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ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

October/November 1991

Compiling an air pollution emissions inventory Environmental technology in the Soviet Union New technology for toxic soil remediation New strategies in backflow prevention High-tech treatment for VOC removal Variable speed pumps used at Meaford Photo-reports on WPCF Toronto Conference




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Exclusive Canadian Representative;

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone(416)847-2740 1045 South Service Road Fax (416)827-6984 Oakville, Ontario L6L 6K3

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

October/November 1991, Vol. 4 No. 5 Issued October, 1991


(416) 727-4666 Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

The Dead (beat) Poets Society Editorial comment by Tom Davey

(416) 727-4666 B.C. Sales Representative RDM CANTON (604) 274-3849


Honouring Michael Faraday, the "father of electricity"

Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639 U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 244-5502

WPCF & CEIA conference reports


Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

You and the transportation of dangerous goods regulations Article by Norman Mauch


How economic forces can shape the water industry An in-depth look by Donald Tate


Groundwater treatment facility at Pacific Place Article by L. Slezak and I. Singh


Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Senes Consultants Ltd.

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. MM. Di l lon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LL.B.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2iVl Hil l Engineering Ltd.

Soviet engineering practices revealed in environmental Peristroika


An in-depth review by Aivers Bergs Photocatalysis — a solution to the removal and destruction

of organic contaminants in air or water


Article by Brian Butters

Covering all the air emissions inventory bases Article by Allan Church


Peter Turgoose, A.Sc.T.

Canron West Pipe (BC) Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides au thoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control systems and drinking water treat ment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting engi neers, industrial plant managers and en gineers, key provincial and federal envi ronmental officials, water and waste-water treatment plant operators and contractors.

Meaford pumping station is first to use variable speed submersible pumps

Article by Colin Kent and Ian Norfolk


Is recycling an environmental act of contrition? Comment by Michael Walker


New CSA standard coming for backflow devices Report by Tom Davey


Treating contaminated soil could take the pressure


off landfill sites

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con

Departments Reader Service Card



Ad Index


Industry Update

All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be

Literature Reviews

sent to Environmental Science & En

Cover photo. Much of the political debate these days is on vague plans, studies and promises to purify water and abate pollution. Our cover photo shows the reality of environmental engineering when ore Is transmuted into hydrants, valves and fittings. ES&E's Ron Ganton and Tom Davey spent a fascinat ing afternoon touring the plant with TO President Stan Mason. TC was founded by Stan's grandfather James Mason in 1906. The firm passed on to Stan's father Clifford before Stan took over many years ago. Photo T. Davey.

gineering,10 Petch Or., Aurora,Ontario, Canada,L4G 5N7,Tei:(416)727-4666 Fax;(416)841-7271. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Pro-Art Graphics Ltd. No part of this publication may be rep roduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.

Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accom pany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00. (G.S.T. extra)


Product Reviews R&D News

tributed material.



CHECK THE LABEL If the date on the address label on the front cover

reads DECEMBER 91, your subscription has expired as of this issue. To avoid miss

ing the next issue, simply send a cheque for $48.15

(G.S.T. inc.)and the address label to ES&E.

Information presented In ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors,agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. I99I

By Tom Davey

Editorial Comment

The Dead (beat) Poets Society

Pliny had a motto.Nulla diessine

when the man said the office had now

linea — not a day without a line. Regrettably some notably bad poets have taken the an cient Roman writer's advice literally. Recently I noticed a message embla

closed for the day and we could come back tomorrow.This gave us the option of a totally wasted.60 mile return trip,in a loaded truck in heavy Saturday after noon traffic; or manhandling heavy boxes while our wheeled dolly lay idle. We were not alone. Many exhibitors had driven miles in congested streets to get there and frustration levels were run ning high. Some were being treated like interlopers,simply because they wished to carry their own property to territory they had rented, in effect for almost $1,000 a working day. At these rates we

zoned on a tee shirt. It was worn by a youth on a Lake Huron beach and read:

Two -four - six - eight We don't want to radiate

When I read this inscription I was unsure if the wearer was joyously pro claiming the sum total of his arithmeti cal knowledge — or merely proclaiming his penchant for bad poetry. Later he seemed oblivious to the radiation he

obtained from exposing his con siderably epidermus to the biggest nuclear reactor of all — the sun.

Another piece of hyphernated poetry greeted us at an Environment Canada park where members of the Public Ser vice Alliance of Canada were picketing. One placard read: The only good Tory is a supp-os-i-tory While I too am not enraptured with Tory policies, especially federal spend ing priorities*,the sign moved me to pen some bad poetry of my own. With an increasing emphasis on theatrical stunts,strike tactics have developed into a Theatre of the Absurd with diverse

actions designed mainly to capture me dia attention. As such I could not help reflecting that the bearer of this placard was ideally cast in the role of a repository for a suppository he denigrated. When poetry does not quite rhyme,it

a word which also begins with the first letter of the alphabet and a word com monly seen on other placards. Pliny would not have been amused. oOo

Like Pliny. we were also not amused when we attempted to exhibit at the Water Pollution Control Federation Conference in Toronto.

A burly man barred passage to exhi bitors attempting to wheel displays into the Industry Building without union help. As ES&E's show special was our largest issue ever, the boxes were heavy. Prudently we brought a two wheeled dolly to move our stuff a mere 100 feet from our truck to the booth.

Grudgingly the man allowed that

while we could car?y the magazines and booth sections in. we could not use any device with wheels to assist us. Fair

enough. ES&E responded, enquiring: "Where can we sign up the union help?"

could have rented the Bridal Suite at L'hotel.

The scenario of sedentary workers, lugging heavy, awkwardly shaped boxes, was a sight to bring joy to the chiropractic profession. Government calls for Canadians to become globally competitive had a bitter taste that day. especially to those small firms trying to compete in the international arena pro vided by the exposition. Throughout the world, the wheel has become a universal metaphor for pro gress. Now. by insisting that exhibitors carry their wares, the union, ironically, was using the wheel as a retrograde parameter to establish its territorial im perative. Our picketing poets earlier had re minded me of the wisdom of Pliny; our subsequent experience at the WPCF was a farce worthy of Kafka, that mas terly writer of nightmarish frustration and bureaucratic torment. ES&E

Incredibly we learned we would have

is called assonance,a word which uncan

to drive several blocks to hire someone

nily resembles the most frequently used perjorative in the English language. It is

to carry our stuff a few yards. But even this avenue of escape was bricked up

*See ES&E June/July Editorial Com ment,'Have you heard these dirty stories about water'


Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 199!


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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Industry Update GLOBE'92

Alcan receives 1991 R&DAward In Chicago GLOBE"92, which takes place in Van couver. March 16-20. 1992 is the second in a biennial series of international Trade Fairs and Conferences which

specifically focus on business and the environment.

It is a cooperative venture between Major Event Management Inc. and the Government of Canada, with major sponsorship from the Host Province of British Columbia.

Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland. Prime

Minister of Norway, who chaired the

Alcan International Limited has re ceived one of the 1991 R&D 100 Awards

for its plasma dross treatment process.

The plasma dross treatment process is a technique to recover aluminum from dross, a by-product of the fabrica tion of aluminum.In this process, dross is heated — without any pretreatment and without adding salt — in a specially designed furnace with a controlled at mosphere to recover molten aluminum.

World Commission on Environment

The heating source is a plasma torch, a device that converts electrical energy di

and Development which produced Our

rectly into heat.

Common Future is lending her support through her role as Honourary Patron. The US Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) will be a major partici pant at GLOBE'92. William Reilly,

The absence ofsalt, a unique charac teristic of the Alcan technology, sim plifies the treatment of furnace exhaust

Mann expands air

Administrator of the EPA. sits on the

GLOBE'92 International Advisory Board chaired by the Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons, the Honourable John Eraser.

The Trade Fair is expected to attract international exhibitors from the envi

ronment industry. GLOBE'92 has re ceived certification from the US De

partment of Commerce — an endorse

ment for US exporters to promote their products and services at the event.

emission services One of Canada's largest environmental analytical laboratories Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. of Mississauga. On tario has expanded its air emission test ing capabilities and services. Backed by a group ofscientists,engin eers and sophisticated instruments. Mann Testing offers cost-effective cha racterization of air toxics for many in

and leaves no residues to be disposed of in landfills. After aluminum recovery, the nonmetallic fraction of the dross

forms a powdery material, composed mainly of aluminum oxides and nit rides, that has marketable applications such as refractory products and abra sives.

The process was developed at Alcan International's Arvida Research and

Development Centre (ARDC). in Jonquiere. Quebec,by a team ofresearchers under the leadership of Ghyslain Dube. Mr. Dube. Program Director. Fabrica tion, was also responsible for the ARDC team which developed the TAC (treat ment ofaluminum in crucibles)process, winner of a 1984 R&D Award.

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Industry Update sultant has been contracted by a priva protection and compliance with the due tized water and sewer utility in the start-up date. assists high profile Mr. Phillips will appraise the bid United Kingdom. UK project David Bromley Engineering (1983) ders' detailed submissions for design A Western Canadian engineering con- Ltd. is sending key staff member. Mar- intent, construction methodology,qual tyn Phillips. P.Eng. to work on a major ity control/assurance program and cost U.K. project, October through Decem effectiveness. He will also develop the ber. The project, to be carried out in project plan for the three-year contract Announcement Cornwall, is termed the "flagship period. scheme" of the recently privatized David Bromley Engineering (1983) South West Water Company.Canadian Ltd. recently authored the City of Ed expertise in developing and managing monton's Drainage Master Plan Policy infrastructure projects will be exported Document and is currently providing Edmonton-based firm

to England.

engineering services on the Northeast Edmonton Sanitary Upgrading project to relieve basement flooding in the area.

The Penzance and St. Ives Regional Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Scheme will clean up the beaches in the popular tourist county famed for surfing, smug glers and King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. European Commission regulations require that significant im provements to sewage discharges be

A pulp and paper mill under construc

made by April 1995.

tion in Thailand will include both the

largest linerboard machine in Asia and

P.Eng., this new section will meet a growing need for services that

Proposals for cleaning up the bath ing beaches have been discussed for the last 16 years. Now with fresh top man agement in the newly privatized water

have been requested frequently

company, there is a clear mandate to

by clients. It will deal with all aspects of hazardous contami

implement the scheme as fast as pos sible. The $200 Million project is being "fast-tracked" through the upcoming

Henry K. Miyamoto A new section at Gore & Storrie Limited has been devoted to haz

ardous contaminant manage ment.

Headed by Henry K. Miyamoto,

nants; hazardous waste manage ment and treatment; environmen

tal, process compliance, and real

award of a turnkey contract for the de

sign and construction of new intercep tor sewers, pumping stations, upgraded

estate audits; and site decommis

sewage treatment plant and two exten

sioning and remediation. Mr. Miyamoto came to G&S in

sive offshore outfalls.

1990 with over two decades of

experience in industrial wastewater management and treatment

process design, plus in-depth knowledge of evolving environ mental legislation. Gore S.S'torrie Limited Consulting Engineers

255 Consumers Road, North York Ontario M2J 5B6

Tel:(416) 499-9000, Fax:499-4687

Martyn Phillips, Vice President of Municipal Engineering and Project Management Services, has already car ried out a review ofthe project and made several recommendations to the client.

In January 1992. the contractor will

assume full responsibility for attain ment of agreed performance standards. It is necessary to ensure on behalf ofthe client, that potential contractual dis putes are pre-empted. Typically, these could include claims over difficult

ground and ocean bed conditions, pro perty damage, quality of the final efflu ent, interpretation of degree of storm

New Thailand paper mill has millwide automation and control

an INFl 90 millwide automation con

trol system from Bailey Controls. Located in Ayuthaya, Panjapol Pa per Industry's project includes a 250 tons per day bamboo pulp mill from Klockner Stadler Hurter Ltd., a 40 me

gawatt cogeneration plant from SGPVA and a Beloit Bel-Bond three layer linerboard

machine. Black-Clawson

has been selected to provide a 950 tpd waste paper recycling plant, and exten sive stock preparation and additives facilities.

The power island system will help Panjapol optimize combustion and minimize fuel consumption in this area. In addition, power demand peaks will be regulated by employing advanced tie line control strategies to be configured by Bailey. The Bailey Group is a global presence in the design and manufacture of con trols, instrumentation and computer systems for the process industries. Its parent organization, Elsag S.p.A., is a unit of Einmeccanica, Italy's leading high-technology holding company.

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Industry Update CFCs at sea

AWMA facts on car pollution

British scientists have been tracking the In 1986 there were almost 500 million

vehicles operating world-wide. If the present growth rate continues, by the year 2030 there will be one billion vehi cles world-wide. As the number of vehi

cles on the road continues to grow, so

does the atmospheric pollution.Presen tly more than half of the air pollution in North America is the direct result of

mobile sources, such as airplanes,

sunlight triggers a chemical reaction be tween naturally occurring atmospheric gases and pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. Diesel engines are considered a major source of particulate matter pollution. There are a number of ways the air pollution produced by motor vehicles is already being reduced. In the United States and Canada, government agen

trains, buses, trucks, boats, and auto mobiles.Emissions from motor vehicles contribute to five of the six criteria air

cies — the Environmental Protection

pollutants; lead, carbon monoxide, nit rogen oxides, ozone, and airborne particulate matter. Ofthese pollutants,only

dards for motor vehicles through federal vehicle emission control pro

lead has decreased dramatically bet ween 1977 and 1986. Strict limitations of

the level oflead in gasoline has reduced lead emissions by94 percent and lead in the air by 87 percent. Levels of lead in the air are expected to continue decreas ing as less leaded gasoline is produced. Motor vehicles are the main source of

carbon monoxide,an invisible,odorless

gas resulting from incomplete fuel com bustion. Inefficient burning of gasoline usually occurs when vehicles are started in the morning, idled, or moved slowly in heavy or congested traffic. Nitrogen dioxide, a reddish-browri toxic gas. is also produced by combustion sources, such as motor vehicles. Ozone, a major component of smog, is produced when

New refrigerator unit could run on sound The ozone layer could benefitfrom a cooling process that does without CFCs or other chemicals. U.S.Naval

scientists say they have developed a process to use sound waves from an ordinary loudspeaker at levels three times that of the human voice, to

cool refrigerators and air conditio




(CFCs)in the North Atlantic to find out how long it takes for heat to reach the bottom ofthe five-kilometre deep ocean.

The world's deep seas act as a sink or store for heat in a way estimated to re duce global warming by a third. The deeper such heat is stored in an ocean, the longer it takes to be released back into the atmosphere to warm up the land.

Agency(EPA)and Environment Cana

Minute amounts of CFCs entering

da — set manufacturers'emission stan

the oceans from the atmosphere are car ried from the surface into the depths. Scientists working on board the re search ship Charles Darwin owned by

grams. State and local governments have implemented other important pro grams; vehicle maintenance inspec tions, inspections to check for the pre sence of pollution control devices, and incentives to encourage use of public transportation and ride-sharing. New technologies to reduce motor vehicle pollution are actively being developed. 1 ncreased fuel economy(more miles per gallon), more efficient burning of gas oline (particularly in city driving), vehi cle design change to reduce wind drag, and vehicle fuel sources other than pe troleum-based sources will all be part of future air pollution control. Source A&WMA Environment Resource Guide announced at 1991 Conference in Vancouver as an educational tool.

throughout the appliance. The unit would have few moving parts and it

the UK Natural Environment Research

Council (NERC), have shown that CFCs and hence surface water have reached the bottom of the North Atlan

tic in the last 20 years.

The survey is also providing other valuable insights into the North Atlan tic, and the new data forms part of Bri tain's contribution towards the $600 million international World Ocean Cir

culation Experiment (WOCE). The Charles Darwin has just returned to the UK at the end ofthe first comprehensive study of eddies — the ocean's "weather systems" — and the North Atlantic Cur rent. The six-week survey covered a total of2.2 million sq km,stretching from the Azores to the British Isles, with the help of an innovative instrument called Sea-

Soar. developed by NERC scientists. SeaSoar, an aeroplane-like device with would be almost silent. controllable wings, is towed behind a Timothy Leah, an official with ship at a continuous speed of nine knots Environment Canada, said most of (17 km/h), allowing a large area to be the alternatives discussed for CFCs surveyed without stopping. For the lat are chemicals. He said about35 per est study, it was equipped to enable sci cent of CFCs in Canada are used for entists to measure temperature,salinity, coolants, especially in automobile pressure, light and biomass from the air conditioners, and the sound- ocean surface to 500 metres deep, over based technology could be really distances of 10 kilometres. good if it works.

ners without the need for harmful chlorofluorocarbons.

Physicists developed the sounddriven unit, which they call a thermo-acoustic engine, to use as a coolant in space, where conventio nal refrigerators that depend on gravity for circulation cannot work. A U.S. space shuttle is to carry a thermo-acoustic unit as a cooling system for some spacecraft compo nents shortly. Essentially the process converts sound energy into heat energy. High-pressure sound waves, are sent through a tube of helium gas, which contracts and expands in waves,gradually chilling one end of the tube and heating the other. In a refrigerator the heat would be released, while coils would chan nel water past the cooled area and 10

Treatment removes pesticides from drinking water A potable water test plant, described by ventional methods. UK Environment Minister David TripAlthough there has been concern pier as "one of the most advanced treat that water supplies contain pesticide re ment facilities in the world," has been sidues, Britain's Drinking Water In designed as the first stage in enhancing spectorate (DWI) has reported that in the overall quality of drinking water for more than half a million checks made London.It is also regarded as an impor last year on individual pesticides, only tant step in the Thames Water com two per cent were found to have ex pany's $800 million investment plan to ceeded the statutory standard. Trace ensure that its water meets increasingly amounts of pesticides revealed by the tough national and European Com monitoring were far smaller than the amounts known to be harmful or likely munity standards. The plant will test processes that to cause harm. "The precautionary approach dic Thames Water has developed, using granular activated carbon and ozone. tates that water treatment is necessary to This involves the introduction of extra supplement preventive action. Water stages in the filtration process and has companies are now installing treatment the result of removing more impurities as part oftheir programmes of remedial from the water than is possible by con action," the Minister said. Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

1992 Joint

UK plans 1,OOOMW capacity from garbage Britain plans to produce 1,000 mega watts ofelectricity from renewable energy sources by the year 2,000. The latest step towards this has been the switch-on of a

mini power plant that uses gas given off by a former garbage dump to produce enough energy for 1,500 homes in the Manchester area of north-west England. The UK currently leads Europe and is second only to the United States in the use of such landfill gas to generate elec tricity. The new 1.8MW plant is the first of a dozen hydro and landfill gas-based developments being carried out by the North West Electricity Board(Norweb). Britain now has 69 landfill gas pro jects in operation, under construction or being planned. Last month. Energy Minister Colin Moynihan switched-on the largest single UK plant producing power from landfill gas. It will generate around four megawatts of electricity en tirely from the gas given off by buried municipal rubbish at Brogborough in eastern England. Some 30 million tonnes of garbage are produced in the UK each year, of which over90 percent is landfilled.The Department of Energy believes the equivalent ofup to one million tonnes of coal could be saved annually by the year 2000 through conversion of landfill gas into energy with a further potential to quadruple this potential.


the Holiday Inn, City Hall, Toronto. The conference will include a poster session with both technical and secon

International Conference

on Atmospheric Chemistry

dary school participation as well as two days of technical sessions covering; An

The Canadian Institute for Research in

introduction to model uses; Successful

model applications; Basic myths in modelling; Research models — uses Management Association(AWMA-OS) and validity; Future needs. Contact the are holding a conference on "The Role conference chair: Ann McMillan of Models in Understanding Atmos (416-739-4867) at the Atmospheric En pheric Chemistry"on January 26 to 28 at vironment Service, Toronto. Atmospheric Chemistry (CIRAC) and

the Ontario Section ofthe Air and Waste

The environmental

age has begun Help move it along Call for papers Industry knows that industrial production processes can no longer be kept separate from potential environmental impacts.Public opinion is demanding it. Government is enforcing it. Penalties are severe. Over 10,000 people will visit Canada's largest Plant Manage ment & Maintenance Show at the Toronto International Centre,

October 20-22. (Over 10,000 industry personnel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PMDS in 1990.) The organizers, Reed-Macgregor Exhibitions Inc., have added CETECH, an environmental technology exhibition to the 1992 show.

CETECH will not only provide show space for environmental exhibits, it will have an on-site conference produced and managed by Environmental Science & Engineering magazine.

ES&E now issues a call for papers. We are seeking practical and research papers which will assist industrial firms to deal with complex environmental regulations; deal with process changes which eliminate or reduce environmental impacts; or any new leading edge techno logies which will take Canadian industry into the new demands of the


Zenon Environmental Laboratories is

pleased to annoimce the recent addition of Todd Henry as Manager-Analytical Development, Todd brings with him past experience in

analytical laboratory sales as well as a solid knowledge of the environmental market in Ontario. Todd has extensive

experience in working with government guidelines and regulations. He has also administered many large projects in conjunction with environmental consultants in Ontario.

Todd's strong customer service skills and commitment to his clients



propriate at this point in time. The main criteria are that the papers must be of practical value to firms across Canada from mining to millworking; from chemical production to food manufacturing. Topics could include MISA initiatives legal subjects new technologies and process occupational health conversions to reduce environ hazardous materials manage mental impacts of industry ment, containment, treatment innovative wastewater pro and transportation cesses compliance requirements stack emissions toxic site responsibilities and


compliment an already strong team at Zenon and ensure service and quality unmatched

Environmental Age. We invite authors to submit papers for consideration for the two day environmental conference next October. Abstracts and CV's are ap


laboratory market.


Please send your abstracts to Tom Davey,Publisher, Environ mental Science & Engineering,10Petch Crescent,Aurora,Out. L4G 5N7.

Zenon Environmental Laboratories are

looking forward to servicing your analytical needs. The Burlington office can be contacted at 416-332-8788.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

The "father of electricity"

By David Welsh

Honouring Michael Faraday

In a rare accolade for a scientist, a

portrait of Michael Faraday, the father ofelectricity, has replaced that of the playwright Shakespeare on

the reverse side of the new British £20 note. He is also featured in a new issue of

postage stamps featuring important Bri tish scientists and inventors.

i ■ /'.'I"-*'-#-"

When asked what was the practical value of the knowledge he was gaining in experiments that helped unravel the secrets ofelectrical currents, he is said to

have replied:"Of what use is a newborn child?"The bicentenary ofhis own birth in 1791 — the beginning of a life whose potential was spectacularly realised — is being marked by a series oftributes in the United Kingdom. London's Science Museum has just opened a major exhibition centred on some of the original apparatus used by Faraday to discover the links between

electricity and magnetism that are at the heart of all present-day electrical tech nology. There are also documents and reconstructions of his most important experiments. Commenting on the significance of the scientist's work to the modern way of life. Professor John Thomas, director of

London's Royal Institution (founded in 1799 and one of the first scientific re

search centres, where the pioneering inventor conducted his experiments and lectured), said: "Michael Faraday changed the very basis of scientific thought. Newton's picture of the Uni verse explains celestial mechanics, the

Pumping systems are the heartbeat of modern water and wastewater treatment plants.This year Britain is honouring the remarkable man whose scientific prescience made it ail possible.Some new British currency bears the portrait of Michael Faraday, called the father of electricity. His work profoundly affected water treatment. He was the first to liquefy chlorine and also discovered benzene in 1825.

came fascinated by science, especially chemistry and electricity. He became a laboratory assistant to the eminent chemist Sir Humphrey Davy* and soon achieved his own reputation as a lead ing chemist. Later, he turned his attention par ticularly to electricity and magnetism. All today's electrical equipment em ploys discoveries made by Michael Faraday. His work led to the electric motor, the transformer and the genera tor. He also found laws linkingelectrical

ebb and flow ofthe tides and the basis of

and chemical action.

flight. It has nothing to say about the

Wires And Magnets On September 3, 1821 he made a de

marvels of modern communication. "These have stemmed from a bril

liant experiment carried out by Michael Faraday in the quiet of his basement laboratory in Albemarle Street in 1845, when he demonstrated that light, elec tricity and magnetism were intimately

vice to demonstrate that an electric cur

related. It is the basis of all modern

rent and a magnet could be arranged to produce continuous motion, involving a freely-suspended wire that swung around a magnet when a current flowed through it. This simple apparatus is now generally acknowledged as the forerun


ner of the electric motor.

His ideas about the way in which electrical and magnetic action passes through space inspired the British

Ten years later, he discovered the phenomenon known as electromagnet

mathematician James Clerk Maxwell to

develop his electromagnetic wave theory, which led to radio — and to the microwave cooker.

ic induction. With two coils of wire

wound on an iron ring he found that a current in one circuit could produce current in another. This is the basis of the electrical

Little Schooling

trarisformer, which enables electrical

Although destined to become one of the world's greatest scientists, Michael

cuits. Such units are essential to the

Faraday did not set out to be an inven tor. His discoveries stemmed from an

intense interest in exploring the work ings of the natural world. He was born the son of a poor black smith on September 22, 1791. At the age of 14, with very little schooling, he was apprenticed to a London bookseller and bookbinder, and through reading be-

energy to be transferred between two cir modern electricity supply network, in volving conversion to very high voltages for efficient transmission over long distances.

In September 1831 he found he could produce electricity from a magnet by moving a wire or the magnet so that the wire passed through the "lines of magnetic force". He plunged a bar mag

Environinental Sciettce & Engineering. Oct. 1991

net inside a coil of wire and produced what he described as "a wave of elec

tricity". Only 11 days later, he rotated a copper plate between the poles of a magnet and found that a continuous flow of electrical current could be


These experiments were the founda tion of all electric power generated by mechanical means.

Although noted mainly for his work on electricity and magnetism, he began his science with chemical analysis. He succeeded in identifying some new compounds, discovering benzene in 1825, and was the first to liquefy chlorine.

In other experiments, he established laws of electrochemistry, or the chemi cal effects ofelectric currents. These can be used either to remove substances

from a compound (by electrolysis) or to transfer a substance from one electrode

to another (electroplating). Electrochemical processes have widespread industrial applications. For instance, all the world's aluminium and

most copper and chlorine are produced by electrolysis. In numerous ways, the legacy of the London blacksmith's son has had a

global impact and a profound influence on the workings of the modern world. *Sir Humphrey Davy developed an ex plosion proof miner's lamp which bears his name.The lamp'sflame extinguished in the presence of methane, preventing the dreadful explosions which had killed thousands of coal miners. He is also cre

dited with inventing cathodic protection to protect the copper sheathed sailing ships of the Royal Navy in 1824. ES&E Vol. 1. No.4, 1988. 13

WPCF Conference Report

Pollution control equipment market grew by 43 percent in five years

Canada's environmental in

dustry provides products,ser vices and expertise worth

7 billion to 10 billion dollars

annually. It employes, both directly and indirectly, some 150.000 people. In a global context this expenditure rises to

vital to the future of pulp and paper, oil and gas, petrochemicals, primary and fabricated metals and transportation. The rapid growth we see in Canada's environmental technology industry is

Jean J. Charest, Federal Minister of the Environment, was a keynote speaker at the 1991 Water Pollution Control Federation Annual Conference.

several hundred billion dollars.

The growing Canadian market for pollution control equipment alone has grown by 43 per cent to 1.4 billion dol lars in just five years. We expect the total

and wastewater treatment by municipal governments. A study conducted by the Science Council of Canada estimates

the Canadian water pollution equip

Canadian market for all environmental

ment market will increase to 600 million

activity to reach 12 billion dollars by the year 2000.

dollars by 1992. up 150 million dollars in only four years. In the private sector, new water and air protection control equipment will be

On the public sector side, we expect important growth in the areas of water

Goodbye WPCF — hello WEF The 64th Annual Conference began in

province's most important associations

Toronto as the Water Pollution Control

and thanked the PCAO for the invita

Federation but left the city as the Water

tion to the "Icebreaking event."

Environment Federation. Charles Kaiser was therefore the last WPCF Pre sident and the first leader of WEF,

The conference opened with The Great Canadian Icebreaker at the spec tacular SkyDome during the game be tween the Argos and the Blue Bombers. It was a really warm gathering as envi ronmental professionals from across Canada enjoyed a social evening as a prelude to the conference. Ed Philip. Ontario Minister ofTrade and Technology spoke to the Icebreaker audience. Fie said the Pollution Control Association of Ontario was one of the

The Minister said that sometimes

people are given a false choice when told to choose between jobs and the en vironment.The pollution control indus try in Ontario consists of almost 2.000 firms employing 28.000 men and

an excellent illustration — that environ

mental protection is much more than a penalty to be avoided. It is something to be embraced.

Companies which seize the oppor tunity to play an important role in pro tecting the environment for future generations will gain a tremendous competitive advantage. Environment Canada has par ticipated in organizing, promoting and establishing university environmental technology centres. We have helped establish an Envi ronmental Engineering Systems chair in process control at McMaster Univer sity. in Hamilton. Ontario. This has grown to a group of 45 people and was made possible with the support of Texaco Canada,(now Esso). and our own Natural Sciences and Engineering Re search Council. Under Canada's National Incinera

tion Testing and Evaluation Program, the


He stressed that even in the midst of a

recession, the environment industry is

growing rapidly. Across Canada there was a seven percent growth last year while some pollution abatement com panies experienced as much as a 20 to 30 percent growth.




Agency participated with us in a 3-million dollar joint project with Combus tion Engineering Inc. and the State of Connecticut.

This project involved the successful demonstration of a combustion and

process control technology at an energy

Conference Photos — Tom Davey




Left, Jean Charest speaking at the WPCF opening session. He also addressed CEIA following the WPCF Conference: WPCF President Charles Kaiser,with Executive Director Quincalee Brown. He was the last WPCF President and the first WEF President as the name changed officially to Water Environment Federation during the conference. 14

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. I99I

WPCF Conference Report

Ontario spending $8 biiiion annuaily on environment — Minister

The Great Lakes Basin. This

great, mutual natural resource has been the dumping ground over the years for at least 1,000

known chemicals — 250 of which are considered serious health hazards. Let

me cite some specifics: • Of 170 industrial plants monitored by my ministry in 1988 and 1989, only 93 met their monthly average limits, and only 104 of the 364 municipal sewage treatment plants met provincial limits for effluent discharged directly into lakes and rivers.

Ontario Environment Minister

Ruth Grier was a keynote speaker at the 1991 Water Pollution Control Federation Annual

from waste facility in Hartford. Con necticut. This demonstration contributed to

the setting of U.S. Clean Air Act source performance standards and confirmed standards for energy from waste emis sions currently under development as a Canadian Environmental Protection Act


Having this experience in mind.I am pleased to announce the details of an important Green Plan initiative that builds on the types of partnerships just described. This initiative is called Technology for Environmental Solutions. Its goal is to improve our ability to move scientific and technical ideas from the lab bench

to the marketplace — from environ mental problems to sustainable solu tions.

the lakes. Now.the Commission's scien

tific advisers say that those chemicals are affecting our health, our ability to have children and our children them selves.

Conference in Toronto

• Significant levels of dioxin have been found in sport fish in two locations in Lake Ontario and two locations in Lake

Superior. Other contaminants have been found in fish throughout the Great Lakes system. • Between 1986-1990. all the beaches

Jean Charest, con't

natural environment, might be hazar dous to the human population around

along the Metropolitan Toronto water front were posted as unsafe for swim ming at one time or another during the summer months. Province-wide, more

than 10 per cent of beaches were closed.

• Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are

under way in 43 areas on both sides of the border on the Great Lakes. Seven

teen of these areas are in Ontario. They span the full breadth of the Great Lakes system, from Thunder Bay on the northwestern shore of Lake Superior to

Green governments make sure that environmental considerations are taken

into account at the outset, guiding poli cies and programs, throughout all ministries and government bodies. We are committed to take an ecosystem approach in land use planning. Our waste reduction strategy is de signed to restore the effectiveness of the 3Rs — reduce, reuse and recycle. Em phasis will be on reduction first, then reuse and recycling. Our minimum ob jective is a 25 per cent diversion of re sources from disposal in 1992 and a 50 per cent diversion by the year 2000.

We recognize the environmental and economic costs of inefficient use of

Water Quality had strong evidence that

water. Purifying ever-increasing amounts of water and cleaning the re sulting wastewater requires significant amounts of chemicals and energy. Our annual cost in meeting these chal lenges is now well over one billion dol lars and rising. We have introduced a new water efficiency strategy to reduce water use by both the private and pub

toxic chemicals in the Great Lakes,

lic sectors.

Cornwall, on the St. Lawrence River.

The challenge is to meet the expec tations of all the people who continue to give enormous amounts of time and energy in the RAP areas. Two years ago. the International Joint Commission


Great Lakes

which had already had an impact on the

continued overleaf


Left, Ruth Grier was the first Canadian minister to address the WPCF conference. Later she also addressed the Canadian Environmentai Industry Association: Presidents three: Terry Matthews, left, with past PCAO Presidents Ron Mondoux and Jim Brooker. Now VP, Terry will be '92 President. Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 199J


WPCF Conference Report Incineration banned

I have implemented an outright and immediate ban on any new municipal solid waste incinerators in our prov ince. Incineration takes what some see as a

solid waste disposal problem and com pounds it. Incineration not only degrades air quality, it creates a concen trated ash which is a larger waste dis posal problem that the garbage that was burned. The toxic substances released to the air settle on land and water to

attack the ecosystem from all quarters including our lakes and rivers. The prevention initiative with the

most direct impact on Great Lakes water quality, however, is MISA — our Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement which began in 1986. The program is focussed at more than 300 industries discharging directly into our lakes and rivers and more than 12.000

industries which tie into sewer systems. To achieve the goal, as set out in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, of virtual elimination of specific toxic contaminants from discharges to Onta rio waters; we will: 1. Set effluent limits for a list of sector-

specific contaminants. 2. Prohibit waste water discharges that kill fish.

3. Establish a zero-discharge list ofspe cific persistent toxic substances. 4. Require industry to establish reduc tion targets forothertoxiccontaminants which need to be reduced to levels as low

as possible. In the first phase of the MISA pro gram. monitoring regulations were passed for nine industrial sectors en compassing the 300 direct discharging industries. Monitoring was complete in August. 1991. for all sectors. Results have been compiled and released for

four ofthem. We expect the results from the remaining sectors to be available by the end of this year. By spring. I hope, we will have draft regulations for several sectors, includ ing the pulp and paper sector, available

for broad public review. These regula tions will be based on three overriding principles which signal a significant shift in policy for the ministry. They are:

1. Pollution Prevention: This means we

must focus industry's energy on getting things right at the beginning instead of attempting to fix them at the end. Let's get rid of the problem before it even starts. End of pipe solutions have by and large only resulted in increasingly one-

ence the quality in another. Our regula tions will reduce the risk of cross-media transfer of chemicals.

3. Zero discharge of specific persistent toxic chemicals: This is a key element of our pollution prevention strategy and the heart of the MISA action program I have outlined. This means we are devel

oping a list of specific persistent toxic chemicals to be banned from the dis

charges of all facilities regulated by the MISA program. The Economic Challenge

In the longer term. I believe that our society has to recognize the ultimate interdependency of our economic and en vironmental well-being and ensure that they are mutually self sustaining. On economic renewal, we are work

An estimated 5.6 billion

dollars In public and private sector spending will be required to satisfy RAP priorities and meet the demands of MISA In these areas.

rous burdens on the public purse for cleanup dollars. Prevention means, among other things, that industry must overcome its reliance on end-of-pipe technology: in troduce closed-loop systems within plants to prevent the discharge of con taminants into the environment: sub

stitute raw materials to avoid the genera tion of harmful by-products or waste: and. introduce process changes and product redesign to minimize the amount and degree of hazard in the

ing with industry and commerce, to en courage the growth of green industry. Through funding programs such as our industrial 3Rs program, we are encour

aging the development of innovative technologies and skills in pollution pre vention that will allow companies to become competitive in an increasingly green marketplace. This process will of fer new opportunities to scientists, con sultants and engineers. The costs involved in solving pollu tion problems are substantial. Forthe 17 areas of concern on the Ontario side of the lakes alone, an estimated 5.6 billion

dollars in public and private sector spending will be required to satisfy RAP priorities and meet the demands of MISA in these areas.

other: We recognize that we live in a closed ecosystem in which activity in

In our province we estimate that pri vate and public spending on the envi ronment and pollution control averages 8 billion dollars a year and we can ex pect that figure to grow to 10 billion over the next decade. Figures like these em phasize why pollution prevention

one environmental medium can influ

makes sense. ES&E

waste stream.

2. Stopping the transfer of pollutants from one environmental medium to an


Envirex Non-Metallc Colector


Over 12,000 delegates attended the conference which filled the Metro Convention Centre and the Industry Building at the CNE. Exhibitors were generally pleased with the numbers and calibre of the delegates passing through the various booths. 16

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. I99I


1992 Directory & Buyer's Guide Issue Advertising in ES&E is a great investment — Here's why In 1990 ES&E carried far more ads and editorial

features than any of its competitors. ES&E staff have won more writing awards than any other magazine in the field. Gratifying reader response. ES&E has unquestionablythe most authoritative editorial team in Canada.

ES&E has over 19,000 qualified environmental professional readers. ES&E has over 2,400 consulting engineers and consultant readers.

December/January Issue Ad closing date December 16, 1991 Don't miss out on ES&E's largest issue of the year.

Don't miss out!!!

Directory and Buyer's Guide

Scheduled Editorial

ES&E's Directory and Buyer's Guide is Canada's largest and most comprehensive reference for en vironmental specifiers.

• A $600 million secondary wastewater treatment

Included are:

• Advances in drinking water treatment

• Directory of environmental consulting engineers. • Itemized lists of environmental products, equipment

for Vancouver

• Establishing air pollution abatement protocols • Decommissioning guidelines for contaminated

and services.

• Directory of manufacturers and suppliers. • Directory of laboratories serving the environmental field.

This valuable reference source makes the issue a

'keeper' for some 19,000 environmental profes sionals; unquestionably your best advertising buy of the year for goods and services.


• Oil/Water separation technologies • Review of spill sorbents

• Developments in clarifier design • Award winning editorial comments

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before December 16, 1991. Steve Davey

Al Stiver

Ron Ganton

Sales Director

U.S. Representative (416) 294-5502

B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849


10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 5N7 (cancellation deadline: December 16. 1991)

Penny Davey Sales Representative (416)488-7639

Telephone:(416) 727-4666, Fax: 841-7271

"Subject to change

For more information, Circle reply card No. 132

CEIA Report

Tough regulations will trigger Innovation and huge environmental market

Industry â&#x20AC;&#x201D; al industry â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is becom

ing increasingly aware that prac tices that are good for the environ ment are also good for business. A recent study done by Michael Porter examined the relative competitiveness

Federal Environment Minister

of various countries. He concluded that

cess that produces sulphuric acid as a marketable by-product.

Jean Charest spoke to the Canadian Environment Industry Association in Toronto Oct. 16.

environmental regulations,far from be ing a constraint, can be a strong stimu lant for success in industry. Tough standards trigger innovation and up grading, and lead to superior products and services for export. Germany has perhaps the world's tightest regulations with regard to sta tionary air-pollution control; yet Ger man companies capitalized on these regulations and now appear to hold a wide lead in patenting and exporting technologies to reduce air pollution. Lagging standards actually lower in dustrial competitiveness. In the United States, as much as 70 per cent of the air pollution equipment sold today is pro duced by foreign companies. Britain's ratio of exports to imports in environ mental technology has fallen from 8:1 to 1:1 over the past decade, due to falling standards. Examples such as these con firm that standards that anticipate inter national trends are strongly beneficial over the longer run. In Canada we also have examples of

components. First, there is an $80-million commercialization program to ac celerate the development and demon stration of environmental technologies. Companies will be eligible for funding to cover up to 50 per cent of project costs.

industries that have turned reduction

The second element is an $18-million

targets to their own economic advan tage. In response to the government's

technology transfer program to help companies locate, assess, transfer and promote environmental technologies. Lastly, a $2-million information net work will link federal, provincial and

commitment to reduce emissions ofsul

phur dioxide by 50 per cent by 1994, Noranda has installed a recovery pro-

INCO's efforts to modernize its ore

refining process are expected to achieve a 60-per-cent reduction in sulphur diox ide emissions by 1994, and at the same time to use less energy,thereby reducing production costs. Furthermore,the oxy gen flash furnaces developed by INCO represent a significant technological advance with export potential. The federal government stated in the Green Plan that it will work in partner ship with the private sector to make Canada

a leader in

university centres of environmental technology. I expect that the combined govern ment and corporate spending resulting from these programs will reach $250 million. It will be up to the environmen tal industry to make sure that this happens. As I look at the environment indus

try, I am struck by its size, strength and

In the United States, as much as 70 per cent of the air pollution equipment sold today Is produced by foreign companies.


technologies. A new federal initiative called Technology for Environmental Solutions that will provide $100 million to help firms capitalize on growing markets here and abroad. The initiative includes three main

.'J4 m


growth rates. This industry is valued at $7 billion to $10 billion a year, and em ploys about 150,000 people directly and indirectly. Even five years ago, in 1986, the value added by manufacturers of environmental products was larger than the combined output of the metals and non-metallic mining industry, and was also larger than that reported by all non electrical machinery manufacturing. Indeed, it was two-thirds the size of the

pulp and paper industry. The Canadian market alone for pol lution control equipment is now worth $1.4 billion, up 43 per cent of the past five years. The domestic market for all environmental goods and services could reach $12 billion by the year 2000. The U.S. market figures are staggering. In 1990, the total market was estimated

at $90 billion (U.S.) and is expected to exceed $115 billion (U.S.) by 1995. Over $12 billion of this expenditure in 1991 will be by U.S. federal agencies, pri marily the Department of Energy, the Department of Defence, and the Envi ronmental Protection Agency. The i ncrease in the U.S. market size is

being driven by tougher legislation and by U.S. agencies' extensive clean-up of hazardous waste sites. Last year, the U.S. government approved the first major changes to the Clean Air Act in ten years, addressing the problems of acid rain, air toxics and pollution con trol. This year. Congress is considering major revisions to the Clean Water Act, with an emphasis on reducing pollution and waste at their sources.

Federal Environment Minister Jean Charest spoke at both the WPCF and CEIA

That is why the federal government supports effective, market-driven mea sures to solve environmental problems, and to prevent further degradation of

Conferences. Conference Photos â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Tom Davey

our environment. ES&E


Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. I99I

CEIA Report

Global opportunities for green Innovators Ontario Environment Minister

Ruth Grier aiso gave a strong signai to the CEIA conference My ministry is working with industry through such funding programs as our industrial 3Rs program. We aiso pro vide funding through the Environmen tal Technologies Program. Under the ETP.we are spending 30 million dollars during the next five years to support the development of new products and pro cesses that will help reduce pollution. One ofthe main goals ofthe program is to support technologies that can be marketed locally and around the world. Preference is given to projects which prevent or reduce pollution at the source rather than at the end of the pipe or stack.

We require that proponents submit a viable commercialization plan and pro vide at least 50 per cent of the cost of the project. Proposals undergo detailed re view.including a careful examination of marketing plans. One ofthe projects we funded through that program has led to the application

CFIA Ruth Grier speaking at CEIA meeting. She also was a keynote speaker at the WPCF Conference.

of a new mining technology called Vitrokele. which virtually eliminates toxic cyanide and heavy metals from the gold milling process. Another project in volves the development of a method to extract such chemicals as chlorophenols and phenoxy-acid herbicides from

We all know the situation we face on

the waste and landfill fronts. Ministry funding through 3Rs programs has led to some valuable developments in waste reduction. For example, a Burlington company is developing a portable procontinued overleaf



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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 133 19

CEIA Report pipe


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and are expected to reach over $171 bil lion per year by the end of this decade. "In Asia, pollution control expen ditures are expected to reach $30 billion annually by the year 2000...The South Korean Environment Ministry, for example, recently announced that it will spend nearly $11.7 billion over the next five years on a variety of clean-up pro grams. And Taiwan expects outlays of $35.6 billion between 1991 and 1997.

In Western Europe, the pollution control market has been estimated at anywhere from $50 billion to $100

biiiion per year "In Western Europe, the pollution control market has been estimated at

anywhere from $50 billion to $100 bil lion per year, and is expected to go as high as $150 billion annually by the end of the next decade.

We Go Under

"Experience suggests that the nations with the best technology are those with the most stringent environmental laws. Within Western Europe. Germany and Sweden are the technological leaders, while the countries of the southern rim

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— Italy. Greece. Spain and Portugal — are lagging behind. And despite their huge industrial bases. Britain and the United States also lag. Britain now im ports as much environmental technol ogy as it exports. For its desulphurization equipment, the country relies almost entirely on foreign technology. Similarly. U.S. firms buy as much as 70 per cent of their air pollution-control devices from foreign manufacturers, many of them Japanese." In the area of waste management, we are looking for innovative ways to tran.sform Ontario from a consumer to a con-

server society. ES&E Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991










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You and the transportation of dangerous goods regulations Some products or substances could have more than one hazard — they would then have a primary and a sub

sidiary classification. The manufac turer (or importer) must determine the classification (both primary and sub sidiary) of their products, articles or substances.

The name of the product, article or substance required as the shipping name of the dangerous goods cannot be the brand orcommercial name but must

be the shipping name as indicated in the lists of dangerous goods in Schedule II of the Regulations. For instance, people refer to the substance they use in their pool as"chlorine".This is not pure chlo rine. As per the regulations, the only substance that can be called chlorine as

Some spills require protective gear and special equipment — photo MSA Canada inc.

The Transportation of Dan

gerous Goods Regulations became law effective July 1. 1985. These regulations apply to the handling, offering for transport and the transporting ofdangerous goods in Canada.They apply to all dangerous goods and to all means of transport. For highway transport under provincial jur isdiction. the Ontario dangerous goods regulations apply. The requirements under the provincial legislation are the same as those under federal regulations; thus, ensuring uniformity across the country with respect to the movement of dangerous goods. If you or your company handle (this includes, loading or unloading), offer for transport, or actually transport dan gerous goods, the regulations apply to you as either a consignee(receiver),con signor (shipper), or a carrier. WHAT ARE DANGEROUS GOODS



of Dangerous

Goods Act identifies nine classes of dan

gerous goods according to the type of risk or hazard involved. Some of the classes are further broken down into divisions.

CLASS 1 — Explosives — There are fi ve divisions within this class. CLASS 2 — Gases — There are four divisions within this class:

2.1 Flammable gas 2.2 Non-flammable; non-toxic; non-

corrosive compressed gas 2.3 Poisonous gas 2.4 Corrosive gas 22

CLASS 3 — This class has three divisions:

3.1 Flammable liquids 3.2 Flammable liquids 3.3 Flammable liquids

identification number) or UN (United

Nations) number 1791; packing group

The three divisions are determined

by flash point. CLASS 4 — This class has three divisions: 4.1 Flammable solids

4.2 Substances




taneous combustion

4.3 Substances that on contact with

water emit flammable gases CLASS 5 — This class has two divisions:

5.1 Oxidizing substances 5.2 Organic peroxides CLASS 6 — This cla.ss has two divisions: 6.1 Poisonous substances 6.2 Infectious substances CLASS 7 — Radioactive materials CLASS 8 — Corrosive materials CLASS 9 — This class has three division.^:

9.1 Miscellaneous dangerous goods 9.2 An environmentally hazardous substance

9.3 A dangerous waste

its proper shipping name is in fact the substance "chlorine". The product that most people would probably use in their pool would be the product with the ship ping name "Hypochlorite solution". This product would be described on the shipping documents as Hypochlorite solution; Class 8 (9.2); P.I.N. (product


When you receive dangerous goods, the shipping document that accom panied the consignment should clearly indicate if what you are receiving are regulated dangerous goods. It will indi cate the shipping name, the classification(s) of the dangerous goods and P.I.N. along with any other required information.

As a consignee (receiver) of danger ous goods, you must fulfill the respon sibilities of a consignee under the regu lations. If you have a central receiving point and you trans-ship, distribute re gulated dangerous goods to various lo cations for use. you then become a con signor(shipper)and must fulfill the responsibilites of a consignor. Finally, if you use your own trucks or vans for delivery ofthese products,you must also meet the responsibilities of a carrier.

Dangerous goods must be classified RLSPONSIBILITILS UNDER THE by the manufacturer of the goods; or. if TDG REGULATIONS the goods are produced outside the country and are imported, it is up to the Whether you act only as a consignee importer to determine or ensure the de or if you are also a consignor or a carrier, termination of the proper classification there are certain responsibilities you of the dangerous goods. The classifica must meet. tion is dependent upon the primary • Training. Employees must be trained hazard according to the characteristics or work under the direct supervision ofa of the particular product or substance. trained person.The training must be re The regulations, in Part III. provide the flective of the type of duties the employ classification criteria for each of the er performs. It must include the aspects classes. of training required by Part IX of the Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

By: Norman R. Mauch regulations, as applicable to the stan dard determined by the employer. The employee(s) must be given a certificate of training by their employer. They are required to produce their certificate of training upon request of an inspector. The certificate of training is valid for a period of 36 months.

• Reporting. Part IX of the regulations also outlines the requirements for re porting spills of certain quantities of dangerous goods, or dangerous occur rences. and for notification in the event

that certain dangerous goods are lost, stolen or misplaced. • Retention of Documents. All danger ous goods documents (including ship ping documents you receive as a con signee. shipping documents you pre pare as a consignor etc.) must be retained for a period oftwo years. These may be electronically stored, but shall be available to an inspector for inspec tion within 15 days after receiving writ ten request to that effect from an inspector. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A

CONSIGNEE (receiver)

In addition to the responsibilities in dicated above, as a consignee you have only to be concerned if you are return ing a dangerous goods shipment(then, you become a consignor), or if you are returning empty cylinders, packagings or containers that have not been cleaned

or purged and a hazard still remains. When returning empty packagings. containers or cylinders that have not been cleared or purged you must treat them as dangerous goods. The safety markings must all be left on. The ship ping document must accompany the cylinders on their return journey and must contain information as prescribed

of dangerous goods at your central re ceiving point, the carrier was respons ible for providing you with a copy of the shipping document pertaining to that consignment. The shipping document should clearly spell out for you the ap propriate shipping name,classification of dangerous goods, product identifica tion number, as well as any other re quired information particular to the product or products. As well, the pack agings. containers or cylinders should already have been all properly safety

As your consignment would most likely be transported by road, you should check sections 2.20 to 2.32 in Part II for

any exemptions,partial or total,that you may be able to take advantage of. • Placarding Section 5.19 in Part V provides for an exemption to placarding requirements and outlines the circumstances, quan tities and types of dangerous goods that may be exempt. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CARRIER

marked. Thus, most of the information

has been provided and the safety mark ings applied for you. when you prepare your consignments for redistribution. There are. however, some areas you shouldexamine to ensure that you are in compliance. For instance, you should check in the lists of dangerous goods for the product or substance that you are shipping. Schedule II of the regulations contains two lists.

List I is a list of explosives (Class I); List II is a list of all other dangerous goods. The lists are in alphabetical or der by shipping name. Column IV in List II in particular may include special provision numbers that affect the ship ping ofthat particular substance or pro duct. The text for the special provision numbers is in Schedule III. For exam

ple. if special provision number 46 ap pears in column IV beside the substance in question, that substance cannot be offered for transport or transported as a limited quantity or consumer com modity.

If you not only prepare your consign ment for shipment but also transport it in your own vehicles, you are also the "carrier" and must meet the respon sibilities of a carrier. In addition to the

responsibilities previously indicated for everyone, as a carrier you must also; • Ensure that the driver has been

trained and has been given a certificate of training; • Ensure that the vehicle displays the appropriate safety markings in the pro per manner and location when they are required (sections 5.16 to 5.32 in Part V);

• Replace any safety marks that are damaged or lost while the consignment is in the carrier's charge; • Ensure that all required documenta tion is complete, accompanies the con signment throughout its journey and is located in the required place(e.g.: on the driver's door or within the driver's


When returning empty packagings, containers or cylinders that have not been cleared or purged you must treat them as dangerous goods.

in sections 4.19 and 4.19.1 in Part IV of

the regulations. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A

CONSIGNOR (shipper) If you redistribute the dangerous

goods you have received to various loca tions. you become a consignor of dan gerous goods and you must fulfill the responsibilities of a consignor. In addi tion to the responsibilities previously outlined,a consignor is also responsible for:

You should also check Part II(Appli • Make any required changes in the cation) for any exemptions — partial or shipping documents if required (e.g.: multiple deliveries): total — that may apply to your par • Pass a copy of the shipping docu ticular consignment. For example: ments to the consignee upon delivery of the goods. CONSUMER COMMODITIES AND LIMITED QUANTITIES REGULATIONS • ConsumerCommodities and Limited

tions for each class. Sections 2.7 and

For your convenience, the following is a listing of the Parts of the regulations and the headings for each. Part I Interpretation. This is a list of

2.7.1 in Part II provide partial exemp


• Properly marking all packagings.

Quantities are defined in Part I of the

containers, or cylinders with the appro

regulations and Schedule VIII identifies the quantities and packaging exemp

priate safety marks; • Ensuring the dangerous goods are properly packaged; • Preparing an accurately completed shipping document to accompany each consignment of dangerous goods; • Passing a copy ofthe completed docu ment to the initial carrier;

• Providing the initial carrier with the appropriate placards, if required. When you received the consignment

tions for consumer commodities and

limited quantities and this may apply to your consignment.(Remember,though,

if special provision 46 appears in column IV in List II beside a substance,

you cannot take advantage of these exemptions). • Exemptions in relation to road

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Part II Application. This outlines when the Act and Regulations apply or do not apply (exemptions and prohibitions). Part III Safety Requirements for Classi fication. This outlines the classification criteria for each of the nine classes of

dangerous goods and their divisions. continued overleaf 23

Dangerous goods regulations Part IV Documentation.This part deals with all required documents and the information required on them. Part V Safety Marks. This part deals with requirements for labels, placards, signs and other safety marks. PART VI Safety Standards. This part will be expanded in the future and will contain standards for packagings. con tainers and cylinders. As the TDG regu lations are silent in this area,at this time,

any other existing federal regulations continue to apply. PART VII Safety Requirements for the Handling or Offering for Transport of

Dangerous Goods. This part deals with various notification requirements, pas senger luggage, packaging require ments for Class 7 and requirements for Emergency Response Assistance Plan ning.This part will also be expanded on in the future and will contain cargo seg regation and stowage requirements. Until then, any current existing federal legislation continues to apply. PART VIII Safety Requirements for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. PART IX Safety Requirements for the Training of Persons and for Reporting. PART X Direction. This part deals with

a protective direction that may be issued directing any person engaged in han dling. offering for transport or trans porting dangerous goods to cease such activity or to carry it on in a manner as directed when it is considered necessary for the protection ofthe public,environ ment or property and is not otherwise covered in the Act or Regulations. PART XI Permits. This part deals with

the application and issuance of permits for equivalent levels ofsafety and ofper mits for exception. PART XII Appointment of Agents.This part deals with companies doing busi ness in Canada (involving dangerous goods) but whose headquarters are out side the country. PART XIII Inspectors. This part deals with the rights and duties of inspectors.

Copies of the Act and Regulations and any amendments pertaining to them are available from:








Centre. Supply and Services Canada. Ottawa. Canada K1A 0S9. Phone:(819) 997-2560. or any bookstore agents for

• Aeration

• Mixing • Screening • Solids Handling • Grit Removal/Dewatering • Conveying Systems

If you not only prepare your consignment for shipment but also transport it in your own vehicles, you are also the "carrier"

• Clarifiers

• Sludge Mixing/Thickening/ Dewatering • Disinfection

• Neutralization

the same of government publications. There is a charge for them. AMENDED. TABBED AND INDEXED COPIES

International Compliance Centre Ltd.. 205 Matheson Blvd. E.. Unit No. 7. Mis-

sissauga. Ontario L4Z 1X8.Phone:(416) 890-7227

Danatec Educational Services Ltd.,300.

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipment for water and wastewater treatment

800-6th Avenue S.W.. Calgary. Alberta T2P 3G3. Phone:(403) 232-6950. Assistance in interpretation or clari fication of the Transport of Dangerous Goods Regulations is available from the Transport Dangerous Goods Regional Office located at: Transport Dangerous Goods. Transport Canada. 200 Town Centre Court. Suite 830. Scarborough. Ont.. MIP 4X8. Telephone: (416) 9731867.

560 Bayview Avenue, Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X 1W1

Tel:(416) 836-9490, Fax:(416)836-9070 For more information, Circle reply card No. 118 24

Editor's Note:

The foregoing is for general Informa tion only. For specific information,the Act and Regulations must be consulted. It was prepared by Norman R. Mauch,for merly with Transport Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

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Eneineering. Oct. 1991


Water Resources

How economic forces

can shape the water Industry

Writing for the 1977 Godkin lectures at Harvard

University, Charles Schultze, a leading Ame rican economist stated:

"Living standards in modern Wes tern countries are, by an order of

magnitude, superior to those of the early 17th century. Had the triumph of the market meant only a more efficient use of technology and resources then available, the

gains in living standards would have been minuscule by compari son. What made the difference was the stimulation and harnes

sing of new technologies and re sources."

This statement supports strongly the findings of Nobel prize winner Robert Solow, who demonstrated

that over 85% of technological advancement in the U.S. economy during a forty year period was due to the operation of economic forces

must be put in train for effective

relatively inefficient manner in eco

action in the future.

nomic terms. Much of the advance

Current Canadian Water Problems

It would be foolhardy to claim that in a short paper all of the pro blems facing water managers could be covered in depth. Nevertheless,a short examination of some of the

more important problems is useful in beginning this paper. Canadian water resources are overused, as is plain from several indicators. Resi dential water use in municipalities exceeds that ofsome European coun tries by two to three times. While the average water consumer receives vir tually no "signal" as to this overuse, its economic consequences are very costly, amounting to billions of dol lars of over-expenditure. Canadian industries employ relatively little water recycling, compared to other nations and to theoretically possible levels. Canadians spend large amounts of public capital to develop

has to derive from "voluntary" efforts by academics and by the pri vate sector.These require incentives that are largely absent in the water "industry". In my opinion,however,the most serious problem by far is that of water quality. Canadians have allowed virtually unlimited deposi tion of waste material into the

nation's watercourses. In any eco nomic analysis ofthe waste problem, the cheapest solution by far, and therefore the one most adopted, is the discharge of untreated or mini mally treated wastes. Regulation is the preferred "Canadian way" of handling this problem, but, unsup ported by any other policy instru ment, such as effluent discharge fees, product charges and related mechanisms, regulation will never work.

As may be apparent, all of these problems have a common root. This

Table 1: Use rate(%)for

lies in the failure of Canadians to value their water resources commen surate with the value of water to the

Canada and Ontario, 1972 -1986 Year


Canada Total




233 208

148 120



172 152









The "total" industry columns include mineral extraction, manufac turing and thermal power generation sectors. The use rate equals (total gross use/total intake) x 100%.

through the medium of the market place(Solow, 1957). My paper examines the theme of technological change in the context of water resource. Specifically, it concentrates on showing the link ages between economic conditions

irrigation systems to grow crops which could he produced more chea ply by other methods or in different areas.

In planning, water resource pro fessionals tend to treat water uses as

economy. Thisfailure is deep-seated in its origins and insidious in its effects. The "good news" is that solutions are quite straightforward conceptually; somewhat more diffi cult, hut not insurmountably so, in practical terms. Economic Roots of Technological Change It is appropriate here to examine briefly the nature ofthe forces which lead to technological change. In a recent article. Professor Pearse and I described this process in simple terms, as follows: "The apparent triumph over scar city of land and natural resource materials In many parts of the world

that induce technological changes of the type identified by Schultze

"requirements"that must be met,as opposed to "demands" to be man aged through public policies such as pricing. Again the impact on capital

and Solow. It is vital that water

"needs" are substantial and waste

managers begin to recognize this dynamic,as they try to deal with the problems of water managementthat exist in Canada today.

problems. The key has been tech nological advance. On the supply side, the progression of techno logy has vastly increased the resources available, through dis covery of new reserves and stocks of everything from petroleum to fish. Supplies have been expan ded even more by advances enab ling the use of less accessible resources, of lower quality, and

and the initiation of automaticforces

Canadian water industry. These

ful, since cheaper alternatives are available. The effect of this particu lar sword is two-edged,since an over built system demands low prices to generate sufficient revenues to pay for the system. It is surprising how frequently this argument is put

observations focus on: the nature of


current water resource problems;the economic roots of technological change;the nature ofeconomic prac

A third problem relates to research. The dynamics of a good research environment are quite com plicated, but one thing is certain. Public agencies can only do part of the job, and even then probably in a

The method used here is based on a series of observations about the

tices in the Canadian water indus

try; the state of water technology; and the nature of the solutions that 26

Is Instructive in our search for means to overcome environmental

lesser concentrations. Even land,

though limited in the spatial sense, has been augmented enormously in its capacity to produce crops.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

By Donald M.Tate^ "On the demand side, techno

logy has progressively reduced and eliminated our dependence on particular resources for parti cular purposes, broadening the rangeof materialsavailabieto pro ducers, and improving the suitabi-

mentai resources? The answer is

that they have not been at work on this problem. The economic incen tives to do so have not been felt by the suppliers or the demanders. The suppliers, or those who own the water, the air and the resulting

There is no market mechanism to balance demand

with the available supply, so demands are often excessive.

tion and degradation." {Pearse and Tate, 1991) Economic Practices In the Canadian

Water Industry These observations identify the reasons why technological change has been retarded in the water indus

try. The problem of resource under valuation can be easily illustrated. Residential water servicing costs be tween $0.50 and $0.60 cents per cubic meter {Tate and Lacelle, 1990). In 33% of cases, unlimited access to

lity among them. Timber is no longer needed to construct buil dings and ships because there are

waste absorbing capacity, are often difficult to identify; they may

now a dozen new materials to

governments. They rarely have

sive use is cost-free to the consumer. Industrial water costs are less than

much concern to maximize the

1/2% of production costs. Irrigation

value of these assets and typically do not even charge prices to users. And the demanders, having access

its development costs. For all water

choose from. Societies no longer need copper to transmit energy and messages because materials like aluminum and fibre optics, made of much more ubiquitous raw material, will do the same job. Indeed, we no longer need any materials for these purposes, be cause electronic signals can be transmitted without them. Ail this innovation has more than offset

the depletion of resources through consumption. Notwithstanding the enormous economic growth of the past century, the demand for almost all natural resource com modities and food has risen slower

than the supply. The result is that the real price of natural resource products â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that is, the cost rela tive to manufactured goods, or to all goods and services taken toge ther â&#x20AC;&#x201D; has gradually declined. "For present purposes, it is important to understand the forces driving all the creative technologi cal effort that has overcome the limits of nature's endowment. Owners of land and natural resour

ces are constantly striving to gene rate the greatest possible value from them,so they search for new reserves, protect and if possible enhance them,find ways of extrac ting more and more valuable pro

be common property owners or

to these environmental resources

without charge, have no incentive to treat them as valuable and costly resources,or to economize on their use of them. There is no market mechanism to balance demand

public water supplies is paid for on a flat rate basis. In other words,exces

water is subsidized to about 85% of

uses, pricing in Canada, to state it bluntly,is an "irrational muddle"of tradition, politics and economically naive practices. It is no surprise, therefore, that we have water pro blems, and that technological pro gress moves very slowly.

with the available supply, so

The State of Water Resource

demands are often excessive. And


there are no economic incentives

Whatis meant by traditional tech nology? Certainly, the water re source trade journals,on the surface, seem to suggest that water techno-

directing technology toward increa sing suppl ies and reducing demands. Thus,economic growth brings inexorable resource deple

contlnued overleaf

WastewaterHeatment Problems?


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^^^1 poliution confrol headaches related to organic chemical compounds,

ducts from them, and so on. And those who need these resource

commodities are constantly sear ching for cheaper sources of sup ply, alternative materials that are less costly,and ways of using them more efficiently. Both suppliers and demanders,driven by financial incentives created by resource commodity markets, direct their creativity toward overcoming scar city. Their collective effort is obvi ously successful. "But why haven't these same forces succeeded in preventing the depletion of ourso-calied environ-

Whether the job is large or small, Coigon Carbon con provide a cost-effective soiufion to meet the freofment abjective,

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*Head, Water Resource Economics Section, Environment Canada For more information, circle reply card No. 120

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991


Water Resources examples of technological change possible in the water industry. Towards More Effective Water


There are a number of steps that can he taken to foster the conditions

under which improved technology will materialize. I emphasize here that these suggestions do not reflect the cravings ofa bureaucratfor ano ther tax grab. Rather they reflect an attemptto cope more effectively with some of Canada's serious water

resource problems. A first general step is for water managers at all levels of the profes sion to become aware that there are

many alternatives available for man aging the resource, and that many


ofthem are non-structural in nature.

Vancouver has few rivals when it comes to saiiing facilities with its backdrop of snow capped mountains. The recreationai vaiue of our waterways is worth biiiions, a factor not aiways considered when remediation costs are being tallied. Photo T. Davey.

logies have developed substantially. The Science Council ofCanada even

suggests that an export industry should be built of Canadian tech

nology. Examples of the persistence of traditional technologies are easy to identify. The following examples are illustrative, although by no means exhaustive. First, Environ ment Canada's industrial water use

surveys have demonstrated that the percentage of industrial water deri ving from recirculation has fallen over the 1972-1986 period (Table 1). The concept of a use rate is a simple way oflooking at this. If gross water use, or the total amount of water used in producing a product is divi ded by total water intake, and mul tiplied by 100%, the result is a use rate. The higher the rate,the higher the level of recirculation. In almost

all cases, the use rate fell, showing

Takacs, 1990) showed that waste treatment plants are less efficient the greater the amount of water pumped through them. Fifth, irri gation in Western Canada supports the growth of crops that could pro bably he grown more cheaply in

In particular, the option of realistic water pricing,as defined in the Federal Water Policy, should always be considered as a means ofinfluencing demand,thereby postponing or even obviating the need for new struc tures. We all have statements in our

respective mandates referring to something like "obtaining maxi mum social and economic value"

more humid areas. Irrigation causes

from the resource that we manage. Quite simply, this will not occur

enormous amounts ofwater consump

under current water valuation and

tion in an area where there exists

pricing practices. A second step relates to the reform of water pricing practices. Several means are possible to achieve such reform. In municipalities, universal metering is an essential first step. Once this is in place, we have to rid the field of flat rate and declining block rate pricing structures, which discourage water conservation.

much more highly valued water uses. Finally, in all parts of Canada, we afford industries free access to water

ways for waste deposition. Serious water pollution problems have resul ted, as already noted. Improvements are certainly pos sible. Research in water use by industry (Kollar and MacAuley, 1980)showed that water can he recy-

From our research at Environment

Of the water pumped in many Canadian municipalities, less than 75% can be accounted for by deliveries to customers.

that recirculation rates declined dur

ing this 14-year time span. Second, the average Canadian per capita water use from municipal systems is 350 litres per day,second only to that of the U.S., and over double that of many European coun tries. Also, of the water pumped in many Canadian municipalities,less than 75% can be accounted for by deliveries to customers.

Third, water use inside the home is excessive. The typical toilet uses 20 litres per flush, and showers use

cled up to nine times through advan ced industrial plants. In terms of the use rate measures ofTable 1,this would give rates upwards of 900%. Jank(1987)has found that the capa

city of a waste treatment plant can be effectively doubled through the use ofcomputerized controls of plant processes. The energy savings pos sible through the use of water effi cientfixtures has already been men tioned. Research at Environment

over double the amount of water

Canada has shown that petroleum

required for effectiveness. Pastel (1985) showed that a typical North

like material can he recovered from

American home could save over $100

per year in energy costs alone by using water-efficient showerheads. Fourth, recent research done at McMaster University (Patry and 28

waste treatment plantsludge. Chan ging industrial systems with water handling as a design criterion is effective in both saving water and lowering costs {Ayers and Kneese, 1968). These are but a few of many

Canada,it appears that a constant unit charge for water, seasonably differentiated, is a reasonable com promise between economic principle and simplicity. In the case of high volume discharges to municipal sewers, extra strength sewer sur charges should be used extensively. For self-supplied industry, society has to begin charging for water use commensurate with (1)the value of the resource in use, and (2)the cost of administering corrective environ mental programs. A third step is to realize that regu lating waste discharge is not a very effective means for solving water pollution problems, when used as the sole approach to the problem. continued on p. 68

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

The Davun OfA New Data

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Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

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R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control

Treatment of CTMP Effluents

Chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) effluents can be treated using an aerobic biodigestion process.To assess the treat ment performance and establish the kinetics of this process for design pur poses, the biodegradation of a CTMP effluent was studied by scientists at the University of Quebec in Trois-Rivieres under a very wide range of treatment conditions. A paper presented by H.W.

sulfur. Using aerobic sludge, the opti mum temperature of solubilization was practically the same for all the metals tested (28°C). The amount solubilized was also similar. A comparison between these procedures and a chemical lixivia tion with ferric chloride undertaken.

has been

phytoplankton biomass remained ele vated above pre-acidification estimates

or increased. Dinoflagellates and cyanophytes remained codominant with little


of other taxonomic

groups increasing.

Liu. S.N. Lo and H.C. Lavalee at the

Organic Contaminants In Wet Precipitation Wet precipitation samples were collec ted by G.L. Brun, G.D. Howell and H.J. O'Neill on a monthly basis in Atlantic Canada for the period 1980-1989 and

BI0QUAL'91 annual meeting provides results and discussion on removals of

pollutants(BOD,COD,TOC,resin and fatty acids,and total carbohydrates)and kinetic parameters (coefficients of sub strate removal, sludge yield, oxygen uti lization rate, and oxygen mass transfer) with respect to these pollutants.

Removal of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge In a joint INRS-Eau â&#x20AC;&#x201D; University of Quebec study, R. Lafleur, D. Couillard and R. Guay compared biological and chemical lixiviation (extraction) pro cesses to remove heavy metals from sewage sludge. As described to delegates at the BIOQUAL '91 annual meeting, the biological process usingThiobacillus ferrooxidans or T. thiooxidans is improved by the addition of a suitable substrate such as ferrous sulphate or elemental

phytoplankton community increased linearly with pH, and the number of common species increased during the first six years of early recovery. Total


Recovery of Acidic Lakes

As part of the Experimental Lakes Area experiments. Lake 223 was experimen tally acidified with sulfuric acid starting in 1976then,aftera stabilization period, it was allowed to recover slowly by ad justment of the acid conditions. As des cribed in the Canadian Journal of Fish eries and Aquatic Sciences by Freshwater Institute researchers D.L. Findlay and S.E.M. Kasian, species diversity of the

analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls, chlor inated benzenes, and polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons. The compounds most commonly detected included the pesticide lindane and its decomposition product,fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzojk]fluoranthene, and PCBs. A significant decrease in lindane and its decomposi tion product after 1983 reflected the cur tailed use of lindane in North America and on other continents. These Envi ronment Canada scientists discuss the

various seasonal patterns and spatial variations in concentrations of these

contaminants in a paper published in Environmental Science arid Technology. Improved Analysis of Cyanide and Ammonia

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J.F. Lechner have undertaken studies

on the application of continuous-flow injection systems for the determination of ammonia and cyanide in various en vironmental samples. As described in National Water Research Institute re

ports, the species ofinterest is converted to the gaseous state for diffusion across a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane into a stationary phase for reconversion to the ionic form.The resulting solution is pumped to the detector cell for amperometric or conductometric deter mination of ammonia or cyanide re spectively. Excellent results have been obtained in tests run on different types of samples. Toxic Contaminants on the Great Lakes

The purpose ofa review published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Ca nada by National Water Research Insti tute scientists R.J. Allan and A.J. Ball is


Global Opportunities for Business and the Environment For more information, circle reply card No. 102 30

With a view to overcoming limitation or interference problems encountered with existing methods. I. Sekerka and

to present results of selected toxic che mical concentrations in the water and

bottom sediments of the open Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in these biotic media are presented where continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

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R&D NgWS, continued possible. The available information on toxic chemical contamination of the

Great Lakes is greater than exists for any other set of freshwater lakes in the world. This report is the most com prehensive document prepared to date on the concentrations of toxic con taminants in the water and sediments of all ofthe Great Lakes and their connect

ing channels. Detoxification of Industrial Effluents Scientists at Centre Saint-Laurent and Zenon Environnement Inc.. Montreal have examined the combination of membrane filters with an aeration basin

to avoid settling problems which origin ate from the presence of excessive amounts of filamentous bacteria. The substitution of membrane units for se

condary settling also permits the opera tion of a biological system under condi

Canadian Water Quality Guidelines documents on trichloroethylene, chlo

oxidize the H2S to elemental sulfur. The

rinated ethanes, Simazene, Matolachlor. and PCBs. For the first four of

with the anaerobic reactor as part of the internal recirculation loop. This de creased the H2S both in the liquid and the gas phases without dissolved oxygen impairing the anaerobic flora.

these, each publication summarizes the information on the uses.fate,and effects ofthe chemicals on raw water for drink

ing water supply.freshwater aquatic life, agricultural uses, recreational water quality and aesthetics, and industrial water supplies. Water quality guidelines for the protection of specific water uses are recommended. The publication for the PCBs provides information on their physical and chemical properties, per sistence. bioaccumulation. and toxicity to marine biota. Water quality guide lines are recommended to ensure the

protection and maintenance of marine aquatic biota.

sludge process would fail. The results obtained by A.Zaloum. S. Lessard and L. Provencher with two industrial efflu

ents using a bioreactor equipped with

Kraft Wastewater

At the BIOQUAL "91 annual meeting. Biotechnology Research Institute scien tist S.R. Guiot described his research on

Canadian Water Quality Guidelines

the removal of hydrogen sulfide from Kraft wastewater by direct oxidation in the anaerobic reactor bulk liquid. An anaerobic reactor was controlled to pro duce biogas with H2S content of 1.5%.

The Inland Waters Directorate has an

The effluent was first treated in an aera

nounced the publication of five more

tion tower flushed with pure oxygen to

tubular membranes were described to

delegates attending the BIOQUAL '91 annual meeting in Montreal.

Biological Indicators of Oil Pollution Several field and laboratory studies on marine and freshwater fish have shown elevations in liver mixed-function oxi-

dase enzyme activities following expo sures to petroleum oils or to a small number of other environmental con

taminants. Application of these techni ques in an arctic context is limited by lack of background data on ranges in enzymatic activities to be expected in arctic animals in the absence of a pollu tion incident. As described to delegates

Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from

tions in which the traditional activated

H2S oxidation tower was then coupled

attending the 14th Arctic and Marine Spill Program Technical Seminar. Freshwater Institute researchers W.L. Lockhart and D.A. Metner have con

ducted experimental oil enzyme induc tion experiments with several northern species and have also sampled several populations of fish in the Mackenzie and other drainages to determine ranges in activities. These data, when plotted on maps,allow simple detection of a population showing abnormal activity.

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Treatment Systems McMaster University scientist G.G. Patry.and R.Zaloum and I. Takacs from Environment Canada's Centre Saint-

Laurent have developed a dynamic model which is capable of simulating the performance of a purification plant treating effluents from the production of organic chemicals. As described at the BIOQUAL'91 annual meeting,this new model can accommodate a number of

compounds and processes suitable for a purification plant treating wastewater rich in phenolic materials and for maldehyde. It has been used to develop operational treatment plant manage ment strategies for reacting to acciden tal discharges and will eventually be combined with an expert system cap able ofidentifying any corrective action needed for the operation of the plant. Treatment of Oil-in-Water Emulsion Breakdown mechanisms and flow cha

racteristics involved in a peat bed treat ing oil-in-water emulsions have not yet been fully understood. A paper by G.N. Mathavan and T."Viraraghavan accep ted for publication in Water Research examines the applicability of the wellknown Carman-Kozeny filtration equation to a peat bed treating a stan dard

mineral oil-in-water emulsion.

These University of Saskatchewan sci entists evaluated the overall coales-

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 104 32

continued overleaf

Environmentai Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

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R&D News,continued cence efficiency of the peat bed. and analyzed the effects of flow rates and depths of peat bed on coalescence effi ciency. Contrary to the general trends observed by other investigators, coales cence efficiency decreased with an in crease in bed depth indicating possible simultaneous occurrence of filtration

and coalescence in the peat bed. Effect of Pentachiorophenol on Fish Queen's University scientists A.J.Samis. P.W. Colgan and P.H. Johansen com pared the effects ofsubchronic exposure and acute exposure of pen tachiorophenol on the growth of bluegill sunfish. A 22-day subchronic exposure at about 20% and 75% of the

median lethal concentrations resulted

the National Water Research Institute

in significant reductions in food conver sion efficiency during the last 10 days of exposure. Bluegills exposed to a 3-day acute spill-mimicking exposure of pen tachiorophenol at 100% of the 96-h

study show that a significant improve

median lethal concentration failed to

show a significant reduction in food conversion efficiency.

ment over standard methods can be ob

tained by employing an atomic absorp tion spectrometer equipped with a tungsten furnace and adding a solution of nickel ammonium tartarate as part of the sample preparation step. Besides eliminating interferences usually obser ved with other methods for lead deter

Determination of Trace Levels of Lead I. Sekerka and J.F. Lechner have recen

tly completed some work on the deter mination of lead, particularly with-a view to overcoming problems and dif ficulties often encountered in analyzing for trace levels in water. The results of

mination, the modified procedure also results in improved accuracy and precision.

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^Ontario Hydro Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

R&D News,continued Anaerobic Treatment of

Thermomechanical Pulp Effluent Armand-Frappier Institute scientist J.-G. Bisaillon and his colleagues stu

cerning the mechanisms of contamina tion, particularly rainout and washout. Nitrification Rate Constant in Rivers

died the anaerobic treatment of the ef

Y. Xie and N. Biswas have proposed

fluent resulting from the thermomech anical pulping process using geotexliles

methods to estimate nitrification rate

for river systems. In a paper published as a fixed surface for the attachment of in Environmental Technology, these Uni microorganisms. As described in Science versity of Windsor scientists present a et techniques de I'eau, reductions of the detailed comparison of the methods BOD of54% and of the concentration of proposed taking the Toujiang River in resin acids of 58% were obtained. The China as an example. A good fit is ob greatest reduction was achieved with tained by using first-order, two-station abietic (84%) and palustric (81%) acids and the least-squares method. A rela while dehydroabietic acid was reduced tionship between the measured and the the least(27%). Effluent toxicity,as mea theoretical nitrogenous oxygen demand sured by the Microtox method, was (NOD)is developed and has been ap not affected. plied to estimate the influence of nit rification on oxygen balance for a river Rainfall Contamination in Montreal system without determining the NOD. In a paper published'm Science et techni ques de I'eau. L. Poissant and P. Beron Treatment of presented the first results observed in Plating Shop Wastewaters Canada on temporal variations of rain The objective of an Environment Ca fall quality using a sequential sampler nada project was to conduct industrialbased on rainfall depth. Gathered on scale tests to prove the validity of a new Montreal Island, these results clearly technology for the extraction and recov show that the assumption often made in ery of hexavalent chromium from plat runoff quality models (no contamina ing rinse waters. A report recently issued tion of rainfall) does not hold. The re by Environmental Protection describes sults confirm the fact that rainfall the details ofthe project from laboratory contamination can be serious. In addi tests and design through production tion, they have allowed these scientists and installation to the final phase which from the University of Quebec at Mon was devoted exclusively to the imple mentation and operation of the process treal to propose some hypotheses con

on an industrial scale. Certain technical

problems were identified.

Biodegradation of Naphthalene R.Samson and colleagues from the Bio technology Research Institute and McGill University have studied the ef fect of soil contaminant interactions on

the biodegration of naphthalene in flooded soil under dentrifying con ditions. The results published inApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology indi cated that naphthalene desorption was highly irreversible and decreased with an increase in the soil organic content thus influencing the availability for microbial consumption. Under dentrify ing conditions, the mineralization of naphthalene to CO2 occurred in parallel with the consumption of nitrate and an increase in the pH. Additional results clearly show the potential ofdentrifying conditions for the biodegration of low molecular weight PAHs.

For more information,contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Asso ciation on Water Pollution Re

search and Control, Conservation and Protection, Environment Ca nada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (819) 953-9365, Fax: (819) 9539029.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Groundwater Treatment Facility at Pacific Place activities included the Pintsch coal gasification plant,

chlorophenol dip tank operation, sawmill activities, BC Dayton & Knight Ltd. Electric Railway Company's gas works and warehouse operations. Land use activities such as shoreline dump Pacific Place is a 82.5 hectare parcel of land located on ing of metal wastes, coal-tar dumping, woodwaste fill the north shore of False Creek. Over the past 100 years, and underground storage of PCB contaminated wasteLloyd A. Slezak, PEng and inderjit Singh, EIT

which have resulted in contamination of the underlying

oil was practiced. Fortunately, most of the hazardous wastes on site are confined to specific pockets, which

soils and groundwater. Some of the historical industrial

have been identified.

this site has been exposed to numerous industries,

The groundwater treatment facility was designed and constructed as a temporary water collection,

storage and treatment system to manage contaminated excavation waters from various developments on the Pacific Place site. Treatment processes include polymer addition, aeration, volatiles stripping, sedimentation, and activated carbon adsorption. To be in compliance

with City of Vancouver Sewer Use By-Law,a number of inorganic and organic constituents in the excavation

waters required removal. Monitoring of the effluent was required for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons, chlorinated phenols, arsenic, benzene, toluene, PCBs, oil and grease.

Design of the treatment facility was by Dayton and -

Temporary Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Facility, Pacific Place (former Expo '86 site), Vancouver, BC.

Knight Ltd, in association with the BC Environment Soils Remediation Croup, which includes Colder Associates, SCS Engineers and Acres International. Construction of the project was by Norcon Contracting and construction management was provided by Sandwelllnc. Courtesy The BC PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER




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An All-Canadian Company

Soviet engineering practices reveaied in environmentai Peristroika By Aivar Bergs*

Technology exchanges be

tween North American and

USSR engineers have been very limited in the past, but have increased in the lastfew years. A direct insight into the achieve ments and problems facing Soviet engineers was afforded last year through a Water Industries Delega tion to four cities in the Soviet Union.

The North American delegation con sisted of 30 professionals and 15 spouses,including seven Canadians. The purpose of the tour was to pro vide an opportunity for water and wastewater treatment engineers to meet and exchange information on their present practices and future plans. The main interests centred on water supply and treatment and wastewater treatment and disposal. The Soviet engineers, with very rare exceptions, have not had the opportunity to travel to the west, and their knowledge of North Ame rican technology has been obtained from books and technical journals that are translated locally into Rus sian, since few engineers have adeqate knowledge ofEnglish to be able to comprehend the information directly. Consulting engineering There is as yet no private consul ting engineering in the Soviet Union.

Political upheavals in the

USSR have shaken the

Moscow's Kuryanovo Sewage Treatment Plant. Bare steel Is the most abundant material and often remains unpainted. There are however, somewhat simi lar organizations in the governmen tal structure that provide design ser vices on a country, or republic wide basis. Thelargestis the State Design Institute,headquartered in Moscow, comprising eightinstitutes and four divisions, having a total of 6,500 employees and doing over 50% ofthe water and sewage treatment system

an extensive trip with a party of other Canadians and Americans.

world in recent months, In general, the country suffers from revealing the innermost a lack of engineering materials. workings of a country long hidden Ladders in treatment plants were from the West. often simply rebar rods welded on site and paint shortages meant Paradoxes abound in a country many steel surfaces were bare with rife with curious contradictions.

Soviet precision engineering dazzled the world when it put the first Sput nik in orbit, then the first man in space. Paradoxically, the country seems unable to manufacture quality consumer goods or even feed its peo ple adequately. It is still a world leader in aerospace science and engi neering â&#x20AC;&#x201D; yet some 40 percent ofits food rots because of primitive distri bution systems. But what about the environmen

maintenance standards far below

Western practices. Pumps primarily designed for the oil industry, were used in water well pumping with the soviet engineers surprised to learn that Western pumps commonly lasted 30 years,

compared to a three-year lifespan common in their pumps. The mee ting ofSoviet and Western engineers was most cordial and clearly sho wed thattheformerly insular society which restricted travel, had suffered

tal state-of-the-art? Aivars Bergs, from a lack oftechnical cross fertili Chief Design Engineer at R.V. zation. Happily, this tradition of Anderson Associates, recently tou insularity seems now a part of his red various treatment facilities in 38


design work in the Soviet Union. Design groups in the various repu blics carry out more localized ser vices. Typical of these is the Research and DevelopmentInstitute for Municipal Facilities and Ser vices, located in Kiev and serving the Ukraine. The larger cities have their own combined design-construc tion-operations groups that include design engineers who carry out design for the local facilities. Potable water

The basic problems of water sup ply and wastewater disposal are much the same in the Soviet Union

as anywhere else. In the larger cities, water consumption is about 450 litres per capita per day, which includes water losses and street

washing. Since the consumption is largely unmetered,the actual quan tity of system loss is unknown. Direct pumping and in-line pressure boosting for different water supply pressure zones is dominant, with very little storage. In the Moscow system, as an example, 19% of the water is officially unaccounted for, but because ofinadequate and faulty metering,a considerably higher loss is often discussed. Various water

conservation measures are being contemplated to reduce the domestic water consumption to a planned 235 *R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

litres per capita per day from the present 378 litres. The industrial demand for potable water has been

operation for six months and was still being adjusted and improved. The resulting dewatered sludge is

reduced to 25% of the total from 40%

similar to that obtained in freeze-

used previously, by provision of a non-potable supply to high demand users. This supply uses mainly ter tiary treated, chlorinated waste-

thaw lagoons used in North America for alum sludge dewatering. There


Moscow water is supplied by four water treatment plants,one of which uses ozone,providing on the average 75 cubic metres per second (1,427 million gallons per day) of potable water. The demand is very uniform by North American standards, and interestingly,the maximum demand occurs on December 31. The distri

bution network has about 9,000 km of mains and the pressure varies between 10 and 70 metres water

column(14 to 100 pounds per square inch).

Kiev,the Ukraine capital,is sup plied with 2 million cubic metres (440 million imperial gallons) per day of water from three plants, the larger part from the Dnieper and Desna Rivers, and 300,000 cubic metres per day from wells. When the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident contaminated the river waters,they shut down the two large plants, over-pumped the wells, dug more wells, and trucked in additional water while changing the Desna River Plant filter sand to activated

carbon. The Dnieper River had to be discarded as a water source, and a pipeline was built from the Desna River to the Dnieper intake, so that both plants are now supplied with raw water from the Desna River. The activated carbon in the filters is

removed every six months and dis posed in a special landfill. The filte red water contains no excessive radioactive material.

The Latvian capital ofRiga has a water supply of about 400,000 cubic metres(88 million imperial gallons) per day from wells and the Daugava River,in about equal amounts. The river water plant consists of a prechlorination facility, alum contact chambers, clarifiers, rapid sand fil ters and post chlorination system. The water plantsludge is first thick ened in gravity settling chambers with chemicals addition. The sludge is then rapidly frozen in about one millimetre thick layers of ice on rotating freezing drums. A statio nary knife on each drum scrapes off the ice as the drum rotates in a

continuous operation. Frozen sludge is then melted and pumped to vacuum filter beds for dewatering. Filtered sludge is then trucked to landfill. The system had been in


Sewage treatment for the larger cities in the Soviet Union is conven

tional primary and secondary, with tertiary filtration in specific areas. Prefabricated modular package plants are used in smaller municipa lities. These units are also gradually replacing facultative lagoons,which are considered ecologically unsound and are no longer constructed. The requirements for plant efflu ent quality vary with the receiving area. The general requirement is secondary treatment, with a maxi mum 15 mg per litre BODs and sus pended solids in the effluent. In sensitive inland areas such as Pya tigorsk, which is a major health resort in Russia surrounded by mineral springs and agricultural land, tertiary treatment is required. There the final effluent from the

Moscow University

had been no assessment ofthe power requirements or system economics.

Most other cities and municipali ties in the Latvian Republic obtain water from wells with excessive

amounts of iron and manganese, from a common 3 to 4 milligrams to as high as 14 milligrams per litre. A novel method ofin-ground oxidation ofthe iron and manganese has been developed. It involves pumping an air-water mixture into the well and

plant contains 2 mg per litre BODs and suspended solids, 1 mg per litre ammonia nitrogen and 5 mg per litre phosphorous. Sludge is dewa tered in vacuum filters and dried by a thermal drying process at 800°C using natural gas and electricity. There is a concern that heavy metals in the dried sludge could pollute the many mineral water springs if used on agricultural land or in landfill. Consequently, the dried sludgei is stored in windrows on the large plant property just outside the plant gates, pending a decision on dispo sal.

Generally,there are various legal restrictions on pollutant discharges, many of these being quite recent. Many of the existing treatment plants are reported unable to meet these criteria, and will have to he upgraded. Industry is also being made to provide at least primary

spreading the air into the surroun ding waterbearing strata around the well. This may take from days to weeks, depending on various para

treatment before the effluent is dis

meters. When the well is returned

charged into sewers. However,there

Generally, there are various legal restrictions on poliutant discharges, many of these being quite recent. into operation, the groundwater be comes oxidized as it passes through this aerated zone, and the iron remains in the ground. As the oxy gen in the aerated zone is gradually consumed, the iron front moves toward the well. The iron contentin

the pumped water is closely monito red,so that the well can be recharged before the iron front reaches the well

casing. If the iron precipitate is allowed to close in on the well screen, the well can no longer be recharged and must be abandoned. A one-year recharge interval is considered a good average.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

are no facilities for disposal of the heavy metals by these industries,so the metals are eventually sent on to the treatment plants. For example, Moscow industry produces about 80 tonnes of heavy metals in 6.3 million cubic metres(1,386 million imperial gallons) per day of sewage, much of it from metal plating. Much of this is removed or retained during the working hours, but is dumped back in at night. The sewage plantsludge is anaerobically digested,then dosed with ferrous chloride and conditio ned with lime and dried in either filcontinued overleaf 39

Soviet engineering practices revealed

rage pump life of three years. Circular clarifiers with periphe

in environmental Peristroika

ral drives are used. The drive mecha

ter presses, vacuum filters or sludge drying beds before disposal as agri cultural fertilizer and soil conditio ner.

prefabricated. Clarifier walls, for example, may be of precast panels. Building columns,beams and floors are mainly all precast. Equipment

sively, often remaining unpainted.

Equipment is practically all of Soviet design and manufacture with engineers lamenting the lack ofsuit ability, variety and size. One such

Items such as access ladders are

item discussed was water well

typically welded from reinforcing bars and steel pipe. Concrete may be cast in place, but most often is

pumps. They do not have specially developed water well pumps but use oil well pumps instead with the ave-

abundant material and is used exten

rifier wall. Clarifier diameters of 40 to 50 metres are common.

Construction materials Materials for construction can be

scarce, and whatever is available is being used. Bare steel is the most

nisms vary from steel rails with rack and pinion drive, to a truck wheel running on a chequered plate bolted to the top of the concrete cla

Drive reliability and efficiency that never gets watered down.

Instrumentation and Controls Instrumentation and controls

vary considerably from North Ame rican practices. Generally, control is manual and the instrumentation

is largely limited to that necessary for manual operation. The most intricate instrumentation system encountered on the trip was for the City ofKiev water supply. It consists of a large panel, all hard wired, showing the status of water levels in reservoirs, pumps in operation,flow quantities, etc., for the whole city. Four operators are normally on duty in front of this panel, visually moni toring the status. When a change is needed, such as the starting of ano ther pump, a panel operator tele phones that particular pumping sta tion,requesting the station operator to start another pump. Each panel operator also has a video screen on which some additional information

is displayed. Date is recorded on reels of magnetic tape. In general, computer control is planned for the future, but no suitable computers or programmable controllers are pre sently available for the industry. Safety The responsihility for operator safety is placed more on the opera tors than is usual in North America.

Equipment is practically all of Soviet design and manufacture with engineers lamenting the lack of suitability, variety and size.

/ > Canada's largest supplier of drives to the water/wastewater industry, we can pro vide you with long-term, trouble-free drive performance. No matter what the application, from clarifiers to comminutors, from bar screens to belt presses, we can ensure a constant or adjustable speed drive or gearmotor with a ratio, capacity and configuration that's perfectly matched to the job.

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motor components, engineering assistance, technical support and around-the-clock service.

Pipe and cables often pass across walkways on the floor, floor access hatch cover handles protrude above the floor and chain operated gates, etc., generally do not use chain guards. Ventilation is mainly through doors and windows. Economics

Construction costs of treatment

Send for detailed literature.

plants are generally considered in the design,as evidenced hy the mate Customer Service/Assembly Centres

Customer Service Centres

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rials of construction and choice of

equipment (e.g. peripheral drive single arm clarifiers, unprotected steel weir plates, etc.). However, continued overleaf


Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991



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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991


the Research and Development Ins titute in Kiev have not yet been used in practice because there are no strict discharge standardsin many places,

Soviet engineering practices revealed in environmental peristroika

and so there is not much demand for

innovations such as the sludge freeze-thaw system in Riga consu ming much electric power, has been built and operated without any measurement of the electric power consumption or cost assessment. Workmanship of construction and maintenance can properly hejudged only by Soviet standards.

developing various components and methods for improved treatment at lower costfor large and small sewage treatment plants using both physical -chemical and biological methods. Modular package plants using

Design Trends

Research and design analyses are being done on new equipment and on increases in existing plant capa cities without major new construc tion. Unit processes under investi gation and development include changing secondary clarifiers to lamella settlers, thereby increasing plant capacity by 30-35%, or to air flotation clarifiers, which may allow doubling of the through flow. The use of pure oxygen in aeration tanks is also being considered,as is the use of anaerobic and aerobic zones in

place of the present plug flow. The Municipal Water Supply and Treatment Research Institute is

tertiary sewage treatment. Engineering Future Privatization of the Engineering Institutes into competing enginee ring companies is being contempla ted, and the engineers are very inte rested in the organization of private consulting engineering companies. Western technical journals are care fully studied in this regard, but they find it difficult to understand the

The St. Basil Cathedral in Moscow

immobilized and suspended activa ted sludge zones have been designed for sizes serving up to 20,000 popula tion.

Smaller units employing Rotating Biological Contractors are also developed and in use. However, some of the systems developed by

information on engineering practices since they lack the basic knowledge as to its general set ups. One of the mostfrequent questions was"please outline Project Management". There is a great desire to travel and observe first hand the enginee ring work carried out in other coun tries, but language difficulties and lack of funds and western currency minimize such contact.

New and

improved technologies are being developed, and there is a desire for export possibilities particularly of some of the compact package treat ment units. ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Photocatalysis — a solution to the removal and destruction of organic contaminants

Welive in an environment

charged with a variety of toxic organic pollutants

By Brian Butters, P.Eng.*

which come from various

Advanced photocatalytic oxida tion is an alternative to many exis ting processes in use for controlling organic contamination in fluids.

sources. Regulations and technolo gies are now being applied to deal with the problem of organic pollu

with shipping and long-term dispo sal of collected hazardous organics. The environmental potential for Ti02 has heen known for over 15

years. However,the technology has had limited commercial potential for a variety of reasons. In 1987,

tants in air or water.

Among existing water treatment technologies, air stripping (for re moval of volatile organic contami nants) and carbon adsorption (for


PCB s i

removal of volatile and non-volatile Dioxins

organic contaminants) are conside red among the most effective treat ment technologies. However, air stripping and carbon adsorption are non-destructive technologies. Air stripping converts a liquid conta mination problem into an air pollu tion problem, while carbon adsorp tion of the contaminants produces a


However, TiOz photocatalysis is a uniquely different and efficient pro cess which offers additional benefits

including: • a process that does not alter the fluid (air and/or water)in any way as it mineralizes (converts) organic

solid hazardous waste which must

then be disposed of. Accordingly, both technologies are coming under increasing regulatory restrictions. Obviously, a destructive technology which converts the harmful organic pollutants into totally harmless pro

contaminants to CO2 at amhient


ducts would be most desirable.

Advanced photocatalytic oxida tion using Titanium Dioxide (Ti02) removes and destroys harmful orga nic contaminants in fluids such as air or water. In the Nulite™ techno

• the ability to reduce the Total Organic Carbon (TOO) level below detection levels as the technology has no forseeable limit in polishing applications. This capability makes

the technology very attractive when trying to meet increasingly stringent standards.

logy, the contaminated fluids flow through a matrix of Ti02 catalyst.

with government assistance,Nutech set ahout to develop a commercial process. In 1988, a Ti02 matrix technology was successfully deve loped and tested. Since that time, the technology has been tested in a number of single cell reactors throughout North America. The same technology is also being used in an ambitious USA projectto purify vast quantities of contaminated ground water. Photocatalytic Reactor Units are now being fielded for a variety of applications. Each modular unit is capable ofprocessing up to 500 L/hr (high quality pure water) and with

An extensive list of contaminants

including dioxins, benzene and trichloroethylene to name a few, have been thoroughly tested and found to be easily destroyed by this process. The evidence to date clearly points to a mechanism whereby the pollu tant is adsorbed onto the surface of

Ti02 where it is progressively degraded by a reaction with the hydroxy radical and possibly superoxide ion radicals. The currently accepted routes for the formation of the primary reactive radicals (hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions) by illuminated Ti02 are sum

•a simple continuous flow process with instant stop/start capability, no moving parts and no generated waste components. Consequently the technology eliminates the down stream concern and cost associated

marized below.

Ti02 + hv

> Ti02


incremental modules supplying pro portionally higher flow rates. The semi-conductor industry is actively investigating the NuliteT"'^ technology in the manufacture of ultra pure water. The technology has the potential to significantly reduce TOC in the manufacture of

ultra-pure water which is a major barrier to the manufacture of the

O2 + Ti02 (h'^'vBi 6'cb)

OH- + Ti02(h+vs)

> Ti02 (h^'^vg) + O2"

> Ti02 + OH

next generation of higher density computer chips. Drinking waterfrom wells,rivers, or lakes contaminated with agricul*General Manager

For more iriformation, circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Nutech Environmental continued overleaf 43


What^uld GoWrong? lb perform according to specifi cations, flexible plastic pipe must be installed properly. This is no simple task, since the plas

Surface settlement Pipe deflection can cause subsurface materials to settle.

No Control Over Groundwater

tic pipe must have uniform side

support from the soil adjacent to the pipe. But as you know, onsite, you have very httle control over this installation.

Improper Installation Even the best contractors

may have

Joint leakage


support for plastic pipe leading to severe pipe

uniform side

support for plastic pipe.

deflection after installation.

Changes in moisture levels, soil composition and density can

Problems Caused By Improper Installation Increased risk ofcollapsed pipelines There is no long-term proof that large diameter plastic pipe

Concrete Is Far More

Forgiving Differential rates of deflection at

pipe joints can cause joints to open. The resulting leakage can

further undermine the pipe, causing even greater deflection and leakage.

Other dangers

under excessive load and severe deflection will survive. O

significantly alter soil properties. This could diminish side


mean severe problems.

Changes in the water table during or after installation can

Concrete pipe has an inherent structural rigidity and a proven record of performance that goes back more than 100 years.

When you're specifying pipe, why take chances with plastic? Significantly reduce your risk factors with the proven rehability of concrete pipe.


Cleaning equipment designed for round pipe can damage deflected pipe. Deflection causes stress that can make the pipe less resistant to chemicals and


reduce its hydraulic capacity.

It Stays In Shape For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 114

American Concrete Pipe Association 8300 Boone Boulevard â&#x20AC;˘ Vienna, Virginia 22182-2689 â&#x20AC;˘(703) 821-1990

CANSOLV can reduce SO2 in Oil Sands plant The Federal Government, Union Carbide Canada Limited and Suncor

Inc.cooperated in a pilot plant which will use innovative new technology to capture sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions — the major cause of acid rain.

The $9 million facility was instal led at Suncor's Fort McMurray, Alta., oil sands plant. The breakthrough technology — called CANSOLV — was developed in Canada by Union Carbide. It has the potential to recover 98 percent of

Photocatalysis — a solution to organic contaminants tural chemicals and other petro chemicals that find their way into the water supply can be treated using the same Ti02 matrix. Systems using this matrix would be installed in series with existing water supply piping and when activated, will

sulphur dioxide emissions more effi ciently and for far less cost than conventional systems. CANSOLV is designed for use in virtually any large sulphur dioxideemitting plant, including coal-fired and oil-fired generating stations, metallurgical smelters and industri

processing a small portion of the flue gases from the existing boilers. The Suncor plant,270 miles north of Edmonton, was the first in the world to produce synthetic crude from bituminous sands on a com

mercial scale. It produces more than 53,000 barrels of high-quality syn thetic crude a day. Federal Government assistance

al boilers. Plants such as these emit

will be provided through the Western

some 30 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide a year in North America.

Diversification Fund. Union Car bide Canada will receive the fund

At Fort McMurray,the pilot plant will prove out the new technology by

ing based on reimbursement for eli gible expenses once all conditions of the agreement have been met.

44 Eight years of operation siudgo cake transport...

reduce the level of contamination to

the desired level. Again,the advan tage of the technology for drinking water applications is that there are no additives or residual effects

imparted onto the water. The purification of well water is just one example of ground water remediation in addition to the vast

"Our Asdor dewatered sludge cake transport and storage system began operation in 1982. It handles up to 87 tons per hour of up to 35% dry solids sludge cake and delivers up to 2 cubic yards per minute from the truck loading bunkers. It Includes over 300 feet of screw conveyors - horizontal, Inclined and live bottom storage bins.

...romarkabiy iittio downtime 49

areas of serious ground water con tamination.

These areas are cur

rently candidates for air stripping. Here again the technology is an attractive alternative solution. Not

only is the contaminant destroyed at the location, thereby eliminating the need for media transfer and dis

persion, it is also a silent solution which does not contribute to noise

pollution. An industrial application of inte rest is the destruction of dyes in the fabric industry. This process was demonstrated at the recent Water Pollution Control Federation Con

ference in Toronto by Nutech Envi ronmental. Pulp and paper effluent has also been effectively treated for the removal oforganic pollutants by this process. The use of Photocatalysis in air applications is just now being inves tigated. Application studies are tak ing place in North America and Japan for the reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emis sions. Applications are foreseen for clean rooms where air quality is cri tical to the manufacture and opera tion ofcomputer systems. Similarly, VOC emissions from dry cleaning, degreasing or painting operations can be treated in a continuous flow

The Asdor system Is specifically manufactured for municipal sludge cake transport and was designed for our particular needs. Other than scheduled maintenance, there has been remarkably little downtime. We are extremely satisfied with Its performance." Recognized as the leader In sludge cake transport and storage technology, Asdor has provided cost-effective systems for municipal and Industrial applications since 1958. Other cities selecting the Asdor sludge cake transport and storage system

Blue Plains WWTP,Washington, DC Lower Potomac PGP, Fairfax County, VA Trenton, Elizabeth and Union Beach, NJ Columbus, OH (Jackson Pike WWTP,Southerly WWTP) Duffin Creek WPCC,Pickering, ON (Stages 1,2 and 3)

Hamilton, ON

Monroe, Ml MIddletown, OH

SOSi ASDOR 1255 Nicholson Road, Newmarket, ON L3Y7V1

171 Rldgedale Avenue, Florham Park, NJ 07932 1-800-387-3635

Lou Romano, Pollution Control Director, West Windsor Sewage Treatment Plant, Reports on 8 Years of Asdor Performance.

Send for your package of Asdor's full color case histories

and specifications.

process. ES&E For more information, circle reply card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991


Air pollution

Covering all the air emissions Inventory bases

Picture the by now familiar


. t.-vt

process. The plant engineer wants to install a new pro cess stack, and being no neophyte realizes immediately that he must get a Certificate ofApproval from the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment(MOE). No problem,fill in the application,shootit off, and just sit back, wait a couple of months and then comes another certificate to add to the collection. What's the



problem, after all, he's done it all a dozen times before.

Here's the mail, and there's the certificate, but What's this? Special Terms and Conditions, paragraph 3,... and by the 30th of December 1991, have completed a complete

inventory ofall the particulate emis sionsfrom the plant,and submit the report...

Now this plant has several buil dings,40 or 50stacks and a multitude of ventilators, windows and doors. A typical plant, a simple request, hut an awesome problem. Whatis to be the strategy? The first rule of the game is to stay calm, sit back and review the

Canada's largest city has made substantial progress in reducing air poiiution.

situation as a whole and not to

This is a very important conclu sion, as it can he conservatively estimated that a typical engineering estimate will cost an order of magni

address the individual sources piece meal.

A few enquiries will quickly reveal that this type of inventory require ment is becoming a common ingre dient of recent Certificate of Appro vals being issued by the MOE. Consequently, one is not alone and it can be shown that there is a gro wing body of experience and exper tise available to assist in defining and undertaking the project. The MOE has recently provided guidelines for such inventory under-

takings. In these guidelines they stress the use of engineering estima tions for the individual sources, coupled with a summing up opera tion across the plant, rather than the direct measurement route.

tude less than an individual source measurement.

MOE guidelines do include the use of such source testing, but only as a last resort in cases where engi neering data cannot be obtained. The next step is to put together a head count of the types of processes, stacks and ventilation sources that

the plant encompasses. This ought to include a plot plan of the physical

British Columbia Water & Waste Association 1992 Annual Conference

April 26-29, 1992 Whistler Conference Centre Whistler B.C. "THE ENVIRONMENT — SCIENCE AND EMOTION"

Technology Transfer Seminar (April 29/92) "Environmental Regulations and Controls" Papers are invited on: Municipal Water, Municipal Wastewater, Industrial Wastes, Solid Wastes, irrigation. Operations, Public Participation. Mail or Fax Abstracts of 500 words or less by Nov. 30/91 to: HARLAN G. KELLY, P.Eng., Dayton & Knight Ltd., P.O. Box 91247, West Vancouver, V7V 3N9, Tel: (604) 922-3255/Fax: (604) 922-3253. Contact Catherine Gibson, Tel: (604) 936-4982/Fax: (604) 931-3880.

lay-out of the operations and the plant. Location of stacks should be identified by a coordinate grid sys tem. At the same time, production statistics, annual throughput ton nages, etc., should be assembled. Now one can look at the unit ope rations, on the basis of unit through put, with respect to the potential emissions.

Unit operations typically have well identified process vents that direct a defined off gas stream via ducting to the atmosphere. These vents will usually capture the majo rity of the plant process emissions. They are also the vents that will

contain specific emission control devices, such as baghouses and scrubbers, if applicable. However, these types of vents do not necessarily, and in most cases don't, contain all the emissions from the plant. Often a considerable per centage of any given contaminant may be emitted into the plant wor king environment, and from there, find its way to the outside world via ventilators, windows, etc. A first glance estimation of all the possible emission rates seems to he a daunting task. In practice, con siderable help is at hand. Most air pollution control devices will have engineering performance specifications, and norms that are anticipated for typical operation. These factors can usually he easily "President, Church &Trought Inc.


Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. I99I

By Allan Church^ identified and built into the plant emission model. Mass and sometimes heat bal

Direct measurements fall into two

categories:1)Compliance testing. 2) Engineering measurements. For stack tests that have been specifi cally requested by the Ministry,com pliance testing is required. For measurements that are used to gene rate engineering assessment infor mation, engineering measurements may be considered. The difference

ances are often an effective way of estimating potential emissions from an operation. The emission data can either be used as is, or coupled with the control device efficiency, as applicable. Next, there is a considerable wealth of generic data, that has in cost between the two methods is been generated by the US EPA, substantial. When the inventory is part of an amongst others. These data cover MOE requirement,the Ministry may specific emission factors for proces ses and fugitive emission sources insist that all measurements be of that cover a very wide range of the compliance type. Ifthe decision were made independently to under industries. Some ofthis information is usually applicable to the problem take the inventory,prior to a request at hand. by the Ministry, any engineering The next ready source of data are measurement techniques could be employed. the industrial hygiene measure After all the unit process esti ments often routinely taken inside the plant. This information can be mates have been completed,the emis employed to give the average concen sion data should be documented as trations of contaminants for the inspecific rates and totals per process, plant air, which coupled with the and per unit production. exhaust fan volumes, or estimated The plant inventory can now be building ventilation volumes, can summarized, annual emissions sta be used to produce an estimate ofthe ted and the various combinations of fugitive emissions. mutually operated sources scanned As a final resort, when all else to check for the highestrates. Depen fails, or possibly in the event that dent upon the number of sources the estimates are producing unrea involved and the number of Certifi sonably higb values, you may wish cates applied for in a year, conside to employ direct measurements. ration may be given to computeri

zing the information to facilitate the updating of the inventory and the tracking ofthe Applications submit ted to the MOE.

Usually determination ofcompli ance is the ultimate goal of the inventory process. This requires knowledge of the highest combined emission rate of each of the conta

minants, and relating this informa tion to the concentration that will

occur at the nearest or critical recep tor via a complex dispersion equa tion. Appropriate application ofthis equation also requires knowledge of the site lay-out, source location(s), gas flow rates and other physical data.

In summary, the inventory pro cess, while involved, can be perfor med with the minimum of cost by using engineering methods coupled with experience. The use of costly direct measurement techniques should be minimized. Computerized techniques in assembling and defi ning the information are invaluable tools in the process,and can often be extended to the continuing plant operation in such a way that pro duction and process changes can be included on an ongoing basis,giving continuing assurance that the over all plant is in compliance with the emission limits. ES&E


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(416)245 8338 Fax (416)245-8321 55 Vulcan Street, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1L3

For more information, circle reply card No. 123


Wastewater Treatment

By Colin Kent and Ian Norfolk*

Meaford pumping station is first to use variabie speed submersible pumps sign alternatives were discussed and it was generally agreed that the location of the new pump station should be on ad jacent higher lands,formerly owned by the CNR.The abandoned railway rightof-way became an ideal location to take advantage ofthe presence ofthe existing utilities that had to be reconnected from the old station to the new station. Sewers

approach the station from four different directions,including an inverted siphon under the River. A Schedule 'B' Environmental As

sessment process was initiated and two information sessions were held to seek


public input. The main public concern about the proposed new station was that it would block views of nearby residen ces, of the harbour and adjacent Geor gian Bay,To address this concern,it was

1 . :

decided that the entire station would be

constructed below grade. The design of the wet wells and asso ciated controls including the standby diesel generator, became complex. In addition,the site, being a former railway right-of-way, was not very large and the

The Meaford pumping station under construction.

Thenew Meaford Bighead River Sewage Pumping Station re placed an old station in the

theMinistry concluded that the replace ment of the Bighead River sewage pumping station was a major priority.

harbour area of the town. The


original station was constructed in 1971 and consisted of a prefabricated steel dry well adjacent to a poured-in-place concrete wet well. It was equipped with two pumps driven by two 75 HP AmpliSpeed magnetic variable speed motors. Several serious operating problems were identified by Environment Onta rio's(MOE)London Utility Operations Section. Problems included hydraulic overloading, site flooding, obsolete equipment, safety problems and sub

1985 a Liaison Committee was

formed. Through the years 1987 and 1988, design briefs were prepared by Alnley and Associates Limited and vari

ous meetings were held with the Liaison Committee. Various pump station de

structure size was limited. The final measurements of the structure were

16 m x9 m X 10 m deep. The dry well sec tion of the structure was built on two

levels, with the first level being construc ted above the River flood plain level. The variable speed drives and controls and the standby diesel generator are locontlnued overleaf

standard facilities. The old station was

located in the flood plain of the Bighead River near the entrance to Meaford Har

bour, The following excerpt from an MOE document justified the station's replacement; During springflooding con ditions. operating staff have to approach the station through ice-filled river water, by means ofa boat or hip-waders, a very dan gerous practice. Maintenance at the station

at this time normally has to besuspended or at least limited to very basic activities and staff must be ready to request the PUC to shutoff hydro power to the station. Deliberations on replacement of the station included various reports that had been underway since 1982, Meet ings between the Town of Meaford and *Ainley and Associates Limited 48

The completed station is a splendid example of how well thought out engineering can blend important infrastructure projects with the surroundings. Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991


Protection of Safe Drinking Water from Point of Treatment

To Point of Use




Requires a Backfiow Prevention Program Contact WATTS REGULATOR OF CANADA LTD. for information on how

your Piant or Municipaiity can start a compiete Backfiow Prevention Program to Gontroi Cross Connections. Attn. Market Manager Backfiow Products.

441 Hanian Road



Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada L4L 3T1 Telephone (416) 851-8591 Fax: (416) 851 -8788 For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 124



Is recycling an environmental act of contrition? By Michael Walker*


groupsin Washington,D.C.,

the President of the Foun dation for Research in Eco

nomics and the Environment, Dr. John Baden,made a comment which serves to describe many ofthe other wise inexplicable aspects ofthe cur rent global actions of some envi ronmentalists. His comment was that for those who are environmen

tally occupied,recycling is a kind of act of contrition, in which the envi ronmentalist engages as a way of making retribution for having vio lated nature.

While some may object to the religion-like implications of Dr. Baden's comment,it certainly seems to explain the proclivity of at least some environmentalists to comple tely ignore the fact that recycling some products is not economically or environmentally sensible. Take, for example,the current war against the aseptic drink package, a combi nation of polyethylene, aluminum foil, and paper, which is in wide-

Residential recycling in action - - are we simply making retribution for having violated nature?

spread use around the world as a beverage container. In 1989, accor ding to a recent Wall Street Journal article, the package received an award as the most significant food science innovation in the past fifty years. The box saves energy in transportation, reduces landfill

Meaford pumping station, con't

the amount of waste because it is

virtually unbreakable. Neverthe less,Steven Romalewski,ofthe New York Public Interest Group,and one of Ralph Nader's intellectual chil dren, claims that "the drink box is one of the most glaring examples of the throw-away society." Now there are claims and counter

Gated on this level. The lower level con the air vent for the diesel generator. The tains the pump discharge piping, valves resulting silencer bank is heat traced and common header to the force main. since it is directly exposed to the ele Also on this level, are the diesel genera ments beneath aluminum gratings in tor tanks which had to be designed as the top slab of the station. pressure vessels due to the depth of The new station will handle all sew their installation. age and extraneous flows from 80% of Since the new station has a 20 year the Town and future bypas.ses to the design period and will be the main sta Bighead River will be curtailed. Sewage tion in the Town,it was decided to match Hows are pumped through an existing the varying flows with four submersible 1.7 km long. 300 mm dia. force main,to pumps in two interconnecting wet wells. the sewage treatment plant. Additional The pumps selected were Flygt Model flows will affect the sewage treatment CP 3300HT, 55 kW, 85 L/s (ÂŤ 39.5 m plant which is already reaching the limit TDH. Two Inverpower variable fre of its hydraulic capacity. Excess extran quency drive units were provided, such eous flows beyond the plant's treatment that any two of the four pumps can be capability, will nowbechlorinatedprior run as variable speed units with the to discharge to Georgian Bay. other two as constant speed.The station The construction cost of the new sta is thought to be the first application of tion was approximately $1.5 million, of variable frequency drives on submers which 58% was funded under the MOE's ible sewage pumps, in Canada. Direct Grant Program. The 210 kW Atlas Polar diesel engine Construction was carried out by Dun-

was combined with a 400 kW generator tri Construction of Oshawa. in nine

to dampen the harmonics generated by months. the pulse width variable speed drives. The Bighead River Pumping Station The diesel engine exhaust stack was hid which is owned by the Town of Meaford in a custom-built stainless steel insu and operated by the Ministry of the En officially com lated light standard. A noise study con vironment. was cluded that noise baffles be provided in missioned July 25. 1991. ES&E 50

because ofits relatively small volume to size relationship,and has reduced

claims on both sides of the aseptic box-glass container confrontation, but nobody seems to disagree that all things considered, the drink box is more energy efficient and almost fifty percent cheaper for the filler. And there's even some thought that they may be recyclable. Neverthe less,there are moves afoot to outlaw these containers which currently provide about 3 billion uses per year in North America.

The drink hox saga is not unique. It is reminiscent of the Macdonald's

clam shell story just completed, in which pressure from environmenta lists caused Macdonald's restau rants to switch from their hallmark

plastic clam shell to paper, in spite ofthe evidence that the plastic boxes were probably more environmentally sound packaging devices. John Baden may be correct. If he is, we can certainly look forward to a tough road ahead in presenting the argument for a sensible trade-off between environmental and econo

mic objectives. ES&E 'Executive Director, Eraser Institute, Vancouver, B.C.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991



Canada's most experienced environmental writing team Unmatched editorial expertise and industry involvement led to spectacular growth for ES&E which carries more paid ads from consulting engineering companies than ail other magazines in the field â&#x20AC;&#x201D; plus exclusive articles from the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control and award-winning editorials. ES&E Publisher Tom Davey is unquestionably Canada's top environmental journalist with national and inter national awards to his credit. His latest honour was a Certificate of Honour in Environment Canada's Environ

mental Awards Program at Ottawa's new National Gallery, June 4, 1989.

Two decades earlier he wrote an Editorial Trilogy which won him a J.H. Neal Award in New York, the first Canadian journalist to win the honour - followed with another first in the US when he won the Water Pollution

Control Federation's Schlenz Medal In Las Vegas, Nevada. He now has over 30 awards for his environ

mental writing - a record we believe is unmatched any where in North America.

He has made recent presentations at Queen's Univer sity, the University of Toronto, and at joint seminars of Consulting Engineers of Ontario and the Ontario Mini stry of the Environment and the Canadian Authors

Association Annual Conference at York University. Tom (left) Is pictured with former Federal Environment Minister Luclen Bouchard.

Steve Davey Is co-founder and Sales Director of Environmental Science & Engineering. Steve was

previously managing editor of three national magazines and won a Southam Award of Excellence.

Steve has covered conferences and toured plants In both the United States and Canada, gaining first-hand knowledge of the industry. In addition to work on ES&E, he has done many features for the AWWA/OMWA's Pipeline and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario's Newsletter.

He has met and written features on industry notables such as AWWA President, Steve Bonk, the legendary Abe Wolman and several ministers of the Environment.

Steve, 1991/92 President of the Ontario Pollution

Control Equipment Association and also publisher of the OPCEA Directory, is shown on right at ES&E's show booth.

Sandra Davey has edited many environmental reports and studies for the University of Toronto, CIDA, Environment Canada and major consulting firms. She won an award from the Pollution Control Association


of Ontario for her editing work on 'Recollections' an environmental history of Ontario (left).

For many years Sandra has been editor of the highly regarded PCAO Newsletter being also responsible for the preparation and publication of the PCAO's seminar proceedings.

As a copy editor on ES&E, Sandra brings In-depth knowledge of Industry professionals and projects. Sandra,following her award presentation, isshown with Peter Laughton, Past President of the PCAO, a Vice President of R.V. Anderson Associates, and Chairman of the History Committee. For more information, Circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991


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For more information, circie reply card No. 210


Photo Report By Tom Davey

New CSA standard coming for backflow devices

Environmental protection has emerged as one of the key issues of the nineties, often

making insurance coverage difficult. One area which is of vital con

cern to everyone is drinking water which is often vulnerable to invasive toxins.

A garden hose on your lawn,lying in a pool of water, and the water pressure suddenly dropped, the negative pre ssure could cause the water â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and any contaminants it contained (insecticides

or fertilizers or pathogenic organisms from animal droppings)to be siphoned back into your household water supply. Such risks can easily be prevented by the installation of a backflow preventer which screws onto faucets and is de

signed to prevent contaminants penet rating the water supply. The Canadian Standards Associa-

Aivars Bergs, P.Eng., left, with two directors Doug DiViney and Ted Beyke

Ontario forms first Canadian Chapter of ASSE

tion(CSA)has a standard for backflow prevention devices, and also tests and

certifies these devices. A new joint stan dard,developed by CSA and the Ameri can Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE), will soon be available on back-

flow preventers and water pressure re ducing valves. This new joint standard also covers carbonated drink dispensers. A backflow occurs whenever a for

eign liquid invades the drinking water. This occurrence may be more common than you realize. In one reported case, 544 crew mem bers aboard a US naval vessel became ill

because the water system lost pressure and the contents of some photographic development tanks were siphoned into the system. Other cases involving che micals and aviation gasoline have led to Saiiy Remedious, P.Eng., left, with Chapter President Galina Veltman P.Eng.

Plumbing Inspector for the City of Scar borough and Aivars Bergs is Chief De sign Engineer with R.V. Anderson As

P.Eng. CSA has also been negotiating a Memorandum of Understanding with ASSE to develop joint standards on backflow prevention devices. Ms Velt man has also taken strong initiatives in focussing on the safety issues relating to backflow problems. Prior to the Chapter formation. Pre


sociates. Mike Dodd of the Canadian Association was elected

of ASSE which he said had 3000 mem

Chapter Secretary with Murray Hirons, of Eulton Hydraulics voted in as Trea

bers world wide. It had played a strong role in protecting the public's health and he mentioned many activities

Galina Veltman P.Eng has been elected

President of Canada's first Chapter of the American Society of Sanitary En gineering with Aivars Bergs P.Eng,elec ted Vice President. Ms Veltman is Chief


After election of a slate of Directors, ASSE President John Nussbaum for

mally swore in the new board and the Chapter began October 23. The CSA has been energetically involved in backflow problems through such CSA staffers as Sally Remedious,

sident Nussbaum had outlined the role

where ASSE had worked on backflow

prevention devices to protect drinking water supplies. ASSE, he said was also trying to strengthen its links with AWWA. For further details contact: Galina

Veltman, City of Scarborough,(416) 396-7984.

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

illness and even fatalities.

In homes, where the water supply is interrupted, soap from laundry tubs could be siphoned back into the drink ing water system. A backflow preventer safeguards drinking water supply. If a negative pre ssure develops, a valve closes to prevent

any contaminated water from entering the water pipes in your home. Backflow preventers, which can be called "hose connection vacuum breakers" should

be available from any good plumbing supply house. Backflow preventers may also be used on a varietey of installations, such as laundry tubs, swimming pools and developing tanks,and diverse industrial and process applications. Remember that CSA tests and cer

tifies these devices, so when backflow

preventers are specified it is wise to make sure they carry the CSA mark. â&#x2013; 53

Product Review Flowmeter for portable flow survey Controlotron's Clamp-On Uniflow Portable Flowmeter is said to pro vide high performance flow mea surement with an abundance of

features for flow survey. Uniflow is a battery powered por table flowmeter which installs on

virtually any pipe in minutes. No cutting of pipe or process shutdown is required for installation. Uniflow can be programmed in the field or office via a simple, menu driven

handheld keypad, and up to 16 pro grammed sites can be stored.

Accuracy is typically within 1% offlow rate over a flow range of1000 to 1.


uses MultiPulse

Transit-Time technology, a pat

and development to economically treat small and large spills of caus tic, mineral and organic acids, for maldehyde, organic solvents and fuels.

VYTAC products are designed to maximize neutralizing efficiency and minimize the risk of dealing with hazardous spills and wastes. The materials used are the safest

available — complying with stand ards proposed by the Federal Government —

Cartier Chemicals

For more information,

ented, all digital, ultrasonic mea surement technique. Most any

liquid can be measured from pure clean liquids to moderately gritty or aerated liquids. Summa Engineering Ltd.

and all reaction

residues are environmentally safe. Since neutralization of spills avoids costly absorption and subse quent handling, the cost involved in compliance with hazardous work regulations is greatly minimized.

Circle reply card No. 151

Brochure Highlights On-iine Turbidimeter A new 10-page brochure features Hach's 1720C on-line turbidimeter.

For more information,

Included are detailed descriptions of

Circle reply card No. 150

the instrument features. The inno

Spill neutrallzers Cartier Chemicals Ltd. has deve

loped the VYTAC system of neutral lzers through extensive research

vative optical design of the 1720C eliminates a glass window between the light source and the sample. This means no regular cleaning of a

sample cell is required, stray light scattering is limited and low turbi dity sensitivity can be achieved. Also, there are no problems with condensation and filming on the exterior of a window. An internal

bubble trap vents entrained air bub bles to drain and a bubble rejection circuit eliminates display and out put fluctuations providing stable readings and readable recorder trac ing. Calibration is fast and simple requiring only 10 minutes or less with a Formazin Primary Standard. Two fully-independent, set-point alarm systems can be set anywhere within the overall measuring range and a selectable output of 0-10 mV, 0-100 mV,0-1 V or 4-20 mA can be programmed to cover any segment ofthe overall range. Hach Company For more information. Circle reply card No. 152

Refrigerated sampler and enclosure streamline wastewater samplers and Weatherguard equipment enclo suresfrom American Sigma are ideal when sampling priority pollutants and/or when sampling in corrosive environments.

Environmental Law The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses

the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: • Environmental Assessments & Approvals • Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings • Waste Management & Disposal • Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods • Occupational Health & Safety • Insurance Claims • Environmental Audits

• Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) • Sale of Land & Secured Transactions

For more information contact:

York Region


Burton H Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400

John D Brownlie, Q.C. (416) 863-2400



Gordon Cameron

Aleck Trawick

(613) 788-2200

(403) 260-9600

Gerald S Swinkin

(416) 733-4040 Vancouver

Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors


and abbreviations.

Marvin R V Storrow, Q.C. (604) 631-3300

Streamline's refrigeration temper ature is controlled by a custom desi gned air sensing thermostat. A high efficiency compressor/condenser assembly, wrap around evaporator, and rigid foam insulation assure optimum 39 deg. F(4 deg. C)sample temperature in ambients ofup to 120 deg. F(49 deg. C). The refrigerator body is constructed of steel with a protective vinyl laminate over coating. With a 2 ft./sec. velocity at 18 ft. lift, Streamline's corrosion resistant peristaltic pump meets the EPA's criteria for representative sampling practices. All circuitry receives a protective conformal coa ting and is isolated from elements by a housing complying with NEMA 4X,6for submersible, water tight, dust-tight, corrosion resistant and ice resistant operation. Stream line's easy-to-read LCD display, with 16 character alphanumeric key pad, communicates with users in understandable terminology to avoid confusion caused by codes To further ensure sample integ rity, Weatherguard enclosures are constructed from one piece of mol ded corrosion resistant fiberglass; and can withstand 30 mph winds and 30 lb/ft2 roof load. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

For more information.

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 134

Circle reply card No. 154

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Product Review


Hydraulically actuated diaphragm-type metering pumps The central part of the Makro TZ 20 HMH pump is the special ProMinent composite diaphragm. All dia phragms will eventually, after leng thy wear and tear, reach a point of maturity and need to be replaced. ProMinent's hydraulically actu ated diaphragm-type pumps are cap able of continuing operation tempo rarily after the diaphragm has reached its breaking point without any damage occurring. Safety and bleed valves protect against over pressure and eliminate vapours and fumes from the liquid end. An auto matic alarm is given in case ofa torn diaphragm or overpressure. The pumps have a nearly linear charac teristic and a reproducible steadystate accuracy of better than 1%. The safety diaphragm is so desi gned that when the diaphragm even tually does wear out, hydraulic fluid and process fluid cannot mix. On

"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

BARRINGER LABORATORIES environmental and discharge analyses Reg. 309 and MISA compliance Phytotoxicology and Water Quality fire assay and field sampling services Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd., Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

IfiWH imi r^nn

BA5 Laboratories Limited

Other Labs:

Timmins, ON

Calgary, AB Denver, CO

Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON

Kirkland Lake, ON

Montreal, PQ

Excellence in

Environmental Analysis for Over 25 Years

Consulting Envimnmental Chemists

Phone (416)458-4505

14 Abacus Road

Brampton, Ontario Fax(41'6) 16)4^7303 Canada L6T 587

CanTest Ltd Professional


Analytical Services

the media-contacted surface there is

Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Environmental Analysis

a Teflon layer which is combined with an elastomer; on the Hydraulic

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardous Waste Characterization

side is another Teflon and elastomer

V6J 1J8

layer. Upon rupture of the dia phragm, the leakage, either of pro

Occupational Health & Safety

cess fluid or hydraulic fluid, is stop


ped by the middle Teflon layer. When pressure increases, the diaphragm inflates itself;this swelling operates a micro switch, which in turn trips an alarm. The diaphragm can remain in operation for a certain time since only one half of it is actually damaged. The freely moving diaphragm separates the process fluid from the hydraulic fluid. Therefore, all benefits of the diaphragm-type pump are combined with those of the packed-plunger-

Fax; 604 731 2386 Tel; 604 734 7276


r»es rato



50 Bathiurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2C5

Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

type pump. Metcon M. M. DILLON LIMITED

For more information, Circle reply card No. 153

Wet Scrubber The emergency ejector-venturi wet scrubber systems are furnished to

SIILLOBl Environmental Laboratories






.x- -j u A • CertifieQ by Oanadian Association ofX

GCG DILLON consulting limited

Environmental & Analytical Laboratories

edmonton • red deer PORTER DILLON LIMITED

MISSISSAUGA (416)568-1414

FAX (416)568-1339


handle accidental releases of chlo

rine, SO2 and ammonia from sto rage cylinders and tanks in full com pliance with current code guidelines at rates from 500 cfm to over 10,000 cfm. Systems are offered in standard industrial fiberglass reinforced plas

Setting the standard for * service


tics and lined metal fabrications.



fbr more information, Circle reply card No. 155

* quality * turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel; (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991


Product Review


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,

prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality * Water Quality * Hazardous Waste • Emission Testing

' Complete MISA Parameters

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

' Reg. 309 Compliance

• Odorous Compounds

► Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

• Rush Analysis Available

' Ambient Air Monitoring

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

purge meter A family of low capacity variable area purge meters for liquid and gas flow applications is now available from Fischer & Porter. The Purgemaster® line features a corrosion-

resistant, high strength stainless steel body at a competitive price. It is constructed to maintain tube align ment and resist pipe strain. Available in 3,5, and 10 inch scale lengths, Purgemaster® offers a choice of end fittings of brass, Kynar® (a corrosion resistant plas tic), or stainless steel. End fittings are universal, greatly reducing the user's spare parts inventory. As a safety feature, the meters have a polycarbonate operator pro tection shield successfully tested at twice the maximum tube operating pressure. Fischer & Porter's exclu sive "snap-in" tube construction minimizes the time needed to remove


Competitively priced

the tube for cleaning or replacement. The metal end fitting can he easily changed by removing a clip with a



Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

Other key features include its internal hackcheck and an optional

1149 VANIER ROAD, SARNIA, ONT. NTS 3Y6 TEL: (519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965

tion prevents hack flow and draining of process fluids when the metering

flow controller. The hackcheck func 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2

TEL: (416) 847-0065

FAX; (416) 847-3840

tube is removed. The flow controller

gives reliable flow control regardless of pressure changes. Fischer & Porter COMPLETE



For more information,

Metals - Anions - Organics - PCBs - Vola tiles Reg. 309 - MISA - Landfill Quality - Phytotox - Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-site sampling available For complete catalogue with prices call Tel: (416) 625-1544

Fax: (416} 625-8368

Circle reply card No. 156


New version of


Bioassay System


Microhics Corporation has announ ced a new bioassay system for envi ronmental applications, that drama tically simplifies toxicity testing. The system includes an advanced

malher laboratories COMPLETE ENVIRONMENTAL

"two-button" successor to the com


• Ground Water » Surface Water •Air Quality

• Soils & Sediments • Liquid Waste -MISA

• Reg. 309 • Decomissioning Guidelines • QA/QC


P.O. BOX 100, THOROLD, ONT. L2V 3Y8 PHONE: (416) 227-1158 FAX: 680-1916


xral environmental


Available with the Microtox

Model 500 is the "Quick Test", which provides pre-measured test mater ials in a configuration that elimi nates much of the laborious proce dure previously associated with toxi city testing. The firm claims the Model 500 makes it possible to per form full serial dilution tests in less


than 30 minutes, at a fraction of the cost of other bioassays.

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

changes in light output that occur

Sine® 1878

Microtox instruments measure

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling 1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

when hioluminescent micro

organisms are exposed to toxic sub

"16 SGS Locations Across Canada"


pany's MIcrotox Model 2055.

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

stances. Microtox is most common

ly used for initial toxicity screening, providing a fast and low-cost

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

Product Review


method of determining whether more detailed testing is needed. The new "Quick Test" kit con tains all ofthe disposable testitems. With most of the precision dispen sing performed at the factory,the kit provides containers of pre-measured test materials in a configuration


that eliminates much of the labo

Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808

rious procedure associated with toxicity testing. The "Quick Test" also saves time and money by testing twelve serial dilutions covering a two-thousand-to-one range of sam ple concentrations in a single halfhour procedure. Microbics

Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733


Acres International Limited

For more information, Circie reply card No. 157

Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling Wiidiiie Management• Land Use Planning

Cost effective

tertiary filtration

480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tei. 416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falis > Burlington • Winnipeg ■ Calgary • Vancouver

AER-O-FLO Environmental Inc. announces a cost effective and inno

vative way to do tertiary filtration.

Ainley and

Thenew AER-O-DRUM Filter is not a

rotating pre-coat filter. It is a perfo rated, compartmentalized drum covered by durable geo-textile cloth.


Wastewater flows into the centre of

the drum after passing through the filter cloth. Solids are retained(99% reduction) on the filter cloth.


f SuDOiy S Sewage Disposal ■






280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

AER-O-DRUM cleans itself by means of a fixed bar vacuum but



j Waste DisDOsai • Municipal D'am

Fax (705) 726-4391

never stops filtering, even during backwash. AER-O-DRUM is a frac

tion ofthe capital cost ofsand filters and occupies 50% of the space. It removes solids, reduces B0D5,TSS and filters phosphate concentra tions down to 0.2 mg/L. It will even remove flake like particles such as iron or aluminum phosphate. The AER-O-DRUM combines

high purifying performance, high operating reliability and low capital and operating costs. AER-O-FLO

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions


to the 4 Rs Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troublesfiooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

For more information, Circle reply card No. 158


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

MSR Magmeter Manufacturing Ltd. of Edmonton announced the

Magtap Series IV probe insert mag netic flowmeter, designed so that

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Municipal Services Architecture

TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

Water Pollution Control

Magnetic Flowmeter

Water Supply


WELLAND (416)735-3659

OSHAWA (416)434-2544

the one size offlowmeter can be used

on all pipe sizes from 2"through 48" diameter. May be used to measure flow of any conductive liquid or slurry. Drastically reduces mainte nance cost and inventory require ment. Simply connect to the pipe through a 2" NPT connection. MSR Magmeter For more information, Circie reply card No. 159


• spi l l site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B,St. Cattiarines, Ontario L2M 6P6

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

(416)641-0941 57

Product Review


Eight-point system for underground tank monitoring



A new device that monitors under



C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmentai and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel,(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327



Consulting Engineers


Waterloo • Toronto * Calgary • Edmonton • Vancouver • Lethbridge

■ Wastewaler Collection & Treatment

■ Hazardous & Solid Waste tJtanagement • Water Resources & Environmental Planning

ground storage tanks at up to eight locations for greater assurance of leak detection, has been introduced by MSA Canada Inc. Tankgard® VIIILeak Detection System provides easy, low-maintenance, continuous monitoring of underground storage tanks for gasoline and other hydro carbon vapors and for the presence of liquid build-up. The system includes a centrallylocatedleak detection panel andinter changeable liquid and vapor sen sors, Each of the system's eight channels is capable of supporting one vapor or two liquid sensors. The sensors, which are not hampered by high vapor concentrations or acci dental liquid submersions, can be placed in monitoring wells around single-wall tanks or between the walls of douhle-wall.tanks, up to 500 feet away from the detection panel, Tankgard® monitors and sensors operate over a temperature range of -5°F to 122°F, and are UL-listed, Both liquid and vapor sensors are intrinsically safe for Class I, Divi sion 1, Groups C and D, as defined by the National Electric Code,

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling & Flow tvteasurement


MSA Canada Inc.

M Clayton

For more information, Circie reply card No. 160




WINDSOR [519)255-9797


TORONTO (416)498-7444

• Underground Storage Tank Management, investigations and Remediations ■




■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

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■ Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply

■ Hydrogeology

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■ Municipal Engineering


• Ambient Air Monitoring and Source Testing • Analytical Laboratory Services

■ Construction Management


Advanced gas detection technology A compact, light, microprocessor con trolled multi-gas detector capable of continuously monitoring up to five gas parameters, with the facility for data communication, offering 'hands on' personnel protection in the most hazardous working areas. Gas Leader's clear, easy to inter pret alphanumeric LCD shows the concentrations of ail gases simulta neously, and supports this with audio and visual alarms so that

nothing is left to chance. More than 12 hours continuous

Waterloo^®'- 519-884-0510 Mississauaa Tel. 416-629-0510

Fax 519-884-0525 '^'ssissauga








operation from one battery charge and certified 'Intrinsically Safe'. Calibration and adjustment can be made by authorized personnel at the touch of a button and mainte

nance is simple. No need for a new instrument

when detection requirements change. The sensor combination can be altered to meet new condi tions. SSCAN-GRODYNE Controls

For more information, Circie reply card No. 161

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991


Product Review Positive dispiacement cold water meter Kent Meters Inc.has a new low-cost, low-flow positive displacement type meter designed specifically for cold water.

Capable of handling flows down to 1/4 (US)gpm. The %" x V2" C-700 handlesflowsfrom V4 gpm to 20 gpm. Sizes %" X W up to 25 gpm,%" x %" up to 30 gpm and 1" up to 50 gpm. A removable bronze bottom plate allows for quick and easy entry, should the unit require maintenance, without taking the unit out of the line, and it does not require any spe

IQ)IILIL©ril Consulting Engineers • Planners EnvironmentaJ Scientists








-Environmental Audits

cial tools.


-Risk Assessment -Waste Containment Facilities

-Plant Facility Compliance -Site Characterization

A choice ofdirect-reading register, pulse transmitter and electronics, provide an analog signal showing

-Occupational Health & Safety

-Soil And Groundwater Assessment

-Waste Stream Assessment

Head Office: Suite 120.100 York Blvd., Richmond Hill, L4B 1J8,Tel:(416) 886-7965. Fax:(416)886-7967 705 West Fifteenth Street, North Vancouver, B.C.,V7M 1T2,Tel:(604)980-5878,Fax;(604)980-9621

rate of flow. Batch control can also

be accomplished with this unit. Kent Meters Inc.

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 162

Surface mount thermometers




Services in

VANCOUVER, B.C. (604)299-4144


New Rototherm surface mount ther


mometers, indicate the temperature of small pipes (1/2 inch to 6 inch) without fittings, thermowells or cut ting the pipe. Operators can change measurement location at any time without damaging the pipe. They are low cost, movable, and able to measure lines that were pre


Gartner Lee

(716) 285-5449

Gore S,Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers

viously too small to install other in line units.

Indicators allow the


operators of small or medium size


plants to monitor the temperature of


small equipment, heat loss/rise in long run small pipes and the heat rise of equipment not normally designed for temperature sensors.

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa • Niagara • Barrie • Cambridge• Mississauga • Kingston

Sealand Sales Ltd.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 163

Socio-Economic Impact

Siemens acquires Relcon Drives Division Siemens Electric Limited has acqui red the Drives Division from Relcon Inc. The Drives Division ofRelcon is

involved in the engineering and design of adjustable speed drives and the manufacture of control sys




Public Consultation


Hearings Support and Project Management

Land-Use Planning

3016A Danforth Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4C 1M7 Telephone;(416)693-6115, Fax:(416)693-6117

tems for electric motors.

It custom engineers adjustable speed drives for applications up to 3000 kW. It supplies these products


to customers in various industries

including pulp and paper, mining, automotive, steel, oil and gas, the building and construction industries as well as municipalities and utili





ties. Relcon

For more information,








Circie reply card No. 164

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991



Product Review 3M's new pleated filters

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

New 3M Brand Series 300 and Series

700 High Capacity Liquid Filter Car

Knox Martin

tridges use a new patented pleating design. The self-supporting com pound radial pleat allows a greater

Kretch Limited

amount of usable filter media to be


packed into the same space as tradi tional pleated, molded and string wound cartridges. Higher filtration values mean far fewer filters are required to meet fil tering requirements. All 3M Liquid Filter Cartridges are rated at 99 per cent efficiency or greater at their designated micron ratings, ensur ing high performance. The "3M" Series 300 Cartridge has a 7.62 cm (three-inch) diameter



and contains up to 60 percent more filter media than high performance

(519) 539-2015

liquid filter cartridges of the same

Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax:(416)459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampfon , Onfar io. L6T 4J5(416)459-4780

]A FONDMNE,CDWIE,BUR^TTO &>l$C3aATES UMITED Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario



(519) 966-2250



FAX:(519) 966-5523


3M Canada Inc.

For more information, Circle reply card No. 165

UV water purifiers These low cost Ultraviolet Water

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9 • Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

Purifiers are capable of disinfecting water at flow rates of 75 to 20,000 gallons per hour. The system utilizes short-wave ultraviolet energy to rapidly destroy water-borne bacteria without affect


ing taste or chemical composition. Hundreds of gallons can be treated for each penny operating cost. Units function without opera tor attention to rid water of bacteria, virus, mold, spores and yeasts. Atlantic Ultraviolet Corporation

Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geoiogy Environmentai audits

Site decommissioning


& reliabiiitation

For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreai St. Kingston,Ont.K7K 3G4 Tei:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

Falling film evaporation Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

for P&P mill The Unitech Division of Ecodyne Limited has been awarded a contract

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Wafer Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, MIssissauga, Wtiitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Ttiorntilll, Ontario L3T 7N4 (416) 882-1100 Fax:(416) 882-0055

Comprehensive Environmental

OR TECH Services I






2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel. 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446


Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media. Air, water and waste.

to design, manufacture, install and commission a Sextuple Effect Fal ling Film Evaporator for Malette Kraft Pulp and Power at Smooth Rock Falls, Ontario. It is part of a mill upgrade and expansion. The evaporator rated at 275,000 lbs. per hour will raise the solids level from 15% feed to 70%. There is a

forced circulation high solids crystallizer type concentrator and a sour condensate stripper included in the system.

The contract, worth in excess of $4 million, was awarded by H.A. Simons of Montreal and is scheduled

for operation in early 1992. For more information. Circle reply card No. 167

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. I99I

Product Review offers the convenience of on-site tur

Chlorination Workshops Basic Gas Chlorination Workshops: Jan. 20-24 — Sault Ste. Marie

Feb. 10-14 — Brampton Feb. 17-21 — London

March 23-27 — Bracebridge April 13-17 — Hamilton

Hypochlorination Workshop: March 17-19 — Bracebridge — workshops cover safety, storage and handling, testing for chlorine residuals, operation and maintenance of equipment, personal protective equipment, etc. — workshops are MOE approved. — designed for personnel in water or wastewater treatment plants,industries,swimming pools,etc. — anywhere where chlorine gas or hypochlorites are used. — course is of interest to supervisors,opera tors. and maintenance personnel.

CANADIAN ENVIRO-COURSES 11 South Muskoka Drive, Bracebridge, Ontario P1L 1M4 Phone:(705)645-9570 Fax:(705)645-7944

bidity testing with the accuracy of a laboratory meter. The lightweight, bat tery-operated turbidimeter features 0-1000 NTU measurement, digital dis play with automatic decimal point placement, and simplified calibration. The 2100P Turbidimeter operates on the nephelometric principle by measur ing light scattered at 90° from particles in the sample. Results are displayed directly in Nephelometric Turbidity Units, and


New Portable Turbidimeter


of 0.01-9.99.



10-99.9. and


For more information,

Hach's new 2100 Portable Turbidimeter

Circie repiy card No. 171

••••••••« • ' • « • • I •• •• i • •.j» •• •••• •• •• i

V :: V

Stack gas monitoring Enviroplan CEMEX stack monitoring systems use the increasingly popular di lution probe technology. Built to survive the corrosive gas

A Wealth of Online Information

streams within the stack without the

need for frequent and costly main tenance. the systems incorporate dedi cated analyzers for SOx. NOx.TRS.etc. An advanced infrared spectrometer is used for multicomponent analysis of up to 20 gases. AquaTronix Inc.

What is WATDOC?

WATDOC is a database producer which provides an online link between information seekers and the sources.

WATDOC offers specialized data bases containing tens of thousands of

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 170

references to water resources and related environmental issues.

Call for Papers by Aqua 92 AQUA 92 — The National Water Show and Conference is formally issuing its first 'Call for Papers'. The event, being held in Vancouver September 9-11. 1992 shares its focus between wastewater and clean water. It is themed 'Water: Use. Treatment and Conservation in the 90's".

You can bring Canadian research right to your fingertips. Who uses WATDOC?

Anyone can use WATDOC's data bases — scientists, engineers, planners, academics, researchers, information specialists, etc.

To reach WATDOC .

For current information about the databases — access, coverage,

costs, etc., write or phone:

Organizers state that the event is re ceiving broad industry support with an

estimated 35% of available space now


requested by a mix of Canadian and

Inland Waters Directorate Environment Canada

U.S. exhibitors.

Ottawa, Ontario

Attendance for the event is now being


estimated at between 8.000 to 10.000. Vi

sitors are expected from municipal works, the pulp and paper, forestry, mining, oil and gas. agriculture and aqua culture industries. Contact: Ken Grant or Stan Sauer-

(819) 997-2324






wein, AQUA 92, Ste. D, 15 Chesterfield Place, North Vancouver, BC V71V1 3K3, (604)985-1143, FAX (604)985-1192. For more information, Circie repiy card No. 144

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991



— Product Review


Rex Bar Screens




















Kitchener, Bracebrldge, Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET NORTH



N2B 3S4

Tel« <519) 579-4410

Fax« <519) 741-3603

Proctor & Redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Rex bar screens for light, medium and heavy duty service in water and waste-

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution


Wastevvater Collection and Treatment

water treatment faciiities are outiined in

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

a new. 12 page brochure avaiiabie

North Ba>


Si. Catharines St. John's, Nfld. Sault Ste. Marie Sudbury Thunder Ba>







from Envirex.

Engineering drawings with detaiied caiiouts describe each screen's com

45 Green Hell Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

ponents and its purpose. Fieid photos

l-nx; (416) 44.'?-5276

iiiustrate how the screens are instaiied.

Descriptive copy discusses sizes, testing during manufacturing, materiai choices, major options and easy fieid erection. Another section discusses the durabiiity of Rex bar screens and gives exampies. Screening types covered in the bro


Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION




pivoting bar screens; front ciean-back return; catenary bar screens; and iift

345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel; (416) 286-2285

chure inciude front ciean-front return;

bar screens.

Fox: (416) 286-1361


For more informatior),

Circle reply card No. 172 Ottawa


CABAL Announcement

Cambridge Regina



Calgary Edmonton



Engineers, Scientists, Project Managers


Water, Air, Soils

(519) 622-3060

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Poiiution Control • Water Resources • instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 3S1 Main Street East


Milton, Ontario

Fax:(416) 875-2145

157 1P7

T.F: 1-800-263-4178

The Canadian Association of Environ

^i[= Trow,Dames & Moore Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology 7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario L4T 2H5 Telephone:(416)671-9921, Fax:(416)672-7784 62

mental Analytical Laboratories(CABAL) is pleased to announce the appointment of Sean Mullaly to the position of Presi dent. Mr. Mullaly graduated from the Uni versity of New Brunswick in 1978. He has owned and operated analytical ctiemistry laboratories tor over ten years. Currently he is Vice President and Gene ral Manager of Fenwick Laboratories In Halifax, one of Canada's largest environ mental testing laboratories.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Open Channel Flow Monitor

short-time(3 minute)on-line water qua lity analyzers including:

Continuous on-line BOD monitors Aer-O-Flo




nounces the introduction of a complete line ofSTIP Autoanalyzers to the Cana dian Market,

• M3 BOD Monitor • Phoenix COD Monitor

• The STIP-Tox Toxicity Monitor Hundreds of these units are installed worldwide. AER-O-FLO

For more information, Circle reply card No. 175

STIP is a German company which has a comprehensive line ofcontinuous


UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007 Arjay Capacitance Flow Controls have been designed for flexibility, durability and reliability. A shielded capacitance level probe is mounted in a primary flow device such as Parshall flumes, weirs, providing the flow controller with a level signal. The level ofthe fluid in a primary flow device is proportional to flow through an equa tion specific to the primary device. The flow characterized signal provides for necessary monitor and control func



WILLMS & SHIER/BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Environmental and Waste Management Approvals,

73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200,Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4

(416)863-0711 Fax;(416)863-1938


The 9050-OCF employs RF (Radio Frequency) methodology to measure the stream capacitance (level). This technique minimizes the effects ofother electrical properties of the level probe,

stream parameters and fluid and fo cuses only on the stream capacitance. In

XCG Consultants Ltd.

addition, measurement error due to

coating buildup on the probe is ignored. Arjay Engineering Ltd.

Suite 904


50 Queen Street N

Fax 519/741-5627

Kitctiener, Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consuiting Advice

For more information.

on Environmental Matters

Circle reply card No. 173 Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

M7\Sc, PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


Model 94 Dissolved

Oxygen Sensor


Royce Model 94 dissolved oxygen(DO) sensor is the latest development in the field of continuous DO monitoring

Chemex Labs Environmental Services

and control.

The small silhouette, but rugged epoxy construction, of the Model 94 creates a unique sensor for the rough applications found in the wastewater treatment, environmental, ground water, aquaculture, and oceanographic industries.

Its precision internal printed cir cuitry and a unique dual cathode/dual anode galvanic measuri ng system make the Model 94 the fastest responding,

► Analysis of trace metals/lnorganlcs/organics/radlolsotopes ►Water & waste analyses ►Hazardous waste classification

►Certified by the Canadian Association Environmental Analytical Labs (CABAL) Vancouver, BC (604) 984-0221 Mississauga, ON (416) 624-2806 Rouyn, PQ (819) 797-1922


most stable DO sensor for those indus

tries requiring Parts Per Billion resolu tion, i.e. power generating, boiler feedwater, chemical feed, and high purity


A Marsh 8, McLennan Company

water. Cancoppas For more information,

949 tvlcDougaii Avenue Windsor, Ontario NgA



Regulation 309 • Volatile Organics Gas Bag Analysis

Metals ' •



BTEX Odour



• Organics "


• Isocyanates

Inquiries about additional analytical services are encouraged (519)255-9797

FAX (519)255-9304

Circle reply card No. 174

EmiromnetnaiScience & Engineering, Oct. 1991


Product Review. Portable wastewater


Microprocessor-based water quality monitors

With a diameter of 17.25 ins. and weigh ing a mere 24 lbs.. Streamline redefines portability without sacrificing key fea tures. The compact design allows the sampler to pass through an 18" manhole opening or an offset manhole which blocks conventionally sized samplers. The 800SL may be used as a com posite (2'/2 gal. glass,3 gal. polyethylene) or discrete sampler (24, 575 ml. poly ethylene)and accepts 8 lbs. of ice'in the

Capital Controls Company has intro duced Series 9000 of microprocessorbased water quality monitors, for Dis solved Oxygen, pH/ORP,Conductivity, and Temperature. All models include; Microprocessorbased electronics, 4-digit LED display with Vi" high digits, self-diagnostics for monitor and probe, NEMA 4X enclo sures for demanding environments.Iso lated 4-20 mAdc output for remote monitoring or control, logging of mini mum, maximum and average parame ter values with reset for trend analysis. Probe mounting up to 1000 feet (305 meters) from the receiver for versatile

insulated base. When greater bottle or ice capacities are required, an optional large base is available which accom modates a variety of bottle combina tions.

Features include the Delta C Liquid Sensing System which guarantees sam ple volume repeatability; Serial Inter face which permits documentation of the sampling program; Integral Flowmeter Option for flow proportional sampling; and Data Transfer Unit. Can-Am Instruments

For more information, Circle reply card No. 177

Select the right drive for pump appiicatlons A new brochure from SEW-Eurodrive


explains how selecting the right drive can have a significant effect on pump performance and reliability. The guide can help avoid many of the typical problems involved with apply ing mechanically adjustable drives on centrifugal and positive displacement pumps. A variety of charts and graphs are used to illustrate the various factors

surrounding pump and drive perfor


mance, and how the two interrelate.

Capital Controls Company


For more information, Circle reply card No. 176

For more information. Circle reply card No. 178


Senior Hydrogeologist Malroz Engineering is a young and dynamic company of professional engineers and hydrogeologists experiencing strong growth in the areas of contaminant hydrogeology and envi ronmental site characterization/remediation.

We have an immediate opportunity for a moti vated and technically competent professional interested in a diversity of remediation, envi ronmental and water resource projects. The position offers excellent career growth and a competitive salary. Candidates should have an MS or equivalent degree in hydrogeology and a minimum of 5 years work experience in a consulting envi ronment. Field experience and advanced com puter skills are strong assets. Superior oral and written communication skills are essential.

An Environmental

Management Practice Air Emissions inventories CTI is the leader in establishing air emis sions inventories for industrial facilities. Features of service offered include:

• Certificates of Approval • inventory Information Management Systems • Estimation of Emission Rates

Please submit resume and salary requirements

• Stack Measurements

in confidence to:

• Dispersion Modelling

Malroz Engineering inc. Attention: Personnel

168 Montreal Street

Kingston, ON K7K 3G4 Fax: (613) 548-7975 nonsmoking environment / equal opportunity employer 64


• Negotiations witfi Regulators For more information please contact: Church & Trought Inc. 2 Valleyhrook Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2S9, Tel: (416) 391-2527, Fax: (416) 391-1931. For more information, circle reply card No. 145

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

t THE NATIONAl WATER SHOW AND CONFERENCE September 9-11,1992, Vancouver, B.C. = Mark your calendar. Plan for Canada's only exhibition and conference devoted exclusively to Water - its use, treatment and conservation. AN IMMENSE MARKET ABOUT TO BURST

Water i.s the largest emerging opportunity of the decade: • MORE THAN $43 biiiion will be spent - domestic and industrial - on infrastmcture distribution, repair, development and reclamation of our water resource.

• WATER will be Canada's fastest growing exportable resource. • WATER will be the most environmentally controlled market in the world.


TRADE SHOW If your job deals with water - distributing, using or treating - you can't afford to miss AQUA '92! Finally a show for the water industry. All the products showcased. National attendance from

public works• constaiction • manufacturing •forestry • mining• pulp/ paper•government• oil/gas • agriculture • research • engineering. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE Join the debate on tomorrow's

issues. A three-day congress on WATER. Internationally recognized experts in the fields of use, treatment and conservation will gather at the VANCOUVER TRADE AND CONVENTION CENTRE. Presenting

solutions. Future trends. Environmental and legal issues. Financing. Research. Changing government regulations. The total spectrum. Registration and exhibit information contact: AQUA '92 P.O. Box 86278

North Vancouver, B.C. V7L4S8

Phone 604-985-1143 Fax 604-985-1192

Trade&Convention Centre

For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991

Circle reply card No. 146


The Great Debate Dear Mr. Davey:

It is because you are so concerned about the environment that I know

you will take my criticisms regard ing your editorials in the February/ March issue ofES&E,in a construc tive way. Firstly,I found the thrust of your article to be divisive and a continua

tion of the traditional position of environmentalists vs. engineers. This is upsetting in light of the urgent need for multidisciplinary approaches,cooperative efforts, and understanding attitudes to solving our current environmental problems. Environmental scientists and engi neers are clearly not the only people who have knowledge, wisdom and skills to bring to these issues. We all have something to offer and there is plenty of work for all of us. I know that you know this. Tom Davey replies: Ms. Baker makes some cogent points which deserve a thoughtful response. My thesis was that we had gone from the Age of Aquarlous to an Age of the Vicarious; that the intrinsic was too often being displaced by the synthetic or fake. As a metaphor,I used an actual example of genuine whole wheat loaves having caramel dye added to 'make them more natural'. I noted that the Environmental

Bill of Rights Advisory Board con tained no less than four legal asso ciations, yet not one body from the traditional environmental science

and engineering associations was

Secondly,it seems to me that you are somewhat unclear as to the pur pose of an Environmental Bill of Rights. It will be, in essence, a policy document. Itwill be an expres sion of the emerging contract that our society wishes to have with the environment. Itis necessary to make the principles of this new contract explicit so that as a society, we may forge a new consensus and a basis for our actions. We need the lawyer to give voice to the principles of natural justice, and the environ mental advocates to give voice to alternatives other than the status

quo. This is not the territory of the environmental scientist or engineer. Finally, I was struck by the style of your beginning six paragraphs â&#x20AC;&#x201D; fully one third of the article. It was clearly constructed to put Ms. Grier in the "wrong" camp. Whether she for those extremists who drive steel

spikes in trees to stop legally appro ved logging operations, an action which could kill or maim forestry workers or sawmill operators. Then there are other quite violent protes ters whose antics cloud a variety of complex issues rather than bringing the spotlights of reason to focus on the problems. My editorial clearly says I regard environmental professionals such as Dr. Berry,! as the true ecologists for they were cleaning up the environ mental problems decades before the environmental movement was for

med. History clearly shows that engineers, chemists and scientists

listed. Professional bodies such as

were the first environmentalists.

AWWA,AWMA and the PCAO have a combined experience of some 200 years, yet are not represented on the board. While I agree that legal groups should be strongly represen ted in any proposed legislative changes,it would be clearly unthin kable to have an advisory board,on say, law reform, which had four engineering groups involved but no lawyers. Ms. Baker writes that my article

Willis Chipman,Canada's first con sulting engineer, was designing water and waste treatment projects around the turn of the century for example, long before the modern protest movement began. Regarding the Environmental Bill of Rights, Ms. Baker says: We may need the lawyer to give voice to the principles of naturaljustice and the environmental advocates to give

is divisive and a continuation ofthe

traditional positions of environ mentalists vs engineers. Strange as it may sound, I am a strong advo

status quo. Ms.Baker misinterprets my position. I have no quarrel with such groups being on the advisory board, indeed I support them; it is

cate of environmental activist

the omission of the technical and

groups. However,I have little time

scientific fraternity that I am pro-

voice to alternatives other than the

1 This list could easily be extended to include Stan Mason from BC and Pat Bourgeois from Quebec. In addition to long careers as professional engineers in the environmental field, both served long unpaid stints in various bodies such as AWWA and both later served as Presidents of the Federation of Associations of the Canadian Environment. Both won awards for their work in

advancing the state-of-the-art from bodies such as BCW&WA and AQTE. Another pioneering environmental engineer was Bill Hurst of Winnipeg, one of only six Canadians to be elected as an A WWA President in well over a century.

is or not,is not my point. My concern is in regards to the parallels you make between the baker and Ms.

Grier. There are a few implicit assumptions embedded here which don't necessarily follow. Again, I know you know this. Why then would you choose to make these statements? I can only conclude that you are "miffed" for some per sonal reason which I and your rea ders will never know about.

â&#x20AC;˘ I invite you, in your position as editor of this widely read magazine, to do what you can to bridge this gap in understanding between the"hard" and "soft" sciences. This on its own would make a substantial contribu

tion to solving the problem. Yours truly, Marie Baker, BSc., MSc., Environmental Planner

testing. It simply is not possible to draft laws with any fairness that are not predicated on sound scienti fic principles. Without the input of various professionals with scientific expertise, the Bill will become a legislative minefield which will keep the courts busy for decades. No Medical Bill of Rights would be drafted without input from various sectors of the medical profession. This was a major part of my thesis. I am not'miffed' by Mrs. Grier. I have met her and heard her speak on environmental issues.

She is

clearly highly intelligent and sin cere. But she is confronted now by the awesome realities ofher ministry while being somewhat restricted by the promises made during the elec tion. Campaign rhetoric is proving hard to translate into viable minis terial action. Thus she has refused

to allow Metro Toronto's garbage to be shipped to a worked out mine in Kirkland Lake (which wants it for the jobs and economic spin offs); yet she insists that York Region(which does not want it at any price) take, against its will, the very garbage Kirkland Lake so desperately wants. In the perceived polarity of engi neers vs environmentalists, there is perhaps no versus at all. I remember serving on a government drinking water committee which broughtengi neers in close contact with activist

groups for several months. What emerged was a surprising amount of respect and even consensus on many vital issues. Ignorance is the true enemy here. Finally,I muststress to Ms.Baker that I am not defending engineers because I am one ofthem. Not being an industrious student I lacked the

math necessary to join the ranks of 66

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. 1991

this profession. God punished me for my scholarly sloth, however,for cing me to eke out a living in journalism,surely punishment enough for any person? Mr. Tom Davey,

We read with greatinterestthe article on air pollution of March 1991, ES&E. However, we were surprised when Dr. Keith C. Heidorn, who is an air quality specialist, mentioned that the first air pollution regulation in Canada was enacted in Toronto

in 1907. It may be that the author thinks Canada stops at Toronto. The first air pollution regulation was really adopted some 35 years before 1907 in Montreal. On March

12,1872,the Montreal Council adop ted by-law #56 to call upon owners of steam engines in the city to equip them with smoke-consuming devices. By-law #56 was followed with by law #130 in 1882 and by-law #260 in 1901. As you can see, at least three regulations were adopted on air pol lution by the city of Montreal only, before 1907. We are enclosing a copy of the pertinent pages of a report prepared in 1980 by the Montreal Urban Community. Fernand Cadieux, eng., Deputy Director Dear Tom:

I have just received two copies ofthe article you wrote on environmental technology in Canada Today. As usual, you continue to do a fine job in reporting in a concise fashion on the key issues as it relates to environmental technology. We were also pleased that you considered our technology worthy of inclusion and thank you for that. H.J.(Hank) Vander Laan, Trojan Technologies Inc. NOTE;Canada Today is a large circu lation four-colour magazine produced by the Canadian Embassy in Was hington D.G. It covers many aspects of Canadian life from culture to sci

ence and is sent to some 100,000 key

figures in the United States. ES&E EditorTom Davey was com missioned by the Embassy to write an

statement omits the fact that this pro

Dear Sir:

I wish to reply to Dr. David Major's arti cedure has only been validated in labor cle on Groundwater Remediation pub atory studies, never in the field. Simi lished in the September 1991 issue offS larly, he authoritatively advocates:"The & E. While much of his information was use of other monitoring techniques substantially correct, the omission of (lipid analysis, DNA probes,incorpora pertinent facts and the general tenor of tion of precursors) should be used in his article gave an overly optimistic de conjunction with classical (culturing) methods to better understand the indi piction of this technology. genous microbial population." Dr. Major's article gives the impres From my experience and that of sion that problems with this technology have largely been resolved and that in others in this field, these techniques are situ bioremediation is currently widely insufficiently developed to be presently applicable. For example, several biore useful, as well as being too costly. Mea mediation projects were listed accord surements of CC2 evolution in treataing to the chemical classes being treated. bility studies provides much of the Readers could mistakenly conclude necessary information in a more costthat considerable experience has been effective manner. He is simply wrong in gained in treating a wide range of con stating that "a better understanding of taminants. To my knowledge, few such the response and involvement of the projects have actually been completed. microbial community" is the major li A NATC-Sponsored survey of Euro mitation ofthis technology.The current pean and American projects published bottleneck with in situ bioremediation is in January 1990 listed 7 projects in the widely acknowledged to be our incom design phase. 7 projects in the opera plete understanding of the behavior of tional phase and 5 completed projects. organic contaminants in the subsurface A more recent survey of innovative environment, notwithstanding our dis technologies (January 1991) by the US mal knowledge of subsurface mic EPA identified 22 bioremediation pro robiology (See for example WPCF jects. of which 16 were in the design Research Journal editorial. Vol 63: 99. stage.5 were being installed or operated 1991). Dr. Major's article raises a number of and 1 had been completed. I would think it is fairer to say that this technol good points, but it is off the mark on a number of issues and fails to reflect the ogy is still in its infancy. Throughout the article, several difi- current state-of-the-art in bioremedia nitive statements are made without any indications of existing uncertainties. Dr. Major states:"Iron, manganese and magnesium are added as trace nutrients (10-100 ppb)usually in the form ofchlo ride or sulphate salts." While mislead ing the reader in thinking that this is a common practice (it is rarely done), the

tion. I believe that in situ bioremediation

holds great promise when compared with alternative remedial technologies. Andre Sobolewski, Ph.D.. Environmen

tal Microbiologist. EVS Environmental Consultants. Vancouver.

Editor's note. Dr. Major has written a detailed response which will be published in the next ES&E

and more environment problems in our

Dear Sir:

ground water.

North American governments continue to search for alternatives to use in the

place of sodium chloride (salt) for road de-icers. Salt causes corrosion and is

I would like your magazine to tackle this problem and maybe with your magazine's national coverage in Cana da will get everyone on the bandwagon

ineffective below 20 degree fahrenheit and creates environmental problems. Research has been done using sodium

to solve this very serious environmen tal problem.

chloride with a corrosion inhibitor, this

tate. Calcium Chloride, increase the

be greatly appreciated. I enjoy the publication Environmen tal Science & Engineering. Cliff Rouse, Purchasing Agent,City of Williams Lake,

cost of de-icing the roads in the winter


along with other chemical fertilizers such as Urea.Calcium Magnesium Ace

'Vourconsideration ofthis matter will

overview on the Canadian environ mental scene.


Thank you for publishing the article in the July issue about the CAEL;it has certainly stirred up interest in


our work and should lead to increa

sed membership. W.J. Traversy, Program Manager, Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical

Specialists Supplying Municipal Control Systems • Microcat Telemetry

• Variable Frequency

• Scada • instrumentation

• Control Panels

Representing: .Autocon Industries Inc.

Laboratories (Inc.) For more information, circle reply card No. 147

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991


How Economic Forces can

Experience The Versatile

shape the water industry



continued from page 28

Bentonite Geocomposite

Regulations simply must be suppor


ted with economic instruments in

Easy to Install Budget Priced

Landfills, Ponds, Lagoons Tank Farm Containment BEMALUX,INC.


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel

Tel: 800-361-1939


Fax:(514) 332-0132

^20 Sharp Rd., R.R.#6,Brantford, Ont. N3T 5H6 Tel:(519) 751-1080 Fax:(519) 751-0617

London, Toronto,

Sudbury, Montreal

order to be effective. The longer we avoid adopting the "two-track

approach" to pollution control, the longer water quality problems will persist,and,indeed,the more serious they are likely to become. In pas sing, it is important to debunk the myth that we would sell "licenses to pollute". While this may have some element of truth, any price would he better than the system of free licen ses to pollute represented by regula tion, simply because of the techno logical implications of economic methods. There are a number of economic instruments available for

use here,such as product charges for potentially toxic materials, effluent discharge fees and marketable dis charge permits. A fourth step focuses on public





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will he much resistance to reforming the water industry to establish a more secure economic footing. I myselfhave been verbally assaulted


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a number of times as a revenue-

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hungry fed. The task of our public information specialists is to convey the message that more realistic pri cing is the only means to assure the long range sustainahility of a vital life support system. Finally, we must recognize that

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as a result ofCanada's move toward the use of economic instruments in

Also stock longer samplers for tankers, tanks, luggers & totes

the water resource, and indeed, the environmental contexts. Thus, the concerns must he brought to the attention of high-level decision takers so that they can incorporate these concerns into trade negotia

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tions. ES&E

Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Glean Up Portable Test Equipment: pFI, Turbidity


Advertiser 6 44


Am. Con Pipe Ass Amer. Sigma Aqua 92



LCI Malroz


Suspended Solids, O2, d6, Conductivity

Armtec Asdor

2495 Flaines Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y1Y7, Tel (416) 277-0331, Fax (416) 277-2588

Barrlnger Labs. Blake Cassells

Bondar Clegg

Calgon Carbon Can. Pipe Supply Cancoppas

D.S.I.L. Drilling Inc. (drilling contractors) • Angle borehole capabilities

• Mineral exploration • Geotechnical applications

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T. City iron Works


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Victauiic Walker Labs Watdoc


Degremont Eco Equipment Env. Prot. Labs Fenwick Labs


"Serving Eastern, Central & Western Canada Since 1956" Tel: (416) 751-6565, Fax:(416) 751-7592

Mann Testing

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SEW Eurodrlve

Davis Controls

• Monitor well installations

37, 69

Komiine Sand

FMC Globe 92 Golder Hacb

Watts Regulator Wemco Westech

Westinghbuse Willms & Shier


61 49 72 5 34 8

Environmental Sdence & Engineering, Oct. 1991

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at(416) 727-4666 Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter

Mann Testing Laboratories

Komline-Sanderson Rotary Drum Vacuum Filters are used extensively In the processing of chemicals, phar maceuticals, cosmetics, foods, mi

This new 8-page,4-colour corporate capabilities brochure outlines Mann's environmental and drug test ing services. These Include: water, soil and air quality analysis,food test ing, emergency response capabili ties, R&D, and drug testing services

nerals and In wastewater treatment

and sludge dewatering for Industry and municipalities. RDVFs are extre mely versatile and provide reliable, continuous llquld/solld separation with minimum operator attention and

for humans and animals.

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd, Circle reply card No. 201

The Komline-Sanderson

low maintenance. Each KS-RDVFfllfor process filtration, waslewater

clarification and sludge dewatering.

ter Is specifically designed to handle slurries that produce variations In


cake thickness, moisture content and stickiness. Komline Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 200

Pulsator *

The Pulsator flocculator-

Environmental Services


Calgon Carbon Corporation offers a complete resource In water and air purification. Brochure reviews me thods of determining optimum treat ment solutions and the technologies available to remove organic chemical compounds from liquids and gases. Also included are descriptions of several pre-englneered treatment systems supplied by Calgon Carbon to abate pollution together with a variety of services offered by the


The PULSATOR tube-settler sludgeblanket flocculator-clarlfler excels In

removing turbidity and colour. It of fers maximum efficiency, operating flexibility and simple basin construc tion. It also requires minimum main tenance and operating attention. The PULSATOR Is the only clarifier with Installed standby capability, infiico Degremont inc. Circie repiy card No. 202


Calgon Carbon Corporation Circle reply card No. 203

I Inljlm Dcgrtmeni inc

Magnetic Level Gauges Daws Controls

Water Control Gates

Kllnger magnetic level gauges eli

Armtec manufactures a complete line of water control gates for sewage and water treatment plants, flood control, power plants and Irrigation. With over 70 years producing gates, Armtec has the experience to assist you In solving water control pro blems. This 8 page brochure lists the complete range of gate products.

minate the hazards and maintenance

problems of glass level gauges. Magnetic Interaction between a float In the liquid being measured and a visual display outside the vessel re duces the risk of spills and leaks to atmosphere — Ideal for monitoring hazardous liquids. The catalogue provides technical background, applications, materials

Armtec Water Control Products

Circle repiy card No. 205


of construclton and selection data. KLINGER


Level gauge switches and related re lays for Intrinsically safe Interface In hazardous atmospheres are also described. Davis Controis Limited

Circie reply card No. 204

Groundwater Monitoring System The




gives detailed 3-D groundwater In formation, without the large cost of drilling many monitoring wells. The modular system uses engineered seals to prevent cross-flow between monitoring zones. It Is customized to suit each application. Dedicating monitoring instruments can further avoid cross-contamlnatlon and re duce field time.

Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 206

ENVIRONMENTAL Tcdcsiais® as iGiTugioEisaaBcag;

Advertiser s Guide

Attention Advertisers! 1992 Rate Card Environmental Science & Engineer ing,a bimonthly business publication serving Canada's environmental pro tection Industry allows direct penet ration of this growing multl-bllllon dollar market.

ES&E's award-winning team pro vides authoritative coverage of Cana da's municipal and Industrial envi ronmental control systems, energy management, drinking water treat ment and distribution and air pollu tion monitoring and control. ES&E

Circle repiy card No. 207

Taking the pressure off Landfills

Treating contaminated soil

While much of the focus of recycling initiatives has been on the residential waste stream, landfill



space is also being depleted by indus


trial and construction wastes,including contaminated soil.

Concurrent with the capacity pro blem at landfills is the problem of leak ing underground petroleum storage tanks. While the problem is nation-. wide. Ontario alone is estimated to have

as many as 12.000 leaking tanks.(Leak ing storage tank costs could rival our Fed eral deficit, ES&E. June/July 199!)





Burner rvcvi



There are numerous methods to

clean up tank leaks but the Ontario Gas oline Handling Act and Code requires thai contaminated soil around leaking un derground storage tanks be excavated. Formerly, the only means of dealing with this excavated material was di.s-

posal at licensed landfills.It is estimated that over 200.000 tonnes of soil are being

disposed every year in Ontario's land fills.

Another impetus for the develop ment of soil remediation technologies has resulted from municipal planning initiatives to redevelop large urban tracts of formerly industrial land for re


with lower fuel requirements and more rapidly because retention times are sig nificantly reduced. Further, the LTTD claims complete reclamation of petro leum-contaminated soils, as no slag or ash is produced by the process. In a 1987 survey of United States Superfund treatability study data and actual site results. Low Temperature Thermal Desorbtion was rated as hav

ing "demonstrated effectiveness" at treating soils contaminated with ben

sidential and commercial uses. Fre

zene and toluene.

quently. much,or all of the soil on such

Soil Preparation Before con taminated soil is treated,some prepara tion may be required to achieve appro priate sizing. Large rubble and boulders are removed and clay lumps are

tracts, contains



tamination. sometimes in combination with other contaminants. All of these factors have led to the


Celsius by the injection of fi nely dis persed water spray which becomes com pletely vapourized. Baghouse The cooled gases and water vapour from the cooling chamber pass through the baghouse before being ex hausted into the atmosphere. The baghouse removes the remaining 15 per cent of the fi nes that have been released from the soil.

Fines removed by the cyclones and the baghouse are restricted to small diameter soil particles picked up in the moving air. The process removes VOCs from the soil without any chemical al teration of the soil particles. In tests of similar units by the United States Envi ronmental Protection Agency, greater

licensed by the Ontario Ministry of the

drum's tilt and the rotation speed. Pro

than99.99 percent removal ofthe VOCs was achieved in the air discharge. The particulate emissions are less than 0.04 grams per cubic foot (dry). The end product is clean soil which can be used for a variety of applications, including backfilling of the originating excavation. Because the process is claimed to achieve complete, verifiable

Environment for full-scale, commercial

cessed dean soil is delivered to a hot

destruction of the VOCs and does not

operations is owned and operated by Soil Recycling Company of Gormley. Ontario. The company's Low Tempera ture Thermal Desorber (LTTD) is de signed for the remediation of nonhazardous. petroleum contaminated soil, and removes volatile petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline and

material conveyor for discharge. generate any secondary wastes, there is Cyclone Separators Exhaust gases no requirement for special handling or from the PTU are vented into dual high- disposal of any material. efficiency cyclone separators. The cy A distinctive feature is the sophis clones remove approximately 85 per ticated computer-supported control, cent of the particulate matter generated monitoring and fail-safe system which from the PTU and prevent slagging in ensures safe and efficient operation of the Secondary Treatment Unit. the equipment at all times. Air emis Secondary Treatment Unit (STU) sions are monitored by a Horiba stack Gases from the cyclones are vented into gas analyzer.

demand for technologies which can safely, effectively and permanently re mediate petroleum contaminated soil. In Europe and North America, thermal treatment of petroleum-contaminated soil is increasingly viewed as a viable alternative to land disposal. The first soil remediation unit to be

fuel oil.

Although a number of treatment al ternatives have been developed in re cent years. LTTDs offer several distinct benefits. Rather than try to incinerate materials that have low heating values â&#x20AC;&#x201D; such as soil â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the LTTD evaporates

the volatile organic compounds fVOCs) at low temperatures. Evaporation,or vo latilization. occurs at temperatures far lower than that of incineration. There

fore. the system runs more efficiently 70


Primary Treatment Unit(PTU)Con taminated soil is processed in this paral lel flow unit by heating the material to a maxi mum of290 degrees Celsius using a

propane fired burner. Retention time varies from 1.5 to 18 minutes and can be

adjusted by altering the angle of the

the burner end of this horizontal unit.

The LTTD is a mobile, stand-alone

Gases are then heated with a natural gas burner to about980 degrees Celsius for a sufficient period of time to ensure hyd rocarbon destruction by high tempera

system. Mounted on five trailers, it can be dispatched to various waste generatingsites. including oil refineries,storage

ture oxidation.

Cooling Chamber Exhaust gases leav ing the STU are vented into a vertical gas cooling chamber. Here, the gases are cooled to approximately 190 degrees





among others. In an arrangement

with Met ropolitan Toronto, the Company's first

LITD is located at Metro's Keele Valley Landfill.

Environmental Science & Engineering. Oct. 1991


Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option With


CoUecting flow proportional samples has never been easier.

SIGMA's new Streamline" subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new sub-

compact sampler: an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in

tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are

taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart.

The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports.

Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and

guaranteeing repeatability independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma,PO Box 820, Medina, NY 14103-0820. In Ontario CAN-AM Instraments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

In Quebec and New Brunswick CHEMACTION, INC. 5960, Jean-Talon Est. Bureau 216, St-Leonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the full range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices. In Alberta ITT Barton Instruments

In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba MACKENZIE & FEIMANN, Ltd.

3840 - llA Street, N.E.

970 Malkin Avenue

Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6

Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2K8

Tel (403) 29M814 FAX (403) 291-5678

Tel (604) 253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

For more information, Circle reply card No. 135

Environmental Science & Engineering, Oct. I99I




Depurator. Removes emulsified oil and suspended solids from water. Low cost, higti capacity. Efficient WEMCO Depurator flotation machines are used

extensiveiy in the aluminum,

petroleum and petrochemical Industry for wastewater and process water treatment.


Pacesetter. Used for oil/water

separation in oil production applications, and for liquid/liquid separation in chemical production facilities. Unique Propack'" crossfiow piates achieve 99% efficiency with gravity-flow separation. Compact, high capacity units have iow operating and maintenance costs. Pressurized

Silver Band. High performance down-fiow media filter removes

suspended solids and hydrocarbons from produced water. Sheli media resists

fouling, cleans water with 99% efficiency. Low media replacement rate. Fast (14 minute) media cieaning cycie. Simple installation, low maintenance.

units available for specific applications.

Separation and Filtration Equipment for Municipal and Industrial Operations

ÂŽ WEMCO 5155 Creekbank Road

259 Midpark Way S.E.

Mississauga, Ontario

Ste 220

4940 Chlsholm St., Ste 1 Delta, B.C.


Calgary, Alberta


1 Holiday Street 5th Roor, East Tower, Point Claire, Quebec

Tel: (416)-625-6070 Fax: (416)-625-3519


Tel: (604)-946-0421 Fax: (604)-946-7837

Tel: (514)-695-9531

Tel: (403)-256-6821 Fax: (403)-256-7071

For more information, Circle reply card No. 211

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Fax: (514)-695-8099

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October-November 1991  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October-November 1991  

Profile for esemag