Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) September 1991

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

September 1991

1991 WPCF CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION COMES TO TORONTO Waterscapes '91 — a report from Saskatoon

US to spend $553 billion on water systems System Crystal — the way of the future? High-tech trenchless technology



Sampler Is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them In either a single composite container or sequentially Into an array of

The Epic 1011T programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist In monitoring municipal and Industrial

24 X 1/2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.


A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24

Typical Applications * Crude sewage * Settled sewage * Final effluent

* Raw sludge * Most Industrial effluents

separate containers for subsequent analysis.

EPiC 1011T EPS 1021

Portable Wastewater Sampler

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications

To MISA Specifications

Circle reply card No. 125

SLUDGE SAMPLER The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

Circle reply card No. 127

Also available

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2mm to 1200mm

Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel


Typical Applications

Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning

* Anaerobic digester feeds/

Ultrasonic Blanket Level


* Mechanical dewatering device



* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals


* Sea tanker loading terminals * Consolidation tank feeds

EPS 1030

Valve Positioners, Actuators, Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

Sludge Sampler For more information circle number below or contact

Exclusive Canadian Representative:

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CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 Soulti Service Road West, Oakvllle. Ontario L6L 6K3

Telephone(416)847-2740 Fax;(416)827-6984

Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(416) 727-4666


Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Production Manager SAM ISGRD B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639

U.S. Representative AL STIVER (416) 244-5502

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng.




August/September 1991, Vol. 4 No.4 Issued September, 1991


Europe's fiighways are not designed for low-bid bandwagons Comment by Tom Davey


Hlgti-tecti, No-Dig applications advance rapidly Review by Stephen McKelvie and William Gray


us will spend $553 billion on water supply in ttie 90's


User-pay pricing prominent at Waterscapes '91 panel


Pipe replaces open sludge conveyors


Waterscapes '91 — Pulp & Paper tiighlights


Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng, R.V. Anderson & Associates

J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Senes Consultants Ltd.

Mike Provart, M.Sc,, P.Eng, M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodtellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R, Bruce Smith, LLB.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial cove rage of Canada's municipal and Indus trial environmental control systems and drinking water treatment and distribu

Reviewing ttie options for groundwater bioremediation


Article by David Major 1991 WPCF Conference comes to Toronto


— keynote speakers, conference fiighligtits, floor plans,


and list of exhibitors

Never assume is the first rule with hazardous materials

Article by Cliff Holland


Black's system crystal is the way of the future Article by Alex Keen and Randy Sinukoff


Disaster planning, the vital element in laboratory operations Article by Chris Cook


Energy issues are also environmental issues Report by Jenny Carter


Providing water supplies and sanitation in developing countries In depth review by Brian Grover and Cynthia Carr



ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

but does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of con tributed material.

All advertising space orders,copy,art work, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environmental Science & Enginee ring c/o Prestige Printing,30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1. Head Office - 10 Retch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666; Fax: (416) 841-7271. Second Class Mail

Departments Reader Service Card... . 62a

Industry Update


Literature Reviews .... 90-91

Registration No.7750 Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.

Product Reviews .... 93-100 R&D News 72 Ad Index 100

Cover Photo. This superb aerial shot of fvletro Toronto, home of the 1991 WPCF Conference &


Exposition, is especiaiiy appropriate for this issue with its conference focus and exhibitor iistings.

If the date on the address label on the front cover

Photo courtesy. Gore & Storrie.

reads OCTOBER 91, your subscription has expired as of this issue. To avoid

missing the next issue, simply send a cheque for $48.15(GST inc.) and the

(G.S.T. extra)

address label to ES&E. C*n«dt«n Bmtrwis Hpnu

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Europe's highways are not designed for low-bid bandwagons

Europeans used to drool over

North American Highways.

Even a little over two

decades ago, a city like Metro-Toronto had more super high ways than the entire British Isles. Ironically,like most European coun tries, British motorists paid exhorbitant vehicle registration fees along with sky high gas prices. It was literally highway robbery. Instead of being spent on highways, millions were siphoned from gas taxes and licence fees which went to

consolidated revenues,before dissol ving into a plethora of wasteful pro jects with no direct financial accoun ting with which the public could relate.

Motorists consequently paid heavily for roads they never got while also paying again in damaged cars, higher insurance rates, traffic tie-ups and wasted gas. Some 25 years ago we left Canada for trips to Europe and Australia and the trips confirmed our feelings that the North American Highway system still reigned supreme. In general. North Americans had the best highways combined with lowest costs. But now, the era of North American Highway supremacy is over. European countries have devel

oped an asphalt pavement which has twice the life of US pavements while handling heavier loads. More over, European pavements are quie ter and do not rut, according to US state transportation officials. The comparisons highlight other surprising discrepancies. Contrac tors in Sweden,Denmark,Germany, Italy,France and Britain finish high way jobs from 30 to 50 percentfaster and offer full-replacement guaran tees, according to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. In a report of a European tour by US engineers. Federal Highway Administrator Thomas Larson wrote: If the parti cipants began with any chauvinistic ideas about the superiority of US technology, they quickly realized we have a lot to learn from Europe.... (their) pavements are better than ours and it's no accident. Europeans invest more in research development and deployment of new pavement technology.

The tour participants said a major reason for the rapid advance ofEuro pean pavement technology was that

Europeans do not rely on low-bid contracts. They base contracts on the best combination of quality and cost, not on cost alone. In return, contractors guarantee full replace ment of any deterioration within three to five years.

low bid mentality too often looks at price alone and seldom takes into account the value of quality and after sales service. Complaints about low bidding also emanate from consultants, laboratories and diverse manufacturing firms.

There's a lesson to he learned

The actual unwritten value of dedicated after sales service for envi

here in the environment equipment industry, especially in municipal purchasing. Value and low prices are notthe same thing at all. Consul ting engineering and laboratory ser vices are also plagued with the lowbid ethos which hampersinnovation and discourages quality, after sales service and long service life.

Europeans do not rely on low-bid contracts.

They base contracts on the best combination of

quality and cost, not on

ronmental equipment can be enor mous. Imagine a catastrophic fire or hurricane, where water services are disrupted and lives are at stake, not to mention the actual potential of huge property damage. Some firms — and individuals — are noted

for their exemplary service which goes way beyond any contractual obligations. Repairmen, struggling in the trenches to maintain water services

in hostile weather conditions, know full well the value of having reliable suppliers who will drop everything to deliver vital fittings, clamps or other parts necessary to restore ser vice. And ifthe piping is decades old and the fittings are obsolescent,new parts can be custom-machined and delivered.

cost alone. Recently we toured the Vancouver factory of Terminal City Iron Works (TC), makers of water pipe fittings, hydrants and gate valves. We saw first hand, a line of fittings and hydrants being molded and machin

Some manufacturers, and their representatives, have become legen dary for their willingness to come out at all times, and in all weathers, to deliver vital parts in emergencies to maintain water services. Purcha

sing agents, specifiers and owners should ask some searching ques


tions: Does the low bidder offer this

Terminal City is an all Canadian firm founded by the grandfather of the present President Stan Mason, P.Eng., who took over from his father. TC currently employs some 80 employees pumping almost $4 million annually into the Vancouver,

sort of service, perhaps years after

BC and Canadian economies in

wages, taxes and other economic spin-offs. Its annual purchase of supplies is in the $2,500,000. range, 80 percent being spent on Canadian goods and services from other firms. TC also reverses the Canadian trend

of mining resources for other coun tries to finish into manufactured

goods — something it has been doing for three generations. While it has thrived for three

generations, TC has been known to have lost large orders on bids by as low as one quarter of one percent. Fair enough one might say in a capi talist society, competition is the name of the game. Trouble is the

the transaction? Are such latent service values factored into low bid criteria?

Then what about those companies thatswim against the normal Cana dian tide by actually making some thing from our resources, not just shipping them offshore to he proces sed, then shipped back as value enhanced goods; are the full econo mic benefits, locally, provincially and nationally, factored into the bidding equation? Some successful low bids are won

by infinitesimal sums which take no account of the general economic impacts of the purchase. Far from saving the taxpayers money,it could he argued that, with all economic impacts considered, some low bids — won by percentile fractions with all the monies and jobs shipped off shore — might actually cost taxContinued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


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Industry Update emissions, focus of

which are a contributing factor in the development of ground-level ozone. The report notes that avai

CPPI survey

lable research on emission levels is

Refinery hydrocarbon

The Canadian Petroleum Products

primarily focused on chemical, not petroleum plants, and is based on

Institute(CPPI)has released a report on fugitive hydrocarbon emissions

tion of the part(i.e. pressure release valve), faulty equipment, or inade quate maintenance. For example, leaks can occur around the packing glands of valves, which can deterio rate under high temperature and

estimates, not actual measurements


of emission levels. While acknow

Editorial Comment, cont'd.

ledging that the industry faces a number of significant technological challenges in terms of measuring emission levels, this initial study by

payers money if the full economic data were factored into the price. Canadian equipment specifiers and purchasing agents should now look to the European highway expe rience as a prime example of how price is just one component in value engineering. Price is important hut value engineering should he the objective. Low bidding in fact can short change the very taxpayers the purchasing agents are trying to pro

developing an industry Code ofPrac

Estimating the scope of the pro blem poses a significant technologi cal challenge. Borrowing from the US EPA's experience to date,resear chers have identified three approa ches for estimating emissions.These are: calculating emissions using a


standard emission "factor" for vari

Fugitive hydrocarbon emissions, the report explains, are released inadvertently through valves, flanges, seals, and other process equipment components that are an integral part of a refining plant.

ous configurations of equipment; using computer-based projections; or relying on field measurements.At present, there is no authoritative figure for the volume of fugitive emissions being released by Cana

Such leaks occur because ofthe func

dian refineries.

the CPPI will form the basis for



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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

CONTROLOTRON - Flowmeter "First in ultrasonic flow measurement"

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Verbatim provides uniimited versatiiity in alarm messages. You're no longer restric ted to a limited vocabuiary of buiit-in words. Using advanced digitized voice technology, Verbatim accurately stores in memory anything that can be spoken —

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phone, and aii alarm input iines keeps your VERBATiM on the job! • expansion slots for optional plug-in modules give you flexibility and eliminate obsolescence.

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Reliable on-line D.O.

SUMMA has been supplying process controls and instrumentation equipment for over 10 years.

monitoring for aeration systems bit's new Model 5520 Dissolved Oxygen Monitor is designed for continuous mea

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Formore information on any of ttiese products avaiiabie from Summa Engineering Ltd., circie repiy card No. 175


PIPE GASKET Tomorrows technology is... The Tylox super-seal prelubricated gasket of today. A distinct innovation that becomes the total solution in the

joint sealing of Concrete pipe, Sanitary and Storm sewer systems.


Place the Tylox super-seal around the spigot end of the pipe. The Tylox super-seal should rest firmly against the spigot shoulder. Figure #2.

ADVANTAGES The Tylox super-seal Is uniquely designed in such a manner that it does not require any messy or time consuming lubricant application. The Tylox super-seal lubricant is self contained and not exposed: no special packaging or handling is required. This is a distinct advantage as there is no threat of lubricant deterioration.


The Tylox super-seal is automatically injected with silicone thus allowing the mantle to roll over the compressional area of the gasket causing a water tight seal. The mantle section's final resting area is between the annular space, therefore reducing extensive sheer forces. See figures #1, #2, #3.

Centre the spigot in the bell and push pipe home. Figure #3


The Tylox super-seal is manufactured from top quality rubber. All gasket material conforms to or exceeds C.S.A. and A.S.T.M.

specifications. Physical properties of the gasket material are available upon request. The Tylox super-seal is manufactured for pipe sizes from 12" to 144" in diameter.


The mantle section of the Tyiox super-seal rolls over the compression area of the gasket and comes to rest in the annular space.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Come to the Summit Canadian Environmental

Experience The Versatile Bentonite Geocomposite

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Business Opportunities Conference Ontario Science Centre

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October 16,1991

Landfills, Ponds, Lagoons

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Business and the Environment will

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^20 Sharp Rd.,R.R.#6, Brantford, Ont. N3T 5H6

London, Toronto, Sudbury, Montreal

Tel: (519) 751-1080 Fax:(519) 751-0617

customer industries to debate how

Canada can achieve this objective. •Speakers include Brazil'92 Secre tary General, Maurice Strong; Fede ral Industry Minister Michael Wil son; Ontario Environment Minister Ruth Grier; and a number of senior environmental industry executives and government officials.

• Topics will include: the role of government; environmental indus try success stories; U.S. and Mexi can export potential;the law and the environment; environmental indus try financing; and market opportu nities in the environmental protec tion industry.





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Opportunities Conference will form part of the 1991 Summit on the Environment which will include United Nations "Green Tie" dinner and related environmental fora.

More information may be obtained from:

John Wouters — Executive Director, CEIA-Ontario, One University Avenue,Suite 410,Toronto, Ontario M5J 2F1, Tel:(416) 760-4050, or Dr. James Higgins, Conference Chair man,c/o Environmental Technolo gies Investments Inc., 286 Attwell Drive, Unit 12, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5B2,Tel:(416)674-0573.


PROVEN non-jamming, non-sparking design RUGGED steel, brass, PVC and neoprene construction REUSABLE - readily cleaned with puli-thm swabs

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Beak celebrates

25th anniversary Beak Consultants recently celebra ted 25 years ofservice by holding an open house in Brampton. The same week,founder Tom Beak paid a rare visit to the company, taking time


Wastewater Samplers Groundwater Sampling Level Control & Flowmetering Plant Air Clean Up Portable Test Equipment: pH, Turbidity

Suspended Solids, Oj, DO, Conductivity

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from his world travels to meet old

acquaintances. Recently, the Ontario MOE Research Advisory Committee has awarded two research contracts to

Beak involving the application of biodetection to environmental pro blems.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, Sept. 1991

D.S.l.L. Drilling Inc. (drilling contractors) • Monitor well Installations

• Angle borehole capabilities

• Mineral exploration • Geotechnical applications

• Instrument installations

"Serving Eastern, Central & Western Canada Since 1956" Tel; (416) 751-6565, Fax:(416) 751-7592 11

Industry Update Ont. adopts new drinking water guideiine for NDMA Ontario Environment Minister Ruth

Grier has announced a stringent new interim provincial drinking water guideline of nine parts per tril lion for the chemical N-nitrosodime-

thylamine (NDMA). NDMA was found in November, 1989 in water supplies at Elmira and at other com munities along the Grand River. At that time, a guideline of 14 parts per trillion was adopted, making Onta rio the first Canadian province to establish a guideline for NDMA. An odorless, tasteless, yellow, oily liquid at room temperature, NDMA is no longer produced for commercial purposes. However,it is an inadvertent byproduct of the chemical processes used in some

sewage treatment plants and indus tries such as rubber manufacturing, leather tanning, pesticide manufac turing and food processing. In November, 1989, the Mini stry's Drinking Water Surveillance Program (DWSP) detected the first high concentration of NDMA in drinking water in Ontario at Elmira. No NDMA was detected in similar DWSP studies at over 40

BCA wins water contract in China BOA Industrial Controls Limited of

Surrey, British Columbia, has won its first major cotnract with China to supply equipment and services for a Water Treatment Plant in

Wuhan,The Province of Hubei. The contract is worth $3.8 million. This Plant is designed to treat 1 million cubic meters of raw river

water a day, to meet the require ments of approximately 4 million Wuhan residents.

BCA engineers will supervise the equipmentinstallation,start-up and commission the Plant, and train operating personnel. This Plantis scheduled to be fully operational by the Spring of 1992. BCA has supplied water treat ment plants and equipment across North America and is actively pur suing other contracts for water treatlocations across Ontario.

An Interim Maximum Accepta ble Concentration(IMAC)of 14 ppt

(parts per trillion) was adopted by the Ministry to reduce NDMA dis charges and issue a control order to Uniroyal Limited — making Onta rio the first province in Canada to adopt such a guideline. The 14 ppt

If you can store it in a glass, you can store it in an Aquastore* Storage System

A BCA water plant nearing completion.

ment systems in China and other export markets. IMAC, based on readily available NDMA information, was a tempo rary measure taken to reduce dis charges until a more in-depth ana lysis could be conducted. The Ministry has continued moni toring drinking water supplies in the Grand River System serving Waterloo, Kitchener, Brantford and smaller communities along the river which empties into Lake Erie near Dunnville. IMAC is a term used to describe limits for substances of concern with known chronic effects in humans and animals and for which there are no established maximum

acceptable concentrations. When a substance is detected above the

Greatario Industrial Storage Limited can custom design a liquid storage system to meet your needs. Our glass fused to steel storage systems set a new standard for long life and minimum maintenance. Both internal and external corrosion protection is excellent. For over 22 years our company has been providing quality, valuebased storage systems for potable water, waste water treatment, sludge ... and the list goes on. Give us a call. We can

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BC will host AWWA '92 Conference The American Water Works Asso ciation's 1992 Annual Conference

and Exposition is scheduled for June 18-22, 1992, in Vancouver, British Columbia. The majority of events will be held in the Vancouver Trade

Greatario Industrial P.O. Box 3613

IMAC level, it signals the need for more sampling, investigation and corrective action on a case-by-case


& Convention Centre. Due to heavy cruise ship tourist traffic in the city, the conference will begin on Thurs day rather than Sunday as it has in the past. For more information, contact: AWWA Annual Conference, Meetings Department, 6666 W.


Quincy Ave., Denver, CO 80235,


Phone: (303) 794-7711, Fax: (303) 795-1440.

For more ir^formation, 12

Circle reply card No. 171

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


From Sampling and Analysis through Design and Construction -an integrated ServiceThe Dillon Team of Scientists,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Environmental Laboratories CAEAL CERTIFIED For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 161


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There'sjust no mistake about it Envirex has been your helpful partner for 100 years. With innovative products. Technical leadership. Unbiased alternatives. And true commit ment and service to your needs in wastewater treatment For the complete picture, call or write John Moloney, President. Envirex, PO. Box 1604, Waukesha, WI53187. Phone;414/547-0141; Fax: 414/547-4120.

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For more information,


Circle reply card No. 166

See us at the VVl'CF Conference in l3ooth 4511.



% ^ ■*


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ne way is to rely on the fine water and wastewater specialists who work locally, from the Maritime Provinces to B.C. They're experts at efficient plant per formance, economical treatment methods, and effective equipment recommendations. They know how to work with you to keep the nation's water resources the way they should be. No one does a better job. You can count on them, just as you can depend on Envirex. Envirex has pio neered the development of new processes, systems and equipment for modem water and wastewater treatment technology for 100 years. So the next time you have a treatment

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

In Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, and British Columbia: PETWA Canada Ltd.

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1/2 HP to 250 HP

CSA Approved Non-clog Impeller

Company references and tectinical

literature available upon request

Magog, Quebec, Canada Tel.: (819)843-6560 Fax:(819) 843-1006 For more information,

I Circle reply card No. 1621

industry Update ES&E links up with CETECH '92 Industrial Show & Conference The first Canadian Environmental

Technology Exhibition (CETECH '92) will be held October 20-22,1992 at the Toronto International Centre.

CETECH '92 will be Canada's only large scale exhibition to focus speci fically on industrial solutions and manufacturing applications for the environmental marketplace. Government legislations and res trictions have forced industry to search for products and services that assist the manufacturing sector in dealing with its environmental pro blems,as well as solutions and alter natives in the handling and disposal of manufacturing waste and pollu tants. Industry analysts estimate that merely meeting existing envi ronmental regulations in Canada could cost $70 billion or more over the next decade.

Held concurrently with CETECH '92 are two well established indus

Vancouver Notebook A hectic week began Monday,June 23, with a breakfast meeting of the Canadian Environmental Industry Association.

Prior to the actual

meeting, a federal government speaker outlined a $100 million plan to clean up the Eraser River. Even by Ottawa's lavish standards, $100 million is a huge sum,yetironically, it did not contain any funding for the actual clean up. In view of the fact that the audience comprised pollution abatementindustry people, the funding omission was ironic. The meeting was told that an Ontario Chapter of CEIA has been formed and a drive to enrol new

members was underway. The clouds disappeared to reveal Vancouver's matchless panorama of snow capped mountains, rivers

and inlets. After a sightseeing trip to Simon Eraser University, ES&E Representative Ron Ganton and I were invited to have dinner with the executive of the BC Water & Waste

held its annual meeting at the Van couver Trade & Convention Centre.

Over 5,500 delegates had almost per fect weather for most of the meeting and Vancouver lived up to their sce nic expectations. The majestic Teflon sails of the Convention Centre have become a

focal pointfor the city. They remind me of the Sydney Opera house in

Australia, especially when a large cruise ship is moored alongside the Centre.

The Exhibition filled the huge centre and delegate traffic was high, delighting the exhibitors. During the week, we had lunch with Stan Mason,followed by a tour of Terminal City Iron Works, a B.C. firm founded by Stan's grandfather. It was great to go through the foun

dry and see environmental equip ment such as hydrants and fittings actually being made,instead of stu died or talked about.

Later we met with the sponsors of AQUA '92, an ambitious water-

Association. We shared a great meal and enjoyed the fellowship. After a '91 conference report was presented, the meeting heard plans for the '92 BCW&W Conference in Whistler, recently designated by a sports wri

focussed conference and also had a meeting in the Globe '92 offices. Both shows are scheduled in Van couver next year. The '92 AWWA Conference and Exhibition is also

CETECH '92 will also have an

ter as the best ski resortin the world

scheduled in Vancouver,making the

on-site conference produced and managed by Environmental Science & Engineering magazine. Steve Davey, co-founder of ES&E notes the need to provide a private indus try forum for the manufacturing and industrial marketplace to learn about the ever changing products, applications and solutions in the rapidly growing environmental area of manufacturing. CETECH is produced by ReedMagregor Exhibitions Inc., a mem ber of the Reed Exhibition Compa nies(REC),the world's largest exhi bition organizer. It is the 4th envi ronmental exhibition to be produced by Reed Exhibitions worldwide. Contact:Toby Chiu,Show Manager, Reed-Macgregor Exhibitions Inc., 800 Denison St., Unit 7, Markham, Ontario L3R 5M9,Tel:(416)479-3939.

for snow and apres ski. During the week, we visited the Air & Waste Management Associa

city a focal point for the internatio nal environmentalfraternity. Watch out for further details in ES&E, meanwhile, keep your eyes on the West, there's a lot happening out there. Tom Davey

trial shows: The Plant Management & Maintenance/Design Engineering Show (PMDS) and Weid Expo Canada.

These shows combined

should provide a total attendance of over 12,000 industry personnel.

tion Conference several times.

AWMA,the largest air pollution con trol body of its kind in the world.


Proceedings Available Proceedings of the Second Cana dian Conference on Urban Infra structure and Environmental

Aspects of Pulping Operation and their Wastewater Implications are available from the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7, at a cost of $50.00 Cdn. plus $3.50 GST (total of $53.50).

Peter Turgoose, B.C. Director, AWWA Section, received the Fuller Pin from

wife Susan at the BCW&W Convention, Richmond, B.C. AWWA V.P. Elect, Bob Reinhart departed from tradition and passed the covetted pin to Susan for presentation. Peterwas clearly surprised by the Fuller award— earlier he was presented with a Gold Shovel. Fie is a past chairman of BCW&WA. Peter is B.C. Sales Manager, Canron Pipe.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


No-Dig Report

High-tech No-Dig appiications advance rapidiy

Boring and repairing subter

ranean tunnels and pipe linesfrom above-ground,by remote control, without dig ging or trenching, may sound futu ristic, but high-tech trenchless tech nology is, in fact, one of today's fastest-growing industries. And with good reason. Consider, for example.North America's aging sewer and water systemsinfrastruc ture, which is deteriorating rapidly. Much ofit was installed 30-50 years ago,before today's high-density pop ulations, urban and industrial deve

lopment, or heavy traffic. Trenchless technology now makes it possi ble to repair these underground infrastructures without the traffic

snarls and disruptions to commer cial and industrial operations caused by trenched construction. It elimi nates also the high costs of digging, refilling, and restoration. Uses for trenchless technology have been multiplying rapidly. Examples ofrecent new applications are installing jet fuel lines under neath operating airport runways, fibre optic communications cros sings, and electrical conduits. In addition to reasons of conve

nience and economy,environmental considerations are contributing to the burgeoning of trenchless tech nology. Increasingly, the excava-






Cable Installation



tion and the upheavals oftraditional trenched methods of tunnelling are becoming unacceptable in environ mentally sensitive areas. Examples include river crossings under active fish spawning grounds, and cros sings under Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest (ANSI) such as wetlands.

Increasing emphasis on occupa tional health and safety is another good reason for utilizing trenchless technology. There is always an element of risk when humans are

working underground in confined space. Because trenchless techno logy obviates much of the need for manual labour underground, this risk is greatly reduced. Trenchless technology can be used both for new installations and

rehabilitating existing pipelines. Microtunnelling, horizontal direc tional drilling, and fluid jet cutting WATER ADDED








Cured-ln-Place Lining 18

Backreaming With

Horizontal Drilling are used for new installations; reha bilitation techniques include sliplining, short pipe lining, segmented liners, deformed pipe insertions, cured-in-place lining, pipe bursting, and chemical grouting. New installations

Microtunnelling is the direct in stallation ofpipes with a diameter of 900 mm or less,using a small diame ter tunnel boring machine. Closed circuit television monitors and

remote controls allow for the opera tion of the tunnel boring machine from above-ground. The excavated material is removed hy a soil/water slurry, which discharges into a sett ling tank. The settled out soil is sent to suitable disposal, and the water recirculated into the slurry system. Microtunnelling techniques are excellent for deep pipe installations in wet ground. The conveying pipes are installed behind the microtun

nelling boring machine using pipe jacking techniques. Horizontal directional drilling begins with a small diameter pilot hole at the entry side of the site. A monitoring device or steering tool is located near the head of the pilot bore. As the monitoring device pro gresses through the pilot hole, cor rective steering action is used to maintain proper alignment and keep the bore accurately on track. Upon completion, the pilot hole can be enlarged by back-reaming. The car rying pipe is installed by pulling it back through the pre-reamed hole. Horizontal directional drilling tech niques are particularly useful for small diameter river crossings. Recent developments include large diameter installations and increa sed directional control.

Fluid jet cutting is used for the installation ofsmall diameter pipes. The soil is cut by a small diameter, high pressure jet of liquified clay. The clay lining reduces the frictional drag of the tunnel walls and helps

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

By Stephen A. McKelvie. P.Eng.* and William W.S. Gray. P.Eng.** maintain tunnel stability. The remote steering equipment, combi ned with an electronic tool detection

system, makes it possible to drive with accuracy,tunnels that are lon ger than 35 metres. These systems are used for installations up to 100 mm in diameter.

In pipe bursting,the existing pipe is crushed by expanding it from inside, the broken pieces being com pacted into the surrounding soil. New pipe — normally proprietary design polyethylene pipe — is jacked into the resulting space. This system is currently available for pipes up to 300 mm in diameter.


Sliplining is the original, now well-established, trenchless rehabi litation technique ofinserting a con tinuously hutt-fused polyethylene pipe inside an existing pipe. Pionee red by the City of Toronto in 1970, sliplining has been successfully used for many years in rehabilitating sections of sewers.

Shortpipe liningis similar to sliplining, hut it does not require the digging of insertion pits. Short pipe lining uses polyethylene pipes that are small enough to he installed from inside an existing manhole. Pipes are joined in the manhole and pushed up the existing pipe as new pipe is added at the entry manhole. Deformed pipe insertions are made ofpolyethylene orPV0piping. Once inserted into an existing pipe, the deformed pipe is re-rounded using thermal or mechanical methods. Butt-fused to fit continu

ously, deformed pipe insertions are used for section-to-section repairs. Cured-in-place lining has been used successfully in many manholeto-manhole rehabilitation situa

tions. A special needled-felt inver sion tube made of polyester, is custom-engineered to fit the size of the damaged pipe exactly. It is impregnated with a liquid thermosetting resin and lowered into a manhole through an inversion tube.

Segmented liners were developed in 1980,also in Toronto, by engineer Lemhit Maimets. Folded pipes,they are used for spot repairs on specific leaks. The folded liner is pulled in place to the desired location, and jacks then expand the pipe vertically and horizontally, leaving the liner snugly in place against the walls of the original pipe. This system is used for repairing pipes ranging from 600 to 2,500 mm in diameter. Chemical grouting is an interes ting technique that will allow man holes, sewer pipes, and service late rals to he repaired in one operation. The section to he repaired is first iso lated and flush cleaned, then filled with a proprietary solution that

seeps into the soil surrounding the







crack for one hour. The solution is

then pumped out. The section is immediately refilled with a catalyst solution, which reacts with the ori ginal solution in the soil forming an inorganic gel matrix. This matrix will create a non-porous mass that will seal leaky pipes. Chemical grouts are used for spot repairs in situations where there are only a few specific leaks in sewer lines that are otherwise in generally good con dition. This application will also help reduce the cause of leakage in many sewer systems.

Most advanced technologies to date

The inversion tube is then filled

The most advanced trenchless

with water, the weight of which pushes the tube inside out into the damaged pipe, pressing the resin impregnated side against its walls.

technology to date is computerized geophysical surveying for infrared and thermographic pipeline inspec

After the tube is inserted for the full

contacting and remote sensing tech niques are in many cases more reli able and can provide more informa

length, hot water is circulated through the tube,curing the thermosetting resin and turning the pre viously pliable tube into a hard, structurally sound pipe.

B or

tion and obstacle detection. Non-

tion than closed circuit television

camera inspections. One means of geophysical surveying is done by



Deformed Pipe instailation sending pulses into the ground and measuring their reflection at the receiving unit. Interpretation of these results can provide much valu able information about the pipe and the surrounding soil conditions. Another method uses thermal sen

sing for detecting leaks. And what new technologies does the future hold? Muckless boring is still at the developmental stage, hut it holds out great promise. Muckless boring would eliminate the need for removing soil displaced by the hore

through compacting and compres sing the soil away from the hore cavity instead. ES&E

'Stephen McKelvie is Manager, Muni CONTROL UNIT

cipal Design Section at Gore & Storrie Limited, where he specializes in urban

and rural drainage, and hydrologic and hydraulic modelling. "William Gray is a Vice-President at Gore & Storrie Limited, and Manager of the firm's Municipal Services Divi sion. He is a director on the board of EXISTING PIPE NEW PIPES JACKED IN PLACE-


Pipe Bursting Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

the North American Society forTrenchless Technology (NASTT) repre senting the interests and concerns of Professional Engineers in this field. 19

Industry Update Tests verify ability to capture, recycle CFCs Linde Technologies and Ortech Inter national, an independent research centre in Ontario, have completed a joint research project that demon strates the efficiency of the Linde Blue Bottle'" recycling process to capture and recover a variety of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) before they can escape to the atmosphere. "The Blue Bottle process is the first, practical recycling method that can capture and recover 100 percent of CFCs emissions," says Dusanka Flllpovic, P.Eng., Linde's manager of new business develop ment. "Considering the damaging effects of CFCs on the ozone layer, this new technology is expected to

ture efficiency ofthe adsorbent does not deteriorate rapidly. In 1987, 24 countries including Canada, signed a formal commit ment to cut CFCs emissions in half

by 1999. To this end, government and industry are taking a threepronged approach by; developing substitute compounds; eliminating nonessential uses; and recovering and recycling CFCs with techno logy, such as the Linde Blue Bottle process, to eliminate releases to the atmosphere and provide a source of CFCs until suitable substitutes are found.

have worldwide environmental benefits."

To demonstrate the efficiency of the Blue Bottle process,Linde tested the capture of CFCs(CFC 11, CFC 12 and CFC 113), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC 22) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC 123 and HFC 134a) at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 percent. The results proved that all ofthe CFCs captured on the sieve could be removed dur

ing regeneration, and that the cap

The Linde Blue Bottle technology basically adsorbs CFCs onto a zeolitebased molecular sieve.

When the

adsorbent is saturated, it can be regenerated by a relatively low tem perature, inert gas purge. All of the captured CFCs are swept off the molecular sieve by the inert gas so that the adsorbent can be reused. At

the same time,the CFCs are recove red from the purge gas by cryogenic condensation.

Generally, CFCs discharges occur in one oftwo ways. A "banked emission" is a highly concentrated stream of CFCs released at a relati

vely low flow rate during mainte nance or disposal of refrigerators or

air conditioners, for instance. "Prompt emissions" involve dilute CFCs that occur at high discharge rates during the manufacture or application of products such as foam for insulation or solvent for


Concrete Pipe In the 1990's — a Seminar The Ontario Concrete Pipe Associa tion will hold a major seminar, February 13, 1992 at the Toronto Airport Hilton Hotel in Mississauga, Ontario from 8:00 am to 4:30 pm. Municipal and consulting engi neers, technicians and other muni cipal officials involved in the design, approval, construction and mainte nance of municipal infrastructure will find a wealth of information

from expert speakers. "Concrete Pipe:Today,Tomorrow and Beyond — Agenda for the 1990's" will be the theme with pre sentations ranging from Concrete Pipe Production,Specifications and Testing to Plant Prequalification. Contact: Jim Bartley, Manager, Ontario Concrete Pipe Association, 80 The East Mall, Suite 204, Etobicoke, Ontario M8Z 5W4, Tel: (416) 251-5881.




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Water Treatment

U.S. will spend $553 billion on water supply market between 1990-2000 In the corridors of US public drin king water policy-making, the pres sure is on. An estimated total of

(US) $553 billion willbe spent on U.S. public water systems over the next decade, with water treatment (and related infrastructure) expen ditures alone amounting to more than $60 billion, according to a new report by leading business research firm FIND/SVP.*

supply industry as extremely frag mented. Listings in national trade organization directories and adver tisements in national trade publica-

As Canadian

data are usually 10% of US esti mates, the American study is perti nent to Canadians.

The report projects that in the year 2000,spending on public water systems will exceed $26 billion and expenditures for water treatment

Although the goal of much contem porary research is a more complete understanding of the physics and chemistry of water treatment, there

alone (and related infrastructure

is much that is not well understood

FIND/SVP relates that there are

over 200,000 public water systems in the U.S. Each of these is now requi red to monitor the quality of the water it supplies, and adhere to the

The water storage tank — in many towns it is the only visible link bet ween the public and the utility.

correction schedules established in

tions indicate the existence of at

the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)amendments. "Over the next few years,the lar gest portion ofspending in the treat ment sector of the public water sup ply market will be to meet the stan dards of the 1986 amendments," says Peter Allen, FIND/SVP's Vice President,Market Research Reports. "This is of particular interest to many suppliers as a greater share of this spending will go for new equip ment and highly specialized ser

least 1,000 such companies. Sup pliers to the industry provide chemi cals and supplies, various types of equipment, analysis services, and design and engineering services. The report notes that in some areas of the U.S., the water distribu tion systems are antiquated and sus tain large water losses. Although someimprovements have been made over the last decade, the infrastruc

ture of water distribution is in poor condition in many ofthe larger cities. In many cases, water is subject to

The report breaks down spending by water utilities into three functio nal sectors: sources, distribution,

contamination within the distribu

and treatment. The water sources

sewers or to infiltration, butfor some colonization of microorganisms this difficult problem is still not well

sector includes maintenance,protec tive measures, and the costs of esta blishing new water sources or increa sing withdrawals from established ones.

The distribution sector encompas ses all expenditures for mainte nance, repair, and replacement of existing transmission and distribu tion systems, new or enlarged lines, new customer service connections, water meters, and fire hydrants. And finally, the water treatment sector covers spending for ordinary maintenance and replacement of treatment facilities as well as for

expansion due to an increased cus tomer base.

FIND/SVP describes the supplier industry structure ofthe public water

The technology used by public water suppliers is not usually consi dered to be high-tech, but utilities can face formidable technological problems. The history of drinking water treatment is one of practical applications. In most cases, the formulas for coagulants, mixing times, chlorination, and other pro cesses are empirically determined for each treatment plant; they will vary as the composition of the raw water varies.

construction and repair)will amount to $6.5 billion during thatsame year.


were discovered throughout the country.

tion system. Often this is due to accidental cross connections with


Throughout the 1960s, the U.S. public became increasingly aware ofpublic health dangers arising from

theoretically. Raw water may con tain hundreds of substances, any one of which may alter a reaction. The monitoring requirements for some utilities specify the use of ana lytical techniques that can detect contaminants in the parts per bil lion (ppb)range. The instrumenta tion that permits such detection is quite advanced and was not availa ble even a few years ago. One point accented by these fin dings is the current lack ofinforma tion about waterborne pathogens. It has been estimated that two new enteric viruses that could be trans

mitted by potable water have been

discovered each year during the past decade. Previously unknown strains of bacteria,like Legionella,can have a dramatic impact, and well known organisms such as Eschericha coli and Pseudomonas can,under unpre dictable circumstances,become quite virulent.

Water utilities have traditionally been conservative and slow moving. Barring unforeseen incidents or acci dents, they tend to stay out of the headlines. When exceptions occur

environmental contamination.

— such as the rare outbreaks of waterborne disease — the utilities

There was extensive media coverage of incidents in which groundwater

try to present a stable, responsible, and often local image. Utilities have

sources were found to be contamina ted with various toxic chemicals.

not limited their conservation to

However,because ofthe local nature

areas of public profile. Both publicly

of the public water supply, little

and privately owned water utilities have developed reputations of resis

information was available at the national level.

ting change and delaying the deploy ment of new technologies. ES&E

Surveys of the U.S. public water supply system were undertaken by federal agencies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The results were not reassuring: many inadequacies

*The 175-page report, The Public Water Supply Market, is priced at $1,900, and is available from FIND/ SVP, Dept. Vl, 625 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10011.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


State-Of-The-Art Wastewater

Clarification Technolosy Hydro-Float Aer-O-Flo's patented cavitation aeration Hydro-Float design is a simple yet highly efficient wastewater solids removal system. Aer-0-Flo is a leader in solids/

liquids separation technology. Our Hydro-Float system is easy to operate and maintain while cutting waste treatment costs. Savings can range from 40 to as much as 90 percent — yet HydroFloat's removal efficiency can top 95 percent. Finally, our system is


priced much lower than equipment


with far fewer capabilities.

Applications Our speciality is the design and fabrication of clarification packages for indus trial and municipal applications. Hydro-Float removes and separates automa tically, the fats, oils, greases, suspended solids and BOD/COD from liquid wastes. It comes in a self-contained, rectangular unit, designed to save space, installation costs and start-up time. This economical use of shop space is an additional bonus in keeping overhead costs in check.

Cavitation Aeration Combining simplicity, reliability and cost-savings with the efficiency of airflotation separation, the innovative Hydro-Float system eliminates air com pressors, pressure vessels, pumps and 'easy-to-plug' injection nozzles. Micro-bubbles of ambient air are formed by natural vacuum, produced behind the air discharge blades of a cavitation aerator rotating at a controlled speed. The bubbles attach themselves to the waste particles, lifting them to the surface where they are skimmed to the outlet on an automatic, continuous basis by chain-driven scraper blades.


1175 Appleby Line, Unit C-3, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel: (416) 335-8944, Fax:(416) 335-8972

For more information, 22

Circie repiy card No. 154

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Waterscapes '91

ES&E Report

User-pay pricing prominent at Waterscapes panei

Theprice ofboth potable and

wastewater treatment will

likely surge in the '90s, the Waterscapes '91 conference in Saskatoon was told.

Over 20

countries were represented making the meeting a truly international event. Some vigorous debates en sued as the audience responded dur ing question periods. Just as people switched to fuelsaving practices when energy prices

ges for peak use and new technology development," Dr. Tate stressed. Part of the problem is a wide spread assumption that water "ought to be provided as a free resource," said Dr. Dixon Thompson, a University of Calgary professor of environmental science. "That's because water bills don't

reflect the full costs,which taxpayers pay in hidden ways through muni cipal and provincial taxes and even-

Fair pricing of water rewards the environmentaiiy virtuous people, while it punishes the profligate water users. shot up in the '70s, water use in homes and workplaces will drop when water is priced according to the full costs involved, a panel dis cussion agreed. "What happened to gasoline in the '70s will happen to water in the '90s becausethe social costs ofcontin

uing the way we are will just become enormous," said Dr. Don Tate, a senior economist with Environment

Canada. He enquired if people would respond to price increases by saying: "Next we'll be paying for the air we breathe."

Unlike air, the water delivered from municipal supplies is a proces sed commodity, Tom Davey, Publi sher, Environmental Science & Engineering, told the meeting. Householders and companies should be charged according to whatit costs both to "produce" — through pum ping, filtering, disinfecting and later,dispose of wastewaters in treat ment facilities. "If you want free water,stand outin the rain," he said. Current cheap-water policies will leave future generations with poor water quality, high cleanup costs and possibly a legacy of such disea

tually in environmental cleanup bills. In spite ofthe fact that pricing is a leading federal water manage ment strategy, and that there have been several excellent studies pub lished recently, governments are still moving very slowly on the intro duction of pricing as a management tool.

"Price components should include royalties, O&M costs, capital and depreciation costs, initial and annual fees, R&D surcharges, and instream use factor. The system would require meters and monito ring; meter reading, billing and col

lection; and an information manage ment system for input to planning and management." Technical, economic, political and attitudinal barriers to imple mentation were also identified by Professor Thompson. He outlined strategies and tactics for introduc tion ofthe pricing system,including: identification and characterization

of barriers, education of politicians about advantages, full preparation for implementation when the politi cal decision is taken,temporary pro tection from economic changes dur ing transition, water audits for both corporations and municipalities, municipal cost modelling to reveal hidden costs to taxpayers, phasing out ofgrants for capitalinvestments, referral to environment and econ

omy round tables, convening of stakeholder groups,requirements in environmental audits, and exami nation of privatization as an alter native.

The panel noted that Holland, France and Germany are among countries that already charge for water in a way that recovers costs. Among the signs that water pricing is an emerging public policy concern in Canada are: Continued overleaf

ses as cancer from concentrations of

toxic discharges. Dr. Tate warned. "People have to realize that pol lution is a tremendous cost to society. There are better means of dealing with it than we have now." Full-cost

pricing is simply "the cheapest way to maintain a vital public service," he stressed all revenues would have

to be pumped back into water man agement, not dumped into a city's general coffers. "Builtinto the price would also be such costs as operation and mainte nance,capital and depreciation,and administration, as well as surchar-

One of the many imaginative Waterscapes events was an outdoor movie showing a James Bond film. The screen was moored offshore in the South Saskatchewan River near the Bessborough Hotel (above). Hundreds lined the river bank to see the movie, which appropriately had many underwater scenes. Photos T. Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Waterscapes '91 • Municipalities across the country are facing at least a $10 billion bill to upgrade and renovate water treat ment, distribution and waste-treat

ment facilities. Requests for federal funding have been turned down. •Alberta,Saskatchewan and Onta rio — are looking at bringing in fullcost water pricing. Will Canadians be prepared to pay more for water or will they sim ply see it as a huge tax grab by any government that tries it? "The public will not accept water price increases unless the benefits are explained to tbem," Tom Davey said.

Noting that Canadians spend $200 million per year on bottled waters and home water-treatment

devices, be said,"Clearly the public is willing to pay for better quality water. Why doesn't the water indus try aim for better water quality ins tead of always being "price driven", persisting with a "low bid" menta-

— Announcement —

lity. Take for instance groundwater contamination. When you are dea ling with aquifers worth hundreds of millions; when groundwater con tamination could persist for thou sands of years; surely it makes both economic and environmental sense

to hire the best, not the cheapest? There are hydrogeologists in Canada with international reputations. They are not always the low bidder, but in the long run they will be the least expensive in protecting price less resources. The same can he said

of laboratory services. "I pay $254 a year for cable TV service, but only $100 for a reliable supply of safe drinking water. The water industry "produces water that's cheaper than dirt, but so pure doctors and dentists will unthink

ingly wash open wounds in it," he added. Water quality could be improved but the industry is stuck with a low price, low bid mentality. The low-bid ethic for lab analyses, consulting services and equipment fails to recognize or reward innova tion, quality control and value engi neering in environmental equip ment.

"The simple household water

Dr. Wally Nlcholaicfiuk was presented with the Canadian Water Resources Association award at the CWRA

annual Banquet during Waterscapes '91.

meter is a powerful environmental weapon. Fair pricing of water rewards the environmentally virtu ous people, while it punishes the profligate water users," he said. Dr. Tate said instead of thinking of water use as a requirement, we have to start thinking of it as "a demand that can be managed with pricing and public policy." Without an added economic incentive, simply regulatingindustrial waste polluters doesn't work. ES&E

Slime beds for VOCs University of Saskatchewan resear chers report encouraging results with a device that renders highly toxic chemical wastes environmen

Ted A. Constantine, M.Eng., P.Eng.

CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. is pleased to announce that Ted A. Constantine has recently joined the firm's Waterloo, Ontario office as Chief Engineer. Mr. Constantine brings to this posi tion a broad range of experience in the areas of water and wastewater

treatment, and industrial and hazar

dous waste management. His 32year career in Engineering has been focused mainly on the envi ronmental field.

CH2M Hill is an employee-owned Canadian engineering firm with offices in Waterloo and


sauga,Ontario; Calgary and Edmon ton, Alberta; and Vancouver, Bri tish Columbia. The firm offers a

complete range of environmental engineering services from initial feasibility studies through process and detailed engineering design and on-site construction manage ment.



tally safe. Packed Bed Slime Reac tor, developed by Professor Gordon Hill, of the Dempartment of Chemi cal Engineering, and Beverly Quail, a graduate student. It is based on the use of cultured bacteria which

convert wastes into biological mate rial that can be safely released into the environment. "We've fed in wastes with chemi

cal concentrations of up to 1,000 parts per million, which is as high as in any industry. The reactor reduced the ratio to a few parts per billion, well below the effluent gui delines of Environment Canada," Professor hill said. The waste chemicals — phenol, catechol, and creosol — are major by-products of oil production and refining. All are highly toxic and volatile. "The scientific literature is

filled with problems of volatile organic chemicals escaping into the air when wastes are treated conven

tionally. With our system, they are degraded so rapidly there is no air pollution." Professor Hill says he next plans to treat chlorinated organic chemi cal wastes from the pulp and paper

industry. Petrochemical wastes are also on his agenda. The idea behind the Packed Bed Slime Reactor is that waste treatment should be

regarded as a final step in any che mical industrial process and it should take place under tightly con trolled conditions.

"This differs

from the widely adopted industrial approach involving activated sludge or aerated lagoons, which are similar to secondary treatment of municipal wastes in an open envi ronment. This kind of civil enginee ring approach is not really suitable

for highly toxic chemical wastes,"

he said.

The laboratory model of the reac tor consists of a vertical column fil

led with glass beads to which the bacteria adhere in a high density slime.

The fluid wastes enter the

column at the top and air required by the bacteria enters at the bottom. Because of the high bacterial concen tration, bio-degradation is very rapid and energy efficient. Bacteria remainingin the fluid following treat ment are killed by sterilization. The system is based on a waste treatment device called a rotating biological reactor, which operates in an open environment, consumes a great deal of energy and is expen sive to use. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


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GORMAN-RUPP HAS THE WASTEWATER PUMPING SYSTEM TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Gorman-Rupp manufactures acomplete line of pre-engineered, factory-built packaged lift stations. Whether it's a small or large wastewater collection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system including motors, controls, valves and piping ready for hook-up on site. Electronic Pressure Switch features dependable, solid-state construction and provides accurate, trouble-free monitoring of wet well liquid level. Bubbler Control design eliminates problems common to other bubbler systems. Controls are NEMA rated, UL/CSA Listed and will easily interface with users telemetry. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-priming, solids-handling T-Series pumps specially designed for dependable wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of clogs or maintenance of components. And, no special tools are needed. T-Series pumps Base-mounted "autostart" pump station with bubbler control and standby engine automatically drives pump if power fails and eliminates need for expensive generator set.

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Ji/HVirorif7ie?itul ociericc & KixgiTiBBViTig, Sept. lyyi

Sludge jVidndgement

Pipe replaces open sludge conveyors formed to ensure the design inte grity. This is the largest such piston pump installation in North America, and has resulted in improvements in occupational health and safety —


with dramatic reductions in odours

and spillage, and workers being freed from the hazards and noise of

the older, open conveyor systems. Also,a more uniform feed rate to the incinerator results in fewer incine

rator upsets and requires less opera tor intervention.

The overall design from centri fuges through incineration also enables the malodorous air from the

High pressure pipe and couplings replaced conveyors in complex upgrade which won Gore & Storrie an Award of Excellence in the'91 COE competition.

Numerous major up^ades ced shock loading to the piping sys with sophisticated new equipment and innovative

wastewater treatment

modifications have taken place over many years at Metro Toronto's Main Treatment Plant. Today, sophisti cated upgrades are required to com ply with increasingly stringent envi ronmental regulations and occupaional health and safety considera tions for inside workers.

tem and assisted in keeping stresses as low as possible. Victaulic high pressure couplings were used and all piping and components were desi gned to be suitable for maximum operating pressures of9 925 kPag at temperature of 37°C. Anchoring is used at the pump discharge and its strategic locations along the piping system, and com puterized stress analysis was per

dewatering process to be diverted to the incinerators, where it is used as combustion air, destroying all odo rous organics.

Consultants Gore& Storrie, along with Metro Toronto engineers, have metthe formidable challenge ofsuc cessfully designing a high-tech sys tem within the severe space con straints imposed by a decades-old building. The latest series of up grades, of which the sludge convey ance system is only one, have been achieved without new building con struction or site expansion.

One recent upgrade at the plant — Canada's largest activated sludge facility — has been an innovative sludge conveying system. Initially, open belt conveyors were used for transporting sludge to the incinera tors; but the two major problems of open belt conveyance are spillage of sludge and odour emissions. Screw conveyors, which are totally enclo sed, were an improvement on belt conveyors; but because the dewatering equipment at the Main Treat ment Plant is located on the grade floors below the incinerator (which is 100 feet above),the sludge must be raised up to the incinerator inlets —a difficult task with either screw

or belt conveyors. The problem of belt and screw conveyors was solved with sludge cake pumping through high pressure pipelines. Now, the sludge can be pumped vertically as well as hori zontally, while at the same time containing odours and eliminating spillage. Custom-modified Schwing piston pumps were selected, which are now successfully pumping highvolumes of 30 percent dry solids sludge cake daily. Because this piping operates at high pressure,it must be designed to withstand the associated high stres ses. The type of pump selected redu-

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Enuironmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Environment? Vancouver, Canada,1992

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Waterscapes '91

Waterscapes '91 — Pulp & Paper highlights What is Known about Toxic

Materials in Pulp Miii Effiuents? John Leach*

A Priority Substances List has been drawn up by the Departments of National Health and Welfare, and Environment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act

(CEPA). Substances on the list are assessed to determine whether they

mTERSCAFES'91 A Water Quality Program Outline for the Pulp and Paper Industry

are toxic to humans or the environ

W. Owen*

ment,and ifso,W ater Quality Guide lines for Aquatic Life may he deve loped. "Effluents from pulp using blea ching" are included in Group 1 ofthe Priority Substances List. This pre

for Water Quality Guidelines. Minimum data requirements for a Guideline are: (1) at least three

The objective of a water quality pro gram is to monitor environmental presence of and impact from pollu tants as a basis of achieving envi ronmental protection. A further objective ofa water quality program is to monitor long term environmen tal trends as process changes are implemented in industry. Against these objectives, the discharge volumes and complexity of the pulp and paper industry present a unique water quality challenge. Trees con

studies on three or more freshwater

tain thousands of chemical com

fish species, including at least one cold water and one warm water spe cies; at least two of the studies must be chronic (partial or full lifecycle); (2) at least two chronic studies on two or more invertebrate species from different classes, one of which is a planktonic species; (3) at least one study of a freshwater vascular plant or algal species. Parallel criteria apply to dis charges to marine waters,for which studies of saltwater species are re quired. Interim water quality guide lines involving fewer studies may be

pounds which are then subjected to

sentation described recent work to assess available information on

toxic substances in bleached pulp mill effluents in relation to criteria

drafted ifinsufficient data are avail able to meet the above criteria. Toxi-

city tests used in the studies are classified as primary, secondary or unacceptable in relation to specified international test protocols. More than 300 individual chemi cal constituents have been identified

in pulp mill effluents,approximately 30 of which have been shown to con

tribute, at least from time to time, to the acute lethal toxicity of effluents to fish. Literature on these potential toxicants and on other"high profile"

several diverse individual processes. Solids deposition, color, eutrophication, and chemical toxicity are all potential discharge concerns. In addition,the receiving environments for industry discharges also vary in physical, chemical, and biological respects. Therefore, chemical crite ria alone are insufficient for a water

quality program as these can account only for individual, reco gnized compounds. Both toxicological analyses of the effluent and biological measurements ofthe recei ving environment are recommended to encompass unknown compounds, interactions between compounds, and, particularly, chronic effects in the environment. The biological measurements should concentrate

on whether relevant impacts are observed at the community and the population levels. These analyses may he cautiously supplemented by measurements at lower organiza tional levels (individuals, tissues, biochemical response) as means to assess population health. However,

WliERE In ^ The WoRiD Will

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constituents has been assessed in

regard to the above criteria. The results were described and discussed in the context of research efforts in North America and Scandinavia


over the past 20 years. *B.G. Research Corporation 3650 Westbook Mall

Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6S 2L2

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

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Waterscapes "91 when using measurements at these lower levels, there must he adequate controls for habitat, season, sex, and other factors which cause high background variationsin these mea surements.

'Division Toxicologist, Proctor and Gamble Winton Hill Technical Centre 6100 Centre Hill Road

Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 45224

Pollution Prevention: Chlorinated Pollutant

Releases From the Pulp and Paper Industry Martha G. Prothro*

The pulp and paper industry is a major manufacturing segment in the United States;over 600 mills are

operated by 265 firms, employing approximately 160,000 people. The industry is the nation's largest manufacturing category in terms of value of shipments (currently in excess of$120 billion annually).The industry is also a major source of

WastewaterTreatment Problems?


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environmental contamination.

According to the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), the pulp and paper category is the fourth lar gest industrial source of pollutants discharged to the environment in the U.S.,with about55% ofthe pollu


For more information, Circie repiy card No. 151

tants emitted to the air and 34% dis

charged to water. The majority of the 370 million pounds of TRI pollu tants discharged by the industry (1988) are chlorated organic chemi cals such as chloroform. The U.S. Environmental Protec

tion Agency is using a multi-media approach to dealing with the envi ronmental problems created by this industry. At present, seven major Agency initiatives are underway to control pulp and paper industry dis charges to the air, water and land. At the heart of these efforts is a

focus on pollution prevention as the optimal mechanism for reducing, if not eliminating, these discharges. For example,EPA's revised effluent guideline regulation for pulp and paper will reflect wastewater treat ment systems and manufacturing processes based on no- and lowchlorine pulp bleaching technolo gies. While the industry has taken many steps to reduce chlorinated pollutant discharges, much remains to be done to further reduce intro duction of these chemicals to the environment.

'Director, Office of Water Regulations






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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Groundwater Remediation

By David Major. Ph.D.*

Reviewing the options in bioremediation of groundwater

Increasing costs ofcurrenttreat

ment technologies, more strin gent regulatory requirements, and a more favourable attitude

in the regulatory agencies to exa mine innovative technologies have positioned bioremediation to play an important role in the treatment of hazardous wastes in the 1990s.

Research into biodegradation ofxenobiotic organic compounds has been ongoing for decades and a plethora of data and papers is available on

Table 1: Questionnaire Information Areas

Information Solicited


Matrices treated



Determine well construction, drilling protocols since use of drilling muds or water will affect the data quality (microbial and geochemical). Level of effort and strategies used to control groundwater and vapour movement. Determine how and types of microbial activity

wells and delivery Control of groundwater and gases

the subject. What is being recogni

Chemical/nutrient additions

zed is that this research can be

Microbial information

Type and level of assessment; Types of

applied to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwaters. The general premise of in situ


Assess the effectiveness of biodegradation and prove biodegradation is occurring. Treatment efficacy and range of contaminants that

microorganisms used. information

bioremediation is to stimulate bio

logical activity in soil or the subsur face to degrade contaminants. Sti mulation of biological activity can be achieved by improving or modify ing geochemical or physical condi tions, or by adding nutrients, selec ted or engineered microorganisms. Application of in situ bioreme diation requires a thorough under standing of the microbiology. This understanding is achieved by hav ing an information base on micro biology, biochemistry and genetics,

understanding ofthe metabolic pro cesses which lead to the degradation of the contaminants, and a compre hension of the structure and func tion of microbial communities.There



can be treated.

Site assessment

Determine site parameters used to evaluate if a site can or cannot be bioremediated and what the

relationship is between these parameters for designing a bioremediation strategy. Promotional and case

history information

Case study.

Research and


Current research and research needs.

cial institutions and was designed •marshalling yards,storage(trans to obtain information ofthe range of fer)facilities; options applied to bioremediating a •industrial facilities. contaminated site and what they felt Aerial extent of the contamina was needed in terms of research tion at these sites ranged from 90 to

efforts. The questionnaire informa tion categories solicited and the is also a strong interaction between rationale is presented in Table 1. the microbial community in surface Over 60 organizations were ini and subsurface soils and the physi cal and geochemical environment. tially identified and contacted to Each influences the other, creating determine ifthey would be interested a dynamic environment in which in participating in the study. Over contaminants are degraded. This 60 case histories, supplied by the companies or obtained from the grey review is a summary of a report pro literature, were reviewed to obtain duced for the Groundwater and Soil information on how the technology Remediation Program (GASReP). Scientific and trade literature, is being applied. In particular,infor conference proceedings, computer mation was sought on: searches and personal knowledge •types and conditions of contami were used to develop an initial list of nated sites; individuals and entities who are • general configuration (system design) of bioremediation; involved in bioremediation on a com mercial and research level. Contac

• nutrients and electron donors/

ted individuals were asked if they were interested in responding to a questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed to obtain detailed infor mation on the commercial applica

acceptors added; •how the microbial populations were assessed; • duration and efficacy of bioreme diation; and •problems associated with applying the technology. Site Types and Contaminants Treated

tion of in situ bioremediation and

current research and development efforts. The same questionnaire was sent to both research and commer'Beak Consultants Limited

The sites examined can be classi

fied into one of three groups: •gas/service stations,transfer lines;

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

25,000 square metres.

The water

table was typically 1-8 metres(maxi mum was 30 metres) and hydraulic conductivity of subsurface sedi ments ranged from 10^ to 10'° m/s. However, contamination at sites that had hydraulic conductivities of less than 10° m/s was generally limited to surface soils which could

be bioremediated by landfarming strategies. Table 2 presents a break down of the frequency of contami nants treated. Contaminants in the

fuels/hydrocarbons category were the most commonly treated conta minant,followed in order by conta minant categories, aromatics, creo sote/coal tar/PAH,and chlorinated aliphatics. The contaminant cate gories of chlorinated aromatics and

alcohols/ketones/aldehydes (orga nic solvents) were treated at the same frequency.

Fuels and hydrocarbons, simple aromatic compounds, and creosote, coal tar and PAH are frequently treated for two reasons:

•familiarity with their biodegrada tion because of numerous labora33

Groundwater Remediation tory and field studies; and • microorganisms and consortia of microorganisms that aerobically degrade these compounds are com monly isolated from soil and groundwater and are easily manipulated in

involves centrally withdrawing groundwaterfrom the contaminated area and treating it in above-ground units to remove any contaminants. Treatment units used include air-

stripping,activated carbon,physicochemical treatment and bioreactors.

the laboratory.

Alcohols, ketones and aldehydes are typically not bioremediated because they are readily metabolized and removed quickly from the envi

Once treated, the groundwater is aerated and nutrients are added.

enhance biodegradation in the vadose zone. Soil venting has the advantages of increasing the mass of oxygen that can be delivered to the hydrocarbons because ofgreater diffusivity and diffusion of gases. Landfarming techniques are used at sites where the contamination is limited to the surface and the chance

so that the recirculated groundwater passes over residual contaminants

for contaminants leaching to the groundwater is low. Landfarming typically involves daily tilling ofthe soil to increase aeration and periodic addition of limiting nutrients. Microorganisms are rarely added because of the difficulties ensuring

frequently treated contaminants

bound to the soils in the vadose zone

their distribution to the contami


or floating on top of the water table. Injection wells are used to recirculate treated groundwater. They are also used for purging and batch addition of nutrients. Injection wells are often severally located at the peri phery of the contaminated zone, so that the treated groundwater, nutri ents, and/or electron acceptors move through the contaminated zone to the withdrawal well(s).

nants in the soil and/or groundwater. In cases where microorgansims have been added,the sources of the inoculum were rehydrated com mercial preparations, secondary sludge from municipal facilities, onsite bioreactors or microorganisms


Chlorinated organics, multi-ring cyclic hydrocarbons(greater than 4 rings), polyaromatics and their sub stituted derivatives are the least

• less information on how they are biodegraded; •less familiarity and understanding of anaerobic degradation (which is how most highly chlorinated com

pounds are initially attacked); •cometabolic and/or anaerobic stra

tegies may need to be employed;and •consortia of organisms are usually responsible for the degradation (synergism), thus making it impos

Treated groundwater is recirculated, using infiltration galleries and/or injection wells to form a closed loop. Infiltration galleries are often situa ted above tbe zone ofcontamination,

Treatment ofthe vadose zone can

sible to isolate a single microorga nism capable of utilizing the com pound as a sole source ofenergy and

be achieved by raising the water table by deep well injection. This brings oxygen-enricbed ground-


water and nutrients in contact with residual contaminants. Alternati

System Design/Configuration A typical system configuration

vely, soil venting can be used to

selected and cultured from the site.

Application of microbial inoculants has generally been limited to landfarming operations. The efficacy of microbial inoculants is also in ques tion. Little or no data is provided on how effective the added microorga nisms were compared to the stimu lated indigenous species. Further, little data is provided on the survival and activity of introduced species. Electron Acceptors/Donors and Nutrients




The electron acceptor of choice for commercial application of bioremediation is oxygen. There are five methods for supplying oxygen to soil and groundwater: 1) Air sparging: Air or pure oxygen is supplied to the groundwater through porous-stone,sintered metal or sintered glass diffusers located at the bottom of the well.

2) Injection of aerated/oxygenated water: Withdrawn groundwater or water from another source is satura

ted with oxygen, then injected into the aquifer or through an infiltration gallery. 3) Venting: Air can be passed through the vadose zone either by injection or withdrawal. Vacuum withdrawal is often used for vadose zone treatment and has the advan

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Hydrogen peroxide is often added because it allows the attainment

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Industries and municipalities now face increasingiy stringent government reguiations, with severe penaities for noncompiiance. G&S Analytical Laboratory's compliance service combines certified analytical testing with years of experience in data validation and interpretation. Industries, municipalities and consulting firms can now have confidence in their envi ronmental compliance programs. Our diversified industrial client base and our associa tions with government agencies and municipalities keeps us at the forefront of legislative changes and industry standards. G&S Analytical Laboratory specializes in analyses of wastewater, water, solids and hazardous waste in support of engineering projects and environmental studies across the country. At G&S Analytical Laboratory, high quality people are dedicated to produce high quality data.

Taras W. Obal, Ph.D., C.Chem, Laboratory Manager, manages a

Christine Smith, QA/QC officer, is responsible for the set up of OA

team of chemists and technicians

programs to meet client needs, and the evaluation and interpreta tion of 00 data. She has 14 years experience in chemical and envi ronmental analyses.

dedicated to organic and inorga nic analyses. Dr. Obal is responsi ble for overseeing all analytical programs, and management of all activities at the Laboratory. Dr. Obal has 10 years experience in Analytical Chemistry.

Richard A. Cook, B.Sc., C.Chem., Technical Representative, has a broad background of industrial and environmental chemistry. He is responsible for Sales/Marketing of G&S Analytical Laboratory and acts asalechnical Liaison to meet

specific client needs.

G&S Analytical Laboratory provides: Environmental Analytical Services Specific Analysis Certified by CAEAL

• MISA and Sewer Use Compliance Testing • Site Decommissioning Guideline Testing

Hazardous Waste Characterization

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G&S Analytical Laboratory,55 Research Rd., Toronto Phone:(416)696-0390, Fax:(416)467-5227 With contacts in Toronto, Ottawa, Barrie, Kingston, Mississauga, Waterloo and Thorold. See us at Booth *1523 at the Water Pollution Control Federation Annuai Conference and Exposition, Toronto, Ontario, October 7-10, 1991.

G&S Analytical Laboratory a Division of Gore & Siome Limited

•For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 139


Groundwater Remediation.continued of higher dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels in groundwater,and a greater mass ofoxygen to be delivered to the microorganisms, in situ, than spar ging the groundwater with air. How ever, rapid decomposition of hydro gen peroxide can occur near the injection well because of peroxidase activity of microorganisms or reac tion with iron, reducing the D.O. concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide is usually added incrementally to

gen,thus it is easier to deliver them to the contaminated zones.

Anaerobic activities being exam ined include denitrification (nitrate

or nitrate to nitrogen gas), sulphate reduction(sulphate to hydrogen sul phide) and methanogenisis (carbon

Culturing of selected microbial groups can provide misleading infor mation on the activity, composition and biomass of surface and subsur-







Hydrocarbons (e.g. gasoline,

Coal Tar, PAH

(BTEX, phenol,

Aromatlcs (e.g. PCB,

Aliphatics (e.g. TOE,

Ketones and Aldehydes

allow acclimation of the micro

diesel, Jet,

kerosene, oil)

bioremediate contaminated sites is

for this interest include:


Table 2: Frequency of Cfiemical Class Treated

organisms. The use of anaerobic processes to

a possibility that has fostered a great deal of interest. The reasons

• the microbial ecology between groundwater and soil is significantly

nitrobenzene) substituted carbon (e.g. methyl benzenes and tetrachloride, ethyl ketone, phenols) methylene methanol) chloride)


and result in the formation of anae robic areas within the contaminant

acceptance as an alternate electron acceptor. Nitrate or nitrite can be added to oxygenated water and pro

zone or plume; •some organic compounds may not degrade under aerobic conditions

contaminant zones. However, nit

face soils. For example, enumera tion of hydrocarbon-degrading bac teria only provides information on the presence of the bacteria, not on their activity or non-activity. This is particularly true of enumeration of microorganismsfrom unsaturated

rate does not serve as a source of

zone sediments. Caution should be

oxygen for the degradation of organics as some organizations have claimed. Different enzymes and cat-

exercised in the interpretation of hiomassincrease during bioremedia-

•release of organic compounds will often stimulate microbial activity

but will under anaerobic conditions

(e.g. chlorinated hydrocarbons);and • anaerobic electron acceptors are far more soluble in water than oxy-


dioxide to methane). Nitrate addition is gaining some

motes denitrification in anaerobic

abolic activities are induced under

denitrifying conditions, and it is these activities and enzymes that degrade organic compounds. In gen eral, the use of alternate electron acceptors has been limited to re search sites and laboratory studies. Nutrients are often added to

Ian Robertson, M.Sc., R.P.BIo.

Gartner Lee Limited is pieased to announce that Ian Robertson, M.Sc., R.P.Bio., has recently

joined its Burnaby office. Ian is well known to environmental pro tection professionals in B.C. and across the nation for his expertise in contingency planning and its application to spill management for industrial facilities and govern ment agencies. In his 20 year pro fessional career in consulting and government, he has made signifi cant contributions in the areas of

emergency response planning and training, resource protection, and marine wildl ife. Gartner Lee Limited is a multi-

disciplinary consulting firm of engi neers and scientists offering Pro fessional Services in


mental Management in Vancouver, B.C., Niagara Falls, New York, and Markham, Ontario. 36

groundwater and soil to stimulate microbial activity. Typically, nitro gen and/or phosphorous are deter mined to be limiting and are added as inorganic salts (e.g., ammonium chloride,ammonium nitrate sodium nitrate,sodium and potassium phos phate) to achieve concentration in the groundwater of 1 to 100 ppm of nitrogen and/or phosphorous. Soil venting processes have delivered nitrogen as ammonium gas. Some nutrients, particularly phosphorous, precipitate out in groundwater as insoluble salts leading to a reduction of available nutrients (reduction of biologically activity) and clogging ofthe aquifer. Iron, manganese and magnesium are added as trace nutri ents(10-100 ppb)usually in the form of chloride or sulphate salts. Microbial Assessment

The microorganisms typically enu merated are total heterotrophs (i.e. microorganisms that use carbon compounds as their energy and car bon source), hydrocarbon- and gaso line-utilizing bacteria. The enume ration of these microbes is usually limited to analysis of groundwater by plate counts techniques. This approach has two major drawbacks: •introduction of culturing bias; and

tion. The increase could be due to

sample variation. The use of other monitoring tech niques(lipid analysis, DNA probes, incorporation of precursors) should be used in conjunction with classical (culturing) methods to better under stand the indigenous microbial popu lation. These alternate techniques eliminate the bias of culturing and provide a snapshot of the microbial population pre-, during, and posttreatment. These techniques can also be coupled with tracers (stable and radiolabelled) to show which subsets ofthe microbial populations are active and/or utilizing the con taminants. Culturing techniques are more appropriate for determi ning ifselected physiological groups or species of microorganisms can be induced to grow under existing or modified geochemical and environ mental conditions.

A laboratory evaluation is requi red for assessing biodegradation potential and capabilities of micro organisms in soils and groundwater. This is usually accomplished by pla cing soil and/or groundwater in con tained vessels, modifying the condi tions and monitoring biodegrada tion(i.e. microcosms). The contained environments are called micro

cosms. Key to the use of microcosms is the attainment of realistic condi tion of the environment. Often the treatment conditions used for asses

sing biodegradation of contami nants does not adequately reflect real-world environmental conditions Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991



"Tomorrow's Teohnology for Today's Business" Continuous dust concentration monitoring

Digital display of dust concentration (mg/m^) Analog display for optical density and opacity Minimized maintenance using a laser beam - no windows - no lenses - no mirrors

• Quick and simple installation - no contact with stack - no moving parts • Relay output for alarm [NO/NC]

• Field proven in hundreds of

applications worldwide and now in use thoughout Canada

DESCRIPTIOIM One of the major benefits of modern laser technology is the low maintenance requirements. The life expectancy of the Helium-Neon gas laser can exceed three years; the semiconductor laser more than ten years - this eliminates years of replacing light bulbs! The Laser Dust Monitor measures the extinction of laser beam energy through particle concentration in gas or smoke. The use of laser greatly simplifies installation and service work. It also maintains the long-term stability and characteristics of radiation better than conventional light sources.

The sensitivity of measurement can be adapted to particular applications by varying the length of laser beam in dust with pipes or installation arrangements. Optically matched receiver, relatively high light energy density and electronic linearization make it possible to measure high dust

concentrations up to 100 g/m^ and above.

esko P.O. Box 86849, North Vancouver, B.C. Canada V7L 4L3


Telephone (604) 984-4201, Telex 04-352554, Fax (604)984-6562 For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 140


Groundwater Remediation, continued (e.e. incubation temperature is ele vated, use of groundwater and not soil/groundwater mixtures,continu ous shaking). The use of microcosms that reflect as much as possible the site conditions is essential. Unrea

listic testing conditions can lead to extreme over-estimation of biodegradation rates and produce artificial data on what microorganisms or groups of microorganisms are invol ved in the degradation.

contaminant. Efficacy ofthe process was usually determined by: • decrease in contaminant concen

tration in groundwater (rarely in soils); • increase in total heterotrophic,

analysis. Several studies have shown that aqueous concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons had de creased significantly but there was no measurable decrease in total petro leum hydrocarbons concentration in

Table 3: Confirmation of Blodegradatlon Claims

The efficacy of bioremediation is difficult to determine by comparing

Mass balance between contaminants, nutrients, and end-products Increase in blomass and activity of requisite microorganisms Production of expected end-products and/or intermediates Consumption of electron donor/acceptors Adaptation/acclimation response Biodegradation kinetics

various case studies because of the

Field controls

Duration and Efficacy

various levels ofcontamination,and cleanup and evaluation criteria uti "gasoline" or "hydrocarbon" utili lized at each site. The cleanup times zing microorganisms; (ofthe bioremediation phase ofclean •consumption of oxygen and nutri up)ranged between 2 months and 3 ents; and years. Sites contaminated with gas • production of CO2(in the case of oline and fuel hydrocarbons were soil venting). the fastest to cleanup; aqueous These evaluation criteria and hydrocarbon concentrations typical endpoints make it difficult to eva ly were reduced 2-3 orders of magni luate bioremediation case studies. tude. Aqueous concentrations of This problem is compounded by the reliance of groundwater versus soil chlorinated hydrocarbons were re duced by 30-50% depending on the samples for organic contaminant

soil samples. Table 3 is a list of cri teria that should be used to evaluate bioremediation claims. Problems

The most common problems en countered during in situ bioreme diation include:

• clogging of screens and infiltra tion galleries with fines and microhial growth; •maintenance ofstable oxygen con centrations over time and through out the contaminated zone; • fluctuations in the water tahle


causing a release in bound hydro carbons;

leave of absence from the Univer

sity of Western Ontario where he is presently a Professor of Chemistry.

• production of bioemulsifying agents which mobilize bound con taminants leading to an apparent

Professor Bolton is an internatio

increase in the concentration ofcon

nally recognized scientist for his work into processesforthe photo chemical conversion and storage of solar energy with particular emphasis on the development of molecular models for the primary photochemical steps of photosyn

taminants in groundwater samples; •clay units which act as sinks for hydrocarbons and thus become long-


He has co-authored five books and almost 200 scientific papers.

• rapid decomposition of hydrogen

He has recently carried out research on photochemical reac

•fuel residuals in the vadose zone

tions of environmental Interest and

has published several papers on the mechanism of photodegradation of several Important pollutants. While at Soiarchem, Professor Bolton will expand his interest in Professor J.R. Bolton

Dr. R.D. Samuel Stevens, Presi dent, Soiarchem Environmental

Solarchem's enhanced oxidation

Research Fellow underthe Natural

products, such as Rayox®. This appointment reflects Solarchem's commitment to providing its cus tomers with the very best in envi ronmental products.

Sciences and Engineering

Soiarchem is located at 40 West

Systems, is pleased to announce that Professor James R. Bolton has

joined Soiarchem as a Senior


environmental photochemistry with the opportunity to apply his extensive expertise to improving

Research Council Senior industrial

Wilmot Street, Richmond Hill,

Fellowship Program. Professor Bolton will be taking a two year

Ontario. The fax number is (416) 764-9669.

term sources;

•precipitation reactions(particular ly phosphorous)which remove added nutrients and lead to clogging; peroxide resulting in poor oxygen distribution; and occluded in pores making them inac cessible to passing water and hence nutrients and oxygen. In situ bioremediation,as current ly practised, has been limited to simple hydrocarbon contamination and typically entails the addition of an oxygen source and nitrogen and phosphorous to the contaminated matrix. The major limitation to advancing the predictability and effi cacy of the technology is a better understanding of the response and involvement of the microbial com

munity during in situ bioremedia tion. Key to developing this techno logy from an art to a predictable and effective technology requires better understanding of fundamental pro cesses and the development of moni toring techniques and tools. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

©FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 24", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'TO.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve In both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES, faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets.

TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22y2° and 1Vk° configurations. As well, 'TO.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'TC.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available In

both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special"'TC! FLANGED FITTINGS can be

supplied to meet your specific waterworks Installation requirements.

IRON WORKS LID. Manufacturers of Waterworks Products 1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Tel.(604) 253-7525 FAX (604) 253-6365

For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 132


PUMP FAI Over 80% of all unscheduled pump failures are attributed to seals or bearings but are tbey the REAL problem? hi the MACKAY PUMP SCHOOL you will leam bow to separate the symptom from the problem and correct all pump difficulties. make, and how to increase their

The Mackay Pump

you will understand a great deal more about pumps and pumping problems. These schools are now being made

School I

reliability. After completing this school

available in Canada on an 'In-House'

basis, as well as in public seminars.

considered by many to be the best pump school in the world today. This school has been developed over a

period of years with the assistance of

Associates Limited This company provides a consulting

retention is better than cure' is the belief that prompts us to offer what is

Ross Mackay

One Day Semmars

service on Pumps and Seals to those industries dependent on the efficient movement of liquids and the

Engineers and Architects who serve these industries worldwide.

A SERIES of one-day public forum

thousands of plant operators, engineers

seminars will be held in South

Advice is available on a wide range of

pumping considerations from the

and maintenance personnel in hundreds

western Ontario through the end of

of plants around the world. The list of companies who have participated in the

October at the following times and

original design concept of the system,


through piping arrangements, purchase

Mackay Pump School reads like a who's

Toronto East September 24

specifications, bid evaluations and supervision of installation, to the final

who of industry.

Toronto West September 26

Unlike many engineering seminars where


commissioning of the

October 22

much of the presentation is targeted


October 24

towards the products of one particular


October 29

manufacturer, you will be pleased to find


October 31

i- • ■

system and beyond.

that we teach how to get the best use

from your existing pumps, whatever the

Forfurther details contact: Ross C. Mackay


For more information, 40

Circle reply card No. 133

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

WPCF Conference Special

By Steve Davey* during a rain storm. Ironically, it opened to let the rain in on its debut, not keep it out! The organizers could

Welcome to Toronto just offshore in the downtown area (272 ML/d). In addition,some 454 km of water mains range from 150 mm to 2,500 mm in diameter. Additionally, each of the six Metro communities is res

not resist a demonstration of their retractable roof. It is now a focal

point of the city, attracting millions ofvisitors emnually. Baseball games routinely draw over 45,000 fans, and crowds in excess of 50,000 regularly

ponsible for its own sewer and water

attend other diverse entertainment

main collection and distribution

attractions. It is large enough to en compass St. Paul's cathedral, yet so flexible it has multi-use capabilities. And it is within short walking dis tance of the city's main convention


Toronto's SkyDome is the world's first major stadium with a mechani cal retractable roof. I was present when the Dome officially opened


Continued overleaf

WPCF delegates will find Toronto to be a vibrant, modern city, well endowed with cultural amenities, restaurants,sporting and theatrical events. The city is also well served by some notable environmentalfacil ities, which are part of the tours program.

Environmental professionals might note that in 1954, Toronto became the first major city in the world to legislate a metropolitan approach to water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, arterial roads and highways, and police protection. A single legislative stroke transformed 14 municipalities into what ultima tely emerged as five cities and one borough. The resulting Metropolitan Toronto became the first to imple ment a common approach for these services, while retaining six political identities. Ironically, Metro still retains six separate fire services.

• Aeration

• • • • •

Mixing Screening Solids Handling Grit Removal/Dewatering Conveying Systems

Metro Chairman Allan Tonks will

be one of the speakers. Metro went on to phase out 18 small sewage treatment plants, and created or enlarged trunk sewers and other facilities and four major treatment plants. These include Canada's largest activated sludge facility, the Main Treatment Plant, Highland Creek in the east end,and the Humber facility in the west; the old North Toronto Plant, while still in operation is due to be phased out. Metro Toronto also has 340 km of

sewers, ranging from 600 mm to 3,050 mm in diameter. Drinking water facilities for Metro include the

• Clarifiers

• Sludge Mixing/Thickening/ Dewatering • Disinfection

• Neutralization

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipment for water and

R.C. Harris plant in the city's east end (1,000 ML/d), the R.L. Clark plant in the west end (660 ML/d), Easterly (450 ML/d), and a treat ment facility on the Toronto Islands *Steve Davey is President of the Onta rio Pollution Control Equipment Association (OPCEA)and co-founder of Environmental Science & Enginee ring.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

wastewater treatment

560 Bayview Avenue, Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X 1W1

Tel:(416) 836-9490, Fax:(416) 836-9070 For more information, Circle reply card No. 136


WPCF Conference Special tallest free-standing structure soa ring 533.33 metres. It is possible to see across Lake Ontario to the Ame

rican side, watch the mists rise from Niagara Falls, or have a panoramic view of the city — all while dining at the revolving restaurant and night club.

Virtually in the shadow of the CN Tower at Old Fort York, the grave stones of British soldiers can still be

viewed by those with a penchant for history. There has been a surge of theatrical and artistic endeavors

taking place in Toronto. Worldrenowned actors, such as Peter

The SkyDome site was occupied by a 144-year-old water pumping complex. A new, award-winning pumping facility consolidated the old 2.5 hectare network of pipes and sewers into a modern facility taking up less than .25 hectares of prime downtown real estate,to make room for the SkyDome. The resulting award-winning pumping station was completed without any loss of water service to users, and its dis tinctive architecture can be seen by delegates at the front of the Sky

O'Toole, Glenda Jackson, John Gielgud, and Maggie Smith have trod the boards at its many theatres. Not too long ago, Toronto Har


SkyDome has emerged as a cul tural, sporting, and theatrical suc cess. Frank Sinatra has played there; so has Elton John, and many other popular entertainers. Verdi's opera Aida was staged in the Dome, comprising a huge cast, a large orchestra,live elephants,and a pyra mid so large it had to be barged across Lake Ontario from the Uni ted States.

Dominating the Toronto skyline, is the slender CN Tower,the world's

bour was a wasteland of abandoned docks and industrial facilities.

Today, the downtown waterfront has evolved into a complex of yacht moorings, craft studios, boutiques, restaurants,and diverse facilities for the performing arts. Many dedicated environmental professionals have been working for years to make the conference a memorable event. ES&E extends a

warm welcome to delegates from around the world. ES&E

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors 6f Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas

Ikk \\li \£ik: .

service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fludizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning, sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 60 years.



Contact us today for free catalog! 58 Bertal Road,

HOFFMAN lii(iiistrii's of Caiiiula l.iiniti'd


Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4,416/763-4681 Fax:(416) 763-0440

For more information,


Circie reply card No. 137

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Towering 29,028 feet. Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth. Many climbers vainly tried to conquer this giant, and more than a few died in the attempt. A pair of now-famous feet were

Whose feet were they, anyway? Fill in your answer on the coupon below, and we'll send you our colourful "MSU 12-Foot Wall

Poster" Featuring The Worlds Greatest Feats... even if you don't get the correct answer.

the first to stand on the summit.

World Famous Feats Unsung rungs.From the heights to the depths MSU steps perform invisible feats daily. Take Manhole steps for instance, MSU's #360 is the only one that's been tested and listed with Underwriters Laboratories

and each one proudly bears the UL mark. And MSU's

Safety "T" Handles attach easily to all our steps. They provide safe entry

We're designers and manufacturers of our own off-the-shelf, wide range of corrosion resistant Safety Steps, Ladders, Platforms, Guard Rails, Manhole Grates. We also custom design and fabri cate special safety equipment to match your specific applications. MSU products provide maximum security and safety for climbing or descending... whether outside a tower, chimney or inside a shaft.

and exit from manholes,

We're into safetyfeetfirst.

wet wells and chambers.

Pohethxlene coated

aluminum rungs

Those are the Famous Feel ol:

Please rush me your "MSU Wall of Fame Posler" Featuring it3202

Safe access safieix handle

12 of the Worlds Greatest Feats. Name: Title:

Company: Address::



Postal Code:

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga Ontario L5J 2M4 (416) 823-4340 Fax (416)823-4947

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga, Ontario Canada L5J 2M4 MSU 1 EVEREST JB90

For more information, Circle reply card No. 122


Water Pollution Control Federation

WPCF 1991 Conference comes to Toronto

Record attendance is pre

dicted for the'91 WPCF Con

ference — the largest and oldest wastewater quality trade show and conference in North America. Being held this year in

Toronto, October 7-10, the Confer ence is expected to draw over 12,000

participants from North America and abroad. Some pre-conference events begin Oct. 5. The conference will be centred at

•New effluent and stormwater per •Effluent disinfection.

• Monitoring and measuring tech niques for hazardous wastes. of sewers.

•Wastewater instrumentation.

•Activated sludge process control. •Toxicity testing. •Bidding formats.

The opening session, October 7 at 9:30 a.m., will set the tone for the

high demand for convention space, a second display area at Toronto's

64th Annual Conference,and will be

in less than ten minutes.

Pre-conference workshops will feature:

•Safety and occupational health in wastewater facilities.

•Wastewater biology.


•Waste minimization. • Rehabilitation and maintenance

the modern Metropolitan Toronto Convention Centre. Because of the

historic Canadian National Exhibi tion has been added to provide room for all exhibitors. Conference shuttle buses will take you to either centre

1^'"" ' »-'«ypr-■-

mit regulations.

led by WPCF president Charles B. Kaiser, Jr. Keynote speakers will include Jean Charest, Federal Envi ronment Minister; Ruth Grier, Onta

The Hon. Ruth GrIer

rio's Minister of the Environment;

in which the environmental policies of our governments are taking us.

Metro Chairman Alan Tonks, and LaJuana S. Wllcher, the U.S. Envi ronmental Protection Agency's

cials focussing on the Great Lakes issues will be chaired by City of

A special session for public offi

Assistant Administrator for Water.

Toronto Councillor Tony O'Donohue,

These speakers will present the con cerns of the public and the direction

Contlnued on page 47

who is a professional engineer. Fea-




.7 ik.n;-


Fluid bed sludge incinerator with heat recovery at Lakeview STR plant in Mississauga, just west of Metro Toronto. The award-winning plant is part of the tour program. Photo courtesy G&S Limited.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Water ' the world s most precious compoun

It's proper treatment demands the best filtration methods available and here the underdrain

system plays a vital role. The ultimate system can now be obtained from EIMCO with our Flexscour'^"'filter underdraini

The unique and innovative design eliminates explosive air release and surging so that the media bed is not disrupted during backwash. Uneven media cleaning and distribution Is

The very low profile and low pressure drop allows for minimum ceil depth, again reducif^overall costs.

Maximum shop assembly, and simple field bolting requirements without grouting


substantially reduces installation time and cost.

In conjunction with proper media selection and sizing also supplied by EIMCO, this system

The EIMCO Flexscour'^'" Filter Underdrain is also

allows a reduction In overall backwash water

volume by up to 50%, resulting In greatly reduced backwash water treatment and

disposal costs.

The FI.EXSCOUR design also eliminates the need for false bottoms or supported filter deckSi there are no flow control filter nozzles to foul.

particularly adaptable to retrofit existing filter underdralns. Even the bolt-down system is designed so that existing rebar is not a problem.

EIMCO offers over 40 years of experience in the development and manufacturing of water and waste water treatment equipment and systems.

Our specialists will custom design to suit your requirements.


EIMCO Equipment A Oivfsfoii Dl Bokef Hughes Canada Inc. EIMCO PROCESS EQUIPMENT

MtssiasBuga. C^tario

16 6?!> 3 19

For more information,

L' ^

>! Circle reply card No 104


Environment Protection Laboratories ushers in

a new era in the reporting of analytical data. We call it our Value-Added Service Commitment.

In addition to offering industry-leading quality control, service and turnaround time, we also

and interpretive answers to today's complex environmental questions.

When you need analytical information of any type, call Environment Protection Laboratories. We bring a new understanding to light.

provide you with an absolutely clear interpretation

of your results. And we deliver it in a way that gives you meaningful information to help guide your key business decisions. That's Added-Value. EPL is fully equipped to provide the analytical



6850 Goreway Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1P1 Telephone (416)673-3255 FAX [416)673-7399 For more information,


Circie repiy card No. 107

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

WPCF Conference Special tured speakers will include Interna tionalJointComniission(IJC)Chair man E. Davie Fulton, (Canadian Section) and Gordon K. Durnll (U.S. Section).



,*^> V V

In addition, former Chief Plan


ner for the City of Toronto, Stephen McLaughlin, will speak on the future of the Toronto waterfront, highligh ting the necessary interaction among ecological, social, economic, and political systems. Addressing the issue of climate change and water resources will be



Dr. Kirk Dawson,Director General of the Canadian Climate Centre; and Tom Klerans a noted Canadian pro fessional engineer, will speak on recycling and reuse of Great Lakes



Along with the question and answer periods to be provided, this Public Officials Session promises to be a lively exchange of views. An InternationalRound Table on

Sustainable Development will fea ture participants from the U.S. and Canada, and be chaired by Roy F. Weston of the U.S. environmental

The Candu nuclear reactor In Pickering,just east of Metro Toronto, indicates the variety in the tour program — photo T. Davey.

world as the means of ensuring eco nomic progress and prosperity as well as a healthy environment.

engineering firm Roy F.Weston.Inc. Discussion will focus on why the Session themes scheduled for the principles of sustainable develop conference include papers on: ment are being accepted around the •Research

•Industrial wastes

•Liquid treatment processes •Sludge management •Hazardous wastes

•Collection systems Continued overleaf

The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged moving parts.

In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.

At Degremont Infilco we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have developed the self-cleaning


• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts

climber screen.

• Easy maintenance


Our climber screen is easy to install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from 1'6" to 30'0". It can discharge screen

ings at great heights and can be installed in deep channels. Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all moving parts are above water.

scraper blade

• Ease of installation


cleaning comb


V;. or U/- conveyor


mDegremont Infilco Ltd.


160-0 St. Joseph Blvd., Lachlne Quebec H8S2L3 (514)634-8011 4325 Steeles Avenue West, Downsview Ontario M3N 1V7 (416)661-5521

bar screen

300 205 - 9th Avenue S.E., Calgary Alberta T2P 0G8 (403)237-6859

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

For more information, Circle reply card No. 123


WPCF Conference Special

ForCanadian delegates,there

The Great Canadian Icebreaker

will be a special "kick-off

event. The 5th Annual Great Canadian Icebreaker takes

place on the evening of Saturday, October 5, at the fabulous Windows On Skydome restaurant. Take advantage ofthe greatly reduced air fares when travelling to Toronto by staying over at least one Saturday night and join in on this year's Ice breaker, featuring; • A full buffet supper overlooking the playing field. •The Toronto Argos/Winnipeg Blue Bombers football game. •Door prize draws. • Good Canadian fun 'til the wee, small hours!

The Canadian conference hotel

this year is located right in the Sky-

The hotel and this year's Ice breaker get together have been orga nized by Winnipeg's Bill Borlase. Tickets for the Icebreaker may be obtained from Bill at 58 McNulty Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R2M 5M4, or from Carol Brooker, 187 Rosslyn Road, Orillia, Ontario, L3V 5W2. ($30 includes G.S.T.) As a final note: All delegates are invited and challenged to participate

Royal York Hotel, the Federation luncheon guest speaker will be the Honourable E. Davie Fulton, P.C., Q.C.,and Chairman ofthe Canadian Section of the International Joint Commission.

in the Great Canadian Island Race

on Sunday, October 6 — an early morning fun 6K run/3K walk around beautiful Toronto Island. There will

be a $12.00 charge for entering this race, all profits going to the WPCF Research Foundation.Prizes

will be given to those healthy souls who make this round trip within the age and time allowance. So get fit and bring your running/walking

Dome. Make sure you state that you are Canadian and want to stay at the SkyDome when filling out your hotel registration.

shoes! Is the fastest Canadian from Edmonton or...? Be there and find

•Water quality and ecology •Infrastructure financing •Operator forums Operations staff will demonstrate

WPCF Operations Challenge on Tuesday, October 8, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.in the Industry Building

their skills in the Fourth Annual

At 12:30 p.m. on October 8,at the

out. (Details George Crawford(416) 499-9000).

at Toronto's Exhibition Place.

Allan Tonks

On Wednesday night, October 9, the WPCFDinner Dance will beheld

at the Royal York Hotel. It will be a glamorous evening offine food,ball room music, and entertainment. The Canadian conference hotel

this year is located right in the uni que SkyDome. Make sure you state that you are Canadian and wish to Continued overleaf

With the DR/2000 Spectrophotometer...


Water . analysis has never been

this easy What other system allows you to prepare your sample ' with ready-to-use reagents...dial in your parameter from over 120 preprogrammed calibrations for drinking water and wastewater...and then read results directly in concentration units? With Hach's DR/2000, you'll never have to plot calibration curves, prepare reagents, or mix standards again. To find out more, contact Hach to receive your free copy of the 1991-92 Products for Analysis catalog. Every DR/2000 is backed by Hack's proven methods, single-dose reagents, and technical support after the sale.

Complete Systems for Analysis

HACH] Insti-ument service centre in Winnipeg ■ Sales outlets throughout Canada


Loveiand, Colorado 80539 U.S.A. Telephone: 303-669-3050 Telex: 160840

FAX: 303-669-2932

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 124

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

The VictauHc system...the complete,fast, economical and reliable way to join pipe. Saving money in municipal treatment plant piping since 1925.

Sludge clean-out and maintenance are a snap. Each joint is a two-bolt

The VictauHc system not only saves substantial time during initial instaUation, it also helps reduce operation and maintenance costs. You work with only two bolts,

available for AWWA ductile or IPS

compared with 8 to 12 for flanges. No bolt hole aHgnment problems. Easy field or shop pipe preparation.

union. Add-ons, changes, and expansion are easy. Products are steel, stainless, aluminum and

PVC—even a transition coupling from ductile to steel.

Grooved end plug, butterfly, ball and check valves are installed with

two couplings. Fittings are grooved, ready for field installation. And products are available worldwide. Next municipal waste treatment,

New Vic-Plug^ valve provides exceptional flow, low maintenance, andfast, easy grooved coupling installation.

water treatment, lift station or

pump house, put the VictauHc system to work. We'U go the limit and beyond to save you time and



reduce costs.

For more information, contact

goes the limit... and beyond.

your VictauHc Distributor, or write VictauHc Company of Canada Only VictauHc has a complete line of couplings, fittings, and valvesfor AWWA ductile and IPS steel, stainless, aluminum, or PVC pipe.

Limited, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or caU 416-675-5575. FAX; 416-675-5729.

VictauUc and Vic-Plug arc registered trademarks of VictauHc Company of Canada Limited.

Š1989 Vicuulic. All rights reserved.

For more information.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 102


It'll cost you 11.5 million to get rid of this peak. So you'd better be sure it's real. All labs are not created equal. Environmental decisions you make

like a track record. In business

For you, it's a matter of confi

since 1972, we number among our clients the government agencies that set the guidelines you have to

dence. Confidence that the facts

millions of dollars.

meet—and the consultants who


Mann's Quality Assurance and Quality Control program covers all aspects of sample processing. Sample integrity is rigorously recorded and controlled. Sample processing is continually recorded and monitored by our LIMS 3000 system. Sample test results are me ticulously validated via fortification studies, extraction blanks, analysis of replicates and much more. Assign your most important and challenging environmental testing

helped them set the guidelines.

based on less than reliable labora

tory results could cost you

you asked for are the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the

To find out how Mann Testing Laboratories can be of service to

you, call us at(4l6)890-2555- Or fax your request to(4l6)890-0370. Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z IPl.

The difference between accu rate and Mann-accurate is a matter

work to Mann. We are one of the

of experience, a matter of obses

few Canadian laboratories work

sive attention to detail, a matter of


ing in this field that has anything

pride in doing things right.


For more information,


Circle reply card No. 105

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

WPCF Conference Special stay at the SkyDome when filling out your hotel registration. Addi tional information may be obtained by contacting the WPCF Conference Hotline at(703)684-2464.

Inspection trips to the following facilities have been arranged: •The 820,000 mVd(216 MGD)Main treatment plant in Metro Toronto. •The 430,000 m^/d(114 MGD)water pollution control facility in Hamil

system and the Eastern Beaches stormwater holding tank. • The Limnos, an Environment Canada lake research vessel.

•The nuclear generating station in Pickering. • The Halton Sludge Agricultural Land Utilization Program. The guest program will feature visits to Casa Loma,the Royal Onta


rio Musemn,the Ontario Art Gallery, the McMichael Art Gallery, and the Ontario Science Centre, as well as Niagara Falls. Walking tours of historic Toronto, and several shop ping trips, are planned. As well, you and your guest are invited to parti cipate in early morning walks or jogs along "the boardwalk" and the Martin Goodman Trail. ES&E

For additional information contact:

•The 340,000 mVd (90 MGD)Lakeview water pollution control facility

WPCF Conferences & Expositions Department 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1994 Telephone:(703) 684-2443 or 2415

in South Peel.

•The 182,000 mVd(48 MGD)Duffins Creek water pollution control plant

FAX:(703) 684-2492

in York-Durham.

•The Ford waste treatment facility in Oakville.

Drive reliability and efficienq^ that never gets watered down. Charles B. Kaiser

•The Dofasco waste treatment faci

lity at the steel works in Hamilton. •The Metro Toronto industrial waste

laboratory. • The Canada Centre for Inland Waters.

• The City of Toronto's collection

Ls Canada's largest supplier of drives to the water/wastewater industry, we can pro vide you with long-term, trouble-free drive performance. No matter what the application, •A.'Yi


Toronto Island, a peaceful haven off shore from the bustle of Downtown

from clarifiers to comminutors, from bar screens to belt presses, we can ensure a constant or adjustable speed drive or gearmotor with a ratio, capacity and configuration that's perfectly matched to the job. Only Eurodrive custom assembles every drive here in Canada. So not only is it going


and perfect for The Great Canadian Island Race — photo T. Davey.

to be more reliable over the long-run, it's also going to deliver maximum efficiency with minimum energy consumption. And since we have more plants, offices and engineering specialists across Canada, we can configure and deliver a custom drive, faster. Choosing Eurodrive means you can rely on one nationwide manufacturer for all drive and

motor components, engineering assistance, technical support and around-the-clock service. Send for detailed literature.

Customer Service/Assembly Centres

Customer Service Centres

Toronto - From area code (4)6): I-800-387-2461

Riverview, N.B.-(506) 387-4058 Winnipeg "(204)257-1876

All other areas: 1-800-387-2420 Montreal - 1-800-361-2928 Vancouver - 1-800-972-5481

Sudbury-(705)983-2460 Edmonton -(403)438-2175


For more Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 117


Introducing the CENTRIPRESS™ Advanced Dewatering System.(ADS) The new CENTRIPRESS™ ADS Series

design increases capacity by up to 50% when compared with an original CENTRIPRESS™ System of comparable size.

Here's what's new about the


• Improved design of feed and polymer addition systems. • Up to 50% more throughput per machine size with "High Solids" performance.

This is significant since the original CENTRIPRESS™ System has set the standard of performance in "High Solids" dewatering since 1986.

• Lower power consumption per GPM

The new technology has been developed and proven in full scale sewage operations in Europe, and is now available in the U.S. exclusively with the Humboldt

• Decreased space requirements.


of feed.

• Higher torque capability.

• Offered in a range of capacity sizes to match your plant flow needs.

Look into this improved technology before you write your next dewatering specification.

Look to Humboldt technology for better performance. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 118 52

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


'''' \



Introducing the BIOLIFT Advanced Thickening System. A patented process which brings new technology and new levels of performance to WAS thickening. The BIOLIFT System is highly adaptable and can handle a wide range of flow rate

Here's what's new about the

BIOLIFT* System: • Positive air pulse control of solids discharge. • Minimal sludge blanket in clarification zone for better recovery.

consuming shutdowns.

• Closed-loop, fully automatic control adjusts to changing feed conditions.

Performance of the BIOLIFT System is automated to require little or no operator

• Increased capacity with lower power consumption.

and feed concentrations without time-


• Single unit capacities to 1500 GPM.

Look to BIOLIFT technology for more costeffective WAS thickening.

* Patent applied for.

SEE US AT WPCF BOOTH 2315 Humboldt Decanter Inc.

3200 Pointe Parkway, Norcross, GA 30092 (404)448-4748, FAX (404) 448-1391



Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


WPCF Conference Special

Exhibitor Listings A.O. Smith Harvestore Products

4229 4323

ABBA Parts/Dracay Abel Pumps Corp.

1523 4121

American American American American

Accusonic DIv., ORE Int'l.

5306 5400

Amkrete R.V. Anderson

A-Lok Products, Inc.

AGS Environmental

AD+SOIL, Inc. ADI International Inc.

3516 1802

ADS Environmental Services Inc.


The ADVENT Group, Inc.


Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc. Aeration Industries Int'l. Aercor


AERO-MOD, Inc. Aeromix Systems, Incorporated

Ag-Chem Equipment Co., Inc. Aim USA/Aim Safety Company Inc.

1535 4127 3718 3531 4427 1550

Cyanamid Company Logiball, Inc. Sigma, inc. Surfpac Corporation

1515 2400 3627 3421 1423 1423 4827

Andritz-Ruthner, Inc.

APCO/Valve & Primer Corp. Applied Microsystems Ltd. Aquamag, Inc. Aquatrol Corporation ARI Technologies, Inc.

3818 1241 1303 3832 5131 1707

Aries Industries, Inc.

Arizona Instrument Corporation Arjay

2431 1435

1929, 4005

Arlat Inc. Armour Valve Ltd.

5401 3609

Air Products and Chemicals Airco Gases


Airrigation Engineering Co. AK Industries

3101 5226 1807

Asdor, Edwards and Jones Group Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley Associated Design & Mfg. Co. Atara Corporation Atlantic Ultraviolet Corp.

Allen-Bradley Company


Aurora Pump


American Air Filter

2450 2405 1703

Austgen Biojet Waste Water Sys. Auto Crane Company

5113 5414

Avanti International


Babcock Davis Hatchways, Inc. Bacharach, Inc. Bachmann FHE, Inc.

5220 2407


American City & Country Mag. American Concrete Pipe Assoc.


Manager, Groundwater Resources Engineering Gore & Storrie Limited is a leading Canadian consult

ing engineering company dedicated to providing

4901, 5009, 5101

Badger Meter Industrial DIv. Bailey Canada Inc. Barnes Pumps Inc.

1551 3112 1415

2500 4307 2323 3327

excellence in environmental engineering and scientific services for industries and municipalities in Canada and abroad.

Tills vacancy within the new hydrogeology section, located in Kingston, Ontario, requires a mature engi neer with direct experience in the consulting engineer ing practice of water resources engineering in North America. The incumbent is expected to fulfil l a multi ple role of business development, technical activity, and division management. Major activities will include the application of surface and sub-surface computer models for simulation of water quantity and quality phenomena; as well as communication and manage ment of specified technical and business objectives within the Groundwater Resources Engineering Div ision. Travel is a routine consequence of technical activities. The successful candidate will have a Bachelor level

BARRINGER LABORATORIES Services For The Earth And Environmental Sciences"

Baninger is a fuU service laboratory specializing in Environmental Analytical Services for Environmental Consultants, Industry and the Private Sector. We offer precision analysis with highly experienced and knowledgeable staff and rapid turn-around of results. Barringer's services extend throughout Ontario with environmental laboratories located in Mississauga, Kirkland Lake and Thunder Bay and other regional laboratories and sample reception offices located in Red Lake,Pickle Lake, Timmins and Prescott, Ontario.

degree in Civil or Environmental Engineering or Applied Science and a minimum Master level degree in Water Resources or Environmental Engineering or an equiva lent Applied Science program. A high degree of facility with Karsttopography groundwater analysis is required, including analysis of salt water intrusion and contami nant transport problems, as well as six or more years direct technical experience and progressively increa sing supervisory responsibilities. A U.S. Professional Engineer (P.Eng.) registration in the State of Florida (or a State having reciprocity with Florida) is required. Registration and prior experience in the State of Florida is preferred. Interested candidates sliould forward resumes to:

Ms. J.A. Starchuk, C.H.R.P., Manager, Fluman Resour ces, Gore & Storrie Limited, 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, M2J 586, or Fax:(416) 499-4687.











For Further Information and Fee Schedule

Call or Fax: Todd Henry Tel:(416)890-8566 Fax:(416)890-8575 Or Toll Free 1-800-263-9040 For more information,


Circle reply card No. 119


Engineered water and j[

wastewater treatment

equipment FMC provides practical solutions to your equip ment needs with one of the most complete lines of water and wastewater treatment equipment available. Our product design and development is the result of over 70 years experience with installations across North America and around the world.

The FMC equipment line includes: screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit collec tors, rectangular sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, flocculation

equipment, rotary distributors and auxiliary equipment. You can rely on FMC to meet your equipment requirements. Consult with us. FMC of Canada Limited, Material Handling Operation, 650 Hood Road,



Markham Ontario L3R 4S7

'ÂŤ5*ÂŁki in

(416) 474-7500 FAX (416) 474-7542

-FMC For more information, Circle reply card No. 106


As a recognized leader in environmental testing, CANVIRO Labs exclusively

uses Gas Chromatography/

Mass Spectrometry (GO/MS) for organic analysis. Clients have come to expect our

dependable, high quality results.

CANVIRO Labs now

Introduces its High Resolution Mass


capabilities. With enhanced selectivity, the contaminant of concern Is more

accurately pinpointed and quantitated. With heightened sensitivity, lower concentrations can be

seen to meet stringent

regulatory guidelines. For example, the Federal Government now requires

HRMS analysis to meet dioxin

and furan guidelines. For moi

...HRMS services from CANVIRO Labs.


For more information.

Circle reply card No. 101

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd. 50 Bathurst Dr., Unit 12, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2C5


Phone; 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

WPCF Conference Special Barringer Laboratories


BC Researchr Berlie Steel Products Ltd. BFGoodrlchi Co.

1423 1414

BIF/Leeds & Northrup The Bilco Company Bio Gro Systems, Inc. Bloprlme, Ltd. Bird Machine Company Bornemann Pumps Canada Ltd.

4731 5216


3407 1900 4418

ujalher laboratories


Brentwood Industries



Brown Bear Corporation



BTG, Inc.


The Budd Company, Polychiem Div. C.R.S. Technologies CAB Incorporated


GALVERT Environmental

4311 3037

Gamp Dresser & McKee Inc. Canada, DIS&T


1423, 1435, 1523, 3927

Canadian Drives Inc.

Ground Water


Surface Water

Reg. 309


Sewer Use Bylaws

Canbar Inc.


Capital Controls Company, Inc. CARLON, Fluid Systems Division Garus Chemical Company

2335 1545 4213

Decomissioning Guidelines


Soils & Sediments

Liquid Waste


OBI Walker, Inc. Chem-Pruf Door Co.

4521 5026

TELEPHONE OR FAX Alan Parker or Harold Laser

Ghemgrate Corporation Chemlneer-Kenics

3405 3413


Chemtrac Systems, Inc.


Gherne Industries Incorporated Ghevon Delcing Technology




PHONE:(416) 227-1158 FAX: 680-1916 For more information, Circle reply card No. 129

The Multi-Media Approach; Integrated Environmental

1 u a:


u 2 2





Protection November 25 & 26,1991 Four Seasons, Inn on the Park

< 2

q:: D en c/)

s z

o (X

IVlarkland Sludge Depth Meter

innovative environmental techonoiogies and progress on research projects funded through the Research Advi sory Committee of Environment Ontario. The conterenece will be of parllcular Interest to environmental groups and consultants, Industry, municipalities, provincial and federal


grovernments, as well as universities and research Institu tions, Research in the fields of air pollution, water quality,

U liquid and solid waste, analytical methods and instrument X development, environmental soclo-economics, multimedia u contaminants and biotechnology will be presented among x X six new session themes and in poster displays. X A panel discussion entitled "Who Owns the Garbage" is o scheduled tor November 26.






For Further Information

> 2

Automatic desludging maximizes sludge concentration & reduces sludge disposal cost

Toronto, Ontario

This conference serves as a forum for presenting -1


Please contact: Conference Secretariat C/5 X


''/o Congress Canada, 191 Niagara Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada IvlSV 1C9

Attention: Jacqueline Tait Telephone:(416) 860-1772• Fax:(416) 860-0380

Environment Environnement




VISIT OUR WPCF BOOTH #1423 For more information,

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 128

Circle reply card No. 130


WPCF Conference Special DBS Manufacturing Deep Shaft Technology Inc. Degremont Ltee. Dehydro-Tech Corporation DeZURIK a Unit of Gen. Signal Diemme Spe Dorr-Oliver Environmental Sys. Drexelbrook Engineering Go.

4921 2611 1423 3505 3502 1403 3221

Du Pont

4110 1906

Duall Division of Met-Pro Corp.



3321 5117

Eagle Microsystems Eaglebrook, Inc. Eco Equipment EES Corporation Eimco Process Equip. Co.


3009 2228 4306 4421 3738

Ekofinn Bioclere Inc. Emerson Industrial Controls

1601 3132

Engineering News-Record Engineering Science


ENMET Analytical Instruments


Envirex Inc.

4511 4013

Enviro-Care Company Environ. Systems Div. Purafil


Tfie Operations Challenge is always an exciting event.

Environetics, Inc. Environment Today

Clow Valve Company/Pac. States


Environment/One Corp.

Columbian Steel Tank Company


Conservatek Industries Inc.


Environmental PROTECTION Environmental Resource Assoc.

Consolidated Electric Company Containment Systems Control Microsystems Inc.

3501 4230

Environmental Science & Engineering Mag.


Environmental Tech. Investment


3927 3013


Corporation Mabarex Inc.

3731 1238

5119 3517 4312

Co Vent Inc.


Enviroquip, Inc. The ERM Group Eutek Systems Fairbanks Morse Pump Corp.

CRC Press Inc./Lewis Pub. Creative Pultrusions, Inc.


Fiberglass Structures & Tank


Fischer & Porter Co.

Cretex Specialty Products CROM-RSB

3526 5207

CUES, Inc. Dakota Pump, Inc.


Danby of North America, Inc.


Flomatic Corporation FlowMole Corporation Fluid Components, Inc. Flygt Corp. FMC Corporation


3838 2429

5305 1945 4503 2301 4807 3726 5304 5126 4527 3213

STATIFLO Motionless Mixers • Mix without moving parts • Virtually maintenance free • Low pressure drop

•Simple Mixing and Blending. Laminar and turbuient flow,

with high and low viscosities. • Dispersion and Emulsion formation. Uniform shear

> No moving parts for virtually maintenance free operation. • Low energy consumption. 'Improved process control and product quality.

characteristics resuiting in predictable droplet size. ' Heat Transfer and Chemical Reactions. Laminar flow

• Saves ctiemicals, eliminates

overdosing. • Minimal space requirement. • Low capital cost. • Completely sealed system.

heat exchange for viscous and heat sensitive liquids. Approaches ideal plug flow.

Manufactured in all Industry standard materials.

STATIFLO For more information,


Circle reply card No. 131

Offices in the U.K. and U.S.A.

STATIFLO INC. 2175 Sheppard Ave., E.,Suite 203, Willowdale,Ont. M2J1W8 (416) 756-2406, Fax:(416) 490-6937 Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Armtec gates meet the rigourous demands of water control. Armtec is a world-wide

Armtec Water Control Products:

industry leader in the design and manufacture of

•Heavy Duty Sluice Gates (AWWAC501)

precision water control gates.

•Fabricated Slide Gates

Our more than 75 years experience has gained for

•Flap Gates •Radial and Roller Gates •Overshot Gates •Miscellaneous Gates and Accessories

us an international

reputation of producing high quality gates and accessories for sewage piants, water treatment projects, flood control, power plants, and irrigation. Armtec's wide range of gate products will help you


Gate Construction: •Cast Iron •Galvanized •Painted Carbon Steel •Aluminum

•Stainless Steel

control or divert flow or maintain critical water

Gate Operation:

levels. For design assistance


and more information, please contact your nearest

•Hydraulic •Electric •Automated Control

Armtec Sales Office.


UTJTkl water Control Products

Formerly Armco Westeel

Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge, Reglna, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Stratford,Guelph, Toronto, Ottawa, St. Augustin, Beloeil, Dartmouth, Sackvllle, St. John's, Bishop's Falls and Fresno, California. For more information, Circle reply card No. 108

An All-Canadian Company


It takes a rugged breed to survive the vast wastes of the American west, and the Asdor Archimedes Screw Pump Is as rugged as they come.

57'long and driven by 350 horse motors, were selected for the headworks expansion of the existing enclosed screw pump station. Of the 35,000 screw pumps supplied world wide In the past 60 years. In excess of 25,000 wear the brand from Asdor and Its licensor, Spaans Babcock-the originator of the modern day screw pump. Asdor's stable Includes a wide range of reliable Archimedes workhorses,from compact 24" diameter units, to the world's largest screw pump of

Asdor was one of the only two companies to survive the showdown at the Hyperion Treatment Plant, where manufacturers were put through an exhaustive prequallflcatlon process. Asdor Is supplying the 870,000 gpm pumping station with ten 150" diameter pumps,each 51'long and driven by 600 horse motors. When the Donald C. Tlllman Water

180" diameter.

Reclamation Plant was having problems, the plant posted Asdor on their 'Most Wanted List'. Four opentype,102" diameter pumps, each

To find out more about How The Waste

Was Won,send for your package of Asdor's full color case histories and

specifications. A PRESENTATION BY


870,000 GPM

North American(


licensee of r


"We build pumps that last"

1255 Nicholson Road

Newmarket, ON L3Y 7V1 171 Ridgedale Avenue


Florham Park, NJ 07932


12 @ 96"0

8 @ up to 68"0



21 @122-0 3@1O2"0

@ 150"0 4 @ 102"0





6 @ 128"0

25 @ up to 128"0


8 @114-0

For more information, 60

Circle reply card No. 103

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

WPCF Conference Special


|ll5^1 15^18^16^ 184^118^ IBsJ 1 135 1137 113B 1141






1234 1238 1238 1240 20



1235 1237 123S 1241


1207 1302





20 30

1334 1338 1338 1340 20









20 30




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1601 1803





1745 30







1845 20

40 "


10 30











1945 20

















2145 20






2315 2345

t loij"240^2405|"2407l"2401l|"24 0^250^2504^2B0^250ej23

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35|"243^2439j'24 253^253^253^2540







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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept 1991


Convention Centre Floor Plan a r





»n 0

3635 3734

3033 3132,

3433 SB32

3127 » a



S73» 3*3«






3633 3732

363 7 6630

4133 4232








3427 3826

3423 3622

3629 3726




3627 3726


4127 4226

3623 3622

3623 3722



n —

3023 3122


4123 4222

P 3621 3720


3021 AIM




4116 4216




bcm * I

r lOli I


3213 3016







° □




3617 3616

3313 401^ 14112


3011 3110

4011 4110

<1 Ixnc



3006 AID*




3006 3104

4107 4206 3604


,0 •








3001 3100


/ 1


Exhibitors H. Fontaine Ltd.


Force Flow Equipment


Ford W. Hall Co.-ASA

2613 5409

Formulabs, Inc. Fosroc Inc.

FRAMGO Aeration & Mixing Co. Franklin Miller, Inc. GA Industries, Inc.

Gardiner Equipment Co., Inc. Gartner Lee Ltd.

Geneq Inc. General Chemical Corp. G.E.T. industries P.A. Glazier, Inc. Globe '92

Godwin Pumps of America, Inc. Gore & Storrle Limited

Gorman-Pupp Goulds Pumps Inc., WTG

4426 4526 4220

1523 3027

H.I.L. Technology Inc. Hach Company Halllday Products Inc.


Hankin Environmental Systems P.J. Hannah Hansen Software Inc.

4315 1334 2621

Hayward Gordon Ltd. Hayward Industrial Products


Hazleton Environmental Prod.


3828 3733 1435 2423 3506 4431


Healy-Puff Company

5300 3519

1523 1652

Hitachi Maxco, Ltd.


Hoffman Air & Filtration Sys. Homa Pump Corporation HSQ Technology

4412 1223

Humboldt Decanter Inc.

2315 2501

2252 1123 5311 3917 2222

Government of Ontario


Groth Corporation



G&S Analytical Gundle Lining Systems

Hydra-Tech Pumps, Inc. Hydro Dynamics Ltd. Hydroflo Corporation

lit Pesearch Institute


1137 5410 1800

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Convention Centre Floor Plan CONCESSiON



4739 4939

4939 4939




4233 4332



4227 4329

4223 4322

5027 5129


4323 4422






5127 5239


5123 5222


119 5219

4415 4215


5015 5115 5214


.. 4711

□ 4211

5215 5314

5315 5414

5213 9312




5415 5514


4909 1109 5209





5207 9309



4703 4801


5405 5504

5103 5202

5401 S5O0












Exhibitors Imaging & Sensing Technoiogy infiico Degremont inc. insltuform of North America

international Process Systems

1553 4107

1635, 1745

iSCO Environmental Division

5030 4721

iseki, inc.


ITT Fluid Technology Corp. Jaeger Products, Inc.

4821 3734

Lantec Products, Inc.


Lapeyre Stair, Inc. Lemna Corporation F.B. Leopold Co., Inc. Leopold & Stevens, Inc. Lite Cycle Engineering, Inc. Liquid Air Corporation Liquid Metronics



1201 3019

5203 5127 2508 3620 5313 2507

John Meunier Inc.


Johnson Yokogawa Corporation

1235 1615

M-E-C Company


Macola, Inc.

JWP Energy & Environment K-F Environmental Technologies Kaye Instruments Keystone Valve USA, Inc. Knapp Polly Pig, Inc. Komax Systems, Inc.


Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Manning Products - TN Tech. Marine & Industrial Hydraulics Markland Specialty Marsh-McBirney, Inc. Mayco Pump Corp.

2151 5405

Kom line-Sanderson

1935 1600

JWC Environmental

Krotta Engineering Corporation KSB, Inc.

KWH Pipe Canada Ltd. Lakeside Equipment Corporation The Lamson Corporation

5111 2509 3431 2250 3630

3313 5412 4003 4009

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

McCrometer Div. of Ketema

MGI Pumps Incorporated Microbics Corporation Miller Pipeline Corporation Mllltronics, Inc. Milton Roy Company

4226 1503 1423

3612 3126 1650 3527 2534 4131 5031 3739


WPCF Conference Special 3031 2345

Phillips Driscopipe, Inc. Phipps & Bird PHOENIX Process Equipment Co. Pipe Liners, Inc.


Pitt-Des Moines, Inc.

1523 4415

Plastics Pipe Institute Plexco/Spirolite Chevron Chem.

Exhibitors Morrison Molded Fiber Glass Co.

Motorola Commun. & Electron. MSA

MSR Magmeter Mfg. Munters Corporation F.E. Myers N-Viro Energy Systems Ltd.

Natgun Corporation National Clay Pipe Institute NEC Valves Neotronics N A Inc.

Netzsch, Inc. Newman Hattersley Ltd. Norctiem Industries

5021 3618 3728 1338 3606 1135 2135 4931


Pollution Control Inc.

3837 4328 4332 3121 5109

Pollution Engineering Pollution Equipment News Poly-Flex, Inc. Poly-hi Division of Menasha Polysonics

4333 2251


PORI International, Inc.


1803 3530

Preso Industries Proctor & Redfern

3628 1423 1350 2514

3600 4231 4432

NRG Co., Inc.


Pro-Dyne Equipment, Inc.

NSW Corporation Nutechi Environmental Corp. Oil Mop, Inc.

3514 4108 1453

ProMinent Fluid Controls Ltd. Public Works Publications Pulsafeeder

Omni'Sleeve Div.

3118 1501 4739 5411

Puma Engineering, Inc. Purac Engineering, Inc. Quad Environmental Tech. Corp. RACO Mfg. & Eng. Co., Inc.


Rain for Rent

3939 3827

Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited RDP Company


Red Valve Co., Inc.


Peacock, Inc.


Renewable Earth Products

Penn Valley Pump Co., Inc. Pepcon Systems, Inc. Peroxidation Systems, Inc. Philadelphia Mixers Corp.

4538 3619 1251 3417

Rennel Machinery, Inc. RJN Computer Services, Inc. Robbins & Myers, Inc. Robicon Corporation

1801 3104

Omnidata International, Inc.

Orbisphere Laboratories, Inc. Orion Research, Inc.

Owen Engineering & Mgt. Cons. Parkson Corporation Peabody Myers Corp. Peabody TecTank, Inc.

4207 2223 2505 1351 4106 3420 2145 2529 2329

5027 4403 3120


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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

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Environmental Science & Engineering. Sept. 1991

Reodiger Pittsburgh, Inc. Roots Division, Dresser Ind. Rosemount Inc., Varec Div. Ross Hill Controls Corporation Roy F. Weston, Inc. Royce Instrument Corp. Sanitaire - Water Poll. Cont.

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Thunderline Corporation Tnemec Company, Inc. Trojan Technologies, Inc. Troy Valve Turblex/Semblex Companies Tuthill Corporation/M-D Pneum. Tyler Pipe Industries, Inc. U.S. Foundry & Manufacturing Ultra Dynamics Corporation Ultrasystems Engin. & Constr. Unifilt Corporation

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

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Wastewater Technology Centre goes private Environment Canada's Wastewater

Technology Centre(WTC)has hegun an innovative commercialization

experiment by becoming a govern ment-owned, contractor operated (GOCO) facility. Recent Treasury Board approval gave RockCliffe Research ManagementIncorporated (RRMI)the contract to manage the laboratory until March 31,1994. RockCliffe Research Manage ment Inc., a wholly owned subsi diary of RockCliffe Research and Technology Incorporated, perceived the WTC site as suitable for the

GOCO effort because of its preemi nence in the environmental protec tion industry. Under the GOCO arrangement, all existing WTC staff become employees of RockCliffe Research Management Inc. During the 33 month trial period, the government employees will he on leave without pay while maintaining their status in the public service. Once the GOCO trial period is completed, these individuals will be given the opportunity to return to active gov ernment employment within the public sector or continue with the contracting company.

As employees in the new com pany, all the WTC staff have the opportunity to participate in a profitsharing program. The agreement between the federal government and RockCliffe states that the employees will receive 20% of all profits genera ted from WTC's activities in the glo bal marketplace. For managing WTC's commercia lization and marketing activities, RockCliffe will be paid an annual contract fee of$150,000 from Indus try,Science and Technology(half of which will be spent at WTC on mar keting), as well as 45% ofthe profits. The remaining 35% ofthe profits will be given to the federal government which has agreed to send a portion

include advanced wastewater treat

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form of additional monetary sup port to R&D projects. Specific projects carried out for the federal government by WTC will he approved by Environment Can ada's newly established Burlington Environmental Technology Office (BETO). The primary objective of research projects flowing through

realizing the goal of virtual elimina tion oftoxics. A two-phase approach has been taken: assessing industrial sectors and plants where advanced technologies could be implemented and demonstrating these advanced wastewater treatment technologies at pilot and full scale. A major focus of the WTC's Resi due Management Program is the development of technologies and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Spill Management

By Cliff Holland*

Never assume is the first ruie with hazardous materiais

Today,more people are be

lished to instill fear in those that

coming involved with res ponding to hazardous mate

respond to spills. This fear or excite

rial incidents. The aware

use of news articles, pictures, video footage, and the demonstration of

ness ofdangerous goods has brought an influx of new personnel into such areas as police, fire, utilities, indus try, support and resource services. Many of these people have been promoted or appointed to responsible roles with little experience. As a result, the first rule in handling a hazardous material has been over looked — never assume.

Organized response teams began responding to spills long before the mandatory labelling, placarding,

and material safety data sheet sys

ment is further stimulated with the

chemical reactions.

passing overhead...but someone for got tbe "flash point". The vapor clouds or plumes tend to spread out like oil on water,and in most cases the problem is not being quantified to the volume spilled.The

Never assume

Never assume...the person has authorization to be in the area.

Never assume...the fire truck with flashing lights can provide the expertise to handle the situation.

Never assume...the worker doesn't know what the properties of the chemi cal are. Never assume...the chemical Is stable.

Never assume...the vapors are not toxic. Never assume...the leaking container is of good integrity. Never assume...the job is routine. Never assume...your instructions are fully understood.

Therefore,the first rule at a hazardous material Incident \s...Never Assume. tems made the cautionary informa tion more apparent. Training was To further enhance the sensation people making these statements for the most part, shared informa of awareness training, people begin don't have enough hands-on expe tion developed by knowledgeable to believe (not understand) state rience and knowledge to assess the individuals and taught at special ments such as: probable hazards of a substance or colleges or on site. The procedure for the potential byproducts. • Hazardous materials are going to approaching unknown chemicals The first rule in handling hazar and situations was to approach with hurt you; dous materials becomes more clou • Roll-up doors on the back of trucks a high level of awareness. Learning ded and obscure as the new responto be your own safety officer and are going to cause an explosion; and der begins his training. Few of the • Don't go near the chemical, the being aware of team members' abi "how-to-do's" are taught. Instead, lity to function clearly were also plume will knock you down (out level "A" response and sitedoors). important factors. The most impor management to the disaster level is tant rule is never assume anything, These statements may be true in the focus. As a result, spills are not including that the placards or the specific instances, but they are not handled as well as many debriefings well qualified. If you know and res label on the container are correct. would bave us believe, and the These are only indicators — human pect the properties of the chemical apprenticeship system is non-exis error may be causing the problem. you are working with, you won't get tent. The countermeasures for envi Within the last two years, promo hurt. However, if you assume you ronmental impact procedures be tional and training materials are know,and you assume nothing could come muddling processes. The leaning more to the sensational and go wrong, you could get killed. newly trained responder or site co disaster aspects of hazardous mate The truck's roll-up doors are a ordinator is best qualified to secure potential source of ignition, so is the site, not let anybody in,evacuate rial incidents. The serious common your clothing, and a thunderstorm sense approaches are being embel the area and make risk assumptions

based on bear-say rather than under standing and facts. Recently, at a tanktruck rollover, an individual with more than 25

years of tanktruck and railcar res ponse experience stopped at the police line and identified himself to an officer. He was told all was well

and proceeded on to work. Nine hours into the incident, the same man was phoned and asked to aid in the transfer and to do the site resto ration. The site co-ordinators and res

ponse agencies who are responding to hazardous material incidents are

assuming a lot of expertise to let a person of this calibre slip by. Remember the rules are the same.

The profile is higher. Homeowners In York Region responded enthusiastically to a 'drop off week end' for paints and other hazardous household wastes. Laldlaw staff sorted out the various wastes with courtesy and efficiency. Photo: T. Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991



'Spill Management Inc. 71

R&D News Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater

A pump-and-treat facility has been operating for several years treating contaminated groundwater near VilleMercier,Quebec. A joint paper by scientists from the Wastewater Technology Centre, the University of Sherhrooke, and the SNC Group describing research on improve ments to this facility, was presented by M. Halevy at the 74th Canadian

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research & Control Dioxin and Furan Analysis

A paper published in Environmental Science and Technology by E.J. Reiner, D.H. Schellenbery and V.Y. Taguchi, describes a mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction technique for the analysis

ted water and corrosion tubercles.

Corrosion tubercles contained grea ter numbers of coliforms than did

the untreated supply or treated water. The authors suggest that corrosion tubercles may be an unrea lized vector in the transmission of

certain waterbome diseases to poten tial risk groups. CTMP Wastewater Toxicity D.A.Richardson of Water and Earth

Sciences Associates Ltd.,and Natio-

Chemical Conference. Bench and

nal Research Council scientists E.

pilot scale physical-chemical studies demonstrated the need for a two-step process. The first step, the removal ofinorganics prone to precipitation, was readily effected by aeration in a bubble column followed by filtration. The second step,comprising air strip ping, successfully resulted in pro duct water meeting Environment Quebec drinking water objectives.

Andras and K.J. Kennedy, tested the toxicity of chemi-thermomechanical pulping (CTMP) wastewaters in batch assays and in anae robic sludge blanket reactors. In batch serum bottle tests, particulate constituents were responsible for 80-

Removal of Organochlorine Compounds

An upflow alum-flocculated algae photobioreactor wasinvestigated by University of Western Ontario scien tists X.F. Wu and N. Kosaric for

removal oftoxic chlorinated organic

compounds, chlorobenzene and 2,4dichlorophenol. Gravity-concen trated suspension-centrifuged, and alum-flocculated algae biomass cul tures of Chlorella and Scenedesmus were used. As described in Water

Science and Technology, chloro benzene disappeared faster than 2,4dichlorophenol. Relative rates of removal were greater by the live than by the dead algae biomass.The continuous upflow photobioreactor system was found to be efficient, versatile, adaptable, and easy to operate for removal and biodegradation of these organochlorine compounds. PCBs In Ontario Lakes

Trent University scientists measu red the concentration of nineteen

PCB congeners in biota, sediments, water, and suspended solids in four central Ontario lakesin which atmos

pheric deposition was the major source of PCB contamination. As described in the Canadian Journal

of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, C.R. MacDonald and C.D. Metcalfe

found that input from the atmos phere resulted in total congener con centrations of 1-2 ng/L dissolved in water, 10-50 /Ug/kg (dry weight) in sediment,5-10 pg/kg(wet weight)in biota from lower trophic levels, and 10-30 pg/kg(wet weight)in fish from upper trophic levels. The dominant PCBs were those expected from con

gener distributions reported for PCBs in the atmosphere. 72



of all tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans developed by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment using a triple quadrupole mass spectrome ter. Optimization of the instrumen tal parameters using the analyte of interest in a direct insertion probe resulted in sensitivities approaching those obtainable by high-resolution mass spectrometric methods. All congeners of dioxins and furans were detected in the femtogram range. The technique used to opti mize the instrument was also adap table to other analytes. Anaerobic Sludge Flocculatlon This study was conducted by S.R. Guiot and colleagues of the Biotech nology Research Institute to eva luate the capability of sulfonated lignin to induce the flocculation of anaerobic sludge in upflow wastewater treatment using synthetic sugar waste. As described in Water Science and Technology, the addi tion ofa spentliquor rich in sulfona ted lignin from a neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping plant, resul ted in pre-granulation of the anae robic sludge containing a signifi cantly larger particle size distribu

90% of the inhibition of acetoclastic

activity, and the soluble (fines-free) fraction accounted for 10-20%.

However, as described in Water Science and Technology, similar tests using two-stage anaerobic sludge blanket reactor systems for 140 days, failed to demonstrate a significant difference although the fines-free reactor was superior throughout. Acid Mine Drainage Control of acid-mine drainage from tailings areas is one of the most serious environmental issuesfacing many base metal,gold,and uranium mine operators. In a paper presented atthe 74th Canadian Chemical Con

ference, CANMET scientist M.G. Townsend described RATAP which

provides a model for predicting the long-term potential of acid, toxic base metal, and arsenic generation in tailings porewater and seepage. The model can also be used for eva

luating the effects of alternate closeout concepts. The user-friendly pro gram is available for general use.

tion than in the control. In addition,

Contaminant Plume In a Sand Aquifer A natural gradient tracer experi ment was conducted by M. Rivett and S. Feenstra in a sand aquifer at

the sulfonated lignin supplementa

a field site at C.F.B. Borden. As des

tion slighfly enhanced the specific metabolic activities of the biomass.

cribed to delegates at the 74th Cana dian Chemical Conference, the con

Mlcroblal Corrosion In Water Systems

taminant was located below the

The purpose ofa study by University of Alberta scientists K.M.E. Emde, D.W. Smith and R. Facey, was to determine if microorganisms could be considered a significant contri butor to distribution system corro sion where year-round water tempe ratures remain near freezing. As described in a paper accepted for

publication in Water Research, ini tial evidence indicates that a hetero

geneous population of potentially corrosive microorganisms was pre sent in untreated supply water,trea

water table and consisted of a regu lar block of native sand mixed with a residual content of chlorinated

solvents commonly encountered as groundwater contaminants. This project undertaken by the Univer sity of Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, provides the first opportunity to study the evolution of a dissolved phase plume from a con tinuous source in detail and provides valuable insights into the formation of plumes at real spill sites. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

FOUR PERFORMANCE PROVEN TECHNIQUES TO RENOVATE, REPLACE, REPAIR AGING PIPES AND MANHOLES Corroding pipes, decaying manholes and collapsing pipe systems. For municipalities and industries alike, these are some of the messier facts of life and the replacement process can create problems of its own. IGL Canada offers four efficient and convenient solutions.

INSITUFORM NO-DIG PIPE REPLACEMENT Pipeline rehabilitation for any pipe shape sized from 100mm to 2,500+mm diameter. The

Instituform technique installs a structural, seamless "pipe within a pipe" with a nondisruptive installation process in hours or days not weeks or months.The result is a structurally sound, reconstructed pipe that often

significantly increases the flow capacity.


INSERTION MACHINE (PIM) PIM provides upsizing and size for size replacement of cast iron, AC, clay tile, nonreinforced concrete and PVC mains with a

minimum of excavation. The pipeline insertion machine simultaneously bursts the existing pipe and replaces it with a new polyethylene pipe. Replacement of 75 to 125 metres per

ROLLDOWN POLYETHYLENE PIPE INSERTIONS Rolldown overcomes the disadvantage of conventional sliplining by the virtual elimination of the annular space in gas and water pipeline rehabilitation for up to 450mm diameter. Slightly oversized polyethylene pipe is cold rolled through the Rolldown machine and reduced for standard insertion to fit

tightly after revertion. Over 1 km of pipe can be rehabilitated in a single operation.

MANHOLE RENOVATION Purpose-designed renovation technology for aging manholes offers rehabilitation for approximately half the replacement cost with a completion schedule of one day or less. Manholes at 10+ metres depth and diameters up to 4 metres can be renovated with no heavy equipment and no excavation necessary.

day is achievable with only minimal disruption.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 148


R&D News, continued Regulating Pulp Mill Effluents tVaier Science and Technology has

published a paper by J.B. Sprague, Sprague Associates Ltd., which des cribes environmentally desirable

approaches for regulating effluents from pulp mills. According to Dr. Sprague,an overall strategy ofregu lation should always include three tactics: (1) discharge limits at the end of the effluent pipe, based on a reasonable level of industrial tech

nology; (2) water-quality-based limits, strict enough to eliminate sublethal effects beyond a mixing

zone; and(3)periodic ecological sur veys to check the effectiveness ofthe first two approaches. Sets ofincrea singly restrictive"Levels ofAchieve ment" should be formulated to pro vide steps for management. Water Quality Monitoring Sites


Bacterial Leaching of Heavy Metals Bacterial leaching of heavy metals from digested sewage sludge has been shown to be a practical means for decontaminating sludge for use on agricultural land. University of Toronto scientists J.G. Henry, D.

ronment Canada scientist N.D.

Prasad and W.B. Lokaza undertook

Beak and its affiliated

consulting in North America over 25 years ago. Beak Consultants has continued to expand to meet the changing needs of government and industry.

ence a simple frequency distribution analysis that was used as a basis to select potential water quality moni toring sites which have these charac

quality conditions for future moni toring and comparison, tbere.is a need to find monitoring sites that are ecologically homogeneous, undistributed by human activity, and spatially representative. Envi

To best determine base line water

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research to determine if pathogenic organisms would survive the bacte rial leaching process. Using bacte ria which are indicative of the pre sence of pathogenic organisms, the results reported in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering sho wed that, although about 80-90% metal removal efficiencies were

achieved,the indicator bacteria were not reduced during bacterial leach ing at high suspended solids concen trations.

PCS Analysis

Delegates at the 74th Canadian Chemical Conference heard a paper

by ELI Eco Logic International sci entists on the congener-specific deter mination of PCBs using dual capil lary column gas chromatography with dual electron-capture detection. As described by K.M. Wilson-Yang, the procedure is reliable and capable of generating chromatograms with out the need for mass spectoral con firmation. Results from the analysis of complex media ranging from fish tissues to blood were presented to illustrate the efficiency of the ins trumental method. Examples were presented illustrating that the infor mation-rich chromatograms produ ced in these analyses can be incor porated into computer-assisted pat tern recognition schemes. Multimedia Fate of Organic Chemicals

University of Toronto researchers D. Mackay and S. Paterson have developed a multimedia model and applied it to selected organic chemi cals in evaluative and real regional environments. As described in Environmental Science and Tech

book i Montreal•Toronto•Quelph• i Buffalo•Seattle•Portland•Sacramento•

nology,the model employs the fugacity concept and treats four bulk compartments: air, water, soil, and bottom sediment, which consist of subcompartments ofvarying propor tions of air, water, and mineral and organic matter. The model was applied to six chemicals in southern Ontario and the calculated fate and

concentrations were compared with For more information,


Circle reply card No. 153

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Come and meet GL&V's experts at WPCF '91 (booth 3221] or

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Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

'"ore information, Circle reply card No. 146


R&D NGWS, continued observations. The results confirm the usefulness ofthe model to assess the environmental fate ofchemicals

range of aqueous solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow). The plant-water bioconcen

constructed six environmental

and provide approximate estimates

tration followed a linear relationship with Kow, while the uptake and eli

zone) treatment method for treat ment of landfill leachate. As descri bed in Advances in Water Pollution

of relative media concentrations. Bioconcentration of Chlorinated

mination rate constants followed a

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

"diphasic" relationship with Kow. The model was applied to the Detroit

A study published in Environmental Science and Technology reports the bioconcentration and the uptake and elimination kinetics of a series of

nonreactive, hydrophohic organic substances in aquatic macrophytes. F.A.P.C. Gobas and his colleagues from the University of Windsor,tes ted substances representing a wide

River and Lake St. Clair to illustrate

the role of aquatic macrophytes in chemical dynamics in aquatic sys tems.

Wetlands Treatment of Leachate

marsh systems to examine the fea sibility of using the marsh (Root

Control, BOD was readily reduced to less than 20mg/L. Five to 6 g of ammonia nitrogen was removed per square metre each day. However, the effluent quality needed for dis charge into the environment was not achieved in test marsh systems.

In a joint B.C.Research — Novatech

Observations made on a natural

Consultants Inc. project,researchers

marsh treating leachatefrom a demo

A.E.Birkbeck,D.Reil and R.Hunter ^

lition waste landfill showed that

heavy metal levels in the discharge were below drinking water quality levels.

In-line sensors for

process control

Stochastic Analysis of Acid Shocks

A.G. Bobba and his colleagues at the National Water Research Insti

tute analyzed high acid concentra tion of stream flow events in terms

of the probability of magnitude,fre quency, duration, and time of occur rence. Simple methods of represen ting the timing and duration of high acid concentration flows as stochas tic variables are presented in Water,



Air and Soil Pollution. A considera

tion of the statistical properties of these variables led to the develop ment of a technique with which aci dic flow events exceeding any higher level ofinterest may be investigated without resorting to re-analysis of the historical data. The methodo

logy was applied to two watersheds in diverse hydrological and geochemical environments.

Landfill Impact Assessment In a paper published in the Cana dian Journal of Civil Engineering, University of Western Ontario scien

BTG:the worid leader in

tist R.K.Rowe describes his research

solids profiling

on the contaminant impact assess ment and the contaminating lifespan of landfills. Some of the fac

In your control system, microprocessor-based BTG Sol ids Level Detectors provide continuous, on-line solids profile and blanket level measurement for cost-effective control of settling and clarification processes in: • Mineral extraction processes (coal, alumina) • Municipal wastewater • Food industry process water & wastewater

• Industrial pre-treatment and effluent monitoring Patented BTG 4-Beam™ sensor technology provides continuous compensation for probe fouling,component aging and ambient light.

tors include the effect of the mass of

the contaminant,infiltration, atten uation in the hydrogeologic system on the contaminating lifespan of a landfill, as well as the potential impact ofsoil fracturing and ofcom

pacted clay liner. The concept of developing "triggers" to initiate leachate control measures is discus

sed in the context of the potential design life ofthe underdrain system in a landfill.

BTG. Wherever you are. 85S BTG Inc. / 2364 Park Central Blvd Atlanta, GA 30035

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenfiauer, Canadian Associa

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tion on Water Pollution Researcti and

or Fax: 404-987-4126

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa,

ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (819) 953-9365, Fax:(819) 953-9029. For more information, 76

Circle reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Black's system crystaffs the way ofthe future

Recent initiatives toward

By Alex R. Keen, B.E.S. and wastewater pollution man Randy J. Sinukoft, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.* agement in the photogra phic processing and print closed loop system. Six separate ing industries have been primarily research and design areas were tar directed at reducing volumes of geted for action as follows; washwater used, and at removing • Understand the variables affec valuable contaminants such as sil ting process chemistry to predict ver. New chemical formulations key sensitivities or constraints on and chemical regeneration packages close looping; for processing solutions have also •Determine potentialfor implemen decreased the quantities of regula ting additional regeneration pack ted materials being discharged down ages, both available and custom for the sewer. In reality, only regenera processing solutions; tion and recycling ofprocessing solu •Analyze existing fixer regeneration tions has had an impact on overall and desilvering system for added massloading ofcontaminantsfound efficiencies; in sewer effluents from these indus • Determine treatment options for tries. non-regenerahle solutions,including Altech Environmental Consul final design; ting, in cooperation with Black •Fully characterize washwaters and Photo Corporation of Markham, develop system flow strategy; and Ontario, has thoroughly researched • Determine optimum treatment the mechanisms ofthe photographic strategy for washwaters, including processes, the function of all che final design. mistry involved, and appropriate In all work performed,the quality technological options to completely of the final photographic product close loop and treat all process had to be maintained as the first streams and washwater at Black's

main photographic processing plant. Detailed scientific and analytical studies were conducted by Altech to delineate the composition ofeach inhouse process stream which was previously discharged to the sani tary sewer. A detailed design has been implemented incorporating membrane filtration, vacuum distil lation, activated carbon treatment, ion exchange,and electrolytic silver recovery. This total system, called System Crystal, has been operating since June 1, 1991 to provide total water reuse and a dry process sewer. Before System Crystal was ins talled, up to 70,000 USGPD of wastewater was discharged from the faci lity. The closed loop process treats and recycles water, resulting in a final system byproduct of up to 200 USGPD mixed photochemistry con centrate, which is sent for incinera tion. Through System Crystal,

vey was done to establish baseline information,and where information

was unavailable or unknown,benchscale and pilot-scale tests were con ducted by both Altech and Black's to determine feasibility oftheories and design. This resulted in a thoroughly researched final system particularly suited to the Black's operation, but with internalflexibility incorporated to enable ease of operation and accommodation of future process changes. During the initial study,analysis of key parameters such as BOD, TOG, iron, silver, and halogens at source and at end of pipe determined that over 95% of mass contaminant

loading originated from the 2% of the total wastewater volume attri

buted to high strength process solu tions. From this, the treatment sys tem was designed to handle process chemistry and washwater separa tely. Typical BOD values for photo graphic solutions and non-recycled washwater are 1500 ppm and 10 ppm respectively.

priority. An extensive literature sur

Continued overieaf

Working With You for a Cleaner Environment Monenco's interdisciplinary approach to projects worldwide combines our experienced professionals with state-of-the-art technology to pro vide innovative solutions to complex environmental problems in the following areas:

• Contaminant Hydrogeology • Industrial Site Cleanup & Decommissioning • Waste Management / Wastewater Treatment • Air Pollution Control

• Environmental Assessments & Public Consultation • Environmental Geosciences

• Asbestos Training and Assessments • Occupational Health & Hygiene Studies • Laboratory Services

Black's has achieved a97% reduction

in process water usage, the remai ning 3% used to make up evaporative losses.

Project Strategy

Monenco Environmental Division

Based on the results of Altech's

flow and contaminant loading study of all process streams and washwaters at the Black's facility, a stra tegy was conceived to develop the

Misslssauga, Ontario Calgary, Alberta

(416)890-9995 (403)298-4594

Offices across Canada and overseas

*ALTECH Environmental

For more information,

Consulting Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 120

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


System crystal, continued TABLE 1: Contaminant Profiles Before Treatment

High Strength Stream (%) (Estimated) Benzyl Alcohol Ethylene Glycol








50 ND


Acetic Acid


Carbonate Amines

2.5 0.3

Ammonium Nitrogen


Ghelates as EDTA


Free Potassium


the 200 USGPD residual which is


Free Calcium


Free Magnesium Free Iron Total Iron

1 1


Total Silver


Sulphite Sulphate Thiosulphate

0.5 0.4 0.7



1500 3480


ultimately taken for incineration. The distillate is treated by activa ted carbon to remove organics and by ion exchange to remove ammonia.


This enables this water to be reused


Chlorides, Bromides

The concentrate contains

30 1260

1680 8800 110

Free Sodium


approximately 25% precipitated organic and inorganic salts ofglycol, EDTA, amine, halide, carbonate, and sulphate nature. The remaining concentrate liquid is approximately 40% water, 55% paraphenylene diamine derivatives(from photographic developers), 3% ethylene glycol, 1% benzyl alcohol, and remainder trace organics. This stream represents

1080 3660 1150

operated at ambient temperature and 685 mm Hg of vacuum. Depending on the feed composi tion, the aqueous distillate contains impurities of up to 0.4% ammonia, 0.2% benzyl alcohol,0.04% ethylene glycol, and trace aromatic deriva



as makeup for washwater and pro

All values are estimates for maximum operating conditions

cess solutions.

based on actual analytical results.

The ion exchange regeneration effluents were also targeted for recycling and reuse by segregating each charge of liquid to the resin

High Strength Treatment

The composition of a typical mix of depleted photographic solutions is shown in Table 1. This stream

represents high strength materials

which cannot be regenerated due to technology, quality, or economic restrictions. The water portion of the solution (typically above 90%)is extracted by vacuum distillation.

bed. Residual distillate is sent back

to the column feed tank, spent sul phuric acid is sent to vacuum distil lation, and 85% of the column rinse water is reused for the next regene ration. It is also possible that the concentrated ammonia from the sul

Measure groundwater levek?

phuric acid regenerate can be re claimed for chemical manufacturing by outside sources. Washwater Reuse at Source

The contaminants found in wash-

Permanently embossed markings.

water are the result of carry over from the preceeding process baths. In photoprocessing equipment ope rated in a traditional manner,washwater is used on a once-through basis, resulting in a concentration of carried-over impurities which is typically in compliance with most sewer by-law parameters. In a closed-loop system such as System Crystal, a portion of the washwater

Ft/Metres in red: 1/50', 1/2" or Cm in black.

is recirculated at source to increase


Model 101: Water Level Meter

Accurate Probe Avoids problems with cascading water. Gives immediate, clear indication of level. Stainless steel available.

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the loading and make more efficient

Non-stretch stainless steel conductors.

Resists kinking, nicks, breaks.



Sturdy Reel Free standing, with carrying handle. Test button, free revolving handle, brake. For lengths from 25 - 2000 feet.



The decision to close loop the process was taken by Black's to ensure sewer use compliance at all

Easy! Repeatablel

times in the future and to lead the

High quality instrumentation

ISolinst E

use of each volume of water used.

This increased loading has in no way compromised the quality of photo graphic film and paper processed by

Solinst Canada Ltd. (416)873-2255 515 Main Street, Glen Williams, Out. L7G 3S9

photoprocessing industry in protec ting the environment. Water reuse strategies which reduce the total volume of water discharged cannot be effective in maintaining compliContinued overleaf


For more information, Circle reply card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Make the SMOOTH MOVE to BOSS N-12 BOSS N-12 is our latest innovation for storm

sewer and leachate system applications. It combines the superior flow characteristics of a smoothwall interior with the traditional

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BOSS N-12 provides a corrugated exterior for superior strength, as m\\ as a thick smooth\A/all interior for maximum flow. With a Manning's 'n' value of .012, BOSS N-12 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics.

Ask for the BOSS N-12 Brochure . . . your introduction to a new era of optimum hydraulics, installation ease and dependable performance.

Full size range

Head Office

BOSS N-12 is available in 4" to 36" diameters as

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non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCIC^ filter. Custom fittings are available on request.

254 Thames Road East

Easy to install BOSS N-12 is light in weight for ease of transporting, handling and installation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chainsaw! Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemical attack in most applications.

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BOSS N-12: Technical Data • Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s

•Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM D 2412

•Recommended for use in soils having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to corrosion

•Excellent impact resistance under winter conditions for year-round installation

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

TM BOSS N-12 and

SOCK are registered trademarks of Big '0' Inc.

Innovative technology working for you

For more information, Circle reply card No. 113


1; .V mi ft hj f; i ■GijiinoM m • ; riiicjttiiiiill



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an uncanny ability to measure both SO2 and CLj

It could well turn out to be one of man's best friends

residuals. From one instrument. Result: Dechlorination control becomes

in meeting wastewater treatment discharge permits. To begin with, it doggedly monitors SO2 residual so accurately and reliably you can be sure your wastewater is completely dechlorinated. With out excessive SO2 overfeed.

Combined with a simple feedback control

system, the Deox/2000 reduces your chemical and operating costs. Dramatically. What's more, it has

simple. More accurate. And much more reliable. Without taking a big bite out of your budget.

If you'd like to have all the information and pricing details, just write or call and we'll trot them right out to you. Wallace & Tieman Canada, Inc., 925 Warden Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario MIL 4C5 or phone: (416) 751-7561. Visit us at the WPCF Conference, Booth #4102.



For more information, Circle reply card No. 111

Disaster planning Is a vital element In laboratory operations

OnOctober 10,1990shortly

after 6:00 am, Can Test Ltd., V ancouver, was struck by fire. Although

the fire was contained within a 225

sq. ft. area that included the human drug lab and the trace organics pro ject room,smoke and water damage were extensive. The cause ofthe fire has been attributed to the accumu lation of heat in a fumehood from an

electrical hotplate used in an evapo ration process for sample extraction. My purpose is not to describe the details ofthe fire, but to examine the significance ofthe mishap as a learn ing experience so others in the indus try may better prepare. Disaster Planning is the respon sibility of Can Test, and other com panies to their employees, clients and to the entire operation. Unfor tunately, disaster plans are often filed away or simply overlooked. However, companies must remind

By Chris Cook* 'Can Test Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.

themselves that just like any wellconceived business plan, a disaster plan is a living project that requires continuous review and updating. As an essential part ofany firm's long-term objectives, a comprehen sive disaster plan should include some of the following points: Employee Relations

A company has an inherent res ponsibility to its employees. This meansincluding them in discussions abouttheir welfare and in particular, their safety and terms of employ ment. A disaster such as a fire or

earthquake may leave a company without a building or the ability to retain a full staff. Without a contin

gency plan for the employees, they will be unprepared and uncertain about their employment situation.

System crystal is the way of the future, cont'd. ance unless appropriate treatment

processes. The concentrate streams

is also added. Thus it is difficult to use water in its most efficient man

from washwater treatment are col

ner without detailed analysis of the impurities in the wastewater stream and how they are generated. Washwater Treatment Table 1 details the maximum con

taminant profiles of two separate washwater streams.

All fixer

washes contain silver thiosulphate complexes and are combined to pass through a nanofiltration system to concentrate silver for subsequent electrochemical removal. The per meate stream composed of ammo nium,chloride, bromide,sodium and calcium ions, is treated by reverse osmosis. Total dissolved solids con tent in tbe final treated water is

typically 280 ppm as compared to Markham city water at 370 ppm. All water is recirculated to source wash baths after treatment.

The remaining washwaters from each photographic process are re used insitu to increase contaminant

loading before treatment. A conti nuous stream from each washbath

is again treated by nanofiltration which removes the majority of the impurities present. The permeate stream is sent to the reverse osmosis

system for final treatment and for recirculation of clean water to all

lected as a high strength mixed pro cess solution which is treated by vacuum distillation.

Before membrane treatment, all washwater passes through a sterili zation station which uses ultra

violet light to neutralize any algae which is present. This process was installed to control algae build-up in the wash baths, which is a common problem in the photoprocessing industry. Provisions have also been made to circulate all untreated wash-

water through the algae destruction station during off-hours and on weekends to ensure that algae growth is controlled at all times.The algae control system has been highly successful thus far.

Evaporative and system losses are replenished with city water makeup and treated vacuum distil late. The city makeup stream consti tutes approximately 8% of the daily volume of water treated,and depends primarily on the volume of water lost to the atmosphere as a result of drying the photographic paper pro duct.

A comprehensive economic and performance evaluation ofthe entire system is currently underway.ES&E

By recognizing the possibility of having to lay people off, a company can adjust its lines of authority and address the task ofrestoring normal operations. The creation ofa planning/safety committee that includes employee representatives, is an important medium where valid concerns and new ideas can be shared. Collecti

vely, management and staff can decide upon who is the contact to handle specific areas ofinterest. For One of the first considerations

a company needs to make is

how to be prepared to inform clients of a disaster and how it

may or may not affect them. example, the lines of authority may be altered so that one person handles laboratory operations, one person handles public relations,one person handles insurance matters and so on. With the lines of communica

tions established, a company can moderate the flow of information

and avoid unnecessary confusion. The committee can also establish

emergency drill practices and other related exercises. Client Considerations

One of the first considerations a

company needs to make is how to be prepared to inform clients ofa disas ter and how it may or may not affect them. The reason for making this a priority is that clients need to be informed precisely — there is no room for the communication ofinac

curate facts. Also, immediate res ponse is an act of good faith which serves to maintain client relations.

During the recovery period good rela tions with clients, the media and your neighbours are essential. An insurance related matter that

is a major concern for clients is the coverage of a client's property while it is at the laboratory. For example, the smallest water sample may have required many hours of work and thousands of dollars to retrieve so it

is vital that the sample is covered for replacement value. Regarding the company and its client's interests, it is important to secure the client's files by placing the information on disk and storing them off site or in a fire/disasterContlnued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


analyses for Agriculture Canada. Loss of potential revenues is a con cern shared by all businesses. In order to recover any portion of that inevitable loss, your profitability must be insured. The company and its insurance agency can determine the amount to be recovered based

upon a percentage of current reve nues matched against the previous years profit margin. An additional consideration in

volves conducting a complete inven tory of all chemicals that are stored on site. This list should be monitored

Project room used for drug, environmental and other special testing. proof file cabinet. File safety will appropriate protective apparel and help ensure an expedient recovery of respirators and that an occupational health and safety program was in operations. Finally, because the media will place. To guarantee that your client's respond to most disasters, you must be prepared to respond swiftly and analytical requirements are being met you may also have to sublet with authority. The key to an infor med client is to avoid confusion. It some analyses. Negotiations for the subletting of work and the creation may be in the company's best inter est to appoint a single person or of an appropriate sample log is an important part of the planning pro enlist the services of a public rela cess. When selecting subcontractors, tions firm to control the content and a company may consider the services flow of information. ofanother based upon QA/QC,price, Operational Concerns turn around time and general com Preparing for a disaster by crea petitiveness to base its decision. ting a hypothetical set of circums Insurance Matters tances will help develop the most Proper insurance coverage is effective plan for a quick and effi probably a company's best preven cient recovery. A primary conside ration is the relocation oflaboratory tive measure to ensure the swift recovery in the event of a disaster operations to a temporary site. Inclu ded in this preparation is a plan to such as a fire or an earthquake. By staff and equip the contingency site. Also, if funding is needed until an insurance settlement can be esta

blished, a prearranged agreement with the bank to temporarily in crease your credit will help to smooth the relocation.

and updated regularly for the fire department's records and for your registration purposes. In the event ofan emergency,the fire department is informed and prepared to respond with the appropriate equipment. It is also important to maintain a com plete inventory of all other equip ment and instrumentation on site.

After a disaster, it is easier to deter mine what equipment has heen des troyed and the damage that has been incurred to the remaining inven tory.

Again, safety is the major con cern. Due to the nature of environ

mental and industrial analysis,haz ardous materials are often stored on

site. In the event ofa disaster,these materials will magnify the potential danger if they are not properly sto red. By constructing a facility that meets or exceeds your city's stan dards, and avoiding excessive sto rage of these hazardous materials, the risk of catastrophe can be fur ther reduced.

When planning for a disaster, a company must bear in mind the fol lowing characteristics: •sudden surprise

Preparing for a disaster by creating a hypotheticai set of circumstances wiii heip deveiop the most effective pian for a quick and efficient recovery.

With a site pre

selected and the preparation of the instrumentation, equipment and staff complete, operations can

resume with little disruption. In the event that you are unable to partially or fully restore opera tions in your facility,the site may be assessed by regulatory authorities such as the Worker's Compensation Board (WCB) and the Ministry of the Environment. Because of strict

guidelines, any potential hazards must be examined and the site clea

red in order to resume operations. In Can Test's case, the WCB pos ted a notice ofcompliance in order to resume operations. The notice man dated that the employees wore the 82

creating a hypothetical disaster, a planning committee can speculate on the amount of damage incurred and determine the amount of the

property,liability and business inter ruption insurance tbat their envi ronmental and/or industrial labo

ratory may need. Then the commit tee can determine reconstruction

costs, recovery period and whether to have"key-person" and "ordinary" employee insurance. If the company has any govern ment contracts they may have to be re-certified after the disaster. It took one month for Can Test to be re

•loss of control •short-term focus

•disruption of decision making/ chain of command.

Fires are always disruptive, but laboratories can greatly minimize their effects by preparing a Disaster Plan, then continually reviewing and updating it. ES&E

For more information on the pro ducts and services in this issue, use the Reader Service Card. See

contents page for card location.

certified in order to conduct any

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Energy Management

By Jenny Carter

Energy decisions are aiso environmentai issues


joint creativity, openness and inno vative spirit will reap significant

efficiency because it reduces energy production and use, thereby minimizing corres ponding environmentalimpacts. As industrial users, we like efficiency because it reduces production costs and exposure to rising energy costs,

economic and environmental bene fits.

We're working to improve the energy efficiency of government buildings by a minimum of 20 per cent over 1990 levels by the year 2000. To ensure that, we have initia ted a comprehensive energy audit program to cover 8,000 government buildings — from office towers to liquor stores to snow plow sheds. Close to 800 have already been audi ted. We're also launching a similar program to improve the energy effi ciency of schools and hospitals.

and increases our international com

petitiveness. As manufacturers of energysavings technologies, we like effi ciency because it opens up new busi ness opportunities and jobs. As Minister of Energy,I like effi ciency because it is an effective way of ensuring a healthy environment, a healthy economy,a secure energy supply, and fair, reasonable energy prices. Energy efficiency is a rarity in this age of social dilemmas and conundrums. It's a win-win solution

with something for everyone. Ontario has one of the most

energy-intensive economies in the world. In 1988, for example, Onta rio's energy-intensity was more than double that of Japan. And our pro vince's record over the past two decades in reducing energy waste has lagged behind many other juris

We restricted the use of electric

Jenny Carter, former Ontario Minister of Energy spoke at a muitisectoral meeting at Glendon Coliege, Toronto.

We are using regulatory initiatives under the Energy Efficiency Act to ensure that minimum standards are achieved and maintained.

the situation calls for attention.

The new program initiatives are divided into four main categories: Energy Efficient and Competitive Industries; Energy Efficient Com munities; Energy Efficient Govern ment and Institutions; and New Understanding, Skills, and Stan

Plus, many opportunities for impro


vement exist. There's an enormous

For the province's large energy users — pulp and paper, iron and


space heating in new public housing because despite low installation costs, electric resistance space hea ting often doesn't make economic sense in the long run. We've added $l-million to the

Municipal Buildings Energy Effic iency Program, which helps muni cipalities to improve their energy efficiency. Over the nextthree years, we will extend $500,000 of this pro gram to improve efficiency and com fort of buildings owned by Ontario's native bands.

In order to overcome such barriers

steel, and chemicals — we are initia

to efficiency, the Government is using a variety of means that will involve the most number of people.

ting a new energy audit program

The ministry is supporting the development of standards under Ontario's Energy Efficiency Act. We're extending our regulations beyond consumer appliances and will address other energy consuming products such as electric motors,

tailored to their needs.

lighting systems, commercial refri

Despite laudable efforts by many,

potential for savings.

The potential is boundless. Our

geration and large furnaces. ES&E



Water & Wastewater Management Issues of the 90's

Control Concepts Inc., are handling the following: Dynamic Water Control Gates Inc.:

November 3-5,1991 — Bonaventure Hilton, Montreal

The Canadian Water and Wastewater Association's(CWWA) 1991 annual conference will feature three major water and wastewater issues of the decade:—

•Cost & Pricing of water and wastewater services, highlighting the impor tance of full cost recovery and pricing. •Privatization, describing potential applications in Canada and successful experiences internationally. • Environmental Legislation/Regulations, addressing current and future pollution control and water quality issues. The conference will be of interest to municipal councils and financial administrators, as well as utility managers, consultants and provincial/ federal government authorities. Contact: Donna St. Louis, Canadian Water and Wastewater Association, 24 Clarence Street, 3rd Floor, Ottawa, Ontario KIN 5P3, Tel;(613) 238-5692, Fax:(613) 237-2965.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

•Fabricated Sluice Gates and Slide

Gates in Stainless, Aluminum, Gal vanized, Carbon Steel. •Weir, Flap, Stop and Canal Gates. •Stop Logs, Wall Thimbles. In accordance with AWWA C501

Specifications. Ross Valve Mfg. Co. Inc.: • Engineered Automatic and Hydraulic Valves for the Water works Industry. Details: Cliff Fielding, 344 Dennis Ave., Newmarket, Ont. L3Y 4M7, Tel:(416)853-1777, Fax:853-5059.


Wildlife Management

Pipe protects Burrowing Owl

The Western Burrowing Owl

Until 1985 the L-shaped burrows

Athene Cunicularia Hypugaea inhabits Manitoba, Saskatechwan,Alberta and the open arid grasslands of the South Thompson, Okanagan and Lower Similkameen Valleys of Bri tish Columbia. Drastic population declines by the late 1970's have resul ted in this species being designated

were constructed of untreated lum

ber. Unfortunately,termites,fungal attack and rot made these burrows

useless in a short time. Inl985,PVC and ABS plastic drainage pipe tun nels were also tested. These pro ducts, having smooth, slick interior walls, reflected light which fright ened off the potential dweller. Cor rugated polyethylene drainage tub

nationally as threatened in B.C.

ing with its black matte interior did not have this effect. As well, the corrugations allowed soil to remain

Despite its name, the Burrowing Owl generally nests in abandoned mammal burrows, preferring those of the Yellow Badger because of its choice of locale. Population decline

in place on the tunnel floor, closely matching a natural burrow. From 1986 on, plastic artificial

in Western Canada and near extinc tion in B.C. of this little Robin-sized

owl is largely attributed to habitat loss due to human population growth. In addition, nesting site availability has been greatly lesse ned because rapid and extensive development of agriculture, ranch ing and pesticide use have led to the virtual disappearance ofthe Yellow Badger. In an effort to reestablish the owl

as a breeding population, the B.C.

burrows were used. Each burrow Photo Melissa Graff

Ministry ofEnvironment(Penticton) and the B.C. Habitat Conservation

consisted of a nine foot length of 6 inch diameter perforated Big '0' Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage

Fund in cooperation with the Was hington State Department of Wild life formed a plan to reintroduce the Burrowing Owl to British Columbia. From 1983 to the present, owl fami lies captured in Washington State have been banded and transplanted

Tubing attached to a twelve inch diameter inverted plastic bucket,

to artificial burrows in B.C.




which acts as a nest chamber. The

pipe is bent into a J-shape and pla ced in a sloping trench so the top of the nest chamber is about 18 inches

below the ground surface and back Present sightings and data can not yet predict whether a self-sus taining population has been esta blished. However,the methods used in the program are successful in that breeding has been continuous since


1986. Since the artificial burrows are now safe from deterioration and

Canadian designed and buiit ANSi pumps from Smart Turner. Manufacturers of chemical process pumps with a reputation for consistent perfor

collapse from range cattle, there is every reason to expect that the Wes tern Burrowing Owl will continue to return, nest and multiply in B.C.

mance, minimum maintenance,

solid design and sound appli cation. Call or fax today for a quotation on your process pump requirements.

Attention!! Do you have something new? The seminar committee ofthe Pollu

tion Control Association of Ontario

(PCAO)is planning to hold a semi nar in the Toronto area on "New


Smart Turner Limited, 191 Barton St. E., Box 2027, Hamilton, Ont., LBN 3S8

Products and Technologies" March, 1992. They are looking for new or innovative products, technologies, or procedures applicable to the water, air or waste management field of pollution control. If your firm has something new and you would like to tell people about it, please send a brief outline by November 30,1991 or call: Glenn Vicevic, Seminar Chairman, (416) 822-4111, Ext. 305, or Fax: (416) 823-1446.

Telephone (416)527-4567 I Fax (416)527-7173

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 156

Environmental Scie-nee & Engineering, Sept. 1991



The Speedometer For Effluents

Ultrasonic Level Switch

• Twin transducers What does the • Non-invasive installation

Surveylogger Portable Sewage

• Fail-safe high or

Flow Meter

fail-safe low

have In common

• Applicable to most liquids and slurries

with the Patriot Missile?

in metal or non-metallic

vessels or pipes.

For our answer, circle reply card No. 245

For more information, circie reply card No. 246



Ultrasonic Flow Switch

Combination Closed Conduit

Flowmeter and Open Channel Velocity Calibrator

Twin non-invasive transducers

Single or dual set points Proportional output signal Adjustable start-up and drop-out delay Alarm override

Electronically caiibratable Tow tank verifiable

Repeatabilty and linearity within ± 0.5% For more information, circie repiy card No. 247

For more information, circle reply card No. 248

RAMSEY LAKE INDUSTRIAL UMITED Serving Industry Since 1975 jxer

Walden Plaza,P.O. Box 158,Lively, Ontario POM 2E0; Telephone:(705)692-4734; Fax:(705)692-9021 For more iriformation,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 169


Over 12 million deaths annually

Providing water suppiies and sanitation in deveioping countries

Almost all Canadians have

safe drinking water and hygienic systems for waste disposal, thanks to genera tions of progress in this basic infra structure. Although there is still some basic work to do, particularly in remote communities, most com munities are focusing attention on upgrading their services with more sophisticated water treatment and with the environmentally sound wastewater management. In com parison with people in developing countries, however, Canadians are very well served with water supply and waste disposal. Some statistics help to summarize the situation in poorer countries. The data in Table 1 indicate that in

1980, fewer than half the people in developing regions had access to safe water supply and sanitation. Of the developing regions, Africa had the least percentage of their popula

By Brian Grover and Cynthia Carr*

Dehydration resulting from acute diarrhea, a symptom of most water and sanitation-related disease,is the

principle cause ofdeath. In addition, for each death there may he a hun dred non-fatal cases causing misery, loss of nutrition and loss of produc tivity. UNICEF (United Nations Chil dren Fund) has stated that more

period 1981-1990 as the Internatio nal Drinking Water Supply and Sani tation Decade. The target of the Decade was clean water for all by 1990, although each country was to set what it judged to be a reasonable target in terms of population to be served. 1981-1990 Decade Results

Over the ten years, more than 1.3 billion people were served by improv ed water supplies and more than 700

than 12 million deaths occur annual

ly from water-, feces- and dirt- rela ted diseases.

The scale of this

ongoing disaster is hard to compre hend:one million deaths per month, or the equivalent of 100 jumbo jets crashing per day — one every fifteen minutes.

Far-sighted and compassionate world leaders decided to try to stem this tide of water-related misery. The world conference on housing (HABITAT) in Vancouver in 1976 tion serviced. Unsafe drinking water and poor was the first major forum to suggest hygiene causes sickness and death. a special international effort in this field. The next year, at the world Those who suffer most are the wea kest members of society: the very water conference in Mar del Plata, young and the very old. Water- Argentina, leaders from 116 coun related diseases,ofwhich Canadians tries (including a strong Canadian in this generation fortunately have delegation) called for a decade of little experience, include cholera, international effort to improve water typhoid, hepatitis, guinea worm and sanitation services. In Novem (draconculiasis), hilharzia (schisto- ber 1980, the General Assembly of somiasis) and, indirectly, malaria. the United Nations declared the

WATERSCAraS'SL million gained access to adequate sanitation facilities. The percentage of the total developing world popu lation served rose substantially, from 44 to 69 percent for water and from 46 to 56 percent for sanitation. These quantitative achievements ofthe 1981-1990 Decade were accom

panied by an almost revolutionary change in the approach to improving sector service in developing coun tries. This change in approach may be the most significant legacy ofthe past Decade. Lessons Learned

Prior to the 1981-1990 Decade, well-intentioned planners in inter national aid agencies (as well as their counterparts in developing countries) believed that sector pro blems could he solved by a massive transfer oftechnologies and funding from the industrialized countries.

Maybe we forgot that the water sup ply and sanitation systems serving people in North America and Europe had evolved over many generations. These systems had taken vast sums of money and technical talent to build and maintain, with most of the money and talent from within our own societies. Furthermore,our own technical solutions were not

always ideal,so trying to export our ideas and experience to developing regions was not such a great solution after all. 'Canadian International

Development Agency 200 Promenade du Portage In 1980 fewer than half the people in developing regions had access to safe water and sanitation. CIDA Photo: Bruce Raton, Ghana. 86

Hull, Quebec, Canada K1A 0G4 Tel: (819) 994-1276

Fax: (819) 997-1491

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Rethinking Basic Objectives Ifthe objective is to reduce waterrelated diseases and deaths, efforts have to hefocussed on basic personal hygiene and sanitation, as well as on improving the quantity and qua lity of the water supply. People in Canada know that germs cause disease,and they know how to reduce contact with germs. Many people in developing countries do not, so hygiene education has to be part of the package if measurable improve






Water Supply (Million)






Latin America and Caribbean














ments in health are to result. Studies

during the decade have revealed that improvements in water supply alone have little effect on the incidence of

diarrhea, whereas water plus sani tation can reduce it significantly. Although each Canadian uses hundreds of litres of water daily, we drink only a few. The rest is used mostly for washing(clothes, dishes, as well as showers and baths), for toiletflushing and for gardening. In developing countries, hundreds of millions of people survive on 5 to 10 litres of water daily, carried up to 10 km from the source. Significant improvements in health can be achieved by the use of only 25-50 litres of clean water every day. Hundreds of litres of piped water in every home, and high pressures for fire flows, are unnecessary luxuries when concentrating on health objec tives.

Technological Options There is always more than one technical solution to a problem. The engineering challenge is to discover the feasible alternatives and choose

the most appropriate. The technical challenge is to find workable and affordable improvements to the exis ting systems,rather than preparing master plans for major new systems. In rural areas, water systems without piping,such as shallow dug wells and drilled boreholes, should be considered. Natural springs can be improved if local conditions per mit. Piped water systems are usually necessary in towns and cities, but pipes are expensive. Costs can he minimized by keeping the lengths of pipes to a minimum. Not everybody needs or can afford a private connec tion in a poor population. Public standposts or taps are much cheaper. Distribution systems need to be kept affordable, for low basic demands, with flexibility in the design for future upgrading as the consumers can afford a higher standard of ser vice.

Percent of Total


United Nations, 1990

results in much lower wastewater

volumes. Dry latrines are often sui table, particularly in arid areas where water is more valuable for

cooking, washing and gardening than for toiletflushing. Wetlatrines (so-called pour flush)with a soak pit are another form of on-site sanita

tion. Septic tanks and tile drains may he necessary for greater wastewater volumes and tighter soils. If water-borne waste disposal is unavoidable(where high population density,high water use and/or tight soils exist), small bore sewers with septic tanks are cheaper than conven tional sewers. By collecting and con centrating wastewater flows, sewer systems force choices in treatment and disposal. Lagoons are the most robust and reliable treatment,ifland is available. None of these technical solutions

is revolutionary. The difference is that sector planners are now able to examine a range of options with proven designs and field experience, which were seldom considered before the Decade.

Community Management Canadians know that water and

sanitation systems have to be man aged locally. Nobody in any Cana dian town or farm outside of town, would expect a federal organization based in Ottawa or a provincial one from Regina to he able to provide sector services efficiently. Somehow it has taken us too long to recognize that the same need for locally man aged systems is true in most develo ping countries. Community management is increasingly understood to he a preContlnued overleaf

Laboratories "Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

BARRINGER LABORATORIES • environmental and discharge analyses • Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • Phytotoxicology and Water Quality • fire assay and field sampling services Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

ini ifiii nr

Sanitation or fecal waste disposal also offers technological choices. Many designs were researched and tested in recent years. Reduced water supply (to meet basic needs only) Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

BA5 Labomtones UmitBd

Consulting Environmental Chemists

Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, CO

Timmins, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON

Kirkland Lake, ON

Montreal, PQ

Excellence In

Environmental Analysis for Over 25 Years 14 Abacus Road Phone (416)458-4505 Brampton, Ontario Fax(416)458-7303 Canada LSI5B7


News CIDA continued requisite to achieving a reliable



CanTest Ltd

water and sanitation service in the


long term. Community management


means that the users are involved at

Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Environmental Afialysis

Vancouver, B.C.

Haz^rdws \Nasie Charagtetizatipn

V6J 1J8 1

Fax: 604 731 2386



Tel: 604 734 7276


Comprehensive Environmental

Analyses 50 Bathurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario N2V 205 Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

all stages, especially in decisionmaking. In developing countries, most managers oftraditional water supplies are women. So women have to play major roles in creating the improved water and sanitation services if the services are to be sustained.

Engineers are not famous for being sensitive to the sociological aspects of sector planning. In the developing world, however, engi neers are increasingly partnered with community animators to pro vide a balanced approach to plan ning and project implementation. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as CUSO, CARE, OXFAM and church-affiliated




Environmental Laboratories



Certified by Canadian Association of Environmental & Analytical Laboratories




MISSISSAUGA (416) 568-1414

FAX (416)568-1339

groups have taught us much about how to work with the local popula tion, assisting them to achieve their water and sanitation goals, rather than parachuting in externally con ceived ideas and systems.



Setting the standard for

Concurrently with the new imple mentation methods,technologies are being modified to support the bene ficiaries' expanded role in the man agement of their water system. The common handpump is a good example. Singlefamily handpumps that work well on a Canadian farm

* service

* qualify


* turnaround time


6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.OO/sampl0) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416) 574-4977

Analytical Laboratory A Division of Gore&Slorrie Limited

* Environmental Analytical Services * Specific Analysis Certified by CABAL * MISA, Sewer Use Compliance Testing * Hazardous Waste Cfiaracterizatlon

* Site Decommissioning Guideline Testing 55 Research Rd., Toronto, Ont. M4G 2G8,Tel:(416)696-0390, Fax:467-5227 88

don't work in an African village, where hundreds of people, with little technical skill, use it daily. Tradi tional handpumps wear out too fast when used by entire communities and local people can seldom repair them,assuming parts are available. Extensive applied research, coordi nated by the World Bank, has pro duced a new generation of hand pumps that are robust,easy to main tain,and require only a few inexpen sive spare parts. Urban systems pose more com

plex challenges. Strong local insti tutions are the key, but this is easier to say than to do where centrist governments give little authority and less resources to local govern ments. Sector planners have to find sensible ways, different in almost every situation, of transferring as much responsibility as feasible to local organizations which are more motivated by self-interest. Human resources are no less importantthan the necessary financial resources, so training at all levels is an integral part of the institutional strengthe ning. Presented at Waterscapes '91, Saskatoon.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991





OCTOBER 20-22, 1992






CETECH is part of PMDS - Canada's largest Plant Management Maintenance/Design Engineering Show. Over 10,000 industry personnel and 500 exhibiting companies attended PMDS in 1990.

■^11 :


N l:*;

. .

Science & Engineering Magazine

CETECH is the 4th environmental exhibition to be produced by Reed Exhibitions worldwide. Reed-Macgregor Exhibitions is a member of the Reed Exhibition Companies (REG), the world's largest exhibition organizer. FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:

Reed-Macgiegor Exhibitions Inc.


^2^ Reed



800 Denison Street, Unit 7. Marlcham. Ont. L3R 5M9

Tel. : (416)479-3939

Fax., (416)479-5144

For more information, Circie reply card No. 163


to Excellence

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666 Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Komline-Sanderson Rotary Drum


Vacuum Filters are used exten

sively in ttie processing of ctiemicais, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics,

Odor Control

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX-12)is de tailed

in technical


Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics include:storage and air

foods, minerais and in wastewater

treatment and siudge dewatering for industry and municipaiities. RDVFsare extremeiy versatiieand provide reiiabie, continuous liquid/soiid separation with mini mum operator attention and iow

collection needs.

Colgate-Paimolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 201

maintenance. Each KS-RDVFfiiclmriRotion and iiucige dewntenng

ter is specificaiiy designed to handiesiurriesthat produce varia tions in cake thickness, moisture content and stickiness. Komllne Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 200

Cyanide Removal

Instrument Control and IEEE-488 and VXIbus Control

Data Acquisition and Analysis .Ahe Mosi Choices

Data Acquisition Products Free 1991 color catalog of instru mentation products for personai computers and workstationsapplication software with graphicai use interfaces acquires data from RS-232, GPIB, or VXI ins truments and PC data acquisition boards, and anaiyses and presents data, inciudes data acquisition, GPIB, and VMEbus controller boards, and signal conditioning.


Using Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews

dosages, equipment, as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicableto metal recovery or refining operations. Colgate-Paimolive Canada inc. Circle reply card No. 203

Cali for free technicai informa tion.

National Instruments

Circle reply card No. 202

Zullig Water Quality Instruments

National Research Council Canada CISTI Product

Literature Campaign

Zullig offers a comprehensive and Innovative range of rugged field

Scientific and technical informa

instruments for the measurement

tion from CAN/OLE, the Cana dian Oniine Enquiry service , is

of dissolved oxygen,turbidity, sus pended solids, P.H., conductivity and O.R.P. Designed with harsh process environments in mind,the Zullig dissolved oxygen, turbidity and suspended solids instruments all feature automatic self-cleaning for reliable performance and measurement accuracy. Zullig applies more than 75 years of experience to the solution of water quality measurement problems

avaiiable at your own computer terminai. CAN/OLE opens the door to Canada's iargest sci-tech information service from the Nationai Research Council. Use Can/OLE

to find recentiy pubiished infor mation in your fieid, and to order documents quickly and easily. NRC

Circle reply card No. 204

Measuring and Contrel Teehrtdtdsy Systems and Equipment let the Water Industry


Bestobell 1^1

National Research

Council Canada

Conseii national

de recherches Canada


Stack monitoring NVmOPLAN



Enviroplan CEMEX stack monitoring systems use the increasingly popular dilution probe technology. Built to survive the corrosive gas

Circle reply card No. 205

pH,ORP,Ion,Conductivity Water Quality Analyzers;

streams within the stack with

out the need for frequent and costly maintenance, the sys tems incorporate dedicated analyzers for SOx, NOx, IRS, etc. or an advanced infrared


spectrometerfor multicomponent analysis of up to 20 gases. AquaTronix Inc. Circle reply card No. 206


Canada's leading supplier of industrial pH/ORP/lon and con ductivity monitors offers the widest choice of heavy duty sensors and analyzers. The rugged and compact probe assemblies outlast conven tional electrodes in even the

toughest applications. Com Transmitters - Indicators â– ControHers

bined with the Lakewood series

analog or digital transmitters they give you the best in pro cess control and environmen

tal monitoring. Aquatronix Circle reply card No. 207


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666 !!New....Opacity Monitor!! METER/OPACITY MONITOR

Rosemount's new 0PM 2000

Opacity Monitor represents

Big Scale pH Meter


the new standard in contin

uous opacity monitoring. The 0PM 2000 is the only opacity system available that utilizes a single l ight source, single detector, double-pass princi ple with NO MOVING PARTS

ifor beam modulation. It is designed to meet EPA 40 CFR,Parted, AppendixB,Per formance Specification 7 - in rugged industrial applications with minimum maintenance.

Rosemount Instruments Ltd.



r LONG 0-14


Analytical Model 707 BIG SCALE pH Meter is a rugged, reliable instrument featuring a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and the exclusive Analytical polyethyleneshielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH elec trode limitations.

Model 707 is simple to ope rate, with only two operating controls.

Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 208

Isco's new 3000 and enhanced 3200 series flowmeters

sampiers Three great features have been

Enhanced isco 3700 series

The NEW 3010 Ultrasonic and

added to all 3700 series sam

3020 Submerged Probe flow transmitters are economically priced and offer the following

plers. The first allows on-site printing of program and sam pling results. The second fea

features: backlit LCD, RS-232

ture allows the user to link the

output, alarm relays, internal heaters, 4-20mA output, and

sampler to a computer. And finally, anew STORM program

NEMA 4X enclosure. The enhanced 3200series includes

makes storm water runoff


monitoring easier. All portable 3700's are now available with an optional 4 bottle set-up.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 210

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 211

backl it LCD, hi/low alarm

relays, and a rain gauge input
















canbar Box 280, One Canbar Street


WATERLOO, Ontario, Canada N2J4A7

Telephone(519)886-2880 Fax No.(519)886-5546


SEE US AT WPCF/91 - BOOTH #1645 For more information. Circle reply card No. 164

Carve away the excess.


Let the Energy Management Challenge release the power of industry. Improve your company's profitability by using the power of energy efficient technology. The Energy Management Challenge is a major Ontario Hydro initiative to reduce electricity costs in industry by giving companies the tools they need to do the job. Tools like a free Power Saver audit that show you where the savings are...no-nonsense cash rebates to help you install energy efficient lighting systems...cash rebates to help you opt for high efficiency motors. This comprehensive, province-wide energy savings plan provides not only financial incentives but a wealth of ideas on how your company can take advantage of load-reducing technologies. Start maxirnizing your profitability now. Come and visit Ontario Hydro's exhibit at the WPCF's 64th Annual Conference and Exposition.

Let's give tomorrow a hand. For more information, 92

Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666 IINew....Opacity Monitor!! METERyOPACITY MONTTOR

Rosemount's new 0PM 2000

Big Scale pH Meter


Opacity Monitor represents


the new standard In contin

uous opacity monitoring. The ORM 2000 is the only opacity system available that utilizes a single light source, single detector, double-pass princi ple with NO MOVING PARTS



for beam modulation.

Analytical Model 707 BIG SCALE pH Meter is a rugged, reliable instrumentfeaturing a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and the exclusive Analytical polyethyleneshielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH elec trode limitations.

It Is designed to meet EPA 40 CFR,Parted, AppendixB,Per formance Specification 7 - In rugged Industrial applications

Model 707 is simple to ope rate, with only two operating controls.

Analytical Measurements

with minimum maintenance.

Circle reply card No. 209

Rosemount Instruments Ltd. Circle reply card No. 208

Isco's new 3000 and enhanced 3200 series flowmeters


The NEV\/ 3010 Ultrasonic and

added to all 3700 series sam

3020 Submerged Probe flow transmitters are economically priced and offer the following

plers. The first allows on-site printing of program and sam pling results. The second fea

Enhanced Isco 3700 series

Three great features have been

features: backlit LCD, RS-232

output, alarm relays, internal heaters, 4-20mA output, and NEMA 4X enclosure. The enhanced 3200series includes


ture allows the user to link the

sampler to a computer. And finally, a newSTORM program makes storm water runoff

monitoring easier. AM portable 3700's are now available with an optional 4 bottle set-up.


backl it LCD, hi/low alarm

relays, and a rain gauge input connector.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 210

T a



Nortech Control Equipment Inc. Circle reply card No. 211













4-62' DIA., 1-77' DOME STYLE





canbar BOX280. One CanbarStreet WATERLOO, Ontario, Canada N2J4A7


Fax No.(519)886-5546

EXCELLENCE AND RELIABILITY SINCE 1872 • SEE US AT WPCF/91 - BOOTH #1645 For more information, Circle reply card No. 164

Carve awaythe excess. â– â–

Let the Energy Management Challenge release the power of industry. Improve your company's profitability by using the power of energy efficient technology. The Energy Management Challenge is a major Ontario Hydro initiative to reduce electricity costs in industry by giving companies the tools they need to do the job. Tools like a free Power Saver audit that show you where the savings are...no-nonsense cash rebates to help you install energy efficient lighting systems...cash rebates to help you opt for high efficiency motors.

This comprehensive, province-wide energy saviags plan provides not only financial incentives but a wealth of ideas on how your company can take advantage of load-reducing technologies. Start maximizing your profitability now. Come and visit Ontario Hydro's exhibit at the WPCF's 64th Aimual Conference and Exposition.

^Ontario Hydro Let's give tomorrow a hand. For more information,


Circle reply card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Product Review Eliminator Splii Controi Piiiows & Expandabead

Laboratories Comprehensive Environmental Anaiyticai Services


Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters

• Emission Testing

' Reg. 309 Compliance

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

' Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans • Ambient Air Monitoring


Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. ^ofesslonal Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

POLLUTECH Each pillow will absorb up to one litre. Expandabead pouches are made with a unique absorbent poly mer that entraps and immobilizes most organic chemicals. Eliminator pillows use a highly inert adsorbent pulp that can pick up a wide range of hazardous che micals. Liquitrol Sorbent Products Big '0' Inc. For more information,



Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD. OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2

TEL:(416) 847-0065

FAX: (416) 847-3840


1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT, N7S 3Y6 TEL: (519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965



Circie repiy card No. 181

Paperless water level recording system

Metals - Anions - Organics - PCBs - Vola tiles Reg. 309 - MISA - Landfill Quality - Phytotox - Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-site sampling available For complete cataloque with prices call Tel:(416)625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8368



•Ground Water •Surface Water • Air Quality

•Soils & Sediments -LiquidWaste • MISA

• Reg. 309 • Decomissioning Guidelines •QA/QC


P.O. BOX 100, THOROLD, ONT. L2V 3Y8 PHONE:(416) 227-1158 FAX: 680-191 6

Telog's R-2108 Potentiometric Recorder and A-101 Retrofit Kit will

update mostfloat-and-coimterweight assemblies to micro-processor-based water level recording systems for reliable,low-maintenance,unattend ed operations. Float-and-counterweight rotations are translated into potentiometric changes by the A-101 Kit and interpreted by the R-21G8 as


MiSA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • PGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

water level in user-selected scalable

units. User-programmable para meters,friendly software,alarm log ging,large memory capacity,reportready printouts of time-correlated data history,long battery life(up to 18 months),and easy data collection


1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152


are some of the distinctive features.


The single-channel R-2108 is rugged, weatherproof and compact. It is battery-operated with optional exter nal dc power connection. Telog Instruments Inc.


Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C.(604)444-4808

For more information,

Montreal, Quebec(514)493-4733

Circle repiy card No. 182

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Product Review Freeze plug used for hydrostatic testing


Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning

i"- ft.. A' .. ,,,*

.m- i-,.. ..-Ml

480 University Avenue. Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel. 416-595-2000 •Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

The Ice-O-Lator® system available

Ainley and


from Sealtec Ltd. the Canadian






280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

Box 917, R.R.5

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

(613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry In Canada

Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Municipal Services Architecture

TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply


AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B,St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6







licensee, can be used to isolate a sec tion of pipeline for hydrostatic test ing, eliminating the need to install costly test manifolds. Pipes are not cut, welded, or altered in any way. As a result,the Ice-O-Lator® system, through its use of liquid nitrogen, avoids structural damage to pipes, corrosion at cut points, weakening from welding heat and reduces the possibility of future leaking valves. To rehabilitate existing pipelines, water can be batched and moved from one test section to another. As

a result, draining and refilling is eliminated. Also, multiple sections are tested simultaneously, thereby significantly reducing downtime, equipment and labor costs. With proper scheduling,five sections can be tested simultaneously by four crews in only three days. The Ice-O-Lator® system of pipe freezing technology has been applied safely and effectively for over 20 years in pipeline and plant mainte nance applications. Sealtech Ltd. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 183

No Dig Pipeline Rehabilitation Restoring deteriorated underground pipelines is a key issue today and trenchless technology offers an envi ronmentally congruent solution to municipalities and engineers. U-Liner^'^ provides owners and ope rators the security of a "pipe within a pipe". Strong and durable, ULiner"'^'^ high density polyethylene pipe is factory produced in a high quality environment. Its impressive combination of strength,flexibility, slippery flow, chemical and erosion resistance,allow engineers to specify U-Liner^"*" trenchless solutions with

certainty. Once molded tightly in side the old pipe, the natural machi ning properties ofpolyethylene allow the restoration ofservice lateral con



nections by using internal,TV moni tored cutters. Samuel Pipe Liners For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 184

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Product Review Consultants

AC brakemotors utilize exclusive dual DC coil


C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel,(705)444-2565 Fax(705)4''-4-2327

Complete range of brakemotors from SEW Eurodrive is designed and manufactured to provide reliable motor and braking performance. All utilize an advanced dual DC coil

system to ensure rapid, precise brak ing, minimum heat build-up and maximum durability, making them particularly well suited to high cyc


Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vancouver • Lethbridge

• Wastewater Collection S Treatment

• Hazardous S Solid Waste Management • Water Resources & Environmental Planning


I Solid & Hazardous Waste Management ■Environmental Audits ■ Environmental Assessment 1Water Supply ■ Hydrogeology i Landfill Gas Control & Utilization 1 Wastewater Treatment

i Municipal Engineering


Services provides contaminated groundwater recovery and treat ment services. The company can

design and install complete recovery systems including deep wells, eductor wells and vacuum wellpoints. The systems can be used in conjunc tion with treatment systems such as air stripping, vapour extraction, activated carbon and fixed film bioreactors, The firm also manufac

tures vapour fans,suction and slurry pumps for rental or sale. Griffin's office and plant in Guelph, Ontario provides services nationwide. Griffin For more Information,

519-884-0510 519-884-0525 Mlssissauna*^^^* Fax 416-629-0510 416-629-0515




selection of output speeds, motor protection and control systems are available, along with a variety of mounting configurations, to meet virtually any application,

Griffin Groundwater Control

■ Construction Management


motors from 0.2 to 60 HP, A wide

Groundwater remediation services

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing • Field Sampling 8 Flow Measurement


ling applications. During brake release, a high energy "exciter" coil quickly over comes the braking force as the AC motor engages. Then, a low energy "holding" coil takes over to main tain brake release. When braking is required,this low energy coil releases quickly to provide rapid, fail-safe braking. In ultra-precise braking applications, built-in varistor con trol circuitry can be connected to provide the ultimate in braking speed and accuracy, Eurodrive offers a complete range offan-cooled,totally enclosed brake-

SEW Eurodrive For more iniormation, Circle reply card No. 200

Consulting Engineers




133 WYNFOnO DRIVE. NORTH YORK. METROPOLITAN TORONTO. CANADA M3C 1K1 • TEL; (416) 441-4111 • FAX: (4183 441 -4131

PIIILL©ini Cionsulting Engineers -Planr^ers Environmental Scientists









-Plant Facility Compliance

-Risk Assessment -Waste Containment Facilities

-Site Characterization -Soil And Groundwater Assessment

-Waste Stream Assessment

-Environmental Audits


-Occupational Health & Safety

Head Office: Suite 120,100 York Blvd., Iticlunond Hill, L4B IJB, Tel; (416) 886-7965, Fax: (416) 886-7967 705 West Fifteenth Street, North Vancouver, B,C,,V71vi 1T2, Tci: (604) 980-5878, Fax; (604) 980-9621

Circle reply card No. 201

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


!ifr1>^E ENVIRONMENT MINATE CHLORINE Dislhfect-wlth IHtravjoTitttght'-' -



UAN SYSTEM ItV I itraviolet light is the environmentally-safe alternative to chlorine for

disinfecting waste\water. It effectively destroys bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms and meets the most stringent disinfection standards. With UV you can disinfect without adding dangerous chemicals which contribute to effluent toxiclty. By eliminating the need for chlorine, you'll no longer need to monitor chlorine residuals or worry about forming chlorinated compounds. You'll also dramatically Increase operator safety and reduce Insurance and building requirements.

Trojan Technologies has successfully installed over 500 UV systems throughout North America, Europe and Australasia. Now, the all new Trojan System UV3000 offers Important new advances In UV disinfection

technology; • UV lamp modules with integrated solid-state power supply for reliable operation, simplicity of installation and easy maintenance. • Minimal power consumption.

• Programmable controls to simplify operation and enhance performance.

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 174

Find out how you can now benefit by installing the competitively-priced Trojan System UV3000. Do yourself and the environment a big favour by visiting or calling:

Trqjan Technologies Inc. 845 Consortium Court, London, Ontario, Canada N6E 2S8

Tel: (519)685-6660 Fax: (519)681-8355

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Groundwater shallow well


sampler GEOGUARD Shallow Well Sampler from American Sigma has many applications including the collection of non-gas sensitive parameters from shallow wells, purging of shal low wells prior to sampling with a bailer, cleaning of bladder pump systems and pumping small

Professional Services in






The Shallow Well Sampler is a portable, peristaltic pump with a 26 ft. lift which induces flow by squee zing a flexible 3/8"ID silicone tube. Only the tube has contact with the liquid. The user can pump in forward or reverse as well as vary the pum ping rate with the adjustable motor speed controller. The unit operates from a 12 VDC power source which may be a small portable rechargeable gel battery, automobile battery via an optional battery cable or a lighter socket



Gartner Lee


255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa• Niagara • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston

cable. Also available is an AC model

for stationery applications. American Sigma-Geoguard For more information,

Circle reply card No. 202

Sludge Depth meter

NIAGARA FALLS, NY (716) 285-5449

Socio-Economic Impact



Land-Use Planning


Public Consultation


Hearings Support and Project Management

3016A Danforth Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4C 1M7 Telephone:(416)693-6115, Fax:(416)693-6117









(6131 226-5442




Markland Model 600 Sludge Depth Meter locates the sludge bed in clarifiers and settling tanks, with no moving parts. A probe placed in the tank con tains 64 pairs of very high intensity infrared Light Emitting Diodes which pass a beam across a probe gap to phototransistors. The gap containing either liquid or sludge attenuates the beam which is scan


Consultants for water an(d pollution control projects Knox Martin

Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax:(416)459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton ,Ontarlo. L6T 445(416)459-4780

ned by a microprocessor controlled solid-state circuit to find the sludge bed. The meter has automatic inten


sity control which adjusts the beam firing power to suit the particular liquid/sludge, and it also automati cally boosts its own intensity to overcome fouling. Markland Specialty Engineering Ltd.

Consulting Engineers



For more information,

Windsor, Ontario

(519) 966-2250

FAX:(519) 966-5523


(519) 539-2015

Circle reply card No. 203

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


The Clear


Choice World Wide «v i..-,;f»r', ■^. V .jvitj' .'•*■•


High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


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Sewer and Water Proven •

Factory Quality Control Uniform Wall Thickness •

Long Continuous Lengths •



Tight Fitting Structurally Sound Laterals Cut Internally



■ ■■ .

Visit us at the WPCF,


Booth #1434


THE Pipe Within A Pipe

U-Line tSr"


For more information about the U-Liner Pipeiine Rehabiiitation System, piease call, fax or write:



£;Ai jP


i '■





.' •• j.«'■


191 The West Mall, #418

6325-171 Street

Etobicoke, Ont. M9C 5K8 Tel: 416-626-2190, Fax: 626-5969

Surrey, B.C. V3S 7K4 Tel: 604-328-0300, Fax: 574-4563

For more information,

Circie reply card No. 172


Metering pump monitors

chemicai-feed process

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Morkham, Ontario, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416) 475-7270 • TeieFAX:(416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in ttie Environment



SBliffllftFfflBPPffllfiim .dg^i8b>:.:S:a

• Hydrogeology • Waste management


• Engineering geology • Environmental audits




• Site decommissioning

gamma/5series metering pump.The capacity of this pump — max. 31 L/HR against up tol6 har — is twice that of the gamma/4 series which has already been on the market for two years. The electronic outfit of

& rehabilitation


ProMinent has launched the

MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreai St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446


Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

this new series has also been exten ded. The basic version of the

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

gamma/5 is capable of being made into different versions so that it can

Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

suit the particular production pro cess. The gamma/5's built-in smart


ness monitors the whole chemical-

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhili, Ontario L3T 7N4

feed process and displays in clear text where to find faults, even exter

(416) 882-1100 Fax: (416) 882-0055

nal ones. Metcon


For more information,

Circle reply card No. 207

New sampler for industrial poiiution control Newly introduced wastewater sam pler from Epic Products incorpor ates well proven technology taken from their more up market samplers in a wall mounted polycarbonate case providing a simple low cost solution to routine factory effluent monitoring.

A basic operating cycle dischar ging samples at regular time or flow increments to he collected each day for analysis is often all that is requi red by industrialists seeking to moni


OR TECH Services I




Tel. 416 822-4111

Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media.

Fax 416 823-1446

Air, water and waste.

2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS

♦ WATtR and


For more information,
















Kitchener# Bracebrldge# Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET hORTH

tor their wastewater. The new EPIC

1022 Wastewater Sampler aims to ful fill this requirement. The integral float charged stand by battery providing immunity to temporary power cuts and the inert sample tract preventing sample con tamination by the materials of the sampler (especially relevant when detecting toxic trace elements in samples) are features of the EPIC 1022 not normally expected to be found in an economically priced unit. Cancoppas Limited






Tel> <519) 579-4410

Faxi <519) 741-3603

Proctor & Redfern limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Bramplon


St. Catharines


St. John's. Nfld.



Sault Ste. Marie



North Bay


Thunder Ba>


45 (ireen Belt I7rive. Don Mills. Oniario NUC" 3K.'<

Tci: (416) 445-3600


Circle reply card No. 208

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Handbook for


Waste Analysis


Consulting Engineers & Architects WATER





345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fox: (416) 286-1361

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Milton, Ontario

Tel:(416)875-2144 Fax:(416)875-2145

L9T 1P7

T.F: 1-800-263-4178

351 Main Street East

'fijg Trow,Dames & Moore Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology

A new 166-page handbook features simplified methods for measuring metals, minerals and wastewater solids in influent, primary effluent and sludge. It includes sample-type decision flowcharts, detailed stepby-step Digesdahl Digestion Appa ratus procedures for liquids, oils, and solids, and illustrated proce dures for photometric determination of common metals, minerals, total kjeidahi nitrogen, and total solids, suspended solids and dissolved solids. All procedures provide a lis ting of required and optional rea gents and apparatus. Hack's Digesdahl Digestion Apparatus uses a combination of suifuric acid and hydrogen peroxide to greatly reduce sample digestion time and streamline subsequent measurement. The analytical pro cedures,written for Hach's DR/3000 and DR/2000 Spectrophotometers and DR/700 Colorimeter, can be used with other spectrophotometers and can he applied to samples pre pared by conventional nitric acid digestion. Hach For more information, Circle reply card No. 209

7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario L4T 2H5 Telephone:(416)671-9921, Fax:(416)672-7784

Advertiser index

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416) 238-0007

Aco Assman Aer-0-Flo

Amer. Sigma Anal. Meas.



Aqua '92 Aquatronix Arjay

10 42







Komllne Sand.

73 90

DIann Testing Markland Spec.

50 57



Badger Dieter Barringer Labs.


Cancoppas Canron CanvIro CH2DI Hill Clarltek

Colgate-Palm. Crossroads


XCG Consultants Ltd.

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

Suite 904

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

Engineering Consultants


76 31 91 4 25 56




MSU Dlisslssauga

43 90

National Ins. NBC Nortech

Ont. Hydro Ramsey Lake Ind.


90 92 85




90 40

Ross Mackay Samuel Pipe Sys.


70 47

Cetech SEW Eurodrive

89 51








Elmco Env. Prot. Labs


Smart Turner Solarchem Solinst

Spill Tech

34 58 9

Providing Senior Consulting Advice


on Environmental Matters


Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

Gere & Storrle G&S Lab

MASc,PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal

Gartner Lee Geneq


90 79




8 54 74

Eco Equipment


N2H 5P4

15 48

Hamilton Kent

Calgon Carbon

(416) 863-0711 Fax:(416) 863-1938



BTG Inc.

73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200,Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4


Greatarlo H. Fontaine Hach

90 20 59

Big '0'

Environmental ancj Waste Management Approvals. Municipal Law, Lancj Use Planning an(d Development. Occupational Health and Safety, Environmental and Civil Litigation

Gorman Rupp


Beak Bestobell


2B 22 101 90

GLSV Globe '92


14.15 37 32 55 54 35

35.69 55 76



Summa Eng. T. City Iron Works Trojan VIctaullc Walker Labs Wallace & TIernan Westech

Wlllms & Shier

38 78

39 95 49 57 80 7 67

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991


Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option With


Collecting flow proportional samples has never been easier.

SIGMA's new Streamline" subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units — a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new subcompact sampler; an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in

tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart. The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports. Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and guaranteeing repeatability independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma,PO Box 820, Medina, NY 14103-0820. In Ontario CAN-AM Instruments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

In Quebec and New Brunswick CHEMACTION, INC.

Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7

Bureau 216, St-Leonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

5960, Jean-Talon Est.

Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the fliU range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices. In Alberta ITT Barton Instmments

3840 - llA Street, N.E. Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6 Tel (403) 291-4814 FAX (403) 291-5678

In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba MACKENZIE & FEIMANN, Ltd. 970 Malkin Avenue

Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2K8 Tel (604) 253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, Sept. 1991

Circle reply card No. 114


EIMIX" MECHANICAL MIXERS Compatible with all Eimco Digester Covers and Accessories Innovative Eimix Mechanical Mixing Systems combine economy, efficiency and dependability in a non-clog design.

Eimix Design Mixer Eimco

Digester Cover

• EIMIX PROPELLERS Won't clog due to a specially designed blade that directs

flow and fiberous material away from the hub.

Upper Elbow

• EFFICIENT Acts as an efficient low

head, axial flow pump.

• FLEXIBLE Pumps in either direction with equal efficiency. Below liquid level, Eimix mixers are clean with no flanges or edges for material to build up on. Maintenance is minimized, while obtaining the advantage of simple, low cost operation associated with mechanical mixing. Eimix mixers are available with all Eimco

Non-clog Eimix Propeller

Optional Heat Exchange Jacket

digester covers and accessories or as a retrofit to your existing digester. Draft Tube

Innovative engineering offers the most advanced technology for anaerobic digestion. Eimco, continuing our com mitment to technological leadership.

Digester Wall

Lower Elbow


to <5 * [*' a*® ' • O

. ..«> . ®

Process Equipment



A Division of Baker Hughes Canada Inc.

5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4W 1X2 (416)625-6070 FAX (416) 625-3519

Visit our booth at the WPCF Conference. Booth #4421. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 109