Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) February-March 1991

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

February/March 1991


Providing potabie water to Canadian forces in the Gulf war Convention previews — AWWA,BCW&WA,PCAO,AWMA Zebra Mussels — prevention and removal strategies Detecting underground leaks in pipes and tanks Evaluating new air pollution regulations Complying with MISA requirements



Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them In either a single composite container or sequentially Into an array of

The EpiclOIIT programmable portabie wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and industrial

24 X 1/2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.


A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subsequent analysis.

Typical Applications * Crude sewage * Settled sewage * Final effluent

* Raw sludge * Most Industrial effluents

EPIC 1011T EPS 1021

Portable Wastewater Sampler

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications

To MISA Specifications

Circle reply card No. 125

SLUDGE SAMPLER The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in Its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

Circle reply card No. 127

Also available

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.

Magnetic 2mm to 1200mm

Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel


Typical Applications

Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning

* Anaerobic digester feeds/

Ultrasonic Blanket Level


* Mechanical dewatering device



* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals

* Sea tanker loading terminals . * Consolidation tank feeds EPS 1030

Valve Positioners, Actuators, Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

Sludge Sampler For more information circle number below or contact

Exclusive Canadian Representative.

"Specialists In Instrumentation and Precision Devices"

CANCOPPAS LIMITED 1045 Soulli Service Road West,


Oakville. Ontario L6L6K3


Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991


ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


(416) 727-4666


Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Production Manager SAM ISGRD B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639

Technical Advisory Board




L^mgjumcBCBirum^ Feb./March 1991, Vol. 4 No. 1 Issued March, 1991


A Hamlet without the prince — or an omelette without eggheads?


Comment by Tom Davey

The three ages of air poliution regulation Article by Dr. Keith C. Heidom


Hunting down those elusive and expensive water leaks Article by G. Wayne Hennigar


J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng.

What MISA has achieved — what iies ahead

Senes Consultants Ltd.

Article by Jim Bishop


Using economic means for environmental ends Comment by Dr. Michael Walker


Zebra mussel invasion continues at a rapid rate

Update by Don Lewis


Upgrading the Waskatenau, Aiberta WTP


Aiberta's perspective and approach to meeting drinking water guideiines in the 1990s


George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme, P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd. Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfeliow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson, P,Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smith, LL.B.

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Shannon, P.Eng, CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication

published by Davcom Communica tions Inc. An all Canadian publication,

ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and

Article by D. Spink and K. Chinniah Conference previews, BCWWA,PCAO,AWWA



ES&E's readers include consulting

Heaith and safety plans for environmental projects Article by Dr. David A. Whaley


wastewater treatment plant operators

The Hagersville tire fire investigation and

and contractors.

environmentai remediation action pian


engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental




ES&E welcomes editorial contribu tions but does not accept any respon

sibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material.

All advertising space orders, copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environmental Science & Engineer ing, c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Information presented In ES&E is collected from avarlety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers are encouraged to contact authors, agencies and companies directly for verification and/or clarification. Material In ES&E only conveys Information and should not be considered as legal or professional advice.

Head Office - 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora,

Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666; Fax: (416) 841-7271. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750 Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two

years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00. (G.S.T. extra)


Industry Update ...

7-13 37 R&D News Product reviews ..,. 52-62 60 Literature Reviews .

Classifieds Advertisers Index

Reader Service Card,, 45a

COVER STORY: Canada's warships in the Persian Guif, like our ground troops and air force, use reverse osmosis which supplies fresh water from the sea. Photo shows the supply ship Procfecfeur suppling oil to the destroyer Athabaskan. Freshwater is supplied with no such umbilical. Photo courtesy DND

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

58 62





By Tom Dauey

A Hamlet without the Prince —

or an omelette without eggheads?

Our local baker used to bake real bread, not the

counterfeit mush which imitates the staff-of-life

while tasting like damp cotton wool. His whole wheat loaves were baked

in ovens; they were a feast to the eyes, the olfactory senses and the palate. Best of all you could savour them without sin, for his bread was good for you. One day I noticed the loaves were coming out of the ovens much dar ker than normal. They still looked delicious, hut I asked the baker if he had changed his ingredients? He answered his bread was unchanged, except that he now added a little caramel dye. Why? "To make the loaves look more natural!", he exclaimed.

I realized then that we had gone from the Age of Aquarius to the Age of the Vicarious. Culinary cosme tics were being used to fake what was already the real thing. Literally and metaphorically this was a deli cious irony; the intrinsic was being

Minister Ruth Grier listed 25 groups which she has invited to participate in the Advisory Committee for her proposed Bill. Lawyers predominated with four groups advising the Committee; in fact legal representation comprised an astonishing 16 percent of the Advisory Committee. With such generous input from this learned profession, this Bill might yet emerge as The Lawyers' Welfare Act.

Other groups included Green peace, Friends of the Earth, Pollu tion Probe, Northwatch, Energy Probe, Great Lakes United and the Federation of Ontario Naturalists, all activists to be sure,but disparate in their aims and objectives. Some combine impressive scientific exper tise with genuine altruism; a few are Luddites hiding their deep suspicion of all technology with green makeup.

Missing in action, believed igno red, are the Pollution Control Asso ciation of Ontario (PCAO) an affi

abandoned in favour of the imita

liate of the Water Pollution Control


Federation,the Air and Waste Man agement Association(AWMA)and the Ontario Section, American Water Works Association(AWWA). With a combined history total ling some 200 years, these groups comprise some of the most expert and experienced environmental talent in the country. They are conspicuous by their absence in the proposed Advisory Committee. If this is not exactly a Hamlet without a Prince, then it might be an ome lette without eggheads.

There are many other examples. Recently in Florida, a woman, on observing a magnificent sunset, tinged with the magenta hue of the sub tropics, exulted that the view was "just like Technicolor". The stampede to embrace all things Green has further blurred the distinction between perception and reality. In environmental situa tions, public perception is frequent ly distorted by certain media reports and newscasts written by scientific illiterates.

when typhoid and other lethal water borne diseases decimated popula tions in Ottawa and Toronto. Such sicknesses are now rare events on

this continent,a fact due more to the water treatment professionals who removed the sources of the diseases, rather than the medical professio nals who treated the effects.

...a few are Luddites

hiding their deep suspicion of aii technology with green makeup. One Canadian figure who fought tenaciously for better water quality was Dr. Berry, a world renowned scientist and engineer and the only person ever to be elected president of both the AWWA and the WPCF.

Seven decades ago hefoughtfor bet ter drinking water and waste treat ment against political apathy and vested interests. It is doubly ironic that Mrs. Grier's ministry has igno red the expertise available from the environmental professional associa tions he once spearheaded in Onta rio. For her ministry was created from the former Ontario Water Re sources Commission which Dr.

Berry dominated for many years as its top scientist and chief engineer. The legacy of environmental expertise from Dr. Berry and other pioneers is still available from the professional groups he led so many years ago. It is sad if Mrs. Grier is unaware oftheir existence. It will be

tragic if she did know, yet has cho sen to ignore them.

It must be stressed that these

This growing tendency to ignore the realities of life was highlighted in a press release announcing Onta

Canadian groups are not branch plant operations of the AWWA and WPCF. Canadian engineers and

rio's new Environmental Bill of

scientists have been involved in

Rights. In the release. Environment

AWWA matters for over a century



mlurday. Ijtipafy 26. 1991

Piige\ HI-HI2 1

In an interview, plan your spontaneity

Mrs. Grier should now seek the

advice of the true ecologists, the environmental scientists and engi neers. While they seldom take to the streets, they are quite easy to locate. They are the only people permitted under Ontario law who are licensed

to design and operate environmen tal treatmentfacilities. The lawyers on her Advisory Board will confirm this.

Environmental rehabilitation li > mid'd/icmuon. 1 uesday. Vuii re ai ihe kiichcn uble. living lo pui (he fm

islbnj louchrt on » oovenng klier )ou

10 go in lh« mail by 5. The 'iob

employmeni inl'ervicw nay away from

v-ou rc applying for was adienivca in like ihc ^o^ nl ihing vou'vc hoen .for mosi ol llic afternoon, lou vc

C3uestions AND^^SWERS 1 recenllv reniraed lo Toronto

b«n'plucking away at your tiTwi^nlcr.

and am liiing with friends .ind

vpuT.msirjiion growing. It s iinponanl

colleciinjlK.lneedajcb i!oi

10 hit the nglil note In this Idler and



:;u SKdiie Cc ready 10 say, scry dear-



'Ihrnii; diusluris in the pulil^'suctor

is going loolfet enough nuniey 10 pay rent car and henellls Besides my agcCil). I'm worried about nij tuck uf

will not come just from lawyers liti gating, protestors pontificating, or prelates preaching. Progress in water and air quality can only come from the scientific and technical

skills of environmental profession

Headline telling readers 'how to fake spontaneity' — another example of the

als who transmute research data

Age of the Vicarious.

into viable treatment projects. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

GORMAN-RUPP HAS THE WASTEWATER PUMPING SYSTEM TO FIT YOUR NEEDS Gorman-Rupp manufactures a complete line of pre-engineered, factory-built packaged lift stations. Whether it's a small or large wastewater collection system, we can provide an efficient, reliable pumping system including motors, controls, valves and piping ready for hook-up on site. Electronic Pressure Switch features dependable, solid-state construction and provides accurate, trouble-free monitoring of wet well liquid level. Bubbler Control design eliminates problems common to other bubbler systems. Controls are NEMA rated, UL/CSA Listed and will easily interface with users telemetry. Gorman-Rupp lift stations feature self-priming, solids-handling T-Series pumps speolally designed for dependable wastewater handling. Mounted high and dry above the liquid being pumped with only the suction line in the sump,there's no need to disconnect the piping for servicing. A removable coverplate provides quick, easy access to the pump interior for removal of ologs or maintenance of components. And, nospeoial tools are needed. T-Series pumps


Base-mounted "autostart" pump station with bubbler control and standby engine automatically drives pump if power falls and eliminates need for expensive generator set.

are available in 3", 4", 6",8" and 10" sizes with

oapacities up to 3,200 gpm and heads to 130'. Rugged,economical fiberglass-reinforced enclosures house all equipment. They resist corrosion, mildew, mold and fungus and provide all-weather protection. Compact, low silhouettes and forest green colour blends in perfectly with surrounding landscaping. Enclosures provide easy access to interior equipment for maintenance and service. Vandal-resistant

designs give added security. Ask us how we can help you with your next lift station project.

6' x6' above-ground lift station

features two 3" to 6" T-Series pumps deliver ing 50-1,200 gpm on a single pump operation.

7' X10' above-ground lift station features two 3" to 8" T-Series pumps with capacities from 50-2,100 gpm on a single pump operation.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 122


Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70BurwellRd.,St.Thomas,Ont. N5P3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 Fax:(519)631-4624 Telex: 064-73530 Distributors across Canada. Consuit the Yeiiow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

/Is a recognized leader in environmental testing,

CANVIRO Labs exclusively uses Gas Chromatography/

Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) for organic analysis. Clients have come to expect our

dependable, high quality results.

CANVIRO Labs now

Introduces its High Resolution Mass


capabilities. With enhanced selectivity, the contaminant of concern Is more

accurately pinpointed and quantitated. With heightened sensitivity, lower concentrations can be

seen to meet stringent

regulatory guidelines. For example, the Federal Government now requires

HRMS analysis to meet dioxin and furan guidelines. For more

HRMS services from CANVIRO hobs.


For more information, Circle reply card No. 123

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd. 50 Bathurst Dr., Unit 12, Waterloo, Ontario N2\/ 2C5


Phone:1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806



$43.1 million pipeline New ASL lab in Vancouver

will serve St. Clair communities

ASL has a new modern laboratory complex located in Vancouver,only ten minutes from downtown. The

Ontario has agreed to finance the

1,700 square metre complex has a water quality section,a trace metals section and a trace organics section.

total 1990 costs of$43.1 million for a

pipeline that will provide drinking water to Wallaceburg, Walpole Island, Dresden and parts of Cha tham and Camden townships. The cost to service Walpole Island ($0.7 million)is expected to be paid by the federal government. Costs in excess of the provincial

Each of these is further divided to

separate the sample preparation activities from the instrument rooms.

The facility also houses a "clean lab"for specialized low level work,a "special projects" lab, a computer (systems) laboratory, a microbiol ogy lab,a library and full conference/board room, a large warehouse shop area, a receiving/ shipping room, a walk-in cold room, and the office/reception area.

Each laboratory area is serviced

Humboldt appoints

commitment will be shared between

by a comprehensive,networked com puter system thatinterfaces specific instrumentation and work stations.

There are designated calculation/ report writing areas where labora tory staff can quietly carry out their paper work.

sales representative for Eastern

Humboldt has sold over 3,000 cen trifuge dewatering units since 1951. Of this, more than 2,000 units have been supplied specifically for muni cipal thickening and dewatering applications. Humboldt also pioneered the use of "high solids" centrifuge techno logy, and has sold more than 100



C&M Eastern Canada

Representative Humboldt Decanter inc. of Atlanta

has appointed Control and Metering Limited their exclusive technical

Do you know what is in your water?

the Ministry ofthe Environment(75 percent)and the participating muni cipalities(25 percent). The St. Clair River — which sup plies Wallaceburg, Walpole Island and parts of Chatham and Camden townships — has been subjected to numerous industrial spills. The town ofDresden relies on the Sydenham River for its water. The river is

subject to agricultural runoff and provincial drinking water guide lines occasionally have been excee ded for pesticides, herbicides and nitrates.

Project plans call for the deve lopment of a pipeline from the West Lambton water system.


April/May Issue

We have established a quality air and water testing service with state-of-the-art equipment.

Ad closing date March 31,1991 Film/Artwork deadline April 5,1991

We have two general packages for drinking water: General Monitoring (80 parameters) $325.00

Scheduled editorial lineup

In depth Analysis (114 parameters) $425.00 We have the capability to measure organic pollutants at part per trillion level. Prices for parts per trillion measurements or analysis of waste water, soil and radon are available on request.

•Indoor air quality •Stack gas sampling • Odour controi

• Designing pumping systems • Disinfection options

• Effluent sampling and testing •PCS solutions • Flow measurement


Nepean, Ont. K2E 8A2 Tel:(613) 226-5342, Fax:(613) 226-5344 For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 145

To reserve space, or for further details, phone before March 31,1991 at(416) 727-4666 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 146



Vanishing Rain Forests The world's tropical rain forests are said to be vanishing at some 6,000 square meters a second. The annual loss is between 160,000 and 200,000 square kilometers (about half the size of Newfoundland; or the total area of Canada's national parks), are up from earlier estimates of 110,000 square kilometers a year. There are 7.68 million square kilo meters of forest remaining. World Resources Institute, United Nations.

Smithviile PCB-

destruction approved by MOE The Ontario Environment Ministry has issued Certificates of Approval for a planned PCB-incineration ope ration at Smithviile.

ENSCO, Inc. will use a mobile rotary kiln incinerator to destroy high-level PCBs (containing 10,000 or more parts per million). The Smithviile site contains

approximately 160,000 litres ofPCB liquids, 50 drained transformers and 70 vaults and 1,000 drums of PCB-contaminated materials.

ENSCO's plans were reviewed at a recent public hearing of the Envi-

Environmental Technologies Investments Inc. acquires CFC-TEK Environmental Technologies Invest ments Inc. has announced an agree

mentto acquire a 75 percentinterest in CFC-TEK Inc.,a Kingston,Onta rio environmental company. CFC-

conditioning system and purify them for storage and recycling. Re claimed CFCs can then be recycled to the system or disposed of, preven ting damaging emissions.

TEK Inc. manufactures and sells

reclaimers used to recover, clean up and recycle the chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) which are damaging the ozone layer. CFC reclaimers, often referred to as "vampires", remove CFC liquids and gasesfrom refrigeration and air

The company claims it has deve loped proprietary, highly cost effec tive equipment which can reclaim all types of CFCs and related mate rials. CFC-TELK's equipment is fully portable and designed for Can adian operation conditions.

ronmental Assessment Board. Draft conditions were worked out

ducts; CPPI-WHMIS Classification

and presented to the board by the parties to the hearing — the Citizen Liaison Committee, the Ministry of the Environment, the township of

cology Testing: Priority List. The evaluation of products is being con ducted voluntarily by the CPPI to

West Lincoln and ENSCO.

for workers according to the Work place Hazardous Materials Informa tion System(WHMIS)administered by the federal department of Con sumer and Corporate Affairs. The CPPI research, which is be ing conducted by the organization's occupational health group, is deve loping a data profile of two dozen petroleum products.

Report on health Impacts of petroleum products The Canadian Petroleum Products

Institute (CPPI) has released its second interim report on the health impacts of some 24 petroleum pro

Guidelines For Product Stream Toxi

have health information available







rMctor g*omet(V

MtlrvirMttm 560 BAYVIEW AVE. SUITE 21 9


TEL.: (416) 836-9490

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 147

FAX: (416) 836-9070

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

THINK TANKS... THINK ASSMANN now store 5400 gallons in under 9 feet of spacer

NEW CT5400 •One piece seamless polyolefin construction

• Excellent chemical & corrosion resistance • Narrow diameter for economical

In plant use •Translucent Good visual level Indication

•Excellent low temperature Impact resistance • U.V. Stabilized

•Backed by a 5 year warranty on workmanship and material

•Full accessories package available

•Features a 24" hinged manway cover and a side manway for easy cleaning and Inspection

Call, write or fax today

foi^ompj^^nform^i^ OF CANADA LTD. 794 McKay Road, Pickering, Ontario L1W 2Y4 TELEPHONE: (416) 683-8222 FAX: (416) 683-2969

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 133

BHAVES THESTORMS, Introducing the Armtec Ultra Flo' Spiral Rib for today's storm sewer systems. Engineers and owners are constantly looking for economical, durable storm sewer systems that are hydraulically more efficient.

Armtec Ultra Flo


•Low Manning friction coefficient "n" similar to

rigid pipe materials.

Armtec has solved this

•Galvanized steel for

problem by combining the advantages of corrugated metal pipe and the superior hydraulic flow capacity of

normal conditions, or

Aluminized Steel Type 2 for more corrosive conditions.

Ultra Flo.

Ultra Flo spiral rib pipe is

•Economical storm sewer installations —

an innovative, flexible metal

pipe which has been proven to be a highly reliable product in thousands of

competitive pipe prices and longer, lighter lengths to reduce pipe laying



A choice of protective coatings is available depending on site

•Available in a wide range of diameters from 450 mm to 2600 mm.


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 134

UTTTil Construction Products

Formerly Armco Westeei

Sales Offices: Whitehorse, Nanaimo, Prince George, Vancouver, Edmonton,

Calgary, Lethbridge, Regina, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, London, Stratford,Gueiph, Toronto, Ottawa, St. Augustin, Beioeii, Dartmouth, Sackviiie, St. John's, Bishop's Fails and Fresno, California.

An All-Canadian Company 10

Industry PCAO presents painting to Sec./Treas. The Pollution Control Association

ofOntario(PCAO)presented a large water colour painting to Sandra Davey, in appreciation of her ser vices as PCAO Newsletter Editor

and Secretary Treasurer. Sandra officially retired Decem ber 31,1990 as PCAO secretary and newsletter editor after 15 years of service. She organized seminars and conferences and edited scienti

fic papers for the PCAO. Some five

years ago she received a plaque from the PCAO for her editorial work on

its official history,"Recollections".


•There are currently 3.5 million bits of debris circling the earth,ranging from tiny flakes of paint to chunks of old rockets.

It's out in space too! The amount of junk in space may leave humans earthbound within

three decades,according to The New Scientist. The respected magazine says:

• In 1983, the windshield of the space shuttle Challenger was dam aged by a paint chip;the flake would have punctured the suit of a spacewalking astronaut.

•The U.S. space command is track ing 6,645 artificial objects in orbit, each larger than a Softball and wei ghing a total of two million kilo grams; operating satellites com prise 6 percent, the rest is junk. Estimates are that the collection

will climb by 240 pieces a year. •An object l/35th the weight of an Aspirin has the impact of a bullet in low earth orbit.


OHM Remediation Services

Environmental liabilities

of Canada, Ltd.

don't go away by them selves.You've got to meet them head on, armed with the best possible

resources. That's why you should know about

Groundwater Technology. As the recognized world leader in environmental

remediation, we specialize in health risk assess

ment, laboratory analy Derk Maat

sis, on-site bioremediation, monitoring and closure of all

Mr. Gary L Gardner, Vice President of OHM Remediation Services of Canada, Ltd. (OHM), is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Dark Z. Maat, M.Eng, P.Eng. as Director of Business Development. Mr. Maat brings extensive techni cal and business related experience in the field of environmental technology. For the past 17 years he has worked as an environmental specialist and as manager of an environment process technology group with one of Canada's largest engineering firms. In his new position, Mr. Maat will be responsible for the development of business and marketing plans for the existing range of technologies and services provided by OHM. He will also be responsible for developing applications for new commercialized technologies in the field of bioreme-

types of haz ardous sites.

We research,

design, engi neer and manu facture total solutions to

complex issues. Why wait for a problem to surface? Groundwater

Technology has success fully managed more than 5,000 projects. Our 60 offices worldwide can pre vent the threat of environ mental and financial dis

aster right now. Call Jim Vaughan at l-416-67ai700. Because one lawsuit is all it takes to contaminate

a very bright future.

diation, thermal treatment, stabiliza tion, and waste minimization. OHM Remediation Services of

Canada, Ltd., a wholly owned subsi diary of OHM Corporation of Findlay, Ohio, specializes in the on-site reme

[« Groundwater u Technology,Inc.

diation and treatment of hazardous

and toxic wastes by providing engi neered solutions to environmental prob lems. The firm also provides a conti nent-wide network of emergency res ponse services. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

World leader in soil and groundwater remediation. Offices: Montreal, Quebec(514) 353-6939;

MIssissauga, Ontario (416)670-1700; Halifax, Nova Scotia (902)453-0585.

For mom Intormallon, ClKle mply card No. 143


E.E. (Earl) Were Introduces Badger Meter to Canada In the 85 years since Badger Meter began making water meters in North America everything has changed but our high standards, in 1905 we opened a smaii factory in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This smaii workshop of precision machinists has grown into an

international business —acompany dedicated to precision manufacturing and industry innovation.

in keeping with our tradition of quality, the Utility Division of Badger Meter, inc. is proud to announce the newest member of our sales team — E.E.(Earl) Were — Manager of Utility Sales — Canada.

With our dedication to the industry. Earl is proud to introduce the following product offerings: • Recordall Disc Meters...the highest capacity and widest range of positive displacement meters in the industry...5/8" through 2" sizes. • Recordall I I Turbo Meters...extended high-flow capability with inventory-saving interchangeable measuring elements...2" through 20" sizes. • Recordall Compound Meters...high accuracy for all flowranges...2" through 6" sizes. • Badger Propeller Meters...when durability and accuracy are your top priority...4" through 14"



• Recordall Instrumentation Systems...the finest products available to help monitor and control your operational flows. • Badger Strainers...enhance meter performance ...2" through 6" sizes. • Meter Reading Technologies...the most com plete line of automatic and automated meter read ing systems in the industry.

Earl, a native and resident of Canada, is a veteran

of the water meter industry. He is well-acquainted with many water utility personnel in every province of Canada. Earl will be responsible for all Sales in Canada, both directly with utilities, and through a network of water works distributors.

Badger's distributor network will inventory our complete product line to meet your everexpanding needs. Customer satisfaction is the foundation from which we build our business.

Badger has always believed that the quality of our company is represented by our people. If you would like to know more about our company and products, please contact Earl at (416) 892-0872, Fax:(416) 892-0898, or write 59 Woodside Square, Fonttiill, ON, LOS 1E4.

You can reach Badger Meter directly at: (414) 355-0400, Fax: (414) 355-2544, or write to Badger Meter, Inc., Utility Division, 4545 West Brown Deer Road, P.O. Box 23099, Milwaukee, Wl,53223-0099.

(Member AWWA, NRWA.)


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 144

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Industry Technological 'breakthrough' ensures

go-ahead for $1.3 billion pulp mill Technological improvements pro posed by Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc. for its Athabasca mill will result in a bleached kraft

pulp mill which "virtually elimi nates"the production ofdioxins and furans in the bleaching process,say Alberta government officials. Referring to the recent report of the Scientific Review Panel, Envi ronment Minister Ralph Klein said: "Al-Pac's new technologies have been confirmed by the panel as being achievable and this break through will have a far-reaching impact on the entire pulp and paper industry in Canada." But David Schindler, a professor

Al-Pac's new process decreases AOX(Adsorbable Organic Halides) loadings to 0.35 kilograms per air dry tonne,(compared with the ear lier 1.3 kg per air dry tonne of the original Al-Pac proposal) and reduces the toxicity of the effluent. Mr. Klein said, as a result of the improvements, the project exceeds existing and proposed federal stan dards for pulp mill effluents;

plant in Kirkland Lake. A 100megawattfacility being builtby North land Power,will generate 15.6 mega watts ofelectric powerfrom combus tion of 110,000 tonnes of wood wastes a year. The rest of the plant will be fueled by natural gas. The wood wastes, which would otherwise be disposed of in landfill sites, will have no harmful envi

"Given that the hoard's reason

Ontario Energy Minister Jenny Carter said: "It is a parallel genera tion project which will provide an environmentally friendly source of additional electricity in northern Ontario. And it is an example of sound waste management. Our financial support underlines our commitment to these goals." Parallel generation is the genera tion of energy by companies other than Ontario Hydro, but connected to Hydro's system. The plant, scheduled to go into full operation in the spring, will provide 200-person years of employ ment during construction, and bet ween 30-40 full-time jobs.

for the recommendation (to delay the project pending further study) was dioxins and furans, and that Al-Pac's technological proposal vir tually eliminates that concern,there is no need for delay," the Minister said. The estimated cost ofthe Alberta-

Pacific pulp mill is $1.3 billion. The Government of Alberta has commit

ted approximately $75 million for infrastructure, plus a further $400 million in debentures.

ofEnvironmental Science at the Uni

versity of Alberta who participated in an environmental review of the

project, alleged that agencies set up to protect the environment have been subject to "political influence."

Turning wood chips Into megawatts

Environment Canada scientist Eric

The Ontario Ministry ofEnergy has given $2 million to an Ontario com pany which will use wood wastes to fuel part ofits new power generating

Hall complained that the mandate of the scientific review was too nar row.


ronmental emissions.

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By Keith C. Heidorn. PhD.. ACIVi'

The Three Ages of Air Pollution Regulation

Regulation of air pollution

has evolved over history through three major phi losophies. Initially, and for much of man's history, the phi losophy of air pollution regulation was the Age of Ignorance. By the turn of the Twentieth Century, the seeds of the second age, the Age of Dilution were sown.

But as we

began to realize that the Earth's environment had only a finite capa city to absorb the wastes of man's activities, we were forced to develop a new philosophy and bring in the third age, the Age of Exclusion. The Age of the Philosophy of Ignorance(the use ofthe term "igno rance" derives more from the verb

"to ignore" than from "ignorant") evolved through three phases — phi losophies which still prevail in the thinking of some. The first phase was characterized by the phrase "Everybody has the run of the river". That is, all have an equal right to dump whatever they wish into rivers, the seas and the atmos phere to the full extent of their abi lity. Later, the prevailing thinking was "Pollution is the sign of a heal thy industry"(i.e. a sign of wealth) and, as a result, most governments took no legislative action. In a last ditch attempt to keep the Philoso phy ofIgnorance alive,the head-inthe-sand attitude of We need more studies was instituted.

The first serious attempts by gov

ernments to control air pollution came with the Age ofthe Philosophy of Dilution and its catch phrase "Dilution is the Solution to Pollu

tion". In this Age,legislative action was taken to reduce the concentra

tion of pollutants locally in an attempt to avoid acute health effects in the population or severe damage to crops,livestock or materials. This philosophy often instituted controls such as taller stacks, greater plume rise and greater distances to sensi tive receptors rather than pollution control devices or process reform. While such measures dramatic

ally reduced the local concentra tions of target pollutants, it was soon apparent that some of these measures brought on other prob lems such as acid precipitation. As the technology to measure trace com pounds improved and medical and biological research found adverse effects from a growing number of chemicals, it became obvious that Exclusion is the only Solution to

Pollution; thus ushering in the cur rent Age ofthe Philosophy ofExclu sion.

Under this philosophy, legisla tion has been introduced to reduce

emissions either in the stack, at the process level, or by banning a che mical from use. The problems of long-range transport, bioaccumulation, chronic effects and global impacts have come to the forefront, not only in the thinking of the regu lators but in the minds of the popu lation at large. The first air pollution regulation in Canada was enacted in Toronto in 1907 to restrict the combustion of

fuels. Ontario's first legislation was the Damage by Sulphur Fumes Arbi tration Act which did nothing to control or restrict sulphur emissions but recognized the economic impact

fined a method for observing black smoke. In 1963 and 1967, revisions to the Act gave the Province control over air pollution matters to ensure equality ofregulation across the Pro vince. The revisions also establis

hed the Certificate of Approval pro cess.

Also in 1967, the regulation now known as Regulation 308 was first enacted. This regulation defined point of impingement air quality standards and the mathematical

models by which to calculate the point of impingement concentra tions. In addition, the Air Pollution Index and the desirable ambient air

quality criterion were defined. The passage ofthe Environmental Protection Act in 1971 consolidated

the legislation for air, water and waste under the newly created Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment. Included under this Act was

In order to ensure

that the Installed control

equipment performs to standards, In-stack

emission monitoring may be mandated.

Regulation 308, the currently enfor ced regulation for the control of air contaminants. It is,in large part, a declaration of the Philosophy of Dilution. While not explicitly man dating the use of pollution control equipment, it may be argued that the Regulation, with its requirement that sources meet point of impinge ment concentration standards,does force the use of pollution control equipment in some cases. However, as written, the act allows for stack

ofpollution damage and the need for redress.

By 1955 the Province of Ontario, now conscious ofthe effects of pollu tion, formed a Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly to review air pollution. Although the findings concluded that air pollution was a serious health hazard, that pollu tion was a problem to farmers and that pollution control was worthy of attention, the 1957 report was typi cal of the later phases of the Age of Ignorance. The report recommen ded control ofrailroad and shipping pollutant emissions and the prohi bition of domestic incineration. It

also fingered the internal combus tion engine as a major source of pol lution. It is interesting to note, however, that industrial sources were given a back seat to transpor tation sources in this report.

In the Select Committee report were the seeds of pollution control. In 1958,the passage ofthe Air Pollu tion Control Act gave emission con trol responsibility to municipalities, outlined an appeals process and de

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

height to be increased as a means of meeting the point of impingement standard. While increasing the stack height reduces local concen trations, it does little to reduce the overall burden on the environment.

In the best of circumstances, this rather uniformally increases the concentration ofthe pollutant over a wide area. However,for pollutants which react together in the atmos phere such as the precursors to pho tochemical smog or acidic precipita tion,increasing stack height may be more detrimental to the environ

ment than lower emission heights. Regulation 308 also implicitly addresses the pre-emission control of particulate matter through the control of visible emissions from a

stack. The means or degree of parti culate control is not set forth other

than the prohibition that the efflu ent plume must not exceed a maxi mum darkness or opacity to light. continued overleaf

'Senior Air Quality Specialist Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Inc. 15

Air pollution. continued Atthe time ofits passage,Regula

Province; its philosophy was recep

The result of this inquiry was the Clean Air Program (CAP), the first public discussion paper of which was released in 1987. In August of 1990, the Draft Regulation was re

tor oriented and based on a no

leased for review.

effects concentration maximum;

The CAP regulation is an expres sion of the Philosophy ofExclusion. Allfacets ofthe regulation are expres sions of the requirement for emis sion control. The degree of control

tion 308 was at the forefront in envi

ronmental legislation. It provided for uniform treatment across the

and it included the Air Pollution Index. The Air Pollution Index is a realtime control on emissions when ambient concentrations rise to

potentially adverse levels under weather conditions conducive to pol lutant buildup. However, as more knowledge of the effects of environ mental pollution was acquired, it became apparent that the regula tion had no long-term or long-range considerations,did notinclude depo sition of pollutants or their chemis try. The permitting of a source by Regulation 308 is taken in isolation of other sources around it using mathematical models considered to

be outdated and whose application used limited weather conditions, average emission conditions and assumed efficient control equip ment.

An internal review committee of

the Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment for air quality regulations in general was formed in the early 1980's.

will be based on a chemical hazard

rating system which is designed to account for changes in the know ledge base. The basis for a chemi cal's rating will include its toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment as well as its poten tial for transport through the envi ronment.

Controls may be strict — perhaps either the lowest achievable emis

sion rate(LAER)for the most hazar dous pollutants or the best available control technology economically achievable (BACT-EA) for pollu tants of lesser hazard. In order to ensure that the installed control

equipment performs to standards, in-stack emission monitoring may be mandated. Whereas Regulation 308 was originally intended for stack emissions, CAP will cover all emission sources including those

emissions considered as fugitive sources, those from which pollu tants escape from vents, doors,con veyors, etc.

The current Certificate of Appro val, strictly an approval to con struct, is issued for the life of the operation approved, barring altera tions to the process or emission mechanism. Under the proposed CAP Certificate of Approval pro cess, a Certificate of Approval for Construction will be followed by a Certificate of Approval for Opera tion which, unlike its predecessor, must be renewed every 10 years. In order to ensure that even with

the required emission controls, ambientlevels ofall pollutants resul ting from the accumulation of emis sionsfrom a number ofsources with in an airshed do not exceed ambient

air quality standards, state-of-theart mathematical models will be used to estimate airshed concentra

tions. The result of this modelling will also be used in the approval process.

The CAP draft legislation Is cur rently under review by the New Demo crat government. ES&E For more Information, Circle reply card No. 251

ES&E's 1991 Editorial Schedule February March Closes Jan. 18

MISA update Ontario's Reg. 308 for air pollution Developments in flow monitoring Coping witti Zebra Mussels

AugustSeptember Closes July 19

1991 WPCF Toronto convention special Instrumentation developments Pipe specification and installation Valve & hydrant maintenance Corrosion prevention and control Coatings and water quality

October November

Sludge management options

Closes Sept. 20

Backflow prevention strategies Reviewing potable water standards Air pollution technologies Strategies for sustainable development

December -

1992 Directory & Specifier's Guide Developments in clarifier design

PCB solutions

Leak detection for pipes and tanks Convention previews — AOTE, PCAO, AWWA, BCWWA

April - May Indoor air quality Closes March 15 Stack gas sampling Odour control

Designing pumping systems Disinfection options Effluent sampling and testing

June - July Closes May 17

Developments in flow measuring Occupational health and safety in water/wastewater systems Environmental auditing Water supply development Remediating groundwater contamination

Update on the Greenhouse effect Trenchless technology

January Closes Nov. 15

Contaminated site remediation

Advances In flocculation

Oil/water separation Industrial pollution — the price of non-compliance

To reserve space, or for further details, phone us, Tom Davey Publisher

(416) 727-4666 16

Steve Davey Sales Director (416) 727-4666 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 148

Ron Ganton B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849

Penny Davey Sales Representative (416) 488-7639

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

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Superior capture rate of solids over conven tional models — 45 microns and up — which actually reduces BOD Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving lower haulage and/or treatment costs

Rugged 1/4 inch stainless steel construction — thicker and much more durable than the

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industry — allowing a change of openings Recoverable Diverter Flights, automatically remove screened solids from cylinder No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain Internal and external Spray Cleaning System Low energy requirements Vari-drive from 3 to 12 r.p.m. allows low h.p. electric motors

Only 4 wheels to lubricate — giving very low maintenance costs

No other screen on the market gives so much flexibility The low operating and maintenance costs of the screen give substantial savings over the life of the equipment — as much as 2to 3times better than comparable screens — a great investment for better environmental protec tion

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 129




Hunting down those elusive, and expensive water leaks

Water leakage is a con

stant problem in the water industry and one that, sooner or later, must he addressed hy every respon sible municipality. A water leak detection program normally in volves some type ofsonic evaluation which depends on an operator's abil ity to hear and identify leak sounds on the water mains. Sonic leakage detection is hased on the principle that high pressure water leaking from a water system through an opening or break in the main into an area of atmospheric pressure sets up

lie pipes but only short distances on asbestos-cement and plastic pipes. Some of the sound may also be

Considerable advancements in

the development of water leakage detection instrumentation have

pipe for varying distances depend ing on pipe material, leak size and system operating pressures. Gene rally this vibration will be transmit

20 to 300 Hertz range and are gene rally limited to the immediate area of the leak. Consequently, these sounds are important in pinpoin ting or verifying the actual leak

been achieved in the past two decades. In the early days, opera tors depended on water surfacing to establish a leak location or by direct listening on the system using a sounding stick or geophone. In recent years computer hased "corre lation type" instruments have gar nered prominence. Applied correct ly, these instruments can provide additional capabilities for an expe rienced operator. The advantages ofleak noise cor relation over previous sonic methods are numerous, particularly in the pinpointing application. The correlation principal uses sound similarity, not the position of maxi mum leak noise intensity, as the basis of operation. Water or any other fluid, escaping from a pressu rized pipe provides a characteristic noise which is propagated at a con stant velocity in both directions away from the leak location. Sen sors placed on both sides of the leak

ted considerable distances on metal


receive the leak noise at different

sounds and vibrations that are audi

ble with special equipment. The majority of water leaks create three distinct sounds.

The first

sound, normally in the 500 to 800 Hertz range,originates as an orificepipe vibration phenomenon and is transmitted along the pipe wall.

This sound is transmitted along the

transmitted into the soil surroun

ding the pipe but the energy is quic kly dissipated. This first sound is considered the search sound and is

useful in systematically searching an area to determine the presence of leaks. By using highly amplified sonic instruments these sounds can

be heard on valves, hydrants, curb valves and other contact points on the system. The second sound created by a water leak is often referred to as the

impact sound. This is caused by the leaking water, under high pressure, striking the soil in the leak area.The third sound is the fountain sound, which is caused by water circulating in water, usually in a cavity in the soil adjacent to the leak. Both the second and third sounds are in the

times. The computer based correla tor then progressively delays one signal relative to the other while continuing to compare the simila rity between them. This enables the correlator to measure the difference in travel time ofthe leak noise to the

respective sensors. By determining the velocity of sound for the particu lar pipeline under test and using the distance between the sensors, the correlators can accurately compute the leak position. A built-in formula allows the correlator to compute the actual distance ofthe leak from both

sensors and displays the distance on a highly visible screen. Effective water leakage detection programs are as much dependent on proper procedures as on good qua lity instruments. Leak detection personnel must have a knowledge of the system design and pipe mate rials as well as an understanding of the influencing factors to sound attenuation. Soil types, soil resisti vity, soil moisture content, pipe "President and Chief Operating Officer, Heath Oonsultants Limited, London, Ontario 18

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

By G. Wayne Henniqar* materials, pipe size and depth, pipe corrosion as well as operating pres sures affectthe attenuation ofsound

along the pipe wall or through the soil. Metallic systems such as cast iron and ductile iron require diffe rent procedures than non-metallic systems such as plastic types and asbestos-cement. One procedure or a single instrument,cannot be effec tive for every condition to he en




at 60 psi

per quarter

per quarter





cubic feet

cubic metres

























countered on a water distribution

system. For effective results, leak detection personnel must be flexible in their approach and be prepared to adjust procedures depending on the design and field conditions encoun tered. For optimum results, a fourstep approach is recommended when conducting a water leakage detection program. Step one is the leak search proce dure which involves systematic lis tening at all contact points, such as hydrants and valves, on the water distribution network.

When sec

tions of non-metallic piping are pre sent in the search area, it will be necessary to listen at grade directly over the pipe with a combination of soft surface and hard surface micro

phones. The test interval will nor mally be about one metre or every step along the pipe run. Listening at grade will also be necessary on long sections of metallic pipe withoutcon tact points. Sounds at suspect loca tions noted during the search pro gram will be logged as to location, frequency and intensity. Step two involves a more detailed evaluation of the suspect locations and is normally scheduled at night when water use, traffic noise and other ambient background noise is at a minimum on the system. This is the verification procedure and esta blishes the actual existence of a leak

and its approximate location. In numerous situations, the leak can actually he pinpointed during the verification program. Steps one and two are normally referred to as leak search operations.

Steps three and four are normally referred to as leak pinpointing opera tions. Pinpointing is defined as establishing the actual leak location and is not yet an exact science. Well trained leak survey personnel will achieve a high level of success but some dry holes will be inevitable. Higher levels of success are being realized with the advent of leak cor relators based on the leak noise cor

relation technique. Step three is the actual leak pin

pointing procedure and normally involves the use of a computer dri ven water leak correlation unit. The actual location ofthe verified leak is

Water Costs Money Do Not Waste It!

pinpointed with the correlator. Step

sensors is measured.

four confirms the correlated location

signals transmitted from the sen sors by radio transmission or cable connections are received by the cor relator. Sensor data, pipe material

by a variety of procedures using the portable search instruments. In some situations, the confirmation

procedure is more accurate and adjustments are made to the corre lated location. The intent of step four is to reduce the chance of dry holes and permit leak repairs in a one cut operation. Once step four is completed, the leak location can be marked for repairs and duly repor ted on the proper reportforms.When leak sounds can only be detected at one contact point on a water system, correlators cannot be used to pin point the leak source. This is com monplace on non-metallic systems which are poor conductors of sound. Several correlator manufacturers

provide hydrophone sensors as optional accessories. These sensors are inserted into hydrants with spe cial adaptors and detect leak fre quencies transmitted directly in the water. Leakage frequencies or sound waves, travel well in water and can often be detected a conside rable distance from the leak source. Sound waves from the same leak

travelling along the pipe wall or through the soil,tend to attenuate or diminish rapidly as they move away from the leak source. Hydrophone sensors offer improved sensitivity to leak noise detection as the sensor is

inserted directly into the water core. The correlation procedure to pin point leaks is quick and easy to use. Valves or hydrants indicating sounds on either side of the suspec ted leak position are located and sensors attached. If accelerometers

are used,these are attached magne tically to the outside of the pipe or fitting. If hydrophones are being used, they are connected to the hydrant and the valve opened. The pipe distance or length between the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Leak noise

data and distance information are entered into the correlator. The cor

relation process is automatically initiated and displayed relative to the pipe length. The leak position is indicated by the formation of a defi nite peak. When the cursor is ali gned with the correlation peak, the distance of the leak from both sen

sors is displayed. The zoom facility can be used to allow closer interro

gation of the leak position display. Results can be stored in memory for later recall to display or down loading to a printer or video monitor screen. Results can also be incorpo rated into a data spread sheet using an IBM compatible P.C. Situations do occur where condi tions are such that leaks cannot he

detected by traditional sonic and correlation procedures. These leaks often occur as hydrostatic test fai lures during new construction or upgrading projects. They tend to occur more frequently when nonmetallic pipe materials are being used. A tracer gas procedure using helium has exhibited a high level of success in locating such leakage. The procedure involves dewatering the section under test and inserting a mixture of5% to 10% helium in air at one end of the section. A relief is

kept open at the opposite end to allow the helium to flow through and fill the section. When helium is

detected at the reliefend,the reliefis closed and the section is pressurized to a pre-determined pressure. Helium is one of the true noble gases being completely inert and non-toxic. It can be used on any type of enclosed continued overleaf 19

Hunting down leaks

Leak detection for

continued from page 19

underground storage tanks.

system. Due to its light specific gra vity(0.17)and small molecular struc ture, helium tends to vent quickly upwards through the soil to atmo sphere. A specialty instrument developed

by iteath Consultants Limited in conjunction with Bell Canada is extremely sensitive to helium. This instrument, called a Heath Gasophon-T, is used to sense the atmosphere at grade directly over the section of piping under test. An operator carrying the instruments


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walks slowly along the pipe run and the instrument continuously moni tors the atmosphere over the pipe. The Heath Gasophon-T can detect very minor seepages of helium to the atmosphere. When the helium is detected at the surface,the leak loca tion is quickly verified and pinpoin ted using the various sensitivity set tings of the instrument. If the sur face cover over the pipe involves asphalt and concrete, or, soil condi tions include frost, it may be neces sary to place test holes through this cover to pre-determine depths. Test holes are normally placed at ten foot intervals along the pipe run. The helium test procedure is the last resort to locate difficult leaks. It is



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B.C. Representative (604) 274-3849

Sales Representative

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Tom Davey

(416) 488-7639

10 Petch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7 Teleptione:(416) 727-4666, Fax: 841-7271

widely used by Heath to locate leaks on water mains, pressurized tele phone lines, ground heat recovery systems and pressurized vessels of all kinds.

The most costly waste of treated water is leakage on below ground water distribution systems. Un accounted-for water in the range of 10% to 30% is commonplace on many municipal water systemsin Canada. Lossfactors ofthis magnitude would bankrupt many industries as this represents a direct loss of finished product. Our apathy towards water over the years has resulted in a complacent acceptance of such losses as being normal and there fore acceptable. This attitude must change as we can no longer allow the lifehlood of our environment to

seep into the ground. Upgraded maintenance practices, based on effective water leakage detection programs,can reduce the loss. Such programs save money and help con serve a vital resource.

For more Information, 20

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

f Towering 29,028 feet, Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth. Many climbers vainly tried to conquer this giant, and more than a few died in the attempt. A pair of now-famous feet were

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and each one proudly bears the UL mark. And MSU's

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991






What MISA has achieved — what lies ahead A former Director of Water Resources

for ttie Ontario Ministry of ttie Environment, Jim Bistiop piayed a major role in the development of the Municipal & industrial Strategy for Abatement. ES&E asked him to review what has become one of

Canada's most progressive pieces of environmental legislation.

Ontario's MISA program

affected by the regulation. MISA was radically different. It began with a sustained attempt to open up the regulatory process to the public, to industry, and to the vari ous environmental public interest groups. This process, while admi rable in its intent, inevitably resul ted in a regulatory process that could not be all things to all sides, and inevitably disappointing to some degree to all concerned.

to virtually eliminate toxic discharges into waterways, reached a MiSA'S ORIGINS MISA was born out of environ turning pointin 1990.The result has been a period of contemplation and mental necessity. While it was an a refocusing of the environmental nounced by the then Liberal Minis strategies at the heart of MISA. To ter ofthe Environment,Jim Bradley, understand what happened in 1990, in June,1986,the strategy had been it is important to understand why developed in the Ministry's Water MISA came aboutin the first place, Resources Branch for some time. The main issues that led to MISA what philosophies were incorpora ted into it, and what it was intended were: to accomplish. It is also important • increasing public awareness of water pollution in Ontario; to remember that MISA is an envi ronmental regulation,and as such it • Ontario had to make pollution hassome unavoidable shortcomings. reductions as part of the Great These are due to the very nature of Lakes Water Quality Agreement; the environmental regulatory pro •the amount and types of toxic pol cess, where government develops a lutants being discharged by muni cipalities and industry was not welllegally enforceable means of dea defined; ling with specific problems percei ved as harmful to the environment. •monitoring of effluents and appli cation of Certificates of Approval Such regulations are often develo ped by government departments (C's of A)were inconsistentfrom one with little input from those most geographic region to another and

from one industry to another; • routine monitoring showed that many sewage treatment plants and industries were out of compliance with existing limits for convention al parameters; • shock loadings were not control led.

In early 1985 the Liberals were elected, in a coalition with the New Democratic Party and Jim Bradley became the Minister of the Envi

ronment. He brought with him a zealous commitment to environmen tal care and an action-oriented team

of well-prepared, experienced, exe cutive assistants. It was clear that

the time was right for some new approaches to environmental man agement.


This need crystallized in August 1985 when Dow's Samia operation lost 55,000 L. of perchlorethylene into the St. Glair River, and Ontario added the blob to its environmental lexicon. This event also fast-tracked

MISA into being. While June 1986 was the official birth month of

MISA, August 15/85 was the like liest date of conception. MISA was now well and truly launched. MiSA'S MISSION

The program's goal was the vir tual elimination of toxic contami

nants in industrial and municipal discharges into waterways. MISA would accomplish this by: • developing a database, through continued overleaf

Properly implemented, MISA can be a powerful tool In the protection of our lakes and waterways for future generations. TPD Photo. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

'Environmental Protection Laboratories Inc. 23




sector by sector basis; legislated monitoring, of all subs tances in industrial and municipal • it would be based on hard data, sound environmental science, and discharges; achievable technology; • developing technology-based con •virtual elimination of toxic, persis trol limits on dischargers; •establishing further effluentlimits tent contaminants, would be achie ved through ongoing reductions in based on water quality impacts; toxic loadings as water quality im •strengthening enforcement mechan pacts were determined and as new isms on dischargers; • involving municipalities, indus tries (i.e., those to be regulated), the general public, and the interest groups in the MISA development MISA... was process. The unique aspects of MISA

deliberately developed


•it was deliberately developed using a consultative approach; that is, in dustry and government would deli berate issues together, attempt to reach consensusif possible,and ham mer out a regulation; •input to the regulatory process was not limited to the regulators and those to be regulated. A special advisory body, the MISA Advisory Committee (MAC) was created by Order-in-Council, to provide expert advice to the Environment Minister

on issues relating to MISA;

using a

conservative approach.

• MISA would be undertaken on a

— or agreement to not agree —

prevailed. This process is time-consuming (it took two years for the first Moni toring Regulation to be developed and more than one year for subse quent ones) because the process is painstakingly democratic. It at tempts to receive input from all sta keholders and to ensure that every conceivable attempt has been made to make the regulation fair and equi table.

technology developed; •limits would be based on loadings, not on concentration;

•before loadings could be establis hed, extensive monitoring of indus try effluents was required.

• public involvement would be sought throughout the regulation development process;

ed in a subsequent article. For now, it is sufficient to know that a process for reaching agreement between the various players was developed, and the basis for attempting to reach consensus was dialogue. Some issues were contentious enough to cause deep divisions amongst parti cipants, but the process of dialogue, consensus building and agreement


The processes — how these goals were to be accomplished will be cover

The time Environment Ontario

took to develop this process resulted in slippage from the originally pre dicted dates for the monitoring regu lations, for the following reasons: •Consensus-building between inter est groups, industry and govern ment takes time. continued overleaf

Potable water.

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For complete information, contact Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water Division, Oakville, Ontario, 416/827-9821;

Calgary, Alberta, 403/255-9797

i 24

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 117


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991


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page 24 sible consultative process takes more time than a closed, "generic" process.

There are nine industrial sectors

and the municipal sector. All ofthe industrial sectors have either finis-

bed the monitoring phase or are partway through it. The municipal sector has not yet begun the monito ring phase, for reasons that will be explained later. MISA'S ACHIEVEMENTS

• Promulgation of the monitoring regulations • Development of a consultative approach •A new regulatory approach based on technical fact rather than emo

tional feelings aboutthe environment • The effluent monitoring priority MISA created a surge in the demand for samplers and other equipment. pollutants list Photo courtesy of American Sigma. • The 37 plant sewage treatment •The process of consensus-building but would have required time travel. plant study for MISA had to be invented,and its •The efforts of industry and MISA •Six water quality pilot studies invention could not begin prior to staff, to educate the public interest • Five municipal pilot projects to groups, and to incorporate their demonstrate bow a province-wide MISA. pollution abatement program forin • A generic approach could not be ideas into the process, used up con siderable time. direct dischargers would work taken until the Joint Technical Com mittees (JTC's) for all sectors bad •The opening of the entire process •Sewer use control workshops been down the trail long enough to to public comment and review was • Development of a generic issues intentional,desirable,and done,but resolution process identify the generic issues. Sugges • The monitoring regulations pro tions of streamlining the process to it too, takes time. In short, an open, publicly acces- vide data thatimmediately meet one resolve generic issues sound good ofMISA's primary objectives — deve lopment of a database of all subs tances in industrial discbarges

Measure groundwater levels?

• Increased environmental aware

ness and performance by industries and municipalities. ISSUES RESOLUTION PROCESS


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With the monitoring regulations now promulgated for the industrial sectors, MISA is now entering the critical phase — setting effluent limits. To speed up the process, MOE decided to adopt a generic issues resolution process. This is possible because of the technical and procedural insights gained from the consultative approach in the development of the Monitoring Regulations. From the extensive dialogue with each ofthe 10 JTC's,it is clear that there are many issues that are common to all sectors, and rather than deliberate each issue at

,1 ^

each JTC, there should be signifi cant time savings in having the issues resolved first and then

applied to each of the 10 sectors.


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Last year was a turning point and a year of relative inactivity for MISA for the following reasons. The Issues Resolution Process

(IRP)lays out a practical process on

For more Information, 26

Circle reply card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

MISA paper, but there are many issues for which the consultation process will not result in consensus with all sta

keholders. Final authority for resolv ing such dead-locked issues needs strong direction from the Minister of Environment. For much of 1990, such direction was missing because of the realities of life outside of MISA. Political factors diverted the attention of environmental leaders

away from regulatory programs in Ontario.

Early in 1990, the Liberal Cabi net appeared to be divided over the economic and political importance of environment generally and the Ministry ofEnvironmentin particu lar. This led to a well-reported rift


pioned over the past few years by environmental organizations and grass roots activists on both sides of

public. They tend to see zero dis charge as a major societal issue,and

the Great Lakes and the St. Law

nomic price tag and that political leaders will not actually move until they understand that zero discharge is an important demand of a broadbased constituency". To achieve their goal, then,these groups will work diligently to make the public at large "the broad-based constituency" aware of and in favour of zero discharge. Many of the environmental groups in Onta rio have demonstrated their ability

rence River. Together,these groups haveformed the Zero Discharge Alli ance (ZDA), which has the basic goal of ending the production, use and disposal of all persistent and bio-accumulative toxic substances.

The spokespeople for ZDA are generally very committed, articu late,and they have a realistic idea of the difficulties facing them in hav ing zero discharge accepted by indus try,government,or even the general

that there is "a real social and eco

continued overleaf


between Ontario's Environment

Minister and the Treasurer, which resulted in a lack of direction for a

resource-intensive program like MISA.

The provincial election resulted in a total shut-down of direction for

the program. Anticipated in the spring, and announced in the sum mer, it resulted in a surprising vic tory for the New Democratic Party. The new Environment Minister, Ruth Grier, is an experienced and highlyregarded environmentalist who has demonstrated a principled,thought ful and pragmatic approach to envi ronmental matters. However, the election process itself put a three month hiatus on direction for MISA. Environmental issues like the

Hagersville tire fire, various spills, and Toronto's garbage crisis diver ted attention away from MISA. Ms. Grier was no sooner installed as the

new Minister when the longfestering issue of Toronto's garbage problem reached genuine crisis pro portions. In the cosmic scheme of things, this issue required her immediate and full attention; as a result,there was almost no top down



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Notwithstanding the outcome of the technical, economic, and proce dural issues faced in 1990,there are major matters that need resolution.

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Circle reply cord No. 109



Report, continued such substances already present at their geographic area, or go to zero level?

• Is the substance banned, or the

process that uses it or produces it? •Or is the discharge banned, which would allow the industry to use such a substance in a closed loop system? FAST-TRACKING MISA'S CONSENSUAL APPROACH

State-of-the-art equipment enables Ford to produce up to 960 cars and up to 600 trucks at its Oakville, Ont. plant, while an award-winning wastewater treatment facility protects the environment. Gore & Storrle Photo. kespeople regarding this philo to rally public support,so it is reaso nable to assume that they will be at sophy are: least partially successful in this en •What is meant by zero and by zero deavour. discharge'? ZDA states its objectives as "In •If zero is defined by the ability of Ontario, to reformulate the MISA as the analytical chemist and the a zero discharge regulatory strategy modern array of equipment, is it for persistent toxics;in Quebec to do really zero? If not, does it mean, as the same for the Depollution Pro the available ZDA literature states gram (PRRI); and in the U.S. to zero means zero? press for these revisions in Clean •If zero really means no molecules Water Act reauthorization".

Clearly,the other stakeholders in MISA will develop their positions on this issue. INDUSTRY'S VIEW ON ZERO DISCHARGE

of a given substance, how will a company (or a regulatory agency) know when it has achieved this

goal? • How will a corporation justify spending money to achieve a goal

Not surprisingly, industry is that cannot be measured? opposed to zero discharge as a cen • What is the benefit, if any, to tral objective of any environmental society or to the environment ofzero regulation. Industry generally pre discharge as opposed to virtual elifers virtual elimination as a goal, and believes that virtual elimina tion of a substance is reached when

there is no environmental damage of any kind as a result of discharges of that substance. This view inevi

tably leads to the need for a strong water quality impact side to MISA, in order to be able to measure whe

stalled in court or otherwise ineffec

tive, the regulations and those who formulated them will be seen as

cynical, opportunistic, and incom petent;

• the quality of the environment may not improve; •several years of productive consul tation between government, indus try, and environmental experts will be jeopardized. There is no questioning the NDP government's commitment to the environment, and it is likely that it will preserve those parts of MISA that are seen to be effective. Simi

larly, concepts such as zero dis charge may have elements that will ultimately become part of MISA or may be overlaid on the program. Questions on the cost effective-

There Is no questioning the NDP's commitment to the environment.... Its likely that It will preserve those parts of MISA that are seen to be effective.

mination of a substance?

Some other questions concerning zero discharge as it pertains to legis

ther environmental damage is tak ing place. lation are: Aside from the great escalation • How would Ontario go about ban in costs for such site specific studies, ning substances like chlorine or ben this view also implies that it is up to zene, which are either persistent the regulator to prove environmen tal damage, and only after such and toxic or which give rise to toxic damage occurs is there a need to byproducts in industrial processes? reduce further the discharge of the • What net toxic loading concepts substance. Zero discharge would would be applied in the case of natu require that a substance suspected rally-occurring persistent toxins of causing environmental damage like arsenic and lead, or to mercury, be banned outright, before any pro which is not only toxic on its own blems associated with its use can be

butforms one ofthe most toxic envi

indisputably proven. The most frequently encountered questions raised by industrial spo-

ronmental pollutants known—methylmercury—in nature? Would indus tries be required to meet the levels of


This idea is predicated on the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment announcing "Our job is to regulate; yours(industry)is to obey the regulation, and here it is". The principal benefit of such an approach is mainly the rapid speed with which regulations can be deve loped. The downsides are: • contesting these regulations in court is much more likely; • if regulations developed under a "fast-track" approach turn out to be

ness of MISA and other regulatory approaches will continue to be rai sed. This could have a positive influence on the emphasis of limits regulation development on a secto ral basis: that is, fix the worst first, for maximum quick benefit to the environment.

Regardless of how these issues are resolved within MOE,I believe tbat MISA, with its established track record and foundation of

government-industry-public dia logue, is still the best clean water plan available to Ontario. ES&E In the next Issue of ES&E,Jim Bishop will focus on how the Municipal Sec tor will be affected by MISA.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991



In point of fact, the burrowing owl doesn't give a hoot at all. Ordinarily, its cry is closer to that of a cuckoo — more

The burrozving owl may not give a hoot...

of a "coo-coo-roo." And when the

robin-sized burrowing owl is threatened, it utters a shrill cackle that

strongly resembles the warning buzz of a rattlesnake.

The burrowing owl is native to Canada's dry grassland country, dependent mainly on the burrows of small animals for its nest sites. With the

advance of civilization, however, these

burrows have become less plentiful, and in recent years the burrowing owl has joined the growing ranks of endangered species. In 1983 the British Columbia Fish

and Wildlife Branch began a program to reintroduce the burrowing owl to the South Okanagan Valley area by transplanting adult and nestling birds from Washington state. Part of this program involved the construction of

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chance to become re-established as a

self-sustaining species. With luck — and good management — the "coo-coo-roo" of the burrowing owl may again become a familiar sound in grasslands country.

101 De Lauzon

but we do!

artificial burrows to house the new

arrivals. Big 'O' contributed 6-inch perforated pipe for this purpose. The burrowing owls seem eager to take advantage of the hospitality offered. Their ready acceptance of the artificial burrows gives them a fighting

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Endangered species such as the burrowing owl bring home the fact that we cannot take our natural

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 104


Guest Column

By Dr. Michael Walker*

Using economic means for environmental ends

Whenitcomesto economics, there are basically two

kinds of environmental ists. On the one hand there are the

"back to the earth" group, some times typified by the attitude ofCBC television luminary David Suzuki. Apparently, this group wants no thing less than to shut down the modern economic process as we observe it and to retrench to a less industrialized and less active eco

nomy which would produce much less but consume much less of our

natural resources and other things. In fact, recognizing that many peo ple in the world are still at a subsis tence level, some of these environ mentalists claim we should stop the level of economic growth in the world where it is now and redistri bute what we have rather than

There are other indicators that environmentalism and economic

advance are reconcilable. Larry Solomon advocates private owner ship of forests as the only way to effectively save them and the envi ronmental amenities that they pro vide. That privatizing forests does not necessarily rule out economic development but only ensures a rational approach to the utilization ofthe resources can be seen from the activities of the National Audubon

Society in the United States. The society has a beautiful wildlife sanc tuary in Vermilion Parish, Louisi ana,called the Rainey Preserve.The main purpose of the preserve is to provide protection for migrating snow geese, but it also provides a habitat for other birds, alligators, mink, and armadillos.

attempt to grow more. On the other hand there are the

market environmentalists, such as Larry Solomon, Executive Director of Pollution Probe. These environ

The Rainey Preserve also has stocks of natural gas. Rather than arguing against the exploitation of this resource as the Audubon Society

has done in other areas where the

natural gas has existed on publicly owned land, in its own reserve the society worked out an arrangement with a private company to drill for the natural gas. The reason was quite simple. At the peak of the last oil price boom, natural gas produc tion from the reserve was providing about $1 million per year in income that the Audubon Society could use to pursue other environmental objec tives. A clear example of a reconci liation between economic and envi

ronmental objectives. Close scrutiny by the society en sured that the drilling caused no negative effect on the environment and apparently caused no change in the behaviour ofthe geese which are co-users of the reserve. There are

other examples in Michigan where the society has collaborated in pro jects on its lands. Canadian envi ronmentalists could take a few

pages from the book ofthe Audubon Society.

mentalists, rather than despising the successes of the modern econ

omy, seek to find ways to use the economic process itself to achieve environmental ends. One manifestation of the activi

ties of this constructive group is the establishment of environmental in vestment funds — mutual funds

that invest only in firms that are environmentally oriented. One such fund formed earlier this year in California, GEF Management, doesn't just invest in companies that are environmentally oriented, it actually asks them to fill out sur veys on their environmental policies and actively screens outfirms thatit judges hurt the earth. The President of GEF is H. Jeffrey Leonard,former vice-president of the World Wildlife Fund. Leonard sometimes advises

companies that he holds in his port folio on how to be more environmen

tally correct. Not only are these environmen

tally conscious funds helpful to the environment,they may also be help

ful to their investors. A recent report in the Wall Street Journal indicates that at least some of the environ

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 102



Water Treatment

Zebra Mussel Invasion continues at a rapid rate Don Lewis*

Zebra Mussels were undeni

ably the headline grabbers

of 1990. The introduction of

the mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)to the Great Lakes in 1985/ 1986 has had a dramatic impact on water users located on these lakes,

connecting waterways, and associ ated tributaries. Industries in the

Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Lake Erie and Niagara Regions have been particularly hard hit, causing several plant closures and bringing others to the brink of shutdown. While treatment information is

becoming available at a rapid rate, much of it is contradictory or of a general nature. Industrial and muni cipal engineers have been left to sort out the details themselves, trying to adapt these programs to the specific characteristics of each site.

Natural dispersion of the mussel

Diver with underwater camera going to inspect wet weli and intake areas.

from brood stalks in Lake St. Clair

The US shoreline of Lake Ontario

and Lake Erie, which contain colo nies with densities as high as 500,000/m2, led to heavy infestation of the Niagara Region during the

experienced somewhat more drama tic infestations, particularly as far along as Rochester. This was proba bly due to the strong thermocline in

summer of 1990. While larval densi

the Lake which directs most of the

ties were already as high as 250,G00/m''in the Niagara River and Welland Canal by late June or early July, the first settling in the area did not occur until mid Augpist. By the end of September, most underwater structures in the region had low densities of year-old mussels

Niagara River flow along the Ameri can shore until late August when the Lake has warmed substantially. All of the Great Lakes felt the

impact of the mussels to some extent in 1990. Most fresh water ports have become infested and now support small colonies which should begin to

...attempting to control the zebra mussel once water temperature Is below 12° C Is an exercise In futility.

and were now completely covered with high densities of young of the year-old mussels measuring as much as 8-10 mm. By October at least two layers were present, measuring an average of 20 mm. The impact on Lake Ontario was difficult to predict. Monitoring in the lake indicated that while the young mussels are now present along much of the shoreline, the densities, parti cularly on the Canadian side, were less than may have been expected. Higher densities and older mussels appeared at most commercial ports and docks, which may mean an acce lerated infestation rate in 1991, hel

ped along by these potential breeding colonies. 32

produce larvae in the summer of 1991. In addition, sources along the St. Louis River at Duluth, the Illinois River and Shipping Canal at Chi cago, the St. Lawrence River, the St. Clair River, and the Erie Barge

Canal, have all reported significant numbers of zebra mussels in their waters.

All indications are that by late 1991, few areas in the lower Lakes will escape the effects of the mussels and much of the lower Lake Huron

and Michigan shorelines, particu larly along shipping channels, will also see mussels. Lake Superior, Upper Lake Michigan, and Huron may be the only major areas to escape the full impact of the mussel

in 1991 with only minor infestation of shallower embayments near ship ping ports. RESEARCH EFFORTS

When the impact ofthe zebra mus sel was initially felt in 1989, little information was available regarding its biology, or protocols for its control in industrial or municipal settings. The use of chlorine was well docu

mented, however, in fairly general terms which often failed to discuss

the affect of temperature, pH, and other water quality parameters which greatly alter effective treat ment concentration and duration. Initial treatments in North Ame

rica were based on European litera ture; however, reports of effective chemical concentrations vary from as low as 0.5 ppm total residual chlo rine to greater than 2 ppm in a wide variety of protocols from continuous to pulse dosing. This information

only added to the confusion. As industry became aware of the potential problems associated with the mussel, requests for chlorination of service water systems came in to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment with increasing freq uency. Initially these treatments were granted approval on an expe rimental basis in order to learn more

about this process and to keep badly

*Aquatic Sciences Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

infested systems operational. Until early 1990, the ministry had heen the only government hody to take significant action (with the exception ofDr.Joe Leach,at Minis try of Natural Resources, Lake Erie

in the US and newer chemicals such as the"Lemma toxin" which is toxic

treatment program,providing a com fort level to the on-site professionals

to snails (and potentially a myriad of other organisms) are all being used or tested, for the most part in

that would not otherwise exist.

Fisheries Research Station) with

Physical control ofthe zebra mus sel is usually difficult. Heat has been attempted at several US utili

regard to the zebra mussel problem. However, following a zebra mussel symposium held at the University of Guelph, both Ministry of National Resources and Agriculture Canada began to move. The result was that the MNR was now the lead agency in dealing with this problem and that Agriculture Canada has dee med the zebra mussel a pest and chlorine as the only chemical regis tered for its control. The concerns about the effect of wholesale use of chlorine and the

potential for environmental damage, led the MOE to require industry to apply for a Certificate of Approval for dechlorination facili ties at sites using this chemical for zebra mussel control. Chlorine must now be controlled

in industrial effluents, at virtually undetectable levels (.01 ppm requi rement,.002 ppm objective). While attaining these levels is relatively simple, the technology to analyze for residual chlorine to these levels in industrial effluents on a conti

nual basis, has been difficult if not impossible to find. Crab sampling for amperometric analysis under clean laboratory conditions appears to be a most reliable method for industrial sites. The concern about the formation

of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes and other chlori

nated organics, and the difficulties with meeting MOE guidelines, has led industry into the search to mini mize chlorine use and to find alter

nate chemical and physical means to control the mussel.

Ontario Hydro, with an obvious vested interest, has been the lead agency in Canada since early 1989. Hydro, as part of a larger Lake Erie utilities group which includes many utilities in the US, has initiated research on just about every concei vable avenue for zebra mussel con

trol. Much of this work is on-going and the results are just now being

put together. However, the list of potentially useful chemicals in cludes; Hypochlorite, Chlorine diox ide,Chloramines,Potassium perman ganate, Bromine, Hydrogen per

the US.

This type of monitoring often in cludes the installation of culture

plates in wet wells or forebays and

ties as well as some in Ontario with

good success; however, for the most part industry does not have the abi lity to produce large volumes of water in excess of40°C for recircula-

tion throughout their facilities.

the use of sidestream monitors

which allow incoming water to pass through settling chambers, allow ing the detection of recently settled larvae and the determination ofcolon

ization rate. They may also be used to determine mortality percentages throughout the treated area during control programs.

New research in the area of hydroacoustics seems promising. Severai frequencies have been found that will cause mortality in zebra mussei iarvae...

Those that can, may be able to keep some areas mussel free without the use of chemicals.

New research in the area of hydroacoustics seems promising. Several frequencies have been found that will cause mortality in zebra mussel larvae and will crack the shells or

cause migration of young adult mus sels. Further research is underway to upscale these devices. The use of electricity to keep in take structures and grates mussel free is also under investigation,how ever, field testing has yet to he com pleted.

In addition to these physical and chemical controls, a number of new or newly named surface coatings have been marketed to prevent mus sel infestation. For the most part, these surfaces appear to slow the infestation rate;however,physicalclean

ing is still eventually required. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING The tremendous amount of re

search activity may soon provide a clearer picture, better defining mus sel control programs and alternate control methods. The uncertainty

caused by the often contradictory information now available, regar

ding exact treatment protocols and potential effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of the in

coming service water, underscores the fact that a sound biological moni toring effort is undoubtedly the most important component of any zebra mussel control program.

Also ofimportance is an external and internal inspection of intake structures and pipes which may be the first areas of the service water

system to feel the impact of zebra mussel infestation. Often a 48" pipe is drawing water through a crib with 6" slots; or an older pipe may already have structural damage or heavy sedimentation and become restricted by mussels within 6-8 months of infestation. These ins

pections help to define the time table for mussel control programs. Understanding the biology ofthe mussel is critical to understanding the best ways to control it. For example, attempting to control the zebra mussel once water tempera ture is below 12°C is an exercise in

futility. The mussel has such a low metabolic rate in cold water that it

does not have to filter chemically treated water for long periods of time. Treatment at cold tempera tures may take as long as 3-4 weeks, while taking only 3-4 days above 20°C, regardless of the amount of chemical used.

There are many aspects of the mussel's biology which can be mani pulated or taken advantage of to keep a system mussel free while reducing chemical costs and mini mizing environmental impact. As research continues for a chlo

rine replacement,zebra mussels con tinue to move across the continent

with the unsuspecting aid of com mercial and recreational water

more exotic molluscides which have

Biological monitoring can not only indicate when to start and stop treatment, it can also be used to

craft, altering the ecology of the Lakes as they go. One can only hope that increased efforts to preventfur ther invasions of this type are suc

been useful against the Asiatic clam

determine the effectiveness of any


oxide and Ozone. In addition to these well known disinfectants,

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991





Flygt's wet CP pumps are easy to install. They can be mounted quickly and simply on guide bars and lowered into the liquid. The discharge connection is fixed to the sump floor so that when the pump is lowered on the guide bars, it automatically engages the discharge connection and releases automatically when it is raised. Flygt's dry CT pumps are instaiied alongside the pump sump and mounted on a stand with inlet pipes. Like all Flygt pumps, they are submersible and cannot be damaged by accidental flooding. All of our 0 pumps are compact, efficient, and available in sizes from 1 to 700 HP.

Backed by years of appiication engineering experience, they can reduce operating costs by up to 75%. They provide reliable perfor mance and the peace of mind you have come to expect from Flygt. For complete information on our versatile C pumps,contact your local Flygt representative. Good Ideas Take Flygt. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 101


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" '!


Water Treatment

Upgrading the Waskatenau WTP

In the spring of1989,Associated

Engineering was asked by the Village of Waskatenau, Alberta to evaluate options to meet imme diate and future water supply and treatment needs. Its WTP, built in 1964, was assessed to have adequate capacity, but not the durability, to fulfill the Village's projected water demands.

"The 25 years of operation had taken their toll on the piping, pump, and electrical components which all exhibited signs of severe wear and corrosion,"says Associated Engine ering project manager Barry Vallance."The masonry walls and roo fing system were also in need of rehabilitation."

Faced with a choice of upgrading the existing plant or building a new one, the Council of the community 60 km northeast of Edmonton deci

ded to upgrade. Renovation began in January 1990 to upgrade the manuallyoperated facility to a semiautomated plant. Upgrading con sisted of replacement of all existing piping, fittings, valves and of all existing gravity filtration system components including the under-

drain. Existing electrical works were replaced with new electrical, control and instrumentation com

ponents to automate the backwash and sludge blow down operations.

The chemical feed system was re placed with new units. The existing aerator was retrofitted and a new

rapid mix system was installed. For a new look,the plant building was refaced with split-face block over new vapour barrier and insula

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The upgraded facility began pro ducing potable water for the Village by the end of May. "A challenging part ofthe project was to provide residents with pota ble water during the construction period," says Barry Vallance. "The contractor, Nason Construction

Ltd., answered the challenge with a portable plant which was tied into the Village water supply during con struction."


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Ultraviolet Disinfection of Wastewater

A paper in Water Science and Tech nology by J. Maarschalkerweerd,R. Murphy and G.Sakamoto of Trojan Technologies Inc. provides an over view of ultraviolet disinfection in

municipal wastewater treatment plants. Since 1984, over 300 such systems have been installed at muni cipal treatment plants. Several

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poliution Research & Control acetoclastic specific activities ratio. The Haldane equation was adapted for predicting performance inhibi tion by undissociated acids as a function of suhstrate-COD and pH. The soluble COD removal efficiency and methane productivity were pre dicted as a function of the dilution rate. Critical values of solid and

hydraulic residence times were also

Lafrance in Sciences et techniques de I'eau, the sampling and incuba tion can he done at any time by staff who need not have any intensive training in microbiology. Since the water samples are incubated as soon as they are taken,the results of the water quality are available more rapidly. Composite sampling can he done every two or four hours without disturbing the plant operation.

such installations were examined

by the authors and their costs ana lysed. The evidence to date supports the premise that UV disinfection can meet demands for reliable efflu ent disinfection in a cost effective

manner. Most of the plants were retrofitted with the ultraviolet disin

fection systems at capital costs which compared favourably with the costs of upgrading chlorination systems. Upfiow Anerobic Sludge

Bed-Filter System A hybrid upfiow sludge bed-filter anaerobic reactor was successfully used by S.R. Guiot for treatment of synthetic soluble 1% sugar waste. In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, this Biotechnology Research Institute scientist discus

ses a hysteresis phenomenon with respect to changes in acidogenic/


estimated and discussed in detail.

A Simplified Coiiform Analysis Scientists at the water filtration

plant in Laval, Quebec have develo ped a technique for the measure ment of total coiiform which is sim

pler than the standard membrane filtration method. As described by D. Duchesne, J. Coallier and P.

Disinfection By-Products in Water In a joint study, G.D. Miller and coworkers from the University of Alberta, Reid Crowther and Part ners Ltd.,and the City ofEdmonton designed and operated a pilot plant for the evaluation of disinfection by products in drinking water. Their paper in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada des cribes the pilot plant consisting of a common initial treatment sequence followed by four independent paral lel streams. Chemically inert mate rials(glass,stainless steel and fluorocarhons)were used throughoutfor all water contacting surfaces. The paper outlines the design approach, provides a detailed process descrip tion and discusses experimental methods, costs, operating criteria, and typical process performance

• P.C.B.s • Pesticides • Herbicides • Antibiotics

• Mycotoxins

• Drugs of Abuse


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

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and problems associated with this pilot plant. Analysis of Non-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans

When defoamers containing nonchlorinated dioxins and furans are

used in pulp and paper mill opera tions employing a chlorine bleach ing process,a significantincrease in levels of tetrachlorinated dioxins

(TCDD)and furans(TCDF)isfound in the bleached pulp. As part of control measures to reduce the

TCDD and TCDF levels in pulp mill effluents, an analytical method was required for the determination of non-chlorinated dioxins and furans in defoamers. Based on a method

developed at the Pulp and Paper Research Institute(PAPMCAN),scientists from the National Water Research Institute and PAPRICAN

have collaborated and proposed a reference method for the determina

tion of the target compounds in de foamers within a detection limit of1

ng/g. Treatment of Kraft Mill Effluents

Delegates attending BIOFOR/ FIOQUAL '91 in Fredericton heard an account ofthe work of University

for the removal of chlorinated orga nic compoundsfrom kraft mill efflu ents. The results obtained over a

four month period showed that the system worked extremely well for reduction ofBOD,TSS,and toxicity. The overall removal of TOC and AOX was about 30% across the

entire system with the majority be ing removed in the aerated lagoon. The amount ofchlorine bound to the

organic matter in the sludge and in the interstitial water was found to

be relatively constant throughout the lagoon. Optimizing Sludge Dewatering

In a paper published in Water Science and Technology,P.M.Craw ford describes a joint project bet ween the Wastewater Technology Centre and Zenon Water Systems Inc., to optimize polymer consump tion in sludge dewatering applica tions. The development of the Sludge Conditioning Controller (SCC)resulted from this project and the paper describes both the hard ware and software aspects of the SCC. In addition,typical operating performance of the microprocessorbased system is shown. Experience with full scale systems has revealed

ofToronto scientists on the seasonal

that the benefits associated with the

performance of an aerated lagoon

SCC far exceed the original objec


ro rs


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tive of saving polymer. The others include automation of the dewater

ing device operation,increased capa city, and more uniform performance of the dewatering machine. Recreational Water Quality In a jointresearch project,scientists from the Ontario Ministries of the

Environment and of Health,and the National Water Research Institute

investigated five popular beaches in Southwestern Ontario for the pre sence of coliphage, bacteriophase and the standard bacterial indica tors offecal waste. As described in a

paper accepted for publication in Water Research, G.A. Palmateer and his colleagues recovered both coliphage and bacteriophage at all five beaches on each often sampling trips. Coliphage and bacteriophage results were available in six and

eighteen hours respectively. Based on these results, the authors recom mend that recreational water qua lity studies include the enumeration of coliphage, bacteriophage and enteroviruses.

Sediment Traps

The reliability of sediment traps in shallow water with significant orbi tal motions is unknown. In a paper continued overieaf

Senior Water Treatment Engineers Associated Engineering designs and builds Canada's most advanced water treatment facilities. The contin

uous growth of our client base has created an opportu nity for a Senior Water Treatment Facilities Engineer to assume a management role in our Calgary office.

The qualified candidate will be a Professional Engineer with a minimum of ten (10) years experience in the

Design and Execution of Water Treatment Projects. A working background in a municipal consulting envi ronment and proven management skills are essential. Associated Engineering is an employee-owned com pany. We recognize superior technical talent and management potential and reward both. This position offers an opportunity to join the man

agement ranks of one of the country's leading consult ing firms and to build a career within an organization that can provide technical challenge and executive development.


Qualified candidates are invited to apply, in strictest confidence to: G.T. Hussey, P.Eng., Area Manager, Associated Engineering Aiberta Ltd., 1400, 910-7th Avenue S.W., CALGARY, Aiberta T2P 3N8, Tei:(403) 262-4500, Fax:(403) 269-7640.


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R&D published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, F.M. Boyce and colleagues from the National Water Research Institute describe the re sults of their assessment of the field

performance of conventional set tling tubes and two versions of hori zontally-ported chambers in shal low wave-dominated water. It was found that the catch rate of the lat

ter was proportional to the root mean square horizontal flow velo city over the trapping interval. In general,however,resultsfrom these sediment traps in such waters should he given qualitative status only.

ed to sustain anaerobiosis.


results were reported in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. Based on the analysis of data during near-steady-state condi tions of the six units,this Technical University of Nova Scotia resear cher concluded that the minimum

concentration of total phosphate re quired to support anaerobic decom position of leachate was 0.7 mg/L and the maximum ratio of COD/P

that can be applied was 30,300.COD removal efficiencies as high as 91% could be achieved.


Potash Waste Management The seepage of brine from potash tailing ponds into surrounding soil and groundwater is of concern. J.E. Tallin, Manitoba Hydro, and Uni versity of Saskatchewan scientists D.E. Pufahl and S.L. Barbour pro pose four general models to illus trate the role of hydrogeology in the selection of techniques for contain ment of potash wastes. Their paper published in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering,reviews waste management schemes in the Sas katchewan potash industry over the

Treatment of Bleached Pulp Mill Effluent

Laboratory scale treatability studies were undertaken by Wastewater Technology Centre scientist E.R. Hall, to monitor and optimize the efficiency of various biological treatment processes for removing chlorinated organic material from wastewaters discharged by bleach ed kraft pulp mills. As described at the recent BIOFOR/BIOQUAL '91 Conference, preliminary results at high and intermediate temperature conditions indicated significantly greater organochlorine removal efficiencies in stabilization basins

in comparison to the activated sludge process. Mass balance calcu lations also indicated that hiode-

gradation was the major mechan ism of removal in the stabilization

basins. Biomass adsorption appears to be the dominantremoval mechanism in the activated sludge process.

Thickening/Clarification Process Model

I. Takacs, G.G. Patry and D. Nolasco describe a dynamic model of the thickening/clarification pro cess in Advances in Water Pollution

Control. The model is designed to simulate the time-varjdng solids con centration profile within a settler, including the underflow and efflu ent suspended solids concentra tions, as well as the height of the sludge blanket. The model is based

You Can't Control What You Don't Measure.

Microtox'Measures Toxicity. It's important to control toxicity at every stage of your wastewater treatment operation. • Increase confidence that your effluent will pass compliance tests. Avoid fines or expensive toxicity reduction procedures. • Pinpoint sources of toxicity. • See immediately how new processes or corrective measures actually affect toxicity. • Protect your biomass from damage. • Stay on top of your situation...in control. A Fast Bioassay The Microtox system is a true bioassay using freeze-dried test organisms (immediately ready for use on rehydration), a preci sion analyzer, and an automatic data collection and reduction system. Microtox monitors toxicity levels routinely (daily, even hourly) from many sources in and around your plant. For a few dollars in a few minutes, Microtox provides information you need to control toxicity in your products and wastes.

on a solids balance around a num

ber of uniform horizontal layers throughout the depth of the settler. These McMaster University scien tists also presented examples based on pilot and full scale experimental

Let us show you how Microtox can help you each day. For a free sample Microtox Data Report, use the reader response card, or call Microbics at

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Treatment of Landfill Leachate


D. Thirumurthi monitored six labo


ratory model anaerobic fixed film reactors,fed by a pretreated landfill

Carlsbad, CA 92008-9792

2232 Rutherford Road

leachate, to estimate the minimum

concentration of phosphate requir Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 112




past 27 years and presents observa tions and qualitative evaluations of waste disposal practice of four mines that are representative of the proposed hydrological models. Separation of Polychlorlnated Biptienyls and Terphenyls As part of continuing research on the use of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in environmen tal analysis, F.I. Onuska, National Water Research Institute, has con ducted comparative work on the be haviour of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphen yls in SFC techniques. A microbore packed column or an open tubular capillary were employed in order to gain insight into factors affecting the separation and retention of these compounds. As described in the Journal of High Resolution Chromatography, the microbore SFC system has been shown to offer advantages in terms of the amount of sample that can be handled and the speed of analysis. Exchange of Inorganic Chemicals Between Water and Sediment

M.L. Diamond and colleagues from the University of Toronto and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

have developed a simple mathema

tical model to describe the move

ment of radioisotopes added to lake enclosures, first during initial loss from water to sediments,and second during release from sediments into isotope-free water. The model, des cribed in Environmental Science

and Technology, is based on the concept of "aquivalent" concentra tion, an equilibrium criterion ana logous to fugacity, but suitable for in volatile chemicals. It treats two

homogeneous compartments, water and an active layer of sediments, and exchange by bidirectional dif fusion, sediment deposition, and resuspension. Eiectroplating Wastewater Treatment Costs

In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, University of Waterloo scientists N.D. Looker, E.A. McBean and G.J. Farquhar com pare the costs of implementing an advanced wastewater treatmentsys tem for a cadmium plating plant, versus the sludge disposal costs of the sewage treatment plant to which the plating plant is discharging its effluent. A case study application demonstrates that it is cost-effective

to initiate pretreatment at electro plating facilities which allows a

municipal facility to dispose of its sludge on agricultural land rather than be required to do so by landfilling. Sensitivity analyses to market interest rate, sludge production, sludge disposal fees, and drag-out rates are explored. Improved Biological Nutrient Removal

B. Rabinowitz and colleagues from Stanley Environmental Sciences Inc., and the University of British Columbia have developed guide lines for upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants for biologi cal nutrient removal. In a paper published in Water Science and Technology, a case history dealing with the upgrading of the conven tional activated sludge process loca ted at Penticton,B.C.,to a biological nutrient removal facility with the design flow of 18,200 mVday (4.0 IMGD) is presented as a design example.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa,

ON K1A0H3, Tel:(613)991-1578.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

1720C and Surface Scatter 6 Process Tbrbidimeters It's what you don't get that make them the most widely used turbldimeters in the world! ■ No Dirty Cells ■ No Stray Light Problems ■ No False High Turbidity Readings ■ No Gas Bubbles ■ No Loss of Sensitivity at Low Turbidity Levels ■ No Condensation and Filming ■ No Cleaning and Maintenance Hassles ■ No Need for Deslccants or Air Purge Systems

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■ Provides the sensitivity and stability re quired for low turbidity levels found in high quality filter water.

■ The Surface Scatter® 6 focuses a light beam on the liquid surface at an acute angle. A photocell above the liquid detects 90° scattered light making it ideal for monitor ing high solids streams such as raw water, clarifier effluent, and wastewater.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

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Alberta's approach to meeting Canadian drinking water quality guidelines

The public's perception of, and confidence in, the safe-

ness of municipal drinking waters deteriorated signifi cantly in the 1980s as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the sales of

bottled water and point of use treat ment devices. It is the responsibility of federal, provincial and municipal governments, public health profes sionals as well as municipal consul tants to ensure that well co-ordinated

and integrated drinking water qua lity control programs are developed and implemented. Such programs should not only result in the produc tion of drinking water meeting the drinking water quality guidelines, but should also provide the safe guards and assurances that collec tively will convince an informed pub lic thattheir drinking water isindeed safe. Such a safe drinking water program can be sub-divided into five major elements. Figure 1 shows these five major elements, which taken collectively, and recognizing that there are overlaps and strong interrelationships between each ele ment, represent the type of compre hensive and effective regulatory pro gram necessary to ensure the provi sion of safe drinking water on a consistent basis.

In Alberta, responsibility for the regulation and control of municipal drinking water systems resides with Alberta Environment. The follow

ing is a briefoutline ofhow the Guide lines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality are applied in Alberta and the progrrams that have evolved to ensure that not only the numerical limits in the guidelines are met but that the intent of the Guidelines,i.e. safe drinking water, is met.

has attempted to be an active parti cipant on the Federal-Provincial Sub-Committee that develops the

ned .expansion or general upgrad ing. This general approach allows for a smooth implementation ofnew requirements that is not overly dis ruptive either to municipal plan ning and financing processes or to provincial approval and funding



By D. Spink and K. Chinnlah Alberta Environment

Number and Types of Systems Water Supply and Treatment Systems In Alberta

Ensuring the adequacy of water supply and treatment systems from a design and process standpoint is considered a major element of any comprehensive safe drinking water program. Changes in technology, development of new and more strin gent drinking water quality guide lines, or just a better understanding of the limitation of certain techno

logies can be expected to result in continued changes to what consti tutes an "adequate" water system.

The proper operation and maintenance of

water supply and treatment systems Is an essential part of any effort...

Every effort must be made to ensure that existing water supply and treat ment systems are as "adequate" as possible based on today's guidelines /standards while also considering possible future changes in guide lines/standards.

The following activities are under taken in Alberta to achieve this

Application of Drinking Water Quality Guidelines The Guidelines for Canadian

Drinking Water Quality are notlegal ly enforceable standards unless adopted as such by the appropriate provincial, territorial or federal agency. In Alberta, the guidelines have been adopted, through the Alberta Clean Water Act legislation as the quality standards applying to municipal water supplies. For this reason. Alberta has a strong inter est in ensuring that the Guidelines are practical and implementable and 42

objective: • development and publication of system and process design stand ards and guidelines. • provision of financial assistance to municipalities for water supply and treatment works. •issuance ofPermit to Constructfor

any permanent works. •issuance of Licence to Operate for the water supply and distribution systems.

In general, new requirements or standards are applied to a specific facility as part of an already plan

In Alberta

The number and type of munici pal waterworks systems in a given jurisdiction will partly determine the significance and impact of any changes in drinking water quality guideline limits or treatmentrequire ments.

In 1989 there were 271 munici

pally owned water supply systems in Alberta serving cities, towns, vil lages, summer villages and ham lets. Another 33 municipalities in the province were served by regional water supply systems or received waterfrom another municipality.In addition,there were in excess of400 non-municipally owned water sys tems serving developments such as schools, metis settlements, mobile home parks,provincial parks,water co-ops, commercial/industrial esta blishments,etc. Approximately twothirds of the municipalities utilize surface water as a supply source and these surface water supply systems serve over 1.8 million people. In general, groundwater is used as a water supply source in smaller muni cipalities and non-municipal deve lopments and serves approximately 300,000 people. The remainder of the 300,000 people in the province are served by private water supply systems such as wells,cisterns receiv ing trucked water, or dugouts. Supply and Treatment System Operation The proper operation and main tenance of water supply and treat ment systems is an essential part of any effort to ensure the on-going sustained production and delivery of the best quality drinking water that can possibly be produced. Eval uations ofperformance ofwater treat

ment plantsindicates that good oper ator training results in improved drinking water quality. Cost sum mary data on drinking water treat ment technologies also indicates that annual operating costs can rep resent a significant portion of the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

total annualized cost, i.e. capital and operating costs, of treating drinking water. It is, therefore, important that regulatory agencies have programs and activities that promote, encourage, and to some extent, ensure the good operation

and maintenance of water supply systems.

In Alberta, the following activi ties related to the operation and maintenance of water supply sys tems are undertaken by Alberta Environment:

(1)basic operational related monito ring requirements are outlined in a Licence to Operate for water supply

a specific concern/problem (e.g. two lead monitoring programs were re cently undertaken — one involving private residences and the other in volving schools). One of the issues created by com prehensive and ever-expanding drink ing water quality guidelines is the frequency at which drinking waters should be sampled and which para meters should be analyzed to deter mine compliance with the guide lines. In Alberta, compliance moni toring requirements for municipal water supply systems are partially established by legislation. Chemical quality must be moni tored at least once per year for well

To augment the province's basic compliance monitoring program, a comprehensive drinking water qua lity monitoring program entitled "Drinking Water Survey" was ini tiated in 1978. This monitoring pro gram analyzes over50 Alberta drink ing waters for an extensive number and type of substances and is simi lar in concept to Ontario's Drinking Water Surveillance Program. The purpose of this monitoring program is to evaluate the"quality" ofAlberta drinking waters in relation to guide line limits and also to obtain base line data which can be used to assess

long term trends or changes in drin king water quality.


(2)a certified operator is required to supervise the day to day operation


of water treatment systems,



(3) operator training programs are sponsored/presented, (4)facilities are inspected on a regu lar basis to,in part, assess operation and maintenance,

(5) special assistance is provided to operators to optimize plant perfor mance, and (6)strong administrative support is provided to the Alberta Water and Wastewater Operators Association.








Each of these activities is consi

dered to positively contribute not only to the production of drinking water meeting drinking water qua lity guideline limits, but also to the production of the best quality drin king water possible by a given faci lity.






Monitoring of Water Supply Systems

Establishing reasonable and appropriate monitoring require ments for water supply facilities is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks ofa regulatory agency.Alberta Environment considers monitoring to fall into one ofthe following gene ral categories: (1) operational monitoring conduc ted by municipalities to control/ monitor the performance of water treatment processes;

(2) compliance monitoring conduc ted by municipalities to determine compliance with regulatory quality standards/guidelines; (3) compliance monitoring conduc ted by regulatory agencies such as

Figure 1; The five major elements of a safe drinking water program from a regulatory perspective.

water supplies and twice per year for surface water supplies and bacterio logical quality monitoring of all sup plies must be in accordance with the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The specific chemi cal parameters to be analyzed are not specified in the legislation and must therefore be outlined in a faci

lity Licence to Operate. This level and type of compliance monitoring

Alberta Environment and Health

has resulted in an excellent data

Units; and

base on the quality of municipal drinking waters in Alberta at least from the standpoint of "routine" chemical water quality parameters and heavy metals. This compliance monitoring program does not, how ever, address the organic contami nants covered by the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.

(4) baseline or issue oriented moni toring conducted by Alberta Envi ronmentto either develop or expand a drinking water quality database (e.g. in 1989 and 1990, dioxin and furan monitoring ofraw and treated drinking waters was undertaken at selected municipalities)or to address

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

The parameters analyzed in the Drinking Water Survey, total over 200,and the analytical method used also detects the presence of other organic compounds which, if pre sent, are identified. All sampling associated with the Drinking Water Survey is conducted by Alberta Envi ronment and all samples are analy zed by the Department's Alberta Environmental Centre Laboratory. Based on the results from the

Drinking Water Survey and other monitoring programs, drinking water quality throughout the pro vince is considered very good. Very few organic compounds have been detected in Alberta drinking waters with the exception of trihalomethanes.

continued on page 58 43



BCWWA 1991 Conference Delta Pacific Inn

Richmond, B.C. The British Columbia Water & Waste

Association will hold its Annual

Conference April 14-16, followed by a one-day technology transfer semi

water treatment for small systems including plant studies of limestone conductors; and options for filtra tion control.

EC's perspective on solid and liquid waste management in the 1990's will deal with how to serve

the public and the increasingly important area of public consulta tion.

Other presentations will be on

nar on Process Control and Instru

solid waste reduction initiatives,

mentation April 17.

municipal apphcations ofozone,chlo

landfill operations and closure plans and a computer estimation of unit

rine dioxide and UV disinfection;

costs for 20 EC landfills.

The conference will touch on


Municipal wastewater problems will be tackled in a range of presen tations, including: computer model ling of combined sewer overflows;

sulphide control using nitrate and sulphate; advanced wastewater treatment;disinfection of municipal wastewaters using UV and the design of a wetlands sewage treat ment system. Industrial wastewater treatment

presentations will touch on: anae robic digestion of cheese whey; cya nide wastes, GVS&DD Sewer use bylaw 164 — implications for indus trial dischargers; and Kelowna's industrial waste treatment facility. A paper on chemophobia in today's society will add a new dimen sion to the excellent technical pro gram. Conference details: Cathe rine Gibson, Fax: (604) 432-6296. Seminar details from Frank Eelfry, (604)985-5361 or Fax: 985-3705.

TRADESHOW &)CONFERENCE Waterscapes '91 Saskatoon June 2-8

May 14 & 15,1991 Toronto, Ontario

Saskatoon will host WATERSCAPES

B'ringing the buyers to you. That's what HAZTECH CANADA is all about. A specialized tradeshow & conference dealing with pollution control & hazardous waste management, all designed to attract the most qualified participants. We're Canadian Exhibition Management Inc., we know the

importance of tradeshows. After all, serious people from around








tradeshows to learn—and to buy.

HAZTECH CANADA, putting you where the action is.

'91,an international forum on water management and sustainable deve

lopment. WATERSCAPES will be an environmental forum combining all aspects and disciplines of water management.

WATERSCAPES'91 components include:

•an International Conference, fea turing distinguished speakers from around the world, and daily Public Forums. Topics will be classified under 11 major Conference Streams, and will include both local and glo bal water issues; •an International Exposition where water-related businesses can meet

Waste Business International (Official Show Guide) (416)588-1945 Fax:(416) 588-3422 Watch for these other environmental shows & conferences


Calgary '91

Haztech Canada Halifax '91

October 9 & 10, 1991

November 5 & 6, 1991

Call for papers: Conference & Workshops(416)536-5974 CANADIAN EXHIBITION MANAGEMENT INC.

#240, 4936- 87 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5W3 Telephone:(403) 469-2400 Fax:(403)469-1398 44

For more Irttormatlon, Circle reply card No. 120


•Complementary Activities for par ticipants and visitors, including Technical Tours, banquets, lunch eons and other social functions; •Extension Activities to encourage


Haztech Canada

potential buyers from around the

public involvement, including pro gramsfor school children,plus work shops and seminars for home owners, consumers, and the public in general; and • Festival Events centered around recreational water use and the beau

tiful riverbank parks of Saskatoon. WATERSCAPES '91, #3 - 3002 Louise Street,Saskatoon,Saskatch ewan, S7J 3L8, Tel:(306) 373-9089, Fax:(306)373-3778.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

1991 PCAO Conference The 20th annual Pollution Control Association of Ontario Conference

will be held April 21-24,1991 at the Skyline Brock and Foxhead Hotels, Niagara Fails, Ontario. Conference Chairman,Brian Evans ofR.V.Ander son Associates said the goal of the conference was to broaden the scope of the presentations; consequently sessions such as site remediation. Great Lakes clean-up and plant ope rations will he added to the more traditional wastewater PWOD and

Industrial sessions. Program Chair man,Gord Speirs of the Wastewater Technology Centre, together with the PCAO seminar committee have

succeeded in developing an exciting and innovative program presented by recognized experts. The conference format has been

expanded because environmental topics have achieved a new promi nence in everyday Canadian life. No longer can professionals be expec ted to be specialists in any one parti cular field hut rather understand

several fields. Consequently, the broader scope should appeal to a wider range of professionals. There will be a day-long Opera tors' Challenge with teams from across the Province competing for a berth in the WPCF Conference in

Toronto in October. The expected 25

Preliminary Announcement and Call for Papers The 43rd Annual Convention of The Western Canada Water and Waste-

water Association, September 24-28, 1991, Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, and Winnipeg Convention Centre. If you are interested in presenting a paper, please contact:(Technical Program), Mr. Bob Gladding, P.Eng., Telephone: (204) 956-0980, Fax: (204) 957-5389. (Operations Program), Mr. Brent Amy, C.E.T., Tele phone:(204) 986-4797, Fax:(204) 339-2147. For other information, please contact the Convention Co-ordinator: Mr. Kelly Kjartanson, P.Eng., c/o City of Winnipeg Waterworks, Waste & Disposal Department, Telephone:(204)986-4807, Fax:(204)339-2147. teams will compete in five different categories. At press time ten teams had already committed. Topics to he tested include process control,a main tenance problem, some laboratory work, collection system repair and safety demonstration. Phil King of the Regional Municipality ofHamilton-Wentworth and Reg Ranton of Stratford, head a subcommittee orchestrating the event. It will be the first of its kind in Ontario and

will hopefully become an annual event.

The Suppliers' exhibition has been expanded this year. The exhi bit area will become the focal point

lopments in the field of wastewater treatment will he presented. The conference closes with site tours to B.F.Goodricfi to evaluate

chemical waste treatment, to the Niagara Falls STP and to Brights

for all activities outside of the tech

Wines for a review of various inno

nical sessions and the Operators Challenge, a buffet lunch and all

vative work treatment processes. Registration, Mrs. S. Pickett, (416) 502-1440. Exhibit information, Mrs. Kelly Madden, Fax:(416)857-6449.

refreshments will be served in the

exhibit area. An extended poster session featuring exciting new deve-

AWMA Annual Spring Conference 1991 Joint Annual Conference

AWWA (Ontario Section) and OMWA

Hamilton, Ontario

April 28 - May 1 The Ont. Section Air & Waste Mana

Conference Theme "Our Water Resources: Limited, Protected, Valuable"

gement Association will hold its con ference at the Sheraton Hotel where

tion,in recognition ofthe large num ber of smaller systems throughout Ontario who rely on this important resource. A panel discussion on Drinking Water Standards will bring together leading representa tives from the Federal & Provincial

The 1991 Conference will be held

from April 28 - May 1, 1991 at the newly renovated Royal Cannaught Hotel in Hamilton, Ont. A varied program addresses major current issues (zebra mussels. Safe Drink ing Water Act), covers areas of future interest(advanced treatment

technologies, alternative disinfect ants), and environmental assess ment,rate structures and the cost of water.

The program pays particular attention to groundwater protec-

governments, as well as local utili ties, educators and environmental activist groups. It is an opportunity to obtain the very latestinformation on the Safe Drinking Water Act introduced in the Provincial Govern

noted speakers from the US and Canada will focus on the vital air

and waste management issues for the next decade. Featured will he

regulatory overviews on NGx/VQx; California air initiatives. Federal Waste Management and tradable permits. Other topics will deal with mobile and fixed sources of pollu tion, modelling and legislation — now and in the future; monitoring; waste diversion in the'90s; and eco nomic opportunities in waste man agement.

ment's Throne Speech. An additio nal opportunity may come in the Guest Address by Ruth Grier, Mini

tal trade show exhibiting suppliers'

ster of the Environment.

and consultants' services and of

David Crombie will present the results ofthe Royal Commission on

tious Consultants' Buffet on Mon

the future of the Toronto Water

front, and Jim MacLaren,the latest developments on the proposed Water & Sewer Crown Corporation. Details: Astrid Tallon(416)252-7060.

There'll also be an environmen

course a social program with a sumpday Evening. Site visits and tours are being arranged to recycling and waste man agement facilities in the local area. Details: Helle Tosine, MOE, (416) 323-4576.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991


Occupational health and safety

Health and Safety Plans for Environmental Projects

Environmental consultants

or corporate in-house staff anticipating an environ mental project for industry in Canada are wise to include an expli cit Project Health and Safety Plan in their initial proposals and work plans. Such a Plan recognizes moral and legal responsibilities of the employer, and his contract employers, to protect their workers from hazardous exposures and plans for appropriate liability man agement during the project. Large corporations would often have the appropriate policies and professional staffresources in place; but some large firms and most


hazard and the size and duration of

medium and small-sized firms with

out central corporate services on health and safety and the environ

Health & Safety Flan.

ment will often hire an environmen

the time of Plan preparation, there are a few steps the preparer can take

tal consultant to plan, coordinate and execute the project. This article is aimed, then, both at the consul ting companies providing field envi

If site hazards are unknown at

to make the Plan more effective.

First, review available informa tion which could indicate probable

ronmental services and at the vari


ous sized firms contracting their services — so both parties know what to think of, when planning a project. Environmental projects can

(1) what type of manufacturing pro cesses and storage occur at the site now and occurred in the past; (2) what is the environmental and health and safety compliance his tory of the site; (3) who are the neighboring waste generators; and (4) what is known of the geology, water table and prevailing weather,

include: •Identification of contaminants in

environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, air). •Measurement of contaminant con centrations in these media.

•Estimates of boundaries of sprea ding plumes, rates of spread. •Evaluation of leakage from under ground tanks,leaching from dumps. • Bioaccumulation, bioconcentra-

tion in plants and animals. •Remediation activities, e.g., opera ting purge wells, excavation. Depending on the contaminants, the media and the type of environ mental project, such activities may expose workers to potentially hazar dous materials. Most of the hazar dous materials encountered are not

covered by WHMIS, so there is no material safety data sheet to inform workers of health hazards and pre cautions to take.

The person preparing the propo sal or work plan for an environmen tal project may already know what

the site hazards are. If so, this sim plifies preparation of the Project 46

Project Health & Safety Plan. Design this Plan directly into the initial project proposal or work plan. State what are the anticipated or likely toxic contaminants, health effects from overexposure,appropri ate precautions(work practices, per sonal hygiene practices and facili ties,respirators and other protective gear), and emergency equipment to be provided (e.g., vehicular tele phone, portable eyewash, first aid supplies, fire extinguishers). In all cases the precautions have to be sca led to the anticipated degree of

which could influence contaminant

spread. Second, obtain a visual picture, past and present, by obtaining site plans and, if possible, visit the site. If available, regional maps and aerial photographs can be useful. During the first site visit, if authori zation and budget allow, take a few key environmental samples for ana lysis. These may be very helpful in customizing the proposal or work plan, and its health and safety com ponent, to match the problems of that site.

Third,phase the proposal or work plan into (1) a preliminary investi gation as the subsurface or its biota are first probed,(2)followed by focussed, more detailed testing to charac terize the contaminants of major concern and their spread, (3) then remedial operations. Now you are ready to design the

the project. Make sure that sufficient budget is estimated to cover anticipated costs. Itiseasierto justify an itemi zed budget. Insert a qualifier that if unexpected hazards are encounte red for which precautions are not in place, the work must be stopped,an expert consulted for proper precau tions and the Plan and its budget corrected, so it is safe to proceed. The Project Health and Safety Plan must clearly define the chain of command, both during routine operation and in emergencies, and this information must be included in

worker training. It is important to distinguish who will serve as the health and safety expert for the pro ject. In addition, it is important to provide for one or more site health and safety officers. Someone fulfil ling the role ofsite health and safety officer must be on site at all times

during field environmental opera tions. State clearly who has autho rity to stop work and to allow resump tion of work, on grounds of health and safety. An important part of the plan is air monitoring during site opera tions, to estimate hazards to wor

kers and the nearby public. Most environmental projects last firom a few days to a few weeks, but some involve on-going field work for many months. The usual air sam pling methods ofindustrial hygiene can be used when a potential expo sure is to continue for many months and the possible chemical toxic effects are from long-term,low level exposures. This involves air samTrow, Dames and Moore

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

By David A. Whaley. Ph.D.. C.I.H.. R.O.H. pling, often with pumps placed on the worker over much of a work

shift, and analytical delays of seve ral weeks before the results are known.

However, the usual situation in environmental projects is either that possible chemical exposures

not usually required, but are some times necessary at sites with high potential for toxic exposure. When a staff decon with showers

is required,it can sometimes be pro vided in a nearby building, which is already sufficiently clean and plumbed. When necessary, a porta

could cause rapid toxic effects or

ble trailer can be rented. Such a trai

that the operation is short lived. In these cases, air monitoring has to be by hand pump grab samples (using Draeger or Gastic or equivalentindi cator tubes)or by direct reading ins

ler then requires line or generator electric power, a supply of clean wash water and a means to collect

and dispose of waste washwater. Each firm conducting environ

It is best to have an

mental field work is well advised to

industrial hygienist review and select the instruments and grab sampling tubes, in order to assure adequate detection sensitivity, and to minimize interferences by other

provide a medical surveillance pro gram for its workers; this applies to


site chemicals. The site should be divided at least

into a "work area", with access res tricted to workers and authorized

visitors who are properly trained and wearing appropriate protective gear, and a "clean area". At the clean area, site work is coordinated, and any site toilets, lunch areas, lockers,communications equipment and first aid equipment are located. The clean area should be readily available, through a clean path, to vehicle parking for vehicles which

each subcontractor used on site as

well, such as drilling contractors. Some jurisdictions have regula tory requirements for medical sur veillance of asbestos workers. This

is generally meant to apply as a minimum, to the workers actually performing asbestos removal. However,firms conducting envi ronmental field work which may

truments should also receive medi cal surveillance.

Emergency procedures,line ofcom mand, site equipment and facilities and external emergency response agencies potentially involved,should he thought of and incorporated into the original proposal or work plan, proportionate to the scale and poten tial hazard of the project. It is recommended that at least one per son should be on site at all times

during operations who has been trained in Standard First Aid by St. John's Ambulance within the last

three years. It is preferable that this first aid person not he the same per son as the site health and safety officer.

Training is vital in a Project Health and Safety Plan. Training should be provided both to the staff of the firm conducting the environ mental project(consultant or corpo rate in-house)and of all subcontrac tors. In each case,direct responsibil-

have not entered into the restricted site work area.

If it is anticipated that the work area is sufficiently contaminated, then a third "decontamination area"

should be provided. This "decon" area may have to be divided into a decon areafor site vehicles and equip ment (to be moved off site) and a decon area for staff to clean off or

discard protective gear and clean themselves of any skin contamina tion.

Decon areas require a source of clean running water and an appro priate way to dispose of wash water. If the wash water is likely to be too hazardous to dispose of as ditch runoff or to a storm or sanitary

sewer, then means should he provi ded to collect it and dispose of it as hazardous waste or treat it to allow

one of the above disposal methods. For staff decon hand washing or showering, as required, both hot and cold water should he supplied.If showers are necessary, facilities with change areas and lockers are also required. Certain types of con taminants, such as lead dust, may require two separate lockers for each worker, ideally one placed on each side of a walk-through shower. One set of lockers would be reserved for work clothes and the other set for

street clothes. Such precautions are

Decommissioning of plating tanks.

include asbestos surveys and super vision of asbestos removals, as in industrial site decommissionings, are well advised to consider provi ding such staff with on-going medi

ity for training rests with the workers' direct employer. However, the firm conducting the project is responsi ble for informing each contractor of

staff within its medical surveillance

anticipated hazards and appropri ate precautions, so that employer can properly train his own workers. As a minimum, project training mustinclude WHMIS,all applicable jurisdictional health and safety reg ulations(for example, under provin cial labour acts), and the full parti culars of the Project Health and Safety Plan. The Project Health and Safety Plan component of training should explicitly include identification of

program. Staff servicing field ins-

continued on page 57

cal surveillance relevant to asbestos exposure.

Where the firm conducting the environmental project has an inhouse laboratory which analyzes environmental samples, asbestos samples from buildings, or indus trial hygiene air samples, with a potential for toxic exposure of labo ratory workers, that firm is well advised to include its laboratory

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991


of Canada's oldest consulting environmental laboratory Our Company

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BAS Laboratories Limited (formeriy Beak

Analytical Services) recently tias been in corporated as a separate company. BAS tias been at thie leading edge of environmental analysis since thie early 1960's. The new company now operates on an independent commercial basis, providing comprehensive state-of-the-art environmental analytical services to industry, government,consultants and legal firms. BAS is led by a team of environmental spe cialists dedicated to providing high quality environmental analytical services. Our staff are personally committed to high standards of dataquality and client service. Ourextensive experience is readily available to resolve your specific environmental issue. As consulting environmental chemists we

BAS services include:

•complete organic priority pollutant analy sis(EPA, MISA,etc. by GO or GO/MS; RGBs; dioxins)

•regulatory packages and interpretive assis tance including hazardous waste (Reg. 309), air monitoring (Reg. 308), decommissioning guidelines (phytotoxicity), sewer by-laws, drinking water guidelines • complete inorganic analysis (metals by ICR, GFAAS; nutrients and anions by auto mated analyses) • all environmental matrices (surface and

groundwaters,soils and sediments,effluents and liquid wastes, biological tissues) BAS follows ERA,ASTM,ARHA, MOEand Environment Canada methods and proce dures.

provide not only quality analytical work but also the design and implementation of cost effective sampling programs, special 00 data reporting, data base management, and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991



Report by IVIonenco Consultants Limitetl

The Hagersville Tire Fire Investigation

The Hagersville fire created

thick clouds of smoke, oily

and other contaminant streams and waste resi

dues. Fire fighting operations also added several thousand cubic

metres of wastewater runoff. People living up to 3 kilometres of the fire were evacuated from the surroun

ding rural and agricultural area. It has been called the worst tire fire in

Canada,consuming more than 13.9 million tires in 17 days,in February 1990. Monenco Consultants Limited

was retained by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in late March 1990, to conduct environ mentalimpactinvestigations and to design a remedial action plan for the site. Additional tasks consisted of

interim site and project manage ment,including delineation and re covery of subsurface oils. The work was completed in a record-breaking 10 weeks. This included: hydrogeological sampling, air quality moni toring, public consultation, and recommendation of site cleanup cri teria. Gore & Storrie Limited, under subcontract to Monenco, evaluated waste management and wastewater treatment issues and interviewed local residents.

Monenco's site investigation was focused on the actual burn area. Several shallow (air rotary) holes were drilled across the limestone

terrain and chemical testing was undertaken on the shallow soils and solid waste residues which remai ned after the fire. Extensive use was

made oflaptop computers at the job site for data collection and report generation in order to meet the demanding study schedule. Subsur face monitoring results, such as water table configuration and oil distribution were tabulated, plotted onto base maps, and interpreted by staff within 24 hours of collection.

The wide range of contaminants present in air, surface water and groundwater,soil, and wastes at the site required one of the most com prehensive reviews of cleanup crite ria ever undertaken in Canada. For

example, 43 organic and inorganic criteria for three different end land

uses were developed by Monenco for soils, using a proprietary computer risk assessment model called

"AERIS" (Aid for Evaluating the Redevelopment of Industrial Sites), which was developed in 1989 jointly by Monenco and Senes Consultants. Soils and other solid wastes were

then classified by Gore & Storrie by leachate toxicity testing. Surveys by Monenco and Gore & Storrie showed that the key public issues consisted of contaminant

levels and cleanup plans, health and safety, government manage ment ofthe crisis, compensation for affected residents, and community image indirectly tainted by intense media scrutiny of the environmen tal tragedy. There was a clear prefe

rence within the community,articu lated by the Public Liaison Commit tee,to undertake a local cleanup and avoid shipping the remaining pollu tion to other jurisdictions. Under existing procedures, assessment of and payment for compensation claims may take several months. To date, the largest costs arising from the fire have been associated

with management of the contami nated water. During the fire, 2,700 cubic metres were trucked to Missis-

sauga for emergency storage. This water was later returned when the

City of Mississauga refused to treat it. Portable on-site wastewater treat

ment facilities were erected by OHM of Canada under the supervision of Trow, Dames & Moore in early March 1990. Initial treatment para meters consisted of mono and polycyclic aromatics, phenolics, and metals. Approximately 7,500 cubic metres of water were treated and

released to Sandusk Creek on a spo radic basis before being discontin ued. Subsequent detailed analyses and criteria development identified additional parameters of concern such as ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Wastewater (19,500 cubic metres as of May 1990) presently is being stored in unused sewage lagoons in the nearby village ofTownsend.The

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

public would prefer on-site treat ment and subsequent release to Nanticoke Creek, in comparison with other options such as haulage to commercial treatment and disposal facilities or lagoon treatment. The cost of commercial transportable facilities for 12 months was estima

ted at $7 to $8 million. A fixed faci lity with reduced but adequate capa city, however, would cost less than half as much.

Monenco's extensive preliminary testing indicated that the area re quiring cleanup was restricted lar gely to the burn area. Solid wastes consist of approximately 20,000 cubic metres or 38,000 tonnes of tire residue, unburned tires, and conta minated soils exceeding MOE's draft soil cleanup guidelines for zinc, benzene, and henzo(a)pyrene. In addition, 12,000 to 50,000 litres of oil may be floating on the water table in portions of the same area. The solid wastes require treat ment or disposal, but are not consi dered to he hazardous wastes. Recy cling opportunities appear to be limi ted because of the extreme hetero

geneous nature of the wastes and the presence of chemical contami nants. Based on available informa

tion, two remedial concepts were recommended by Monenco. One involved excavation and disposal of waste in regional landfills. The other involved construction of a

trench-and-cap vault in the burn area. Capital costs for both con cepts have been estimated at about $10 million.

The total cost for extinguishing the fire and controlling the site was estimated by the MOE at approxi mately $30 million. Five youths have been charged with arson in connection with the incident. ES&E 49


Immunoassay PCB diagnostic kit

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or settling basin,hutit occupies only a fraction of the space. In outward appearance, it resembles a simple plate or tube settler, but due to some unique design features, it can be operated at a much higher loading rate. This equipment was also spe cified in the project which won an Award of Merit in the 1990 ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

$ They are all at stake when you select an environmental laboratory. Whether it's wastewater monitoring for MISA compliance, evaluation of hazardous waste, or a full-scale site investigation you need a lab that you can depend on to provide reliable data, quickly and cost-effectively.

For more than two decades Enviroclean has earned

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Zebra Mussel Treatment' Once inside your facility, zebra mussels colonize and clog distribution systems,intake mains,screen house wells, conduits,and condenser and heat exchanger piping. This leads to reduced water capacity,overheat ing, loss of heat exchange efficiency and possible safety hazards if sprinkler systems fail to deliver sufficient fire fighting water. Chemical Control Chlorination at the point of raw water intake, or within the system has been proven to be effective in controiiing zebra musseis.


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Continuous Monitoring Capital Controls Model 1870E Chlorine Residual Analyzer is a field proven amperometric instrument suitable for ACCURATE RELIABLE AND CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF FREE AND TOTAL CHLORINE RESIDUALS.



•low range measurement for meeting MOE guideline (sensitivity of 0.001 milligrams per litre) • local display and recording of residual levels • continuous automatic ceil cleaning for prolonged operation • Field adjustable hi/low alarms and instrument measuring range

Sodium Hypochlorlte Systems — The Advantages wide range of capacities diaphragm metering pumps mean accurate and continuous feeding various levels of automation and control available

field adjustable chemical feed rates

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Total systems including training and field commissioning is supplied.



328 North Rivermede Road. Unit #9. Concord, Ontario L4K 3N5

• (416) 738-2355 • Fax (416) 738-5520

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 138




Comprehensive Environmental Anaiyticai Services

I.S. Surveylogger

Air Quality « Water Quality • Hazardous Waste


• Complete MISA Parameters

' Emission Testing

• Reg. 309 Compliance • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans » Ambient Air Monitoring

' Ontario Drinking Water Criteria ' Odorous Compounds

' Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

been introduced by Detectronic to meet the increasing demand for an intrinsically safe sewerflow monito ring system. Care has been taken to ensure that the power restrictions imposed by the IS specification have in no way impaired the opera tional performance of the system. The IS 32 Surveylogger combines ail of the advanced features of its




Metals - Anions - Organics - PCBs - Vola tiles Reg. 309 - MISA - Landfill Quality - Phytotox - Sewer By-law Sample bottles and on-site sampling available For complete cataloque


with prices call


Tel:(416) 625-1544 Fax:(416)625-8368

predecessor with enhanced reiiabiiity and accuracy resulting from a brand new velocity transducer. Features include single site flow monitoring through to full catch ment flow and rainfall survey. Both flow and rainfall loggers are briefed via the Husky Hunter (or similar device). There are no accessible controls once installed.

■WALKER LABORATORIES Complete Environmental Analytical Services

Hunter displays depth/velocity hydrograph and rainfall hyetograph. It takes less than 2 minutes to verify a typical weeks flow data. The flow sensor is a combined

Contact Doug DeCoppel, Manager Phone: (416) 227-4142

Facsimile: (416) 227-1034

Division of

lualher industries


transducer which measures depth and mean velocity of flow. Depth measurement is by pressure trans ducer; velocity is detected by an ultrasonic beam transmitted for

wards and upwards from the trans


ANALYTICAL SERVICES MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Eiementai Scans • Characterizations • PCB's • Sampiing "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152


Burlington, Ontario (416)332-8788 Vancouver, B.C. (604) 444-4808 Montreal, Quebec (514) 493-4733


The IS 32 Surveylogger will record for 22 days (2 min. rate), 55 days (5 min. rate), 110 days (10 min. rate), etc. Battery capacity is up to 10 weeks (at 2 minute intervals) before recharging. Ramsey Lake For more Information, Circle reply card No. 150

Nephelometer meets USA EPA drinking water requirements The Model 800 is a nepheiometric instrument measuring the amount of suspended particles in water. It reads the amount of reflected

light at 90 degrees to the incident angle of a light source. The reflected light is proportional to the amount of suspended particles in water. Model 800 has two full-scale

Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers

ranges of 20 and 200 NTUs (nephe iometric turbidity units). There are

only two controls on the meter: a zero control and a range selector switch. The instrument comes with

Environmental Assessment • Waste Management • Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits • Air Quality • Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management • Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue, Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2 • Tel.416-595-2CXX) • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver 52

ducer into the flow.

Formazin for making a standardi zing solution, a filter/syringe assembly for producing a turbidityfree reference, and six sample vials. Can Am Instruments

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 151

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991



Float sensor detects foam, hydrocarbons

Ainley and


Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS Waiei Supply & Sewage Disposal • Hoads & Bridges • Flood Coniroi Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning





280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 ^ax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

(613) 966-4243"'

OTTAWA Box 917, fl.R.S (613) 822-1052 Fax (613) 822 1573

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions

The Arjay Tri-Float Sensor, when coupled with the Arjay Model 8330 Capacitance Alarm unit; monitors the water(or other fluid below it)for the intrusion of another material

to ttie 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troublestiooting

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

floating or separating to the top. Used in water containment areas

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdaie, Ontario M2N 1N2

(416) 226-0148

where an oil spill or separation may occur,or in streams and pits where a foam condition exists, the Float

Sensor automatically signals upon an alarm condition. The 10 amp

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

relay can be used to annuciate remote alarms or control valves,

consulting engineers and architect

pumps, etc.

Water Pollution Control Environmental Planning Land Development Water Supply Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Water Resources Municipal Services Architecture

The unique float design; con structed ofPVC Stainless Steel wet

ted parts, follows level changes of the fluid eliminating the need for constant re-calibration. Arjay


TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA (613)226-1844

WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBURY (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants) .

For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 162

Detectronic Protector 10 Detectronic Protector 10,Ultrasonic Flowswitch, is designed for detec ting simple flow/no flow conditions, or more precise,process control appli cations. Two versions are available, either single or twin flowrate swit ching. System commissioning has been simplified by the inclusion of vol tage input/output terminals which provide, under flow conditions, a voltage output proportional to flow velocity. Under no flow conditions, flowrate may be simulated by sim ply applying a voltage to these ter minals representative of the flow velocity required. Thus, flowrate switching points can be established very accurately. Non-intrusive or

Aquatic Sciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spill site investigations and cleanups • underwater video inspections

• impact assessments water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6


(416) 641-0941




intrusive transducers are available.

Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited For more Information,


Circle reply card No. 163



Enerac 2000 combustion


and emissions analysers

C hazardous waste services

The Enerac 2000 Combustion &

Emissions Analyser allows boiler users to accurately monitor NOx, SO2 stack emissions as well as per


■i^Hi LTD. Waterloo, Ontario S19-579-3500 (FAX) 519-579-8956

c WATER RESOURCES Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320 LAB SERVICES

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

(FAX) 416-858-3779



form basic combustion efficiency


calculations. The unit is available with a stan

dard autozeroing feature, RS-232 port, 15 selectable fuels, CO alarm and preheated combustion air pro



I Solid & Hazardous Waste Management I Environmental Audits ■ Environmental Assessment I Water Supply I Hydrogeology ■ Landfill Gas Control & Utilization I Wastewater Treatment

I Municipal Engineering


I Construction Management

Walprinn Waterloo Tel. 519-884-0510 519-884-0525 iuiiasi<!<!aiina Tel. Fax 416-629-0510 416-629-0515

Starting as a basic combustion analyser, the unit can be field expanded with options to become a comprehensive combustion and emissions laboratory in a rugged portable aluminum case. Caledon Controls Limited For more Information,








environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design

Circle reply card No. 159

Detectronic DET 72L

portable flowmeter


Detectronic DET 72L Portable Flow-




meter for accuracy, repeatability and linearity, based on the funda mentals of ultrasonic doppler shift. The LCD/LED indicator is electro


nically calibrated,electronically verifiable, accurate, repeatable and

TORONTO(416)22^-4646•EDMONTON (403) 463-6094• HALIFAX (902) 453-1115







The flowmeter utilizes a well pro ven twin transducer ultrasonic sys tem to monitor full pipe flows.


The 72L is available in a stan -Plant Facility Compliance

-Risk Assessment -Waste Containment Facilities

-Site Characterization -Soil And Groundwater Assessment

-Waste Stream Assessment

-Environmental Audits

dard aluminum carrying case. Up to six hours operation on rechar geable nicad batteries. Available

-Occupational Health & Safety

Head Office: Suite 120.100 York Blvd., Richmond Hill, UB IJB,Tel:(416) 886-7%5. Fax:(416)886-7967 705 West Fifteenth Street, North Vancouver, B.C.,V7M 1T2,Tel:(604)980-5878,Fax:(604)980-9621




Services in






Gartner Lee



255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone (416) 499-9000 Fax (416) 499-4687 Ottawa • Niagara• Barrie• Cambridge• Mississauga• Kingston





Composite and Discrete sampler For both composite and discrete sampling, American Sigma offers the portable Streamline 702 wastewater sampler. By simply changing the distributor assembly, users can collect composite samples and dis crete samples (two, four, eight, and twenty-four) with the same unit. Bottles are available in both glass and polyethylene to accomodate varied parameters. For composite or discrete, simple or advanced sampling. Streamline makes programming easy with a large 16 character display which terminology and provides feedback including the time and date that the program was started, minutes or flow signals until the next sample, bottle number, number of samples collected, samples remaining,




volume collected and volume

(613) 226-5442



remaining.Can-Am Instruments Ltd.


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 160

communicates in understandable


with either intrusive or non-

intrusive transducers. 4-20mA, 01mA and pulse output standard. Optional extras: Programmable flow integrator for totalization; Open channel point velocity trans ducer. Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 161

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991



R.W. Clifton. IVlASc., P.Enq.

High-tech systems provide potable water to Canadian forces In the Persian Gulf Zenon to the Department of Natio nal Defence(DND). The Advanced Double Pass Reverse Osmosis Water

Purification Units(ADROWPU)are used by the Army and the Ship board Reverse Osmosis Desalina

tion(SROD)units are on board the Canadian naval vessels. It was not until WWI that armed

forces were known to have provided water purification equipment in the battlefield. These early systems used simple sand filtration followed by chlorination. In WWII, water puri fication techniques varied with the theatre of operation. In Europe, where there was an abundance of

fresh(albeit polluted)water,conven tional treatment techniques such as batch coagulation, diatomite filters and chlorination were used. In the

Water borne disease has caused more deaths than all the wars of recorded

history. In past wars, more soldiers have lost their lives by disease than by armed combat.Dur ing the American Civil War, for example, disease related deaths greatly outnumbered battle casual ties. John Adams of the Continen

tal Congress once wrote "disease has destroyed ten of us where the sword of the enemy has killed one." Statistics for the major conflicts of this century show that the average number of hospital admissions for disease were three times more than

those due to enemy action. The greatest single cause of battlefield disease has been found to be conta minated water.

The supply of high quality pota ble water is therefore a fundamental

priority for any military action. Ground troops need water for drink ing, food preparation, laundry and personal hygiene. Navalforces have the same needs for their shipboard crews with the additional require ment for clean water for the produc tion of steam for the ship's turbines or for the cooling of diesel powered engines. Given the many con straints and hazards of military operations,meeting these water sup ply needs is a challenge. As recent events in the Middle East illustrate, this challenge can be much more difficult when there is a threat of

Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Warfare(NBCW)agents. Not only

Pacific theatre, where fresh water was scarce, distillation of seawater was necessary.

must a military water supply sys tem be capable of removing these NBCW contaminants from the raw

water source, but it also must be able to accommodate increased demand

since large quantities of water are used in the decontamination ofequip ment and personnel that have been exposed to this type of attack. Fortunately,the Canadian Forces are thought to have the most advan ced water purification systems avai lable anywhere. These systems are currently in use in the Persian Gulf supplying clean water for both the CF-18 Fighter operations and the Canadian naval vessels. At press time,additional equipment has been delivered and is enroute to provide water for the Canadian Field Hospi tal being deployed to Saudi Arabia. These military products use state-ofthe-art Reverse Osmosis (RO) sys tems technology developed in Canada and are manufactured by Zenon Water Systems Inc., Burling ton, Ontario. Reverse Osmosis is a pressure driven membrane separation tech nology. Membranes are used to solve a wide range ofenvironmental problemsfrom the treatment ofindus trial wastewater to the production of ultrapure water. This technology is ideal for military water supply sys tems since it is energy efficient,com pact, inherently rugged and, when properly designed into an integra ted system, is easy to operate and maintain. There are currently two different systems being provided by

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Today, the Canadian Forces ful fill a number of roles which include

commitments to NATO, United Nations peacekeeping and emer gency response. These commitments mean that they must plan for opera tions anywhere in the world and must have sufficient water purifica tion equipmentto support these ope rations. This equipment must pro vide high quality water under a variety of climatic and operational extremes. For example, in desert areas a soldier requires a minimum of 15 to 25 litres/ day and planners typically estimate needs of60 litres/ day per person on average. The raw water source may be "fresh", brack ish or seawater. In addition to the

threat of NBCW contaminants, the raw water may be highly polluted, turbid, coloured or have extremes in pH. The ADROWPU developed by Zenon for the Canadian Forces is

designed specifically to meet these requirements. The unit is totally self-contained and is designed to fit an International Standards Orga nization (ISO)container for ease of transportation. Itis fully-integrated with a feed pump, pretreatment fil ters, spiral wound RO membranes, and post chlorination. The ADROWPU is self-powered by an integral diesel generator and can be easily configured in-situ for single pass or double pass operation depend'ZENON Water Systems Inc. 55

Consultants for water and pollution control projects Knox Martin

Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax:(416)459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton ,Ontarlo. L6T 4J5(416)459-4780


Windsor, Ontario






3260 DEVON DRIVE,WINDSOR,ONTARIO,N8X4L4 (519) 966-2250 FAX:(519) 966-5523


(519) 539-2015



MacViro Consultants inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Markham, Ontario. L3R 4B9.Telephone:(416) 475-7270 » TeleFAX;(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment


Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geoiogy Environmental audits

Site decommissioning


& rehabilitation

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering. Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416) 882-1100 Fax:(416)882-0055

Comprehensive Environmental

OR TECH Services I





2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel. 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446


With the demonstrated success of

reverse osmosis desalination sys tems for land installations, came a growing interest in the use of this technology for the shipboard supply of potable and boiler feed water. This technology was pioneered in Canada by Zenon with its Seagold line of SHOD systems for marine and coastguard shipping. DND first became interested in the technology due to its many operational benefits over conventional evaporation sys tems. The primary benefit is an estimated 50% decrease in operation al costs due to an overall reduction

Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media. Air, water and waste.


This initial interest by DND led to the development and testing of a military qualified SROD. Although


Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited


Canadians in the Guif ing on the raw water source. One ofthe historical problemsfor oceangoing ships has been the need to carry a sufficient supply of clean potable water. In the past, this obviously limited the range and scope ofnaval operations since ships were constrained by the availability offresh water atfriendly ports. With the introduction ofsteam propulsion came the use of thermally driven desalination techniques such as flash evaporation or distillation. Although these techniques have been perfected and made more effi cient over the years,thermal energy is required, scaling from salt conti nues to be a problem and operating costs are considered to be high. Qua lity of potable water is also a con cern. Even today, standard opera ting procedure dictates that naval vessels may not"make water" while operating within coastal waters,due to concerns over marine pollution.

in energy and maintenance require

MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tei:(613)548-3446

Providing potabie water to

there were some initial difficulties

encountered in the design of these systems for the very demanding mili tary shipboard environment, these problems were successfully over come and the SROD is now in serial

production at Zenon for both the new Canadian Patrol Frigate(CPF) and the Tribal Class Update Modern ization Program(TRUMP - DDH280 ships). Versions ofthese units were also recently refitted to the Cana dian naval vessels on station in the Persian Gulf.

The Zenon SRCD is a fullyintegrated, double pass system on a single skid. The first pass provides potable water for use throughout the ship. The second pass provides the additional separation necessary to produce the extra high quality water needed for boiler feed. ES&E For more Information, Circle reply card No. 250

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991





flow monitor




The new Model OCF30 flow moni

tor, indicates and transmits flow volume through any flume or weir. It uses a non-contacting,submer





















sible ultrasonic sensor mounted

over the open channel and automa tically converts level readings to flow

Kitchener, Bracebrldge, Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET ^TH



It is not affected by floating debris, freeze-up or grease build-up. There are no moving parts and no sensor maintenance is required.

Tell <519) 579-4410

Faxi (519) 741-3603

Proctor & redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners

The OCF30 can be calibrated in

gallons, liters or any unit of measu rement to any type offlume, weir or other primary device. Greyline Instruments Inc.

Environmental Scientists

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 155

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Bramplon


.St. Catharines

Health and Safety plans continued from pg. 47

anticipated toxic agent exposures at site, some general information on potential toxic health effects ofoverexposure, exposure control precau tions(as given above),fire and explo sion response, first aid and other emergency measures, such as con tact with local ambulance, hospital emergency room, police and fire department services. However, no emergency measures should be acti vated,other than first aid or use ofa fire extinguisher, without authori zation from the site health and safety


N8B 3S4




St. John's, Nfld. Saiilt Ste. Marie



North Ba>


Thunder Ba>


45 Green Belt Drive. Don Mills. Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

Pax: (416) 445-5276


Simcoe Engineering Group Limited Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building, 345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel; (416) 286-2285

Fax: (416) 286-1361

Branches: Mississauga and Buffalo

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers


I would advise that, at comple tion of project health and safety training, each worker should be required to sign a "Compliance

• Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Form" which states that s/he has

read and understood the Project Health and Safety Flan and agrees to follow its requirements,as a condi tion of working on the project. It is advised that this kind of policy is an important component of liability

3S1 Main Street East

Tel:(416) 875-2144

Milton, Ontario

Fax:(416) 875-2145


T.F: 1-800-263-4178

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone;(416)238-0007


Somewhere in the proposal, or in corporate policy of the firm execu ting the environmental project, should be an explicit statement of how enquiries from the public or the



media are to be handled. This is

especially important in the case of projects involving high profile envi


ronmental disasters.

It is in the best interests of any employer conducting an environ mental project to manage well his liability exposure. A properly plan ned and executed Project Health and Safety Plan can go a long way in demonstrating due diligence and in improving both public relations and labour relations for his com

XCG Consultants Ltd.

Suite 904 50 Queen Street N Kitchener. Ontario

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627 N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Richard J. Rush EfTvlfonmental

Engineering Consultants

MASc. PEng Principal

Stephen G. Nutt MEng,PEng Prindpal


pany. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991




Detect problem bacteria or algae with easy-to-use BARTs The Biological Activity and Reac tion Tests(BART'^) provide a con venient way to detect the presence of bacteria or algae before excessive growth plugs and corrodes pipes and damages expensive equipment. BARTs are completely self-contain ed, and require no costly instru ments or apparatus, so they can be used in the laboratory or on-site. BARTs are easy to use, even for those with no testing experience. Simply fill the BART tube with water sample,incubate at room tem perature and compare observed reac tions to a reaction comparator chart

Alberta's approach to meeting guidelines continued from pg. 43

to identify specific bacteria or algae group(s). Reactions may take any where from three hours to 30 days, depending on microbial concentra tion. A unique, patented design allows growth of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the same tube. BARTS are available to detect:

Iron-Related Bacteria; SulfateReducing Bacteria; Slime-Forming Bacteria; Fluorescing Pseudomonads and Blue-Green Algae. Hach Company For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 156

Water Abatement and Enforcement

An effective drinking water qua lity regulatory program is conside red to consist of both an abatement

component, that involves working co-operatively with municipalities to prevent and/or solve drinking water supply or quality problems,as well as an enforcement component, that involves taking appropriate action when violations of specific requirements occur. Abatement acti vities by a regulatory agency demon strate a commitment to actively assist it ensuring the provision of safe drinking water by providing technical advice and assistance. Enforcement activities are a neces



Complete Digester and

Lagoon Cleaning


Land Application Systems

also suppllars of quality filter sands and gravel

Program Development

ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. ^20 Stiarp Rd.. R.R.#6, Brantford, Ont, N3T 5H6 Tel:(519) 751-1080 Fax:(519)751-0617

Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR IRQ


PROVEN non-jamming, non-sparking design RUGGED steel, brass, PVC and neoprene construction REUSABLE - readily cleaned with pull-thru swabs

DRUMSPLER 57 Kinhiir/i Cr., London, Ontario N6E JJ3 (519) 681-3906

INDUSTRIAL GRINDERS T,10', 11', 12' EXTEND YOUR LANDFILL SITE By Grinding Tree Limbs, Yard Waste, Paper, Paiiets, Giass, Piastics


TEL:(519) 7?5-2405, FAX:(519)633-9367

COMPANY ACQUISITION WANTED Our Canadian client already is a stakeholder in several U.S. environmental companies. He wishes to participate in a similar growing CORPORATE FINIANCE ASSOCIATES

private company in Canada. All enquiries handled in strictest confidence.

Please call Neil Carragher, Chairman; Corporate Finance Associates, Tei;(416) 865-9817 or Fax:(416) 865-3290. 58

Within Alberta Environment, abatement and enforcement are con

sidered totally separate functions and are handled by different staff working in separate divisions. This separation ofenforcement activities from abatement activities means that abatement staff can focus on

involvement with facilities on a rou tine basis and can deal with enfor cement issues in a more detached

316 SS fitted samplers available at premium Also stock longer sampler for tankers, tanks, luggers & totes


water and indicate that non-

compliance with requirements will be, and should be, taken seriously.

co-operative problem solving and prevention and also maintain the desired and necessary image of advi sors or resource people. Enforce ment staff,therefore,have no link or



sary demonstration of the impor tance that a regulatory agency places on the provision of safe drinking

and impartial manner. Since the continuous proper oper ation of a water supply system is an essential aspect of providing safe drinking water, it is important that there be a strong and co-operative link between the regulatory agency and municipalities with respect to facility operation and maintenance. The above abatement activities are

considered to forge such a link. For example, the inspection activities result in regular and direct contact between the regulator and the muni cipality and results in the establish ment of specific operational related contacts. To be effective, this con tact should be seen by the municipa lity as beneficial. In this regard, abatement staff are environmental

engineers and technologists who, through their training and field acti vities, develop considerable exper tise in the operation of water supply systems and can provide helpful and useful advice to facility opera tors. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991


AT LAST,A SYSTEM THAT DETECTS LEAKS QUICKLY AND EASILY It only takes a small leak in your underground storage tank to pose a big threat to the environment.

That's why Tanknology™ has developed a fast, accurate, economical way to test for leakage.

• No waiting for tank stabilization

• Tandem tanks can be tested simultaneously • Non-volumetric and not affected by tempera ture or vapour pockets • No need for standby fuel or personnel


The VacuTect™ Precision Tank Test System is implemented by highly trained operators in mobile testing vehicles. Every aspect of the test is monitored by computer to eliminate human error. After testing, data is analyzed, interpreted and printed as a final report. THE BENEFITS.

• Manifolded tanks can be tested without

breaking concrete • Does not cause fuel loss through leaks • Tests comply with, meet or exceed EPA and NFPA standards

• Helps you to minimize ground water contamination

• No need to fill the tank or shut down your operation • Much faster than competitive methods • Whole procedure normally takes only 2 hours

Save your business time and money while you help preserve something even more precious; our delicate ecosystem. Call us for more information today.




TANKNOLOGY IS A DIVISION OF LINDE TECHNOLOGIESINC. Mississauga(416)624-5470 Edmonton(403)440-1213 Montreal(514)333-3300 Call Toll Free: 1-800-465-1577 or 1-800-465-9781 U.S.Patent#4462249 Canadian Patent#1185693 European Patent Appl.#169283 TANKNOLOGY and VacuTect are trademarks of TANKNOLOGY CORPORATION INTERNATIONAL.

For more Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Circle reply card No. 129


Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666



Big Scale pH Meter Analytical Model 707 BIG SCALE pH Meter is a rugged, reliabie instrument featuring a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and ttie exclusive Analytical polyetfiylene-shielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH


electrode limitations.

Treating odors with Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) is detailed in technical bulletin. Systems are discussed that dispense a hypochlorite spray to oxidize organic odors. Other topics include: storage and air collection needs. Coigate-Palmoiive Canada inc. Circle reply card No. 201

Model 707 is simple to operate, with only two operating controls. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 200

Solidification/Stabilization Chemical fixation of leachate toxic soils to a non-hazardous form for


either on site utilization or disposal at municipal landfill sites is an environmentally acceptable and financially attractive option to industries "Cleaning up" or "Decommissioning"sites. Projects to date, completed with MOE approval, have resulted in cost savings of as much as one-half of present secure landfill disposal

Cyanide Removal Using Sodium Hypochlorite (JAVEX-12) to effectively and quickly remove cyanide wastes is

detailed. Bulletin reviews dosages, equipment, as well as storage, safety and handling data. Particuiarly applicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 203


Ecotech Planners and Advisors

Circle reply card No. 202

Eliminate PCBs in Transformers

Turbidity System The new Model T-2120 Turbidity System is soon to become the industry standard in liquid meas

> •I'OtlMiMWr)'

' fU'Stuiwo'vwTimf

Information package describes technoiogies for removing PCBs from transformers, eliminating

threatening financial risks. The mobile PCBX®" system chemi cally destroys PCBs in mineral oil

urement. The Model T-2120 is

' 355?

design for turbidity measurements in water treatment, waste treat

ment, chemical plants, food and beverage manufacturing, petro chemicals, pharmaceutical and other industries where water

transformers, even while ener

gized. The system 50® service PCB Services

quality is important. Rosemount Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 204

reclassifies askarel filled trans

formers, reducing PCB risk while avoiding unit storage. Call our PCB Hotline at (416) 681-9011 (in Quebec,(514)694-6538). ENSR Operations, Ltd. Circle reply card No. 205

Climber Screen

Motionless Mixers The Statifio motionless mixer is a

The Degremont infiico heavy duty CHmiM UaiBtfrnn

mechanical bar screen can be

designed to fit any channel width and depth at almost any angle. It features bar spacing of 1/4" or larger, pin rack design (rollers and bushings),and ease of installation. The unit requires minimal main

09^ :o the pfoces.^ ihcusirfes

vital component of any inline mixing/control system. Incorpora tion of the Statifio mixer allows

rapid sampling and efficient as well as minimum use of dosing chemi cals. Statifio motionless mixers are

tenance, wh ich can be done at the

commonly used in coagulation/ flocculation, flash mixing of dilute

operating floor level, resulting in lower operating costs over the life

ph control, disinfection/chlorina-

of the unit.

tion/fluoridation/ozonation and

Degremont Infiico.

other dilution and dispersion applications.

Circle reply card No. 206 Nifileo Ocwsmonf liK

^-5 p-o'/nn ntcfjwttess m«ef thai Winc5 re.v/ n'fKKsoc/ and ojsI-

polyclectrol^e, alum,caustic etc.,

Statifio Inc.

Circle reply card No. 207 60




Process Design Workshop on Industrial and Toxic Wastewater Management with Wesley Eckenfelder and Norbert Schmidtke June 10-14,1991 Waterloo Inn, Waterloo, Ont.

I Extended by request to 5 days, this year's practical appiication-oriented workshop for professionai engineers, scientists and environmentai man agers, covers the analysis, selection and design of processes to reduce, modify and remove undesirable constituents from industrial wastewaters and identifies opportunities for constituent recovery, re-use and recycling, it provides a complete review and demonstration of different state-of-theart technologies, hands-on experience in solving problems, and an up-todate series of references (including the latest Eckenfelder text). W.Wesley Eckenfelder,CEO ofEckenfelder Inc., and Distinguished Professor Emeri tus of Environmental Engineering at Vanderbilt University, with 18 books,over 200 technical papers and many honours to his credit, is an internationally recognized authority in wastewater treatment.



Norbert W.Schmidtke,President ofNorbert


W.Schmidtke & Assocs.Ltd.and Professor


of Environmental Engineering at the Uni versity of Guelph, has published prolifically,and gained international recognition through his research,consultations toindus try,consultants and government,and num erous professional training courses.

Registration Fee:$1,100.(Earlybird $1,000. before May 1,1991)

I Contact:Lyn James,CHI,36 Stuart Street, Gueipti,ON N1E 4S5 Tei:(519) 767-0197, Fax:(519) 744-4282

Circle reply card No. 139

Meeting place for environmental professionals Environmental technology exchange Fields :

water - air - noise - wastes - transport of dangerous goods - deeontainination -

elean teelinology - energy

Systems Plus


The Sampling Equipment People


MAY, m 17,1991


We're not just getting bigger — we're getting better! • Business and

environment technology : choices and costs

• The environmental market ;

potential for husiness opportunities Solutions for managing the environment viewed

from different sectors: - municipal - industrial - agricultural - energy Our new ultra-modern bottle prep lab and warehouse are designed to tietter serve you, our valued customer. We stock a fulI range of Teflon-lined caps to fit moststandard glass bottles used for organic sampling. We now have an even larger selection of bottles and jars

—glass and plastic — for all your sampling needs. To celebrate the opening of our new facility, we're offering a special 5% discount on each customer's fi rst order during

For more information : EyVIRACTION

630, Rene-Leves(jne Blvd. West 2Bth Floor

.Montreal (Qiiebee) H3B IS6 Tel. (.311).321-6676 Fax (31 1) 321-8886

the month of March, 1991.

To order and receive your celebration discount,call orfax: Systems Plus, Box 839, New Hamburg, Ont. NOB 2G0, Tel:(519) 743-6665, Fax:(519)662-2536 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140

ENVIRACTION is affiliated wilfi Pollulec, tlie largest European trade show in enviranmental technology.

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 141




Package water treatment plants

legionella bacteria. Plants feature: Marine Grade

BOA "True" Package Water Treat mentPlants are designed and manu factured in Surrey, B.C. They incor porate hydraulic and/or contactflocculation, clarifier and dual or trimedia filters. These Plants produce clear, clarified, good tasting, safe drinking water that meets or exceeds latest drinking water standards and quality guidelines, ensuring treated water is free of micro-biological con taminants, viruses, hetrotrophic bacteria,turbidity,giardia cysts and

Aluminum Alloy construction for light weight and low maintenance; Advanced technology hydraulic mass chemical mixing and flocculation; and Automatic PLC Control Systems. Plants are completely assembled and tested prior to ship ment. Installation costs are kept to a minimum. They are simple to ope rate and require only routine main BCA Package Water Treatment

modules.The Model ST-500-2 Duplex Package Tube Settler Water Treat ment Plant has 2 parallel modules,

Plants are available for 10 to 700

each producing 250 GPM (360^000


GPM and greater with multi-


GPD); total flow 500 GPM (720,000 GPD). A Plant was shipped to Enfield, Nova Scotia. BCA is pre sently working on a contract to sup ply equipment for a major water treatment project in China. BCA Industrial Controls Limited

Environmental Services

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 157


•Hydrogeological Assesments •Real Estate Transaction Environmental Audits

•Engineering Services •Solid and Hazardous Landfill Design •Bioremediation (Insitu-Bioreactor-Composting) •Laboratory Services •On Site Remediation

PCB transformer reclasslfication services ENSR Operations Ltd. provides the latest technology for PCB trans former reclasslfication. System 50® accomplishes reclasslfication of askarel transformers for less cost than replacement and reduces risks associated with storing transformer carcasses and the threat of PCB incidents. After an initial maintenance

phase and fluid changeout, a small processor is attached to the trans former which continuously removes

•Chemical Soil Fixation

•FOB Management Services

residual PCBs from transformer in ternals. The service includes com


•Sensor Controlled Pneumatic and Electric Pumps •Carbon Treatment Cell

plete transformer reconditioning. This helps extend unit life beyond what may have been expected, fur ther supporting your economical reclasslfication decision. ENSR. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 158

•Air Stripping Towers

•Off Gas Treatment Systems

Ad Index

•Clarifiers AbanakI Corp.

•Oil Water Separators •Vacuum Extraction Systems

Aco-Assman Aer-0-Flo Anthrafllter Armtac

Associated Eng. Badger Meter

Supported by a staff of

BAS BCA Industrial

1600 Seasoned Professionals. For Information Call

Big 'O'



37 Ramsay 31 Robar

Bondar Clegg Bristol Myers


Can Am Ins.

Cancoppas Canviro Labs

or write to

Westinghouse Canada Inc. 5905 Chemin St.-Frangois, Ville St.-Laurent, Qu6bec H4S 186

Committed to Quality 62

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 142

35 Envlroclean 9 Flygt 17 FMC 58 Gorman Rupp 10 Hach 38 Haztech 12 Mayko 48 MIcroblcs 27 Monenco



Davis Controls Oenso


Env. ProL Labs Envlractlon


63 Smart Turner 2 Sollnst 6 Statlflo

Capital Controls Eco Equipment Ecodyne

MSU MIsslssauga Lake Ind.

Systems Plus Tanknology

8 Tektran 8

Terminal City

41,24 Terratech 29 61



34 14

5 41

44 51

39 3D 21

22 35 64 38 26 60 61 59 61 25 58 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991



Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option With


Collecting flow proportional samples has never been easier. SIGMA's new Streamline™ subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units — a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new subcompact sampler: an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart. The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports. Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and guaranteeing repeatability independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma,PO Box 820, Medina, NY 14103-0820. In Ontario CAN-AM Instruments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

In Quebec and New Brunswick CHEMACTION,INC. 5960, Jean-Talon Est. Bureau 216, St-Leonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1991

Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the full range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices. In Alberta ITT Barton Instruments

In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba MACKENZIE & FEIMANN, Ltd.

3840 - llA Street, N.E.

970 Malkin Avenue

Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6 Tel (403) 291-4814 FAX (403) 291-5678

Vancouver. B.C. V6A 2K8

Tel (604) 253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 128


... a new era m

"engineered storm water management." CSA Certified

Not Affected by Acid Rain

Engineered for "storm water management," Ultra-Rib's unique PVC design provides a durable, high impact, non-corroding pipe for storm drain systems. Certified to CSA B182.4 and meeting ASTf\/1 F794, Ultra-Rib, with a Manning flow coefficient of n = .009, provides the lowest flow resistance of any storm drain pipe.

Made from PVC, IJItra-Rib is not affected by aggressive soils and the low pH's of acid rain.

Engineered for Strength Proven in worldwide applications, Ultra-Rib meets the rigorous demands of shallow or deep burial. A seamless PVC pipe, Ultra-Rib's reinforcing ribs girdle the true circumference of the pipe, providing a pipe stiffness in excess of 320 kPa (46 lb./in./in.) while exacting tolerances provide leak-tight joints.

Ground Water Recharging

Cost Effective

Ultra-Rib's economy - ease of handling, reduced installation time, complete line of fittings, and significant labour and maintenance savings - will make it the piping of choice.

Software and Design Brochure

Easy to cut on site

Get to know more about Ultra-Rib. Contact your nearest Scepter branch for our latest Ultra-Rib software and design brochure.


Where environmental concerns for recharging the ground water are a preferred option to ponding, perforation of Ultra-Rib can accommodate design specifications.

Leak-tight joints prevent infiltration.




807 Pharmacy Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario M1L3K2 (416)752-2200 fax: 416-752-8512 - Scepter is a member of the Uni-Be!i PVC Pipe Association.

Gaskets can easily be repositioned. VANCOUVER (604)525-8621

CALGARY (403) 236-8333

EDMONTON (403)468-4444

SASKATOON (306)933-4664

FAX 604-525-8607

FAX 403-279-8443

FAX 403-465-5617

FAX 306-934-2020

WINNIPEG (204) 633-3111 FAX 204-633-3075

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121

MONTREAL (514) 337-2624

SAINT JOHN (506)632-9000

BEDFORD (902) 835-8684

FAX 514-337-7886

FAX 506-633-6019

FAX 902-835-502