Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June-July 1990

Page 1


A Davcom Business Publication


The engineer's role in sustainable development Managing risks and costs of hazardous storage Canada's options for the Greenhouse Effect

Treating gas contaminated groundwater Ozone for drinking water treatment

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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990



Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Production Manager SAM ISGRG B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY OAVEY



June/July 1990, Vol. 3 No. 3 Issued July, 1990

CONTENTS When pollution became an art form

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Article by Tom Davey

Low cost treatment for gas contaminated groundwater


Defining environmental auditing Article by Mayer Schwartz


Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. R. Bruce Smith

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business pubilcation published by Davcom Communications inc. An ail Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial environmental control sys tems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribution, air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste treatment and

disposal and occupational health and safety.

ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufactur ers, representatives and distributors and academics.


welcomes editorial contribu

tions from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental associations, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), or otherfacsimiiies of the written or graphic material for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should

Canada's options for the Greenhouse Effect

Article by Steven Carter and Dr. Danny Harvey


Reports on biotechnology and natural gas cars


Managing the risks and costs of hazardous storage


Hydrometry & Instrumentation - a calibrator's perspective Article by Randy McLean


Innovative wastewater technology treats dairy wastes


Ozone for drinking water treatment


Article by Ronald Larocque Devastation by indecision

Article on protest groups by Dr. P.H. Jones


WHMIS - an insider's perspective Article by Alex Keen


Air pollution analysis using mass spectrometry


The engineer's role in sustainable development Cover story by Roy Aitken


be sent to Environmental Science &

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. S., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief pas sages in reviews. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Departments Industry Update R&D News

8-14 52

What's New

Cover photo: A dramatic shot of the rebuilding and modernization of Inco's Sudbury smelter, a $414 million projectto reducesulphurdioxideemissions. See story on page 68.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Literature Reviews ...67,73

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Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

Editorial Comment by Tom Davey-, Voice of Fire is a Quest for Ire

When pollution became an art form

When our National Gal

lery purchased Barnett Newman's painting Voice ofFire recently,a storm of protest erupted. Compris ing a mere three vertical coloured stripes, any artistic subtlety by the American painter clearly eluded most people. The $1.76 million price tag caused shock and outrage. Some, rather unkindly, said the painting looked as if it had been slapped on with a paint roller. Rather appropriately, the paint roller is a bona fide Canadian invention.

But Voice ofFire is the epitome of conventional art compared to a Toronto art exhibit which displayed fecal matter In a jar as a statement

against war about seven years ago. (I am not making this up!). Then the news that human excre

ment had been on display at a pub licly funded art exhibition made me deeply conscious of my inadequa cies as a writer. For years I had reported on various environmental treatment processes. But this new emphasis on fecal matter as art nouveau made me painfully aware that my writing style had heen frozen in a cultural vacuum, putting me out side the cultural literati.

When (former) Prime Minister Trudeau gave his famous one finger benediction to his detractors, his

gesture was interpreted by critics as subliminal support for the new genre.

To remedy

my deficiency, I

became a voracious reader of the

giants of criticism in the world of arts and letters. I immersed myself in the works of Ruskin, Benjamin,

and Tynan - while also sampling the culinary critiques of the Globe & Mail's acerbic Joanne Kates. Gradu

ally I developed an arrogant pos ture, a petulant sneer, and a penchant for polysyllabic prose. But wliat I lacked was tlie riglit medium tor my debut as an art critic. My big chance came when an arts and science magazine retained me to review sewage treatment processes across Canada, enabling me to write this first article in the new critical mode:

ious artistic opportunity. They might have taken their cue from the geometric layout of the Prairie farms and created a new genre of rectangularism to rival the pioneer ing cubism of Braque and Picasso. Alas, utility overcame art. The result is an admittedly effective, but boring plebian treatment system. On the east coast of Atlantic Can

ada,there are some interesting efflu ents to be found for the afficionado.

The final effluents though are rather sterile, lacking the variety, colour, and exuberance of a truly great art form. The resulting sludges are somewhat bland and generally lacking in bouquet.Patho gens too would appear not to travel well in the receiving waters. In fact the situation might be compared to the Bolshoi Ballet, where perfection of technique has been achieved at the expense of artistic spontaneity!

The unprecedented hot,dry spells recently brought forth an explosive burst of high coliform counts, which closed off beaches and shattered the

complacent attitudes of Ontario engineers. While the urban animal population and illegal connections to storm sewers were revealed as fac

tors in the situation, the beach con tamination was more the result of

climatic aberration, rather than a genuinely artistic pollution pheno menon. The hot weather brought forth also rapid algal growth, which disfigured the water bodies in a tangled mass of aquatic botany - a piqture worthy of the Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Poliock. The vast spaces of the Canadian Prairies clearly influenced western design engineers, who often opted for the space-consuming lagoon method of sewage treatment. Clearly, Westerners missed a glor


The Critique

"The strong WASP influence in Upper Canada ensured that waste treatment in Canada reached a high


state of technical excellence.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

The city of Moncton, until recently, discharged raw sewage into the Peticodiac River. But - thanks to the

tidal bore in the Bay ofFundy-what the city casts into the river, it received back hours later, giving two bouquets for the price of one, as it were.

Labour unrest in British Colum

bia gives a novel twist to artistic pol lution. BC strikes are so long and so regular that the waterways have adapted to systematic recovery peri ods. The result is what connoisseurs

have described as an impudent little effluent. The art form is,in the best artistic tradition, also a strong social commentary. Environmental neglect is wide spread across Canada, but no one does it with the elan and panache of La Belle Province. Ignoring the con

straints imposed by formal treat ment processes, the Quebecois cleverly opted to harness the turbu lence of the St. Lawrence River in a

spontaneous, free-form, highvolume, raw-sewage discharge mode. Inevitably, some critics carp about ineffectual treatment; but all admit the Quebec effluent, like a good wine, retains its bouquet, that the effluent travels well, and that capital costs are negligible! The Quebec stretch of the St. Lawrence might be compared to the Louvre as Continued overleaf

Editorial Comment continued

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The federal government's role must not be overlooked either. By wiping out large sections of Cana dian industry with inept budgets, several finance ministers did more to weaken industrial effluents in

two years than Environment Can ada had achieved in past decades.

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Two additional art forms spring to mind when contemplating Post Office lethargy and ineptness. Theatrically, the Post Office scene could be likened to Waiting for Godot, a play where the audience is continuously in suspense, yet nothing happens. In the realm of music, the frantic search for lost parcels and letters is reminiscent of the organist looking for his "Lost

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Finally, there's the magnificent


oceanic canvases

The Director of Investigation and Research (Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada) has informed Big 'O' Inc. that the advertisements published in April and October 1989 for the promotion of the Company's corrugated high density pipe contained comparative performance claims relating to resistance to load, chemical attack and abrasion, the interpretation of which has raised questions under the misleading advertising provisions of the Competition Act.

of the


school done in oils, (spills that is) which give a myriad of swiftly changing rainbows, often highligh ted by a macabre ballet of dying birds and other wildlife, vainly struggling to escape their oily des tiny. But the increasing regularity of these spills has reduced their worth as works of art. Moreover,the critical reviews were universally bad. And as they inflict serious eco logical and economic damage on the Planet, the Valdez school will no longer be tolerated by the public. Future creators of art form may he hung in public - not their "canvasses"."

Big 'O' intends to rectify this situation by advertising the characteristics specifically applicable to polyethylene pipe, and ensuring that relevant tests support any comparative performance claims made. We regret any inconvenience which may have been caused by this advertisement.

After penning my first critique, i feit an egotisticai surge of seifimportance - ttiat is untii i read the iate Brendan Behan's rejoinder to drama critics. The irish piaywright said critics were iike eunuchs in a

harem;competent enough to observe and comment, but totaiiy inept !â–

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

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Industry Update= Market incentives

better than govt. fiat - Howe Institute

Bruce Doern, professor of public policy at Carleton University in Ottawa, said that government lead ership is needed to establish frame work laws, but market mechanisms

Could market incentives, offer the most effective approach for dealing with environmental problems? A new report from the C.D. Howe Institute suggests an array of in centives - from pricing mechanisms

and pollution taxes to tradeable pol lution permits - should be considered to a far greater extent than is now contemplated.

are best for implementing those laws.

Norman Ball, engineering profes sor at the University of Waterloo in

Waterloo, Ont., argued that, given the length of time it takes govern ments and the courts to act, there is little choice but to formulate a policy that will appeal clearly to business'

setting and reaching higher levels of environmental responsibility." Richard Llpsey, economics profes sor at Vancouver's Simon Eraser

University, compared central gover nment environmental planning to central government economic plan ning, which was being tossed out by people in several countries of East ern Europe. The. Environmental Imperative: Market Approaches to the. Greening of Canada, published by the C.D. Howe. Institute, Ottawa.

self-interest "to become the leader in

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Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

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Industry Update human health is threatened and so

DWSP reports on 196,300 water samples After reports on the quality ofdrink ing water from 50 Ontario water supply systems, summarizing Environment Ontario's 1988 Drink

ing Water Surveillance Program (DWSP), were released, Hugh Gra ham,a ministry scientist,told ES&E that only seven of 196,300 treated water samples tested were found to exceed a health-related guideline. Four samples of treated water, taken


November from


Dresden water distribution system, contained total nitrates at concen

trations of 15.7 parts per million (ppm), 14.8 ppm, 14.4 ppm and 12.5 ppm. The Ontario Drinking Water Objective(ODWO)for total nitrates is 10 ppm. M.M. Dillon is implement ing a program to fine-tune plant operation at Dresden to improve water treatment.

One sample of treated water from the Alvinston Water Treatment Plant contained total nitrates at

11.8 ppm. Elevated levels of total nitrates, originating from nitratebased

fertilizers, are sometimes

found in drinking water in agricul tural areas such as Alvinston.

One sample of drinking water from a house in Windsor contained

lead at 400 ppb. The ODWO for lead is 50 ppb. The lead concentration was thought to have occurred within the house's internal plumb ing. High lead levels can occur when water remains standing in pipes long enough for lead soldering

it is unwise and imprudent not to take

in the pipes to leach into the water.

In four subsequent samples from this location, lead levels ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 ppb. One sample of treated water from the Mannheim Reservoir in Kit

chener contained lead at 68 ppb. This test result, which


markedly different from previous results, is thought to reflect a sam pling or analytical error. Subse quent samples tested in the range of 0.23 to 0.32 ppb lead. All other health-related quidelines were met.

The 1988 DWSP program involved sampling raw and treated water in distribution systems and in houses, for approximately 160 parameters. Water samples also underwent a mass spectrometer scan which tests for the presence of other potential contaminants. Ontario has health-related and

aesthetic drinking water objectives for 49 parameters. When an ODWO is not available, the Ministry of the Environment consults the guide lines or limits set by other agencies. The ministry's Parameters Listing System keeps current more than 1,750 guidelines for 650 parameters from agencies throughout the world. DWSP is believed to be tbe most extensive program of its kind in Canada. It expanded from 22 loca tions in 1986 to 50 in 1988 and will

ultimately include all municipal drinking water supplies in Ontario.

Mediterranean at

strain on fresh-water resources -

crisis point

many already polluted and depleted. Water quality is seriously

Every year, ships dump around 500,000 tonnes of oil into the Medi terranean.

This is more than 12

times the amount spilled by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Another

150,000 tonnes of oil reaches the sea each year along the rivers that flow into it.

About 33% of the oil

forms tar that is deposited on beaches, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, causing substantial

affected in 20 of the Mediterra

nean's 29 drainage basins. Cyprus and Malta face an imme diate water crisis, ground water being depleted faster than it is being naturally replenished. "In Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Libya, Morocco and Syria, and in parts of Italy and Spain, the scarcity of fresh water is likely to he a significant brake on developments," says a report by the

damage to tourism and local fishe

World Bank and the European

ries. The Mediterranean also receives

Investment Bank.

industrial chemicals, solid wastes and




Agricultural runoffs include 550 tonnes of pesticides each year. A 1988 survey of 150 beaches in

France, Greece, Italy and Spain found 25% so badly polluted as to pose a health risk. The coastal population of the Mediterranean is likely to double by 2025,from 82 million to 150-170 mil lion. This will put an enormous 10

IJC warning on




include findings that sixteen Great Lakes wildlife species near the top of the food web have suffered reproduc tive problems or declines in popula tions, and consumption of certain Great Lakes fish poses a threat to women of child-bearing age, who pass these toxic substances on to their offspring. The Commission also encourages additional research to determine the precise magnitude of the threat.

Despite the significance of the Great Lakes and our collective rhe

toric to restore and enhance them, we as a society continue to mortgage their future by poisoning, suffocat ing and otherwise threatening them. What our society has failed to realize is that, what we are doing to the Great Lakes, we are doing to our selves and to our children,says IJC. This conclusion provided the basis for tbe Commission to recom

mend the following actions, among others, in its report to the Govern ments of the United States and Can ada:

• review and strengthen all Great Lakes fish consumption advisories, and re-evaluate stocking programs for those fish which also carry advi sories for human consumption; •incorporate the principle ofreverse onus into regulatory policies and programs by mandating pretesting of new chemicals to determine their

potential harm to the environment or human health, prior to approval for production and use; •devise and implement legislation, standards and other regulatory measures to give enforceable effect to the principles and objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement; • define how the 11 critical pollu tants are used, stored and released into the Great Lakes Basin Ecosys tem by nonpoint rural and urban sources and outline measures that

have been and will be taken to pre vent their further release into the

lakes, and report on the extent to which these pollutants have been explicitly considered in discharge permits to give assurance that no such discharges are permitted.

Great Lakes Children's health is threatened as a

result of exposure to even low ambient levels of persistent toxic substances says the International Joint Commission in Part II of its

Fifth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality. The Commission concludes that

Automatic Meter Reading Association meeting The 3rd A.M.R.A. symposium will take place in Stone Mountain, Geor gia, September 24 to 27. Contact is Stan Kulp, A.M.R.A. Newsletter edi tor (201) 666-0902.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

contaminated soil characterization

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Industry Update Tough reforms for pulp and paper mills Environment Minister Lucien Bou chard has released draft reforms to

impose tough national pollution standards on Canada's pulp and paper industry. "As stated in The. Green Plan, this government's commitment is to make Canada, by the year 2000, the industrialized world's most environ

mentally friendly country. Today's initiative is a significant step towards that goal," said Mr. Bou chard.

The need for regulatory reform under the Canadian Environmental

Protection Act (CEPA) and the

Fisheries Act was endorsed hy the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Environment

ministers pledged to work with the federal government in developing a national strategy to control pollu tion from pulp and paper mills. Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia have already announced intentions to regulate the pulp and paper industry more strictly. The regulations proposed under CEPA will virtually eliminate the

Impacts of hazardous immiscible liquids in soil The penetration and movement of

hazardous immiscible liquids (HILs) into soil and groundwater is one of today's most troublesome environmental problems, according to a report released by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment.

HILs are a group of contami nants which frequently spill or leak from tanks and pipelines or often are disposed of inadequately. Com mon examples of spilled or improp erly disposed of HILs are chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCBs and trichloroethane), petroleum pro ducts (gasoline), and solvents (ben zene and methylene chloride).

Immiscible liquids remain separ ate from groundwater, and thus

may move and behave differently. Predicting their rates of migration, their responses to remedial mea sures such as pumping, and even detecting their presence, is much more difficult than for aqueous phase contaminants. Research conducted for Environ

ment Ontario by the University of

release of dioxins and furans from

Waterloo, gives a better understand ing of how HILs flow over and

pulp and paper mills. The proposals under the Fisheries Act will streng

within soil; how experimental equip ment and methods for subsequent

research projects have been deve loped, and an accessible experimen tal data base created to assist in

further model development and eva luation.

The three-year research program focused on three major subjects: the spilling of HILs into soil, the pene tration and movement of liquids through soil, and the behaviour in soil of vapors released from the liq uids. The experiments were among the first of their kind, says MOE. Work involved the development of mathematical



could be used to predict liquid and vapor movement of HILs in soil. As well, laboratory scale experiments were conducted to verify the theoret ical predictions. The computerized models that were developed included two for spill simulation, one for liquid movement in soil and one for vapor transport. Research on HILs is continuing at the University of Waterloo under an Environment Ontario grant. Copies of the report. Assessing the Impact of Hazardous Immiscible Liq uids in Soil, are available through the Public Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment(416) 323-4321.

then current controls on conven

tional pollutants in pulp and paper mill effluent.

Pulp and paper is one of Cana da's most important sectors, an export leader that employs some 80,000 people. But six years ofscien tific and technical study have shown that pollution from this industry is serious and widespread.

"Canadians have been demanding action to stop the pollution of rivers

and lakes by pulp and paper mills. While they want a strong industry, they demand a clean environment," said Mr. Bouchard.

more aggressive cleanup measures. Mr. Bradley says some of these toxins are coming from Ontario but new programs should curb the flow. He complained that Ottawa is not doing enough to help clean up the Great Lakes.

Ontario is ready to spend more money on cleanup projects, he said. "What we would like to see is the

federal government as partners - not simply there to sign the agreement...with the cameras flashing". The federal government will

introduce new measures to clean up the Great Lakes in its "green plan" expected before the end of the year.

300 companies are polluting Gt. Lakes

Environment Minister Lucien Bou chard said in reaction to the IJC report.

Some 300 companies are dumping pollutants, including toxins, into Ontario's waterways, Ontario Environment Minister James Brad

Mr. Bouchard said the govern ment will he ready to introduce "a whole new set of regulations" in the green plan to address the problem of hazardous chemicals being pumped

ley says.

into the lakes.

Despite these discharges, many of which go into the Great Lakes system, most water in Ontario is still safe to drink. He was reacting to a report that the Great Lakes are being poisoned hy a flow of toxins. The International Joint Commis

sion released the report urging Can ada and the United States to use

The IJC urged immediate action

to clean up the lakes. The independ ent agency warned that Canada and the United States will continue

to mortgage the future of the lakes

"by poisoning, suffocating and oth erwise threatening them because of insufficient knowledge, other priori ties and shortsightedness".

Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990


Right on! I enjoyed your Editorial Comment in the December '89 issue

(as well as the journal overall). I wish I had more time as anEnviron-

mental Engineer, hut as Dean I probably have more influence to change things, even within the Invisible Profession. As of next year, all engineering students in the Faculty will have a core course in environmental engineering, not

only the Civils. Slow, hut steady progress!

Cheers, Gary W. Heinke, P.Eng., Dean, University ofToronto Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering Dear Tom,

I am writing to thank you for publi shing our article on Who Is Generat

ing Your Results'^ The response to the article has been amazing. We are getting requests for membership on a daily basis. I have enclosed a typi cal letter sent to me showing the need for the article and the leader

ship your publication has taken in

the environmental sector. Keep up the good work! Pierre Beaumier, Ph.D., Vice President, Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. 13

Industry IJpdatn The industrial minerals sector

MISA monitoring phase fully implemented

will begin monitoring on Aug. 1, 1990. This lead-in time will allow

All nine industrial sectors' monitor

ing regulations are now law under Environment



waterways cleanup program. Ontario's cement, lime, gypsum and other industrial mineral pro cessing facilities are being required to monitor the wastewater they dis charge to lakes and rivers for more than 200 contaminants under the

regulation. The petroleum refinery sector completed its monitoring in

December 1989. These monitoring results are being reviewed to deter mine how the most effective regula tion





abatement regulation for petroleum refineries is expected to be ready for public review this fall. Seven


are at various

stages of the monitoring program. They are the organic chemical, iron and steel, inorganic chemical, pulp and paper, metal mining, metal casting and electric power sectors.

the companies to purchase and install the required equipment, to arrange for laboratory services and to train personnel.

Costs incurred under the regula tion will be borne by the industry. The ministry has estimated the sec tor's total capital and operating costs of monitoring at $2 million. Costs to individual plants are esti mated to range from $5,200 (many small quarries)to $80,800(five ofthe six cement plants). The regulation prescribes moni toring schedules for minewater, quarry water, wash water and pro cess wastewater effluent streams.

•• • ••

• ••• • •• •• •.J» • •• •• • • •• ••

:•••. .•••••.#• .••••• s •• ##


•••• ••••• •••••

A Wealth of Online Information

Testing of stormwater effluent will also be carried out by all plants in the clay and shale category. The ministry and the industry will also conduct open scans using a mass spectrometer to identify any chemicals present which are not being specifically tested for under the regulation. The industrial minerals sector is

divided into nine industry catego What is WATDOC?

WATDOC is a database producer which provides an online link between information seekers and the sources.

WATDOC offers specialized data bases containing tens of thousands of references to water resources and related environmental issues.

You can bring Canadian research right to your fingertips.


•cement •chemical lime

6 facilities 6 facilities

•clay and shale 5 facilities • graphite 1 facility •gypsum 3 facilities • magnesium 1 facility •quarries .. 85 facilities, of which 20 representative sites have been selected to undergo monitoring. •sand and gravel 5 facilities •talc

2 facilities

Of the 85 quarries, 20 representa Who uses WATDOC?

Anyone can use WATDOC's data bases — scientists, engineers, planners, academics, researchers,

information specialists, etc.

tive sites with close similarities to

the remaining sites have been selected for monitoring. Due to the large number of similar sites, statis tically reliable information on efflu ents

To reach WATDOC .






monitoring all sites. The selection procedure was undertaken to reduce costs to the small firms in the quar ries category. All 85 quarries will share the cost of monitoring the selected sites under a cost-sharing

Inland Waters Directorate


For current information about the

databases — access, coverage, costs, etc., write or phone:

Environment Canada

The ministry developed this regu

Ottawa, Ontario



Ontario Mining Association, the Aggregate Producers' Association of Ontario,the Clay Brick Producers

(819) 997-2324





of Ontario, the Ontario Lime Produ cers, the Canadian Portland






Circle reply card No. 109 14


Cement Association, Environment Canada, the ministries of Northern Development and Mines, Natural Resources and Transportation, and the MISA Advisory Committee of independent environmental experts.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Low cost treatment effective for

gasoline contaminated groundwater line which threaten health, benzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon, was most consistently present in high concen trations in groundwater from pri vate wells.

Before the treatment facility was activated, 12 residences had inter mittent or continuous gasoline con tamination problems in their water supplies and required bottled water or filter systems. Remedial

work involved the

installation of a purge well near the centre of the contaminant plume which pumps an average of 300 litres per minute. Seven months after the purge well was switched on, 59 million litres of contaminated water had

A relatively low-cost method using

purge wells and biological treat ment is proving to be effective in cleaning up the gasolinecontaminated groundwater in Onta rio. A report by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment says purge wells are bigb capacity wells used to pump large quantities ofcon taminated groundwater which is then put through a biological pro cess to clean up the contaminated water. The biological treatment sys

been pumped and treated. The World Health Organization drink ing water guideline of 10 ppb for benzene was not exceeded at any private well in the area after the sev enth month of operation ofthe purge well and treatment system. Levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and phenols in water from the purge well showed a

steady decline in concentration as pumping time increased. Data from sampling locations throughout the biological treatment system, indicate that there is a reduction in concentrations of ben

zene, toluene, ethylhenzene, mxylene and phenol to below detection limits in the effluent ofthe

treatment system.

Dan Cook, P.Eng., told ES&E: "This has been an extremely suc cessful groundwater remediation project. It has worked well in this case and has proved economical in operation." Continued monitoring will pro vide the data necessary to decide when remediation of the groundwater is complete. Air monitoring of the facility indicated no threats to air quality or health are present in the treatment area.

Copies of the report. Low cost treatment technology for gasoline contaminated groundwater, are available by calling (613) 549-4000 in Kingston or (416) 323-4321 in Toronto. ES&E

tem consists of a series of fountain

nozzles, vegetation channels, a grass field and a marsh. This bio logical system is lower cost than conventional methods which use air

stripping columns. Water quality resulting from both treatments is equally good. The report, prepared for the min istry by Water and Earth Science Associates Ltd., details a method for dealing with gasoline contamina tion of groundwater. The report's authors say these techniques should also he applicable to a wide range of groundwater rehabilitation prob lems associated with spills,landfills and remedial undertakings, how ever, the research to date is solely applicable to gas spill problems. In the period of 1980 to 1983, because of complaints of gasoline in private well water supplies nor theast of Kingston, a hydrogeological investigation of the extent of gasoline contamination of the local groundwater aquifer was con ducted. The investigation identified a contaminant plume estimated to be 550 metres long, 350 metres wide and 60 metres deep. An estimated 173 million litres of groundwater were polluted. Among the components of gasoEnuironmental Science & Engineering, July 1990




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The Innovative Method of Wastewater Treatment Circle reply card No. 110


Defining environmentai auditing

Theperception is quite broad

as to what exactly is envi ronmental auditing. Within the strict interpretation of environmental auditing as being"a methodical examination and review

of environmental factors", it relates to ongoing activities in a facility, or

past activities on a property. There is a distinct difference between these

two types of activity,and hence audit ing. Environmental auditing of ongo-

ing activities in a facility is a perio dic, pro-active diagnostic tool that provides an objective examination and review of facility operations and practices, vis-a-vis environmen tal requirements. Such a review will assure senior management that ade quate compliance programs are in place; or it will identify areas for enhanced compliance programs, and will assist line management in monitoring performance for envir onmental compliance. On the other hand, environmental auditing of

past activities on a property is a one time effort which deals with retro

spective reviews of past operations, to determine environmental liabili-

By Mayer Schwartz, M.E.Sc., P.Eng.*

ties associated with the particular property, usually at the stage of real estate transaction.

Some refer to

this type of environmental auditing as "liability assessment". This paper deals with environmental auditing of ongoing activities in a facility. A comprehensive environmental audit will review compliance as well as management issues. Compliance issues, or "compliance auditing", will focus on regulatory require ments and verify compliance for


each factor reviewed.

Since man

agement systems are put in place to ensure compliance with regulations, checking of management issues, or "management auditing", will verify that management practices in place are adequate, implementahle, and effectively functioning. Two management elements are essential to a successful and effec

tive completion of an environmental audit. These include:

• top management support for the WASTART LIMITED Is pleased to announce audit and commitment to follow up that Barry Asano, P.Eng., has joined the firm as on audit findings; and a principal. Mr. Asano has over twenty years of experience In the environmental •objective and credible auditing by engineering field including industrial water assigning individuals external to the audited facility, usually from and wastewater treatment, solid waste man agement and air pollution control spanning virtually all Industrial sectors. As a designated consulting engineer, Mr. Asano will provide senior technical review, project management and direct the firm's business development activities, WASTART LIMITED is located In Guelph, Ontario and was formed in 1987 to provide hands-on




assistance to both industry and government. With the addition of Mr. Asano and our asso

ciation with Monitario Technical Services, WASTART can now provide a complete

range of engineering and technical services to our clients.

WASTART LIMITED, Engineering andTechnical Services, 67 Watson Road S., Guelph, Ontario, N1H 6H8. Tel: (519) 763-6443. 16

within the organization.

The primary role of the consult ing engineer in providing profes sional services for facility-specific environmental auditing includes:

ning audits, establishing audit scope, examining and evaluating audit findings, communicating audit results and follow-up. Audit ing protocols, developed for facilityspecific features to be reviewed, may include, but not necessarily limited to: Corporate environmental proce dures, protocols, standards, legal regulations and requirements;inter nal emergency response capabili ties, equipment, readiness; incident reports and response effectiveness, spill prevention, process changes, plant expansion and upgrading, modification since the last auditing, material use and handling, monitor ing programs, 4Rs programs, per mits, certificates of approval, waste facilities from generation point to discharge point, their physical con dition and apparent state of mainte nance, marking and handling of containers; special features - under ground tanks, PCBs, asbestos; records of effluent discharges and emissions; security provisions, fire protection. An effective environmental audit

will always identify areas of com pliance and areas exceeding com pliance;report on shortcomings and include definitive remedial recom

mendations and provide follow-up procedures. One grey area is the status of environmental auditing reports. Specifically, can a regulatory authority, under its statutory authority, obtain copies of an envir onmental auditing report and use its contents in court action against the proponent? To resort to such action may discourage proponents to undertake environmental auditing to ensure and enhance compliance; however,the best interests of public health and the environment may warrant such an action. The United States Environmental Protection

Act resolved this dilemma by inclu sion of a clause in its Environmen

tal Auditing Policy Statement whereby a request for an auditing report or a portion thereof will usu ally be made where the information needed cannot be obtained from

i) development of auditing pro grams, manuals, protocols, train ing, pilot audits; ii) support of the field audit; iii) independent review and critique

monitoring, reporting or other data otherwise available to the Agency. In summary, a major objective of environmental protection is to pro

of the field audit findings; and iv) assistance in interpreting field audit findings and making recom mendations upon implementation

tal management practices. Environ mental auditing is clearly an effec tive tool to meet this objective.

mote the use of sound environmen

of corrective action.

Explicit written auditing proce dures are generally used for plan

•Chief Environmental Engineer M.M. Dillon Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990





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Environmental Science <6 Engineering, July 1990

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Dean Construction, Windsor, Ontario



Circle reply card No. 112

Canada's options for the Greenhouse Effect

Toronto hosted "The Chang

mainly in therangeof2°Cto4°C. In

ing Atmosphere" Confer

ence in June 1988. A Con ference Statement was

endorsed by over 300 scientists and policy makers from 46 countries. It called for the development ofenergy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide(CO2)and other trace

gases; and for a 20% reduction of global CO2 emissions from 1988 lev els by the year 2005. Dr. Ken Hare, keynote speaker at the Conference, discussed the

nature of the greenhouse effect in ES&E last year. He also explained the concerns about impending glo bal climatic changes that formed the background to the Toronto Con ference. Here, we review the contin uing efforts to come to grips with the greenhouse warming phenomenon. We examine in particular how Can ada might be impacted by a warm ing trend, and the scope of response options open to us. Climatic Change due to Global Warming

The greenhouse effect is of great importance to life on our planet. It is a natural heat-trapping mechanism without which the average tempera ture of the earth would be about minus 19°C instead of the observed

By Steven J.B. Carter, P.Eng.* and Dr. Danny Harvey In particular, CO2 is responsible for 50% to 60% ofthe contribution of

greenhouse gases to global warm ing since the industrial revolution. It will also be the dominant contrib utor to further increases in the

greenhouse effect. There is much room for uncer

tainty in assessing both the histori cal record and the climatic response to a given build-up of greenhouse gases. Scientists depend to a large extent on sophisticated computer models which have been developed by various teams around the world. These research tools are usually derived from numerical weather pre diction models, and there are good reasons for confidence in their pro jections of the global scale climatic response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The projections tend to agree on globally and eastwest averaged aspects of climatic change, but disagree on regional details. Most simulations aim to under

stand the climate that might result from an effective doubling of atmos

the absence of measures to limit

greenhouse gas emissions,however, concentrations of greenhouse gases will increase far beyond an effective CO2 doubling. By early in the next century, the climate could be as warm as at any time in human his tory. By the latter half of the next century, the climate could be as warm as at any time during the last 40 million years. Rates of climatic change could be up to 100 times fas ter than the fastest natural rates of

change. The Canadian economy is precar iously dependent on energy exports, which are subject to increasing environmental constraints, and on environmentally sensitive products. Canada has a growing nonmerchandise international balance

of payment deficit, which is bal anced by a growing (but erratic) merchandise trade surplus (Eigure 1). The trade surplus, however, con sists of a growing deficit in manu factured goods and a growing surplus in energy, agricultural and forestry products (Figure 2), these latter two being vulnerable to large and rapid climatic change. Climate




pheric concentrations of CO2. The Canadian Climate Centre recently completed one such experiment.Pre liminary assessment of the results

important limitations. Oceanic, cloud and certain other processes are treated very simply, for exam ple, while features such as the Great

house gas concentrations in the atmosphere could produce major cli matic changes over the next several

indicates that the climate would

Lakes are too small scale to he resolved. Substantial advances in


Recent results from other models are

15°C. There is concern among the majority of climatologists, however, that the measured increase ofgreen

change such that average global surface temperatures rise by 3.5°C.



the models will, however, need the next generation of computers. Bet ter data against which to test our models are also needed, such as information now being gathered by the 3 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment satellites. The models consistently project that warming magnitudes and

warming rates in higher latitude


countries such as Canada could be 2

to 3 times greater than the average. This is very important. Adverse impacts of climatic warming will be greater if the rate at which the warming occurs is too fast to allow people and ecosystems to adapt. It is also expected that the hydrological cycle will intensify, and that mean winter temperatures will rise





-30 1961






+ 1973

I _1 1976

j 1979


1- -1- --L-1-'1982



more than mean summer tempera


tures. Since much of Northern Can ada is now classified as a cold

Figure 1. Balance of Canadian International Payments, 1961 to 1988

desert, it will clearly be greatly changed if these projections are cor

"" Merchandise


The balance of international merchandise payments has remained healthy over the past two decades, while the balance of non-merchandise payments has grown steadily worse. (Source: Canadian Economic Observer)


Looking at Southern Canada, Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Canada's Greenhouse Effect options - continued

and the USSR each contribute about

one fifth to the present total. Cana dian CO2 emissions from all sources

were about 0.47 Gt in 1988, 2% of the global total. They are expected to rise to between 0.6 Gt and 0.7 Gt by




Provincial (direct combustion)


emissions of CO2 in 1987 from all


2005 under business-as-usual scena rios.


sources were:





Ontario Alberta










[SUD 1985


Figure 2. Net Canadian Merchandise Exports, 1973 to 1988


The healthy overall picture of merchandise exports is due largely to those market sectors which are most at risk from climatic change. (Source: Canadian Economic Observer)

possible climatic warming impacts include severe stressing of forests and other ecosystems, a rise in sea level, and strained agricultural practices. In Ontario, power genera tion capacity at stations such as the Robert Saunders and Sir


Beck facilities will probably decrease. In Quebec, the more northerly drainage basins near James Bay could experience a net

B.C. N.S. N.B. Saskatchewan Others

105 64 61 17 14 31 25

% 33 22 14 13 4 3 6 5

Provincial CO2 emissions vary greatly both in total and in those sectors responsible for the emis sions. Transportation and electric

will report to the UN General Assembly and to the Second World Climate Conference in November,

utilities account for about 30% and


CO2 emissions.

A convention on climatic change could be convened by the UN as early as 1992. In the case of CFC (cblorofluorocarbon) reduction mea sures, The Montreal Protocol fol lowed only two years after the 1985

25% respectively of all Canadian Legislation Action Scenarios and Response Options

What would be the consequences of applying legislative action to enforce the call of the Toronto Con

increase in available water. Warmer

of the Ozone Layer. Domestic mea

temperatures would lower winter energy demand and slightly

sures were enacted after a further

ference? Examining total Cana dian CO2 emissions, the required reductions from all provinces and

two years.

sectors would be:

Vienna Convention for Protection

increase summer demand in Onta

rio and Quebec. Ice coverage of the Great Lakes is expected to fall to near zero.

Projected CO^ emissions Source

emissions (Mtl in 2005

Reductions Needed (Mt)

Manitoba and Saskatchewan

would probably be impacted most by a climatic warming. With warm ing, temperatures are expected to

NEB (low) NEB (high)

become less variable in the Prairies,


but precipitation should become more variable. Preliminary studies suggest that Ontario and Quebec will be less affected. Little study has been made to date of bow a climatic

warming might impact on other regions of Canada. Policy Directions Several strong international dec larations on the greenhouse effect were made in 1989. These included

the Hague Declaration and the G-7 Summit Final Communique; Can ada is signatory to both. The main international body assessing the scientific evidence of

climatic change and for developing possible policy responses is the Intergovernmental Panel on Cli matic Change (IPCC), sponsored by the United Nations (UN). The IPCC 20


220 271 328

649 706 Ml = megatonne

The focus of Canadian govern ment activity is the Task Force on Energy and the Environment, established in August, 1988 by the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Energy Ministers. No definitive timetable can be estimated for CO2

regulatory reforms in Canada, but the pace will likely be intensive com pared to traditional time frames. The timetable for the Ontario MISA

initiative covers about a six year period from initial consultation to the deadline for compliance with a limits regulation. CO2 Emissions In Perspective

where the National Energy Board (NEB) low and high energy use sce nario projections are considered to be at least as credible as the Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) InterFuel Substitution Demand (IFSD) model projection. How might Canada respond to the challenge of the Toronto Confer ence? First, it is important to realize that even drastic unilateral action

by Canada can have little effect on

the build-up profile of atmospheric

CO2. This is not a recommendation

to do nothing, but a recognition that an international and broad-based

Global CO2 emissions from fossil

response is needed if the build-up is

fuels are currently about 20 Gigatonnes (Gt) per year, and could rise to 70 Gt per year by 2050. The USA

Within Canada, the need for inter-provincial co-operation is

to be significantly slowed.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

clear, and CO2 emission reductions should come from all economic sec

tors. British Columbia and Quebec rely almost completely on hydroe lectric resources, for example, but are together responsible for almost a quarter of Canadian CO2 emissions. The main options are to: • Promote energy efficiency and conservation;

• Reduce dependency on fossil fuels;

•Shift to fossil fuel technologies which emit less CO2 per kWh;and •Offset Canadian CO2 emissions

through reforestation and by assisting others to reduce their emissions.


The use of coal is thus very impor tant to many utilities as they plan to meet expected increases in electrical energy demand of 2.2% per year over the coming decade or so. Electricity production in Alberta, Saskatche wan and Nova Scotia is largely based on coal combustion. Alterna

tive means of generating electricity are often not readily available. Con versely, local electricity generation constitutes the only market for ther mal coals in many areas, and the socio-economic ramifications

The potential benefits of energy efficiency and demand-side man agement are considerable. Many measures make both environmental

Combustion and Gas Turbines will

and economic sense; but markets for

help reduce acid rain, NQx and particulate emissions, hut none offers a clearly most cost-effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Using gas instead of coal as a fuel can greatly reduce CO2 emissions, hut the avail ability and cost of gas are key con

sources. Canada is fortunate to he able to meet two thirds of its electri

cal energy needs using hydroelectricity alone. But while British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Newfoundland are able to rely

tries will need technical and finan

cial assistance to do so. Many nations show no interest in respond ing to the greenhouse warming threat in any way that might inter fere with their economic growth.


reduced coal usage are great. New "clean coal" technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Fluidized Bed

say, new long-life and low-power lightbulbs may have to be driven initially by legislation. Dependency on fossil fuels can be reduced by sharing "clean" power

further. This can be achieved by reforestation projects at home and abroad, exporting Canadian hydroelectric power to the USA,and technology transfer (including enduse efficiency know-how) to other nations. Reducing CO2 emissions is a global challenge, but many coun

almost completely on hydroelectricpower, other provinces are not so

cerns which must he addressed.

There will come a point for Can ada beyond which it is more cost

Countries such as those of Eastern

Europe also face serious and imme diate problems of air and water pol lution. ES&E

The Authors

Steven Carter, P.Eng., is an environ mental engineer witti Hatch Asso ciates. Dr. Danny Harvey is a climatologist at the University of Toronto. Hatch Associates, assisted

by Dr. Harvey, recently completed a study of Global Warming impacts and planning options for the Canadian

effective to offset our CO2 emissions

Electrical Association and the Coal

rather than try to reduce them any

Industry (CEA Study 905 G 696).

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write for your free Products for Analysis catalog. The catalog features Hach's complete line of products for water and wastewater analysis. Request literature number 3852. HACH COMPANY P.O. Box 389

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 113





N f


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


DIRTY THINGS. Ofcourse, what we are referring to is The International Environment

and Ecology Exhibition, Crossroads. From October 31 to November 6, 1990, leading intemational author ities on the environment will gather at Place Bonaventure in Montreal

to talk about trash, pollution, and various other pressing environ mental issues. And they'll have some practical advice for industry leaders who want to clean up their act. Unquestionably, this promises to be the major Canadian environmental event of 1990.


Leading representatives from the diverse fields of science, industry, finance, law, politics, and education will be giving their expert opinions at this intemational conference.

Everybody wiU be here. Consul tants. Researchers. Public Organiza tions. And prevention groups too.

By focusing on the many different aspects of the environmental prob lem, the conference is guaranteed to present the complete picture. It's informative, and it provides training and consultation as weU.

you to show-off your environmental control technology.

It's a prime opportunity for the world's researchers, developers, and manufacturers of waste management and recycling systems to display their wares. For you to display yours. Crossroads will be an excellent

vehicle for generating industrial sales. A tme marketplace. After all, the right people will all be there. Among those in attendance will be industry leaders. It is well known that some environmental practices

have met with negative public opinion and the threat of stricter government regulations. So you know those leaders will be at

Crossroads, looking very closely at your anti-pollution devices and waste management systems.

Several hundred government and industrial leaders from developing countries wUl be there too, walking around the exhibition. Brought to Montreal under the auspices of the Canadian Intemational Development

Agency, they too will be interested in seeing the latest developments. You will find that Crossroads will

draw the people you would like most to see: Y)ur customers; your market.

And where the conference leaves

off, the exhibition picks up.



CONFERENCE: 31 OCT., 1-2 NOV. 1990

With exhibition themes ranging from waste management to fighting pollution and spills. Crossroads covers the whole gamut of environ mental trouble spots. This makes


Crossroads the ideal showcase for

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990



Norman Helm Marshall Fenn Limited


Circle reply card No. 114


BIOQUAL '89 — a report from Edmonton Established as part of Canada's National Biotechnology strategy, BIOQUAL is a network of compan ies, universities, research organiza tions, and government agencies interested in the development of bio technology applicable to the envir

onmental protection industry for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality. This net work seeks to encourage cooperative endeavours for research

and to

develop commercialization strate gies appropriate to the Canadian pollution control industry. To advance these objectives, BIO QUAL sponsors an annual scien tific meeting to highlight advances in the field and to facilitate com munication between all sectors of

the R&D community. BIOQUAL '89, the network's

fourth annual meeting was held in Edmonton on November 14-17, 1989, with the theme the Applica tions of Environmental Biotechnol

ogy to

Major Industrial Sectors.

Papers addressing the oil and gas industry included a toxicology tech nique to assess the environmental significance of waste sludge; pro cesses involving microorganisms and composting to degrade oily sludge; and a process for the in situ degradation of PCB-contaminated soils.

Pulp mill wastewater treatment processes included one using high rate upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors and another employing ozone in conjunction with aerated lagoons. For the coal mining industry, a bacteriological process was des cribed to degrade methane in coal mines,storage silos, and ship holds. A process using artificial wetlands populated by cattails successfully removed nitrogen and other con taminants from coal mine wastewater.

The use of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of tar

geted insect pests in the agricultural industry was described. Irrigation using municipal sewage lagoon effluent increased the yield of alfalfa hay substantially, and the judicious application of oily wastes improved the quality of agricultu rally marginal sandy soils without reducing grain production. Delegates heard the results of an evaluation, on both pilot- and fullscale, of ozone and activated carbon for the treatment of drinking water.

papers,three panel discussions were held. Panelists discussing the regu latory dimensions of biotechnology represented government (federal and provincial), private, university, and general public sectors. This panel created a good deal of interest and elicited a lively discussion with and among the delegates. One area of common agreement was that, in the development of regulations for the control of biotechnology pro ducts and processes, the full partici pation of representatives from all affected sectors is essential.


delegates were very interested as well in the panels discussing the financing of R&D and demonstra tion projects, and the exploitation

and commercialization of R&D.

Approximately 100 delegates attended BIOQUAL '89, and 25 attended the Basic Environmental

Microbiology Workshop held the day before the Annual Meeting. BIOQUAL '90 is tentatively planned for Fredericton, N.B. on September 19-21,1990. The first day will be jointly sponsored by the BIOFOR network which is holding its annual meeting in Fredericton on September 17-19. For moreinforma tion on these meetings, write to Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Technology Devel opment Branch, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3, or phone (613) 991-1578. ES&E

Greater use of natural gas vehicles predicted More motorists may soon he able to convert their vehicles to natural gas through a less expensive and more reliable mechanical conversion kit, Ontario Energy Minister Lyn McLeod has announced.

The natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion kit is being developed by YUGO-TECH in Mississauga with the help of a ministry EnerSearch grant of $43,800. An innovative fuel/air regulator in the kit could make the YUGO-TECH system more fuel-efficient and more envir

onmentally benign than other mechanical NGV conversion sys

cubic metres of proven natural gas reserves. Canada's potential reserves of natural gas are esti mated in excess of seven trillion


Since natural gas is cleaner and less expensive than conventional transportation fuels, NGVs have a great deal of potential. But the YUGO-TECH project takes NGVs one step further, promising a system that consumes less fuel and produ ces even lower emissions," she announced.

The proposed system Advanced Gas Inducer System (AGIS) will be 10 percent less expensive than cur rent NGV conversion kits. In Onta

rio, some 6,000 vehicles have been converted to natural gas. This is about 0.1 percent of all vehicles on the road.

For the past decade, new supplies of natural gas have accumulated at almost double the rate of our total

domestic and export consumption. There are large natural gas reserves in the western provinces, as well as arctic Canada. It is estimated that Canada has more than 2.5 trillion

cubic metres, a volume that exceeds present current domestic consump tion 100 fold. Projections call for additions



reserves in

volumes virtually equal to our domestic consumption and export requirements for the next 20 years. Its low


content fuel

greatly reduces reactive hydrocar bons and carbon monoxide per unit of energy in the vehicles' exhaust stream. Methane,the primary com ponent of natural gas, does not con tribute to smog. Natural gas fuel does not emit lead and other harm

ful additives into the atmosphere as do liquid vehicle fuels. Natural gas is a safe vehicle fuel, its lighter than air properties give natural gas a tremendous safety advantage over liquid fuels which puddle. After forty years of use in Italy, there have heen no road deaths or injuries attributed to the use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel. ES&E

In addition to these technical 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990



FLANGED FIHINGS Manufactured by Terminal City Iron Works Ltd.,Vancouver Terminal City brings variety, versatility...and value to the Canadian marketplace with a FULL LINE of FLANGED FITTINGS as well as an up-to-the-minute and ever-growing range of regular 'TC.' Waterworks Fittings. Manufactured by Terminal City in both GREY IRON and DUCTILE IRON, in sizes ranging from 3" to 24", and larger, 'TO.' FLANGED FITTINGS conform to the standards and specifications of AWWA, ANSI and ASTM. 'T.C.' 24" FLANGED 45° LATERAL

Manufactured in sizes 4" through 24", Terminal City's FLANGED LATERALS are available with varying degrees of lateral branches, other than the standard 45°, as well as with optional reducing on both the lateral and the "run".


Designed primarily for use on the suction side of pumping systems, 'T.C.' CAST IRON BELL MOUTH CASTINGS are manufactured in sizes

from 3" up to 30", are available in straight and 90° styles and serve in both water and sewage pumping installations.

to:flanged tees

Terminal City CAST IRON FLANGED TEES,faced and drilled, are manufactured in standard sizes with both straight and reducing outlets. TEES may be supplied reducing on both the "run" and the branch. Special tapping bosses for NIPT outlets are available upon request.


Terminal City FLANGED ELBOWS,faced and drilled, are manufactured in 90°, 45°, 22y2° and 1iy4° configurations. As well, 'T.C.' FLANGED ELBOWS are available in other optional degrees and, in addition, may be manufactured as reducing elbows.


Terminal City manufactures FLANGED CROSSES in standard sizes, both straight and reducing are available together with T.C.' ANGLED CROSSES. CROSSES can be supplied with tapping bosses for NIPT outlets. Also manufactured are 'T.C.' FLANGED TAPERED REDUCERS, ECCENTRIC REDUCERS and "SPECIALS".

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 115


Managing the risks and costs of hazardous materiais storage mm â– Hi


analysis of the environmental and operating data to identify areas, operations and facilities where the exposure to a release of the stored substances is greatest. Based upon the completion of a risk assessment, prioritization of existing facilities by means of a hazard ranking sys tem should he conducted. Prioritiza

tion will provide a clear picture of how available resources should be allocated.


w.r -.

^ I

Integrity Certification and Remediation

Existing above-ground or belowground tanks and pipes should have integrity certification performed by independent, qualified, registered, professional engineers. A determi nation of the integrity of each active and inactive storage system should be performed. Systems which are leaking should be taken out of opera tion and the necessary repairs

We have become drama

tically aware of the con sequences of leaks and

losses of stored hazard

ous substances from under-ground and above-ground storage tanks and pipes in recent years. Fire and safety problems as well as environ mental contamination with its asso

ciated health risks,

are now

included in the serious threats asso

ciated with leakages. In addition, consider these sobering statistics generated by the U.S. Environmen tal Protection Agency, regarding financial consequences of storage system leaks: Clean-up of nearly 85% of all under ground fuel tank leaks costs from $20,000 to $50,000. That Is the low end. The next worse case are the 10% of Incidents In which leaks were not

detected In time to prevent extensive soil and groundwater contamination. Site





Instances range from $70,000 to $300,000. Worse case spills, the remaining 5%, result in site restoration costs

ranging upward to several million dollars and may require the site owner to purchase neighboring properties that have been contami nated. The remediation costs asso

ciated with other types of hazardous materials are comparable. The most effective means of min

imizing the risks associated with

hazardous materials storage is

through a comprehensive, yet costeffective, program of storage tank management which includes a sur vey of immediate site actions 26

By Jim Vaughan*


required; integrity certification of existing systems; upgrade pro grams; and ongoing monitoring and maintenance.

Immediate Needs Survey Addressing the short-term needs of a hazardous materials storage system management program requires a survey of the environmen tal and operating conditions at all

existing facilities. The purpose of the survey is to show how conditions and procedures should he imme diately altered at the site in accor dance





standards of practice. A regulatory requirement assess ment, conducted as part of the sur vey, determines what national, regional and local codes currently apply or may apply in the future to the design, construction, installa tion, operation and closure of hazardous materials storage sys tems.

Environmental conditions which should he accounted for include soil

and groundwater characteristics, along with site-specific characteris tics such as buried utilities (water works, sewer lines, etc.). Operating conditions include number, size, age, and type of storage systems; products stored and their character istics; as well as a history of the installation, maintenance, and repair of the various storage sys

Unconfined substances

should be traced from the origin of release, and a recovery and restora tion program should be imple mented.

Integrity certification must take into account design standards; com patibility of the hazardous waste material with the tank construction

material; cathodic protection mea sures; and tank integrity as estab lished by leak testing, inspection, and other measures.

A precision tightness test should be performed for underground stor age tanks and pipings. For aboveground storage tanks on cradles or supports, external visual inspection and ultrasonic shell thickness test

ing are needed. Aboveground stor age tanks on pads should have internal visual inspection and ultra sonic shell thickness testing. Inground sumps must undergo internal visual inspection and static liquid level determination. In addi tion, it is also useful during integrity certification to inspect any existing secondary containment to verify that it is tight and has sufficient capacity in case of a tank failure. Upgrading Storage Systems Addressing the long-term needs of a hazardous materials storage system management program requires, as a first step, determina tion if any of the storage systems currently in use can be eliminated. Hazardous waste storage systems


A risk assessment of each under

ground storage facility provides an

'General Manager Groundwater Technology, Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

with minimal accumulation,

smaller multiple systems contain ing similar substances,and systems used only occasionally are all good candidates for closure.

In closing a storage system, sev

eral important points to be taken into account include: proper vapor purging of the tank (if ignitable); utilization ofthe appropriately sized removal equipment; proper removal and disposal of any remaining liq uids, solids, and the tank itself at an approved disposal facility; decon tamination of all associated equip ment; and restoration of the site to its original condition. A closure

plan would address closure activi ties, cost estimates, and financial

responsibility. The plan should also consider response action in the event that contaminated soil is encountered.

manufacturers' installation specifi cations, acceptable design stand ards, and institute a formal quality assurance/ quality control program for the installation. In addition, an independent, qualified installation inspector or registered professional engineer must supervise the instal lation and certify that industry

vaulted systems. To assure that all monitoring equipment is operating properly, scheduled maintenance ofthe equip ment should be conducted. A perio dic sampling program, designed to identify constituents of concern, will meet regulatory requirements and document the integrity of the


storage system.



implemented. Many companies are replacing underground storage systems with aboveground systems to more ade quately address fire marshal's and insurance companies' concerns. A new storage system installation (10,000 gallon) typically costs $30,000 to $50,000. Monitoring & Maintenance

The long-term needs of a hazard ous materials storage system man-

Disposal and site restoration costs can range from $25,000 to $1 miiiion. In order to reduce long-term cor

porate liability and achieve regula tory compliance, it is critical that soil screening be performed in the vicinity of the removed storage sys tem to verify that an environmental problem was not created through

the operation of the system. Inability to remove or fully dec ontaminate

hazardous waste-

impacted soil requires implementa tion of post-closure care methodolo gies as they apply to landfills. Only in those situations in which removal of the tank will undermine a build

ing foundation, etc., is abandon ment in-place recommended.

agement program require develop

ment and implementation of an inventory monitoring program. Based on the type ofstorage system, characteristics of hazardous waste

stored, available manpower, and local environmental circumstances, inventory monitoring can use either manual or automatic monitoring techniques. Since all hazardous waste tanks

must be secondarily contained, it is required that (1) continuous moni toring he applied to double-walled tanks, and (2) daily monitoring occur for all externally lined or

Observation wells for vapor detection when the groundwater is greater than 20 feet deep are also becoming more prevalent. Vapor detection is limited to those wastes

having an elevated volatility and to coarse soils which readily permit vapor migration. Costs for vapor detection systems also range between $5,000 to $8,000. Tightness testing of under ground storage systems is typically conducted as a part of the integrity certification. In addition, it may be prudent to periodically test (annu ally or semi-annually)older systems until they need to be replaced. When testing a hazardous waste storage system, it is important to select an appropriate test method for the waste being tested. Make sure all testing variables (tempera ture, vapor pockets, water table, etc.) are adequately controlled. Make sure tests adhere to established pre cision test criteria. For test results

that are borderline, extend the length of the test and plot all data. The most important consideration

is to select a qualified precision test ing firm (i.e., test operator),and to he sure to check the firm's references.

Be aware that many storage sys tems require some type of preparaContinued overleaf

The typical costs associated with a tank removal, assuming no losses,

range from

$12,000 to $20,000,

depending upon tank size, covering, and analytical testing. Disposal costs and the extent of site restoration are a function of amount of contamination

and can range from $25,000 to $1,000,000.

Storage system replacement is a key parameter of any storage tank maintenance program. Other replacement criteria include the materials of construction, pumping system, type of containment, moni toring system, as well as the sub stances stored and environment of

operation. The second, but equally as impor tant, aspect of a storage system replacement is the physical installa tion. To minimize the long-term potential for leaks and losses, it is advisable to use only established

reputable contractors, adhere to

ES&E Editor Tom Davey at the site of a modern waste treatment facility in Texas which effectively treats industrial wastes.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Technology, Inc., was involved in the development of a management program for storage systems used by an automotive battery manufac turer primarily for keeping sulfuric acid. The storage systems consisted of multiple sumps, transfer fines

Managing the Risks and Costs continued tory work prior to testing. Most test methods require that a storage sys tem be completely full ofthe test liq uid, and most test equipment requires retrofit to test hazardous wastes. Where required, regulatory agencies must be notified of test results. The cost range for tightness tests is approximately $600 to $1,200 per test, depending upon storage system size and type of waste stored. A maintenance program should address the


•Inventory monitoring data acqui sition and reconciliation.

•Storage system technology. •Equipment operation and mainte

and collection structures.


• Liquid transfer procedures. • Release response procedures. • Safety procedures.

The preliminary phase ofthe pro gram was an audit which evaluated all existing physical, operational and demographic factors relating to

• Regulatory reporting require

the use of the storage systems.


maintenance of all

mechanical and electronic equip ment, as well as the periodic moni toring of all storage systems. Visual leak inspections of all aboveground portions of the storage and han dling system should be conducted. In addition, periodic ultrasonic shell thickness testing is a useful method for determining corrosion rates and anticipated life span of all vessels and piping. Proper training of staff is vital to ensure that the hazardous materials

management program will be effec tive. Management and operators must be familiar with equipment and procedures necessary to operate storage systems efficiently and according to regulatory require ments. A training program should

Depending on storage system size and waste types tightness test costs can range from $600 to $1,200. Typical Cases The exact details of a given stor

age tank management program will vary according to the nature of the material being stored, age and con dition of the existing storage sys tems, and the underlying character istics ofthe land on and in which the

tanks are located. Nevertheless,it is useful to review a couple of specific

examples to gain a more tangible idea of what the initial stages of tank management may involve.

Battery Acid: Recently Groundwater

Based on the audit results, var ious systems were prioritized and a certified integrity assessment was then performed on each system over a period ofseveral weeks. Theinteg rity assessment included: an engi neering determination of the structural integrity of the storage system; precision tightness testing of all associated fines; a stratified subsurface assessment designed to characterize the geologic matrix in the immediate vicinity of the stor age system and identify any con taminants present both in the soils



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Circie reply card No. 116

Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

and groundwater. This approach also provided a monitoring system consistent with regulatory mandates until the exist ing systems could he replaced or ret rofitted with secondary contain ment.

Pharmaceutical Wastes: Another

engineering assessment of hazard ous waste storage and piping sys tems was conducted for a national

pharmaceutical manufacturer. The program, which included a physical inspection of the plant's 15 aboveand below-ground storage tanks, as well as 15 miles of piping through out the facility, took just 3 weeks. Also included were design evalua tion, precision tank testing, a waste compatibility analysis and a regula tory assessment. Ultrasonic testing was used to determine if the lines

and aboveground tanks were struc turally sound. Ultrasonic transduc ers can measure tank and line thicknesses to 0.0001". Structural

soundness is determined by compar

ing measured values to established design values. The lines were both visually inspected and ultrasonically tested from beginning to end to certify integrity. The underground tanks that could not be visually or physi

cally inspected were assessed using Precision Tank Testing procedures. The waste analysis determined if the materials generated at the site were corroding the tank and line material. The design evaluation involved looking at the original drawings and specifications and assessing them in the light of cur rent design standards. The regula tory assessment determined what needed to be done to bring the site into compliance with regulatory applicable standards. The result of the assessment showed that, with the exception of one corroded tank, the facility was basically in com pliance with regulatory criteria. That one tank was taken out of ser

vice immediately and replaced. In summary:The managementof storage facilities is a serious respon sibility for any operation that must




Exhibiting Equipment, Machinery,Systemsand Servicesfor: • Drinking water and wastewater • Waste management and recycling • Air pollution • Processing and manufacturing •Soil contamination

• Monitoring and controls • Engineen'ng The Environment Congress: solving Interrelated problems affecting the environment - water, earth and air. Please send more Information on:

□ Exhibiting □ Congress □ Visiting


maintain hazardous wastes on its

property prior to disposal. The effec tiveness of these facilities and the

cost of the storage operation can be optimized by establishing and adhering to a methodical hazardous materials storage system manage ment program structured as out lined. ES&E

About the author: Jim Vaughan is General Manager of Groundwater Technology, Inc., and provides tech nical direction on soils and groundwater remediation projects throughout Canada.



PUBLICATION Environmental Science and


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990



Show & Association MANAGEMENT INC. 4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9A IB6 (416) 234-1240 FAX (416) 234-1695

Sponsors PCAO OWMA


AWWA - Ont. Sect.

United Fund for Environment OK/IMRI

Member Canadian Association of Exposition Managers

Circle reply card No. 117


Hydrometry and Instrumentation — A calibrator's perspective

The science of Hydrometry

By Randy McLean, CET*

has become increasingly precise through the use of new technology. Although the path meanders from the original point gauge to the present-day microprocessor-based flow (secon dary device) computers, the net result is positive. The requirement for accurate flow metering of industrial and municipal discharges to the envir onment has never been as stringent as it is today. The Ontario Environ mental Protection Act regulation 695/88 has added new meaning to the word accuracy, changing the practice of flow metering from an

In cases of open channel devices, and especially for flumes and weirs, the velocity of water through or over the device is entirely attributed to the constant force of gravity. This

implies that as long as the velocity can accurately be predicted and the flow area can be calculated, flow rate can be determined. Errors will

persist if the velocity is not fully attributed to the force of gravity or the area has not been accurately determined. The water flow area is

necessity. This transition has not been fully perceived as dischargers attempt to modify structures and devices hoping to satis:fy Cadillac requirements with Volkswagen

determined by accurately measur ing the water depth at the measur ing point while the channel or notch width is held constant or is predicta ble. Velocity of the flow through or over a device will NOT be fully attributable to the force of gravity if approach considerations are not



In order to appreciate accuracy one should have some knowledge of the flow metering system and each

tions or approach velocity can not only affect the critical velocity pro

incidental occurrence to an absolute

Interference caused by obstruc

component's function and potential. This would encompass an under standing of the primary device, the variable sensing element,the linear ization or primary device characterizer, and the output device (ie, integrator, recorder, display, etc.). A primary device is that system element which quantitatively con verts the measured variable energy

file but can also affect the actual head measurement. Some causes of

this type of error can be compen sated for, however, limitations are device specific and very modest. Standards have been developed, tried and tested for the proper instal lation and construction of primary devices.

Device selection is done

through a screening process consi dering range capabilities, approach conditions, channel slope and in some cases a modest degree of com pensation or accuracy drift if the device specific standards are not stringently adhered to. For devices

into a form suitable for measure

ment;ie. Parshall flume,notch weir, orifice, venturi tube, PalmerBowlus, etc. All primary devices operate through the empirical for mula of flow rate = velocity X area.

requiring ±5 percent of actual flow, these deviations and compensa tions are extremely modest or non existent.

The development of a primary device is usually driven by a need. By using the "V" notch weir as an example ofthis statement the extent of device error may be illustrated. The necessity for a device having an extensive range capability brought about the development of the "V" notch weir. Unfortunately that device's high range capabilities impose heaviest upon the head sens ing element and the linearization devices.

The "V" notch weir has the high est exponential relationship between head and flowrate. If we consider the combined error caused

by the sensing and linearizing ele ment to be typically ±0.4%, that error is translated to ((1000.4)**2.5=) ±1 percent at full scale. Compared to a device with a lower

exponential(i.e. Parshallflume 1.56) the error translates to ((1000 4)**i 56=) +0.62 percent. Specific

to the regulation, the secondary device used for process effluent must have an accuracy of ±2 percent of full scale. Comparing both systems and using the same sensing device, the "V" notch system may only allow all other components a com bined error of ±1 percent while the Parshall flume system allows ±1.38

percent, a full 8 bit resolution (1/(2**8)). *Randy





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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

This may not be worth considera tion for a ±20 percent accuracy

requirement (i.e. combined or once through cooling water), however,in a calibration report all errors identi fied through the up/down cycle cali bration should be accounted for.

Closed pipe devices operate under numerous principles, however, they depend on the same empirical for mula as mentioned earlier. Specific to orifices and Venturis these devi ces hold the area constant while the

pressure upstream of the device compensated by the immediate pres sure drop caused by the device is pro portional to velocity and therefore, under constant area conditions, flow rate. The exponential relating differential pressure to flow rate of these devices is 0.5(square root). Following the relationship, already discussed using a high exponential device, or high range device, the accuracy calculation using a square root extractor shows improvement. The limitations for square root extraction devices is their range capability which is rela tively small. Major errors occur with the square root extraction at flow rates less than 20% of the systems range. Ifthe pressure sensing device has an error of±0.4% thatin turn will translate to a flow error of±1%. For

causing interference or distortion to ultrasonic sound travel. One major and often overlooked compensation is the adjustment ofthe signal due to the effects of temperature on sound travel. Temperature compensation must be immediate as the compen sation is to adjust the head reading in


measurement channel

through accurately measuring the distance to the water surface and

the mounting face of the trans ponder. If temperature fluctuations are dramatic (i.e. 4 degrees within minutes as observed by the author) and the temperature sensor cannot respond to this change, error in flow measurement could be as high as 8% (.18% error/degree Celsius * surface distance/head**exp2.5). Bubbler tube backpressure sys tems and wetted differential pres sure devices have been observed to be in serious error which is non-

compensatible and thus some flow histories can only be referred to with a relatively large degree of uncer tainty. All other elements in the secondary component system must be considered as separate entities open to error through interference of the technique used to transmit or compute all signals. This holds true for microprocessor-based devices.

however, this error may not be eas ily discovered or compensated for. The combinations of primary devices, sensing techniques, signal transmission, linearization, output devices, compensation and others are too vast to be addressed under

one heading. Volumes have been written on open channel primary devices alone while continuing advances in variable sensing tech niques and signal telemetry keep the 'Best Available Technology' spotlight constantly on the move. With the advent of the accuracy required by the MISA regulations, flow measurement can no longer be treated as an off-the-shelf commod

ity. To meet this stringent accuracy requirement, applications guide lines must be strictly adhered to. Hydrometry must be considered fully at the conception stage of all new facilities discharging to the environment. Existing facilities and metering structures must be extremely careful in the reporting of flow accuracy. Considering instal lations through the eyes ofa calibra tor and following the guidelines of acceptable installation and opera tions practices, one finally realizes the true meaning of accuracy. ES&E

tunately the saving grace is in the regulation which stipulates the most stringent accuracy require


ment must be ±2% of fullscale. This would reduce the ±1% error at 20% of flow to ±0.2%. Little concern for the

process stream and negligible con cern for all other streams. These elements which measure

the variable(s) and translate into

signals directly proportional to flow can generally be referred to as the secondary device. These devices utilize numerous methods of varia

ble sensing, linearization, signal transmission and output. The newer units have developed around the microprocessor and come deli vered complete and ready for instal lation.



Interface Meter Accurate- Measures .05" or greater Detects thinner layers,

occur in

tape graduated at .02 ft. Intervals cablegulde/datum to measure lOOths. Rugged strong tope resists breakage - sturdy probe. - simple to operate - easy to clean and decontaminate. Low cost - modular for easy repair - Inexpensive replacement parts & cable

configuring the device to the prim ary element. Configuration of the newer type

of secondary devices, used for flow calculation in open channel applica tions, must follow the same precau tions as those mentioned for the

primary device. If the sensed varia ble and the linearization is not accu

rate, errors will be drastic. The apparent trend in head or level measurement is toward ultra sonic distance measurement. These

High quality instrumentation


devices are simple and quick to install, however, some considera tion must be given to the primary device applied and possible effects Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Solinst Canada Ltd. (416)873-2255 515 Main Street, Glen Williams, Ont. L7G 3S9

Circle reply card No. 118 31

Innovative Canadian wastewater

technology treats dairy waste In Maryland

An innovative and cost-

it was concluded that BVF"" anae

robic pretreatment, followed by ment facility in Frederick, aerobic pretreatment, would be a Maryland, uses a natural cost-effective means of complying biological process developed by ADI with discharge limits. Various International Inc. of Frederlcton, NB, anaerobic systems were evaluated to treat its process wastewater, pro competitively by High's, and the duce a cleaner effluent and a steady BVF technology was judged to be flow of biogas. the best system to meet wastewater The High's Dairies Inc.(High's) treatment requirements. Wastewater Treatment Facility is a The BVF system, or anaerobic secondary treatment system con reactor installed at High's is a steel sisting of an ADI-BVFÂŽ low-rate tank, 137 ft. diam. by 25 ft. high. Its anaerobic reactor followed by an reactive volume is 2.5 MG and is activated sludge plant. The wastedesigned for a wastewater flow of water treatment system is designed 180,000 gal/d and an average COD to handle all process water and loading of 18,000 Ib/d. The reactor whey generated by High's. is covered by a floating, insulated, High's produces a variety of flexible geomembrane cover that is dairy products (cottage cheese, designed to maintain proper reactor yogurt, etc.) for local markets. Was temperature, collect biogas,and pre tewater resulting from High's dairy vent escape of odors. Control of odor activities was pumped to its existing is a prime consideration because of treatment facilities, and contribut complaints High's had received ing significant pollution loads to the while operating its former treat municipal sewage treatment plant ment facilities. Biogas produced in (STP). The City, under pressure the reactor is drawn off under from the Maryland EPA to reduce vacuum by a PLC-controlled,duplex its municipal STP pollution dischar blower system, then burned in a ges(which eventually end up in Che- multi-fuel boiler to produce steam. sapeake Bay; an ecologically Final effluent from the treatment sensitive area), asked High's to plant flows by gravity to the City develop a plan to reduce its pollution sewer. To date, COD and BOD rem load. The initial plan involved in- ovals have exceeded 90 percent in plant process modifications and the the anaerobic system. Overall treat removal of whey from the treatment ment plant COD,BOD and SS remo process in an effort to reduce the pol vals have exceeded 95 percent. lution loading to the treatment facil The wastewater treatment facil ities. Whey was stored on-site and then trucked, at considerable cost to ity was a supply-and-install system High's, to local farms for use as by ADI and Davis Water and Waste animal feed. However, High's was Industries, Inc. In addition to the also receiving odor complaints, par ticularly during the summer. These odors originated from High's exist ing wastewater treatment facilities which were overloaded even though whey was not being treated in them. High's concern with finding a means of disposing of the wastewater from the plant safely, effec tively, and at a reasonable cost, prompted a further look at wastewater treatment requirements. Unfortunately, dairy wastewater can be very difficult to treat, often requiring expensive treatment facil ities and large energy inputs for con effective wastewater treat

wastewater treatability study and the wastewater characterization

and flow study, the scope of ADI supply included: overall site plan of the total treatment system; design, drawings and specifications for a pile-supported, reinforced concrete foundation for the BVF reactor and

the aerobic system tank; design, drawings and specifications for anaerobic and biogas yard piping; design input for the control build ing; supply and installation of the heat exchanger, biogas handling equipment, internal equipment for the BVF reactor, floating mem brane cover, boiler and electrical and controls systems; and commis sioning and training services including preparation of a process operating manual for process start up of the anaerobic facilities includ ing biogas utilization. Construction commenced in 1988 and was com

pleted in 1989. With over twenty systems either operating or in the design/construc tion stage, ADI's anaerobic exper tise has been recognized in locations worldwide. Currently, ADI-BVF systems are treating wastewaters in Canada, USA, England, France and India. Anaerobic processes work best on wastewaters which are

warm and have a high concentra tion of organic material such as dairy wastewaters. In addition to dairy wastewaters, this technology is also suitable for potato process ing, meat and poultry processing wastes, distillery, brewery and cer tain pulp and paper wastewaters. â–


ventional aerobic treatment. ADI

was contacted to study the problem. After a thorough investigation which included a wastewater flow

and characterization study and a pilot-scale anaerobic treatability study in which a blended plant was tewater including whey was treated, 32

Dr. Bob Landine (left) received an award from A! Lacey, N.B. Minister of Commerce and Technology for his work on anaerobic biotechnology at APENB Conference.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Product profile


SaRVEYLOGGER The Speedometer For Effluents

The No. 1 Portable

Sewerage Flowmeter

Direct flow readings inciuding surcharges Direct mean ultrasonic velocity Direct mean height





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RAMSEY LAKE INDUSTRIAL UMITED Serving Industry Since 1975 Walden Plaza, P.O. Box 158, Lively, Ontario POM 2E0;

Telephone: (705) 692-4734;

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Fax: (705) 692-4735

Circle reply card No. 119


Oilcontinues to be a major

rate. The mechanisms for the break down of oil-in-water emulsion are

Peat Filters for Oil Removal containing waters are constantly looking for more efficient, and yet

likely to he the sequential action of

source of energy but the production, transporta tion, and use of oils and oil products often cause environ mental pollution. Oil interfere with light and oxygen transfer mecha nisms, imparts taste and odor, causes toxicity to aquatic life and creates unsightly conditions. The environmental concerns have led to

ferent oil-in-water emulsions nor

stringent discharge requirements from 15 to as low as 1 mg/L of oil depending upon the location of the discharge point. The industries are also hard pressed for the reclaim of the once-through process water for reuse within the plant. Thus industries, which discharge oil-

mally encountered in the industrial

The disposal of oil-sorhed peat would he environmentally accepta ble as it can he burned,used as a fuel





filtration and coalescence.


to absorb oil. Research undertaken

larger oil drops are filtered and/or adsorbed by peat,smaller drops coa lesce until they can he filtered out. Depending upon the emulsion type and stability and flow rate, an efflu

at the University of Regina, Saskat

ent oil concentration of less than 1-4

chewan, Canada has shown the effectiveness of peat in treating dif

mg/L can he achieved in a 300 mm peat filter.

ment, reuse or disposal. An inexpensive medium such as horticultural peat has been shown


Results show that a 300 mm peat filter can remove from 34 to 99 per cent of oil from a number of oil-inwater emulsions. The removals

depend primarily on the type of the emulsion, its stability and the flow

(with increased heat values due to adsorbed oil), or land-filled. By T. Viraraghavan and G.N. Mathavan, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan.

OREC - The logical choice for clean drinking water Ozone purifies water, kills bacteria, removes manganese, iron and hydrogen sulphide and eliminates odour and colour. Taste is also dramatically improved.

The above OREC ozonator serves the community of Jumu, India, providing its residents with safe potable water.

The OREC standard: The highest quality in the industry The OREC Model 03H16/32-ARO is designed to operate on either oxygen or air. Ozone output ranges from 16 pounds per day with air or 32 pounds per day with oxygen. OREC is a thirty year old company, internationally respected for its integrity, quality, and experience in the design and manufacture of ozonization equipment. 34

Circle reply card No. 121

Authorized Canadian Representative

GENEQ inc. 7978 JARRY E., MONTREAL, QUEBEC. CANADA H1J 1H5 TEL.: (514) 354-2511

TELEX: 05-829568

223 SIGNET DRIVE. WESTON. ONTARIO, CANADA M9L 1V1 TEL.: (416) 747-9889 TELEX: 06-969732

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Aer-0-Flo Environmental announces... Aer-O-Disk Rotating Biological Contactors for high quality effluent — with low power costs AER-O-DISK Rotating Biological Contactors(RBCs)provide high quality wastewater treatment, with much lower power costs, compared to other RBC designs, or conventional activated sludge and trickling filter pro cesses.

The AER-O-Disk RBC is ideal for treating highly concentrated,or diluted, biologically degradable industrial and municipal wastewaters. Design flexibility The flexibility of the Canadian made AER-O-DISK RBC makes it ideal forall

applications, especially package plants, existing plant retrofits and new plant construction. AER-O-DISK RBCs comprise several

robust plastic biomass carriers radially fastened to a shaft and available in a

range of sizes to 3.60 metres in diame ter and suitable for 40 or 60 percent submergence. Because they can be installed In single or multiple units - and effectively oper ate under a variety of loading condi tions - AER-O-DISK RBO systems can treat wastewater streams from 6 to

4,000 m/3 per day. This range makes them ideal for land developments, hot

AER-O-Disk Series li RBC

els, condominiums, etc.

Additionally, these units work extremely well in conjunction with Aer0-Flo's tertiary AER-O-DRUM filter which retains solid particles in its fixed media.

Design Advantages Lower power consumption The inherent energy efficiency of peri pheral drive mean AER-O-Disk RBCs use much less power than activated sludge or other high-rate mechanical processes.

Better purification performance Over long periods, AER-O-DISK RBOs show stable purification performance.

No floating sludge problems Unlike many activated sludge Installa tions, AER-O-DISK RBCs never have

problems with floating sludge. Lower maintenance costs Process technical controls are not AER-O-Disk Series i RBC

Aer-O-Flo Environmental inc.

1175 Appleby Line, Unit 0-3 Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel: (416) 335-8944, Fax:(416) 335-8972

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

necessary with AER-O-DISK RBCs. Only visual controls are needed at rela tively long Intervals of time. Nitrification RBCs can also be used for extensive

nitrification because of the high area contact, resulting in oxygen oxidation efficiency.

Circle reply card No. 122



Announces Canada's National

Environmental Awards Program Environmental Science & Engineering recog nizes the crucial impact environmentai profes sionals have on our society - an impact seidom understood by the public they serve so well. ES&E sponsors a National Environmental Awards Program.

Judging will be based on thesound application of innovative science and engineering in projects which treat water, wastewater, or which have a

beneficial effect on the environment through energy management, air pollution abatement, flood controls or other in-place-works. Reports, studies, or other "Soft Engineering" projects will be considered in all categories. The judges'deci sions will be final and will be made independently of ES&E.

Categories are; Potable water. Water drinking processes, treat ment plants, aquifer remediation or other technoiogies used in drinking water treatment supply

Mike Provart, M.M. Dillon (left), receives award plaque from Tom Davey in the 1989 ES&E National Environ mental Awards Program at the Sudbury AWWA Con

and distribution.


Wastewater treatment. Any plant or process treating industrial or municipal wastes with such variants as energy management or recycling. Air Pollution. Any project, or equipment used to mitigate air pollution problems. This category includes those projects dealing with indoor air quality problems which deal with occupational health and safety.

Equipment. Processes, systems, monitoring or analytical instruments, or treatment equipment which advance the state-of-the-art in water and

wastewater treatment or air pollution abatement. How to Enter. We would appreciate a notice of intent but all entries which qualify, and which arrive by July 31,1990, will be considered. Entries must be in a binder approximately 11" x 8". A 1,200 word summary of the project - a maximum three pages - should be enclosed, along with drawings, photographs and captions. If the draw ings cannot be reduced conveniently, they may

be sent in pockets, or bound so they can be unfolded. Short excerpts of specifications, where relevant, may be included. Additional data may be presented through captioning. While entries should be neat,concise and writ ten with clarity, elaborate or expensive presenta tions are actively discouraged.

Winning entries wil l be announced in the Fall of 1990, honoured by an engraved plaque and also published in ES&E. Presentations will be made at the October, 1990 Environment Con gress in Toronto. A poster session of finalists' work is also being planned in cooperation with professional associations.

The name of this contest is copyrighted by Davcom Communications Inc. and the competi tion name and format are considered proprietor ial. All decisions will be final and the entries will

become the property of Davcom Communica tions Inc.

Please Fax letter of intent as soon as possible to Tom Davey at (416)841-7271. Send two copies of awards presentations marked Environmentai Science & Engineering Awards, 10 Retch Crescent, Aurora, Ont., L4G 5N7. The judges decision is final - ail entries become the property of ES&E. Winning entries will be published in ES&E.


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

ToSomeCoiranumties, TliisIsAGold Mine.


It seems Canada is being buried in gar bage. But where some people see a mountain of trash, others see a range of possibilities. With the help of consulting engineers, communities are converting solid waste into efficient fuel to light up the community, while lightening the load in existing landfills at the same time. Recycling is also being seen as a source of revenue for funding local projects. Whether its unleashing the potential energy of waste, cleaning up waterways.

lighting our streets, breathing new life into old buildings or rebuilding our roads and bridges, consulting engineers are helping to solve Canada's problems for public benefit and pri vate enterprise. Our specialized skills and experience can help you bring your project in on time and on budget. For the names of consulting engineers in your area, call us. We'll help you see opportu nities,\chere before there seemed nothing but problems.




Consulting Engineers of Ontario Suite 403, 86 Overlea Blvd., Toronto, Ont. M4H 106 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Telephone:(416)425-8027 FAX:(416)425-8035 Circle reply card No. 123


Ozone for the treatment of

drinking water suppiies

People expect their drinking

water to be pure, safe and clean. When the tap is turned on, we make uncon scious judgments as to the colour and odour of the water that gushes out. In the glass we examine the clarity and as we swallow, we judge the taste. Typically, people speak of drinking water as a tasteless, odour less, colourless liquid. These are the observable quality characteristics that we apply each time we drink. Similar judgments are made of the water in the bath or the shower.

that is, over a period of ingestion By Ronald L. Larocque, P.Eng.*

and the daily flood ofindustrial con taminants that pour into our water supplies. Water treatment typically con sists of collection, screening to remove floating debris, sedimenta tion to remove solids, oxidation to remove metals, taste, odour and colour,filtration to remove finer particulate and disinfection to destroy biological activity. It is equally important that the treatment process does not add any thing to the water supply that is

THMs have been demonstrated to cause cancer. Chloroform is an

example of a THM. In Europe, oxidation and disin fection have commonly been under taken using another substance, ozone, the same beneficial product that protects us in the upper atmos phere from the harmful effects of ultraviolet irradiation emanating from the sun. The so called "hole"in

the ozone layer is also attributed to the harmful effects of chlorinated

substances. It is interesting to note

These are all very important judgements, hut of course they are only superficial indicators of the quality of the water. Water treat ment professionals are primarily

harmful to humans. In North Amer

tions at about 25 km above the

ica, the primary chemical for oxida

concerned with the human con


sumption and safe use aspects of treated potable water. These con

chlorine. The problem with chlo rine, is that it not only oxidizes, it

earth's sufrace) would form, at standard temperature and pressure, a layer only 3 mm thick. The recognition of ozone can be traced hack to antiquity when Homer's Epics report upon its char acteristic odour after a lightning storm. The discovery is credited to F.C. Shonbein, who in 1840 pub lished papers equating the odour from electrical discharges with that of lightning and naming it ozone after the Greek, to smell. In 1890,





cerns involve such indicators as dis

also chlorinates. This means that it

solved solids content, suspended solids content and biological con

forms chlorinated compounds that remain in our water supplies. In the 1970's, various studies indicated that the practice of prechlorination, that is chlorine addition at the beginning of the water treat ment process, could cause chlori nated by-products to be formed. These chlorinated byproducts are known as Trihalomethanes, or THMs. THMs are carcinogenic,


It is highly important that the water we drink be disinfected com

pletely, that it be free of any toxic bacteria, virus, spores, fungus or

cysts that are harmful to humans. In our industrial age, it is as impor tant that drinking water be free of heavy metals, pesticides, fertilizers

that the total amount of ozone con

tained in the "ozone layer" (which has its highest ozone concentra

Ohimuller discovered the bacterici dal effects of ozone. Ozone has been

used In drinking water treatment since 1906, at the Bon Voyage Plant in Nice, France.

In the gaseous form, ozone is colourless, however it appears bluish in large layer thicknesses.

Liquid ozone is bluish black and its crystals are violet blue. The human nose is highly sensitive to ozone's characteristic pungent odour which can be experienced at a photocopier, on its first starting, in the morning or in your electrostatic air cleaner on your furnace.


Of the chemicals which are read

ily available for water treatment, ozone is the most powerful, its oxi dation potential being 1.5 times that



of chlorine. This means that ozone TOWNSHIP OF ATIKOKAN



will oxidize materials faster, will attain a level of disinfection faster

(or at lower concentrations)and will

The above layout Is of the Township of Atikokan's Water Treatment plant, which was the first in Ontario to use ozone. Completed In 1988, the plant

replaced a 35 year old pumphouse which supplied flouridated and disinfected

oxidize materials that weaker oxidants cannot. Ozone is the tria-

tomic, allotropic form of oxygen.

river water to the community. Designed by M.M. Dillon Ltd. to treat 6,000 m^ of

water per day, this Innovative plant won an Award of Merit in ES&E's 1989 Environmental Awards Program. 38

'President, Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


has sometimes been


active oxygen because of its very bigb oxidation potential. Ozone reacts and decomposes quickly, reverting back to molecular oxygen. The balf-life of ozone, in air, is about 20 minutes. The balflife of ozone in water can be shorter

than one minute or as long as 30 minutes, depending upon many fac tors.

In the upper atmosphere,ozone is formed as part of a complex chemi cal reaction that is temperature and altitude dependent. This natural process occurs all the way up

through the atmosphere, and has been occurring since the formation of an oxygen containing atmos phere. A photochemical process, for which ozone has been labeled a pol lutant, is another spontaneous reac tion that occurs under the influence

of solar radiation in the presence of

nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon pollutants emanating from the exhaust gases of motor cars. This is the situation that plagues Los Angeles and other urban centers afflicted with smog and under these circumstances Ozone can be harmful to human life.

Chemically, ozone can be formed by the dissociation of oxygen rich chemical compounds, such as the catalytic dissociation of hydrogen

peroxide. Chemonuclear methods can be employed, which use the large energy available from such reactions to form ozone.


method, known as the thermal method, raises the temperature of an oxygen rich gas and ozone is formed by molecular impact. Ozone is formed in the proximity

of ultraviolet lamps and this process is employed to produce ozone com mercially at low concentration lev els and low production yields. It is also formed naturally by the dis charge of electricity as occurs dur ing a thunderstorm. This latter process is the basis of the design that is used to produce large quanti ties of ozone for drinking water treatment in a commercial ozone generator.

It is important to recognize that our water supplies are a natural resource.

This reference is to the

global resource and notjust the Can adian water supplies. It is further significant to recognize that the vast majority of our water is tied up in the oceans and polar caps and is not readily available to us, as pota ble water supplies. What water is available to us, for the most part, is subject to more and more contami nation by domestic,commercial and industrial pollutants.

Ozone generator.

When ozone is applied, as a gas, in drinking water treatment, it is done primarily because of its oxidative strength. This powerful oxida tion potential allows ozone to be effective in the reduction or elimina

tion of colour,taste and odour, all of which may be fundamental prob lems associated with a specific water supply. More importantly, ozone will effectively destroy bacte ria and inactivate virusses more

rapidly than any other disinfectant chemical.

Ozone is used to oxidize heavy metals. Iron and manganese can be reduced to very low, safe levels in water supplies through ozone oxida tion. This same process is used to liberate organically bound heavy metals, which are otherwise not eas ily decomposed by chlorine. The

presence of heavy metals in some water supplies is the result of the natural decay of vegetation in the water.

Ozone, applied at the start of the water treatment process, will not lead to the formation of halogenated compounds or THMs which are manufactured when chlorine is added to the raw water. Once THMs

are formed,they are difficult to oxid ize, even with ozone. So ozone can be used as an oxi-

dant, when applied at the early stages of water treatment, or it can he used as a disinfectant, where it is applied at the latter stages of water treatment. Whatever ozone gas is not used in drinking water treat ment is collected and converted

back to oxygen before being released to the atmosphere. Other applications of ozone

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

include waste water effluent disin

fection, prior to injection to a receiv ing stream; malodourous air treatment, such as found at a sew age treatment plant; disinfection of bottled water; bleaching of pulp, in lieu of chlorine; swimming pool and spa water treatment; oxidation of contaminants in the production of ultra pure water and in many other applications. Quite simply,ozone does nothing more than oxidize. That is, using a natural process, contaminants are reduced or eliminated.


ozone is an unstable molecule, the

process of oxidation is accelerated. Consequently, by generating ozone from the oxygen in the air that we breath and applying it to our water supplies, where the ozone oxidizes the contaminating compounds, we are using nature's own process of disinfection.

On the other hand, chlorine does

two things; it not only oxidizes less effectively than ozone, hut it also chlorinates and in performing the latter it becomes in itself a pollutant of our potable water, through the formation of trihalomethanes.

Ozone is very unstable, and has a very short half-life,so it must be pro duced at the treatment site. Unlike

chlorine, a hazardous material, which must be transported along our rail transport routes and our highways, where accidents could result in the release of toxic chlorine

gas, ozone is used at the point of manufacture. Excess ozone is des

troyed by a simple process, and the very short half-life of ozone means that it dissociates back to oxygen. There are more than two thou39

Ozone for drinking water treatment continued sand installations worldwide which

Alberta for various water treatment

use ozone to treat drinking water. In France, Switzerland and Germany, ozone is the disinfection process of note. Ozone is employed in most European countries. The largest ozone production facility for water treatment is located in Moscow, with a daily capacity that exceeds 20,000 lbs. Ozone water treatment is used in Singapore, in Japan and

applications. Up until 1986, ozone had been installed in no more than 25 water

treatment plants in the United States. With the promulgation of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Regu lations of 1986, the use of ozone in the treatment of drinking water in the USA has exploded. There are

Saudi Arabia.

In Canada, there are over sixty water treatment plants which use ozone in some capacity. Ozone has been used extensively in drinking water treatment systems in the pro vince of Quebec, since 1954, when

water treatment was started at the

Atikokan plant in 1987* and the next Ontario potable water facility to employ ozone will be the Man nheim plant in the Regional Munici pality of Waterloo. Ozone is used by municipalities in Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and

water treatment and distribution structure.

When the second stage of the EPA regulations come into effect in the coming years, as many as 10,000 smaller drinking water treatment facilities will be looking to add ozone oxidation processes to their drinking water treatment. The treatment of our drinking water supplies in the 90's and on into the next century will require new

approaches that recognize the con taminated nature of our sources of

potable water. Ozone, along with

the first Canadian installation was commissioned at Ste. Therese. The

largest Canadian installation, at the City of Montreal, uses 7,500 lbs./day of ozone to disinfect 500 million gallons per day. The first installation in Ontario,for drinking

City of L.A. already boasts the larg est ozone system for treating drink ing water in North America at a daily capacity exceeding 11,000 lbs./day. They are presently in the design stages to add as much as ten times that capacity to their total


presently more than one hundred and fifty ozone treatment plants under design or construction in the United States. In the next five years many hundreds oflarger municipal ities will be adding ozone to their water treatment plants. This list includes such cities as New York, Tucson, Phoenix, Fort Worth, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The


treatment tech

niques, can ensure that our water supplies are safe, without adding contaminants, such as chlorinated by-products, to our already bur dened environment. ES&E

Excerpted from a presentation at The Environment Congress in Toronto.

*This plant won an Award of Merit for M.M. Dillon in the National Awards

program sponsored by ES&E and presented at the Ont. Section AWWA Conference last year.


Are Your Profits Going To Waste? With treatment and disposal costs continuing to rise, it's to your advantage to minimize the generation of liquid industrial and hazardous wastes --

maximizing profits to remain competitive. We can help you gain this competitive edge in your business, by giving you insight into effective waste management. Many of our services are free, and are always confidential.

Waste Reduction •plant visits •waste auditing assistance 'in-house management workshops •research projects 'training literature LaboratorvServices 'waste characterization 'samplingassistance 'treatabilitytesting ' laboratory design information 'on-site training programs

Assistance 'treatment and disposal options ' site contamination avoidance and decommis

sioning advice ' Ontario Waste Exchange

Effective Waste tVlanagement Ontario Waste


Management Corporation Society Ontarienne De Gestion Des Dechets

2 Bloor Street West, nth Roor Toronto, Ontario, M4W3E2,(416)923-2918, Fax(416)923-7521 Toll-free 1-800-268-1179 YOUR WASTE MANAGEMENT SPECIALISTS 40


Circle reply card No. 124


Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Pure s i m






For years, H. Fontaine has been a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of equipment such as slide gates and submersible pumps, for the water and wastewater industry. Known for their simplicity, efficiency and durability, H. Fontaine fabricated gates offer such characteristics as stainless steel flange back construction and a

unique ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) self adjusting seal.

Forward-looking H. Fontaine is committed to offering its clientele a simple yet efficient environmentally-sound product


and is determined to pursue its research and

development efforts to maintain its technological edge. There could be no better guarantee of high performance and quality. Circle reply card No. 120

rantaine Excellence FOIINDED ON EXPERIENCE


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Engineered to perform under pressure, BFG's custom injection-molding compound meets Scepter's stringent requirements for 8" molded tee fittings.

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Contact us for the full story on PVC and Rex. B.F. Goodrich Canada Inc., Attn: Rex, 195 Columbia Street W., Box 1625, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 4N9 (519)888-3349

North America's leading manufacturer of PVC resins and compounds.


PVC resists impact, continuous high pressure and water hammer. Remember, when you need an enduring piping system that will stand up under pressure, with virtually no maintenance, choose PVC.

Installed in some of the most corrosive and unforgiving environments in North America for over thirty years, PVC has stood the test of time. PVC provides the flexibility to accommodate soil contraction and expansion, a condition often resulting in the failure of other piping materials. Engineered for strength.

Engineered to last.

PVC has to be. No other piping material has been so extensively tested to meet the demanding standards of AWWA, CSA, BNQ, ASTM and NSF for pipe and fittings.

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Circle reply card No. 133 fax (519) 888-4390

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Liquid Carbonic can put Oxygen to work in your Water Treatment Piant ?'



oxygen tines

jt r«urn

line __ i \


Oxygen improves your cost efficiency. Oxygen enrichment, properly applied In a domestic water treatment plant, can substantially reduce the amount of chlorine used In the treatment pro cess. What's more. It can eliminate the need for over-chlorlnatlon which

also adds up to reduced chlorine consumption. These two factors alone mean more cost efficiency, and Im proved water quality. But there's more; Reduced Odour

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Technical Expertise at Work 44

Circle reply card No. 102

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Devastation by indecision Where did it all begin and, more important, where will it end? Are

By Philip Jones, P.Eng.

Today,talk of the rape and

some of the cries of environmental

pillage of the environment by industry is common and often justified. The public gives a high priority to restoring the environment to health. But just when we need it most, the environ mental movement has lost sight of its goals. Where before it was con

alarm unfounded? Will they con tinue to cynicism in public opinion, to a situation in which the warnings of the interest groups are ignored, even when they are firmly founded


in scientific fact?

How are we to

overcome paralysis and make the difficult trade-offs involved in envir

onmental protection?

cerned to be well informed and credi

ble, it now demands absolute solutions from industry and govern

To be an effective intervener, you must be organized and form a clearly identifiable group. You must

ments in a world that cannot accom

also have access to accurate infor

modate them. The result ofimpossi ble demands is paralysis. The



began as a cry in the wilderness and grew as more people recognized the real threat of pollution. Frustrated citizens were not being heard or were being studiously ignored. Later the movement grew into a cot tage industry with many competing branches.

Now it has become a

multi-national enterprise with vested interests of its own.

The members of the fledgling movement were well-informed inter-

Dr. P.H. Jones

veners, supported by scientists and engineers, who kept a watching brief on the polluters. In the inter vening years, they have come to resemble fanatics.

Witness the

picket lines at Baie Comeau last year, when I was sure we were about to witness our first casualty - and not from PCBs themselves,butfrom the actions of the protesters and police.

mation on the subject of the inter vention. Unfortunately, much of the information used by today's environmentalists is selected to sup port a particular position. Sources are rarely cited to validate state ments and a balanced contrary view is never presented. The result is dis tortion.

The media, the major source of public information, never fail to tell us that PCBs "are believed to be linked to cancer." Journalists never Continued

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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 128


Devastation by Indecision continued say who believes this or tell us what

opinion would he called brainwash

kind of cancer they mean. They never identify the sources of this information, nor are their sources'

ing. Today, led by the protest groups,

qualifications presented to the pub lic for scrutiny. Television news and daily papers feel no need to cite evi

society appears to want the removal of every last molecule of every organic substance that may have

dence incriminating PCBs or other

been associated at any concentra tion with any disorder at any time.

"toxic substances" and the constant

We seek a zero-risk environment

repetition has made the"facts" self-

while permitting,even encouraging, other high-risk activities, such as driving a car. The consequences of this contradictory public attitude are grave. Faced with real prob lems, unable to make real choices, we simply fail to act. The PCB issue is symptomatic. Locked in a cargo vessel, the PCB


But we would be hard

pressed indeed to find any health scientist to say with any conviction that PCBs are a serious health prob lem. And we never hear from electri

cal workers who have worked up to their elbows in PCBs for years with no ill effects.

residues from

A respected environmental scientist told me that the role of the

environmental interest groups is to maintain the anxiety level ofsociety at a high enough level to ensure action. In an already overstressed society it seems quite irresponsible to artificially maintain a high level of public anxiety. The continual ref erence to cancer on radio and televi

sion and in newspapers and magazines incites fear and leads many unsuspecting persons to join protest gn^oups. In any other context this attempt to manipulate public

St. Basil-le-Grand

made a return trip across the Atlan tic, turned back in Britain by Green peace, the environmental group. In another c^ise, more than $1 million was spent in northern Ontario to deal with the spill of a very small amount of PCBs on the trans-

Canada highway. And these inci dents occurred despite the fact that facilities to destroy this material already exist in Canada.

may he able to understand the con cept of parts-per-billion or parts-perquadrillion, but we are quite unable to predict with any degree of cer tainty the impact of infinitesimal concentrations of most substances

on the public health. (I call this fear of infinitesimal quantities of com plex substances microchemophobia). Protest groups claim that absolute safety cannot be assured, and they are right, hut surely no one would suggest that the storage of PCBs awaiting an accidental fire at St. Basil-le-Grand provides an eco logically safer solution than the engineered and controlled combus tion in a cement or other rotary kiln designed for the purpose. There is no doubt that hazardous

chemicals pose serious environmen tal problems. Indeed, we estab lished




Management Corporation in 1981 to deal with them. But the corporation has not been able to dispose ofthese substances because so many people read the papers and watch TV and "know" that disposal of wastes is dangerous. That other countries have succeeded isn't news. Den

mark, Germany, Finland, France

Much of our confusion results

and the United States now have

from our new-found ability to detect complex substances at ever lower

treatment and disposal facilities operating on sites near the indus


Now some of us

trial facilities that use the materials

in their manufacturing processes. Moreover, the local people are appa

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to learn by the example ofothers. We prefer paralysis. As we agonize and procrastinate over PCBs, other environmental problems are ignored. Consider the question of Metropolitan Toronto's solid wastes. The commissioner of works

says that unless the impasse is over

tion of exhaust ducts, hoods,

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method of disposal is approved, Metro will have to leave garbage in the streets. Is there anyone who would say that this is an ecologi cally superior means of disposal? But no community wants other peo ple's waste in its backyard, because we all read the newspapers and

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believe the scientists and engineers. If the commissioner proposes any solution a well-organized protest

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group will no doubt arrive in a fleet

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The current environmental cru


Circle reply card No. 129

sades are highly specialized and often contradictory. We are asked.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

for instance,to ban both the practice of using refuse for landfill and of incinerating it. We are asked, in fact, to ban anything that could con ceivably solve the garbage problems of large municipalities. The protest groups consistently fail to examine the scientific facts supporting the safety or, to put it accurately, the relative merits of any of the pro posed solutions. We complain, quite justifiably, of government overspending, high taxation and high interest rates, and yet we insist that the govern

Saving The Future

Drop toxic waste plan, cement plant told pontgonear the water

not a dtoP IsijY y

ment take action on the environ


But before it can act, we

demand zero effluent and no risk.

Changes in manufacturing technol ogy brought about in response to


societal demand can and will reduce

the pollution of our planet. But attempting to bring about the abso lute elimination of all contaminants

would consume our entire gross domestic product and still not achieve the objective. Society is now in a complete state of confusion, unable to differentiate between real problems and imagi nary ones. Ironically, the environ mental movement and the media -

those who alerted us to the dangers in the first place - are making it

impossible for us to choose. And yet choices, difficult ones, are essential. We must come to terms with the fact that we face trade-offs - between

incineration and controlling air pol lution, burying wastes and recy cling. Never in the history of environ mental management has the con

cept of trade-off been so critical. And yet even highly intelligent, welleducated people are having trouble

deciding which crusade to follow, what to trade off against what. Which is the biggest threat, to burn wastes or do nothing? But by our indecision, we are in fact making decisions in favour of the status quo - the most dangerous and environ mentally devastating course possi ble.

The only way to optimize the use of our intellectual and physical resources is by making trade-offs and applying our finite resources to the issues of major concern, not by dissipating them on demonstrably trivial problems. I have been a professional in the field of pollution control since the late 1940s. I am therefore quite aware of"where we came from". In

those days,it was almost impossible to persuade a local municipal coun cil to build a sewage treatment

plant. The rivers will wash it away, the politicians said; the lakes are large, the oceans larger, we were told. This was the response 45 years ago. I agree that we must never again return to that level of public indifference.

Environmental groups are inval uable as a conscience and exposer of blatant pollution. However, when they dedicate their activities to con demning the best available solu tions they may become counter productive, even dangerous. They must


that the


majority of scientists are not the controlled vassals of greedy indus try, but honest, well-informed peo ple who are just as concerned as they are about the good of the planet. So let's learn from the scien tifically literate and not seek the technological and scientific appro val of well-meaning amateurs. ES&E


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Circle reply card No. 130


WHMIS — an insider's perspective merits first under OSHA,the Cana dian legislation sets a more comprehensive standard. The scope ofthe changes WHMIS has initiated is dramatic and goes far beyond the legislation itself. WHMIS can be viewed simply as an

By Alex Keen*

In 1979,1 had my first encounter with WHMIS; The Workplace

Hazardous Materials Informa

tion System.

As a corporate


advisor on toxic materials for Esso

Petroleum Canada, I was given the

assignment to review and comment on the document,recognizing it was

proposed legislation. What a daunt ing task! As health and safety legislation, my first impression was that it was long, verbose, and very detailed. It required such specific actions from industry that there was little room to develop cost effective and effi cient programs to meet the spirit and intent of the legislation. This formed the basis for my comments on behalf of my employer. After a year and a half of tracking develop ments, activity decreased and I was assigned to other projects. I never mentioned to my supervisor that I was just as happy. Eleven years later, I have changed my thinking. WHMIS has become installed in the fabric of our

Alex Keen

working society throughout Can ada. In many ways, it is as impor tant as the Canada Labour Code

and Provincial Health and Safety Acts across the country and,signifi cantly, may have had more impact in a shorter length of time. Canada is leading the way with this legislation and,in fact, is counselling other inter ested countries and organizations such as in the European community and the International Labour Organi

zation (ILO). It is viewed as a model where, although some would argue the USA developed some of the ele-

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mendous amount of awareness and

changes in practice. Specifically, perhaps the single requirement that has had the grea test impact has been the training of employees. In a large number of cases it was the first exposure to health and safety training the indi viduals have had. Although the quality of the training may have fluctuated from workplace to work place and across the country, the interest in the message is very high and the increase of awareness in

chemical health and safety is astounding. This refreshed awareness and

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implementation of specific and very visible programs in the workplace as part of complying with the legis lation, it has already prompted a tre

the process of asking further ques tions has rejuvenated the worker Health and Safety Committees. In many establishments, the Commit tee has been inspired to look at a lot more things and deal with more

In a floor or wall FRP cabinet. Elec tronics are housed in a NEMA 4X enclosure with:


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putting the emphasis on the supp lier to provide quality health and safety information with their pro ducts. The onus on the employer to provide WHMIS training completes the delivery of the information to the employee. As an environmental and health and safety consulting company, ALTECH has been inti mately involved with this process for our clients and I am very impressed with how the program

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issues. Worker interest in the Com mittee has been revitalized as all

employees have received the WHMIS training and are asking questions and developing individ ual concerns, many for the first time. The fact that the Committees

are more active on a general scale may be borne out by the increased number of requests for professional services.

The workplace is doing a lot more of stopping and looking at their chemical operations and reassess ing how they proceed. Because of the comprehensiveness of the com'President, Altech Environmental

Consulting Ltd. 48

Circle reply card No. 131

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

munication system, the individual employee is generally more involved in the process because he/she has more knowledge with which to assess situations. Significantly, it has been noted by professionals in the field that they are surprised

What does the future hold for WHMIS? A lot of discussion is cen

They will be concerned with encou raging more focused training by modifying training standards as well as addressing the need for qual ity control provisions with which to

tering around the aspect oftraining. In the original legislation there was

rate the training. Finally, everything considered,

there have not been more work ref


usals. It is possibly too early to tell if this is due to the training and infor mation transfer aspect of WHMIS, but the premise is that an informed employee will not over-react to a sus pected hazard. If the intent of WHMIS was to get employees involved in health and safety, WHMIS has been a resound ing success! Although compliance to the initial requirements ofthe leg islation may not be 100%, a subjec

guidelines. Only Manitoba went further in its standards to specify training guidelines. Currently, a been

WHMIS represents one of the most successful legislative programs implemented. Its impact is signifi cant over and above the specifics of the regulation because it alerts the

formed to take a stronger look at training standards. The committee is comprised ofrepresentatives from each province and Labour Canada.

I am surprised I can be so compli mentary after that initial reading eleven years ago. ES&E

tive assessment would indicate that

it is likely high. There are few com panies who have not heard of WHMIS and taken some kind of

action. Considering the national scale of the task, this is a tribute to all those involved in making the pro cess work,including the regulators. Inevitably there are still some

problems. For example, supplier labels and Materials Safety Data Sheets are not always available or in the correct form, especially with products from foreign suppliers. As a general statement, some of the European and Pacific Rim countries are not interested in complying with the legislation, especially if only a small amount of production is sent to Canada. Importers and distribu tors must often provide this infor mation and they are sometimes reluctant. Realistically, though, these are small issues, again, con sidering the scope and scale of the

will be the first big test of WHMIS,as much of this retraining should even now be completed.








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Of more importance will be the retraining aspect of WHMIS. The legislation requires that employees receive refresher training once per year. Ensuring active vibrant train ing is critical to building an ongoing

says so. And to prove it, we give you all of your theoretical Quality Control data so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is not missing. It's really quite simple: our computer checks the ion balance. When the cations and anions (-1- and -)are not equal, either an analytical error exists which we'll

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Changing the way professionals, like you, see their results.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 132


AQTE Congress calls for ecosystem basins

its point, AQTE executive responded with great courtesy and adherence to protocol. Finally it was a real pleasure to meet Raymond Larivee, for many

The 28th Congress of the Associa tion quebecoise des techniques de i'eau (AQTE)took place in Laval in March, accompanied by an exposi tion by suppliers. It was the first of the 1990 conferences by major Can adian environmental professional

parsimoniously, AQTE sees the news media as allies. Reporters are wel comed with warmth, enthusiasm and excellent press facilities. The result is


Perhaps it was a coincidence but the day after M. Courchesne spoke.

sive Le Club du Million in real estate

Minister Paradis arrived at the con

the association he served so well

gress, toured the exhibition and made a short speech. Having made

and can be reached at (514) 4531801. Tom Dauey

As always, the AQTE speakers were elegantly forthright in their comments. Retiring President Guy Courchesne noted with


irony that the Quebec Environment







respected by both public and politi cians.

years Administrative Director of AQTE and editor ofits journal.Ray mond left AQTE for Le Permanent where he quickly joined the exclu

sales. Ray still maintains ties with

Minister Pierre Paradis had not attended the luncheon where tradi


environment ministers

spoke to AQTE. M. Courchesne called upon the absent minister to "say out loud what you are going to do - now that you have your new civil service. And since you are not here today," he said,"we are giving you some homework - to work on." He reproached the Ministry and the Quebec Government for not hav

ing political will or a global vision on the environment. He called on

the government to create an ecosys tem approach for 10 hydrological basins, citing successful authorities in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Ontario as models.

Unlike many other associations which view the press warily and even

Right to left: Guy Courchesne, Minister Pierre Paradis and ES&E Publisher Tom Davey at the exposition with the Minister as he questioned one of the exhibitors. Photo - C.H. Corneiiier.

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Circle reply card No. 134

Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

In business, timing is everything.


Now is the best

time to get ready for the proposed GST.

Help starts with this GST information kit, mailed to businesses



Prepare Early ■ You'll receive infor mation on how the

across Canada.

If you didn't get yours, or if you have any questions, call now:

1800267-6620 9 a.m.-5 p.m. Mon.- Fri. Or pick up a kit at your nearest post office. Telecommunications

device for the hearing impaired: 1800465-5770

proposed GST applies to your business.

■ You'll have plenty of time to choose the

administrative options most convenientfor you. ■ You'll know how to

take advantage oftax rebates on the Federal Sales Tax.

■ You can get help to adapt your accounting system and prepare your stafffor the change. ■ As well as getting infor mation and help in person or by phone, you can reach a GST question and answer data base via PC. Call: 1800267-4500 Revenue Canada is

ready to help you under stand and prepare for the proposed GST.

Canada's GST. It's good business to prepare now. 1^1

Revenue Canada Customs and Excise

Revenu Canada Douanes et Accise

Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

Canada 51

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poiiution Research and Control

R&D News


contaminated soil and suggests some solutions to improve the actual systems. For example, a physicochemical/photochemical/biological process for the detoxification of a soil contaminated by PCBs is des cribed. In this three phase process, PCBs are extracted using a waterphase biosurfactants solution. Then the extracted PCBs are dechlori-

Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Details can be found on page 58. Contaminated Site Remediation

ogy Research Institute and the St.

A recent paper in Sciences et tech niques de I'eau by R. Samson and his colleagues from the Biotechnol

lenges associated with the use of bio technologies for the treatment of

Lawrence Centre describes the chal

nated in a photoreactor. Finally,the biphenyls formed are biodegraded to CO2 by specialized strains of bac teria.

Biological Indicators of Heavy Metals Laurentian University scientists M.A. Alikhan, G.Bagatto and S.Zia

trapped crayfish from lakes lying 10, 30 and 150 km from the Sudbury smelters in Northeastern Ontario.


As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the heavy metal concentrations in these organisms showed an inverse rela tionship with the distance of the

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habitat from the emission site. The

general relationship between crayf


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tration in an open channel flow through the consumption by a bot Lau in a paper accepted for publica tion in Water Research. This ideal ized model considers the flux of the


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contaminant by diffusion through the concentration boundary layer into the biofilm, with diffusion and

Vulnerability of Groundwater Several cases of groundwater con tamination by pesticides have been reported recently in Canada,includ ing contamination of private or pub lic rural wells. A study by 0. Banton, P. Lafrance and J.P. Villeneuve reported in the Water Pollu tion Research Journal of Canada, describes the application of a pro babilistic methodology to evaluate groundwater vulnerability to con tamination by means of stochastic modelling. The software is based on the simulation of pesticide transport in the unsaturated zone of the soil.


Circle reply card No. 136

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

These INRS-Eau scientists com

that future estimates can be more

pared the calculated results with those obtained by sampling an agri

accurate than at present.

cultural site in Ste-Catherine, Quebec. Good agreement was obtained confirming the efficacy of the model as a predictive tool.

Treatment of

Chemithermomechanical Pulp Wastewater


Waste Disposai Sites

In a study of the anaerobic toxicity of chemithermomechanical pulp wastewater, assays were used by P.J. McCarthy, K.J. Kennedy and

A paper published by J.P. Coakley

R.L. Droste to quantify the relative

Contamination Hazard from

toxicity of resin acids to the total toxicity in the bleached wastewater. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, these scientists from the University Ottawa




Research Council, found that the resin acids were toxic to anaerobic

bacteria hut were not responsible for all the toxicity in the bleached effluContlnued overleaf

in the 'Water Pollution Research

Journal of Canada presents the results of an examination of the

potential for contamination of nearshore lake waters either directly through shoreline recession at waste disposal sites, or indirectly through the transport to the lake of leachates from the nearby sites via groundwater discharges. Recession-

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three sites(two on Lake Ontario and one on Lake Erie). Potential groundwater contamination hazards were

identified by this National Water Research Institute scientist at 31 sites of which 19 were located on the northern Lake Ontario shore zone.

Sludge Accumulation in Lagoons

In a joint University of Sherbrooke, Roche Associates Inc., and Serrener Consultation Inc. study, on-site measurements of sludge accumula tion

were conducted in


facultative lagoons in small munici palities in Quebec. The results obtained by K.S. Narasiah, M. Marin and J. Shoiry were compared with those calculated using well known models.



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Water Science and Technology, it was found that the models either under- or over-estimated the actual

quantities of sludge produced. The authors propose corrections to the existing mathematical models so



Circle reply card No. 137



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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

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What's in a name?

Everything... when that name is


R&D News continued ents. Toxicity associated with the fihre was soluble in methanol while the bulk of the fibre which was not

methanol soluble exhibited no toxicity. Biological Activated Carbon Filters

In a joint research study, scientists from Gendron Lefebvre Inc., Ecole Polytechnique and the City of Laval, Quebec, evaluated the performance of the bio logical activated carbon filters at the Seiinte-Rose water treatment plant. As described by S. Letendre and colleagues in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engi neering, the removal rate of organic material in the winter was reduced because of lower water tempera tures which affect bacterial activity. During the warm season, bacteria counts were higher in the upper layer of the carbon, in the filter effluent, and in the back wash water. For equal carbon masses, bituminous carbon and peat-based extruded carbon had similar removal rates. Dioxins in Fish

The determination of dioxins in fish involves a time

consuming and laborious sample treatment process. Various approaches to improving the efficiency of the existing procedure without compromising analytical performance were investigated by J.P. Sherry and H. Tse. As described in a National Water Research Insti

tute report, a multi-layer cleanup column, replacing three separate liquid phase cleanup steps, was deve loped and evaluated using a variety of fish samples. The newly developed, neutral, solid phase extraction technique was found to yield equivalent results to the laborious, time consuming liquid phase, acidic extrac tion technique. Anaerobic - Anoxic Sludge Digestion Greater Vancouver Regional District scientist C.C. Peddie and University of British Columbia's D.S. Mavinic undertook a pilot-scale evaluation of wasteactivated sludge digestion by a cyclical aerobic-anoxic

mode of operation at ambient liquid temperatures. As described in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineer

The McAvity name on our hydrant is our customer's guarantee of operational excellence. It's been that way since 1903 when we first began manufacturing hydrants for the Canadian market. it remains that way today — as evidenced by our contemporary-styled M-67 hydrant, offering proven traditional features plus the latest innovations In design, materials and manufacturing. The McAvity M67 is your assurance of; • A superior, four-section breakaway flange, for quick on-the-spot repair • Needle bearing gives minimal operating torque • Bronze-to-bronze contact, between seat and casing, that ensures easy removal of the seat • Lubrication access without dissassembly • The M67 is manufactured to meet, or, exceed, AWWA

C-502 specifications and is also U.L.C. and P.M. approved.

ing, results indicated numerous potential advantages for the aerobic-anoxic mode of digester operation. The main advantage was that turning the air on and off resulted in volatile solids reduction efficiencies similar

to that in the continuously aerated systems. In addi tion to the potential for significant savings in aeration costs, another benefit of the intermittent aeration mode of operation involved improved supernatant quality of the final, settled effluent. Acids in Precipitation

V. Cheam has developed an ion chromatographic method for the simultaneous analysis of the major organic and inorganic acids(formic, acetic, nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, and hydrofluoric acids)in precipi tation samples. As described in a National Water Research Institute report, the method can also deter mine several other acids commonly cited in the litera ture on precipitation-related samples (propionic, glycolic, butyric, methanesulfonic, nitrous, hydroxymethylsulfonic, oxalic, phosphoric, and citric acids) and can be readily adapted for the routine analysis of fifteen acids in less than ten minutes.

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operation of a small activated sludge wastewater treatment facility, incorporating zero effluent dis charge through evapotranspiration utilizing a multiclonal poplar forest, is described by P.J. Laughton,


Continued on page 58 54

Circle reply card No. 143

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, July 1990


Frank C. Ford

Robert J. Henderson

Henderson, Paddon & Associates Ltd. Civil Engineering Consultants and Planners

Henderson,Paddon Environmental Inc. Environmental Engineers and Scientists Robert J. Henderson, P.Eng., President of Henderson, Paddon & Associates

Ltd., is pleased to announce the Incorporation of a new subsidiary, Hender son, Paddon Environmental Inc. HPE will continue the tradition of responsive service that HPA has developed over almost 20 years of civi l and municipal engineering consulting throughout Ontario. Frank C. Ford, P.Eng., VicePresident of Henderson, Paddon and Associates Limited wi l l assume duties as

President of HPE, which wi l l specialize in waste management, hydrogeology, site investigation and remediation, underground tank management and envir onmental audits.

Henderson, Paddon


Associates Limited

is an established


disciplinary engineering firm with offices in Owen Sound and Port Elgin, Ontario. The firm employs some 50 staff and is active in municipal and environmental engineering, hydrogeology and waste management, as well as structural engineering, surveying and planning.

For further information regarding the capabilities and qualifications of our engineering or environmental professionals, please contact our Owen Sound office.

Henderson Paddon & Associates Ltd.

945 Third Ave., East, Suite 212 OWEN SOUND, Ontario N4K 2K8

Telephone:(519) 376-7612 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Fax:(519) 376-8008 Circle reply card No. 141


These four programs

firms become more

Let us put one Read how the Ministry of Ener^ can help industry build competitive muscle — and save the environment!

Today'sfar-sighted indus

Good examples: the four industry programs highlighted

try leaders are putting new emphasis on maMng here. their operations more Investing energy-efficient. in Our Environment Why? Because energy One or more of these pro efficiency leads to cost efficiency. It helps Ontario industry become grams can help your company more competitive. And it helps to reduce operating costs. Improve productivity. Strengthen your safeguard our environment. competitiveness, at home and Programs Up and Running abroad. And all of them help to protect our environment, now Making Ontario more energyand for the future. efficient is already a #1 priority For example, one offers grants with the Ministry of Energy. of up to $500,000 to assist in That's why we have nearly 20 developing innovative energy programs in place, to help both technology. Two others help industry and other energy con Ontario companies improve their sumers make better use of our in-plant energy efficiency. And a energy resources.


fourth encourages industry to develop cogeneration systems — that is, on-site production of both heat and electricity in one cost-efficient process. Let's Work as Partners

Call us now to discuss your energy problems and plans, and to determine which of

these programs fits your needs. Then,let's work as partners towards achieving new energy efficiency for your company and for Ontario. It makes good business sense.

Environmental Science. & Engineering, July 1990

are helping Ontario energy-efficient.

to woilc for you. . :j


make good use of any of these important energy programs? For full details, telephone


one of these numbers. Industrial Energy Services Helps Ontario industry improve energy

In Toronto:

Ontario companies in developing^ innovative energp technology — in

efficiency in equipment and processes


their own operations orfor their

grants towardsfeasibility ana project engineering design.


Offers grants up to $500,000 to assist


— through afree on-site analysis, and

Outside Toronto: dial 0 and ask for

Zenith 80420 Or write to: Programs Industrial Process Equipment

Cogeneration Encouragement

Providesfunding assistance to Ontario companies to demonstrate the perfor

Helps companies to examine ways of producing their electricity while providing useful heat energy.

mance ofenergy-efficient technologies in theirfirst applications in Ontario.

& Technology Branch Ministry of Energy Mth Floor

56 Wellesley St. West Toronto, Ontario M7A 2B7

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For Economic Strength


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Energy Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 142


river plume responds to the prevail ing winds and the general circula

R&D News continued

tion of the lake.

C.S. Papadopol and P. Jaciw in Water Science and Technology.

Halocarbons in Groundwater

These scientists from R.V. Ander son and Associates Limited and the

Laboratory experiments were con ducted by University of Waterloo scientists G.W. Reynolds, J.T. Hoff,

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resour ces, seasonally applied secondary treated effluent to a forested plantation through an automated sprinkler. Details ofthe process des cribed by the authors could be app lied in various geographic areas with existing technology and soft ware allowing for the complete auto

and R.T. Gillham to evaluate mate rials used in the construction of

groundwater monitors for their potential to cause sampling bias. Ten materials were exposed to low concentrations of five halogenated hydrocarbons in water for periods up to five weeks. As described in

mation of an effluent recycling

Environmental Science and Tech


nology, borosilicate glass was the only material that did not diminish the

Mixing of the Niagara River Plume



In a paper published in the Water

Three metals, including stainless

Pollution Research Journal of Can ada, National Water Research Insti tute scientists C.R. Murthy andK.C. Miners describe the work they have undertaken to identify the mixing characteristics of Niagara River

steel, apparently transformed the compounds. Six synthetic poly mers,including poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and rigid poly (vinyl chloride), absorbed the compounds.

Plume in Lake Ontario.

In the

Dioxins in Pulp Mill Effluents

initial stage, the river inflow

National Water Research Institute


plume with colder water from deeper depths ofthe lake generates a sharp

scientist B.K. Afghan has applied the work ofresearchers over the past 10-12 years to the development of a reference method for monitoring and regulating dioxins and furans in the pulp and paper industry in

thermal front. In the final stage,the

Canada. The method uses matrix-




plume is well mixed vertically. In the intermediate stage, the interac tion of the well mixed, buoyant river

specific extraction and cleanup procedures for pulp and paper efflu ents and receiving waters. The scope of the method can readily be expanded to cover other pulp and paper related matrices and environ mental samples. The estimated detection limit of this high resolu tion capillary column gas chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric method is 10 pg/L for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Manganese Speciation

In contrast to its physical state in some geographical areas, manga nese in waters draining the Precambrian shield in Canada is mostly non-particulate. Using a differen tial pulse anodic stripping voltammetry speciation technique, Ontario Ministry ofthe Environment scient ists B.D. LaZerte and K. Burling have demonstrated a trend from

ionic Mn(II)dominance atlow pH to an increasing proportion of colloi dal manganese oxyhydroxides at pH of 5.5 and above in nondystrophic waters. For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Tel:(613) 991-1578.

Business and the Environment

A Partnership or... a $10 Million Lawsuit? Every business must recognize situations potentially dangerous to the environment and comply with the regulations established to protect our natural resources. When you need help, do you know where to turn? Have you complied with the regulations? Do you need government approval or an environmental assessment? Do you have a problem with contaminated land or with waste transportation and disposal? What are your civil remedies? If you have responsibility for environmental issues in your organization, you should already know the answers, or where to find them.

Blake, Gassels & Graydon has addressed the complex issues of environmental protection for business, industry and municipalities. To discuss how we may help you, contact our office nearest you. Calgary Vancouver York Region Toronto Burton Kellock, Q.G.

Gerald Swinkin

Aleck Trawick

(416) 863-2400

(416) 733-4040

(403) 260-9600

Marvin Storrow, Q.G. (604) 631-3300

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Toronto • 58

York Region

• Ottawa •

Circle reply card No. 223


Vancouver •

London, England

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Now you can keep your staff on call while they take compulsory compliance and competence training

PIroper training in occupational health and safety and environmental technology is fast becoming the more economical option- now that managers are facing increased insurance costs, potential liability claims, and legal prosecutions for not providing adequate or required training.

"Compliance based training for operations personnel is limited compared to the demand," says Peter Van Caulart, Director of Training for the Environmental Training Institute. "It

isn't always easy to have key staff attend outof-town courses in order to meet the require ments of legislated compliance."

Environmental Training Institute

brings top-notch training to sponsor locations.

Founded in 1987, the Environmental

Training Institute is an independent training resource- serving industry, government and municipal sectors. Says Van Caulart,"By

taking our training seminars to sponsor loca tions, we provide a much needed resourcewith some added benefits. Our customers

find it's not only convenient, but they save the cost of putting up staff in distant hotels for up to 5 days. And their key personnel can still be on call in case of emergencies.

"Also when local sponsors share the cost of training we have a cross section of attendees

firom the municipal and industrial sectors. The mix of experience and exchange of information can be invaluable."

"We're already building considerable recognition for ourselves with our Confined Space Entry course." "We founded the Environmental Training Institute" Van Caulart says, "on the belief that the work place and our natural environ ment can be better protected through effec tive worker training. And effective training includes "hands-on" experience, practical demonstration and competent instruction.

"We exceed the requirements for the Ontario Operators Certificatation Program

in many of our courses. And our Confined Space Entry course, which runs for four days with examinations throughout, has earned us considerable professional recognition. "All our courses are conducted at sponsor

locations- we bring training to the workplace to accommodate local conditions. At present we offer courses and seminars in two major

disciplines, occupational health and safety, and environmental technology. We'll be

glad to send course outlines and sponsorship details to industries and municipalities

interested in compulsory compliance and competence training."

ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING INSTITUTE 14 Milbum Drive, Fonthill, Ontario LOS 1E4(416) 892-1177 Fax:(416) 892-8243 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 224


For indoor and outdoor air monitoring

Air pollution analysis using process mass spectrometry The Analyzer

The Pro Spec 2000 analyzer is of the quadrupole type in which four parallel rods act as a mass filter. That is, with a given value of RF

and DC voltages being applied,only one mass number will be transmit

ted, all others will travel trajectories which will cause them to collide

Theneedfor chemicalcompo

sition information in order

to efficiently control an industrial process opera

tion has long been realized. Tradi tionally, these needs have been at least partially met by techniques such as gas chromatography, infrared spectrophotometers, and paramagnetic oxygen analyzers. Mass spectrometry, while well rec ognized as a powerful analytical tool has not been exploited to any

great extent in the process or envir onmental fields. This is because of

the laboratory type instrument's

reputation as a large, complex and costly device. In addition, data interpretation and maintenance of the high vacuum necessary for its operation discouraged many would be users.

In recent years, developments in three basic areas have overcome most of the above cited deficiencies. These are as follows:

• Development of the quadrupole type mass analyzer; •"Turbomolecular vacuum pump; •Low cost, high speed computer sys tem.

Utilizing the above develop ments, an instrument was designed, intended from its inception for pro cess





The Pro Spec 2000 is an instru ment designed specifically for on60

line process applications by individuals with strong experience in the design of process and environ mental analytical systems such as gas chromatographs and infrared analyzers. In contrast to laboratory instruments, it has to operate in a harsh environment, conform to

with the rods, lose their charge, and be pumped from the system. This system has certain advantages over other types of mass analyzers, most of which are magnetic deflection type instruments. The chief advan tage of the quadrupole is its simplic ity. A magnetic instrument, in addi tion to requiring a precisely aligned magnet for separation of the masses, has a high requirement for precision in the placement offocuss ing slits and ion collectors. These parameters are usually factory aligned and field conversions are not possible. A quadrupole, on the other hand, is fairly tolerant in this area since resolution is largely an electrical function.

The analyzer ion source is of the

stringent hazardous area electrical requirements, and perform its ana lytical task on a continuous basis for an extended period of time with little operator intervention. In addi

from a hot filament. Dual filaments

tion, the design must permit service and maintenance by personnel of moderate technical expertise such as that required for existing process analyzers. The mass spectrometer analyzer

are employed for redundancy. Resolved ions leaving the quad rupole are detected by either a Fara day type collector or an electron multiplier. The Faraday is preferred for bulk type analyses where compo

and its associated electronics are housed in a NEMA 4 enclosure

nent concentrations range from 0.1 to 100%. For high sensitivity detec tion, where components are in the ppm range,the electron multiplier is used since it has a gain in the order

which meets Class I, Group B, C, D, Division 1 hazardous area require ments. This is accomplished through the use of explosion proof

components, intrinsically safe cir cuitry and air purging of the main enclosure with interlocks. Communication between


analyzer and the control module is via a fiber optics link and separa tion between the two may be up to 4,000 feet. The control module, a Compaq 286, Model 20 computer with floppy and hard disks, also pro vides data reduction, drives stream

sequencing and calibration sys tems, displays analytical . ata and transmits to other data systems.

conventional electron


ment type in which molecules are ionized by an electron beam emitted

of 10= to 106.

Vacuum for the analyzer is pro vided by a turbomolecular pump operating in series with a rotary mechanical pump. Turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated reliabil ity and can run for years with only minimal maintenance.

The deve

lopment of the small,high speed turbopump has been especially critical to the development of a truly on-line mass spectrometer. Previous vacuum systems employed oil diffu sion pumps or ion pumps, both of which were often unreliable, high

En jironme.ntal Science & Engineering, July 1990

maintenance items, or contami

nated the system in the event of power or coolant failure. Operations Mass spectrometer operations are programmed and controlled by a 286 computer acting in concert with an on-board microprocessor. Mass spectral data can be acquired in a number of ways, ranging from sin gle peak monitoring to a full 16 com ponent analysis in up to 50 streams or sample points. In order to fully exploit the utility and versatility of

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the mass spectrometer and yet retain the standard operational techniques familiar to plant opera tors, a modified Microsoft Windows program is employed. This is a menu driven, user

Intermediate Bulk

friendly system wherein data to be acquired is set up in a manner very similar to that used for process gas chromatography. After the peaks to be used for the analysis are selected, a "method" is configured that will sequentially measure peak parame

\Mh Containers

Railway Track Collector



ters and store the data for subse

quent computations. For each peak, either peak height or peak area is

protection from fuelling, washing, loading, unloading

measured and baseline subtracted.

Other parameters which are appli cation dependent, such as sensitiv ity settings, integration time and signal averaging are also entered

Circle reply card No. 139

via this method.

Generally, one peak is necessary for each component in the analysis, although, for improved leverage


and precision, more peaks may be used. The subsequent running of the method for analysis corrects for all mass interferences, or overlaps and computes a normalized mol per cent for each component. This result is displayed,stored and trans mitted either to a printer or typi cally, to a process control computer. Calibration

Calibration is carried out on a

periodic basis and is set up with methods very similar to analysis methods. The calibration methods

are arranged to be run in a predeter mined sequence. Response factors or sensitivity coefficients are com puted and stored for use in subse quent analytical method routines. Calibration can be fully auto matic once initiated from the key board or it may be set up as a scheduled event whereby calibra tion is carried out at some predeter mined frequency. Frequency of calibration is somewhat application

dependent but typically ranges from weekly to monthly.

Consulting Engineers In response to a growing demand for our environ mental services, Dominion Soil has openings for the following positions at our Head Office in Toronto.

Hydrogeologist Minimum 7 years experience, complete familiarity with Ontario Ministry of Environment regulations, aquifer analysis, contaminant transport, computer modelling, site remediation technology. Environmental assess ment experience preferred. This position is for a selfmotivated individual having a high level of technical and communication skills.

Senior Geotechnlcal Engineer 10 to 15 years experience. Knowledge of site investiga tions, laboratory methods, technical analysis, report writing and environmental engineering. These positions offer exceptional opportunities for Individual to work on a wide variety of challenging projects, and for rapid advancement within the firm. We offer excellent salaries and benefits.


Data Storage and Retrieval During the analytical stream

sequence, each analysis,in addition to display and transmission, is

Z. Ozden, P. Eng., Vice-President Dominion Soil Investigation Inc. 104 Crockford Blvd.

Scarborough, Ontario MIR 3C6

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Circle reply card No. 140


Air pollution analyses continued stored in a run data file. This data

printed and/or transmitted to an

may be called up at any time with out interruption of the normal ana lytical cycle and displayed as bar graphs, trends, or arithmetic reduc tion to averages, standard devia tion, maximum/minimum values, etc. Data retrieval may also be a scheduled event whereby the file is

auxiliary device such as a host com

puter on a periodic or daily basis. Applications By its very nature, the mass spec trometer offers the ultimate in speed

of response. A composition change in the ion source is detected at the collector in a matter of milliseconds.

materials are under increased pres sure to monitor and report their presence in the plant atmosphere. Threshold detection limits and

analytical accuracy vary widely with the compound of interest. Co existing compounds and instrument backgrounds often limit the detec tion level.

Materials such as aro

matic hydrocarbons and halogenated materials are generally detectable at the low ppm level. The computerized mass spectrometer can be progrrammed to drive a sam pling system of up to 50 sample points, analyze for up to 16 compo nents, store the data and have a total cycle time of about 15 minutes.

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This virtue may tend to be over looked, especially where process dynamics are such that a few min utes may seem unimportant. When one is sampling a reactor or furnace inlet and outlet, however, and doing material balances, the analyses should really be in the same slice of "real time" for opti mum results. Speed is also of the essence, of course, when a large number of sample points must be analyzed in sequence and still main tain a reporting time for each stream that is useful to a process control computer. Mass spectrometry,because ofits great speed of analysis, versatility, sensitivity and specificity has been receiving great attention in the monitoring of the workplace for


toxic/flammable materials. Those

Data supplied by Westech industrial

plants producing or using such


Flygt around the world A better world to live in - this is

the title of an unusual publication from Flygt Canada. Engineers will find the technical details of great interest while lay people - thanks to colourful cutaway graphics - will gain a better under standing of some of the many envir onmental projects which serve society. 'Keeping a piece ofEngland from slipping into the Atlantic' gives an intriguing insight into coastal flood control, while another shows 'How Houston Texas will

cope when its population doubles'. Available on request from Ray mond Simond, Flygt Canada,

The instrument can also be pro grammed to do an investigative scan on a periodic basis to detect "strangers", that is, materials that it has not been programmed to rou tinely measure. Within this tech nique, a "clean" spectrum may be obtained, either from files or by

passing an incoming sample through a carbon filter and sub tracting it from an "as is"incoming air sample. The difference spectrum is, of course, that of the unknown material. ES&E

Circle reply card No. 225


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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


X JlLt Environment Protection Laboratories Inc. we've established

a new level of technological superi ority by working harder and smarter

than other labs. And if we do happen to be "burning" a sample late one night, you can be sure we'll know exactly what's in it. We are fully equipped to deliver all sampling and analytical require

ments of government regulatory programs including: • MISA

• Reg. 309 • CERA • Landfill/Lakefill

• Air/Waste Regs.

• Sewer Use by-laws Our quality and service standards

for testing organic and inorganic environmental contaminants are un

challenged in the industry. It's how we are building our reputation as

the standard of excellence against which all other testing services will be compared. Yes, we'll continue to burn the mid

night oil. And that means you won't have to spend any sleepless nights.


'L's Emission Spectrometer uses an argon plasma to analyze trace elements id toxic metals.

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto. Ontario For more information call (418) 873-3255

What's New. Sensus Technologies announce TouchRead TouchRead®



Reading and Billing System elimi

than two seconds, the meter's read ing data is electronically trans ferred and stored in the Solid State

Interrogator (SSI) carried by the meter reader.

nates meter reader lock-outs, cal

Unlike remote systems using

lbacks, and errors associated with utility meter reading and billing processes. System-equipped meters can easily be interrogated via

plug-in remotes and reading guns, the TouchRead System utilizes pat

remote TouchPads mounted on the

related to failure or deterioration of

outside of homes or buildings. The utility meter reader obtains reading data by touching the tip ofa reading "gun" to the TouchPad and pressing a button on the gun's handle. In less

the mechanical plug-in pins and cover plates. In addition,the TouchRead System does not utilize batter

ented electronic data transfer tech

nology, eliminating problems

ies at the meter installation site as

the power required for electronic Photo by Steve Davey


reading is stored in the SSI. After the meter reading route is

completed, the SSI is taken to the utility's office and placed in a spe cial wall rack connected to a PC

computer for automatic download ing of the data which can be used for computer generated management reports or the printing of customer


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The electronic components of the TouchRead System can also be updated for conversion to future cen tralized Automatic Meter Reading over telephone lines. Sensus Technologies, Inc.

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Low range Plant features;

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aluminum test Hach Company offers a new porta ble analysis system for low range aluminum in water. This DR 100 Colorimeter Test Kit, accurate to

0.01 mg/1, allows the easy, reliable testing needed to control coagulant closing and subsequent residual aluminum levels.

Based on the Eriochrome Cyanine R method, the low range test

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rugged, convenient carrying case, complete instructions and prepared reagents for 50 tests. Hach Circle reply card No. 181

Stainless steel sliding gates H. Fontaine designs, manufactures and markets equipment such as slide gates and submersible pumps, for the water and wastewater indus

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Circle reply card No. 184 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Fill in your answer on the coupon below, and we'll send you our color

A talented pair of English feet were the first to sprint over the "Impenetrable Physiological

ful "MSU 12 Foot Wall Poster"

Featuring The Worlds Greatest Feats. Even if you don't get the cor

Barrier." He ran the mile in under

4 minutes(3 min. 59.4 seconds) on

May 6, 1954? Whose now famous feet were they, anyway?

rect answer.

World Famous Feats Up for Grabs. Sometimes the hands are faster than the feet. MSU provides hands on security at the leading end of an upward or downward climb. Our entry and exit ladders are carefully crafted for maximizing strength and safety.

We design and manufacture our own off-theshelf, wide range of corrosion resistant Safety Steps, Ladders, Platforms, Guard Rails, Manhole Grates. We also custom design and fabricate spe cial safety equipment to match your specific applications. MSU products provide maximum security and safety for climbing or descending... whether outside a tower, chimney or inside a shaft. We're into safetyfeetfirst.

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widened supports for easy access. Bolt -on designfor

chimneys, roofs, silos and tanks.

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga Ontario L5J 2M4 (416) 823-4340 Fax (416) 823-4947

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

12 of the Worlds Greatest Feats. Name: Title:

Company: Address::



Postal Code:

MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga, Ontario Canada L5J 2M4 MSU 2 MINUTE JB90

Circle reply card No. 147


What's New: Wastewater Sampler uses advanced technology American Sigma incorporates advanced microprocessor and pump technology into STREAMLINE wastewater samplers to meet a wide variety of field conditions, all MISA approved. The patented liquid sensing sys tem consists of a non-obstructing, non-contaminating fluid sensor and a microprocessor-based controller. The system calculates the flow rate through the intake tube with every collection cycle, then adjusts the pump's running time to compensate for any changes in head at the intake. This assures a repeatable sample volume and a result more representative of the source. When used on battery power, the processor monitors the pumping rate and makes adjustments to over come changes in pump speed due to low battery power. A warning is also displayed when battery power

flowmeter The Swingwirl 11 is said to be a highly accurate vortex shedding type flowmeter used to measure the flowrate of gases, saturated and super heated steam, pressurized air and liquids. The unit offers a measurement

The peristaltic pump meets EPA criteria for representative intake velocity producing a 2fps velocity at 18 foot lift, with a 3/8" ID intake tube. Maximum lift is 27 feet.

The easy to understand software program allows users to set delayed sample initiation and/or fixed or varied sampling intervals. Can-Am

Circle reply card No. 179

is low.

Toxic gas detector

2 control contacts, alarm lights and a 101 Db alarm horn.

Jet fuels, ETO, halogenated hydro carbons, esters, and solvents are just some of the toxic gases and vapours detected by the lSA-44 from Enmet Canada. Featuring a longlife, inexpensive, solid state sensor, the lSA-44 has an indicating meter,

The remote sensor may be installed up to 300 meters from the instrument. The lSA-44 is available

in single and multiple channel con figurations. Enmet Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 226


only the sixth Canadian to have been elected as its president. He is a member of the AWWA General Pol

icy Council, Executive Committee, and Board of Directors;from 1982to 1985 he chaired the Association's

influential General Policy Council; he was voted Honorary Membership in 1981 and received his section's Fuller Award in 1983.

Steve Bonk, P.Eng., has been appointed Vice-President, Drinking Water Programs at Parsons Brlnckerhoff Gore & Storrie Inc.(PBG&S). PBG&S is a new U.S. water and wastewater consulting engineering

firm, based in New York City, which links Canada's Gore & Storrie with

Parsons Brinckerhoff, one of the

largest civil engineering companies

Circle reply card No. 178

Vinyl recycling laboratory established BFGoodrlch Company's GEON Vinyl Division has announced the creation of a vinyl recycling labora tory at its Avon Lake, Ohio facility. The laboratory is to be viewed as an R&D tool, allowing Goodrich to advise plastics recyclers on how to improve their sortation methods to get pure vinyl streams of material and lead the development of new products made from recycled vinyl. Currently, the recycling labora tory includes a unique pilot-size pro cess to identify, separate, clean and re-process vinyl bottles. Also included is a specialized extruderpelletizer line that features a conti nuous melt screener. The addition of a melt screener in

the pelletizer is considered unique for the vinyl industry, allowing for further separation of foreign parti cles prior to pelletizing the recycled vinyl for new uses. One of the first accomplishments of the pilot pro cess was to collect used vinyl edible

industries such as construction and

Mr. Bonk holds a chemical engi neering degree from the University

others. Recycled vinyl bottles can

of Toronto and is also a member of the Association of Professional

vinyl bottles, as well as rigid sheet for calendering and thermoforming, extruded pipe and wood-substitute products — which are long-term use ful applications and can remain out of the waste stream for generations.

tion Control Federation.


Davis Controls Ltd.


108-year history of the AWWA,he is

president of the American Water

resistant to wear and corrosion.

Vinyl is unique among plastics in that end-use markets already exist in many current vinyl products in

Works Association(AWWA). In the

Mr. Bonk is the immediate past-

that is insensitive to plant vibration and provides an operating range up to 64 bar. The Swingwirl 11 is ideally suited for a wide variety of applica tions including energy management and environmental technology. The Swingwirl 11 offers simple and fast installation, problem free retrofit ting and the stainless steel body is

Recently retired as Director of Water Supply for the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, where he gained 32 years of expe rience with the Ottawa water sys tem, Mr. Bonk played a leading role in the development ofits water treat ment and pumping facilities, intro ducing new technologies such as computerization and high rate sedi

Engineers of Ontario, the Interna tional Water Supply Association, the New England Water Works Association, and the Water Pollu

in the United States.

Vortex shedding

oil bottles which were washed, clea

ned and pelletized into rigid com pound for construction products.

be converted into such items as new

Circle reply card No. 180

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Literature Review Advance belt filter press Komline-Sanderson belt filter


presses are designed for con tinuous operation, energy effi ciency, tiigh througfiput and maximum dewatering with high cake yields and long operational life in the hostile environments of

sludge dewatering and process deliquoring. The Komlne-Sandefson dbeftfi


Komline-Sanderson Circle reply card No. 200


A belt filter press for sludge dewatering - with over 500 oper ating in North America on a variety of industrial and muni cipal wastes.

Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochlorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosage re quirements, handling equip ment, and storage, safety and handling data. Particularly ap plicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 201




r tPM

Kfh nwmsn

The Andritz Presses are une

qualled for performance and mechanical reliability. The SMX-S8 press offers the highest throughput on a per meter basis of any press avail able today. Control and Metering Limited.

Big Scale pH Meter Analytical Model 707 BIG SCALE pH Meter is a rugged, reliable instrument featuring a big 7" scale, continuous from 0-14 pH and the exclusive Analytical polyethylene-shielded pH Probe Unit that eliminates ordinary pH electrode limitations.

Model 707 is simple to operate, with only two operating controls. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 202

Aqua SBR Sequential Batch Reactor - a very efficient batch type ac tivated sludge treatment system,

Muffin Monster

A friend indeed

Sewage sludge grinder, used typically up stream of dewatering presses, including centrifuges, also pumps and valves. The unique slow speed oper ating using 2 counter rotating shafts provides for excellent performance and mechanical reliability. Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 204

ideally suited for high strength wastes and most cost effective

for flows up to 5 MOD. Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 205


Odour control

Treating odours with sodium hypochlorite Javex-12 is explain ed in new literature. Systems are discussed that dispense a spray of hypo to oxidize organic odours. Storage and air collec

Dual-containment tank construction DUAL-CONTAintiyiEiMT


Eimco's dual containment tank

design is a unique method for storage of hazardous liquids. Tanks are constructed with dou ble wall/bottom. The annular

tion needs, as well as lab handl ing equipment are also dis

space provides rapid leak detec tion and containment. Expensive


excavation and soil remediation

Bristol-Myers Manufacturing

is avoided.This design meets all EPA requirements for leak detec

Circle reply card No. 206

tion and containment. Eimco

Circle reply card No. 207


The role of the engineer In sustainable development In a masterful presentation during Engineering Week, Roy Altken, P.Eng., convincingly demolished any notion that engineers are poor com municators. He touched on Neolithic

Man's use of fire, Greek philosophy, the development of steam engines, the Industrial Revolution, and early mining and smelting which had a devastating effect on environment. He took no refuge In excuses of any kind before describing a high-tech smelting scenario which is much more environmentally benign and energy efficient than earlier methods.

Qver2000 years ago,Aris

totle, perhaps the first green philosopher,ident ified

water, earth, air

as the four essential ele ments of life. If he were with us

today he would be pleased with the

By W. Roy Altken, P.Eng.*

is the top-of-the-mind issue for Can adians, individuals, politicians and more and more for business manag ers and their shareholders.

accuracy of his analysis. Unfortu nately, he would also have to con clude that we did not listen to him.

Since Aristotle's time, successive societies have found a vast variety of ingenious ways to shower abuse on the water, the earth and the air. The rate ofabuse has been accelerat

ing, driven by the growing demands of consumer societies, and made possible, in large measure, by the ingenuity of successful industrial ists, merchants, businessmen, many of them engineers or at least, ably assisted by their engineers. The impacts, accumulated over the centuries, are at the point now where they can no longer be ignored; and they are not being ignored. Today the state of the environment

Ironically, it is Aristotle's fourth element, fire, which has particular significance in terms of abuse; ironic because it is the mastery of the use offire that has differentiated

the human race from every other

species which has lived. In fact it is doubtful if this species could have survived until today without achiev ing this mastery over fire. It was around 7,000 B.C. that Neo lithic Man developed techniques for

making fire. Early man learned how to strike sparks from pyrites, using flints, one of the earliest uses of nonrenewable resources. While the orig inal uses of fire were modest, they included the start ofslash and burn

as a simple form of agricultural technology. Modest use ofthat tech nique has been, and still can be pro ductive, but today its application is reaching a zenith in the clearing of the Amazonian rain forest. It is in fire that the seeds of destruction of

this species can be found and we ignore its side effects, greenhouse gas induced climate changes, at our own risk.

Yet, in spite of the dangers, it is fire that has given us the ability to capitalize on the mineral resources of the planet, the non-renewahles, and to develop the civilization we now know. This is a civilization which could not exist without their

use, a civilization which in large measure is the result of engineering genius applied to their use. Just think for a moment about

our current lifestyles. From the moment we climb out of a bed, which is held together, or sprung with materials




renewable resources; have a shower

with hot water, pumped, heated and piped by means of non-renewable resource products; put on clothes, which, even if they are all natural fibre, have been woven or tailored using non-renewable resource based machinery; eat breakfast from plates, using cutlery, both of which are from non-renewable resources; drive to work or travel on trains or

other transit systems, in vehicles "Executive Vice-Presldent,

Modernization of loco's Sudbury smelter will reduce sulphur dioxide emissions. 68

Inco Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

which are built almost 100% from non-renewable resources. Then we

work in factories, offices or class rooms




renewable steel, brick or glass. Then we use implements which, be they lathes, computers or blackboards, inevitably contain the products of non-renewable resources.

The list

goes on and on in a society which is the product of non-renewable resource use.

Moving through the history of developing techniques and technol ogies since Aristotle, it can be seen most use increasing amounts of energy as a result of fire being brought under human control. By the time the human race reached the 18th century, Man was

ready for a move from the typical agrarian-handicraft type of econ omy, to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.

In 1765, James Watt devised a condenser



The 2.100 h.p. steam engine in this old English spinning mill Isstlll operational as a museum piece. The canal was used to barge British goods to Liverpool for


shipment around the world when the Industrial Revolution was transforming

steam engine into a practical power plant. In 1767, James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny trans forming textile production forever. About the same time, Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Priestley were conducting their experiments, lead ing to the use of electricity. Soon afterwards coal gas was produced and the first significant use of pipe

the world. Brundtland's sustainable growth could also have a global effect.

line delivered fuel had arrived. The Industrial Revolution was well and

truly launched. The early part of that period was characterized by a drive towards mass production to satisfy burgeon ing world markets. It was a case of making more-and-more-and-more. Resource extraction increased as

practices were refined, with volume increases the target. Economies of scale were prime objectives, together with market share. But then as we moved into the 20th cen

tury, particularly the second half of it, with markets developing glo bally, a different form of efficiency drive became important. It became a question of making more with less. Productivity overtook production as the target. The original drive in such a direction may have been simply "cost pushed",in response to competitive pressures in a post World

War II


freer trade

markets; but preservation of the environment began to surface as an equally significant driving force.

elusion, therefore, was that we

Who knows what metals will be

needed to cut back or even shut down certain activities. Zero

relevant 10,000 years from now? Before then, we will probably have seen another Ice age and the nature of human society will have changed

Growth was the new concept. This was a highly adversarial situation, one which could not be

accepted by the business commun ity. The reactions were negative or defensive. In large measure they chose to ignore or reject the idea, particularly the non-renewable resource





accept that the world is endangered by resource depletion. There is no need for such a concern.

Over the years, we have seen the introduction of new technologies, new materials, new processes and new philosophies towards the use of resources. We have seen downsizing which affects us in everything from automobiles to VCR components. We have seen more being pro duced from less. We have reuse and

recycling. From old gold mill tailings today we can recover gold at a higher grade than many new mines being developed around the world. Blue Box recycling, with all its faults, has caught the imagination of the pub lic. Substitution, which has been

going on since the stone age,is alive and well. New technologies are allowing the development of nonrenewable resource bodies which

would have been totally uneconomic only a few years ago.

environmental forces

In Inco's core business, nickel - a

began to coalesce and gain growing public recognition through the 1960's, reaching something of a

useful industrial metal for only about the last 100 years - will con


watershed in 1972 when the Club of

Rome published The Limits To Growth. It predicted that the world would run out of resources; the con-

tinue to be recovered from known

land based deposits for at least the next 100 years. Beyond that, the oceans are estimated to contain

reserves good for 10,000 years.

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

very dramatically.

Surviving that

event will be the indestructible mole cules of elements now considered

non-renewable. They may in fact become the



Then in the final analysis, this planet has a finite life span. The notion of a world running out of resources is a concept which is unproven and unnecessary. We should be thankful for that, because the shut down concept won't work. Zero Growth was the

outcome of a somewhat academic,

self-centered, developed-world debate in which the third world, with 80% of the world's population, with vast, undeveloped, nonrenewable resources, with endemic poverty, had no part and no interest. For their sake alone, growth, and with it the use of non-renewable

resources, must and will continue. Fortunately, Brundtland and the World Commission on Environment

and Development had the wisdom to see and understand that fact. The commission noted that: sustainable

development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to fulfill their aspirations for a better life. The poor of the world need assu rance that they will get their fair share of resources to sustain their

growth. The Brundtland concept is attractive because it offers that

prospect. There is something for Continued overleaf 69

The role of the engineer continued everyone. It has caught the imagi nation of people who instinctively, intuitively like the notion ofsustainability. Converts are to be found everywhere. The road to Damascus is becom

ing a traffic jam, with global politi cians rushing to take leadership positions. Unfortunately in tough economic times, political leadership tends to degenerate to lowest cost solutions, often rhetoric and head line grabbing punitive regulation. While our society has always favoured voluntarism over coercion, have no doubt that without exten

sive, strategic planning shifts by business on a pro-active basis in regard to environmental impacts, coercion will become the name ofthe game.

There is much catch-up to be done in this because the propositions, albeit emotional, arising from the adversarial debates of the 1970's,

effectively locked many industries, certainly those in resources, out of the action. Environmentalists were

enraged by business' apparent ref usal to take the issue seriously. This led to abiding distrust of our motives.

As well as distrusting business, environmentalists came to distrust

the scientific community which created our technologies. Scientific genius was rejected on the grounds that "they got us into this mess and they can't be trusted to get us out of it."

The fact is that probably no one else can solve the planet's problems, short of destruction of our existing society, except a scientific commun ity, with its sights focussed firmly on clean technologies to provide industry with the answers which it needs. Answers must be found by science and implemented willingly by all sectors of society. Extreme

Roy Aitken

alternatives built around concepts such as Zero Growth and rejection of non-renewable resource use are

recipes for disaster. Without his flints and other non-

Oxygen flash smelting breakthrough One such example of an environmen tally sustainable economic develop ment which will create less waste,

less pollution and make our Industry more efficient and competitive In the recovery of our non-renewable resources Is being undertaken now

by Inco to deal with emissions from its Sudbury smelter of sulphur diox ide, the precursor of Acid Rain. Nickel mining In Sudbury, started in the late 19th century. The metal was recovered through the early part of the 20th century in a manner which was the only one known atthe time. It was crude. Broken ore was crushed

and spread on top of cord wood which was set on fire, and the heap

became North America's principal source of metallurgical acid. Improvements continued over the years. In furnace technology, and S02 emissions were reduced, but

eventually the end of the line for the reverberatory furnaces arrived. Now Inco has developed a differ ent technology, oxygen flash smelt ing. This takes advantage of the fact that finely divided sulphide concen trate, when injected into a stream of commercially

pure oxygen, com

busts spontaneously. There is no need to add additional fuel units. Sul

phur is the fuel. The heat generated by the chemical reaction smelts the metal. This is the mostthermallyeffi-

smoldered for several months with


the SO2 gas generated, rolling across the landscape. This process went a long way towards creating the well

smelting industry. Because it is pro duced in an oxygen medium the sul phur dioxide is concentrated. This high strength gas is ideal for

known "moonscape". At the end of the 1920's a "mod

ern" smelter was built, designed around reverberatory furnaces. Metal recoveries improved and the pollu tion was channeled. The gas was directed up smoke stacks, where it could dissipate more effectively, but it was not captured. The process was refined and improved and in the 1940's the capture of gas for produc tion of sulphuric acid was com menced.

Initially, this was not an act of environmental control.

Acid was a

useful by-product. Thedevelopment, however, pointed the way for suc ceeding managerial generations on how to contain SO2 emissions. Inco 70







conversion to sul

phuric acid. We have taken a waste product out of the atmosphere and produced a useful by-product. Also, since we do not need to add fossil fuel

units for combustion, no carbon

dioxide is generated and we avoid contributing to "greenhouse" warm ing. The oxygen gas stream contains very little nitrogen, so no oxides of nitrogen are developed. Everything that is done in this furnace improves the efficiency of the operation, improves the environmental perfor mance of the smelter, and, at the same time makes it a better bottom

line concept. It is a winner from all perspectives.

renewable resources. Neolithic man might not have made it and this spe cies would be in poor shape,ifin any shape at all. But fortunately our scientists will not go away. They will continue to develop new technologies and, as a consequence of these, changes cer tainly will come in our lifestyle. Rea listically, they will be gradual; they will be changes in degree and type of use of resources.

And there is

nothing wrong with that, because each change moves us along the path to sustainability. But some businesses, for exam ple, mining unfortunately do not sound particularly sustainable. By the very nature of the activity a mine depletes. This does not seem to fit with the popular concept that says we should live off the interest without consuming the capital, in terms of our physical endowment. That financial analogy may have some relevance for the renewable

resource sectors such as agriculture or forestry. In the case of non-renewable

resources, we need to understand that mineral deposits are different. They are akin to Mother Nature's cap ital endowment to the host nation.

That endowment, if left in the ground, is like money in a sock under the bed, an under utilized resource.


realized by recovery and sale, the revenues generated can be put to use to develop whichever type of society we would wish to see. By realizing our capital and reinvesting it wisely we have found a truly sustainable use of the resource, one which is totally consistent with the Brund-

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Acres International Limited

tland philosophy expressed in Our Common Future.

Consulting Engineers

That is a great story to tell. All of us in business will need to become

more practised in telling our stories, because today we are not believed. We rate behind academics, interest groups and the media and only just ahead of politicians as purveyors of

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facts on this issue. We are distrusted.

This is because, for too long, we chose to ignore the public, except to tell them what we decided was good for them. We have been poor com municators, but that is changing, partially because we must - the polls rate the environment as the number

one concern - and politicians read polls - and partially because Brund-

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Brundtland didn't call for the

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ment, in fact, calls for the effective use of our resources.


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called for a new era of economic growth, one that must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base. The

report continued; we believe such growth to be absolutely essential to relieve the great poverty that is

deepening in much of the develop ing world.

This expression of realism, iden tifying poverty as the villain of the piece, the force which drives the underprivileged to activities which of necessity create pollution and environmental degradation and the call for a new era of clean, economic growth, challenge our industries in a way which allows us to respond. We believe in growth and we know that it will continue. Equally, we have no intention of building today with 19th century technology. We adopt clean plant design as an engi neering norm. No longer do we, in industries such as mining, have to accept the role of the rapists, pillagers and spoilers of the earth. In fact we can do what no politician or interest group can. We can clean up, physi cally, while at the same time provid ing a continuation of the wealth generation and job creation which has been central to the opening up of this nation. Our modern technolo

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gies drive us to greater efficiency, less waste and, in turn, less pollu tion. The competitive pressures we face force us to the sustainable mode.

The questions however are still asked, and will continue to be asked until society is properly convinced, "will industry really make the change? Why should it? Is it moti vated to do things differently?" Continued overleaf







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Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


The engineer's role continued




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That raises a whole series of issues

including the use of the levers of power by our various levels of government. Regulation, subsidy and fiscal policy are all legitimate levers, but to maximize the motiva tional influence, balance is needed. An excess of regulation, the current mode, tends to generate negative responses - what is the least we can do? - when really we need to replace reactionary responses with pro-

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active commitments to get beyond the minimum standard mandated

by a regulation. Such a change will call for a new balance in the use of

the levers, a balance which, through the development of healthy self interest, will bring about a spon taneous, industry-wide movement. That change will not happen quickly or easily, in either govern






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re-election every four years or so. Faced with that, quick-fix solutions look attractive, but they don't help us in the longer term. And yet, we, in business, have the sort of reputation that says we are forever looking for handouts. We have to break away from that trough and convince our politicians of the need to balance Harness

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But now we have come to the bot tom line. Those of us in business

have become accustomed to hearing the view held in some quarters that the bottom line is all that counts for us and that we are short term

thinkers who can't see beyond the next quarter's results.

Certainly Continued

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

Literature Review A/0® wastewater treatment

anaerobic selector technology

Plastic Tube/Hose/Sprayer/ pipe fittings and accessories Bulletin illustrates a wide range of low-cost, environmentally safe, plastic fittings. Non-rusting, non-

can improve the level of waste-

conductive, non-corrosive, no



A/O System

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This 12-page, four-colour bro chure graphically demonstrates how Air Products' patented A/0



case histories of successful A/0

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water treatment and deliver con

siderable capital, energy,sludge handling and chemical cost sav ings in both new and expanded




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ABF: proven technology Infiico Degremont's Activated Bio-Filtration (ABF) Process is unique two-stage secondary

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Water Level Logger The new lightweight portable Ultra-Logger and a submersible pressure transducer make it easy to record water or fluid levels. The Ultra-Loggerwill pro vide graphs or tabular data of your depth information within minutes when used with a desk

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VANCOUVER — A small B.C. company has declarei:ci4tfar on PCB's and other deadly toxic wastes that are Jowly poisoning our province and our planet.

Izone International Ltd. is pleased to announcejrat it has entered into an operating agreement with David^fiippendale, an expert in the fields of high voltage electrical services and

the handling of dangerous industrial fluid, to^1p rid the world of PCB's (Polychlorinated Biphenyls), and tOnelp B.C.'s heavy

industries solve their environmental problems. i,

The Izone System destroys them on site, using its newly

developed ozone-based portable oxidition chamber process. A

That means no more black eyealike Bale Comeau — where

Canada finally buried Its boatload of PCB's after dock workers

in England refused to unloadjOanada's garbage" and sent it back home to roost in the l^ime Minister's backyard. Nobody

knew what to do with theAff — except bury or burn it — until now.


Aside from the destruction of PCB's, the Izone system can be used to clean toxic effluent produced by heavy industry, pulp and paper mills. It also destroys other types of liquid toxic wastes, such as PAH's (Polynuclear and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), one of the most difficult and complex toxic chemicals in the spectrum of toxic hydrocarbons. Put simply, the system produces no toxic byproducts or toxic emissions as it "scrubs" contaminated water clean. For information contact:

Trading Symbol: IZN-V


1027-470 Granville Street, Vancouver. B.C.. V6C 1W3 .LTD.


Fax (604) 681-9507

Phone (604) 681-6510

Circle reply card No. 148

First Cost...is iikeiy to be your last cost with Aquastore"^tanks. • 256 sizes from 5,000 to 1.8 M gallons • Five colors • Glass coated steel or concrete floors • Applications: potable water, wastewater or trickling filter shells Glass-fused-steel Aquastore tanks require no painting or repainting and provide many years of trouble free operation. Quality construction and service assured by extensive local dealer organization. Pl^H^laS* Harvestore Prodiucte, lire. Mumc^^^fK]l'US!ria]l Ssiles DspL

' tank sterns

345 HarvesSctreM8X DrftvaTio, OeKal^ IIBirMats 6^39122


Circle reply card No. 149



Engineered water and wastewater treatment

equipment 2

FMC provides practical solutions to your equip ment needs with one of the most compiete lines of water and wastewater treatment equipment available. Their product design and development is the result of over 70 years experience with instailations across North America and around the world.

The FMC equipment line inciudes: screw pumps, bar screens, travelling water screens, grit coiiectors, rectanguiar sludge collectors, travelling bridge collectors, circular sludge collectors, thickeners, aerators, air diffusers, flocculation

equipment, rotary distributors and auxiliary equipment. You can rely on FMC to meet your equipment requirements. Consult with us.

FMC of Canada Limited, Material Handling Operation, 650 Hood Road, Markham, Ontario L3R 4S7

(416) 474-7500 FAX (416) 474-7542

-FMC Circle reply card No. 150

The role of the engineer continued time horizons are among the major differences between North American

businesses and their successfulJapanese competitors which constantly seem to be able to look beyond the immediate time horizon. Shortened

horizons do reduce our strategy options and as Lee lacocca noted recently: most American C.E.O.'s would buy the Japanese model in a

Fundamentally, I see the engi neer's role not being greatly differ ent from the role that engineers have played since the days of James Watt. It is our job to interpret the outputs of the scientific community in a pragmatic and practical fashion, and to develop the applica tions which society needs. But in doing so we need to build a disci-

minute if they could. He pointed out however, that most big Japanese companies have banks and insu rance companies as major share holders, content to let earnings be

should the engineer accept an assignment to design or construct a new machine or a new process with out demanding as part of the assign ment the need to analyze all of the by-product or waste product side

effects of the design. Like it or not the client must understand


respond to that analysis. The onus for this type ofanalysis falls heavily on the process engineers,the chemi cal engineers and metallurgists, the

We may not be the philosophers — but we are the "doers"

reinvested and watch asset values

grow. Major shareholders in Ameri can companies are mostly institu tional investors, mutual funds or pension funds which demand a

healthy return every 90 days. This short term thinker criticism

is hard to take, particularly in the non-renewable resource sector. Typ ically the development of an under ground mine from the point where a drill core intersects an economic ore

deposit to full production will take six to seven years or more. From there the recovery of the investment may take another 10 or 20 years. Compare that for a moment to the attention span ofthe typical govern ment elected for a four year term. It does not compare. Then we have the really short term thinker, the pri vate citizen, the ultimate polluter, with a polystyrene coffee cup, good for 10 minutes and garbage for 100 years! What about that citizen's bot

pline into the development of our designs to ensure that by careful consideration

of environmental

impacts we can be sure that we do not need to worry about what our children will say, or more imme diately, what environmental lawy ers will otherwise force upon us. We must be prepared to go further then we have gone in the past. We need to acknowledge that while there are many examples of engi neering brilliance in our lives, there are many examples which we would rather not talk about. No longer

combustion engineers and energy conscious utilities engineers. None of us is untouched by it. It might be argued that it is unfair to expect the employee engi neer or for that matter the consul

tant to go beyond the scope as set out by the employer or client. Not so; that is an unacceptable position. No structural engineer in this country would put his stamp on a roofdesign without taking the time to consider snow load impacts. Would an auto-

Consultants for water and pollution control projects Knox Martin

tom iine?

Kretch Limited

The fact is that there will be a

bottom line cost which will impact upon all of us. We may see it in increased power rates from electric ity utilities which will want to encourage energy conservation. We may see higher prices for the manu factured artifacts of all sorts which

we use daily. So how can we, the engineers, respond to this? What can we do to

respond to the need for societal change? Our profession has much to be proud of and some things to be embarrassed about in the develop ment of our society. We have a role. We may not be the philosophers, but we are the"doers". In a career as an engineer,spanning more than 35 years, 3 continents, and 4 major heavy industries, power generation, iron and steel, pulp and paper and mining,I have seen most forms of pollution, and I will acknowledge my own contribution

Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax:(416)459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton .Ontario. L6T 445(416)459-4780


Windsor, Ontario


3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X 4L4 (519) 966-2250 FAX:(519) 966-5523


(519) 539-2015

MacViro Consultants Inc.

to some of them. It may be that as a by-product of that experience, I understand the need for change,and have come to be a proponent of It.

Contlnued overleaf

7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor. Mdrkham, Ontario, L3R 4B9.Telephone;(416)475-7270.TeleFAX:(416)475-5994

Consulting Engineers, Planners end Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


Hydrogeology Waste management Engineering geology


Environmental audits

Site decommissioning & retiabliltatlon


MALROZ Engineering Inc.168 Montreal St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446


Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 275 Duncan Mill Road


Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2Y1

Burlington, MIsslssauga, Whitby

(416) 449-2500 Fax: (416) 449-6076




Engineering a whole new world,



Audits Toronto,Ontario


(416) 798-0111

Air Quality/ Occupational Health Industrial




(416) 798-0130

The role of the engineer cont'd, mobile engineer forget about muf fling exhaust noise? Why then should the process engineer ignore the effluent?

It may he in this that there is a role to he played by the professional organizations, in a way to protect the integrity ofthe practitioner.Per haps it should he a condition of licensing that each one of us he required to undertake an environ mental impact analysis of all of our activities. Action by the profes sional associations might help in this way by setting rules which will reinforce ethical standards.


sort of self-policing of professional, ethical standards is normal,

accepted practice in, for example, the medical and legal professions and rather self-policing than enforced, governmental policing. But deep down I think all engi neers, really, would prefer the ele gant solution, I think all of us

appreciate the aesthetic beauty of good design. We must always strive for that, with or without the shelter

Site Decommissioning/Cleanup

Calgary, Alberta

of the rule hook. We have to demon

Underground Tank Management Laboratory Services

(403) 298-4170

strate that there is life beyond the laws of physics, and that we can think about the quality of that life. Recently, David Suzuki said that it was time engineers started to think about sustainable develop ment because they had been "raping


(403) 298-4125

Comprehensive Environmental

and pillaging the Earth long enough". He wasn't speaking as the

OR TECH Services I NT


2395 Speakman Drive MIsslssauga, Ontario L5K IBS Tel, 416 822-4111 Fax 416 823-1446

Monitoring, sampling, analysis and development of control strategies for all media. Air, water and waste.


paul theil associates limited


consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief


Proctor & redfern Limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists

Wastewater Collection and Treatment



St. John's. Nfld.



Sault Ste. Marie



North Ba> Thunder Ba>

the same time contributes to devel

opment in a distinctly sustainable


solutions like that one to come. He


might conclude that, finally, society has got the message, and that the engineers of the world have the will

45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600

approve of what is emerging: for example, that oxygen flash smelt ing process; one which uses fire but preserves the land, the air and the water; one which provides for the recovery ofa natural resource and at

He would be thinking that scient ists and engineers are as pragmatic and practical as they have always been, and that there will be more

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Bramplon

If he was, we

would reject the thought. He was speaking as the communicator Suzuki, which he is par excellence. We should pay attention to his mes sage, like it or not. It is vital for this profession, and for our society, that we recognize that our image is some what tarnished; that we admit to having been part ofthe problem and then go on to take up our role in meeting the challenges we face. If Aristotle were around today 1 believe he would agree. He would


Water Supply, Treatment, and Dustribution

St. Catharines

scientist Suzuki.

Fax: (416)445-5276

and the wit to fix It. ES&E 76

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

What's New Accurate easy-to-use Geomembrane containment liners A broad range of geomembrane lin ers are offered by Can-Ross Environ mental




environmental containment sys tems. The company recently

expanded its operation to include the design and construction of con tainment systems for a range of industrial applications. The pro duct line covers PVC and HOPE pan els


are two of the most

commonly specified flexible mem brane liners. Geomembrane liners are used for

containment applications such as mine tailings, storage ponds, oil reserve pits, sanitary landfills, set

Fully adjustable mixer Flygt's energy-efficient, submersible mixers are easily adjusted to any depth or operating angle, a saving in time and expense over fixed, side or top-mounted mixers. A real improvement on fixed-shaft mixers, these mixers are designed to handle turbulent flow mixing, solids sus pension, low head pumping, oxida tion, process mixing, ditch applications, flow creation, and more. Without external gear boxes and tank glands,the Flygt submersibles are simple to install and remove, resulting in less downtime

water level Indicator

tling lagoons, waste water, etc. Major users are mining, process, petrochemical, primary metal and pulp and paper industries. Data is available on the physical properties of the liners, stressing such factors as dimensional stabil

ity, durability impact strength, seam integrity and crack resistance. Grades are available for resistance

to oil, low temperature applications, fish compatability and laminates with non-woven geotextiles. Can-Ross Limited



Circle reply card No. 170 WHMIS standards. The floors are

made with raised fibreglass grating and have a static grounding system. A short list of options includes explosion relief, separation walls, polypropylene or stainless steel sump liners, explosion proof mechanical ventilation, heating, air conditioning and lights, dry chemi cal fire suppression system,thermal insulation, and adjustable or per manent shelving. Stox Systems Inc.

Circle reply card No. 172

For groundwater monitoring appli cations, the Solinst Model 101 elec tronic indicator offers repeatedly accurate water level measurements.

Using the easy-to-read, Solinst flat tape cable, it has permanently embossed markings on white tape with centimetres in black and metres in red. Probes are available

in stainless steel, designed to avoid problems with cascading water. Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 173

and lower maintenance costs.

Flygt Canada

S. O/imeMa c^/

Circle reply card No. 171


Industrial hazardous

storage units Stox Systems Inc. announces a new Canadian engineered and manufac tured line of hazardous storage units designed to comply with regu latory standards for all types of Canadian industrial operations. These all steel, relocatable contain ment units (standard or fire rated) come in 5 model sizes, and can be custom designed to solve virtually all security problems and com pliance requirements for storage of


(416) 853-1223


Simcoe Engineering Group Limited Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building, 345 Kingston Rood, Pickering, Ontario L1V 1A1 Tel: (416) 286-2285 Fax: (416) 286-1361 Branches; Mississouga and Buffalo

hazardous industrial chemicals and

products. Several major features make these Stox units superior to open storage or various boxes now being

THORBURN PENNY LTD. Consulting Engineers

used: all welded 1/8" or 3/16" steel construction chemical resistant

• Water Supply • Environmental Planning • Wbter Pollution Control

epoxy coating inside and out, built in spill containment sump and sprinkler system, large 54" x 84" heavy duty security doors and lock ing system. Each door is equipped with proper signage to meet current Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

• Water Resources• Instrumentation and Controls •

•Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 351 Main Street East

Milton, Ontario

Tel:(416) 875-2144 Fax:(416) 875-2145

L9T 1P7

T.F: 1-800-263-4178


Threc years have passed since

e've been able to create a

Operation Goose Lift got off

ourishing ecosystem.

the ground. A venture that,

It's all part of Inco's con

curiously enough,involved

tinuing commitment to the

flying Canada Geese from


Toronto's over-populated

Like our efforts to reduce


sulphur dioxide emissions—a

'Waterfront to a roomier resi

dence near Sudbury.Today,

contributor to acid rain. Bv

Itappily, the}''ve taken to their

1994, after a $500,000,000

new home like ducks to water.

investment that wUrdfastically-


For decades we've been

change tlae way we process ore,

reclaiming the tailings areas,

we yriU contaiii 90 per cent of

where we impoimd the material

■the sulphur befdte it can reach

left after we've extracted the

the atmcwphere.

valuable minerals. Experiment

Like tlie geese who now

ing. Digging. Draining. Fertiliz

choose to make Sudbury their

ing. And planting.

home, we too care about where we raise our families.

It didn't come easy, but

^-5:1 •

inco STRONGER FOR OUR RXPKRrKNCK ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ill '<t;

\Clrcle reply card No. 151 ^

What's New Air Cylinders designed

engineers architects and

for knife-gate valves A range of air cylinders specifically designed for actuating knife-gate valves in municipal water works and the process industries, has been

totte n

introduced by Miller Fluid Power.


Designated the LA series, these quality, low-cost pneumatic cylind


ers are available in 3 1/4" through 20" bore sizes, with thrusts up to 47,000 lbs. and pressure ratings of 150 psi. Standard temperature range is -10° to 165°F.

features include: a stainless-steel

rod; low- or high-temperature seals; adjustable strokes; and hydraulicor water-operated designs.






Consulting Engineers

Standard features include; an

internally chrome-plated steel tube; a chrome-plated, case-hardened rod; and steel heads and caps. Optional



Head Office: 51 Townilne, Orangeville, Ontario L9W 1V1 • 519-941-0330 ORANGEVILLE





Miller Fluid Power (Canada) Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 174

UMA Engineering Ltd. Telephone:(416)238-0007 Defuse PCB "time bombs" PPM retrofill operation takes com plete responsibility for PCBs. PPM comes to your site, drains and flushes transformers of old, ineffi cient oil and PCBs, and refills with pure, filtered virgin oil.




PCB contaminated oil is then

hauled off, treated and recycled at PPM's permanent facility.


PPM Canada


Circle reply card No. 175


DIglsponder SCADA Systems


Industrial Measurements Limited

(IML) designs and manufactures


data collection and remote monito

specializing in Land Use Planning & Development, Environmental Approvals

ring systems. Products are used in areas as diverse as satellite com

Waste Disposal and Municipal Law

munication, environmental moni toring, water treatment and

John R. Willms / Donna S.K. Shier

P. Douglas Petrie / C.C. Robert Wong / Thea M. Dorsey 73 Richmond Street West. Suite 200. Toronto. Ontario M5H 1Z4

industrial control.

The Digisponder family ofSuper visory Control and Data Acquisi tion (SCADA) systems provides versatile,reliable and low cost moni toring and control of unattended equipment sites. Communication by synthesized voice or data is possi ble at any distance via telephone, dedicated line, radio or satellite. IML supplies Digisponder

XCG Consultants Ltd.


50 Queen Street N

Fax 519/741-5627

Kitchener, Ontario

N2H 6P4

Providing Senior Consulting Advice

Remote Terminal Units (RTU's)

and Central Station Computers (CSC's). The Central Station is typi cally an IBM XT/AT computer or similar. A full line of expansion peripherals is available. IML

Suite 904

on Environmental Matters Environmental

Engineering Consultants

Richard J. Rush

Stephen G. Nutt

MASc,PEng Principal

MEng,PEng Principal


Circle reply card No. 177 Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990


What's New

= and may prevent blindness. Fea tures include: fast action;long dura tion, 20 minutes; sterile fluid, Isoton

Portable emergency eye-shower

saline solution with same Ph-value

as tears; tempered fluid, the fluid is at room temperature, as opposed to mains operated units using cold tap water; portable unit is easy to carry about and can always be kept handy. An electrically heated ver

FEDAB emergency eye-shower is available when an accident occurs.

Hit the red knob and both eyes are instantaneously washed by a soft mist of sterile solution. Immediate

eye-wash after an accident reduces the risk of permanent eye damage

age areas, outdoors, on vehicles, etc., even where the temperature goes below the freezing point. The practical wall attachment keeps the eyewash within reach at all times, and the sterile solution remains

active for three years. Cancoppas Ltd. Circle reply card No. 182

Pumping Station monitoring

sion is also available for cold stor-

Now available is the BHF Flowmeter

50 Bathurst Dr., Waterloo, Ontario

with a preventive maintenance sys tem, alarms and events monitoring. This analyzing device gives diag nostics, choice of reports and under standable graphics. BHF monitoring system moni tors the efficiency of a pumping sta tion, detects minor or major trouble areas before they create an alarm ing situation. When used as a porta ble unit, several pumping stations can he programmed into it. It weighs only 3.6 kg, measures approx. 7.6" x 8.6" x 3.5" and is the easiest tool to precisely calculate parameters like inflow, outflow, overflow, and volume. It is cost jus tifiable. BHF is represented in Ontario and in Western Canada by

N2V 2C5


CanTest Ltd



Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver. BC

Enyironmentai Analysis


■ Organic/Inorganic Cheraistrf j'l > Occupatidnal Health & Safety •Drug Testing




Hazardous Waste Charactenzatiqn

/'■ Canadian Drinking Water Crrterial


Fax: 604731 2386 Tel: 604 734 7276



604 n4TEST


Comprehensive Environmental


Circle reply card No. 183

Tel: 1-519-747-2575 Fax: 1-519-747-3806

Free videos for M.M. DILLON UMITED

DIIILLOn Environmental Laboratories

chemical analysis treatability studies monitoring and assessment engineering/scientific support


utility metering needs Schlumberger Industries - Measure ment Division, has technology and services to meet water metering needs. Central Meter Reading (CMR®) system is a field-proven solution to meter reading problems and its Technical Services Group


MISISSAUGA (416) 568-1414

FAX (416) 568-1339


AD INDEX Setting the standard for





B.F. Goodrich BCA Controls Bennett

* service



* quality * turnaround time

Can Am Cantast CEO



Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality,

83 2 52 37 54

Crossroads Extilb. 22,23 Davis Controls 6 Deep Shaft 15 Dense 28 Dominion Soil 61 Dorr Oliver 52 Ecodyne 50 Env. Prot. Labs 63

Env. Training Inst. Fine Analysis Labs FMC


prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days.

Gore & Storrle

83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416) 574-4977

Gorman Rupp


64 52

Big 0 6 Blake CasselsGraydon 58 11 Bondar Ciegg 82 Bristol Myers Cancoppas

6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX: (416) 673-7399


59 47 74

9.34 66 4

H. Fontaine Hach



Henderson Paddon Env. Inc. Henkel Inco Izone

KWH Pipe Larocque Geo. Liquid Air Liquid Carbonlcs Mann Aqua Metcon

MIn. ol Energy MSU MIsslssauga OWMC

55 45 67 73 16 61 12 44


9.48 56,57 65 40

Ramsey Lake Ind.


Revenue Canada

51 61

Sanderson Ind.

Scepter SEW Eurodrlve Sollnst

Spill-Saver Tanknology Terminal City The Env. Show Watdoc


46.B4 7 31

30 17 25 29 14 53

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

(TSG) can provide utilities with onsite meter accuracy testing,installa tions, repairs/replacements, and revenue impact analyses. Send for an informative videotape on Schlumberger's CMR® system or


• Specializing In Inorganic Water QualiW Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

TSG services to find solutions to


metering and information problems. Schlumberger Circle reply card No. 185


400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Ont. L4Z 1N8

Phone; (416) 890-9272

Fax:(416) 890-3023

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services


Air Quality • Water Quality » Hazardous Waste ' Emission Testing

• Complete MISA Parameters • Reg. 309 Compliance

' Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

• Polychlorinaled Dibenzodioxins/Furans • Ambient Air Monitoring


• Odorous Compounds

• Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.


Professional Analytical Services Since 1972


5550 McAdam Fioad, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370





Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions


1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT. N7S 3Y6 TEL:(519) 339-8787 FAX:(519) 336-6965

758 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2 TEL:(416) 847-0065 FAX: (416) 847-3840


Complete Digester and

Lagoon Cleaning Land Application Systems Program Development

-WALKER LABORATORIES CorTiplete Environmental Analytical Services Contact Doug DeCoppel, Manager Phone: (416) 227-4142 Facsimile: (416) 227-1034

Division of

Tel:(416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W.,

Jerseyville, Ontario LOR IRQ

ujalher industries






also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD.

MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

66 Brant StreaL Hamilton. 6nl. L8L 6AB

Tel: (416) 523-1850 Fax: 523-6270

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3


• Ion Exchange Resin • Filler Cartridges (0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

PROVIDING SPECIALIZED INDUSTRIAL WATER SERVICES ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL INC. 845 Harrington Court, Burlington, Ontario L7N 3P3 (416)639-6320 3650 Weslxook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 2L2 (604) 222-1169

Eldon Technologies Dtv. Klenzoid Company Limited 1341 Matheson Blvd. East

Mississauga. Ont. L4W 1R1

Tel.: (416) 629-3101

Fax:(416) 629-1637

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990



MISA analysis for over 50 plants Ultra-trace Dloxins/Furans by MS/MS

• Waste treatment evaluation

Clertlfled by NYS-DOH

• Technical / economic assessments

• Bencti and pilot scale testing


What's New change and the coefficient of expan sion for the stored product. The sys tem ensures accuracy in the resulting loss-rate analysis and reduces the field time required for an operator to complete the test.

Wastewater treatment system surpasses toxic waste reduction guidelines An economical wastewater treat

ment system removes emulsified

oils, heavy metals and suspended Heath has also introduced the DTS 2000 thermal sensor to further reduce the time needed to conduct the Petro Tite test. The DTS 2000 is

solids. The result is a treated water

that meets or surpasses sewer dis charge standards




leachable sludge that may he placed in a non-hazardous landfill. In a

recent case study, this system sur

passed Ontario municipal require ments for pH level, suspended solids, oil and grease and critical soluble metals.

American Colloid Company's Wastewater Treatment System is in accord with the two major aspects of the Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA). The system uses a single proprie tary clay-hased reactant,along with

Tank testing systems Petro TIte from Heath Consultants

for testing the integrity of under ground fuel and liquid storage tanks. The system now has been expanded with new components to automate loss rate calculations, to allow testing of several tanks with

X-.C a low cost piece of machinery. The system saves up to Canadian $3.08/gallon in hauling costs and can also recycle expensive chemical components which.would otherwise be destroyed or lost to discharge. Sussex Environmental Services Inc.

Circle reply card No. 188 one set-up, and to monitor tanks and provide early warning of under ground leaks. A new computerized version of the Petro Tite test automatically records loss/gain readings from the

equipped to accept readings from up to four storage tanks at the same tank test system. Heath is introduc ing the new Tankgard System to Canada, a new 24-hour tank moni tor designed to satisfy all current legislation for the detection ofpoten tial soil and groundwater contami nation by hydrocarbons. Solid state sensors are placed in bore holes around the tank perimeter or between the tank walls. The sensors

are connected to a centrally located monitor and alarm module, up to 500 feet away from the tank loca tion. The sensors will detect gaso line and light hydrocarbon vapors leaking from tanks, and another

sensor is available to detect the pres ence of a liquid buildup. The occurence and location of a leak is

thermal sensor and executes the

indicated by visual and audible

necessary calculations to account for tank deflection, temperature


Heath Consultants

Circle reply card No. 187


The safe alternative For water disinfection, wastewater


255 Wicksteed Ave., Toronto, Ont. M4H 1G8 Tel.(416) 421-6000. Fax.(416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver 82

Circle reply card No. 152

Environmental Science & Engineering, July 1990

SAMPLE SIGMA...CAN ADA Liquid samplers combining sample integrity with rugged practicality ... that's STREAMLINE™. STREAMLINE™ innovation includes a patented liquid

sensing system. Unlike other peristaltic pump sam plers, STREAMLINE™ delivers repeatable volumes by automatically compensating for changing lifts. And if the first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged

intake, STREAMLINE™ initiates a high pressure

purge and tries again. Most importantly, we understand that samplers get rough treatment... and STREAMLINE"' will take it. Electronics are

isolated in a watertight NEMA 4x, 6 housing and the roto-molded polyethylene case is more impact resistant than the ABS common to other samplers.

1=1] m

Distributed By:

"Complies with MISA Specifications" Portable Samplers• Refrigerated Samplers Ground Water Samplers•Open Channel Flowmeters

Representatives Across Canada^


2495 Raines Road

Mississauga.Ontano L4Y 1Y7

Tel (416) 277-0331 'Instruments LTD. .FAX (416) 277-2588 ENVIRONMENTAL AND .



ENGINEERED FDR STRENGTN Scepter Centurion Glass 150 PVG fittings for AWWA G900 PVG pipe are among ttie strongest in tfie industry. Consider tfiese facts:

• Quick-burst strengtfi exceeds tfie required minimum of 755 psi. • Eacfi size and sfiape demonstrates a long-term pressure strength of at least 470 psi after 100,000 hours (11.4 years). • Fittings are GSA Certified to GSA

injection-molding machine capable of producing the tremendous pressure needed to pack the moid. Their strict specifications have allowed them to moid the

strongest possible PVG fittings yet stiii retain

standard B137.2.


• The gasketed joints meet the requirements of ASTM D3139 (same as G900 PVG pipe). • ULI approved.

Yet, with all this strength to resist impact, pressure and water hammer, Scepter's fittings are lightweight and flexible. How is it possible? It's simple. Scepter's strength is in its engineering. Most companies thought the challenge of making strong PVG fittings was too great to be done. Not Scepter. After years of research, they were able to combine three things: a high molecular weight PVG compound with a hydrostatic design basis of 4,000 psi, able to withstand high injection-molding temperatures; second, state-of-the-art computer technology which ensures precise quality control within a narrow optimal range of temperature and pressure; and third, an



1 all the

benefits and quality the water industry expects from PVG piping - lightweight, ease of handling, corrosion resistance and

economy. These long-term advantages make PVG fittings the best choice for your municipal pressure pipe systems. Right now. Scepter's fittings are being used in one-material systems right across North America, proving by experience that pipe and fittings do not have to be corrodibie, heavy and rigid to be strong.


Ail of Scepter's lightweight PVG pipe and fittings are engineered for strength. Their strength reflects Scepter's strength as a leader in the piping industry.




807 Pharmacy Avenue Toronto, Ontario Ml L 3K2

(418)752-2200 fax: 416-752-8512 Scepter is a member of the Unt-Be!l PVC Pipe Association.

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