Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) August-September 1990

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

August/September 1990

Investigating beneath the earth for hazardous waste impacts Municipaiities and dischargers face more stringent controis Idiotics Anonymous — a companion body for AA Infrastructure, preservation and rehabilitation Vitai steps in practicai waste management Assessing alternatives to CFCs


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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990



Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY Associate Editor SANDRA DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY


Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Production Manager SAM ISGRD B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTDN Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.

August/September 1990, Vol. 3 No. 4 Issued September, 1990


Idiotics Anonymous — a companion body for AA Comment by Tom Davey Municipalities and dischargers face more stringent controls Article by Karen A. Sisson


Investigating beneath the earth for hazardous waste Impacts Article by J.F. Gartner


R. Bruce Smith

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-mcnthly business publicaticn published by Davccm Ccmmunlcaticns Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribution, air

pollution monitoring and control, solid and

Unique Instrumentation and control at sewage pumping station


Article by Lynn Morgan and Graham Smith Water main materials — infrastructure and rehabilitation

Article by James Leppard


Conference Photo Reports on BCWWA,PCAO and AWWA/OMWA meetings


User pay approach needed In water use — a CWWA viewpoint


hazardous waste treatment and

disposal and occupational health and safety. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal

Computer controlled Instrumentation In fine bubble aeration


Article by Vera Polyakova


Operation and Maintenance of Toronto's valves and hydrants Article by D.S. Crichton and P. Fortuna


Assessing alternatives to CFCs — the UK experience Article by Arthur Fryatt


Vital steps In practical waste management By Steven J.B. Carter and Fernand Hamelin





wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufactur ers, representatives and distributors and academics.


welcomes editorial contribu

tions from research



institutions, environmental

associations, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), orotherfacsimilies of the written or graphic material for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Oanada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environmental Science &

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief pas sages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada

$45.00 for one year, $80.00 for two years, $8.00 per single issue; cheques must accompany subscription orders.

Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00 sin gle issue. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

53 54

Preview of the Second Environment Show

Innovative designs speed up Edmonton sewer rehabilitation Infrastructure, preservation and rehabilitation — a penetrating view Article by Mike Mansfield


Environmental assessment In the Yukon


Article by J.F. Gartner Departments

Industry Update Literature Reviews

R&D News

6-15 73

Product Review Ad Index


61-74 74

Cover Ptioto: Scientists from the institute of Freshwater Ecol

ogy are comparing water colour images obtained from an airborne scanner in England's world-renowned Lake District. The poet William Wordworth lived there, often visited by his

friend Sir Humphry Davy, who invented both cathodic protec tion and a miner's safety lamp which did not explode in the presence of methane. Story on page 26.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

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Editorial Comment by Tom Davey-

At last a companion body for A.A. — Idlotlcs' Anonymous science, help arrived in the form of

I consulted with a staff member

a protest action. Somewhat incredu lously, I learned that at least one

of I.A. who confirmed that a hunger strike had taken place for the rea son's given. Being curious, I enquired why the traditional I.A. response of mutual support had not been triggered when it was apparent that a bona fide idiotic reaction was taking place. Somewhat defensively the I.A. woman replied that the victim's friends were actually at an engineer ing party, leaving the hapless stu

person bad gone on a hunger strike to protest the fact that Inco had actually given $1 million to Queen's university. Apparently the pristine Ivory Towers of academe should remain unsullied by any vestige of Inco's generosity; or as one article put it: Adding a coat of whitewash to the ivory tower. This line of thought was once pursued by the French aristocracy who also shrank from dirtying their white iace cuffs with trade, thinking it much more nobie to live off the sweat

In a recent column I postulated

of hapless peasants. The peasants later settled the issue rather abruptly with the Guillotine.

Inco actually gave out a total of

that a new bacterium — imbecil-

$6 million to several universities

us bacillus — could be respon sible for certain idiotic govern

last year, an act of corporate gener osity which starkly contrasts with shrinking federal and provincial funding. In fact Canadian R&D more properly resembles Ethiopian

ment policies. I bad speculated that hitherto




penetrated the air conditioning ducts, much like Legionnaires Dis ease'. This caused otherwise sane

people to propound imbecilic poli cies, often annunciated with great piety, as if reciting Hamlet's solilo quies. But some sceptical scientists

demanded that I test my theories — perhaps on live mice, under strictly controlled conditions — then subject my findings to peer review, before my theory could be considered plau sible.

While I could not afford mice, I felt it might be possible to find some live rats amid the labyrinths of our legislative buildings. Unfortu nately, the various shades of pinks, reds and blues I encountered made

controlled experimentation impossi ble.

But I noted in passing that the Big Blue species in Ontario, driven virtually to extinction after forty years of political inbreeding, were actually beginning to reproduce once more. The Reds — invigorated after immersion in

Meecb Lake

waters — were thriving as never before; but some of the Pinks were beginning to look washed out. So I was still left with a splendid theory of imbecilus bacillus but no empirical studies to vindicate it. Clearly a human experience was needed to further research my the ory.

Then, as so often happens in

famine relief rather than that of a

highly industrialized country. But a student newspaper article

dent alone when the bacillus struck.

This unlikely excuse deflected me from scientific neutrality and pro voked my anger. Here was a woman trying to convince me that partying, drinking even, was actually taking place by students during Reading Week! Clearly she had no shame. But she persisted, insisting that the occasional party did take place. She even went so far as to say some students actually went to Daytona Beach, Florida during Reading Week — this as a further excuse for I.A. inaction when the attack occurred.

I pointed out some facts which might have warded off even the

condemned Inco for its industrial activities in East Timor where it

most virulent attack of bacillus.

alleged genocidal actions were going on by the Indonesian Govern

Nickel, for example, plays a signifi cant role in pollution abatement

ment. At the time ofthe action,a poll

research and treatment. nickel is also vital to

revealed that one in three Ontarians could noteven name David Peterson

as the Premier of Ontario, so I doubted if many students could find East Timor on the map without spe cial tutoring. Clearly this was unlikely to become a mass protest. The students should have been

aware that the money will almost certainly help their less wealthy col leagues. They might also note that hunger is an endemic condition — not a weapon of protest — in many parts of the world which lack our industrial base.

But this protest gave me a chance to observe my theory under con

Refined medical

research, aviation, mass transit, public hygiene and even day-care centres.

On the environment scene, Inco has developed a new oxygen flash furnace which, by using sulphur in the ore body as a fuel, has dramati cally reduced the ecological impact over earlier smelting processes. Indeed this is a world-class environ

mental breakthrough and a symbio sis of commercial and academic R&D.

Gradually, I could see from the look in her eyes that I had made some headway with the I.A. official.

almanac and my hunch was right — there was indeed a chapter of Idlotlcs' Anonymous(LA.) In Ontario.

After some deliberations she rep lied: "I'll put these facts before the student body. Perhaps, just this once, mind you, they will do Inco a

I discovered that I.A. modelled on

favour and take the million bucks. But

Alcoholics Anonymous, is a selfhelp group for highly intelligent, well-motivated people. Their noble, often generous qualities, sometimes result in a symbiotic effect, render ing them vulnerable to the bacillus, resulting in irrational or idiotic

next time don't be so open. Use a laundering technique. Get them to send the money through a food bank

trolled conditions.


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

I consulted an

or something. Remember this is Can

ada for God's sake — don't use any thing that's successful." 1 No Free Lunches in NDP's Free Fridges — October 1989.

Industry Update= Ontario's big four meet acid rain limits Ontario's four major acid rain pro ducers — Inco Ltd., Ontario Hydro, Falconbrldge Ltd., and Algoma Steel Corporation — mettheir Countdown Acid Rain ^mission limits in 1989, according to a report released by Environment Ontario.

According to the report, Inco,the single largest source of acid gas in North America, emitted 637 kilotonnes (kt)in 1989. Inco's legal limit in 1989 was 685 kt. Inco plans to spend $494 million to reduce its sul phur dioxide emissions to the 265 kt a year limit required by law by 1994. Inco has spent $65 million. Approximately 650 engineers, tech nicians and construction workers are involved in the installation of

technology to remove more sulphur from its ore before smelting. The Inco project includes constructing an acid plant which converts sul phur dioxide, emitted from the smelting operations, to commercial-

grade sulphuric acid. The report says that Ontario Hydro plans to spend up to $2.68 billion to cut its sulphur dioxide emissions from an initial 396 kt in

1980 to 175 kt by 1994. Combined sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide emissions must be cut from 460 kt

(1980)to an annual maximum of215 kt by 1994, under the Countdown Acid Rain regulations. Ontario Hydro has spent $227 million on programs to reduce acid gas emissions. The money has paid for research and development as well as for low-sulphur coal, which is more expensive, and for the equip

ment needed to burn low-sulphur coal. Ontario Hydro plants emitted 305 kt of sulphur dioxide in 1989. The 1989 limit was 370 kt.

Falconhridge Ltd. mustreduce its sulphur dioxide emissions from 154 kt(1980)to 100 kt by 1994. The com pany plans to modify its ore roast ing process to capture more sulphur dioxide and to modernize the Strath-

cona mill where ore is purified. Fal conhridge has earmarked $30

An executive double for Dusanka Dusanka Filipovic, P.Eng., has been elected as a Director of the Pollution

Control Association of Ontario, and also elected as a Trustee ofthe Onta

rio Section, American Water Works Association. She is not only the first woman elected to the AWWA Sec tion Executive — she is believed to

be the first person,male or female,to serve on the executives of both pro fessional bodies at the same time.

As a Professional Engineer and Manager of New Business Develop ment for the Linde Division of

portable device to recapture chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)from refriger ators, air conditioners and industrial processes. Her invention, called the Blue Bottle™ CFCs Recycling Unit,is cur rently being tested by scientists at ORTECH International with joint funding from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Canada.


A graduate of the University of Belgrade, Mrs. Filipovic is a

Union Carbide Canada, she has

member of the Association of Pro

worked on several research and

fessional Engineers of Ontario and the Licensing Executives Societyfor

development projects on water treat ment. More recently she developed a

the USA and Canada. ES&E

million for capital costs and $8 mil lion for research and development. In 1989, Falconhridge, which is not operating at full capacity, emitted 68 kt of sulphur dioxide. Algoma Steel continues to stay below its emission limits byrunning its iron ore sintering plant in Wawa at less than full capacity. In 1989, Algoma Steel emitted 71 kt of sul phur dioxide. The 1989 legal limit was 180 kt. The company,owned by Dofasco Inc., mustreduce its annual sulphur dioxide emissions from 285 kt (1980) to 125 kt by 1994. The program, launched by the Ministry of the Environment in 1985, establishes limits for acid gas emissions. Under the program,the four companies must reduce their sulphur dioxide emissions to onethird of the 1980 level by 1994.

Turning landfill gas into electricity Eastern Power Developers Inc. — a

company planning to generate elec tricity from gases produced by a landfill site — has received $1million from the Ontario Ministry of Energy. It is the first instalment of a $3.4million Ministry contribution

towards the $26.5-million capital costs of a generating station now under construction at the Brock

West landfill site, six kilometers east of Metropolitan Toronto. The plant is expected to produce 23 megawatts of electricity for sale to Ontario Hydro — enough to supply the electricity needs of approximately 6,000 homes. The Brock West project will also have important environmental benefits because the electricity will be generated from methane and other greenhouse gases that would otherwise be discharged into the atmosphere. The generating station is being built at the edge of the landfill site under a lease agreement with the Metro Toronto public works depart ment, operators of the site. The plant is expected to begin operations this fall.

ALTECH contract awarded ALTECH Environmental Consulting

Ltd. has been awarded a major Environmental Auditing contract by Environment Canada. Guidance

Dusanka is seen with Ed Nevala, Chairman, Ont.Section A\NWA,following her election as Trustee.

documents and


generic Audit Protocol are being produced as a standard for industry and government facilities through out Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


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We provide: • complete MISA parameter (ATG)capability • priority pollutant analysis

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Circle reply card No. 102

Industry Update Man jailed for environmental offences Mr. Crowe and Blackbird Hold

For the first time in Canadian his

ings Ltd. were convicted of one

tory, a business executive has been sentenced to a prison term for an environmental offence. George Crowe, the president of Blackbird Holdings Ltd., was sentenced to six months in prison for convictions on three


under the

count under section 16(1) of the OWRA, which relates to discharg ing a contaminant that may impair water quality.

APEO appoints task force The APEO Council has appointed four engineers and one Honorary Officer of the Order of the Sons of Martha to the APEO Task Force On


Water Resources Act (OWRA) and the Environmental Protection Act

(EPA). Blackbird Holdings Ltd. was also fined $90,000.

The defendants were also con victed on one count under section


13(1)(a)of the EPA,which relates to discharging a contaminant that may impair the quality of the natu

whether APEO should develop pub lic positions and make recommen

ral environment and

The Ontario Environment Minis

try charged jointly Mr. Crowe and Blackbird Holdings Ltd. of Rednersville after neighbors living adjacent to the company's land in Ameliashurgh Township complained to the ministry that drinking water from their wells was contaminated.

tiles analysis will prevent hackground levels and provide the ultimate in trace analysis.

one count


CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd. has a new environmental labor

atory in Waterloo, Ontario. Over the past decade, CANVIRO Labs has grown from an engineering support

dations on such issues as environ

mental protection and infrastruc

W.R. Walker, P.Eng., president, Wm. R. Walker Engineering Inc. (chair);

group to a full-service environmen tal laboratory,fulfilling the needs of both the public and private sectors. The modern 10,000 square foot facility houses trace metals,conven tional and trace organics labs. A separate room with air lock for vola-

CANVIRO Labs move

will examine

waste disposal site without first obtaining a Certificate of Approval from the ministry.

The company was fined $30,000 on each count for a total of $90,000.



ture renewal. Members of the task force are;

count under the OWRA and three concurrent months on each of the other two counts under the EPA.

180 drums of chlorinated industrial solvents such as trichlorethane and


under section 27(b) of the EPA, which relates to the operation of a

On June 22, Mr. Crowe was given a six-month jail sentence on the first

subsequent excavation on the com pany's property revealed more than


W.R. Altken, P.Eng., executive vice president, INCO Limited; Tom Davey, editor and publisher. Envir onmental Science & Engineering magazine; Dr. P.M. Jones, P.Eng., civil engineering professor and founding director. Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto; and M.R. Provart, P.Eng., vice president, M.M. Dillon Limited.

Plan to attend ES&E's Legal Liabilities Seminar and

Workshop October 2. Details on page 17-18, this issue.











The Director of Investigation and Research (Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada) has informed Big 'O' Inc. that the advertisements published in April and October 1989 for the promotion of the Company's corrugated high density pipe contained comparative performance claims relating to resistance to load, chemical attack and abrasion, the interpretation of which has raised questions under the misleading advertising provisions of the Competition








umma noinecrinp 01 1 >1 1 r i; 1'O


Big 'O' intends to rectify this situation by advertising the characteristics specifically applicable to polyethylene pipe, and ensuring that relevant tests support any comparative performance claims made.

Summa Engineering Limited 1275 Eglinton Avenue East Unit 49, Mississauga Ontario L4W 2Z2

Tel.: (416)624-3188 Fax:(416)624-1293

We regret any inconvenience which may have been caused by this advertisement.

For more information,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990




t's a Norwell® bailer from

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We took all of our Bottom Valves and made them even better

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Industry Update MOE using mobile




clarifier Simcoe Engineering Group Limited

is arranging the construction of a completely mobile clarifier system. It will be utilized at existing single unit sewage treatment plants in small communities owned and oper ated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.


It is common to find single unit sewage treatment plants (i.e. only one aeration and settling tank for the treatment of sewage) in many small communities. When major repairs are necessary, the existing tankage must be drained to gain access; accordingly, this flow, plus the continuous flow to the plant must be accommodated. Through the use of this mobile clarifier sys tem,a flow of 1,000 cubic metres per day (an approximate population of 2,500 people) could be accommo dated in order that any existing cla rifier tank could be drained for

"FO/ST ■- ^



existing aeration tank; electrical and control equipment and a sup port vehicle (including a crane).

The structural design of the mobile tank was carried out by H.G. Engineering, Etoblcoke, Ont., and it is being constructed by Custom

w cn


< h Z W

S 2




sewage treatment plant in Sudbury.

November 19 & 20,1990 Ontario

on research projects funded through the Research Advisory Committee of Environment Ontario, The p conference will be of particular Interest to environmental groups and consultants, industry, municipalities, provincial cr: and federal governments, as well as universities and

P p

p p

Minister of Financial Institutions

research institutions. Research in the fields of air

pollution, water quality, liquid and solid waste, analytical methods and instrument (development, environmental

October 2, 1990. Hugh Eisier, General Manager, Environmental Affairs, Stelco Inc., has accepted an invitation to serve as a panelist at the seminar.

For details of other speakers and

topics, please see pages 17-18.

AWWA Atlantic Canada Section 43rd Annuai Conference

September 16-18, 1990 Delta Brunswick Inn, Saint John, NB Topics Include: • Making time work for you • SCADA systems • Repair of concrete tanks • Zebra Mussels • Review of standard water/sewer specifications • Waternet and SCADA • Experience with PAHs • Static Tube aeration for wastewater treatment

• Small system strategy • The Government's 'Green Plan'

• How to face the news media and other topics • P/us a beach party and lobster dinner Further details contact: Mike Brennan, (506) 632-9000.

socio-economics, multimedia contaminants and

P biotechnology will be presented in five concurrent P sessions, a panel discussion and in poster displays.

p p

For Further Information


Please contact : Conference Secretariat





summer and will be stationed at the

conference serves as a forum for presenting S This innovative environmental technologies and progress

> 2

will serve several communities in

Northern Ontario during this

THE CHALLENGES OF A NEW DECADE Royal York Hotel • Toronto ■

onment and Economy, Chairman — Management Board of Cabinet, and

Liabilities Seminar and Workshop,

equipment was supplied by Fiygt Canada Limited. The mobile system

N u

Chairman — Round Table on Envir

manviiie, Ont. The pumping equip

The mobile clarifier system con sists of; a hopper shaped mobile tank (3.6 metres wide x 4.15 metres high X 14.65 metres long); pumping equipment to pump the flow to the tank and settled sludge back to the



The Honourable Murray Eiston,

for the Ontario Government, will be Luncheon Speaker at ES&E's Legal

ment and the electrical and control


Legal Liabilities

Trailer Manufacturing Limited. Bow-






c/o Congress Canada 191 Niagara Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V1C9

Tanks for hazardous liquid




Eimco's dual containment tank

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990






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E.E. (Earl) Were Introduces Badger Meter to Canada In the 85 years since Badger Meter began making water meters in North America everything has changed but our high standards. In 1905 we opened a small factory in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This small workshop of precision machinists has grown into an international business —a company dedicated to precision manufacturing and industry innovation.

In keeping with our tradition of quality, the Utility Division of Badger Meter, Inc. is proud to announce the newest member of our sales team — E.E.(Earl) Were — Manager of Utility Sales — Canada.

With ourdedicationtotheindustry, Earl Isproudto introduce the following product offerings; • Recordall Disc Meters...the highest capacity and

widest range of positive displacement meters in the industry...5/8" through 2" sizes. • Recordall I I Turbo Meters...extended high-flow capability with inventory-saving interchangeable measuring elements...2" through 20" sizes. • Recordall Compound Meters...high accuracy for all flowranges...2" through 6" sizes. • Badger Propeller Meters...when durability and accuracy are your top priority...4" through 14" sizes.

• Recordall Instrumentation Systems...the finest

products available to help monitor and control your operational flows. • Badger Strainers...enhance meter performance ...2" through 6" sizes. • Meter Reading Technologies...the most com plete line of automatic and automated meter read ing systems in the Industry. Badger has always believed that the quality of our company is represented by our people. Earl, a native and resident of Canada, is a veteran of the water meter industry. He is well-acquainted with many water utility personnel in every province of Canada. Earl will be responsible for all Sales In Canada, both directly with utilities, and through a network of water works distributors.

If you would like to know more about our company and products, please contact Earl at (416) 892-0872, Fax:(416) 892-0898, or write 59 Woodside Square, Fonthiil, ON, LOS 1E4.

expanding needs. Customer satisfaction is the

You can reach Badger Meter directly at: (414) 355-0400, Fax: (414) 355-2544, or write to Badger Meter, Inc., Utility Division, 4545 West Brown Deer

foundation from which we build our business.

Road, P.O. Box 23099, Milwaukee, Wl,53223-0099.

Badger's distributor network will inventory our complete


line to

meet your ever-

(Member AWWA, NRWA.) For more Information, 12

Circle reply card No. 109

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


"Environmentally Friendly" Engineering Copies From ABSO



The Xerox 2520 Environmentally Friendly Engineering Copier Automatic recycling of originals up to 36 x 48 Automatic cutting of media from rolls, to matcti length of original Humidity controlled storage of two sizes of media sheets up to 36 x 48 Work organizer for ease of handling Quality • Convenience • Productivity • Economy

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"Environmentally Friendly" Engineering Copies From ABSO COPY BLUELINES AND OTHER OPAQUE ORIGINALS


The Xerox 2520 Environmentally Friendly Engineering Copier Automatic recycling of originals up to 36 x 48

Automatic cutting of media from rolls, to match length of original Humidity controlled storage of two sizes of media sheets up to 36 x 48 Work organizer for ease of handling Quality • Convenience • Productivity • Economy

Ask about the details and the exclusive Abso options. Company. Name Address

City/Prov./Code_ Phone(


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Alberta adopts new guidelines for drinking water quality

detect, locate and repair leaks not

sure or vacuum within the leaking cell. Physical repairs can then be made when convenient. In this way the liner integrity can also be dem onstrated to the licencing authori ties should this be required. These capabilities make it possi ble to substantially reduce or elimi nate undetected leakage and resultant environmental damage and to mitigate the risks and liabili

detected by conventional methods. Testing during operation allows

ties associated wdth the contain ment of hazardous wastes.

that has leaked into the cell for

small holes, the size of the hole can

be determined and the liquid can then be returned to the contained

New drinking water quality guide lines will be implemented in

area. Liner systems can also com prise multiple layers with geonet in between each liner system or two

Alberta. The new Guidelines cover

liners that have textured sides.

95 drinking water quality parame ters, including bacteriological, radi ological, chemical and physical

structed allows the installers to


Allowable lead levels in drinking water are being reduced from 0.05

milligrams per litre to 0.01 mg/L. Davis Controls Limited:

Licence Agreement Dr. Thomas Klinger-Lohr, President of Klinger AG of Egliswil, Switzer

Testing of each cell as it is con

operators to confirm the on-going integrity and satisfactory perfor mance of the system, and to detect the onset of leaks, if they develop. When leaks are detected,they can be located and quantified, and undesir able flow can be counteracted by maintaining and monitoring a pres

The award was for the design of the first installation of a Robertson

Barrier Liner System where it was used by the Department of Forestry to line an evaporation pond contain ing apron washdown of aircraft fuel and fire retardants at the air tanker base at Abbotsford.

land and Paul Grenfell, President of Davis




announced that a Licence Agree ment has been signed covering the transfer of technology from Klinger

The shooting of Rex (with cameras ofcourse)

to Davis for the manufacture in

Canada of Klinger sight ievei gauges. The Klinger organization has been a world leader in visual level gaug ing for more than a hundred years. Sight level gauges of the conven

tional type have been used in high temperature, high pressure process applications for many years, as well as in steam boiler applications. With the development of the mag netic level gauge technology by Klinger, the market for this type of product has expanded and now includes many difficult and hazard ous chemicals.

Liner System Wins BC Environmental

Design Award The first 100% testable geomembrane lining system for security in

Rex with 3 year old Calvin.

How do you convey the inherent strength of PVC pipe and fittings? Engineers naturally would retain technicians to test a PVC fitting under controlled conditions.

BFGoodrich Canada Inc., manufacturers of PVC resins and com

the containment of valuable mate

pounds, conducted a 9,000 lb weight test on a PVC fitting. Tests

rials or hazardous waste, the Robertson Barrier Liner System has

were done with the fitting, both lying flat and on its end. The results? Minimal deflection or other impacts.

been awarded the 1990 Environmen-

But BFGood rich decided on a more imaginative way to demonstrate the strength of PVC pipe and fittings. They chose Rex,a21 yearold Indian elephant to actually mount and stand on the fitting. Talk

tai Engineering Design Award of the British

Columbia Professional

Engineers Association. The Liner System utilizes exist

ing geosynthetic membrane liners and seaming technology to provide a fully testable system. The Liner consists of two or more layers ofgeomembranes, sealed together at the edges to create cells, while encapsu lating a highly permeable layer of geonet, thus creating airtight cells. A vacuum is then created in the cell

by means of a vacuum pump system and by observing the vacuum pres sure of the cell, it can be determined whether there is a leak in the liner

about l ive loads!

Rex was chosen because elephants are synonymous with great weight, great strength, and long life.

As safety was a prime concern,the fitting was sandwiched between two metal plates.

The 'shoot' was done in colour (see center spread) and as a video production. Free videos and posters of the shoot wiii be available early in the New Year.

Rex's reward? Scorning the usual commercial residuals, he opted for a bushel of apples. Further information and request for video, check reader service card #250. (Limited numbers available)

system. By withdrawing the liquid

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


Industry Update Clean water action committee backs water & sewer commission Ontario's sewer and watermain con

CWAC has also urged the govern ment to require all municipalities to adopt full-cost pricing, including

meeting the challenge

tractors, who for years have pressed for action to upgrade and maintain inadequate underground services, are pleased with the Ontario govern

amortization and

of the future

ment's decision to form a utilities commission to fund such work.

"The government is to he com mended for making an excellent start," said Alan Gordon, chairman


of the sewer and watermain indus

try's Clean Water Action Commit tee."It is encouraging to see that our efforts are beginning to show results, and we want to renew our offer to help complete the joh." Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con

isn't enough to take care of the pipes that are already in the ground, let alone expand the systems.The critics of this plan should take a hard look at the existing systems, because they

tractors Association, which acts on

are pollution time bombs," says Alan

behalf of a broad range of other organizations. It has published two reports and produced several infor mation programs designed to acquaint politicians and the public with the deteriorating state of the province's existing sewer and

Gordon. The CWAC submitted a brief in

The CWAC is a committee of the

watermains. Since Treasurer Robert Nixon announced the formation ofthe util


commission, much

of the

debate has focussed on new con

struction. "But the fact is the money committed to date for aii purposes


charges, and to require users to pay according to volume consumed. CWAC will be pushing to see such criteria built into the legislation set ting up the utilities commission.

early March,and recommended four steps to begin rehabilitating sewer and water systems. CWAC has called for legislation




mended that revenues generated from full-cost pricing he reserved for the maintenance and development of underground infrastructure, and that the province provide alternate

ways to obtain capital funds in situations where a municipality cannot afford the full cost or repair ing existing damage.

Ozone guideline most frequently exceeded


Ground level ozone guidelines were exceeded more often than any other

water systems to be treated as utili

air pollution criterion in Ontario in

ties in the same manner and under

1988, according to the 1988 Annual Report on Air Quality in Ontario released by the Ministry ofthe Envi





similar provincial controls as apply to electric and gas utilities. 'The announced provincial commission is a first step in that direction, Cor don said.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

recorded at Long Point Provincial Park on Lake Erie. The high ozone levels at this location were caused

hy the long-range transport of pollu tants, primarily from U.S. sources.

The one-hour criterion for ground level ozone of 80 parts per billion (ppb) was exceeded at least once at 46 of the 48 stations which moni

tored for the pollutant. Provincewide, the ground level ozone criterion was exceeded during 6,955 of the 367,104 hours tested, or 1.9 percent of the time. Ground level ozone is produced during the warm months when nit rogen oxides and hydrocarbons react in the presence of sunlight.




Automobile exhaust and industrial

plants are the major sources of this pollution. The long-range transport of these pollutants from the United States accounts for more than half

of the ozone in Ontario. High ozone concentrations can damage vegeta tion and property and impair human health.

The 1988 annual report,contains the monitoring results for nine gases at77locations and for particulate matter at 152, locations across Ontario. Seventeen of the 77 stations,

which monitored for sulphur diox ide exceeded the one-hour criterion

of 0.25 parts: per million (ppm) at least once in 1988. The highest onehour value (1.24 ppm), was recorded in Copper Cliff near Sudbury. Copper Cliff recorded the greatest number of readings above the onehour criterion (85 of 6,192 hourly


Exhibiting Equipment,Machinery,Systemsand Servicesfor: • Drinking water and wastewater

samples analyzed). The ministry's 24-hour criterion

• Waste management and recyciing

for total suspended particulates,

•Air poiiution

which can contain lead and other

• Processing and manufacturing

trace metals, (120 micrograms per cubic metre of air or ug/m^) was

•Soii contamination

• Monitonng and controis • Engineering

exceeded at 119 of 152 stations at

least once in 1988. The single high est 24-hour value for particulates (710 ug/m^)was recorded at Hearst

in Northeastern Ontario. The high est percentage of values above the criterion (45) and the highest annual geometric mean(114 ug/m^) were





The Environment Congress: soiving interreiated probiems aifecting the environment - water, earth and air. Please send more information on:

□ Exhibiting □ Congress □ Visiting


Exolon Ltd., an abrasives manufac turing plant.


The ministry is completing a study ofthe Exolon plant which will



be used as the basis for a Control

Order requiring reductions. The air quality monitor in down town Toronto,had the highest mean in Ontario for three pollutants — suspended particles, carbon monox ide and nitric oxide.



PUBLICATION Environmentol Science ond

Show & Association


Copies of the report, Air Quality in Ontario, 1988, are available by calling (416) 323-4321.



4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9A 1B6 (416) 234-1240 FAX (416) 234-1695

Sponsors PCAO OWMA


AWWA - Ont. Sect. United Fund for Environment OMMRI

Member Conodion Associotion of Exposition Monogers

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 122


Municipalities and dischargers must prepare for more stringent controls

Increased industrial activity in

requirements will exist independ ently of, and in addition to, those MISA regulations which impact upon direct discharges by private industry. The Program will initially impose discharge limit regulations on 22 major industrial categories across the Province. The subject industries will be required to meet specific discharge limits determined by the best available technology that is economically achievable (BATEA). Each industry will be per mitted to select its own methodology to meet the new discharge limits. Once in place, the Program will he reviewed periodically by the MOE to

Ontario has produced higher levels oftoxins in sewage result

ing in the destruction of some

bacteria in the treatment process. Unlike conventional pollutants, residual




breaking down harmlessly, posing risk to life forms even in low concen trations.

The Ontario Ministry ofEnviron

ment's(MOE)Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA)for the control of water pollution is aimed at upgrading ineffective pol lution control procedures. MISA's goal is the virtual elimination of toxic contaminants discharged into Ontario waterways by industry and our municipalities. While MISA remains an Ontario initiative, its philosophy has been well received and it is expected to have a profound national impact. MISA was launched in June, 1986 and has proceeded on a sectorby-sector basis. The MOE has created a separate category for each of nine major industrial sectors plus the municipal sector. MISA requires that each sector must iden tify which contaminants are being discharged. Abatement require ments will then be imposed on dis chargers in Ontario. The MOE has promulgated effluent limit regula tions for most industrial sectors sub

ject to MISA.

These regulations

By Karen A. Sisson Blake, Cassels & Graydon

determine whether limits should be

provide a basis for prescribing spe cific effluent limits on discharges. An effluent regulation for munici palities has not been issued at press time.

A joint technical committee for the municipal sector is considering regulations which would impose effluent limits on discharges made directly into waterways by sewage treatment plants (STPs). The com mittee is also reviewing a proposal to develop a Sewer Use Control Pro gram (The "Program"). The Pro gram represents a move by the Province from a voluntary com pliance system to one that will be enforced by provincial statute. Its

tightened or the list of candidate sec tors expanded. Industries not covered under an

industrial sector BATEA discharge limit





charge significant quantities ofcon ventional pollutants will have to meet local limits imposed by the municipalities. For dischargers reg

ulated by a provincial BATEA limit, the more stringent of the local limit

and the provincial limit will apply. The Program will also address spills to a sewer system. The MOE will define what constitutes a spill and impose notification require ments upon those who caused it. Liability for damage or loss Continued overleaf

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characteristics resulting in predictable droplet size. • Heat Transfer and Chemical Reactions. Laminar flow

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For more Informatior), Circle reply card No. 123

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Illegal Imbxlxih^ ^^^mxnz^v nnh

&nirk0t|O|j October 2, 1990

Sheridan Parkway Hotel Richmond Hill (Toronto) Ontario (Hwy. #7 and Hwy. #404)

Legal advice can be expensive — lack of it can be devastating Environmental Science & Engineering -Canada's

largest magazine for environmental professionals - presents a one-day Seminar and Workshop on Environmental Law. Attendance will put you in close contact with some of Canada's most distin

guished legal, engineering and scientific experts. You'll be able to listen to and question speakers

and workshop leaders on such topics as the Approval Process for Municipal Landfills or the Impact of MISA on Municipalites. Other sessions will cover:

• thie Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Wastes. This topic has made international head lines in recent months. Speakers and workshop leaders will enable managers to comply with the

increasingly complex regulations facing indus

Who should attend?

Industrial managers Real estate developers Financiers

Property owners Consulting engineers Architects

Municipal officials

tries and municipalities. • Environmental Prosecution and MOE Search and Seizures.

• Reai Estate, Deveioping and Financing. In an

age of spiralling real estate values, the potential problems in buying and selling contaminated land have multiplied rapidly and now pose serious financial hazards to all property owners,

potential buyers, developers and financiers. • Due Diiigence and other legai issues.

Remember, what you don't know can hurt you - or your company. This seminar permits a rare interface with top experts practising in the field. The format is designed to ensure audience participation, enabling particular problems to he addressed.

Turn over for full

program details Fee: $425.00

$475.00 at the door

For two or more registrations, $400.00 per registrant. Hotel Accommodations

Please make your reservation directly with the Sheraton Parkway Hotel,(416) 881-2121. Specify attendance at this seminar to receive the preferred room rate of $95.00 per night, single or double.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

The fee also covers luncheon and available seminar

papers. Full refunds for cancellations received In writing by September 17. Cheques must be made payable to Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, ON,L4G 5N7,Tel;(416)727-4666, Fax:(416) 841-7271.


>eminviv program MORNING ■ Concurrent Sessions (9 a.m. • noon)

Topics: • The municipai role in enuironmentai protection and pub lic heaitti.

ipality of Ottawa-Carleton.

• Local public health departments:the mandate to identify, investigate and assess contaminated sites. • The impact on municipai planning: decommissioning and redeveiopment of contaminated land. • Municipal impact of the MISA program. •Policing discharges into municipal sewers and the dispo sal of surplus excavated materials.

Peter R. Walker, Senior Principal, Walker, Wright,Young Asso

• Enforcement issues of the '90s.

The Perils of Municipal Landfills and Master Waste Plans Panel:

Burton H. Kellock,QC.,senior partner, Blake,Cassels& Qraydon. Judy Wilson, Manager,Special Projects for the Regional Munic


Environmental Dffences: Prosecution and Defence


• Successful waste management master planning. • Preparing the environmental assessment report • The public participation process. • Pre-submission consultations.

• Interuenor funding. • The environmental assessment hearing. • Future directions.

From "Cradle to Grave": The Storage. Transportation and Disposal of Hazardous Materials Panel:

Robert M. Fishlock, Blake, Cassels & Graydon.


Stan Berger, Senior Prosecutor, Ontario Ministry of the Envir onment.

John D. Brownlie, Q.C.,senior partner,Blake,Cassels& Graydoa Kathryn N. Feldman, partner, Blake Cassels & Graydon. Topics: • Statutory powers us. civil rights on search and seizures. • The defence of due diligence. • Emergency response procedures. • Fines and penalties. • Liabilities of officers and directors.

Dr. Harch Gill, Trow Dames & Moore.

Kevin Connors, Chemical Waste Management Inc. Norman Mauch, Regional Manager, Central Region,Transpor tation of Dangerous Goods Directorate. Topics: • Ontario and Canadian statutory requirements. • Worker heaith and safety requirements. • Underground tanks and the management of hazardous and iiquid industrial waste. • Municipal and private waste treatment and disposal. • Transportation of dangerous goods. • Emergency response planning.

Environmental Roulette - Dealing with Buried Treasure Panel:

John L. Ronson, partner, Blake, Cassels & Graydon. Anthony J. Cmtcher, partner, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

Secured Lenders and Receivers —

Unwitting and Unwilling PiayersL Panel:

Robert M.C. Holmes, Senior Vice President, Coopers and Lybrand Limited. Derek C. Hayes, Senior Vice President and General Counsel, Legal Division, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. Kevin P. McElcheran, partner, Blake, Cassels & Graydon. Topics: • Basis of enuironmentai liability. • Assessing the risk before taking the loan - identifying the warning signs - site inspections and other techniques - use of environmental audits

• What to do before taking control of your security. • The dangers of operating and selling security.


Third participant to be announced. Topics: • Enuironmentai due diiigence searches.

Registration Form

• Enuironmentai audits.

• Privilege against disciosure of audit reports. • The vendor's duty to disclose contaminants. • Negotiating the purchase agreement and indemnities. • Liabilities after closing.

Afternoon — Concurrent Sessions

Name & Title

Company Address

(1:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.)

Contamination of Land and Water:

Municipal Solutions Panel:

Robert Ferguson, Commissioner of Works for Metropolitan Toronto.

Jim Bishop, Vice President, Environmental Protection Labora tories and former Director of Water Resources Branch, MOE.

R. Bmce Smith, partner, Blake, Cassels & Graydon.





Please mail completed registration form and payment to:

Environmental Science & Engineering 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 5N7 Tel:(416) 727-4666, Fax:(416) 841-7271 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

incurred as a result of the spill and other compensation provisions will also be imposed. Industries with significant spill potential will be required to implement an approved spill prevention program. In addi tion, industries with contaminated run-off potential may be required under The Program to implement a Best Management Practices Plan. Enforcement responsibilities will be shared by the MOE and the municipalities. Municipahties will be responsible for developing and implementing an enforcement plan that incorporates all provincial and local discharge limits. Any such plan will be subject to MOE appro val. Once the plan is approved and implemented, results of all munici pal enforcement activities will be reported to the MOE and the MOE will continue to audit. Where dis

charge limits are exceeded, the MOE will, under provincial regulation, prosecute offending industries for

appropriate by-laws. Amendments to the Municipal Act, the Environ mental Protection Act(EPA)and the Ontario




(OWRA) will also be required. Under the Municipal Act, each municipality is empowered to imple ment by-laws regulating discharges into municipal sewers. The interim strategy to control toxic discharges is a model sewer use by-law pre pared by the MOE and the Munici pal Engineers Association which is currently being used by municipali ties to draft their own by-laws. The Model Sewer Use By-Law (Model By-law) provides for general con

Repeated violations of local sewer use by-laws have recently resulted in fines of $100,000 being upheld in court. The present version of the Model By-Law provides for the levy ing of fines as high as $5,000.00 for a first offence by an individual and, $10,000.00 for any subsequent con viction. A corporation may be fined as much as $25,000.00 for a first offence and $50,000.00 for any sub sequent conviction. Provision is also made for a court to impose com pliance programs on dischargers or to issue orders of prohibition against an industry for noncompliance. Notwithstanding the Program, general prohibitions under the EPA and the OWRA respecting impair ment of the environment or water

trols on toxic substances and addi

continue to apply. Under these sta tutes, penalties upon conviction can be as high as $50,000.00 for each day

tional monitoring, inspection and enforcement mechanisms.


provincial regulations have been implemented for sewer use control, municipalities will be required to include in their by-laws any aspects of the Model By-law that remain

of an

offence for individuals and

$1,000,000.00 per day for a corpora tion.

The Program will take several years to implement while regula tions are drafted and municipalities

Although, some municipalities have already adopted the Model By law, sewer use by-laws currently vary in content and consistency of

The implementation process con tinues to be a long one. The MOE is not expected to announce its final position with respect to The Pro gram until this summer. Municipal ities and dischargers must prepare for the more stringent controls that

implement those regulations with

enforcement across the Province.

lie ahead. ES&E

discharges as well as municipalities for failure to enforce the limits.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 124


Floaters, sinkers and mixers

Investigating beneath the earth for hazardous waste impacts The second element in the model

is the Pathway. How does the pollu tant move through the environ

/SOURCE V Ground Water Table

ment? If it is in the air above the

ground, an air dispersion expert is required. If the prime movement is on top of the ground, a surface water hydrologist should he involved. But when contaminants travel beneath



the ground, you need a hydrogeologist.

The third element is the Receptor of the pollution, which can he humans, or terrestrial or aquatic plants and animals. Specialists in the receptor field are risk assessors, toxicologists and health experts.

By J.F. Gartner*

A major problem for those responding



water contamination is to first define where the con

taminants are coming from, where they are going and what will he their impact when they get there. These very basic questions are often not answered at the beginning of an

investigation. This Is especially true if the environmental problem has created a high profile response from the public and their political repre sentatives.

Source-pathways-receptor In our consulting practice, we have devised a simple model which helps to define the "environment". We divide the environmental pro cess into three distinct elements

(Figure 1). First, there is the Source of the pollution. Is it from burning tires, municipal garbage or from a toxic waste disposal area? Is it a point source or a non-point source? If the focus of the problem is the source, then the appropriate profes sional should he approached to search for a solution. For example,a chemical or a process engineer is more suited to comment on source

problems, than say a hydrogeologist. MTHVWYS




water at different points within the subsurface, and then calculate its flow path, its velocity, its gradient and the quantity of groundwater flowing beneath the ground. At this stage ofthe investigation, we have defined the geological model of the terrain and established

Underground pathways All of these elements of the envi

the hydrogeological parameters of the model. The next step is to ana

ronmental model are important, hut the one that you cannot see, the underground pathway, is often the most significant. So let's explore contaminant pathways in the sub surface, and see how groundwater can he affected by source pollutants. The characteristics of the geolog ical materials below the ground's surface, control the rate and quan

lyse the subsurface contaminants that have invaded the system.

tity of groundwater and contami nant movement. Thus, an

lutants. Chlorides, a common con

understanding of the hydrogeological setting is mandatory in order to predict potential groundwater con tamination problems or to reme diate existing problems. Before we can understand the

hydrogeological setting, we must first define the geology, not only in two dimensions as we see it on a

map, hut in the third dimension of depth below the ground surface. This can he done by studying aerial photographs, reviewing published geological reports, researching water well records and understand

ing the geological history of the area. The investigator acts very much as a detective, using inductive and deductive reasoning to assemble a three dimensional model of the ter

rain without having left the office.

Once the geological model is established, it is time to design the field program. The purpose of this program is to verify the model and collect real time samples that can he tested in the laboratory. Field obser vations are made, boreholes are drilled and monitoring systems are installed to measure the natural environment. There are methods to

measure the hydraulic head of the

Groundwater contaminants

Groundwater contaminants occur in two main forms: those that

are easily dissolved in the groundwater, called miscible pollutants, and those that are not easily dis solved or easily mixed with the groundwater, called immiscible pol taminant, are examples of the miscible pollutants, and PCBs are an example ofthe immiscible chemi cals. The miscihles usually mix with the groundwater and form con taminant plumes that flow in con cert with groundwater (see Figure 2). The immiscihles are different. They may he heavier than water and sink in compliance with the laws of gravity, taking altogether different pathways from well estab lished groundwater flow paths (see Figures). Other immiscihles may he lighter than water, and float on the surface of the groundwater,as gaso line does when it leaks from tanks

(see Figure 4). Immiscible liquids that are ligh ter than water are commonly referred to as floaters, the most com mon being gasoline. Almost all ser vice stations have underground tanks, and many of these leak, hav ing done so for many years. What happens is that the product leaks downward through the subsoils, reaches the groundwater table, and because it is less dense than water,it floats on top of the water table. As more gasoline is added, the weight 'President, Gartner Lee Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

of the product depresses the water table, and the product sits there undetected, literally for years. The fumes from the gasoline can per meate upward and cause a hazard above the water table. These types of problems can cause serious con cerns between buyers and sellers of properties. Let me explain by way of an example. A case history Some time ago we got a call from

the owner of an ink manufacturing business. He said that the Ministry of the Environment had told him

that he was polluting and that he would have to clean it up or face the consequences. He was puzzled and asked for our help. Here is what had happened. A number of years ago, the pre vious owner, who carried on a differ ent business from the present

owner, had disposed of paint thinner in an underground tank beneath the plant. Over the years.

clean-up. The product was pumped to the surface, stored in drums prior to disposal in a certified manner. Sinkers


The immiscibles that are heavier

than water are commonly called Sinkers. Because they are heavier than water,they sink down through the groundwater and find their level through the laws of gravity. These are compounds that chemists call chlorinated solvents, the most rec ognized being polychlorinated biphenyls — PCBs. When these compounds enter the subsurface they proceed through gravitational forces to sink through the unsaturated and saturated zones, to a more impermeable barrier at depth. As they proceed through the saturated zone, small amounts are dissolved into the groundwater and take the directional flow of the groundwater. But, the majority of the product finds its final resting place at depth, resting on an impermeable barrier.


Ground Water Table

.■.V ■')


Ground Water Table ▼ FIGURE



flows along the path of the groundwater. We can plot the boundaries of this plume in a number of ways. Because the plume contains many forms of salt, it is usually more con ductive to electric currents than the

surrounding uncontaminated water. We can measure this conduc

tive difference using electromag netic devices, similar to those originally designed to find ore bodies. We also take groundwater samples from our monitor boreholes and do laboratory tests to determine the presence of pollutants. In these ways we can actually plot the length, width and thickness of the contaminant plume. To clean up a mixer, you some times have to install purge wells that

will draw the contaminant

plume into the capture cone of the purge well, and pump it to the sur face where it can be treated and


returned to the groundwater system. Sometimes it is necessary to dig up the source, and at other times the natural conditions of the geological environment will attenuate andpur ify the contaminants in the invad ing plume. Science provides the foundation


the thinner had leaked from the

It is very difficult to discover and

tank, resulting in about three metres of product being deposited on the water table, 7 metres below the building. No one knew about it, especially not the new owner when he bought the building. The product probably sat there, undetected, for about 20 years. Unfortunately for the new owner, the municipality was driving a

to retrieve these sinkers, especially if they have been able to lodge

sewer tunnel under the road in front

The miscible compounds, those that mix with water, are called Mix ers, and these are the most common

of the plant. The depth of the sewer was about 10 metres below the sur

face, and dewatering for the tunnel drew the paint thinner into the tun nel excavation (see Figure 5). Of course the work stopped, and the contractor sued the building owner for revenue lost due to the work stop page. The Ministry of the Environ ment ordered the owner to clean up the contamination. And the owner

held back m ortgage payments to the original owner to help pay for the

within the fractures of bedrock. It is

analogous to dropping a thimble full of mercury on your unistone patio, and then trying to find all of the bits of mercury, and worse yet, trying to recover them. You are never going to find it all.

Hydrogeological techniques for investigating contaminant path ways below the ground surface are well developed today, although more research is needed. The major need, however, is to communicate to the policy makers at the municipal, provincial and federal level, that science provides a foundation upon which they can make meaningful policy decisions for the benefit of the environment. ES&E


n ri'PLANT

forms of contaminants in the sub

surface. Leachate produced under a municipal landfill is an example. In many hydrogeological investiga tions, chloride is used as an indica tor of where the contaminant plume is going, because the chloride ion is so mobile.

When leachate reaches

the groundwater table, the miscible components are dissolved in the water, and the contaminated plume

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

n Road


•i; Ground Water Table









FLANGED FiniNGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver Terminal City brings variety, versatility...and vaiue to the Canadian marketplace with a FULL LINE of FLANGED FITTINGS as well as an up-to-the-minute and ever-growing range of regular 'TC.' Waterworks Fittings. Manufactured by Terminal City in both GREY iRON and DUCTiLE iRON, in sizes ranging from 3" to 24", and iarger, 'TC.' FLANGED FiTTINGS conform to the standards and specifications of AWWA, ANSI and ASTM. 'TO.' 24" FLANGED 45° LATERAL

Manufactured in sizes 4" through 24", Terminai City's FLANGED LATERALS are avaiiable with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optionai reducing on both the iaterai and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'T.C.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.


Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are


manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. I

TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch.| Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and driiled, are manufactured in 90°, 45° 22V2° and 11V4° configurations. As well, 'T.C.' FLANGED ELBOWS are avaiiable in other optionai degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes,

both straight and reducing are available together with 'T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'TC.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

Call Terminal City's Sales Personnel today for prompt, efficient Customer Service. All Terminal City FLANGED FiTTINGS are available in

both Class 125 and Class 250...and are manvfactured

to ANSI Specification B16.11975. "Special"'TC!



supplied to meet your

specific waterworks installation requirements.

For more Information, 22

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Manufacturers of Waterworks Products 1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 Tel.(604) 253-7525 FAX(604)253-6365

Environrriental Science & Engineering, September 1990


Unique Instrumentation and control at Sewage Pumping Station

TheRegional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton's


Road Sewage Pumping Station in Nepean, Ontario is designed as a fully automated, unmanned facility. The entire sys tem is controlled and monitored by a stand alone Allen Bradley 2/17 Pro grammable Logic Controller (PLC) located in the station's Instrument Control Panel.

Incoming sewage flow data, building intrusion or fire/methane gas alarms, and equipment alarm and status data are stored in the

PLC where they are date and time stamped. A printer located in the Acres Road Pumping Station office provides operators or maintenance personnel with a paper copy of all alarms and their time of occurance.

This feature gives quick and effi cient diagnosis of system problems. The PLC is programmed to accommodate future communica tion to the Robert 0. Pickard Envir

onmental Centre as part of the sewage treatment plant's supervi sory control and data aquisition (SCADA)system. This facility will eventually allow some 300 digital and 150 analogue points from Acres Road to be monitored at Robert O.

Pickard. System design at Acres Road will permit a future SCADA controller to he installed to provide back-up control to the PLC with minimum interference to the operat ing plant. The capability of monitoring the operations and modifying the Acres Road programs from Proctor &

of pumps required and their speed.If the signal from either of the trans mitters differs from the other by an adjustable margin, an alarm is gen erated and the "out-of-range" trans mitter automatically eliminated from the process control. Wet well float switches back up the ultra sonic devices and operate the standby pumps, if the PLC system

charge flow to continue during pumping transitions and sequence changes. If any pump fails or is not selected for duty, the next pump in sequence will be initiated. In the unlikely event that programmable controller failure occurs during unmanned hours, all main sewage pumps will continue in their last state until stopped by the low level switch in the wet wefi. During this time, the Clyde Avenue Central Monitoring Station would he informed via radio link to dispatch maintenance personnel to the pumping station. If the wet well low level float switch has stopped all the main pumps, the station automati cally reverts to standby pump opera tion, utilizing the hardwire float switch to control the pumps and sluice gates until the maintenance personnel arrive. When hydro failure occurs, the standby generation is initiated and


comes on line within two minutes.

The main sewage pumps are con trolled sequentially via operator selection. From the level signal the PLC calculates pumping capacity required, both by rate-of-rise and by proportional, integral, and deriva tive (PID) control equations. The rate-of-rise calculation anticipates and accomodates surge conditions by initiating additional pumps. The

The PLC checks the pumping requirements of the station and starts the pumps necessary to main

By Lynn Morgan, P.Eng., and Graham Smith, C.E.T.*

variable speed drive pumps and one fixed speed pump. The ultimate cap ability of the station is eight 400 hor sepower pumps each rated at 700 litres per second. During hydro fail ure, emergency power is supplied by two 1450 kW diesel generators designed to power the total ultimate station needs. Dual ultrasonic level transmit ters monitor the wet well level. This ultrasonic level controls the number


control allows smooth


tain control. The control software

recognizes which of the two genera tors has started and thatsome ofthe

pumps will not be available to oper ate in the selected sequence. It will automatically resequence opera tions to accommodate the available Continued overleaf

Redfern's Toronto offices or from

any of the Region's offices via a modem and telephone link, is pro vided in the design ofthe software of the Programmable Logic Con troller.

This will reduce downtime

and costs to resolve and diagnose any process problems. Because of the pumping station's importance in the Region's Watts Creek Relief system,a unique operat ing philosophy was developed and implemented by Proctor & Redfern. A combination of both hardwired and softwired interlocks and redundant

field devices is used,depending upon the severity of the situation,to ensure that pumping is maintained.

The major components ofthe sys tem consist of four 400 horsepower

•Proctor & Redfern Limited

Acres Road Sewage Pumping Station

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


Unique Instrumentation system (Continued) pumps. If the incoming flow rate is

beyond the capability of the pumps available on one generator, the second generator will automatically be initiated and the system sequence rescheduled. Communica tion between the Watts Creek sluice

gate, Watts Creek flume and the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-

Carleton's Clyde Avenue Central monitoring station is carried out by a Motorola INTRAC 2000 radio tele

metry network which directly inter faces with the PLC system. The Programmable Controller receives data from equipment at Acres Road and two remote loca

tions at the Watts Creek sluice gate

WESTERN CANADA WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION - 1990 ANNUAL CONVENTION The WCWWA's 42nd annual convention will be held in Regina, October 16-19, 1990 at the Sheraton and the Regina Inn! The conference theme is "Communication - Building on Trust". It will be of special interest to: community officials in charge of water or wastewater works, engineers, operators, government officials, contractors, equipment suppliers, training instructors and students. Featured will be;

operations papers

* over 45 equipment and contractors displays

panel discussion exploring

* plenty of quality

over 30 technical and

crucial issues facing the

entertainment for both

and flume. The PLC makes process decisions based on preprogrammed criteria and then sends instructions

to the various equipment to provide a stable flow to the discharge force mains.

Two sluice gates limit flow in the incoming sewer. One gate located at the Acres Road station acts as an

isolation gate, and can be throttled back to prevent pumping capacity being exceeded and consequent flooding. The other gate, approxi mately five km from the station at Watts Creek, operates in tandem with the Acres Road gate in emer gency situations. The PLC controls the rate of closure of the gates to prevent "lock-in" of incoming sewer inventory. The Watts Creek flume, located approximately three km from Acres Road, houses an open channel ultrasonic flow meter. This

flow is reported to both Acres Road and Clyde Avenue Central System by the INTRAC radio network. Detailed design ofthe Acres Road Pumping Station was completed between September 1987 and March 1988. All software was completed and precommissioned in Proctor

water and wastewater

delegates and spouses

industry today

to enjoy

and Redfern's Toronto office before

a wet pipe tapping contest featuring several teams

site commissioning commenced. A simulation package was used to exercise the program loaded into a

a number of exciting and informative tours

Conference registration is $180.00 (before Sept. 28, 1990), and $200.00 (after Sept. 28, 1990). To register, contact:

processor identical to the inst|alled hardware. The site commissioning included remote locations at the

Clyde Avenue Central Monitoring Station, Watts Creek sluicegate and flume,and the Acres Road Pumping

Mr. John Schneider (306)777-7426 For hotel reservations, contact: Sheraton:

Regina Inn:

Station. All instrument calibration

(306)569-8715 (306)525-6767

Join us in Regina for an excellent program, and sample our western hospitality! You won't be disappointed!

and software tuning to accomodate system characteristics were carried out over a 20 day period. The station was fully commissioned and on line in December 1989. ES&E


WATTS AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES Serving the municipal waterworks, irrigation and industrial markets. TYPICAL BOOSTER PUMP CONTROL/PRESSURE REDUCING

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Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

We Bum

The Midnight


X JLt Environment Protection Laboratories Inc. we've established

a new level of technological superi

ority by working harder and smarter than other labs. And if we do happen

to be "burning" a sample late one

night, you can be sure we'll know exactly what's in it.

We are fully equipped to deliver all sampling and analytical require ments of government regulatory programs including; • MISA

• Reg. 309 • CERA

• Landfill/Lakefill

• Air/Waste Regs. • Sewer Use by-laws

Our quality and service standards for testing organic and inorganic environmental contaminants are un

challenged in the industry. It's how we are building our reputation as the standard of excellence against

which all other testing services will be compared.

Yes, we'll continue to burn the mid

night oil. And that means you won't have to spend any sleepless nights.


L's Emission Spectrometer uses an argon plasma to analyze trace elements i toxic metals.

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, Ontario For more information call (416) 673-3255

Watermain materials and infrastructure rehabilitation

Over the past few years,

By J.F. Leppard, P.Eng.

many words have been

MacViro Consultants Inc.

written about the deteri

oration of the existing

municipal infrastructure through out Canada. Municipalities now realize that much of their systems

are either undersized or have physi cally deteriorated to a point where major improvements and replace ments are required. Unquestiona bly, billions are required to upgrade Canada's municipal infrastructure. In addressing the improvements for municipal water distribution systems, design professionals will be faced with many technical and economic factors. The following brief summary outlines some of the pipe materials design professionals may be forced to consider. Ductile iron pipe was first intro duced in Canada in the early 1960's and is currently available in sizes up to 600 mm. It has become widely accepted as a material capable of withstanding the stresses and pres

employed to combat tbis problem including sacrificial anodes,cement mortar coatings and linings, polyethylene sleeves, yellow-jacket and epoxy coatings. With stiff competition from PVC and reinforced concrete pipe,the use of ductile iron pipe watermains may decline, especially in areas with cor rosive soils where expensive corro sion protection is needed. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe

was accepted by the AWWA in tbe


mid 1970's and since that time, has grown in acceptance by the water works industry. Many consider this pipe as possessing the most suitable qualities for pressure pipe while oth ers are uncertain about the long term endurance of PVC pipe. Originally produced in sizes up to 300 mm, PVC is considered a good material for local distribution sys tems. It is not subject to corrosion and its light weight reduces trans portation and installation costs. Recently, the AWWA has issued a specification for PVC pipe up to 900

number of measures are currently

mm in size which will enable it to

sures associated with water distri

bution systems. The material is however, susceptible to both exter nal


internal corrosion.

■ Cover Story

Water colour in the lakes

measures greenhouse effect Observing lakes around the world time they have used it over clear can tell us a good deal about the pro water when light reflected from the gress of the "greenhouse effect". bottom makes the analysis of the Using multi-spectral scanners, it is images more difficult. In future, a task that can increasingly be car scanners very much like the Daeda ried out from aircraft, or even from lus will be mounted on orbiting satellites; the speed of the current, satellites, and it will then be possi the temperature of the water, or the ble to monitor the physical and bio growth of plankton — all can be logical characteristics of lakes in quite remote parts of the globe. seen and remotely measured. The research comes at a time But just how accurate are these measurements? Scientists at the when many lakes throughout the Institute of Freshwater Ecology in world are becoming enriched with the Lake District in North-West agricultural fertilizers and treated England, are seen here comparing sewage effluent — resulting in the "water-colour" images obtained growth of algae. Remote sensing from an airborne Daedalus scanner with much more detailed measure

ments than are possible at ground level. By learning about the differ ent types of "water colour", they hope to be able to select the right

devices estimate the concentration

of algae by measuring the amount of light reflected from the particles in suspension. Research at the insti tute, one of Europe's leading centres of research on inland waters, is to

bands on airborne scanners when

understand more about the relation

examining algae from the air. In recent years, scientists at the

ship between the concentration of particles in suspension and the light

institute have used the scanner to

reflected. Details:Institute ofFresh

map the distribution of algae in the more productive lakes of the Eng

water Ecology, The Windermere Laboratory, Far Sawry, Ambleside, Cumbria, England LA22 OLP.

lish Lake District. This is the first 26

compete with both ductile iron and concrete reinforced pipe. Reinforced concrete pressure pipe was first developed over 40 years

ago and since that time has been recognized as an acceptable pipe in the waterworks industry.

This pipe optimizes the use of steel and concrete and is available in sizes from 400 mm and larger. Thus

this pipe is ideally suited for trans mission pipelines, irrigation net works, water intakes and other applications where large diameter pressure pipe is required. The recent development growth in many areas has increased water demands and thus has significantly increased the need for large diame ter pressure watermains. With limited competition in the larger sizes (over 900 mm),the indications are that the use of reinforced con

crete pressure pipe will continue for both new and rehabilitation projects. Other pipe materials used in the past — such as asbestos cement pipe — would seem to have a limited

future. High density polyethylene and reinforced fibreglass would appear to only have limited applica tions. With the possible exception of Metropolitan Toronto, installation costs may limit the use of concrete encased and concrete lined steel

pipe to very large regional water supply projects. With the apparent trend in a reduction of grants from senior

governments, municipalities will be faced with greater financial chal lenges with respect to infrastructure rehabilitation.

As the various pipe manufactur ers offer a broader range in pipe

sizes, the industry will see an increase in competition and per haps, a relative decrease in pipe costs. If so, all design professionals and municipalities may have to con sider the pipe materials and put aside their current preferences in favour ofthe most economic alterna tive.

Correction The photograph on page 16 of the June/July Issue of ES&E was Incorrect. The photograph was of Mr. Ron LIpsett, M.P.P., Grey Rid ing, Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Energy. It was not Mayer Schwartz of M.M. Dillon Limited.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Towering 29,028 feet. Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth. Many climbers vainly tried to conquer this giant, and more than a few died in the attempt. A pair of now-famous feet were

Whose feet were they, anyway? Fill in your answer on the coupon below, and we'll send you our colourful "MSU 12-Foot Wall

Poster" Featuring The Worlds Greatest Feats... even if you don't get the correct answer.

the first to stand on the summit.

World Famous Feats Unsung rungs.From the heights to the depths MSU steps perform invisible feats daily. Take Manhole steps for instance, MSU's #360 is the only one that's been tested and listed with Underwriters Laboratories

and each one proudly bears the UL mark. And MSU's

Safety "T" Handles attach easily to all our steps. They provide safe entry

We're designers and manufacturers of our own off-the-shelf, wide range of corrosion resistant Safety Steps, Ladders, Platforms, Guard Rails, Manhole Grates. We also custom design and fabri cate special safety equipment to match your specific applications. MSU products provide maximum security and safety for climbing or descending... whether outside a tower, chimney or inside a shaft.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga, Ontario Canada L5J 2M4 MSU 1 EVERESTJB90

For more Intormation, Circle reply card No. 131


'90 Conference

Photo Reports CONTBOtS tllvnTED f.Wir SUM!


Major water & wastewater Conferences this year Included the AQTE meeting in Laval, Quebec (reported in the July ES&E), the BCW&WA meeting in Victoria, BC, the Ontario Section AWWA/OMWA Toronto Con ference and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario

meeting in London, Ontario. Top row shows exhibitors at the BC Conference with Terminal City's Stan Mason. Stan (centre), is a Past President of FACE, a precursor of Canadian Water and Waste Water Association.

Middle row (left to right), AWWASectlon Photos: Earl 28

Were, Badger Meter (member of Publications Commit tee), Dr. Ken Roberts, Conference Chairman, and Mr. and Mrs. Mitobe, taken during Schlumberger's cruise in Toronto Harbour.

Bottom row (left to right), retiring PCAO President Bob Pickett, Metro Toronto Works Dept. with Steve McMInn of M.M. Dillon; Ontario Premier David Peterson, addressing delegates on his home turf of London, Ont.

(centre) and Dave Clough receiving his Bedell Award from WPCF President Art Saarinson, (right). See page 31 for conference reports. Photos by Steve Davey, Ron Canton and Tom Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

From: Aer-O-Flo Environmental

A wastewater

screen so effective it reduces BOD The Aer-0-Flo Drumshear Screen is ideal for

both industrial and municipal wastewater screening

Superior capture rate of solids over conven tional models — 45 microns and up — which

actually reduces BOD Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving lower haulage and/or treatment costs

Rugged 1/4 inch stainless steel construction — thicker and much more durable than the

usual 10 or 12 gauge metal Removable screen panels are a first in the

industry — allowing a change of openings Recoverable Diverter Flights, automatically remove screened solids from cylinder No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain internal and external Spray Cleaning System Low energy requirements

Vari-drive from 3 to 12 r.p.m. allows low h.p. electric motors

Only 4 wheels to lubricate — giving very low maintenance costs

No other screen on the market gives so much flexibility The low operating and maintenance costs of the screen give substantial savings over the life of the equipment — as much as 2to 3times

better than comparable screens — a great investment for better environmental protec tion

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc., 1175 Appleby Line, Unit C-3, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9

Tel:(416) 335-8944, Fax:(416) 335-8972

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 132


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Circle reply card No. 259

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Vision 2000 announced atBCW&WA Roger Dolan, WPCF VP,spoke of

BC Environment Minister John

Reynolds, told the Annual Confer ence of the BC Water & Waste Asso ciation that the environmental

Photo report by Ron Ganton

the "Law of unintended consequen

ces", saying we have to try to define treatment by the end of 1991."

unintended effects of upcoming environmental programs. He

movement was no longer on the margin of society. "Environment is

increased the maximum pollution

defined toxics as the most unre

now the mainstream and it's here to

penalties to $3 million, plus impri

solved question in US regulations

stay," he said.

sonment, and strengthened waste management and environmental enforcement. {Editor's note: See contents page for an extended ver sion of the Minister's paper).

"BC has a strong indigenous environmental movement and citi

zens who rightly expect a high qual ity of life. BC also has a natural heritage unequalled in most other parts of the developed world."

The Minister concluded: "People are outraged when fisheries are closed because of industrial or other

pollution and they've expressed a willingness to pay more for better treatment methods. For pulp mills, BC is phasing in the strictest dioxin regulations in Canada, including a requirement for secondary effluent

The minister noted that BC has

AWWA President Harold Snider, said the costs of better drinking water and compliance must come from customers, but stressed that the water industry "had not told our stories to customers and public." He said the AWWA has over 50,000



Also being considered is

additional chemical treatment to

reduce corrosivity and lead uptake in local and in-house distribution

engineers and operators have deve loped over a century to the point that there are no defined or apparent health risks in drinking water. "But in the 90's, it is not enough to be a professional engineer; we need to improve our performance in


Some 500 delegates attended the

extremely pleased with both the attendance and response to their presentations.

— keynote speaker at the

of water treatment and the skills of

tory. Approximately 1,000 BC operators have passed certification

noted with pleasure that the 1992 AWWA conference will be held in Vancouver.

Toronto Ontario Section Annual Conference —

minced no words as he urged the water industry to strive for better communications. "The technology

plants. Certification was a hot topic of discussion at the meeting and BCW&WA,along with other groups, is pushing to have it made manda

conference. The Trade Show was well attended with exhibitors

better communications

sioner Robert Ferguson

about air emissions from treatment

members and plans to spend $7 mil lion on research in the next year. He

Engineers must strive for

Metro Works Commis

where we still have lots to learn

about while also expressing concern

systems," he said. AWWA Chairman, John Ander son, said the need for an effective

public information and education program was more important than ever. While the Ontario Drinking Water



(ODWIC) funding had run its course, other initiatives would be

considered. "I would like to say that the efforts of the original ODWIC were very effective. I would like to recognize Jim Cralg, who developed and implemented the initial idea of the Council,Tom Davey who worked tirelessly in preparing and present ing ODWIC Bulletins and other arti cles for publication and finally ODWIC Chairman Bob Goodings whose ideas, initiatives and leader ship kept the council active and pro ductive over the past five years." The Toronto conference, jointly held with the Ontario Municipal Water Association, attracted well over 700 attendees.

David Peterson addresses PCAO

the areas of communications and

health risk evaluation. Money should be spent on more research to resolve and define potential health effects. This may be more valuable, and have a higher priority in the 90's than technical research on water related areas.

Ontario Premier, David Peterson,

was the keynote speaker at the open ing session of the PCAO Annual Conference held in London, Onta rio, April 8-10, with some 450 dele gates and over 30 spouses. The Premier said that the MISA

Medical Officers of Health can become more active. To this end we

approach is starting to show results in helping to identify toxic dis charges and develop strategies to

have commenced regular meetings

eliminate them.

with the MOHs and intend to con

"For example, it was always widely believed that the petroleum

"Perhaps this is an area where

sult with them regularly. "Metropolitan Toronto is review ing the potential for optimization and the possible reduction of all pro cess chemicals, particularly alum. We are considering a part plant scale test of ozonation in place of

pre-chlorination to better assess how this might reduce trihalome-

refineries were one of the environ

mentally cleaner industries which discharge into waterways. "But information generated by the first six months of MISA moni

toring shows that Ontario's seven oil refineries are indeed discharging 69 of 149 potential pollutants.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

"This discovery has in turn led to the industry responding positively by searching out new solutions. They are making process changes to fix some of the problems revealed, even before the abatement regula tion is in place. "Inco found that one portion ofthe process changes it devised to cut acid rain pollution would actually provide a 5.9 percent return on investment.




planned by Inco to comply with countdown acid rain is estimated to

provide a 19 percent return on investment.

"Under MISA,we also hope to see industries get more productfrom the raw materials they use, rather than wasting material and then contend ing with contaminated sludges and solid wastes." ES&E


The public is looking to gov

Towards Vision 2001 ryone's agenda — private industry, public agencies, and the public at large.

By John Reynolds*

ernment, at all levels, for environmental leadership. People are looking to indus try to adopt cleaner production tech nology, quickly and regardless of

At the center of EC's environ mental initiatives is the establish ment of a new Sustainable


Environment Fund, the first of its

During the past year, the Pro vince has taken action on a number of fronts.

For Pulp Mills, we're phasing in the strictest dioxin regulations in Canada. We are also including a requirement for secondary effluent treatment by the end of 1991. We've also brought in tough res trictions on PCPs and other wood treatment chemicals which are

another major source of toxic dis charges from the forest industry. Here on Vancouver Island, the province has negotiated the chan geover to natural gas by pulp mills when the pipeline is completed; and throughout B.C. we have a regula tion which severely limits the sul phur content of industrial fuels. A Crown Authority will settle the question of what to do with toxic and hazardous wastes currently in storage.

The recent EC Budget includes over $27 million for waste manage ment programs.

kind in North America.

Among other things, money from this fund will be used for:

•Implementing a 10-year, 1.7 billion dollar Forest Renewal Program; • Carrying out provincial solid waste and hazardous waste man

agement strategies; • Improved environmental protec tion and enforcement; and • Support for the sustainable devel opment process.

The fund is being seeded this year

The Provincial Round Table on

Environment and Economy, will be advising Cabinet on sustainable development strategies and major decisions regarding land use and the environment. The Round Table


represent the widest possible spec trum of views on the environment.

Concurrently, the ministry of environment is developing a docu ment called Vision 2001, which will

attempt to identify the multitude of environmental issues we face.

More importantly,it will lay out a ten-year action plan, a logical pro cess for addressing and resolving

with an immediate transfer of $50

these issues.

million from the Lottery Fund.

Vision 2001 may well become the touchstone to environmentally sound decision-making in British Columbia in the 1990's, and a blue print for action by the ministry of environment and other agencies of

The other main environmental

component is the much wider appli cation, the User-Pay principle. This will include the financing of vehicle tire and battery disposal and recycling programs through sur charges on sales, as well as increases in waste permit fees. Sustainable Development is enjoying great popularity as a slo gan, but its usefulness depends on how quickly it becomes part of eve










Water and Waste Association Annual

Conference, Victoria, B.C.

1720C and Surface Scatter 6 Process"nirbidimeters It's what you don't get that make them the most widely used turbldlmeters In the worldl ■ No Dirty Cells ■ No Stray Light Problems • No False High Turbidity Readings ■ No Gas Bubbles ■ No Loss of Sensitivity at Low Turbidity Levels • No Condensation and Filming ■ No Cleaning and Maintenance Hassles ■ No Need for Deslccants or Air Purge Systems

What you do get ■ Unique optical design wfilch eliminates the need for a glass flow-through sample cell. In both Instruments the sample flows up through a tube and overflows a weir, forming an optically flat surface. ■ The 1720C passes a strong beam of light through the liquid surface to an Immersed detector.

■ Provides the sensitivity and stability re quired for low turbidity levels found In high quality filter water. "Accurate, continuous measurement from 0.001 to 100.0 NTU.


■ The Surface Scatter® 6 focuses a light beam on the liquid surface at an acute angle. A photocell above the liquid detects 90° scattered light making It ideal for monitor ing high solids streams such as raw water, clarifler effluent, and wastewater. ■ Accurate, continuous measurement from O.OI to 9999 NTU.


Loveland, Colorado 80539 U.S.A.

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Sales outlets throughout Canada Instrument Service Centre In Winnipeg

For more information,


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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Water supplies need a user-pay approach

Whatdoes it actually cost to provide clean and

safe drinking water to Canadians?


should the managers of utilities identify, total and recover the true price of the service they provide their communities? A new project undertaken by the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association and

the Rawson Academy of Aquatic Science is going to answer these questions. The two groups,one representing

municipal water utilities and the other concerned about the health of

aquatic ecosystems, believe we are politically, economically, environ mentally and socially irresponsible to consider water a cheap commod ity. Their new venture, called The Canadian Municipal Water and Wastewater System Cost Allocation and Rate Setting Project, will take a close look at the costs of drinking water and environmentally sound

costs as part of their total costs,

will try to break through some of these impediments to a realistic understanding of the price of water. It will establish a case for recover

ing the fully allocated costs of municipal systems. It will develop standard, "CWWA-approved", "ecosystem-responsive" methods for reporting the costs of systems based on all aspects of maintenance and operations,and for setting rates that will lead to cost recovery. One of the most powerful conser vation measures is pricing strategy: when the cost to the consumer goes up, users cut back on waste. The new strategies tor water pricing should lead to better stewardship of the pre cious resource and a reduction in

standardized cost recovery.

anticipated infrastructure expendi tures. Once the pricing strategies are in piace, water biils wiii retiect a reaiistic, rather than traditionai, user-pay principie and city-dweiiers wiii have a better idea of their roie in maintaining the heaith of the aquatic ecosystem.

The construction and mainte nance of infrastructures — the

Setting Project is starting with the

sewage treatment and establish accounting principles to facilitate

question, "just how can one deter mine the actual cost of the water

some do not. The new CWWA-Rawson venture

The Cost Allocation and Rate

that comes out of the tap?" Once those methods are worked out,it will document current Canadian stand

ards for cost allocation and price determination. From there the pro

ject will move on to the problem of distributing and implementing the new methods — by preparing manu als and other literature to get them established.

James F. Hickling Management Consultants Limited (with R.M. London, Ecologistics and Price Waterhouse) has been awarded a contract to work on the two initial

phases of the project, under the direction of CWWA and the Rawson

Academy. The budget for all four phases is $200,000; a major portion of the funding is provided by the Donner Canadian Foundation and Environment Canada.

There's also a CWWA publica tion on a related subject: Meters Made Easy, published this winter. That study provides a cost/benefit model for utilities assessing approp riate meter installation programs. ■

plants, laboratories and delivery systems that keep our water pure and healthy — are far from no-cost activities. And their cost is going to

skyrocket if an estimate made in the 1985 Report of the Inquiry on Fed eral Water Policy comes true. The report predicted that if conservation


measures were not adopted, munici

Smart Turner builds an extensive range of cen

pal water withdrawals could double

trifugal pumpsto meetindustrial and municipal needs. Let us quote on your specific application. Send your pump inquiries to Smart Turner or, betterstill,call ustodayfor

over two decades, rising from 4.3 million m® in 1981 to 8.5 million m''

by 2011. This would mean, of course, major capital investments in water supply and sewage treatment right across the country. Yet most

immediate action.

Canadians consider tap water a

"free" good and waste it shamefully. Cost recovery has not generally been an objective of water utilities, as it has been for other private and public utilities in this country. Nor has there been a standardized finan

cial relationship between the funds a-

collected as water rates and their

•" "i

expenditure for wastewater collec tion and treatment — they have often been used to cover other, totally-unrelated, municipal expen ditures. Consequently, there is no uniform method by which munici

palities access the cost of providing







Some include depreciation, some do not. Some deduct the value of grants from total costs, some do not. Some include operation and maintenance


Smart Turner Limited, 191 Barton St. E., RO. Box 2027. Hamilton, Ontario

LBN 3S8 Tel. (416) 527-4567 / Fax (416) 527-7173

Environmental Science &. Engineering, September 1990

For more information, Circle reply card No. 112



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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Computer-controlled Instrumentation maximizes energy savings of fine bubble aeration

Energy savings are a major

objective in the design and operation of modern sewage treatment plants. As aera tion blowers are the largest single users of energy, any reduction in their use could result in significant energy savings. In seeking methods to improve energy efficiency, more and more plants are now examining the feasi bility of switching from coarse to fine bubble aeration systems. Fine bubble aeration reduces air require ments by improving oxygen transfer. Compared with a ratio of 1.1 kwh/kg of BOD^ (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)removed for coarse bubble aeration, a ratio of 0.6 kwh/kg is believed possible with fine bubble. Even more energy can be saved if

dissolved oxygen (DO) control can be implemented in addition to fine bubble aeration. If concentrations of DO in the aeration tanks exceed

those required by the current biolog ical activity, then energy is wasted.

By Vera Poiyakova, P.Eng.* in size from 3.8 ML/d to 604.8 ML/d

reported significant power savings and/or better effluent in terms of BOD removal. The Canadian Cen

tre for Inland Waters, which carried out extensive investigations into

DO control at the Tillsonburg WPCP, also supports this finding. Gore & Storrie has designed DO control aeration systems at two Ontario water pollution control plants based on this experience. Oakville South-East (31.8 ML/d) and Georgetown (22.7 ML/d), both in the Regional Municipality of Halton, recently converted to fine bub ble aeration supplemented with DO

control. All control logic will be per formed by programmable logic con trollers (PLCs). Microcomputers located in a central control room will

be used to monitor the plant opera tion and set the process parameters.

DO control reduces the amount of

The essential elements of the DO

aeration energy consumed by matching air supply to biological

control systems for these plants are;

activity. A review of twelve U.S.installa

tions practising DO control was con ducted by researchers Genthe, Roesler & Bracken'. Plants ranging

• aeration tanks DO control • blowers air flow control

Figure 1 is a block control dia gram showing the DO control. The DO control system will main tain DO in aeration tanks at a pre-

set level. The system consists of a DO meter, air flow meter, PLC con trol logic, and a tank airflow control (AFC) valve. A signal from the selected DO probe in the aeration tank will change the position ofthe tank AFC valve to maintain the DO setpoint, which is usually set at 2 mg/L from the central computer by the opera tors.

The air flow controller range will he set between two flow limits. Ifthe

air flow is too low,the amount of air delivered to the tank is not sufficient

to provide mixing,allowing solids to settle. If the air flow is too high, the fine bubbles coalesce, creating coarser bubbles and reducing oxy gen transfer. High and low flow lim its are programmed into the system. DO sensors key to realizing energy savings

The key element in the overall success of the system and realiza tion of energy savings is how well the DO sensors perform. Tradition ally, on-line DO sensing probes have been the weakest link in the

automatic DO control system, and their reliable operation depends greatly on ease of maintenance. A typical DO sensing probe (Fig ure 2a) consists of two electrodes

placed in an electrolytic solution and covered with an oxygenpermeable membrane. Oxygen molecules pass through the mem brane into the cell and vary the cur rent generated inside it. The sensor produces a current proportional to the amount offree oxygen in contact with the membrane. When this membrane becomes covered with

grease or dehris in sewage, the oxy gen permeating the membrane is

affected and the sensor reading is inaccurate. Also, exposure to sun light promotes biological growth on the membrane, which also contrib utes to inaccurate readings. These sensors need to be maintained by periodically wiping the membrane and replacing it if it ruptures — a delicate operation. One type of DO sensing probe that reduces maintenance prob* Vera Poiyakova, P.Eng., is Manager of the Instrumentation and Computer Control Division at Gore & Storrie Floater with sensor.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990



Fig. 1 OTHER


The situation is dynamic and ■continuously changes as the jrganic loading varies. Tank AFC valves must modulate continuously to satisfy the DO setpoint. Throt tling the tank AFC valves increases the head on the air blower dis






charge. To minimize energy loss, the most open AFC valve should always be fully open. The control system selects the tank with the most open control valve and monitors it while throt

tling the blower inlet valves. As blower inlet valves throttle down,


the air flow to each aeration tank llNLET VALVE

decreases, and the DO controller opens the tank AFC valve to let in




more air. All AFC valves continue


to open until the control system brings the most open valve to the


100-percent-open position. When the total air flow calculated

lems, and which will be used in the Oakville South-East and George

Most open valve concept At these plants, the blower air flow control system (Figure 1)throt

by the computer system reaches its minimum pre-set level, the last duty blower is turned off after a pre-set time delay.

town plants, is manufactured by Danfoss. It features a cartridge con taining the sensors, electrodes, elec trolyte, and membrane. The whole cartridge can be removed and replaced quickly and easily. The sensor and the cartridge are placed in a round float (Figure 2b), which does not allow rags, plastic film, or other sewage debris to adhere to the sensor. The probe's adjustable

in operation, the organic mass load ing will be different in each tank.

bracket allows the sensor to be

The tank DO concentration reflects

placed in areas where high veloci ties of mixed liquor scour the sensor surface, thus reducing deposits and biological growth on the membrane. A bracket design also allows the

this difference in loading. The sig nal from a selected DO probe in each tank positions the AFC valve to satisfy the tank air requirements. The tank with the lowest DO con

neers — Manuals and Reports on

sensor to be lifted out of the tank for

centration would, therefore, have the most open AFC valve.


inspection and cleaning. Another important consideration is the location of the DO sensors in

the tanks. At Oakville South-East, aeration tanks are a four-pass plug flow design. Sensors are p laced in the second and fourth passes, which

tles the inlet valves of the centrifu

gal blowers to regulate the air flow supply. The control logic also turns the last duty blower on and off according to total air flow demand, while satisfying the aeration tank minimum mixing requirements. With two or more aeration tanks

Converting to fine bubble aera

tion, in combination with the latest advances in instrumentation and

computerized DO control, could ena

ble many plants to reduce the amount of air needed for aeration by approximately one half, and ther

eby realize a significant energy sav ing.


1 Aeration, Water Pollution Control Federation — Manual of Practice FD-

13; American Society of Civii Engi

Engineering Practice No. 68,1988, p.

Fig. 2a ElECTROLirr



are considered the critical areas to monitor. The sensor in the second

pass will be used for the active con trol and is considered representative



of the tank DO level. The sensor in






the fourth pass will be used for a final check of DO levels in the mixed



liquor leaving the aeration tanks. Air flow meters

Kurtz mass air flow meters (Fig. 3) were chosen for measuring indi vidual tank air flow because they do not require temperature or pressure compensation and they create very






j / t

f j



little head loss. Portable mass flow meters are used for in-line air flow

meter calibration. Taps for insert ing the portable meter are also


located in the air header to each

pass and will be used for adjusting the tank air flow profile. 36

Fig. 2b

Fig, 3

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Ftedbility HMCO CARROUSa* Riological Oxidation Systems . '

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Aerobic Digester Designs EIMCO CARROUSEL Systems have been devel oped for aerobic digester applications which incor porate decanting and sludge thickening. Innovative h\.

solutions for new installations and to unique situ ations. The built-in flexibility of EIMCO CARROUSEL Systems can increase capacity, or increase nitrogen and phosphorous removals to almost any desired level by upgrading to a BARDENPHO'" Process without the complexity of chemical additives or re cycle pumping. EIMCO technology and engineering expertise has been developed from hundreds of operating CAR ROUSEL oxidation facilities worldwide. Affiliation with

DHV, The Netherlands accesses EIMCO engineers to design data and experience from more than 500 operating units. Design data from the smallest to the largest...from simple to complex...from torrid to frigid climatic conditions...almost every possible situation has been experienced and satisfactorily resolved using the CARROUSEL System. No one offers the proven performance record and knowledge gained




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t. 4

Operation and maintenance of Toronto's vaives and hydrants

TheCity ofToronto hassome

I,200 kilometres of watermain with approximately II,950 valves and 8,950 fire

hydrants. Sections of the system are over 100 years old. The annual cost of preventative maintenance for the City's distribution system is some $7,000,000. This includes scheduled maintenance programs

on valves and hydrants on a regular cycle. For the most part, these pro grams are carried out hy City staff. Fire Hydrant Operation and Maintenance

Of the City's 8,950 hydrants, 90

percent are City of Toronto hydrants which were manufactured from standard patterns. These hydrants are no longer manufac tured. The remaining 10 percent of

hydrants are of the commercial type, which are now used in all new installations. All new hydrants are required to have two 65 mm ports and one 100 mm quick connect port for use by Fire Department

pumpers. The City will be imple menting a program to convert exist-

By D.S. Crichton, P.Eng., Acting Chief Engineer, Engineering Section, and P. Fortune, Water Superintendent of Operations Section, City of Toronto.

ing hydrants, where feasible, to incorporate the additional 100 mm quick connect port. The City is divided into six dis tricts for the purpose of fire hydrant inspection, with approximately 1,500 hydrants in each district. A full-time inspector is assigned to each district. Each hydrant is nor mally inspected once every five weeks, so that each inspector inspects approximately 60 hydrants daily. Each inspector reports in daily by telephone to advise of any hydrants which require immediate attention. In cases of extreme emer

temporary basis. Minor defects are reported on a daily complaint form, which is then referred to one of the

two two-person valve and hydrant maintenance crews for attention.

Major repairs, such as the replace ment of the hydrant, are carried out by the appropriate District Mainte nance Yard.

Detailed records are

kept on the whole process. Each inspector is equipped with a hydrant key, a plumb bob, an aquaphone, and a route book and the inspection procedure is as follows: 1. A visual examination of the

hydrant to determine any damage that may have been caused by

impact by automobiles or other causes and of the hydrant's general appearance.

2. Examination ofthe caps to ensure that the washers are in good condi tion and that the chains are intact. 3. Examination of the nozzles to

gency, he reports immediately to the Emergency Dispatcher. There is a direct line from the Emergency Dis patcher to the Fire Department which is used to report any hydrants

ensure that they are properly caulked into the hydrant body and that the threads are in good condi

which are out of commission on a

4. By means of the plumb bob,check



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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

for the pressure of water in the hydrant barrel. 5. The aquaphone is then to be used on the hydrant to test for possible leaks.

6. With caps in place, the hydrant is to be charged and note made if the spindle is stiff to operate. City of Toronto hydrants open when the

spindle is turned in a counter clockwise direction. 7. With the air released from the

hydrant and the hydrant still charged,the caps are to be tightened and any leakage around the caps, nozzles or frost jacket is to be reported. If leakage occurs around the packing nut, the inspector is to attempt to tighten the packing nut to stop the leakage. If the leakage cannot be stopped, the hydrant must be reported as requiring repacking. 8. The hydrant is then to be shut down, a cap removed, and a note made of whether the hydrant drains satisfactorily and the cap replaced. 9. Any obstructions around the hydrant and any illegal use of any hydrant is also reported. During winter months, inspec tion procedures are identical to that for summer months, except that the

spindle is operated only sufficiently

This is done to ensure that all the

• The valve number, which is also

valves are in good working order and can be closed in an emergency. Small valves (150 mm in diameter and smaller), are normally operated at a maximum of three-year inter vals and large valves are normally operated annually. Minor repairs and maintenance, such as packing glands, replacing broken spindles,replacing defective gates and bolts that have become coiroded, are carried out by the twoperson valve and hydrant mainte nance crews. Spares are obtained

indicated on the watermain distri bution sheets. •The block number and the location of the valve. • The size of the valve.

firom other valves that have been

scrapped or are manufactured in the City's machine shop.

With major repairs,such as defec tive domes, or if the valve will not open or close, the appropriate Dis trict Maintenance Y ard is informed

and the defective valve is usually replaced with a new valve and a spacer for future maintenance. Whenever a valve is operated,the crew fills in a record sheet for the

particular value. The record sheets are used to update the computerized value inventory system which is used to manage the value operation and maintenance program. The valve inventory is coded and contains the following information:

•The type of valve (e.g. gate valve) and type of valve joint (e.g. flange). • If there is a valve chamber, the chamber material(e.g. brick), and if there is a chamber drain, the condi tion of the drain (e.g. plugged). •The water valve position (e.g. verti cal). • The water valve gland condition and type of packing. • The direction to open the water valve and the number of turns to

open and close the valve. • The normal position of the valve (e.g. open), the position in which it was found, and the position in which it was left.

• The fault code (e.g. faulty operat ing nut).

• The date when the last inspection was made. •The number of the water distribu tion sheet where the valve is located.

This remedial program of operat ing and inspecting valves on a regu lar






improvement in valve closure over the years.

to ensure that it is not frozen, and not enough to permit water to enter the barrel of the hydrant where it might freeze. Also, the use of the

aquaphone during cold months is limited.

Spare parts for repair of commer cial hydrants are purchased from manufacturers. Spare parts for the City of Toronto hydrants are either taken from old hydrants that have been scrapped, or are manufactured from standard patterns in the City's machine shop. Every summer, the City hires students for two twoperson crews to paint City hydrants. The cycle for painting for each hydrant is about once every five years.

Watermain Valve Operation

Leak detection for

underground storage tanks. Proven

technology Intrinsically safe @

and Maintenance

Most of the City's 11,950 valves are gate valves. There are,however, some butterfly valves and check valves. Current City policy is for all valves up to 300 mm in size to be resilient seated gate valves. But terfly valves are used for valves greater than 300 mm in size. All main valves are constructed in con crete valve chambers.

The new Series DMS from Warrick Controls is the solution for

underground storage tank monitor ing. Utilizing intrinsically safe com ponents, the Series DMS actively monitors up to four tank systemsfor over-fill protection, leak detection

Two crews, each consisting of two workers and a truck, are assigned on a continual basis to operate and inspect all the 11,950 watermain valves in the City's watermain distribution system.

and can distinguish between hydro carbons and water. The Series DMS is available for

double wall fibreglass and steel tanks, fuel tanks, chemical tanks

and monitoring wells. For more detailed information, write or call...

Davis Controls LIMITED

2200 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario L6H 5R3 Tel: (416) 829-2000 Fax: (416) 829-2630 For more Information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Circle reply card No. 115


Assessing alternatives to CFCs

The deleterious effect of a

build-up in levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the ozone layer that sur

rounds the Earth is now well known.

Serious depletion of the ozone layer would cause global warming and allow harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun to reach the Earth's

surface. The dangerous rise in sea levels resulting from the melting of the ice caps at the poles would cause flooding along many coastal areas. The use of CFCs is so widespread in industry and in products for domestic use, however, that their

replacement by safer chemicals presents a serious scientific prob lem. The annual consumption of CFCs in the European Community alone is some 150,000 to 200,000 tonnes.

Apart from their principal use in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, they are also employed as propellants in aerosols, as foam blowing agents for packaging and insulating hoards, as solvents in the electronics industry, and as steriliz ers in the production and use of med ical products. They are also used in the process ing of spices and nuts, in gaseous dielectrics for the electrical power industry, in fire extinguishers, and as feedstocks in the chemical pro cess industry for the fluorination of polymers. In addition, CFCs play an impor tant role in scientific applications as modelling fluids for two-phase flow

Arthur Fryatt, C.Eng., MIProdE.

studies. Experiments have shown that the release into the atmosphere of the current range of halogenated hydrocarbons (the CFCs)is already markedly depleting ozone levels in the stratosphere over the polar ice caps.


The original CFCs were designed to be non-flammable, non-toxic and chemically inert. Their replace ments should have similar proper ties but a low ozone depletion potential. That potential is a relative mea sure of the ability to destroy the ozone layer. It is expressed as a com bination of the percentage weight of chlorine in the halogenated hydro carbon fluid and the lifetime of the

fluid in the atmosphere. On the basis that original CFCs had an ozone depletion potential coefficient of 1, and those used in fire-fighting equipment anything from 3 to 10, new compounds that will disperse much more readily in the atmosphere have been sought. A new series of fluids currently being developed,the hydrofluorocar bons (MFCs), are less stable and, being readily hydrolysed In the trop osphere, are believed to be more environmentally acceptable than CFCs. On the coefficient scale men

tioned above, their ozone depletion potential ranges from 0 to 0.05. How-

ever, data for the new MFCs are both scarce and of limited accuracy.

Given the choice of producing efficient, low-cost equipment or using environmentally safer fluids, economic pressures will influence industry to accept the status quo and, until regulatory measures become effective, designers ofequip ment will continue to use the welltried CFC fluids. The lack ofreliable

data for the new HFCs is, therefore, a major deterrent to their adoption. In order to meet this need, Bri tain's National Engineering Labor atory(NEL)has embarked on three important projects, some work for which is being undertaken in part nership with universities and indus try. The projects' aims are to determine the thermophysical prop erties of environmentally accepta ble halogenated hydrocarbons and their heat transfer characteristics, and to investigate the design ofcom pact heat exchangers needed for their use.

Thermopfiyslcal Properties To assess the economic and tech

nical effectiveness of competing industrial processes, it is necessary to have reliable standardized data

on the physical properties of the working fluids. Many of the required thermophysical character istics are extremely difficult to mea sure — especially thermal conduct ivity — and the development of improved measuring techniques would be invaluable.

In collaboration with Imperial College, London, and Aristotle Uni versity, in Thessalonlkl, Greece, the NEL is undertaking the develop ment of improved measurement techniques which will lead, in par ticular, to the establishment of accu rate

HYDROGEN Flammable





over a wide range of conditions, from the liquid phase at low temper ature and pressure, to the gaseous phase at high temperature and pres sure. Effort is being concentrated on the particular group of HFCs with heat transfer applications, for example those most suitable for use in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, and as blowing agents in insulating foams and boards. This information does not exist at the moment and will benefit both


Diagram Illustrating that the properties of CFCs are determined by their com positions. The compositions of various chlorine, fluorine/hydrogen contents 42


Measurements will be carried out


are denoted by R numbers.


thermal conductivity, as well as cer tain other thermophysical proper ties, of halogenated hydrocarbons and their azeotropic mixtures.

Details; National Engineering Laboratory, East Kl lbrlde, Strathclyde, Scotland, United Kingdom, G75 OQU. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

We do Environmental Analysis to help you control pollution

MISA Governments are taking an active role in recognizing and controlling hazardous chemicals in the environment. In Ontario, regulations are being prepared under MISA,(Municipal-Indus trial Strategy for Abatement), to strictly control toxic contaminants in \A/ater. MISA will affect both the industrial and the municipal sectors and will set the standards for other jurisdictions to follow. We at Mann Testing have established comprehensive screening methods to accurately identify and measure contami nants in water, air and soil samples. Recently, we have developed

cost effective, automated anal^ical methods specifically for use with MISA.

•monitoring airborne chemicals from landfills and industrial sites

•detection of ultra-trace organics and metals in drinking water •analysis for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

(PCDD)and furans(PGDI^ •analysis of soil, water and oils for polychlorinated biphenyls (PGB's) •analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH's) •analysis of specific compounds •toxic metals

•organic acids •general water quality parameters

Monitor Our experienced chemists can monitor hazardous chemicals in the following areas: •water; waste treatment effluents, drinking water, ground water and lakes

•soil; sediment and waste chemical sludges •air; both outdoor and indoor

•foods; fish, animals, fruits, grains, vegetables

Commitment All analysis of highly toxic materials is performed in our High Hazard Laboratory which is specifically designed to protect both the environment and personnel. This responsible approach is a reflection of our commitment to the preservation of the environment.

When you require environmental analysis or want more infor mation on our services, please call or write us.

Quality The level of service provided assures the accurate measurement of chemicals by using state-of-the-art instrumentation and an extensive Quality Assurance/Quality Control Program.The result is a cost efficient service to our clients.

Expertise Some of the areas where our expertise has been successfully applied include: •EPA Priority Pollutant Analysis for trace organics and metals •characterizations of hazardous substances in landfill sites

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO L4Z 1P1 PHONE:(416) 890-2555 TELEX: 06-960496 FAX: (416) 890-0370 24 HOUR EMERGENCY PHONE(416) 237-8283 For more Information, Circle reply card No. 116


Heat Exchangers

Assessing the alternatives to CFCs continued companies manufacturing these

fluids, the research project covers a

fluids and government health and safety departments assessing envir

number of areas. These include vali

onmental issues.

The measurement technique adopted for the NEL project is the transient hot-wire method. This has

evolved over many years, with the principal development and refine ment having been achieved in the mid-1970s by Professor Wakeham of Imperial College. It is now regarded internationally as the sole reliable method for the measurement ofther

mal conductivity of fluids in both liquid and gaseous phases. Validation Tests

Since the new series of HFCs are less stable than their older CFC

counterparts, it is necessary to improve the method of measure ment to overcome problems of cata lysed thermal decomposition and ionisation. The technology for this, using oxidised tantalum wires instead of platinum, has been estab lished at the Greek University. Apart from the development and standardization of improved mea surement procedures for the deter mination of the thermal conductiv

ity of readily catalysed and ionized

dation tests to prove the procedure method, and the establishment of definitive experimental data that can be used for both the assessment

of existing plant and the design of new plant, and as reference stand ards.

European manufacturers will be consulted on the optimum set of HFC fluids and mixtures to be stu

died, and on the order of measure ment. The NEL is also developing a facility to undertake accurate pressure-volume-temperature or density measurements on the HFCs in the single phase region over a wide range of pressures and temper atures.

The operation of the apparatus is based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle, and uses the magnetic suspension coupling to transmit the suspension force of a buoy in the test fluid through the pressure vessel wall to a microbalance in ambient conditions.

Using a suitable cooling device, operation of the equipment could be extended down to-50°C. Employing a single quartz buoy, the uncer tainty in the measurement of den sity is expected to be within ±0.1%.

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The equipment used will handle a refrigerant at pressures of between 100 KPa and 1 MPa,and at tempera tures from -40° to 20°C. Tbe project includes measuring the perfor mance of the refrigerant both in tubes and on the shell-side of a heat

exchanger. In addition to research relating to

the physical properties of the new HFCs as refrigerants, the NEL is considering the impact of their use on the equipment employed in refri geration cycle plant. The higher cost of the new refrigerants, and safety and environmental consider ations vvill encourage innovations that permit a reduction in the volume of refrigerant required in a given system. The NEL is carrying out some exploratory work into a new form of highly compact heat exchanger sur face. If successful, this will lead to more compact heat exchangers and to potential benefits in plant energy consumption and in process intensi fication — for example, the combin ation of several heat-exchange ele ments in a single core. Common Features

The types of compact heat exchanger already being considered by industry for these more demand ing duties are principally the plate fin heat exchanger(PFHE)— whose development is being extended from the above-gas separation, or cry ogenics, industries — and the printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), which was originally deve loped for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems. These types, however, have serious




technology. The degree of compact ness of the PFHE is restricted, and size is constrained by stainless steel units, for example. The PCHE is more compact but it makes less effective use of material

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When completed, this project will provide essential information on the low-temperature heat-transfer char acteristics of HFCs in refrigeration and air-conditioning plant. HFCs

tains features common to both the PCHE and PFHE varieties but with

out their disadvantages.


work in collaboration with indus

trial partners is planned. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control nical Seminar in Edmonton heard a


R&D News

paper by R. Dick and his colleagues at Barringer Research Ltd. on an improved airborne laser fluorosen sor system for the detection and identification of floating oil. This system uses XeCl excitation at

5^. lAWPRC

308nm and measures fluorescence


Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer.

from 300 to 630nm, with 5nm spec tral resolution and 12-bit amplitude, 1.5m range and 1 x 3mrad spatial resolutions.

Volatile Organic Emissions H. Melcer has been assessing the

release of volatile organic contami nants (VOCs)from municipal sew age treatment plant aeration basins. This scientist at Environ ment Canada's Wastewater Tech

nology Centre found that the stripping of VOCs can be minimized by installing high oxygen transfer efficiency fine-bubble diffusers and by strictly minimizing air flow rates to the level required for the mainte nance of dissolved oxygen and mix ing requirements. Pilot plant studies suggest that this would likely ensure that less than 5% ofthe influent





chlorinated VOCs entering the aera tion basin would he stripped. However, a substantial percentage of the chlorinated VOCs would be

stripped even under these optimal conditions.

Impact of Acid Rain Research to assess the damage to lakes in Eastern Canada due to

acidic deposition was undertaken by C.K. Minns and colleagues in the Department of Fisheries and

made for rapid change of spectral coverage and for the use of other las ers. Adjustable range gating allows for detection of submerged oil and depth profiling.

Fish and molluscs were the most

Potential exchange of phosphorus between sediments and lakewater, and particulate sediments and pore-

affected of seven aquatic taxonomic groups, and rotifers the least. Measurement of Sludge Solids It is common to freeze sludge sam

ples for many weeks, if not months, before undertaking solids measure

ments. In a joint research study, Ecole Polytechnique scientist N.A. Roy and M.A. Desjardins of Bertrand Roy Experts-conseils Inc. assessed the effects of freezing

sludge samples on measurements of solids. As described in Sciences et

Techniques de I'eau, it was found that total solids,total volatile solids, and percent dry solids were underes timated and that the standard devi ation on the means was consider

ably increased after freezing. How ever, the measurement of percent volatile solids was unaffected.

Oceans and at Environmental and

Laser Fluorosensor Detection

Social Systems Analysts Ltd. As

of Oil Spills Delegates attending the 13th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Tech

described in the Canadian Journal

of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,

Provision has been

linked regional chemical and biotic models predicted that at least 20% of all lakes (55,000) in 15 of 38 secon dary watersheds in eastern Canada had lost at least 20% of their poten tial species richness given 1990 acidic sulphate deposition levels.

Exchange of Phosphorus from Sediments

water was evaluated in nine eutro-

phic lakes in Alberta. As described in the Journal of Environmental

Quality, lakewater above the sedi ments, porewater, and sediments were collected from shallow depths. The results obtained by University of Alberta scientists J.F.H. Shaw

and E.E. Prepas indicate that there is potential for the transport of phos phorus from sediments to lakewater when iron is not abundant,and that

pH is important in the regulation of phosphorus exchange between par ticulate sediments and porewater. Waste Leaching Tests H.W Campbell of Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre has issued a compendium of waste leaching tests. This compen dium is a layperson's introduction

to leaching tests. It describes leach ing in terms of concepts rather than Continued overleaf


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Probability Model for Acid Rain Data

R&D News continued

Acidification models permit the pre

mathematical equations,introduces a classification and uniform nomen

clature for leaching tests, and includes a glossary and a compre hensive bibliography. As such, it

gives the novice an overview of leaching test purposes, experimen tal features, and the interpretation of test results while providing the expert with a unique list of referen ces.

diction of changes in lake or stream chemistry that correspond to changes in acid deposition and allow for the identification ofimpor tant acidification factors.

In a

paper accepted for publication in Water Research, A.H. El-Shaarawi and A. Naderisamani develop a probability model to represent lake alkalinity distributions. The result ing distributional model allows more flexibility and extends the scope of applications to a wider class of distributions than other

Biological Phosphate Removal

In a paper published in Sciences et Techniques de I'eau, University of Quebec's Y. Comeau reviews a number of factors related to process and design for biological phosphate removal. Topics include the various process configurations for biologi cal phosphate removal and primary sludge fermentation, a critical pres entation of available design guides, and a summary of factors affecting performance. A summary table presents concepts for the choice of a treatment configuration and for pro cess optimisation. General perspec tives for the application of biolog ical phosphorus removal are also discussed.

models which are presently availa ble. The results obtained with lake data showed that there was an

improved agreement between the pH-alkalinity relationship and the observations when the water colours are 30 Hazen units or less.

and fed with a synthetic medium based on volatile fatty acids. After 60 days of reactor operation, three distinct granule types were found to have evolved within the reactors.

The proportion of these granules, which differed in colour,texture and elemental composition, was depend ent on the organic loading rate. At a low loading rate, less dense gra nules appeared which were washed out at the top of the reactor. Interpretation of PCS Analysis Data Commercial FOB



made up of various FOB congeners and homologues, and each mixture is characterized by a different distri bution of these compounds. By using a computer-assisted pattern recognition technique, it is now pos sible to carry out a principal compo nent analysis on the complete set of raw data obtained from the FOB

Characteristics of Granules

University of Western Ontario scientist N. Kosaric and his col

leagues studied the characteristics of granules from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. As des cribed in a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research, granules from an industrial reactor were maintained in bench scale reactors

analysis of environmental samples. The technique permits a match to be made between the resulting FCB patterns and specific commercial FCB mixtures. National Water Research Institute scientists F.I.

Onuska and S. Davies applied the technique to FCB data from water, sediment and biota samples col lected from the Hamilton and Whea-

tley harbours.

Business and the Environment

A Partnership or... a $10 Million Lawsuit? Every business must recognize situations potentially dangerous to the environment and comply with the regulations established to protect our natural resources. When you need help, do you know where to turn? Have you complied with the regulations? Do you need government approval or an environmental assessment? Do you have a problem with contaminated land or with waste transportation and disposal? What are your civil remedies? If you have responsibility for environmental issues in your organization, you should already know the answers, or where to find them.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

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The AJO system also gets rid of nitrogen and BOD more efficiently and economically than conventional systems. The end product is a high density, non-bulking sludge. Because it's free of chemicals, disposal costs are lower; because it's rich in nutri ents, you may find a market for it. More patented A/O systems are in use in North America than any other biological phosphorus removal systems. They operate as efficiently

with proven appli cation development procedures, pilot studies, performance guarantees and lifetime support. AJO systems provide the kind of performance that the times demand. Learn more about this very effective technology by calling or writing Air Products, 2090 Steeles Ave. E., Brampton, Ontario, L6TlA 7. Telephone:(416) 791-2530; Fax:(416) 791-6808.


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Circle reply card No. 135


R&D News continued

amounts of the halocarbons in the

form, chlorinated PCBs.

Analysis of Pesticides,

lake during a 4-day sampling period. These National Water Research

PCBs and PAHs

For studies of contaminant trans

port and effects in heavily polluted rivers, it is preferable to have a methodology for the analysis of water, sediment and biota samples which enables the full spectrum of



Fast Analysis of Sodium

derived good correspondence for both the spatial distribution of chemicals and for predicted concen trations. The model performance provides confidence for its applica tion as a management tool for pre

chemicals of interest to be deter

diction of the distribution of toxic

mined from a single sample. S.F. Batchelor and colleagues at the

contaminants resulting from accid ental chemical spills.

and Potassium

In order to improve the efficiency of existing methods for the routine analysis of sodium and potassium in water samples, 1. Sekerka and J. Lechner incorporated a continuous flow injection system in a method based on atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Because of the

National Water Research Institute

have developed such a method using silica gel fractionation. This silica gel column method uses a series of solvents of increasing polarity to separate a single sample into five fractions for the analysis of 143 PCB congeners, PAHs, and organochlorine, organophosphate, triazine, amide, and carhamate pesticides. Modelling Halocarbon Distribution As described in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, E. Halfon, T.J. Simons and W.M.Schertzer used the

TOXFATE model, coupled with a hydrodynamic model, to predict the fate of seven volatile halocarbons in Lake St. Clair. The model was suc

cessfully verified by comparing pre dicted




benzenes and

excellent results obtained

Volatilization of Chemicals


regard to sensitivity, precision and accuracy, these National Water Research Institute scientists pro pose the new method as a viable alternative to the direct aspiration AAS method which is commonly

at Waterfalls

Environmental Science and Tech

nology presents a conceptual model of volatilization of organic chemi cals at waterfalls developed by M. McLaughlin, D. Mackay and P.H. Jones. It is suggested that the extent of volatilization may be con trolled by diffusion limitations (as in the case with oxygen and chemi cals with large air-water partition coefficients), by the flow rate of air into the plunge pool (for chemicals with low air-water partition coeffi cients) or both. These University of Toronto scientists applied the model to eleven organic contaminants present in the water of Niagara Falls. The results suggest that vola tilization is significant for chloro

used. The method allows automated

determinations and throughput rates of 120-180 samples per hour, which is an advantage to laborato ries conducting routine analyses on a large number of samples. Filamentous Organisms in Activated Sludge G. Nowak and G.D. Brown, scient ists at the Gold Bar wastewater

treatment plant in Edmonton, investigated the characteristics of the filamentous organism Nosto-

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coida limicola and its activity in activated sludge to determine nutri

tional requirements and growth fac tors. As described in the Research

Journal WPCF, N. limicola in pure culture reproduced very well under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on

a variety of carbohydrates if pep tone was present in the media. In activated sludge, its occurrence was associated with the conditions of

low organic loading and extended MCRT. Growth of N. limicola can

be controlled successfully in acti vated sludge systems by means of an anoxic selector or reduced sludge age.

Dissolved Oxygen Methods New procedures for water sample preservation and dissolved oxygen (DO) determinations have been developed by National Water Research Institute scientists I. Sekerka and J.F. Lecbner. The

determinations are done by spectro-

pbotometric analysis, and a large number of samples can be processed through the use of a continuous flow injection system. The new preserva tion procedure maintains the DO level in the samples for up to 70 days after the time of sampling. The over all method achieves adequate levels of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility. The use of continuous flow injection makes it particularly suitable for automation. Pesticides In Groundwater

Agitation In Wastewater Treatment University of Windsor scientists D.W. Macbina and J.K. Bewtra stu died the use of bottom or surface

conditions in different water and wastewater treatment units.

fluid velocity within air-agitated cir cular and rectangular vessels as a possible design parameter to achieve a specified scale of agita tion. The results, published in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engi-

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

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pesticides and their degradation products in the subsurface as part of the pesticide registration review process. Three reports recently issued by the National Water Research Institute provide an excel

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ing on a two-year study to develop an expert system for predicting the migration and transformation of pesticides in soil and shallow groundwater. The system will be used to assess the adverse effects of

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A case history

Vital steps in practical waste management By Steven J.B. Carter, P.Eng. and Fernand Hamelin, GET

The Ontario Government

announced in March 1989,

that efforts would he made

to reduce waste by 25% hy 1992, and by 50% by the year 2000. This waste at present is either landfilled or incinerated. Eighteen months later, however, it is clear that several barriers must he over

come if these goals are to be achieved.

First, our established behaviour

patterns need to be changed. Some people will go out of their way to follow "good" environmental practi ces, but perhaps two-thirds of us will only follow such practices ifthey are made easy to the point of habit. Then there are some people who will only subscribe to Blue Box programs and other initiatives if forced to by legislation or hard economics. Second, there is a lack of knowhow in setting and achieving waste management goals of recycling, reusing or reducing (the 3-R's) mate rial. Goals must be tailored to each

community and be backed by wil ling community participation if they are not to fall short of expecta tions. An effective waste manage

ment strategy should prioritize waste reduction options and he based upon a clear regulatory framework. It should also be flexi

ble enough to shift direction as com panies come and go, and as changes in tipping fees or 3-R practices begin

This depot gives do-it-yourselfers a way to dispose of used crankcase oil. Photo: T. Davey

to affect waste streams.

Third, markets for recycled goods are not yet operating properly. There is a glut of newsprint to be recycled, for example, while PET plastics must at present be shipped to processing facilities outside of Ontario. Legislative action,such as raising tipping fees or banning cer tain materials from landfills, is needed to drive market development in some areas and to increase partic ipation in non-mandatory 3-R mea sures.

Before any initiative is under taken, however, a working knowl edge of local waste streams and of market 3-R potential must be deve

loped. Once tentative goals are decided upon, meetings should be

held with those concerned, such as waste haulers and affected indus

tries. Generators of large quantities of waste often decide to make their

own disposal arrangements, per haps taking advantage of waste exchange opportunities. For others, source separation schemes prove more attractive.

A Case Study

A practical approach to the prob lem is being taken by Cornwall, a city of some 50,000 people in South ern Ontario. Although the existing landfill has an expected remaining life of about 20 years, Cornwall has recognized a need to take steps now to institutionalize 3-R waste man

agement practices. A preliminary assessment found that industrial, commercial and institutional sources generated about three-quarters of the waste entering the Cornwall landfill. A more detailed study of these waste streams departed from the usual approaches of either mailing questi onnaires or of examining only a "representative" sample of the com munity. Instead, a team of locally resident university students was recruited and a survey conducted under the guidance of waste man agement consultant Jim Dutfield of the Blofield Group. 'Steven Carter, P.Eng. is an Environ mental Engineer with Hatch Asso ciates Ltd. Fernand Hamelin, GET, is

the Manager of Public Works in Corn wall.

Hatch Associates have been

retained by Cornwall as consulting

Blue Box Recycling underway in York Region. Ont. Photo: Steve oavey 50

engineers for their recycling facility.

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Everyone was visited, from large industries to small corner stores.

Local media had informed people of the study and of the reasons for tak ing 3-R measures. A Steering Com mittee included representatives from local business, and the stu dents were armed with a letter of

introduction from the Mayor. Most people had little idea of the type of waste their business pro duced, hut were happy to answer

questions and to allow the contents of their waste collection bins to be

inspected. Over a period of several weeks, a detailed picture of the waste streams was built up,examin ing more than 30 types of material. Using records available at the land fill, the picture was extended to pro vide an understanding of how waste streams vary during the year. A computer was needed to pro cess such large amounts of data, and a Waste Information system was developed and installed on a desktop computer at the Depart ment of Public Works. Assessing

control of the City's Landfill, Recy cling Centre, Filtration Plant and Wastewater Plant. The department is also responsible for initiating 3-R schemes such as specific industrial waste reduction programs. Arrange ments were made for the Ontario

Waste Management Corporation to give a seminar on waste manage ment to major waste generators. Local school hoards were also informed of 3-R initiatives available

to them. A residential Blue Box pro gram will begin this Autumn, sup ported by a new $1.5 million recycling centre designed to allow future expansion if need be. The

City will halve the frequency of gar bage collection following introduc tion of this program. One year after Ontario Environ ment Minister Jim Bradley's announcement, major steps have been taken by Cornwall to meet the challenge. There is a communitywide enthusiasm for the City's Waste Management strategy, per haps reinforced by the industrial nature of the area. As the present 3-R measures take hold, new ideas and opportunities will no doubt emerge which will further reduce the amount of waste being directed to the community landfill. ES&E

Westinghouse Environmental Services


information became a matter of

using screen menus to explore ideas for waste management. Even ques tions such as which companies gen erate more than 25 tons per week

•Hydrogeological Assesments

(tpw) of cardboard and between 19 and 30 tpw of aluminum were quickly answered. There are simple rules to make such a system a success. The fewer buttons to be pushed the better. The

•Solid and Hazardous Landfill Design •Bioremediation (Insitu-Bioreactor-Composting)

user should be able to see a sum

mary of the data requested, and it should he easy to update informa tion. Cornwall's system can also print out names and addresses for letters, so that companies can easily

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be informed of new initiatives or rec

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The Environment Trade Show and

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.Solid and liquid waste management . Recycling . Hazardous waste management . Air pollution instrumentation and equipment . Laboratory analysis/testing . Professional/consulting services . Waste handling equipment vehicles . Research and development . Spill containment . Miscellaneous environment products

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The broadening range of tougher environmental legislation from all levels

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supermarket" of goods, services, and Information. Business, government and professionals require solutions to a variety of environmental problems - air, water, wastewater, solld/llquld waste, recycling, legal issues, and legislation that are compatible and comprehensive. Association conferences and government seminars will continue to address their

members' and publics' requirements. However, thousands of small to mediumsize businesses now require assistance In meeting environmental regulations ranging from occupational health and safety to waste management, air and water standards. For this they need a broadly-representative trade forum. The Second Annual Environment Trade

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THE ADVISORY COUNCIL .Stephen A. Toplack Air & Waste Management Association . Alan Gordon Alan Gordon & Associates

. Robert J. D. Page, Ph.D. Canadian Environmental Advisory Council . Harry P. Cleghorn Concord Scientific Corporation .R. K. Smith The Eden Foundation

.Tom Davey Environmental Science & Engineering . Roland Hosein, Ph.D. General Electric Canada Inc.

. David H. Morgan Goodyear Canada Inc. . Gerard Lynch

ENVIRONMENT CONGRESS Planned topics include Incineration/ re-use/recycling, U.S. environmental regulations, and technical seminars. Write or phone for more information on our full program.

Gore & Storrie Limited

. J. George Kurys, Ph.D., P. Eng. J. G. Kurys & Associates .Patrick Carson

PUBLIC ENVIRONMENT SHOW Show management has donated 60,000 sq ft. of floor space for use by "green" organizations, non-government agencies,

Loblaw Companies Ltd./lntersave .George Reddom Laldlaw Waste Systems Limited .Chong Chai Lummus Canada

.Robert G. Ferguson, P. Eng. Metropolitan Toronto Works Department . Dusanka Flllpovich, P. Eng.

and associations to communicate their

programs to the public. Conference/ seminar space Is also available. Contact show management for your space.

Union Carbide Canada Ltd. . Paul D. Hunt Monarch Fine Foods

. Robert A. Flemington, P. Eng. Ontario Multi-Material Recycling Inc.


. R. W. A. Cochrane Ontario Sewer & Watermain Contractors . Richard F. Nowlna

.Ontario Waste Management Association . Ontario Multi-Material Association


. Air and Waste Mangement Association . Ontario Sewer and Watermain Contractors

.All levels of management in government and industry . Engineers, consultants, developers, architects .Those responsible for operations, plant management, processing, quality control. . Technologists . Representatives of: - Public and private utilities - Resource Industries

- Academic and R&D institutions, laboratories - Service


- Transportalon and trucking


. Ontario Pollution Control Equipment Association . United Fund for Environment

.Environmental Science & Engineering (Olllclal Publication)

Ontario Waste Management Corporation . F. J. Hopton, Ph.D. ORTECH International

. Allen Fracassi

Philip Environmental Group . Brian Evans

Proctor & Redfern Group . R. Larry Madden R. L. Madden Associates

HOW TO EXHIBIT IN OR VISIT THE SHOW OR REGISTER FOR THE CONGRESS See adverstlsement (Page 15) for information coupon, or phone (416) 234-1240 or FAX (416) 234-1695 Barry WInfleld, Show Executive

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

.Gerry Rupke Rupke & Associates Ltd. . Victor Chin, P.Eng R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

. W. Paul McCague Smith Lyons Torrance Stevenson & Mayer . Robert J. Redhead Tricil


. Professor Philip Jones, Ph.D. University of Toronto

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 140


Innovative design and installation techniques help speed Edmonton sewer rehabilitation

Detailed computer model ling by Associated Engine ering and innovative con struction



materials contributed to the speed and economy of a sewer rehabilita tion project in the Lago Lindo subdi vision in Edmonton, Alberta. The project was required to eliminate basement flooding in the neighbour hood caused by sanitary sewer sys tem surcharging during wet weather. "We used SWMM Version 3.3 to

prepare a detailed hydraulic model of the system that confirmed that approximately 2.5 km of gravity sewer trunks were undersized to

accept and convey wet weather flows generated in Lago Lindo," says Associated Engineering pro ject manager Bill Harvey.

Inserted, using the pipe Insertion machine.

"Associated Engineering recom mended long-term improvements that would involve paralleling or replacing the undersized (200 to 375

mm diameter) gravity sewer trunks within the subdivision with larger (300 mm to 600 mm diameter) gravity trunks. We also recommended

New Polyethylene pipe Is butt fusion welded above ground, before being construction of a larger capacity lift station combined with an underground storage tank to temporarily

store wet weather peak flows, ther-

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited


.ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING. Hamilton Executive Consultants, established In 1976, has earned a well deserved reputation In

Southern Ontario based on our honesty. Integrity and dependability. We currently have available a number of opportunities In Environmental Engi neering Including the following: BRANCH MANAGER $70K-IStart-up opportunity with well established consulting firm. Minimum 5 years hydrogeology experience. Industry/MOE contacts a must. ENGINEER - AIR EMISSIONS $65K-H Senior engineer required to start-up and operate air quality department for reputable consulting firm. P.Eng. a must,




Minimum 5 years experience in design of water supply, treatment and distribution systems. INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT

ENGINEER $50-$55K Industrial process design of water supply, treatment and disposal facilities. Knowledge of MISA, MOE regulations required. For further information, please contact: HAMILTON EXECUTIVE CONSULTANTS




u 54

FAX:(416) 523-6751

consulting engineers and architect

Consulting Opportunities in ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING R.V. Anderson Associates Limited is a multi-

disciplinary consulting firm established in 1948. We have over 160 employees located in offices throughout Ontario. We are currently seeking an Intermediate level englneerforourTorontooffice. You musthave an established career in environmental

engineering and be ready to undertake a project management role in the water supply field.

In addition you possess 3 to 7 years related design experience and are registered with the A.P.E.G. As we are committed to technological advancement, general computer skills are required. A post-graduate degree in Environmental Engineering would be an asset. We offer professional development and career growth opportunities plus profit sharing. If you are interested in becoming part of our progressive team, reply in confidence to: R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

1210 Sheppard Avenue East, Suite 401 Wiflowdale, Ontario M2K1E3


Human Resources, File EE-2

eby eliminating peak flows dis charged into the downstream conveyance system." Gravity sewers design


and construction

Preliminary and detailed design of the system was performed on microcomputer-based CAD equip ment and AutoCAD software.Infor

mation from the City of Edmonton's Intergraph files was translated to AutoCAD files for preparation of systems maps and detailed draw ings. These maps were interfaced with databases generated from the SWMM model to facilitate graphic analysis of the system. The project team recommended that each gravity sewer contract be


tendered on the basis of both con

ventional open cut and trenchless installation techniques. Contract No. 2, awarded to FMX Construction


Ltd. on the basis of conventional

open cut construction techniques, was substantially complete by the end of November 1989. Contracts No. 1 and 3 were awarded to IGL Construction Ltd. on the basis of

trenchless pipe installation. The contractor used the PIM (Pipe Inser tion Machine) method which was both economical and suitable for the

locale and the time of year. Bill Harvey explains: "The PIM method involves a hydraulic burst ing unit which shatters the existing

pipe into the surrounding soil while enlarging the annular space. A new larger diameter, high-density polyethylene carrier pipe is pushed into place behind the bursting unit. This method causes minimal noise

and traffic disruption and is well suited to construction during winter months." The first successful North Ameri

can attempt of a 200 mm Incremental diameter Increase using PIM technol ogy was carried out by IGL In December 1989, when It completed four sections of pipe replacement Involving upslzing 380 lineal metres of existing 250 mm main to 450 mm diameter. Contract No. 1 was sub

stantially complete by the end of April and No. 3 by the middle of May.

"With the growing concern about the condition of aging urban utility infrastructures, innovative pipe

replacement methods such as PIM hold considerable promise for eco nomical upgrading of water and sewer systems," says Mr. Harvey.■

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 141


A penetrating view ofInfrastructure its preservation and rehabilitation

Rehabilitation of water dis

tribution systems is like charity — talked about by many — practiced by few. With ever greater competition for the public purse, it is vital to protect our existing physical assets and to

prolong their useful life as much as possible. The basic requirement of a water distribution system is that it must be abie at aii times to provide adequate water for fire fighting purposes whiie providing sufficient water for domes tic consumption without undue quai-

ity degradation. The means to accomplish these functions are readily at hand, at prices that are becoming more and more afforda ble.

Why Rehabilitate? Essentially, the answer to this

question is that you have no choice in the matter.

A water distribution system is a dynamic system that is constantly changing — usually for the worse. It is made up of a variety of pipe mate rials of different ages,buried in soils

By Mike Mansfieid, P.Eng.,*

will allow complete restoration of the system's original capacity, make substantial capacity improve ments where needed, and, most importantly, allow us to keep the system at peak operating efficiency. I must point out that the reasons for some of our practices are based on the experiences with our own sys tem and may not necessarily hold true for other municipalities. System Inventory As a preliminary to any rehabili tation program, an inventory and condition evaluation must be car

ried out, at least in part. in our own case, when we finished the inventory we found that our system was larger by 60 miles of pipe than what our old paper records indicated. Little changes like that can make quite a difference — such as add 10 years to the planned rehabilitation program. Reviews of watermain break records indicated which mains

should be considered for replace ment rather than rehabilitation. Flow tests were carried out to deter mine the internal conditions in var

Examination of material sam

ples removed from the system either during emergency repairs or normal maintenance activities can provide additional useful information about

system condition. The most important reason why water systems fail to meet the quan

tity and quality objectives stated earlier can be summarized in one word: materials.

No material yet in normal use in the waterworks field will last forever. Preventative maintenance or rehabilitation efforts can at best

extend the useful life of any given component, but eventually it must

be replaced. The expected life of a watermain is commonly about 60 years for the smaller mains and up to 100 years for the larger trunk mains. Even though the average weighted age of our system is 35

years, some mains are 80 years old while we are replacing some after less than 20 years of service. Pipe A typical water distribution sys tem is made up of cast iron, ductile

sion of unlined metallic pipe will gradually reduce the system's abil ity to transmit water, while external corrosion of the same metallic pipes affects the reliability and increases

ious areas of the system. An epidemic of rusty water problems in the early 198G's caused us to begin cleaning and cement mortar lining

iron, PVC, polyethylene, asbestos cement, concrete or other pipe mate rials. The older the municipality, the greater the percentage of cast iron pipe. In our own case, cast iron makes up 85% of our system and duc


the affected mains. Flow tests car

tile iron about 10%

that are not uniform. Internal corro

amount of unaccounted for

water lost by the system. In 1986 the City of Etohicoke adopted a 50-year rehabilitation and replacement program which

ried out before and after indicated

that the mains, 35 years old on aver age, had been down to 50% of their carrying capacity.

Together these two materials are also the cause of most of our prob lems: internal corrosion, breakage and external corrosion.

The internal corrosion process together with the natural mineral content of the water forms bulky and irregular deposits on the pipe wall. These deposits, when dis turbed, can cause rusty water prob lems






carrying capacity of the pipe. Provided that the main does not

have a history of breaks, the clean ing and cement mortar lining can restore the "C" Factor of a six inch

pipe to 110 or better. Lines as small as four inch diameter can be suc

cessfully treated with the method. Now that the demand for such work

has increased, there are now four contractors specializing in this form of rehabilitation.

Our own costs

now run at about 25% of the replace ment cost and I expect that the relined mains will be adequate for at "Director, Utilities Division -

A 30" PVC line being installed. (Photo courtesy Scepter) 56

Engineering, Works Department City of Etobicoke

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

least another 50 years and probably closer to 100 years. In Etobicoke,I would like to point out,the cleaning and lining contract also includes installing catbodic protection on all exposed pipe and fittings, installing all new valves and hydrants, cleaning all copper

replaced. Other protective methods such as polyethylene wrap or mortar-based surface coatings are less certain since they are depend ent upon the protective layer being undamaged during the handling, installation and backfill phases.

service connections from meter to

types of pipes to any degree but do

main, changing all water meters to the ARB type and lastly, repairing all defective curbstops. We have been blessed with a vari

ation of the standard lead joint cast iron pipe the "mineral lead" joint. This was introduced in the 1920's and discontinued with the advent of

mechanical joints about 1954.


consists of a mixture of lead and sul

phur which could be poured in only one layer and did not require caulk ing of the joint. The material, once in contact with water swelled up and sealed itself. Unfortunately, this self-sealing process did not stop there. After about 25 years, the pipe would literally burst, especially in the 12 inch to 24 inch diameter

range, and cause extensive surface disruption. Our star performer in mineral iead

joint faiiures cost $143,000 for the road reinstatement only. There have been


or three others in the

$50,000 to $70,000 range. The early rubber joint gaskets were the familiar mechanical joint type. The problem with this type of joint is that the bolts fail due to cor rosion attack.

These failures nor

mally fall into the nuisance category due to leakage at the joint but they do not cause great damage. Normal cast iron pipe breaks are circumferential and are presumed to be caused by external loadings due to frost penetration in the winter or else due to corrosion having wea kened the pipe wall sufficiently. I expect that the cleaning and cement lining program will, over the very long term, reduce our failure rates. The reason for this hope is that the internal corrosion has been arrested

and that no further weak spots are being formed. Ductile iron pipe's great wea kness is its susceptibility to external corrosion failure. Due to its much

greater strength (i.e. the lack of brittleness typical of cast iron), ductile iron was produced with a much thinner wall than the equivalent cast iron pipe. Corrosion perfora tion could therefore occur very quickly, given the right (wrong?)

All 12 inch and smaller are PVC. No

ductile iron is allowed in any size unless as a small filler piece between new CPP and existing cast iron. In that case the DI must be concrete encased.


Pipes are not the only items that cause problems. Hydrants, valves and service connections cause their

own share of headaches for system operators.

located and that the valve box is accessible.

Hydrants too need to be checked and operated periodically, although more frequently than valves. We have 24 different species and sub species of hydrants in our system presently which presented a fair maintenance and spare parts prob lem.

Our current approach is to replace all non-compression hydrants with new 4 inch Storz pumper port equipped hydrants. Older compression type hydrants can be modified to the same stand

ard by changing the upper barrel.In the next 3-5 years all hydrants on 8 inch and larger mains and in all higher risk areas will have been con verted to the Storz type. The remain ing hydrants on residential 6 inch mains will be upgraded on a mainte nance basis or when the main is cleaned and cement-lined.

Copper services are subject to mineral buildup which reduces the carrying capacity. External corro sion of copper may become a prob lem




itself is


nal and external corrosion and must





Rellning in Toronto using ButtressLoo. Duratron photo.

be replaced. Lead services, due to health concerns about lead in pota ble water, will probably also need to be replaced. I see that in the U.S.A. there is, or shortly will be, a regula tory requirement to replace all lead services within a specified period. Preservation

Valves are there to allow dam

aged portions of the system to be isolated for repair. After 20 years or more, they tend to leak when oper ated or cannot be properly closed due to corrosion product buildup. A routine exercise program will help to reduce such problems, as well as ensuring that the valve can be

has to be periodically

Catbodic protection appears to be the only relatively sure way of pro tecting the pipe from excessive cor rosion

wish to note that we have had no

problems in almost 40 years with Concrete Pressure Pipe. As a result, all our replacements in the 14 inch and larger diameter range are CPP.

non-metallic due to stray ground currents or the grounding of electri cal services to the water service pipe. Lead and galvanized iron also experience mineral build-up. Gal vanized iron also experiences inter



I do not want to dwell on other

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

The following is a summary of the steps that we are taking in the City of Etohicoke to ensure that our water distribution system will be in a fit condition for the future.

1. All existing unlined cast iron watermains will be cleaned and

cement mortar lined by the year 2036. We are reviewing our needs at

five year intervals and may speed up the lining program if required. 2. Watermains will be replaced where failure records warrant such

action or where redevelopment pres sures or inadequacies require. Within the next year or two we will have completed a Network Analysis, based on the Akron Aqua model. Although modelling is usually done on a system skeleton basis, ours will include ail pipes. User demand is based on actual metering records and is assigned on a block face basis which should give us a very flexible model. Early runs based on one of our four pressure districts show it to be quite feasible to go to this level of detail.

This level of detail is chosen

because we have had to generate the detailed inventory for the Water Inventory and Maintenance Man

agement System (WIMS) in any case.


3. External corrosion is being con trolled in a number of ways, all of which are not fully implemented as of yet. a) A large sacrificial anode is placed on all hydrants,valves, fittings and metallic pipes dur ing all routine or emergency maintenance operations. b)Similarly,anodes are placed 57

Tests will he for remaining wall thickness, soil resistivity

during the course of all Capital

connected to PVC or other

and whatever else we or the


non-metallic pipes and again allow us to take steps to avoid future problems,

lab can think of. Ultimately, we hope to generate sufficient statistically valid data to allow us to predict, with reas onable accuracy, the remain ing useful life of any pipe.

c)In 1989, we undertook a gen eral corrosivity study covering the entire City. Results are not yet available. We hope in this

e) The last program, which to my mind holds the greatest

spots so that we will he able to

future benefit, will he begun in 1990. This is our proposed

take preventative steps to

Materials Testing Program.

avoid future failures.

Under this project we will be removing pipe samples and sending them to a lab for anal ysis, together perhaps with surrounding soil samples.

manner to locate gdl "hot"

d) Again in 1989 and also not yet completed,is a copper serv ice corrosivity study. This will check on all services that are

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hire a plumber for the private side replacement at a cost of at least $1,500. If the owner will break a fairly small hole in the basement floor for us and ensure that the

copper is not cemented into the

house footings,then we could proba bly install a new private service for not much over $100. Time will tell if

this approach will be successful.


At AQUA we know! Quality comes first because our expert;system sayssO; Andto prove it, we give you allof your theoretical Quality Control data

so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is hot missing. Tt's really quite simple: our computer checks the Ion balance. When the cations and

anions (.!i and---) are not equal, eitherran analytical error exists whic^ we'll correct before kjeaves the lab, or something is in your samplejwh|c|xhasj30t ! been testbd for; in'either casej^fhe theoretical conductivity pinpoints the : solution. So if yhu didn't know what you were missing tDefore . . .

^t MANN A(^LW,joujdon'tliave to worry about ion imbalances... our expert sVstem doesn't allow them.And remember,if your pluses and minus dohf add up, we won't say "We told you so"- we'lUeUryou WHYL


4. Appurtenances: As I mentioned before, hydrants are being replaced on an on-going basis. Valves are replaced as required and totally dur ing cement hning operations. Water services, if copper, are sandblasted on an almost request basis. Lead and galvanized iron pipe services are replaced upon pay ment of a flat rate charge of $1,420 for a 1 inch dia.service,even though our own costs average about $3,500. We are about to try replacing existing small copper and lead servi ces by pulling a small cable through the pipe, followed by an expander tool which in turn pulls the new copper tube. This approach, once refined, should cut down our own costs considerably, since only two small insertion pits will he required. A potentially greater benefit may he

Epilog In conclusion, I would like to relate a true story that underlines the urgent need for water distribu tion system rehabilitation. In 1986, I was escorting a senior politician from a neighboring Regional Municipality around to show him the process of watermain cleaning and cement mortar lining. While chatting with the Contractor and our Inspector, he happened to look at a piece of 10 inch diameter water pipe that had been cut out to allow access to the line being reha bilitated. L5dng beside the excava tion, sporting a full growth of tuberculation, it did not look too attractive.

MANN AQUA LABORATORIES LTD. #6-400 Matheson Boulevard East, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N8

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So he asked the Inspector:"What do the residents think when they look at this, knowing that they were drinking out of it?" Replied the Inspector:"It doesn't bother them at all — they think we are working on the sewer."

Changing the way professionals, like you, see their results.

That, to me, is one of the best rea sons for getting serious about reha bilitation. ES&E


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 142

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

FOUR PERFORMANCE PROVEN TECHNIQUES TO RENOVATE, REPLACE, REPAIR AGING PIPES AND MANHOLES Corroding pipes, decaying manholes and collapsing pipe systems. For municipalities and industries alike, these are some of the messier facts of life and the replacement process can create problems of its own. IGL Canada offers four efficient and convenient solutions.


INSTITUFORM NO-DIG PIPE REPLACEMENT Pipeline rehabilitation for any pipe shape sized from 100mm to 2,500+mm diameter. The

Instltuform technique installs a structural, seamless "pipe within a pipe" with a nondisruptive installation process in hours or days not weeks or months. The result is a structurally sound, reconstructed pipe that often

Rolldown overcomes the disadvantage of conventional slipllning by the virtual elimination of the annular space in gas and water pipeline rehabilitation for up to 450mm

diameter. Slightly oversized polyethylene pipe is cold rolled through the Rolldown machine and reduced for standard insertion to fit

tightly after revertion. Over 1 km of pipe can be rehabilitated in a single operation.

significantly Increases the flow capacity.


INSERTION MACHINE (PIM) PIM provides upsizing and size for size replacement of cast iron, AC, clay tile, nonreinforced concrete and PVC mains with a

minimum of excavation. The pipeline insertion machine simultaneously bursts the existing pipe and replaces it with a new polyethylene pipe. Replacement of 75 to 125 metres per day Is achievable with only minimal disruption.

MANHOLE RENOVATION Purpose-designed renovation technology for aging manholes offers rehabilitation for approximately half the replacement cost with a completion schedule of one day or less. Manholes at lO-i- metres depth and diameters up to 4 metres can be renovated with no heavy equipment and no excavation necessary.


FOR INFORMATION CALL 1-403-489-3245 FAX 1-403-486-2424 Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

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phone(905)557-5544 FAX (905) 395-7903.


For more Information, Circle reply card No. 144

Product Review Open profile PVC storm sewer pipe

tings for storm water applications. Ultra-Rib pipe and fittings are certi fied to CSA B182.4, and meet or

Scepter's gasketed, lightweight, open profile PVC gravity-flow storm sewer pipe is providing tangible benefits for Canadian municipali

exceed ASTM F794 and Uni-bell


Manufactured from PVC, UltraRib is an extruded, seamless pipe incorporating concentric reinforc ing ribs to provide a lightweight, maximum strength (load-bearing capacity) storm water piping sys tem. These ribs, while providing the necessary strength,save both mate rial(about 40% less PVC is required) and labour(when compared to tradi tional storm pipe material). "Many of the benefits associated with the proven performance of PVC in municipal water and sani tary sewer applications apply to Ultra-Rib: corrosion and chemical

resistance, durability, excellentflow rates and ease ofinstallation," says Veso Sobot, Manager of Market Development. "Our bell and gas keted spigot(available in 8"through 18") with molded or fabricated fit tings provides an infiltration rate of less than 50 U.S. gal./inch, dia./mile/day. Exposure to ground water contamination is substantiaiiy reduced over ottier traditionai sys tems."

Many municipalities are approv ing Scepter's Uitra-Rib pipe and fit

UNI-B-9 standards. They are approved for use by the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario and listed in the Designated Sources for Materials. The pipe meets the requirements of OPSS 410 and OPSS 1841. The new 1990 Ontario

Plumbing Code allows the use of Ultra-Rib for storm sewers on the

private side. Scepter Manufacturing Co. Ltd. For more information,

Circle reply card No. 145

Foam system for waste site cleanup An aqueous foam system for sup pressing vapours, odours and dust during hazardous waste site reme diation is being introduced by 3M

hydrocarbon species have been found at a single refinery sludge dump in the U.S., an indication of the wide range of volatile species held in such waste. 3M Canada Inc. For more information, Circle reply card No. 146


Canada Inc., Commercial Chemi cals. Two foams are available to suit

specific situations in suppressing air toxics, obnoxious odours, hazardous solid particulate, and volatile organic compounds(VOCs).


3M foam concentrate FX-9162 is

designed for use with water and is highly effective in areas where vola tile flammable vapours are present. It can be used for temporary vapour suppression for 30 to 60 minutes.




3M foam concentrate FX-9163 is similar to FX-9162 and is intended for use in waste site remediation

where high odour levels are present. The waste at many sites is buried. Its removal requires excavation, which disturbs the deposits and usu ally releases volatile toxic vapours, dust and odours to the environment.

When exposed to the atmosphere, petroleum wastes, as one example, release toxic and ozone generating vapours, such as benzene (carcino genic), methanes, aromatics, paraf fins, olefins, and hydrogenated, oxygenated and sulfur-containing compounds. As many as 136 unique


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If you're serioiK your firniii

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Today'sfar-sighted indus try leaders are putting

Good examples: the four industry programs highlighted

new emphasis on mafing


their operations more energy-efficient. Why? Because energy efficiency leads to cost efficiency. It helps Ontario industry become more competitive. And it helps to safeguard our environment.

Programs Up and Running Making Ontario more energyefficient is already a #1 priority with the Ministry of Energy. That's why we have nearly 20 programs in place, to help both industry and other energy con sumers make better use of our energy resources.


Investing in Our Environment

One or more of these pro grams can help your company reduce operating costs. Improve productivity. Strengthen your competitiveness, at home and abroad. And all of them help to protect our environment, now and for the future.

For example, one offers grants

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fourth encourages industry to develop cogeneration systems — that is, on-site production of both heat and electricity in one cost-efficient process. Let's Work as Partners

Call us now to discuss your energy problems and plans, and to determine which of

these programs fits your needs. Then,let's work as partners towards achieving new energy efficiency for your company and for Ontario. It makes good business sense.

Ontario companies improve their in-plant energy efficiency. And a

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

bout contfolling I


nergy costs... I



ibout helping. > ■



make good use of any of these important energy programs? For full details, telephone one of these numbers. In Toronto:


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Helps Ontario industry improve energy efficiency in equipment and processes — through afree on-site analysis, and grants towardsfeasibility ana project engineering design.

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965-5743 Outside Toronto: dial 0 and ask for

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Cogeneration Encouragement

Providesfunding assistance to Ontario companies to demonstrate the perfor

Helps companies to examine ways of producing their electricity while providing useful heat energy.

mance ofenergy-efficient technologies in theirfirst applications in Ontario.

Or write to: Programs & Technology Branch Ministry of Energy 14th Floor

56 Wellesley St. West Toronto, Ontario M7A 2B7

Energy Leadership


For Economic Strength


Lyn McLeod



;nergy Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 148


Product Review= COD reactor expands

digestion capabilities

set-ups and takes up a fraction ofthe bench space. Samples are ready for colorimetric or titrimetric measure

ment in approximately two hours. The USEPA-approved COD tests (High Range Plus, 0-15,000 mg/L; High Range, 0-1500 mg/L; and Low Range, 0-150 mg/L) are suitable for NPDES reporting and are preferred worldwide for speed, convenience, accuracy and economy. Ready-touse, leakproof sample vials elimi nate reagent weighing and handling. Streamlined procedures require less equipment, labor and maintenance than either the open reflux method or BOD testing. Hach Company For more Information, Circle reply card No. 183

Hach announces an upgraded COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Reac tor giving analysts increased flexi bility and versatility in performing digestions. New features include two interchangeable heater blocks accommodating 16-mm or 22-mm

vials, factory-set and user adjusta ble temperature modes and a timed operation mode. The compact reac tor, the latest improvement in Hacb's popular semi-micro closed reflux method COD testing system, does the work of 25 macro digestion

sor and an indicating D.O. Trans mitter. It is ideally suited for

computer-based monitoring sys tems in large aquaculture applica tions

Multipoint measurements of dissolved oxygen Dissolved monitoring applications

requiring a large number of measur ing points tend to be expensive. EIT has resolved this problem with lowcost, dissolved oxygen measure ment provided by its new D.O. transmitter, now available exclu sively from Summa Engineering Ltd. Model 4320 Two-Wire Dissolved

where D.O. depletion can

result in expensive product loss. EIT's new instrument provides a 4-20 mA signal proportional to the dissolved oxygen sensed over ranges of 0-5, 0-10, or 0-20 PPM. It also incorporates two-wire, loop powered electronics in its design. This feature allows the 4320to inter face with a whole host of devices

that accept the standard 4-20 mA signal. The design also reduces the new system's installation costs. Summa

Oxygen Transmitter system includes a highly reliable D.O. sen

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 184

HOFFMAN Centrifugal Air/Gas Compressors 8f Exhausters Hoffman Multi-stage Centrifugal Compressor & Exhausters are available for requirements to 45,000 CFM,at discharge pressure to 25 psig or 19" Hg vacuum for air & gas service. Hoffman centrifugals have been operating with utmost



reliability and efficiency in many diverse applications such as combustion drying, agitation, fludizing, oxidation vacuum cleaning,sewage aeration, cooling and pneumatic conveying among others for more than 60 years.

W W \a \v

05333311 s


Contact us today for free catalog!

HOFFMAN ^8^ Industries of C<niad.i l.imiled

58 Bertal Road,

Toronto, Ontario, M6M 4M4,416/763-4681 Fax:(416) 763-0440

For more Information, 64

Circle reply card No. 149

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Total encapsulating suits

Acres International Limited

for hazardous chemicals

Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality • Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel. 416-595-2000•Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

Ainley and Chempruf If" Total-Encapsulating


Suits and an assortment of new

accessories and options designed to enhance suit versatility are announced by MSA Canada Inc.

Associates Limited CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS Water Supply & Sewiage Disposal • Roads 4 Bridges • Flood Control

Solid Waste Disposal • Municipal Drams • Land Use Planning

Available in Betex or Vautex mate



rial compositions, these Suits offer excellent protection to HazMat crews, industrial workers and oth ers who face a wide array of hazard



280 Pretty River Parkway

48 High Street

(705) 445-3451 Fax (705) 445-0968

(705) 726-3371 Fax (705) 726-4391

BELLEVILLE 205 Dundas Street


(613) 966-4243

Box 917. R.R.5 (613) 822-1052

Fax (613) 966-1168

Fax (613) 8221573

ous chemicals. Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

All models of the Chempruf II Suit are designed to accommodate

Waste Management solutions

either a 30-minute or 60-minute self-


breathing apparatus

(SCBA). Two models feature DualPurpose Bulkheads, for use with

MSA Dual-Purpose Breathing Apparatus with air-line capability. Standard with the Chempruf II Suit are field-replaceable gloves and boots and a wide-vision, fieldreplaceable lens. Inside, a special strap-and-hook "suspender" assem bly helps assure uniform fit of the suit. Each suit also features a gastight zipper extending from the right leg over the hood,for easy don ning and doffing of the suit. MSA Canada For more Information,

Circle reply card No. 178

EPS sludge sampler EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sew age sludge from flowing pipelines or alternatively from sludge holding tanks via the tank wall.

The machine represents a really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis being unique in its ability to sample sludges containing high levels of non-homogeneous suspended solids.

to the 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troubleshooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect


Water Pollution Control

Environmental Planning Land Development

Water Supply

Transportation Municipal Services

Tunnels and Shafts Architecture

TORONTO (416) 497-8600

WELLAND (416)735-3659

OSHAWA (416)434-2544


SUDBURV (705)671-9903(Dennis Consultants)

Water Resources (613)226-1844

AquaticSciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video Inspections

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205. Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6


Typical Applications • Anaerobic digester feeds/con tents/outputs

• Mechanical dewatering device feeds

• Road tanker loading/discharge







• Sea tanker loading terminals


• Consolidation tank feeds

Cancoppas For more Information, Circle reply card No. 179


TELEPHONE (416) 622-9502. FAX (416) 622-6249

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


At 65

-Product Review Combination sampler ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS

and flowmeter CH2MHILL



■■■■ LTD.


Waterloo, Ontario S19-S79-3S00

O hazardous waste services

[FAX) 519-579-8986

C WATER RESOURCES Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320


(FAX) 416-858-3779

Concord Scientific Corporation c'JTnsuitTnTs'^' • Hazard and Risk Control

• Occupational Hygiene Services • Pollution Control - System Design

• Dispersion and Acid

• Analytical Lab Services • Instrumentation Development • Indoor Air Quality Studies • Safety and Environmental

Deposition Modeling


Head Office: 2 TIPPE1T RD.. TORONTO. ONTARIO M3H 2V2 (416)630-6331



I Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

■ Environmental Audits

■ Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply I Hydrogeology ■ Landfill Gas Ckrntrol & Utilization 1 Wastewater Treatment ■ Municipal Engineering ■ Construction Management WatprlnnTel. 519-884-0510 Mi<:^i<;4auna Waterloo 519-884-0525 "'®®'ssauga

p^^ 416-629-0510 416-629-0515

Portable samplers and flowmeters are regularly used together but until now, have always been separate units. The new STREAMLINE 800 from AMERICAN SIGMA combines a

portable wastewater sampler and flowmeter into one compact unit weighing 10.9 kg.(24 lbs.) and only 44 cm. (17-1/4 in.) in diameter. STREAMLINE'S integral flowmeter, which is programmable for use with dozens of primary measuring devi ces, allows users to easily and eco nomically collect samples in proportion to flow. Flow data can be transferred to

an IBM compatible PC or desktop printer via an optional hand-held Data Transfer Unit for storage or a ENGINEERS





hard copy report. Flow curves, as well as flow minimums,maximums,

averages and cumulative data are included in reports. AMERICAN SIGMA For more information,

Circle reply card No. 151








environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design


Polymer feed systems POL E DUC SERIES AF automatic

polymer feed systems offer operator free makedown for any volume of




TORONTO(416)229-4646•EDMONTON (403)463-6094• HALIFAX (902) 463-1116

required activated polymer through put. The sytems can be operated as independent modules or interfaced to computer controls, taking com mand signals from external instru mentation such

as streaming

current monitors and flow meters.




Services in







Gartner Lee

(716) 285-5449

All POL E DUC systems employ the PDD transfer/wetting device that provides the critical wetting of individual polymer particles, but remains clean and free of any dry

polymer or solution when not in use or cycling. POL E DUC

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Product Review= Gore S.Storrie Limited


engineering copier

Consulting Engineers


255 Consumers Road,North York,Ontario M2J 5B6

Telephone(416)499-9000 Fax(416)499-4687 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga









(613) 728-6111


(403) 266-0900


Consultants for water and pollution control projects Abso Blue Prints Limited, a major


supplier of plain paper Engineering Copiers, has introduced the Xerox 2520. Using the clean, odour-free,

Martin Kretch Limited

dry-ink xerographic process, the new 2520 copies almost anything — hlueline prints, original drawings, sepias, CAD plots and cut-and-tape composites — on bond, vellum or film. Its straight-through path for originals allows copying of mounted or rigid work up to 1/8" thick. For fast multiple copies, a unique auto matic"zip-feeder" safely and swiftly recycles originals in sizes up to 36" wide by 54" long.

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects. Fax: (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton .Ontario. L6T 435(416)459-4780

Other standard features include

the time-saving work organizer that holds documents to be copied, origi nal and media output shelves where copies and originals are safely stored in "up-front" access shelves until jobs are completed and a spa cious humidity-controlled media storage compartment. For rolled or folded originals there is a rear receiving bin.

MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markhom. Ontario. L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270• TeleFAX:(416) 475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Envircnment



With the new 2520from Abso, you

can copy an entire drawing or just a portion of an original, and you can automatically adjust the image to provide a binding or punching edge on the copy. Abso Blue Prints For more Information,

Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geology Environmental audits

Site decommissioning


& rehabilitation

MALROZ Engineering Inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446 Fax:(613)548-7975

Circle reply card No. 175

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

PVC pipe kit Lower installed cost, absence of cor

rosion, and improved characteris tics are just a few of the reasons for using PVC pipe for watermain and service systems.


Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists In Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

available from BFGoodrlch Canada

Inc. includes the following informa tion, booklets and technical reports:

TORONTO, EDMONTON Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby


Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

80 Commerce Valley Drive East Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7N4

(416) 882-1100 Fax:(416) 882-0055 67


=Product Review





Engineering a whole new worid.






(416) 798-0111

Air Quality/ Occupational Health Industrial




(416) 798-0130

• AWWA Standard C-900 for PVC

Pipe, 4"-12" • AWWA Standard C-905 for PVC

Pipe, 14"-36"

• Uni-Bell — list of Companies & Publications ,

• Tapping Guide for PVC Pressure

Site Decommissioning/ Cleanup

Calgary, Alberta

Underground Tank Management Laboratory Services

(403) 298-4170

• Grounding, Locating & Thawing

(403) 298-4125

Procedures for Watermains • External Corrosion of Under


Comprehensive Environmental

OR TECH Services I




Tel. 416 822-4111

Fax 416 823-1446

Air, water and waste.


ground Water Distribution Piping •Municipal Water: We Pipe It Right! • The Effects of Ultraviolet Aging on PVC Pipe •Uni-Bell Handbook Supplement —

Large Diameter Pressure Pipe

Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media.

2395 Speakman Drive Mlsslssauga, Ontario L5K IBS



Design 14"-36" •"Broken Lines" OSWCA Newslet ter

• Why Metals Corrode — Corrosion Service Company Ltd. BFGoodrlch Canada inc. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 176














Hydrazine and Phosphate models join series 5000 family

Kitchener, Bracebrldge, Port Elgin 871 VICTORIA STREET M3RTH




Tell (519) 579-4410

Faxi (519) 741-3603

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief

Proctor & redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Water Supply, Treatment, and Distribution Wastewater Collection and Treatment

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Bramplon




Kitchener London

North Bay Ottawa

St. Catharines St. John's, Nfld. Sault Sle. Marie Sudbury Thunder Bay


45 Green Belt Drive. Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3

Tel: (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276


(416) 853-1223 68

Two low-maintenance automated

analyzers — hydrazine and phos phate — are the newest additions to Hach Company's line of water qual ity instruments. The Series 5000 Phosphate Ana lyzer provides continuous and accu rate phosphate measurement in both




water treatment applications. The Series 5000 Hydrazine Analyzer determines feedwater hydrazine lev els in high-pressure boiler systems. Reagents are pressurized and dis pensing is controlled by micropro cessor-activated solenoid valves, so there are no moving pumps to main tain. Prepacked, ready-to-use rea gents provide consistent results, eliminate reagent preparation and simplify reagent replacement. Hach Company For more Information, Circle reply card No. 177

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

QuikChem AE Terochem has introduced a new

auto analyzer for environmental testing. QuikChem AE, the advanced edition of the QuikChem Automated Ion Analyzer, provides all of the capabilities ofthe previous model plus up to 7 analytical chan nels; automated dilution — up to 7 decades of concentration can be

determined in a single run. It also does XYZ sampling — automates QC/QA, dilutions, sam ple reprocessing and recalibrations; ion chromatography — combines

the power of IC and FIA in one instrument; enhanced QC/QA soft ware — gives more run-time and post-run data; and multi-tasking capability — your PC is available for other tasks while the analyzer is running. Terochem For more information, Circie repiy card No. 211

Consultants Directory


Simcoe Engineering Group Limited Consuiting Engineers Simcoe Building. 345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario LIV 1A1

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fax: (416) 286-1361

Branches; Mississauga and Buffalo

Dual function control from Davis Controls

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers • Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Water Pollution Control • Water Resources • Instrumentation and Controls •

• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 351 Main Street East


Milton, Ontario

Fax:(416) 875-2145


T.F: 1-800-263-4178



Davis Controls Ltd., introduces the Dual Function Control by Warrick Controls Inc.

Head Office: 51 Townline, Orangevilie, Ontario L9W 1V1 . 519-941-0330 ORANGEViLLE . FERGUS . GRAVENHURST . KITCHENER

The Dual Function

Control is a new, solid state liquid level control designed specifically to handle two separate level control functions, one differential and one single level. Application example: Steam generators — a single control handles both solenoid valve fill &

protects the heating elements by turning it off at low levels. On boiler applications: feedwater control and low water cut-off. The Dual Function Control car

ries both, "Motor Controller" and "limit" control recognitions from CSA and UL agencies.



XCG Consultants Ltd.

Standard features include two LED's which indicate when each

level function relay is energized,low probe voltage for personnel protec tion, spade type connections and 10 amp relay contacts. Davis Controls Limited For more information

Suite 904 50 Queen Street N

Kitchener, Ontario

519/741-5774 Fax 519/741-5627 N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

MASc, PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


Circie repiy card No. 160

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


Environmental Assessment in the Yukon By J.F. Gartner*

During work on an environ

mental assessment for a

mining haul road, Gartner Lee staff came upon natu ral mineral springs adjacent to the Coal

River in

the southeastern

Yukon, not far from Watson Lake. The feature consists oftufa deposits that have formed an interesting array of pools and ponds, formed over the centuries as water cascades down a rock face east of the river.

Associated with the springs and pools are a variety of mosses and plants which enhance the physical attractiveness of the site.

Because of the unique microenvironment formed around these

springs, the springs have been designated as a significant natural

route would have no direct impact on the springs. fourth most important spring area This was only one feature that in Canada. They are being consi was investigated and reported upon dered as a focus of a potential park during an environmental assess by the Yukon government. Fortu ment carried out for a mining com nately, this special natural site is pany. The company had a mineral situated away from the alignment of deposit situated 48 km north of the the proposed haul road and on the Alaska Highway. Before an access other side of the Coal River. There route could be built, regulations fore, the future development of the required that an environmental feature and have been ranked as the

assessment he performed to support an application for a Land Use Per mit for development of the road. A reconnaissance evaluation of

the natural terrain, drainage and surface water resources, vegetation, fish and wildlife, and land and resource use was completed. This evaluation comprised both office "President, Gartner Lee



AnalyticalInstrumentation forEnvironmental Applications and More!


For more Irtformatlon, Circle reply card No. 210

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

studies and field verifications.

The entire 48 km of alignment were checked in the field using helic opter support, during a 7-day period. Our field team consisted of a senior

engineering geologist, a senior biol ogist and a senior road location engineer. These three professionals worked as a team, and visited most sections of the alignment. Eight drainage crossings were visited and the water was sampled for later quality testing. Through the use of airphoto interpretation techniques,

land and resource uses that would

be interfered with by the proposed road alignment.

The final result of this reconnais sance environmental evaluation

The results of this reconnais

was the acceptance ofthe alignment by the regulatory agencies and the approval in principle for the Land

sance environmental report were discussed with regulators in the Yukon and in Ottawa. It was agreed that the proposed alignment would

Use Permit. ES&E

Laboratory Directory "Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

terrain conditions were identified

prior to entering the field, and field check points were pre-determined to economize on helicopter time and man-hours spent in the field. By using modern methods of

cause no serious degradation to the environment, other than the indi rect impact of improved accessibil ity to a relatively remote area.

critical significance were disco vered, nor were there any major

BARRINGER LABORATORIES environmental and discharge analyses Reg. 309 and MISA compliance Phytotoxicology and Water Quality fire assay and field sampling services

engineering geolo^ and biology, combined with traditional engineer

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

ing techniques of northern road location, an alignment was chosen that minimized potential environ

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, GO

TImmins, ON Red Lake, ON Thunder Bay, ON

Kirkland Lake, ON Montreal, PQ

mental disturbance. The route was

chosen to avoid problem areas such as organic terrain, areas of shallow ground water and upland valleys where side-hill spring seepage and unstable slopes are common. Irreg ular terrain associated with a reticu late esker landform near the

southern portion of the alignment was avoided as much as possible.

CanTest Ltd



Analytleal Services Suite 200 1S23 West 3rd Ave

Environmental Analysis

i [„,

■ Organic/fnorganicChemistrY ]|> Hazirdous Waste Characterization

Canadian Drinking Water Criteria1 kJ UU U AGd/MS.GD/ECDjHPLftlCHgft,

■ Occupational Health & Safety ■ DrugTesting

Where the route did follow this land-




Vancouver, BC VU1J6 Fax: 604731 2386 Tel: 604734 7276

604 734 TEST


form, well drained esker ridges were utilized and kettle holes were avoided to minimize cut and fill

quantities. Aside from one main crossing of the Coal River, all other drainage crossings were of minimal length. The main crossing ofthe Coal River will entail spanning about 40 m of

Comprehensive Environmental




50 Bathurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario N2V 205

the river. If care were taken to con

Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

struct the bridge at this crossing

preferably during low-flow condi tions and timed to avoid fish spawn

ing in the spring and the fall, only minor environmental impacts were expected. Development of the proposed access road will result in the clear

ing along the right-of-way of forest of variable quality and composition. The route crosses areas offorest fire


SIILL©ini Environmental Laboratories

chemical analysis treatability studies monitoring and assessment engineering/scientific support

burn, a seven kilometre stretch that coincides with an old winter road,

and the remaining length through stands of pulp-use quality. Each stream crossing had an importance concerning sports fisheries potential for species such as grayling and dolly varden. As long as the construction is timed to avoid spawning periods, and timber



Setting the standard for * service


water disturbance, the impact on

addition, no wildlife attributes of



MISISSAUGA (416)568-1414

trestles are used to minimize inthe fisheries should be minimal. In


* quality * turnaround time

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


z Product Review Laboratory Directory

Davis Controls Ltd. introduces the SX200


• Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6. Mississauga, Ont. L4Z INS Phone: (416j 890-9272 Fax: [416) 890-3023


Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality » Water Quality • Hazardous Waste • Complete MISA Parameters • Reg. 309 Compliance

• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

• Ambient Air Monitoring

• Emission Testing • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370




Group, introduces the Eagle SX200

digital timer. The SX200 is a micro processor based digital timer housed in a standard DIN style case with a dominant (72mm square) front bezel. The programmable features of the SX200 include eight time

ranges and eight output operating modes.

The SX200 uses a non

volatile RAM memory to retain setpoint, actual time values & programme



expected life data in memory is ten




Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKViLLE, ONT. L6L 5N2

TEL:(416) 847-0065

FAX: (416) 847-3840

1149 VANiER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT. NTS 3Y6 TEL:(519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965

The front panel of the unit is a sealed membrane keypad which provides excellent protection in most industrial environments. The

keypad includes a special surface directly below the display on which the timer function can be easily marked in pen or pencil. A keypad "lock" function is built into the soft ware of the SX200 which allows set-

point to be viewed, but does not

allow unauthorized changes. The setting accuracy of the SX200 digital time is ±0.05% of set

■WALKER LABORATORIES Complete Environmental Analytical Services Contact Doug DeCoppel, Manager Phone; (416) 227-4142 Facsimile: (416) 227-1034

Division of

uialker industries


ting or 50 ms, whichever is greater, with a repeat accuracy of ±0.001% of setting or 35 ms, whichever is greater. Davis Controls Limited For more Information, Circle reply card No. 181

EPIC 1011T PDrtable

Wastewater Sampler Td MISA SpeclficatlDns Epic 1011T programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and



MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling


A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subse

"16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

industrial wastewater.

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

quent analysis. Cancoppas

For more Information, Circle reply card No. 182

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Literature Review For information on advertising in this section call ES&E at (416) 727-4666

competitive. OWMC's Audit

Groundwater Monitoring System 3-D groundwater information can be obtained without the large costs of drilling many monitoring wells.

Manual has been used by hun

The Waterloo [Multilevel System is

dreds of plants across Ontario. Successful waste reduction pro grams have resulted. OWMC's Waste Management Specialists provide assistance with audits through plant visits, workshops and training literature. Ontario Waste Management Corporation Circle reply card No. 200

a modular system that uses engineered seals to prevent crossflow between monitoring zones. Dedicated sampling and pressure instruments are also available, further avoiding cross-con tamination and reducing costly

Industrial waste audits

Are your profits going to waste? An in-plant survey is the first step in reducing waste and remaining

field time. Sollnst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 201

Are you serious? This new 12 page colour brochure

Non-clog fine bubble diffusers

describes the human resources

Eimco ELASTOX Diffusers utilize

and analytical equipment that are helping EPL define the standard

a specially formulated rubber membrane which, in operation, produces a uniform flow of very fine air bubbles providing high

of excellence for environmental

testing in Canada(Regulation 309, site decommissioning, etc.). If you are serious about receiving per sonalized, uniquely accurate and efficient analytical environmental

oxygen transfer efficiency. The effectiveness, reliability, and low maintenance requirements of ELASTOX diffusers have been


services circle Reader Service

proven over a 20 year period.

Number 202. If you are really serious then phone Jim Bishop at (416) 673-3255.


Circle reply card No. 203

EPL Environment Protection Laboratories Inc.

Circle reply card No. 202

The Plunger Pump Komline-Sanderson Positive Dis

placement Plunger Pumps are engineered for heavy-duty service on difficult sludges, pulp and paper slurries and other tough waste handling problems. Simple in design, plunger pumps are rugged, durable and easy to main tain. Typical pumping applications


include dissolved air flotation

sludges, sludge thickener under flow and belt filter press feed.

Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochlorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosage re quirements, handling equip ment, and storage, safety and handling data. Particularly ap plicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 205

Komllne Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 204


Pressure Filtration Application


Guide From Larox


This guide contains some ex amples of how Larox pressure filtration technology is applied to obtain drier cake, clearer filtrate


f tOM 0 tt JS


and increased cake washing effi ciency, all automatically, and at the lowest possible cost per tonne. Reference installations from around the world are illustrated and discussed. Larox Inc.

Circle reply card No. 206

Big Scale pH Meter Analytical Model 707 BIG SCALE pH Meter is a rugged, reliable instrument featuring a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and the exclusive Analytical polyethylene-shielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH electrode limitations.


Model 707 is simple to operate, with only two operating controls. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No 207

Product Review= EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications EPS 1021 Effluent Sampler is designed to extract samples ofliquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single com posite container or sequentially into an array of 24 x 1/2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analy sis.

Typical Applications • Crude sewage • Settled sewage • Final effluent

• Raw sludge • Most industrial effluents

Cancoppas For more Information, Circle reply card No. 153

treated water.

Series 5000 Analyzers require vir tually no maintenance because there are no pumps to maintain and few moving parts. Reagents are pressurized and dispensing is con trolled by microprocessor-activated solenoid valves. Prepackaged, ready-to-use reagents provide con sistent results, eliminate reagent preparation and simplify reagent replacement. Each instrument is shipped with clearly written instruction manuals, prepared reagents and a spare parts kit. Simplified laboratory proce dures and portable test kits for low range aluminum determinations are also available. Hach Company For more Information, Circle reply card No. 154

Aluminum analyzer helps reduce coagulant costs Series 5000 Aluminum Analyzerfrom Hach Company measures 0-300 ug/l soluble aluminum. It performs an analysis every 15 minutes, provid ing operators with the information necessary to control coagulant dos age and residual aluminum levels in

Free Ultra Software Scepter Manufacturing's Ultra-Rib pipe gives new opportunities in engi neered storm water management. CSA Certified, Ultra-Rib's design offers a durable, high-impact, noncorroding pipe which it claims has the lowest flow resistance of any storm drain pipe.

Portable sampling caddy

Since many storm water manage ment projects require extensive urban hydrologic modelling, Scep ter has sponsored the development of Ultra, a simplified tool for prelimi nary planning and analysis by Paul Wisner and Associates.'This compli mentary ULTRA booklet and floppy diskette present a user-friendly model for lumped (i.e. only one drainage basin)simulation of urban and rural watersheds. The model

has two unit hydrograph options (linear and quasi-linear) and two rainfall methods. By appropriate selection of these options and parameters, hydrographs can be produced which are compatible with detailed SWMM or SCS model simulations. ULTRA runs on an IBM PC or

compatible microcomputer and can also perform reservoir volume computations. For more information on Ultra-

Rib pipe or a free ULTRA Program. For more Information, Circle reply card No. 155

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Contained Sampling Caddy from AMERICAN SIGMA with portable bailer/gas-drive pump or bladder pump; automatic cycle controller; 100 psi industrial, oil-less compres sor;3 hp Briggs & Stratton 1/C gaso line engine; and tubing reel to hold up to 200 feet of tubing, provides users with a complete ground water sampling system on a compact, easy-to-move aluminum cart assem bly. The choice of pumping systems, all of which feature a SOFT-SEAT

check valve for better efficiency and 74

coaxial tubing for easy handling and cleaning, accomodate those whose sampling activities take them to multiple sites with varying conditions. The durable aluminum

cart, with equipment rack for carry ing the controller and 2-inch, semipneumatic, detachable wheels, is

easily handled by one person. All equipment disassembles without requiring tools for easy cleaning and transport. AMERICAN SIGMA-GEOGUARD

Big 0 Biake Casseis

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Komiine Sanderson KWH Pipe Liabiiities Seminar Mann Aqua Mann Testing 48 Min. of Energy 7 MOE

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60 Scepter 55 Smart Turner 41 Soiinst 14 Statifio

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Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990


Only Sampler with an

Integral Flow Meter

Option Without


Collecting flow proportional samples has never been easier. SIGMA's new Streamline" subcompact and standard sized samplers are flowmeters too: generate reports via hand-held interrogator Until now, monitoring flow and collecting flow proportional samples required two units — a sampler and a flowmeter. Not any more. Streamline puts the flowmeter inside its new subcompact sampler: an easy-to-carry unit with room to spare in tight manholes. And only Streamline can handle the full range of sampling applications. One controller fits a subcompact and a standard sized base with nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

The new Streamline stores the time and date samples are taken, plus daily flow minimums, maximums and averages; total flow, cumulative average, cumulative total and flow chart. The RS232D serial interface allows data transfer to a laptop

or hand-held interrogator. The interrogator can hold data from up to 9 samplers and interfaces with any IBM compatible PC or dot matrix printer for sampling/flow reports. Streamline's Delta C Liquid Sensing System is self-adjusting and nonfouling, eliminating sample volume calibration and guaranteeing repeatability independent of varying heads at the intake. Streamline starts watertight; stays watertight: electro mechanical components are sealed in a NEMA 4X 6 housing and both keypad and display are protected by a waterproof polyester membrane. There's a lot more to learn about Streamline. Call 1-800-

635-4567. Or write to: American Sigma, PO Box 300, Middleport, NY 14105-0300. In Ontario CAN-AM Instmments Ltd. 2495 Haines Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

In Quebec and New Brunswick CHEMACTION,INC. 5960, Jean-Talon Est. Bureau 216, St-Leonard Quebec, HIS 1M2 Tel (514) 255-1190 FAX (514) 255-9610

Streamline Controller can be used with either the subcompact or standard sized base, allowing one unit to handle the full range of sampling applications. Streamline offers nine composite and multiple bottle choices.

nr Barton Instmments

In British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba MACKENZIE & FEIMANN, Ltd.

3840 - HA Street, N.E.

970 Malkin Avenue

Calgary, Alberta T2E 6M6

Vancouver, B.C. V6A 2K8 Tel (604)253-6335 FAX (604) 253-3636

In Alberta

Tel (403) 29M814 FAX (403) 291-5678

For more information,

Environmental Science & Engineering, September 1990

Circle reply card No. 157


Ultra-Rib... a new era in

"engineered storm water management." CSA Certified

Not Affected by Acid Rain

Engineered for "storm water management," Ultra-Rib's unique PVC design provides a durable, high impact, non-corroding pipe for storm drain systems. Certified to CSA B182.4 and meeting ASTM F794, Ultra-Rib, with a Manning flow coefficient of n = .009, provides the lowest flow resistance of any storm drain pipe.

Made from PVC, Ultra-Rib is not affected by aggressive soils and the low pH's of acid rain.

Engineered for Strength Proven in worldwide applications, Ultra-Rib meets the rigorous demands of shallow or deep burial. A seamless PVC pipe, Ultra-Rib's reinforcing ribs girdle the true circumference of the pipe, providing a pipe stiffness in excess of 320 kPa (46 lb./in./in.) while exacting tolerances provide leak-tight joints.

Ground Water Recharging

Cost Effective

Ultra-Rib's economy - ease of handling, reduced installation time, complete line of fittings, and significant labour and maintenance savings - will make it the piping of choice.

Software and Design Brochure

Easy to cut on site

Get to know more about Ultra-Rib. Contact your nearest Scepter branch for our latest Ultra-Rib software and design brochure.


Where environmental concerns for recharging the ground water are a preferred option to ponding, perforation of Ultra-Rib can accommodate design specifications.

Leak-tight joints prevent infiltration




807 Pharmacy Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario M1L 3K2 (416)752-2200 fax: 416-752-8512 Scepter is a member of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.

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Gaskets can easily be repositioned. VANCOUVER (604) 525-8621

CALGARY (403) 236-8333

EDMONTON (403) 468-4444

SASKATOON (306)933-4664

FAX 604-525-8607

fax 403-279-8443

FAX 403-465-5617

FAX 306-934-2020

WINNIPEG (204)633-3111 FAX 204-633-3075

For more Inlormatlon,

Circle reply card No. 158

MONTREAL (514)337-2624

SAINT JOHN (506)632-9000

BEDFOF (902) 835-8

FAX 514-337-7886

FAX 506-633-6019

fax 902-835-