Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) April-May 1991

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

April/May 1991

Complying with MiSA flow measurement requirements Deveioping water suppiies in Southwestern Ontario

Designing water and wastewater pumping systems Sarnia ieachate treatment plant — an Ontario first The iatest stack gas sampiing technoiogies Water and wastewater disinfection options Mobile PCB incineration gains acceptance



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* Mechanical dewatering device

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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991



Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(416) 727-4666

i(sn<sm(S(B &

Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Production Manager SAM ISGRD B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639

Technical Advisory Board

April/May 1991, Vol. 4 No. 2


Issued May, 1991

Will tlie real environmentalists please stand up? Comment by Tom Davey Wliat MISA has achieved — what lies ahead for municipalities

Article by Jim Bishop

George V. Crawford. P.Eng.


Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

How can we avert global warming?

Proctor & Redfern Ltd.


Article by P.H. Jones

Peter Laugiiton. M.Eng.. P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

J.V. Morris. M.Sc.. P.Eng.

The environment — a multl-bllllon dollar Industry

Senes Consultants Ltd.

— and growing fast Article by James Higgins


Understanding stack gas sampling technologies Article by Robert Wang


Mike Provart. M.Sc.. P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson. P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept.

Mobile PCB Incineration gains acceptance

R. Bruce Smith. LL.B.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon. P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication

published by Davcom Communica tions Inc. An all Canadian publication. ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

Article by Douglas White and W.D. Goodings


Hydraulic modelling for MISA flow measurements Article by Jiri Marselek


Water supplies In Southwestern Ontario need provincial leadership Article by B.L. Wheeler


Overcoming problems In the design of water and wastewater pumping stations Article by Aivars Bergs


ES&E's readers include consulting

engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental



Sampling stations play vital role In ambitious Lake Okeechobee cleanup


Sarnia leachate treatment plant — a first of Its kind In Ontario Article by Andrew Lugowski and Robert Poisson


Reviewing the disinfection options


Metro Toronto CAPS clean air program



wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

ES&E welcomes editorial contribu tions but does not accept any respon

sibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material.

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environmental Science & Engineer

ing, c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1. Head Office - 10 Fetch Cr.. Aurora.

Ontario. Canada. L4G 5N7. Tel: (416) 727-4866; Fax: (416) 841-7271.

Departments Industry Update


Literature Reviews...67,68 Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.

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R&D News


Product Reviews 55 Advertisers Index 70 Reader Service Card .. 49a

COVER PHOTO: Increasingly VOCs are being cited In air pollution articles. Our cover photo shows a catalytic converter used in the UK which destroys voiatile organic compounds at lower temperatures than conventional direct incineration methods. A more detailed photo with an article can be found on page 53.


(G.S.T. extra)

CHECK THE LABEL If the date on the address label on the front cover

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

h Prru

Editorial Comment

By Tom Dauey

Will the real environmentalists stand up? ES&E Editor Tom Davey, was lunch

in contempt. But these were experts

time speaker at a MISA Seminar Jointly sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Consulting Engineers of Ontario,

you see, familiar with the immuta

media as a synonym for expert; all to often it is a pseudonym for exper

ble laws of physics as well as the

tise, not a synonym.


March 15.

Environment Minister

Ruth Grier has not accept ed invitations to speak at professional environmental associa tions such as Consulting Engineers of Ontario, or the Pollution Control Association of Ontario; yet such bodies comprise the only professio nals who can transmute political policies into the realities of pollution abatement projects. Moreover, in Ms. Grier's Advi sory Committee for the proposed Environmental Bill of Rights, four legal groups are included while again, the traditional professional associations are excluded.

I urge the minister to liaise with these expert bodies who combine more than two centuries of accumu

lated environmental experience.She will not only find environmental professionals in their ranks who can solve her mounting problems — she will also encounter considerable

good will and assistance without regard to political partisanship. There are other benefits. Envi

ronmental scientists and engineers will not attempt to use headline grabbing tactics to unjustly blame

Ms. Grier for any accumulated sins of her predecessors. Nor will these environmental professionals turn on her because ofsome monumental

pollution problem, arising from decades of neglect — or misplaced political priorities — which cannot be solved overnight. Long before the present protest movement began, the Ontario Government began a surge of water and wastewater treatment construc

tion projects which was unparalleled anywhere in the world. Some nine years ago, I presented data at an WHO conference on Toxic Spills in Rome, Italy. I found that experts from Britain,Europe,Australia and Asia were vastly impressed at Onta rio's record ofbuilding potable water and wastewater treatment plants. They were surprised to learn thatfor

facts of life.

The word 'environmentalist'

The Ontario Water Resources

Commission, for example, commis sioned massive water and waste-

water programs as soon as it was

created in 1954. Most of these pro jects were designed by consulting engineers from the private sector. Ainley, Anderson, Dillon, Gore & Storrie, Knox Martin Kretch, MacLaren, Marshall Macklin Monaghan,Proctor & Redfern;these are only a few of the consulting firms which designed these water and wastewater projects. This was a remarkable symbiosis of a public regulatory body working with the private sector. It is important to realize that most of these projects were planned long before the birth of the modern protest movement. The significance of this achievement is not apparent to many activists who focus only on the emerging problems which indeed are considerable,often being reveal ed by the skills of our analytical chemists.

All too frequently, their dire warnings are combined with an air of moral superiority which would nauseate a pathologist at a leper colony. Some protesters remind me of certain television evangelists. Both species warn of impending catas trophes — then solicit donations to continue the good work. Some so called environmentalists are really closet Luddites with a deep seated distrust of all technology. Many, however, have developed impres sive expertise which could be valu

able when projects are being devel oped. But all too frequently, their dire warnings are combined with an air of moral superiority which would nauseate a pathologist at a leper colony. But if the groups did not exist, it would be necessary to invent them. We need checks and balances in our

democratic systems. Peristroika has only recently revealed the hideous ecological horrors emerging in East Germany and other Warsaw Pact

many years, 95 percent of urban


Ontarians were served by modern wastewater facilities put in place years ago. They were also astoun

can,and should be,vital in a modern democratic society — but not as a substitute for environmental engi neering. But now, the word envi ronmentalist is used by the news

ded to learn that Ontario environ

mental professionals were often held

Environmental activism

crept into the media lexicon barely two decades ago and now reporters eagerly seek out the self designated 'authoritative'sources,regardless of competance or relevance. Itis a per fect match; a press with insatiable appetite for sensationalism —

mating with an eloquent protest movement brimming with moral indignation. Many warnings are justifiable and engineering profes sionals around the world know we

are facing enormously complex prob lems. What seldom filters through to the public is the fact that tangible progress is being made. Many of the apocalyptic warn ings on drinking water are based on anecdotal evidence rather than the

scientific methodology accepted throughout the world. Professional advice — based on long training, education and experience in engi neering and science — was and is being largely ignored in favour of

those groups who orchestrate politi cians and the media with great dex terity. Some politicians compound the problem. Too often they respond to complex environmental situations with simplistic responses. Their statements owe more to electoral

opportunism than to honest attempts to solve problems. Inva riably,they find willing allies in the news media to promulgate their views, regardless of scientific rele vance.

Ms.Grier would do well to use the

considerable expertise available in her ministry and among the consult ing fraternity. The combination has a proven track record. I strongly urge environmental professionals — the real environmentalists — to

stand up and speak up. Indeed, per haps it is your fault that she does not know of your achievements and his tory.

In this you might take a leaffrom AQTE*,whose members enjoy a high profile among the public, the press and the politicians. When AQTE has its annual conference,the Envi ronment Minister always shows up. The title of this paper is; "Will the real environmentalists stand up?" My question now is, will they?

^Association quebecoise des techni ques de I'eau.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

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Industry Update B.C. Award for

Pulp Mill Upgrade The Association of Professional

Engineers and Geoscientists of Bri tish Columbia has announced that

Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd. and H.A. Simons Ltd. will receive its 1991

Environmental Engineering Design Award. The two companies desi gned and implemented a major envi ronmental upgrade of the Macken zie pulp mill to reduce the mill's impact on the environment and

make Mackenzie's effluent among the cleanest in B.C.

Mackenzie Pulp, a division of Fletcher Challenge Canada,is locat ed in the community of Mackenzie, 200 km north of Prince George. In 1988, the company was among the first in the industry to announce that positive steps would be taken to comply with new Government regu lations concerning effluent treat ment and the quality of discharge. Mackenzie is the first BC mill

since 1988 to complete a major envi-

ronmental program, conduct re search on the performance of the upgrade and disseminate that infor mation to the rest of the industry. The project was a success for H.A. Simons consulting engineers who implemented the project on time and under budget. The $45 million environmental

program included building an addi tional effluent treatment basin to

reduce toxicity and decrease the amount of suspended solids being discharged into nearby Williston Lake.

The installation of a patented chlorine dioxide generation process also resulted in a marked reduction in dioxin. A multi-stage pressurized screen system was also introduced to reduce the amount of waste fibre, improving the quality of both the pulp and the effluent.

Water monitoring best way to avoid tainted seafood Water pollution monitoring protects human health better than traditio

nal seafood inspection methods, a US National Academy of Sciences

panel says. "Illnesses caused by contaminated seafood could be re

duced if the government did a better job of monitoring pollution in oceans, lakes and streams." The panel recommended tighter regulation of fishing vessels and

seafood processing plants, but con cluded "the first level of concern is

before harvest, making sure the liv ing animals are safe to eat by control ling water quality and testing for toxins."

"Various types of inspections are conducted by federal,state and local agencies, as well as by some fishery industries, but these are focused too much on the market product and not enough on the detection of contami

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nants in live seafood and growing waters," said the panel, headed by John Liston, Professor Emeritus at the Institute for Food Science and

Technology at the University of Washington. Traditional animal inspection methods, which depend on butche red carcasses' sight, smell and touch,"are essentially worthless for detecting and controlling health risks" in seafood, the panel said. Rather, it said, commercial and sportfishing should be allowed only in waters deemed by state inspec tors applying national standards to be free of contaminants.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

State-Of-The-Art Wastewater

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liquids separation technology. Our Hydro-Float system is easy to operate and maintain while cutting waste treatment costs. Savings can range from 40 to as much as 90 percent — yet HydroFloat's removal efficiency can top 95 percent. Finally, our system is priced much lower than equipment with far fewer capabilities.

Applications Our speciality is the design and fabrication of clarification packages for indus trial and municipal applications. Hydro-Float removes and separates automa

tically, the fats, oils, greases, suspended solids and BOD/COD from liquid wastes. It comes in a self-contained, rectangular unit, designed to save space, installation costs and start-up time. This economical use of shop space is an additional bonus in keeping overhead costs in check.

Cavitation Aeration Combining simplicity, reliability and cost-savings with the efficiency of airflotation separation, the innovative Hydro-Float system eliminates air com pressors, pressure vessels, pumps and 'easy-to-plug' injection nozzles. Micro-bubbles of ambient air are formed by natural vacuum, produced behind

the air discharge blades of a cavitation aerator rotating at a controlled speed. The bubbles attach themselves to the waste particles, lifting them to the surface where they are skimmed to the outlet on an automatic, continuous basis by chain-driven scraper blades.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

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Industry Update MOE releases DWSP water sample results Drinking water was generally good from central Ontario water supply systems monitored in 1989 by the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment. Reports for the Central Region indicate only one of the 11 systems monitored under the minis try's Drinking Water Surveillance Program(DWSP)had a water sam ple taken that exceeded Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (ODWOs). Last November,a sample oftreat ed water from the Lindsay Water Treatment Plant contained turbid

ity at 1.28 Formazin turbidity unit (FTU). The ODWO for turbidity is 1 FTU. Ongoing monitoring in 1989 at this plant indicated intermittent turbidity problems. At all other water treatment plants in the Cen tral Region, organic, inorganic and physical parameters did not exceed health-related ODWOs.

In the case of the Lindsay Water Treatment Plant, a pilot program initiated in 1989 identified a new

coagulant to be used for water treat ment. With the installation of the

new polymer feed system,the turbi dity levels were found to meet the ODWO during 1990.

tions and worldwide electronics use". Du Pont will have invested more

than $240 million through 1990 in alternatives research and develop ment and capital. The company could spend more than $1 billion over the next 10 years to commercia lize its line of CFC alternatives.

Region involved the monthly sam pling of raw and treated water from the plant, and from at least one site in the distribution system, for the presence ofapproximately 180 para

Last year, Du Pont announced authorization of funds to design four non-ozone-depleting facilities for alternatives, including a world scale plant at Corpus Christi,Texas. The plants could satisfy most world needs for hydrofluorocarbon(HFC) refrigeration applications through


the end of the decade.

The 1989 DWSP for the Central

DWSP was initiated in 1986 to

provide information on the quality of drinking water in Ontario. The program has expanded from 50 loca tions in 1988 to 65 in 1989 and ulti

mately will include all municipal drinking water supplies in the pro vince. Details Hugh Graham,(416)

Du Pont

planned commercial production of HFC-134a for refrigeration uses such as automobile air conditioning and home refrigerators. The com pany has pledged to phase out pro duction of CFCs as soon as possible, but no later than the turn ofthe cen tury.


CFC recycling program EPA honours Du Pont Du Pont received a 1990 Stratosphe ric Ozone Protection corporate award from the U.S.Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) "for in

dustry leadership in CFC and Halon phaseout". An individual award was presented to William G. Kenyon, Du Pont senior scientist, "for scien tific excellence in qualifying CFC alternatives for military specifica

launched ICI Canada and REFAC, a Mon trealrefiigeration and air conditioning wholesaler, are co-operating on Continued overleaf



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Wild things — even small boys — deserve our protection. Today, we are beginning to understand what has to be done to preserve our natural heritage for future generations. High performance water, storm and sewer pipe from Canron is part of the answer. It's made from non-corrosive PVC to last longer; and because it can be installed with fewer joints, leakage is minimized to do a better job of protecting our water resources.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Industry Update a new program to recover and re claim chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used for these purposes in the province. The program will consist of four steps, starting with the removal by contractors of used CFCs from re

frigeration and air conditioning sys tems throughout Quebec. These will be sent to REFAC facilities located

CWWA adopts AWWA position on home water treatment devices The Canadian Water and Waste-

water Association (CWWA) has adopted the position statement put forward by the American Water Works Association on Home Water Treatment Devices.

sumers. There should be comparable quality-control regulations for test ing home water treatment devices before they are placed on the market. Members of the home water treat

around the province, and REFAC will then ship the CFCs to ICFs reclamation plant in England. There, the CFCs will be cleansed of impurities and restored to specifica

Public water supply authorities across Canada have expressed gro wing concern with some of the mar keting techniques used by some

ment device industry have the res ponsibility to use accurate, responsi ble marketing techniques. Sales infor mation should clearly describe the devices' capabilities and their signifi

home water treatment device sales


tions for eventual re-use.

agencies, particularly those which imply that local tap water supplies are unsuitable or unsafe. The posi

require regular maintenance to func tion properly. Home water treatment

As another effort in support of the Montreal Protocol, ICI recently opened a plant in England to pro duce a CFC-12 replacement refrige rant called Klea 134a. It is reported to be the world's first commercial

facility for production of this com pound.

tion statement reads: Home water

devices that are not maintained and

treatment devices are not required to protect public health when con sumers are receiving water from a public water supply system that meets state, provincial, and federal health standards or regulations.

operated properly may degrade water quality. When consumers ins

A CWWA statement notes that: Water utilities have a clear and conti

B.C. and Alberta to take

care of 'orphan' sites British Columbia and the federal

government have agreed to fund the

clean-up of a number of "orphan" waste disposal sites located in B.C. The deal was concluded as part of the National Contaminated Sites

All home water treatment devices

nuing responsibility to inform con sumers of the quality of drinking water being delivered and how the quality compares to the applicable state, provincial, and federal quality standards and regulations. Water supply sources have strin gent test requirements before a new source of supply is provided to con

tall a home water treatment device,

they assume responsibility for proper use of the unit. The water utility can not be held responsible for any degra dation in water quality caused by a home treatment device.

Background: Environmental or public health regulatory agencies have not determined that home

water treatment devices provide a demonstrated health benefitfor con

sumers' drinking water that meets state, provincial, and federal stan dards and regulations.

Remediation Program, which com mits some $250 million toward the

cost of cleaning-up sites whose owners are no longer known or who cannot afford to pay the full costs of clean-up.

Meanwhile,in an attempt to pre vent the problem of future "orpha ned" sites. Alberta's government has recently introduced a proposal to extend the clean-up liability of

EPL analysed feedstock, residues and emissions

previous owners of abandoned sites to 25 years.

Industry representatives have baulked at the proposal, favouring instead, thorough and early decom missioning requirements that re claim sites and end the possibility of future liability.

for PCS incineration When Ontario's first commercial

Rock, Arkansas in the U.S., and

application of incineration techno logy took place at Smithville, early

ENSCO will become the first com

1991, Environment Protection Labo

in Ontario.

ratories Inc. (EPL) analyzed feed stock,residues and emissionsfor the whole range of burn by-products and organic compounds, including dioxins, FOB, and PAH as part of the validation process during the test burn phase. The Smithville site is home to a large collection ofPCB contaminated soil, contaminated organic liquids, and miscellaneous PCB electrical equipment. (See con tents page for article on the project.) The mobile,four-part incinerator is based on a rotary kiln, with secon dary combustion, waste heat reco very boiler, and flue gas treatment. The mobile unit has been success

fully used by Environmental Sys tems Company (ENSCO) of Little

pany to perform such incineration

Eating crow with foot in mouth

Local pollution groups have en dorsed the mobile incineration tech

nology, primarily on the grounds that it is mobile and will not resultin

a permanent treatment facility. Sampling was carried out on stack gas, particulates, feed stock, and solid residues by Independent Mea suring and Technology Inc.(IMET) and EPL determined trace metals, inorganics and all organics related to incineration processes. IMET, ENSCO, and EPL are all aware of the precedent being set by this firstin-Ontario burn,and have given top priority to operational reliability and top quality environmental tes ting to meet all of Ontario's strict requirements.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

In 1986,the Globe & Mail's ascerbic food critic, Joanne Kates wrote:"At least we know Perrier is pure: The Source bubbles up from so deep in the earth that even modern France's industrial excesses cannot harm it."

ES&E hopes she knows more aboutfood than hydrogeology. Still, it was sporting of the Globe to remind its readers of the fallibility of its food critic when recounting Perrier's benzene contamination

scare of 1990 (April 1991 Toronto magazine). Perhaps the galloping gourmet might now write a piece on what foot-in-mouth tastes like; or how to eat crow.

For our part,tongue-in-cheek with a little hindsight tastes much better. 11

MISA Report

By Jim Bishop*

What MISA has achieved — what lies

ahead for municipalities A former Director of Water Resources

for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Jim Bishop played a major role in the development of the Municipal & Industrial Strategy for Abatement. ES&E asked him to review what has become one of

Canada's most progressive pieces of environmental legislation. In Part II, Mr. Bishop focusses on MISA and the Municipal Sector.

IntheFeb/March issueofES&E,

cause of technical and procedural many issues are common to all sec tors,and rather than deliberate each issue at each JTC, there should be significant time savings in having the issues resolved generically and then applied to each of the ten sec tors. The process is as follows: Steps 1 and 2. Validate the Monitor ing Regulation Data

that must he dealt with in the next

A standard process will be devel oped to apply quality assurance and quality control information to moni toring data collected by each indus try in each sector. This will elimi nate unreliable data and outliers, ensuring that the limits are hased

year or so. What was not covered

on "good" data.

the MISA program was discus sed from origins, to fundamen tal principles, up to issues like zero discharge and political aspects

was the status of the Issues Resolu

tion Process (IRP) and how MISA

will affect Ontario's sewage treat ment plants. ISSUES RESOLUTION PROCESS

The monitoring regulations for the nine sectors are all nearly finis hed. Tahle 1 shows the status of each sector.

Based on the monitoring data and other factors, effluent limits will be setfor each sector. To do this, MOE adopted a generic issues reso lution process. This is possible be

Step 3. Parameter Selection

Statistical tests will be applied to the monitoring data to establish which contaminants are "absent" from the effluents. The basic deci sion needed is whether a substance is considered absent if it is detected 5% of the time at the method detec

tion limit,or 10% ofthe time at twice the detection limit, or at some other rate.

Step 4. Virtual Elimination

Petroleum Refining Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Pulp and Paper Metal Mining and Refining industrial Minerals Iron and Steel Electric Power Generation


Start Dates

Final Month


Dec. 1988

Nov. 1989

26 27

reductions achieved for those con

Step 6. Economic Achievabiiity Existing Ontario legislation and regulations do not explicitly call for an assessment of"economic achiev

abiiity"(EA). As a result,there is no definition for "economic achiev

57* 49' 7 6 Thermal 3 Nuclear

lines for defining this term in exist

Oct. 1989 Jan. 1990

Sept. 1990 Dec. 1990

ing Ontario legislation or policy. There is also a need to establish pro

Feb. 1990

Jan. 1991


July 1991

cedures and criteria by which "eco nomic achievabiiity" can be asses

Nov. 1989

Cct. 1990


Step 7. Limit Setting and Form of Limits

May 1991


June 1990 Dec. 1989

Nov. 1990


May 1990

April 1991

Once BAT(EA)has been selected, discharge limits will be imposed on the contaminants which BAT(EA) can treat and at levels which

Being Revised 'These plants constitute only a representative portion of the total number of plants in these sectors. Plants

will be screened on the basis of the

number, kind, and toxicity of con taminants which they treat and the

abiiity", nor are there any guide

68 Hydro Electric Inorganic Chemicals Metal Casting Sewage Treatment

A second objective is to develop a uniform process for the selection of Best Available Technology (BAT) from various technologies that can be applied within a sector. These


•needs to be defined.

Table 1: Ttie Sectors and ttie Monitoring Regulation No. of Monitoring Monitoring Industrial Sector

bench-scale experiments","for sale in the marketplace", or "used in actual plant applications".


BAT(EA) can achieve. The limits

can be expressed in various ways (e.g.,on the basis ofproduction rate). At this stage, then, the form of the limit is also determined.

insights gained from the consulta tive approach in the development of the Monitoring Regulations. During the extensive dialogue with each of the ten Joint Technical Committees

(JTC's), it became obvious that 12

Step 5. Best Available Technology Each term needs definition, be cause the terms "best","available", and "technology", are open to inter pretation. For example,"available" could mean "demonstrated by

Step 8. Net Loadings When an industry's intake water Continued overleaf

"Vice President, Environmental Protection Laboratories

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


"MEETING THE CHALLENGE" 1 row, Dames & Moore is pleased to announce the acquisition of Morrison Beatty, an engineering firm specializing in hydrogeology. Morrison Beatty, a division of Trow, Dames & Moore, was founded in 1977 by Bill Morrison and Brian Beatty. Trow, Dames & Moore is a multi-disciplinary consulting firm

comprised of engineers, geologists, hydrogeologists, environmental scientists and planners who specialize in environmental protection, waste

management, wor^lace health and applied earth and life sciences. The firm is a joint venture of Trow Consulting Engineers, headquartered in Brampton, and Dames & Moore, headquartered in Los Angeles. Together with these parent companies, the Trow, Dames & Moore organization forms one of the largest environmental and waste management consulting firms in

Bill Morrison, Brian Beatty and Jim Beechinor

North America with about 4,000

employees and offices world-wide. The firm's size and geographic occupational health and air and water emissions. Services range from diversity (including five branch feasibility planning and site selection through assistance to project design, offices in Ontario - Hamilton, construction and start-up.

Cambridge, Oshawa, London, Ottawa) enable



accumulation of information on

With the amalgamation of Trow, Dames & Moore and Morrison Beatty, a new organizational structure has emerged under the direction of John Nunan, President. Jim Beechinor has been appointed to General

widely varying disciplines and a high Manager and Vice President. Brian Beatty has been appointed Vice degree of technical specialization President of Professional Services and Bill Morrison as Vice President of within each discipline. The firm's Marketing as well as Manager of Regional Offices. Trow, Dames & Moore look forward to meeting your challenge. approach is, therefore, inter For further information on Trow, Dames & Moore's services, please disciplinary and resource-pool oriented, and the staff and facilities contact our Mississauga office at: reflect this approach. Trow, Dames & Moore owes its success 7560 Airport Road to a policy of responding to client's Mississauga, Ontario needs with reliable, cost-effective solutions.

From its beginning in hydrogeology and landfill related

L4T 2H5

tel: fax:

(416) 671-9921 (416) 672-7784

services. Trow, Dames & Moore

has expanded its capabilities to provide consulting services on a wide spectrum of projects involving waste management and reduction, earth and life

sciences, water


engineering, planning, site decommissioning and clean-up.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 144


MISA Report, continued is already contaminated,should the Ministry take this into account when


This corporation was announced by John Sweeney, then Minister of Step 9. Toxicity Dischargers will have to meet Municipal Affairs on May 1, 1990. chemical limits and toxicity testing. This Crown Corporation would: The type of toxicity test, and what • assume responsibility for clean constitutes compliance need to be water and sewage treatment facili ties that are now provincially owned determined.

limits are set?

upgrading to secondary treatment status; • at least one third of Ontario's

STP's routinely fail to pass the pro vince's limits for BOD,SS and phos phorous,and these plants need capi tal improvements; •if this many STP's fail such con ventional limits, it is likely many

Step 10. Flow Measurement Accuracy

Protocols need to be established for methods, calibration, and fre quency for determining precise flow

At least 70 percent of the sludge can't be used on agricultural land


because It Is contaminated.

Step 11. Compliance

Compliance needs to be defined. The consequences ofnon-compliance or operated; • build and operate new water and need to be stipulated. sewage works in cooperation with Step 12. Monitoring for Assessment municipalities and the private Applies to two groups of conta sector. minants that are not subject to efflu The advantages of such an ent limits. The first group of conta agency are: minants identified from previous •it would eliminate the problem of monitoring data but not treated by MOE, as owner/operator of more the technology chosen as BAT(EA). than half of the water treatment The second group of contaminants plants and sewage treatment plants recently added to the Ministry's up in Ontario, being the same Ministry dated Effluent Monitoring Priority that develops and enforces regula Pollutants List. Assessment moni tions governing these same facili toring provides the data required to ties; set limits at some future time when

appropriate technology becomes available.

Steps 13 and 14. Stormwater and Bypasses

Stormwater and by-passes pre sent unique regulatory challenges because they are non-continuous

•it would allow full cost pricing for municipal water supplies. At first, there were concerns expressed over the formation of the Corporation. The main concerns were:

• the new Corporation might be a means of providing accelerated sources. Procedures and criteria for approval for developers, leading to controlling these sources need to be urban sprawl in developing areas, developed. while curtailing upgrading of water and sewer facilities in older areas; Step 15. Reporting to the Public Both the monitoring and effluent •the Corporation might be modelled limit data will be publicly available. after Ontario Hydro, which many How and when this will take place, interest groups view as being immune from external control; needs to be resolved.

more would fail limits for toxic

organics and metals; •sewer use controls are required if Ontario is to reduce its expensive and wasteful reliance on incinera

tion and landfilling to get rid of most of the province's sewage sludge. At least 70% of the sludge can't be used on agricultural land because it is laced with contami nants that could be removed at

source — thatis, by the 12,000indus tries discharging into Ontario's sewers;

•if whole effluent toxicity limits are introduced, most STP's will not be able to comply without major capi tal improvements; • many industry spokespeople feel that MISA has been unfairly applied,since only industry has had to monitor discharges. However, it is generally conceded that enough monitoring evidence is at hand to indicate that most of Ontario's

STP's need improving. These concerns have a common

factor: money. Each concern is real and needs to be addressed,and each one will cost a lot of money. Exactly how much money is difficult, but not impossible, to ascertain. The final bill will doubtless be in the billions

...there now appears to be general agreement that the Crown Corporation will be good tor the environment.

• the Corporation might weaken MOE's regulatory mandate. However,there now appears to be As technology evolves that could general agreement that the Crown result in further pollution reduc Corporation will be good for the tions,the regulations will be revisit ed with the aim of developing more environment. I personally believe it may be the only way to get the muni stringent limits. If we assume that the IRP works, cipal side of MISA back on track. Municipal leaders and their indus and the industrial sectors enter the compliance setting stage, what will trial counterparts are becoming dis happen with the municipal sector? enchanted with the lack of progress on municipal pollution abatement. The Ministry has invested consider Their principal concerns are: able time and effort into the MISA Municipal Plan, but progress has • 27 of Ontario's 400 sewage treat ment Plants(STP's)need immediate been somewhat static since 1990.

step 16. Periodic Review of Regulations


of dollars, but to date no group appears to have actually added the total up, or explained the bill to the municipalities. The Crown Corporation has an opportunity to do this. It can itemize each concern, and establish costs and priorities. It can deal with AMO and other municipal groups in a way that encourages them and develops confidence. It can help MISA in establishing dialogue and support with municipalities. Mainly, the Corporation can help pay for these required changes, by develop ing and implementing full cost pric ing for water, and applying the ear ned revenue to sewage plantimprove ments, upgrades, sewer use control and monitoring. ES&E For more Information, Circle reply card No. 228

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


water and

.v.^.vi?#A.. iBfe ■



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f. -

wastewater treatment

equipment ■»!_;;<■'


FMC provides practical solutions to your equip ment needs with one of the most complete lines of water and wastewater treatment equipment available. Our product design and development is the result of over 70 years experience with installations across North America and around the world.

The FMC equipment line includes: screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit collec tors, rectangular sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, fioccuiation


equipment, rotary distributors and auxiliary equipment. You can rely on FMC to meet your equipment requirements. Consult with us. FMC of Canada Limited, Material Handling Operation, 650 Hood Road, Markham Ontario L3R 4S7

(416) 474-7500 FAX (416) 474-754.2 For mom Information, Circle reply card No. 122





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Circle reply card No. 130

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Environmental Studies at the University of Alberta potent mutagen,MX,from water. In addition. Dr. Huck is currently examining at pilot scale, the use of biological treatment to remove organic matter from drinking water and thereby reduce disinfection by products.

Environmental Engineering & Science Graduates 10


Courses, when combined with research and thesis development, lead to Master and Ph.D. degrees. Through 1990, a total of nearly ICQ graduate degrees have been award ed in either Environmental Engi neering (for students with an under graduate engineering degree) or Environmental Science(for students with an undergraduate science degree).

M.Sc.(Eng.) and M.Sc.(Sci.) Ph.D.

Year of Graduation

The first graduate courses offered by the University ofAlberta in Environmental Engineering were through the Department of Civil Engineering in 1963-64 by Professor Pat Bouthillier. His first graduate, Mike McGarry, went on to be a world leader in international water and

wastewater programs. Since that time,more than 40 Master ofScience, 30 Master ofEngineering and 7 Doc tor of Philosophy degrees have been awarded through the Environmen tal Engineering and Science(EE&S)

Dr.Peter Huck is an environmen

tal engineer whose research has pri marily focused on drinking water. Specific concerns relate to disinfec tion by-products. He has examined the mutagenicity of by-products from various disinfectants,followed by a pioneering investigation into the activated carbon removal of the

On-campus core laboratory faci lities consist of nearly 1000 m^ of highly serviced research space in the Newton Research Building (NRB). Two off-campus pilot plants (wastewater treatment at the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant

and drinking water treatment at the Rossdale Water Treatment Plant) are also operated by the Program.




Although water supply and sani tary engineering had been a part of the undergraduate civil engineering program since before 1927, it was not until 1962 that graduate courses were offered. Since then, growth in

Duties are to teach courses in the Terrain and Water Resources Technology

the field and staff have been reflec

Program such as;

ted in the refined program (four undergraduate and nine graduate courses,one of which has three alter nate topics). The four full time academic posi tions in Civil Engineering dedicated to the Environmental Engineering and Science Program are held by Daniel W. Smith, Peter M. Huck, Gordon R. Finch and Chris A. Zeiss. Dr. Daniel Smith is an environ

mental engineer with particular interests in disinfection, environ mental systems and industrial waste management. He has per formed research for a wide range of specific applications in Alberta,the Northwest Territories, Yukon Terri tory,and Alaska. Research projects have included selection of the opti mum activated carbon for drinking water treatment, disinfection of antihiotic-redistant bacteria and a

number of cold region water and

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGIST/ENGINEER (School of Natural Resources — Lindsay)

• • • • • •

introductory Natural Resource Principles to First Year Students Natural Resource Legislation Biology of Polluted Water and Limnology Behaviour of Contaminants in the Ecosystem Ecosystem Dynamics Watershed Management

The successful candidate will have current knowledge of environmental principles normally acquired through a recognized degree/diploma pro gram and a minimum of 3 years of successful practical experience in the field. Demonstrated competence in delivering presentations and direct involvement in field supervision is important. Only those applicants selected for an Interview will be contacted. Appli cants granted an interview will be required to answer technical questions related to the above subject areas, as part of the selection process. If you are not contacted, may we thank you at this time for your interest in the College. Please submit a detailed resume by May 24,1991, and the names of three references who can verify technical competencies to:

Director, Human Resource Services, Sir Sandford Fleming College,526 McDonnelStreet,Peterborough,Ontario K9J 7B1. (Dedicated to Employment Equity. Applications from qualified members of designated groups are encouraged.)

wastewater studies.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


International developments Solution found for

pollution from overflow structures In most urban drainage systems,


storm waterfrom roofs and streets is

conveyed in the same pipe as wastewater. During heavy rain the sewers are allowed to overflow into

adjacent rivers or lakes by storm overflow structures.

For over 15 years the School of Construction at Sheffield City Poly technic in Yorkshire, northern England, has been seeking ways of improving the performance of over flow structures and reducing pollu


tion. In collaboration with Britain's

Science and Engineering Research Council, Sheffield City Council, Yorkshire Water and the UK's Water

Research Centre,a new type of over flow structure — the vortex overflow

— has been developed. This new overflow uses vortex

motion in a novel way, to regulate the flows in the sewer to safeguard against flooding, and to separate polluting material so that only the cleaner flows pass to the river. The new design, which features a stainless steel scumboard and peri pheral overflow weir, is cheaper to construct than more traditional

designs, as well as being more effi cient. Prototype structures are now in operation in Sheffield and Leeds

in northern England,in Gateshead, north-east England, and in Stock holm, Sweden.

Need to chlorinate and dechlorinate? We have the

equipment and the expertise. No one is more familiar with meeting disinfection and discharge requirements than Capital Controls. We can help you comply, no matter what size and type of wastewater treatment plant you have. We offer chlorinators for disinfec tion. Sulfonators for dechlorination. A vast range of feed rates from 0.6 to 10,000 PPD. Manual or automatic control.

Plus the engineering experience to provide reliable, lasting solutions. We are experts in wastewater treatment. And we are ready to assist you when you need us. Call(416)738-2355.



328 North Rivermede Road, Unit 9, Concord, Ontario L4K 3N5 Fax: (416) 738-5520

For more Information,


Circle reply card No. 134

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Environment Protection Laboratories ushers in'

a new era in the reporting of analytical data. We call It our Value-Added Service Commitment.

In addition to offering industry-leading quality control, service and turnaround time, we also

affd Interpretive answers to today's complex environmental questions.

When you need analytical information of any type, call Environment Protection Laboratories. We bring a new understanding to light,

provide you with an absolutely clear Interpretation of your results. And we deliver it in a way that gives you meaningful Information to help guide your key business decisions. That's Added-Value. EPL is fully equipped to provide the analytical



6850 Goreway Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1P1 Telephone (416)673-3255 FAX [416)673-7399 For more Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Circle reply card No. 123


The greenhouse effect

How can we avert global warming?


and return to carbon dioxide. The

the mostImportant envi ronmental problem now facing society, is being suDjected to international, national and even provincial rhetoric. The scientific community is now calling

coniferous trees also drop their needles on a regular basis. These also decompose. So much for the trees, they can only postpone the

out in louder and louder voices that

furnaces should be more energy effi cient. Everyone would agree with that regardless of their environ mental views. History has shown us that in 1973,the start of the last "oil crisis", we saw an improvement in automobile gasoline efficiency. Fuel consumption in cars moved from 18

build up of carbon dioxide. So we are told that our cars and

the long term effects of adding car bon based gases to the atmosphere will be devastating. While there is still some dissent amongst scien tists, the large majority are saying that unless we curb the release of carbon dioxide the temperature of the earth will rise, the seas will rise and large portions of the planet earth will become desertified and uninhabitable.

The responses we hear are short termed conservation knee jerk reac tions. Certainly conservation will help buy us some time to provide the ultimate solutions. However, if we only address the short term and do not plan for the future we will be in the same mess we are in with Metro

politan Toronto's garbage — a cri sis. Remember the garbage crisis was anticipated and warnings issu ed some ten years or more ago.


litres/lOOkm to 9 litres/lOOkm. We We talk about reforestation to

provide a sink for carbon dioxide. This of course is a very good idea, particularly at a time when some of the world's tropicalforests are being destroyed. However, this will only provide temporary shelter from the wave ofretribution which the planet

are told that the auto industry is now striving for 4 or 5 litres/lOOkm. This will bring down the per capita use of hydrocarbon fuel, but the number of"capitas" are still increa sing; and when the Third World reaches the level of mobility that we have (and it will happen) the

will throw at us. The trees remove

amount of carbon dioxide will reach

carbon (fix) dioxide in a rather tem porary way when speaking in long periods of time. They even return some fraction (perhaps 10-20%) of

the present levels and beyond.

the carbon dioxide each fall with the

loss ofleaves which then decompose

We are told to use methane and

natural gas which are more "clean burning". Quite so, but for every kilogram of carbon burned, a kilo gram of carbon dioxide is produced


Do you know what is in your water?

Management Consultants are seeking the following qualified candidates for our clients: HYDROGEOLOGICAL/ENVIRONMENTAL

TORONTO: U.S. firm establishing Canadian operations, need 3 Senior candidates

We have established a quality air and water testing service with state-of-the-art equipment. We have two general packages for drinking water: General Monitoring (80 parameters) $325.00

In depth Analysis (114 parameters) $425.00 We have the capabiiity to measure organic poiiutants at part per triiiion ievel.

Prices for parts per triiiion measurements or analysis of waste water, soil and radon are available on request.


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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 131


TORONTO:Possible partnership,small established firm,8+ years experience 75K-tMiSSiSSAUGA: Large international firm, group leader, supervise ail staff 80K+ GUELPH: Operations Manager, business development, emphasis 8 years 70K+ ST. CATHERINES: Geotechnical Engineer P.Eng 55K OTTAWA: Rapidly expanding Ontario firm (3) 40-60K CALGARY: Intermediate consultants (3) 50-70K VANCOUVER: Intermediate/Senior consultants (5) 50-80K

NEW YORK STATE:Solid waste landfill engineers, Canadian experience considered (5) 40-50K U.S. MICHIGAN STATE: Landfill hydrogeo work (2) 40-50K ORLANOO FLORiOA: Hydrogeologists (2) 50-60K U.S. FRANKFURT GERMANY:Geotechnicai/Mydrogeological pro fessionals, European experience needed .. 70-100K U.S. Many opportunities not listed. To enquire in respect ofthese and other opportunities. Send credentials via fax or mail to Miles N.R. Ness: STOAKLEY-DUDLEY INTERNATIONAL

6547A Mississauga Rd., North, Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 1A6 Phone:(416) 821-3455, Fax:(416) 821-3467

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

By Dr. P.H. Jones. P.Enq. (on a carbon equivalent basis). We could use electricity to heat our houses and charge our batteries for our electric cars, but how do we add to our stock of available electricity, usually by burning gas, coal or oil, all of which produce kilo for kilo the same amount of carbon dioxide.

We hear about private sector nonutility electric generation which is supposed to be waiting in the wings for an opportunity to provide elec tric power with windmills,photovol taic cells and a host of other com

mercially unavailable systems. The use of water power is fraught with

have ended up storing our fissiona ble wastes(just like our PCBs,only

how many swimming pools would

there were and are solutions for PCB

years to store these wastes,and how many acres of land would they occupy? Not so many I am sure.

destruction using cement kiln methodology). There are now pro

we have to build in the next 100

mising methods being developed to

This is what we must consider as

treat by extremely high temperature or by using nuclear accelerators the

just another of those pesky envi

wastes to reduce their half lives

much about. Is nuclear power too great a risk and should we just depend on conservation alone to avoid the devastation, of climate change? Conservation will buy us

from tens of thousands of years down to 10 to 20 years. This is even shorter than landfilling our garbage (50 or 60 years to decompose). However, even supposing we could only handle our nuclear wastes in the way we presently do.

ronmental trade offs that we hear so

some time. Just make sure that we

use this time wisely, and plan for non carbon energy sources. ES&E

dissenters. Try building a dam in western Canada, you will almost certainly flood out some native peo ples' sacred burial grounds, deer or elk breeding grounds, a fine exam ple ofa naturalforest with endange red species either plant or animal or one of the finest agriculturally pro ductive areas in North America.

Indeed these are all quite legitimate reasons for not flooding more land for hydro power. So what should we do? The only solution is to use alternative energy sources. These are good buzz words until you start examining the alter natives. What sources of energy are available that do not oxidize car bon? The non carbon sources of

energy as I call them are the labora tory curiosities mentioned above(wind mills, photovoltaic cells or even biomass which actually does produce carbon dioxide), plus the water sources; most of the economically viable ones have been developed and the others will create a howl of

protest if development is suggested. So what is left? Why of course the deeply mistrusted nuclear power in dustry that has had a moratorium applied for the next several years. The use of electric power genera ted by nuclear fission is so obvious but it will not be mentioned by any one who does not wish to anger the gods (Greenpeace, Energy Probe, etc.). Even the speech from the throne in Ontario has just put this option on hold. To plan, design, build and put on stream a nuclear generator will take 10 to 20 years in normal circumstances; in today's climate it could take longer. Why is the public so anxious about this alternative energy source? Well, when they were first built, the question of decommissio ning and nuclear waste disposal

• Aeration

• Mixing • Screening • Solids Handling • Grit Removal/Dewatering • Conveying Systems • Clarifiers

• Sludge Mixing/Thickening/ Dewatering • Disinfection • Neutralization

Manufacturers and Suppliers of major equipment for water and

was not well considered and we

*Dr. Jones now heads the School of

wastewater treatment

560 Bayview Avenue, Suite 219 Newmarket, Ontario L3X 1W1 Tei:(416) 836-9490, Fax:(416) 836-9070

Environmental Engineering, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 133


Market Report

By James Higgins. Ph.D.. P.Eng.

The environment is a muiti-biiiion

doiiar market — and growing fast

Oneof the largest growth

markets in this decade

of 40% or more. Not only is it gro wing rapidly, but it is also evolving quickly as well. New discoveries, new areas of concern, new players and changes in ownership in old ones; all contribute to a complex, rapidly changing scene.

will be in the supply of goods and services to the waste management and pollution control field. This market is still in its early stages and its rapid growth is being driven by public concern about degradation of our planet's air, water and land-based resources. This has resulted in increasingly stringent legislation by govern

The total US marketfor products, technologies, processes, goods and services for cleaning up the envi ronment is estimated to have been

ments at all levels and created numer

worth about $100 billion in 1989.

ous environmental business oppor

Revenues for environmental com

Market Size

was estimated to be between $8.5

and $10 billion annually. In Onta rio alone,it was estimated in 1987 to be worth from $1.5 to $2.5 billion and some feel it could reach the $10

billion range by the year 2000. The market is traditionally divi ded into three broad areas; •water and wastewater treatment

•solid wastes handling and control •air pollution control Water and Wastewater Treatment

As a result of years ofneglect and failure throughout North America to adequately maintain and renew


panies operating in this market were

The market is growing at overall rates of 15-20% and there are many sectors ofit which have growth rates

estimated at over $29 billion in 1988

water and wastewater facilities and

and are expected to reach $65 billion by 1993. The total Canadian market

infrastructure, considerable degra dation of water resources has occur

red. Ecological, public health and pollution concerns will dictate con tinued attention to this area with

resulting strong market opportuni ties for technologies, products and services associated with addressing

Waste in the United States:

8,500 Million Tons Generated Annually

these concerns.

In the U.S., the water and waste-

Hazardous Waste & Waste Water

water treatment area is estimated to

have been worth about (U.S.) $30 billion in 1989 and is growing at an average rate of almost 20% per year. Of this, almost $3 billion is for capi tal expenditures in the municipal wastewater treatment area, one bil

Accounts for approximately 5S0 million tons ■

270 million tons regulated by RCRA

310 million tons regulated by CWA


Industrial and Government Waste

lion dollars is for water treatmentin the electrical utilities area and about

Disposal Methods:

$4 billion is for industrial waste-

80% Landfill

water treatment equipment. U.S. water purification capital expendi

17% Treatment Methods

Hazardous 5%

2% Incineration

tures are worth almost $8 billion.

1% Recycling Non-Hazardous (Solid) Waste

The Canadian marketfor municipal and industrial equipment to treat water and wastewater should in

Accounts for approximately 7,900 million tons Source:

Municipal Waste: 170 million tons (includes residential and commercial

waste) • Industrial and Mining Waste; 7,750 million tons Non-Hazardous


Disposal Methods: 84%

crease to over $600 million by 1992. Solid Wastes Handling and Controi About 75% of all refuse today ends up in landfills. At present there are about 6,000 landfills in the U.S. (down from 18,500 a decade ago) and it is estimated that two thirds of these will be closed by the year 2000. Space is becoming even scarcer due to stricter site regula tions and tipping fees are increasing

dramatically. They soon will exceed







The solid wastes handling and control area represents a market equally as large as that for water Continued overleaf

Source: EPA

*Dr. Higgins is President, Environmental Technologies Investments Inc.


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

FOLLOW FLYGT's commitment

to on-going service and support is an investment in our


Nowadays everyone talks about service and support. FLYGTdoes more. We operate 16 branches nationwide. These branches are staffed by experienced sales representatives, applications engineers and service technicians who deliver the fastest and most reliable

on-site service and support in the water-handling business.

The Service Edge. From initial technical sizing and applica tion support to equipment installation and foiiow-up maintenance, FLYGT is committed to servicing and supporting every pump, mixer and control system that carries the FLYGT name.

Every FLYGT branch has

the support personnel, the parts and the know-how to

quickly diag nose a situation

and hanuifcj any adjustments or repairs on-site or at the branch.

The Information Edge. Using a computer database called FLYGT SALES INFOR

MATION (FSI), our service specialists and engineers have access to up-to-the-minute reference data, a must for To ensure that installation at the site Is fast and trouble-

effecting a quick and thorough analysis of

free, we test and approve every pump in our special test

every pumping situation. FSI helps reduce downtime. And less downtime means money in your pocket. The facts and figures contained in

tank before release.

the FSI database can be retrieved by personnel in every FLYGT branch. These specialists can also provide you with information about the complete range of

FLYGT products and systems, including short-and long-term equipment rentals

The Follow-Through Network. It's easy to gain peace-of-mind. Ail you need is the telephone number of the FLYGT branch nearest you: Western Canada: Coquitlam, B.C.

(604)941-6664 o Calgary, Alta.(403)279-8371 □ Edmonton, Alta. (403)489-1961 o Saskatoon,

Sask. (306)933-4849 0 Winnipeg, Man. (204)633-8815.

Central Canada: Sudbury, Ont. (705)560-2141 □ Hamilton, Ont. (416)561-3711 o Etobicoke, Ont.

(416)675-3630 □ Nepean, Ont. (613)225-9600. Quebec: Pointe Claire, Que. (514)695-0100° Chicoutimi, Que. (418)454-7605 oVal d'Or, Que.

(819)825-0792 □ Quebec City, Que. (418)667-1694. Eastern Canada: Moncton, N.B. (506)857-2244° St. John's, Nfld. (709) 722-6717 □ Dartmouth, N.S. (902)468-3448. SALES ° SERVICE ° RENTALS

and on-site service contracts.

Good Ideas Take Flygt.



ITT Fluid Technology Corporation

For moro Information,

CIrcIa reply card No. 132

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

ITT Flygt, 300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, RQ. H9R4V5 (514)695-0100

Telefax: (514)697-0602


The Environmental Market. continued and wastewater treatment(~ $30 bil

lion/year), withouteven considering a multi-billion dollar market for nu

clear waste disposal, or the clean up of toxic waste dumps. The solid wastes market is growing at rates from 10-25% per year. Air Pollution Control The North American market for

air pollution control products,equip ment and services is estimated to be

worth about$40 billion per year and is growing at above 15% per year. Legislative initiatives continue to open up new markets. Recent amend ments in the U.S. Clear Air Act are

expected to open up to $60 billion of new markets by the year 2000. Already legislation throughout North America mandates 50% clean

up of acid rain emissions from the stacks of industry and utilities, and stricter regulations are forecast. In Canada,the domestic marketfor air pollution control equipment alone is worth $1.4 billion and has shown

43% growth since 1986. Market Sectors

The environmental protection and control industry can be regar ded as consisting of several miniindustries or market sectors. A com

mon categorization of the industry

is into the following sectors: Ser vices; Equipment; Technology; Remediation; Consulting & Engi neering; Analytical Services; and Miscellaneous.

Definition of the

sectors is arbitrary and overlaps often occur. Environmental Services Sector

In the past, a large part of the environmental industry was asso ciated with companies in the sector. Most of them did little more than

haul and dump garbage. The gar bage disposal business is still the largest part of this sector, but it has now been supplemented by service areas involving liquid wastes; spe cialty segments(e.g., medical waste disposal, nuclear waste disposal); and the operation of incinerators, recycle operations, and other treat ment facilities.

Hazardous waste

handling and disposal (including that for wastewater streams deemed

hazardous), is now an important part of the services business. As indicated in Exhibit 1 (1988 data), the United States alone annually generates about 8.5 billion tons of industrial,agricultural,commercial, mining, and domestic waste, of which 580 million tons is designated as hazardous. In Canada, 70% of


solid wastes are landfilled. The non-hazardous waste hand

ling area has revenues of over $20 billion annually. While there are many smaller companies in the ser vices sector, it is typified by a few relatively mature,large public com panies and is dominated in the U.S. by organizations such as Waste Management and Browning Ferris Industries (BFI), and in Canada by Laidlaw. The hazardous waste dis

posal business is worth almost $2 billion annually. Environmental Equipment Sector

The supply of equipment for the environmental industry is a large, highly fragmented sector. There are many hundreds offirms which sup ply everything from instruments to incinerators. In many cases, the equipment supplied is generic and finds markets in a variety of areas besides the environmental industry. Motors, pumps, filters, valves, blo wers and control panels are just a few examples. In some cases, it is hard to accurately define the degree of environmental involvement that

an equipment manufacturer's pro ducts have. In others, equipment is designed specifically for an environ mental use. (Flue gas desulfurization equipment is an example.) Environmental Technology Sector This is the largest sector and is a catch-all area which comprises a wealth of processes, technologies, chemicals,organisms,catalysts and

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sectors, but is becoming increas ingly important as waste generators draw on new technologies to reduce pollution. There are literally thousands of firms in this intensely competitive sector. Due to the variety of partici pants, this sector defies quantifica tion or overall growth estimates. Environmental Remediation Sector The remediation market sector is

less fragmented than others and involves fewer companies. It includes those that clean up waste sites; ones involved in decommis sioning services;businesses that pro vide equipment, media (sorbents) and/or services for cleaning up oil, chemical and other spills; and firms involved in asbestos removal and



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disposal. The waste site clean up and decom missioning parts of the sector had revenues of about $2 billion in 1988 with a growth rate ofabout20%.One

sub-sector, the asbestos clean up For more Intormatlon, 24

Circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

The Environmental Market area,is worth over $2.5 billion and is growing at 25% per year. Environmental Consulting & Engineering

This $10 billion per year sector involves several hundred firms, usually ones which are relatively small and privately-held. Environ mental consulting and engineering covers not only the design of pollu tion controlfacilities, but also consul tation and interpretation on envi ronmentallaws;project engineering; environmental audits; environmen tal risk analyses;compliance audits; assistance with obtaining environ mental permits; and a host of other activities. Many firms have geo graphical and/or technical special ties. Sector growth rates are above 25% per year in many cases. Environmental Analytical Services

required expenditures over the next decade or so of $40-50 billion to repair and expand existing urban water supply systems, while new

systems will require $9-15 billion more.

Water Purification Equipment Historically, North Americans have relied to a considerable extent

on central municipal water systems for water supply. However,recently,

and perhaps unjustifiably, many people and businesses have turned to point-of-use systems and bottled water to obtain "purer" water than that available from their taps. This

trend is expected to continue and grow, not just for households but also increasinglyfor business,indus tries and even municipalities. This will lead to opportunities for com panies supplying bottled water as well as UV(Ultra Violet), filtration, adsorption,ion-exchange,demineralization, distillation and reverse osmosis (RO) equipment and tech nologies. New water supply systems will lead to sales opportunities for com panies to supply basic equipment (e.g., pumps, motors, control sysContinued overleaf

Westinghouse Environmental Services


Analytical Services companies are concerned with the analysis of samples to determine the existence,


extent and character of contamin

ants. Over 1,000 companies make up this fragmented sector. The vast majority are small(less than $1 mil lion in annual revenues), private firms serving local markets. Reve nues in this sector were $700 million in the U.S. in 1988. Growth in this

sector is strong and is expected to exceed 25% per year in future. Misceiianeous In addition to businesses in the

•Hydrogeological Assesments •Real Estate Transaction Environmental Audits

•Engineering Services •Solid and Hazardous Landfill Design •Bioremediation (Insitu-Bioreactor-Composting) •Laboratory Services •On Site Remediation

above sectors, ther are a myriad of

•Chemical Soil Fixation

others associated with the environ

•RGB Management Services

mental industry that do not conven iently fit into them. These include certain specialized areas such as noise pollution, and support areas such as legal services, bonding and insurance. Market Areas of Particular interest

There are a few, often interrela ted market areas of environmental

services and technology that ETI considers may show particular growth over the next decade: WATER SUPPLY

Water Supply Systems In Canada over 90% of the popu


•Sensor Controlled Pneumatic and Electric Pumps •Carbon Treatment Cell

•Air Stripping Towers

•Off Gas Treatment Systems •Clarifiers

•Oil Water Separators •Vacuum Extraction Systems

lation — 2,500 communities — are

Supported by a staff of

connected to some sort of water sup ply system. However, continuing deterioration of existing infrastruc ture, strong demands for new facili ties, forecasts of water shortages, conservation activities, and heigh tened public awareness of, and con cern for water purity will make the water purification and supply mar ket segment a strong growth area during the 1990s. In the U.S., the situation is simi lar and federal agencies estimate

1600 Seasoned Professionals. For Information Call

514-333-0343 or write to

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Committed to Quality For more Information, Circle reply card No. 116


The Environmental Market, continued tems) and chemicals. Companies offering advanced purification tech nologies(e.g.,ozonation,UV)as well as those offering more stringent clean up techniques (e.g., activated

carbon treatment), should show especially strong growth. Annual capital expenditures alone should reach almost $10 billion by the

Canadian municipal landfilling regu lations are imposing special restric tions on new landfills, resulting in considerably increased costs for con struction and operation. As landfill space becomes scarcer, as old land fills fill up and are closed, and as tipping fees continue to increase,

on the state of the waste (solid, liquid or gaseous), as well as whe ther the material is hazardous or non-hazardous. The reduction of

mass, the elimination of hazard or toxicity and the creation of an envi ronmentally neutral end product (i.e., inert ash), are all beneficial results. Despite often strident public and even government opposition,

middle of the decade.

communities and businesses will resort more and more to waste reduc

In some areas, desalination will lead to further opportunities, espe cially for RO.

tion and reuse programs as well as recycling activities. Eventually they will have to consider having access to multi-million dollar waste hand

logy of choice for certain waste dis posal situations. Indeed, in some cases,incineration is the only viable


ling plants,either in the community



or regionally. These facilities will

Wastewater Treatment Facilities

traditionally disposed of their sew age in the ocean will be forced to clean up. In Canada, there are approxi mately 1,500 sewage treatment facil ities serving about two thirds of the population. The rest are not connec ted to collection systems but dis charge sewage directly to bodies of

use a variety of technologies, pro cesses and equipment including separators,recycle operations,incin erators, composters, and fuel-fromwaste manufacturing steps. However, short term, the best market opportunities involved with these facilities may be for consult ing & engineering firms doing stu dies, and for lawyers arguing posi tions. NIMBY opposition, regional rivalries, lack of political leader ship, overlong and complex regula tory and approval processes, and a complete failure of politicians to comprehend the gravity ofthe situa tion, seem likely to delay action on large, comprehensive municipal waste handling plants in many areas for several years. The Toronto region is a typical example of such

water. Over 700 communities will

an area.

require new sewage treatment plants and these, plus upgrades of sadly neglected existing facilities, will pro vide long term market opportunities for technology, consulting & engi neering and analytical services. In addition,especially in the U.S., there is some potential that various wastewater (as well as water and solid wastes)facilities may be priva

Short term then, there will be many opportunities as industries

The same factors which affect

water supply will affect wastewater treatment as well. The U.S. EPA

estimates that by the year 2008, it will cost $83.5 billion to build and improve wastewater treatment sys tems and plants to meet water qua lity and public health needs. Capital expenditures are already approach ing $3 billion/year in the U.S. Even maritime communities which have

tized and this could lead to services

market opportunities for some com panies. Wastewater Treatment Technology and Equipment

With the expected strong growth in building new and rebuilding old wastewater treatment facilities, there will continue to be an excellent

market for the types of technology

and equipment associated with the wastewater treatment area. Every thing from pumps, motors, blowers, sludge handling equipment, tanks, control and a host of other types of equipment will have strong markets in the coming decades. SOLID WASTE TREATMENT Solid Waste Treatment Facilities

New and proposed U.S. and 26

and communities seek to address

piece-meal increasingly severe waste disposal problems. ETI fore cast that the waste disposal market will turn increasingly to smaller, "boutique" plants to handle certain types of wastes. These will include wallboard recycle plants, wood recovery plants, plastic, glass and tire recycling facilities, food waste composters, and a host of others. Such small plants are easier to locate, license,and build than many of the larger, more ambitious pro jects now proposed. Eventually though, the larger, more comprehensive facilities will be built, and they may even become parts of public utilities. incineration Equipment, Technologies and Services

In the U.S., about 6% of wastes (and almost 15% of garbage), are currently disposed of by incinera tion and the business is already worth about $2.5 billion annually. New incinerator equipment sales

incineration will remain the techno


Acid Rain Clean Up of Equipment and Technology Emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which cause acid rain are a serious

pollution source well known to the public. Most authorities have already enacted legislation manda ting 50% S02 reduction. More strin gent S02 and added NOx regula tions are only a matter of time. The largest part of the expenditures for cleaning up acid rain problems will he for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It has been estimated that the cost of retrofitting FGD equip ment on North America's coal-fired

utility power stations alone will cost $75 billion. Already the world mar ket for equipment of this sort is $5 billion anually. Accordingly, there will be a large and rapidly growing market for design and engineering services, as well as for the types of equipment used in flue gas scrub bing and related processes. The current "standard" FGD

technology, limestone scrubbing, is very expensive, inflexible, ineffi cient, and usually converts an air pollution problem to a solid waste disposal one. There is considerable scope here for new and advanced FGD technologies. Air Poiiution Control Equipment

In addition to cleaning up the acid rain gases, there is increasing public demand for the control of other gaseous emissionsfrom indus try. This has led to a large and gro wing(15-20%/year)marketfor equip ment such as mechanical collectors

($25MM/yr market by 1992),solvent recovery equipment ($35MM), wet process scrubbers($40MM), electro static precipitators ($10GMM), oxi dation systems($135MM),dry fabric dust filters($195MM)and cartridge air filters ($130MM). New legisla tive initiatives and more stringent

were forecast to be $500 million in

enforcement and control will allow

1990 and enjoy a 14% growth rate. Incineration methodology depends

these markets to show strong growth.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Insituform meets

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Trenchless technology allowed HJ Heinz to avoid an unscheduled shut

down oftheir Kitt Green,Wigan fac tory. Located in Northern England, it is the largest food processing plant in Europe. In an area of 43.8 acres, Heinz produces many of its famous food products at Kitt Green. ES&E Editor, Tom Davey visited the site recently. The company prides itself on its good environmental record so when

Monenco's interdisciplinary approach to projects worldwide combines our experienced professionals with state-of-the-art technology to pro vide Innovative solutions to complex environmental problem.s in the following areas:

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cracks were discovered in both a 15" diameter storm drain and an 18"

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effluent pipeline which ran along

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concern. The factory uses a huge quantity of water from the renow ned Lake Districtfor its food proces sing plants and the effluent — some 1 million gallons per day — is scree ned to filter out solids before being


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The salt glazed pipes had been installed beneath the surface, close to many other pipelines and under a

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shut-down would allow. The loss of

production would be so costly that


an alternative method had to be found. Heinz called in Insituform Per-

maline Ltd.(IPL),the Ossett based UK licensees for the Process, and asked them to make a proposal which would provide a permanent "no-dig" cure, without involving loss of production. IPL made a detailed inspection of the two pipe lines, using a remote closed-circuit TV camera,recording everything in

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colour on video. This was so detai led that some internal features of

one pipeline,previously unknown to


Heinz, were discovered.



The Insituform installation in the storm drain was carried out dur





ing normal working hours,interrup ted only by an untimely thunders torm. The 138 metre long polyester felt Insitutube, impregnated with Crystic-491 resin, was inverted in a single length into the pipeline via an existing manhole. After curing, using hot water from a boiler truck,


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 119


Air pollution

By Robert Wang. P.Eng."

Understanding stack gas sampling technologies

Smoke and dust emissions, are two of the most obvious

and most environmentally sensitive pollutants. Apart from the problem of inefficiency associated with smoke emissions

from an industrial process,the dark plume emitted announces — with some impact — that there is room for improvement in that plant's opera tion.

Generally,instruments that con tinuously measure these emissions operate on the principle that a beam of visible light,transmitted through the gas, will be partially absorbed by the particulate matter. A single pass system was one of the first and most simple forms of measuring instrument. It consists of a light source, and a lens assem bly to focus the light across the duct/chimney. A receiver unit, mounted on the opposite side of the duct, monitors the intensity of the transmitted light, and an assess

all commercially available optical systems. The findings were used to establish what was later known as

Opacity Systems Design and Perfor mance Specifications(USA EPA,40 CFR, Part 60). These standards were unofficially adopted by Cana dian industries as guidelines. These specifications reflected a strong preference toward the double pass arrangement for reasons dis cussed earlier.

However, two types of operating problems can occur with a double pass system:

During this period, some European companies have made great strides In

Improving the design of opacity systems.

mentofparticulate density is obtain ed.

The drawback of this arrange ment is that, any contamination of the lens' surface will he interpreted as an apparent increase in smoke/ dust level. A measure of the conta

•Alignment tolerances of typically 0.5° or even 0.1° are necessary, requiring precise focusing and align ment ofthe beam and reflector. This

makes the system very susceptible to any flexing of the duct, which is detected as an increase in opacity (less light is reflected back) and not recognized as a system complica

mination cannot be easily obtained without shutting the plant down. In an attempt to resolve the cali bration and alignment problems of tion. the single pass system, a double • Calibration procedure does not pass optical system was developed. accountfor dirt on the reflector. The This system has the light source and assumption has to he made that the receiver mounted on the same

side of the duct. The light is focused onto an auto-collimating reflector, which reflects the beam back across

the duct,through the lens assembly again and onto the receiving detec tor element.

With this double pass arrange ment, calibration of the system can be made,at intervals, by inserting a mirror directly in front ofthe instru ment lens, and so eliminate any influence on the light beam by the flue gas. In the early 1980s, the United States Environmental Protection

Agency (USEPA) recognized the need to set guidelines for the per formance quality of dust emissions monitoring devices. A task force was formed to specifically evaluate •Westech Industrial Ltd.


contamination of the reflector will he the same as the lens. This is un

likely to be the case, however, be cause of the turbulent nature of the

flow experienced in most stacks. Errors are also possible due to the calibration mirror being mounted outside of the lens assembly with little or no protection against con tamination.

Many years have passed since USEPA last examined the techno

logy in dust emission measurement. During this period, some European companies have made great strides in improving the design of opacity

The Codel opacity system con sists of two transceiver units moun ted on both sides of the stack. The units are identical and transmit

light alternately 32 times every second.

Because the light transmission is bi-directional, opacity signals recei ved at either optical detector are compared constantly, any shift in optical alignment or other system complication is recognized immedi ately. Further,each transceiver peri odically performs independent zero and span checks. The effect of dirt on any of the optical surfaces is automatically compensated without the need for making any mathema tical assumptions. In the area of light source modu lation, Codel replaced the conven tional lamp with a high intensity red LED. Electronic modulation of

LED source eliminated the require ment of a chopper wheel typically driven by mechanical motors. The company also developed and patented a high efficiency air purge system designed to minimize lens contamination. This unique purge is fitted with an integral air-mover which acts as a volume amplifier and enhances the effectiveness ofthe air

purge system.

Codel model 200 opacity monitor became available to North America

in 1990. Immediately it ran into problems with USEPA over the design specification relating to peak spectral response. USEPA requires that this he between 500 and 600 nm. The use of conventional filament

lamp sources necessitate this requi rement in order to approximate the instrument readings to human eye response.

Modern requirements for high performance instruments are much more concerned with consistent cali bration in terms of total mass emis

sion and long term reliability, than with equating measurements with relatively crude visual methods. This is why Codel uses the high intensity red LED, having a very narrow waveband at 620 nm.

and inaccurate calibration that can

Codel is currently working with USEPA on this issue. It is anticipa ted that,by demonstrating the great ly increased reliability, the model 200's operating wavelength will he accepted. ES&E

plague conventional single and double pass devices.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 227


Combustion Developments Ltd. of the UK, claims to have resolved the problems caused by alignment

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

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PCB Update

Mobile PCB incineration gains acceptance

Duringthe aftermath ofthe

August Saint-Basile-leGrand,Quebecfire in 1988,

chemical means to destroy the PCB molecule. This technology is in use in most provinces and has been used

media misinformation and

since 1983 to decontaminate over 10

public concern about PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)issues reach

million litres of the original inven tory of 40 million litres of contami

ed a feverish climax. Those were

nated mineral oils in Canada.

pessimistic days for anyone in the engineering and scientific commu nities trying to provide rational solu tions to Canada's PCB problems. Since then, however, slow but steady progress has been made.

The Alberta Special Waste Mana

gement Corporation facility at Swan Hills, Alberta, has been in operation since 1988. 'This "fixed" hazardous

waste disposal facility is capable of destroying PCBs by high tempera

In 1987 the Canadian Council of

ture incineration. Between October

Environment Ministers (CCEM) developed PCB phase-out options for the orderly removal of PCBs from service. However, after the Saint-Basile-le-Grand fire the pro blems posed by the long term sto rage of PCBs were highlighted.

1988 and June 1990, approximately 3,900 tonnes of PCB contaminated materials were destroyed at this facility. Until recently, except for conta minated mineral oils, or unless one resided in Alberta, there were few options forPCB disposal,other than the current practice of long term

CCEM and others came to the reali zation that the lack ofPCB destruc tion facilities in Canada would hin

der high strength PCB phase-out initiatives where storage is the only current disposal solution. For some types of PCB contami nation materials and in one Cana

dian province, PCB destruction options have existed for some time. Transformer mineral oils contami

nated with PCBs at low levels(gene rally less than 10,000 parts per mil lion) can be decontaminated using


In the fall of 1988, the then fede ral Environment Minister announ ced a federal initiative to accelerate the destruction schedule for federal

ly owned PCBs starting with the destruction, by mobile incineration, of 40% of the total federally owned inventory of PCBs at Goose Bay, Labrador. This project was to be followed by other federally sponso red mobile incineration projects in

other parts of Canada. The PCB contaminated mater

ials that were destroyed in the Goose Bay project resulted mainly from the spillage of PCB liquids during the late 1970's at abandoned mili

tary radar facilities in Labrador. The resulting PCB-contaminated soils were cleaned up in the early 1980's, containerized and placed into secure storage. Recognizing that storage ofthese materials was perhaps not the best long term solution, the Department of National Defence(DND)commis sioned a study in 1986 to evaluate PCB disposal options. The study concluded that mobile high tempe rature incineration was the most

appropriate disposal method for these materials. The Saint-Basile-le-Grand fire

accelerated the federal plan for these wastes and in late 1988, DND retained Proctor & Redfern Limited

to develop and implement a mobile PCB incineration program for Goose Bay. The first step in pro gram development was the initia tion of the Federal Environment Review and Assessment Process for

the incineration project. The pro cess was taken to the Initial Envi

ronmental Evaluation (lEE) stage and included site selection, a health hazard evaluation, development of an environmental protection plan and a public participation program. The successful conclusion of the

lEE in the spring of 1989 led to the tendering for mobile PCB incinera tion equipment which was awarded to O.H. Materials of Canada (OHM) inthesummer of 1989. OHM propo sed to use its transportable infrared incinerator which had passed the stringent permitting requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection


Stack tests showed the Goose Bay PCB incineration project could meet the 99.9999% destruction criteria. Shown here are the primary infrared incinera tion chamber (right) and the secondary combustion chamber (ieft). 30

Because the transportation of heavy equipment and materials in and out of Goose Bay is limited by sea ice,to a relatively short shipping season, the project went into high gear in the fall of 1989. In Septem ber and October two barge loads totaling over 1,000 tonnes of PCBcontaminated soils were brought to Goose Bay from two isolated PCB storage sites on the coast of Labra dor, bringing the total inventory to be destroyed to 3,000 tonnes. A third barge with the OHM incinerator and ancillary equipment arrived in *Proctor & Redfern Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

By Douglas White. P.Eng.. and W.D. Goodings. P.Eng. Goose Bay just as the shipping sea son drew to a close, due to ice foiination, late October. During the same period, site pre paration work was underway to pro vide the incinerator and personnel with shelter against the harsh Labrador winter conditions. The

ject Manage the cleanup of this highly contaminated site. The most recent phase of this project involves the on-site incineration of 8,500 tonnes of PCB-contaminated soil, transformers and liquids. Ensco Inc. of Little Rock, Arkan sas,U.S.A., was awarded the mobile

shelter was in the form of a large greenhouse-like structure provided by Sprung Structures Ltd. of Alberta.

incineration contract. Ensco arri

Several interconnected field trailers

kiln incinerator.

provided office, meeting room, kit chen and eating facilities attached to the incineration building. In mid January 1990, PCB inci

House was held on-site in early Jan uary 1991 which over 300 local resi

ved on-site in October 1990 to begin the asse.mbly of its mobile rotary

A public Open

the incineration facility. The incinerator started operation in late January, 1991 with the suc cessful completion of a series of stack tests. The incineration of the

PCB materials should be completed by late June 1991. These projects point to encoura ging signs that some ofthe more dif ficult of the PCB disposal problems will hopefully be solved in the 1990's through the use of mobile incinera tors.

dents attended to have a tour of

For more Irtformallon,

Circle reply card No. 252

neration commenced with the first

of a series of stack tests to verify that the incinerator met both the

federal and provincial mobile PCB incineration regulations. The stack


tests demonstrated the incinerator

could meet, among other criteria, the required 99.9999% PCB destruc tion removal efficiency. With the successful completion of the first mobile PCB incineration

project in Canada, momentum has gathered for other federally sponso red projects for PCB destruction in Canada. In the fall of1990,the fede ral Environment Minister and the Environment Ministers from the

four Atlantic Provinces signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the siting of a mobile PCB incinera tor in Atlantic to destroy the remai ning high level PCB materials in


Atlantic Canada. Proctor & Red-

fern Limited has been retained by Environment Canada to conduct a

preliminary incinerator siting study. In addition. Environment Canada is providing funding to a London, Ontario citizens group cal led Londoners for the safe Elimina

tion of All PCBs(LEAP). Projects of this nature often take several years to put in place. Site selection, environmental assess ments and public consultation all require a thoroughness and patient approach which cannot be rushed. It is therefore expected that the latest Atlantic Canada initiative and the LEAP initiative will take a

couple of years to reach the imple mentation stage.

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A recent project which has suc cessfully passed through all the regulatory and public approvals to the implementation stage is the Smithville Mobile PCB incineration

project. This project is part of the long term cleanup of a PCB conta minated site in Smith ville, Ontario. Proctor & Redfern Limited has been

retained by the Ontario Ministry of

ENSR Operations Ltd.

4390 Paletta Court, Unit J

Burlington, ON L7L 5R2 O ENSR Operations Ltd. 598-192

the Environment since 1986 to Pro

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 107


Hydraulic Modelling for MISA Flow Measurements

Implementation of Ontario's

Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA)program creates unprecedented require ments for accurate flow monitoring at industrial and municipal facili ties. In a relatively short period, hundreds of flow monitoring instal lations have to be audited for com

pliance with MISA regulations. Ini tial findings of these audits are dis turbing. For example, in the pulp and paper industry,only 30% offlow measurement facilities were found

fully satisfactory. Audits of muni cipal flow installations were even more disconcerting — only 6% ofthe

By Jirl Marsaiek*

lopment in a community was halted because erroneous flow measure ments indicated exceedance of the

treatment plant capacity. Another benefit is in the allocation of treat ment costs — fair allocation of such costs to various users cannot be

accomplished without accurate flow measurements. Similar examples could be cited for industrial opera tions. Even without MISA, it is beneficial to examine the accuracy of flow measurement facilities. Flow measurement installations

can be divided into so-called pre-

of the facility. Installations requiring calibra tion are generally those which devi ate from standard specifications either by design or construction/ installation of the primary element (e.g., a flume or weir), or by flow conditions upstream and/or down stream oftbe facility. The impact of non-standard conditions on the rat

ing curve is hard to quantify and,in most cases, calibration is the only method for such evaluation. Natu

rally, some types of deviations are much more important than others and their significance also depends on the flow measurement accuracy required. For example,a malformed

installations audited were flawless.

calibrated and non-calibrated ins

While many of the faulty installa tions were obviously somewhat dated and obsolete, it is not uncom mon to find problems with recent

tallations; in the latter, rating curves need to be established by calibration. The pre-calibrated ins tallations are designed, constructed and operated according to standard specifications, and their rating curves are known. An example of

throat of a Venturi flume will affect

such an installation is a Farshall

tallations, we have found labora tory calibrations very cost-effective for the analysis of existing malfor med installations, the development of remedial structural measures, and the design of new installations where constraints necessitate depar tures from standard specifications. Details of design of hydraulic

installations as well. Identification of deficient flow measurement ins

tallations is only the firststep in the process of improving flow measu rement in environmental enginee ring. It should be followed by rede sign offaulty installations and imple mentation of corrective measures. Accurate flow measurement is

not only a requirement of environ mental protection, but is also a desi rable goal which can bring about economic benefits. For example,in municipal engineering,flow measu rement errors adversely affect ope ration of wastewater treatment

plants. In one case, further deve-

flume, installed in a long straight rectangular channel with subcriticalflow,where the downstream chan nel has adequate flow capacity to avoid flume submergence. For such conditions, theoretical Parshall flume rate curves have been derived

and reported in the literature. Any departures from the standard speci fications, such as, for example, the replacement ofthe rectangular chan nel by a pipe, may affect the flume rating curve and call for calibration

the rating curve much more than small errors in the flume length. Calibration can be done either in

situ in the prototype or in a labora tory-scale model. In our work with more than 25flow measurementins

models of flow measurement struc

tures have been presented elsewhere (Marsaiek 1990). Where required, the laboratory results have been con

firmed by field observations. Formerly, most modelling stud


ies of flow measurement installa

TT V067 3052


io. I "To<aB

«'?0 1046


11 o<8a


* ♦

tions conducted by National Water Research Institute, were done for proposed non-standard installa tions or for research projects. In recent years, however, many demands for our services are driven

by the MISA program. The latest job in this series was the assessment


of the Du Font flow measurement PLAN




T -1067



weir at the Maitland (Ontario) plant. In this case, the combined effluent discharge from the plant was measured by a trapezoidal weir which had been modified several






Industrial Flow Measurement Facility Developed by Hydraulic Modelling. The facility consists of a stilling basin, a Parshall Flume, and a downstream transi

times. Such modifications signifi cantly affected operation of this weir and, consequently, the firm of Gore & Storrie, Ltd., consulting engi neers and architect, was retained to evaluate this installation in view of

the MISA requirements. After a thorough analysis. Gore Continued on page 69



For more Intormatlon, Circle reply card No. 251



/\t Bondar-Clegg, we under stand the importance you place on accurate test results and

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At Bondar-Clegg, we've built our reputation on reliabi lity, accuracy, turnaround and, above all, high standards. It's our way of ensuring that when you put your reputation

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For more Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Circle reply card No. 102


In point of fact, the burrowing owl doesn't give a hoot at all. Ordinarily, its cry is closer to that of a cuckoo — more

The hurrowing owl may not give a hoot...

of a "coo-coo-roo." And when the

robin-sized burrowing owl is threatened, it utters a shrill cackle that

strongly resembles the warning buzz of a rattlesnake.

The burrowing owl is native to Canada's dry grassland country,

dependent mainly on the burrows of small animals for its nest sites. With the advance of civilization, however, these

burrows have become less plentiful, and in recent years the burrowing owl has joined the growing ranks of endangered species. In 1983 the British Columbia Fish

and Wildlife Branch began a program to reintroduce the burrowing owl to the South Okanagan Valley area by

transplanting adult and nestling birds from Washington state. Part of this

Head Office

program involved the construction of

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artificial burrows to house the new

arrivals. Big 'O' contributed 6-inch perforated pipe for this purpose. The burrowing owls seem eager to take advantage of the hospitality offered. Their ready acceptance of the artificial burrows gives them a fighting chance to become re-established as a

self-sustaining species. With luck — and good management — the "coo-coo-roo" of the burrowing owl may again become a familiar sound in grasslands country.

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Endangered species such as the burrowing owl bring home the fact that we cannot take our natural

environment for granted. We must all play our part to maintain its fragile balance .. . or lose it forever. That is

one reason why Big 'O' takes particular care to ensure the safety of its

products. When Big 'O' uses recycled polyethylene in the production of its tubing, it is highly selective, using only resins of traceable origin that eliminate the potential introduction of toxic chemicals during the recycling process. In this way, Big 'O' can be confident not only of the quality of its products, but of their environmental safety now

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Water supply development

Water supplies In Southwestern Ontario need provincial leadership TABLE 1

By B.L. Wheeler, P.Eng.* *Paragon Engineering Limited

The demographics of the


Lake Supply

Ground Water Supply

- essentially unlimited

- limited

- some risk of

- reliable due to


a)availability b)reliability

southwestern portion ofthe

Province of Ontario are

unique in that much of the population is found in large urban communities significantly removed

interruption if only one source (such as pipeline rupture)

Public Utilities Commission chose

to embark on a plan to obtain water from Lake Huron. This scheme evolved to become the Ontario Water

Resources Commission's first large regional water supply system. The system includes an intake and treat ment plant near Grand Bend and a



from Great Lakes shorelines. This

inland urban population totals nearly one million. For example, two thirds of the population ofthe Counties of Brant, Elgin, Kent, Middlesex, Oxford, Perth, Waterloo and Wellington reside in urban communities greater than 10,000 persons(specifically the Cities of Brantford, Cambridge, Chatham, Guelph, Kitchener, Lon don, St. Thomas, Stratford, Water loo and Woodstock, the Towns of Paris,Simcoe,Tillsonburg and Wallaceburg and the Township of Delhi (see Figure 1). Because local ground water sources of suitable quality are limi ted, most of these urban communi ties have already faced or will face significant technical challenges in providing public water supply. When the City of London faced this problem in the early 1960's, the

numerous independent

a)hardness b)temperature c)quality for drinking d)risk of persistent

- optimum

- harder than optimum

- 2° - 24°C

- less variable

- excellent

- excellent

- little risk due to mixing

- greater risk due to less mixing and generally


and natural removal

lower rates of removal



- probably higher - probably lower

a)short-term b)long-term

50 km across-country pipeline to the City of London. Urban and rural municipalities along the pipeline route are also served. After 25 years of operation and a series of pre planned expansions, the system is now at its ultimate design capacity, a capacity which will be exceeded by demand in 10 years or less. The Elgin Area water system is similar in concept. The treatment plant, on Lake Erie, near Port Stan ley, supplies the City of St. Thomas and the nearby Ford Motor Com pany assembly plant. In contrast, the region of Water loo is now implementing a plan for the continued use of ground water. In this scheme,local aquifers will be artificially recharged with treated

- probably lower - probably higher

river water to help meet increasing demands.

This paper proposes that how ever desirable local ground water supplies may be at this time for many communities, it would seem wise to act now to also establish and

implement a long-range plan for securing a future lake supply for the larger urban areas. The following arguments support this proposal: •Obviously,water demand in many urban areas will exceed ground water yields. •Ground water contamination, if it occurs, may not be easily treated, and will probably not dissipate quickly. Thus aquifers may be lost from use.

•Lake water supplies may be desir able for environmental reasons. In

creasing use of a regional aquifer can have detrimental impacts on both non-urban users and natural









HWY. irw

T/ o

creases summer flows in surface

° ° o O






environment. Because aquifer res ponse is difficult to predict, is not controlled, and may be long-term, there is some risk of unanticipated adverse impact. On the other hand, the importation of lake water in





watercourses. With today's high level of municipalsewage treatment, effluent quality approaches "natu ral" surface water quality, and can be considered to be an environmen

tal "plus" for stream flow augmen -



tation and the dilution of the more contaminated and hard to control

storm run-off from urban and agri cultural land uses.

FIGURE 1: Inland Urban Communities in Southwestern Ontario

greater than 10,000

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

•Sites for raw water intakes, lakeContinued on page 69 35

Pumping system design

Overcoming problems In the design of water and wastewater pumping stations

Pumping is an integral part

of water supply and distri bution, and wastewater col lection and disposal sys tems. It requires substantial por tions of the systems' cost and may demand the larger part of operating power costs. For both water and wastewater,pumping station design is inevitably a prominent part ofthe overall systems. Although hoth essentially pump water, there are fundamental differences required in the pumping station design, in the pumps being used, the structures' shape and the mode of operation. The type of pumping station in each category varies also with the size of the station, its depth below grade, and discharge piping configuration and pressure. The effect of the design choices on construction and operating economics increases with the size of the station. The designer has to rely on experience to elimi nate those parameters that do not apply in particular situations, and to concentrate on the important

large size pumping stations, although the principles apply to all types and sizes. Operation and Reliability Automatic operation and low maintenance are important in all cases to minimize pumping costs, but actual pumping efficiency is clearly more important in a station consuming $200,000 worth of elec tric power per year compared to one that uses $2,000. Reliability of ope ration requires an appropriate choice of system components that will operate under both the normal circumstances,and also under some abnormal operating conditions. This may require backup systems,

such as standby diesel generators, duplication oflevel sensors and con trollers,and automatic activation of standby pumps.

Textbooks and design manuals are available describing pumping station layouts for various applica tions. They generally do not, how ever, elaborate on the operational problems that could have been avoided in the design. The empha

A simple form of this concept is the duplex sump pump where the lag pump is started by a separate float switch mounted higher than the lead pump switch. Should the lead pump fail, the system will operate equally well on the lag pump. However,the operator should be automatically notified of such a condition, so that the failed unit can be promptly repaired and returned to service to maintain a ready standby unit. A high level alarm float switch located

sis of this article is on medium and

above the two start switches is also


provided, to notify the operator that both pumps have either failed or are unable to pump at the inflow rate, and that urgent attention is needed. The principle is that maintenance of a failed unit can be undertaken dur

ing regular working hours, but.

Uplift from the groundwater must be resisted at all times.

should there be a real emergency, the operator is immediately notified and can take appropriate action to minimize any damage and keep the station operational. Potable Water Pumping Potable water pumping permits the use of a wide variety of pumps. As the building floor is usually only slightly below grade, floor space is not expensivein relation to the pump and motor costs, and the most suit able layout may be used. Pumps and motors can be mounted hori

zontally, and on solid foundations, for vibration free operation and long pump life.

The most efficient types of pumps can be used. Impellers with small water passages provide efficient ser vice and high pressures. Water inlet to both sides ofthe impeller provides hydraulic balance resulting in low axial bearing load. Bearings can be mounted on both sides of the impel ler for solid support. Shaft seals are product lubricated and therefore require no outside glandwater. The pumps can easily he kept continuously primed by a small vacuum system. The pump casing can be split along the shaft centre line, allowing the impeller, hear ings, and seals to he inspected and repaired without disassembling the motor or piping. The pumps,motors and valves are usually mounted in a row,for easy servicing with an over head crane.

Water is usually pumped from a storage reservoir at the treatment

plant through the piping grid into another reservoir with storage capa city at a higher level. Pumping can be at a constant flow rate,for a time of operation long enough to limit the number of motor starts per hour so that the motor does not become over-

Aesthetics combined with function. This small sewage pumping station was designed for a Heritage Village. The standby diesel exhaust is housed in the chimney. Two 22 L/S Flygt submersible pumps are used. 36

*Aivars Bergs is the Chief Design Engineer, Environmental Group, R.V. Anderson Associates Limited.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

By Aivars Bergs* heated. Constant speed motors can therefore be used,providing the best reliability at least costs. On-offoper ation is by remote control from the receiving reservoir level. Several smaller pumps are usual ly provided, rather than one large pump, plus standby units, to pro mote more continuous pumping, minimize the storage requirements and maintain better pressure con trol in the piping grid during the daily demand fluctuations. Each pump discbarge pipe may be provi ded with a separate check valve and a motorized shut-off valve,or a com bination cbeck-sbutoff valve, pilot operated and powered by the water pressure. The shut-off valve is clo sed slowly before the pump is stop ped,and opens slowly after the pump is started, to prevent pipeline sur ges. The check valve is a safety fea ture, preventing backflow in case of sudden electric power failure or shut-off valve malfunction.

Electric power failure causing the pumps to stop suddenly can create severe pressure surges in the dis cbarge pipeline, particularly in long pipes at high flow velocities. Seve ral methods exist to minimize these

shock loads, with pressurized air surge tanks being the most reliable. Surge tanks are costly, and tank sizes must be designed for particular systems to limit the surge pressure to that acceptable by the piping sys tem. A surge tank containing com pressed air is classified as a pressure vessel, and must be designed to the appropriate standards. An oilless type of air compressor is used in potable water service to preventcon tamination of the water supply. Other surge attenuation measures such as vacuum breakers,surge anti cipating valves and dump valves may be adequate in some configura tions, particularly for smaller sys tems.

Computer programmes are avail able for the calculation of surge pressures in pumping systems. Once the basic system has been entered into the programme, the effects of modifications such as surge tank addition and air valves can be evalu ated.

Piping,whether large size steel or smaller ductile iron,is cement lined to prevent pipe corrosion and also to prevent water contamination by iron oxide. Increasingly,tbin-walled stainless steel pipe, with standard steel flanges is being used. Sewage Pumping Raw sewage contains abrasive grit, grease,large solids, paper,plas tics, rubber, rags and stringy mate rial so special non-clog type pumps

are required. Pump impellers have to be robust, with large water pas sages not prone to clogging, and be provided with some wear allowance. This requires large suction passages which can only be into one side of the overhung impeller, resulting in an axial hydraulic unbalance and requiring large axial thrust bear ings. The bearings must be located all on one side ofthe impeller,accen tuating any rotating imbalance. Vacuum priming is unreliable in sewage pumping due to the solids and grease buildup and sewer gases so is not used. Pumps have to be

charge is of particular interest firom a standpoint of vibrations. Every time an impeller vane tip passes this wall, a pulse force is generated,and the severity of this force increases with tighter clearances. The effect is also more pronounced with larger pump impellers for a particular pump (suction and discbarge open

mounted below the lowest water

be quite high,requiring a very high structural rigidity to minimize coin cidence with natural system frequen

level to maintain prime. This usual ly requires a deep in-ground struc ture below the inlet sewer at a high cost per unit floor area. Pumps and motors are usually mounted verti cally to minimize the required floor space, with the motors frequently mounted on a floor above the pumps to provide safety against motor dam age should there be some flooding of the pump floor. In some installa tions, they may be mounted on the main floor,above any potentialflood level.

The separately mounted motors and pumps are connected by flexible shafts,sometimesin several lengths with intermediate bearings if the

ing) size. The firequency of this so called cutwater disturbance is the

pump rotationalfrequency times the number of impeller vanes. Most non-clog impellers have two or three vanes, and the second and third harmonics of this disturbance can

cies. The cutwater shocks can be

much reduced in the pump manu facture by the machining of a slight curvature on the vane tips, at a very slight reduction in pump efficiency. The natural frequencies of con cern may be of the building struc ture or its components, and the pump, motor or shaft or a combina tion ofthese. The adverse effects are

ultimately a function ofthe rotating unbalance, and it is prudent to spe cify close limits for the dynamic balance of the rotating equipment. Bracing of pumps and structures is sometimes required, including en-

While it may be feasible to avoid the coincidence of the primary harmonic frequencies, the second and third harmonics may not be successfuiiy avoided over the whole operating speed range. motors are located more than 3 or 4

easing much of the pump in a block

metres above the pumps. The poten tial for vibration problems, both lateral and torsional can be high in these circumstances,and a very care ful choice of both the rotating equip ment and structure rigidity is requir

of concrete.

ed in order to avoid the effect of

small periodic vibrations coinciding with the natural frequencies of the structural components or a combi nation of structure and machinery. This becomes even more complicat ed when variable speed motors are used. While it may be feasible to avoid the coincidence ofthe primary harmonic frequencies, the second and third harmonics may not be successfully avoided over the whole operating speed range. It is there fore mostimportant to choose equip ment that is rigid and carefully bal

This aftermarket

approach may have the desired effect, butthe visualimpression may by uncomplimentary and servicing may become a problem. Sewage pumping involves the lift ing of sewage from an in-ground sewer up directly into another sewer, channel or treatment plant,or into a forcemain. The direct lift station

has short pump inlet and discharge pipes, with separate pipes for each pump. If the discharge is above the water level, check valves are not required. Surge tanks are not need ed, due to the short discharge pip ing. The sewage in the discharge piping will, however,flow back into the wet well when a pump is stop ped, and the wet well size and pump control settings must take this into


account and not react to this level

A desire for higher efficiencies in sewage pumps has resulted in tight clearances between impellers and pump casings. A tight clearance between the impeller vane tips and the volute wall at the pump dis

change. The flow rate of sanitary sewage varies during the day,between about 150% and 50% ofthe average for that day, but the daily average also

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Continued overleaf 37

Pumping system design varies. Local storage of peak flow is impractical due to the high cost of deep underground chambers and the problem of the stored sewage turn ing septic. The pumps must there fore pump at the inflow rate, and adjust automatically to the flow changes. It is impractical to govern the pumps directly hy the flow rate as it cannot be measured that accu

rately. Instead, the pumping rate is governed by the level in the wet well, and it is adjusted to maintain a constant level in the wet well; that is, a level corresponding to a parti cular flow rate, and the pumping rate is adjusted automatically up or down until the level stays constant. This adjustment is done in steps to prevent continuous adjustment and wear, but the steps must not be so high that they cause overshoot. The level sensors are sufficiently dam pened to beinsensitive to turbulence, surface ripples and floating scum or debris.

The layout ofthe deeper stations, say 10 metres or more in depth, can he logically evolved from the basic parameters. The substructure is divided into two approximately equal vertical sections — the wet well where the incoming sewage is collected, and the dry well housing

the pumps, motors, valves, flowmeter and various ancillaries. The wet well is further divided into two vertical sections so that one section at a time can be taken out of service for maintenance while the station

age. These advantages outweigh the cost ofthe additional floor space required for the four pumps. The pumping station structure is regularly a higher costitem than the actual pumping machinery and re quires careful design. The substruc

remains operational. This in turn requires that there be at least two pumps, one in each wet well. However, since one of these would be a standby, each pump would have to be sized for peak flow and would be running inefficiently during normal operation which is at about a third of the design peak flow. If the duty pump became in operative while the standby pump was being serviced — a piece of wood or rags in the impeller — the whole station would, in fact, be in operative. This problem can be avoided by the use of four smaller pumps,two to each wet well. In this case,three pumps would provide the design peak flow with the fourth as a standby. Much of the pumping would,in this case, be by one pump operating about full speed, with the second pump assisting at peak flow conditions during a few hours each day. The third duty pump would only be required intermittently dur ing heavy, prolonged rainstorms

potential for seepage. Many other aspects of a pumping station need to be considered, such as access and emergency exit,equip ment hoists, ventilation and heat ing, electrical system, safety requi rements,standby power,control and alarm systems,various fail safe and backup systems — all for an auto matically operating, reliable, low

when the inflow is well above aver

maintenance station. ES&E

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ture is often all below the water table and the earth load on the outside

walls is very high. Uplift from the groundwater must be resisted at all times. A cylindrical substructure is most appropriate in these circum stances for the deeper stations because the outside wallis always in compression. Any concrete cracks cannot enlarge, and can be easily grouted to prevent groundwater seepage through the wall into the dry well. The outside wall can be made thicker than structurally necessary, to provide mass against flotation. This further reduces the


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Circle reply card No. 120

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


In the complex world of piping, it's nice to hove user-friendly Victoulic® compo nents to rely on. With just o wrench and o little lubricant, it's the easiest system there is to

For more information, contact your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada Limited, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or coll 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729.


The entire Victaulic system works the some way—couplings (like the patented rigid Zero-Flex® shown above), fittings, valves, flange adapters, reducers and more. Use Victaulic just once, and you'll discover there isn't a faster, easier, or more reliable way

iCtauliC y

to connect pipe.

Best of oil, you'll find the Victaulic system helps you save on total installed costs, as well as future retrofit and expansions. We think that's as user-friendly as it gets.

Victoulic Old Zero-Flex ore registered trodemorks oF Vtctoulic Company of Canada Limited. ©1990 Victoulic. All rights reserved.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 105


■ . . -.

^ ■»


Water - the world's most precious compoundfe

It's proper treatment demands the best filtration methods available and here the underdrain

system plays a vital role. The ultimate system

can now be obtained from ElMCO with our

Flexscour'^" filter underdrain.

The very low profile and low pressure drop

The unique and innovative design eliminates

overall costs.

explosive air release and surging so that the

allows for minimum cell depth, again reducing


Maxltnum shop assembly, and simple field bolting requirements without grouting substantially reduces installation time and cost.

In conjunction with proper media selection and sizing also supplied by ElMCO, this system

particularly adaptable to retrofit existing filter

media bed is not disrupted during backwash. Uneven media cleaning and distribution is

The ElMCO Flexscour"" Filter Underdrain Is also

allows a reduction in overall backwash water

underdrains. Even the bolt-down system Is

volume by up to 50%, resulting in greatly

designed so that existing rebar is not a problem.

reduced backwash water treatment and disposal costs.

ElMCO offers over 40 years of experience in the development and manufacturing of water and

The FLEXSCOUR design also eliminates the need for false bottoms or supported filter decks, there are no flow control filter nozzles to foul.

Our specialists will custom design to suit your

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Sampling stations play vital role In ambitious Lake Okeechobee cleanup


largest inland water body in the United States, covering approximately 500,000 acres. It serves as the primary water supply for five major cities and the secon dary water supply for most of South Florida. It is also the headwaters of

Florida's famous Everglades. With abundant supplies of bass and speckled perch, the lake serves as an important recreation area and supports a major catfish industry. When increasing concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, which could permanently alter the ecologi cal balance of the lake were detec

ted, cleanup of Lake Okeechobee became a major concern ofthe South Florida Water Management District. At first, cleanup of the lake appeared to he a massive underta king. Numerous dairy farms, beef operations, and citrus groves to the north ofthe lake,and the sugar cane industry to the south, were among the major agricultural users. The identification of the sources of con tamination alone seemed an over

Other sources of phosphorusfrom the dairies came from water used to

rinse harn floors which is eventually stored in first and second stage impoundment areas. Historically, this water has been discharged into a seepage field. Water from this sys tem can leave the farm through existing surface water ditches. Because of the poorly drained high water tahle soils and the inability of these soils to effectively ahsorh phos phorus, this water use practice was ineffective in controlling phospho rus runoff on the farm.

Beef cattle operations support approximately 60,000 cows. The pastures are fertilized and ditched to improve crop yield and drainage. The common practice of fertilizing during the summer rainy season had the potential to add to the phos phorus runoff into surrounding waterways. Changing the time of fertilization to the spring and fall, when rains are less frequent, and fencing cattle out of the streams, helped improve the quality ofrunoff from these operations.

However,more intensive on-farm management practices were needed

to significantly improve the quality of discharge to the lake. State and federal agencies desi gned and developed new land man agement practices which would en able farmers to recycle the nutrients on the farm in lieu of runoff into the

streams. In an attempt to evaluate these practices and determine their effectiveness,a clear understanding of the dynamics of the area hydro logy and water quality was needed. The monitoring strategy had to address the phosphorus concentra tions leaving each farm in the basin to develop criteria on which to eval uate alternative management tech niques. Tributaries and inflow struc tures to the lake were also monitored

to maintain a temporal and spatial perspective on long-term water qua lity trends. Intensive field sampling and data analysis became the backbone of

the project. Continuous sampling was selected as the best means to

monitor runoff during peak dis-

whelming task. To address the pro blem, the District implemented an ambitious program of water sam pling and analysis, which in turn led to a plan to regulate nutrient concentrations,mainly phosphorus, discharging into the lake. Through the Lake Okeechobee Surface Water Improvement and Management(SWIM)Plan,the Dis trict was ahle to not only identify potential sources of pollution, but to quantitatively evaluate the effects of various land management prac tices and institute regulatory stan dards.

The District's first step was to identify and quantify the sources of contamination. Early monitoring in the 1970's performed by the USDA Agricultural Research Services and the District, under the Rural Clean Water Program, had targeted the large dairy and beef cattle indus tries north of the lake as the most

likely sources of high phosphorus concentrations. These operations support a high density of livestock and use large quantities of fertili zers. The dairy industry imports feed rich in phosphorus. More than forty dairy farms house from 1,000 to 1,200 cows each. The animals

tend to congregate in holding areas in and around the barns.

I Lake Okeechobee, the second largest inland water body in the US, is the headwaters of Florida's famous Everglades. Restoring the lake's water quality Is essential to the long-term health of these valuable wetlands. Photo - s. oavey

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


Cleaning up Lake Okeechobee, cont'd. charges and track changes in phos phorus concentrations in relation to changes in flow. Reconnaissance sampling and research on accessi bility were required to determine the best sites for long term monitoring

and to identify episodic changes in phosphorus loads. Weekly water quality sampling and stream and surface water samples were monitor ed at 52 separate sites, including dairies, ditched pastures and key

stations. These were located both


upstream and downstream from the dairies to allow comparison of the impact of prescribed land manage ment practices. Sampling stations are located at the most representative outfallfrom each of the dairy operations, along with stations monitoring other agri

Dissolved oxygen, pH, conduc tivity, temperature and oxidation reduction potential are recorded at

cultural land uses. To evaluate the

response of phosphorus during various intensity storm events,con tinuous sampling instrumentation is being used. American Sigma samplers have been integrated with other continu ous water quality and hydrologic monitoring equipment for storm event monitoring. Stream velocity and stage are monitored,and a data logger is being programmed to inte grate stage and velocity measure ments to trigger autosampler collec tion.

Grab samples are collected week ly in the tributaries and dairy out falls to assess water quality trends

selected research sites.


stage,flow conditions and land man agement activities are monitored at each site.

Quality control is an on-going concern for a program ofthis magni tude. Random use of field blanks, spiked samples and replicate sam ples provide qualification of field sampling and analytical procedures. Extensive screening and analy sis is performed on automatic sam pler samples collected at major struc tures. The presence of high phos phorus in any sample may lead to further short-term investigation to

anced against costs as high as $500,000 per dairy to implement alternative management practices, the District's investmentin monitor

ing and equipment is minimal to ensure success in the evaluation of

thede practices. Benefits gained from the program have been the development of assimilative coeffi cients used to identify acceptable levels of phosphorus runoff (stan dards) for the major agricultural operations surrounding the lake. This concentration was deter

mined necessary to meet the 0.18 mg/1 target phosphorus concentra tion at the respective inflows to the lake. Continuous sampling will help to quantify the effectiveness ofalter native land management practices based on changes in water quality and to determine concentrations and

subsequent loading rates atthe lake inflow structures. By 1992, all dai ries in the area must implement these "dairy rule" practices. The District will continue to use conti

determine the source and trace the

nuous monitoring at key sites to evaluate management practices.

nature and history of the event.

The beef and citrus industries will

A tremendous investment in

monitoring and analytical costs has gone into site development and sam ple analysis at each automated monitoring station. However, bal

have to meet similar technologybased water quality standards, as will the urban areas. ES&E For more Information, Circle reply card No. 225

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991



Toxicity of Municipal Sewage Treatment Piant Effiuents

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poilution Research & Control ring test solutions and test initia tion,specified test conditions,appro priate observations and measure ments,endpoints,methods ofcalcula tion, and the use of reference toxi

Research Journal of Canada, des cribes the results of an assessment

S.G. Nutt, XCG Consultants Ltd., with colleagues from the Ontario Ministry ofthe Environment(MOE), Beak Consultants, and CH2M Hill cants. Ltd.,undertook an intensive evalua Automated Thermophlllc Aerobic tion of the toxicity of treated efflu Digestion ents from municipal sewage treat A paper by Wastewater Technology ment plants(STPs),on behalf of the Centre scientist G.W.Speirs and col MOE to support the development of leagues from Reid Crowther and effluent toxicity limits. The experi Partnership Ltd., and Aquatrol mental program involved sampling Technologies Inc. describes the at six secondary treatment facili design and start-up ofan automated ties, two tertiary treatment plants thermophilic aerobic digestion and two sewage lagoons. Each facil (ATAD)system. ATAD was incor ity was sampled during both winter porated for sludge stabilization as and summer operations to deter part of a conventional activated mine the impact of seasonal condi sludge wastewater treatment faci tions on effluent toxicity. The lity designed and constructed for results, and their implications for Banff,Alberta. As described to dele the design and operation of STPs, gates attending the recent WPCF were described at the 63rd Annual Annual Conference,it offered sever WPCF Conference. al benefits over other processes in terms of costs, ease of operation, Activated Sludge Model environmental impact, and patho McMaster University's P.L. Bold has proposed a general activated gen destruction. The authors des sludge kinetic model with the capa city for modelling the biological processes of carbonaceous energy removal, nitrification, denitrification, and excess phosphorus remo val. The model is based on a merg ing of the lAWPRC model and the Wentzel polyP organism culture model. As described to delegates attending the 13th International Symposium on Wastewater Treat ment,three case studies were used to demonstrate the predictive capacity of the model. The model provides accurate simulation of a range of activated sludge system configura tions incorporating aerated and unaerated reactors, correctly simu lates the organism mass distribu tion, and tracks the changes in cer tain key parameters such as soluble phosphorus and nitrate concentra

cribe the factors involved in the

design of the plant which was com pleted and commissioned by late 1990.

Contaminants in Coal Wastewaters

A paper in the Water Pollution

by University of British Columbia scientists on organic contaminants in Canadian coal wastewaters and associated sediments. The waste-

water samples were analyzed for 18 target compounds. Sediment sam ples were analyzed for these com pounds plus a suite of organic prior ity pollutants. J.W. Atwood and colleagues detected 12 of the 18 tar get compounds in wastewater, only 4 of which were found in excess of 10

^^g/L. Limited experimentation indi cated that coal sediments were unli

kely to contribute organic contami nants to the water column, hut rather were more likely to absorb material out of the water column.

Toxicity Test Precision

Environment Canada has recently issued a guidance document which describes the use of reference toxi

cants within a laboratory for control of toxicity test precision over time. Thirteen chemicals were evaluated

for their suitability as reference toxi cants in six different biological tests, and those which met specific crite ria and proved valuable in the res pective toxicity tests are identified. Procedures for chemical acquisition.

Benefit From Wastewater Treatment Myth # 1: Wastewater treatment won't solve our odor problem. Fact:

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Acute Lethality Tests

Methods recommended by Environ ment Canada for performing acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, seawater-acclimated threespine stickelback, and daphnids are des cribed in three separate reports issued recently. General or univer sal conditions and procedures are outlined using a variety of test materials. Additional conditions and procedures are stipulated which are specific for assessing samples of chemicals, effluents, elutriates, leachates, or receiving waters. Includ ed are instructions on culturing con ditions and requirements, sample handling and storage, test facility requirements, procedures for prepa

A dairy in Maryiand suppresses odors with an ADI geomembrane tank cover, which has a gas recovery rate of 100%. Biogas is simply drawn off and burned to produce steam for the plant. Call us for more information now.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Bob Landine Canada

Tel:(506)452-9000 Fax:(506)459-3954

Al Cocci

Tel:(608)898-9963 Fax:(608)898-3991


For more Information, Circle reply card No. Ill


R&D News continued safe handling and storage are pre sented. It is recommended that tes

ting be conducted at least once per

month. Instructions are provided for establishing and interpreting con trol charts,as well as reporting data. Organic Chemical Uptake by Fish University of Toronto scientists K.E. Clark, F.A.P.C. Gobas, and D. Mackay have presented a compre hensive model in Environmental

Science and Technology, which des cribes the bioaccumulation of orga nic chemicals by fish from food and water. Uptakeofanonmetabolizing chemical from water tends to result

in the chemical adopting a fugacity in the fish approaching that in the water, as expressed by a bioconcentration factor. Uptake from food may result in a fish fugacity that is higher than the food or water fuga city, corresponding to biomagnification. This biomagnification phe nomenon is mostsignificantfor very hydrophobic, slowly clearing, nonmetaholizing chemicals. Agricultural Utilization of Papermlll Sludge A cooperative research program undertaken by K.L. Bellamy and

colleagues from ORTECH Interna tional, Quebec and Ontario Paper Co. and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food was described at the 13th International Sympo sium on Wastewater Treatment.The

purpose ofthe program was to evalu ate the agricultural utilization of paper mill sludge from both agro nomic and environmental perspec tives. After five years of investiga tive research and monitoring,it was concluded that the land application of the paper mill sludge produced agronomic benefits with no detect able environmental impacts. While the paper mill benefits from major reductions in disposal costs,the real benefit is the availability of an organic waste that is valuable as a soil amendment.

DIoxIns In Pulp Mill Effluents To assess the impact of dioxin and furan contamination from pulp mill effluents, the Canadian Govern ment,in collaboration with the pro vinces and industry,established the National Dioxin/Furan Sampling Program in 1968. The purpose ofthe program was to identify dioxin con tamination in the vicinity of the 47

SURVEYLOGGER The Speedometer For Effluents

Canadian pulp and paper mills using chlorine bleaching and to learn more about the fate and path ways of dioxins in the aquatic envi ronment. The results, presented by Environment Canada's E.F.Muller, L. Trudel and A.S. Baweja at the recent WPCF Conference,indicated that chlorinated dioxins and/or

furans were present in sediments at 90% of the sites. At over 50% of the

sites substantially elevated levels of dioxins and furans were found.

Dissolved Oxygen Determination A continuous flow method for deter

mination of dissolved oxygen in fresh water samples is described in a report issued by the National Water Research Institute.

The method,

developed by I. Sekerka and J.F. Lechner,is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples as well as for continuous monitoring. It uti lizes flow-injection with in-line Winkler chemistry and spectrophotometric detection. Up to 120 samples/hour can he analyzed with a relative standard deviation of 2%

and a detection limit ofO.lppm. The operation of the system, including calibration, calculation and statis tical evaluation,and data storage in a main frame computer,is governed by a PC work station. Biological Removal of Chlorine Demand

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by-products is to reduce chlorine demand before the application of chlorine. The major objective of a study undertaken by M.Prevost and colleagues of Gendron Lefebvre Consultants was to evaluate the per formance of different water treat

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bed to delegates attending the recent International Symposium on Wastewater Treatment, biological activa ted carbon(BAC)filtration reduced short term (25-60%) and long term chlorine demand (15-43%). Maxi mum removal of chlorine demand

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Improved Oxygen Transfer B.C. Ministry of the Environment scientist R.I. Ashley and D.S. Mavinic and K.J. Hall from the Univer

Thousands in service worldwide

sity of British Columbia used nonsteady state gas transfer methodol ogy to examine the effect of orifice

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

R&D News nology, standard oxygen transfer rate, transfer efficiency, and energy efficiency allincreased with decreas ing orifice diameter. Surface condi tions had a minor effect on oxygen

status of scientific research pertain ing to the Halifax sewage disposal issue, including the research that has been undertaken or is currently underway, the results to date, and the implications for harbour users


and others.

described in Environmental Tech

Concentration of Dissolved

Organic Carbon

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was concentrated from natural

streams using reverse osmosis equip ment by T.A. Glair and his collea gues from McMaster University and Systems Evaluation Service. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, qua lity control tests show that from 95 to 98% of total DOC was rejected by the membrane although only 70% could actually he recovered, most likely because of losses within the plumbing system. Analysis of the permeate shows that it contains material with a molecular weight less than 200 dalton and a pKa dis tribution suggesting that a range of molecules with carhoxylic and phen olic acid sites are leaking through the membrane.

Halifax Harbour Clean Up

The focus ofa paper presented at the 13th International Symposium on Wastewater Treatment was on the

Bedford Institute of

Oceanography scientist H.B. Nicholls concluded that significant progress was made in 1989 and 90in addressing many ofthe issues raised by the Halifax Harbour Cleanup Review Committee and others. Exist

ing research has continued and accelerated, new programs have been initiated, and the results of previous research have been revie wed within the context ofthe sewage issue.

A Phytotoxiclty Biosensor The potential ofa photoelectrochemical cell employing photosynthetic membranes in an application as a phytotoxicity biosensor has been demonstrated by M. Purcell and R. Carpentier, University of Quebec at

mediators which are reoxidized by a platinum working electrode. The photocurrent generated was inhibi ted by relatively low concentrations of herbicides, nitrite, sulfite, and several heavy metals, thus provi ding a measure of the presence of these materials.

Water Quality Guidelines for Herbicides Inland Waters Directorate scientist

R.A. Kent and colleagues, have issued reports on Canadian Water Quality guidelines for three herbi cides: picloram, metribuzin and cyanazine. These publications sum marize the information from a liter

ature review conducted on the uses, fate, and effects of the herbicides on raw water for drinking water sup ply,freshwater aquatic fife, agricul tural uses, recreational water qua lity and aesthetics, and industrial water supplies. Water quality guide lines for the protection of specific

Trois-Rivieres. As described in the Water Pollution Research Journal

of Canada, a small volume of isola ted thylakoid membranes was used to produce a photocurrent. The reduced species produced during photosynthetic electron transport are oxidized by soluble electroactive

water uses are recommended.

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (819) 953-9365, Fax:(819) 953-9029. T


, ^ —/myonTtb produce a c'arifier; The Densadeg High Rate Clarifter andTbic combines mixing, clarification and thickening in one compact unit, cutting your capital and operating costs substantially. External sludge recirculation produces the dense sludge for which the Densadeg is named — a much


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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

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Groundwater contamination

Sarnia leachate treatment plant — a first of Its kind In Ontario

TheCity ofSarnia Leachate Treatment Plant was con


structed in 1989-90, with start-up and commissioning beginning in June, 1990. The plant, designed by Conestoga-Rovers &

rMl Main precBU Wt

RASthcigtBnw _ Pmuiy alud9B. WAS. and bgrpui Ifiat

Associates, is Ontario's first full-

scale leachate treatment facility to discharge directly to the natural environment.


The plant design incorporates a primary treatment section followed by an activated sludge process. Sludge dewatering, facilities for

Amtien Buin na 2

Suo»m»ttr< Rt*T> Utx

final effluent filtration and winter Aarajoii 8«»n no.3

storage are provided. The plant dis charges to a nearby creek via a wet land area. The purpose of this dis charge methodology is to take advan tage of the natural tendency of wet lands to utilize residual nitrogen and phosphorus in the effluent, mini mizing the impact on the receiving

I MudMl I Connl IB OraJn


* Pwipf ^

hi Rmjti AeM»d SWjt Lin«

-<5>figure 1 PROCESS SCHEMATiC


waters of the creek. In order to allow the treated lea

chate to be discharged in such a manner, the Ministry of the Envi ronment imposed the following Final Effluent Quality Criteria (FEQC), which require a system design thatincludes secondary treat ment to meet the following objec tives: Parameter BODs

Max Concentration 15


n£n P-total


Within two months of start-up of the facility, effluent from the plant was consistently meeting all ofthese criteria and ammonia removal effi

ciency exceeded 99.9% at all times. This performance was realized even with the varying leachate quality/ quantity characteristics observed during this period of operation. Capital costs for the facility, in cluding engineering, amounted to $2 million, while annual O&M costs are expected to be in the range of $100,000. Funding for the facility was supplied jointly by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and the City of Sarnia. The City funded two-thirds of the costs for design and construction of the facility, the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment providing the remaining onethird. Costs for initial environment-

*Conestoga Rovers & Associates Ltd. 46

City of Sarnia

tal studies were covered entirely by the City of Sarnia. Sarnia is located in the southwes

tern part of the province of Ontario where the St. Clair River meets Lake

Huron and has a population of approximately 80,000. The landfill, situated in the adjacent Township of Clearwater, was established in 1971 and consists of 40.5 ha. of which 21 ha. are landfilled. It is

surrounded by 100 ha.of buffer land. Wastes received at the landfill in clude solid domestic and commer cial wastes. No hazardous or toxic

precipitates within the activated sludge system.

In this respect, the most impor tant dissolved minerals were cal

cium, magnesium and iron. The high alkalinity (3,000-5,000 mg./L), combined with relatively high levels of calcium and magnesium, promo

ted the formation of carbonate pre cipitates which suppressed oxygen transfer in the aeration basin. Pre-

treatment to alter the inorganic chemistry proved to be a require ment for successful biological treat

wastes are permitted. Leachate is


collected in a French drain which is

Basic design criteria which came out ofthe pilot study and used in the design of the full-scale facility are:

installed around the perimeter ofthe site. The estimated volume of lea-

Parameter BODs NHs-N COD SS F/M





chate generated is approximately 91 mVday. The results of a 6 month treat-

Design Criteria 100 — 1,000 mg./L 300 — 400 mg./L 800 — 2,000 mg./L 10— 100 mg./L 0.001-0.01

Treatment Facilities

A process schematic of the com

pleted treatment facility is presen ted in Fig. 1. The entire facility,

ability study conducted in 1988 con cluded that although the leachate

except for the aerated and storage

was "old" and difficult to treat bio

lagoons, is enclosed in a two storey

logically, aerobic treatment proces ses were applicable if proper pretreatment was provided to control the rate of formation of inorganic

poured concrete and concrete block building covering an area of 265 m^. In order to minimize temperature losses from the aeration tank con-

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

By Andrew Lugowski and Robert Poisson tents and limit the impact on the nitrification process, the second floor was placed directly over approx imately 75% of the total aeration basin surface area. The remaining 25% was left exposed to allow access to each of the basins for mainte nance purposes.

Physical-chemical Pre-treatment The physical-chemical pretreatment system consists of preaeration, pH adjustment,flash mix ing, flocculation and settling. As well, a pre-oxidation stage is em ployed, with hydrogen peroxide as the primary oxidant. Phosphorus,a required nutrient, is also added in this stage in the form of phosphoric

flow or total mix modes ofoperation. Furthermore, the design allows for

capable of 0-200% of leachate flow maintains the mixed liquor suspen

each of the aeration basins to be taken out ofservice for maintenance

ded solids concentrations in the aer

purposes,while continuing the oper ation of the plant. Oxygen is supplied by a coarse bubble fixed header aeration system powered by one of two 30 kW multistaged centrifugal blowers (one is for stand-by purposes).

ation basins at design levels. Excess Activated Sludge (WAS) is wasted through an electronically timed, pneumatically controlled sludge wasting valve located on the Return Activated Sludge(HAS)line leading to the aeration basins.

Effluentfrom the aeration basins is sent to a conical bottomed secon

Sludge Dewatering and Management System

dary clarifier with a hydraulic reten tion time ofthree hours at the design flow rate. A sludge return system

provided atthe plantfor sludge stor-

Two 11.5 m^ concrete tanks are Contlnued overleaf


Leachate is pumped from the last manhole in the collection system into the plant. It passes through the pre-aeration column and into the flash mixing tank for pH adjust ment. After flash mixing and floc culation,the leachate enters the pri mary clarifier where the inorganic

precipitates are settled out. The primary effluent is neutralized with sulfuric acid prior to introduction to the biological treatment stage. Sludge from the bottom of the pri mary clarifier is pumped to one of two sludge storage tanks where it is allowed to concentrate further,prior to dewatering. The supernatant is decanted on a daily basis and sent to the aeration basins for biological

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complex issues. Why wait for a problem to surface? Groundwater

...abundance of invertibrate

life of wide variety took up residence... In the period since start-up of the plant, the primary treatment sec tion has continuously met and has often exceeded design performance criteria. Calcium is being removed at rates greater than 60%, whereas iron is being removed at rates grea ter than 95%. Visual inspection of components in the aeration basin confirm that calcium carbonate pre cipitation has been minimized,thus allowing the biological system to work at optimum efficiency. Biological Treatment System The biological treatment section consists of three aeration basins, each 168 cu. m. in volume.

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hydraulic retention time at the design flow rate is 5.5 days. The process piping in this section of the plant is arranged to provide for plug Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Offices: Montreal, Quebec (514) 353-6939;

Mississauga, Ontario (416)670-1700; Halifax, Nova Scotia (902)453-0585.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 117


Sarnia leachate treatment plant, continued age and conditioning. To improve the dewaterability of the biological sludges, WAS is mixed with the inorganic sludge produced by the primary treatment stage. The mixed sludges are aerated in the storage tanks and allowed to thicken prior to dewatering. Dewatering of sludges is performed on-site on a semi-daily basis using a plate and frame filter press. Approximately 0.75 m^ of sludge is produced per week, with solids ranging from 3050%. The sludge,consisting in large part of inorganic precipitates, is

indicate that under current opera ting conditions, suspended solids concentrations in the filtered efflu

ent are at or below 50% ofthe FEQC. Pre-aeratlon and Storage Lagoons

Effluent leaving the plant can either be discharged directly to wet lands or sent to the post-aeration and storage lagoons. Primarily required for winter storage of efflu ent from the plant, the two lagoons provide a total hydraulic retention time of up to 4 months at the design flowrate.

by minnows,toads,frogs and snap ping turtles. The abundance and variety of life surviving in the lagoons indicated that the effluent had little or no acute toxicity and no apparent long term toxicity. A mor phological examination of the min nows is currently being undertaken to confirm this observation. Wetlands

Effluent from the plant and lagoons meets all the FEQC set for direct discharge. It is expected that discharge through the wetlands will

landfilled at the site. Final Effluent Filtration

Suspended solids in the effluent leaving the secondary clarifier are filtered out using a single media sand filter complete with air scour ing, pulsed bed and automatic backwashing. The backwash water from

Wetlands utilize residual nitrogen and phosphorus, minimizing the Impact on the creek. In order to test the yard piping, the lagoons were operated over the

the final effluent filter is returned to the aeration basins for treatment.

summer of 1990.

Although the filter is located within the plant building, the process piping to the filter is arranged to

abundance of invertibrate life of

allow the filtration of the effluent

from the aerated and/or storage lagoons if required. Operating data obtained to date.


Examination of

the lagoon contents showed that an

wide variety took up residence in the lagoons. When the plant operator added approximately 16 dozen min

nows to the lagoons,a complete food chain was successfully established. The invertibrates were preyed upon


further improve the quality of the effluent. The wetlands provide approximately one month of reten tion at maximum design flow rates, during which time plant uptake of nitrates and any residual phospho rous is expected to occur. A full examination of the environmental

impact ofthe effluent on the biology and water quality of the wetlands will be undertaken during 1991-92, after two years of plant operation. Meanwhile, a sampling and moni toring program on water quality within the wetlands has indicated that there is no deterioration in sur

face water quality.



A proven track record... Environmental Science & Engineer

ing is published by Davcom Com munications

Donald J.S. Tefft, P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubickl Associates

are pleased to announce the appointment of Donald J.S. Tefft, P.Eng., to the position of Project Manager in the Environmental Engineering Group (Whitby). Mr. Tefft has 30 years of progres sive experience in solid wastes management and operations. He held various engineering positions




founded in 1975 to provide writing, editing and graphic design services and first published ES&E in 1988. In both advertising and editorial pages, ES&E is now the largest Canadian magazine serving environmental pro fessionals.

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announce that Mark Robertson has

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Over the past 8 years Mark has been involved in the design and commis sioning of automated control sys tems in both the municipal and Indus trial sectors. He will provide valuable project management and design skills for existing and future projects. THORBURN PENNY LIMITED

Consulting Engineers



Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


Reviewing the disinfection options

Chlorine has been used as a drinking water disinfect

ant for decades and is the disinfectant of choice in

well over 95% of all municipal sup plies. It has been credited with vir tually eliminating typhoid and cho lera in North America and Europe. Many other waterborne diseases, whether caused by bacteria, para sites or viruses may be controlled by the proper application of chlorine as a disinfectant used in conjunction with other water treatment unit pro

ted on site. Sodium hypochlorite reacts similarly to chlorine gas when added to water, but differs in the side reaction products. Stability of hypochlorite solu tions is affected by heat, light, pH, and the presence of heavy metal cations.

Solutions in uncovered

tanks exposed to sunlight, tend to deteriorate. The costs of chlorina

Effective disinfection is achieved when chlorine is added in sufficient

ting by hypochlorite range from two to four times higher than those of chlorinating by gaseous chlorine. For systems serving less than about a thousand consumers, these draw backs are offset by much lower capi tal costs, less skilled operator requi

quantities to maintain a free resi

rements and fewer maintenance

dual. This occurs when the ammo



nia nitrogen has been completely destroyed by the chlorine. Both


monochloramines and dichlora-

mines are formed, the latter being responsible for most of the taste complaints associated with the use of chlorine. A free chlorine residual of at least 85% of the total residual

will provide adequate disinfection and be relatively taste free. As well as taste, there are con cerns about chlorinated drinking water relating to trihalomethanes (THMs), particularly chloroform, and other disinfection byproducts. THMs are formed by the reaction between chlorine and organic mat ter in the water. THM levelsin drink

ing water vary greatly depending on the season, chlorine contact time, water temperature, pH, chemical composition of the raw water, and treatment modes.

Chlorine is still regarded as the most cost-effective, versatile and efficient disinfectant in current use.

Ease of handling and feeding toge ther with its measurable and long lasting residual make it a viable option for disinfection. Gaseous chlorine's drawback is the high capi tal costs for separate chlorine build ings and safety equipment. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE


lysis, so that dialysate water can he properly conditioned. A condition known as chloramine-induced hae

molysis can occur in the patients. CHLORINE DIOXIDE

ClO Widely used for many years in Europe,chlorine dioxide is an excel lent disinfectant also used as a preoxidant for the control of tastes and

odours, particularly in the presence of phenols. It cannot be stored and is usually produced on site in a gener ator by the chlorination of sodium chlorite. In North America,chlorine dioxide is primarily used for taste and odour control. Its ability to disinfect withoutforming THMs has increased interest in its use.

Chlorine dioxide is reported to he Chloramines are widely used in maintaining disinfectant residuals in distribution systems. These are formed by injecting ammonia into water having a chlorine residual just prior to entering distribution systems. The process is controlled

in addition to notforming THMs,it is effective in destroying up to 30% of THM precursors. Disinfection effi ciency is relatively constant between pH levels 6 to 10, but is more effec tive at higher pH values. Chlorine

to avoid the formation of the "medi

dioxide residuals are more effective

cinal" or "chlorinous" tasting dichloramines. Combined (monochloramine) residuals are longer lasting in distribution systems than

Continued overleaf

are free chlorine residuals and

impart no taste to the water. Unlike free residual chlorine, chloramines do notform THMs,so there has been

a superior viricide than chlorine and

Earl Shannon joins ES&E board Dr. Earl Shannon,P.Eng.,has joined

ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.

a substantial increase in interest in

this process in recent years. In a

British study comparing chlora mines with free chlorine used as a

primary disinfectant, THM levels were reduced by almost80% in some cases.

Chloramines are less effective

than free chlorine, chlorine dioxide or ozone; particularly for viruses and protozoans. Chloramines require significantly longer contact time to inactivate coliform bacteria

and enteric pathogens than does

NaOCl The most widely used hypochlorite for potable water treatment is sodium hypochlorite, formed by reacting chlorine gas with caustic soda. It is applied to the water as an aqueous solution using conventio nal metering equipment, or genera

free available chlorine. Studies indi cate that if chloramines are allowed

contact times of 45-60 minutes,they can match the efficiency offree chlo rine based upon the destruction of coliform organisms. Chloramine's disinfecting effectiveness is reduced at low water temperatures. The presence of chloramines in water must be clearly stated to area hospitals or clinics which offer dia

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Dr. Shannon originally joined CH2M HILL INC.in 1974 and spent five years working as a division manager for Water and Wastewater

out of CH2M hill's Gainesville, Florida office. In 1979 he was foun

ding partner of CANVIRO Consul

tants Ltd. which was acquired by CH2M HILL in 1986. Dr. Shannon

is currently Ontario Regional Man ager for CH2M HILL.


Disinfection Options, continued and will persist longer than chlorine in distribution systems, according to some studies. OZONE

primary disinfectant use a secon dary mode such as chlorine or chlo rine dioxide to maintain a safety residual throughout distribution systems.

o Ozone is a triatomic, unstable, partially soluble gas used in water treatment for decades. Ozone does

not form THMs in the presence of humic substances, accelerating interest in North American applica tions. Ozone is used primarily as a preoxidant for control of taste and odours and as an aid to coagulation; not as a primary disinfectant. Its use as a preoxidant is expected to lead to a reduction in chlorine demand of the treated water.

While turbidity up to 5 NTU does not affect ozone's disinfecting capa bilities, higher values may, so to minimize formation ofoxidation by products such as aldehydes,ketones and carboxylic acid,turbidity should be kept to a minimum. Ozone has an extremely short life, leaving no persisting residual. Most authorities using ozone as a

While it will not totally oxidize some organics in the water, ozone will break down larger organic mole cules into smaller, more biodegrad able forms. This is evidenced by the increase in assimilable organic car bon(AOC)following ozonation.The AOC thus formed will provide sub strate for further bacterial activity. Europeans commonly use this phe nomenon to advantage by providing at least one filtration stage after ozonation. A filter may be a GAG contactor or slow sand filter, but in either case it is biologically active. The biofilm formed on the contactor

or filter,together with bacterial acti vity within the media, will further reduce the organic carbon in the water. Without this added filtration

step,the AOC might encourage bac terial activity in the distribution system and reservoirs. Chlorination as a secondary disinfectant will prevent such bacterial activity but could result in some trihalomethanes. ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT

UV sterilization(between 250-265

UV nanometres) is effective in destroy ing water-borne bacteria, viruses,

andifungi. Systems have been devel oped to expose a shallow flow of water in a reactor to give proper intensity and duration of UV radia tion necessary to completely steri lize the water.

UV's advantage is that it adds

nothing to the water except energy. Chemical handling is also elimina ted. No chemical alterations occur

to the water and an energy overdose is normally considered to be a safety factor, not a danger. The process can be easily automated and equip ment requires very little attention other than cleaning. One disadvantage is that UV does notleave a persisting residual.Since the ultraviolet rays must penetrate the microorganism's cell walls, water must be pre-treated to remove suspended matter. UV is also effec tive against cysts. Care must be taken in designing systems to account for the loss of hydraulic head in the UV reactor. Monitoring is also said to be difficult.


CHURCH & TROUGHT INC. An Environmental Management Practice

Robert J. Willcocks, P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates

Alan Church

John Trought

CTI has been formed to offer an environmental management service to assist Indus trial clients In the long term management of their environmental needs. The principals of CTI, have a combination of 35 years In the business of environ mental and Industrial activities, culminating In many years of Industrial environ mental consulting experience. Addressing air environment Issues has been a parti cular strength of the principals. CTI assists clients In defining the needs, scoping the appropriate project response, selecting methodologies and subcontractors as required, and following projects through to final execution. CTI's experience with environmental regulations, negotiating with regulators,actual field testing and report analysis has proven Instrumental In establishing efficient and positive responses to environmental concerns. Projects have been completed for clients In the resource, manufacturing, chemical, food and service sector Industries.

For additional Information please contact: John Trought, P.Eng., Church &Trought Inc., 2 Valleybrook Drive, Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2S9. Phone: (416) 391-2527, Fax:(416) 391-1931.

are pleased to announce the appointment of Robert J. Willcocks,P.Eng.to the position of Senior Project Manager in the Environmental Engineering Group (Whitby). Mr. Willcocks brings 18 years of progressive consulting Engineer ing experience in the design of municipal water and sewage treat ment works. His experience includes ail aspects of the projects including design reports, environ mental assessment, final design and construction administration.

He will provide valuable technical and management skills for exis ting and future projects of our Company. —

— totten sims

hubicki associates COKSUITANIS


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 114

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Six new VPs strengthen G&S corporate structure Gore & Storrie has appointed six new Vice-Presidents to help share cor porate duties presently handled by President Robert Goodings and Executive Vice-Presidents George Powell and John Anderson. rs.

p. Erik Dullerud, P.Eng., VicePresident and Manager Engin eering Services Division, has more than 20 years of structural engineering experience. His major expertise is heavy waterretaining structures built in dif

firm's Electrical, Instrumentation & Computer Control, and CADD

William J. Margrave, Ph.D. P.Eng., Vice-President and Manager the Water Division is a recognized authority in munici pal water treatment, with 25 years of experience in the planning and design of water treatment plants and water dis tribution systems. Dr. Margrave also developed and heads up the Analytical Laboratory in


the G&S Research Centre.

William W.S. Gray, P.Eng., Vice-President and Manager Municipal Services Division, has specialized for more than 20 years in designing major pipelines and tunnels in water and sewage systems. He is especially involved today with solving the problems of com bined sewer systems(CSOs) and more recently in the new trenchless technology.

Neil J. Perkins, P.Eng., VicePresident and Manager of the Energy & Residuals Manage ment Division, specializes in

ficult soils. Mr. Dullerud also coordinates the work in the

Norman D. Muggins, P.Eng., Vice-President and coordinator

of G&S regional offices, has been involved for some 25 years in municipal and industrial wastewater projects, from plan ning through commissioning. He launched the firm's Barrie office, which provides services to a wide range of clients in that area as well as Muskoka and Northern Ontario.

soiid and hazardous waste

management and incineration and energy recovery. His major role is to coordinate the

engineering planning and design of Metro Toronto's multi million-dollar, 820 ML/d Main Treatment Plant.

Paul F. da Silva, P.Eng., VicePresident and Manager Wastewater Division, is internationally recognized for his expertise in sludge treatment and disposal. He has been responsible for a number of award-winning pro jects in this field, including Lakeview WPCP's sludge dis posal with energy recovery and the HYAN process for treating high strength industrial wastes.

Gore & Storrie Limited, Consulting Engineers, 255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario, M2J 5B6. Tel;(416)499-9000: Fax:(416)499-4687 Formore Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Circle reply card No. 137


Tr)FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver



Manufactured in sizes 4" through 24". Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'TO.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch.

Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 21^2° and 11V4° configurations. As well, 'TO.' FLANGED

ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'TC.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS,



All Terminal City FLANGED FITTINGS are available in both Class 125 and Class

250...and are manufactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special"'T.C!



supplied to meet your

Manufacturers of Waterworks Products 1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Tel.(604) 253-7525

FAX (604) 253-6365

specific waterworks

installation requirements. 52

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 148

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Cover Story

Ceramic catalysts clean up VOCs In UK printing houses Allowing industrial production with out polluting the atmosphere is be hind the development of systems such as the one shown on our cover.

It is one of a range of catalytic converters for industrial use, desi gned and engineered by the Cataly tic Systems Division of the British company Johnson Matthey. Based on similar principles to those used in the making of catalytic converters for motor vehicles, which the com pany produces for automotive manu facturers all over the world,they fol low the development of ceramic honeycomb support materials and improved methods of impregnating these with catalytically active pla tinum metals. One of three that have been ins

talled at one of Europe's largest

printing companies, Jarrold Print ing of Norwich,England,the equip ment treats the exhaust gases from print drying units. Baedeker — the guides for tourists all over the world — "Readers Digest", "Vogue", "World Magazine", Harrods and American Express are among cli ents whose works are printed there on the most modern web off-set

machinery. The company, opera ting from an ivy-covered mill built during the English Industrial Revo lution, right in the centre of historic Norwich City, not only complies with local pollution-control laws, hut also works happily alongside residents and other businesses.

The systems devised by Johnson Matthey destroy by incineration the volatile organic compounds present

in gaseous effluents. While this can he done by direct flame heating in a combustion chamber at tempera tures usually in excess of 700°C, by incorporating a suitable catalyst in to the incineration system, oxida tion reaction can take place at signi ficantly lower temperatures(typical ly 350°C)and at a faster rate result ing in both reduced fuel consump tion and lower-capital investment costs.

Once the fume-laden gases have been through the system, the end result is clean hot air which can be

passed hack through the heatexchan ger, transferring a high proportion of its heat to the incoming process gas. The clean gas can then he expelled into the air, or recycled — using a secondary heat exchanger — to provide hot water, steam or thermal fluid for use in the manu

facturing process itself to heat the premises. All sorts of printing, coating, food processing, chemical process ing, ceramic and fibre manufacture are among the many industries to use this type of system.

Details: Johnson Matthey Catalytic Systems Division — Environmental Products, York Way, Royston, Herts, SG8 5HJ, England. Tel: =44 763 244161, Fax: =44 763 248534.


Michael Cucuz

John J. Coomey, Chairman and G.E.O. Cancoppas Limited, is pleas ed to announce the appointment of Michael Cucuz as National Sales

Manager (a newly created position). Cancoppas specializes in instrumen tation and precision devices, cover ing the Canadian market.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991





y i i "'.f' ,


.#* * * *

It'll cost you $1.5 million to get rid of this peak. So you'd better be sure it's real. All labs are not created equal. Environmental decisions you make

like a track record. In business

For you, it's a matter of confi

since 1972, we number among our clients the government agencies that set the guidelines you have to

dence. Confidence that the facts

millions of dollars.

meet—and the consultants who


Mann's Quality Assurance and Quality Control program covers all aspects of sample processing. Sample integrity is rigorously recorded and controlled. Sample processing is continually recorded and monitored by our LIMS 3000 system. Sample test results are me ticulously validated via fortification studies, extraction blanks, analysis of replicates and much more. Assign your most important and challenging environmental testing

helped them set the guidelines.

based on less than reliable labora

tory results could cost you

you asked for are the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the To find out how Mann Testing Laboratories can be of service to

you, call us at(416)890-2555- Or fax your request to(4l6)890-0370. Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z IPl.

The difference between accu rate and Mann-accurate is a matter

work to Mann. We are one of the

of experience, a matter of obses

few Canadian laboratories work

sive attention to detail, a matter of

ing in this field that has anything

pride in doing things right.



For more Intormallon,


Circle reply card No. 128

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Product Review Sampler for Industry Newly introduced unit from wastewater sampler specialist Epic Pro ducts incorporates well proven tech nology taken from their more up market samplers in a wall mounted polycarbonate case providing a simple low cost solution to routine factory effluent sampling. A basic operating cycle discharg ing samples at regular time or flow increments to be collected each day for analysis is often all thatis requi red by industrialists seeking to moni tor their wastewater and the new

EPIC 1022 Wastewater Sampler aims to fulfill this requirement. The integral float charged stand by battery providing immunity to temporary power cuts and the inert sample tract preventing sample con tamination by the materials of the sampler (especially relevant when detecting toxic trace elements in samples), are features of the EPIC 1022 not normally expected to be found in an economically priced sampler. A pocket size programmer is used to set up the sampler and also to provide a display of program status at the push of a button. The pro grammer features a plain language

LCD display in a choice of 8 lan guages and a 4 button control capa bility. Simplicity is claimed to be the keynote with this sampler — simple to install, simple to operate and simple to maintain. Cancoppas Limited For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 152

"Muffin Monster" Available in either channel or in

line units, new series of Muffin Monster sewage waste grinders res pond to on-going problems of system clogging and equipment damage in municipal or industrial waste treatment as well as in many applications in process industries. Capable of disintegrating solids — everything from tin cans, glass, plastics, to rubber boots — flowing through the system, this grinder

eases handling and considerably reduces down time, caused by clog ged pumps and piping. The Muffin Monster features

tough, patented cutters, mechanical seals that are immune to clogging, abrasions and fluctuating pressure surges to 60 psi withoutrequiring an external water source. The hi-flow

side rails are designed to increase

flow and decrease head losses

through the process system. Flygt Canada For more Information, Circle reply card No. 172






Offering integral or separate Power Packs and accessories

to meet your specifications


Keeps sludge moving

• FULL PORT INTAKE For unobstructed flow


Gives longer cup life



iV\ayco pump



328 North Rivermede Rd., Unit #9 Concord, Ontario L4K 3N5

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


(416)738-2355 • FAX:(416)738-5520 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 135


Product Review Motionless mixer

advantages in water tr&atment Statiflo's Motionless Mixer has

many applications and advantages in wastewater and water treatment


Incorporation of the Motionless Mixer in inline mixing/control sys tems allows sampling to take place within a very few pipe diameters downstream of the chemical injec tion point. This allows the system to rapidly adjust to any process changes with negligible time lag and minimum use of dosing chemi

cals. Applications include — coagu lation, chlorination, pH control, fluoridation, ozonation, desalina tion and many other chemical dos ing applications for water and wastewater. Statiflo Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156

Portable Laboratory measures nitrate and pH in

the nitrate and pH levels in soil, water, plant tissue and sap.

soil and water Hach's AgriTrak^*^ Portable Labor atory is a new analysis package for farmers, ecologists, and environ

ically, with a Nitrate Combination Ion-selective Electrode (ISE). A Hach One^" pH Electrode measures pH. The open-reference-junction design of these electrodes allows

mental consultants concerned with

Nitrate is measured electrochem-

measurement in soil slurries and





Complete Digester and


Lagoon Cleaning


Land Application Systems

eliminates the extended shaking and filtration steps. This compact laboratory is con tained in a convenient carrying case, and includes all instruments, rea gents and apparatus needed to mea sure nitrate and pH in soil and water. Additional apparatus is re quired for plant analysis. Hach Company For more Information, Circle reply card No. 157


Program Development

Portable hot water machine

Tel: (4T6) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyviiie Rd. W., Jerseyville, Onlario LOR 1R0


PROVEN non-jamming, non-sparking design RUGGED steel, brass, PVC and neoprene construction REUSABLE - readily cleaned with pull-thru swabs 316 SS fitted samplers available at premium Also stock longer sampler for tankers, tanks, luggers & totes DRUMSPLER 57 Kinhuni Cr., London, Onlario N6E IJ3 <519)681-3906

INDUSTRIAL GRINDERS 7', 10', 11', 12' EXTEND YOUR LANDFILL SITE By Grinding Tree Limbs, Yard Waste, Paper, Pallets, Glass, Plastics

less than two minutes. The United


MOTION GREEN TEL:(519)775-2405. FAX:(519)633-9367


alto tuppllert of quality lllter sanila and gravel

ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. ^20Sharp Rd.,R.R jO,Brantford, Ont. N3T 5H6 Tel:(519) 751-1080 Fax:(519) 751-0617

The Hot Dog water heater weighs less than 40 lbs. and can be set up in


States military, as well as the fire and water industry have found many uses for the heater in remote areas as well as emergency thawing and decontamination applications. A water saving, hand-held shower attachment quickly turns it into a portable decontamination shower. For decontamination applica tions, instantly recirculated warm water will quickly eliminate chemi cals and contaminants with water

temperatures set at80° to 90°F(26°C32°C) to eliminate thermal shock. Heath Consultants For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 158 56

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


steady State Hydraulic Pipeline Analyzer

"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

MSDOS based software has been

conceived by Scepter Manufactur ing as an aid in the analysis and design of non-looped transmission pipelines. Authored by Dr. Roland W. Jeppson of Utah State Univer sity, the Centurion Analyzer will provide the following assistance to civil engineers: 1. Pipeline analysis — Centurion will provide node pressures, HGL elevations, flow rate and headless data for given diameters and demand.

2. Pipeline demand — For given demand and grade line. Centurion will solve for appropriate pipe dia meters and pressure ratings. Centurion includes an extensive

list offeatures such as mouse gener ated pipeline definition, engineer ing economic analysis, pump defini tion, graphical displays, editing capabilities,"whatif variables and english/metric options.

BARRINGER LABORATORIES • environmental and discharge analyses • Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • Phytotoxicology and Water Quality • fire assay and field sampling services Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd., MIssissauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax;(416)890-8575

Other Labs:

Timmins, ON

Calgary, AS Denver, CO

Red Lake, ON Thurider Bay, ON

Kirkland Lake, ON

Montreal, PQ

CanTest Ltd Professional


Analytical Services Suite 200

Environmental Analysis

1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver, B.C.

Hazardpas vifas^e Characte(izap'pn j

Occupational Health & SafetyJ[ j u u




Fax; 604 731 2386

L Tel: 604 734 7276


Comprehensive Environmental

Scepter (Edmonton)


For more Information,

r\es rato tatoo

Circle reply card No. 151

50 Bathurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario N2V 205

Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

Sample Labeling Software M.M. DILLON UMITED

SIILL©!!! Environmental Laboratories

chemical analysis treatability studies monitoring and assessment

engineering/scientific support



MISISSAUGA (416)568-1414

FAX (416)568-1339


Sample Labeler^ Sample Laheler^'^ provides envir onmental professionals with a fast, easy method for preparing sample labels prior to collecting the samples in the field. Using a PC-compatible computer to store sampling data and pre-print sample labels, saves field time and increases labeling accuracy. It uses a menu driven sys tem which allows the user to enter, edit and store data pertaining to sample names and compounds (analytes) to he analyzed. The pro gram merges the sample identifiers and analytes with project and site information. It allows printing,on a dot-matrix printer,ofrepeated suites of labels and a summary report of each printing session. Solinst Canada Ltd.

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 150

Setting the standard for * service


* quality * turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/8ample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


Metro Toronto CAPS Clean Air Program present Environmental Protection Act's Regulation 308.) Two out of eight multiple hearth incinerators are being retired and replaced with a fluidized bed incine rator — currently the Best Available Technology (BAT) for municipal sludge incineration. The other six multiple hearth in cinerators are being retrofitted with after-burning zones, which render complete destruction of all unbumt combustion products in the incine rators.

Traditionally, sludge was fed to the top of the incinerator, which prevented the formation of after burning zones within the incinera tor. Now,sludge at the Main Treat ment Plant will be sent directly to the third or fifth hearth of each incinerator.

A sludge treatment and in

cineration upgrade pro gram at Metropolitan

Toronto's Main Treat ment Plant will result in exhaust emission levels that outclass those

proposed under Ontario's Clean Air Program (CAP). The wastewater plant combines both innovative and

A second component of the inci nerator upgrade is the installation of venturi scrubbers, which further reduce particulate matter from the effluent gas stream. Combined with the after-burning zones, these ven turi scrubbers will yield a clean gas — with emission levels significantly lower than those required by the proposed Clean Air Program. Particulate emissions are propo well-proven technology to improve its sludge treatment, dewatering, and incineration. The result will be an incinerator exhaust emission

thatis cleaner above and beyond the requirements of those proposed under Ontario's Clean Air Program. (CAP is the Air equivalent of MISA and is destined to replace the

sed to be cut further still with the trial installation of a wet electrosta

tic precipitator. This state-of-the-art unit has the potential for reducing particulate emissions achieved by the venturi scrubbers by an additio nal 50 percent. It will be the first and only unit in full-scale operation for sludge incineration in Canada. If this single unit is successful,it


PVC Lined Wood Stave Tanks



Box 280,1 Canbar St., Waterloo,Ontario,Canada N2J4A7 (519)886-2880, Fax(519)886-5546 SERVING INDUSTRY SINCE 1872

Polyethylene Tanks

For more Intormatlon, 58

Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


is proposed to equip the other multihearth incinerators with wet elec

trostatic precipitators as well.

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste

Stack gas sampling

• Complete MISA Parameters • Reg. 309 Compliance • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans • Ambient Air Monitoring

Improvements to the combustion and air pollution control systems results in reduced emissions. There

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.

must be a means ofquantifying this, however, so that good operations are maintained and the public at large, is satisfied that the system is safe. Two methods are provided in this upgrade project:continuous emis sion monitoring and stack compli

Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Misslssauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370


ance testing.

Continuous emission monitoring (GEM) consists of withdrawing a sample of the effluent gas stream continuously and analyzing the con

• Emission Testing



Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

centration of various contaminants.

The sampling system conditions the effluent gas stream to make it suit able for analysis by sophisticated analyzers. The sampling system is the key to a successful GEM system. Too frequently, GEM systems have failed due to poorly designed sam pling systems. Careful attention has been paid to the selection of the GEM system for the upgrade pro ject. Two systems will be tested simultaneously to monitor oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen diox ide. A permanent record of these emissions is produced by a computer system, and, as well, the concentra tions are indicated on chart recor

ders for the operator's use. The other form of monitoring is stack compliance testing. This con sists of sampling the effluent gas stream periodically and measuring the concentrations of particulate and heavy metal emissions, trace organic emissions and gaseous emis sions as measured by the GEM sys tem. Compliance testing is carried out when new or upgraded systems are commissioned and annually thereafter. The sampling follows rigorous scientific protocols and pro vides an accurate measure of all of

the emissions. Compliance testing is required to ensure that a facility is

meeting the requirements of its Cer tificate of Approval. Compliance testing also provides a means to compare the operation of the GEM system with laboratory calibrated analyzers to ensure that subsequent operations are carried out safely.


TEL:(416) 847-0065


1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA,ONT. NTS 3Y6 TEL:(519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965



Metals - Anions - Organics - PCBs - Volatiles Reg. 309 - MISA - Landfill Quality - Phytotox - Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-site sampling available For complete catalogue with prices call Tel:(416)625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8360


■WALKER LABORATORIES Complete Environmental Analytical Services Contact Doug DeCoppel, Manager Phone: (416) 227-4142 Facsimile: (416) 227-1034

Division of



MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152




Centrifuges — Alfa Laval/Sharpies: Sludge cake pumps —

Schwlng, Asdor/Teka, Putzmelster. Other equipment was not selected

FAX: (416) 847-3840

Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C. (604) 444-4808

at press time.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Montreal, Quebec (514) 493-4733


Product Review Epic Samplers EPIC 1022 Wastewater Sampler provides a practical cost-effective means ofsample extraction and stor

Removing lift station odours A new horizontal packed-bed scrub ber is designed to remove odours to an efficiency of at least 99% while maintaining a low profile. This odour control system is skidmounted and includes the scrubber, recirculation pump(s),fan,chemical addition pump(s),and control panel. The scrubbing liquor is evenly distributed over the top of the pack ing by an arrangement of spray nozzles through a system of over-

age. It is particularly suited to industrial users needing to monitor factory effluents (e.g., for compli ance with discbarge regulations), but with broad-based municipal and industrial application where simpli city is the keynote. Sampling can be delayed for an

accurately defined period and once started can be programmed to con tinue for a precise run time. As well as a means of rapidly selecting the program required, the programmer also provides a clear, plain language display of program status at the push of a button. Full

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 156

beat transfer of condensers.

Taprogge Backwash Debris Fil ters can be installed in the inlet

piping immediately upstream ofthe condenser/beat exchanger. All debris which would obstruct the

tubes and tube sheets, including tunnel growth which breaks loose,is trapped by the filter and removed through pressure-relieved backwashing. Taprogge American Corporation For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158

featured EPIC 1021 software is

available for more advanced appli cations. Cancoppas For more Information, Circle reply card No. 167

Recovery from tree and pellet waste

Backwash Debris Filters are used at

Haybuster Industrial Grinder turns wood,paper,yard and sawmill waste into valuable recycled products. Plastic,glass and sheetrock can also be reduced in volume. Haybuster has been building grinders for over 25 years. Till-Tech

power plants and water works which are plagued by the Zebra Mussel

Circle reply card No. 159

bead weirs and nozzles are non-

clogging, open-orifice type. This unit was designed for lift station odours; it can also work in other situations dealing with diffi cult to scrub gases that would require 8 feet of packing. Duall

(Dreissena Polymorpba). By atta ching themselves in and near power plant intake tunnels, the mussels reduce inlet flow rates leading to clogged condenser tubes and tube sheets, significantly lowering the

Backwash filters help fight Zebra Mussels

For more Information,

0 Let us quote on your requirements. For pumping, applications large or small. Smart Turner builds pumps with a reputation for consistent performance, minimum maintenance, solid design, and sound application.

Capacities to 8000 U.S.G.P.M. Heads to 800 ft. Sizes to 12 X 10 X 19. Materials

include Irons, Bronzes,

Steels, and Alloys. The benefit of application expertise combined with

■ ANSI B73.I Process ■ End Suction ■ Double Suction

quality heavy duty industrial and municipal centrifugal pumps is

■ Multi-Stage ■ Vertical Sump

available from us for YOU.

■ Vertical Cantilever

Call or fax us today for a quotation on your

■ Non Clog and Refuse


Smart Turner Limited, 191 Barton St. E., Box 2027, TURNER Hamilton, Ont., LBN 3S8




For more Information, Circle reply card No. 145

Telephone (416) 527-4567 Fax (416) 527-7173

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Consultants Level Switch

Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment•Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling

Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel.415-595-2000•Fax 416-595-2127 St. Jotin's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

Ainley and Associates Limited


CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS Waiet Supply & Sewage Disposal * Roads & Bridges * Flood Control Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning


280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

Sox 917. R.R.5

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

(613) 966-4243 Fax (613) 966-1168

(613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822-1573



Fax (705) 445-0968

Environmental Auditing and

The LSC 1132 Capacitance Level Switch is designed for all liquids, solids, and slurries. This advanced

Management Planning Waste Management solutions

state-of-the-art instrument incorpo rates "End-A-Coat" circuitry and


automatically compensates for all build-up. Accuracy is ensured and faults signalling eliminated. Supplied as a complete unit (self contained elec tronic circuitry and probe) the LSC 1132(115 VAC power) is explosion

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

to the 4 Rs

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting


225 Sheppard Ave. W., Wlllowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

proof and has all exposed probe

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

components of Teflon and 316 steel. Other features include: 5A DPDT

consulting engineers and architect

relay output; built-in time delay; field-selectable fail-safe; intrin

sically safe circuitry and "End-ACoat" for immunity to build-up. Davis Controls Limited For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 160 Dooim©©®


Consuttirvg Engineets & Architects


Water Pollution Control

Environmental Planning Land Development

Water Supply


Water Resources

Municipal Services


TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

WELLAND (416) 735-3659

OSHAWA (416)434-2544

Tunnels and Shafts

SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


The Board of Directors of Simcoe

Engineering Group Limited is pleased to announce two recent corporate appointments.

• spill site investigations and cleanups

Mr.John A. Mills, P.Eng., has been

• underwater video inspections

appointed to a position of Asso ciate Director. John joined Simcoe

• impact assessments • water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6


in 1989 and has twenty years exper ience in the environmental field

through employment with consult ing firms and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

Mr.Andrew J. Bowers,P.Eng., has been appointed to a position of






Vice President. Andy has been

employed with Simcoe since 1976 and has been on the Board of Directors since 1984.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


/F 61

Consultants Cordless pH/Temperature

C.C. TATHAM & ASSOCIATES LTD. Consulting Engineers Specialists in a comprehensive range of Environmental and Municipal Engineering 115 Hurontario Street, Suite 201,

Collingwood, Ontario L9Y 2L9

Tel.(705)444-2565 Fcx(705)444-2327

Recorder Analytical Measurements has deve loped a combination ph/Temperature Recorder to supplementits Cord less pH Recorder introduced twentyfive years ago. The pH/Temperature Recorder expands the usefulness of the Cord less pH Recorder hy simultaneously recording temperature and pH on the same miniature chart. A time

sharing system with one galvano


f»IMi:illM FNniNFFRINn




meter is used so thatfull chart width

is utilized for each parameter with different line intensities for easy identification.

Waterloo, Ontario S19-579-3S00


(FAX) 519-579-8986

Analytical Measurements For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161


Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320


(FAX) 416-353-3779

PVC Pipe tapping made easy — an educationai


video reviewed


■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

I Environmental Audits

I Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply

I Hydrogeology

■ Landfill Gas Control & Utilization I Wastewater Treatment

I Municipal Engineering

I Construction Management

u/aterioo"^®^* MicsicQanriaTel, 416-629-0510 waierioOp^^ 519-884-0510 519-884-0525 M'ssissauga 416-629-0515








environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design




the trenches.


Superbly made by the Unl Bell Pipe Association, the video contra dicts the notion that tapping PVC pipe is difficult. Repeatedly the message is given to "go slow but steady";stressing thatPVC tapping does not require the muscle needed to tap metal pipe. Various water tapping scenarios are given using direct, saddle or sleeve taps. It shows how to avoid problems in water main tapsfrom 4"


TOROKTO(416)229-46*6•EOMOKTON (403)4e3-80»4• HALIFAX (902)453-1115


-Environmental Audits


-Plant Facility Compliance

-Risk Assessment -Waste Containment Faciiities

-Site Characterization -Soii And Groundvirater Assessment

-Waste Stream Assessment

-Occupationai Heaith & Safety

Head Office: Suite 120.100 Yorlc Blvd., Richmond Hilt, L4B 1J8,Tet;(416) 886-7965. Fax;(416)886-7967 705 West Fifteenth Street, North Vancouver, B.C.,V7M 1T2,Tet;(604)980-5878, Fax:(604)980-9621




Services in







Gartner Lee

Tapping PVC pipe under pressure is made easy by this video which gives a step-by-step review of the various kinds of tapping situations which municipal staffs constantly face in

(716) 285-5449

to 36"(AWWA C905). The production shows work

crews how to avoid problems while copng with various water main situ ations. While it details ways to avoid tapping leaks, the video shows how to remedy them if they occur. Approximately 15 minutes in length,it is entertaining and educa tional.

Unlike many training videos, this is both well directed and techni

cally flawless, making it a highly desirable training and educational Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

0 ■A natuta^


tebabi^ ^ ^^atuetet,

:lSs?r v/otV;-'^^®

tVis of wp



1 coldrol^^ _

|U pife




I"''"'! i periods-to/i°"?'"C '^ instrtol"'"

jrfIsedoff-s«'= theTi inse


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


,v, tta t^s


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 146


Armtec gates meet the rigourous demands of water control. Armtec Water Control Products:

Armtec is a world-wide

industry leader in the design

precision water control

•Heavy Duty Sluice Gates (AWWAC501)

gates. Our more than 75 years

•Flap Gates

and manufacture of

•Fabricated Slide Gates

experience has gained for

•Radial and Roller Gates •Overshot Gates •Miscellaneous Gates and Accessories

us an international

reputation of producing high quality gates and accessories for sewage plants, water treatment

Gate Construction: •Cast Iron

projects, flood control, power plants, and irrigation.


•Painted Carbon Steel •Aluminum •Stainless Steel

Armtec's wide range of

gate products will help you control or divert flow or maintain critical water

Gate Operation:

levels. For design assistance


and more information,


please contact your nearest


Armtec Sales Office.

•Electric •Automated Control


UTukl Water control Products

Formerly Armco Westeel

Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton,

Caigary, Lethbridge, Regina, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Tfiunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Stratford,Gueiph, Toronto, Ottawa, St. Augustin, Beloeil, Dartmouth, Sackviiie, St. John's, Bishop's Faiis and Fresno, Oaiifornia. An All-Canadian Company For more Information,


Circle reply card No. 147

Product Review resource to all municipalities using PVC pipe. Scepter Manufacturing Co. Ltd. has made a limited number ofcopies available for $10 on a non-profit basis. Copies available from Veso Sabot at(416)752-2200 or Fax:(416) 752-8512, or contact any Scepter office across Canada. For more Mormatton,

Circle reply card No. 162

Detectronic 32LCM

point velocity monitor Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited announces the Detectronic Ultraso

nic Point Velocity Monitor, Model 32LCM. Designed to provide velo city profiles for sewers, open chan nels, creeks or rivers. The 32LCM is:

•Electronically Calibrated •Electronically Verifiable •Electronically Certifiable

New toxiclty procedure for solid-phase samples Microbics Corporation has announ ced the new Microtox Solid-Phase

Test, which measures relative toxicity of solid materials. The proce

The new solid-phase protocol is a special procedure for the Microtox Toxicity Test System, a bioassay used worldwide to measure the toxi

city of aqueous samples. The sys a sample material suspended in tem measures the light output of water, and generates a dose- luminescent microorganisms.When response curve in just half an hour. those organisms are exposed to toxic samples, their light output Microbics claims it is a practical diminishes in proportion to the toxi way to assess the relative toxicity of city, indicating the level of toxicity. waste sites, and to help evaluate An automatic system collects and treatment alternatives. This test reduces the data to produce printed can identify appropriate processes, reports within thirty minutes of the dure tests various concentrations of

and measure their effectiveness in

start of a test.

the laboratory, at the pilot stage, The new procedure mixes a sus and on-site. It allows fast mapping pension of organisms directly with of toxicity from spills, and provides the sample, lets it incubate for a method to survey real estate for twenty minutes, then draws off the possible toxic contamination. The suspension of organisms through a test will help environmental agen filter. Microbics cies assess the toxicity ofsediments, For more Information, Circle reply card No. 170 says Microbics.


Gore Si Storrie Limited


Consulting Engineers




•LCD/LED Indicator The 32LCM is available in stan


dard or water-proof enclosures. Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-90(X) Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa• Niagara • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga• Kingston

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 163

Socio-Economic Impact New flowmeters



Kobold Instruments has introduced a new line of innovative variable area flowmeters. The SV flowme-


Public Consultation


Hearings Support and Project Management

ters/switcbes operate on the wellknown variable area orifice princi

ple, but without the typical conical measuring tube. Instead, these in struments contain a cylindrical

Land-Use Planning

3016A Danforth Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4C 1M7 Telephone:(416)693-6115, Fax:(416)693-6117

guide tube with V-grooves machi ned into their sides to provide the

Inrcirii tijEnrtuB

effect of the conical tube.

SV flowmeter series is designed for both water and gas applications.

At comparable flow values, the in struments are 1/3 to 1/4 the size of conventional meters. This reduc

tion in footprint results in a media flow velocity appreciably higher than in standard designs. This high velocity yields the added benefit ofa much higher self-cleaning effect of the sigbtglass,reducing instrument









(613) 226-5442




Consultants for water anid pollution control projects



The SV floats come standard with

imbedded permanent magnets. These are used to actuate optional nitrogen encapsulated reed switches located outside the flow path. Kobold Instruments Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 164

Martin Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners . Landscape Architects. Fax: (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton , Ontar io. L6T 4J5(416)459-4780

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


Product Review Military buys B.C. oil skimmers

ced advantage; they skim at a very high oil/water ratio. The discs will typically pick up 95% oil with 5%

comes in contact first with the spent liquor at the bottom ofthe unit while fresh liquid, at the top of the unit is


in contact with the least contamina

Aqua-Guard Technologies of Van couver, have supplied the Canadian Military with two new high volume disc type oil skimmers. The new 40Y disc skimmers are much larger (7 feet across)than Aqua-Guard's stan dard 10, 15 & 30 tonne/hr. units incorporating state-of-the-art tech nology. These new skimmers are capable of recovering 40 tonnes/hr. ofoil. Aqua-Guard says its units are half the price of comparable

Dual! Fume Scrubber

Beak Consultants, Ltd. has been

The FW300 packed-bed, counter-


current flow fume scrubber is desi

selected as the Canadian distributor of the S.O.S. Chromotest and ToxiChromotest. The S.O.S.Chromotest

Triangular in shape, the AquaGuard 40Y disc skimmer has 36

discs total (12 per side), each hank being operated independently by its own hydraulic motor. The oleophi lic disc surfaces operates on the principle that they have the ability to adsorb oil and reject water. This gives the skimmer a very pronoun

These new 40Y disc skimmer

units have been tested and accepted by the Canadian military and have been delivered recently to locations on both the east and west coasts.


gned for abatement of noxious or corrosive gases common in many industrial processes with low solu bility. In this unit,the gas stream moves upward in opposition to the scrub bing liquid stream, which is concur rently moving downward. With this design, the contaminant-laden gas

]A FONiAINE,(DWIE,BUR4nO &>lSBaaATES UMITED Windsor, Ontario




3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X 4L4 (519) 966-2250 FAX:(519) 966-5523

with less of a chance of dissolved

gases being stripped back out of the liquid. Duall For more Information,

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 165

Consulting Engineers

ted gas. This serves to drive the contaminated gas into the liquid,


(519) 539-2015

Circle reply card No. 166

Orgenlcs selects Beak

detects genotoxic agents in raw materials, cosmetics, drugs and water. It utilizes genetic recombina tion techniques inspired by the knowledge of how cells respond to lesions in their DNA. Presenting the simplest testing methods for car cinogens, this kit is now being used by various laboratories throughout the United States and Canada to

replace the Ames test. The Toxi-

Chromotest detects toxicity in water, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food and many other substances. This bacterial assay uses a special strain of E. coli for its high sensitivity to a wide spectrum of pesticides, myco-

toxins and heavy metals. Orgenlcs For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 167

Remetallzer rebuilds

corroded castings Many valves,pump bodies and impel lers in use today are made of cast iron. In some cases it is difficult or

MacVIro Consultants Inc.

impossible to obtain new replace

7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Markham. Ontario L3R 4B9• Telephone;(416)475-7270»TeleFAX:(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

ments. A remetalizer such as Ceram-

Alloy CP may allow many compo nents to be rebuilt at a fraction ofthe

replacement cost. CeramAlloy CP can be worked


and formed like clay while in its pre-

Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geoiogy

hardened paste-like state. After rebuilding to contour with Ceram

Environmentai audits

to inhibit further deterioration. Two

Site decommissioning

or more coats of liquid CeramAlloy CL are routinely applied. After cur ing, CeramAlloy CL forms a hard ceramic like finish that may be ground. CeramAlloy CL is available in high contrast grey and blue. Where the second coat begins to wear in service,the first coat shows through to indicate the points of wear. The combination of CeramAlloy CP and CeramAlloy CL resists further effects of wet abrasion, acid and

& rehabiiitation

MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmentai Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

Alloy CP,CeramAlloy CL is applied

alkaline attacks. Can-Ross Environ TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416)882-1100 Fax:(416)882-0055 66

mental Services Ltd. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 168

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666 Ccmpfete Portable Open Channel

Flow Monitoring System

Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Komline-Sanderson Rotary Drum

Flow-Logger FLO-LOG,a new,complete,Stateof-the-art, portable flow monitoring system for open channel flow measurement designed for demanding applications such as sewer system evaluation and monitoring of industrial dis charges. FLO-LOG Is manufac tured in Canada by Geneq Inc.The brochure gives you all the specifi

Vacuum Filters are used extensive

ly in the processing of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foods, minerals and In wastewater

treatment and sludge dewatering for Industry and municipalities. RDVFs are extremely versatile and provide reliable, continuous liquid/ solid separation with minimum operator attention and low main The KomMue-Sandorson

tenance. Each KS-RDVF filter Is

iSM proosm nuation,w9stBwal«r

specifically designed to handle slurries that produce variations in

<ttnrication endvludoe dewataHng.


Geneq Inc.


Circle reply card No. 208

cake thickness, moisture content and stickiness. Komllne Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 209


laittrfaca Prabaa

Total Organic Carbon Product

Product/Water Interface Probe For an accurate in-situ measure

ment of product Level and thick ness



Brief tc.twMCii.m»aiiiiw>aK]Q«o«inge,Uie»K>M.r;M


been a manufacturer of environ

measurements. The polypropy

mental testing instruments. This product brief discusses the family of Dohrmann TOG Analyzers. In

lene sensor Is attached to a

"Tefzel" coated engineer's tape accurate to 1/100th of a foot(also in metric). A light Indicator and a buzzer are activated In a way to let you know when the probe Is immersed in

Dohrmann Instruments has long

cluded are the DC-80 and DC-180 teo

(powitw tout untuwe otwew AiAing

low temperature UV persulfate TOG,work horses in drinking water laboratories and the new DG-190 a

high temperature TOG designed to

product or in water. Geneq Inc. Circle reply card No. 210

handle the worst real life waste-

water samples. Folio Instruments Inc.

Circle reply card No. 211

RuenuiiDt Ant^icsl


Chlorine Analyzer For Wastewater


Today, exacting control of chlorine residuals Is Imperative, especially with ever-increasing regulations and

stricter enforcement of

discharge limits into streams and rivers. The Delta Model 925

Residual Chlorine Analyzer from Rosemount Analytical, Is sensitive enough to comply with effluent discharge regulations and capable of controlling most chlorination processes. Rosemount instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 212

Anti-Corrosion Coatings A new 12 page, colour brochure MNN t COALES (DENSO)LID

from Denso of Canada Limited Is

now available, giving an overall pic ture ofthe Denso range of products which offer simple solutions to site problems of corrosion, sealing. In sulation and waterproofing by using effective long life materials such as tapes, mastics, primers and liquid surface coatings, back ed by over 60 years experience at home and overseas. The company operates a Technical Sales Depart ment offering advice on problems, practical site assistance and com prehensive literature. Denso

Circle reply card No. 213

Dunuille, Newfoundland,55 kg/day Another OzoteN^ unit from Hankin Ozone Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Limited 690 Progress Avenue, Unit #12, Scarborough, Ontario M1H 3A6, Tei;(416) 439-7860, Fax:(416) 439-6806 For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 217


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666 Water Level Indicator


For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently embossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, optional light.

Odor Control

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite(JAVEX-12)is detailed in technical bulletin. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypo chlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 201

Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 200

hj^qacf ilrUr

Cyanide Removal

Interface meter The new Solinst Interface Meter

i'MOVAI Using Sodium Hypochlorite

measures the level and thickness

(JAVEX-12)to effectively and quick ly remove cyanide wastes is detail ed. Bulletin reviews dosages, equipment, as well as storage, safety and handling data. Parti cularly applicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc.

of both sinking and floating hydrocarbons. It is simple to operate; easy to clean and decon taminate; inexpensive to repair. The sturdy 1-1/2" dia. probe is ex cellent for use in monitoring wells. Solinst Canada Ltd. Circle reply card No. 202


Circle reply card No. 203

Water Quality instruments Zullig offers a comprehensive and innovative range of rugged field in

Water Quality Indicator/ Data Logger Hydrolab's new SURVEYOR 3 will measure up to eight para meters with one rugged S-'A" diameter probe and store up to 70,000 data points at the push of a

struments for the measurement of

button! The SURVEYOR 3 will

display and record current values of dissolved oxygen,%saturation, temperature, pH,specific conduc tance, resistivity, salinity, redox, level or depth. Backed by Hydrolab's 2 year warranty.

Mtttsuing gnd CoMrol Teeanology System and Equtsmnlter eie VMcr Muslry

Hoskin Scientific Limited

worldwide!I Bestobell

Circle reply card No. 204

Circle reply card No. 205 Motionless Mixers The Statiflo motionless mixer is a

Mult! Trode

IAIyou needtoknoar

atKMittoe MuW'fiikde Bgridlewlawtsart


M uiti Trode patented level control systems have been generating in all types of conductive liquids in cluding aggressive liquids such as sewage and sludge since 1980, worldwide!The Multi Trode I iquid level system is based on the well proven conductance method utilizing the electrical conductivi ty of the liquid. Designed for reliability and ease of installation, Multi Trode is an ideal replace ment for tethered mercury bottle floats in sumps and wet wells. Bestobell


dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended solids, PH.,conductivi ty and O.R.P. Designed with harsh process environments in mind,the Zullig dissolved oxygen, turbidity and suspended solids instruments all feature automatic self cleaning for reliable performance and measurement accuracy. Zullig applies more than 75 years of ex perience to the solution of water quality measurement problems

Circle reply card No. 206

Ti'e prcM3ii mclwless m'-xar itial

bnm.s now etiideucy and coslsawngs lo Ihe fYOcess indcstries

vital component of any inline mix ing/control system. Incorporation of the Statiflo mixer allows rapid sampling and efficient as well as minimum use of dosing chemicals. Statiflo motionless mixers are com

monly used in coagulation/flocculation, flash mixing of dilute polyclectrolyte, alum, caustic etc., ph control, disinfection/chlorination/fluoridation/ozonation and


other dilution and dispersion applications. Statiflo Inc.

Circle reply card No. 207


Water Supplies (continued from page 35) shore treatment plants and pipelines


should be secured now. Lakeshore


sites of adequate size and pipeline routes, whether in existing rights of way or across-country, will be more difficult to obtain with each succes

sive year. •For reasons of reliability of supply and geographic distribution ofoppor tunity for growth, individual lake sources should be interconnected by a distribution system which will even tually cover most or all of the urban areas previously identified. •Pipeline routings will impact popu lation growth and related urban infra structure requirements. Early plan ning will help make the best use of the large investments involved. It is time to resume the longrange planning of an integrated inter-regional water supply system

that will ensure the availability of

OR TECH Services I





Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media.

2395 Sj>eakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel. 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446

Air, water and waste.

Proctor & redfern limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Brampton






St. Catharines St. John's. Nfld. Sault Sfe. Marie Sudhur>

North Ba>


Thunder Ba>


45 (ireen Beit Drive, Dtin Mills. Onuirio M3C 3K3

Tel: (416) 445-3600

ra.\: (416) 445-5276

the Province's greatest natural resource to the large inland urban communities of Southwestern

Ontario. Local governments cannot respond to this need. The scale of the undertaking, politically, geo graphically and financially, requires initiative at the Provincial level. ES&E


Consulting Engineers & Arctiitects WATER SUPPLY • POLLUTION CONTROL • DRAINAGE



345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario LIV 1A1

Hydraulic Flow Monitoring

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fax: (416) 286-1361

(continued from page 32) & Storrie determined that this eva

luation would be accomplished best by hydraulic modelling and they

MM Trow,Dames & Moore

subcontracted NWRI to conduct the

hydraulic modelling of the Du Pont wier, and, should the performance not meet the MISA requirements, to propose remedial actions. Using a hydraulic model installed in the NWRI variable slope flume, this study was successfully completed. The final report recommended changes in the concrete abutment immediately upstream of the weir and in the instrumentation (Marsalek and Trapp 1990). The modified

Consultants in Hydrology, Waste Management, Environmental Engineering and Hydrogeology 7560 Airport Rd., Mississauga, Ontario L4T 2H5 Telephone:(416)671-9921, Fax:(416)672-7784

LIMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007

installation will meet all MISA


requirements. Besides the obvious engineering advantages of conducting flow measurement installation audits by means of hydraulic modelling, it should be emphasized that such modelling can be accomplished in a few weeks at a relatively low cost. Depending on model complexity, laboratory calibrations typically cost from $5,000 to $10,000. Such costs are outweighed by savings aris ing from improved accuracy of the modelled facilities and savings on design and construction of new faci-


XCG Consultants Ltd.

Suite 904

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627

50 Queen Street N

Kitctiener. Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Richard J. Rush Environmental

Engineering Consultants

MASc, PEng Principal

Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng Principal


hties or remedial measures. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991


Product Review "Petrifilm" plate detects

offecal contamination than the total

E. Coil bacteria A fast, precise and easy-to-use testfor Escherichia coli bacteria,the

"Petrifilm" plate, is now available from 3M Canada Inc., Health Care Special Service Products. The presence of E. coli in food or dairy products is a better indicator AD INDEX


16 43 7 72





Hankin Inslluform

Aco-Assman ADI


Barrlnger Labs BIgO Bondar Clegg Bristol Myers



33 B 71 5B 2 9 60 20 45



Eco Equipment

Can Am Ins.


Cancoppas Canron

Church & Trought

15 51 5 47 42 6B

FMC Gore & Storrle

Gorman Rupp Groundwater Tech.


Mann Testing Metcon Monenco



MSU MIsslssauga Ramsay Lake SEW Eurodrlve Smart Turner

coliforms ferment the lactose in the "Petrifilm" E. coli VRB medium to

nate cumbersome MPN tubes and

probability charts. The direct colony count provided by the E. coli plates increases testing precision and improves confidence in the test


study,the mean log was comparable to the MPN for all six food types



21 40 31

Totten Sims Hublckl


Env. ProL Labs




Fisher Scientific







and the results may not he precise. "Petrifilm" E. coli plates elimi


Stoakley Dudley Summa Eng. T. City Iron Works


are tedious and labour intensive,

coli plate also enumerates coliforms, allowing two tests on one plate. The


60 20 24 52


coliform count says 3M.E. coli tests often are performed during trouble shooting and for routine testing of potentially worrisome ingredients and finished product. However,con ventional E. coli testing methods, such as the MPN (Most Probable Number)method,take up to six days to achieve results, which ties up inventory and delays resolutions of problems. Also, conventional tests

Trow Dames Moore




In a recent collaborative


"Petrifilm" E. coli plates enume rate E. coli directly. A unique indi cator in the plate reacts with the heta-glucuronidase enzyme produc ed by E. coli to form a dark blue pre

cipitate around the colony. All blue

produce gas. This gas is trapped around the colony. This makes the differentiation of coliforms from

other gram negative bacteria easy. The"Petrifilm"E.coli plate is ino culated with one milliliter ofsample and incubated for 24 hours. Fast,

precise results are achieved by coun ting colonies visually or on a stan dard Quebec-type counter. A grid on the "Petrifilm" plate facilitates counting, and when estimating is necessary,the number of colonies in an average grid square is simple multiplied by 20. 3M

colonies associated with gas bub

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 169

bles are counted as E. coli. This E.


electrode tracking and automatic buffer recognition • ACCURATE with the use of a 3-in-1 pH/ATC7reference electrode and three point standardization • BUILT TO LAST with state of the art technology to provide maximum performance • SUPERIOR CUSTOMER SUPPORT with our Hotiine

Customer Support telephone number and unequalled warranty service

• A COMPLETE LABORATORY within a case. Everything

you need is right at your fingertips: meter, 3-in-1 electrode, pen and note pad,9V battery, beakers, stand, waterproof instruction manual. *ATC — AutomaticTemperature Compensation


16.5 L X 7.3 W X 2.7 cmD (6-1/2 x 2-7/8 x 1"). — Same as Illustration, except, for pH only.

ONLY ^831.00 Cat No. 13-636-1001 70

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 149

Montreal Toronto Edmonton Vancouver

(514)342-5001 (416)479-8700 (403)483-2123 (604)872-7641

Your Systems Partner


FisherScientific Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

The r~ Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option With


Collecting flow proportional samples has never been easier. SIGMA's new Streamline" subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units — a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new subcompact sampler: an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart. The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports. Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and guaranteeing repeatability independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma,PO Box 820, Medina, NY 14103-0820.

Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the full range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices. In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba

In Ontario CAN-AM Instruments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

In Quebec and New Brunswick

In Alberta

CHEMACTION,INC. 5960, Jean-Talon Est.

ITT Barton Instruments


3840 - llA Street, N.E.

970 Malkin Avenue

Mississauga, Ontario LAY 1Y7

Bureau 216, St-Leonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6

Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2K8 Tel (604) 253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

Enuironmental Science & Engineering, May 1991

Tel (403) 29M8I4 FAX (403) 291-5678

For more information, Circle reply card No. 106


Continuous Emission Monitors exclusive from


Systems ASI now introduces the new line of DASIBI ambient air monitors onto the Canadian market to measure

SO2, NO^,CO,O3 etc



OUR emission analyzers have been TU V approved...tested continuously for six (6) months under all conditions...by the German regulatory agency, the Common Market reference method! In short — the BEST.

ERWIN SICK The world's largest supplier of in-situ monitors, for opacity, SOj, NO^, dust and uitra sonic veiocity...all cross-stack measurements. The non-contact

principle reduces maintenance.

SIEMENS,inventor of both NDIR and PARAMAGNETIC

ANALYZER technology, has developed these techniques to the '90 generation!


The oniy total hydrocarbon analyzer, designed for corrosive stack gases...with a seiection from truly portable FIDs to multi-channel units I

With the Clean Air Program(CAPs)due to be legislated, GEMS are rapidly becoming a requirement, nof an option. ASI offers sales, service and expert advice on its complete range of world premier emission monitors

together with the experience and skills necessary to

Amko Systems

design, manufacture and commission world-class

GEMS.ASI works hand-in-hand with industry to ensure the economical solution to emission monitoring, while at the same time ensuring cleaner air for us all.

NC. 5 Waverly Crescent Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4C 8Z5

Telephone(416)737-2223 For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 101

Fax (416)883-0322