Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 1990

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

October/November 1990


Bill C-78, the new federal environmental review process The water Industry should respond to market forces Electrolytic process for treating toxic wastewaters Detention storage In stormwater management Leak detection In underground tanks Backflow prevention strategies



Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them In either a single composite container or sequentially Into an array of

The EpIclOIIT programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist in monitoring

24 X 1/2 litre containers

municipal and Industrial

for subsequent retrieval


A general purpose unit

and analysis.

designed to extract

samples of most liquids including crude sewage

Typical Applications * Crude sewage * Settled sewage

and even some sludges

from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subsequent analysis.

* Final effluent

* Raw sludge * Most Industrial effluents


Portable Wastewater Sampler To MISA Specifications

EPS 1021

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications Circle reply card No. 125

SLUDGE SAMPLER The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler Is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

Circle reply card No. 127

Also available

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2nnm to 1200mm Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel


Typical Applications

Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning

* Anaerobic digester feeds/

Ultrasonic Blanket Level


* Mechanical dewatering device



* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals

* Sea tanker loading terminals * Consolidation tank feeds EPS 1030

Valve Positioners, Actuators, Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

Sludge Sampler For more information circle number below or contact

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Telephone(416)847-2740 Fax:(416)827-6984

Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990



Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

(416) 727-4666


Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY

(416) 727-4666 Production Manager SAM ISGRD

October/November 1990, Vol. 3 No. 5 Issued October, 1990


B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN (604) 274-3849 Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY (416) 488-7639

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng.

The water industry should respond to market forces Comment by Tom Davey Versatile new stainless steel underdrain system

Article by Barry Hambly


Computer technology to protect groundwater pumping site


Gore & Storrie Ltd.

Rod Holme. P.Eng. Proctor & Redfern Ltd.

Peter Laughton. M.Eng.. P.Eng. R.V. Anderson & Associates

J.V. Morris. M.Sc.. P.Eng.

Minimizing groundwater contamination by detecting

Senes Consultants Ltd.

leaks in gas tanks


The role of detention storage in stormwater management Article by Paul Theil


Backflow can cause serious drinking water contamination


Mike Provart. M.Sc.. P.Eng. M.M. Dillon Ltd.

Dr. Howard Goodfellow Goodfellow Consultants Ltd.

Robert Ferguson. P.Eng. Metro Toronto Works Dept. R. Bruce Smitli. LL.B.

A case history of horror stories by M. Birks

Blake Cassels Graydon Dr. Earl Sliannon. P.Eng. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

Bill 0-78, the new federal environmental review process

A legal critique by Bruce Smith, L.L.B.


Investigating the true costs of environmental services Article by Robert Goodings and George Powell


A novel electrolytic process for treating toxic wastewaters Article by M.E. Neale


Cement kilns and energy from waste

Article by Charles Coles


Establishing a framework for waste management planning Article by Danford G. Kelley


Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication

published by Davcom Communica tions inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems and drinking water treatment and distribution.

ES&E's readers include consulting

engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental




wastewater treatment plant operators and contractors.

ES&E welcomes editorial contribu tions but does not accept any respon

sibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material.

All advertising space orders,copy, art work, film, proofs, etc., should be sent to Environmental Science & Engineer ing, c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.


Industry Update


Literature Reviews...58,59

R&D News Product Reviews

41 51

Ad Index 66 Reader Service Card .. 36a

Head Office - 10 Fetch Cr.. Aurora,

Ontario, Canada. L4G 5N7. Tel: (416) 727-4666; Fax: (416) 841-7271. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

information presented in ES&E is collected from a variety of sources presumed to be accurate and complete. ES&E cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information presented. Readers areencouraged to contact authors, agencies and companiesdirectiy forverification and/orciarification. Material in ES&E only conveys information and should not be considered as legal or professional

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher.


Yearly subscription rates: Canada $45.00 for one year. $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue: cheques must accompany subscription orders. Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00.

Charles Coles, General Manager, St. Lawrence Cement In front of the Company's 4,000 tonne per day

precalclner kiln In MIsslssauga, Ont. Cement kiln tech nology for the destruction of wastes Is used around the world and slowly becoming appreciated In Canada,the country where It was developed.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

C*fvÂťdun Bmioetk wm Prvit

Editorial Comment

By Tom Davey

Big mother Is not watching you being outsold until confronted by the cold reality of the sales figures. Ford then reacted to market for


latD S1TIEEOWS5E8 jiiii

While Rolls Royce. Daimler Benz,Packard and Cadillac designed their cars as playthings

for rich dilettantes, Henry Ford startled the world by producing a car which working families could afford.

Ford's tough, reliable Model T revolutionized the auto industry and profoundly affected industry the world over. By paying unskilled men the then unheard offigure of$5 per day, Henry's assembly line oper ations enabled working families to actually buy the cars they made. This galvanized the entire economy resulting in global implications. Farming communities in particu lar loved the Model T. Its reliability and low price freed farming families from deadening isolation, enabling them to visit relatives or trade in the towns. In rural communities with

out radio, TV or even newspapers, the Model T had a profound social and economic impact. Sales of Fords skyrocketed as Henry persisted in his goal of pro ducing well engineered, reliable low

price cars. But other car manufac turers were also thriving and Ford's share of the mass market began to erode. But Henry refused to be dis tracted from his original plan of pro ducing plain but rugged basic transportation, every car being painted black. Chevrolet began offering more luxurious options,better styling and a range of colours. Inevitably Chevys actually overtook Ford in sales. But Henry steadfastly refused to believe his cars were

ces and began designing and build ing cars which research had indicated the public wanted. The Ford Motor Company revived to become an international auto giant. It is now time for the waterworks

industry to respond to marketforces and meet the public's demands and concerns for providing the best water possible. With today's tech nology, there is no excuse for taste and odour problems to persist. First we must acknowledge that water treatment professionals have been subjected to an avalanche of unfounded




safety of municipal water supplies. The industry's track record has been a remarkable one. Unquestionably water treatment professionals wiped out endemic diseases which once slaughtered millions, while pro viding water which is usually safe and invariably cheap. And no other industry can match water profes sionals for reliability of service. But the industry doggedly clings to its low-price ethos and low-bid mindset, producing water as low as 70 cents a cubic metre — literally cheaper than dirt, yetsafe enough to wash open wounds in. Ironically, water utilities get lit tle thanks from the public for their frugality. The public frequently demonstrates its distrust of munici

pal water supplies with its willing ness to go out and buy bottled water at $1 per litre; this in preference to a tonne of safe treated municipal water delivered inside the home for

the same price. Taste and odour are quite often cited for the soaring sales of bottled water. But, like Henry Ford, politi cians are ignoring the market pres sures by focussing on keeping down the costs of producing and deliver ing water, rather than improving the product. This saving is illusory. Some water utilities are actually costing their customers money. True, they are perhaps saving consumers a few dollars a year on water bills, yet the ultimate cost to those who buy bottled water for taste, will be infi nitely higher. And sales of bottled water or home treatment devices in

Canada are estimated at $200 mil

lion annually, and growing. So where are the savings? Imagine the infrastructure improvements envir onmental professionals could do

with these millions?

Sometimes there's an appalling lack of knowledge by some suppliers of the quality of the water they supply. How many test the treated water as regularly as Metro Toronto does, and for as many parameters? I believe in many instances some water utilities rely unthinkingly on monthly government checks. In virtually all other industries, manufacturers are responsible for their own quality controls. Nowhere does any auto maker abdicate its

responsibility for quality controls to governments. Yet some local politi cians vaguely think its the responsi bility of the provincial Ministries of the

Environment to

ensure the

water quality they are marketing is government approved. Canada is served by some excel lent laboratories and the costs of

regular (and independent) testing programs are infitesimal compared to the rest of municipal treatment operations. Suppliers of water have nothing to lose but their customers' con

tempt. They have kept Canadian water costs among the lowest in the world while producing a product

which compares favourably with bottled water in safety, and often in taste. But distrust and indifference, not gratitude, was the result of this effort.

Diverse public opinion polls have repeatedly demonstrated the public willingness to pay for better quality water. But, unlike Henry Ford so many decades ago,some water utili ties are ignoring the signs so abund antly demonstrated in our news

It is now time for the water

works industry to respond to market forces and meet the

public's demands and concerns for providing the best water possible.


Industry professionals should respond by using their undeniable expertise to give the public what it is asking for — better quality water. The $200 million spent on bottled water and home treatment devices are solid evidence that consumers

are voting solidly with their pocketbooks. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990



^ ,., ^ ^,.,



Today, we are beginning to understand the risks we run when we allow the environment to become polluted. And we know what we must do to preserve our natural advantages.

High performance water, storm and sewer pipe from Canron is part of the answer. It's made from non-corrosive PVC to last longer; and because it can be installed with fewer joints, leakage is minimized to do a better job of protecting our water resources.

Choose pipe and fittings for sewer lines, watermains, plumbing and electrical conduit from the specialists in high performance plastics. Canron,the people you can trust. For more information on all our pipe products, call(416)742-5334.

©AN RON The responsible choice. Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 101



AT LAST, A SYSTEM THAT DETECTS LEAKS QUICKLY AND EASILY It only takes a small leak in your underground storage tank to pose a big threat to the environment.

That's why Tanknology™ has developed a fast, accurate, economical way to test for leakage. THE OPERATION.

The VacuTect™ Precision Tank Test System is implemented by highly trained operators in mobile testing vehicles. Every aspect of the test is monitored by computer to eliminate human error. After testing, data is analyzed, interpreted and printed as a final report. THE BENEFITS.

• No need to fill the tank or shut down your operation " Much faster than competitive methods • Whole procedure normally takes only 2 hours

• No waiting for tank stabilization

• Tandem tanks can be tested simultaneously • Non-volumetric and not affected by tempera ture or vapour pockets

• No need for standby fuel or personnel • Manifolded tanks can be tested without

breaking concrete • Does not cause fuel loss through leaks • Tests comply with, meet or exceed EPA and NFPA standards

• Helps you to minimize ground water contamination

Save your business time and money while you help preserve something even more precious: our delicate ecosystem. Call us for more information today.

ANKNOLOGY. For more Information,

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Call Toll Free: 1-800-465-1577 or 1-800-465-9781

TANKNOLOGY IS A DIVISION OF LINDE TECHNOLOGIES INC. Mississauga (416) 624-5470 Edmonton (403) 440-1213 Montreal (514) 333-3300 6

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Industry Update Metro Toronto to host

Dr. Jones is honoured, 'roasted' and toasted

world forum on urban

Dr. Philip Jones, P.Eng.,long an out spoken environmental scientist and engineer, was made a Professor Emeritus of the U of T, awarded the Albert E. Berry Medal hy the CSCE,

environment in 1991 Metropolitan Toronto will host an international municipal forum to

notified he will receive the APEO's

address urban environment/sustai

Engineering Medal and 'roasted' at

nable development issues - METRO WORLD 1991. "Our planet will he almost 50% urban hy the year 2000. Our health, quality of life, the very future of our planet depends largely

a 'retirement' dinner in Toronto —

all in a four-week period. Speakers at the Roast included. Dr. Henry Regier, Director of the U of T's Institute for Environmental

Studies, Dr. Giyn Henry, P.Eng., U of T, Dr. Donald Chant, President, OWMC, Bob Ferguson, P.Eng., Metro-Toronto


on how well we tackle these issues


today," said Metro Chairman Allan Tonks.

METRO WORLD 1991 will also

Works Commis

sioner, Jim Bishop, VP, Environ

Cabinet level at Queen's Park and

mental Protection Laboratories and

Ottawa — this at a time when there were no Ministers of the Environ ment."

former Director of Water Resources, MOE, and Charles Ferguson, Inco's Director of Environmental Affairs.

ES&E Publisher Tom Davey was MC of the Roast. He said that Philip Jones was taking tangible steps to alert society to environmental hazards long before the word 'envir onmentalist' became part ofthe pop ular lexicon.

"I first published his warnings on detergent phosphates and eutrophication in 1968. The article aroused reaction from coast to coast and at

"Reaction spilled over the border and subsequently Dr. Jones was invited to testify in Washington,DC at a Congressional hearing into eutrophication. I believe his out spoken views expressed in the arti cle were the motivating force behind the amendments to the Canada Water Act which later restricted

phosphates in laundry detergents, long before the birth of the present activist movements."

bring together environmentalists, technical experts, academics,senior government officials, corporate executives, community organiza tions, trade union leaders, schools, and neighbourhoods. A primary goal of METRO WORLD 1991 will be to adopt a pol icy statement of resolutions to go forward to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and

Development in Brazil in 1992. Contact Barbara Sullivan, Co ordinator, METRO WORLD 1991,4th Floor, 390 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5H 3Y7, Tel: (416) 3923375, Fax:(416) 392-3799.

The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged moving parts.

In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.


At Degremont Infiico we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have


developed the self-cleaning

• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts

climber screen.

• Easy maintenance

Our climber screen is easy to install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from T6" to SCO". It can discharge screen ings at great heights and can be installed in deep channels. Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all moving parts are above water.

scraper blade

• Ease of installation

cleaning comb

container or


^Degremont infiico Ltd.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

bar screen

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 103

Industry Update Worker survived 6 km sewer ride A Metro Toronto sewer worker nar

rowly escaped death when he was swept 6 km along a sanitary sewer system. Tim Imough, 28, had been installing a flow monitor in an underground sanitary pipe when he was swept away through a 137 cen timetre pipe by swiftly moving wastewater. Police, firefighters and works employees searched franti cally at manhole covers along the sanitary sewer pipe route. They had almost given up when works inspec tor Kevin Pumphry heard him yel ling. It was a sound knowledge of the sewer system that led rescuers to the spot. Earlier the worker had

removed one of two safety belts holding him. Mr.Imough, who is almost 6'and weighs 230 pounds,said that he was sitting down throughout the ride, pressing on the walls of the pipe, and concentrating on keeping his balance and his head above water.

Finally,in a larger pipe about 2.5 kilometres from the main sewage treatment plant, he was able to stop himself on some rocks and wedge himself into the pipe until Mr. Pumphrey crawled in and pulled him to safety. Had he gone much farther down the pipe, the flow would be so high he would have been swept down to the treatment plant.

in the production of a rubber-plastic and rubber compound. In addition, the company will set up a research laboratory.

UK consumers face

higher bills to cover water pollution clean-up The cost of clean-ups in the UK by the water industry could send custo mers' hills soaring,Professor Judith Rees of the University of Hull said that under the regulations govern ing the privatised water industry, the customer, not the polluter, will have to pay to improve the supply.

There was no requirement beyond monitoring for industries to pay for the pollution they cause, she said.

$9.7 million tire recycling grant to Lindsay firms Environment Ontario has granted the Viceroy-Trent Group of compan ies funding to build a recycling plant to process up to nine million used tires a year into crumb rubber and rubber-plastic products.

It is expected that the Viceroy-

Trent Group's new plant will pro cess 1.5 million tires by the end of the first year; 3.3 million tires in the second year, and as many as nine million tires in the fifth year of oper ation. The Canadian rubber pro duced will make products such as traffic cones, roof flashings, dock bumpers, toys and hockey pucks. The $9.7 million grant will also support product and market devel opment to allow the Viceroy-Trent Group to modify process equipment

Water bills, which are already fixed to rise at rates higher than inflation, could go higher if new environmental measures are introduced.

"Agriculture produces most of the nitrate pollution increasingly contaminating water supplies hut has no obligation to pay for the clean up," she said. Reducing nitrate contamination to EC levels will cost up to $10 bil lion.

Water management policy announced for

SURVEYLOGGER The Speedometer For Effluents

South Saskatchewan river basin

The No. 1 Portable Sewerage Flowmeter

Ralph Klein, Alberta Minister of Environment has released a Water

Management Policy to support multi-purpose water use in the Direct flow readings Including surcfiarges Direct mean ultrasonic velocity Direct mean height


tance of water to Southern Alberta ^ WALL MOUNTED


• Accurate


• Repeatable


• Linear Built for Canadian sewer conditions


Meets or surpasses MISA standards Full graphics analysis program No massaging or manipulation of results Cost effective

South Saskatchewan River Basin.

The Policy recognizes the impor




Goal orientated


One of a full range of ultrasonic flowmeters

and the challenge of managing the resource to meet the many demands. There is a need to protect both instream flows and consumptive uses including municipal, domestic and agricultural water supplies. The expansion of the irrigation industry is important to Alberta's economy and is supported by this govern ment, however, an upper limit to that expansion has been estab lished as the demand for water

exceeds the supply available. "It is important that streamflows be maintained and water quality and instream uses he protected to

Thousands in service worldwide

ensure that our rivers are sustained

for future generations," said Mr.


Klein. "The water in the basin must

Walden Plaza,P.O. Box 158,Lively,Ontario POM 2E0; Telephone:(705)692-4734; Fax:(705)692-9021

continue to support multi-purpose use, with consideration given to water conservation initiatives,"

Dealer inquiries welcome.

added Mr. Klein. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 104

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Make the SMOOTH MOVE to BOSS N-12 BOSS N-12 is Guri latest innovation for storm

sewer and leacdate system applications. It combines the superior:flow characteristics of a smoothwall interior with the traditional

. ,strength, durability and handling ease of high density i polyethyiene pipe.


and enter a new era

of optimum hydraulics

New smoothwall interior

Make the SMOOTH MOVE Nowl

BOSS N-12 provides a corrugated exterior for superior

Ask for the BOSS N-12 Brochure . . . your introduction to a new era of optimum hydraulics, installation ease and dependable performance.

strength, as well as a thick smoothwall interior for maximum flow. With a Manning's 'n' value of .012, BOSS

N-12 provides excellent hydraulic characteristics.

Full size range

Head Office

BOSS N-12 is available in 4" to 36" diameters as

Big '0' Inc.

non-perforated pipe, perforated pipe, or perforated pipe with polyester SOCIC" filter. Custom fittings are available on

254 Thames Road East


(519) 235-0870

Easy to install

34601 Vye Road Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 4N7 (604) 850-0753

BOSS N-12 is light in weight for ease of transporting, handling and installation, requiring minimum work crews and equipment. It can be safely cut to size on-site — even using a chainsawl Once installed, it is highly resistant to both abrasion and chemical attack in most applications.

Exeter, Ontario NOM 1S3

6014 - 64th Street

Taber, Alberta TOK 2G0 (403) 223-3521

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Longueull, P.O. J4G 1N8 (514) 651-0403

BOSS N-12: Technical Data • Manning's coefficient of 'n' = .012 at flow velocity of 0.75 m/s

•Pipe stiffness of 320 kPa at 5% deflection as per ASTM D 2412

•Recommended for use in soils having a pH range of 1.25 to 14, where it provides exceptional resistance to TM BOSS N-12 and


• Excellent impact resistance under winter conditions for year-round installation

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

SOCK are registered trademarks of Big '0' Inc.

Innovative technology working for you

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 121

i-- ... t.t


Dorr-Oliver Canada becomes GL&V has gained recognition for the quality of its products and services aimed at the pulp and paper, metallurgical and hydroelectric industries.

The group is offering solutions to the forthcoming environmental adjustments that industry has to face, with expertise and equip ment for waste water treatment as well as state-of-the-art

fluid bed thermal equipment. With the acquisition of the assets of Dorr-Oliver Canada and a full license for Dorr-Oliver products, GL&V is entering new industrial fields. It will now also supply the chemical, mineral, food, and underground mining industries.

GL&V's manufacturing capacity is now boosted from 300,000 to 600,000 square feet of production surface. The addition of one of Canada's largest iron foundries with a casting capacity in excess

HEAD OFFICE Trois-Rivieres (Quebec)819-373-5733

ATELIERS FABRON INC. Trois-Rivieres(Quebec) 819-371-8211

INDUSTRIES COUTURE LTEE Chicoutimi (Quebec)418-549-2850


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SL&V Ontario.

f 15 tons, is also a considerable asset. But most important re the 400 dedicated employees that join GL&V's already

Quality assurance, on time delivery and capacity to offer turn-key projects are more than ever strengths of GL&V.

npressive workforce, bringing with them knowledge that will enefit both their new co-workers and the company's clients.

.11 of this fits in with the group's global expertise approach lat guarantees adapted solutions and profitability to its clients.

»GI®/ Yes, We Can Do It!

GL&V Ontario Inc. is a Dorr-Oliver Licensee.



irillia (Ontario) 705-325-6181

Pointe-Claire (Quebec) 514-630-7944

WESTERN SALES OFFICE Coquitlam (British Columbia) 604-942-4377

For more Information,

FAX: 705-325-3363

FAX: 514-630-7947

FAX: 604-942-8335

Circle reply card No. 122

Tank and

Line Testing Systems For accurate, reliable leakage measurement of underground fuel tanks and lines. The Heath Petro lite System is designed to provide highly accurate tank and line testing results, while minimizing costly interruption of normal operations. The Retro Tite Tank Tester automatically adjusts for variables that could affect precise results such as temperature, tank end deflection, and type of liquid, it is the most accurate system available to measure liquid loss. The compact,easy-to-use Line Tester is fully hydraulic and can be used in conjunction with the TankTester for measuring overall system tightness, or independently for fast, accurate testing of underground lines. Heath gives your system total support with experienced consulting and maintenance staff, to ensure continuous reliability and high accuracy standards.

Call Heath today, or write for complete details.

f HEATH u ' Consultants SPiwited

.. creative solutions to liquid and energy losses.

2085 Piper Lane London, Ontario N5V 3S5

(519)659-1144 Fax:(519)453-2182

1st Fir. Farrell Plaza,6923 Farrell Rd. S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2H0T3 (403)258-0151

11825 St-Evariste

Montreal, Quebec H4J 2B1

(514)331-1580 Fax:(514)331-9980

Circle reply card No. 123

nCHTCORROSION For years. Dense Corrosion Control Coating Systems have been proving their effectiveness against the toughest corrosion problems.


With aproven track record, Denso coatings can be the solution to your anti-corrosion needs. Contact the Denso distributor nearest you:


Denso coatings apply easily, working year after year — requiring little or no maintenance.

*Saint John







Denso coatings cover a full range of applications in water and wastewater,gas and oil, mining and marine industries.


For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 124



Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Industry Update Ontario crackdown on

McCarthy Tetrault

20,000 air poiiuters


A draft regulation designed to reduce toxic air pollution in Ontario has been released for public review. Under the provincial regulation:


• Air pollutants with high toxicity, and toxic substances which persist or which hioaccumulate, will be rated as high-hazard contaminants. Examples of such high-hazard con taminants are lead, dioxin, benzene, vinyl chloride, formaldehyde, car bon tetrachloride, manganese and acrylonitrile. Polluters emitting

formerly Chairman of the Ontario Environmental Appeal Board and Professor, Faculty ofLaw, University of Western Ontario, has joined our London office as a member of the Firm's Municipal/Environmental Group.

these contaminants will have to reduce these substances to the levels

attainable by the best removal tech nology known anywhere in the world.

Medium-hazard pollutants such as methanol will require reductions attainable by the best generally available technology which is eco nomically achievable. Low-hazard pollutants such as total reduced sul phur require reductions attainable by technology generally demon strated as acceptable. Copies of the regulation and doc umentation in English or French, are available on request from (416) 323-4321.

Alan W. Bryant

The Firm's environmental practice involves advice on environmental approvals, envirorunental audits, envirorunental assessments, waste management, defence ofenvironmental prosecutions, civil actions for envirorunental damage,commercial and real estate transactions and government regulation and compliance. For further information, please contact; VANCOUVER



Peter Kenward (604)669-2611

Donald M.Todesco (403) 234-7200

Alan W.Bryant (519)660-3587

TORONTO Dennis H. Wood

OTTAWA Michael Flavell

MONTREAL Andre Privost



(514)397-4100 HONGKONG



Chantal Masse

Michael Weizinan

Brent Kerr

(418) 692-1532

44 71588-1867



"PlEAM MANNING MONITORING SYSTEMS THE RIGHT CALL FOR EFFLUERT MORITORIRG IN Technologies' Team Manning Monitoring Systems provide advanced effluent monitoring in a fully compatible, easy-to-use modular system. Making-up the monitoring team is:

structions, easily leading the operator through any procedure. For more information on Team Manning Monitoring Systems, contact:

• M-Series Sonic Flow/Level Meter

• Priority Contaminant Sampler (portable or stationary) • Choice of rugged Manning flumes With Team Manning, all monitoring functions are executed through simple menu-driven in



328 North Rivermede Road. Unit 9. Concord. Ontario L4K 3N5

Tel: (416) 738-2355

Fax:(416) 738-5520

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 129

Filtration Technology

Versatile new stainless steel filter underdrain

An Alberta firm claims it

have been in existence for hundreds

has developed a unique



of years, one would think that their evolved design would have solved all filtration problems by now. Unfortunately this is not the case. Problems are myriad: • gravel upsets resulting in fine media passing


has many flexible design features. Newtech Filter Systems, a Calgary based company, says its new, stainless steel filter under drain is effective in the many differ ing types of filters currently used in

• structural failures — corrosion-

/lifting of blocks

water treatment processes. The firm claims several advan tages;

• strainer failures

•strainer plugging

• open top gravity •low pressure self — backwash stor

• uneven backwash distribution —


• vertical and horizontal pressure • upflow •low head travelling bridge • applicable as well to carbon con tactors, iron and manganese remo val units, ion exchanges. In addition to its applicability in new filters, the Newtech Under drain can he simply retrofitted to upgrade existing problem filters. All filters have an underdrain, and dozens of different types of underdrains are used in the industry; many are proprietary, some are not. Underdrain functions are:

formly (very difficult to do). Since filter underdrain systems

new and retrofit situations

• should have the capability to use bigh rate media configurations without disruption of the layering. Underdrains can be categorized in four main types: (All categories have numerous variations) • hub lateral • true header lateral • tile bottom

media restratification

•false bottom or plenum type.

nature in an area where access is most difficult and a trouble-free

• to distribute backwash flow uni

nozzles which can foul

•should have a low profile and low pressure drop for minimum filter depth • should be easy to install both in

leading to mud balling, channel ling, short circuiting, level variations in the media and poor •explosive air release — inability to cope with backwash air entrainment or air released due to negative head operation • media upsets — some types of fil ters cannot use high rate media •poor design ofstrainers; too widely spaced — jetting and rolling action — channelling. These are some of the basic prob lems. However there are many other areas of underdrain design which should be addressed including: •should not require gravel layering • should be free of corrosion prob lems and very strong structurally — filter underdrains are by their

• to collect filtered water evenly (easy to do) • to prevent passage of fine filter media (requires care)

• should not have flow controlling

The Newtech Underdrain over

comes the multitude of problems wbich current underdrains have.

Patents have been applied for in the U.S. and Canada.

Distribution Hydraulics

The key to even distribution of backflow flow is to make two correc

tions. First the flume cover plate orifices are sized using a computer program to compensate for variance in orifice discharge coefficients due to cross flow velocity. This is a water momentum effect.

The discharge through an orifice when the crossing velocity is high is markedly less than when the crossflow velocity is lower across an ori-

underdrain is mandatory

Eimco FlexScour'"'

Continued overleaf

Filter Underdrain"

Item Identification 1. Anthrocite 2. Sand

12- Profile wire grid 1J. Air scour orifices

3. Concrete open top filter tonk 4. Bottom siob 5. Side walls

14. Filtered cffluent/bockwosh influent pipe 15. Filtered effluent/bockwosh influent flume 16. Flume cover plote

6. Ertd walls

17. Flume orifices (voried diameter)

7. Pofiition

18. End plates

8. Sockwosh water outlet

19. Air inlet tubes 20. Air inlet header

9. Backwash troughs

to. Woter inlet/outlet orifices (varied diameter)

21. Air pipe

11. Air division woll

22. Air sleeve


23. Flume clamp end anchor bolt













Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

ce*ment kiln (si*ment kiln) n l.The ulti mate in destruction technology. The cement kiln is a reliable and proven technology for waste destruction. Throughout the world it is known as one of the best for safe and complete destruction of organic (combustible) waste.

Advantages: - Sustained high temperatures of 2000 degrees C are guaranteed by the process; - Ash disposal is virtually elimi nated (it becomes part of the product); - Limestone scrubbing of the exhaust gas absorbs the products of combustion;

- No significant changes in emis sions occur.

A technology whose time has come! A message on behalf of the Canadian Cement Producers

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 130



LABORATORIES "Assured Quality Across Canada" Zenon Environmental inc. is pleased to announce the formation of a new subsidiary company, Zenon Environmental Laboratories (ZEL). This is a joint venture between Zenon Environmental Inc.(ZEI)and

Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez of Paris, France. The company is comprised of full service laboratories in Ontario and British Columbia

and the facility currently under construction in Quebec. Forty-five percent of the new company is owned by Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez. The company was formed to build from a strong Canadian base as a

leading North American Laboratory network. ZEL is headed by Dr. Barry Loescher. Flis mandate is to continually improve quality

and service, while managing the growth of the laboratory network throughout Canada and the United States. Barry is ably sup

ported by the senior management of the laboratories; Dr. Glenys Foster and Rod Thomson in Burlington, Bill Lightowlers, David Flope and Dr. Barry Ciiver in Vancou ver and Flenri Fluneault in Montreal. All have

many years experience in environmental Zenon's newest laboratory located in Burlington Ontario. analysis and management. With over 100 professional and technical staff the three facilities are dedicated to continuous quality improvement;

"Quality Assured, Delivery Guaranteed"

A formal interlaboratory program provides each Zenon iaboratory with timely precision and accuracy data for all routine parameters. Customer Service teams in British Columbia and Ontario have

been expanded to provide better response and project

management. Zenon remains at the leading edge of analytical technology

through laboratory automation, computerization and advanced instrumentation such as high resoiution mass spectrometry. This capability, located in Burlington,augments our existing MS/MS system and wili be dedicated to the analysis of chlorinated dioxins, furans and related compounds. These issues and others wiil be expounded in our upcoming newsletter "Analiles". If you would like a copy or further infor mation, please contact us at the location closest to you.

Burlington (416) 332-8788 Vancouver (604) 444-4808 Montreal (514) 493-4733

For more Intormatlon, Circle reply card No. 131 16

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Filtration Technoiagy Versatile new stainless steel underdrain, contu fice of the same size. This is why

With the Newtech Underdrain a

maldistrihution occurs in a filter

flow straightener is often installed in the backwash pipe entrance to

header or flume, with the back end of the filter receiving higher flows than the front end. This can have a

drastic effect on filter performance. The effect of a false bottom or ple num, which takes the place of a header or flume, is to greatly reduce the cross flow velocity so to elimi nate varying coefficients of dis charge up through the false bottom orifices, strainers or whatever. Quite often however, the false bot tom is not made deep enough to elim inate velocity effects. Note that violent inlet turbulence

can cause maldistribution, i.e.: a greater than anticipated flow in the turbulent areas. The combination of

a narrow false bottom with many supports or legs to contribute to local turbulence, can he very trou blesome.

Another unrecognized contribu

Variations in orifice discharge coefficients with cross flow velocity are not easy to determine. Newtech determined the variance using hydraulic models, tested under dif ferent conditions of temperature, velocities, orifice pressure drops, recovery of energy, etc., then deve loped a computer program to deter mine the variance in flume cover

plate orifice sizing to ensure even output flows. In circular filters, where the flute lateral lengths vary, a modification

of the program is used to size plate orifices for proper distribution — essentially a controlled maldistribu tion.

In flowing along the flute laterals themselves, a similar situation of cross flow effect on orifice discharge occurs. A different set of orifice dis

a number of filter underdrain types are trapped pockets of air intro duced in the backwash orfrom nega tive head operation. This can lead to

charge coefficients is applicable as no orifice discharge energy is required. These are run in another computer program to set the var iance in discharge orifice sizing along the lengths of the flute later als. Thus backwash flow is totally even throughout the filter by cor

why identical filter cells exhibit dif ferent backwash characteristics.

flow flow distribution on a custom

design basis.

reduce swirl turbulence.

tor to backwash maldistribution in

orifice cross flow velocities which are variable and is often the reason

recting the header as well as correct ing the laterals. This Underdrain is unique in providing very even back-




The Underdrain is fastened down

to the concrete base using adhesive set stainless steel bolts. A variety of cinch, expansion or self-drilling anchors could be used, but adhesive sets are preferable and standard. Air Scour

North American filter practice has been, where warranted, to air scour





of 3-4

SCFM/square foot for 3-5 minutes, prior to hydraulic backwash. This has typically been done on dual media filters where depth filtration occurs and surface washers cannot

get at the deeply embedded soils. Sub-surface washers just above the filter coal/sand zone of mixing also have a fairly limited zone of effect. Hydraulic backwash alone is quite a gentle action and the much more violent action of air in loosening adherent sticky sludge like algae, clay, or lime softening sludge is often very useful in keeping the entire bed clean.

The underdrain is readily adapted to air scour in a rather uniContinued overleaf

iWILLIAMS Pneumatic Diaphragm Metering Pumps and Chemical Injection Systems

f fj® ^9











The Williams pneumatic diaphragm metering pumps offer you

SUITE 600, 180 KINO STREET SOUTH WATERLOO, ONTARIO N2J 1PB S19/579-3500 FAX 519/579-8986

chemical Industry. Our standard 316 SS construction combined with Interchangeable wetted parts manufactured of 316 SS, TFE and PVC provide the flexibility needed for your fluid metering applications. Depending on the model chosen, these pumps


the versatility and accuracy dethanded In today's diverse

offer a flow range of .005 GPH to 28.5 GPH. For the best In

TOftOmV, CALOASr, EDMOHTON, LETHBmoae, vancoweh

pneumatic metering pumps, call Williams.

9357 45th Avenue

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 132


Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5Z7 TEL: (403) 434-9471 TWX: 910-336-1103 CABLE: WILLIAMS VALE

FAX: (403) 435-6560

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 133


Filtration Tectinoiogy Versatile new stainless steel underdrain, contu que way. The flute lateral is fabri cated with a division plate to divide the lateral into an upper air area and lower water area. This is a very important innovation. In two phase flow, at even low air velocities, a wave action occurs and, at a little higher velocity, slugging action develops. Both wave action and slugging lead to a very erratic distri bution of air. This occurs in false

bottom filters quite commonly, and in other types utilizing the same conduit for air in contact with water, whether the water is flowing or not. In the Newtech design, a positive division of air and water to posi tively eliminate the effect of wave action, and to ensure even air distri bution, is provided. Air is introduced into the upper air conduit from either above or

below to suit.

Both designs are

available. The air outlet holes are

just above the division plate and are designed to meter air at sufficient back pressure to force distribution.

tive air scouring action through the media. Another mode of air scour which

is becoming increasingly popular (Los Angeles Aqueduct Plant, Salt Lake City Water Plant Expansion) is European in origin. In this mode, air scouring is simultaneous with backwash water addition.


bed expansion is only 5-6%, caused by the air, with just enough backflow flow, typically 7-8 USGPM/ square foot, to provide enough sweep


to remove the

filtered-out solids.

Backwash requirements are half that of conventional filters. Special consideration is given to media type and sizing to avoid floating offfilter coal. Often mono-media, i.e.: sand

only or filter coal only (as at the Aqueduct Plant) is used to avoid a final high backwash rate restratification step required for dual media. The Underdrain is perfectly adapted to air scour simultaneous with hydraulic backwash.

Air introduction quickly displaces all the water out of the air conduit

Air Venting

section, the air then exits freely. With profile wire grids, the air is squeezed to form a series of curtain walls, which provides a very effec

vent holes, typically 3/16" diameter on approximately 3-4' centres through the flute side immediately

The flute laterals have small air

SANDERSON industries (1989) Ltd. Unit G-224 Gayer Street, Coquitlam, BC V3K 5B1 Phone:(6(M)520-1130 • FAX:(604) 520-1161

below the air division plate. This provides a means of controlled vent release of trapped air from air release when negative head condi tions exist, or introduced from the backwash system.

Most underdrain systems have no way of coping with air entrainment or explosive air release. Trapped air can seriously affect backwash distribution and explo sive air release is violently destruc tive to gravel layering, and float-off losses of fUter coal. Installation

On flat concrete floors no plenum or false bottom is required. The underdrain is basically a header/lateral variation. The header typi cally is a flume or conduit formed in the concrete either crossing the inside front of the filter cell or run

ning the centre length; or it could he an external conduit or pipe header feed. In circular filters the flume

spans across the diameter. A stain less steelflume cover plate used with orifices to distribute flow propor tionally to each flute lateral. Cross

ing the flume are the flute laterals. A licensing agreement for Can ada has been arranged with Elmco Process Equipment. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 249

The Industry Leader

Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks - corrosion resistant

- flame spread class - contact-molded

Ag-Chem Equipment Co.,Inc. continues to

- filament wound

be the leader In engineering,

manufacturing and product support of

Intermediate Bulk

0 Containers

land application equipment. • Over 25 years of experience. • 242,000 square foot manufacturing facility. • Canadian parts centers. • Mobile service units.

Railway Track Collector Pans

• Capacities ranging from 2,000 to 7,200 U.S. gallons or 10 to 21 cubic yards. • Choice of Injection, rear or side spreading, or specialized application systems. Write for a free brochure.

protection from fuelling, washing, loading, unloading

Ag-Chem Equipment Co.,Inc. 5720 Smetana Dr., Suite 100 Minnetonka, MINI USA 55343 612/933-9006





For more Information, Circle reply card No. 134

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 135

• *99



MEETING TODATS CHALLENGES o eo THROUGH TECHNOLOGY Fi Today, more than ever, we are aware of the fragility of our environment. And today, more than ever, we at Flygt are seeking ways



IIHt' ll'3S"«S


to protect our water resources

and prevent pollution. We are finding solutions in the productive and effective management of our water handling systems. Through innovative developments in an ever increasing range of products, Flygt is providing clean technology for a variety of applications. As the needs of our customers evolve,

our technology adapts to provide answers. Not just for today, but for the long term.




jRUWIIMI Tine Pli IBH1 • Of STASIS PI. 38 1

Q) ^|\ fHERHIC






powerful supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA), using the latest telemetry technol ogy,specifically designed for water, wastewater and pumping stations. It is the MACTEC;a combination


locally or remotely. It also offers a management system for real time and historical data acquisition and analyses. Its unique modular concept allows for eventual expansion of the system according

NEW NEEDS. NEW SOLUTIONS. Increased demands on water

of the finest in computerized

to future demands.

hardware and the new,state-of-

systems require up-to-date

the-art Aqualex software package. This user-friendly system provides full automated control of water handling networks either

Once again, Flygt recognized a need and designed a system to meet it. Technological solutions to today's challenges. This is

information and better control

capabilities. Flygt has met the challenge. We have perfected a

our trademark.

Good Ideas Take Flygt. FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514) 695-0100 Telex: 05-821844 Telefax:(514) 697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Polnte-Claire ■ Quebec ■ Val d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. Jotin's (Nfld.) USA: FLYGT CORPORATION, Norwalk, Conn.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990



ITT Fluid Technology Ck>rporatlon For more information, Circie repiy card No. 111


Groundwater protection

Computer technology to protect Florida groundwater pumping site

A 33,000 acre reserve where

a county in Florida in tends to draw groundwater to supply consumers with potable drinking water will be

■ K ara «

base ■ ' ■ it m

monitored around the clock with

state of the art telemetry to insure it is withdrawn in an environmentally

■ ■ ■■

■ ~ a ■ aa

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. This reserve from

where the county intends to pump drinking water,includes ranchland, wetlands, prairies, a major drainage slough system, pine flatwoods and hardwood hammocks. Located next

to the Myakka River State Park, on the west coast of Florida between the cities of Port Charlotte and

Tampa,it will also serve as a public recreation and open space area for environmental education research.


Kevin Rohrer, hydrologist and monitoring coordinator for the Sara sota County Division of Ecological Monitoring, says the telemetry sys tem will monitor rainfall, flows of surface water, wetland and groundwater levels and the quality of sur face and subsurface water. The data

will be used to help maintain the "pristine condition" of the prop erty," by determining normal hydrologic relationships and any changing conditions of the prop erty, he explains. Sierra-Misco Inc., a Berkeley,

California company that introduced the computer-driven flood warning industry 13 years ago,is now instal

ling multimillion dollar DataCommand water management tele metry systems in two of Florida's statewide water management dis tricts. It has been awarded a$296,000 contract by the Sarasota Board of

County Commissioners to design and install a DataCommand moni

toring system throughout the reserve.

Installation of 72 self-reporting field sensors throughout the 33,000 acre reserve was scheduled to begin in the summer, with the county plan

ning to draw drinking water from the area beginning in December 1991. It is expected to supply consu mers with some 17 million gallons of drinking water a day. 20





Rohrer's office in Sarasota, some 20 miles northwest of the reserve. The data from the field will be imme

diately displayed on the computer screen in a series of color graphics

safe manner. In two transactions undertaken

in 1984 and 1989, Sarasota County paid a total $23.4 million for the pur chase of 25,000 acres and water rights to another 8,000 acres of the T. Mabry Carlton Reserve from the

Sensors will automatically send the environmental data they collect into a Compaq 386 Computer in a

and archived in a database.

The sensors, 0850 Remote Termi

nal Units, programmed with builtin intelligence, can be reprogrammed from the base station or by a Increased development Is straining Florida's water resources.

The groundwater, containing high concentrations of dissolved sol ids and sulfates, will also require

pre-treatment before human con sumption, Rohrer adds. Plans also call for construction of a pretreatment facility. Sensors will automatically moni tor levels and quality of groundwater at seven existing cluster well sites bordering the wellfield. Each site, Rohrer says,consists of three to five wells that are drilled into three

separate aquifers of varying depths. During the preproduction period, the telemetry will help determine base line conditions, and after pumping commences, to track and determine hydrological changes in the area, he says. Guidelines will be set to prevent negative impacts on

technician using a laptop computer and cellular telephone in the field. They were developed by the Califor nia firm's sister company, SierraMisco Environment in Victoria, British Columbia. Plans were under

way for examining expansion needs of the DataCommand system,

expected to be operational by June. Sierra-Misco is also installing a $2.5 million DataCommand system for the Southwest Florida Water

Management District, a $500,000 plus system for the St. Johns River Water Management District where another DataCommand system is being used in a multimillion dollar cleanup operation of Lake Apopka, 15 miles northwest of Orlando, Florida. Sierra-Misco in the United States and Canada are subsidiaries of First



Vancouver, British

Columbia. ES&E

the environment.

New treatment facility for BFGoodrich BFGoodrich Canada has opened a $10 million wastewater treatment

facility at its vinyl resin and com

pound manufacturing plant in Nia gara Falls, Ont. The new facility replaces a smaller system. It will have the

capacity to treat all effluent from the plant's $75-million resin expan sion which is scheduled for comple tion in the fall. The expansion will more than double BFG Niagara s homopolymer resin producing capacity. The BFGoodrich Niagara wastewater treatment system will treat water used in the manufacture of the

vinyl resins and compounds, and return the water to the Welland

River actually cleaner than when it was removed.

"Our plant has always met the Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment requirements for water treat

ment and containment. This new

facility meets even higher stand ards. It is




BFCoodrich "Health, Safety and Environmental Policy", and the waste and manufacturing codes of practice of the Canadian Chemical Producers' Association (CCPA) Responsible Care initiative," says Ai Faris, BFC Niagara's manager, health safety, and environment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


oxygen lines





Oxygen improves your cost efficiency. Oxygen enrichment, properly applied In a domestic water treatment plant, can substantially reduce the amount of chlorine used In the treatment pro cess. What's more. It can eliminate the need for over-chlorlnatlon which

also adds up to reduced chlorine consumption. These two factors alone mean more cost efficiency and Im proved water quality. But there's more: Reduced Odour Oxygen prevents the formation of sulphur compounds, which greatly reduces sulphide odours. Further, the presence of oxygen prevents the

Call the experts...

multiplication of other forms of odourcausing bacteria.

Liquid Carbonic engineers have the experience you need to develop an Oxygen Enrichment program.

Ozone Water Treatment Many municipalities prefer ozone water treatment to chlorine treatment, from an

Call them to:

- Analyse your vrater treatment process - Make specific recommendations - Customize controls/equipment - Design safety Interlocks -Supply tralnlng/monltoring

environmental standpoint. If you are con sidering ozone, consider Liquid Carbonic.

Better Ozone Equipment Efficiency Oxygen enrichment, used in conjunction with standard ozonators, produces higher ozone output efficiency from the same equipment. In fact, oxygen injection can double ozone output compared to standard

-Scrutinize environmental Issues - Provide service assistance

Have a Liquid Carbonic 'Oxygen Enrichment' specialist contact you. Complete and return the form below.

air-feed techniques.


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 255 Brimley Road Scarborough, Ontario M1M 3J2










Technical Expertise at Work For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Circie repiy card No. 112



heultimate f / RAINSYS

Water - the world's most precious compound It s proper treatment demands the best filtration methods available and here the underdrain

system plays a vital role. The ultimate system can now be obtained from EIMCO with our v Flexscour^" filter underdrain.

The very low profile and low pressure drop allows for minimum cell depth, again reducing

The unique and innovative design eliminates explosive air release and surging so that the media bed is not disrupted during backwash. : Uneven media cleaning and distribution is

overall costs.

Maximum shop assembly, and simple field bolting requirements without grouting substantially reduces installation time and cost


> In conjunction with proper media selection and sizing also supplied by EIMCO, this system

The EIMCO Flexscour^" Filter Underdrain is also

particularly adaptable to retrofit existing filter underdrains. Even the bolt-down system is designed so that existing rebar is not a problem.

'i allows a reduction in overall backwash water

volume by up to 50%, resulting in greatly reduced backwash water treatment and

' disposal costs.

The FLEXSCOUR design also eliminates the ■ ?need for false bottoms or supported filter decks, there are no flow control filter nozzles to foul.

EIMCO offers over 40 years of experience in the development and manufacturing of water and waste water treatment equipment and systems Our specialists will custom design to suit your requirements.


EIMCO Equipment A Division of Baker Hughes Canada Inc. EIMCO PROCESS EQUIPMENT .5155 Creekbarrit Road

MIssissauga. Ontario

r .: -



4940 Chtsholm Street^ Softs t

Ca^ry, Aiberta'.:

P.O. Sox 358

'T2N126'V-' .


Tel: 416^5-6070.


227-14th Street. N.W..Suite 5



:;oetta, B-c:, v4k sys -

Tet: 403-283-9383


Fax 403-270-0575

Circle reply card No. 113 ■ "Is


Tel; 504-946-0421 - Fax:604-946-7017

For more Informati

1 >.



Varnicolor Chemical and directors charged under the EPA Varnicolor Chemical Ltd., the com

pany's president and others have heen charged with a total of 20 charges under the Environmental

also heen charged under section 8 of the EPA, which relates to the con struction of equipmentthat may dis charge a contaminant into the

Protection Act(EPA). Three of the

natural environment without a Cer

company's directors have been charged. In addition, Tri-Union of

tificate of Approval. Mr. Argenton, Varnicolor Chemi cal Ltd., Tri-Union of Elmira Inc., a subsidiary of Varnicolor, and Mr. Kowalchuk face charges under sec tion 40 of the EPA, which relates to using facilities for the storage of waste without obtaining a provi

Elmira Inc. and a consultant to Var-

nicolor have also been charged with violating the EPA. Varnicolor Chemical Ltd., located in Elmira, recycles waste solvents and disposes of liquid industrial


sional Certificate of Approval or a Certificate of Approval. In addition, Varnicolor Chemical Ltd. and the company's president have been charged under section 6 of Reg. 11/82 under the EPA,which relates to illegally managing PCB waste. These two defendants have

also been charged under section 16(1)(a) of Reg. 309 under the EPA, which relates to allowing waste to pass from their control into an unapproved waste facility.

wastes for

industries throughout Ontario. The charges allege that, between June 29, 1988 and May 17,1990, Varnico lor Chemical Ltd. failed to abide by the conditions set out in its Certifi

cate of Approval issued by the Environment Ministry. It is also alleged that the necessary Certifi cate of Approval for the establish ment of a waste disposal site was not obtained.

The president of Varnicolor Chemical Ltd.,Severin Argenton,and three of the company's directors, Walter Mikloska, Marcel Pruski and John Soehner have been jointly charged under section 147a of the EPA,which relates to being a director or an officer of a corporation that engages in an activity that may result in the discharge of a contaminant into the natural environment.

Environmental liabilities

don't go away by themselves.You've got to meet them head on, armed with the best possible resources. That's why you should know about

Groundwater Technology. As the recognized world leader in environmental

ment, laboratory analy sis, on-site bioremediation,

monitoring and closure of all

types of haz

Mr. Argenton and Varnicolor

ardous sites.

Chemical Ltd. face a number of

We research,

charges under section 146(lb)of the EPA, which relates to failing to comply with the conditions of a pro visional Certificate of Approval during the establishment and extension of a waste disposal site. One of these charges relates to

design, engi

polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste.

William Kowalchuk, a consul tant for Varnicolor Chemical Ltd.

along with Mr. Argenton and Var nicolor have also been charged under section 146(lb) of the EPA, which relates to failing to comply with a condition ofVarnicolor's Cer

tificate of Approval. Mr. Argenton, Mr. Kowalchuk


remediation, we specialize in health risk assess

neer and manu facture total solutions to

complex issues. Why wait for a problem to surface? Groundwater

Technology has success fully managed more than 5,000 projects. Our 60 offices worldwide can pre


vent the threat of environ mental and financial dis

aster right now. Call Jim Vaughan at


... ••-r


l-416-67ai700. Because one lawsuit is all it takes to contaminate

a very bright future.

and Varnicolor Chemical Ltd. have

heen jointly charged under section 15(4) of Reg. 309 under the EPA, which relates to failing to submit a

supplementary Generator Registra tion Report with respect to changes in the types of chemical waste being treated at the plant. These three defendants also face

charges under section 27(b) of the EPA, which relates to establishing and extending a waste disposal site without an approval issued by the

l[« 1


Technology, Inc.

World leader In soil and groundwater remediation. Offices: Montreal, Quebec(514) 353-6939;

Mississauga, Ontario (416)670-1700; Halifax, Nova Scotia (902)453-0585.

director. The three defendants have

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 114


Groundwater protection

Minimizing groundwater contamination by detecting ieaks in gas tanks

Gasoline seeping unde

tected from tiny pinholes in underground storage

In response to both recent and pending legislation, many compan ies have implemented tank replace

tanks can threaten the

ment and tank testing programs.

environment, endanger lives and property and turn valuable assets into major liabilities. Given the right conditions and enough time, escaping liquid will leach through the soil and into the water table, where it will follow groundwater flow to streams,lakes, weeping tiles, drinking water supp lies, sewer systems, and/or under ground utilities. At the same time, vapour from the leaked liquid can move with subsurface air pressure into underground utilities or cracks in foundations, floors and walls of nearby buildings, creating hazard

Some organizations are testing all of their underground storage tank and piping systems regularly as part of pro-active environmental management programs, although most continue to test only suspected

ous conditions. Environmental and

property damage and clean-up costs can be substantial.

To prevent this scenario from occurring, governments and indus try are working together to develop stricter performance standards for the design, installation, operation, monitoring and maintenance of underground storage tanks. Early warning systems, such as gas, vapour and hydrocarbon moni toring in back fill, daily tank dip ping to reconcile sales with on-hand inventory and tank testing, all help to ensure that losses and contami


Speed and accuracy are key

Today, there's a wide variety of tank testing systems available, with leak detection success rates ranging from poor to outstanding. While legislative authorities across the country struggle to keep up with new tank testing technologies, many company engineers and environmental specialists are choosing the ones that best satisfy their own demands for accuracy, efficiency and minimal down time. "If we suspect a leak, our first priority is to have the tank tested," says Richard Talbot, facility design manager, retail engineering, for

at small and large airports. Until recently, ESSO contracted tank testing to different firms, who used a variety of methods to achieve currently accepted leak detection rates. Then, last January, Mr. Tal bot learned about Tanknology, a new division of Linde Technologies Inc., with the patented VacuTect Precision Tank Testing System for chemical, petroleum, fuel oil and waste liquid underground storage tanks and piping. Within two months of the initial

contact, ESSO Petroleum had made a commitment to try the VacuTect system on retail tanks tested during the following six months. With greater than 95 percent accuracy, VacuTect's acoustic and water sensors can detect leak rates

well below government guidelines of .38 litres per hour. Typically, the test is completed in abouttwo hours, without having to shut down the customer's entire operation. "Tanknology's system is so sim

ple and so neat that it makes a lot of sense," notes Mr. Talbot, as he cites several advantages of the VacuTect system over conventional methods.

ESSO Petroleum Canada. "And we don't want to have to wait." ESSO Petroleum has more than

"There's no need for a fuel tanker to

4,000 service stations and small storage tanks throughout Canada.

tank since the test runs best when

In addition to these retail outlets, underground storage tanks service

nation are minimal and easily con

ESSO's truck fleet at distribution


terminals and the aviation industry


be on the site to fill up the storage the tank is 60 to 90 percent full; it takes much less time; the Tanknol ogy operators are properly tredned to do the job safely;the system has a high degree of accuracy; and the entire operation is very profession ally done." Since the first agreement, Tan knology has completed a separate order to test underground storage tanks at more than 100 ESSO stations

across Canada. This service, per formed in just two months, was for disclosure to prospective buyers. How VacuTect works


VacuTect Precision Tank

Testing System creates a vacuum in the tank and then records acoustic evidence of air and measures water

Tanknology's system for testing chemical, petroleum,fuel oil and wastewater underground storage tanks and piping can detect a leak with greaterthan 95% accuracy. 24

entering through leaks. Tandem tanks are tested simultaneously and underground piping is isolated and pressure tested, as well. An instrumented probe is lowered through the underground storage tank's fill pipe to rest verti cally on the tank bottom. At the pipe's opening, an inflatable bladder forms a seal around a signal cable connecting the probe to a com puter control console in the mobile

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Groundwater protection test vehicle. The sealed, stainless steel cylinder probe contains a hyd rophone, an absolute pressure sen sor, a temperature sensor, the patented VacuTect Water Level Sen sor, preamplifiers and signal condi tioning electronics for each sensor. A ULC-approved vacuum pump ing system is connected to the tank's vent line and is controlled by the computer, as well. At one minute intervals, a digital readout indicates the pressure at the inside bottom of the tank, the ullage pressure, fluid temperature, water level and pump status.

When the test begins, the pres sure in the ullage above the fluid is reduced to the point where the out side air pressure slightly exceeds that of the combined fluid head and

ullage pressure. When the outside ambient air pressure is greater than the internal pressure, air and/or water will ingress through any holes in the tank.

As air enters,bubblesform. Each bubble increases in size, detaches from the tank wall and, as it rises, undergoes a volume pulsation of constant frequency. This frequency or "signature" is inversely propor tional to the diameter of the bubble.

Air entering through a leak in the ullage — usually around the fill pipe, vent line, manhole or piping system — is detected by a distinctive hissing sound or loss of vacuum. Many underground storage tanks are located in high water tables. If water is present, it's usu ally found during daily inventory checks; nevertheless, prior to test ing, the VacuTect operator always performs a manual dip stick check for water. Since the fill pipe runs perpendicular to the bottom of the tank, the simple dip stick test also helps to detect if a tank is tilted. The VacuTect Water Level Sen sor indicates the initial amount of

water present and provides a minute-by-minute printout of water level changes as little as.13mm.The nature of the back fill material, the height of the water table and the height ofthe tank contents all affect the rate of ingress of water. Accord ingly, if water is present, or sus pected, but a leak is not found during the normal two-hour period, the test will be extended.

The VacuTect system is not affected by random background sounds, trapped air, barometric pressure fluctuations, temperature change or change in hydrostatic balance (external water versus

cision Tank Testing System from

Leaking Storage Tanks for the Can

Tanknology Corporation Interna tional in Houston, Texas, in

adian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers: "Air and

December 1989. The VacuTect Preci

nitrogen pressure tests shall not be considered acceptable for testing existing tanks, once the tank has contained product. This is because such pressure tests are too inaccu rate to reliably detect small leaks using the maximum allowable pres sure for the tank of 35 kPa (5 psi). There is also risk of an explosion." Dave Ledingham, engineering manager, Ontario,for Shell Canada Products Limited agrees:"There are other options available in North

sion Tank Testing System was invented by Ed Adams, president of Athabasca Research Corporation Ltd. in Edmonton, Aita.

In the United States, Tanknol ogy's tank testing system meets and exceeds Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA)standards, based on 60 tests performed by Midwestern Research Institute(MRI)in Kansas. MRI is licenced to provide thirdparty certification for the EPA. Since starting operations in Can ada, Tanknology has obtained writ ten endorsements from legislative authorities in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the Yukon and Newfoundland, and verbal agreement from Quebec. To satisfy the Ontario Fuel Safety Branch's requirement for independent, third-party certifica tion, Tanknology has submitted a formal application for review by Underwriters' Laboratories of Can ada.

In the meantime, a 35 kPa pres sure test using compressed air or nit rogen is the only tank testing system that is officially recognized by the province. However, accord ing to the National Task Force on

America that are much better than

the 35 kPa nitrogen test. When we suspect a leak, we are required by the Fuel Safety Branch to do a 35 kPa pressure test. But, if that tank

passes and we're not comfortable with the results, we use Tanknology because I feel that they will either discover the leak or prove the tank system sound with a high degree of accuracy." ("Environmental Code of Practice for Underground Storage Tank Sys tems Containing Petroleum Pro ducts, 1988", Appendix B, Explanatory Material, reference no. B.6.7.3, pg. 32). For more Information, Circle reply card No. 250

Leak detection for

underground storage tanks. Proven

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underground storage tank monitor ing. Utilizing intrinsically safe com ponents, the Series DMS actively monitors up to four tank systems for over-fill protection, leak detection

internal fluid).

Linde Technologies, Inc. obtained the exclusive Canadian licence for

Tanknology and the VacuTect Pre Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

and can distinguish between hydro carbons and water. The Series DMS is available for

double wall fibreglass and steel tanks, fuel tanks, chemical tanks

and monitoring wells. For more detailed information, write or call . ..

Davis Controls LIMITED

2200 Bristol Circle. Oakville, Ontario L6H 5R3

Tel: (416) 829-2000

Fax: (416) 829-2630

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 115


Stormwater management

By P.E. Theil. P.Eng/

The role of detention storage In stormwater management uses. In other instances, detention is obtained by designing the control structure for a retention or "wet"

pond to allow the water level to rise sufficiently to accommodate the excess runoff. Not only will this reduce the peak rate, but it also per mits sedimentation of pollutants carried by the runoff. The latter case can be a very cost-effective solution where the quality of the downstream receiving water has to be protected. In retrofit cases, space is likely not available, and as such detention may have to be created below sur face, which can often be done by using large diameter sewers. The most common forms ofdeten tion are:

Rooftop Storage

Stormwater runoffhas tradi

Flat roofs are common for indus

storm sewer under construction.

tionally been considered as a nuisance, something to be disposed of as quickly as possible. Indeed large storm sewers, and concrete lined drainage channels became the symbol of a high level of servicing. However, in spite of the high cost, problems did not go away. In fact they only moved from one location to another, often resulting in more serious problems. Problems have included:

• high peak flows in storm sewers and streams which require larger facilities at higher cost;

• lowering of water tables, with a detrimental effect on existing vegetation; • reduction in base flows in receiv

Nature meant most of this water to

soak back into the earth, past practi ces prevented it. What are the solutions?

load from water without the need for

In the past, we have taken stop gap measures to repair the damage from major rainfalls, rather than preventing it. This is where storm

any structural changes. A water depth of six inches is equivalent to a load of 31.2 pounds (150 mm) per square foot(or 152 kg/m^),less than most live load requirements. Special roof drains with con trolled outlet capacity have been used for many years in order to save cost as a result of reduced pipe sizes.

water management comes in — pre dicting what will happen and taking precautions to avoid destruc tion during and after a storm. The obvious approach would be to design the storm drainage system to correspond as closely as possible to nature's demand; that is, direct the storm water into the soil, prefer ably to the same extent as nature now does, prior to development and maybe to an even greater extent. Whatever amount cannot be accom

ing streams, affecting aquatic life;

modated at the point of rainfall

• excessive erosion of streams and

should be detained for a controlled

sedimentation in lakes, due to

discharge. Of the various concepts deve loped for the control of storm water, few have proven as valuable as

higher discharge velocities; • increased pollution of receiving streams and lakes, due to industrial fallout on roofs, fertilizers from

lawns, and pollutants from streets and paved areas being conveyed directly to the streams; • damage due to flooding. Runoff quantities which had been expe rienced rarely, now occur much more frequently. The annual dam age from flooding is very significant and the public is not satisfied with


properly designed detention facili ties whicb provide storage of storm water runoff during times when runoff exceeds the capacity of down stream facilities.

•President, Paul Theil

In new developments, it is com mon to provide detention on the sur face typically on roof tops, parking lots or within landscaped areas. In the latter case, ponds can be classified as "dry" where ponding will only occur for relatively short periods, which may be desirable if

Associates Limited

the same site is used for recreational

the answer they get.

trial, commercial, institutional and apartment buildings. Since these are designed for snow load,they will also accommodate an equivalent

A further benefit is the reduction of the rate of runoff which can be

reduced by up to 90 percent.

Parking Lot Ponding Another very economical method

of detaining peak runoffis to design parking lots to pond when the rate of runoff reaches a pre-determined level. The areas to be ponded should be placed so pedestrians can reach their destinations without walking through the ponded water. Areas used for overflow

parking or

employee parking are well suited. The maximum depth of ponding would vary with local conditions, but should generally not be more than eight to ten inches to prevent damage to vehicles. Overflow arrangements must be made to pre vent the water depth exceeding the predetermined maximum. "Blue-Green" Detention

An effective technique for provid ing stormwater detention is to take advantage of the potential of storContlnued on page 65

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990







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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Circie reply card No. 105


Case histories of horror stories

Backflow problems can cause serious drinking water contamination

Provincial Governments, through legislation,enforce codes and regulations to attempt to ensure that the plumbing within buildings is to a certain standard. Unfortunately, once a building is occupied, the plumbing is invariably altered by the addition of equipment or fix tures that perhaps do not comply fully with existing plumbing regula tions. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment has within its Drink

ing Water Objectives a suggestion that re-inspection of plumbing is an important part in maintaining the quality of the plumbing within a building. Unfortunately, these objectives are rarely acted upon by individual Municipalities. To draw a parallel, in some Pro vinces it is mandatory to have a safety inspection of your car done on an annual basis. In Ontario, this inspection is only done at time of

water/nickel solution. The problem occurred due to a submerged inlet on a plating rinse tank. The water supply pipe was damaged during

iary source of supply. The plant's

renovations and the nickel solution

service connection did not contain a

back siphoned into the water supply. When pressure was restored after repairs were made,the solution was delivered to a nearby drinking

backflow prevention assembly for premise isolation. The plant maintained two water systems, a combined fire,industrial and domestic system supplied from the Municipal water main, and a process system supplied by pump ing water from the river. To keep the plant in operation after the water main break, a fire hose was con nected between the two systems. The river water was pumped into the plant's domestic water system as well as the isolated portion of the Municipal system. 4. A resident of Lacey's Chapel, Ala bama, jumped in the shower at 5:00 a.m. one morning in October 1986, and when he got out of the shower his body was covered with tiny red blisters. "The more I rubbed it, the worse it got", the 60 year old resi


2. In October of1979 at a meat pack

ing plant in Marshalltown, Iowa, $2,000,000. worth of pork was con taminated. The meat became con

taminated when the plant employees unwittingly sprayed con taminated water on hog carcasses and cuttings during the normal cleaning process. Food safety and quality service officials have con cluded that there was a cross con nection of water lines between

transfer of the vehicle to a new

owner, or if a Police Officer orders an inspection to be made because of suspicions of the vehicle's road worthiness. If you have portable fire extinguishers within your build ing they are inspected on a regular basis to ensure they are still able to do what you expect them to do. The question is then, should regular inspections be performed on a plumbing system to ensure that it does not affect the quality of the water that we drink?

In some areas of the country, cit ies are attempting to reduce their responsibility by hiring city employees to inspect and bring up to code, plumbing systems within their jurisdiction. The majority of cities however, do nothing (following the inspection of a building when new), to ensure that the quality of the plumbing is not altered. Let us look at some case histories

to see what kind of problems could occur if a cross connection is allowed to exist and backflow takes

place: 1. In Kitchener, Ontario in June 1987,29 plant workers were exposed to nickel contaminated water when

water containing the nickel solution was delivered to a water fountain.

Eleven of the workers were hospital ized as a result of ingesting the 28

...when he got out of the shower

his body was covered with tiny red blisters

hence the continuous backflow of

water through the plant's service connection must be from an auxil

dent said. "It looked like someone

took a blow torch and singed me." He and several other Lacey's Chapel residents received medical treatment at the emergency room of the local hospital after the water system was contaminated with sodium hydroxide, a strong caustic solution.

potable and non-potable water, causing sewage water from the kill

Other residents claimed "It (the water) bubbled up and looked like Alka-Seltzer. I stuck my hand under the faucet and some blisters came

floor and water used to deodorize


rendering operations to get into the potable water line.

covered with blisters after she washed her hair and others com

3. On November 2, 1987, a break occurred on the Municipal water main supplying water to a paperboard plant and other nearby indus trial properties in Burnaby, British Columbia. During the repair work, polluted water was apparently dis charged from the broken main into the excavation, although all isolat ing valves on the main were shut off. Upon investigation, it was deter mined that the backflow of water

was from a paperboard plant located along the Eraser River. The plant's only source of potable water, the Municipal water main, was dis rupted during the main repair.

One neighbor's head was

plained of burned throats or mouths after drinking the water. The incident began after an 8inch main, that fed the town of Lacey's Chapel from the Bessemer Water Service, broke. While repair ing the water main, one workman suffered leg burns from a chemical in the water and required medical treatment. Measurements of the pH of the water were as high as 13 in some sections of the pipe. Investigation of the problem led to a possible source of tbe contami nation from a nearby chemical com pany which distributes chemicals such as sodium hydroxide. The sodium hydroxide is brought to the

Enuiroiimental Science & Engineering, November 1990

plant in liquid form in bulk tanker trucks and is transferred to a hold

ing tank and then pumped into 55 gallon drums. When the water main broke, a truck driver was adding CHEMICAL

water to a tanker truck that carries


sodium hydroxide. Unfortunately, the driver was adding the water


from the bottom of the tank truck

instead of from the top. As a result, the sodium hydroxide backsiphoned into the water supply system. The seriousness of the back-




siphonage incident, and its impact on the entire community of Lacey's Chapel, is obvious. Had the truck driver added the water from the top of the tank truck, through a normal air gap, the sodium hydroxide con tent could not have back-siphoned through the hose and into the pota ble water system. Even if the truck driver utilized the top fill of the tank truck, it is possible that he could have pushed the hose deep into the tank which would have comprom ised an air gap, and the sodium hydroxide still could have backsiphoned up through the hose, and entered the potable water supply



Case history

The incident emphasizes the

No. 4

need for education of all concerned

in the handling and transfer of bulk hazardous liquids. Awareness of possible cross-connections with the potable water supply system, when diluting or washing out a hazardous chemical contained in any tank or reservoir, with a hose connected to a

potable supply is the key to fluid transfer safety. Had an inexpensive hose bibb vacuum breaker been installed on the hose bibb to which the hose was

attached that led to the tank truck, the back-siphonage incident would never have occurred.

5. On June 18,1979 the residents of the City of Meridian,Idaho reported that their water supply had an odor and taste of onions. During this period, the city was routinely flush ing fire hydrants through the area involved. As with the complaints, the odor would occur hut a consist

ent pattern could not be determined. The city's water system is supplied by four wells and a 500,000 gallon storage tank which rides on the sys tem. The wells have an alternating pumping schedule and the water system is looped. This arrangement had a contributing effect on the odor occurrence.

By isolating portions ofthe water system, and conducting a premise by premise inspection, the source of

"Watts Regulator of Canada Ltd.

the contamination was narrowed to

one area containing a supermarket, car wash and a church printing firm. The nearest fire hydrant was flushed and the odor became very strong. The final inspection revealed that the alarm check valve

on the fire sprinkler system in the supermarket was leaking. When the city water pressure was reduced dur ing hydrant flushing, the alarm check clapper would leak, but the clapper would not open enough to set off the alarm. When the service

was turned off to the supermarket, the odor and taste problem did not occur during hydrant flushing. Water samples taken from the sprinkler system identified Chlonothrix fusa and Zoogleora ramigera bacteria in sufficient concentration that would cause the onion taste and

odor problem. 6. In December of1970 in a winery in Cincinnati, Ohio the water supply valve was inadvertently left open after flushing out wine-distilling tanks. The result was that during a subsequent fermenting process, sparkling Burgundy backflowed from the vats into the city main and out of the kitchen faucets of nearby homeowners. This typical reversal of flow in water supply piping caused by the distilling tanks oper ating at a pressure higher than the city water supply did impair the con dition of the water but did not make

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

it dangerous. Indeed, many thought it was the best water they ever tasted. These case histories show us that

the problems associated with backflow can range from merely being a nuisance(Case No.6 in a Winery)to actually life threatening (Cases 1 and 4). Many backflow cases are not documented because the results of the backflow are not noticed. Some

illnesses caused by backflow are ofa "self-treating" nature. People get an upset stomach and assume it is something they ate. One organiza tion has produced a "summary of backflow incidents" and currently has 122 case histories documented

dating from 1922 until today. This incident summary is produced by the Cross Connection (Control Com mittee of the Pacific Northwest sec tion of the American Water Works

Association (AWWA).

With this

amount of data on file we can safely say that backflow incidents are no

longer isolated occurrences. Whenever




occurs, the question of liability inev itably comes up. Who is liable? Is it the Building Owner? If he alters his plumbing and impairs the quality of the water and makes someone sick, is it his fault? If he is not advised as

to his responsibilities, can he not argue that"no one told me. I am not

Continued on page 38 29

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Legislation Review

By Bruce Smith. LLB.

The federal environmental review

process — a legal critique

Following three years of

regulatory authority(not the federal Ministry of the Environment) must shepherd the project through a laby rinth of procedures mandated by the Bill before it may exercise its statu tory powers over the project. The first step of the process requires the regulatory authority to determine whether the project falls within a Mandatory Study List or an Exclusion List as defined by reg ulation. Projects on the Mandatory Study List are subject to the most rigorous examination contemplated by the Act. Projects on the Exclu sion List will not require any assessment before the regulatory authority may proceed with the pro

studies, public meetings, workshops and promises, the long-awaited Canadian

Environmental Assessment Act was

introduced in Parliament as Bill C-

78 on June 8, 1990 hy Robert de Cotret,federal Minister of the Envir onment (Environment Canada). The Minister claims that the Bill

will create the most powerful envir onmental assessment process in the world





towards its goal of becoming the industrial


most environ

mentally friendly country by the year 2000.

The Bill is intended to strengthen and clarify a process first estab lished in 1974 to predict the poten tial




proposals requiring decisions from our federal government. That pro cess was updated in 1984 by Guide lines entitled the Environmental Assessment and Review Process

(EARP) approved hy Order-inCouncil.

Until last year, the federal

government believed the EARP Gui delines were discretionary and nonenforceable.

However, two recent

decisions of the Federal Court of

Appeal involving the RaffertyAiameda Dam in Saskatchewan and the Old Man River Dam in Alberta held that the EARP Guidelines

Order is a legally enforceable law of general application which superim

poses duties upon federal decision making authority. Faced with these controversial court decisions the

government was shocked into admitting that the Guidelines were uncertain and difficult to adminis

ter and that new legislation was immediately required. The Impact on private sector Under the Bill, the federal envir onmental assessment process will not he confined to projects under taken by the federal government. It will also extend to those projects undertaken by the private sector or by municipal or provincial govern ments which: • obtain financial assistance from

the federal government (other than tax relief);

'Mr. Smith is a partner at Blake, Gassels & Graydon


•are carried out on federal lands; or •require a permit, licence, or appro

Environment Canada has announced its intention that the

val under federal statutes to be

Mandatory Study List will include those large-scale projects within its jurisdiction that tend to generate considerable public concern such as large industrial plants, large oil and gas developments and major trans-

named by regulation. Under pressure to identify the permits, licences and approvals which may become subject to the new legislation,the government has released a partial list of statutes cur rently under consideration. The energy and transportation sectors are heavily represented on that list which will be expanded to include other private sectors under federal jurisdiction. The Bill will also extend the envi

ronmental assessment process to projects in Canada which are likely to cause serious adverse environ

mental effects across provincial or international boundaries or to fed

eral lands. Special procedures will be created by regulation for aborigi nal lands. Crown corporations and federal support for Canadian exports abroad.

boundary linear facilities, i.e., high ways, pipelines, and high-voltage transmission lines. The Mandatory Study List will also include large industrial projects to the extent

their environmental effects may be transported by air or water across provincial or international boun daries. A "project" is defined as broadly as possible. It means a physical work or activity that a proponent proposes to construct, operate, modify, decommission, abandon or otherwise carry out. The Exclusion List will be con

fined to projects not known to pose any risk to the environment or for which

environmental effects are

The Minister ciaims that the Biil will create the most powerful environmental assessment process in the world...

The process

The Bill requires that an environ mental assessment must be com

pleted before a federal authority (or "regulatory authority") may exer cise its power to fund, provide land, or approve any project caught by the legislation. The intent is to freeze the project at the earliest planning stage until the environmental assessment process is complete.The

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

negligible. According to Environ ment Canada, examples would include simple renovations, routine operations, purchasing supplies, minor construction, engineering studies and controlled scientific stu dies.

Once the regulatory authority has decided that a project falls within the Mandatory Study List,it Continued overleaf 31

Legislation Review The Federal Env. review process, cont.

ment Agency) for public comment. That agency is then obliged to for ward the report and the public's

a review panel or mediator or a refer ral of the project by Environment Canada back to the responsible authority, the responsible authority may then grant or withhold its sup port for the project. Its support may be conditional upon the implemen tation of appropriate mitigation measures or a follow-up program. The regulatory authority must not ify the public of its decision.

comments to Environment Canada.

Environmental assessment factors






courses of action. It may refer the

project directly to Environment Canada or, alternatively, it may require the proponent to prepare and file an environmental assess

ment report with a new agency (the Canadian Environmental Assess

to ensure that each project will advance in an orderly manner through its many procedures. Pro

gress will depend upon the goodwill of the regulatory authority or Envir onment





blocked at any point by matters of political expediency or government inefficiency. The Bill could become an administrative nightmare for any proponent whose project may be frozen by its provisions.

The problem of overlappingjurisdictions between federal and provin

cial governments has not been resolved by the Bill's proposal that

Once a project on the Mandatory

There is one further twist in the

List reaches Environment Canada,

process. Where a project is caught by the proposed legislation but does

joint review panels may be estab

not fall within either the Mandatory

ensure that projects under joint jurisdiction are identified from the

it must decide whether to send the

project for a public hearing before a review panel or, alternatively, to a

Study List or the Exclusion List, it

lished. There is no mechanism to

Canada has one other option. If the

must be screened by the regulatory authority for factors which include its environmental effects, the signi

report discloses no significant

ficance of those effects, the concerns

outset or that one level of govern ment will not proceed unilaterally, creating a massive duplication of hearings.


of the public and measures that

Our government has clearly con-

mediator for mediation between all

interested parties.




which cannot be mitigated, it may conclude that the environmental

assessment is complete and refer the project back to the regulatory authority for action. Public hearings

A review panel under the Bill will be an advisory, not a decisionmaking body. Environment Can ada will appoint the members of the panel and set its terms of reference. The hearings will be informal and must offer the public a full opportun ity to participate. Once a panel has reached a conclusion, it will submit its recommendations by written

report to Environment Canada and the responsible authority. Environment Canada may refer a project to mediation in the rare circumstance where all parties with a direct interest in the project can be identified, are willing to participate, and the mediation is likely to pro duce a satisfactory result. Environ

Whether Bill C-78 Is the most powerful legislation of Its sort In the world Is open to serious question.

would mitigate any significant or

eluded that environmental assess

serious adverse environmental

ment requires massive public input. It intends, however,to retain control of that input by selecting the panels and mediators,fixing their terms of reference, and by having the final say on whether the project proceeds or whether it should enter the public arena in the first place. The rules will be established later by regula tion and will remain subject to change at any time. No decisions will be subject to appeal. Further, the hearings will not permit propo nents to directly challenge members of the public who seek to defeat or delay a project solely for the reason that it is proposed for their own backyards. The preamble for the Bill recog nizes the need to achieve an approp

effects. After the screening is com

plete and a report prepared, the reg ulatory authority has three options:

• it may support the project if it is unlikely to cause any significant environmental effect that cannot be

mitigated; •it may refer the project to Environ ment Canada for a panel review or mediation if significant environ mental effects may not be mitigated or where public concern warrants; or

•it may refuse to support the project. In addition to those factors which

environmental effects of the project, mitigation measures and an approp

must he considered on a screening, every mandatory study, mediation or assessment by a review panel must also consider the purpose for the project, alternative means of carrying out the project, follow-up programs, the preservation of renewable resources, and any other

riate follow-up program. The media

matter Environment Canada or the

environmental assessment hear

tor will then submit an advisory

responsible authority may require.

ings have been known to extend for years and the staggering cost of the process itself has caused some prop onents to abandon their projects. Unless the federal process can be

ment Canada will select the mediator and the terms of reference.

The mediator will seek to help the

participants reach concensus on the

report containing his recommenda tions to Environment Canada and

Deficiencies of the bill

Whether Bill C-78 is the most

the regulatory authority. The Bill also grants discretion ary powers which permit a regula tory authority or Environment Canada to send a project to media tion or a review panel at any time where a project is likely to cause sig

powerful legislation of its sort in the world is open to serious question. The Bill fails to define any engi neering or scientific standards which must be met by the propo nent. The Bill states only that the


adverse environmental

assessment must consider factors

effects that cannot be mitigated or where public concerns warrant. Following the advisory report of

which are defined in only the most vague and ambiguous terms. The Bill provides no mechanism






development and the preservation and enhancement of environmental

quality. Under Ontario legislation,

streamlined and the rules better

defined, the legislation may be mis used as a tool for delay or political expediency and the economic side of the equation may be lost. Editors Note: Bill C-78 Is expected to receive Second Reading this fall. It wil l then proceed to legislative com mittee for public input.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

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Dear Colleague:

CEPA, TDG, WHMIS, Ontario's Spills Bill , MISA , Regulations 309 and 308 have increased the pressure on all of us who work with potential environmental hazards. What's more, the message from Environment Canada is clear. From now on, look for more of everything: more legislation,

regulations, inspections, assessments and public scrutiny. And unfortunately, surprises. For the unwary. Because there'll be more and more cases under which corporations,their officers and managers, will face stiff fines and public embarrassment simply because they were poorIv-informed Fortunately,there's now a simple, cost-effective way for you to keep up-to-date and avoid the dangers of non-compliance. It's a new, monthly management newsletter called CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND COMPLIANCE NEWS and it's dedicated to

steering you safely through the busiest environmental agenda in Canadian regulatory histoiry. 52 NEW FEDERAL GOVT.INITIATIVES ALREADY IN THE PIPELINE

With 52 new federal government initiatives already in progress, it's vital for anyone with EP responsiblities to stay intelligently informed. For example, in just the next few weeks, we (turn to next page

) 33

- 2 -

can expect:

♦ ^ ^ ^ ♦ ♦

Mandatory impact studies on all new chemicals, New regulations to cut the use of CFC's and halons Regulations to ensure the safe storage of PCB Wastes. Additional reporting requirements for all spills Expanded powers covering pulp mills' waste water discharges, Tougher standards for the management of hazardous wastes at federal facilities.

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Published by: Templegale information Services, 131 Bloor Street West, Suites 200-206, Toronto, ON M5S 1R8 Telephone/Facsimile, 1-416-873-6424

Why it is essentiai to know the true costs of environmentai services

Environmentalissues were a

By Robert A. Goodings, P.Eng. and George G. Powell, P.Eng.*

major factor in the recent Ontario provincial election. This is hardly surprising to environmental professionals. Back in 1988, at the Pollution Control Association of Ontario conference,a major public opinion research firm,

would be willing to pay for new facil ities to improve the quality of drink ing water, 23 percent would pay $50 a year more, 25 percent would pay $50-$100 a year more, 10 percent would pay $100-$200 a year more, and 8 percent would pay more than $200 a year more. In other words,43 percent of those surveyed were pre

Environics Research Group Limited,

cautioned corporations, industry, and associations to remain sensi tive to environmental matters; a

public that is becoming increas ingly better educated and informed now places an extremely high prior ity on these issues. The question is what the public is willing to pay for increased environ mental services?

pared to accept an increase of $50 or more per year on their water rates to pay for improved water quality. Setting fair and equitable rates for municipal water and wastewater services may seem, to the unini tiated, like a straightforward accounting procedure. Thisis, how ever, not the case. Water and waste-

While consumer

surveys increasingly indicate the public is demanding improvement to the environment, more news worthy is the finding that a large percentage is willing to pay sub stantially more for environmental

water are not standard commodities.

As costs vary widely between municipalities, it is difficult, and in some cases impossible, to make direct comparisons. Among the var


iables are;

For example, a recent survey con

ducted by Environics and Synergistics Consulting Limited demonstrated that a significant percentage of peo ple say they are personally willing to pay more for increased environmen tal protection, either in the form of a surcharge on their hydro, water bills; or house taxes, or in higher prices for certain goods. In addition, 25 percent of those surveyed believed their tap drinking water had gotten worse. When asked how much they

• raw water quality — river, lake, ground water • wastewater composition — strong, weak

• distribution system, topography • sewage collection system — com bined, separated, mixture • leakage from water mains, unac counted-for losses • infiltration/inflow to the sewer system

• receiving stream requirem'" nitrification, low phosphorus

The 1988 McLaren/Marchand

report. Commercialization and Pub lic/Private Partnership in Munici pal Infrastructure in Canada, highlights the need for infrastruc ture replacement and states that 75 percent or less of current require ments are being met by user fees. A 1987 Environmental Protection

Agency survey report. Looking at User Charges, indicates that about one-half of the communities sur

veyed in the U.S.A. were not collect ing enough revenue through user fees and/or taxes to meet the overall

needs of operating and capital expenditures and provide funds for the eventual necessity of replacing infrastructures. As a result, U.S. federal grant assistance programs now require that utilities develop an approved user charge system before federal funding is authorized and penalties are imposed for noncompliance after the system is in operation. European practice is based almost entirely on a user-pay sys tem (covering operating, capital, and replacement expenditures), and water charges are significantly higher than the present Canadian average. Unit prices for water and wastewater charged to typical users in Canada represent less than 25 and 33 percent of those charged in

Germany and France respectively; 40 percent of those charged in Bri tain, and 50 percent of those charged in the U.S. Current charges for sewer services in the Toronto

Willingness to pay more for better household water quality

area, for example, average $225 per household per year, whereas that figure is over $500 in Stockholm and $900 in Berlin.

16 to 25

The Ontario Municipal Water Association (OMWA) and the Ont.

percent of Canadians


• age of the system

Section American Water Works Asso $50 to $100

Up to $50

per year (25%)

per year (23%)

ciation(AWWA)in 1979 sponsored a report and manual titled Principles and Practices of Water Rates in

are already



$100 to $200

Method. In Ontario, the Cash Method is the only one used. The Utility Method is used by municipal

per year (10%)

themselves More than


ities in eastern Canada and several


Nothing (27%)

per year

(8%)/ Depends


It outlines how rates for

water systems can be developed either by the Cash Method or Utility

major western Canadian cities. Both methods are acceptable and


to tap water

•Robert Goodings Is President and George Powell Vice-President of Gore & Storrie Limited.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


The true costs of environmental services, com. can be adapted for both water and wastewater systems. Neither sys tem, however, will ensure that suffi

When appraising the replace ment value of any system, capital works items for which grants and

cient revenue is available for the

lot levies have been received must

cost of infrastructure replacement unless that cost is programmed into the system's budget for operation

a plumber. I would have complied if

not be forgotten, and they need to be included in the overall analysis, so that future replacement costs — without grants — can be accounted for. The Lifelines program, offered by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and partially funded by the Province, addresses the problem of water and sewer pipe rehabilitation. Unfortunately, how ever, major items such as treatment plants and pumping stations are not included in this program — yet their ultimate replacement costs are sig nificant. "Treatment plant audits

someone had advised me what was

should be carried out to determine

correct." Is the Municipality at fault? Perhaps the Plumbing Inspector can argue. "I'm only responsible for new buildings. I do not have manpower or financical resources to inspect and continue to inspect existing buildings." Per haps it is the W ater Purveyor's fault. He tested the water within his sys

the state of the facility and the need to replace outdated equipment, treatment technologies, and struc

tem but once he delivered it to the

Section of the AWWA took over this

and maintenance.

If rates are to

fully fund system operation and replacement costs, it is imperative that those setting the rates under stand this. Ignoring replacement costs has resulted in the current low

rates in many Canadian municipal ities.

Backflow prevention, cont.

consumer, he relied upon the plumb ing inspector to ensure that the qual ity of the plumbing was not impaired and therefore that the quality of his water was not impaired. The responsibility ulti mately lies with the Municipality in which the consumer resides.


Municipality has the responsibility to ensure that his Water Purveyor maintains an adequate quality and quantity of water. He also has a responsibility to ensure that his pur veyor advises consumers as to the dangers of interfering with this quality. The Municipality also has a responsibility to advise its consu mers of the rules that they should obey, to protect the water quality. It is only by everyone working together that we can ensure that the water is safe to drink from the time it

leaves the water treatment plant to the time it enters our drinking.glass within our home. Many new con cepts are being developed to ensure that all these responsibilities are met. The city can hire its own inspectors. The city can ask the building owner to contract inspec tors from the private sector. If the city does nothing,itisvulnerable. If it has a program of "Cross Connec tion Control" in place, it at least reduces its liability. The only answer Is a complete Backflow Prevention Program of Contain ment





connection, and Cross Connection Control at each point of use. ES&E

erence database for sewage costs

and charges in Ontario; also for assisting our industry in the move to more costly environmental pro tection programs such as Ontario's Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA). It is proposed that this database will be updated every two years.

Through the efforts of organiza tions such as the AWWA and the

PCAO, and the Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), publi cations and surveys are available to municipalities and utilities to assist

them in developing equitable water and sewage rates to fund all the needs for these systems.

Municipalities and utilities need to recognize that eventually they will have to replace their infrastruc tures; rates therefore, have to be set accordingly. Those municipalities



For many years in Ontario,Slanton Pipe surveyed and published a report on water rates used in munici palities as a service to the Ontario water industry. In 1987,the Ontario

financial management practices are also, in our experience, the best run and offer the highest level of service.





The Government of Ontario has

recognized the need for better funded systems that have user rates

...a large percentage Is willing to pay substantially more for environmental services.

task and established a computerbased survey of water rates, which it plans to repeat every two years. This, the first real attempt to begin standardizing water rate informa tion, is an important service offered by the AWWA. The survey data are sorted into five groups by number of customers, then organized into ten specific categories as follows: 1. General information

2. Metering Practices 3. Billing Practices 4. Residential Schedules 5. Commercial Schedules 6. Industrial Schedules

7. Typical Monthly Bills 8. Fire Protection

9. Miscellaneous Charges — Sewer Surcharge 10. Water Revenue — Development of Water Rates

This survey does not show per capita water consumption or finan cial data.

On the

wastewater side, the

PCAO carried out a survey of Onta rio municipalities in 1989. This Sur vey of Municipal Sewage Systems in Ontario provides data on operating and capital costs, and of infrastruc ture. Sponsored by the PCAO, MOE, Environment Canada, and the Ontario Sewer and Watermain


Contractors Association, the survey is most useful for establishing a ref

set to recover all costs,including the hidden and often forgotten costs of system replacement. A new public corporation, likely to be named the Ontario Water Supply Corporation, is now being established, and it is proposed that this new institution will own and/or operate water and wastewater systems. Because this corporation will rely solely on rates to recover its costs, it should include in its charge rate a cost for eventual replacement of the system infras tructure. Rates are expected to be double those currently common in Ontario, largely because of more stringent water and effluent quality replacements, and replacement costs, which have hitherto been ignored. Relying on general taxes for some of its operating costs is not an option for this corporation. This new and realistic approach to fund ing costs fully through rates alone should encourage municipalities to follow suit.

Interesting times are ahead. If pursued vigorously, this approach will





sufficiency of our water and wastewater systems, while placing the cost equitably on those using these commodities. It should also result in

conserving water. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga, Ontario Canada L5J 2M4 MSU 3R MOON JB90

For more information, Circle reply card No. 108


R&D News

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Researcti & Control

Petroclnemical Wastewater

tewater produced a reasonably good


treatment with 52to 67% TOC reduc

Wastewater from tlie refining of used oil was tested in laboratory scale anaerobic packed bed reactors for TOC removal, gas production, and control of volatile organic emis

tion, over 75% removal of acetone and total phenolics, and vigorous

methane production. Treatment of Petroleum Refinery

rent treatment technology achieves a significant reduction in toxic con taminants and other pollutants gen erated in the petroleum refining process with the principal reduction occurring in the activated sludge system. The removal mechanisms considered in activated sludge are biological degradation, nitrifica tion, stripping of VOCs, biosorption, bioaccumulation of heavy metals, and heavy metal precipita tion. A number of potential prob

sions. The raw wastewater had a


TOC of 3,250 to 5,800 mg/L of which 40 to 45% consisted of total phenolics, acetone, methanol,ethanol, and volatile fatty acids. As described by University of Waterloo scientists W. Parker and G.J. Farquhar in the

Current practice and experience in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater, with emphasis on the fate of toxic contaminants,has been reviewed in a paper by McMaster University scientist P.L. Bold pub

lems associated

Water Pollution Research Journal


sludge treatment are discussed.

of Canada, a 1:2 dilution of the was

Research Journal of Canada. Cur-





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Organic Extraction from Water Inexpensive and easy to automate instrumentation and procedures for rapid isolation of environmental pollutants from water are described by J.B. Pawliszyn and N. Alexandrou





Research Journal of Canada. The organic contaminants are adsorbed onto a solid sorbent,dried,subjected to supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, and finally ana lyzed using a capillary gas chromatograph. The whole isolation process, which is controlled by a sin gle ten-port valve, was about one hour per sample. These University

And in case you think you're getting the whole picture with your present '

of Waterloo scientists evaluated the

testing . . r

technique using water spiked with a mixture of polychlorinated ben

AiK-i: ■


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so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is not missing. It's really quite simple: our computer checks the ion balance. When the cations and anions (-t- and ^)are not equal, either an analytical error exists which we'll correct before it leaves the lab, or something is in your sample whichjias not been tested for; in either case the theoretical conductivity pinpoints the solution. So if you didn't know what you were missing before . . .

zenes and obtained full recoveries of

the analytes. Tillage Control of Sediment Loading A study by University of Guelph scientists compares the costs and benefits of conservation tillage as a means ofreducing sediment loading in the Thames River watershed in southern Ontario. G. Fox and E. Dickson found that conservation til

lage systems reduced the wealth of farmers in that the present value of net returns to land under conserva

tion tillage were always found to be less than those using conventional tillage systems based on fall moldboard ploughing. As concluded in the Water Pollution Research Jour

nal of Canada, the costs to farmers were more than offset by the reduc tion of off-farm damages from sedi

NOW YOU DO. At MANN AQUA, you don't have to worry about ion imbalances...our expert system doesn't allow them. And remember, if your pluses and minus don't add up, we won't say "We told you so" - we'll tell you WHY!


Water Chemistry of Nova Scotia Rivers

#6-400 Matheson Boulevard East, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N8

In a joint Environment Canada — Dalhousie University research pro ject, J. Kerekes and B. Freedman examined the seasonal patterns of

Phone (416)890-9272, Fax (416)890-3023

flow and concentrations of chemi-



Changing the way professionals, like you, see their results.

Readers requesting further information, are encouraged to contact Dr. Eisenhauer. See P.42


For more information, Circle reply card No. 109

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

R&D News cals for five streams or rivers in

Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia. In general, most dissolved substances are present in a rela tively large concentration during the high-flow period of winterspring(most notably colour, Mg, H, Ca,Na,organic anions,and SO4).In contrast, Gran alkalinity generally occurs in its highest concentration during the low-flow period. These observations, detailed in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, suggest that, during the high-flow period, sub stances are "flushed" from the ter restrial watersheds of these rivers and streams.

acids and applied it to the coloured Moose Pit Brook and Mersey River in Nova Scotia.

As described in

Water, Air and Soil Pollution, com parison with 1983-1985 data con firmed the capability of the model to explain the different levels of organic and inorganic acidity exhi bited in these two rivers. Based on

the charge balance approach and a triprotic organic acid model, the charge density was found to be about 4 peq organic anions per mg of dissolved organic carbon for these two rivers.


Ecological Modelling of Toxics review by National Water

Research Institute scientist E. Hal-

Mobility of Organic Contaminants

fon analyzes the application of eco

in Groundwater

logical modelling to problems concerning toxic contaminants and

P. Lafrance and colleagues from INRS-Eau have developed a com-

As described


Oil in Water Determinations

Several procedures, instruments and solvents are available for the extraction and measurement of oil in water. When the extraction effi ciencies for different solvents and


Science and Technology,two kinetic

rate equations and an equilibrium Freundlich equation are used to define the possible sorption of two species of the contaminant (free or bound with organic matter)in a soilwater system. Details on the appli cation of the model are presented and its application to chemical transport studies in soil is dis cussed.

different techniques do not differ appreciably, statistical compari sons of differences between the lAWPRC

ecosystem stress, and explains the purpose and methods ofthe systems ecology approach which could be useful to individuals involved in

data gathering activities. Wastewater Treatment Data

Management Environment Canada's Wastewater

Technology Centre scientist D.T. Chapman and an American col league have provided an overview of the main issues which must be

addressed in managing and analyz ing data from wastewater treatment facilities. In a paper published in




different solvents with two different

Research Journal of Canada pro vides operational definitions of ecosystem stress, describes methods of the systems approach, and ana lyzes several topics of interest such as the application of expert system methods in the environmental field

and methods of ranking. Niagara Toxic Waste Sites

tor or owner and the regulatory authority. Methods described for analyzing and interpreting raw environmental data employ simple statistical summaries and graphi

cal data displays which can be used by engineers or operators who do not have formal statistical training.

consequences of uncontrolled toxic waste sites along the Niagara River. Three basic options were considered by A. Sadar and T. Muir for dealing with the four largest waste sites along the river: Hyde Park, Love Canal, 102nd Street, and S-Area. Three options were considered: the status quo, containment and remo val and destruction. The costs and

consequences of each option are dis cussed



Water Pollution

leagues modified a watershed acidi

Research Journal of Canada. These are considered from the viewpoint of long and short time horizons as well as consideration of who pays and

fication model to include organic

who benefits.

Modelling Acidity in Rivers National Water Research Institute scientist D.C.L. Lam and his col

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Viraraghavan present a statistical analysis used for comparing three extraction procedures for two differ ent oils (Standard Mineral Oil and Midale Crude Oil), in estimating oil

Inland Waters Directorate scient ists have examined the costs and

point of view ofboth the plant opera

scientists C.N. Mathavan and T.


nal of Canada, the objectives of and analysis are discussed from the

procedures can be made to choose the most acceptable method. In a paper published in Environmental Technology, University of Regina

Water Pollution

the Water Pollution Research Jour

environmental data management

Engineering McMaster University's C.C. Patry and D.T. Chapman of Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre have published a book which is the result of a workshop on Dynamic Modelling and Expert Systems in Wastewater Engineer ing at which a select group of authors and participants were invited to share their experiences. This volume brings together current work on dynamic modelling and expert systems as applied to design, operation, and control of wastewater treatment systems. The three major sections of the book are: dynamic modelling of wastewater treatment systems including receiv ing water body interactions, the application of expert systems to wastewater engineering, and sys tem identification and control.

plexation — adsorption model des cribing the influence of dissolved organic matter on the mobility of hydrophobic compounds in groundwater.

Mathematical Tools in Wastewater

in water concentrations.

Methyimercury in the Wabigoon River System

Ten years after major releases of inorganic mercury from a chloralkalai plant were sharply reduced, methyimercury (MeHg) levels remain markedly elevated in water in most of the Wabigoon River sys tem downstream of Dryden, Onta rio. In a paper published in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ontario Ministry of the Environment scientist J.W.

Parks, A.Lutz of the federal Depart ment of Fisheries and Oceans and

their colleague from the Ontario Ministry of Transportation, J.A. Sutton, provide recent information on this problem. Net production of MeHg appeared to be directly related in the amount of MeHg required to establish and maintain equilibrium conditions with inor ganic mercury. Continued overleaf 41

R&D News Low Temperature Wastewater

collected. As described in the Water

an increase of up to 714 m in the


Pollution Research Journal of Can ada, M. Dickman, Q. Lan, and B. Matthews sampled chironomids

dary and to significant reductions

University of Manitoba researchers D.M. McCartney and J.A. Oleszkiewicz utilized four sequencing batch reactors operating on a 12 hour bio logical phosphorus removal cycle to feed synthetic substrate at various food to microorganism (F-M) loads and temperatures as low as 0.5°C. As




Technology, settleability perfor mance was not affected by decreas ing temperature. However, at low F-M ration, deflocculation and a consequent increase in effluent sol ids was observed. Carbon removal, nitrification, and denitrification were second, zero, and between first and zero — order reactions respec tively. Nitrification was more temperature sensitive than carbon removal and did not exceed 10% below 4°C.

Teratogens in the Niagara River





altitude of the lower stream boun

in area available for brook trout.


watershed and found that the high est frequencies of deformities occurred at heavily polluted sites in

Petroleum Refinery Effluent Regulations

the Welland and Buffalo rivers. It

Public concern over toxic contami

was concluded that the frequency of chironomid labial plate deformities provides researchers with a useful index for evaluating sediments which are potentially contaminated with toxic and/or mutagenic sub

nants in drinking water and the environment in general has put increasing pressure on govern ments to develop and enforce string ent environmental regulations. In a paper published recently in the Water Pollution Research Journal


Climatic Warming Effect on Fish

Using the climatic warming predic tion developed by the Goddard Insti tute for Space Studies, University of Toronto scientist J.D. Meisner esti

mated the increase in groundwater temperature in the native brook trout range as well as the increase in


the altitude of this fish's lower

The objective of a study by Brock University scientists was to deter mine if the frequency of deformities in chironomid labial plates was related to teratogenic pollution in the areas of the Niagara River Watershed from which they were

stream boundary in a "warmer" cli mate. As described in the Canadian

Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, a projected increase of 3.8°C






temperature for the southern part of the native brook trout range leads to

of Canada, McColl-Frontenac Inc. scientist D.L. Putnam provides an overview of developments in Cana dian federal and provincial legisla

tion related to the regulation of petroleum refinery effluent quality. Current knowledge of Canadian pet roleum refinery effluent quality and level of treatment is summarized.

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel: (613) 991-1578.

They are all at stake when you select an environmental laboratory. Whether it's wastewater monitoring for MISA compliance, evaluation of hazardous waste, or a full-scale site investigation you need a lab that you can depend on to provide reliable data, quickly and cost-effectively.

For more than two decades Enviroclean has earned:

a reputation for promptness and reliability as a full-service laboratory serving clients both in! government and industry. That reputation

has been built on a corhmitment to quality. Our quality assurance program is designed to ensure that every piece of analytical data is

scientifically correct and can stand up to scrutiriy, And we back up that commitment with regular participation in interlaboratory quality assurance programs which test our performance against other labs. We don't ciaim to be perfect, but when you choose Enviroclean, you can count on getting our best. Always,

ENVIROCLEAN Environmental Laboratory Services 42

For more information, Circie repiy card No. 110

921 Leathome St.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


Protection of Safe Drinking Water from Point of lyeatment To Point of Use







Requires a Backfiow Prevention Program Contact WATTS REGULATOR OF CANADA LTD. for information on how

your Piant or Municipality can start a complete Backfiow Prevention Program to Control Cross Connections. Attn. Market Manager Backfiow Products.

441 Hanlan Road


Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada L4L 3T1 Telephone (416) 851-8591 Panafax (416) 851-8788


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 116


Treatment technologies

A novel electrolytic process for treating toxic wastewaters

Electrolytic phenomena have

been known for a long time and have found very wide application, including electro-plating, automobile batter ies, hydrogen generation, metals

production, etc., etc.

It has also

found more limited use in organic chemical synthesis where the Kolhe synthesis is perhaps the most well known. In effluent treatment, the application has been almost non existent.

A novel approach to electrolytic effluent treatment, has been found to be extremely versatile and highly cost-effective compared with other effluent treatment processes. The

Examples of the effectiveness of the process include a wide range of

Table 2: COD Results

Raw effluent Treated (Industrially) ESI, 1st. treatment ESI, 2nd. treatment ESI, 3rd. treatment ESI, 4th. treatment

1590 690 280 150 120 80

ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

ous-flow modes,depending upon the specific requirements and/or efflu ent volumes to be treated. The pro cess utilises low power d.c. electrical power supply (typically 0.5-6 amps at voltages of 2-24 volts) at tempera tures ranging from ambient to about 35/37°C. Additionally, reaction times (ie, average effluent-electrode contact times) are in the range of

time to reduce the effluent composi

effectiveness of the invention.

tion to ODWO levels. Most effluents

tion in both batch-wise and continu-

The effect on metals and anions

is shown in Table 1 (ICP scan

process is covered by pending Cana dian patent application (Serial #2,015,879), by PCT application (Serial #CA90/00143) and by U.S. application (Serial #07/517,317). One of the aspects of the process is the patent-pending electrolytic cell of unique configuration. Cur rently,it is believed that this config uration may be contributing to the The process is capable of opera

metals, anions, and a diverse range

of organic compounds including PCBs,dioxins and furans,acids and high molecular weight polymeric compounds.

including sulfate and phosphate). The results are compared with the Effluent Discharge Guidelines and the Ontario Drinking Water OhjecTable 3: PCB Results

Original PCB 1242 1260

Cone. SOppb 50 ppb



Cone. Reduetion 1.0 ppb 98.0 0.1 ppb 99.8

10-40 minutes.

Frequently, the elevated temper ature of industrial effluents is of

benefit with respect to processing time and/or efficiency. No effluent has been encountered that requires more than 90 minutes treatment

require approximately 10-15 min utes electrode exposure time.

tives (ODWO). In all cases, either maintenance or highly desirable reductions have been observed. The

effluent sample used was from a

kraft-mill pulp and paper plant,and even this type of heavily contami nated effluent yielded water of Table 4: Dloxln/Furan Results

2,3,7,8- 2,3,7,8TCDD Raw effluent

Table 1: Elemental (ICP) Results

Industrially treated <0.13 ESI treated


<0.09 <0.03


0.58 <0.03

Note: Detection limit differences refer to text.
















































pounds, the diversity of chemical types present were effectively







treated. Measurement of Chemical



















chemical contamination of water.







This can be composed of a wide range of chemical types including



Level Calcium


Cadmium Chromium Cobalt

Copper Iron Lead

Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Silicon Silver Strontium Thallium Titanium

Vanadium Zinc

Zirconium Sulfate






ESI treated

drinking quality at a highly eco nomical cost.

In the case of organic com

Oxygen Demand(COD)provides an indication of the extent of organic










































Raw effluent







Industrially treated

























'Ontario Objective for the Control of Industrial Waste Discharges. < = less than method detection limit.

Table 5: Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) Results

ESI treated

43,000 ppb 31,000 ppb 970 ppb

both high and low molecular weight compounds. Such a mixture is well represented by pulp and paper efflu ent and a typical comparison of results is shown in Table 2.



Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

By M.E. Neale. IVISc., CChem.. MRSC (UKP group known as Adsorbable Organic Halide(AOX)compounds. Their general toxicity has prompted the Ontario Ministry ofthe Environ ment to legislate lower discharge

Table 6: Resin/Fatty Acids Results Industrially Parameter




ESI Treated





levels for the kraft-mill and other






isopimaric Levopimaric



















Dehydroabietic 1,2 - Chlorodehydroabietic 1,4 - Chlorodehydroabietic Dichlorodehydroabietic

















industries that generate effluents so contaminated,eg. a limit of 2.5 kg of AOX per air-dried ton of bleached pulp by December 1991,and to 1.5 kg by 1993. The process has been found to be highly effective in reducing AOX levels as is shown in Table 5 where a reduction of 97.7% was obtained. Calculations based on the % reduc

< = less than method detection limit.

percentage COD reduction is shown graphically in Figure 1 where the % COD reduction has been plotted against the treatment time; the dot ted line predicts 100% reduction after only six treatments. Chlorinated compounds pose Table 7: DMNA Results

ppb DMNA Before treatment After ESI treatment



10 <0.25


because of their reported toxicity and persistence; this is probably more so in the case ofPCBs and the chlorinated dioxins and furans.

Further, these compounds are diffi cult to destroy by conventional means such as high temperature incineration (typically at tempera tures in excess of 1500°C). The pro cess described in this article has a

built-in safety factor in that in the case of any type of process interup-

tion, caused for example by hydro electric failure, no toxic chemicals are released un-treated. The results shown in Table 3 for

tion indicate that AOX quantities as tantly formed floe, thus implying





Escherichai coli 3.0x10®/ml <1/ml Pseudomonas

COD Reduction % Cummulative COD Reduction

oxin and furan tested,the furan was

reduced by at least 94% (in only 10 minutes); in the case of the dioxin compound (not detected above 0.3 ppt) it is presumed that it would have been similarly affected. It is interesting to note that the method detection limit was reduced by a fac tor of three, due to the much cleaner

extract obtained during the analyti cal test method. It can be postulated that the continued and widespread use of such technology would con tribute greatly to the overall reduc tion of these compounds in the

environment, especially if their pro duction

were reduced over time.


Even higher reduction efficiencies are obtainable by slight modifica





low as 0.09 kg would be discharged per air-dried ton of bleached pulp. Another group of toxic chemicals is that of resin and fatty acids, found in pulp and paper effluent. In

FCBs and chlorinated dioxins

and furans are two examples of chlorinated organic compounds, of which there are many known to be

Table 6 the effectiveness is demon

hazardous to various life forms.

strated by the fact that even the

These are generally tested as a

Continued overleaf

Table 9: Fish

Toxicity Results (Mortality Data)

1) Raw Effluent Elapsed Time (hours)


Cone. %




















Mortality %










































Cone. %








power input increases. The PCBs were not found in the concommi-


2.1x10®/ml <1/ml

PCBs, and in Table 4 for 2,3,7,8tetrachloro-dioxin and 2,3,7,8tetrachlorofuran were obtained at

slightly above room temperature (37°C). For the PCBs, reductions of 98% (for PCB 1242) and 99% (for PCB 1260) were obtained in a short (10 minute) reaction time. Even higher reductions are obtainable with longer reaction times and/or


Reaction Time (mins. x 10)

tions to the process operating parameters, eg. longer reaction time and/or higher power input.

Table 8: Sterilisation Resuits


Figure 1: % Cummulative

their total destruction. In the case of the tetrachlorodi-



2) ESI Treated Elapsed Time (hours)








Mortality %


















































"Consultant, Effluent Strategies Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


Treatment technologies most instructive. The results pres

A novel electrolytic process, conm most stable of them (dehydroabietic acid)is reduced to below the method detection limit, and thus to environ mentally accepted levels.


ented in Table 9 were obtained on a

Two further examples of the pro cess versatility are shown in Tables

sample of kraft-mill effluent and are compared with industrially treated

7 and 8.In Table 7the effect of water

effluent. The results indicate that the ESTtreated effluent is safe for

spiked with dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA)is shown. This highly car cinogenic compound is reduced to below the method detection limit of

0.25 ppb,indicating a reduction effi ciency of at least 97.5%. This was

Electrolytic phenomena have been known for a long time and have found very wide application....


aquatic life without prior dilution. In summary, the patent-pending process appears to be highly effec tive, economical and widely applica ble as an effluent treatment, having

achieved in 10 minutes at room

temperature. In the case of Table 8, the effect of the process on two micro-organisms of concern to pub

« I Wm M

lic health (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) shows

the process to also be an effective steriliser.

Thorburn Penny Limited is proud to announce that David Clancy has recently been appointed to the

In these cases the temperature of the experiments was limited to 40°C (close to the optimal growth temper

Board of Directors.

atures) to eliminate the effect of thermal death. The final colony counts are highly desirable and it is estimated that the process would be equally effective on a wide range of micro-organisms including viruses. Of all the tests that can be per formed to assess the quality of water, fish-toxicity is perhaps the

David has over 10 years expe rience in the field of Water Supply and Wastewater Engineering. His tenure with Region of Halton in the Operations Division makes his contribution in this area invaluable

for the design and commissioning of new facilities.

very desirable effects on both inor ganic and organic compounds. In some variants of the process, an easily separable floe is produced, which results in a final effluent hav

ing a Suspended Solids level of 1 ppm or less. In addition to the effec tiveness of the process in the treat ment of effluents, the fact that large volumes of hydrogen are generated as a by-product, allows for substan tial operating cost reductions because of its high calorific value. Finally, it is important to realise that the various effects of the prop rietary device are obtained simul taneously and not in separate application steps. ES&E For more information, Circle reply card No. 248

Business and the Environment

A Partnership or... a $10 Million Lawsuit? Every business must recognize situations potentially dangerous to the environment and comply with the regulations established to protect our natural resources. When you need help, do you know where to turn? Have you complied with the regulations? Do you need government approval or an environmental assessment? Do you have a problem with contaminated land or with waste transportation and disposal? What are your civil remedies? If you have responsibility for environmental issues in your organization, you should already know the answers, or where to find them.

Blake, Cassels & Graydon has addressed the complex issues of environmental protection for business. industry and municipalities. To discuss how we may help you, contact our office nearest you. Toronto

York Region



Burton Kellock, Q.C.

Gerald Swinkin

Aleck Trawick

Marvin Storrow, Q.C.




(604) 631-3300

Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors/Patent & Trade Mark Agents

Toronto • York Region

• Ottawa • Calgary •


London, England

For more information, 46

Circle reply card No. 117

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Environmental Testing Services


MISA-We Meet THE Standard From the beginning, we at

MISA legislation and Regula

Bondar-Clegg have based our service on the highest stan dards in testing and in meeting

tion 309 in the Province of Ontario.

We do this by using strict quality assurance procedures

We provide: • complete MISA parameter (ATG)capability • priority pollutant analysis

that ensure we meet or exceed

• hazardous waste and

our customers' needs.

all QA/QC and reporting protocols required by MISA (Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement)regulations. Our goal is to help you meet government environ mental standards in the best

way possible. At Bondar-Clegg, we provide extensive environ mental testing services that cover all the Analytical Test Groups(ATGs)required by the

contaminated soil characterization

(Regulation 309) • Dioxin,Furan and FOB



Bondar-Clegg & Company,Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road, Ottawa,Ontario KIJ 8X5

Tel:(613)749-2220 Fax:(613)749-7170 Telex:(613)053-3233

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 118


These four program!

films become men

Let us put one Read how the Ministry of Energy can help industry build competitive muscle — and save the environment!

Today'sfar-sighted indus try leaders are putting

Good examples: the four industry programs highlighted

new emphasis on mafing


their operations more Investing energy-efficient. in Our Environment Why? Because energy One or more of these pro efficiency leads to cost efficiency. It helps Ontario industry become grams can help your company more competitive. And it helps to reduce operating costs. Improve productivity. Strengthen your safeguard our environment. competitiveness, at home and Programs Up and Running abroad. And all of them help to protect our environment, now Making Ontario more energyand for the future. efficient is already a #1 priority For example, one offers grants with the Ministry of Energy. of up to $500,000 to assist in That's why we have nearly 20 developing innovative energy programs in place, to help both technology. Two others help industry and other energy con Ontario companies improve their sumers make better use of our in-plant energy efficiency. And a energy resources.


fourth encourages industry to develop cogeneration systems — that is, on-site production of both heat and electricity in one cost-efficient process. Let's Work as Partners

Call us now to discuss your energy problems and plans, and to determine which of

these programs fits your needs. Then,let's work as partners towards achieving new energy efficiency for your company and for Ontario. It makes good business sense.

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

ire helping Ontario inergy-efflclent.

0 mtk for yon. CAN YOUR COMPANY

make good use of any of these important energy programs? For full details, telephone one of these numbers. In Toronto:


Industrial Energy Services

Offers grants up to $500,000 to assist Ontario companies in developing innovative energy technology — in their own operations orfor their

Helps Ontario industry improve energy efficiency in equipment and processes through a free on-site anak ' grants towardsfeasibility and project


965-5743 Outside Toronto: dial 0 and ask for

Zenith 80420 Industrial Process Equipment Providesfunding assistance to Ontario companies to demonstrate the perfor

mance ofenergy-efficient technologies

Cogeneration Encouragement Helps companies to examine ways of producing their electricity while providing useful heat energy.

in theirfirst applications in Ontario.

Or write to: Programs & Technology Branch Ministry of Energy Mth Floor

56 Wellesley St. West Toronto, Ontario M7A 2B7

Energy Leadership For Economic Strength ntario


Lyn McLeod

f nergy


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more information, Circle reply card No. 119



The Midnight nil


JL JLt Environment Protection Laboratories Inc. we've established

a new level of technological superi

ority by working harder and smarter than other labs. And if we do happen

to he "burning" a sample late one

night, you can he sure we'll know exactly what's in it.

We are fully equipped to deliver all sampling and analytical require ments of government regulatory programs including; • MISA

• Reg. 309 • CERA

• Landfill/Lakefill

• Air/Waste Regs. • Sewer Use by-laws

Our quality and service standards for testing organic and inorganic environmental contaminants are un

challenged in the industry. It's how we are building our reputation as the standard of excellence against

which all other testing services will be compared. Yes, we'll continue to burn the mid

night oil. And that means you won't have to spend any sleepless nights.


EPls Emission Spectrometer uses an argon plasma to analyze trace elements and toxic metals

6850 Goreway Drive. Toronto. Ontario For more information call (416) 673-3255

Product Reviews Liquid sensing system improves sample quality

permiting a variety of user selecta ble functions. For example, sample initiation can be delayed by setting the actual time and date at which it

is desired to begin. Intervals between samples may be fixed, or vary throughout the program around monitoring shifts, etc.

The portable sampler, designed for field use, has a rotationally molded polyethylene case, which complies with NEMA 4X,6 require ments for submersible, watertight, dust-tight, corrosion resistant and ice resistant operation. SIGMA


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 150


Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment•Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality • Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tei.416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

SIGMA has incorporated an innova tive liquid sensing system into its STREAMLINE liquid samplers. It consists of a non-obstructing, noncontaminating fluid sensor and a microprocessor based controller. The system calculates the flow rate through the intake tube with every collection cycle, then adjusts the pump's running time to compensate for any change in lift. This assures a repeatable sample volume and a result more representative of the

Ainley and



Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges • Riood Control Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN


280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street

(705) 445-3451

(705) 726-3371

(613) 966-4243

OTTAWA Box 917, R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (705) 445-0968

Fax (705) 726-4391

Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 822-1573




The new technology enables the sampler to compensate for other fac tors as well. For example, in some peristaltic pump samplers, a drop in battery voltage causing pump


motors to run slower, or variations in motor RPM caused by tempera ture, may affect sample volume. In the new system, the sampler's

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

microprocessor control adjusts the pumping duration to eliminate these variables. This peristaltic pump also meets U.S. EPA criteria for representative intake velocity, producing a 2 ft./sec. velocity at 18 ft. lift, with a 3/8 inch ID intake

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

Waste Management soiutions to the 4 Rs

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering Air, soil, waste and water analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225 Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

tube. Maximum lift is 27 ft.

Software is easy to understand Water Pollution Control

Water Supply

Position Wanted Retired Chemical Engineer

30 years experience in Environmental Consulting seeks short term or part time assignments. Call (416) 270-2282 or write: L.Syd Love, P.Eng., 578 Minette Circle, Mississauga, Ontario L5A 3B8


Water Resources TORONTO (416)497-8600 OTTAWA


Environmental Planning Land Development Tunnels and Shafts Transportation Architecture Municipal Services WELLAND (416)735-3659 OSHAWA (416)434-2544 SUDBUR'T(705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spi l l site investigations and cleanups • underwater vitjeo inspections

• impact assessments • water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

(416)641-0941 51

Product Reviews Environmental and











TELEPHONE:(416) 622-9502. FAX: (416) 622-6249

agricultural contaminant diagnostic kits Bioman line of Envirodiagnostlc and Agridiagnostic kits are all immunoassays and can be used to test for the presence of contami nants in water, soil, plant tissue, food, serum and urine. Quantitative results for hundreds of samples can be achieved in the lab within two


hours. This is an extremely econom ical and efficient means of screen







Waterloo, Ontario S19-579-3500

C hazardous waste services

(FAX) S19-579-89a6

C WATER RESOURCES Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320


(FAX) 416-858-3779

Environmental Consultants

Concord Scientific Corporation Hazard and Risk Control

Analytical Lab Services

Occupational Hygiene Services Pollution Control- System Design Dispersion and Acid

Instrumentation Development Indoor Air Quality Studies Safety and Environmental

Deposition Modeling


Head Office: 2 TIPPEn RO.. TORONTO. ONTARIO f^3H 212 (416)630-6331

Branch Offices: OHAWA•CAKTARY


ing out negative samples prior to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy or high pressure liquid chromatography confirmation. Kits are also available for on-site analy sis, particularly suited for preprocurement testing, quality control sampling and emergency testing. On-site kits yield semi-quantitative and qualitative results in less than ten minutes and can be performed with minimum training. Diagnostic kits are available for a range of pesticides, herbicides, fun

gicides and insecticides including

atrazine, 2,4-D, endrin and benomyl. Kits are also available for mycotoxins and antibiotics such as aflatoxin and sulfamethazine, which are of primary concern to the

agricultural and food processing industries. Bioman Products Inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 151

Codel opacity monitor


■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

■ Environmental Audits

■ Environmental Assessment I VVater Supply I Landfill Gas Control & Utilization

I Municipal Engineering


■ Hydrogeology DUCT

I Wastewater Treatment

I Construction Management

519-884-0510 M|ssjssauoa

Fax 519-884-0525




416-629-0510 Fax

xic con nci = 416-629-0515



The answer to opacity monitoring problems. Codel, the leading manu facturer of smoke and dust monitor

ing equipment presents the Model

200 for the ultimate in Opacity mon itoring. The 200 features: automatic con


environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design






TORONTO (418) 228-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-6094 ♦ HALIFAX (902) 453-1115


tamination, alignment, zero & span check compensation, patented 2way measurement and calibration

procedure, patented high efficiency air purge system, simple cross-duct installation, compact and robust, stable LED source, no moving parts, weather-proof construction. The system is designed to give extended maintenance-free service. Westech For more Information, Circle reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Product Reviews Spills technology on wheels





Services in



Environmental Trailer-mounted Technology on Wheels (TOW) Systems, available from ORB Environmental Equip ment, make it possible to deploy appropriate clean-up equipment to a contaminated site soon after a prob



Gartner Lee


Gore &Storrie Limited

lem has been detected.

The user can elect to buy,lease,or rent these systems, depending on the severity of the problem and the projected level of equipment use. TOW Systems are complete turn key equipment packages which can be wheeled on site, connected to power and brought on-line without delay. They range in size and com plexity from simple soil vent blow ers to sophisticated Catalytic Scavenger™ vapor abatement sys tems and air strippers. ORS For more information, Circle reply card No. 153

Consulting Engineers


255 Consumers Road,North York, Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone(416)499-9000 Fax(416)499-4687 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga




• HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT Adsorbants use recycled materials










Consultants for water and pollution control projects Knox Martin


Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners . Landscape Architects. Fax: (416] 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampfon .Ontario. L6T 445(416)459-4780

Spilkleen industrial absorbants use recycled materials as one of the basic components in a patented manufacturing process. These products are said to be safe to use and no special protective wear is necessary. A complete line is designed to meet the needs ofindus try effectively without harming the environment. Uthane Research For more Information, Circle reply card No. 154

o MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue. Third Floor • Morkham, Ontario, L3R 4B9 • Telephone;(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment



Environmental audits

Oil-in-water monitors now available in Canada Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc. has

acquired exclusive North American representation of the proven Continued overleaf

Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geoiogy Site decommissioning


& rehabilitation

MALROZ Engineering Inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont.K7K 3G4 lei:(613)546-3446

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Fax:(613)548-7975 53

Product Reviews Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 80 Commerce Valley Drive East


Burlington, Mississauga, Wtiitby

Ttiorntiill, Ontario L3T 7N4

{416) 882-1100 Fax:(416)882-0055 ■y




DECKMA line of Oil-In-Water Moni

tors, DECKMA has supplied over 12,000 units to the European market over its 20 year history. The range includes boiler feed and cooling water monitors, bilge monitors, and complete turnkey industrial sys tems, Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc. For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 155

Dewatering system features ceramic filters

Engineering a whole new world,




Contaminant Hydrogeology

(416) 798-0111

Air Quality/ Occupational Health Industrial




(416) 798-0130

Site Decommissioning/Cleanup

Calgary, Alberta

Underground Tank Management Laboratory Services

(403) 298-4170 Fax

(403) 298-4125

Comprehensive Environmental

OR TECH Services I NT



Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media.

2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel. 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446

Air, water and waste.

The Outokumpu Ceramic filter sys tem employs a new tecbnology wbieb significantly reduces instal lation costs, dramatically lowers operating energy costs, increases productivity, and eliminates the routine maintenance associated














ter cloths.

Kitchener, Bracebridge, Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET NORTH




Tell (519) 579-4410

Paxi (519) 741-3603

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Hamilton


St. John's. Nfld.



Sault Sie. Marie



North Bay


Thunder Ba>


45 Green Beit Drive. Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600


ture content, and a filtrate so clear

that is used for backwashing opera tions and often may he discharged directly to the environment without further treatment.

Outokumpu Equipment Canada Ltd.

Poly-Life wear parts made of polyurethane instead of traditional rubber lining on the oil house bot tom, diffuser, and suction cover, can

increase submersible pump perfor mance dramatically, causing less downtime, spare parts and service. Flygt dewatering pumps availa

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution


tained in a slurry, producing a filter cake with an extremely low mois

Submersible pumps feature polyurethane wear parts

Proctor & redfern limited

^t. Catharines

High productivity Ceramic units separate the liquid and solids con

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 156

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief


with filter cloth replacement. The system employs patented long-life ceramic filter plates featur ing microporous ceramic surfaces and specially constructed lowdensity cores. Filtering action is provided entirely by these plates without requiring the traditional fil

Fax: (416) 445-5276

ble in range of 2 to 10 inches and from 1.5 to 140 horsepower are now equipped with Poly-Life, Tests indi

cate that these pumps will last up to five times longer, and work through

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

Product Reviews a wide range of tough applications, even when exposed to abrasive par



Poly-Life parts are also available in separate kits for each pump model. This is an excellent way of increasing pump life. Flygt Canada For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 157

Portable lab tests for 21

water quality parameters


The DREL/2000 Portable Water

Conditioning Laboratory, a new water quality monitoring system from Hach,enables plant managers and technicians to perform compre hensive water analyses and ascer tain overall water quality. The heart of this customized sys tem is the microprocessor-controlled DR/2000 Spectrophotometer, a por table instrument preprogrammed to measure more than 120 important


SImcoe Engineering Group Limited Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building. 345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1

Tel; (416) 2S6-2285

Fax: (416) 286-1361

Branches: Mississauga and Buffalo

Continued overleaf



Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SEPARATION SPECIALISTS

Tel:(416) 875-2144 Fax:(416) 875-2145

351 Main Street East


Milton, Ontario

T.F: 1-800-263-4178






Head Office: 51 Towniine, Orangevlile, Ontario L9W 1V1 • 519-941-0330 ORANGEVILLE







Complete Digester and

UMA Engineering Ltd.

Lagoon Cleaning


Land Application Systems Program Development Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyviiie Rd. W., Jerseyvilie, Ontario LOR 1R0




XCG Consultants Ltd.


Kitcfiener, Ontario

66 Brant SlraeL Hamilton. Ont. LBL 6AB

Tel: (416) 523-1850 Fax: 523-6270

Fax 519/741-5627 N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD.


Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

MASc, PEng Prindpal

MEng.PEng Prindpal


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


Product Reviews Laboratories "Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

BARRINGER LABORATORIES • environmental and discharge analyses

• Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • Phytotoxicology and Water Quality • fire assay and field sampling services Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, CO Kirkland Lake, ON

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel:(416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

TImmins, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON Montreal, PQ

CanTest Ltd



Analytical Services

:| ^ ,M I Environmental Analysis V>





Suite 200


1523 West 3rd Ave

jjil jl

Vancouver, BC

• Organic/Inorganic Chamistry|■ Hazardous Waste Characterijiation


■ Occupational Health & Safety ('■ Canadian Drinking Water Criteria i JV--' U ■GC/MS.GD/ECD,HPLC.IC.ICP.Jl

554 734 7775

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Energy & the environment

Cement kilns and energy from waste

St.Lawrence Cementis deve

loping a project to replace up to 20% of the coal used to fire its large cement kilns with Refuse Derived Fuel(RDF). This would then significantly

reduce the quantity of waste dis posed of at the local landfill sites, while at the same time reducing the coal required in the cement making process. The burning ofthis fuel in a cement kiln offers some particularly unique environmental advantages. Because this processing of waste produces a useful product, while at the same time reducing the con sumption of a natural resource, this process is regarded as a recycling project. It was St. Lawrence Cement's

goal from the outset of this project four years ago that the local com munity be completely involved. We are now at the stage where we will be submitting our Draft Environmen tal Assessment Document to the Environmental Assessment Branch.

that it had the best process to co operate with the regions in this

By Charles Coles*

endeavour and it is for that reason

refers to fuel that is produced when post recycled solid, non-hazardous waste is processed. A Resource Rec overy Plant separates the burnable portion of the waste as RDF,as well as separating metal, compost and the rejected material to be returned to the landfill site.

St. Lawrence Cement began to study the possibilities of utilizing RDF in our kilns due to two main

reasons — energy conservation and

waste reduction. Energy conserva tion is a factor because cement

manufacturers are large fuel consu

mers. The cement manufacturing process ranks behind only steel and chemicals as the largest fuel con suming process. In fact, fuel costs comprise approximately 1/3 of our total manufacturing costs. Waste reduction





because both the Regions of Peel and Halton had identified Energy from Waste in some form as a neces

The Cement Manufacturing Process

The term Refuse Derived Fuel,

sary component to solving the regions' solid waste management problems. St. Lawrence Cement felt

that our plant has been identified in the Peel Waste Master plan. The cement making process offers a number of particularly uni que advantages for the burning of RDF;

• The flame temperatures are

exceedingly high 1700-2100 deg. C, resulting in the destruction of harm ful compounds. There is also the safeguard that these temperatures must be maintained to produce a quality product. • The retention time at these high temperatures is extremely long 7-12 seconds compared to an incinerator where the retention time is one second maximum.

• There is no ash to dispose of because it becomes part of the product. •The limestone feed to the kiln pro vides a scrubbing action for the exhaust gases.

Environmental Aspects The first step in the study was to make




analysis of the process in order to fully evaluate the environmental impact of substituting RDF for coal in the cement manufacturing pro cess. This study was conducted by the Ontario Research Foundation.

The initial study was conducted for only Kiln 3, a large precalciner kiln. A new report has recently been issued covering all 3 kilns at the Mississauga plant. The study was conducted in the following manner. Based on infor mation provided by St. Lawrence Cement





number of other sources, a material balance was prepared for current kiln operations when coal alone is used as the fuel. Then,similar mate rial balances were prepared to reflect the use of RDF in the three

different combinations to partially replace coal. A comparison ofthe material bal ances showed that neither the flow-

rates nor the composition of the major gaseous components in the




stack gases will change signifi cantly with RDF usage. As a result, the dispersion characteristics of the Kiln Stack gases will not change significantly with the RDF pro



gram, provided that there are no other operating changes. Charles Coles, General Manager, St. Lawrence Cement In front of the Com pany's 4,000 tonne per day precalciner kiln In MIsslssauga, Ont. 60

*St. Lawrence Cement Inc.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, November 1990

Energy & the environment which predicts maximum 1-hour concentrations of components from a stack situated near a body of water. This model was used to pre

Projected emission rates of Kiln

Stack components, other than the major gaseous components, when the RDF program is implemented were obtained by a review of infor

dict the effect of such a lake breeze on the St. Lawrence Kiln Stack.

mation from the following sources: •actual emission tests carried out at

Kiln #1, Kiln #3 and the Coal Mill during normal plant operations

Long-term concentrations (annual) were predicted with the use of the United States Environmental Pro

when coal alone is used as the fuel.

• analyses of raw meal, waste iron oxide, coal and RDF samples typical of the material presently used in the kilns or expected to be used in the kilns.

tection Agency(USEPA)Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISCLT) model, in an attempt to determine long-term effects of the emissions from the facility. Predicted

•literature survey of coal, RDF and municipal solid waste combustion. The following emission compo nent groups were included in the environmental assessment:

• particulate material • acid gases • metals

•inorganic elements • polychlorinated organics •polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. From an environmental perspec tive, these are the components which are generally considered to be the most important in flue gases dis charged from coal and RDF



compared with levels defined in Regulation 308, Regulation 296, the MOE tentative standards, guide lines and provisional guidelines, and the MOE proposed air quality standards. Under existing air qual ity standards and guidelines, the predicted concentrations attributa

of allowable levels. Concentrations

are not expected to exceed 16% ofthe MOE's proposed standards, with most contaminants less than 0.1% of these standards. Conclusions The utilization of Refuse Derived

Fuel to replace up to 20% of the coal utilized in the manufacture of cement at St. Lawrence Cement's

Mississauga plant is viable. This RDF fuel can be produced from the processing of post source separated

Non-Hazardous Municipal Solid Waste. This project will signifi cantly reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled in the Regions of Peel and Halton while at the same

time reducing the coal requirements of the St. Lawrence Cement plant. The study results indicate that the cement kiln is an environmentally superior process in which to utilize

ble to the St. Lawrence Kiln Stack

waste fuels. The involvement of the

are not expected to exceed 9% of any

local community is critical to the successful development of a project

allowable level, with most contami nants expected to be less than 0.1%

such as this. ES&E

Asbestos Management In Buildings

combustion. Emission rates from the Kiln

A two-day Technical Workshop

Stack for the components asso

Organized by the institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Toronto.

ciated with the current use ofcoal as

a fuel, the planned use of coal as a fuel, and three RDF options were

Tuesday, November 27, 1990

combined with the results of various

Reguiations - Surveys - Corrective Measures - Repair - Removal - Encapsulation/Enclosure - Operation and Maintenance

dispersion models to derive pre dicted ground level component con centrations. Half-hour "point-ofimpingement" concentrations were derived using the prescribed calcu lations in Regulation 308 of the

- Training Manuals - Surveillance Wednesday, November 28, 1990 Selection of Professionals - Contract Documents - Field Activities, air monitoring - Personal Protection - Case Histories

Ontario Environmental Protection Act.


Models proposed by the MOE to replace the existing models in Regu

Location: Hart House, Record Room B, 7 Hart House Circie, University of Toronto

lation 308 were used to calculate maximum 1-hour concentrations.

The set of models proposed by the MOE include a lake-breeze model.

To register, phone: (416) 978-6202/7078, fax:(416) 978-3884 or write to Dr. P.H. Jones, institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Cntario, M5S 1A4.

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Detention storage In


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overtopping from a major storm event, without causing flooding to upstream properties. In such cases, it is important to provide erosion protection where flow velocities could become significant. It is also possible to install one or more addi tional culverts at varying elevations to further regulate the flow or to pre vent overtopping, where it can not

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In summary, detention can pro duce the following benefits: • reduced problems;

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Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

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Division of

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• supplemental water supply to aquifers. However, the experience gained has shown that detention ponds do not always attain the benefits expected. Frequently they have been implemented based simply on reducing peak runoffs from individ ual development sites. A typical criteria may read "Runoff from a site after development shall not exceed runoff from the same site

prior to development". Such vague wording has been common in the past, with no clarification whether it is peak runoff rates or total runoff volume or both that is intended to he

addressed. In many areas this has resulted in almost every develop ment site containing detention

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MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

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cial or cost-effective. ES&E 62

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

We do Environmental Analysis to help you control pollution W

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MISA Governments are taking an active role in recognizing and controlling hazardous chemicals in the environment. In Ontario, regulations are being prepared under MISA, (Municipal-Indus trial Strategy for Abatement), to strictly control toxic contaminants in water, MISA will affect both the industrial and the municipal sectors and will set the standards for other jurisdictions to follow. We at Mann Testing have established comprehensive screening methods to accurately identify and measure contami nants in water, air and soil samples. Recently, we have developed

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Monitor Our experienced chemists can monitor hazardous chemicals in the following areas: • water; waste treatment effluents, drinking water, ground water

• monitoring airborne chemicals from landfills and industrial sites

• detection of ultra-trace organics and metals in drinking water • analysis for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) • analysis of soil, water and oils for polychlorinated biphenyls (PGB's) • analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) • analysis of specific compounds • toxic metals

• organic acids • general water quality parameters


• soil; sediment and waste chemical sludges

All analysis of highly toxic materials is performed in our High Hazard Laboratory which is specifically designed to protect both the environment and personnel. This responsibie approach is a reflection of our commitment to the preservation of the

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When you require environmental analysis or want more infor mation on our services, please call or write us.

The level of service provided assures the accurate measurement of chemicals by using state-of-the-art instrumentation and an extensive Quality Assurance/Quality Control Program. The result is a cost efficient service to our clients.

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For more Information, Circle reply card No. 138


Waste management strategies

A framework for waste management

Thefocus ofthis paper stems from my having served on the Ottawa-Carleton Waste

Plan Task Force during its full life history from 1984 to the time of its demise,in failure,in mid 1989. The task force comprised Regional Councillors, citizens and govern ment officials and was supposedly responsible for the direction and management of the waste plan pro ject. The goal of the task force was to develop a 25-year master plan on how best to manage municipal gar bage or solid wastes. I served on the task force as a citizen representa tive.

There are many ways to begin the development of a plan for solid waste management. Unless a study has an appropriate starting point and proceeds in a logical way, it is highly unlikely that the study will lead one to an appropriate conclu sion. This is probably one of the fundamental errors of the OttawaCarleton Waste Plan. It had the

wrong starting point. As well, the various options were not investi gated in a logical or sequential manner.

Methods are available today to systematically evaluate the benefits and disbenefits to society of various waste management strategies. Although some social benefits or damage are almost impossible to compute, they can still he qualita tively evaluated. It is important in such an evaluation to both quantify to the maximum degree possible and to include in a qualitative way those

aspects that can't be quantified. By exposing the total benefits and dis benefits of a project with all its warts and blemishes, citizens can compare the trade-offs that are being considered. A truly political decision can then be made in the

final choice of strategy. This generalized situation of not

fully evaluating projects exists for a number of reasons. One reason is

that municipalities generally have not been responsible for total fund ing of municipal projects from cra

dle to the grave. Municipalities have commonly depended on Pro vincial or Federal funding assist ance in the past. It is now becoming increasingly common that munici

palities will have total funding responsibility for their projects, with no provincial or federal assist ance. Because of this, it is increas ingly in the interest of all citizens that all societial costs of municipal projects he internalized. For exam ple, no longer should we allow pro jects that contaminate our land, air or water without being fully aware of the implications and doing all we can to eliminate or minimize such

impacts. Hence, the environmental impact statement.

riate materials in the waste stream. The residual material can then he considered for incineration or land

fill or both. To date, most innova tive effort, resources and education

have been devoted to recycling and minimal effort to reduction, reuse and recovery. Very few innovative departures from the traditional landfill operations have been car ried out as a component of achieving the most cost-effective and environ

mentally responsible method of waste management. Composition of the Waste Stream

Although there are numerous composite figures of what the Cana dian or U.S. waste stream consists

of, very few municipalities know the details of their own waste streams.

Many give the impression they know, but few actually do, because few have gone to the trouble and expense of conducting a waste stream audit; i.e., actually determin ing the various amounts of the dif ferent categories of waste coming into their landfill over a specified period of time. There are two methods that are generally used to determine the make-up of a waste stream.

One method involves a

hands on type of exercise of sam

There appears to be considerable agreement that solid waste manage ment needs to be approached in a sequential or hierarchial manner. One needs to know the composition

pling, sorting and weighing the actual waste in a statistically defen-

of the waste stream. This is followed

Canada was carried out by Bird and Hall in 1976 using sampling, sorting and weighing, and in the United

by examination of ways to reduce, reuse, recycle and compost approp

cible manner. The second method

uses a materials flow approach. The most recent waste stream audit for


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Polyethylene Tanks

Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

ANNOUNCEMENT The Board of Directors of Marshall Macklln Monaghan Limited Is pleased to announce the following appointments In the company's Environmental Division.

Klaus Schonfeld, P.Eng.

Lamoire Alexander, P.Eng.

Mr. K.K. Schonfeld, BASc., has been

Mr. L.J.D. Alexander, M.Sc., has


promoted to the position ot Manager, Environmental Engineering Depart

recently joined Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited as a senior

recently rejoined Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited as Project Man ager, Water Resources, after five years with the Ontario Ministry ot the

ot the


Doug Andrews, P.Eng.

ment. Mr. Schonteid has more than


25 years ot water supply and wastewater project experience. Past assignments have ranged from major water supply and sewerage systems

Department. Mr. Alexanderhas more than ten years' experience as a con sulting engineer and has carried out numerous engineering assignments


in Eastern and Western Canada, to

both in Canada and abroad. Mr. Alex

regional water and sanitary systems overseas. Mr. Schonteid rejoined Marshall Macklin Monaghan in 1989 from a position as Senior Engineer with Metropolitan Toronto, responsi ble tor the functional and process optimization ot Metro's water treat ment plants.

ander will expand the capabilities ot the Water Resources Department to include specialized hydrotechnical services such as numerical and phys ical hydraulic modelling, fluid tran sient analysis, sediment transport, river engineering, coastal engineer ing and dispersion analysis. Mr. Alexander will lead the activities ot the firm in these areas.





Environment. Mr. Andrews has more

than ten years experience in the water resources field, concentrating on water quality. He has completed numerous water quality projects, ranging from facility design to com prehensive river basin plans. Mr. Andrews was until recently the Coor dinator ot the Metro Toronto Reme

dial Action Plan (RAP), a comprehensive planning process designed to determine the methods, resources and timetables tor restor

ing Toronto area aquatic resources.

Marshall Macklin Monaghan's Environmental Division Is a leading pro vider of quality services In the planning, design and Implementation of water supply, sewage disposal and solid waste management systems. The division also provides engineering and planning services In the field of water resource management and In the management of solid, liquid and hazardous waste.

Marshall Macklin


80 Commerce Valley Drive East, Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4 Tel: (416) 882-1100, Fax: (416) 882-0055


Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140


Waste management strategies

By Danford G. Kelley. PhD.. P.Eng.

A framework for waste management, cont'd. States by the Franklin Association in 1986 using a materials flow approach. When a municipality knows the details of its waste stream and has

projections of its future waste stream,the data base is then availa ble to model what is possible to

reduce, reuse or recycle (including composting) and at what cost. By determining the costs associated with



and the

benefits that can accrue, one can arrive at informed choices on what and how much of the waste stream

can be optimally reduced and recy cled. While I don't know the basis of

Ontario's choice of diverting 50 per cent (as will be required by law by the year 2000), the cost effectiveness of whether the 50 percent effort or some other percentage is more appropriate could be clearly demon strated. It may be possible, for example, in some jurisdictions to recycle 70-75 percent of the waste stream. In any event the idea is to

Recycling and Composting At present, there also appears to be a consensus that jurisdictions responsible for waste management must consider recycling in address ing municipal waste management issues. In fact, many jurisdictions in Ontario from Metro Toronto to

small towns such as Paris, are

actively involved in promoting and carrying out of various recycling activities. Unfortunately, it seems that of those municipalities involved in recycling, none are eva luating recycling as part of the total waste system. Recycling is being implemented, or imposed into the system, in an ad hoc fashion, without adequate financial and economic analyses or without a realistic evalua tion of what is possible or realistic as a target for recycling.

Although all benefits cannot be quantified, they can at least be enu merated and this is important if citi zens are to have a realistic perspec-

have the information available on

which to make a political decision on the nature and the amount of the

waste stream that is to be reduced, reused or recycled and by what means.

Such a determination is

surely fundamental to developing a cost-effective waste plan strategy.

Although incineration is generaiiy a more costly means of disposing... it is in the long run perhaps the safest...

Reduction and Reuse

It is in the area of waste reduction that much more needs to be done.

Strange economics are being pro moted and society is being sold on recycling based on excellent market ing by packagers of both liquid and solids. For example, recycling of aluminum drink cans is being pro moted, even though a better arran gement would be what we previously had of reusable glass containers. Reusable glass contain ers are better from both an economic

and environmental perspective. Reuse of material and reducing waste

tive of a municipal problem in its entirety as well as its solution. Composting is well established in Europe and is becoming an integral part of waste management in North America. It deserves more effort, resources and education to gain recognition as an important compo nent of a waste management plan. Again, it needs to be addressed in cooperation with analyses of its costs and benefits, both qualitative and quantitative.

are generally better solutions than


recycling. Hopefully, the task force on packaging under the aegis of the

Incineration may also have a part to play in a solid waste strategy but not primarily for energy recov ery. Its purpose is mainly to

Canadian Council of Environment

Ministers will come to grips with this problem, at least in part. At present. Municipalities are highly limited in what they can do with respect to reduction of the waste stream. They have very little jurisdiction of the upstream man agement of resources and materials which is fundamental to waste prev ention. It is for this reason that pro vincial and federal governments have a major role to play in waste reduction and reuse. A municipality has to deal with the waste that

exists within its jurisdiction. 66

decrease the volume of waste that needs to be directed to a landfill if it

cannot be reduced, composted, recycled, or reused. Althoughinciner ation is generally a more costly means of disposing of waste than a landfill, it is in the long run perhaps the safest from the perspective of impact on health and the environ ment, when it is carried out in a weU managed state-of-the-art incinera tor. The strong emotional language of many environmentalists has, how ever, frightened many people from

rational consideration of incineration, at least for municipal waste. Some success is being achieved in getting acceptance of incineration for hazardous waste. Landfill

The need for landfill will always be with us. However, the decisions over a landfill will surely be less acri monious if the municipality has car ried out studies in sufficient detail to demonstrate the costs and benefits

of various scenarios of reduction, reuse and recycling and has optim ized those elements. If incineration

is a choice for disposal of a portion of the waste, a landfill will still be

required for disposal ofthe incinera tor ash. In any event, the size of the incinerator and/or landfill will be

considerably less, following appli cation of the hierarchy, than in using incineration or landfill for the total waste stream.

From a global perspective, it is worth noting that Canadians are reported to have generated 16 mil lion tonnes per year of municipal solid waste in 1986 or 1.8 kg/capita /day, probably the highest of any nation in the world.

By following the above frame work, a municipality will have the information required to develop a rational and defencible waste man

agement plan. The citizens will also have the data and information on which the decisions on the trade-offs

were made in developing the plan. The cost of developing such a plan should be considerably less than what Ottawa-Carleton expended in its failed plan and be defencible before an Environmental Assess ment Board. ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, November 1990


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