Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June-July 1991

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication


June/July 1991



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Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


(416) 727-4666


Associate Editor SANDRA DAUEY

Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727^666 Production Manager SAM ISGRD B.C. Sales Representative RON CANTON (604) 274-3849 Saies Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P,Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng.

June/July 1991, Vol.4 No. 3 Issued July, 1991


Have you heard these dirty stories about water? Comment by Tom Davey


NDP's environmental agenda is uncompromisingly


tough on polluters Report by Gerald Ronan Making sure Canada's environmental laboratories work effectively


Article by William Traversy

R.V. Anderson & Associates

J.V, Morris, M,Sc„ P,Eng. Senes Consuitants Ltd.

Mike Provart, M.Sc,, P.Eng,

Decommissioning of a sour gas plant in Alberta Article by E. Veska, W.H. Stiebel and B,R, Geddes


M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Leaking storage tank costs could rival our Federal deficit

Article by Richard Rush and Keith Metzger


The time to go trenchiess is fast approaching Article by Les Parr and Peter Coxon


Corrosion control in Calgary's water distribution system Report by Bradley James and William Ng


Robert Ferguson, P.Eng, Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smitli, LL,B.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communica tions inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and

Ruth Grier makes technical debut at AWWA/OMWA conference

Photo report by Tom Davey


PCAO celebrates its 20th conference in Niagara Fails Photo report by Tom Davey


How Montreal pioneered air pollution regulations in Canada


Health & safety factors inside sewage treatment plants Report by David Whaley



ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.


welcomes editorial


tions but does not accept any respon sibility whatsoever for the safekeeping

A unique solution to an old drainage problem in Quebec


Investigating water treatment by advanced oxidation


of contributed material.

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environmental Science & Engineer ing, c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industriai Pkwy, 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1, Head Office - 10 Retch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666; Fax: (416) 841-7271. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.

Departments Reader Service Card


Product Reviews

Industry Update


R&D News Advertisers Index

Literature Reviews


COVER STORY; Three pilot plant Advanced Oxidation Processes have been developed by a research team at the

University of Bath In south west England. Appropriately, the City of Bath has been famous for Its therapeutic waters since Roman times. See story on page 68,

50,59-72 32 72

CHECK THE LABEL if the date on the address label on the front cover

reads AUGUST 91, your subscription has expired as of this issue. To avoid

missing the next issue, simply send a cheque for $48.15(GST inc.) and the

(G.S.T. extra) C*n*di*n

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

H Prru

address label to ES&E.

PriMcdm rttyxkxJ paper.

Feds fund "Water Interpretation Centre"

Have you heard these dirty stories about water?

Years ago I met Malcolm

sting of his elegantly wielded and usually irreverent pen, including Winston Churchill, The Queen, plus an assortment of archbishops, aca demics, publishers and politicians. Repeatedly his writing evoked indig nation from writers and public figures who were offended that their icons had been tainted by his barbed critiques. Ultimately his talents outlasted his critics, the iconoclast becoming an icon. When he died last year, he had long been affectionately known as St. Mugg. But I vividly recall meeting him years ago, along with

an environmental theme centre on

the islands ofthe old Expo'67 site in Montreal. No comedic writer can

compete with the imaginative plots of Ottawa's skilled wastrels. I sus

pect that deep in the labyrinths of Parliament Hill, there's a colony of bureaucrats who gnaw away like termites at all proposals which con tain even traces of fiscal responsi bility. It was all the dead wood in the

Senate that first brought termites to mind; hut, as the senators have just voted themselves an additional$150

author of several books and even a

His reply was vintage Muggeridge. "I resigned when I found that even the most humorous fantasy thatI could devise, would frequently he topped by some imbecilic event in

stint as editor of Punch, Britain's venerable magazine of humour.

real life." I was reminded of his statement

per day, simply for bringing their lukewarm bodies into the upper chamber, perhaps parasite is the more appropriate word. Regardless, it is clear that we can expect no sober second thoughts from the Senate on this latest federal lunacy. Simply stated,the federal govern ment is proposing to fund over $40 million on the former Expo '67 site. Amenities would include bicycle paths,parks and restaurants on Ste-

Some eminent figures felt the

when reading of proposals to fund

Helene and Notre-Dame islands in

Muggerldge, then at the peak of his career as one of the most gifted writers and satirists in the English language. He had travelled the glohe as news paper reporter, television celebrity,

some other ink stained wretches

from Fleet Street, when he was asked why he had given up his plum posi tion with Punch?


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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

the highly polluted St. Lawrence River.

Butthe centrepiece will be a $17.5 million Water Interpretation Centre destined to become a permanent edu

Centre. I now suggest a sequel for next year: a musical comedy called The Federal Follies. What script writers call a treatment, or produc tion outline is as follows: *

cational exhibition about water.

Reports indicate funds for this cen tre may come from Ottawa's $3 bil lion environmental Green Plan funds. NDP Environment Critic James

Fulton says using Green Plan money this way would confirm his worst suspicions; that the proposals are simply a way to spend money for partisan politics while raw sewage is still being dumped into the St. Lawrence. "Let's spend $17.5 mil lion on cleaning the waters ofthe St. Lawrence, rather than cleaning up the image of the Tories," he said. In addition to Environment

Canada's $17.5 million, the federal Industry Departmentis throwing in $22.5 million while the City of Mon treal willfork out$17.4 million. This

comes on top ofthe $5 million contri bution thatIndustry Minister Benoit Bouchard donated last year to the 'Just for Laughs'Comedy Centre and Museum of Humour in Montreal.

Increasingly theatre is becoming an integral part ofgovernment.Last year it was the Comedy Museum; this year the Water Interpretation



In the Follies, Prime Minister

Brian Mulroney — in his husky baritone — willsing'Why Irish Eyes Aren't Smiling',followed by 'Bridge Over Troubled Waters'. Liberal lea

der Jean Chretien does repeated flip flops without a trampoline while International Trade Minister John Crosbie recites his entire French

vocabulary — in microseconds. Then in a remarkable solo perfor mance, Former Environment Mini ster Lucien Bouchard plays sin gles tennis, switching to both sides of the court with some nifty selfserving serves. Then in a parody of GulfMilitary Strategy,Michael Wilson willshow how a 'smart budget' can reduce a vibranteconomy to rubble — without using a single bomb. Then Benoit Bouchard, who bears more than a passing resemblance to the Flintstone's Barney Rubble, will demon strate that the federal government is clearly no skinflint with public money.

some fashionable party lines, smartly cut from discarded dogmas of the '50s. Then in a rousingfinale,the sena tors will march into the upper house in step to Verdi's Aida as they pre pare for their daily battle with eco nomic realities. Eloquent lyrics will proclaim a senatorial war on poverty as they pocket their per diems. Properly handled, the finale could combine spectacular theatre with a deeply religious experience,especial ly if the per diems are recited in Gregorian Chant like some latin rite. The public, if it cannot see its tax dollars at work, will at least be able to see them at play. *



Meanwhile, the magnificent St. Lawrence River remains deeply pol luted while millions are spent on theatricals instead of remediation

projects. Quebec needs the talents of AQTE — not Actor's Equity. I often wondered why Canada never developed humour magazines like Punch, or satirical publications like Private Eye. Now it is crystal clear. Nothing, absolutely nothing, could possibly be more hilarious than the verbatim transcripts in Hansard.

In the interval, NDP leader

Audrey McLaughlin will model

Malcolm Muggeridge, how right you were.

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Industry Update Air & Waste

Mann Testing expands laboratory services

Management Assn. Annual Fail Meeting The Air& Waste Management Asso ciation — Ontario Section, will be holding its annual Fall Meeting September 22-24,1991,attheHockley Valley Resort near Orangeville. The topic ofthe meeting will be Environ mental Management Initiatives: Focus on Municipal and Industrial Experiences. Contact Steve Toplack, (416)735-0035.

AWWA/CPWA joint conference in Nfld. The American Water Works Asso ciation &the Canadian Public Works

Association are holding a Joint Technical Conference in St. John's

Mann Testing Laboratories celebrated its recent expansion with an open house and outdoor barbeque. The weatherman cooperated with a perfect day. ES&E Publisher Tom Davey (left), was shown around the new facilities in Mississauga, Ont. by Mann President John Martin.

Newfoundland, September 15-17, 1991, at the Radisson Plaza Hotel. Conference Co-Chairmen are Jim

Finn(709-576-8658)and Rick Appleby (709-576-8306)who may be contacted

technical seminar in Toronto, Onta

for further information.

rio at the Four Seasons-Inn on the

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tion(10A)will be holding a three-day

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ricas" and will feature presentations on the applications of ozone to the

Do you know what is In your water? We have established a quality air and water testing service with state-of-the-art equipment. We have two general packages for drinking water: General Monitoring (80 parameters) $325.00 In depth Analysis (114 parameters) $425.00 We have the capability to measure organic pollutants at part per trillion level. Prices for parts per trillion measurements or

analysis of waste water, soil and radon are available on request.


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treatment of drinking water, waste water and industrial applications. The last day of the program will be dedicated to papers discussing the application ofozone to the treatment Continued overleaf

Entrepreneurial Operations Manager Blorem Corp...Waterloo Location THE SCENARIO: Blorem Corp., a company that in collaboration with the MIcroblal Biotechnology Laboratory at the University of Waterloo, develops and enhances the unique biodegradation capabilities of micro-organisms for the bioremediatlon of toxic organic waste substances, is In need of a self-directed Operations Manager. THE POSITION: You will be responsible for all aspects of the operation...from the "top line"(design ing and implementing the marketing plan)to the "bot tom line"(negotiating contracts with clients and sup pliers). YOUR BAOKGROUND:Your credentials are impres sive. They should include the following: • Ohemical or relevant engineering designation. • Formal training in business administration (MBA/BBA). • At least 5 years sales/consulting experience with "clean-up" related processes and products. • A desire for the opportunity to operate in an envi ronment where you are measured by your achieve ments and compensated accordingly (salary, bonus, and equity participation). TO PROCEED: Send or fax your resume to: Biorem Corp., 608 Weber Street, North, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1K4; Attn: Mr. Rio Asselstine, Tel: (519) 746-7191, Fax: (519) 747-2207.

For more information,

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Enuironmental Science & Engineering, July 1991






Endless summer.

This moment can last for ever. The waters will continue

to run clear, the fish will continue to play hide and seek with patient anglers. But it will take care and imagination to make it happen.

Part of the answer to problems of water pollution is high performance water, storm and sewer pipe from Canron. It's made from non-corrosive PVC to last longer; and because it needs fewer joints, leakage is minimized to do a better job of protecting our water resources.

Choose pipe and fittings for sewer lines, watermains, plumbing and electrical conduit from the specialists in high performance plastics. Canron,the people you can trust. For more information on all our pipe products, call 1-416-742-5334.

ŠAN RON TTie responsible choice. For more information,

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AQUA'92 THE NATIONAL WATER SHOW AND CONFERENCE Ma^our calendar. Plan for Canada's only exhibition and conference devoted exclusively io Water — its use, treatment and conser\'ation.

AN IMMENSE MARKET ABOUT TO BURST Water is the largest emerging opportunity of the decade: • MORE THAN S43 billion will be spent - domestic and industrial - on infrastructure distribution, repair, development and reclamation of our water resource.

• WATER will be Canada's fastest growing exportable resource,

• WATER will be the most environmentally controlled market in the world,

A DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL SHOWCASE TRADE SHOW If your job deals with water — distributing, using or

treating - you can't afford to miss AQUA '92! Finally a show for the water industry. All the products sho%vcased. National attendance Irom

public works•construction • manufacturing•forestry• mining • pulp/ paper • government• oil/gas• agriculture • research •engineeiing,

INTERNADONAL CONFERENCE Join the debate on tomorrow's

issues. A three-day congre.ss on WATER. Internationally recognized

experts in the fields of use, treatment and conservation will gather at the VANCOUVER TRADE AND CONVENTION CENTRE. Presenting solutions. Future trends. Environmental and legal is.sues. Financing.

Research. Changing government regulations. The total spectrum. Registration and exhibit information contact: AQUA '92 P.O. Box 86278 Nortlt Vancouver, B.C. V7L 4S8

1 Phone 604-985-1143 Fax 604-985-1192

Trade&Convention Centre For more information,

Circie reply card No. 144 10

Industry Update

EST Emergency Chlorine/Sulfur

of cooling tower recycle water. Registration and general infor mation can be obtained by contact ing Mrs. Margit Istok, Executive Director, lOA-PAC, 83 Oakwood Avenue, Norwalk, CT 06850, Tel: (203) 847-8169, Fax:(203) 847-2683, or Ronald L.Larocque,Toronto Con ference Chairman, 690 Progress Avenue, Unit No. 12, Scarborough, Ontario, MIH 3A6, Tel: (416) 4397860, Fax:(416)439-6806.

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ES&E now printed on recycled paper


This issue of Environmental


Science & Engineering is printed on high-quaiity recycled paper.






For some time, we have been

increasing our use of recycled paper for promotional materials, etc. However, until now,sporadic availability has prevented us from using it for the magazine itself. Recycled paper is more expen sive, but we feel that it is worth it.

After all, the magazine's mandate is environmental protection. Steve Davey


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CANVIRO Labs Awarded Certification



Environmental Engineers London, Ontario Growth in our Environmental Engineering Group has created an opportunity in our London office for you, if you have a Bachelor's Degree in Civil or Chemical Engineering, preferably with a Masters Degree in Environmental Engineering. Must have at' least 3-1 Oyears of suitable experience and be eligible for registration with APEO. Good verbal and written communication skills and

Am amiomm


the ability to function in a multi-discipline team are essential, along with design experience in the con sulting engineering field. Should have design experience in the following areas:

• water treatment

Jeff Pike (left), President of CANVIRO Analyti cal Laboratories Ltd., received certification for

specific tests by Dr. John Lawrence, President of the Canadian Association for Environmentai

Analytical Laboratories (inc.) at the Annual General Meeting in Hamilton, Ontario. CANVIRO Labs is proud to be a member of CABAL and looks forward to being an active

supporter of the goals of the Association.

• Industrial and municipal wastewater treatment • process piping and hydraulics

• pumps and treatment process equipment • preparation of contract specifications Thinking about a career move? Why not to London, a university city of 300,000 with a highly desirable living environment. Dillon is a national company with offices across Canada. You will be part of a team of engineers, scientists and technicians provi ding environmentai services to clients throughout Canada.

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Send resume to: Stephen McMinn,P.Eng., London - Manager,Environmental Engineer ing, M.M. Dillon Limited,

P.O. Box 426,LONDON,


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For more Information,

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OPCEA holds 20th Western Canada Water and Wastewater Association 43rd Annual Convention

annual meeting

Holiday Inn Grown Plaza, Winnipeg, Manitoba September 24-27,1991 • Exhibits - September 24-25, Winnipeg Convention Centre. • Tour Winnipeg's New PCC,September 24,1991. • 30 plus Technical and Operations papers, Sept. 25-27. • External Affairs and International Trade Canada

"Proposed Europe 1992" seminar,September 27. Steve Davey

For more information,contact Janice Taylor(403)259-4041

Some four weeks before the PCAO

Conference, the Ontario Pollution Control Association held its 20th

annual meeting at the Ramada Hotel, Mississauga. Johfi Coomey, Cancoppas; Rob Warren, Bobbins and Myers; Cathy Gorrie, Can Am Instruments; and Ed Pitovnik, Arlat were elected as Directors.

September 1991 Issue When the eyes of the world focus on the Water Pollution Control Federation Conference, Environmental Science & Engineering will be there! Environmental Science & Engineering's August/September issue will feature aspecial section on the 1991 WPCF Conference to be held in Toronto, October 6-10.

Advertising in the September issue will maximize your booth's effectiveness at the show. As an added bonus,

extra copies of the issue will be distributed at the conference.

Advertising in ES&E is a great investment — Here's why

sme® (S: m

Gratifying reader response. ES&E has unquestionably the most authoritative editorial team In Canada.

ES&E has over 18,000 qualified environmental professional readers. ES&E has over 2,100 consulting engineers and

The present OPCEA board is: President, Steve Davey, Environ mental Science & Engineering Magazine;Past President,Hans Leygraaf. Helm Equipment; Vice Presi dent, Andrew Hutton, Eco Equip ment; Director of Marketing, Larry Madden, Control & Metering; and Sec./Tres. Ross Humphry,Canadian Safety Equipment. Guest speaker Brian Evans out lined his conference plans then gave an entertaining review of the stateof-the-art of pollution control. Then all OPCEA Past Presidents, who had been invited to the 20th anni

versary meeting, were announced and presented with plaques com memorating their term of office.

consultant readers. CCAB audited circulation.

(Your guarantee of circulation quality.)

August/September Issue Ad closing date: August 9,1991 FOm/Artwork deadline: August 16,1991

ANNOUNCEMENT StmlM letl<t»fi

T"*"" Ooterlo """eniplanl-.



T) WPCF Conference Special —

Scheduled editorial lineup *

vital information for delegates • A listing of Canadian extiibitors' names, addresses and products being exiiibited.

• Waterscape'91 report —user pay, metering, 'Low Bid' critique, groundwater

contamination, pulp & paper effluent.

• Fioor pians of the exhibit areas.

• Technicai program schedule — highlights of sessions, speakers and topics. • Local arrangements — summary of tours,

• Piping and 'No-Dig' reports. • Air pollution update. • Coping with toxic spills.

excursions, etc.

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us before August 9,1991 Steve Davey

Al Stiver

Ron Ganton

Penny Davey

Sales Director

U.S. Representative (416) 294-5502

B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849

Sales Representative

(416) 727-4666

10 Retch Or., Aurora,Ontario,Canada L4G 5N7

For more information, Circle reply card No. 183 12

(416) 488-7639

CanTest Ltd. is pleased to announce that Don K. Noot, M.Sc., has joined the firm. In his position as Supervisor, Trace Organics Department, Mr. Noot will assume responsibilities related to project management, client liaison, method development and quality con trol.

He will bring extensive experience in organic analysis and the credentials of having published numerous papers in the fields of water treatment studies and method evaluation.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Industry update Air quality guide

Just add water — and cause a stir

announced in B.C.

A proposed new vehicle fuel system, injection system is simple and is that adds water to gasoline, could expected to cost about $650. In fre slash vehicle fuel consumption by quently used vehicles, the system 20 percent and save billions of litres could pay for itselfin less than three of gasoline annually, according to months. During the project, tests

The Air & Waste Management Asso ciation's Environmental Resource

Guide - Air Quality, introduced at the Association's annual meeting in Vancouver,is a curriculum develop ed and produced by the Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA). The curri culum is the latest of more than 40

education programs addressing environmental and energy issues developed by TVA. TVA's environmental education network works so well that the Alli

ance for Environmental Education, in partnership with the U.S. Envi ronmental Protection Agency, is developing a network for environ

Ontario Energy Minister Jenny

will be conducted on fleet vehicles in


the City of North York and in two private-sector companies. The EnerSearch program helps to pay for research and development ofinnovative energy technologies in the private sector. The EnerSearch grant awarded to FIPS Internatio nal for the water-injection project will cover about 50 percent of total

The water-injection system is being developed by FIPS Interna

tional in Western,(Ontario, with the help ofa $221,750 EnerSearch grant from the Ministry of Energy. The technology is also expected to reduce harmful emissions and improve vehicle performance significantly. Installation of the water-



mental education modeled after the

TVA program. The Alliance is an affiliation of professional, business, health, labor, education and envi

ronmental organizations represent ing more than 20 million members. To put together the Air Quality Guide for the Air & Waste Manage ment Association, TVA reviewed a proposal for the guide from A«&WMA, developed a work plan and outline for the project,identified the major air pollutant issues cur rently impacting both the United States and Canada, gathered tech

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from A&WMA, and then selected the particular schools within the network best suited to develop the A&WMA program.

Anderson V.P. goes Down Under Peter Laughton, a Vice President of R.V. Anderson & Associates, will he spending his summer vacation at Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. He was invited by Professor Philip Jones (previously at the U of T), Head of the School of Environmental Engi neering at Griffith,to assistin deve loping a new undergraduate pro gram for the second,third and fourth year courses in Environmental Engineering.

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Industry update AWMA honours

Gro Brundtland in B.C.

LC i

The Air & Waste Management Asso ciation presented its 1991 Honors


and Awards atthe association's 84th

Annual Meeting & Exhibition,June 16-21, at the Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre.


The Richard Beatty Mellon award was presented to Gro Harlem Brundt land,Prime Minister ofNorway.Mrs. Brundtland's move from Minister of Environmentto Prime Minister was

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A museum of what...?

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The city of Manchester is now focus sing on its role as "the world's first industrial city." Already Manches


ter has converted the world's first

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try, rated as Britain's largest indus trial museum. Underground Man chester contains a history ofsewage

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Industry Update Geotechnica '91

DWSP reports SW Ont. water good

Cologne, Sept. 18-21 Preservation of the Earth — challenge to science & technology is the confer ence theme of Geotechnica.

The Department of External Affairs and International Trade

Canada is cooperating with Cana dian firms who wish to participate in Geotechnica '91 in Germany. These government departments are sponsoring a core area including an information hooth, a common lounge area for participating com panies,marketing counsel and assis tance through staff on site and Canadian identification of the

stand. A meeting room to he used as a workshop for brief presentations may he available. Canadian participants have to pay for their own booths,hut eligible companies may he able to get assis tance. Contact Edele WIchmann, (416)598-3343, or FAX:598-1840 for more details.

Green Plan cost

$4M to launch

Drinking water was generally good

supply system which draws its water

from southwestern Ontario water

from Lake Huron.

supply systems monitored in 1989 by the Ontario Ministry ofthe Envi ronment. Reportsfor the Southwest Region indicate only three of 16 sys tems monitored under the ministry's Drinking Water Surveillance Pro gram (DWSP) had water samples

obtained under the Access to Infor mation law reveal.

Among the expenditures to pro mote the $3 billion,six-year environ mental action plan are: •$36,828 to test people's reaction to the logo and themes; •$1.9 million on advertising; • $150,000 on communications advice from private firms; •$12,000 on picture frames, likely

November treated water samples taken from the Alvinston Water

Treatment Plant. The samples con tained nitrates at 10.4 mg/L. The district and medical health officers were notified.

taken that exceeded Ontario Drink

ing Water Objectives(ODWOs). The 1989 DWSP for the South

west Region involved the monthly sampling of raw and treated water from each plant, and from at least one site in each distribution system, for the presence of approximately 180 parameters. In February,April and June, samples of treated and distributed waters taken from the Dresden Water TreatmentPlant con

tained total nitrates at 10.1 mg/L, 10.7 mg/L and 10.3 mg/L respecti vely. The ODWO for total nitrates is 10 mg/L. The ministry is currently working with the municipality to build a pipeline that will supply drinking

The ODWO for turbidity — 1 Formazin turbidity unit (FTU) — was also exceeded in two samples of treated water taken from Mitchell's

Bay Water TreatmentPlant and the

Dresden plant. In July, a sample taken from the Mitchell's Bay plant contained turbidity at 1.37 FTU. In February, a sample taken from the Dresden plant contained turbidity at 2 FTUs. Ongoing monitoring at these plants does not indicate any continuing turbidity problems. At all other water treatment

plants in the Southwest Region, organic, inorganic and physical parameters did not exceed any

water from the Lamhton area water

The Federal Green Plan launch cost

$4 million on media and public rela tions and advertising, documents

The ODWO for total nitrates was also exceeded in the March and

for the certificates given to people who took part in cross-country con sultations; •$11,000for a"Spiritual Ceremony" to open and close the consultations; •$20,000 on covers for green plan kits; •$7,100 for a private firm that told reporters and environmental groups aboutthe announcement ofthe plan. "Wild pigs in a granary could not so grossly gorge themselves at the

health-related ODWOs.

public trough," said New Democrat environment critic Jim Fulton, who does not mince his words.

"Imagine the snorts of joy from the private sector when they caught wind ofthe bloated budget to launch the green plan," he said. The green plan had its debut under former environment minister Robert de Cotret. In a recent cabinet

shuffle, Mr. de Cotret was replaced by Jean Charest.

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Feedback We read with great interest the arti cle on air pollution of your March 1991 publication. However,we were surprised when Dr.Keith C.Heidom, an air quality specialist, wrote that the first air pollution regulation in

Science & Engineering. I am very pleased with the quality of presenta tion that you were able to achieve with the article Providing potable water to Canadian forces in the Gulf

Canada was enacted in Toronto in

Ron W. Clifton, General Manager, Zenon Water Systems Inc.

1907. It may be that the author thinks Canada stops at Toronto. The first air pollution regulation was really adopted some 35 years before 1907 in Montreal. On March

12, 1872, Montreal Council adopted by-law #56 to call upon owners of steam engines in the city to equip them with smoke-consuming de vices. By-law #56 was followed with by-law #130 in 1882 and by-law #260 in 1901. As you can see, at least three regulations were adopted on air pollution by the city of Montreal only, before 1907. We are enclosing a copy of the pertinent pages of a report prepared in 1980 by the Mon treal Urban Community. Fernand Cadieux, eng., Deputy Director and Yves Bourassa, eng. COMMUNAUTE URBAINE DE MONTREAL

Thank you for copies of the Feb./ March issue of Environmental

the Canadian environmental scene

— and is highlighted by your appro priate and incisive editorial com ments.

I thoroughly enjoyed your June/ July issue of ES&E. Usually I find it's your editorials that say best

The June/July 1990 issue is excellent. The comment by Dr. Phil Jones has been badly needed for some time and is applauded. As a follow-up, I might suggest that a writing on risk analysis would be appropriate. George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Mr. Crawford is a former president


what needs to be said. This time I

ofthe Pollution Control Association

especially liked Dr. Phil Jones' arti

of Ontario and also a former presi

cle Devastation by Indecision, and also Roy Aitken's The role of the engineer in sustainable develop ment. I thought both were excellent. I just wish that I had seen the

dent of Gore & Storrie Ltd.

It is good to read Devastation by Indecision by Dr. Phillip Jones. The

same articles in Probe Post or Harrowsmith as well.

best article on the environment in the last decade.

Yours Truly, Ken C. Bradley, Manager, Waste Reduction, OWMC.

John Bell, Bell and Reading Engineering Ltd.

Having had more than casual inter est in ES&E since its inception, I would commend you and your staff on its progressive development, scope of material and relevance. Your publication has become an important, continuing reflection of

I read the presentation by Inco's Roy Aitken in your June/July issue with a great deal of interest. We share your views on the long history and importance of engineering in environmental management. T. David Smith, MBA, Environment House

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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MISA — CAP — Safe Drinking Water Act —

By Gerald Ronan*

NDP's environmental agenda Is uncompromisingly tough on polluters

Ontario's Environment

Minister, Mrs. Ruth Grier,

knows the issues and has a clear vision on what

needs to be done to protect the envi ronment. Mrs. Grier acknowledges the tremendous contribution of her

predecessor,Jim Bradley,to environ mental protection. She proposes to build upon past achievements, and in the process, chart new directions in terms of environmental protec tion for Ontario.

Strategic Directions Taking care of environmental business in Ontario has primarily revolved around three strategies namely: 1. Poliution Control; 2. Pol

The problem with this triad of strategies has been the order in which they have been used. Most of the efforts have been focused on pol

approach towards controlling pollu tants discharged to the environ ment. In this context, transforming

lution control.

make sense. Incineratingmunicipal solid waste would also seriously undermine the whole 3R strategy she recently announced. It simply is not good enough to pile municipal solid waste into inci nerators and transform a compara tively benign waste stream into a 30% ash residue, a portion of which contains toxic leachate. It simply is not good enough to resort to treat ment processes which emit dioxins, furans, mercury, acid gases, and

Attention is now

belatedly being applied to remedia ting past site specific environmen tal disasters,such as the Smithville PCB site. Regrettably, insufficient effort has been expended on pollu tion prevention. Ironically, pollu tion prevention may well be the most effective and least cost option for reducing pollution. Banning Incineration Mrs. Grier recently announced a ban on the incineration of munici

pal waste. This decision is consis

lution Remediation; 3. Poliution Pre

tent with the environmental minis


try policy of taking a multi-media


solid waste into air emissions doesn't

other trace contaminants into the air we breathe. We must find better

ways of managing our wastes. "Sin boldly, or not at ail" St. Augustine The rapidity and scale in which western industrialized man has dis-

poiled the environment is mind numbing. Polluters seem to have taken St. Augustine's injunction to heart. Their conscience has appa rently been salved by the notion that however dreadful the mess, mother nature can absorb limitless

punishment. The other underlying premise is that if mother nature falls down on the job, then technology can come to the rescue.

Notice has been served that we

must stop relying on a technological fix for the environmental mess we

are in. We apparently have become trappedin a mind set that locks us in to expensive high-tech dependency relationships for handling environ mental problems. Mrs. Grier has challenged Ontarians to think differently about the way we manage the environment. One of the biggest problems stems from the fact that we devoutly believe that everything can be taken care of once it is managed. Therein lies the


fatal flaw. With all our technology, with all our innovation and entre-

preneurship, our efforts at mana ging the environment have been, by and large, pathetically inadequate. A fundamental premise in our approach towards managing the environment is that traditionally the environment has been viewed as

The assault on pollution is epitomized by an action photo of an operator using 3M foam to suppress toxic vapors, dust and odours during a waste site reme diation operation. 18

"Acting ADM, Environmental Services, Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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NDP's environmental agenda, comd a "free good" which is there to be used, exploited, managed. In retro spect, we could be accused of being simply naive or worse, catatonic in our approaches to managing the

Over the course oftime, mistakes will be made. Some paths may need to be re-traced. That is the price of leadership,the price of boldness and vision. A course is being charted


that will accelerate the restoration

Mrs. Grier is now proposing a value system that perceives the envi ronment as a heritage that must be conserved and nurtured,rather than exploited and abused. She is chal lenging our industrialists,our manu facturers, our engineers and scien tists, and the community at large to think differently about the environ

of Ontario's environment. The goal is the creation of a healthier, sustai


nable environmentin which all ofus will be beneficiaries. MISA-1986

Turning to Ontario's Environ mental agenda, perhaps the pro gram you are most familiar with is MISA (Municipal and Industrial Strategy for Abatement). First

Gerald Ronan addresses the 1991 PCAO conference.

launched in 1986, this program is the cornerstone of the ministry's water pollution prevention strategy. However, five years into the pro gram questions are being asked as to what precisely has been achieved.

Environmental liabllltles

don't go away by them selves.You've got to meet them head on, armed with the best possible

Is it on track in terms of substan

tially reducing water pollution? Is it achieving the goal of virtual elimi nation of persistent toxics dischar ged to the environment?

resources. That's why you should know about

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I think it would be fair to say we are firmly mired in the middle. So I

remediation, we specialize in health risk assess

propose to go back to the beginning

ment, laboratory analy

of MISA,review what we set out to do in 1986, assess how far we have

sis, on-site bioremediation,

progressed on the path to the virtual

monitoring and

elimination of persistent toxics dis-

closure of all

types of haz

A course Is being charted that

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We research,

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charged to provincial waterways, and explore what might lie ahead.

complex issues. Why wait for a problem

What lies ahead

to surface? Groundwater

Before getting into the specifics of MISA,it would be useful to under stand the new imperatives against which the various programs are being assessed. One certainty lies ahead; Mrs. Grier is keen that the MISA regulations proceed as quickly as possible. As originally conceived in 1986, the program has fallen two years behind schedule. The current MISA process, while admirable in terms of its provisions for compre hensive consultation and analysis, has been tardy on delivery ofregula

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Targeted Reductions of Toxics The second key change Mrs.Grier wishes to see is a commitment by all dischargers to targeted percentage reductions of persistent toxic pollu tants within a specified time frame. The scale of these targeted reduc tions will be in the context of achie

ving the virtual elimination of per sistent toxics. Continued overleaf

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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NDP's environmental agenda, contd. Zero Discharge

Pollution Prevention

The third key change which the minister intends to superimpose on the program is a renewed emphasis on pollution prevention. It will be necessary to get away from our endof-pipe fixation on pollution control, and move back into the plant where the pollutant is generated. Compa

virtual Elimination — How Is It Measured?

The Minister also wants to see

the zero discharge option being used to prevent the discharges of persis tent toxics. The goal of the MISA program is the virtual elimination ofpersistent toxicsfrom the environ ment and zero discharge is one of the methods by which the goal can

One definition is linked to the lowest measurable level of a sub stance based on the best available

analytical technology. Another is based on the no adverse environ

mentalimpactlevel ofthe substance in question. While it may be difficult

nies will be asked to consider chan

be achieved. Substitution of some

to achieve consensus on an absolute

ging the process, or the material mix,to achieve reductions. Using a closed loop approach to manage

chemicals,fundamental changes in manufacturing processes, and the banning of substances are some of

waste on-site is another worthwhile

the scenarios which will need to be

ly correct scientific definition, we must notlose sight ofthe overriding objective,namely totally eradicating toxic chemicals from the environ

approach. The message is clear. Keep the toxics out ofthe pipes,keep

pursued. Considerable debate is underway as to the precise defini

them out of the environment.

tion of virtual elimination.

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MISA Program The Municipal Industrial Stra tegy for Abatement program covers nine major industrial sectors and the municipal sector. Indirect dis chargers to sewers (12,000) are also being dealt with under a Sewer Use Control Program.

...we must not lose sight of the overriding objective, namely totally eradicating


toxic chemicals from the

•Hydrogeological Assesments •Real Estate Transaction Environmental Audits

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The intent of the MISA program

•Solid and Hazardous Landfill Design •Bioremediation (Insitu-Bioreactor-Composting) •Laboratory Services

is to achieve the virtual elimination

of persistent toxics from Ontario waterbodies. While primarily a tech nology driven program,it can utilize the other instruments such as the

•On Site Remediation •Chemical Soil Fixation

banning of highly toxic chemicals and pollution prevention strategies to speed up the recovery of Ontario waters. Very extensive consultation

•FOB Management Services

with all the stakeholders has been a

•Sensor Controlled Pneumatic and Electric Pumps

key feature of this program. Pollu tion control technology will be re viewed every five years, with the aim of further reducing discharges

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have completed a year-long monitor ing program by August'91. Ontario will then have very comprehensive information on what is being dis charged to the water by majorindus

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tries in all the various sectors. The

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Another key elementin the MISA program design is the Issues Resolu tion Process. Key policy issues which were generic to all the sectors, have been reviewed by the stake holders in an attempt to achieve consensus. By and large this consen sus — building process has been very successful. Most of the issues on the table have been resolved. We

anticipate extensive consultation Continued overleaf


For more informatiotr, Circle reply card No. 130

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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NDP's environmental agenda, contu tion on the magnitude of air emis sions,the mostimpacted geographic areas, and the industries which require the most attention in terms of remedial action.

CAP'S Expected Results

The proposed Clean Air Program was designed to achieve the virtual elimination oftoxic emissions,along with significant reductions of other pollutants over a ten-year period. Improved human health, and redu ced health costs are some of the

anticipated direct benefits, in addi tion to the indirect benefits thatflow from a cleaner environment.

The draft Clean Air Program has been sent out for public comment and review. The submissions receiv

ed during the public comment period will be used in fashioning optional

approaches for achieving clean and healthy air throughout Ontario. The draft Clean Air Program, like MISA, is designed to achieve the virtual elimination oftoxic emis with all the industrial sectors to

constituted a licence to increase pol

arrive at an achievable, realistic limits regulatory framework. Clean Air Program (CAP) The second program I want to review is the Clean AirProgram. In August 1990, the draft Clean Air Program was released for public

lution. With the introduction of Ontario's Countdown Acid Rain Pro

comment. This document was the

gram in 1985, Inco reduced its sul phur dioxide emissions by more than half, and expended hundreds of mil lions of dollars in so doing. Inco is to be commended for this major achie vement in pollution prevention.

sions. The proposed program has substantive costs. The intent is to

phase-in the program over a ten year period,beginning with the con taminants of highest concern. Waste Reduction Strategy Ontario generates approximately 10 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per year. Approximately 4 million tonnes are from the residen tial stream and about 6.0 million

culmination of a three-year gesta tion period during which a CAP dis cussion paper had been subjected to comment and review by govern ment,industry and various interest

CAP Program Components The draft Clean Air Program clas sifies air contaminants by their level

that the generator is required to ins

dous and liquid industrial waste are excluded from these figures.


tall are linked to the level of hazard

Through landfill closures it has been

The major difference between the current air regulation (Regulation 308) and the draft Clean Air Pro gram, relates to how emissions are controlled. The existing Regulation 308 emission control requirements are linked to the point-of-impingement,the point where the emissions impact on the surrounding terrain.

associated with the wastes being

estimated that Ontario could lose

emitted. Three levels of concern are

45% of landfill capacity by 1993.

This constitutes a fundamental

weakness of Regulation 308. For example,by building a higher stack, one could significantly reduce the point-of-impingement impacts on the ground level ambient environ ment without reducing emission loadings. As a result, waste genera tors could avoid installing pollution controls because higher stacks en abled them to stay within the guide lines. INCO Stack

In the seventies,Inco built a super stack which dispersed sulphur diox ide emissions over a much wider

area than Sudbury, while at the same time reducing the adjacent point-of-impingement concentra tions. In reality, the higher stack 24

of concern. The emission controls

defined, with different emission con trol technologies specified for each level (Lowest Achievable Emission Rate — Best Available Control Tech-

nology — Reasonably Achievable Control Technology). If a chemical is considered to be extremely hazar dous,then the waste generator must achieve the lowest achievable emis

sion, irrespective of cost. The draft Clean Air Program also provides for the development of tou gher air standards. Industries are also required to carry out state-ofthe-art multi-source dispersion modelling studies to ascertain com

pliance with these standards. There are also requirements for industries to undertake stack sampling to en sure emission limits are being met and ambient monitoring to ensure the air standards are being met. The program will also require the development ofa province-wide emission inventory for stationary sources. This data bank will provide Ontario with invaluable informa

tonnes from industrial, commercial and institutional sources. Hazar

Approximately 240 landfills will reach capacity by 2003. Atthe same time, replacement capacity is not keeping up. Siting new landfills is extremely difficult in terms of time, cost and

public opposition. Within the Great er Toronto Area, experts have pre dicted that all currently available landfill space will have been used up by 1994. Waste Reduction Goals

Ontario has set itself the objec tive of diverting a minimum of 25% of municipal solid waste from land fills by 1992, and a minimum of50% by the year 2000. Ontario has been primarily relying on recycling efforts using the Blue Box, and encoura ging the industrial sector to develop technologies to transform wastes into new products. Important though these activities are,in them selves they won't enable us to divert enough waste from landfills. The average waste generation in Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Introducing Scientific Visualization Service For The Geosciences MDC Geological Consultants are pleased to announce a new scientific visualization

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• obtain a giobal perspective of an entire dataset • view the spatiai distribution of vaiues within a voiume • discover and examine reiationships within a voiume • create images in motion either as rotations or as time series

Effective communication of these problems can be facilitated by the use of various output media which include prints, slides and video tape. Complex scientific information can therefore be presented in a clear and concise manner to colleagues, clients and particu larly to non-technical people in formats that are simple to use and understand.

Areas of application include the following: • delineation of contaminant plumes in the surface or subsurface

environment for soils, sediments and water quality • iiiustration of resuits from short term or iong term monitoring programs

• modeiling of geoiogy and bedrock features • examination of acid mine drainage

This service offers the opportunity to realize true representations of numerical

models in ways that are unique, cost effective and have direct visual impact. For more information on how you can benefit from this service, in Toronto piease caii Diana Wiese, MDC Geoiogicai Consultants Ltd., (416)233-1946. or Fax:(416)232-1559. .

Environmental bcience & Engineering, July 1991

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 120


NDP's environmental agenda, comd Canada is 1.7 Kg/person/day. In the Greater Toronto Area, the aver age is 3.0 Kg/person/day, almost double the national average. This works out to be about a tonne per person a year, a truly prodigious amount of waste. So the gauntlet has been tossed down; change our consumption habits, change our waste generation habits,or sink in a sea of garbage. Notwithstanding the tremendous enthusiasm of Ontarians in partici pating in the Blue Box recycling program, the 1992 25% diversion target will not be achieved by the

rate, and develop workplans to signi ficantly reduce it. Composting has the potential to

present level of effort. A whole new approach is required. A wide range of initiatives, designed to substan tially increase the amount of waste diverted from landfill, has been

rently Ontario relies upon objectives to assess the quality of drinking water. Approximately 100 objectives are in place, but they are not enforceable. The proposed Safe Drinking Water Act will require stan dards for contaminants in drinking

divert 30% of the residential waste

stream. Municipalities will be required to compost, and to prohibit the disposal ofleaves and yard waste at landfills. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT

A Safe Drinking Water Act is an important element of the govern ment's environmental agenda. Cur-

plus public water suppliers in Ontario.

A pubhc consultation process to facilitate the development of stan dards will be a notable feature of the

Act. The Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards (ACES), will co-ordinate the public consulta tion process. Owners of water supplies will be required to monitor the quality of their drinking water supply, and

"Sin boldly, or not at all" St. Augustine


Packaging constitutes approxi mately 20% of total municipal solid waste. The packaging industry will be required to achieve a 20% diver sion from landfill (1988 base year) by 1992, and a 50% diversion by the year 2000. All the companies res ponsible for excess packaging must re-examine their production and marketing strategies. Industries must be prepared to measure the amounts of solid waste they gene


These standards will be

enforceable, and failure to comply with the standards could result in

significant penalties. The enabling legislation will also make provision for establishing mini mum treatment standards for drink

ing water supplies. The Act will not apply to bottled water or home treat ment devices. Initially,itis anticipa ted that the Act will apply to the 500


CH2M HILL ENGINEERING LTD. is pleased to announce the addition of

Mr. Kevin M. Clancy, M.S., P.E. and Mr. Harry Sreeves, B.S., P.E. to the firm's Waterloo, Ontario office.

water Division Manager. He has

Mr.Sreeves joined CH2M HILL as Construction Management Depart ment Manager in the Water and

been with CH2M HILL for over 20

Wastewater Division. He has more

W aterloo office as W ater and Waste-

years working in the firm's San than 28 years of engineering expe Francisco,California; Gainesville, rience on design and construction Florida; and Alexandria, Egypt management projects throughout offices. Mr Clancy's professional Canada, the United States, and experience is heavily oriented overseas. toward final design and project management.

CH2M HILL is an employee-owned Canadian engineering firm with princi pal offices in Calgary and Waterloo. The firm offers a complete range of environmental engineering services from initial feasibility studies through

process and detailed engineering design and onsite construction manage ment.

Owners will also be required to under take remedial measures when the

water supply does not comply with standards.

Environmental Bill of Rights

Another key piece of Environ mental legislation that will be intro duced by the new government is the Environmental Bill of Rights, con sidered to be a very significant piece of legislation. It is expected to open up to public review and challenge the actions of all those who pollute the environment, and those who fail to properly discharge their responsibihties in protecting the environment. The underlying philosophy of the Bill is to provide remedies for the pro tection and conservation of the natu


Mr. Clancy has transferred to the

notify consumers of any failure to meet contaminant standards.

ral environment. The central princi ple governing the Bill of Rights is the public's right to act to protect a healthy environment, and the enforcement of this right through improved access to the court and/or tribunals, including the right to sue polluters. The Bill's central princi ples are: • Public's right to act to protect a healthy environment; •Public's right to increased partici pation in environmental decisionmaking; • Increased government account ability. There will beincreased public par ticipation and greater protection for employees who "blow the whistle" on polluting employers. Some ofthe key features of the Bill will be: • Increased public participation in environmental decision-making; •Enforcement- Citizen's right to sue; •Request for investigation; •Protection for "Whistle Blowers".

Remediation, control, prevention, are the three driving forces of Onta rio's environmental strategy. In the coming years,we can anticipate that much more emphasis will be placed on the prevention concept. ES&E

For more information,


Circie reply card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

A talented pair of English feet were the first to sprint over the "Impenetrable Physiological

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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Making sure Canada's laboratories work effectively at six month intervals as part of the program for laboratories to main tain certification.


granted relate solely to specific tests which a laboratory seeks, and for those tests which CAEAL offers.

Laboratories to be Inspected

In 1992CAEAL will be expanding its program to include not only the provision of test samples, hut also site visits to observe the actual oper ation of laboratories. Protocols are

being developed to conduct periodic site visits by qualified assessors. Laboratories which successfully meet the national standards asso

ciated with site inspections and analyses of test samples, will he granted accreditation which will replace the certification offered at this time. Benefits to Laboratories

In Canada, a new association Photo courtesy Canvtro Laboratories

has appeared on the environ mental scene with the goal of improving the quality of data heing generated from analytical

laboratories. Accurate and reliable

analytical data are necessary for the development and enforcementof effective laws and regulations to

protect the environment and there has been a growing concern over the poor quality of data coming from many laboratories. This problem has been exacerbated in recent years by a rapid growth in the number of laboratories,each with its own Qua lity Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC)schemes. In Canada,there have been no industry wide QA/QC standards or guidelines. In addi tion, new legislation such as the Canadian Environmental Protec

tion Act (CEPA) and the Ontario Municipal and Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA)has imposed environmental regulations aimed at emission control, remedial action, and environmental assessment. Not

only mustlaboratories measure sub stances at extremely low concentra tions, hut such data must provide legal proofin court actions. All this makes a national laboratories pro gram that ensures consistent, relia ble and comparable data essential. The Proof of the Pie

The Canadian Association for

Environmental Analytical Labora tories (CAEAL) is an independent

non-profit association of Canadian 28

environmental laboratories in gov

ernment, industry and universities dedicated to upgrading and main taining a strong analytical labora tory service in Canada capable of consistently producing quality scien tific data. The association began a program in late 1990 oftesting labor atories and the granting of certifica tion to those meeting national stan dards for quality assurance and quality control. To determine if laboratories could carry out accu rate analyses, participants in the program were sent up to eight water samples, each containing known

The Association provides the environmental analyticallaboratory industry with the framework within which laboratories may derive mutual benefits including enhanced product quality and reputation. It willimprove communication and dia logue between laboratories, leading to discussion of common problems and development of solutions. Wide participation in the national accre ditation program will provide for the self-regulation of the laboratory services industry. The quality assu rance/quality control program will provide much needed support to the rapidly growing environmental ana lytical industry and enhance its international competitiveness.

amounts of chemicals. Laboratories

Other Services

were instructed to analyse the sam

Besides the provision of the national laboratory accreditation program, this association offers

ples using normal test procedures and return the results to CAEAL for statistical review.

other services to its members. The

The release of the names of the successful laboratories was announ

training and development needs of members are being assessed and programs will he developed to meet

ced recently at the second Annual General Meeting of the Association held in Hamilton, Ontario. Over 40 laboratories participated in the first QA/QC study. Sixty four percent of participating laboratories werefrom industry, 19 percent from federal and 17 percentfrom provinciallabor atories. Laboratories from all pro vinces except PEI participated in the program. Plans are heing made to expand the tests offered in the program and it is anticipated that more laboratories will participate in the next round of testing scheduled for later this summer. Retesting of laboratories will normally take place

the identified needs. Research and

development requirements and the preparation of national analytical and sampling manuals are hut two of many planned activities in this area.

Another service is the provision of linkages and contacts with other organizations that the association must work with,such as the Chemi cal Institute of Canada, the Cana dian Standards Association, Stan dards Council of Canada,the Onta rio Association of Professional

Chemists, the American Society for Testing and Materials,and the Inter-

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

-Gartner Lee appointmentsnational Standards Organization and many others. Agreements will be negotiated with other laboratory certification/accreditation systems where required, to harmonize exis ting Canadian programs and to ensure compatibility with interna tional requirements. Another important service is con

John Gartner

cerned with standard reference

John F. Gartner, Chairman of the Board of

materials. The absence or scarcity

Directors of Gartner Lee Limited, is pleas ed to announce the appointment of Ian R. Wilson, C.A.(University of Toronto), as a Directorof the company. Mr. Wilson, who joined the company in 1986, is the Firm's

of primary or reference materials is often mentioned as a major problem oflaboratories throughoutthe world. Lack of such material leads to cali bration difficulties and measure ment uncertainties. A service of

CAEAL is the screening of members concerning their requirements for scarce reference materials and the location of the identified materials.

Members are kept informed con cerning developments in the labora tory industry through the periodic publication of a newsletter and rela ted documents,through the holding of Conferences, Workshops, semi nars and training sessions. Boost to the Environment and the

Laboratory Industry

CAEAL is a developing Associa tion with the goal ofimproving ana lytical data necessary for the deve lopment ofeffective Canadian envir onmental laws and regulations. It is attempting to improve testing within Canada and enhance the reputation of the industry both at home and internationally,to place the industry in a strong position relative to these markets. The development of natio nal criteria for quality control will protect the industry from "low bid" operations that do not adhere to adequate standards. Publication of

Ian Wilson

Financial Controller. Six additional share

holders have recently been appointed and they are: Mr. Don Fraser (M.Sc.), a senior biolo gist at Gartner Lee, specializing in bio physical resource inventories, wildlife management plans,environmental impact studies related to land development, and biological components of environmental assessments.

Mr. Tom Hilditch (B.Sc.Ag.), a senior

biologist who provides natural environ ment expertise in environmental assess ment, development impact and policy formulation projects. He has a specific expertise in vegetation management and tree retention studies.

Mr. Steve Hol l ingshead (M.Sc., P.Eng.), asenior geological engineer spe cializing in terrain evaluation, geotechnical engineering, hydrogeology, mineral

resource evaluations and waste manage ment siting. Mr. Thom Kewen (M.Sc.), a senior hydrogeologist with specific experience in industrial and waste disposal site inves tigations, environmental impact assess ment, ground water monitoring networks, water quality evaluations and site remediation.

Mr. John McCauley (B.E.S.), a senior environmental planner with Gartner Lee, who provides expertise in environmental assessment, environmental approvals, waste management,emergency planning, and facility site/route selections. Mr. Steve Usher (M.Sc., P.Eng.), a senior hydrogeologist and designated

consulting engineer. He provides the firm with specific experience in contaminant hydrogeology, low permeability testing, computer model applications, and detail ed site assessments.

Gartner Lee Limited is an independent consulting firm offering professional ser vices in environmental planning and management with offices in Markham, Ontario, Niagara Falls, New York, and Vancouver, British Columbia.

fiUlTTH Mi The Deep Shaft Process is an aerobic bio logical subsurface wastewater treatment process capable of treating domestic and industrial wastes. The process works by circulating wastewater in a self-contained,

accredited laboratories in Canada

sealed bioreactor which is installed to a

will enable users of analytical data to wisely choose competent labora tories for contract work. Agreements with laboratory accreditation orga

depth of 60 to 150 metres. As a result of the process operating at high F/M's, MLSS concentrations and O2uptake rates, both the hydraulic retention time and reactor volume

nizations will ensure national and

are reduced.

international harmonization.

The big winners firom the work of the Association will be the natural environment, since more accurate

information can only lead to better

protective legislation, and the labo ratory industry across Canada which will be self-regulated through national yardsticks of performance criteria and he more competitive. More information concerning CAEAL may be obtained by contac ting: William Traversy,

Program Manager, Suite 404-C, 1 Nicholas Street, Ottawa, Ontario, KIN 7B7, Phone:(613)563-2636, Fax:(613)563-4758.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Deep Shaft Process Benefits: • Excellent O2 Transfer and Mixing • Space Economies • Mechanical Simplicity • Aesthetical

• Low Capital and Operating Costs • No Primary Clarifiers Required

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The Innovative Method of Wastewater Treatment For more information, Circle reply card No. 115


Remediation Strategies

Decommissioning of a sour gas piant in Aiberta Shell Canada operated a sour gas plant at Innisfail, Alberta between 1963 and 1988. The plant produced natural gas and petroleum liquids from oil with a high sour gas content.

mechanical services requiring demo lition and removal. A site assess

ment, including sampling and che mical analyses and geophysics, was carried out on the entire property to

Gas from the oil was flared. The

characterize the nature and extent

purpose ofthe plant was to conserve the flared gas by:(1)stabilizing the crude oil and removing the majority of sulphur compounds;(2) separat ing hydrocarbon gases and sweeten ing them; and (3) processing the remaining gases and recovering the sulphur in liquid form.

of contamination in sludges, sedi

Shell Canada retained Monenco

in September 1987 to assist with the decommissioning of the plant and property. Plant decommissioning entailed a partial closure of the faci lities with the remaining part of the plant converted to an oil and gas battery and reclaim area. The par tial closure consisted of the removal

and disposition of gas processing equipment and reclamation of the sulphur pads, yard area, and wastewater ponds. At the commencement of the

decommissioning project, Monenco carried out a site inspection of the plant and a site assessment of the property. Siteinspection was concen trated in the process areas, process equipment,building materials,foun dations, piping, electrical and

ment and soils onsite.

The findings of the site assess mentshowed low pH and high levels of electrical conductivity in soils in the sulphur plant area, the sulphur pads and yard area, and high levels of electrical conductivity and hydro carbons in sludges and surrounding soils in the wastewater ponds. Soils in the sulphur plant area also con tained elevated cadmium concentra tions.

The decommissioning was staged in four phases, namely: •demolition; •excavation; •neutralization; and •backfill.

Technical specifications for each ofthese phases of work were written by Monenco and sent out for tender. All site demolition, cleanup and monitoring activities were managed by Monenco. Demolition

and equipment(e.g. Regen overhead condenser, sulphur pumps, amine sump tanks, sulphur loading arm, pure amine tanks, compressors, surge tanks, etc.); removal of struc tures, piping and electrical services; removal of reusable equipment and transportation to buyer's site; removal of asbestos materials and

transport/disposal offsite; prepara tion of material in laydown area for transportation/disposal;transporta tion of unsalvageable scrap to East Calgary Landfill; and sale of sal vage scrap and removal from the laydown area. The laydown area was a designated area to separate clean scrap (i.e. asbestos-free and sulphur-free)from contaminants or unsalvageable scrap. Unsalvage able scrap was prepared for disposal by removing or sealing/covering asbestos to adhere to East Calgary Landfill's requirements. Demolition activities utilized two, 22 ton R/T cranes and one 50 ton

hydraulic crane to lift vessels and equipment. Sidebooms were used to support and manipulate pipe. Mate rials were hauled to the laydown area with a high boy,a low boy,and a cherrypicker. At the end of the demolition in

Demolition commenced in June 1988 and involved removal ofvessels

August 1988,the complete inventory of equipment and 1,000 tonnes of salvageable scrap metal were sold. Approximately 100 tonnes of unsal vageable scrap metal was disposed of at East Calgary Landfill. A total of 6 RGB capacitors from the plant were secured in barrels and shipped to Alberta Special Waste Manage ment Corporation's facility at Swan Hills for incineration. Excavation

On August 29, 1988, excavation commenced on the wastewater pond areas, the sulphur plant area, the sulphur pads and yard area. In the evaporation ponds that contained the wastewater, a Cater pillar D6, widepad bulldozer was used to mix the wet sludges with contaminated, but dry underlying soils. The sludge/soil mixture was pushed to the edge ofthe pond where it was loaded onto transport vehicles using a Caterpillar 235 backhoe and hauled to East Calgary Landfill. Seal pots were pulled from the sulphur plant with a backhoe then trucked to a secure landfill. 30

'Monenco Consultants Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Bv E. Veska. W.H. Stiebel and B.R. Geddes* Severely affected acid and sul

phur contaminated soils from the sulphur pad,sulphur plant and yard areas were hauled to the East Cal

led by a D6 bulldozer. A total of 1,500 tonnes oflimestone was appli

few hot spots, most of the treated

ed over these areas to facilitate in situ treatment of the acidic soils.

these hot spots,additional limestone has been added to completely neu tralize them. Monitoring is still ongoing.

gary Landfill for disposal, leaving the hulk of the contaminated soil in these areas for in situ neutralization treatment.


In the wastewater ponds, all sub soil clean fill placed 35 cm below the

areas have been neutralized.


The total cost ofdecommissioning and reclamation ofthe Shell Canada

Approximately 9,000 tonnes of contaminated soil, sludges and sediment, and 260 tonnes of concrete were disposed of along with scrap steel and empty barrels... Cadmium contaminated soils

from the sulphur plant were excava ted to a depth of 30 cm and also removed to East Calgary Landfill. Foundation concrete of the sul

phur plant was removed down to at least one metre below existing grade. A sulphur pit (a 5m x 7m x 3.7m concrete structure) was entirely demolished and the concrete was

removed by hackhoe. Six seal pots, each consisting of a steam jacketed steel casing extending 4 m into the ground, were pulled with the 235 hackhoe. All underground utility lines, mainly electrical in the upper 1.2 m, were removed. Approximately 9,000 tonnes of contaminated soil,sludges and sedi ment, and 260 tonnes of concrete were disposed of along with scrap steel and empty barrels at the East Calgary Landfill. All truck loads were covered with tarpaulins prior to leaving the site. Clean concrete rubble approximately 1,800 tonnes, was hauled to a non-engineered pri vate dump in the Town of Innisfail. Confirmatory soil sampling was conducted by Monenco after exca vation and analyzed for pH, electri cal conductivity, hydrocarbons and

finished grade was compacted in 20 to 30 cm lifts and the upper 35 cm consisted of 20 cm of uncompacted subsoil overlain by 15 cm of topsoil. A positive drainage was achieved.

sour gas plant to date has been in the order of $2,600,000. Inflation, and increased tipping fees for conta minated (hazardous and registerable) waste disposal have signifi cantly increased costs for similar remedial activities at industrial sites. Onsite treatment of waste

materials, waste minimization, recovery and reuse are significant technological and economic consi derations in industrial site decom


A monitoring program was imple mented to identify areas within the sulphur pad and plant areas where supplemental lime application may be necessary. Soil samples have been collected since the spring of 1989 from various depths in these areas and analyzed for pH,electrical conductivity, elemental sulphur, and calcium carbonate equivalent. Preliminary monitoring results show that with the exception of a

missioning and cleanup. It is Monenco's experience during nume rous programs,such as described in this article, that the phased approach to industrial site decom missioning and cleanup provides the best technological, economic and environmental advantages, while ensuring that the site is suitable for the intended future land use. For more information,

Circie reply card No. 249


trace metals. Alberta Environment

• Industrial and hazardous waste treatment, blending and transfer facility

also conducted confirmatory sam

pling and reviewed all site data and reports. Exceedances above agri cultural soil cleanup criteria were

• Wastewater treatment system

• Used oil re-refinery

found in one area and this area was excavated further until a clean line

CORUNDOL is licensed to receive the following

was found. The cleanup criteria used were developed by Monenco and were based on an extensive review of worldwide literature rela

ted to soil/crop relationships with the intent to establish limits for

each chemical parameter which will resultin soil conditions that will not

Ontario waste codes:

111, 112, 113, 114, 121, 122,123, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 211, 212, 213, 221, 222, 231,232, 233, 241,251,252, 253, 254, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268,270, 281 and 282

inhibit normal plant growth or intro duce a hazard into the food chain. Neutralization

In drums and in bulk.

For safe, prompt and economical service, call us today.

To the sulphur pad,sulphur plant and yard areas where acidic soils were found, limestone was incorpo rated in 15 to 20 cm layers to a maximum depth of75 cm and mixed using an industrial grade disc pul-

Free evaluation.

(416)245 8338 Fax (416)245-8321 55 Vulcan Street, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1L3 For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Circle reply card No. 108


R&D News Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Sequencing Batch Reactors K.J. Kennedy and colleagues from the National Research Council and

the University of Ottawa,conducted laboratory studies on anaerobic sludge batch reactors (SBR) treat ing soluble biodegradable waste. For each organic loading, the varying fill-and-react periods were examin

requiring only intermittent organics removal. As described in the JoarnaZ

of the American Water Works Asso ciation by P.M. Huck and bis collea gues, it was found that very high concentrations ofPAC could be accu mulated in the clarifier and that its

adsorptive capacity for chloroform appeared to decrease somewhat

ed. As described in the Research

Journal WPCF, COD removals depended on organic loadings and fail-to-react ratios. Specific loading rate, based on fill time, is a critical design parameter for anaerobic

the Alberta Environmental Centre examined the accumulation and

adsorption capacity ofpowdered acti vated carbon(PAC)in a solids con tact recirculating clarifier. If high concentrations ofPAC can be achiev

ed in a sludge blanket,then it could be an efficient alternative to granu lar activated carbon for plants

in 1990. National Water Research Institute scientists S.Painter and L.

Hampson,together with E.S. Millard of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, report in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada that both chlorophyll and seston have decreased significantly during this period resulting in substantially improved water clarity. Lime Addition to a

Hypereutrophic Lake Scientists from the University of Alberta, the National Water Research Institute,the Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division, and HydroQual added lime four different times to bard-water, hypereutrophic Figure Eight Lake in Alberta. As

SBRs. The need for recirculation

during fill-and-react periods and effects ofoperational parameters on sludge bed granularity are also dis cussed in this paper. Adsorption by Activated Carbon Scientists from the City of Edmon ton, the University of Alberta and

the Hamilton Sewage Treatment Plant successfully reduced the total phosphorus loading into the Har bour from 515 kg/day to 364 kg/day


w when the residence time ofthe PAC in the clarifier exceeded 100 b.

Hamilton Harbour Water Clarity Swimming and fish habitat are two of the beneficial uses identified by the Hamilton Harbour Remedial

Action Plan. Both uses require improvements in the Harbour's water clarity. Beginning in 1988, the addition ofa pickle liquor step at

described in Environmental Science

and Technology, chlorophyll a decreased rapidly but returned to pretreatment concentrations a month after treatment. There was

no short-term trend in phosphorus concentration. However, over the next two seasons,both chlorophyll a and total phosphorus decreased sub stantially. E.E.Prepas and her col-

Let Hach simplify your wastewater analyses Ammonia Chlorine Chromium COD

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A choice of systems. Hach procedures can be used with any Hach direct-reading spectrophotometer or colorimeter. Choose, for example, a DR/3000, which provides capabilities unmatched by any comparably priced spectrophotometer; or a light-weight, rugged DR 100 colorimeter, which goes wherever you need accurate, economical testing.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poliution Research & Control leagues concluded that lime treat ments can enhance water quality in eutrophic hard-water lakes by sup pression of growth-limiting nutri ents for phytoplankton. Analysis of Acidic Herbicides in Water

National Water Research Institute scientist H-B. Lee and coworkers

have developed an analytical method for acidic herbicides residues

in water samples that overcomes some of the main deficiencies of the

method most commonly used for this type of determination. The improved method is based on the

designed to simulate the settling velocity of dilute and more concen trated suspensions, and can be applied to both primary and secon dary settlers to simulate dynamic and steady-state conditions.

It considers municipal, industrial, agricultural, and nonwithdrawal uses, and outlines international experiences in the field and strate gies to implement a comprehensive program in Canada.

Water Demand Management D.M. Tate has assessed the state-of-

the-art of water demand manage mentin Canada. His report recently issued by the Inland Waters Direc torate, presents an in-depth review of the concepts and approaches of water demand management with an emphasis on Canadian applications.

Resin and Fatty Acids In Sediments The pulping process in pulp mill operations using coniferous and soft wood trees as feedstock, produces large quantities of resin and fatty

acids (RFA) that end up in mill effluents. These acids can contribute Continued overieaf

transformation of the acidic herbi

cides present in a sample into their pentafluorobenzyl esters and their detection and quantitative determi nation by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. When electron capture detection is used as part of the analytical procedure, the incor poration of a gel permeation chro matography step as part of the sample preparation can successfully minimize analytical interferences caused by traces offatty acids often present in the samples. Effect of Urban Runoff on Wastewater Treatment

The effect of urban rainfall runoffin

combined sewer systems on the wastewater treatment process was

investigated by INRS-Eau scientist D. Couillard. A case study of real data collected from metropolitan Quebec City indicated that the recorded variations in flow and in

quantities of suspended solids, organic matter, and nutrients in the combined system following various rain events would not dramatically affect operation of a wastewater treatment system. As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, the same conclusion applies for the increase in concen trations of copper and zinc. Clarification/Thickening

m • Aeration

• • • • •

Mixing Screening Solids Handling Grit Removal/Dewatering Conveying Systems

• Clarifiers

• Sludge Mixing/Thickening/ Dewatering • Disinfection • Neutralization

Process Model

In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, McMaster Uni versity scientists I. Takacs and G.G. Patry, together with D. Nolasco of CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., pre sent a dynamic model of the clarifi cation/thickening process. Based on the solids flux concept and on a mass balance around each layer ofa one-dimensional settler, this model can simulate the solids profile throughout the settling column, including the underflow and effluent suspended solids concentrations under steady-state and dynamic con

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipment for water and wastewater treatment

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ditions. The model makes use of a

special settling velocity equation

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

For more information, Circie reply card No. 110


R&D News to the fish toxicity detected in receiv ing waters downstream from such discharges. National Water

Mavinic used a single-sludge,nitrifi-

plants removing phosphate biologi cally. The method, developed by University of Quebec scientist Y.C. Comeau and K.J. Hall, and W.K. Oldham ofthe University of British Columbia, is based upon the pro perty .of such sludges to degrade polyphosphate reserves under anaer

cation-denitrification system to

obic conditions as a result of acetate

treat a high-ammonia low-BOD sani tary landfill leachate. Four carbon

addition thereby releasing inorga

sources used for denitrification,

new method offers a much easier

methanol, acetate, glucose, and a brewery yeast waste, were added directly to the anoxic basin. As des

approach than those previously available to quantify polyphosphate, one of the two storage polymers

cribed in the Research Journal, WPCF, all four carbon sources sup

involved in the mechanism of biolo

air-lift reactor as well. The sludge characteristics were generally im proved by the treatment.

Research Institute scientists H-B.

Treatment of Landfill Leachate

Lee and T.E.Peart have developed a method for analyzing RFAs in sedi mentsamples by extraction,conver sion into pentafluorobenzyl esters, and detection in a mass spectrometry — electron capture detector sys tem. Quantitative recoveries were realized in the extraction step, and detection limits of 0.1 fig/g were

B.N. Carley, Greater Vancouver Regional District, and University of

achieved using a one gram sediment sample. Leaching of Metals from Sludge

R.D. Tyagi, D. Couillard and F.T. Tran studied metal solubilization

from anaerobically digested sludge. As described in Water Science and

Technology, these INRS-Eau scien tists compared the results obtained from a 30 litre continuously stirred tank reactor(CSTR) with cell recy cle, with those from an air-lift reac tor ofthe same capacity. After an 18 hour residence time, reductions of 91% Cu, 94% Zn, 93% Mn, 67% Cd, 67% Ni8% Cr,and 7% Fb were achiev ed in the CSTR. Solubilization to recommended levels was obtained after an 18 hour retention time in the

British Columbia researcher D.S.

ported denitrification, but the glucose-supplemented system was erratic and ultimately failed. Over all, both methanol and acetate were equally effective carbon sources for nitrification and denitrification of

this high-ammonia leachate. Polypfiosphate Quantification In Activated Sludge

nic phosphate into solution. This

gical phosphate removal. Dispersed Oil Effects on Phytoplankton

The radiocarbon uptake method for assessing algal photosynthesis pro vides erroneous results in the pre sence of dispersed oil indicating an apparent stimulation of the specific photosynthetic rate following oil

A paper published in the Water Pol


lution Research Journal of Canada

graphie scientists S. Roy, R. Siron

presents an indirect biological method to quantify the amount of polyphosphates in activated sludge

and E. Pelletier found that under similar circumstances the DCMV-

obtained from wastewater treatment

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fluorescenceresponse was not adver sely affected. It showed a decrease in photosynthetic ability that follo wed the decline in chlorophyll a concentration and was very sensi tive regardless of the initial algal biomass. In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research,these scientists conclude that the latter

technique was more appropriate for assessment of deleterious effects of

oil on phytoplankton photosynthe sis, especially in oligotrophic envi ronments.

Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. can help to eliminate troublesome water pollution control headaches related to organic chemical compounds. Whether the job Is large or small, Calgon Carbon can provide o cost-effective solution to meet the treatment objective.

Activated Carbon Products-specifically designed to remove a wide variety of organic chemical types and concentrations.

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Vertical Profiling System

University of British Columbia's D.M. Jones and colleagues have developed a vertical profiling sys tem to measure and log temperature, salinity, depth, fluorescence, and selected nutrient concentrations in

the euphotic zone in coastal waters. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, a hose was attached to a CTD sensor

and lowered through the water at one m./min. Water was pumped to the ship's deck with a diaphragm pump,and passed through a fluorometer and Technicon AutoAnalyzerÂŽ to measure fluorescence and selected

nutrients,respectively. These instru ments were connected to an analog to digital converter, and the data were simultaneously plotted using an IBM personal computer to dis play real-time vertical profiles of these parameters. Continued overleaf

For more information,


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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

In point of fact, the burrowing owl doesn't give a hoot at all. Ordinarily, its cry is closer to that of a cuckoo — more

The burrowing owl may not give a hoot...

of a "coo-coo-roo." And when the

robin-sized burrowing owl is threatened, it utters a shrill cackle that

strongly resembles the warning buzz of a rattlesnake.

The burrowing owl is native to Canada's dry grassland country, dependent mainly on the burrows of small animals for its nest sites. With the

advance of civilization, however, these

burrows have become less plentiful, and in recent years the burrowing owl has joined the growing ranks of endangered species. In 1983 the British Columbia Fish

and Wildlife Branch began a program to reintroduce the burrowing owl to the South Okanagan Valley area hy transplanting adult and nestling birds from Washington state. Part of this program involved the construction of

Head Office

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arrivals. Big 'O' contributed 6-inch perforated pipe for this purpose. The burrowing owls seem eager to take advantage of the hospitality offered. Their ready acceptance of the artificial burrows gives them a fighting chance to become re-established as a

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Endangered species such as the burrowing owl bring home the fact that we cannot take our natural

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one reason why Big 'O' takes particular care to ensure the safety of its products. When Big 'O' uses recycled polyethylene in the production of its tubing, it is highly selective, using only resins of traceable origin that eliminate the potential introduction of toxic chemicals during the recycling process.


In this way. Big 'O' can he confident Innovative technology working for you

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

not only of the quality of its products, but of their environmental safety now

and throughout their lifetime of

For more information, Circie reply card No. 104


R&D News Sewage Lagoon Leakage Rates

Monenco's interdisciplinary approach to projects worldwide combines our experienced professionals with state-of-the-art technology to pro vide innovative solutions to complex environmental problems In the

In a paper published in Sciences et techniques de I'eau, Ecole Polytechnique scientist R.P. Chapuis pre sents two series of equations. The first predicts the total leakage rate ofa lagoon or a cell made impervious by any type of soil used to form a liner. The second permits the calcu lation of the experimental leakage

following areas;

rate as a function of the downward

Working With You for a Cleaner Environment

• Contaminant Hydrogeology • Industrial Site Cleanup & Decommissioning • Waste Management / Wastewater Treatment

water level velocity in the lagoon or the cell. These equations can be used jointly to predict the leakage rate or the infilling rate, to identify the locale of the leaks, and to eva

• Air Pollution Control

luate whether or not the defects in

• Environmental Assessments & Public Consultation

watertightness are hydraulically stable.

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Colour Removal by Nanofiltration

New nanofiltration membranes, mid-way between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration membranes,have been developed to retain high mole cular weight organic materials such as those responsible for colour in the surface water of The Canadian

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(416)890-9995 (403)298-4594

Offices across Canada and overseas For more information, Circie repiy card No. 106

Shield. J-F Demers and M.Kyriacos of Zenon Environnement, Anjou, studied these membranes for the

pilot plant treatment of potable water at Sept-Iles and Rawdon, Quebec. As reported at the 13th International Symposium on Wastewater Treatment,a colour reduction of90-95% was achieved. In addition, total organic carbon was reduced about 85% and trihalometbane pre cursors were reduced 55-75%. The


costs were comparable to other types of treatment.

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Sediment Transport Barringer is a full service laboratory specializing in Environmental Analytical Services for Enviroranental Consultants, Industry and the Private Sector. We offer precision analysis with highly experienced and knowledgeable staff and rapid tum-around of results. Baninger's services extend throughout Ontario with environmental

laboratories located in Mississauga, Kirldand Lake and Thimder Bay and other regional laboratories and sample reception offices located in Red Lake, Pickle Lake, Timmins and Prescott, Ontario.

A comprehensive literature search of major computer-maintained data bases was made by P.J.Coakley and B.F.N. Long for all references deal ing with tracing fine-grained sedi ment movementin aquatic systems. One hundred references on this topic were compiled and reviewed in a National Water Research Institute









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For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisentiauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Keep plant equipment healthy. Screen the water it drinks.

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Travelling Water Screens For more information, Circle reply card No. 103

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991



Quick detection is half the battle

Leaking storage tank costs could rival our Federal deficit

A common source of conta

mination to the groundwater is leakage from underground storage tanks (USTs) used for petroleum products. Nearly all tanks installed prior to 1980 were constructed of steel, which is very susceptible to corrosion.

In Canada, there are approxi mately 200,000 underground petro leum storage tanks, of which about 70,000 are located at retail gasoline outlets. The remaining 130,000 tanks in the ground are owned by transportation,manufacturing,com mercial,and agricultural industries.

gasoline leak occurs, these com pounds can cause serious soil gas/ vapour problems, often necessitat ing evacuation of nearby buildings. Other compounds with low vapour pressure and high solubility (e.g. phenol, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) can dissolve into the groundwater and migrate to neighbouring drinking water sup ply wells. Still other compounds [e.g. Benz(a)anthracene, apd Benzo(a)pyrene] are strongly attracted to soil particles and form high resi

common ways of identifying leaks at USTs, including persistent ben zene vapours in the service station or kiosk,inventory loss, pumping of air through the fuel nozzle,or off-site groundwater and/or air quality pro ings, or sewers. Lund(1989)further notes that by tbe time one of the above symptoms is recognized, a substantial productloss has already occurred. A leak detection strategy that relies only on symptom recogni tion is inadequate for UST manage

dual concentrations in the soil

ment in the 1990's.

(McLearn et.al., 1988). Figure 1 shows some of the gasoline phases

Necessary components of an effective leak detection strategy are

blems in neighbouring wells, build

as follows;

Inventory Control is one strategy


UST owners can use to discover



(@ 20%) USA

Approx.2 Million



Approx. 200,000



30,000 to 60,000

6,000 to 12,000

When the large number ofsteel tanks installed during the 1950's and 1960's exceeded their 10 to 20 year service life, the magnitude of the petroleum leakage problem was recognized. In limited surveys, about 20-25% of storage tanks at petroleum retail outlets in Canada were found to be, or suspected to be. It ^king(Cherry, 1987). Table 1 pre sents some statistics concerning tbe magnitude of the Leaking Under ground Storage Tank (LUST) pro blem.

Hinchee et.al. (1986) reports the California Commission for Econo

mic Development's 1986 cost esti mates for remediation ofLUST sites. Estimated remediation costs are

$100,000., $1,000,000., and $10,000,000. at 80%,10%,and 10% of LUST sites respectively. If 20% of the 200,000 USTs in Canada are leaking, the total remediation cost could be many tens of billions of dol lars — the same order of magnitude as the annual Canadian Federal

Government deficit. Gasoline is a complex mixture of compounds, each one of which has different physical and chemical pro perties. Compounds with high vapour pressure and low solubility (e.g. n-Heptane, n-Hexane, and nPentane)readily volatilize. When a 38

and potential problems resulting from LUSTs.

In Ontario, tbe most relevant legislation regulating underground storage tanks (USTs) is the Gaso line Handling Act and Gasoline Handling Code administered by the Fuel Safety Branch of the Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Rela

tions, and the Environmental Pro tection Act(Spills Bill administered by the Ontario Ministry ofthe Envi ronment). The Gasoline Handling Code now requires all USTs at pri vate fuel outlets to be registered and tbose steel tanks installed prior to May 1, 1974 must be upgraded or replaced. The deadline for registra tion and upgrading/replacement was January 1, 1991, but UST owners can apply for an extension untilJanuary 1,1992(Gerdels,1991). This registration process should assistin the development ofan inven tory of UST sites, especially those owned by transportation, manufac turing,commercial,and agricultural industries. LEAK DETECTION

An important component of an UST management program is the selection ofa leak detection strategy to provide identification of USTs already leaking and early discovery of new leaks. Lund (1989^) mentions

leaks. Inventory control involves regular accounting of product flow into and out of tbe tank and tbe flows must balance with the quan tity of product remaining in the tank. An inventory loss could mean the tank is leaking. The ability of inventory control techniques to iden tify leaks is limited by uncertainties including inaccurate flow meters, inaccurate measurement of product in tbe tank, product loss due to vola tilization, temperature and atmos pheric pressure fluctuations, and human error. To put this into pers pective, the gauging accuracy of the commonly used wooden gauge stick is approximately 0.25 inches. In an eight foot diameter (10,000 gallon tank) approximately 30 gallons could leak before gauge stick read ings could detect it. Given the solu bility of benzene, its concentration in gasoline and tbe detection limit for benzene, this 30 gallon leak of gasoline could contaminate 120 mil lion gallons of groundwater. EPA (1987) and Schwendeman and Wilcox (1987) have described the per formance characteristics of avail

able automatic gauging systems, and tbe American Petroleum Insti

tute (API)(1991) maintains a com prehensive manual of petroleum measurement standards.

Tank testing is a necessary com ponent of any leak detection stra tegy. Serious environmental dam age can be caused by very slow leaks which are difficult to identify by even the most sophisticated inven tory control techniques. Slow leaks *XCG Consultants Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Richard Rush. IVI.A.Sc.. P.Eng. and Keith Matzger. M.A.Sc.. EIT* can possibly be identified more reli ably and less expensively by routine tank testing. EPA (1987) and Schwendeman and Wilcox (1987) describe many differenttypes ofvolu metric (quantitative) and nonvolumetric(qualitative)tank testing tech niques. Volumetric tank tests typi cally involve simultaneous measure ment of the product level, product density, temperature, and pressure during a specific time interval. Some volumetric tank testing technolo gies can detect leak rates as low as 0.02 gallons per hour. Volumetric tank testing techniques include; i) an air hubbling system that mea sures pressure changes; ii) a "J" tuhe manometer that mea sures pressure changes; iii) a laser beam reflection technique to measure product level changes; iv) a "dip-stick" type device to mea sure product level changes, and v) measurement of volume change by maintaining a constant product level in the tank.

Some ofthe sources ofuncertainty inherent in volumetric tank testing procedures include temperature effects, the presence of vapour pockets, water tahle effects, tank distortion, vibration, evaporation, condensation,head pressure effects, and calibration of the testing equip ment.










.XCG Consultants Ltd..

compressed air or nitrogen gas is the only tank testing method thatis offi cially recognized hy the Gasoline Handling Code(Gerdels, 1991). As with inventory control tech niques,tank testing procedures have their limitations, especially for very small leaks.

is an important component of any leak detection strategy. Sampling of air, soil, and groundwater near the UST can often detect small quan tities of leaked hydrocarbons.



Pressure Test**

An empty tank is filled with compressed air or nitrogen gas and the pressure is monitored.

Product is removed and the tank is filled with helium. Helium losses can occur

through manway covers and other connections rarely, if ever, in contact with liquid fuel. Ultrasound

An empty tank is scanned with an ultrasound device.

Tracer Leak Detection

An inert volatile tracer is mixed with the

product. Detection of the tracer in the backfill around the tank signifies a tank leak. Acoustical Monitoring

transportinclude geologic character istics and meteorologic influences like precipitation, temperature and atmospheric pressure. A shallow soil vapour survey is often very effec tive at identifying the presence of hydrocarbon leaks. Grab sampling ofsoil cores in the backfill around the UST can be a

External Tank Release Monitoring


Helium Test



Sound waves are generated as product Is forced through a hole or air is drawn into the tank through a hole.

relatively quick and simple method of detecting hydrocarbons attached to the soil particles. Groundwater monitoring is per haps the most reliable method of leak detection and an importantcom ponent of the overall leak detection strategy. Many gasoline compon ents are very soluble in groundwater and even a small gasoline leak can contaminatethesurrounding groundwater to detectable levels. The pre sence of a hydrocarbon leak can often he confirmed with only a few strategically placed groundwater monitoring wells, when appropriate drilling, sampling and analytical protocols are followed. It is now clear that there are

many important components to a thorough leak detection strategy. Selection of a program for any given facility will depend on many site specific factors. Obtaining expert advice on the various technologies and strategy components may be necessary to selectthe best approach for each site. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING

It is becoming common practice in Ontario to have an Environmen

* This list Is general and not exhaustive. *' Test recognized by Gasoline Handling Code.

Some nonvolumetric tank testing

Soil vapour monitoring in the

techniques are described in Table 2. EPA (1987) includes a more com prehensive list of individual tank testing technologies. The qualitative approach based on an empty tank pressure test using

vadose zone can often detect a UST leak because the most volatile com

ponents of hydrocarbons will volati lize and migrate by the process of molecular diffusion and convection.

Some factors affecting vapour phase

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

tal Audit prepared by an experienced environmental consultant for gaso line service station properties invol ved with an ownership change or major financial restructuring. Pros pective owners/creditors of a pro perty want to make informed busi ness decisions that include consi

deration of the long-term environContinued on page 41 39

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Leaking storage tanks. Continued from page 39 mental risks of the property. Typi cally,environmental audits are done in two stages: Stage 1 consists of a preliminary survey while Stage 2 involves subsurface investigations (if required). A Stage 1 Environmental Audit —

Preliminary Survey — typically con sists of reviewing available site records(including title searches,site plans, air photos, engineering dra wings, past fines, fire insurance records, soils reports and hydrogeological reports), inspecting the pro perty and facilities, and interview ing past owners, employees and inspectors. The Stage 1 report typi cally provides a review of potential (or obvious) sources of subsurface contamination,and sensitive downgradient neighbours, along with a scope and cost estimate for any neces sary soil or groundwater testing. A Stage 2 Environmental Audit — Subsurface Investigations — could include a shallow soil gas/vapour survey,the installation and develop ment of groundwater monitoring

treatment of contaminated soil, and recovery and treatment of contami nated groundwater (if necessary), followed by verification monitoring to show that cleanup criteria have

available remediation alternatives; v) selection of the best remediation alternative,considering the goals of all concerned parties, and vi)implementation and performance

been met.

assessment of the chosen remedia tion alternative.

Components of an effective remediation strategy can include the following: i)an emergency response and initial abatement program; ii) selection of appropriate cleanup criteria;

hi)a comprehensive hydrogeological investigation; iv)review of the technical merits of

It is vital that all investigation and remediation activities be desi

gned to minimize the possibility of worsening an existing contamina tion problem or transferring conta minants to another location/path way where they can still cause envi ronmental problems. ES&E For more information,

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Drive reliability and efficienq^ that never gets watered down.

A leak detection strategy that relies only on symptom recognition Is Inadequate... wells, and the sampling and ana lyses of groundwater, soils, and/or soil vapour. The objectives of the Stage 2 Environmental Audit — Subsurface Investigations — are typically to characterize the extent of visual or suspected contamina tion, estimate the quantity of con taminated materials, assess the existing or potential off-site impacts of present contamination, and to develop budget cost estimates for cleanup of any contaminated areas identified.

Environmental auditing is be

coming almost essential when pro perty financing or ownership is being changed, but it is also a wise investment for all long-term UST owners. Given the high probability (about 20%)(Cherry, 1987)that any one tank is leaking, and given that the remediation costs increase with

the duration of the leak, it makes good business sense to conduct regu lar environmental audits on all

Underground Storage Tank sites to help provide early warning of leaks. If leak detection activities reveal

that a UST was, or is leaking, then remediation activities must com

mence. The obvious first steps would be to repair the leak as quickly as possible, remove the residual pro duct from the soil and attempt to remove the floating pool of product on the water table. The final steps

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would involve removal or on-site

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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The Dawn New Data 4ii


Environment Protection Laboratories ushers in

a new era in the reporting of analytical data. We call it our Value-Added Service Commitment.

In addition to offering industry-leading quality control, service and turnaround, time, we also

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Consultants Support No-Dig

By Les Parr. P.Eng.. and Peter Coxon*

The time to go trenchless Is fast approaching on the job. Trenchless technology was seen as a means of attracting people into the construction indus try. The declining number of con struction workers also suggests that many contractors will have to move


into trenchless methods because this

technology doesn't need as many people as conventional methods. Their companies can continue to function and grow with fewer people by using trenchless technology. Another issue of popular interest is the relationship between trench less methods of construction and environmental assessments. If less


Many Canadian consulting

engineering firms support the application of trenchless technology, and pro mote its use wherever appropriate. A symposium on trenchless tech nology was organized recently by Proctor & Redfern to bring together people who are involved in the appli cation of trenchless methods. Seve

ral presentations were given by people currently working on trench less technology projects or develop ing the technology for use in Canada. The presentations and ensuing ques tions raised many issues still to be resolved.

Some municipal officials are con cerned about standards. They raised the issue of whether or not standards

should address specified material and performance,or good workman ship? They observed that since pipe joints cannot he inspected using trenchless technology, good work manship becomes paramount and worthy ofa high standEO-d. The issue of appropriate standards extends to cable companies as they are concern ed with standards affecting the use of materials surrounding the con duits carrying cables. The applica tion oftrenchless methods challeng es the use ofspecific grades of granu lar material around conduits.

The application of trenchless methods on pavements in urban areas also raised issues for some

municipal officials. In busy down town areas, ratepayers who have experienced loss of business due to

i construction activity which blocked traffic and customers, might take action against the municipality if trenchless methods were not used, when they could have been. Rate payers may begin to ask, if you can go trenchless, why aren't you?

destruction occurs using trenchless methods as compared to convention al open cut methods, when will tren chless technology become part of the EA process as a condition of approval? Engineers speaking at the symposium, observed that even though trenchless methods are less labour intensive and generally the best solution to save capital costs, the up-front engineering on a project must he more intensive in order to

into the construction trades is

optimize the cost effectiveness ofthe technology. The symposium contributed to the increasing momentum trench less methods of construction appear to be experiencing in Canada. The symposium made it clear that the technology is costeffective and avail able today. Equipmentis already in place in Canada and the United States, with the people skilled in running it and designing the pro jects. What is really needed is the political will to get on with projects

through the use of high technology

best suited for trenchless methods.

Ratepayers may begin to ask, if you can go trenchless, why aren't you? Contractors attending the sympo sium raised the issue of an aging workforce and the impact on conven tional construction technology. Suggestions were made that one of

the best ways to attract young people

NASTT/ISTT agreement signed on trenchless technology An affiliation agreementlinking the North American Society for Trench less Technology(NASTT) with the founding international body,ISTT, was formalized during the North American No Dig '91 conference in Kansas City, May 6. The agreement,which was signed by ISTT Chair "Ted Flaxman and NASTT Chair Richard Thomasson, will provide a vehicle for improved networking, cooperation, and infor mation exchange for the two affi liates, who share the same basic concerns for the environmental and

social costs of utilities trenching.

The Board of Directors of NASTT, which was founded in July 1990, includes three Canadian members:

George Mierzynski, Director of Pro ject Engineering Branch at the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment; Michael Aildritt, of the Cana dian Construction Association; and Bill Gray, Vice-President and Mana ger of the Municipal Services Divi sion at Gore & Storrie.

No Dig'92 will he held April6-9in Washington,D.C. Canadians inter ested in news offorthcoming events and membershipinformation,should call Bill Gray at(416)566-4666.

'Procter & Redfern Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Corrosion Prevention Strategies

Corrosion control In Calgary's water distribution system

The original mandate of the

Preventive Maintenance/ Corrosion Section was to

develop and apply a work able cathodic protection system for The City of Calgary water distribu tion network. To that end,an exten sive period of testing, modification

grown by 70% in capacity since 1973.) We relate this improvement to two major factors; the successful development and implementation of corrosion control practices and an active main replacement program.

trends within The City of Calgary's Engineering and Environmental Services Department. We have learned a tremendous

amount in the past 15 years about corrosion control in our water sys tems. The problem of emergency repairs due to corrosion on our water distribution systems is serious and costly to both the municipality and taxpayers. In addition, further expense due to water damage is incurred by private property owners and insurance companies. The City ofCalgary's water mains required 599 repairs in 1973. This figure peaked in 1979 when we expe-


a. electrical isolation from electrical

The problem of emergency repairs due to corrosion on our water distribution systems is serious and costly to both the municipality and taxpayers.

and evaluation resulted in our cur

rent system, which consists of both coated and uncoated piping and a combination ofgalvanic and impres sed current anode systems. This article will discuss the development of our system, and give a brief over view of current corrosion control

problems associated with ductile and cast iron piping. The elements regarded as necessary for successful application of cathodic protection

This article will review what we

have learned from "hands on"expe rience.

Areas of discussion will

include system design,design appli cation, data base considerations, material selection, and quality con trol practices. System Design

The initial drive to design a cathodically protected water distribution system came about as a response to the high incidence of three types of corrosion related failures in older

ground grids and unprotected water mains where practical. b. electrical continuity of water mains to be protected. c. use of dielectric coatings. d. use of galvanic anodes for protec tion of coated and uncoated distri bution mains.

e. use of rectified impressed current system for the protection of large diameter transmission main.

f. a monitoring system to check potentials of cathodically protected piping systems.

cast iron and poly-bag ductile iron mains. Failures in the ductile iron

Design Application

system consisted ofthe corrosion of service saddle retaining straps and corrosion holes in mains caused by

A critical area of design applica tion is compliance to a standard set of specifications. The City of Cal gary Standard Specifications for Waterworks Construction outlines

approved materials,installation pro cedures, and set minimum require ments pertaining to the inspection and approval of new piping instal lations. Once standard procedures and requirements were determined, an extensive educational program was implemented. This was neces sary due to the lack of experience with cathodic protection methodsin the municipal water distribution

Annual Main Breaks Per 100 Kilometres 1970 to 1990 60 n

B 40 -

field. A Cathodic Protection Hand

book was developed as a reference guide for those involved in the imple mentation of cathodic protection in the water system. This group inclu ded maintenance and construction 70






















rienced 1,291 main repairs. Main break statistics are summarized in

Table 1. Since 1982, we have obser ved a distinct decline in the number

of repairs, with recent figures total ling 583 repairs as of November, 1990. (Please note our system has 44

pitting. The third type of failure experienced in the older cast iron (pre -1960)system, was mechanical failures due to graphitization. By 1975,it was determined that a cathodic protection system would be

a viable solution to the performance

foremen, supervisors, contractors, design technicians, inspectors, and engineering consultants. In addi tion to the Standard Specifications and the Handbook, Corrosion Sec tion personnel are available,on call, to assist in interpretation of catho dic protection needs. Database Considerations

The scope of the corrosion speci-

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

By Bradley James and William Ng* fic database was limited at the time the corrosion section was formed.

ings, and isolation from ground grids in the smaller diameter distri

Waterworks personnel kept records of system failures, but limited corro sion background data was collected. The first attempt to assemble corro sion specific data was the commis sion of a soil resistivity study. This

bution system made complete cathodic protection retro-fitting impracti cal. However, a limited application of cathodic protection was accepted as a viable alternative. When main

tenance repairs are performed on an

The solution to our ductile iron

failure problem was to design a coat ed, cathodically protected system, using magnesium anodes. Known as"YDI"(yellow jacket ductile iron), this features a high density polye thylene extruded coating, factory installed bonding straps, isolated

information was then used to deter

mine anode composition and esti mate current requirements. The existing main break reporting sys tem was expanded to include infor mation that could help identify the

Total Length of Water Mains By Year 1970 to 1990 3500 -1

characteristics ofeach failure. Fore

men were able to relay precise details as to the location and particular type offailure, pipe zone soil charac teristics, general condition of the pipe and proximity to other buried utilities. This information is now assembled on what is known as the

„ 2000


"Superform",which allows us to col lect all information related to repair and corrosion data.

The resulting database is utilized in prioritizing specific areas in need ofpreventive maintenance and main replacement. At present, this infor mation is analyzed and cross-refer enced manually. The objective of























the Waterworks Division is to deve

lop a computerized information sys tem that can access and cross refer

ence all information collected by the "Superform". The expectation is that, in terms of preventive mainte nance priorities, we will eventually be able to forecast necessary repairs and areas of concern by means of a "Predictive Model". Material Selection

The selection of appropriate materials is a major challenge in the implementation of a corrosion con-

existing unprotected main, any ser vice connections in the vicinity of the repair are electrically isolated, and a high potential magnesium anode is attached to the main to

provide a measure of "hot spot" cathodic protection. In the case of replacement of previously existing valves, hydrants, and fittings, and when main replacement takes place on unprotected piping systems, it is standard procedure to isolate the

Research and experience has shown that the majority of our iarge diameter metaiiic transmission mains can be cathodicaiiy protected with impressed current ground beds. trol program. Material selection requirements could be interpreted as a two part problem. The first consi deration is, what can be done to extend the life of existing, unprotec ted piping systems. The second concern is, how to develop new sys tems with good corrosion control characteristics inherent in their


In regard to what could be done with existing metallic systems, it was determined that the lack ofelec

trical continuity, ineffective coat•Preventive Maintenance Section Waterworks Division

City of Calgary

new coated metallic elements and

provide cathodic protection to them by means of galvanic anodes. Research and experience has shown that the majority of our large diameter metallic transmission

mains can be cathodically protected with impressed current ground beds. Two criteria need to be met;first,the electrical continuity ofthe transmis sion main must be verified, and second, isolation must be provided at critical tie-ins with production facilities. We have retro-fitted many of our existing large diameter metal lic transmission mains with impres sed current systems and have expe rienced very few leaks attributable to corrosion related failure.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

service connections, stainless steel service saddles, and fusion bonded epoxy coatings on all metallic fit tings. This system evolved over a period of time, and elements of it were modified or replaced as service experience dictated. Major improve ments occurred in the design of iso lating elements, as some of the ini tial versions proved to be prone to failure under field conditions.

Hydrants, valves, and fittings on PVC (polyvinyl chloride) systems are epoxy coated and cathodically protected by individual anodes. Ser vice rods are stainless steel, while their casings utilize a combination of coated and galvanized materials. Quality Control Practices This area is perhaps the most challenging aspect of applying cor rosion control practices to a water utility. Inspection at the time of construction and prior to final City of Calgary approval of water instal lations, ensures that cathodic pro tection requirements are initially achieved. However; given the com plexity of a water distribution sys tem more than 3,300 kilometers in length, with over 190,000 service connections of various sizes, some difficulties are inevitable. Two of

the most serious problems we have encountered, are ensuring isolation from other utility ground grids and unprotected water systems,and mitiContinued overleaf 45

Corrosion Control in Calgary, cont'd. gating stray current effects. Our cathodically protected system is monitored through a network of approximately 4,000 test stations. These provide access points that we can utilize in identifying shorted isolations, and at which we can add anode capacity as it becomes neces sary. In addition,impressed current systems can be resistance bonded to nearby foreign utilities as required, via these "test point" locations. As a result, we have identified no occur rences of stray current corrosion caused by interference from our 36

extending the service life for these fittings, which are still used in PVC distribution systems. The cathodi cally protected YDI main is still the system of choice in some applica tions. These include; piping in areas where the situation requires the superior mechanical qualities ofduc tile iron, and where nearby indus trial facilities pose a threat of petro chemical contamination in the pipe


Interest in corrosion control is

rectifier sites. Continuous monitor

structure concerns that could be

tions is carried out. Defects in the

system are identified by Corrosion Section personnel, with remedial work performed by Waterworks

addressed by adopting some degree of corrosion control practices. The Corrosion Section has recently pro vided technical support to several

maintenance crews, or contractors,

divisions other than the Water

depending on ownership ofthe instal lation in question.

works. These include, the Streets Division, which maintains cathodi cally protected bridge structures, as well, the Mechanical Services Department, whose main concerns involve protective coatings. At the present time, a Corrosion Section technician is providing technical support and acting as liaison to other departments as part of the City of Calgary's participation in Alberta's MUST program (Munici pal Underground Storage Tanks).

place aging metallic distribution main with Poly-vinyl-chloride piping. This is primarily due to eco nomic reasons. As a result,cathodic protection has been relegated to a support role in terms of our main replacement program. Metallic ele ments, such as hydrants, valves, etc., are protected by zinc anodes.

sion and Control Practices RFP-41

sponsored by the AWWA Research

ing of cathodic protection installa

Corrosion Trends

various corrosion related studies and

initiatives. Notable among these have been;the 1983 CANMET report on Underground Corrosion of Water Pipes in Canadian Cities #0SQ8100096,and the more recent Study on an Assessment of External Corro


becoming more prevalent within the various divisions of The City of Cal gary. Many departments have infra

The recent trend has been to re


The City of Calgary has been a willing participant and supporter of

Comprehensive consulting services in hydrogeology, geotechnical engineering and related geosoiences for


► Soil and groundwater remediation

► Solid and liquid waste management

In addition,the Engineering and Environmental Services Depart ment has commissioned a number

of reports on specific corrosion con cerns by several of the leading con sulting firms involved in corrosion control. We feel that the City of Cal gary is one ofthe leaders in Canada in the field of corrosion control in

municipal water distribution.

Our experience has shown that proper and well considered corro sion control practices can be ofgreat value in the effort to maintain an

economically efficient civic infra structure. The fact that the depend able service life of metallic struc

tures can be extended by use ofgood coatings and applications of catho dic protection,is a tremendous asset in terms of loss management.

If you can store it in a glass, you can store it in an Aquastore® Storage System Greatario Industrial Storage Limited can custom design a liquid storage system to meet your needs. Our glass fused to steel storage systems set a new standard for long life and minimum maintenance. Both internal and external corrosion protection is excellent. For over 22 years our company has been providing quality, valuebased storage systems for potable water, waste water treatment, sludge ... and the list goes on. Give us a call. We can

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Convention Wrap-up

Ruth Grier makes technical debut at AWWA/OMWA Conference


ster Ruth Grier was the

guest speaker at the open ing of the 1991 Joint Annual Conference of the Ont. Sec tion AWWA and the Ontario Muni

cipal Water Association. Held in Hamilton, April 28 - May 1, it was the first major technical conference she addressed since becoming envi ronment minister following the NDP government's stunning victory last September. "Growing anxiety has led resi dents to spend approximately $100 million annually on bottled water and home water treatment devices,"

Photo report by Tom Davey

technical audience, left the meeting to speak at the Air & Waste Manage ment Association's Annual Meeting (Ont.Section), which was being held two blocks away. As the AWWA/OMWA luncheon

speaker, James MacLaren outlined the role ofthe new Sewer and Water

Crown Corporation which had been put on hold following the NDP vic tory last September. His superbly outlined presentation covered many areas, but one theme constantly

she said. "While we do have drink

reoccurred: treated water is under-

ing water objectives, they are not enforceable. They are not manda tory, and they haven't provided the public with enough information to

the future,he stressed. Wasted water

make informed decisions about

water safety. These are reasons why many people choose to pay for bottled water. In response, I am committed to the introduction of a

Safe Drinking Water Act." she said. Mrs. Grier, clearly happy at the way her speech was received by a

priced and the user-pay principle must prevail. Metering is the way of usually becomes an expensive sew age treatment problem once it finds its way into the sewers, where it has to be treated with other wastewaters.

Appropriately, this conference was also the 25th anniversary ofthe OMWA and the occasion was mar

ked by a birthday cake presented to Dr. Bill Cresswell, OMWA president.


during a lunch meeting. Burn Hodglns of International Water Supply was presented with the Fuller pin by AWWA President Frederick Elwell; the Norman J.

Howard Award was won by Gary Wilson of Standard Pressure Pipe, with the Section's Heroism Award

going to Robert Emmett, Peter borough PUG. In the election, Hershel Guttman was elected Vice Chairman with

Tom Eyre and Rdn Hunslnger elected as trustees. Outgoing chairman Ed Nevala handed the Section's Chair

man's gavel over to Dr. Ken Roberts, MOE.

For the first time, a suppliers' table top exhibition was held in conjunction with the popular Casino Night. Sponsored and manned by the Ontario Water Works Equipment Association members, delegates could bid for valuable prizes with the 'money' they had won at the gaming tables. The pipe tapping contest, held outside the hotel,attracted both dele gates and the public as Windsor emerged triumphant. ES&E

Badger Mek UtfiitV Divisiof

Clockwise: Edward Nevala, Outgoing Section Chairman; the Hon. Ruth Grier; (ieft to right) Joe Kennedy, Martha Jackson and Earl Were of Badger Meter; Bob Ethier, Census Technologies(right) talks to A WWA President Frederick Elwell.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


PCAO celebrates Its 20th conference

In Niagara Falls

Thespectacular backdrop of Niagara Falls is a perfect

ducted with both the US and Cana

Photo report by Tom Davey

location for environmental

professionals to meet, the Falls being a constantreminder that our water resources are abundant, yet threatened from both US and Canadian pollution sources. The 20th PCAO* annual confer

ence attracted over 550 registrants, exceeding the most optimistic fore casts of the organizers. Another success was the Ontario Pollution

Control Equipment Association's (OPCEA) Table Top Exhibition which drew enthusiastic response

it was the first time the PCAO had

staged such a contest. The "North Eastern Region Destroyers, Nerds One"(MOE),won after a close battle. The victors were Lisa Bumbaco,Ted

Czuba, and Don Gervais, along with their coach John McGhee. Larry Madden,OPCEA Director ofMarket

ing and Reg Ranton of PWOD, pre sented the team with a team plaque and individual awards. Four weeks earlier at OPCEA's

dian Falls in the background. Acting Assistant ADM for the MOE Gerry Ronan,spoke at the first plenary session and quoted St. Augu stine's admonition:Sin boldly or not .at all(His paper is published in full elsewhere in this issue). A past PCAO President, Orlando Martini, of Giffels,received the covetted Bedell award with the Hatfield

award going to Richard Weiton. Election results ofthe ballot were

announced by outgoing PCAO Pre sident Gerry Rupke. Terry Matthews, of Eimco was elected Vice President

from both exhibitors and attendees and had been sold out weeks earlier.

ence Chairman Brian Evans of R.V.

with Brian Evans, R.V. Anderson, and Ralph Luhowy,Region of Water

Delegate traffic was always high in the exhibit area to the great delight

Anderson, had predicted a quality

loo elected as Directors. Erv Mcln-

conference which would attract all

tyre of the MOE later took over as

environmental professionals from operators to consultants in record numbers. There were so many dele gates,the conference facilities ofthe

the 91-92 PCAO President. This is a

Brock and Foxhead hotels were

Toronto next October,so Erv faces a challenging year as President. *Pollution Control Association of

of exhibitors.

The Operators' Challenge com petition which various teams from across the province competed in, covered the practical aspects of pol lution control. While a staple at other WPCF member associations.

Annual Meeting,the PCAO Confer

strained to the utmost. As many meetings were held on the penthouse floors, business and meals were con

critical year for thePCAO as it is the host member association for the WPCF Annual Conference in



Clockwise: Greg Jackson,SEW Eurodrive(left)and Larry Madden, Control & Metering enjoying one of the many social functions; Metro Toronto operators competing in the Operators'Challenge; Doug Langely, Environmental Protection Laboratories (left) with Gerry Rupke, PCAO President and Jim Brooker, Eimco (right); Cathy Gorrie, Can Am Instruments.


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Immunoassay Test Kits For:


• Mycotoxins • Antibiotics

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

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Product Profile

Hazardous area water sampler — a world's first

EpicProducts,a manufacturer of automatic waste water sam

plers in the UK, claims the world's first battery-powered intrinsi cally-safe portable sampler for Zone 1 hazardous areas. It is available in

Canada from Cancoppas Limited. Patented throughout the world and certified intrinsically-safe to international standards, the Epic 1511 sampler can be used by staff to survey the contents of sewers likely to contain methane or other explo sive gases in complete safety. Simi larly, it can be used by engineers and scientific staff in hazardous

areas in petrochemical works, pro cess plants,and in industry general ly to monitor waste water discharges and production processes. Epic 1511 is fully programmable and self-contained. Compact enough to pass easily through the smallest manhole, it requires no external source of pneumatic or electrical power.

The sampler has been certified intrinsically-safe by BASEEFA,the British Approvals Service for Elec trical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres,for usein Zone 1 hazar dous areas. A Zone 1 hazardous area is defined in BS5345 as an area in

which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal opera tion. 'Likely' can mean anything from 10 to 1,000 hours a year. Both the Epic 1511 itself and its associated portable dual-voltage power pack are intrinsically-safe. In normal operation and under defined fault conditions,they cannot release sufficient electrical energy to ignite defined explosive atmospheres. This means the Epic 1511 can be programmed, interrogated or have its power pack changed within the Zone 1 hazardous area. All normal

operations can be carried out as if the area did not contain explosive gas.

Other types of Zone 1 protection, such as flameproof and pressurized, seek to segregate the explosive gas from the ignition source and cannot be opened up in a hazardous area. Even the plastic case of the 1511 is anti-static and non-sparking. It is moulded from a special plastic with a high carbon loading to make it conducting. The full certification coding of the sampler to the British standard BS5501 Part 7 and the European CENELEC EN50 020 standard is EEx ib IIB T4.

EEx means European-certified, 50

explosion-protected;ib is intrinsical ly-safe for Zone 1;IIB is the associa ted apparatus sub-grouping(relating to the types of flammable gas, such as methane and ethylene, with which the ignition currents likely to be generated by the 1511 have been designed to be compatible); and T4 is the maximum surface temperature ofany part ofthe 1511 under defined fault conditions (135°C at a 40°C

be entered into the programmer to prevent unauthorized access, and the programmer unit can be removed completely. The sampler can be pre-program med in the laboratory,can be trigger ed once in position, or can be pro grammed,interrogated and interrup ted by the user on site. Manual interruptions for spot sampling can be made without disrupting the pre


set routine.

The Epic 1511 is based on the company's well-established 1011 portable waste water sampler. Nevertheless,the development work involved has taken four years and has meant many costly technical changes and innovations. Intrinsic safety is usually limited to equipment requiring less than 30 volts and 50 milliamps. Motors requiring more than about 3 watts cannot generally be designed to be intrinsically-safe. Yet the Epic 1511 is capable of lifting 500mlfluid samples at a speed of0.5 metres/second to a height of7 metres. A suitable hose is simply connected to the sampler and dipped into the fluid to be sampled. The patented pumping mechanism in the unit then deposits measured samples into containers according to a pre programmed routine. The Epic 1511 is fully-program mable in any one of eight European languages. Programming is easily carried out using four control but tons on a pocket-sized plug-in pro grammer unit. A security code can

With numerous sample container options, the Epic 1511 can be pro grammed to suit virtually any sam pling requirement. Start times, sampling intervals,run times,sam ple volume and number of samples per container can all be varied to suit the investigation being carried out. Remote initiation from a suit

able device such as a liquid level sensor is also possible, and the 1511 can be driven in flow-proportional mode by an approved flow meter. Two interchangeable base modules cover sample container sizes from 1x5 litre to 24 x 500ml.

Ice/water sample cooling can also be provided. The dimensions and total unladen

weight of an Epic 1511 portable sampler vary according to the for mat chosen. However, the largest option,a sampler equipped with 24 x 500ml sample containers, weighs under 20kg and is 835mm high by 396mm in diameter.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Air Pollution

How Montreal pioneered air pollution regulations in Canada The very first by-law dealing with air pollution to he adopted in Canada hy a governmental authority was done so hy the Montreal Municipal Council well over a century ago. On March 12,1872,the Montreal Council adopted hy-law number 56 "to call upon owners of steam engines in this City to equip them with smoke-consuming devices". Section 1 of this hy-law stated as follows:

"Every person owning,renting or

in possession of any steam engines, boilers, manufactures, plants, fac tories or shops, within the limits of said city, will be henceforth required to equip said establishments with devices that consume smoke and

gas emitted by these, in such a way to eliminate any inconvenience resulting from the operation of said establishment". Offenders were liable to a fine of

Section 20 of this hy-law stipulated: "No person shall cause or permit the emission into the open air of vapours or harmfulgases that consti tute a nuisance, and are being emit ted from a combustion device, an incinerator, a fire for burning wastes, internal combustion engines, mobile equipment, an open airfire,an establishment or a stack". On December 27,1978,the Coun cil of the Community adopted By law 44 which replaced By-law 9. This avant-garde hy-law was approv ed hy the Ministre de I'Environnement du Quebec and came into force on February 19,1979. This new by-law tightens up the provisions of the previous hy-law and imposes new ones including among others: limits in emission and the presence in the atmosphere of more than 300 toxic substances

pollutants; the specific prohibition of new refineries, quarries and ren dering plants; a criterium of maxi mum tolerance for particulates emit ted into the atmosphere during the handling of materials likely to pro duce these; the spraying of water or another dust control product during demolition, construction, repair or maintenance of a building, and the eradication of ragweed. *At the start of the century, certain judgments lead us to believe that judges were relatively strict for pollu ters, thus the owner of a rooming house was fined one hundred dollars

for having neglected to Install asmokeconsuming device on his establish ment, contrary to the provisions of section 7 of by-law number 130 of the

City of Montreal. A $100.00 fine In those days Is equivalent to well over $1,500.00 today. Data courtesy Gommunaute Urbalne

"One hundred dollars"* or impri

that have been identified; the com pulsory recourse to the most effec

sonment in default of immediate

tive techniques known for the reduc

sement de I'alr et de I'lnspectlon des


tion of industrial and commercial


de Montreal. Service de I'assalnls-

This first hy-law was repealed February 13,1882 and replaced with by-law 130 entitled: "By-law to eli minate the nuisance ofsmoke". The

boiler inspector was responsible for ensuring that section 7 of this hylaw was respected. And on February 4, 1901, hy-law 260 extended this provision to the chimneys of private houses.

In 1931, the Municipal Council adopted By-law 1112, creating an inspection department in charge of eliminating smoke. The Ringelmann Chart was used to measure

the degree of opacity of smoke, which could not exceed degree num ber 2for more than 1.5 minute during any 10-minute period. This hy-law on smoke control also applied to all new sources of pollution such as machines, and all stationary or mobile devices(steam engine, boiler for heating tar). Only coke was to he used to operate these devices. At that time,in 1931,some thirty American cities with a population greater than 200,000 had also adop ted similar by-laws. In fact,the pro blem of air pollution first appeared in cities that had known rapid devel

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In 1950, the City of Montreal adopted hy-law 1953. Unlike the others,its purpose was not simply to reduce smoke. It also regulated dust, vapours,harmful gases and all other forms ofpollution ofthe atmosphere. Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


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Worker protection

Health & Safety factors Inside sewage treatment plants

Sewage treatment facilities

are a specialized type of workplace. Employers are usually provincial, territor ial or local governments, all with budget restrictions. Nonetheless, these public employers have a gene ral duty to protect their liability and worker compensation assessments by clearly demonstrating due dili gence. This article is designed to guide such employers in designing and maintaining well run treatment plants, for protection of their staff and the general public. Sewage may contain a variety of viruses, fungi, bacteria and their toxins, parasites, and a variety of toxic chemicals originating from decomposition and from industrial waste, such as metals, toxic gases andorganics. Treatment plants also

personal hygiene is not observed. Possible toxic exposure to the gases carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan or chlo rine and to acid mist must also be controlled.

The main categories of precau tions are process control, exhaust ventilation, fire and explosion pre cautions, safe work practices and procedures, adequate personal hygiene facilities and practices, a medical program and staff educa tion. I will first offer advice on these general categories of precautions, then specific process precautionary

moves away from, not toward,oper ating staff breathing zones. Adequate ventilation is required indoors at pump rooms and galle ries, screen rooms, grit removal rooms,settling tanks,aerators,chlo rine storage and injection rooms, corrosive acid ferric chloride hand

ling rooms, digester and other con trol rooms, dewatering rooms, and incinerators. Process control room

supply air should be filtered and such rooms should be maintained at

positive pressure. Digester overflow boxes should be vented outdoors. Provincial environmental autho

advice. Process controls include automa

rities should be consulted regarding requirements for cleaning emis

tic monitoring and control of flow rate, digestion temperatures, and


rates of addition of treatment che

digestion of sludge can be an explo sion hazard, if leaking and not ade quately removed or diluted. Its pre sence in confined spaces can be dan gerous, if a compressor or pump motor, spark-creating tools, nonexplosion proof lighting or other source of ignition is present. Fire prevention and extinguishing equip ment should be adequate and main tained, and fire-fighting procedures written and drilled regularly. Continuous flammable gas moni toring at key locations is advisable. Readings should not exceed 10-25% of the lower explosive limit for methane during normal operation.

micals, such as chlorine and ferric

use chemicals which can have toxic


effects if exposure is not controlled. Studies ofhealth problems among sewage workers have shown three main types ofcomplaints,influenza like symptoms (fever and respira tory symptoms), gut upset and skin problems. Exposure to sewage may occur by breathing aerosols of sew age or its decomposition products, such as dusts, by skin or eye contact, or by unintended ingestion, if strict

For particularly odourous or toxic offgasing from sewage and its treat mentstages,adequate local exhaust ventilation should be provided. Exhaust ventilation can be of the

dilution type for process offgasing to large interior spaces, if not seri ously odourous or toxic. An impor tant point,sometimes overlooked,is that ventilation airflows should be directed so that contaminated air

Methane-rich gasfrom anaerobic

Automatic continuous or routine

Odours from open sludge conveyors Inside sewage treatment plants, can be eliminated through the use of sludge cake pumping systems, as used In MetroToronto's Main Treatment Plant. Photo courtesy Gore & Storrle Limited. 52

air monitoring, with alarm, for highly toxic hydrogen sulfide gas is advised at the screen room,atindoor primary or final settling tanks, in digester and dewatering control rooms and in pump rooms. Safe work practices and proce dures include use of adequate perso nal protective equipment and writ ten, drilled emergency procedures, especially during maintenance and repair, ventilation failure, for safe handling of chlorine, or for hand ling highly corrosive ferric chloride pickling waste. The following protective clothing should be provided for each worker, and used as plant procedures spe cify: coveralls; safety footwear (boots;for some work,rubber boots); impervious gloves; hard hat; and safety glasses. First aid equipment and training *Trow Dames & Moore

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

By Dr. David A. Whaley. should also be provided. Where practical, outdoor staff should work upwind of outdoor process stages, especially aerators, and of exhaust


and during entry,for hydrogen sul

roughly washed; and phide, oxygen level and flammable •avoid nail biting at all times. gas; full protective gear, including Specific precautionary advice will self-contained breathing aparatus vents. (SCBA);and a buddy rescue system. be given in the order of stages of processing the sewage. WHMIS-compatible material Training and maintenance of the safety data sheets should be readily respirators and monitoring equip Sewage is generated at uneven available to staff. Containers of ment are very important. flow rates. Collecting wells are often chemicals should carry WHMISOf critical importance is staff provided,to accumulate peak inflow compatible labels. Certain provinces education in personal hygiene pre and regulate delivery to process at a may require or advise a hazardous cautions, such as: controlled rate. The airspaces above chemicals inventory. Personal hygienefacilities should Staff education should include famiiiarization with the include double lockers to separate hazardous materials that may be present in sewage, its street and work clothes, separated by walk-through showers. A sepa breakdown products and treatment chemicals... rate, clean lunch room should be provided. Adequate wash facilities • wear appropriate protective clo these wells mustsometimes be enter should be provided by all toilets and thing when exposed to aerosolized, ed. They should be treated as confin the lunch room. Plumbed,regularly liquid or dried sewage; ed spaces, observing all provincial tested eyewash fountains and deluge •remove protective clothing at end and other regulations. safety showers should be provided of shift, and leave it at work; If raking and transfer of large within 10 seconds ready access to •shower at end of each shift, before solid objects to a dumpster at the any chemical handling areas. Per putting on street clothing; screen room is performed manually, sonal hygiene practices should be •thoroughly clean all scratches or adequate personal protective equip emphasized in staff education pro abrasions,and keep them covered at ment should be used and the dumps grams. work; ter should be replaced every half day, to minimize putrefaction on The staffmedical program should •avoid using the toilet until protec site. include preplacement and periodic tive gloves have been removed and hands thoroughly washed; If solids remain in the primary (usually annual) medical examina settling tank too long, bacterial tions. Medical examinations at •avoid hand-to-face behaviour such as rubbing the eyes, eating, smo degradation of sludge may start, termination and following a subs tantial exposure are also advised. king or gum chewing while at work, generating hydrogen sulphide, until protective gloves have been ammonia, methane and nitrogen. These should include history and Bubbles or floating sludge are indiphysical examination, and may removed and hands and face thoinclude various clinical tests,as deter

mined by the physician, such as lung function, chest X-ray, blood count, serum antibodies to bacterial endotoxins,serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (liver test), immunoglobulins(allergic response) and C-reactive protein (allergic res ponse). Audiometry (hearing tests)

Environmental Law The Environmental Law Group at Blake, Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including:

should be considered.

Immunization with appropriate regular boosters,should be provided for at least tetanus and poliomyeli tis, but is also recommended for diphtheria and typhoid. Possible occupational illness should be reported routinely to pro vincial Workers' Compensation Boards. Staff education should include familiarization with the hazardous

materials that may be present in sewage,its breakdown products and treatment chemicals; protective equipment to be used, and how to use and care for this equipment; WHMIS training; confined space procedures and provincial govern ment or other acceptable training on how to properly run a sewage treat ment plant. Some jurisdictions may require operator certification. Confined space procedures should include provisions for continuous air monitoring with alarm, before

• • • • •

Environmental Assessments & Approvals Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings Waste Management & Disposal Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods Occupational Health & Safety

• Insurance Claims • Environmental Audits

• Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) • Sale of Land & Secured Transactions

For more information contact:

York Region John D Brownlie, Q.C. Gerald S Swinkin (416) 863-2400 (416) 733-4040


Burton H Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400 Ottawa


Gordon Cameron

Aleck Trawick

(613) 788-2200

(403) 260-9600

Environmental Science & Engineering,July 1991


Marvin R V Storrow, Q.C. (604) 631-3300

Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors For more information, Circie repiy card No. 123


Health & Safety inside STPs. contd used, dissolved in water. However, some treatment plants use acid pick ling waste liquor from steelmaking, because it is cheaper. Pickling liquor contains ampleferric chloride,hutis highly acid, and very corrosive to both equipment and people, so should he handled with great care. Stafftraining is extremely impor tant in the health hazards of expo sure to chlorine, safe handling of chlorine,and emergency procedures in event of an uncontrolled release. Continuous air monitors with

alarms should he present in all rooms where chlorine is stored or

David Whaley

cators ofbacterial generation ofgas, suggestingimproper process control. During worker education,empha size that potentially infectious bio logical aerosols are most likely near the aerator. Personal hygiene is especially important here. There are reports ofconstruction and main

injected. Self contained breathing aparatus should he available near, hut not within,the chlorine room(s). Procedures can he obtained from

provincial agencies,for example the Ontario Ministry of Labour Engi neering Data Sheet No. 4.05(1985), and should he compatible with the procedures advised by the Chlorine Institute, Washington, D.C. Timeweighted average exposure to air

tenance workers near to outdoor aer

borne chlorine should not exceed 0.5

ation and settling tanks experienc ing stomach cramps and diarrhea,if exposed for several days. Injection of ferric chloride to remove phosphate is not a problem if technical grade ferric chloride is

ppm,and 15 minute spike exposures should not exceed 1.0 ppm. Preconditioning sludge with poly meric acrylamide, prior to dewatering, more likely in larger treatment plants, carries risk of exposure to

trace contamination with monome-

ric acrylamide, which is a suspect human carcinogen. Time-weighted average airborne exposure to acry lamide should not exceed 0.03

mg/m^. Malfunction of sludge incinera tion equipment has been reported to he associated with workers develop ing dermatitis. Incinerator staff should use protective clothing to prevent skin contact. Particular attention is required for health and safetyin maintenance activities, such as use of continuous area monitoring of exhaust and makeup air,and use ofhand and eye protection when dismantling raw and return sludge pumps. Access should he restricted locally during maintenance activities,so that near by staff, who are not likely to wear the same level of protection, are not exposed. Work in sewage plants is special ized work, requiring careful plan ning and coordination of health and safety efforts. It is advisable that a qualified industrial hygienist design and regularly monitor the health and safety programs ofsuch plants, to ensure that adequate precautions are put in place and maintained. ES&E


The safe alternative For water disinfection, wastewater

treatment, odour control, cyanide removal. JAVEX MANUFACTURING CANADA DIV.- COLGATE-PALMOLIVE CANADA INC. 255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto, Ont. M4H 1G8

Tel.(416) 421-6000. Fax.(416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver For more information,


Circle reply card No. 124

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

DRUMSHEAR... the economical solution

for sludge dewatering and thickening problems Optimum capture rate of solids using stain less steel woven wire mesh from 45 microns

and up.

Removable screen panels are a first In the

Industry — allowing a change of openings. Variable speed drive(3 to 12 rpm)varies solids retention time and dryness.

Adjustable diverter flights automatically direct solids to discharge Hp of cylinder. No other screen on the market gives so much flexibility.

Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving lower haulage and/or treatment costs.

Rugged 1/4 Inch stainless steel construction — thicker, more durable, corrosion resistant.

The low operating and maintenance costs of the screen give substantial savings over the life of the equipment — as much as 2to 3times better than comparable screens.

Central Greasing. Internal and External Spray Cleaning System. No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain.

Low energy requirements, only 1 - 7.5 hp. Better environmental protection of Industrial and municipal applications.


1175 Appleby Line, Unit C-3, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel: (416) 335-8944, Fax: (416) 335-8972 i'STE^

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 131


'J'i^ ;>;


I w


I SL John Valley — New Brunswick


ne way is to rely on the fine water and wastewater specialists who work locally, from the Maritime Provinces to B.C. They're experts at efficient plant per formance,economical treatment methods, and effective equipment recommendations. They know how to work with you to keep the nation's water resources the way they should be. No one does a betterjob. You can count on them,just as you can depend on Envirex. Envirex has pio neered the development of new processes, systems and equipment for modem water and wastewater treatment technology for 100 years. So the next time you have a treatment problem, call one ofthese professionals. They're the best around for proven water and wastewater solutions. 56

For more information, Circie reply card No. 134

In Alberta, Manitoba,Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories, and British Columbia:PETWA Canada Ltd.

4120 - 23rd Street N.E. Calgary, Alberta T2E6W9 Phone:403/250-2650

In Ontario: Napier-Reid Ltd. 10 Alden Road, Unit 2 Markham,Ontario L3R 2S1


In Quebec: Mabarex Inc. 6045 Ch. St-Francois Ville St-Laurent, Quebec H4S 1B6 Phone:514/334-6721

In Nova Scotia, New Bmnswick,Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland:

Resource Systems,Inc. RO.Box 245

Waverly, Nova Scotia BON 2S0 Phone:902/861-4710

Envirex Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

A Unique Solution to an Old Problem In Quebec ventional catchbasins. That allowed

us to use more ofthem,substantially improving street drainage." Another advantage by having ribbed pipe on both sides of the street is that catch basins were easier to install and connect at lots that were lower than

How do you widenroadsand

Ultra Rib and catchbasin being instaiied.

improve drainage in an existing subdivision with a limited budget? Just out side of Montreal, Jacques Lamarre and Benoit Bergeron from the City ofSaint-Hubert,found a unique solu tion to an otherwise costly problem. Kensington Street was slated to be widened and paved in 1990. With widening,roadside drainage ditches would have to be filled and a new

storm system installed. "Conven tional storm sewer retrofitsin nearby municipalities ran into problems" according to M.Lamarre,Supervisor of Engineering Services in SaintHubert. "Each house had a sump pump to evacuate water to the road side ditch through a VM' pipe. The sump lines could have been connec ted to a storm pipe, but because of the depth,the connection would have been more expensive. Consequently, some water from the sump lines

made its way to the crushed stone sub-base resulting in expansion and contraction due to freeze thaw —

destabilizing the roadbase." The City of Saint-Hubert was determined to learn from the experi ences of their neighbouring munici pality — but they also had a few unique problems of their own. Some of the houses on Kensington Street were lower than street grade, requi ring extra catchbasins. Also, the first four inches of sub-base under

the existing asphalt roadway were made from poor quality crushed stone, which was estimated to cost $500 a truckload to dispose. With

tight budget constraints, SaintHubert was forced to look for alter natives. "A conventional storm sewer buried under the center of the road

would have had to be placed 7 or 8 feet deep" according to Benoit Ber geron,Technician for the City. "We wanted a shallower sewer,so connect ing sump lines from each house would be cheaper and more practi cal. On Kensington Street,the ideal system would keep excavation to a minimum,while maximizing flow." For their ideal system,they chose concentrically ribbed PVC pipe. Old concrete pipe culverts were exhumed from ditches, and replaced with a 12 inch diameter ribbed PVC pipe,back filled with granular material from the pulverisation ofexisting asphalt

street grade. How does the system perform in the winter months? With snow typi cally piled at the side of the road, many believed the catchbasins would be blocked.' 'In fact,our exper ience has proven otherwise" says Benoit Bergeron. "We have had a very difficult winter — many freeze thaws — and are very satisfied with how the system has performed." The tax payers reaction to the $1.4 Million retrofit project has been positive as well. The residents get an aesthetically pleasing front yard that requires less maintenance. Pro perty values are increased,drainage is improved, and the possibility of a child drowning in a water-filled ditch is eliminated. All this for less than the cost of a conventional storm system.

"We believe using ribbed PVC pipe and PVC catchbasins are a cost effective, quality alternative that will grow in popularity as municipal ities are forced to do more with less"

says M. Lamarre. "We are very, very satisfied with this solution to an old problem." For more information, Circie repiy card No. 247


and first four inches of sub-base.

Recycling pulverised asphalt mix for use as backfill on the 8,000 meter project, saved the municipality many thousands of dollars in truck ing and dumping fees alone. According to M. Lamarre, "Ribbed profile PVC pipe offers excellent hydraulics, so we were able to use lower grades,which also made sump connections easier. Instead of dig ging 7 to 8 feet deep as would be required with a conventional storm system, pipes in parallel roadside ditches would only have to be instal led 3 to 4 feet deep. Also, 220 PVC catchbasins were used, complete with ring adapters to accept 18 inch diameter grates." "The installed cost ofPVC catch basins was about 50% less than con

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd. is pleased to announce that Dr. Eric Veska has recent

ly been appointed as Manager of Environ mental Services.

Dr. Veska is a Chartered Chemist in the

Province of Ontario and has 15 years experience in consulting, research and government services on environmentallyrelated projects. For the past 5 years, he was the Head of the Site-Cleanup and Decommissioning Group at Monenco Consultants Ltd. Dr. Veska is an active member of the Board of Directors of the

Air and Waste Management Association (Ontario Section).



Drive four CPUs in one PC...

simultaneously SIMATIC S5-135U Siemens SIMATIC S5-135U

programmable controllers add a new dimension to computing speed.

Now, you can solve complex problems using up to 4 powerful CPUs In parallel processing -shorten Ing cycle times and structuring programs more clearly. But that's not all. SIMATIC

S5-135U programmable controllers also help you:

Tailor system configurations to specific control tasks through a range of Intelligent peripherals, and software routines.

Rapidly configure an Integrated RID control and alarm package through the new user-friendly SIMATIC PMC system. Save on expansion racks and Interfaces - you can Install up to 640 I/O connections on a single 19" rack. For more Information on our world-

proven range of SIMATIC PLCs, call us today.


Siemens Electric Limited

1180 Courtney Park Drive MIsslssauga, Ontario 15 T1 P2 Tel:(416)564-1995 Fax:(416)564-5855 Represented across Canada.


Compact, Multi-processing automation

from Siemens


'progress . in automation: Siemens


For more information, Circle reply card No. 132

Product Review Portable gas detector

Activated carbon for

soluble organics & VOCs Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. pro vides activated carbon products, sys tems and services, and airstripping equipment for the removal of soluble organic chemicals and volatile organic compounds from water and air.



Options include purchase or rental of equipment on a permanent or temporary basis. For more details, contact Calgon Carbon Canada, Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 152

New drill for core samples Breathing air monitor The ISA-34-RAL carbon monoxide

monitor automatically and continu ously monitors compressed air lines for carbon monoxide, and activates audio and visual alarms if the con centration of CO rises above the

preset limit. The sensor is enclosed in a special humidifier/regulator assembly that ensures the correct flowrate and

proper humidity. It is solid state and has a life of three to five years with a minimum of maintenance.

An audio alarm, visual alarm lights and indicating meter is stan

Enmet's CGS-90 multi-function por table gas detectors for confined space entry continuously and simul taneously monitor for toxics, com bustibles and oxygen deficiency/ abundance. The CGS-90 features automatic

purge, one switch operation and three discrete LCD displays with light sensor activated backlighting. The CGS-90 is fully rechargeable and intrinsically safe. Enmet Canada For more information. Circle reply card No. 154

Meta-Drill, a vibratory core sampler, retrieves continuous core samples of unconsolidated material, over burden or sediments, in an uncompacted format. Retrieved samples retain sample integrity and are packaged to meet the needs of the project manager. The Meta-Drill's vibratory head, for unconsolidated material and

rotary head, for more consolidated material, i.e. concrete floors, can be interchanged in minutes, maintain ingproduction rates and site comple tions. Meta-Probe, Inc. For more information. Circle reply card No. 153

dard. Enmet Canada For more information, Circle reply card No. 150


Measuring aquifer levels In-Situ Inc. claims it has improved the accuracy of its fully-submersible pressure transducers for monitoring water level changes in aquifer test ing applications. The pressure transducer Models PXD-260 and PTX-161D now offer a

0.05% full-scale accuracy at con stant temperatures. Both transdu cers are attached to vented cable to

compensate for fluctuations in baro metric pressure. The PXD-260 is made of 316 stain

less steel, and is factory-repairable. The PXD-260 can be configured with Teflon cable for use at sites where

the aquifer chemistry is unknown or potentially polluted. In-Situ also offers a cable splice that makes it easy to change from polyurethane to Teflon cable for the

designer and supplier of equipment for: • Vacuum grey water and toilet installations • Package sewage treatment (marine) • Stainless steel "quick-fit" piping • Oil/water separation for wastewater • Oil removal from recirculating solutions • Oll-ln-water monitoring • Ultraviolet sterilizers • Reverse Osmosis units

downhole section of the cable. This

eliminates the need for a drop pipe or other enclosure to protect the The PTX-161D is a Druck trans

ducer that is available on polyure thane cable only. in-Situ For more information, Circle reply card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

JETVAC INC. 1151 South Service Road W., Unit #4, Oakville, Ontario L6J 1J3 Tel: (416) 825-9540, Fax: (416) 825-9542 For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 142


The first Canadian made complete portable open channel flow monitoring system




• Flow, depth and true velocity measurement • Precipitation data input

• Computer software for data analysis and reporting

• Flow proportional sampler triggering output

• Automatic flow direction detection

• Telemetry link

* Automatic probe tilt angle compensation

FLO-LOG won the First Runner-Up Award for Best Canadian Product at the Canadian High Technology Show, May 1st, 1991.

• Sewer System evaluations • Monitoring of industrial discharges

Infiltration & Inflow studies Overflow studies

For more information on Flo-Log or on our Calypso PSB-90 Wastewater Sampler,or if you would like to receive our Environmental Instrumentation Catalog, please contact one of our offices:

GENEQ inc. 223 Signet Drive, Toronto, Ontario

7978 Jarry E., Montreal, Quebec

Canada M9L 1V1

Canada H1J1H5

Tel:(416) 747-9889, Fax:(416) 747-7570

Tel:(514) 354-2511, Fax: (514) 354-6948

For more information,


Circle reply card No. 141

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Product Review The rugged case with carrying handle is double skinned with an

insulated foam core, making it suit able for rough usage in extreme temperatures. The bottles are rea

dily accessible for ease of removal and replacement. Both composite and multi-bottle versions are avail

able, as well as a model to satisfy MISA requirements.

With the eight key control pad, the menu-driven software allows

any flow or time related program to be set. Lisle-Metrix Ltd. For more information,

more than 75 common water quality

Oil skimmer line Abanaki Corporation has developed

of each unit depends on the indivi dual requirements of the equipment being serviced. The system operates in fluctuating fluid levels and at varying tank depths. Water-free oil is collected in storage tanks or 55gallon drums. Oil-free coolant or

parameters. The DR/700 Colorimeter uses

a new line of oil skimmers designed for manufacturers of parts washers,

discharged into local collection sys

interchangeable filter/calihration

quench tanks, coolant circulation processes, tube press filters and other equipment where oily wastes

Circle reply card No. 156

Direct-reading colorimeter Hach's new colorimeter can measure

for tests measured between 420 and

810 nm. Analysts select the appro

priate module(s) needed to build a

must be removed from water or cool

customized economical analysis

ant before reuse. The systems can be furnished complete with skim ming unit, decanter, support struc

system. Each DR/700 module contains a

wavelength filter and factory-

programmed calibrations to provide direct readout in concentration

units, percent transmittance or absorbance for tests performed at the selected wavelength. One userentered program also can be stored

ture, electrical setup and bousing. Or they can be furnished for incor poration into the machinery itself. Abanaki Skimming Systems remove floating oil at a rate of up to 160 gallons of waste oil an hour.Size

water can then be recirculated or tems.

Designed for maiximum variabi lity for adaption to each manufactur er's unique purpose, the system is placed over an equipment access bole or on a wall ofa collecting tank. On installation,an oil collection con tainer such as a 55-gallon drum is placed alongside the system for easy discbarge and removal of waste oils. Abanaki

For more information. Circle repiy card No. 157

permanently on each filter module. Hach

For more information,

ES&E now printed on recycled paper

Circie repiy card No. 155

This issue of Environmentai Science & Engineering is printed on high-quality recycled paper.

Portable sampler Announcement

Brian Evans hasjoined R.V.Anderson Associates Limited as Manager of The Hobo is a new multi-purpose

Wastewater Processes. He will also

portable sampler announced by

coordinate MISA issues and process related problems such as plant and process optimization for Anderson Operations Inc. He has over 15 years of experience in wastewater treatment and environmental engi neering.

Lisle-Metrix Ltd. Capabilities range from applications in clean water

sampling to heavy industrial wastes and domestic sewage. With lift capa

bility of 7 metres through wide bore tubing, its power is equivalent to most fixed site samplers, yet it weighs less than 18 kg.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Alan R. Perks, P.Eng., has been appointed manager of the firm's Ottawa office. He was previously a Senior Manager with Environment Canada's Water Resources Branch, where be dealt with technical policy and communications issues across

Canada and internationally. Prior to this, be bad many years ofconsul ting experience for diverse public, private and international clients. 61






I -rW>



0CT./16T0 19, 1991

Leader of the Eastern Canada Environment Exhibition IN COLLABORATION WITH:










PHONE (514) 922-2545 FAX (5]4) 649-8719 ADDRESS: C.P. 328. STE-JULIE, QUEBEC. CANADA J3E 1X7



Centre Saint-Laurent



St. Lawrence Centre


Environ nemenl Canada Environment







For more information,


Circle reply card No. 143

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Product Review, focus on flow Laboratories

Bubbler Flow Meter

"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

BARRINGER LABORATORIES • environmental and discharge analyses

• Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • Phytotoxicology and Water Quality • fire assay and field sampling services Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

BA5 Labomtories UmitBd

ini ifiii li


Model8100 Bubbler Flow Meter from

Experience The Versatile Bentomat

level in the channel. The level and

Bentonite Geocomposite Liner

gal/L increments from 100 to 9900 gal/L. Other features include 31 day inkless trip chart recorder; contact clo sure output which allows the actua tion ofexternal equipmentin propor tion to flow; and automatic battery takeover with AC power failure.

Kirkland Lake, ON Montreal, PQ

Excellence in

Environmental Analysis

Phone(416)458-4505 16)4^7303 Brampton, Ontario Fax(416)

14 Abacus Road

Canada L6T 587

flow displaysindicate instantaneous liquid level and flow. The range is automatically expanded if flow or level exceeds the preset full scale setting. A six digit non-tamperable totalizer multiplier thumbwheel selects the accumulation rate in 100

Timmins, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON

for Over 25 Years

Envimnmental Chemists

American Sigma is field program mable for use with any weir, flume or circular pipe, making it ideal for temporary flow studies. Electronic calibration is quick by matching the panelLED to the actual

Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, CO

Easy to Install Budget Priced

LandfUls, Ponds, Lagoons Tank Farm Containment BEMALUX,INC.



also auppllers of quality filter sands and gravel

Tel: 800-361-1939


Fax:(514) 332-0132

^20Sharp Rd.,R.R.#6, Brantford, Ont. N3T 5H6 Tel:(519) 751-1080 Fax:(519) 751-0617

London, Toronto,

Sudbury, Montreal

Can-Am Instruments Ltd. For more information, Circie reply card No. 158




Versatile magnetic

Compiete Digester

flowmeter Magnetic flowmeter that handles flow measurement applicationsfrom hydrochloric acid to 3-A sanitary requirements. Flumag® electro magnetic flowmeter has solid plati num electrodes that are fused into

the ceramic liner to guarantee leak-

Land Application Systems



LAW mi


Program Development Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W., Jerseyvllle. Ontario LOR IRQ


sive fluids with a conductivity grea

the magnetic coils eliminates zero drift, enabling accurate measure ment of all fluids — even pulp stock up to 8% by weight!


free service. It is well suited for flow measurement of corrosive and abra ter than 5 microsiemens/cm. Patented dual DC modulation of



Lagoon Cleaning


PROVEN non-jamming, non-sparking design RUGGED steel, brass, PVC and neoprene construction REUSABLE - readily cleaned with pull-thru swabs

316 SS fitted samplers available at premium Also stock longer sampler for tankers, tanks, luggers & totes

For more information,

Circle reply card No. 159

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

DRUMSPLER 57 Kinburn Cr., London, Ontario N6EIJ3 (519) 681-3906 63

Flow IVIeasurement Positive displacement


meter features new bolted CanTest Ltd Professional


top cover

Analytical Services Suite 200

Environmental Analysis

1523 West 3rd Ave

Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J8

Occupational Health & Safety

Tel: 604 734 7276

Vancouver, B.C.

Fax: 604 731 2386


Comprehensive Environmental

Analyses 50 Bathurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario N2V 2C5 Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806


OIIILL©n Environmental Laboratories

chemical analysis treatability studies monitoring and assessment engineering/scientific support


FAX (416)568-1339

new bolted top cover, as standard equipment, replacing the previous threaded top plate design. The model C-700 IV2" meter,while retaining its measuring chamber and all working components which have been in service for years, has a modified body with bolted top cover for ease of maintenance. With this

feature,workers can easily maintain


and service the meter in-line, without


using special tools.Kent Meters, inc. For more Information,


MISISSAUGA (416) 56S-1414

Kent Meters, Inc. has modified its current V/2" C-700 meter to include a

Circle reply card No. 160


Detectronic Monitor 8

Settmg the standard for HONilW:



* quality * turnaround time

6850 Gorewny Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399



Complete analytical services conducted according to MOE,EPA, APHA, ASTM at competitive prices. ENVIRONMENTAL• ORGANIC• DRINKING WATER AGRICULTURAL• SOIL• INDUSTRIAL•INORGANIC

The Detectronic Monitor 8 Ultra


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,

prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416) 574-4977

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • VYater Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters

' Emission Testing

' Reg. 309 Compliance

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

' Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

' Odorous Compounds > Rush Analysis Available

• Ambient Air Monitoring

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370 64

sonic Flowmeters operate on the ultrasonic doppler effect, and can be used on pipe sizes from W through to at least,9 ft. diameter. Units are suitable for clear aera

ted liquids, relatively clean liquids with suspended solids, sludges and slurries.

Transducers are available for pipe that is clean internally, or for corro ded or lined pipe. Transducers are also available for high temperature operations. Intrusive or non-intru sive transducers are available.

Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Flow measurement Laboratories

Corrosion Resistant Flowmeter



Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2


TEL:(416) 847-0065

TEL:(519) 339-8787

FAX; (416) 847-3840



FAX:(519) 336-6965


Metals - Anions - Organics - PCBs - Volatiles Reg. 309 - MISA - Landfill Quality - Phytotox - Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-sile sampling available

A new all-metal, armoured variable area flowmeter has been introduced

by Fischer & Porter(Canada)Limi ted. Designated the Model 10A5400, the new meter is designed for use with almost any liqi;id or gas hut especially those that are dirty and corrosive where special handling is required.

For complete cataloque


with prices call Tel:(416)625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8368


uialher laboratories

The meter is available in 3 differ

ent laylengths and in numerous con figurations; indication only; with alarm(s) or integration; and with pneumatic or electronic flow signal



I Ground Water I Surface Water I Air Quality

•Soils & Sediments -Liquid Waste -MISA

• Reg. 309 • DecomissioningGuidelines • QA/QC

TELEPHONE OR FAX: Alan Parker Or Doug DeCoppel

transmission. Fischer & Porter For more information, Circle reply card No. 165


P.O. BOX too, THOROLD, ONT. L2V 3Y8 PHONE:(416) 227-1 158 FAX: 680-1916



MacVIro Consultants Inc.

Consulting engineers, planners and scientists specializing in the environment

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soli • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

MacViro is a dynamic, progressive, growing organization and requires exceptional intermediate

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152


-level hazardous waste and


environmental site

investigation I remediation specialists. MacViro offers challenging work, excellent work


Burlington, Ontario (416) 332-8788 Vancouver, B.C. (604) 444-4808 Montreal, Quebec (514) 493-4733

environment, enlightened management, employee bonus plan and shareholding opportunities. Apply to: MacViro Consultants Inc.

7270 Woodbine Avenue,.trd Floor Markham,Ontario UR 4B9

Acres [nternational Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment • Waste Management • Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits • Air Quality • Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management • Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue, Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2 • Tel. 415-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127

St. John's • Sydney • Flalifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Flow measurement Consultants

"MAGTAP"- one size fits all, Insertion magnetic

Ainley and




..II • HcllJ.s .

I' (JisiiOSrti •






280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Municipal Services Architecture

TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

WELLAND (416) 735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

Water Pollution Control

Water Supply


Probe Type Insertion Magnetic Flowmeter is designed for permanent installation in pressure pipe appli cations with conductive flow. When

used with the 'Universal Mount', it can be removed from pipe without shutting off flow. System Control Unit in Nema 4 Housing offers 4-20 mA output and SVt Digit Flow Rate Indicator in units of choice. Accu

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spil l site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6





racy ±1% of velocity range. Other Models available. Cancoppas For more information, Circle reply card No. 166

Volumeter for continuous, accurate flow measurement Volumeter Sewage Pumping Station Flowmeter offers a revolutionary new way to measure flow through sewage pumping stations. Installa tion requires a simple wiring hookup to existing control panels. No other sensors are required. Volumeter then automates the draw down test giving accurate inflow, outflow and total flow for every pump cycle. The standard model has a serial



output, 4-20 mA analog outputs for inflow and outflow and a pulse out put for an external totalizer. Through the serial output, infor mation can also be sent to the flow-

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers

meter's Card Logger for data storage and retrieval, either manually or through modem capabilities. The Card Logger utilizes a credit card

SpeciaDsts in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering

size memory module which can be

115 Hurontario Street. Suite 201,

retrieved from the field and down

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

loaded in the comfort of your office.

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fax(705)444-2327

Aer-0-Flo For more information,

Circle reply card No. 167 66

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666

Environmental iruitiimcnls

Instrument Rentals Select from over 40 different


environmental instruments for


daily, weekly or monthly ren tal. Dust, Mist, Fibre Monitors . FIDs • GCs • PIDs .LEL,

Odor Control

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX-12)is detailed in technical bulletin.

Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics include: storage and air

Toxic & Oxygen Mon itors Radia tion Meters Water Quality Meters Decon Trailers. NOW AVAILABLE

collection needs.

Insobutylene and other cal gas & support accessories. HAZCO Canada, Inc.

Circle reply card No. 201

Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 200

TOG Analyzer For RosemounS Analytical Inc. Dohrmann Division


DC-190 High Temperalm

The Dohrmann DC-190 is

Total Orgm Cvbon Analyj

Cyanide Removal CYANIDE


designed specifically for TOO analysis of dirty, salty or particulate laden water. Utilizing the unique autosampler, the DC-190 provides high throughtput for the worst real world samples. The auto sampler can handle particulates up to 0.5 mm providing

Using Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews

dosages, equipment, as well as storage,safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmollve Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

true TOO data. TheDO-190is

already proven to meet al l EPA and MISA requirements for TOO and DOC. Folio Instruments Inc.

Circle reply card No. 202

Teflon Hose Assemblies

Kent's New industrial

Sanitary hose assemblies with

Product Catalog Kent...

Teflon innercores with choice

Metering Industry's

of EPDM covering orstainless steel braiding with widevariety of industrial and sanitary stain less steel fittings crimped onto

Customers wi ll find within

hoses in a much cleaner and

these pages,Cold Water Meters

safer assembly. Also available are Teflon Sight Glasses and Teflon Dip Tubes as integral part of hose assemblies.

in sizes 5/8" thru 12", Hot


Circle reply card No. 204 msj


Kent Meters, Inc. has announ

ced the availability of its new industrial catalog "Kent... Metering Industry's Needs".

f Trt-Canada I

Water Meters in sizes 3/4" thru 4" and Oil Meters in sizes 1/4"


thru 1", with totalization and pulse output capabilities to interface with Rate of Flow and Batch Control Electronics. Kent Meters inc.

Circle reply card No. 205



unites the expertise of Degre mont in ozone generation, pot able water treatment, wastewater treatment and environ

mental engineering with the high technology expertise of L'Air Liquide in industrial gas production and supply. OZONIA INTERNATIONAL, based on its medium frequency technology,designs and man ufactures the most efficient

and reliable ozone generators available.

Groundwater Monitoring Instrumentation

Brochure describes high qua lity hydrogeologicai instru mentation, including practical items such as water level indi

cators, oil/water interface

probes,groundwater samplers, and the Innovative Waterloo

System for groundwater monitoring from multiple dis cretely insolated zones in a single well. Solinst Canada Ltd. Circle reply card No. 207

Degremont Inflico Circle reply card No. 206


New technologies IGL puts Hobas in pipeline portfolio

Investigating water treatment by advanced oxidation

Following the signing of an exclu sive licensee agreement,IGL Canada Limited (51% owned by Insituform Group Limited)is now able to offer Hobas Pipe throughout Canada. A new company,Hobas Canada Limi ted, has been formed — 80% owned by IGL Canada Ltd. and the remain der by an Eastern Canadian com pany — to manufacture and distri bute the pipe. Hobas Canada Limited has offices at Edmonton, Alberta, and Whitby, Ontario. The centrifugally-cast Hobas pipe is made from a combination of poly ester and vinyl ester resin, fortified with sand and reinforced with glass fibre. Hobas Canada Limited bring, for the first time to the Canadian

market, an economical, largediameter, high stiffness pipe with superior inherent corrosion resis tance.

Three pilot-plant scale Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOFs) have been developed by a research team at the University ofBath,south-west England,for the treatment of hazardous micropollutants in water. The team is lead by Dr. P.L. Yue (seen here spargeing ozone gas into a novel photo-reactor). The pro cesses are capable of transforming toxic substances such as halogenated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and

tion ofphotons possessing band-gap



The aim of the research is to

exploit the novel chemistry of the reactions by innovative engineering design. The pilot-plants and the mathematical models developed for the photo-reactors, will give essen tial information for the design and optimization of water treatment plants based on these advanced oxi dation reactions.

The processes will make a signi

herbicides into harmless materials.

ficant contribution to water treat

In many instances,total mineral ization of trace quantities of pollu

ment technology, especially for the conversion of environmentally unacceptable pollutants such as pesticides and herbicides. By vary ing the design of the processes, it is possible to treat drinking water, contaminated groundwater and

tants has been obtained. The effectiveness ofthe three oxi

dation processes is due to the genera tion ofhighly reactive hydroxyl radi cals by photons, particularly pho tons in the ultraviolet spectrum. In the first process, hydroxyl radicals are produced from ozone when irra diated with ultraviolet light in a reaction vessel where the degrada


The processes are also ideally suited for the production of ultrapure water for the microelectronics, pharmaceutical and power genera

tion of toxic substances is effected.

tion industries.

The second process uses hydro gen peroxide instead of ozone. In the third process a photo-reactive semiconductor material,such as tita nium dioxide, is used as a catalyst for promoting the oxidation reac tions. Hydroxyl radicals are formed at the catalyst surface by the irradia

The research is funded by Britain's Science and Engineering Research Council. Details; Dr.P.L.Yue,School of Chemical Engineering, Univer sity of Bath, Claverton Down,Bath BA27AY England,Tel:0225826555, Telex: 449097 UOBATH, Fax: 0225 462508.

Through the sophisticated Hobas manufacturing process and unique product design, competitive pipes are produced for both pressure and non-pressure service. The versatile pipe is suited to a wide range of municipal, agricultu ral and industrial applications for water, drainage and process piping, with specialized uses in corrosive Installation can he by conven tional excavation and bury methods, or above ground. It is equally suit ablefor trenchless technology instal lation such as pipe-jacking, microtunnelling and sliplining. Hobas pipes are lightweight and easy to handle. Rubber ring-sealed, bell and spigot coupling joints pro vide fast and foolproof assembly and long-term leak-free service. The glass-smooth interior surface of the pipe results in excellentflow charac teristics.

Otto Babichuk, Chief Executive Officer of IGL Canada Limited, states: "Hobas is a complementary system to our existing Insituform operations and we anticipate signi ficant additional revenuesfrom this product over the next three years. At present we are supplying the Cana dian market from the two plants in the United States, but within the next 36 months, a decision on the location ofa Canadian plant will be made."

Hobas pipe is available in sizes up to 2.4 metres diameter. It is com petitive against most other products and all areas where infiltration of

exfiltration are concerns,and above ground piping where painting and maintenance become a factor.


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Flow measurement New ultrasonic flowmeter

by a three digit code number, which has to be entered before any changes can be made. Summa Engineering

Pad and the portable hand-held inter rogator unit equipped with scanning equipment. The meter reader simply places the end of the ScanGun in close proximity to the pad. Power from the hand-held is transmitted through a twin inductive coupling to the microprocessor in the register. The position of the full six figure odometer assembly is disclosed to give actual usage information. This

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 170

Electronic Meter Read

System SCANCODER® Electronic Meter

Read System is comprised of four components: the water meter, the electronic encoder register,the Scan-

Continued overleaf


EIT Model 960 Ultrasonic Open Channel Flowmeter is supplied com plete with a printer. It is a compact, hand held device which operates from a rechargeable battery and produces a 2-inch wide printout in tabular and graphic form. On com mand from the 960,it can produce a variety of hard copy records. These


Consulting Engineers


CKMHIlli ENGINEERING Waterloo • Toronto • Calgary • Edmonton • Vancouver • Lethbridge

• Wastewater Collection & Treatment

• Hazardous & Solid Waste Management • Water Resources & Environmental Planning

• Water Supply Strategies • Analytical Testing •■Field Sampling S Flow Measurement



CRA Consulting Engineers

include all of the flow information

options described above, plus a fur ther totalizer which can give interval totals programmable for 1 to 12 hour intervals over the last eight days. Once installed, the user sets up the system by entering the operating parameters into the unit's memory. This is done using four front panel keys, prompted by plain English displays, not code. As all of the sys tem's memory is non-volatile and is not lost during a power failure, pro gramming should only ever have to be done once. To ensure security, all customer programming is protected


■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

■ Environmental Audits

■ Environmental Assessment 1Water Supply ■ Landfill Gas Control & Utilization

■ Municipal Engineering


■ Wastewater Treatment

■ Construction Management

WaterlooT|^ |19;884;05,0

Tel. 416-629.05,0 BSJGrdEERS AACHTECTS






The Regional Municipal ity of Haldimand-Norfolk is pleased to announce that Alan C. Armstrong has recently joined the Environ mental Services Department as Manager-Capital Projects. Mr. Armstrong has 25 years of experience in all phases of water and wastewater treatment and will

be responsible for the Contract Administration and Project Manage





Management assistance to other internal and external Departments and Organizations.



environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design





TORONTO (416) 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-6094 • HALIFAX (902) 453-1115


ment of all water and wastewater

Capital Projects in the Region, In addition, Mr. Armstrong will pro




-Environmental Audits

-Plant Facility Compliance -Site Characterization -Soil And Groundwater Assessment


-Risk Assessment -Waste Containment Facilities

-Occupational Health & Safety -Waste Stream Assessment

Head Office: Suite 120.100 York Blvd., Richmond Hill, L4B IJS, Tel: (416) 886-7965. Fax: (416) 886-7967 705 West Fifteenth Street, North Vancouver, B.C.,V7M 1T2, Tel; (604) 980-5878, Fax; (604) 980-9621

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Flow measurement Consultants




Services in






Gartner Lee

(716) 285-5449



255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa • Niagara• Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga • Kingston

Socio-Economic Impact




Public Consultation

Land-Use Planning

Hearings Support and Project Management


data,as well asthe encoder's identity number,is then transmitted back in an ASCII protocol and stored in the hand-held. Expensive call-backs and misreads are totally eliminated. All SCANCODER® registers are fully compatible with several hand held computer manufacturers as well as upgradeable to AMR(Automatic Meter Reading). Kent Meters Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 168

Flowmeter with

micro-processor converter

3016A Danforth Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4C 1M7 Telephone:(416)693-6115, Fax:(416)693-6117










(416) 635-5882



Consultants for water and pollution control projects

all-metal model 10A5400 series flow-

Knox Martin

K retch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects Fax: (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton.Ontario. L6T 445(416)459-4780


Windsor, Ontario



(519) 966-2250


FAX:(519) 966-5523

Fischer & Porter has developed a new generation micro-processor based signal converter for the F&P


(519) 539-2015

meter. The measurement signal is acquired digitally as absolute value and processed in the micro based secondary. With process wetted parts of stainless steel or PTFE coa ted, these flowmeters are adaptable to a wide range of applications at operating pressures up to 64 bars and temperatures -40°C to +350°C. Other features include: easy opera tion and integration into distributed control systems;dot matrix flow dis play indicates instantaneous flow with engineering units or displays total flow; process data is program med and called via keypad or via serial interface. Fischer & Porter For more information,

Circle reply card No. 169

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991

Flow Measurement Consultants Portable flow monitor

MacVlro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Morkham. Ontario, L3R 4B9 • Telephone;(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment


• Hydrogeology • Waste management • Engineering geology • Environmental audits

• Site decommissioning & rehabilitation


MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Q Smart portable flow monitor pro vides accurate, reliable open chan nel flow data. The stand-alone, bat tery-powered microcomputer mea sures and stores depth and velocity readings, with flow data extracted using an IBM-PC compatible laptop computer and Q Scan software. Applications include flow quantifi cation, I/I analysis and reduction programs,sewer sizing, and billing. Q Monitoring For more information, Circle reply card No. 162

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East

TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416)882-1100 Fax:(416)882-0055

Comprehensive Environmental

OR TECH Services I





2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel. 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446

Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media. Air, water and waste.


electromagnetic velocity sensor New FLO-MATE Model 2000 incor

porates a proven electromagnetic velocity sensor (with no moving parts) and is ideal for accurate and dependable spot check measure ments and velocity flow profiles of



F>A Ft A.Gl<3ISI










Kitchener, Bracebridge, Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET NORTH

rivers, streams, sewers and other

open channels. Submersible, light weight instrument constructed of






Tell C519) 579-4410

Fax» (519) 741-3603

high impact molded materials, con

Proctor & Redfern Limited

toured for ease of handling during field use. Data storage/recall capa bility and adjustable filter modes; fixed period averaging or time con stant mode are just a few of the design features of FLO-MATE. It is battery powered with rechargeable or disposable batteries and includes system self-check and battery saver

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Brampton HamlHon Kenora Kingston Kitchener London North Bay Ottawa St. Catharines St. John's. Nfld. Sault Sie. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay Whiib>

mode. Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc. For more information,

45 Green Bell Drive. Don Mills. Ontario M3C 3K3

(416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276

Circle reply card No. 163

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Product Review Aco PT 220QD features


quick drainage & discharge


Consulting Engineers & Arctiitects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION




345 Kingston Rood, Pickering. Ontario L1V lAl

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fox: (416) 286-1361




Cambridge Regina Saskatoon

Calgary Edmonton Vancouver


Engineers, Scientists, Project Managers


Water, Air, Soils

(519) 622-3060

New from Aco-Assmann of Canada

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Tel:(416) 875-2144 Fax:(416) 875-2145

351 Main Street East

Milton, Ontario

T.F: 1-800-263-4178


fllg Trow,Dames & Moore Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology

Limited is the PT 220QD,a 1000 litre (220 Imp. gallon)Pallet tank for sto rage and shipment of liquids. Its sloped bottom ensures complete guide drainage and total discharge and comes complete with a heavyduty stackable steel frame,a 14" lid and a 3" butterfly valve. Easily cleaned, it is ideal for use particularly when heavy liquids are involved — such as molasses, corn syrup, lecithin and concentrates of all kinds. It is compact being only 40" long, 48" wide and 62" in depth so is suitable for use in a wide variety of industries such as food, dairy, baking, chemical, petroleum, muni cipal, government and industrial. Aco-Assmann of Canada Limited

7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario L4T 2H5 Telephone:(416)671-9921, Fax:(416)672-7784

LIMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007

For more information,

Circie repiy card No. 164


Aqua 92

BCA Industrial








49 8 53 54 34 73

Griffin Groundwater Groundwater Tech.



Bloram Blake Cassels

Bristol Myers Calgon Carbon Can Am Ins.

Cancoppas Canron

XCG Consultants Ltd.

Suite 904

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush fvlASc, PEng Principal

Stephen G. Nutt



9 16 11 26 31 8 62

Deep Shaft


Cantest CanvIro CH2M Hill

Corundol CPRT Labs

MEng. PEng

Dense Dlllen


Ego Equipment



Env. Prot. Labs Envirex


FMC Gartner Lee


10 21 36 13

Barrlnger Labs.


AD INDEX Flygt 55 Geneq


Int. Prov. Corr. Jetvac

37 29 60


20 32 7


LCI Env.


Mann Testing Labs.

74 25

MDC Consultants Metcon Monenco

MSU Mississauga PCB Consultants

Ramsay Lake Ind. SEW Eurodrlve Siemans Smart Turner


Terminal City

33 42

Thomas Env. Westech




36 27 14 17 41

58 51

23 49 19 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option With


Collecting flow proportional samples has never been easier. SIGMA's new Streamline™ subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units — a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new subcompact sampler: an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple


bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart. The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports. Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and guaranteeing repeatabOity independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma,PO Box 820, Medina, NY 14103-0820. In Ontario

CAN-AM Instmments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

In Quebec and New Brunswick CHEMACTION,INC. 5960, Jean-Talon Est. Bureau 216, St-I-eonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1991


Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the full range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

ITT Barton Instmments

In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba MACKENZIE & FEIMANN, Ltd.

3840 - llA Street, N.E.

970 Malkin Avenue

Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6

Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2K8 Tel (604) 253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

In Alberta

Tel (403) 29M814 FAX (403) 291-5678

For more information, Circle repiy card No. 137


[ia^ctinc sublracteil - I riHA^

-i' £■

i ' f/T v*f «

It'll cost you $1.5 million to get rid of this peak. So you'd better be sure it's real. All labs are not created equal. Environmental decisions you make

like a track record. In business

For you, it's a matter of confi dence. Confidence that the facts

tory results could cost you

since 1972, we number among our clients the government agencies that set the guidelines you have to

millions of dollars.

meet—and the consultants who


based on less than reliable labora

helped them set the guidelines. Mann's Quality Assurance and Quality Control program covers all aspects of sample processing. Sample integrity is rigorously recorded and controlled. Sample processing is continually recorded and monitored by our LIMS 3000 system. Sample test results are me ticulously validated via fortification studies, extraction blanks, analysis of replicates and much more. Assign your most important and The difference between accu challenging environmental testing rate and Mann-accurate is a matter work to Mann. We are one of the of experience, a matter of obses


you asked for are the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the

To find out how Mann Testing Laboratories can be of service to

you, call us at (4l6) 890-2555- Or fax your request to (4l6) 890-0370. Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z IPl.

few Canadian laboratories work

sive attention to detail, a matter of


ing in this field that has anything

pride in doing things right.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 145

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