province to reduce its SO2emissions at the 1980 base

case level by 60% by 1994. The four ma jor SO2 generators which account for over 80% of Ontario's SO2 are regulated and have undertaken measures to re

duce their acid gas emissions, and they are on target.

An important illustration of the pol lution prevention principle was the re cent accomplishment of Northern Telecom in reducing their use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by changing their electronic board production pro cess, obviating the need to use a CFC solvent for cleaning purposes. These examples graphically illustrate pollution prevention driven direct ac tion to alleviate a perceived environ mental threat. In a nutshell, they

represent what pollution prevention is all about.

Pollution prevention in a generic sense has always been a central princi ple ofsound environmental planning.It is an integral element of the environ mental assessment process. Proponents are required to assess all the down stream impacts of the proposed under taking to minimize environmental impairments. 'Ton may ask why all the hullabaloo about pollution prevention ifit is simply an old dog with a new coat? Some cynics see it as merely a new trendy mantra to be intoned at regular intervals as evi dence ofbeing environmentally correct. Others see it as the ultimate bromide

that will finally cure all our pollution ills. The answer likely lies somewhere in the middle.

In Ontario we have primarily relied upon end-of-pipe controls to manage

Gerard Ronan

pollution. This has been achieved through a variety oflegislative and regu latory instruments, including control orders,regulations,guidelines and stan

rate air, water and waste programs. In the area of standard setting a multi media approach was adopted, and in special prgrams such as Acid Rain an integrated, inter-disciplinary process has been successfully followed. These programs however were the exception rather than the rule. It is fair to say that overall the ministry programs have lacked an integrated, multi-media perspective. In Ontario we have experienced ex tremely widespread environmental stresses on air, water and land resources.

Consequently there is generally more urgency in achieving substantive reduc tions in pollution loadings to the dards, and abatement and enforce stressed ecosystem. ment activities. Pollution prevention is not restricted The regulatory command and control to the industrial sector. The principles approach has provided an essential can be advantageously applied to nonbaseline for mounting an attack on pol point sources. The Ontario farming lution. There have been some substan community,on their own volition,are in tive successes. Inroads have been made the early stages of developing pollution in slowing down the rate of pollution, prevention plans for every farm in the and in reducing the pollution loading to province. the environment. Ontario is committed to making pol Despite these successes, there is ge lution prevention work. We are looking neral consensus that the end-of-pipe forward to working as partners with in command and control approach has dustry and other governments to ensure not provided the needed level of envi the success of this important new pro ronmental protection. Current ap gram direction. ES&E proaches, with some notable exceptions, still primarily rely on treating wastes ANNOUNCEMENT after the fact, after they have been pro duced. The focus has been on costly, non-value added end-of-pipe treat ment technology. What is significant about the move towards pollution prevention is both government and industry are in agree ment that it is potentially a much more cost effective way to reduce pollution. Furthermore in many instances indus try is taking the lead in implementing Thorburn Penny is pleased to an pollution prevention in their plant nounce the opening of their new operations.There exists the opportunity branch office in Stoney Creek. for a partnership between government David Clancy will serve as the and industry in developing this strategy. manager. Another major difference is that On tario Environment Minister,Ruth Grier, Opening date May 1, 1992. has been an outspoken advocate of pol Thorburn Penny lution prevention. She has changed the Consulting Engineers thrust and direction of Ontario's muni 903 Barton Street, Unit 21 cipal solid waste management program Stoney Creek, Ontario by placing major emphasis on reduc tion of waste.

Ruth Grier has also requested that all the key programs of the Environment Ministry be re-shaped to reflect pollu tion prevention principles. Traditional ly the ministry has functioned with a single medium perspective with sepa

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

L8G 1K1 Tel: 416-643-8166 416-643-8171

m 13

Industry update AWMA told of CFCs Phaseout

Rob Warren becomes OPCEA President

Ontario's program to control ozone de pleting substances has two major ele ments, the Air and Waste Management Association conference was told in To

ronto, April 26-29. 1. to eliminate the use of CFCs;

2. to capture and reuse existing CFCs. Gerard Ronan, Assistant Deputy Mi nister, MOF, said "legislation and re gulations are in plaee which provide for a ban on the manufacture and import of products that employ CFCs as propellants in aerosol sprays or as blowing agents in the manufacture of foam packaging. 'The phaseout from use of CFCs in the manufacture of flexible foam and

rigid insulation foam will be completed by the end of 1993. A mandatory recov ery/recycling program for mobile air conditioning systems and refrigerated vehicles was implemented in July/91. "A recovery/recycling program for stationary refrigeration systems is under development, he said.

Rob Warren,left. Allied Colloids,is the 1992/3 President ofthe Ontario Pollu

tion Control Equipment Association. He presented the presidential plaque to Past President Steve Davey, Environmental Science & Engineering. Shortly For more information

afterwards,Steve was elected a Director of the Pollution Control Association

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Perennial technology solves a new problem

Fighting the zebra mussels with potassium permanganate

Zebra mussels haveinvaded the

Great Lakes,and the chemical

originally developed as a dis infectant in 1859 may adapt to the needs ofthe environment by dealing with the mussels.

Since the turn of the century, the che

mical potassium permanganate has

tems of power plants and utilities that use lake water, they not only attach themselves to well walls, piping, intake cribs and screens, but to each other,cre

ating layers upon layers that obstruct pipes and screens and block water flow. Physical removal requires continual scraping or high pressure hosing. It is now a major problem in Canada and

been used by water treatment plants as an oxidizer(like chlorine). Through the years its use has expanded steadily, as water utilities recognized the power of potassium permanganate to destroy organics that cause taste, odor,color, and other water quality problems. Evidence

zebra mussels can be controlled by the

has now led some water utilities to con

use of the oxidizer chlorine, for exam

sider that potassium permanganate may be the answer to an otherwise long and costly fight to keep systems free of the newest water problem, zebra

ple, may lead to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). Potassium permanganate, however, has been used successfully without adverse reactions, it is claimed by the Cams Chemical Company, La Salle, Illinois. During 1990, the sightings of zebra mussels in Lake Michigan had the staff of the Racine(Wisconsin)Water Utility


The mussels, small freshwater mollusks native to Russia but now found

throughout Europe, are extremely pro lific. Quickly invading the intake sys

the U.S. Tests have shown that infestations of

use of various oxidizers.The problem is to control the mussels without con

taminating the water supply. Excessive

Commercial Diver with under water video camera for under ice inspection. concerned about the infestation. In

April 1991, Racine's intake system, in cluding 90 feet ofa 54-inch intake pipe,a 26-foot- and 10-foot-wide well and a

600-foot-long tunnel about eight feet in diameter, was emptied of water. Mike Kosterman, the facility's Water Resource Chemist and a trained biolo

gist, reports that when he climbed down into the 10-foot shore well to inspect the walls and intake openings, he dis covered zebra mussels on the wall near

the 54-inch opening. When Kosterman and others entered the 54-inch pipe,


more mussels were found. The mussels,

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Mr. Kosterman then inspected the pipes and walls of the suction well and found no evidence ofbiological forms of any sort.

The staff believe the likely answer to the absence of mussels is the use of po tassium permanganate, which is fed into the small shore well via an 800-foot, Wi in. feed line. Mr. Kosterman found

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all of the zebra mussels before the point where potassium permanganate is added to the water and none after.

A similar experience has been repor ted by the Avon Lake Water Treatment Plant in Avon Lake,Ohio.In November

of 1989, according to Assistant Director Rick Fberle, the application point of their potassium permanganate feed line was moved 2,000 feet to an intake in Lake Erie. Intended to control taste and

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odor,the permanganate seems to be pre venting biological infestation.Although an occasional dead mussel,stained with

the identifiable color of permanganate, will come down the intake pipe, there has been no drop in intake pressure to indicate the infestation mussels. ES&E



For more information, Circle reply card No. 136 16

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1992

Consistent monitoring and sampiing highiight success of EPA pretreatment reguiatory program

An EPA pretreatment program

in Tempe,Arizona,to regulate pollutant and toxic discharges

from commercial and indus

trial facilities, has grown from monitor ing 23 to 70 industries for a wide variety of substances, including BOD, COD, TSS. heavy metals, acids and caustics. Although their primary function is to enforce federal and local standards for

water entering the publicly owned treat ment plant, the role of the Tempe De partment has expanded to include sur veying oflocal waterways for non-point runoff and control of hazardous waste

disposal. A key factor in the success of the Tempe program has been their aggres sive sampling program, according to Industrial Waste Supervisor Alan Jen sen."We sample each industry we mon itor four times per year as a minimum. Each sampling event consists of four full days of sampling,so we get a full 16 days of samples per year on each com plying industry. If the industry is in vio lation, the number of sampling events increases."

Samples are normally collected at the end ofthe processing cycle,just after the water has passed through the industry's pretreatment program and is on its way towards the public treatment works. Sometimes, however, samplers will be placed upstream and downstream from the plant to monitor how successful the industry program has been in meeting specified standards and to detect illegal discharges, without alerting the indus try to the fact that it is being monitored. The Department prefers to perform their own sample collection, rather than rely on the industry to take the samples. They also prefer flow proportional sam pling methods using pH meters to mon itor sudden changes in pH which could contribute to odour problems and pipe corrosion. Tempe uses American Sigma portable samplers for this program, selected for

reliability and flow-proportional sam pling capabilities and the capability to select discrete or composite sampling modes. The delay start option is also a significant feature, as it allows the De partment to install a sampler on Thurs day and set it to begin sampling on Saturday, when the industry is in opera tion and possibly issuing illegal dis charges. Tempe has two employees committed

Industrial Waste Supervisor, Alan Jensen and Industrial Waste Technician, Michael Golden perform lab analysis of sample liquid. full time to the sampling operations who are responsible for installation of sam plers,sample collection,and tracking of sampling paperwork. Although the In dustrial Waste Department has its own preparatory lab, most analyses are per formed by outside labs to avoid bias against industries. When violations are discovered, the

industry is notified immediately. If ne cessary,a representative from the Indus trial Waste Department will meet with representatives from the industry to dis

cuss the problem. The Department is strictly a regulatory agency, however, and does not get involved with consulta tion or solution of the problem. The in dustry is resampled after 45 days. If the problem has not been alleviated, charges may be laid and notices pub lished in local newspapers. If problems persist and the industry does not seem to be making sufficient effort to rectify the situation, sewer service may be ter minated. All money collected in fines is re-invested in the program for new equipment and training. The Department is also responsible for monitoring six metering stations for billing purposes and for identification of potential problems by new industries or changes in existing industries. In addition to industrial monitoring, the program has grown to include an extensive storm water (non-point) run off sampling schedule. Currently this includes collecting grab samples of

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

runoffdischarges after every rain.These are tested for BOD, COD, TSS, heavy metals, herbicides, insecticides and

phenols. The Department is consider ing using a flow-proportional sampler which can be set to sample automati cally when water levels reach a given point. The water sampling program also in cludes monthly sampling of several lakes located in the local park and golf course.These lakes collect surface water

runoff from the neighboring area. The Industrial Waste Department is con sidering using these lakes as a deposi tory for effluent water. By measuring the water quality now, they hope to estab lish baseline standards to compare to readings they will take after the addition of the effluent water. Determining the water quality will help the Department minimize effects of the effluent on the

area ecosystem.

Tempe's Industrial Waste Depart ment has also become actively involved in environmental protection concerns, such as hazardous waste clean up and emergency response to spills and fires. The Department works very closely with the local police and fire departments to discuss which areas or industries are

being pressured to clean up hazardous waste.These target areas are kept under close surveillance for possible illegal acts, such as illegal dumping, illegal transportation or arson. Circle reply card No. 255 17

Distribution System Management

Collingwood PUC makes successful switch to metering

Collingwood meter reader

John Palmer pauses briefly at each home. He places the tip

of a TouchRead System elec tronic reading gun to a remote TouchPad mounted on an exterior wall and

The TouchRead System has been used to read Collingwood's water and hydro-electric meters since January of 1990. When it was installed, it brought about a major change from just a few years ago when most of the town's 6,500

depresses a button on the gun's handle.

residential water services were not me-

In less than two seconds, the home's

tered at all. Back then,the hydro-electric meters were read visually using paper route-books,and the data was manually keyed into a computer following the reading process. It was also a process that sometimes produced billing

water meter reading data is transferred through the gun to a solid state interro gator (SSI) where it is automatically stored





memory. Later, the data will be down loaded to a personal computer at the utility office. Next, he utilizes the SSI's built-in

keypad to manually enter data from the home's hydro meter into memory. For both the water and electricity readings, the SSI automatically verifies that the data has been received and stored.

Although he is completely familiar with Collingwood's meter reading routes,the SSI can be programmed with route information to guide him along. The program utilizes the SSI's LC dis play to show the exact location of each meter and its remote pad contact or other information, such as warnings about route hazards.It is also capable of alerting the meter reader whenever an abnormal entry is made, signalling a possible mistake or service problem.


Before adding water meters, most re sidential and light commercial service water customers paid a flat rate. As the community grew and water consump tion steadily increased, it became clear that solving future water and environ mental problems would require new conservation measures and the addition

John Palmer using Touch Read

of meters. Flat rates for unlimited water

supplies were on the way out. In 1983, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment had issued new guide lines directing all water utilities using surface sources to have filtration sys tems in operation within ten years. Col lingwood's raw water source was located at the southern end of Lake Huron's

Georgian Bay. Water quality had his torically been so good that filtration had

not previously been considered neces sary, but chlorination was used. Officials began planning for the fil tration system addition. As a pre liminary step toward reducing sus pected unaccounted-for water losses and making billing for amounts used more equitable, the PUC began requir ing that water meters be included for all new or upgraded services. The metering program also provided an opportunity for upgrading the uti lity's meter reading and billing process to an electronic system — one that would be capable of on-site reading for both the new water meters and existing

hydro meters. Also, it had to be one that could be compatible with the PUC's existing mainframe computer, so data from the meter readings could be easily


downloaded. Several brands of water


meters and automatic meter reading systems were examined.


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munications touch-type registers and remotes were installed in 1986.

"The system has increased our oper

ating efficiency by more than 4,000 manhours a year," says Ed Houghton. "We used to have two people reading the hydro meters. One has since retired and was not replaced. With the new equip ment,John Palmer is able to read all our

hydro and water meters." For more information, Circle reply card No. 123 Circle reply card No. 254 18

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

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Western Canada makes great strides in Bioiogicai Nutrient Removal

Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) is alive and well and expanding in Western Cana

da. Several cities either have

the BNR process installed, are in the process of converting to it or currently considering conversion. In a recent tour of three operating facilities in Western Canada, Brian

Evans and Peter Laughton of R.V. An derson Associates Limited noted how

the BNR process is accepted in Western Canada. The fact finding tour of the Kelowna Sewage Treatment Plant (22 700 mVd),the newly commissioned Penticton Plant (18 200 mVd) and the West Bank Sewage Treatment Plant (3 400 mVd)all located on Lake Okana-

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gan, revealed that these plants were pro ducing excellent quality effluent. All the plants consistently achieved effluent BOD and suspended solids of less than 5 mg/L, total phosphorus of less than 0.4 mg/L and a total nitrogen of less than 5 mg/L. According to Stanley Associates in Vancouver, the plants have been instru mental in expanding Canadian based BNR technology to the United States at two facilities in Kalispell, Montana and Atlanta, Georgia and overseas in Eu rope at Friedericksvaerk, Solrod and Tarby in Denmark. On the Canadian front two plants, namely the Calgary Bonnybrook Plant has a 100 000 mVd module for BNR under design and the Edmonton Goldbar Plant with a cur

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competitive with conventional systems more commonly used in the East. The refinements include operating at an hy opposed to the original 20-24 hours and an overall reduction in the length and complexity of the process trains. In all there are several reasons why

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rent feasibility study underway for ret rofit to the BNR mode. BNR is being considered at three other plants, namely Lethbridge, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg. Bill Oidham of the University of British

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sulted in the requirement for more advanced technologies. • The reduced hydraulic retention time is now comparable with the conven tional activated sludge system. • The increasing tendency to include ammonia reduction in the effluent either for nutrient reduction or tox-

icity reasons has meant that an in creasing number of plants have to allow for nitrification. Once plants have been adapted to nitrification with longer hydraulic and sludge re tention times, it is relatively simple to

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

convert to biological nutrient remov al by the addition ofan anaerobic and anoxic zone up front. These zones, which allow denitrification to occur,

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tion ofeffluent filtration.In the past it has always been felt that BNR plants require effluent filtration to restrict the discharge of solids high in phos phorus to the receiving waterbody. As a result, the cost effectiveness of a





BNR plant has become significantly more favourable.

• The impact of a sewage treatment plant effluent low in nutrients (car bon, nitrogen and phosphorus), and the resulting overall impact on receiv ing waterbody quality makes a strong case for this process. The more tradi tional chemical methods ofremoving phosphorus generally result in the addition of heavy metals to the sew age and while most of these are re moved in the activated sludge pro cess, the potential for reducing the discharge of these metals to the re ceiving waterbody remains an attrac tive option. • If a sewage treatment plant has land disposal of sludge, the further reduc tion in heavy metals by a non-influent source may make certain land spreading operations more feasible. With all these issues in its favour, who

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Environmental Sdence & Engineering. May 1992

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ACPO Chemists demand licencing The Association of the Chemical Pro

industry capable of exporting value

fession of Ontario is urging the govern ment to licence chemists in the province. The call was made repeatedly during ACPO's annual meeting. Various dele gates complained that chemists had enormous responsibilities for public health and safety; yet government agen cies had not responded to the pro fession's requests for licencing. ES&E Publisher Tom Davey was lunchtime speaker. He said it was ridi culous that one could not sell hot dogs in Toronto without a licence — yet govern ments were deaf to the idea of licencing chemists. When he was a boy in Eng land. chemists were synonymous with healing. People went to the chemists shop — the drugstore — for a variety of healing potions. The chemist was a re vered figure, a person of science who ranked alongside the doctor in social rank and importance. Today the very

added services on the international market. Moreover we cannot restore our environment without a vibrant lab in

word chemical is seen as a noxious

word, a perjorative synonymous with toxic.

"Today your profession can routinely find toxins at parts per trillion with the capabilities of detection in the parts per quadrillion range — virtually NASAca-


libre technology — yet various govern ment agencies and some purchasing agents are trying to buy these complex

"If South East Asians can ship cars and steel by the tonne across the Pacific, surely it should be possible to export analytical services in containers weigh ing a few grams. After all we can fly to most places in North America in a few hours. Put simply, a healthy lab indus try could help the economy while pro tecting the environment. "But the lab industry is bleeding from vicious bidding wars. Government poli cies at many levels unwittingly are stifl ing this vital high-tech environmental business where quality of equipment

services with low bid tenders which are

and staff education count for little if

more appropriate for the purchase of sand and gravel.

price is the key determinant. Ironically, the cost of lab services is virtually petty cash compared to the capital costs ofthe

Incoming ACPO President Dr. Pierre Beaumier, Mann Testing, (left) v\/ith out going President Denis Bayley. Photo TPD

"I know that Canadian chemists rate

highly around the world — except in Canada ofcourse. We have government programs which will rescue bankrupt sunset industries with massive bail outs,

sometimes valued at $200,000perjob.Yet with analytical chemistry we have a high-tech, knowledge industry; a clean

projects requiring analyses. It is idiotic

to quibblgpver a hundred bucks in sav ings on a toxic real estate deal,or even a treatment process, where the capital value of the project could run into mega millions. continued on page 78

CEiA hosts post Globe '92 meeting with international delegates

Apost Globe'92breakfast meet

ing in Toronto organized by the Canadian Environmental

Industry Association was a sell out affair. There were substantial

delegations from Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zea

land, all eager and willing to see what CEIA members could offer. Many dis appointed people were unable to attend the capacity breakfast meeting. Drew Blackwell, Assistant Deputy Minister, Environment Ontario, spoke of the problems affecting governments.

He said we did not expect to face the pre sent fiscal crunch, pointing out, that a little money spent upfront to change a process can save costly clean ups later. Governments usually have to finance clean ups, he noted. Touching on reuse and recycling, he noted that primitive societies were al ready extensively practicing the 3 Rs but noted ruefully that we were not such a society.

At an evening reception, Ed Philip, Ontario




Trade and Technology,stressed that en vironmental protection and job crea tion could and should go hand in hand; that ecological considerations can ac tually create new jobs. The breakfast, and subsequent even

ing reception, gave CEIA members and government officials a chance to net work with these overseas delegates. The organizers of this successful meeting, Odette Corbu P.Eng., ISTC, David Reid, MITT and Bob McArtbur,City ofToron to, must be given full credit for planning this highly successful Globe '92 follow up.

Odette Corbu P.Eng, and David Reid at the CEIA breakfast meeting 22

Photo report by Tom Davey

Environmental Science <& Engineering, May 1992

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PCAO focusses on industry at 21st annual conference

The 21st PCAO Annual Con ference drew some 530 dele

gates along with a trade expo

never before market.





"There is potential in Eastern Europe,

sition believed to be the best-

where the iron curtain lifted to reveal an

ever in terms of member flow through and quality of exhibits. This year the

infrastructure system that is well out of date, and a pollution problem that is beyond belief. There is also potential in the third world, where developing coun tries are looking to improve their stan dard of living with new sewage and

Pollution Control Association of Onta

designed to commercialize Ontario technologies. For example, SCIEX, along with its partners the University of Toronto and the Perkin-Elmer Corpora tion, has been given a five-year grant to design instruments for measuring minute amounts of chemical pollut

rio gave a sharper focus to industrial pollution problems. Norm Jamison, MPP told the plenary session that the Ontario environment industry employs nearly 30,000 people and generates over $2 billion in sales, playing a major role in creating high-value, high-wage jobs. He was standing in for Ed Philip, Minis ter of Industry, Trade and Technology. The environmentindustry has the po tential to undergo tremendous growth,

"Ontario's environmental protection industry enjoys an international edge in several service and niche-product mar

he told the Toronto audience.

one of seven Centres of Excellence, the

ation of the commercialization and fi

"There is potential here. Tough envi ronmental programs like Ontario's Municipal/Industrial Strategy for

Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Re

nancial plans and the managerial

search. The Centre is studying methods to prevent, control and clean up groundwater contamination caused by septic tanks, gasoline, industrial spills and agricultural chemicals." He poin ted out that the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's Lifelines program, will


Abatement(MISA)are setting new stan dards for pollution prevention,generat

ing an increased need for new pollution prevention technologies. There is also potential in the US,where by the end of the decade pollution control will be an estimated $170 billion a year industry. (Editor's note Lucien Bradet gave higher projections later, see Industry Update). "There is potential in Western Europe — which currently accounts for onethird of the global market for environ mental technology. In fact, a couple of weeks ago our Ministry led a small trade

water facilities.

kets like water and wastewater treat

ment and control, sampling and moni toring equipment. "The Ontario government created, as

invest one-third of a billion dollars over

the next decade in rehabilitating muni cipal water distribution and sewage systems.

"Another important part of Ontario's technological infrastructure is ORTECH International whose activities

include technology development re lated to wastewater treatment."

mission of Ontario wastewater firms to

Mr.Jamison focussed on Industry Re search Program (IRP), which provides

Italy. The participating companies had

up to 50 percent of the cost of research


Another program which is more di rectly focused on the environmental protection industry is the Environmental Technologies Program (ETP), he said. "The program, which is delivered by the Ministry of the Environment, pro vides up to 50 percent of the cost of de velopment, refinement and demonstra tion of new products and processes. MITT's role in the program is the evalu

"In keeping with our environmental and economic priorities, the program gives preference to technologies that emphasize pollution prevention and which can be marketed globally. The guidelines stipulate that the technolo gies must be commercialized by an Ontario firm — this is in keeping with

our "developing home-based com panies" fundamental. "Two studies examining marketing opportunities and strategies in the United States and Europe 1992 for the Ontario environmental protection in dustry found that these two areas of the world will offer a combined environ

mental protection market of $275-billion dollars by the year 2000."

Left to right, Larry Madden, Control & Metering, one of the organizers of the conference exhibition; Erv Mclntyre, MOE,retiring PCAO President with Susan Macfarlane,winner of the 1 st place Masters Category,WEF Student Paper Competition; Conference Chair Dusanka Flllpovic, Halozone Recyling Inc. and Anton Davies, Rowan Williams Davles & Irwin Inc., President Air and Waste Management Association. Doug McTavlsh, MOE,won the Bedell Award with the Hatfleld going to Larry Edwards. Bob PIckett, Metro-Toronto, Phil Parry, G&S and ES&E's Tom Davey received the prized Gold Shovels from former PCAO President Peter Laughton. Elmco's Terry Mathews took over as President. TPD Photos 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


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Wafer wasting technology will notsellabroad

The "92 Annual AWWA*/ OMWA conference in


gara Falls attracted over 700 delegates, a clear indication that water purity is a recession proof industry. In a guest address, Colin Isaacs, a former Executive Director of

Pollution Probe pulled no punches when he said that obtaining public ap proval is much more complex than ap provals from the Ministry of the Envi ronment. In many municipalities a two year lead time is turning into half a decade or more of lead time, and that

will only get longer in the future. Those bigger pumps, new wells, and longer pipes frequently come with an econo mic,if not environmental,cost that many communities are just not willing to pay, yet water remains on essential public service. Water conservation is finding its

way on to the public policy agenda in all kinds of new ways. Concerns about wa ter quality continue to arise, month after month, year after year, and they will not go away, he said. User pay means that conservers save. Only through a user pay system will the person who does the right thing for the environment be a winner, he said stress

ing that in many parts ofthe country,the small user is, directly or indirectly, sub sidizing the larger user. "The joy of'true user pay' is that the less people pay the more the approach is doing its job. Failing to protect the envi ronment will cost jobs, because we can not support a healthy economy in a pol-

luted environment.On the positive side, today the world is industrializing at an

There are tremendous opportunities for

incredible rate. Most of that world suf

cess fees, saleable permits, and many more in helping to shift our pattern of water use from an environmentally un sustainable to an environmentally sus tainable mode. Once the public sup ports the goal, the opportunities to achieve the goal are tremendous."

fers from even greater shortages ofclean water than we experience here in Cana da. Water wasting technology won't sell in the developing world or in Eastern Europe. If we want the opportunity to sell technology and know-how to help meet the incredible demands of a ra

pidly changing world, it is absolutely

OMWA militant

essential that we show that we have the

The Ontario Municipal Water Associa

most water conserving technology that is available world-wide. It is failing to

tion was in a militant mood over the Greater London Area Arbitrator's Re

take into account the needs of the envi ronment that will best ensure that we

have no jobs in the future," he said. On metering, he noted that the public was cynical about almost everything that government does. "We have not done a good job of helping the public to understand why we must make more efficient use ofwater. When government goes out with programs to meter pre viously unmetered water, or to charge more for water,or to encourage reduced

water use, many in the public and small business fight back. "Once we have got the public on side, once people are demanding water con servation programs, the principles of User Pay, Polluter Pays, and the use of economic tools to achieve environmen

tal goals become viable. Of course peo ple should be paying the full cost for every drop of water they use. Of course we should increase water and sewage

treatment pricing to realistic levels just as we have done with landfill tipping

*Ont. Section American Water Works Association.

use of economic instruments, water ac

fees. Of course discounts for bulk use

should be substantially eliminated.

port to abolish the London PUC.Letters have been sent from the Ont. Section AWWA and OMWA to Ontario Premier

Bob Rae, Municipal Affairs Minister David Cooke, Environment Minister

Ruth Grier and others — including leaders of the Conservative and Liberal

Parties, asking that the draft legislation to abolish the PUC be withdrawn. The

Executive passed the following resolu tion during the '92 Annual Conference in Niagara Falls. "The Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion opposes the abolition of the London PUC as recommended in the Greater

London Area Arbitrator's Report; on the ground that it was done without any stu dies as to the merits of abolishing the London PUG; without consultation of the London PUC; without any beforehand notice;

and further, that dismissing the London PUC Commissioners without public con sultation and approval of the local elec torate, has stripped the people of London of their inherent democratic right to elect those they wish to represent them."

I Left to right, Fuller awardee Marsh Rasberry of M M Dillon after his wife Brenda presented him with the covetted pin; Roger Tomlinson, Barrie PUC, winner of the Hatfield award. Herschel Guttman, Anderson Associates, newly elected Vice Chair of the Ont. Section AWWA received a membership award from AWWA Chair Dr. Ken Roberts. Rod Holme of Proctor & Redfern takes over the Chairfrom Dr. Roberts. Windsor won the Pipe Tapping Contest. Over 700 attended the joint AWWA/OMWA conference. TPD Photos 26

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Sparging can reduce VOC remediation costs in groundwater contamination

With50sitesin operation,50

soil and groundwater contamination had been reduced by 98%. Brown acknowledged that there are still reservations within the industry over the use of air sparging. These fall

more projected for start up in 1992, and a regula tory closure already on the books,Groundwater Technology,Inc. claims that its air sparging used in con

into two areas of concern. The first is

junction with soil vapor extraction is now the primary treatment technology

that the accelerated vapour travel cre ated by sparging presents the potential

for vapours to be drawn into nearby re ceptors (e.g., basements). This problem is resolved by using venting systems in areas with potential vapour receptors. A second concern is that, under spe cific conditions, a misapplied sparge system could actually push the con-

ofchoice for soils and groundwater con taminated with volatile organic com pounds(VOCs). Richard Brown, Ph.D., Director of Remediation Technology for Groundwater Technology, Inc., says:"Sparging extends the effective volatilization prin

continued overleaf

ciples applied in soil vapour extraction (venting) to high zones of contaminant concentration — adsorbed chemicals in the saturated zone or below the water table. These were inaccessible to vent

ing. This technology often makes it pos sible to reduce by as much as 50% the typical cost of treatment as well as the treatment period for sites contaminated with VOCs.

Air sparging is the highly controlled injection of air into contamination in the saturated zone. Air bubbles traverse

horizontally and vertically through the soil column, creating a transient airfilled porosity in which volatilization can occur.

Air sparging effectively creates a crude air stripper in the subsurface,with the soil acting as the packing. Air is in jected and allowed to flow through the water column over the "packing". Air


bubbles that contact dissolved-/ad-

sorbed-phase contaminants in the aqui fer cause the VOCs to volatilize.

The volatilized organics are carried by the air bubbles into the vadose zone, where they can be captured by a vapor extraction system. Moreover, the sparged air maintains a high dissolved oxygen content, which enhances natu ral biodegradation. Air sparging also creates turbulence and increased mixing in the saturated

Corrosion is for tfie birds. Ttiafs wfiy Dense provides a full line of anti-corrosion products including tapes, mastics, pastes, primers, sealants and uretfiane liquid coatings to stop tfiis costly problem. In fact, Denso's products have successfully protected exposed surfaces

zones, which increases the contact bet

ween groundwater and soil. This will result in higher concentrations of the VOCs in the groundwater, which can be recovered by pumping or stripped by sparging.

from costly and destructive changes for over 60 years. Denso is the world leader

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Brown said that one of the first com

mercial air sparging/venting systems to be employed by Groundwater Technol ogy was used to treat dry cleaning sol vent contamination along with some residual heating oil. Contamination onsite ranged from 40,000 ppb VOC con tamination near the former tank pit to less than 1,000 ppb elsewhere. After 125 days of operating the treatment system,


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992



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Sparging, cont'd Elements of Air Sparging System


Compressor Air Sparge

Vent Point


lieves that it is very likely that this type of mounding will be shown to have little, if any, effect on groundwater flow. He says that while the capital equip ment associated with a sparge system is often quite simple,compact, and low in cost compared to previous generations oftreatment systems,the evaluation cri teria, design tolerances and systems en gineering are far more exacting. There fore, implementation of sparge systems calls for a very sophisticated analysis of site hydrogeoiogy and careful engineer

(Optional) Vacuum

Air Sparge/

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Vent Point for Trench

VOC Capture Air Flow

yV, • ••• Contaminated Soil


/ sparge Points Placed Below

ing. He concludes; "With the advent of

Area of Contamination

commercially viable air sparging and its use in conjunction with soil vapour ex

Air injected into groundwoler effectively vololilizes conlominonts which ore then captured by soil vapor extraction. Based on numerous Groundvrater Technology treatment sites, air sparging in conjunction with soil vapor extraction, reduces treatment time and costs of soil and groundwoter remediation by up to 50%.

tamination away from the site. For example, a clay barrier above the zone of injection could cause this to happen. Uncontrolled flow could also be caused

by pressurization of the system beyond the soil's capacity to accept a smooth flow of injected air. Therefore, restric tive geological conditions and optimal system operating pressures must be de termined by meticulous testing prior to system implementation. In the event that barriers and low permeable for

mations are found, groundwater recov ery may be necessary to prevent the spread of dissolved contamination. It has also been observed that sparg ing results in mounding of the water table. Under normal hydrogeoiogicai conditions, mounding can accelerate the flow of groundwater and, hence,the spread of dissolved contamination. However, with sparging, the mounding is typically caused by the displacement of water with air,resulting in a less dense

traction, the most efficient prifnary technology VOC site closures are now based on the movement of air through the various zones of contamination rather than the movement of fluids. Not

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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, May 1992


The Global approach

thw economic initiatives are designed to protect the environment

With al the publicity over industry adopting a new "green" image one might think that most of the world's pollution problems were well on the way to being solved. This perception, however, is far from reality although it is tme that many companies, especially the larger public companies are beginning to realize the economic benefits of adopting a more positive approach to their waste management strategies. Others, however are stalled in their efforts due to the current economic recession. Others may be looking to relocate their manufacturing operations to third world countries such as Mexico where already lax environmental laws are at best only feebly enforced. Also for the smaU to medium sized companies, which are responsible for a major portion of all toxic waste generated, a green corporate image is a luxury they can rarely afford. In this poor economy, many of these smaller firms are already facing tough competition fiom companies in less environmentally sensitive regions which also enjoy the benefits of much lower labour costs.

However,the situation is not all doom and gloom. The last two decades have seen some major improvements in the quality of the environment. There is also a clear indication that the future shows

real promise for further gains in environmental quality and that this may be due in a large part to the adoption of more enlightened, or possibly even radical thinking on environmental economics.

In the past most environmental legislation was based on a command and control approach where regulations specified permissible emission or effluent limits and backed these up by the threat of legal enforcement action. This approach was devised to take care of large industrial generators which were relatively easy to police and control. But as we now know, the real environmental concems are quite different. First there are the large number of small companies or small quantity waste generators for whom the cost of enforcing compliance can often outweigh social and environmental benefits. Then there are the global, intemational issues such as ozone depletion and stratospheric climate change, acid rain, trans-border shipment of toxic wastes and the stripping of natural resources in third world countries, all of which carmot be controlled by the traditional regulatory processes. In order to solve these complex problems some radical

approaches need to be adopted. It is here that the use of some novel economic instruments or market-based incentives need to

be introduced to support the existing policies and regulatory processes.

cost-effectiveness in the consistent application of the Polluter-Pays Principle and a more effective use of economic instruments in conjunction with regulations". The recent report of the working committee identified over 150 economic instruments that have been tested so far by the member countries [1]. Furthermore, in the introduction to a recent study by the US Environmental Protection agency (USEPA) on economic incentives; options for environmental protection, the director William K. Reilley admitted the limitations of the traditional command and control poUcies and pledged the agency's commitment to the wider use ofeconomic incentives [2]. Economic Incentives

Tbe use of economic incentives or economic instruments (El's)

either as an altemative to or to support existing environmental legislation is not a new phenomenon. Its origins can be traced to the beginning of the environmental movement in the mid-1960's. It has been studied most seriously in Europe which has long followed the Polluter Pays Principle in environmental legislation. North America,in contrast has taken a slightly different route. By enforcing strict legislation which defines technical solutions by way of best available technology industry is being forced indirectly to pay for its pollution. A number of different types of economic instrument have been studied, including charges, financial incentives, deposit/refund schemes and market creation. Charges have included user fees, which are the most common type of economic instrument and effluent charges. Effluent charges have been studied as an incentive for improved water pollution control in the Netherlands and Germany. Basically, a fixed charge is established for a company to meet the permissible discharge standard. If the company can improve the quality of its effluent below the standard,the charge is proportionately reduced. In the area of monetary incentives the most detailed study has been carried out by the State of California They have examined the use of grants, soft loans and tax incentives to assist the implementation of more effective waste management by industry. Although this study is focussed on probably the most environmentally sensitive region in the world, the findings can be adapted to other less affluent, less sensitive areas.

Deposit/refund systems have been proposed for many areas of waste management including toxic wastes. It has been proposed for pesticide containers (of which the US uses over 10 million each year)and for cadmium/mercury batteries. The practicality of this approach is open to question due to the wide range of collection systems required to allow the user to be refunded.

At a meeting of the OECD Environment Committee in June 1985, environment ministers of the member nations agreed to "Seek to introduce more flexibility, efficiency and * Toxics Recovery Systems Intemational, Rexdale, Ontario and the University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry /Institute for Environmental Studies 30

Trading Pollution Rights The most controversial area of economic incentives is

imdoubtedly the concept of creating a maiket in pollution rights. The provision of pollution rights, being seen as a right to pollute combined with charges being viewed as the price of pollution, automatically leads to the creation of a maiket where these Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

by Bernard Fleet, IVi.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R. and Nllima Sharma Fleet, B.A.* privileges can be traded. The trading in permits to pollute whereby a company can either buy or sell a license to pollute has caused widespread public concem. In principle, however, the approach has many attractive features including the ability of the generator to have a wider selection of treatment strategies. Traditional command and control based policies can be viewed as stifling to the development of advanced pollution control technologies. In contrast, the market creation approach, since companies can actually gain a financial reward for reducing their pollution, should encourage the development of new resource recovery or minimal discharge treatment technologies.

Experience in market creation is almost entirely confined to the US where the main commodity exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade, recently inaugurated a private market for rights to emit sulfur dioxide. This approach has its origins in the problems in implementing the Qean Air Act in 1970 when a large proportion of utility companies experienced problems in meeting emission standards. The Chicago commodity trading program could provide useful pointers for other jurisdictions considering similar initiatives in other waste management areas. California, for example, is considering setting up a computerized market for business permits to emit volatile organics compounds (VOCs). Several other cities in the US, which are hard pressed to meet air quality guidelines are also exploring market based approaches to more effective regulation ofsmog producing pollutants. Recently the UN proposed the creation of a global market in pollution permits. This plan aims to set national quotas on emissions and would,for the first time, set a price on one or more of the pollutants blamed for global warming. It is anticipated that the plan wiU be formally endorsed in June at the United Nations

Conference on Trade and Development in Rio de Janeiro. Although the trading of pollution rights arguably does create possibilities for more innovative, cost effective pollution abatement options, the formidable problems of developing and administering these policies has caused governments and environmental agencies to move slowly and cautiously. Supporters, however argue strongly that emissions trading has enabled economic growth to continue in areas of high pollution and that in several areas impressive air quality improvements have been reported. However, a large sector of the public and most environmental groups continue to oppose emissions trading on the fundamental argument that the availability of clean air is a basic inalienable right. They view trading in emission reduction credits as a light to pollute. More dispassionately, however, emissions trading is only marginally different from the present direct regulatory approach, which allows controlled pollution to take place via a permit. Environmental Economics

There is no doubt that environmental economics is a complex area one where traditional government financial planners and the new breed of environmental economists have wide areas of

disagreement. Consider the issue of industrial waste management. In managing industry's toxic wastes there are two sets of costs to consider, private and social. Private costs are those that industry bears and include the capital cost of waste management equipment and associated operating costs such as Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Protesters at Globe '92 in Vancouver. New ways to measure 'green' economic activity are being developed. Missing are signs saying that Dupont has also developed CFC substitutes. Photo Steve Davey.

labour and utilities. The second group of social costs are the costs which are met by society to support these waste management activities. These might include the subsidized costs of industrial water supply, sewage treatment and landfill disposal. Then there is a third, even more intangible group of social costs which

include public health care costs and lost productivity fiom pollution related diseases and the damage to the natural environment. These costs of consumption of environmental quality represent a major portion of the real costs of industrial pollution. The current argument is that industry should assume an

increasing portion of the social costs of environmental protection but the real difficulty emerges as how to measure and agree on these costs. There are now a number of economic arguments on this issue which attempt to solve the problem from both a national and an industry standpoint.

Traditionally, industry has evaluated its environmental projects using the same financial approach it has used for other projects. This uses a standard financial analysis which considers readily quantifiable costs such as capital equipment cost, operating costs and any obvious cost savings or recoveries. These are then set out

in a typical finandal spreadsheet format over the time period of the project which might typically vaiy from five to ten years. The project value is then computed using financial indices such as net present value(NPV),return on investment(ROl) and break even

point However,this conventional approach ignores most societal costs and does not consider other intangibles such as future legal liability or corporate image. Towards a "Green" GNP

At the national or intemational level, several European countries, lead by the Netherlands and Germany have started to develop a Green GNP which sets out an altemative approach to the traditional measine of economic activity by subtracting a figure for the harm that economic activity does to the environment [3]. Its proponents claim that by ignoring or disguising the cost of economic production on the environment, the gross national products of many countries have been distorted or grossly inflated. They claim, for example, that the costs of measures which are

designed to protect the environment such as sewage treatment plants are incorrectly tallied as growth. The approach is an continued overleaf 31

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Economic Initiatives, cont'd scarce financial resources so that the a convincing cost benefit analysis has to be presented.

Most major industrialized countries have ambitious environ mental projects underway. Significant progress has also

A powerful new tool for the environmental manager is the use of a method known as full-cost environmental accounting. This approach, developed by scientists and economists at the General Electric Corporation, is based on a much more comprehensive analysis of environmental costs [4]. These include using a much longer 10-20 year window for environmental projects, anticipating the cost impacts of much stricter discharge standards and also attempting to quantify a range of less tangible social cost elements. These may include such issues as future legal liability costs and the real economic benefits of an improved environmental image. Employee health and morale and associated productivity benefits may also be measured.

been made in workers' protection has in recent years, espe cially in countries like Canada,but much remains to be done. Davcom photo.

closely parallels the trends in national level environmental

ambitious one and involves first attempting to measure the costs for all toxic emissions and discharges along with the

disappearance of plant and animal life and other environmental changes. These figures will provide a set of costs for achieving sustainable economic development which will then be subtracted from the current GNP to attain the Green ONP.

That these arguments are taken seriously is evidenced by the fact that most of the major industrialized nations including Japan, the US, Germany, France, Norway and Sweden all now have ambitious projects under way to calculate the economic impact of environmental degradation. Although Canada in its recent Green Plan stresses the role of sustainable development and the links between the environment and the economy there is no evidence that it is adopting a Green GNP policy or that its thinking is anywhere near as advanced as its European partners. Recent evidence has also shown that the level of pollution is

directly related to a country's economy. According to the study by Grossman and Krueger from Princeton's Woodrow Wilson Institute, air pollution is most severe for countries vvith an economic output of $4,000 to $5,000 per person and less severe

What we are seeing in full-cost environmental accounting economic policies. This reflects the need to make industry bear a larger share of the costs of damage to the environment. For example, a company may be using a cost effective but highly polluting manufacturing process. Altematively, it could consider the use of a less polluting but more costly manufacturing process. The prediction of overall costs using the lull- cost environmental accounting approach are shown in Figure 1, where Process A is the lower cost, highly polluting process and Process B the more

environmentally benign, but more expensive production process. The decision by a firm to switch from Process A to Process B is dependent first on the environmental legislation in force, and second on their ability to accurately predict their tme waste management costs. Process B

/ (less polluting)

Cost of Production


p I




Process A

(more polluting)


for considerably poorer and considerably richer countriesj Cost of

Full Cost Environmental Accounting

While concepts such as the Green GNP are all very interesting, there is the important question whether they have any real impact on grass roots industrial waste management decision makers. Arguably they do - just as in the basic philosophy of the Green GNP,the underlying arguments supporting the wider acceptance of waste rrimimization, resource recycling and the adoption of clean technologies is that the current costs of industry's waste management practices are artificially low and do not reflect long term liabilities and other societal costs. Industry now seems to be accepting this challenge and maybe as the first step we are seeing the emergence of a new type ofenvironmental manager,often one with board level responsibility. In order for these managers to convince their management or their stockholders of the benefits of improved environmental policies, their arguments have to be presented in economic terms; serious waste management requires serious financial analysis. Furthermore, waste management investments may often be competing with other projects for Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992



Future Risk Cost

In this respect, environmentalists have long supported the claim that a more comprehensive analysis of waste management costs would convince indusOy that the modem approaches of waste elimination, waste reduction, resource recycling and the use of clean technologies would be both economically and environmentally beneficial. One interesting idea to emerge from this approach is the notion of afiUure risk cost. When attempts to work out a fiill environmental cost analysis are made it is evident that the various waste management strategies can be ranked on the basis of theirfuture risk cost. For example, one company may decide to handle its waste generation by a combination of waste reduction linked to onsite recovery and recycling. Such an approach would have a minimal risk cost in that the only 33

Economic Initiatives, cont'd possible risk might come from an accidental discharge. However, if a company relies on off site transport and land disposal for its wastes there is a real possibility for future legal liability resulting fiom landfill leakage causing a poOution of a public watercourse, etc. Such a strategy then should have a maximum future risk cost

Loss of Clients

The important breakthrough made by MacLean and his colleagues at GE is that they have developed a model which

A poOution infraction, by causing a plant shutdown whOe the problems are rectified,can lead to loss of production. In industries such as electronics manufacturing, where rapid deOvery of product is critical, it can even cause loss of key cOents. Furthermore, many companies wOI avoid suppUers with a questionable environmental record forjust these reasons. Another key consideration is that for public companies, adverse publicity resulting from a pollution incident can have a negative impact on

allows the risk cost to be calculated for a wide range of waste

their stock price.

management strategies [5]. As an example, in the disposal of toxic heavy metal sludges fiom electroplating and electronics plants, fftsfuture risk cost of disposing of these wastes in one of the rapidly dwindling landfill sites is estimated at $380(US) per

...adverse publicity resuiting from a pollution

assigned to it.

ton. When this cost is added to the current disposal costs ranging from $200 to $600 per ton, then the higher capital costs of recovery and recycling waste management options appear much more attractive.

It is also possible to extend these arguments to estimate the real cost benefits of a positive coiporate environmental image. Any company convicted of a pollution offence now faces various penalties ranging from fines, to temporary or permanent plant shutdowns, or even jailing of chief executives. Intentional poOution in the US which was formerly a civO offence is now a criminal offence and some chief executives of convicted

companies are now facing felony charges. This has led to a new definition of chief executive officers, or CEO's as CJO's or chirf jailable officers!

incident can have a negative impact on their stock price. Conversely, many companies have now realized the increased sales potential of taking a positive stance on environmental issues. One of TRSI's clients for example, a major California electronics company, has replaced the background music on its telephone system with a 2-minute message describing the benefits it has achieved from its million dollar investment in a state-of-the-art

waste management system.

Qearly,the impact of these various cost factors wiU vary widely depending on the size of a company,its location and the nature of its business. However, a major feature of full cost environmental accounting is that in addition to providing hard costs on many of these factors, it also allows a company or waste generator to apply

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Environmental Science cfe Engineering, May 1992

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Economic Initiatives, cont'd models,in various forms, have been fairly widely used to estimate environmental costs [5, 7-9]. Most of these studies have been

. V '-v; % ,"Âťfr



fr' '

The craggy cliffs and relatively pristine waters of Lake Huron have an Intrinsic value beyond measure.Overseas visitors are

quite broad in scope and focussed on issues such as public water supply costs and the lolative costs of land disposal. A few studies have been directed at more specific issues such as a comparison of costs for land disposal vs incineration [7] or the GE risk assessment model [5]. The author's group recently completed a study for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment which described the use of a computer model that would allow generators of toxic metal wastes such as electioplaters, electronics companies or mining firms, to compare the costs of altemate waste management options [9]. While this model worked well for industries where waste streams are quite well defined such as the semiconductor or printed circuit board industries, it was not so

often amazed at the clarity of this lake, but pressures on our

successful for industries where there was a wide variation in waste

water resources leave no room for complacency.

generation practices. Electroplaters as well as gold mining companies fell into this category. Since the optimum waste management strategy for many firms is often critically dependent on intemal decisions on corporate environmental policy, the authors concluded that a better solution might result from the use of an expert systems approach [10].

TPD Photo.

their own weighting on the relative importance of the various cost elements.

Small Business Problems

While most large companies will probably have the technical and management resources to invest in a full cost environmental accounting approach, what of the small or even medium sized

firms? The majority of these companies invariably lack the qualified environmental engineers or even the financial expertise to adequately measure their waste management costs. One solution to this problem is provided by the many environmental advisory agencies which have been set up by over 30 US states and the four or five groups here in Canada. The best of these such as the State of California Department of Health Services (Toxic

Control Division), the Mirmesota Technical Assistance Program or the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources can provide technical advice on practical waste management issues including capital equipment and operating costs [6]. In addition

these groups can often assist in directing a company towards sources of finance to meet the costs of new waste treatment

equipment, including grants, subsidies and state guaranteed, low interest or long term loans. The authors can provide additional information and contacts.

Computer Models and Expert Systems Yet another approach is the use ofeconomic models. Computer


The application of expert systems in environmental engineering decision making has recently become very popular and there are now close to 100 proven examples and case studies [11]. Expert systems are computer programs which allow a body of knowledge compiled by experts in the field to be intelligently accessed by a relatively uninformed user. They typically consist of two parts, a knowledge base which contains aU of the relevant information on the given topic and the inference engine which is an interactive program allowing the user to input some basic information on their problem and then leads through a series of questions and answers to reach one or more solutions. In the case

of toxic waste management strategies, the knowledge base would consist of a compilation of proven waste treatment systems and industry case studies covering a wide range of waste streams, industries and sizes of company. The inference engine would first reqirire the irser to input data on their varioirs waste sources, the

size and profrtabUity of the plant and the permissible local discharge standards. Further questions would allow the user to apply their own weighting to factors such as potential for plant expansion, corporate environmental image or the importance of

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municipal Law, Land Use Planning and Development,

Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200,Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4

For more information, Circle reply card No. 103 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

future risk cost factors. The output fiom the system would then consist of one or more examples or case studies of appropriate waste management options. Debt-for-Nature Swaps

Environmental economics also offers hope for solving some of the environmental problems of the third world including the environmentally ravaged regions of the former Soviet Union and

government action. This wide gulf between perceived environmental risk and reality was most clearly demonstrated by the situation in Times Beach, Missouri. After a dioxin scare in the

mid-1960's, the whole township of Times Beach was evacuated and the area designated as a major toxic waste Superftmd site. However, as EPA officials recently admitted, the toxicity of dioxins, which was admittedly made on the best scientific evidence available at the time, now seems to have been wildly

Eastem Europe. Most of these countries now face massive pollution problems but lack either the financial or the technical


resources for their solution. Deht-for Nature Swaps is an innovative financial mechanism for leveraging conservation funds which provides a mechanism for the developed nations to apply their uncollectible third world debts to some practical purpose [12]. Typically, what happens is that an investor or donating agency purchases a debt instrument of the debtor nation, usually

have cost at least several hundred million dollars.

The US EPA has now established a major program to develop a coherent,long term assessment of environmental risk in relation to economic factors.


for a fraction of its value. The investor, or a local environmental

Once the current projects are off the ground, it should start to eradicate some of the biiiions of dollars In debts owed to the World Bank and the

International Monetary Fund. agency then exchanges this asset with the government of the debtor nation in exchange for a commitment to implement some environmental remediation program. So far these programs have been quite small and targeted at conservation projects such as the protection of Mexico's and North America's last remaining rain forest.

However, the US Environmental Protection Agency

recently announced that it was adopting the plan and claimed that as much as $12 billion in foreign aid loans could fiee up as much as $100 million per year for environmental conservation projects. More importantly, if successful the approach could be used as a model for other governments, notably fixrm Europe and Japan which also hold large amounts of debt to third world countries. Some serious barriers still remain, especially the widely differing tax, accounting and regulatory regimes faced by the world's commercial banks which place several obstacles on the cheap sale or charitable donation of debt. Also,few examples of swaps aimed at industrial pollution projects have been put in place. One exception is the program financed by the Bank of the Netherlands to fund a study on cleanup of Poland's badly polluted

It is clear that the use of economic initiatives or market-based

incentives to provide more effective options for environmental protection shows tremendous promise. Both the recent OECD report and the EPA study on economic incentives indicate a clear national commitment to this type of program. Since Canada, the US and most industrialized countries are projecting that the proportion of GNP devoted to environmental protection will grow dramatically from its current 1-1.5% to around 3% by the year 2000 and that most of this money will come from the private sector, it is desperately important that new,innovative solutions to these problems be identified. References 1. 2. 3.

A different economic is posed by the need to reach some form of measuring the tme cost of achieving various levels of environmental risk. Uiere is also the fact that what scientists

regarded as the most serious environmental risk were often quite different than those that excited the public and thus stimulated Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992

Options for Environmental Protection,

M. Simons, "Europeans Begin to Calculate the Price of Pollution", New York Times. December 9, 1990.


R. W. MacLean,"Motivating Industry Toward Waste Minimization and Clean Technology", in Waste Minimization and Clean Technology; Moving Towards the 21st Century. ISWA-EPA Conference Proceedings, Geneva, pp... 72-82. 1989.


Financial Analysis for Waste Management Alternatives, GE Corporate Environmental Programs, Fairfield, CT.


R. M. Schechter, "Federal/State Cooperative Programs and Opportunities to Encourage Waste Minimization", in Hazardous Waste Minimization, Government Institutes Inc., Washington, D.C., 1988.


B. Fleet, "The Economics of Resource Recycling, Zero-Discharge,

Waste Management Technologies and Strategies for the Heavy Metal Generating Industries", in Waste Minimization and Clean Technology; Moving Towards the 21st Centuiv. ISWA-EPA Conference Proceedings, Geneva, pp 534-543, 1989. 8.

ICF Technology, "A Comparison of True Costs of Landfill




of DOD

Wastes, Report for

Environmental Policy Directorate, Office of Secretary of Defense,

Defense Environmental Leadership Project Office, Washington, D, C., 1984.


B. Fleet, J. Kassirer and T. Sanger, "A Study of the Economic Factors Relating to the Implementation of Resource Recycling or Zero-Discharge Technologies for Heavy Metal Generating Industries in Canada" Project # for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Final Report pp 5-12(1989).


Reference 7, pp 5-12(1989),

sustainable development.

Environmental Risk - Perception Vs Reality

"Economic Incentives;

USEPA,21-P2001. March 1991.

in debts owed to the World Bank and the Intemational Monetary

Fund. If the optimists are right, the only limitation will be finding environmental projects that meet the basic constraints of

J. B. Opschoor and H. B. Vos, "Economic Instruments for Environmental Protection". OECD,Paris 1989.


Despite the problems, debt-for-nature swaps are gaining widespread acceptance. Once the current projects are off the ground, it should start to eradicate some of the billions of dollars

This mistake, based on an incoirect risk

assessment and fuelled by public pollution phobia, is estimated to

11. J. M.

Hushon (ed), "Expert Systems for Environmental

Applications", ACS Symposium Series #431. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.(3., 1990. 12. S. Fidler, "Trade-off of a Heavy Burden", Financial Times(UK), May 22nd, 1991.5

For more information, Circle reply card No. 250 37

AWWA Preview

Vancouver. Spectacular home of the 1992 AWWA Conference commonly reffered to as the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). From a technical perspective,it is inter esting to note that all of Greater Van couver's water is collected from three

closed mountain water sheds, which to

tal an area of about 585 square kilo metres. The Greater Vancouver Water


District, a division ofGVRD,began dis tributing water in the 1880"s. It now con sists of 500 kilometres of supply mains up to 2800 mm in diameter, 18 pump stations, and 21 storage reservoirs of up to 135 million litres in size. Water

treatment involves coarse screening and chlorination at the source with three rechlorination and chloramination sta

pe." »o-

FewAWNA host cities can match Vancouver's scenic grandeur. With its boating facili ties and snow capped mountains, the city is a paradise for outdoor sporting facilities. It is ideally situated as a gateway to the growing Pacific Rim market. Photo T. Davey

Vancouver was favoured by the

arts and crafts not to mention bushels of

mountains overlook the blue,

fresh Eraser Valley fruit and vegetables, and seafood caught practically at the doorstep. Or travel to the Steveston docks, where fishermen sell the day's

white-capped harbour, lead ing to the Pacific Ocean.Seagulls swoop and soar over fishing boats, sea lions sunbathe on the shore, and whales may be seen from ferries to Victoria, capital of British Columbia, on Vancouver Island.

It has a laidback L.A. lifestyle — without the smog,and the metropolitan excitement of New York City — without the crime. One of the most beautiful

cities in the world, Vancouver reflects

both the natural grandeur of its sur roundings and the friendliness of its inhabitants. Even Vancouver's downtown core re

flects the city's open, friendly atmo sphere. Glass and steel buildings reach skyward, sparkling with reflected sun light and lush green parks are crowned by the 1,000 acre Stanley Park, North America's largest city park. There's so much to see and do in Van

couver, that sometimes even residents

don't know where to begin. There's plenty to explore just in the city core. The CNIMAX theatre at Canada Place

offers indoor sights as spectacular as those overlooking the sculpted sails. From there,stroll down the cobblestone streets of old Vancouver in Gastown.

Further along is the vibrant activity of Chinatown,the second largest in North America. Explore the limits of your imagination at Science World on the old Expo site. The public market at Gran38

ville Island offers a rich variety of local

gods. Imposing snow-capped

catch from their boats.

There are five botanical gardens in Vancouver, including the Dr. Sun Yat Sen Gardens,an oriental fairyland.And of course, there's Stanley Park, a play ground for all ages. Nestled in these 1,000 acres of forest and fields are a zoo,

an Aquarium, a miniature railway, an outdoor theatre,and a seawall stretching nearly five miles. Cross Lions Gate Bridge to the North Shore and your eyes will be drawn to Grouse Mountain. A popular ski hill in winter,the skyride to the summit offers a panoramic view of the city and ocean year-round that will leave you breath less. While on the North Shore,test your courage crossing the Capilano Suspen

sion bridge,the longest suspended foot bridge in the world! Getting places in Vancouver is half the fun. Cross Burrard Inlet on the Sea-

bus. Glide through the city on the Skytrain,Vancouver's rapid transit system as clean and safe as the city. For a real treat, sail up Howe Sound on the M.V. Brittania. You can take the trip home on the Royal Hudson, an old-fashioned

tions servicing three areas in the system. GVWD is currently undertaking predesign and planning studies for pro posed water treatment facilities for im proved disinfection, corrosion control and possible filtration plants. GVRD also collects sewage via 400 kilometres of mains and 35 pumping stations. Although primary treatment is presently utilized at all four facilities,an upgrade by 1997 will result in the con struction of one of the largest secondary treatment plants in Canada. Transportation around Vancouver is best accomplished via the public transit system. Skytrain, North America's lon gest fully automated rapid transit sys tem, forms the backbone of this inte

grated land-sea-rail approach. Seven teen stations along the 24.5 km Skytrain route link four municipalities stretching from Waterfront Station in downtown

Vancouver to Scott Road in Surrey. Uti lizing banks of computers and televi sion screens to control the automated

system, operators



from point to point at speeds of up to 80 km/h.From the terminus at Skytrain the Seabus departs for the 20 minute jour ney across Burrard Inlet to the North Shore.

The conference was 12 years in plan ning. ES&E would like to thank Don Enns of Cantest, Doug Neden of GVRD and Debbie Reynolds of Tourism Van couver for providing copy, photos and other data. Our thanks are also due to

many other Canadian AWWA members for their generous assistance in obtain ing exhibition data and other material for this special issue. Exhibition details were the latest available at press time. For more information on the

steam locomotive.

conference contact American

Technical details

Water Works Association, 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver. CO 80235. Tel:(303) 794-7711

The metropolitan population of 1.6 million is spread over 18 municipalities.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

A BTR Company 39

AWWA Exhibitors

Guide to AWWA Exhibitors 114


Asdor, Edwards and Jones

A, B, C


Association of Boards of Certification 414

Autocon Industries Inc.

AVK Holding A/S

Booth #

3M Sample Preparation Products 3M Telecom Systems Group A.O. Smith Harvestore Products, Inc. A Y McDonald Mfg. Co. Action Threaded Products, Inc.

AWWA Research Foundation


Badger Meter, Inc. Utility Division Badger Meter, Inc. Industrial Division Bailey Division of CMB Industries


1121, 1123


726,728 1311, 1313

Bingham & Taylor


Bristol Babcock

2220, 2222

Byron Jackson Pumps Calgon Carbon Corporation Cambridge Brass Camp Dresser & McKee Inc.

124, 126 315,317

723,725 918,920

Canadian Environmental Protection

1921, 1923 Canron Pipe 1011, 1013 Capco Pipe Company Inc. 1204, 1206 Carus Chemical Company 2113 Cascade Waterworks Mfg. Co. 2019 Cathodic Protection Services, Water Works DIv. 1817,1819 Chicago Bridge & Iron Company


1621, 1623 219 517 319

Arka Stainless Bolt Inc.


BW/IP International —

1310 1308

Anglian Water Apac Products Apco Valve & Primer Corp. Applied Biochemists Inc. Aqua Data Inc. Consultant Aqua Freed Inc.

610 515

Brooks Products, Inc.




1920, 1922 2003, 2005

BIF Products

1928 2102 222

Ames Company, Inc. Ametek, Inc. Plymouth Products Division Ametek, Microfoam Division

2123 2203 2014 2017

Bibby-Ste. Croix Foundries

1018, 1020



Bennett & Williams Bermad Inc. Bermex Inc.


Ads Environmental Services Inc.

1112, 1114

BOA Industrial Controls Limited


Advance Products & Systems Inc. American AVK Company American Cast Iron Pipe Company American Chemicai Corp. American Concrete Pressure Pipe Assoc. American Norit Company Inc. American Pipe Lining Inc.
















^ 728



1 828






1028 1127

928 1027




1128 1227


1 125





1 123















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322 421



320 419



318 417




316 415













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1120 1219

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1 722









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1 818 917

718 817


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1018 1117













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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992




AWWA Exhibitors CBI Walker, Inc. GDR Systems Corporation Certalnteed Corporation Pipe & Piastics Group Chemetrics, Inc. Ctiemtrac Systems, Inc. Cherne Industries Incorporated Chicago Steei Tape Co. Chlorinators Incorporated Church & Dwight Co., Inc.

Data West Corporation DBS Manufacturing Inc. Degremont Infiico Ltd.

1818, 1820 316

223, 225


1002 706 113 801 2201

CLA-VAL Company

1012, 1014 618,620

Conbraco Industries, Inc.




Control Microsystems, Inc.


Eimco Process Equipment Co. EMA Services, Inc. Emery-Trailigaz Ozone Company Enmet Corporation

823 2309

Cornell Pump Company CPC Engineering/Microfloc Products

1512, 1514

Ecometrics Inc.



1907 2224

EBAA Iron Inc.

2108 707

Continental Ind.

2010, 2012

Eaglebrook East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.


Conservatek Industries Inc.


Dezurik, A Unit of General Signal 612,614 Digitech Systems 604 Dowell Schlumberger 1318, 1320 Dresser Manufacturing Div., Dresser Ind. 1807, 1809 Drew Industrial Div, Div of Ashland Chemical 213 Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association 519 Dyk Incorporated 2305 E H Wachs Company 1319, 1321


Click & Go Ltd. Clow Con-Tech Industries Inc. Future Flush

1919 1604 702

Dense North America Inc. Dense North America Inc.


C.I.M. Industries Inc. CLA-VAL Canada Ltd.


1826, 1828

415,417 2027

922,924 2002

General Filter — Envirex

1626, 1628

CRC Press/Lewis Publishers


Environetics, Inc.


Crescent Pipe Tongs, Inc. Cretex Specialty Products Crispin-Multiplex Culligan International Culligan International

2210 802

Environmental Flealth Laboratories Envirotrol Inc.

216 2321

F.B. Leopold Company, Inc. F.S. Brainard & Company Fairbanks Morse Pump Corporation Febco, Div. of CMB Industries Fischer & Porter Company Fisher Research Laboratory Flomatic Corp. Fluid Conservation Systems

1208 2105

921,923 1509, 1511 1507


1811,1813 2121

418,420 1417 824 914







~ 3-

• I





1328 1427

1428 1527

1 326 1425

1628 1727



1424 1523


2028 2127

1926 2025

2026 2125


1 2128 2227

1826 1925

1726 1825

1626 1725

2126 2225

1 1524 1623


1624 1723

1724 1823

,1824 1923

1924 2023

2024 2123

1522 1621

1622 1721

1722 1821

1822 1921

1922 2021

2022 2121

1520 1619

1620 1719

1720 1819



1920 2019

2020 2119

1618 1717

1718 1817

1818 1917

1918 2017

2018 2117


1 322 1421






i 1324 1423



1828 1927

1728 1827


1526 1625

1426 1525



1528 1627

1 2124 2223



1 1420 1519

1320 1419



1 1418 1517

1318 1417 1




AREA 0 1518 1617









1314 1413




1 1614 1713

1514 1613

1414 1513

1714 1813

1814 1913


1 2014 2113

1914 2013


2114 2213




2214 2313

2314 2413

1 1412 1511

312 1411


1 3 10 1409


1512 1612

1611 1711

1510 1610

1609 1709

1712 1811

1812 1911

1912 2011

2012 2111

2112 2211

1810 1909

1910 2009

2010 2109

2110 2209

1410 1509



1 308 1407

1408 1507

306 1405

1406 1505

1607 1707

1506 1606

1605 1705

1708 1807

1908 2007

2006 2107

1906 2005

2006 2105


1302 1401 1

1504 1603


1604 1703


i 1402 1501 t 1







1802 1


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

1904 2003

1902 2001 1


2002 2101 i




2204 2303

2102 2201


2304 2403




2306 2406



2104 2203

2004 2103



1602 1701

1502 1601

1804 1903


2308 2407

1 2206 2306

2106 2205


1404 1503

2310 2400

2208 2307

2108 2207

1808 1907

1806 1905



2210 2300



304 1403




1508 1608

2312 2411

2212 2311



2^ 1


RESTAURANT 2302 2401

2301 1




AWWA Exhibitors Footage Tools


Force Flow Equipment The Ford Meter Box Company, Inc. The Ford Meter Box Company, Inc. Pipe Formulabs, Inc. — Water Management DIv. Piqua, OH

713 1225, 1227 1223


Heath Consultants Limited DFW/HPI

Henry Pratt Company Hersey Products HF Scientific, Inc.

G,H,I GA Industries, Inc. Gardiner Equipment Company, Inc. General Chemical Corp. General Chemical Corp. General Filter Company — Envlrex

1824 701 2112, 2114 2110 1622, 1624

Geotelec Inc. GIrard Industries — Flow Services


Gladwall Engineering Svc.


Gore & Storrle Limited Consulting Engineers 2128 GPK Products, Inc. 1711,1713 Great Lakes Instruments, Inc. 2106

Grid SystemsA/Vestech Information Systems 2327 Griffin Pipe Products Co. 1126,1128 Gundle Lining Systems, Inc. 1802 Hach Company 1219,1221 Hancor Inc.

1528 1424

Hays/Lee Brass Company Head Manufacturing Co., Inc. Heath Consultants Incoporated

HIac/Royco Particle Counters Honeywell Limited HSQ Technology Hydra-Shield Manufacturing, Inc. Hydra-Stop, Inc.

2218 2109

1518,1520 1205, 1207 1021, 1023 1421, 1423 2107 326

1722, 1724 1017


In USA Inc.


Industrial & Environmental Analysts Inc. Inflico Degremont Inc.


1610,1612 1723 2205

International DIoxclde Inc.

International Flow Technologies, Inc. International Ozone Association

Int'l Assoc. of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials IPSCO (International Piping Services Co.)

118 1413

1001,1003 1519, 1521

Ionics, Incorporated Itron, Inc.

J, K,L


Handy Chemicals Ltd.


Hansen Software Inc. Harco Waterworks CP

1101,1103 1618

Harmsco, Inc. Upflow Cartridge Filtration The Harrington Corporation The Harza Companies

224 1614 2008

J-M Manufacturing Co. Inc. Jaeger Products, Inc. James Jones Company JCM Industries, Inc.

1118,1120 1701,1703

Jones & Henry Engineers, Inc./J&H Software Inc.

1517 1028


The safe alternative For water disinfection, wastewater

treatment, odour control, cyanide removal. COLGATE-PALMOLIVE CANADA INC.

99 Vanderhoof Avenue,

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4G 2H6

Tel. (416) 421-6000. Fax (416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver

For more information, Circie reply card No. 105 42

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Piping by flhe numbers.




To cut costs in piping installation, it pays to pre-plan with Victaulic®. For example, to help you save time and reduce overhead, Victaulic Technical Services Division offers valuable pre-planning services. We provide equipment and piping layouts, isometrics, bills of material, and piece-marked pipe-cut sheets. Then we bag and tag the Victaulic components before delivery to your job site. So all the Victaulic com ponents called for in drawing CWP-3,for exam ple, are in crate CWP-3. It's like piping by the numbers. And it's fast!

So if numbers are important to you, check into something you can count on. Contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or coll 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.

ictaulic Pi^-plaimi«5 wii+h Victeulfc aaws tiweaM rnoney.

Best of all, you'll be using the Victaulic system... over TOO innovative products that can save you from 10% to 40% on total installed costs com

pared to welding or flanging. And that's before our Technical Services Division helps out. Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992

Victaulic is o registered trcdemork of Victaulic Company of Canodo. ©1990 Victoulic. All rights reserved.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 106

AWWA Exhibitors JPS Elastomerics Corp.



Kent Meters Inc.

Kinetico Incorporated The Kjell Corporation Knapp Polly Pig Inc. Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Kop-Coat Division of Carbollne KoppI Company Krofta Engineering Corporation Kupferle Foundry Company Kvaerner Hydro Power Inc. Landmark Structures, Inc. Layne & Bowler Layne-Western Company, Inc.

1925 1410 1117 1917

2124,2126 2308

1304,1306 1717,1719 325 822

919,917 818,820 426

Le-Ron Plastics Inc.

2007, 2009

Leeds & Northrup

Liquid Metronlcs DIv. Milton Roy(LMI) Lowell Corporation

1526 215



M,N, O,P

Michigan State University Mid-States Plastics Co. Inc.


Miller Pipeline Corporation Mllltronlcs, Inc. Milton Roy Company —

1419 1727

Flow Control Division

Hersey Products — Mueller Co. Multl Fittings Nappco Natgun Corp. National Automated Clearing House Assoc.

M3I Systems Inc. Marsh McBlrney Inc. McCrometer DIvlslon/Ketema, Inc.

Metal Samples Co. Inc. Metrltape Inc. Metron Technology Metrotech Corporation

1125, 1127 214 2314 1709 1822 2304

Neo Valves

Niagara Conservation Corporation American Norit


Northwest Filter Company Northwest Pipe & Casing Company


NSF International NSS Industries


NSW Corporation Nusonlcs, Inc.


712 1814

OCV Control Valves

218, 220 1825, 1827 1007, 1009 1810, 1812

McGard inc. Special Products Division (SPD) Memtec America Corporatlon/Memcor Division Met One Inc.

1821 1102

National Lime Association

1913, 1911 1903, 1905 1606, 1608

Orcom Systems Madison Chemical Industries Inc.

1522, 1524 1025, 1027

1901 2208

Orec Ozonia North America



Palmer Environmental Services


Parkson Corporation PCI Ozone & Control Systems, Inc. Peabody Floway, Inc. Peabody Techtank, Inc.

115 1513

2023 1910 321

Paico Linings, Inc.




P A C Pumps/Dlv. of Pacific Alloy Castings P A C Pumps

2407, 2409 2111 2228 1022

The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged moving parts.

In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.

At Degremont Infiico we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have developed the self-cleaning


• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts

climber screen.

• Easy maintenance



Our climber screen is easy to install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from1'6" to 30'0". It can discharge screen ings at great heights and can be installed in deep channels.

Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all moving parts are above water.

scraper blade

• Ease of installation


cleaning comb

f,, container

V/' o"" conveyor

^Degremont Infiico Ltd. 160-D St. Joseph Blvd., Lachlne Quebec H8S2L3 (514)634-8011 4325 Steeles Avenue West, Dovi/nsvlew Ontario M3N 1V7 (416)661-5521 300 205 - 9th Avenue S.E., Calgary Alberta T2P0G8 (403)237-6859

STEP 2 bar screen

for more information, 44

Circle reply card No. 107

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

AWWA Exhibitors Philadelphia Mixers Corporation Phillips 66 Co. Phillips Driscopipe Inc. Phllmac Valves and Fittings Phlpps & Bird Phox Systems Inc. Pipeline Inspection Co. Inc.,(SPY) Pipeline Pigging Products Inc. Pipeline Products Pipeline Seal and Insulator, Inc.


Reed Manufacturing Company Inc.


Reeves Rubber, Inc. Resources Conservation, Inc. Rexa Corporation

1607,1605 313 1202

2207, 2209

RJN Computer Services, Inc. Robar Industries Ltd.


PItt-Des Molnes, Inc.

1407, 1409

PIttsburg Tank & Tower Co., Inc.


Plastic Trends Inc.

606 1707

Plastics Pipe Institute




1501, 1503

Pollution Control Inc.


Poly Pipe Industries Inc. Polyken Technologies


Preload Inc.

Price Brothers Company

1008, 1010 1024, 1026 1426, 1428

Prominent Fluid Controls Inc.

722 1217

Public Works Publications

Purac Engineering, Inc. PW Pipe

Rio Linda Chemical Co.

2213 2001


2003, 2005 826,828

Q,R,S, T, U,V, W,X, Y,Z Raco Manufacturing and Engineering Co., Inc. 425 Radlodetectlon Corporation Radix Corporation 1019 Hydro Group, Inc. — 1212, 1214 Ranney Method Western Hydro Group, Inc. — Ranney Method Western 1210

2024 805

2020, 2022

Rice Hydro Equipment Manufacturing


PItometer Associates



1502, 1504 804,806

Roberts Filter

1906,1908 709,711

Roll Seal Valve Co. Romac Industries

1406, 1408

811 521

Rosemount Analytical Inc. Ross Valve Mfg. Co., Inc. Roy F. Weston, Inc. Royal Pipe Co.


718,720 708,710 413

Rustrak Instruments S & B Technical Products

Floyd S. Salser, Jr. and Associates, Inc. Sanmar Corporation

Scepter Manufacturing Company Limited Schlumberger Industries Schlumberger Industries, Inc. Schlumberger Industries, Inc. Schonstedt Instrument Company

422,424 1912, 1914 2325

1617,1619 1322


1326, 1328 1712


Schott/Great Lakes Instrumentation

Water & Wastes Digest Sensus Technologies, Inc. Serpentlx Conveyor Corporation

901,903 925,927

Severn Trent PLC Sierra MIsco Inc.


727 423

SIgma/Nappco Singer Valve Inc. Smith-Blair, Inc. Sonoco Products Company Star Pipe Products Speed Shore Corporation Splnlello Construction Co.

1104, 1106 322, 324 1714

1725 1401 2006


It's what you don't get that makes the 1720C the world's best-selling on-line turbldimeter! ■ l\lo Dirty Cells

What you do get

■ l\lo Stray Light

"Unique optical design which


glass flow-through sample cell. The sample stream enters the body through bubble venting baffles and overflows a weir, forming an optically flat surface. A strong beam of light passes through

eliminates the need for a

■ No False High Turbidity Readings ■ No Gas Bubbles

this smooth surface to an

■ Wo Loss of


Sensitivity at Low Turbidity Levels

Immersed detector.

• Full two-year warranty ■ Low maintenance and easy periodic calibration ■ Two fully-independent, setpoint alarm systems ■ ±2% accuracy from 0-20 NTU with a resolu tion of 0.001 NTU (0.0001 below 0.1 NTU)

■ No Condensation

and Filming ■ No Cleaning

Request the I720C brochure number 3877

and Maintenance

for more Information.


■ No Need for


Desiccants or Air

P.O. Box 389

Loveland, Colorado 80539

Purge Systems


Sales Outlets Throughout Canada •Instrument Service Center In Winnipeg

FAX:(303) 669-2932 Telephone:(303) 669-3050

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


AWWA Exhibitors Stanley Hydraulic Tools Star Pipe Products

2225, 2227 1403,1405 1107, 1109

Steel Plate Fabricators Association Sternson — Water Treatment Chemicals


Stiles — Kem Division, 1303, 1305 Met-Pro Corporation 910,912 Stoner Associates, Inc. Suburbia Systems Corp. — "A Unifilt Company" 905 Synex Systems Corporation 1726, 1728 1708, 1710 T T Technologies, Inc. Tank Industry Consultants, Inc. 1609 TOW Services, inc. 808,810 1525, 1527 Technical Products Corp. Tek-Rap Inc. 2101, 2103 1412, 1414 Temcor 2214 Terminal City Iron Works Ltd. Thane-Coat, Inc. 2018 821 The PQ Corporation 1004, 1006 Thompson Pipe & Steel Co. 904 Thor Enterprises, Inc. 523 Thuro Services(Western) Ltd. 1718, 1720 Tnemec Company, Inc. Tokheim Automation Corporation, Houston TX 2307 419


2411, 2413 1402, 1404

Traffix Devices, Inc. Transmate/Division of Romac Industries Trenchless Replacement Systems Trojan Industries inc. Troy Valve Trumbuli Industries, Inc.

2226 2403 714

807,809 226

Trusco Tank Inc.

Tyler Pipe Industries, Inc. U S Environmental Protection Agency United States Pipe and Foundry Go. United States Pipe and Foundry Co.

1312, 1314 1220, 1222

Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association Uni-Flange Corp. Unifilt Corporation Unimin Corporation U.S. Filter Corporation Utility Service Assoc. Inc. Val-Matic Valve & Manufacturing Corp. Vaico Technology, Inc. Vanguard Plastics, Inc. Vulcan Rivet & Bolt Corp. Wachs Canada Ltd.

Wallace & Tiernan, Inc. Waltron Ltd.

Warminster Fiberglass Company Water Company of America Water Quality Assoc. Certainteed Water Works Manufacturing American Flow Control Div. of Amer. Cast Iron


1804, 1806 1926

907,909 323

2125, 2127 2310

1508,1510 2317 1902 1627


1418, 1420 817 1505 2206 513 221

1307, 1309

Watersaver Company, Inc.


Waterworld News


Watts Automatic Control Valve

Watts Regulator Company


1209, 1211

Wedron Silica/Best Sand


West Bay Instruments Inc. Westcoast Hydrant Services Ltd. Westvaco — Carbon Department

2319 2302



1122, 1124

Wilkins Regulator Div., Zurn Industries Inc. 1721 1625 Apco/Willamette Co. Water Specialties Corporation 1611,1613 Water & Wastewater Equip. Manuf. Assoc. WWEMA X-Pando Products Company 1909


GASURVEVHn A technological breakthrough In Gas Detection The new range of Gasurveyor instruments uses the latest in microprocessor tech nology to produce a lightweight gas detection/monitoring unit that is easy to operate yet gives better field utilisation than previously available. Built from modular components,the Gasurveyor is portable, rugged and offers low individual capital and maintenance costs. It can be automatically checked and re-calibrated in the field which greatly extends its utilisation time in operation. Combining this with sensitivities of 10 ppm to 100% gas, it makes the Gasurveyor the single instrument for your entire utility operations. Second generation instruments now provide Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide detection capabilities.

Call Heath today for complete information, sales and service on the entire line of Gasurveyors.

iv HEATH Consuftants

... creative solutlons to liquid and energy losses.

2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V3S5

(519)659-1144 Fax:(519)453-2182


6923 Parrel! Rd. S.E., Branch Offices: Montreal, P.O.(514)331-1580 Calgary, Alberta T2H0T3 Saskatoon, Sask.(308)242-1713 (403)258-0151 Fax:(403)258-0577 Vancouver, B.C.(604)980-9515

For more information, Circle reply card No. 109

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Ever feel everyone "knows the answer"

...until you have a problem? Solving problems in the waterworks fitting industry is a Terminal City tradition.


-Push Joint D.I.


- MechanicalJoint D.I.

TER-MECH - Mechanical Joint Grey Iron

Terminal City provides you with access to technical product data through factory consultation.

Terminal City provides you with a complete fitting lineCompact Ductile Iron-AWWA C153, 4 inch through 16 inch; DITYT® or DIMECH®

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron-AWWA CIIO, 4 inch through 24 inch; TER-MECH or TYTON

Ductile Iron and Grey Iron—ANSI BI6.I, 3 inch through 30 inch; Flanged Fittings Terminal City also provides a variety of "Special" fittings for specific installation needs. One "Special" will do the work of two or more standard fittings.

Make the Right Connection...CALL


iron works ltd.

Manufacturers of Waterworks Fittings, Gate Valves and Fire Hydrants 1909 Franklin Street,Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1

Phone(604)253-7525 •


For more iriformation, Circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992


AWWA Special

High-Tech ' Solutionsfor Down-to-Earthi Problems

Preliminary Technicai Program Friday, June 19

30. Aid to Developing Countries: An Update to NCO Activities

MORNING 1. Opening General Session

32. Selling Your Birthright:

31. Management Internationalization of the Water



Soil Soil Augers/Core Samplers/ Soil Recovery Augers Good for any type of soil sampling, disturbed or undisturbed.


2. Leak Detection and Water Audit

3. Computer Modeling and Data Base 4. Emergency Planning Policy Issues and Operational Impacts 5. Distribution System Research 6. Industrial Water Supply 7. Ozone, Chloramines and Biological Control 8. Can We Rescue Primacy?

Sampling Vehicle

33. Energy Management and Conservation

34. Small Water System - Alternative Solutions

35a. Conservation Potpourri 35b. Conservation: ULVs

36. Organics Removal: Adsorption and Biodegradation 37. Utilize Your Surface Water Supply

Do We Want To? 9. Product Information Forum I

Ground Water


Automation and Computerization

A self-contained truck or trailer mounted

method of purging wells or extracting ground water samples.

Saturday, June 20



Manual or hydraulically-operated portabili ty for purging wells and extracting samples.

10. Upgrading Water Treatment Plants

to the Max 38. Corrosion Control to Meet the

Lead/Copper Regulations 39. The Role ofEducation in Achieving

Compliance With the Safe Drinking Water Act 40. Drinking Water and Health in 2000

11. Public Officials Session:

Discrete Liquid Sampler Sample below the surface of liquids at any predetermined depth or pull a series of samples from various depths for a composite sample.

Regionalization Policy Issues 12. Regulatory Update

Monday, June 22

13. Croundwater Resource Protection

14. Tailoring the Treatment Process to Minimize Disinfection



41. Distribution System Maintenance 42. Drought Surcharges and Water Conservation Pricing

New Dual Valve Liquid Sampler

15. Product Information Forum II —

Recover samples from the bottom ofany container or ground water wells to check

16. Universities Forum I

43. Particle Removal/Conservation

for contaminants heavier than water,

17. Regulatory

44. Water Resources — Implementing Projects 45. Optimization of Water Treatment

Distribution and Operation

including hydrocarbons.


Gas Soil Gas Vapor Probes/ Dedicated Vapor Points


18. Section Officers' Forum

19. The Management Approach to

Precious Resource — Volunteers

Public Communication

Monitor underground storage tanks.


46. Using the Association's Most 47. Talking With the Public

20. Dual Distribution Systems

21. Conjunctive Use of Surface Water

Pre-site investigations for soil gas or for tracking vapor plumes.

and Croundwater for Water Supply 22. Modern Approaches to Distribution System Management

We specialize in custom

23. Product Information Forum III —

About Lead

48. Water Industry Technical Action Fund (WITAF): Overview, Accomplishments, the Future


design applications to meet your specific needs.

Quality and Treatment 25. Water Quality

49. Conservation Networking Session 50. Water Rights — What Can We

Sunday, June 21

Do With Them? 51. Cross-Connection Control

24. Universities Forum II



52. Automation for Your Utility


1942 Art's Manufacturing & Supply 105 Harrison

American Falls, ID 83211

1-800-635-7330 For more information,

Circie reply card No. 122 48

Poster Session

26a. Conservation: Plumbing Retrofit 26b. Conservation: Evaluation and

Planning 27. Ozonation Research Symposium

28. Alternative Water Supplies — Desalting and Reuse 29. Citizen Monitoring: Building

Operations 53. Safe Drinking Water Act Implementation Issues 54. Innovative Treatment for

Emerging Problems

Note: This is a tentative program —

papers and speakers are subject to change.

Teams to Monitor Water Sources

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Armtec sluice gates meet the rigorous demands of water control. Armtec's wide range of gate products will help you control or

For more than 75 years Armtec has been building a reputation for producing high quality sluice gates and accessories for sewage plants, water treatment projects, flood control, power stations and irrigation.

divert flow or maintain critical

water levels. For design or sales information, please contact your nearest Armtec Sales Office.

Armtec Water Control Products:

• Heavy Duty Sluice Gates (AWWAC501) • Fabricated Slide Gates

• Flap Gates • Radial and Roller Gates


• Overshot Gates • Miscellaneous Gates and Accessories Gate Construction • Cast Iron • Galvanized

• Painted Carbon Steel • Aluminum

• Stainless Steel

Gate Operation: • Manual

• Hydraulic • Electric

• Automated Control Systems

Heavy Duty Sluice Gate

Fabricated Slide Gate

For more information, Circle reply card No. 116

11 k\ Water Control Products

Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbrldge, Reglna, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Stratford, Guelph, Toronto, Ottawa, St. Augustin, Beloeil, Dartmouth, Sackville, St. John's, Bishop's Falls, and Fresno, California.

R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Inhibition of Methanogenic Consortia W.J. Parker and colleagues from the University of Waterloo and the Waste-

long-term average ammonium, nitrate, total organic nitrogen, and total phos phorus export offorested streams in the

water Technology Centre completed a systematic investigation of the inhibi tion exerted by kraft pulp mill bleach plant effluents on a methanogenic con sortium. A significant portion of the


cribed in the Journal of Environmental Quality, these scientists employed ma thematical transformations of geology, physiography, hydrology, and annual

inhibition, which correlated with the

meteorological data.

area. As


areas, the one receiving sludge pro duced a significantly greater quantity of oats than that which did not. Conven

tional equipment could be effectively used for sludge spreading. The paper published in Sciences et techniques de I'eau discusses the economic benefits for

the City and for the farmers. The City of Jonquiere has decided to continue im

wastewater AOX,was present in the per

plementation ofthis process for the next

meate from ultrafiltration. As described

several years.

in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, treatment of the was

tewater with powdered activated carbon prior to biomass exposure removed its inhibitory effects on the biomass. A methanogenic consortium was found to acclimate to a wastewater volumetric

fraction of80% v/v. The wastewater vol umetric fraction did not affect the over

all time required for acclimation. lAWPRC

Phosphorus and Nitrogen Export

The ability to predict export ofalgal nut Land Application of Wastewater Siudge

rients from forested stream catchments

is essential to estimate background levels of nutrients in lakes and therefore

gauge the effects of anthropogenic acti vities on the trophic status of Ontario lakes. Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment scientists P.J. Dillon and W.A.

Schneider, together with York Univer sity researcher L.A. Molot have devel oped empirical regression models of

In the spring of 1990, the City of Jonquiere, Quebec conducted tests on the use of biological wastewater sludge for spreading on agricultural land. As des cribed by municipal scientists A. Laluminere and G. Gagnon,this method of disposal was both feasible and benefi cial. Comparing two oat producing

Treatment of Dairy Process Waste D.Thirumurthi and colleagues from the Technical University ofNova Scotia,the Farmers Co-operative Dairy Ltd., and UMA Engineering Ltd. investigated the process used to treat a dairy waste which had been plagued with problems. The facility consists of an equalization tank and two lagoons aerated by surfacemount, aspirating type units. As des cribed to delegates attending the Cen tral Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, the study con cluded that the treatment problems were the result of insufficient oxygenat ing capacity to reduce the BODs to the required effluent standard. New higher capacity surface-type aeration equip ment corrected the problem and con trolled odour generation due to im provement in mixing and oxygen input. Determination of Biomass

M.R.Gray and colleagues at the Univer sity of Alberta evaluated a thermogravimetric analysis method for the determination of biomass in the pre

Environmental Law The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: • Environmental Assessments & Approvals

• Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings • Waste Management & Disposal • Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods


of activated

carbon. Known

amounts of Escherichia coli or phenol degrading anaerobic sludge were mixed with activated carbon and samples of these were pyrolysed at 550°C under a nitrogen atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer.The amount of

biomass \yas expressed as volatile solids. The method, which gave rep roducible results, should have applica

• Occupational Health & Safety

tions in biomass determinations for

• Insurance Claims

other activated carbon-containing bio logical treatment processes.

• Environmental Audits

• Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) • Sale of Land & Secured Transactions

Biosorptlon of Chlorophenols University ofOttawa scientists K.J. Ken nedy, J. Lu and W.W. Mohn studied the

For more information contact:

sorption of a number of chlorophenols by anaerobic sludge granules in order to understand more completely the fate of chlorophenols and their degradation products on upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Sorption by the sludge


Burton H Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400

John D Brownlie, Q.C. (416) 863-2400



Gordon Cameron

Aleck Trawick

(613) 788-2200

(403) 260-9600


Marvin R V Storrow, Q.C. (604) 631-3300

granules was considerable and, as des-


Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors

Use the Reader Service

Card to get info on products in this issue.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 157 50

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

R&DNews cribed in a paper accepted for publica

Activated Sludge Kinetic Model

non-aerated reactors.The model correc

tion in Water Research, most chloro-

A generalized activated sludge kinetic model with the capacity for modelling the biological processes of car bonaceous energy removal, nitrifica tion, denitrification, and excess phos phorus removal has been published in Sciences et techniques de I'eau by McMaster University researcher P.L. Dodd. The model merges modifications of the

tly simulates the organism mass dis tribution and tracks the changes in cer tain key parameters such as soluble phosphorus and nitrate concentra

phenols had linear sorption isotherms which were defined by simple distribu tion coefficients. Sorption of two chlorophenols was highly reversible, but it was not for a third chlorophenol tested.

Impact of Wastewater Soil Infiltration E.A.T. Environnement Inc., scientists J-

P. Dube and C. Roy, together with J. de Villiers of Hydro-Quebec, are monitor ing wastewater treatment systems in volving soil infiltration in the James Bay area where permafrost is present. As described in Sciences et techniques de

lAWPRC model and the Wentzel polyP

organism culture model. The model provides acurate simulation of a range of activated sludge system con figurations incorporating aerated and


Organochlorine Contaminants in Southern Ontario Lakes

Hydrophobic organochlorine con taminants were surveyed in net plank ton from 33 lakes in southern Ontario by University of Waterloo scientist W.D. Taylor and colleagues from the Nacontinued overleaf

I'eau, the wastewater was distributed to

the soil infiltration surface by a low pre ssure distribution system. After eight months the water table can rise to very high levels under certain conditions. A zone of biological growth had become established which effectively purified the wastewater. Insulating the infiltra tion systems with polystyrene to main tain the temperature above 5°C proved to be successful in normal operating conditions, although the temperature was significantly affected by the vents installed to bring fresh air into the bio logical growth zone. Removal of Phenols in Sequencing Batch Reactors

IMPORTANT NOTICE for USERS OF INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS If you use any of tfie following cfiemicals as solvents: 1,1,2-trlchloroethane (Beta 7) 2-ethoxyettianol (Dowanol, Cellosolve, Oxitol, Poly-solo) 2-nitropropane (Ni-Par, S-20, S-30)

you sfiould know about a proposed categorization as fiazardous waste by the Ministry of the Environment.

Regulation 309 made under Ontario's Environmental Protection Act, states the requirements for the handling and disposal of wastes as scheduled. Schedule 11s a list of some of the processes in which hazardous chemicals are used. In the case of the chemicals listed above fhese would be processes in which thev were used as solvents.

J.A. Oleszkiewicz, A. Janeczko and W.

Trebacz investigated the removal of simple phenolics in aerobic and denit rifying sequencing batch reactors. These University of Manitoba scientists used orthochlorophenol as a model phenolic together with combinations of other substrates. The addition of cosubstrate had no effect on the ortho

chlorophenol removal rate in fully aerated reactors but enhanced the per

Schedule 2 Is a list of the hazardous chemicals themselves.

The proposal is to add ail three of the chemicals listed above to Schedule 1, and to add 2-ethoxyethanol to Schedule 2, where the other two already appear. Regulation 309 provides for a careful review of any proposal to add to these schedules, first by specialists in waste management within the Ministry, and finally by an external Hazardous Waste Advisory Committee. This Committee seeks input from interested parties. This notice offers an opportunity for you to contribute your views on the proposal. If you would like to have further Information please complete the request form below. Send it by mall or facsimile transmission to:

Spent Solvents Categorization and Review Ministry of the Environment

formance of anoxic/aerobic reactors. The increase in volumetric reaction rate

was proportional to the increase in

Public information Centre

solids retention time. These and other results are discussed in Environmental

135 St. Clair Avenue West

Toronto, Ontario M4V 1P5


FAX (416)323-4564

Please send further information concerning the proposed categorization of the following solvent(s).

Fate of Aldicarb in Groundwater

Aldicarb is a systemic pesticide that has been used in the Maritimes primarily on potato crops to control aphids and the Colorado potato beetle. National Water

Correspondence choice

□ English

□ 1,1,2-trlchloroethane

□ 2-ethoxyethanol

□ 2-nltropropane

184C vol. 2,4

1840 vol. 3,6

Research Institute scientist J.P. Much

Name of company or organization

1840 vol. 1,5

and coworkers undertook a 5-year


groundwater-aldicarb monitoring pro gram at three field sites on Prince Ed

Street City/Town _

ward Island. The results, which indicate

that aldicarb residues are persisting much longer than had been expected, suggest that the oxidation of ammoni um based fertilizer applied to the field sites may be inhibiting the degradation

□ frangals □ All 3 chemicals 1840

_P.O. Box_ Postal Code ' EnvironfTiental Science and Engineering

Pour obtenir des renseignements en frangais, composer le (416)323-4321 a Toronto ou composer sans frais le 1-800-565-4923.

of the aldicarb residues. These and

other results will soon be published in an Inland Waters Directorate report.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Environment Environnement Ontario


Science and Engineering

For more information, Circle reply card No. 117 51

R&D News tional Water Research Institute and


York University. The relative concen





up to 5 minutes were required for inac tivation in natural waters. As described

in a paper accepted for publication in

trations of twelve common organo-

chlorines were generally similar suggesting that they derive from a com mon source, probably atmospheric transport. The results, discussed in the Canadian JournalofFisheries andAquatic Sciences, indicate that lakes with low

plankton biomass had high organochlorine concentration in that biomass,

suggesting that a large proportion ofthe variation among lakes in the concentra tion ofcontaminants in plankton can be

Inactivation of Giardia muris

Water Research, it was found that resi

Cysts with Ozone Factors influencing the inactivation of Giardia muris cysts using ozone were examined by C.W. Labatiuk, M. Belosevic and G.R. Finch using 48 indepen dent,experimentally designed trials in a bench-scale batch reactor.In laboratory trials, these University of Alberta scien

dual and utilized ozone both had im

tists found that inactivation occurred within two minutes while contact times


portant influences on G. muris cyst in activation. It was more difficult to

achieve inactivation in natural waters at 22°Cthan at5°C.

UV Disinfection of Wastewater At the recent Water Pollution Control

Federation conference, Trojan Techno logies scientist W. Cairns and U.S. col leagues described the evaluation of a UV disinfection system using both fil tered and unfiltered secondary effluents under field conditions.The system con sisted ofthree plug flow reactors operat ing in a cascading series configuration. Four low energy UV lamps, encased in quartz sleeves, were submerged in the wastewater parallel to the flow direction

in each of the plug flow reactors. Filtra

"Services For The Earth And Environmental Sciences"

tion followed by a UV dose of about 115 mW-s/cm^ was effective in reducing the coliform to acceptable levels.

BARRINGER LABORATORIES is one of the largest

The fourth in a series of reports on in

Canadian Industrial Water Use

environmental laboratories in Canada offering one of the most extensive collections of state-of-the-art instrumentation and a full

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WE OFFER competitive pricing

dustrial water use in Canada will soon

be published by the Inland Waters Di rectorate. This report, by D.M.Tate and D.N. Scharf, summarizes the results of

the 1986 Survey ofIndustrial Water Use. It presents statistical data and discus sion on various physical parameters of water used by industry, such as recirculation and discharge, as well as basic economic patterns such as output vol ume and value and water cost. It also contains a detailed discussion of water use in mineral extraction and thermal

power sectors, and of time trends obser ved in industrial water use.

highest quality analysis helpful, experienced staff guaranteed rapid turnaround

complete sample bottle kits at no charge custom hard copy and electronic reports available laboratories and sample reception throughout Canada


PHONE (416) 890-8566 FAX (416) 890-8575

Analysis of Acids in Precipitation Samples V. Cheam has recently investigated the application of an isocratic anion chromatography method for the determina

tion of organic and inorganic acids in precipitation. His National Water Re search Institute report on this research provides the results of the method as well as a comparison with those ob tained when analyzing the same sam ples by the gradient method and an ion-exclusion method. This compara tive study has established that, while each method has strengths and defi ciencies respecting particular acids, the gradient and ion-exclusion methods should be used jointly whenever all acids ofconcern are to be determined in

precipitation samples.

OR TOLL FREE 1-800-263-9040 Adsorption of Pollutants on Clay Minerals

In a paper accepted for publication in For more information, Circle reply card No. 118 52

Water Research, scientists at the Univer-

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

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R&D News con't sity of Quebec in Rimouski describe their studies on the adsorption of trace metals and phenolic substances on sus pended clay minerals. C. Gagnon, M. Arnac and J.-R. Brindle found that there

were interactive effects between the pol lutants when more than one was present in the system.Thus,cadmium ion would compete with nickel for the same ad sorption sites. Although less vanillic acid was adsorbed than eugenol, the phenolic compounds generally enhan ced the sorption of metallic cations on the clay minerals studied, while the pre sence of metallic cations increased the

sorption of phenolic compounds. Properties of Aerobic Biofilms University of Toronto scientists T. Oga, S. Suthersan and J.J. Ganczarczyk stu died the attachment properties of nit rifying and heterotrophic biofilms in laboratory rotating biological contac tors by measuring the development of biofilm thickness, biofilm density, acti vity, and detachment caused by shear stress. As described in Environmental

Technology, it was found that the nitrify ing organisms formed denser and thin ner biofilms.They also exhibited poorer attachment properties and were more easily detached than the heterotrophic microorganisms.

Treatment of a Sulphuric Acid Spill In February 1986,fifteen tanker cars ofa southbound CP Rail freight train de railed near Beer's Lake in northern On tario. The tanker cars each contained 86 tons of96% sulfuric acid. The total esti mated acid loss was about 300 tonnes. Gartner Lee scientist T. O'Neill des cribed the neutralization and remedia tion measures taken at the Water Pollu tion Control Foundation conference. This included neutralization of acid on land as well as in the lake. Within one

month,all known areas ofdepressed pH had been successfully neutralized. Ex tensive follow-up monitoring of water quality, sediment, fish, and aquatic in vertebrates confirmed that no signifi cant long term impact had occurred. Measurement of

leased when the iron is reduced. Typical results for the Trent River suggest that

about fifty percent of the ferric iron in riverine particulates is in the hydrated oxide form. The particles were found to release considerable concentrations of

phosphate into the water column after they settled into the anoxic Bay of Quinte sediments. MIcroblal Leaching of Metals

R.D. Tyagi and F.T. Tran studied microbial leaching of metals from digested municipal sludge in a continuously fed bioreactor using an adapted strain of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. As described by these INRS-Eau scientists in Environmental Technology,the pH of the feed sludge was adjusted to 4.0 and leaching was conducted at 30°C. Acceptable levels of metals in the sludge were reached with a residence time of five

Redox-Sensltlve iron National Water Research Institute sci

entist P.G. Manning has completed a comparative study of techniques for measuring the amount of hydrated fer ric oxides in sediment particles. As des cribed in Canadian Mineralogist, the techniques ranged from simple chemi cal extraction to analyzing Mossbauer spectra obtained at liquid helium tem peratures. This type of iron forms com plexes with phosphate which are re

days compared with 7-12 days in the batch process.

For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Pollution Re

search and Control,Conservation and Protection, Environment Ca nada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (819) 953-9365, Fax: (819) 9539029.




The Prince Hotel, Toronto

lualher laboratories

Formerly titled tfie "Ontario Waste Management Conference", this 39th conference has been

broadened in scope to reflect a greater emphasis on waste reduction using a multimedia approach COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL ANALYTICAL SERVICES

Ground Water


Surface Water

• Reg. 309

Sewer Use Bylaws

• Decomissioning Guidelines

Soils & Sediments

• Field Services

Liquid Waste

• Air Quality

In pollution prevention. Presentations of many papers In plenary sessions will be by authors expert In the field of pollution prevention or reduction,recycling,treatment and disposal, and will address all three environmental media (I.e. air, water and land).

The conference will provide Insights to the environmental problems and solutions facing Industry and society In the 90's decade, and will be of Interest to many stakeholders. Additional information and registration data may be obtained from:



Environment Ontario

Waste Management Branch, 12A,2 St. Clair Avenue West Toronto, Ontario M4V 1L5 Attn: M.F. Cheethom,

Conference Coordinator

FoxTdiil 323 5031 Fox: C416) 323-5031


^ Environnement

PHONE:(416) 227-1158 FAX: 680-1916

For more Informatiott, Circle reply card No. 120 54

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Legal Issues

By Jonathan W.Kahn*

New legal decision on Bata case highlights officers'and directors' responsibilities policies be implemented. He had placed

nifying the two directors for the pay ment of their fines. The implications of the site for its day-to-day management, this decision on the relationship bet and he always inspected the operation ween corporations and their officers an experienced director and officer on

when he was on site. The Court found

and directors should be considered.

that this was a sufficient "system" upon which he was entitled to rely.

The Ministry ofthe Environment has routinely been charging officers and directors, as well as corporations, with environmental offences. The statutory provisions under which the Bata direc tors were charged and the reasons in the case itself will not only increase the fre

However,the other two directors were

not as fortunate. The president, who vi sited the site approximately once a

month, had the chemical storage pro

Arecent Ontario case has high Jonathan Kahn

lighted the fact that corporate


blem brought to his personal attention. He appears to have given instructions that the problem be dealt with, but the

court found that"due diligence requires him to exercise a degree of supervision

officers and directors can no

and control that demonstrate he was

longer ignore the environ consequences of the cor

exhorting those whom he may be nor

poration's actions,and are personally at risk ofbeing prosecuted and convicted if they fail to take pro-active steps to pre vent environmental problems. The case,R. v. Bata Industries Limited et

mally expected to influence or control to an accepted standard of behaviour. He

had a responsibility not only to give in structions but to see to it that those in structions were carried out in order to

minimize the damage." He was conse

al, involved charges of illegal waste storage and of permitting a discharge of

quently convicted. The vice-president was based at the

liquid industrial waste. Three directors of the corporation — the Chief Execu

site and was directly responsible for its operation. The court found that he had an obligation to ensure that the site operated within environmental laws and the company policy.The Judge held

tive Officer, the President and a Vice-

President — were charged personally under the Ontario Water ResourcesActfor

failing to take "all reasonable care to prevent the corporation from causing or permitting an unlawful discharge."Two of them — the President and the Vice-

President — were convicted, and sen

tenced to pay fines of $12,000.00 each. Further, Bata Industries, which was fined a total of $120,000.00, was ordered

not to indemnify the two directors with respect to these fines. Bata Industries was also ordered to publish the fact that the company and the two directors had been convicted on the front page of its international newsletter.

This was the first significant decision which interpreted provisions in the On tario Water Resources Act and the Envi-

ronmental Protection Act which impose a duty on officers and directors to take"all reasonable care"to prevent the corpora tion from causing or permitting the un lawful discharge of contaminants. The court acquitted the Chief Execu tive Officer because of evidence that he was aware of and had fulfilled his en

vironmental responsibilities. He had is sued written directions through a com pany newsletter which had been dis tributed to Bata companies throughout the world directing that environmental *Member of Black Casells & Graydon's Environmental Law Group In Toronto.

that if the Vice-President made the deci

sion to delegate, he had a responsibility to ensure that his delegate received the training necessary for the job and that he received detailed reports from that delegate. The court was critical of costcutting measures imposed by the Vice-

quency of such charges, it will also put officers and directors who do not have

"hands-on" responsibility at risk. Po tential penalties against individuals un der environmental legislation include very large fines, imprisonment and ex pensive restoration orders. Consequen tly, directors and officers, as well as less senior agents or employees of cor porations, must take steps to ensure that their business is operated with a view to preventing environmental problems. Boards of directors should adopt policy statements establishing a commitment to protect the environment and the health and safety of the corporation's employees. Management should be di rected to take all reasonable steps to comply with relevant laws and to de velop programs to implement the direc tors' policies. A system ofreporting must be instituted to ensure that officers ad

vise directors on the implementation of the environmental policy; directors may not simply issue a policy without rea sonably following up on its implemen

President, which "overloaded" one of


his more junior officers and left him

The development and implementa tion of appropriate environmental poli cies is the key to avoiding or defending against environmental charges. The Bata case highlights the costs of failing to have effective environmental pro

insufficient time to deal with environ mental issues.

The sentencing decision is unusual, both in the relative severity of the fines and particularly in the fact that the cor poration was forbidden from indem

grams in place.

BC resident jailed under Waste Management Act A resident of Courtney, Randy T. for. DeMacedo,has become the first person As a result. Randy DeMacedo was to receive a prison sentence for offences charged with a total of 29 counts for under the province's Waste Management incidents that took place on southern Act(WMA).

Vancouver Island between November

He received a 90-day sentence Feb ruary 28,following an investigation into the unlawful transport of waste oil, which is defined as a Special Waste under BC's Waste Management Act.

1990 and May 1991.

Ms.Tetarenko said that 18,000 gallons of oil was involved, some of which was later traced to local greenhouses, where

it had been used as heating fuel. Ap

Diane Tetarenko, Enforcement Offi proximately 10.000 gallons ofoil remain cer with BC Environment in Nanaimo, unaccounted for.

said the investigation started in January Local greenhouses are permitted to 1991, when a survey oflocal garages and use waste oil as a heating fuel only ifthe auto repair shops revealed that a large fuel meets strictly-regulated content re quantity of waste oil was unaccounted

quirements for lead.

Circle reply card No. 252

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Pumping Systems

By Bob Pitchers and Ernie Pelham

Avoid extravagant pumping costs with proper maintenance programs

Asenergy and waste manage

ment becomes increasingly more important and tighter

fiscal controls reduce funds

for new equipment and maintenance, both suppliers and end users must examine their responsibilities in the selection and maintenance of pump ing installations. The supplier, or design engineer, has a responsibility for selecting the best pump for the application. For example, a pump that is larger than is required might be selected. This pump might re quire a large reduction in impeller size to meet the pumping conditions. As a result it will not be running at peak per formance efficiency. Consequently, it will require more power which is added operational cost and may require a higher capital outlay.


Sometimes,the choice of materials to

be used in pump construction may be made with the purpose of reducing ini tial costs of units. While this purpose may be achieved, the long term result could mean accelerated wear causing frequent downtime and higher main tenance costs — perhaps even a much shortened working life.

Until recently, pumps used in muni cipal and plant service on water were of Some service companies have extensive machine shopfacilitiesfor pump reclamation. cast iron construction with bronze inter

nals. Today, because of the changes in the pH values of intake water brought about by toxic substances getting into rivers,lakes and streams,pumps are now often made with stainless steel.

Another possible alternative to stain

head requirements resulting in lower pump efficiency. More importantly, clogged intake screens and suction strainers could cause cavitation to oc

cur, resulting in rapid erosion of the pump impeller and casing volute. Routine maintenance of the pump

brought back to design standards. Changes in ammeter and pump dis charge pressure gauge readings could also be a result of a falling off of pump performance due to internal wear. In all of the cases mentioned,compe tent service facilities have the expertise

less is cast iron construction coated with

can be divided into three main areas.

stainless steel. The capital cost is mini mized while needed metallurgical pro perties are maintained. For existing installations it is the res ponsibility of the maintenance staff, with help from the supplier,to introduce maintenance programs in an attempt to

1. Monitoring of instruments. Following start-up and after a suit able running in period, all instrument readings should be noted and used as a base for comparison.Changes in instru ment readings usually denote some

reduce the amount of downtime and to

change in the pump performance and

2. Pump stufTing boxes/gland packaging. Pump stuffing boxes are usually sealed by use of mechanical seals or gland packing, with the latter being most com monly used except where a fire or toxic hazard could be caused by the leaking

should be investigated before the situa

fluid. In such cases mechanical seals are

tion becomes critical. An increase in

always used.

be aware of new technology which could extend the life of the pumping plant. Routine maintenance programs are es sential for good performance and long life of pumping equipment. Such pro grams should also cover associated equipment which could affect pump performance. For example, clogged intake screens or suction strainers will adversely affect the performance of the pump,reducing flow rate while increasing the discharge

to carry out on-site investigation and make recommendations.

bearing temperature or vibration could be an indication of faulty lubrication or bearing wear which, if corrected quic kly, would stop possible damage to shaft journals. A reduction in suction pres

The correct installation and main

*Manager, and Tech Specialist,

strainers and early rectification of this condition would stop the possibility of cavitation and resulting erosion of the impellers and casing. High shaft or cas ing vibrations may indicate increased internal clearances at the wear ring areas requiring the pump to be taken out

tenance of gland packing is vital. When fitting new packing rings, the joints of the rings should be staggered a mini mum of 90° apart. Rings of packing should be pushed into the stuffing box using pushing rods and not by using the packing gland and tightening the ad justing nuts. A regular drip of fluid should be observed through the packing when the pump is running and the gland adjusting nuts should only be finger tight. Over tightening of glands

Peacock Industries Service Centre

of service to have these clearances

causes excessive wear on shaft sleeves


sure could be the result of blocked

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992

and an increase in horsepower re quirements with increased power costs. Worn packing causes increased leakage and waste and could spray water into the bearing housings causing bearing failure.

3. Bearings. Bearings usually will be of either the sleeve or anti-friction type — oil or grease lubricated. Oil lubricated bear ings will be fed from either a separate lubricating system or an integral oil bath. With the separate lubrication sys tem, pressure drop across the filters should be monitored regularly as well as the system pressure.An increase in pres sure drop across the filters indicates the filter requires cleaning or renewal. A reduction in system pressure usually in dicates wear in the system oil pump and this pump should be checked. With an integral oil bath, the oil level should be regularly checked.Low oil levels reduce the amount of oil picked up by the oil ring and will result in overheating and premature failure of the bearing. When grease lubrication is used with anti-fric tion bearings, the most common cause of overheating is over greasing. After initial packing of the bearing with grease and commissioning ofthe pump, two shots of grease per week from a grease gun are usually sufficient for the bearing but check the manuals for par ticular pumps. Oil company or lubrica tion systems suppliers can easily calcu

this overhaul is carried out in-house or


at a reputable service facility. In-house overhauls are usually limited to replacing worn components by new parts and putting pumps back into service. Where pumps have given good working life and the conditions for which they were originally designed have not changed,this type of overhaul is generally sufficient. However,experi ence over almost a century as a service company has shown us that often con ditions for which the pumps were de

When we consider components such as shafts, impellers, or sleeve bearings, reclaimation is sometimes appropriate. This is usually carried out by applying weld overlays, modern spray coating technologies, chrome plating or the rebabbitting of bearings. In summary,a sound in-house main tenance program can reduce down time, extend service life ofthe equipment and reduce the chance of catastrophic fail ure, reducing plant operating costs.

The role of the repair facility is to service, repair, rebuild and upgrade the pumping plant using the kinds of equipment, technologies and special skills that few plant maintenance shops possess. The role of the repair facility is to ser vice, repair, rebuild and upgrade the pumping plant using the kinds ofequip ment, technologies and special skills that few plant maintenance shops

signed have changed. A competent ser vice facility is usually able to carry out some redesign to improve the wear life of the pump. Also, sometimes a major service facility is able to reclaim worn components that a maintenance shop might replace with new components. The redesign work would normally be in the area of metallurgical changes to wear parts. New materials can enhance service life by combatting the effects of corrosion and erosion. Additionally, hard coatings can be used in those areas subject to exceptionally high wear


The knowledgeable blend of sound in-house maintenance programs with a competent service facility that offers a wide range of technology,expertise and dependable 24-hour service is a key to keeping your plant operational costs at the optimum level. Circle reply card No. 258

late the exact amount of lubricant re

quired for any bearing service. Water from badly sealed stuffing boxes is not usually a problem for grease lubricated bearings but it can get into the oil bath of oil lubricated bearings. This becomes apparent when the oil begins to turn white in colour or takes on the look and consistency of mayon naise. Then oil should be changed and new packing fitted into the stuffing

Groundwater Monitoring Whatever your monitoring appiication and needs Soiinst can provide the equipment.


Vertical pumps, if they are of an ear lier vintage, could have oil lubricated bearings fed from tubing inside the ver tical casing. This arrangement some times allowed trace oil to get into the pumped fluid, causing environmental


variety ot high quality monitoring instruments, including: Water Level Meters Piezometers Bailers

Purge Pumps Sampling Pumps Weil Screen and Casing Water Quality Monitors Complete Monitoring Systems UST Monitoring Devices


A change to selflubricated bearings is often a sound recommendation to sur

mount this problem. Routine maintenance programs will ensure that the time between major overhauls will be kept to a maximum. However, major overhauls requiring pumps to be taken out of service and completely dismantled will eventually become necessary. This should be a planned outage, not a breakdown situa tion, provided proper instrument mon itoring and routine maintenance pro grams have been followed. At this time the decision has to be made whether

Enviroiunental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Soiinst manufactures and supplies a wide

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Direct discharge management

By Steve Whitney*

Hydrocarbons in cooling water now detected in ppb range

To detect hydrocarbons in the

dryer and into the gas chromatograph where the analysis is performed. A sam ple analysis takes about 15 minutes. The system software package oper ates the analyzer, sparger and sample system.It also includes on-line diagnos

parts-per-billion (ppb) range, the Shell Canada refinery in

Sarnia, Ontario, has installed an on-line process gas chromatograph. The chromatograph monitors cooling water discharge to the St. Glair river for benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl

tics, a user maintenance interface and a

variety of user-definable alarms. The system also has a data reporting package.


The ability to rapidly identify even trace amounts of hydrocarbons means that corrective actions can be taken im

How the system was chosen Shell Sarnia has considerable experi

mediately. Monitoring cooling water streams of up to 20,000 gallons per minute,the system can detect as little as 0.00002 gallons per minute of possible contaminant. This is comparable to the level ofanalysis to which drinking water is subjected. The previous detection method,use of lab chromatographs to analyze grabsamples, was too slow. Results took as much as 24 hours.

The gas chromatograph analyzes three separate streams of cooling water discharge. The sample points are lo cated just prior to two oil-water separa tors and a clean water outlet. The

chromatograph is housed in an envi ronmentally controlled building. The maximum distance from a sample point to the chromatograph is 100 ft. The minimum distance is 30 ft.

From the shelter, a digital highway runs about 2500 feet to the operators' control room.In the control room,a per sonal computer (PC) dedicated to the plant chromatograph system monitors the instrument's performance. There are actually 5 chromatographs linked together on the highway loop. *Shell Canada

ence with process chromatographs and has standardized with a preferred ven dor. The vendor has an established in frastructure in North America that af

fords easy access to replacement parts and service capabilities. For the cooling water application an important point was that the unit was designed for Divi sion 1. Class I environments.

The Optichrom Advance Gas Sparging Chromatograph

The other four units perform process control. The chromatograph com municates the analyzer results to the plant mainframe computer through an interface unit. How it works

The gas chromatograph sparging sys tem (or sparger) is designed to strip a repeatable percentage of hydrocarbon volatiles from a liquid stream. The li quid stream is directed through the sparger vessel at a constant flow and controlled temperature. An inert gas bubbled through the liquid carries with it a portion of any volatile hydrocarbon present and some moisture. The en riched inert gas stream is fed through a

Meters Made Easy Meters Made Easy was prepared by the CWWA to help system owners and operators determine whether the intro duction of meters is likely to produce long-term savings in their community. It is a tool that permits system owners or operators to analyze the costs and benefits ofinstalling meters in their sys tems. It is intended for use in com-

munitites that vary greatly as to the number and mix of customers served

some data are not available from local sources.

Volumes I & II: Benefit cost analysis

was found to be too low to allow the self-

cleaning filters to perform correctly. After the flow was increased, the system performed as specified. The Optichrom Advance gas sparger was supplied by Westech-Applied Automation. On-line operation Calibration is the most significant system maintenance task and is per formed every few weeks. A known mix ture of volatile hydrocarbons in water must be pumped through the system. A

Tool and User's Manual: Technical

master calibration blend of a thousand

Support information S96.00 for mem

parts per million ofvarious components in methanol is made up. The 2 ml ofthe blend is mixed with 20 litres of organic free water. Three or four cycles are run on each analyzer stripper."Total calibra tion time is typically 3-4 hours.

bers. $120.00 for non members. Volume

III: National Data Base of Municipal Water Metering $48.00 for Members,$60 for non members. Add 10 percent for postage and handling, plus GST on sub total. Make cheques payable to Cana

and the age and condition of the sys dian Water & Wastewater Association tems. The computer model is very flex (GST Registration 106 868607) ible — the degree of detail aboutsystems can vary greatly, and because ofthe"de Contact: Canadian Water and Wastefault" values available in the program, water Association, 24 Clarence St., 3rd the results still will provide a basis for Floor. Ottawa, Ontario. KIN 5P3, Tel: sound decision-making, even when (613)238-5692, Fax:(613) 238-5193. 58

Installation took approximately four weeks, with Shell Sarnia personnel per forming most of the work. The start up. which was essentially uneventful, took approximately three days with the assis tance of vendor service personnel. The system, including the software, was fac tory-configured. The supplier's sample conditioning system, installed between the sample delivery system and the sparger, filters out very fine sediments found in what was essentially river water. Initially, the flow to the sample conditioning system

Shell Sarnia can now confirm and

document just how good it is in detect ing hydrocarbon leaks into cooling water.Ifa leak were to occur,a sewer sys tem can divert cooling water discharge to holding ponds until the situation is normalized. Water in the holding pond can then be reprocessed. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992



OCTOBER 20-22, 1992




co-sponsored by the Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association Participating Sponsor Air & Waste Management Association(Ontario Chapter)



Management ^ Maintenance/Design Engineering Show. Over 10,000 Industry personnel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PAADS In 1990. ON-SITE CONFERENCE

ES8s£ will host a two day conference featuring experts who can focus on the formidable environmental compliance problems that confront Industries dally. ES8s£'s wide ranging program will review the MISA program, environmental audits, toxic spills, pollution abatement processes and occupational health and SEifety issues ~ ail subjects industrial staffers must know in the 90's. Reed-Macgregor Exhibitions Is a member of the Reed Exhibition Companies (REC), the world's ieirgest exhibition organizer. lETECH produced by: REED-MACGREGOR EXHIBITIONS INC.

800 Denlson Street, Unit 7 Markham, Ont. L3R 5M9 Tel.: (416) 479-3939

conference produced and managed by ENVIRONMENTAL

Science & Engineering Magazine For more Information, please contact: 10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ont. Canada L4G 5N7 (416) 727-4666

Product Review


Sludge blanket

Environmental and Industrial Analytical Services

level detectors

' Trace Metals, Organic and Inorganic Analyses Industrial Waste, QA/QC, Special Projects and tVletf^ods Development.

The only blanket interface monitor/ controller which automatically retains a clarifier blanket interface following a

We have a team of highly professional and experienced staff who would meet

disturbance, exhibits continuous clari

Waters, Soil, Sediments, Vegetation, Rocks and tvlinerals. Air Particulates, MISA, Reg. 309, Decommissioning Guidelines, Drinking Water Guidelines, Sewer Use By-laws, Effluents, your specific requirements and standards.

fier profiles on a computer and controls up to four sludge pumps automatically

Alpha Laboratories Inc.

to maintain the desired interface level.

285 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2V1 Tel:(416)449-2116 / Fax:(416)449-0816

The Model 2500 has no moving parts and can be virtually maintenance free. Request Bulletin 2500. Cancoppas

"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"



• environmental and discharge analyses

Parts per million dissolved oxygen analyzers

• Reg. 309 and MISA compliance


• Phytotoxicology and Water Quality


• fire assay and field sampling services Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, CO KIrkland Lake, ON

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

MIssissauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel:(416) 890-8566, Fax:(416)890-8575

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 201

TImmlns, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON Montreal, PQ

Microprocessor-based dissolved oxy gen analyzers with features such as au tomatic calibration, self-diagnostics, stepped current output control, low cost multi-channel


and low

maintenance self-cleaning probes. Four

■nnH ■■I < L3bot3tortBS Umited uillfuru

Ml ■

Excellence in

channel conversion available. Request Bulletins 9010/9040 and 64/90. Cancoppas

Environmental Analysis

Consulting Environmental

■■■■■ Chemists

for Over 25 Years

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 202

14 Abacus Road

Phone (416) 458-4505

Brampton, Ontario Fax (416) 458-7303

Services Suite 200

line service.

Canada LSI 587

CanTest Ltd Professiofia!



Environmental Analysis

Regal Gas Chlorinators mount direc tly on the cylinder with special heavyduty yoke, or can be used in automatic switchover and remote and multi-point applications. Available with maximum chlorine flow meter capacities up to 500 lbs of chlorine feed per 24 hours (10kg per hour). *And sulphonators for de-

1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J8

Occupational Health & Safety

Tel: 604 734 7276

Fax: 604 731 2386


^ Comprehensive

chlorination. Cancoppas For more Information, Circle reply card No. 207

• Complete MISA Parameters


• Regulation 309 Compliance • Dioxons/Furans

• Air Analysis • Soil Decommissioning • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria



waste water sampling

CANVIR® ^^^Baniurs^^DHve^^^tedoo^^Dntario N2V 2C5 Tel: (519) 747-2575 Fax (519) 747-3806]

Chemex Labs ::d

Environmental Services

►Analysis of trace metals/inorganics/organics/radioisotopes

W-Water & waste analyses

►Contaminated site and hazardous waste monitoring

^Certified by CAEAL/Registered with BC MOB

►On-site composite sampling services

Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221

MIssissauga, ON (416) 624-2806

Rouyn, PQ (819) 797-1922


Gas chlorinators* With up to 60% fewer parts and only two moving parts. Regal Gas Chlorinators mean lower first costs and lower repair costs. And because they are 100% fieldserviceable with same-day factory han dling for replacement parts, they mean less downtime and uninterrupted on

The 1511 Zone 1 portable waste water

sampler is a unique world first — the only electrically operated (with intrin sically safe power pack) sampler of its type which is fully approved for Zone 1 hazardous environments, providing an alternative to traditional pneumatic samplers. The 1511 complies with the many in ternational safety standards and is cer tified by BASEEFA for use in Zone 1 environments with the following classi fications, E Ex ib IIB t4. Cancoppas For more information.

Circle reply card No. 203

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Product Review Effluent sampler The EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler is de signed to extract samples ofliquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite con tainer or sequentially into an array of 24 X 1/2 litre containers for subsequent retrieval and analysis. Typical Applica tions;• Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent • Raw sludge • Most industrial effluents. Cancoppas For more information, Circie repiy card No. 204

Ammonia & nitrate monitors


949 McDougall Avenue Windsor, Ontario N9A


Regulation 309 • Metals • Inorganics • Organlcs Volatile Qrganics • BTEX ' Asbestos • PCBs Gas Bag Analysis • Odour Panels • Isocyanates

Inquiries about additional analytical are encouraged


FAX (519)255-9304



SIILLOmi Environmental Laboratories







Environmental & Analytical Laboratories

Monitor is based on use of an ion-selec tive electrode which measures the con



Certified by Canadian Association of

Contronic Development's Ammonia

centration of ammonia. The principle used involves raising the pH of the sam ple by the addition of alkali to convert






MISSISSAUGA (416) 568-1414

FAX (416)568-1339

ammonium ions to ammonia. The in


Setting the standard for

strument's microprocessor converts the electrode output signal to calculate ammonia concentration, while com

* service

pensating for the temperature of the sample. The result is displayed as Nit rogen (NH4-N). Cancoppas

* quality


For more information, Circie repiy card No. 200

* turnaround time


6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

Black Tape products protect pipelines Denso North America Inc., a manufac

turer of anti-corrosion systems includ ing tapes and high tech epoxy urethane coatings for the protection ofgas and oil transmission pipelines, recently re ceived some positive results on strict laboratory testing of their line of cold applied rubber bitumen tapes. These tests were carried out over a six year period and were tested to end users'cri




Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977

teria. Results indicate the line of black

tape products will indeed remain in place for the lifetime of a pipeline. Black tape products have been used to protect and rehabilitate pipelines, marine piles and so on from corrosion for the last 25 years in North America. This black tape is a strong cold applied bitumous pipewrap consisting of an ad hesive rubber bitumen compound on a fabric reinforcement laminated to an 85 micron conformable black P'VC back

ing for extra flexibility. A plastics inter leaving ensures clean handling and is used in conjunction with a primer.

Analytical Laboratory A Division of Core&Storiie Limited

• Environmental Analytical Services •Specific Analysis Certified by CABAL • MISA, Sewer Use Compliance Testing • Hazardous Waste Characterization

•Site Decommissioning Guideline Testing 55 Research Rd.,TDronto, Ont. M4G 2G8,Tel;(416)696-0390, Fax;467-5227 1 -800-563-9275

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters


For more information.

Circle reply card No. 156

' Reg. 309 Compliance

* Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans ' Ambient Air Monitoring

• Emission Testing • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

• Odorous Compounds

• Rush Analysis Available

Use the Reader Service

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.

Card to get info on products in this issue.

5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone; (416) 890-2555 Fax; (416) 890-0370

Environmental Science <£ Engineering, May 1992

Professional Analytical Services Since 1972


Product Review

WastewaterTreatment Problems?

Residual chlorine monitor for free or total residual chlorine measurements EIT's Series 5100 Residual Chlorine

Call Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc. Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. can help to eliminate troublesome water pollution control headaches related to organic chemical compounds. Whether the job is large or small, Calgon Carbon con provide a cost-effective solution to meet the treatment objective. Activated Carbon Products-specifically designed to remove o wide variety of organic chemical types and concentrations. Adsorption Systems-standard off-the-shelf or custom designed systems to treat a wide range of flows: 250 i/m(60 gpm)fo 2500 Vm (700 gpm), Colgon Corbon Service- Under o monfhiy service arrangement Calgon Carbon will install and maintain at the treatment site a permanent ar temporary treatment system. Treatment objectives con be achieved without major capital costs. Spent Corbon Disposal-Calgon Carbon eliminates disposal problems by trans porting the spent carbon to a RCRA-opproved reactivation facility, where the organic chemical contaminants are thermally destroyed,thus eliminating future liability risks. For more information, coil or write Calgon Carbon Canada,Inc., Suite 304,6303 Airport Rood, Mississougo, Ontario L4V1R8, Tel (416)673-7137, Fox(416)673-8883.


Monitors provide reliable and accurate monitoring ofchlorine concentration in water, wastewater,cooling towers,swim ming pools, and disinfecting wash water. These monitoring systems are based on a direct sensing polarographic sensor which eliminates the need for the chemicals used in conventional colori-

metric or amperometric monitors. For many applications, the sensor may be immersed directly in the flow stream. Installation is extremely simple and lit tle maintenance is required. The Series 5100 monitors are microp

rocessor based instruments providing a digital display of chlorine concentra tion. The standard unit provides an iso lated 4-20 MA output over ranges 0-1, 0-2,0-3,0-5,0-10, and 0-20 PPM.Output

range is operator selectable from the front panel. All calibration and alarm setpoint adjustments are also controlled from touch sensitive switches on the

front panel. Summa For more information,

For more information, Circie reply card No. 126

BIOLAC Wastewater Treatment System

Circie reply card No. 158

FEBCO Introduces the Model 800 Detector Check FEBCO announces a new Detector

Check specifically designed to prevent the reversal of flow and monitor water

loss in fire sprinkler systems. 1. FLOAT ASSEMBLY



The new 800 Series is available in 4",

6", 8", and 10" sizes and has a working pressure of 250 psig. It incorporates a



patented new spring loaded "swing check" design which ensures reliability yet creates minimum head loss through the valve.


i 1°: .


BIOLAC is an innovative biological system which

provides the lowest-cost solution for many municipal and industrial wastewater applications. The significantly improved mixing efficiency

provided by the moving aeration chains is the key to the Biolac System's conservative design approach and unique longer sludge age treatment capability. Call us for our brochure.

PARKSON Represented in Canada by Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. and its representatives. 9050 Ryan Avenue, Dorval, Quebec, H9P 2M8 Tel.:(514)636-8712 Fax.:(514)636-9718

The ductile iron body ofthe 800 Series is lightweight and resistant to freeze damage. Febco utilizes an advanced fusion epoxy process in accordance with A.W.W.A. C550-90, and corrosionresistant metal internals. The 800 Series

is designed to provide trouble-free per formance for the life of the product. The 800 Series will be offered either as

a complete Detector Check Valve with bypass/meter installed, or as a Single Check Valve with an optional bypass/ meter kit available. Bypass/meter sizes will be

. 1". IVi", and 2", and meter

options will include Neptune GPM, CFM, Badger remote GPM, Rockwell GPM and CFM foot or a "spool" fitting in lieu of meter. FEBCO For more information,

Circie reply card No. 159

For more information, Circle reply card No. 129 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Laboratories New Isco Field Printer



MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Eiemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Nowit is possible to obtain on-site hard copy reports of sample and program

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152


information with the new Isco Field

Printer. It connects directly to an Isco Model 3700 or 3710 Sampler, and can create two different reports: a Sample Results Report and a Program Settings Report. On-site reporting capability


Burlington, Ontario(416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808 Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

makes the Field Printer an excellent

way to verify sampler operation and compliance. The reports also provide effective documentation for legal or enforcement purposes. The dot matrix printer pro vides a complete record of the sampler setup, program parameters, and the sampler operational status. A rugged, NEMA 4X, 6 rated environmentally sealed enclosure ensures dependable performance.ISCO For more information, Circie reply card No. 160

Integrated storm water


Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management* Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel.416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's * Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

runoff monitoring system

Ainley and

A ler Supply


Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges • Flood Conin

Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Or,


Land Use Planning



280 Pretty River Parkway

48 Higli Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371

(613) 966-4243

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

Isco introduces a new integrated system for storm water runoff monitoring. A complete line of automatic samplers,

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

Waste Management solutions

open channel flow meters, and acces sories allow customers to specify a sys tem to meet EPA compliance require


ments for their industry. Isco 3700 Sam plers are offered with a choice of bottle configurations, and include the exclu

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

sive STORM™ programming to ensure accurate first flush grab samples and flow-weighted composite samples. A choice of ultrasonic, submerged probe,


Box 917, R.R.5

(613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

to the 4 Rs Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


and bubbler flow meters satisfies a wide

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

range of monitoring requirements. A rugged rain gauge provides accurate,

consulting engineers anrd architect

on-site rainfall information. Isco Flow-

link® software allows convenient on-site

Water Pollution Control

or remote reporting ofrainfall, flow,and sampling information. Isco

Water Supply

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts

Water Resources

Municipal Services

TORONTO (416)497-8600

WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)







Chopper pumps

Michael D. Hirtenstein, Ph.D. has joined Halozone Recycling Inc. as Vice Presi dent and Chief Operating Officer. He Is a businessman with 20 years of experi ence In developing technology, with an end product and markets In mind. He obtained his doctorate In biochemistry In England and worked In the food and brewing Industries for 5 years while stu dying for his MBA, which he completed In 1976.

Byjoining Pharmacia AB In Sweden In 1977, he expanded his horizons to the International field and was a key player In the development of the Biotechnology

market place In the late 1970s and early 1980s. Mike progressed to become a senior vice president of the company, holding Important posts In Sweden and with their subsidiaries In France and In Canada

from 1983 through 1987. Mike left Pharmacia In early 1988 to start up a new high technology company In Toronto, Canada, which he combined with building up a thriving consulting business together with his wife, who also has an MBA In International marketing. He has worked on a number of signifi cant environmental projects. Including alternative power sources for northern.

Ontario, and non Invasive methods to measure Impairment due to drugs or

"Two Machines in One", Vaughan Chopper Pumps,successfully chop and pump heavy solids. Items such as: trash, rope, plastic, gloves, bones,jeans,feathers, hair, hide, scum and metal strapping are just some of the heavy solids that Vaughan Chop per Pumps handle. Heavy industries such as Chemical, Pulp and Paper,Steel, Aluminum.Petro Chemical, Food Processing, Automo tive, and Hazardous Waste, as well as


Mike met Dusanka Flllpovic, P. Eng. when he was working with one of the major venture capital groups. He recog nised the business potential of the Blue

many municipal wastewater treatment facilities have solved their most difficult

pumping problems using Vaughan Chopper Pumps. Vaughan For more information, Circle reply card No. 162

Bottle™ technology and decided to work with Dusanka to build a new com

pany, based on her award-winning CFC recovery technology. The complementary experience and skills of the partners has resulted In the

Isco bladder pumps for low submergence wells

rapid development of Halozone Recycl ing Inc. to where It Is today, a fledgling company which will shortly be starting to

supply Blue Bottles™ to the CFC recov ery market.Tangible progress In translat ing this CFC recovery process Into viable field operational technology Is already underway.




Sampling Pumps from Isco are ideal for

purging and sampling from 2" and larger diameter wells having low re charge rates or water levels. Zero-sub mergence pumps utilize a unique, pa tented design that allow them to pump at higher rates in low submergence conditions.

This makes the zero-submergence

pumps especially useful for sampling from low recharging wells, or near the surface ofthe liquid. Several models are offered for use in a variety of applica tions. ISCO For more information,

Circle reply card No. 163

Continuous Emission

Monitoring Whether you require a simple single component system or a complete multicomponent package with data acquisi tion and mass flow, Westech provides a single source for all C.E.M. needs: • Applications Staff Training Engineering Qualified Service Installation • Systems Design Testing • Assembly

Sierra-Misco's ground water tracking. Because sometimes divine guidance just isn't enough.

• Fabrication

• Start-up & commissioning Measured components include: NO,


NO2, NOx, SO2, H2S, TRS, HCl, HF, HCN, CI2, CIO2, CO2, CO, O2, THC,

Sierra-Mlsco Inc., 10461 Old Placervllle Road, Suite 110,Sacramento, California U.S.A. 9S827 Tel:(916)363-4271 Fax:(916)363-1886

Slerra-Mlsco Environment Inc., 850-999 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V6C 2W2 Tel:(604)684-7754 Fax:(604)684-8099

VOC,Opacity and Mass Flow. Westech

For more information,

For more information, Circle reply card No. 130 64

Circle reply card No. 164 Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992


Product ReviewBreakthrough in Gas Detection New range of Gasurveyor instruments uses the latest in microprocessor tech nology to produce a lightweight gas de tection/monitoring unit that is easy to operate yet gives better field utilisation than previously available. Built from modular components,the Gasurveyor is portable, rugged and of fers low individual capital and main tenance costs. It can be automatically checked and re-calibrated in the field

which greatly extends its utilisation time in operation.Combining this with sensi tivities of 10 ppm to 100% gas, it could make the Gasurveyor the single instru ment for utility operations. Second generation instruments now provide Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide detection capabilities. Heath

AquaticSciences Inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spill site investigations and cleanups • underwater video inspections

• impact assessments • water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6









Circle reply card No. 181

New submerged probe flow meter Isco 3220 Flow Meter uses a submerged

probe level sensor to provide accurate, temperature compensated level mea

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Speclalsts In a comprehensive range of Environmental and Mmicpal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

surement. Built-in conversions for a va

Coiiingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

riety of weirs and flumes. Manning equations or manually entered data points allow fast and easy set-up. The built-in plotter provides a printed

Tei.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

record of level, flow rate, and totalized

flow, and can print flow summary re ports on command or at selected time intervals. The internal memory can store up to 10,000 data readings. An optional telemetry package and software allow convenient remote mon

itoring from a central computer via phone lines, or fast, easy onsite data ret rieval using a lap top computer inter rogator. Nortech Control Equipment Circle reply card No. 182

New open channel flow


transmitters New Isco 3000 Series flow transmitters

provide economical flow monitoring in a variety of applications with a choice of two different models. The 3010 Ultrasonic Transmitter is

ideal for applications where a non-con tacting sensor is required. A stream lined,low-profile probe makes the 3020 Submerged Probe Transmitter ideal for locations where wind, steam, foam, or

turbulence are present. Both models feature a backlit LCD and built-in conversions for weirs and

flumes. Standard outputs include: a sampler relay to control an Isco sampler for precise flow proportioned sampling, and a 4 to 20 mA output to drive a chart recorder or process control equipment. Nortech Control Equipment Circle reply card No. 183

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

Sierra-Misco. How to avoid those annoying little surprises that are always just around the comer. Sierra-Misco Sierra-Misco Inc., 10461 Oltl Placerviile Road,Suite 110,Sacramento, California U.S.A. 95827 Tel:(916)363-4271 Fax;(916)363-1886 Sierra-Misco Environment Inc., 850-999 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V6C 2W2 Tel:(604)684-7754 Fax:(604)684-8099

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 137


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(416) 727-4666




r L0H6 0-T4


"Big Scale" ph Meter For


Lab or Plant Model 707, large 7", 0-14 pH scale. One operating control. Rugged port able shock proof case. Practically unbreakable polyethylene shielded


electrode. Ideal for unskilled users.

Odor Control Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed In technical bulletin. Systems are dis cussed that dispense a hypochlorite sprayto oxidize organic odors.Other topics Include: storage and air col

Economical, include probe unit and Buffer solutions. Battery operated model available. pH and ORP Indi

Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 220

lection needs.

cator-Controllers available.

Analytical Measurements of Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 219

A "Solution for

Zebra Mussels To help control zebra mussels, one solution involves the use of JAVEX-


in ilr. 111,1 iii}ri


12 sodium hypochlorite, which kills the larvae. We are consulting with experts to establish dosage levels and techniques best suited to help control their spread. If you'd like to discuss this problem, or be kept in formed of the latest information, please contact us. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

Using Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX12)to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages,equipment,as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal re covery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 222

Professional Products Division

Circle reply card No. 221

Dow CorningÂŽ 561 Silicone

Instrument Control and

Transformer Liquid IEEE-488 and

ferent factors must be reviewed and

Data Acquisition, nd Analysis

weighed: fire safety, toxicity, costs, insurance, electrical performanace, environmental safety, size, noise, overload capacity. This colour bro chure presents in detail how transfor mers filled with Dow ComingÂŽ 561 silicone transformer liquid compares with other types, including mineral oil, H.M.W. Hydrocarbon, dry ven Tm wii; miutIon

Graver Monoplant

Data Acquisition

Selecting the best indoor transformer can be a daunting task. Many dif

VXIbus Control,

Free 1992 catalogue of Instrumenta tion products for PCs workstations, and more. Features IEEE-488.2 in

terfaces and software, plug-in data acquisition boards, VXIbus con trollers, DSP hardware and software and signal conditioning accessories. Application software for complete acquisition, analysis, and presenta tion of data,including graphical Inter faces. Application tutorials and train ing classes also detailed.

tilated, and cast resin.

National Instruments

Dow Corning Circle reply card No. 223

Circle reply card No. 224

Portabie Water Treatment Plants Graver Monoplant packaged water treatment systemsfrom Ecodyne are pre-englneered and factory built, readily transportable and quickly in

Industry Service Centres

stalled. Seventeen standard sizes

are available to treat from 20 gpm to 500 gpm, for municipal plants and wherever potable water is required. Each Monoplant contains pre-treatment, chemical feeds and filters, a solids recirculation type high rate (Floe Barrier equipped) clarifier and gravity backwash filter system. Ecodyne Ltd. Circle reply card No. 227

The bulletin outlines the services Industry Service Centers

available to completely overhaul or rebuild rotating machinery such as pumps, compressors, turbines or similar plant equipment. Thermal coatings, balancing and babbitting are special plant features. On-site machining and field service are spe cialties. Five service plants are stra tegically located across Canada. Each has a complete range of fitting and machining capability. Peacock

Circle reply card No. 228




Oepurator. Removes emulsified oil and suspended solids from water. Low cost, high capacity. Efficient WEMCO Depurator

Pacesetter. Used for oil/water

flotation machines are used

extensively in the aluminum, petroleum and petrochemical industry for wastewater and process water treatment.

Silver Band. High performance

separation in oil production applications, and for liquid/liquid separation in chemical production facilities. Unique Propack'" crossflow plates achieve 99% efficiency with gravity-flow separation. Compact, high capacity units have low operating and

fouling, cleans water with 99% efficiency. Low media replacement rate. Fast (14 minute) media cleaning cycle. Simple installation, low

maintenance costs. Pressurized


down-flow media filter removes

suspended solids and hydrocarbons from produced water. Shell media resists

units available for specific applications.

Separation and Filtration Equipment for Municipal and industrial Operations Process

EIMCO Equipment A Division of Bsker Hughes Canada Inc. 5155 Creekbank Road

259 Midpark Way S.E.

4940 Chisholm St., Ste. 1

Misslssauga, Ontario

Ste. 220

Delta, B.C.

L4W 1X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6821 Fax:(403) 256-7071

V4K 3X2

1 Holiday Street 5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Que. H9R 5N3

Tel:(604)946-0421 Fax:(604)946-7837

Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514)695-8099

Tel:(416)625-6070 Fax:(416)625-3519

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 138

Environmental Science (6 Engineering, May 1992


—Product Review




Design station offers comfort and space optimization

Consulting Engineers


Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vanqpuver • Lethbridge

• Wastewater Collection 8 Treatment

• Hazardous 8 Solid Waste Management • Water Resources 8 Environmental Planning

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling 8 Flow Measurement



III Clayton





" Underground Storage Tank Management, Investigations and Remedlations • Environmental

WINDSOR [519)255-9797


TORONTO (416)498-7444

Assessments I


• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services

Available as a complete design station including work surface, or configured as a free-standing unit to stand behind an existing drafting table, attached to a desk or to a wall, the innovative design integrates computer, monitor(s), and worksurface into a compact, self-con

^■[= Dames & Moore. Canada the environmental professionals

tained station.

Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology 7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario

It provides an ergonomically adjust able work environment where operators can directly intereact between the CRT screen(s) and the drawings. Unnecessary physical movements are eliminated resultinginimproved opera


Tel; (416) 671-9921 Fax: (416) 672-7784

tor concentration, fewer errors, and


dramatically increased productivity. Available in both sitting and standing heights, the unit suspends the CPU, pe ripherals, and single or multiple mon itors over the worksurface. Drawings and blue prints can he edited on the computer with hard copy documents and system control devices convenien tly located on the worksurface below. For users who require use of large digi tizer hoards, framing may he ordered in lieu of the worksurface. The Ergotron system can also he configured for the








Consulting Engineers • PlcUiners







panel systems. Bidlnoff Marketing Inc.

Environmental Scientists



Circle reply card No. 184



Compact gearmotor design for tight spots



MiniCase right angle gearmotors and speed reducers from Nord are de

Piofessional Services in



H Gartner Lee

TORONTO, ONT (416) 477-8400 VANCOUVER, B.C. (604) 299-4144 NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716) 285-5449

signed for applications where space restrictions are a problem. The housing is made from corro sion resistant single piece aluminum alloy. Internal reinforcements pro vide additional strength and rigidity. Unicase construction eliminates oil

leakage. Minicase is filled with synthetic lub ricant and permanently lubricated for life.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Product Review The Nord MiniCase integral gearmotor is said to ensure applicationmatched performance over years of reliable service. This design dras tically reduces any chance of adding

Comprehensive consulting services in engineering and

an undersized or oversized motor.

There is a generous selection of speed reducers to accommodate a variety of application needs. MiniCase speed reducers are available with an input cover for belt, chain or direct coupled input. Customers can

solid shaft or hollow shaft. For direct

mounting to driven equipment, a machined output face can be speci fied. Nord Gear

Circle reply card No. 185

Assodales Offices thoughout North America, Europe and Austraiia. MISSISSAUGA

environmental sciences

Tel:(416)567-4444 Fax:(416)567-6561



Tel:(604)879-9266 Fox:(604)879-5014

choose from either an lEC or C-Face

motor mounting flange. C-Face units are supplied with a motor coupling. MiniCase gear drives are available for foot or flange mountings with

, Golder

Environmental/Occupational Health and Safety PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES:


• Environmental Engineering •Training programs • Legal compliance/designated substances •Ventilation assessment/design •Air emission control «Air monitoring •Environmental audits • Indoor air quality •WHMIS > Noise monitoring and control

'Workplace and safety audits • Asbestos


Telex: 06-218242

2000 Argentia Road, Plaza III, Suite 301 Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1V9 Canada•(416)858-4424


Circular Clarification Gore St Storrie Limited

Equipment and

Consulting Engineers

Processes in New Envirex Brochure


255 Consumers Road, Nortli York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa• Niagara • Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga• Kingston


The complete line of Rex circular scra per sludge collectors for municipal and industrial water and wastewater treat

ment applications is described in a new, 16 page brochure from Envirex. Information is presented about the several types of Rex circular collectors and their mechanisms, including half and full bridge designs, floc-clarifiers, gravity thickeners, and surface skim ming. Design concepts and parameters such as inlet energy dissipation, sludge settling characteristics and effluent col lection are discussed. Application pho tos and detailed drawings for each are also included.

The brochure discusses the variety of ways access bridges,influent dispersion wells, sludge scraper arms, scum ports and skimming and effluent weirs can be arranged for each circular design, and some of the options available to the designer. The complete range of Rex skimming

equipment is outlined, including full radius skimmers, revolving trough skimmers and ducking skimmers, with

fully described drawings and applica tion photos for each. Envirex

Environmental Consultants





Environmental Division

• Hydrogeoiogic investigations • Site Remediation

• Hazardous Waste Management TORONTO

OTTAWA TEL (613) 226-5442 FAX:(613) 226-5529

TEL (416) 635-5662 FAX: (416) 635-5353

• Water Supply and Treatment • Environmental Audits

• Groundwater Modeling

A Division of Inters information Technologies (Canada) Ltd,

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

Knox Martin Kretch Limited


Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton, Ontario. L6T 4J5

(416) 459-4780 Kitchener (51 9) 743-6111


Windsor, Ontario


Circle reply card No. 186

Fax. (416) 459-7869 Cobalt (705) 679-5979

(519) 966-2250

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

FAX;(519) 966-5523


(519) 539-2015 69

Ground Breaking Technology Shunned

Badly deteriorated sewer rehabilitation using continuous folded polyethylene liner

Innovative engineering does not al

ways mean ground breaking tech nology. In fact Hamilton-Wentworth engineering deliberately avoided breaking ground to rehabilitate a 250mm sewer under Herkimer Street

in Hamilton, Ont. Instead, trenchless

technology was successfully used to re condition the 80 year old clay pipeline. In a 134 metre stretch, the combined

sewer exhibited just about all the pro blems that can plague old municipal sewer infrastructure. TV inspection clearly revealed root intrusion, dis placed joints, extensive cracking, broken pipe, soil voids and collapsing sections of clay pipe. In one location, entire sidewall segments ofthe pipe had vanished. The resulting void was lead ing to accelerated failure of the sewer. Analysis of the video report made for the Region by Uniflo Enviro-Tech Inc.

ated to aid decisions on replacement

installation via a small bore hole from

versus rehabilitation elsewhere.

Key Engineering Considerations The most pressing considerations were: structural strength of the liner, hydraulic capacity of the lined sewer,

the road surface. The hole position was verified with the TV camera positioned in the old pipe and scanning the void. The diameter change, from 250mm to 300mm was solved by inserting short

soil voids and an undocumented dia

PVC sections from the downstream

meter change. This last point, a size in

manhole prior to insertion of the liner. These provided an even backstop for the expansion of the liner.

crease from 250mm to 300mm occurred about 6 metres from the downstream manhole.

Structural & Hydraulic Considerations The 250mm pre-fold polyethylene

line(U-Liner™ System)can be provided in various wall thicknesses from 7.6mm

(DR 32.5) to 14.7mm (Dr 17) with a cor responding increase in stand alone structural load capacity. Increasing the

wall thickness needs to be weighed against reduction in the final inside diameter of the sewer and hence re

was undertaken very soon, major dis ruption to homeowner services would occur.The problem section ran between

duced flow area. After reviewing video tapes, assessing loading conditions and reviewing similar installations else where, Samuel Pipe Liners (the Cana

two manholes, a distance of some 134 metres. An initial evaluation concluded

a DR 26 liner with a wall thickness of

indicated that unless remedial action

that rehabilitation using a pre-folded polyethylene liner was both technically and economically feasible. The Herkimer Street sewer, although an especially severe case, represented a cross section of problems that are typi cal of the city's older sewers. Informa tion gathered, and in particular, as sessment of the salient technical con

siderations for this project could be generalized to other sewers needing at tention. Useful information was gener

dian U-Liner distributor)recommended 9.7mm. It was expected that the high flow co-efficient ofthe polyethylene and

the absence ofjoints would compensate for the reduced diameter — and this turned out to be the case.

Soil Void & Size Change Uniflo Enviro-Tech Inc., who installed

the liner in conjunction with Samuel Pipe Liners, proposed innovative me thods for solving both problems without excavation. The void was to be grout filled simultaneously with the U-Liner

Project Installation Since 34 house laterals would be tem

porarily out of service,(downtime was estimated at 15-20 hours), the Region issued notices to all residents advising the timing and nature of the work to be performed. The notice also requested that water use be minimized on the day of installation. Because this is a combined

sewer, provision was made to delay the installation only in the event of rain. The project work fitted into three stages. Stage 1 was to prepare the line, removing debris, roots and any obstruc tions that would impede the liner. Care was taken not to dislodge loose sections of pipe that were collapsing down or deflected inward. The liner in its folded

shape would have enough clearance to be inserted, while its expansion was ex pected to push the hanging clay sections back into position. Stage 2 was to winch the liner into position and expand it using low pressure steam. Stage 3 was to restore the house connections by boring out the liner at each service lateral using the internal, TV guided cutter. Hamilton-Wentworth Engineering Techni cian, Palmo Stumpo, on site during the installation, monitored the work and

assured that any inconvenience to the residents was minimal. Actual installation of the liner com

menced on Thursday, November 21, 1991. Because upstream flow was quite low, no over pumping was required. Flow continued to pass the folded liner during the one hour winching process as the continuous reeled liner was

pulled in through the upstream man hole, through the 250mm clay pipe and out at the downstream manhole. Low

I U-Llner ready for Installation. 70

pressure steam from a mobile boiler was immediately injected into the liner. The steam heating, expansion and cool down process was controlled by a tech nician provided by Samuel Pipe Liners. The processing lasted just under three hours and followed a specific program worked out for this project. At the completion of cooling, the ex panded liner was opened to upstream flow and the TV camera was sent in to

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992

By Otka Hudoba* inspect the initial results. The video pic HERKIMER ST.. HAnilTON

tures showed a smooth liner, formed


tightly to the inside surface of the old clay pipe.The desired restoration objec tives had been achieved and the pipe was ready for opening service connec

U-Lmer DeSivereC from

factory on Reel


Restoring house services was a two step operation. First, each lateral was Hanbo

located and the remote controlled la


teral cutter opened a 50mm temporary


til i.t jatera: connect

hole to restore flow. All 34 laterals were

re-opened for flow within 20 hours.

With the immediate pressure off, the lateral cutter was put to work to open all service lateral connections to full size Existing Sanitary Sewer 250 mm Clay

and shape. Two lateral cutters were al ways on hand in case of mechanical

U-Liner'" 250 mm

After expansion with low pressure steam.

U-Llner'" 250 mm

Before expansion

failure. The installation finished off

Wall thickness 9.7 mm

with manhole benching and a final vi deo inspection ofthe white polyethylene U-Liner under normal flow conditions.

the trenchless rehabilitation of the aged Assessment of Results

Once installation is complete, the liner stands as a pipe-within-a-pipe, a glass smooth uniform wall with mini mal diameter reduction that provides optimum flow rates. It is important to acknowledge that

*Planning Engineer, Wentworth Region


and deteriorated combined sewer on Herkimer Street was a successful and

cost effective operation,considering the good condition of the road ie; (a con crete base road with an asphalt sur face). In light of budget constraints and public attitude, it is also very important that the Region receives quality mate rials and workmanship that will last

many years along with the less costly and time saving methods of repairing old municipal sewer infrastructure. Based on personal observation, there

is little doubt that for the price, quality and ease of installation, lining sewer pipes will be my future recommenda tion wherever such a method can be

applied. ES&E For more information,

Circle reply card No. 260
















Box 280, One Canbar Street


WATERLOO, Ontario, Canada N2J4A7

Telephone(519)886-2880 Fax No.(519)886-5546


Fdr more information, Circle reply card No. 139

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992



— Product Review

New refrigerated wastewater sampler

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment


•Hydrogeoiogy •Waste management •Engineering geology •Environmental audits

MALROZ Engineering Inc. 168 Montreal St., Kingston, Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613) 548-3446 Fax:(613) 548-7975

•Site decommissioning & rehabilitation A new full-function refrigerated wastewater sampler, engineered to provide a simple, four-button opera tion, has been introduced by Ed

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

mund Buhler GmbH.

Geneq says that it is the lowest priced full-function sampler avail

Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeoiogy, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, MIssissauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thorntiill, Ontario L3T 7N4 (416) 882-1100 Fax: (416) 882-0055

Proctor & Redfern Limited

able anywhere. Features include



Consulting Engineers Architects Planners

Circle reply card No. 187

Environmental Scientists

Ultrasonic Flow Meters

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay


45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276


Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL



345 Kingston Road, Pickering. Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fax: (416) 286-1361 Ottawa



Cambridge Regina


switch from discrete to composite in a few minutes, glass or plastic bot tles, Teflon tubing, and adapter kit for sampling toxics. Geneq Inc.

A new generation of ultrasonic Detectronic water flow/quality monitoring instruments has been introduced by Ramsay Lake Industrial. Adoption of microprocessor control has enabled more powerful and versatile instru ments to be produced in a smaller and neater package. The new Q Stream is typical. Designed for monitoring flows in open channels or partly filled pipes, the system can utilize a variety of velocity or depth sen sors to cope with liquids of differing characteristics.In addition to recording real-time flow,the unit displays totalised flow and can generate a flow propor tional pulse to control sampling or dos ing equipment. A major advancement with Q Stream is its ability to accept and interpretinput from specialised quality monitoring transducers. These are used to measure

pH, conductivity, turbidity, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, or other conditions for which proprietary


Calgary Edmonton

transducers are available.

Environmental ^ Engineers, Scientists, Project Managers


Water, Air, Soils

(519) 622-3060


Ramsay Lake Circle reply card No. 188

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

[Mueller Canada lnc.l

Built-in reliability. Built-in Quality Built in Canada! At Mueller, we're proud of our age. We've been manufacturing and distributing fire hydrants, valves and fittings since 1912. And, with this experience behind us, our products have set the standards in the water works industry. And, because we're committed to quality, our products conform to AWWA, ULC and FM standards. As a result of this attention to detail, Mueller has

been chosen, again and again, for municipal and fire protection applications across Canada.

We're never far from reach. Our services are nation-wide with our main

manufacturing facility and head office in Milton, Ontario and foundry in St. Jerome, Quebec. So, wherever you are, and whatever your needs, our experienced representatives are ready to serve you, from coast to coast! Canada Valve

''Century'' Hydrants

MuellerÂŽ Valves,

Hydrants & Corporation Brass

For more information, Circle reply card No. 147

"Darling" Valves & Hydrants

Product Review


Device catches polluters 24 hours a day

TECHNITROL•ECO INC. Environmental Consultants — Laboratory Analysis Industrial Expertise Since 1963 ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS IMPACT STUDIES





121 HYMUS BLVD., POINTE-CLAIRE, QUEBEC H9R 1E6 TEL.(514)697-3273 FAX:(514)697-2090

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •


• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition A new device called the Point Com

Milton, Ontario

Tel:(416)875-2144 i=ax:(416)875-2145

L9T 4X5

T.F: 1-800-263-4178

400 Main Street East


Complete Environmental Service


Water Supply ♦ Waste Water ♦ Needs Studies ♦


Environmental Assessment ♦ Environmental Audits

♦ Solid Waste Management ♦ MISA



TEL.(416)668 9363 WHITBY FAX.(416) 668 4045



UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007

posite Pollutant Indicator(Point)is now available in Canada. The Point traps lighter than water pollutants and retains a small sample of water for further la boratory analysis. The Point is designed to be placed in sewage drain lines. By placing the Point in various sites throughout a town or city, municipal inspectors can deter mine the precise location of a polluter. This will enable authorities to prosecute

polluters thereby reducing pollution of our lakes and rivers. Mondex

For more information, Circle reply card No. 171

New water clean-up system by Solarchem Solarchem Environmental Systems of Richmond Hill, Out. launched a new


system for water clean-up at the Petro-


Safe'92 Conference and Trade Show,in


ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE & VIBRATION Measurement, Prediction, Assessment, Expert Testimony Design and Specification of Control Measures Road, Rail & Air Traffic, Manufacturing Consulting Plants, Industrial Processes, Landfill Sites, Engineers Quarries, Presses, Blasting 1720 Meyerside Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5T 1A3 Tel:(416)670-4922, Fax:(416)670-1698

Halifax (902)455-3112

Waterloo (519)746-3415

WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals, Municioal Law, Land Use Planning and Development.

Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200,Toronto. Ontario M5H 1Z4

try. it destroys dissolved contaminants from gasoline (BTEX. MTBE. etc.) which have leached into groundwater from leaking Underground Storage Tanks (UST's). The unit is completely automatic and can operate without onsite supervision. Based on Rayox®, Solarchem's prop rietary UV/oxidation technology, the new 10 kW unit can destroy greater than 99.9% of contaminants at a rate of up to 20 gpm. Many features set it apart from earlier UV based systems, including a proprietary high intensity UV lamp,and an automated UV lamp cleaner. An on-board computer (PLC) en sures failsafe control, with telephone dialer feedback and modem as standard

equipment.The unit is compact(2' x 5'), only needs access from one side for ser vicing, and consequently can be placed outofthe way in a corner ofan operating service station, or other buildings. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 172 74

Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1992


New smoothwall interior

BOSS 2000: technical data

BOSS 2000 provides a corrugated exterior for superior strength, as weil as a thick smoothwali interior for maximum flow. With a

Manning's 'n' vaiue of .012, BOSS 2000 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics. Full size range BOSS 2000 is available in 4" to 36" diameters as non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCK™ filter. Custom fittings are available on request. Easy to Install BOSS 2000 is light in weight for ease of transporting, handling and installation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chain saw! Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemical attack in most applications.

254 Tfiames Road East

34601 Vye Road Abbotstord, B.C. V4S 4N7 (604)850-0753

Exeter, Ontario NOM 1S3 (519) 235-0870

TM BOSS and SOCK are registered trademarks of Big '0' Inc.

Head Office

Big '0' inc.

• Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s • Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM 02412 • Recommended for use in soils having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to corrosion • Excellent impact resistance under winter conditions for yearround installation Make the move to BOSS 2000 now! Ask for the BOSS 2000 brochure

... your introduction to a new era of optimum hydraulics, installation ease and dependable performance.

6014 - 64th Street

101 de Lauzon

Taber, Alberta T0K2G0 (403)223-3521

Bouchervilie, P.O. J4B 11j6 (514)449-5004 1 (800) 361-1895

For more information, Circle reply card No. 148

Innovative technology working tor you

Cement Industry

Cement Industry Tackles Waste Management A Symposium entitled Cement Industry Solutions to Waste Management, engin eers and scientists from fifteen countries

will discuss current practices and new technologies in waste disposal. The Symposium will be held at the Conven tion Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Cana da, October 7, 8 & 9, 1992.

The meeting will focus on the mul titude of ways that portland cement and concrete can be used to recycle, encap sulate,stabilize or destroy a wide variety of industrial and domestic waste pro ducts. A special session will be devoted to energy and resource recovery from certain types of waste in the high tem peratures ofthe cement kiln,the key ele ment in the cement manufacturing

and other countries. Portland cement

can be used to chemically or physically alter specific wastes to allow safe land filling. Concrete can be used for encap sulation or containment of waste to pro vide safe storage. Concrete has been sprayed over large volume wastes as a shield to reduce leachates to acceptable levels. These and several other topics will be addressed by symposium speakers. Organic wastes such as used tires, domestic garbage and waste petroleum products all contain potential energy


ronment Canada, Alberta Environ ment, Canadian Prairie and Northern

Providing Senior Consulting Advice

Institute. For more information,contact; Robert

SI9/74I-5774 N2H 6P4

on Environmental Matters


Canadian Portland Cement Associa

tion, representing the Canadian por tland cement manufacturing industry. Co-sponsors include the University of Calgary, Canada Centre for Mineral & Energy Technology (CANMET), Envi

Fax 519/741-5627

Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

Kitchener. Ontario


that can be used as a partial fuel replace ment in the portland cement manufac turing process. Selected inorganic wastes can be recycled as raw feed for cement manufacturing. Speakers at the Sym posium will present cases where these processes are an integral part of the day to day cement manufacturing process. The Symposium is sponsored by the

Section of the Air & Waste Manage ment Association, Alberta Special Waste Management Corporation, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering and the Alberta Chapter, American Concrete


XCG Consultants Ltd.

Dealing with the disposal of a broad range of waste products,from domestic garbage to hazardous industrial sludges, has become a major challenge for both the public and private sectors in Canada,

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G.Nutt

MASc, PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


W. Piggott, P.Eng., Regional Director, Canadian Portland Cement Associa

tion, 201-1155 West Pender Street, Van couver, British Columbia V6E 2P4.

Phone: (604) 685-0582, Fax; (604) 6851574.

Badger Meter 80 Years of Flow Measurement Experience Badger Meter is dedicated to the

development and manufacture of

quality instrumentation for water and wastewater


Pressure pipe, open channel,• non-full pipe, retrofit or new

applications. Badger has the expertise and knowledge to insure success.

Talk to the

Flowmeter People. Talk to Badger.




Compound Measurement •CLOSED PIPE Pressure Transit-Time Ultrasonic/Flow

Tubes/Venturis/ Turbines Non-Full Ultrasonic

Transit-Time witti Level


Data Loggers

Badger Meter

% P.O. Box 581390

Tulsa, OK 74158-1390

(918) 836-8411 FAX:(918)832-9962

For more information, Circle reply card No. 149 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992

We know that as a specifier of testing services, there are two issues of para mount importance to you-accuracy and fast turnaround. And Bondar-Clegg delivers on both.

vsini^ ND

Using the latest instru mentation and methodolo


gies, our expert staff can perform the trace organic and inorganic determinations required in the analysis


of water, waste water,soil and air. Our scientists provide accurate

and precise, defensible data for use in evaluating projects that involve water potability, municipal water supply, effluent discharge, air monitoring, land reclamation and hazardous waste dis

posal, in accordance with nationally and internationally recognized stand ards. We use method protocols such as EPA, Ministry of Environment Ontario,Environment Canada and the American Public Health Association.

At Bondar-Clegg, we've built our reputation on results that can with stand your scrutiny and turnaround you can count on.

Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. Ottawa, Ontario

Tel:(613) 749-2220 Fax:(613) 749-7170 North Vancouver, B.C. Tel:(604) 985-0681 Fax:(604) 985-1071

Bondar-Clegg Inc. Sparks, Nevada Tel:(702)359-9330 Fax:(702) 359-9386 Chimitec Ltee

Ste-Foy, Quebec Tel:(418)683-1777 Fax:(418) 683-7791 ACCURACY AND Precision Through Discipline


For more information, Circle reply card No. 150

Conference Report

Photo report by Tom Davey

AQTE celebrates 30th Annual Conference The Association quebecoise des tech niques de I'eau (AQTE) celebrated its 30th anniversary with record atten dance at its annual conference in Mon

treal April 8-10. Conference chair Johnny Izzi, said some 1,300 had atten ded the conference and exposition. Federal Environment Minister Jean

Charest and Quebec Environment Mi nister Pierre Paradis both attended the

meeting. Mr. Charest took the oppor tunity to make a major policy announ cement on the state of the Canadian

environment simultaneously with the results of a significant federal report. He said Canada's freshwaters were

threatened from coast to coast by pol lution. He said large areas of eastern Canada were exposed to destructive

Quebec Environment Minister Pierre Paradis with Marie Meunier. dards and current economic, social and climatic trends could cause water

second woman to become President of the association. She took over from

acid rain, despite the Canada/US air

quality standards to drop further.

quality pact. Other highlights from his report in

• In the Great Lakes, more than 360 chemical contaminants have been

Michel Lalonde who completed his term at a high point of the association. As always, the AQTE meeting attrac ted great attention from the media with


• Pesticide contamination had been found in wells from Prince Edward Island to British Columbia. In New Brunswick alone,500 wells have been

found with studies suggesting that ex posure to a mix of toxic substances may be more damaging than the ef

radio and television coverage compet

contaminated by petroleum tanks. • Water quality in the Prairies at many

Quebec Environment Minister Pierre

ing with front page newspaper headlines in both Erench and English papers.It is true to say that AQTE wields more poli tical clout than any comparable body in

Paradis congratulated the incoming

Canada. Environment ministers who

locations is close to minimum stan-

AQTE President, Marie Meunier, the

ignore AQTE do so at their peril.

Chemists demand licencing

fects of individual toxins.

After a brief speech at the exposition,


Ad Index

continued from page 22








Heath Consultants

Anal. Meas





"When I began in the environment area,I heard much talk about engineer ing,less talk about biology and no talk at all about analytical chemistry. Today chemists are rightly taking their place alongside engineers in the environmen tal hierarchy; but the intrinsic worth of analyses is vastly undervalued. The low bid ethic takes no account of the quali ty of the data, the interpretive skills of the chemists or the environmental expe rience and service skills ofthe staff. This

low bid scenario is dealing a devastating blow to the environmental lab industry.

There are few things potentially more costly than questionable data. Clients should realize that instead of pursuing savings which are often minuscule com pared to what is at stake." Tom said that the roll call of illus trious chemists: Brand, Krafft, Gahn,

Scheele, Boyle, Kunchel and Lavoisier




Hydrolab ISCD




pleased to announce the appoint ment of Phil Sidhwa to the position

BCA Ind.



Big 0


National Ins.


of President.

Blake Cassels



Graydon 50 BondarClegg 77 Calgon Carbon 62






Environmental Ltd. is

Since joining Terratec in 1988,Phil served as Vice President of Market

ing, and previously as Sludge Man agement Co-ord inator atthe Regional Municipality of Halton. Terratec is one of Canada's largest Biosolids handling firms, offering turnkey consulting and contracting services for agricultural utilization. Terratec has earned a reputation as the leader in Digester Clean-outs at wastewater treatment plants across

Samuel Pipe Liner



SccanGrodyne 23






Sierra MIsco



Colgate Palmollve 42, 66



64, 65 57



T. City Iron Works

Ontario. The state-of-the-art clean-



out system is augmented with our most recent technological innovation, the "Mobile Sludge Solids Screening and Dewatering Process".

Dow Corning Ecodyne





air time and headlines while the voice of the chemist remains mute."


For more information,

67, 80

Env. Prot. Labs Envlroclean

29 5



to name but a few, was ample evidence

cal toxins from certain (but not all) self styled environmentalists who display little understanding of either chemistry or epidemiology. All too often they gain








that the profession has a brain. What it lacks is a voice."It is nauseating to listen to some inaccurate drivel about chemi


Arts Mfg.Supp. 48 Badger Meter 76 Barringerlabs 52


14 5



Walker Bros.


Watts Reg.







Wlllms& Shier







Circie reply card No. 151 78

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992
























, aggr ES!

- • m

-1^ ■






L !"



T 1



TES From point of source to point of use TES Protection

vs Conservation TES Wostewater

management and control






COMPANY AWWA Booth N°®1205,1207,1209,1211,1213 & 1517 WATTS REGULATOR OF CANADA LIMITED

BURLINGTON,ONTARIO TEL: 1 (416)827-3189 FAX: 1 (416)332-7068

WOODBRIDGE,ONTARIO TEL: 1 (416)851-8591 FAX: 1 (416)851-8788

For more information, Circie reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1992


Underdrains Air + Vtaler Separate ducts for air and water and Improved orifice sizing are the keys to uniform flow distribution NEOPRENE







Highly Uniform How Distribution Reduced WashWdter Use l\lo false Floor

Required Ideal Retrofit


The underdrain is the heart of every granular media filter. If the underdrain is well designed, durable and efficient, the filter will provide many years of continuous service. If not, the underdrain, and perhaps the entire filter may require replacement after only a few years use. Flexscour underdrains provide a durable, corrosion-resis tant system for collecting filtered effluent and accurately metering uniform air/water backwash flows. Innovative design features eliminate the two flow problems that have plagued other combined air/water cleaning systems: improper sizing of variable diameter orifices, and media displacement by surging or irregular flows.

^EIMCO Process Equipment

259 MIdpark Way S.E.

4940 Chlsholm St. / Ste. 1

Ste. 220

Delta, B.C. V4K 3X2

Calgary, Alberta T2X 1M2 Tel:(403) 256-6812 Fax:(403) 256-7071

Tel:(604) 946-0421 Fax:(604) 946-7837

1 Holiday Street

P.O. Box 300

5155 Creekbank Road

5th Floor, East Tower Point Claire, Cue. H9R 5N3

Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 (801) 526-2000 Fax:(801) 526-2005

Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 Tel:(416)625-6070 / Fax:(416) 625-3519

Tel:(514)695-9531 Fax:(514) 695-9088

U.S. Patent #5019259

A Baker Hughes company

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 153