Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) April-May 1990

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

April/May 1990

Cement kilns can prevent Hagersvilles and St. Basile-le-Grands

Retrofiliing RGB contaminated transformers Ventilation design for contaminant control

High costs of low-cost thinking UV disinfection techniques No-dig report



The EPS 1021 Effluent

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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


1SSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM OAVEY Sales Director STEVE OAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY OAVEY

Technical Advisory Board George V. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.



April/May 1990, Vol. 3 No. 2 Issued May, 1990

Chemistry - the second invisible profession Article by Tom Davey industry Update

5 6

Mannheim water project uses large submersibles


Testing/retrofiliing RGB contaminated transformers


Article by Timothy P. Keegan

R. Bruce Smith

Avoiding problems with drives or pumps Environmental Science & Engineering Is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial environmental control sys tems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribution, air

pollution monitoring and control, solid


Article by Greg Jackson and Larry Madden

SCADA systems for smaller water utilities

Article by Mark Robertson


The high cost of low-cost thinking Article by Mike Mansfield


Trenchiess technology arrives in Ontario Article by Douglas Dunbar and Hershel Guttman


and hazardous waste treatment and

disposal and occupational health and safety.

ES&E's readers include consulting engineers. Industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufactur ers, representatives and distributors

welcomes editorial

tions from research



Ultraviolet light disinfection of wastewater

and academics. ES&E

Environmental monitoring using immunoassay Article by Dr. Randy Leavitt

Article by Rory Murphy


How Cement Kilns could prevent future Hagersvilles Article by Charles Cole


Representative sampling for today's tough effluent standards Article by Brian Evans


Sustainable development and global warming Article by Lyn McLeod, Ontario Ministry of Energy


Ventilation design for contaminant control Article by Dr. Howard Goodfellow, Ph.D.




Institutions, environmental

associations, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), or otherfacslmllles of the written or graphic material for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora,

Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork,film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environmental Science &

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed In Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without writ ten permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief pas sages In reviews. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

R&D News What's New

54 63

Cover photo - See story on page 48. Global warming, an area of growing concern. Is epitomized in this cover shot by T. Davey.

EBBm Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

When the going getstough Goiman-Rupp pumps getgoing! plm rirxJcj

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Editorial Comment by Tom Davey-.

Chemistry - the second invisible profession

Around 1669, Hamburg

on earth.

In the March '90 issue of ES&E, Dr. Pierre Beaumier, C.Chem., and Graham Chevreau, C.Chem., ^ made

a cogent plea for the formation of a licencing body for chemists, similar to the provincial engineering associ ations such as the Association of

Later he sold it to Krafft who created a sensation before the crowned

heads of Europe wherever he exhi

providing cheap, portable combus

bited it.

tion - hut who has ever heard of its inventor?

Herr Brand had unwit

tingly taken the first step which led to the knowledge that P is the essen tial element of all life. He has been referred to as the first chemist as

well as the first person known to have discovered an element.

But his phosphorous mirabilis languished as a mere curiousity for a hundred years until a J.F. Gahn made his startling discovery: phos phorous was an essential constitu ent of human and animal hones.

Later a C.W.Scheele found the phos phorous could he produced from hone ash. But Brand's secret was so

well kept, Robert Boyle and Kunchel had to rediscover the process methods independently. Research continued and in 1780, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a French public official, demonstrated that when P was burned in the air, it pro duced an acid which weighed more than the original phosphorous.This almost literally exploded the prevelant theory that phosphorous con sisted of phlogiston and an acid. But, while his experiments were still in progress, he was arrested and tried by revolutionaries of the French Republic. M. Lavoisier pleaded for two weeks' grace to conclude his experi ments but the tribunal declared that the state has no need of chemists. His

request denied, he was guillotined, dying in obscurity, taking his valua ble scientific knowledge with him. But while luminaries in medi

cine, architecture and commerce have their heroes well represented by such names as Sir Alexander Fleming, Frank Lloyd Wright, J.P. Morgan and many,many others,the historical records of distinguished chemists are remarkably barren.

Only after John Walker of England invented the lucifer match, in 1827,

did phosphorous become an impor tant commercial commodity. The match was surely an important stage in the industrial revolution -

This a fantastic achie

vement by the chemical profession, yet its significance remains with held from the public.

alchemist Hennig Brand, accidentally discovered phosphorous in his labor atory while trying to turn base mate rials into gold. While he failed in his quest scientifically, he nevertheless transmuted his findings into wealth. Calling his discovery cold light, for it left a luminous trail in the dark, he kept his process secret.

Chemical professionals - like their engineering colleagues - are largely unknown by the public they serve so well; their achievements ignored by the news media who prefer instead to record the antics of rock stars and junk bond dealers. Yet chemistry has made fantas tic progress in recent years. The contributions of the chemical pro fession were brought home to ES&E staff in Washington, DC and Phila delphia a few years ago, when we met with the late Dr. Abel Woiman, then the dean of North American environmental sciences. The much revered Dr. Woiman was in his nine

ties when we met him. While physi cally frail, his penetrating intellect commanded the rapt attention of internationally renowned environ mental engineers and scientists, inevitably concluding to a standing ovation. Dr. Woiman told us that when he

started his scientific career,'the analytical state-of-the-art was only capable of measurements up to one part per ten thousand. And even less than two decades ago, the abil ity to measure was in the part per million range. Instrumentation and chemistry then proceeded at a stag gering rate. Today's analytical chemists rou tinely find toxins at parts per trillion and have the capability of detection In the parts per quadrillion range, in what Dr. Don Mackay so ably des cribes as: The Incomprehensibility of tinyness, ^ science can now deal with toxic concentrations in the range of nanograms, picograms or even femtograms per litre - ranges so incredi bly small that even scientists have difficulty remembering what these prefices mean. Some have likened current ana

lytical capabilities to an ability to distinguish one or two hairs from amongst the heads of every human

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Professional Engineers of Ontario. Theirs is an argument the provin ces might adopt to their own great benefit as public concern on environ mental issues keeps mounting. For chemists, like engineers, are at the forefront of those learned profes sions upon which we must rely on to face the growing environmental cri sis. ES&E

1 ES&E March/April 1988, page 29; 2 ES&E February 1989, page 17; 3 ES&E March/April 1990, page 47. Editor's note: ES&E will gladly mail

photocopies of the referenced items to readers. To facilitate fuifiiiment, written requests only pieaseto: ES&E 10 Retch Crescent, Aurora, ON L4G 5N7.

See Chemical Hall of Fame

page 13.

Letters Dear Tom:

In explaining the benefits of cement kiln technology for the des truction of wastes, there is no article that does it better than your editor ial on PCB destruction of December 1988. This editorial was used as one of the articles in our hand-out to the

press at a news conference. Best personal regards, Charles Coles, General Manager,St. Lawrence Cement.

Dear Tom:-

It has been a few years now that I've been off the environmental

engineering battlefield and hence not been exposed to your editorials. My loss. I have just read, totally by chance, your piece on Responsibility without power...(Dec/Jan '90 ES&E). As usual, you are right on target. If society does not soon see, or he shown the truth ofthe environ

mental issue, then it indeed will find itself up to its proverbial ears in the mire.

Keep up the good work. I will keep in touch. Peter J. Osmond, P.Eng.

Industry Update. A Perrier and lime, and hold the Perrler These are not happy days for the French company Source Perrier S.A., which has recalled 160 million bottles of its Perrier mineral water from shelves worldwide. Customers

whose day is empty without the sta tus of a sleek green bottle in their hand are being left high and dry; those who drink Perrier for health

considerations are being told they must do without for three months for health considerations. It's

enough to drive people hack to alco hol, coffee with caffeine, fur coats, cholesterol and

chickens that

haven't been given the run of the barnyard. The culprit is a trace ofthe chemi cal benzene detected in some bottles

of Perrier. The company says the source of the water, the Vergeze spring in southern France, is not contaminated, hut that filters used to remove naturally occurring impu

rities from the water had not been

of temperatures.

changed as they were supposed to be. Perrier is erring on the side of safety, which is as it should be, and of its image and reputation, which is as it must be. The experience of other companies whose products have been contaminated may he dis tilled into three simple rules: remove it immediately from the shelves, tell the public all you know about what caused the trouble, and put the pro duct back only when you can assure people you've licked the problem. There is inevitably a chance that Perrier drinkers will try other bever ages in the interval and grow to like the alternatives, a risk that may be particularly high for bottled-water companies. "You won't believe it. I discovered this metal tap in the kit chen, and when I turned it on I found a supply of water that tastes quite pleasant and comes in a range

couldn't believe it when the hill

UK plans to recycle refrigerator CFCs Technology to remove the CFC (chlorofluorocarhon) gases from old refrigerators and freezers, enabling their metal to he recycled without damage to the Earth's atmosphere, is being developed in Britain, where fridge recycling stations are planned within the next few years. Behind the plan to develop safe recycling by the end of 1992, is a collaboration




Group, a metals recycling specialist based in the English Midlands, Britains giant Imperial Chemical Indus tries - one of the main producers of CFCs in Europe - and Llndemann Maschinenfabrlck of West Germany. The partnership aims to create the first complete recycling station capable of removing all CFCs from domestic appliances, by the end of 1992. Following successful opera tion of a pilot plant, it would he pos sible to set up a chain of gas-tight, pollution-free, recycling centres by 1995 to handle 90 percent of the UK's scrapped fridges and freezers. The group would also be able to build similar systems in other parts of the world, and the techniques could he extended to recycling other products such as insulating foams used in the building industry. CFCs escaping from the coolant systems and insulating foam of old appliances as they are broken up are

seen as one of the main threats to the world's environment because

they both destroy the ozone layer that protects life from harmful ultra violet rays, and contribute to the greenhouse effect causing global warming.

And cheap?


arrived. It's a local product and this may sound incredible - until now we've been wasting it on our lawns..."

The next big trend? You read it here first. From the Globe & Mall Editor ial Page.

Nuclear industry Conference Nuclear Energy — Ready for the'90s is the theme of the Canadian Nuclear Association's 30th Annual

Conference at the Royal York Hotel in Toronto, Canada, June 3-6,1990. Contact the Canadian


Association, 111 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario,Canada M5G1P7. (416) 977-5211; Fax:(416) 979-8356.

Instrumentation in Japan The International Association on Water Pollution Research and Con

trol (lAWPRC) is conducting a Although manufacturers are now Workshop on Instrumentation,Con seeking alternatives to the harmful trol and Automation of Water and gases, which will enable their pro Wastewater Treatment and Trans duction to he phased-out, it is esti port Systems in conjunction with its mated that over the next 15 years, 15th Biennial Conference in Kyoto, more than 22,000 tonnes of CFCs Japan. This workshop is the fifth in embodied in existing appliances, a highly successful series. will have to be safely disposed-of in As before, the workshop will be Britain alone, with the present total held in two locations, Yokohama of existing potentially recoverable and Kyoto. The focus of the Yoko CFCs throughout the world amount hama portion of the workshop, July ing to some two million tonnes. 27-28, will be on technical tours of a In the type of recycling station centralized sludge treat#nent center envisaged, the liquid CFC- and water distribution and purifica containing coolant will first he tion centers. Lectures and a panel sucked out and pumped into sealed discussion by researchers and prac containers, before the appliances titioners from several countries will are passed into the insulated gas- also be conducted in Yokohama. On tight main processing plant. Here, July 29, the workshop will recon automated machinery would separ vene in Kyoto to meet in conjunction ate insulating foam from other with the lAWPRC Biennial Confer materials which can be taken away ence. for normal recycling. Further information on the Work shop including travel arrangements The foam will be compressed,and the gas it contains extracted. CFCs may be obtained from: Bruce Jank, will be separated out and purified Wastewater Technology Centre, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario, through a complex cooling and con densation process, before being L7R 4A6, Canada; (416) 336-4599 passed to the chemical manufac

Fax:(416) 336-3765.

turer for refinement and eventual re

use if necessary.


All the technologies involved are proven, but they have never before been combined in this way. Over a year ago,ICI announced its plans to set up a full-scale production plant for ozone-benign CFC substitutes at Runcorn in north west England, which is due to become operational in 1991. Details: ICI Chemicals and

Polymers Ltd., PO Box 14, Runcorn, Cheshire, WA7 4QG, England.

In the March 1990 Issue of this maga zine, an advertisement by Geneq Inc. on page 9 contained an error in a sen tence about the System Q. The sent ence should have read "MVP (mean, velocity, profiling) Probe Offers the Most Accurate and Reliable Flow".

This error was in no way attributa ble to Geneq Inc. who had supplied the




regrets the error.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990




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At Sensus Techinologies, we have on enviable heritage which dates back to the 1860'$ when we were

the National Meter Company, it includes years of growth as part

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

=Industry Update designers versatility not previously possible with typical concrete pipe.

storm Water Workshop Showcases New Tools for the 90's

Marketed in Canada, Ultra-Rib PVC pipe can be used in conven tional storm applications where leak tight joints are required,as well as more unconventional applica tions, where perforated pipe is required for ground water recharge. PVC has the added advantage of

being inert to acid rain and agressive soils according to David Eck

stein, Technical Director of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.The realization that acid rain may be

affecting the infrastructure is forc ing designers to chose products like PVC that have an established track

record of good resistance. Dr. Ron Townsend from the Uni

versity of Ottawa, spoke of another tool available to designers. Studies in a number of communities have

Scepter's Veso Sobot with Dr. Smith (standing) at one of several computer work stations available at the meeting in Toronto.

Some 100 engineers, technicians and technologists from industry and government were on hand to see the latest tools available for design ing storm water facilities for the 90's. Sponsored by Scepter Manu facturing Company and B.F. Goodrich, the program included speakers from across North America. Key note speaker Tom Davey stressed that designers should always be receptive to new ideas and innova tive technology. According to Paul The!!, Presi

advances in equipment technology has made available cost competitive PVC storm sewer pipe that allow

shown that systems designed with Inlet Control Devices can prevent surcharging during flows that have a return period of up to 100 years. Existing systems can make tempor ary use of ICD's if suitable storage facilities exist. Only the lower con duit has an increased capacity. Without ICD's, the entire system would have required changes.

Circle reply card No. 260

Leak detection for

underground storage tanks.

dent of Paul Theil and Associates

and long time proponent of storm water management, developments in the field have been progressive. Due to proliferation of new technolo gies, the designer has many more tools today as opposed to a decade ago, allowing him more options. Storm modelling programs like ULTRA, capable of generating hydrographs for rural and urban


technology Intrinsically safe â‚Ź

watersheds as well as calculating

approximate storage requirements provide simple, easy-to-use tools for preliminary analysis and review. More detailed programs like MIDUSS provide very comprehen sive solutions to storm water prob lems in a very easy to use package. According to Dr. Alan Smith, devel oper of MIDUSS, this newest ver sion is a result ofresponding to good user suggestions, making the latest version the most powerful to date. New developments have not been

The new Series DMS from Warrick Controls is the solution for

underground storage tank monitor ing. Utilizing intrinsicaiiy safe com ponents, the Series DMS actively monitors up to fourtank systems for over-fill protection, leak detection

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limited to software however, recent

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 107

Industry Update. ADI gets Engineering Award of Merit

development of start-up techniques for fermenters. To date, ADIdesigned fermenters have treated wastes from potato processing, wet corn miiiing, pharmaceutical, dairy, distiilery, confectionary and grain processing operations.


The award was presented by the Honourable A.H. Lacey, Minister of Commerce and Technology, in con junction with the Association of Professionai




Brunswick to ADi Limited. Dr. Bob

Landine, P.Eng., Manager, Environ mental Division, accepted the award.

AMRA Meeting Report The number of the Canadian dele

gates at the Automatic Meter Reading Association attested to the level of

Left to right, Arthur Gunn, President Elect, APENB, Dr. Landine, A! Lacey, Minister of Commerce and Technology and Bill Cooper, Deputy Mayor at the APENB annual conference.

An award was presented to ADI Limited in recognition ofthe innova tion shown by its staff in the development and application of anaerobic biotechnology in wastewater treatment.

In the mid-1970s, a team of ADI engineers and technicians, led by Dr. Robert Landine, strove to apply the principles of anaerobic biologi cal processes to the treatment of strong, warm, organic waste streams.

These efforts involved

many hours of laboratory and onsite research and development to establish design criteria for robust, reliable and low-cost anaerobic fermenters.

Once design criteria were estab

lished, the team then developed techniques for building and operat ing full-size fermenters. Several Innovations and patented inventions later, ADI has established a world wide reputation for anaerobic wastewater treatment with over twenty Installations operating in Canada,the United States, Europe,India and Austraiia.

With each new project there have been




improvements. Among the key developments have been the use of floating membrane covers, the use of microprocessor instrumentation and controls,the recovery and use of biogas, the design of inlet, outlet, recycle and mixing devices, and the

interest for this technology in the Canadian market. Water, gas and electric utilities and telephone com panies from across North America congregated in Baltimore to learn more about the rapidly growing field of automatic meter reading. The symposium provided a unique opportunity to discuss AMR sys tems with counterparts in the indus try. Equipment displays, guest speakers and round-table discus sions sparked the enthusiasm ofthe many participants. For any utility examining the

long-term benefits of automating their meter reading system, the AMRA symposium is a "must".

Next year's session will be held in Atlanta from September 24 - 27 and promises to be the most exciting yet. Dave Hanes, Schlumberger

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


^^^S;that A/OÂŽsystem was the first big project thatI worked on when Ijoined Air Products 22 years ago.That was back in1990 and... back then this was all vacant land.

Now look at it. But that A/0 system has never bothered a soul."

"Look at those kids going down there to fish. Back in 1990 they'd have been lucky to catch anything at all, and if they did, their parents might have been wary of eating it." "I remember how hard we had to work to convince the consultants

and municipal people. The com pany's anaerobic selector technol ogy had been doing the job in other parts of the world for quite a few years, but it was just coming into its own in Canada. They knew it was good at biological nitrogen and

phosphorous removal but they didn't appreciate how efficient that plant would be in removing BOD while creating a non-bulking sludge." "I was the new boy on that job and it was me who stayed up nights making exhibits for the next days' meetings. Chemical cost savings. Energy savings over 20 years, thanks to lower pumping loads. And there were a lot of questions on odours, cold northern climates, loading ranges and of course capi tal costs. But in the end it got built. Of course nowadays it all seems pretty routine. I couldn't even guess how many new or expanded

"A/O" and "OASES" are trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals,Inc

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

retrofit A/0 systems are on the job today in industry and municipalities right across the country." "Ah,the good old days. Things were more exciting back then." Air Products. AlO systemsfor

biological nutrient removal. OASESÂŽ secondary treatment systemsfor municipal and industrial wastewater. Cost-effective oxygen supply and ozone generation equipment. For more information, contact Henry Frese at Air Products, 2090 Steeles Avenue Fast, Brampton, Ontario L6T1A7. Tel.(416) 791-2530. Fax(416) 791-6808.

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— Industry Update Chemical hall of fame announced at York The Department of Chemistry at York University in Toronto has

of choice for the treatment of infec

tious diseases of bacterial origin.

announced the foundation of The


Chemical Hall of Fame and pres

The most chemically inert resin known. Teflon withstands high temperatures and has good electri cal insulating and lubricating prop erties. Discovered by accident and initially pursued for use in atomic bombs. Teflon appeared in civilian goods in the early 1960s.

ented its selection of inaugural inductees. The idea for a Chemical Hall of

Fame was proposed by a group of chemical scientists at York as a way of recognizing those chemical sub stances and materials that have

provided great benefits to society, and to honour the men and women who invented or discovered them.

The seven inaugural inductees were nominated by members of the Department of Chemistry at York, and by high-school students

applications, as a neutralizing agent for alkalis, as an oxidant,as a dessicant, as a catalyst for a variety of processes, and as an electrolyte. Pulp and paper making, synthetic fiber production, steel making, min eral processing, and many other industrial processes depend on it. Further information is available from Professor Pierre G. Potvin,

Department of Chemistry, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Tel: (416)

Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric acid has a vast range of


M Montedoro-Whitney UJ The Leader in Water Instrumentation

across Ontario. Ammonia

Known to most people as a com ponent of household cleaners, ammoriia is primarily used in agri cultural fertilizers and in the manu

facture of a variety of commercial products including nitrogengontaining plastics (such as nylon),


pharmaceuticals (such as the sulfa drugs), and dyes. Aspirin Since its introduction as an anti

pyretic or fever-reducing agent in 1875, aspirin has become the most widely-used pharmaceutical in the world, known for providing relief of pain, fever and inflammation. Recently, it has been recommended as daily medicine for heart-attack sufferers.

NItroglycerIn Nitroglycerin is one of the few chemical substances important in two very different areas. It is well known as a high explosive used in mining, construction and demoli

tion primarily in the form of dynam ite (invented by Alfred Nobel). In sub-milligram amounts, nitrogly cerin is a useful coronary vasodila tor in the prophylactic management of angina pectoris. Nylon

Nylon is the shortened name of nylon-6,6, the first and most com mon polyamide polymer. Disco vered in 1938, nylon was initially developed in the United States for military use during WWII when silk for parachutes became rare. Penicillin

Penicillin is actually a generic name for a very large family of com

pounds, of which about 22, with names such as penicillin G, cepha^ losporin C and ampicillin, are clini cally useful. Since their first use in humans in 1941, the penicillins have rapidly become the antibiotics

SysternQ' The Rugged Q-Logger'' offers: • • • •

• • • •

Depth, Velocity, and Rainfall Measurement Flow Proportional Sampler Trigger Output Battery Protected Memory Stores 32,000 Readirigs Field Interchangeable Circuit Boards — Bo Manual Calibration Required MVP (Mean, Velocity, Profiling) Probe Offers the Most Accurate and Reliable Flow Measurement Performance in the Industry Extremely Long Operating Life with Standard Lantern Batteries Modem Telemetry with Auto-Polling Available Powerful QBase"' Software for Computer Analysis, Reporting, and Modeling of Flow Data on PC-compatible Portable and Office Computers

You need SystemQ for: • Infiltration & Inflow Studies

User Discharge Billing

• Industrial Surveillance

Sewer System Studies Permanent Flow Monitoring

• Overflow Studies

GENEQ inc. •223 Signet Drive. Weslon. Ontario. Canada M9L1V1,



•7978JarryE.,Montreal,Quebec.Canada H1J1H5, Tel:(514)354-2511. Tlx:05-829568. Fax:(514)354-6948

Environmental Science <S: Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 109


Industry Update P&R designs mobile testing lab

New Association formed The Canadian Environment Industry Western Canada Diversification Association has been incorporated Dept. for each company from West under Canadian Federal law and

ern Canada which wishes to exhibit.

held its first meeting on May 17,

January saw the start ofthe first

1989. The second AGM will be held in Vancouver in March 1990.

membership drive since the inaugu ral Annual General Meeting. Mem bership costs $250.00 per individual and $500.00 per company.

The specific objectives of the Association are to:

The Directors are:

• act as a national information

exchange centre, keeping members aware ofdevelopments and issues in the environment industry field; • represent the interests of the members to the various levels of

government in Canada with refer ence to legislative initiatives; •act as a vehicle to inform industry, government and the public about new technology and its capabilities for environmental protection/reha bilitation; •fulfill an environmental education

role within society; • provide a vehicle for pooling efforts to penetrate new markets both in Canada and in the export field.

During 1989, the CEIA worked

President: John Bennett, Bennett Environmental, Vancouver Vice-President: Pierre Grenier, Stablex Canada, Blainville Treasurer: Bill Lightowlers, Zenon Environmental, Vancouver Secretary: Graham Seagel, Sutek Services, North Vancouver Director (Ontario): Aivo Veel, OWMC, Toronto Director (Ontario): Robert Redhead, Tricil, Mississauga Director (Alberta): Robert Scace, Scace & Associates, Calgary Director (Manitoba): Bill Harper, I.D. Systems, Winnipeg Director (Quebec): Mark Toivanan, Group Sanivan, Montreal For further information, contact Patrick Dixon, Canadian Environ

which wished to exhibit at GLOBE

ment Industry Association,Ste.200, 1130 West Pender St., Vancouver, BC, V6E 4A4, Tel: (604) 687-7001,

'90. It obtained a$5000 subsidy from

Fax:(604) 681-6825.

with the Government of Canada to

obtain assistance for companies

Proctor & Redfern has designed a mobile PCB testing facility for STELCO.

The STELCO Enter

prises Laboratory is fully equipped for sample preparation, extraction and analysis of water, oils, soils, and gauze swipes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses for PCB at concentrations of 0.2

PPM in soil and oil are routinely achieved.

Two technicians provide a ser vice based on a one-day turn around for 8-12 samples depending on prep aration complexity. Although the present focus of the facility is on PCB analysis for site remediation, this facility is capable of performing analysis on a wide range of hazard ous waste materials. Equipped with Gas-Chromatograph/Mass Spec trometer (GC/MS) purge and trap, GC/MS atomic adsorption spec trometer, and additional support equipment, the laboratory has the capability to analyse all the contam inants scheduled under MISA.

The lab is set up within an eight foot wide by forty-four foot long licensed and road worthy highway transport trailer.

Business and the Environment

A Partnership or... a $10 Million Lawsuit? Every business must recognize situations potentially dangerous to the environment and comply with the regulations established to protect our natural resources.

When you need help, do you know where to turn? Have you complied with the regulations? Do you need government approval or an environmental assessment? Do you have a problem with contaminated land or with waste transportation and disposal? What are your civil remedies?

If you have responsibility for environmental issues in your organization, you should already know the answers, or where to find them.

Blake, Cassels & Graydon has addressed the complex issues of environmental protection for business, industry and municipalities.

To discuss how we may help you, contact our office nearest you. Toronto

York Region



Burton Kellock, Q.C. (416) 863-2400

Gerald Swinkin

Aleck Trawick

Marvin Storrow, Q.C.

(416) 733-4040

(403) 260-9600

(604) 631-3300

Blake,Cassels & Graydon Barristers & Solicitors/Patent & Trade Mark Agents

Toronto • York Region • Ottawa • Calgary • Vancouver • London, England 14

Circle reply card No. 116

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


Circle reply card No. 118



Mannheim water project makes use of large submersibles The purpose ofthe weir is to raise the water level to a minimum eleva

tion of 282.4 metres, thereby sub merging the intake conduite and allowing water to be pumped from the river.


The main section is a

mass concrete wall, 2.2 metres above the river bed, with a down stream concrete stilling basin and a concrete cut-off wall penetrating the underlying till layer to a minimum depth of one metre. It was con structed using protected earth cof ferdams at the elevation of the river bed. Stone Town Construction Ltd. of

T- --3k-,

St. Marys, Ont., partially diverted



the river in order to minimize the

height of the cofferdams and allow for seasonal fluctuations in river ele

vation; total river diversion was avoided by scheduling the work in stages.

1200 mm 0 pipeline from River Pumping Station to Raw Water Reservoir.

Engineers looking for an in

novative system to be speci

fied in the construction of a

new raw water pumping facility have chosen the use of large submersible pumps (over 100 HP). The "Mannheim Project"' river pumping station, located on the Grand River in Kitchener, Ont., is reputedly the first raw water han dling project in Ontario designed around 300 KW submersible pumps.

Designed by Associated Engineer ing, the station will eventually hold four such submersibles, for a total pumping capacity of 245 ML/d. Slated for completion in the spring of 1991, the Mannheim Pro ject aims to satisfy the anticipated potable water requirements of the Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge

Between the weir and the fish-

ways are two, 3.0 metre wide draw

down openings with stoplogs. Two, accomplished with a concrete weir and an intake structure. The weir, located approximately 900 metres downstream from the Highway 8 bridge in Kitchener, is comprised of one section across the channel, an east bank buttress and a west bank buttress. The west bank buttress

0.40 metre diameter culverts are

formed through the weir at an invert elevation of 280.5 m. The east and west bank weirs are earth embank

ments with rip-rap surface protec tion on both sides of a concrete core

penetrating a minimum of 1 metre into the till layer.

incorporates the intake structure.





areas for the next 50 years. It is based on the extraction of water

from the Grand River, treatment to potable standards, potable water storage, followed by injection into a groundwater aquifer. In the initial year prior to the development of the aquifer recharge system,the treated water will be pumped directly into the water distribution system. Extracting the raw water will be ' Actual name, "The Master Water Supply Project - Mannheim Scheme". An article on this system appeared In








Capacity and head chart showing the typical performance of the Flygt 3530 submersible pump used at Mannheim.

the Dec/Jan '90 Issue of ES&E. 16

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


Testing Services


misa-we Meet THE Standard From the beginning, we at

MISA legislation and Regula

Bondar-Clegg have based our service on the highest stan dards in testing and in meeting

tion 309 in the Province of Ontario.

We do this by using strict quality assurance procedures

We provide: • complete MISA parameter (ATG)capability • priority pollutant analysis

that ensure we meet or exceed

• hazardous waste and

our customers' needs.

all QA/QC and reporting protocols required by MISA (Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement)regulations. Our goal is to help you meet government environ

contaminated soil characterization

(Regulation 309) • Dioxin,Furan and PCB


mental standards in the best

way possible. At Bondar-Clegg, we provide extensive environ mental testing services that cover all the Analytical Test Groups(ATGs)required by the

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


Bondar-Clegg & Company,Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road, Ottawa,Ontario KIJ 8X5

Tel:(613)749-2220 Fax:(613)749-7170 Telex:(613)053-3233


Circle reply card No. 119


P u 1










if*' '






For years, H. Forrtaine has been a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of equipment such as slide gates and submersible pumps, for the water and wastewater industry. Known for their simplicity, efficiency and durability, H. Fontaine fabricated gates offer such characteristics as stainless steel flange back construction and a

unique ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) self adjusting seal.

Forward-looking H. Fontaine is committed to offering its clientele a simple yet efficient environmentally-sound product


and is determined to pursue its research and development efforts to maintain its technological edge. There could be no better guarantee of high performance and quality. Circle reply card No. 120



1295 Sherbrooke, Magog, Quebec JIX 2T2 Tel.: (819) 843-3068 Fax:(819) 843-1006

Mannheim water project makes use of large submerslbles (Continued) The intake structure in the west

bank weir has two,6.0 metre wide by 1.0 metre deep openings, protected

by bar screens, at an invert eleva tion of 280.5 metres. There are two

concrete intake conduits connecting these openings which supply raw water to the pumping station. The pumping station will draw water up from the Grand River impoundment, screen it to remove coarse material, and pump it to a 140 million litre raw water storage reser voir some 350 metres away. When finished, it will have four wet wells, two containing travelling water screens, two containing submersi ble pump units. Each pump well will initially house one Flygt 3530 sub mersible centrifugal pump and later two Flygt submersible pumps. While the pump wells will be isolated from each other, a 1.050 metre square sluice gate will be provided between

chamber and pump well are 5.9 m x 5.9 m, and 6.6 m and 5.9 m respec tively.

requirements are particularly attractive in applications such as this, where excavation is extremely

22.2 m of static head. Provision has

difficult and the available head of

been made for a third 840 1/s pump

water is low. Moreover, being underwater,they are less noisy than conventional pumps and provide for more storage or activity space on the operating level of the station."ES&E

to be installed in Phase II. In the

final stage,two ofthe 8401/s pumps will be removed and three 950 1/s

pumps will be added.

TESTING WATER QUALITY? Are you responsible for routine potability testing, checking process water suitability, or monitoring landfill leachates? If so, MANN AQUA can help you confidently meet your objectives simply by using our


thus addressed concerns about exca

vating too deeply into the ground, which might have disturbed the con fined artesian aquifer underneath the pumping station and ruptured the groundwater pressure." The wet wells form the sub

structure for the floor of the facility.

The upper level will be used for water quality monitoring, electrical equipment and instrumentation purposes. Above the wet wells will be a lifting hoist and monorail to facilitate pump installation and maintenance.

The overall wet well dimensions, including the screen chambers and the pump wells, have been designed for a maximum flow velocity of 0.6


between 2.1 m and 5.5 m. The horiz ontal dimensions of each screen

,.$70 100 mL

And in case you think you're getting the whole"picture with your present ^ testing. .. "


YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU'RE MISSING! Ask yourself this.."Do my test results balance?... Are they complete?"... or. . . don't you really know!

At MANN AQUA we know! Quality comes first because our expert system says so. And to prove it, we give you all of your theoretical Quality Control data so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is not missing. It's really quite simple: our computer checks the ion balance. When the cations and anions(+ and -)are not equal, either an analytical error exists which we'll correct before it leaves the lab, or something is in your sample which has not been tested for; in either case the theoretical conductivity pinpoints the solution. So if you didn't know what you were missing before . . .

NO W YOU DO. At MANN AQUA,you don't have to worry about ion imbalances...our expert system doesn't allow them. And remember, if your pluses and minus don't add up, we won't say "We told you so"- we'll tell you WHY! MANN AQUA LABORATORIES LTD.

m/s at the minimum water level. To

allow for approximately 0.3 m of freeboard (except during a regional flood), the operating depth within the pump well will be limited to

.....:.v....5 DAYS


which would have been more com

mon, we opted for the large Flygt submersibles because they have a low NPSH, thereby minimizing the need for water above the pump impeller in order for the pump to function normally." he says. "We

water as a heat sink. Their NPSH

Phase I of the project calls for the installation of two Flygt pumps, each capable of providing 840 1/s at

the wells to enable the use of both wells should one screen be out ofser vice. The screened river water can then be drawn into the bottom intake of either of the mixed flow

submersible pumps. According to Associated Engi neering's assistant resident engi neer, Graham Best,there were sound reasons for specifying submersibles in this application. "Rather than use vertical turbine pumping units,

"Submersible pumps function well in raw water conditions," says Al Livingston, P.Eng., Associate's Vice-President, Engineering Servi ces. "They reduce the building ventilation loads by utilizing the


#6-400 Matheson Boulevard East, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1N8

Phone (416)890-9272, Fax (416)890-3023

Changing the way professionals, like you, see their resuits.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 121



Testing and retrofill of In-service PCB contaminated electrical transformers

The Canadian Department of National Defence and Environment Canada awarded O.H. Materials

Company of FIndley, Ohio a contract to operate the first approved trans portable incinerator in Canada to burn PCB wastes in storage at

Goose Bay, Labrador. Three of the requirements ofthe contract were: 1) Testing for PCB contamination of all in-service electrical equipmentin the electrical distribution network on the air force base and in the town

site. 2) The draining, flushing and refilling with new oil of all PCB con taminated equipment found. 3)The transportation of all PCB waste oil from contaminated transformer to

the storage site to await destruction. PPM Canada Inc. of Brampton, Ontario was awarded a subcontract

to perform the requirements of this part of the contract. Because of the time, manpower and costs asso ciated with the removal from the

By Timothy P. Keegan*

together to allow 24 hour notifica tion of power outage to the affected areas.

The PPMC line crew de-

energized and isolated each trans former prior to sampling, a transformer Hilti gun was used to punch a small hole in the trans former above the oil level. A Pipete was used to drain an oil sample from the transformer. The hole was then

sealed with a silicone plug and the unit re-energized. Downtime for each unit was approximately 5 min utes.


PPMC supplied an on-site mobile laboratory utilizing gas chromatograph for PCB detection. Ofthe 400 in-service transformers tested for

PCBs, 130 transformers were found to contain PCB levels above 50

PPM. PCB contamination ranged

The first phase was to perform a PCB oil analysis on all in-service

from 50 ppm to 1900 ppm with the average being around 250 ppm. Once all the samples had been taken and analysis completed, a second schedule was set up for the draining, flushing and refill of PCB contami nated equipment. The four-man PPMC retrofill crew consisting of an engineer, lineman, certified electri cal technologist and a technician,

transformers. A schedule was put

utilized three vehicles to complete

pole of PCB contaminated trans formers and replacement with non PCB transformers, PPM Canada

performed all testing, draining, flushing and refilling of all trans formers on the poles. SAMPLING

this phase of the project. Vehicle one was a utility bucket truck used to lift the lineman or CET's equip ment and hoses up to the trans former. Vehicle two was a spill pan equipped transport truck which con tained drums of new oil, empty

drums for PCB waste oil, pumps and a filter press for draining and refil ling of transformers, a transformer vacuum and spill containment equipment. Vehicle three was a van used for transport of supplies and as an escort for transport of PCB waste oil to the storage site. RETROFILLING

Once the bucket truck was put in place and spill pan equipped trans port truck backed up as close to the pole as possible, the PCB contami nated transformer was de-energized and isolated by the lineman and plastic was placed around the bot tom of the pole and under all hoses. The top was removed and PCB oil drained through a one inch hose into drums located in the spill pan equipment truck. The transformer was then flushed with clean oil and

drained again. The transformer was then allowed to sit empty for ten minutes and then

vacuumed to

remove all liquid residue from the bottom ofthe unit. The transformer

was then refilled with new oil, sealed and re-energized. Downtime for each transformer was approxi mately 20 to 30 minutes. CONCLUSION

The project was started in late November of 1989 and completed in the middle ofJanuary ofthis year.It took 16 days to sample 400 trans formers and 14 days to drain, flush and refill 130 transformers.


average temperature was minus 15 Degrees Celsius and because of the amount of snow, snow removal was

required from a number of the poles to allow truck access. A second PCB

analysis will be performed after ninety days to reclassify trans formers as non PCB and to deter

mine average PCB levels after retrofilling. Preliminary analysis was done on 6 ofthe highest contam inated transformers and found that

after 4 weeks back in service, all transformers were below 50 ppm.

Circle reply card No. 206 'Timothy P. Keegan Is President of PPM Canada Inc. 20

Environmental Science. & Engineering, May 1990



'ic; 24" FLANGED 45° LATERAL

'tg; flanged bell MOUTH CASTINGS




Pioneers in the design, manufacture and direct marketing of TC.' Waterworks Products dating back to 1906, Terminal City Iron Works today, is the only Western Canadian manufacturer of a complete line of Flanged Grey Iron Waterworks Fittings. These superior quality 'T.C.' Grey Iron Flanged Fittings conform to the ANSI B16.1 Specification and are available in sizes 4" through 24". Contact our experienced Sales Staff for prompt and efficient customer service.


iron works ltd.

Manufacturers of 'T.C.' Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L 1R1 • Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (604) 253-6365

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 122


Avoiding probiems with drives or pumps

How do you avoid problems

By Greg Jackson

when applying mechan

ically adjustable speed drives on pumps? This is a question often asked from within a cloud of smoke emanating from a burned-out variable speed drive. While there are many, many fac tors that can affect the proper appli cation of centrifugal and positive

displacement pumps, applying mechanical variable speed drives to them is relatively simple. The key is understanding how they are designed to perform. Essentially, these drives consist

of a motor, coupled to a device capa ble of producing a variable mechani cal speed ratio which is in turn coupled to a gear reducer. As such, there are three components which can limit the output power (horsep ower) of the drive train. They are: the motor's rated horsepower, the


Larry Madden R.L. Madden Associates

range the permissible power capac ity can be calculated from the for mula in Figure 2. If the application calls for con stant power output (constant hor sepower)over the full speed range,it is possible to lay out a selection on this basis utilizing the formula in Figure 3. In this case the variable speed unit is only under maximum load at the low speed. It is important to note that the gear unit coupled to • Oulpuf speed in r/min.

R ~ Variable speed ralio range

mechanical strength ofthe variable

speed component and the torque capacity of the gear reducer. For the sake ofsimplicity,the rat ings listed in the catalogues pro vided by most drive manufacturers show a constant output torque value for a given horsepower and speed range. This value is based on the motor's rated horsepower at the m£iximum speed shown in the range. By applying the drive utiliz ing the published constant torque rating most of the problems can he avoided. However, the accompany ing graphs point out the true picture relative to how the three limiting factors interact.

Figure 1 indicates a selection based on constant torque. With this type of application the gear unit to which the variable speed drive is connected will be uniformly loaded over the entire variable speed range. This torque pattern would he typical for a positive displacement pump application under a constant dis charge pressure. The maximum power from a vari able speed geared motor is only available at the highest output

speed. At speeds elsewhere in the T. = ■

Actual output torque


Ta is determined liy


Tg = constant

ttie capacity of the driven gear unit

"1—^ j

Pa = Rated output power in Ho max I

Tj = Output torque


Fig. 1 22

in tb.-in.


1800 RPM. The pump supplier util izes this speed range because it appears safer to have the required RPM in the middle of the range, since there may be some differences between the specification and the actual requirements of the system. The drive supplier selects and quotes a variable speed drive with an output speed range of 416-1800 RPM and an output HP of 20. Unfortunately, it is likely the order will be awarded because of one

glaring but common mistake. Because the drive supplier does not know at which RPM within the spec ified range the 20 HP must be avail able, using his standard selection procedure, the drive will be under sized. The speed range should have been specified with a maximum speed of 1200 RPM for two reasons. First, from the graph in Figure 2, one can see that the curve showing the maximum power available indi

Max. power available

conforming to test results

Pa (Hp)

cates that the variable drive would

be capable of delivering the 20 HP at 66% of full speed. (Not possible with AC and DC drives). However, this would be achieved hy demanding constant HP output from the varia ble speed component of the drive


train. (rpm)

Fig. 2

there would he a reduction in the

the drive must be capable of trans mitting the torque values arising from this lay-out. These torque values can he from 200 to 600% of

those characteristically found in constant torque selections. (See Fig. 4). It is best to contact the manufac turer of the variable speed drive in order to get the output power curve for a particular unit. The variable speed drive can be utilized to its fullest in the following example. From na min. to na,("Figs. 5 & 6), the reducer's rated torque is utilized, and in the range from na to na max, the power then remains constant.

Problems arise when perfor mance specifications for the pump and drive package are based on an incomplete knowledge of the design performance of the drive. For exam ple,the pump manufacturer receives a specification for a centrifugal pump and determines from the pump performance curve that he requires 20 HP at 1200 RPM in order to meet the specified flow and dis charge pressure. The pump manu facturer in turn

If this were a belt or other

friction type of variable speed drive


projected life of the friction compo nents of 71.25%.

In terms of torque, 20 HP at 1800 RPM represents 700 Ib.in., while 20 HP at 1200 RPM is equivalent to 1050 Ib.in. As such,it is conceivable that the gear reducer which would be supplied in this example could also be undersized resulting in an insufficient service factor and early failure. By specifying the speed range to be laid out with 1200 RPM as the maximum speed,there would be 50% more mechanical ratio in the

gear reducer, the reducer would be sized for the proper output torque and the variable speed component would be required to produce 50% less torque, eliminating the pre-

p, = ■

Max power available

^ conlorminglolesl results (Hp)

Pa=Pamin = Constanl

his drive

supplier and asks him to select a 20 HP mechanical variable speed drive with an output speed range of 450-

Fig. 3

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

viously mentioned 71.25% reduction


in life.



The other reason for specifying a top speed of 1200 RPM in this exam ple is more obvious to pump suppli ers. As the speed is increased beyond 1200 RPM, the pump will demand increased power from the drive in a cubic relationship to the percentage ofspeed increase. There fore, at the specified maximum speed in this example the pump would demand approximately 68







4 1 VF








Formula HPa =


3 x HP


Aside from the problem illus trated above, a centrifugal pump 600



(Ib-in.) -


Actual output torque

Ta is determined by the


I \

gear unit


capacity ol the driven

3960 X Efficiency where


min -






can provide variable power (HP) requirements for the drive at a set

= Brake Horsepowr

drive when human error comes into


= Flowrate in US GPM = Water Head in Feet

occur from time to time include

conservative safety factors in deter mining the TDH (Total Differential Head) of the system and subse quently when purchasing the actual pump unit. While this is an under standable practice, extra caution must be used in its implementation

=The efficiency of the pump when pumping water at the given Q and H. Reviewing the above equation

debris in the pipes jamming centrif ugal pumps or running a positive displacement pump against a closed valve or blocked pipe. While these kinds of problems can be dealt with fadrly easily on

you will note that BHP varies directly with the head and flow and

variable speed drives require a

= Constant


therefore the power demand on the Max power available conforming to test resJils

Pr (Hp)


Pa max



^ "amin p "a

when utilizing a variable speed





drive unit.





As the following diagram indi cates, a given centrifugal pump strictly follows a preset curve of head and capacity for each RPM level. At a set speed,the pump has a set capacity against a given dis charge pressure. The purpose of using a variable speed drive on a centrifugal pump is to generate the same flow at different discharge pressures.

It is important to note that a cen trifugal pump does not create a dis charge pressure, it acts against one. Therefore, if the static and dynamic head losses of a system are greater or less than anticipated, the pump

will produce a different flow in accordance with the actual head

requirements of the system. As given in the Hydraulic Insti tute Standards, the brake horsep ower for a centrifugal pump can be

play. The types of problems which

SpGr = Specific Gravity ofthe fluid 3960

RPM. This most often occurs when

the performance curve of the pump does not bisect the calculated sys tem curves at the anticipated head and corresponding flow. A common occurence in the engi neering of a pump system is to use

•Design your piping layoutin accor dance with the Hydraulic Institute Standards and generally accepted practices. The next problem to be consi dered is how to protect the variable


Fig. 4


Courtesy of Brim Pumps and Systems Ltd.. Misstssauga, Ontario

calculated by the following equa





Maximum torque (Ta)

Fig. 5

'^a min


JW (rpm)

drive could be increased without

changing the RPM. Furthermore, the efficiency ofthe pump decreases the further it moves away from its ideal operating point, which further increases the power requirements of

constant speed drives, mechanical closer look.

The most common protection devices found on drive systems are fuses or breakers. However, fuses are intended to protect the energy supply, not the motor and drive. In cases of sudden stalling, such as debris jamming a pump, the drive must be protected from the inertia of the motor's rotor running up against the stalled pump. The impact of the inertia on the drive train will damage the drive before fuses or any other electronic device can react. In such cases, a mechanical torque limiting device is the only safe solution. Mechanical variable speed drives by nature have a variable mechani

the drive.

cal ratio in the drive train. There

To avoid these unknowns,simply follow the following steps in the selection of your centrifugal pump

fore, in constant torque applica-

and drive unit.

•Prepare an accurate system curve with realistic safety factors and give the pump supplier this curve. • Design your system with suction and discharge gauges on the pump unit and a tachometer or other speed indication device on the drive. This will allow an accurate determina

ZAdua!output torque T. ^amaK (Ib-in.)

Ta Is determined by the capacity of the driven

gear unit

permissble torque

(pattern, utilizing the maxcap>abllity of all Involved components

Fig. 6


tion of actual pump and drive perfor mance.

Environmental Science. & Engineering, May 1990

Continued 23

SCADA systems for smaller water utilities expanded to match the user's needs. Future SCADA systems could auto matically collect the required infor mation and generate the necessary Regulatory Reports.















As computer technology be By Mark Robertson*

comes less expensive and more powerful, new costeffective computer appli cations are emerging. One such application is the use of Personal Computer based SCADA systems for the smaller Water Utilities.

SCADA is an acronym for Super

visory Control And Data Acquisi tion. Supervisory Control is defined as the ability to adjust and override the automatic control programs con tained in the field equipment. From the SCADA work station, an opera tor can change automatic program

setpoints such as the tank levels used for starting and stopping a pump.

Under this definition, the SCADA system does not perform automatic on-line control. The auto

matic control programs are stored in, and operated by, products such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Remote Telemetry Units (RTUs). These items are typically located beside each motor control

centre (MCC) and are connected to the motor starters in the MCC.

Data Acquisition refers to the col lection and storage of historical data. On a regular basis, SCADA software collects and stores all of

the process information such as tank levels, or pumping station flowrates, and system pressures. This information is used to generate daily, weekly, monthly and annual reports. BENEFITS

There are many benefits to be derived from installing a SCADA system, such as: • improved monitoring and control of the operation; • integration of other processes; • integration of other functions. 24














Many Utilities now use auto matic control equipment (either PLCs or RTUs) to start and stop the

high and low lift pumps. This equip

ment works well but normally has

very limited data storage capabili ties





remotely. The SCADA system com pliments these devices by communi cating with them, storing the process information and allowing remote monitoring and control from a centralized location.

SCADA systems are especially valuable during high demand peri ods. A single operator sitting at the computer can monitor the water demands and tank levels for the

entire utility from one location. Dur ing these periods, the operator can manually adjust the system setpoints, if required, to obtain the maximum volume of water availa ble.

The same SCADA system hard ware and software can monitor, and

possibly control, multiple processes. A single system could include the water supply system, the sewage

collection and treatment system, and the Hydro system. For a smaller Utility, the cost of the SCADA system could therefore be shared by various groups. One of the key benefits of most SCADA systems for Utilities is the minimal additional funds required

to integrate other functions into the SCADA package. Typical examples are building security systems and gas detection systems. A Preventative Maintenance (PM) software

program can also be added. Most PM packages can transfer the required maintenance information from the SCADA data files to the

PM software program. The PM pro

gram then executes its functions. As the Regulatory Agencies develop stricter requirements on both water quality and reporting, the SCADA system can be easily

Over the past ten years, the cost of installing a SCADA system has rapidly decreased. Computer based SCADA systems have been used in the larger corporations and Utilities since the mid 1970's. At that time, the software required a mini or mainframe computer. Now similar software can operate on a Personal Computer. As Personal Computers become more powerful and less expensive, the SCADA system hard ware costs continue to drop. The cost of the SCADA software

has also decreased. Earlier systems required customized, expensive soft ware. Today, commercial off-theshelf SCADA. software packages are available from many vendors. For most small municipal sys tems, once the project scope is identi fied, an approximate capital cost can be pulled together fairly quickly. Since today's SCADA systems are operated on Personal Compu ters, the system hardware is supp lied and supported by many sources. In almost every project, there are two or three local computer suppli ers who can maintain the hardware.

Off-the-shelf software also minim izes the on-going operating costs. Software programs have usually been rigorously tested before sale. This pre-testing helps reduce many of the potential software problems which could appear months after start-up. OPERATING COSTS

SCADA system operating costs have also be decreasing. In the past, the SCADA systems operated on mini or mainframe computers and required computer specialists on staff to perform system mainte nance.


Ingersoll, Ontario PUC has suc cessfully operated a small SCADA system for over a year. The system consists of eight RTUs (Bristol DPC 3330s) located at the seven remote well pumping stations plus the ele vated water tank, and a SCADA computer system at the Public Util ity Commission offices. The elevated tank RTU monitors

the tank level. The pumping station RTUs automatically control the *R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

well pumps, high lift pumps, and other equipment at each site. Each RTU communicates with the PUC

office through modems connected to Bell Telephone lines. At the PUC office, the SCADA system is operated on an IBM-clone, PC AT Computer. In addition to acting as an Operator Interface, the SCADA system automatically logs all alarms and events, collects the historical operating data, generates daily, monthly and annual reports, and monitors (via the RTUs) for Chlorine gas leaks. The system provides 24-hour monitoring. Between 5:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., specified alarms transmit an alarm signal to a nearby police station where station staff then

phones the appropriate person. In the future,the system will eas ily be expanded to include a security system, a preventative mainte nance software package, an energy management system, and addi tional RTUs at new well pumping station sites.

In summary, the benefits of installing a SCADA system include improved system monitoring, improved information storage, and the low capital costs required to inte grate building security systems, or other functions, with the SCADA network. ES&E

Avoiding probiems with drives or pumps continued from page 23 tions, as the speed is decreased the horsepower demand on the motor is decreased. Since the reducer portion

slip and fail. To protect the drive and also the pump in similar instan ces the following measures can be

of the drive train is sized based on


the constant torque rating of the • Use a mechanical torque limiter variable speed drive, plus a service with a setting equivalent to the nom factor, overload conditions can inal output torque capacity of the occur if the drive is stalled at the variable speed drive as shown in the lower end of the speed range. In the manufacturers' ratings tables for case of a 6:1 speed range, the motor the HP and speed range selected. can produce up to 600% of the nomi •Install discharge pressure sensors nal constant torque at the input connected to control relays which shaft ofthe reducer without tripping will shut down the drive if the dis breakers because of the mechanical charge pressure climbs above the advantage gained through the vari value equivalent to the drive's maxi able speed device. mum output torque. The above condition could occur •Design a pressure relief and recirif a positive displacement pump culation loop in the piping layout. were forced to pump against a closed There is also an electronic system valve or a blockage in the line. As available on the market which can the discharge pressure increases, effectively prevent overloads due to the power(HP)demand on the drive stalling on mechanical variable will increase proportionally until speed drives. the weakest link in the drive train Other factors such as start/stop fails. At the highest speed setting, cycles, hours of operation, and the breakers on the motor's power ambient conditions must also be supply may trip. However, at lower considered when selecting a speed settings, either the mechani mechanical variable speed drive. cal advantage in the variable speed However,these are considered to be components will cause the reducer routine. These questions should to be overloaded or the horsepower always be addressed by a reputable capacity of the variable speed com drive manufacturer and are not spe ponent will be exceeded causing it to cific to pump applications. ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


The high cost of low-cost thinking

The City of Etobicoke is a

large urban municipality with a population of300,000 which forms the western

portion of Metropolitan Toronto. The underground infrastructure consists of 600 miles of water distri

bution pipe, almost 600 miles ofsan itary sewers and over 500 miles of storm sewers. The age of these pip ing systems range from relatively new to 90 years, with a likely aver age age of over 35 years. The condition of these systems varies from excellent to repulsive, with the majority falling into the category of slightly tattered.

we removed 15 pipes that appeared By Mike Mansfield, P.Eng.*

reasonable answers to that ques tion. The programme itself will examine samples of pipe removed during maintenance operations for i.e., remaining wall thickness and soil conditions. Matched with age and type of material, we hope to eventually produce sufficient infor mation to make valid statistical pro jections.

rehabihtation that will ensure the


• Replacement of all valves and hydrants; •Replacement of all water meters; •Installation of remote meter read

ers (ARBs); •Repair of all defective curb stops; •Installation offull cathodic protec tion on all exposed metallic fittings;

•Inspection and engineering costs (minimal); • Internal cleaning of all small copper water services from water meter to main to restore flow capac ity.

The existing mains in the system have been extensively tested and found to have flow capacities in the 25 to 80% range, compared to new mains. Cement lining will correct this problem but the overall ques tion as to how long any given pipe

can be expected to last bas not been answered. In 1990 therefore, we are

proposing to begin a long term mate rial testing programme which, we hope, will allow us to provide some

came from different manufacturers.

tem will not last forever. I know that

ture. We have started with our water

ventional open cut replacement.

ence was noted, whether the pipe was salt glazed or not, or whether it

do not make an airtight case. It is sufficient however, to cause me great concern for the future well being of our sanitary sewer system. The main point however, that I wish to make, is that the sewer sys

future viability of our infrastruc

Included in that cost are the follow

ria for those conditions. No differ

tub installation and 15 pipe samples

We have come to realize that none

The cost is 25% of the cost of con

and shipped them, still wet and wrapped in plastic, to a testing laboratory for 3 edge bearing tests. The results of those tests, coupled with the known depth, soil condi tions and trench width,showed that the pipe strength averaged 60% of that dictated by normal design crite

I readily concede that a single bath

of these systems will last forever and that we must begin a process of

distribution system. In 1986, we began a replacement/rehabilitation programme that will totally over haul the entire system. The comple tion date is the year 2036 - not an overly ambitious program, but a realizable one. Like the City of Toronto, we have elected to use the cleaning and cement mortar lining process as the main vehicle for the rehabilitation process.

to be sound from various locations

you have heard this statement before, but I feel that it is worth

repeating indefinitely, mainly because our society has not yet understood it. The theory, yes. But not when it comes to putting up with

the disruption and inconvenience of replacement work and especially Conventional repairs dislocate traffic.

Some 85% of the sanitary sewer system is made up ofsmall diameter pipes in the 8" to 12" range. The predominant material is vitrified clay pipe. The most common prob lems are root penetration, calcite deposits at joints, grease buildups, and structural failures. Some of the

structural failures, I would like to

note, are caused by other utility com panies using no-dig methods. The structural problems of clay pipe are however, our greatest concern for

the long term. Clay pipe, in our experience, loses its structural strength with time and reverts to a shale like material that crumbles when disturbed. Since I have found

the same to be true under my own basement floor when installing a new bathtub, the effects of traffic loading, industrial chemicals and climate can probably be safely dis counted.

For a number of years now, the City has awarded an annual sewer spot repair contract, based on pre vious TV inspection results. The Contractor is required to excavate and replace one or more pipes, depending on the nature of the flaw to be corrected. Several years ago.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

not when it comes to paying for the work. Taxes are already perceived as being excessive and any increases for this purpose will only come after exhaustive campaign ing, spiced with many failures in the system to help drive home the mes sage.

Now, at last, to the no-dig aspect. Watermain cleaning and cement mortar lining, as discussed pre viously, restores the flow capacity to new condition and also arrests the

internal corrosion process. Coupled with a thorough external corrosion control programme, we can extend the useful life expectancy of a watermain by at least 50 years. Not a bad return on the 25% ofthe replacement cost spent for the rehabilitation. When the original main is too small, cement lining is obviously not an appropriate solution, nor are any other lining methods. In my opinion, it is up to owners of sewer and water systems, usually municipalities, to try new methods of construction or installation or

repair of their systems. If success ful, it is after all the owners who Continued on page 30. 'Director, Utilities Division Engineering, Works Department City of Etobicoke 27

If you're serious yourfimils

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One or more of these pro grams can help your company reduce operating costs. Improve productivity. Strengthen your competitiveness, at home and abroad. And all of them help to protect our environment, now and for the future.

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developing innovative energy technology. Two others help Ontario companies improve their in-plant energy efficiency. And a

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

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Energy Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


No-Dig Seminar Report

$20,000 each, we have had probably

The high cost of low-cost thinking

over 100 of these failures.

Where are the 1950 savings now?

continued from page 27

Lastly, I would like to address stand to reap the benefits of the sav ings that such methods may confer. I am not talking about materials hut installations, etc., that involve con siderable labour and equipment. Whether I can buy pipe for $10 per foot or $12 per foot for a $100 or higher total installation cost is, to me, irrelevant. I prefer to buy the best available - any shortcuts in this

mechanical compaction being required. Back in 1950, that must have been worth $2 to $4 per joint or about 15 to 20 cents per foot of installed pipe. The fatal flaw in this wonderful

what I see as the Achilles heel of

no-dig methods: COST. I have heard figures mentioned during this seminar and I have

some preliminary numbers for our own contemplated projects. In my opinion, they are very high. Unless circumstances preclude conven

new material took about 25 years to show: the stuff does not stop expanding when the joint has sealed itself. Instead, the pressure in the joint keeps building up until the pipe finally bursts. Typically, the pipe tears open longitudinally, usually along the horizontal plane. Quite often the entire pipe barrel is torn open in this manner. This type of failure is usually catastrophic in terms of what happens to the road

penetration will remain slight. In summary, I am all for new methods

above it.

that will reduce the inconvenience

lead-sulphur compound was used.

In Etohicoke's case, our star per former as far as breaks go, forced a total closure of a major arterial road

Its claimed benefit was that it elimi

for 6 weeks. The concrete base had

of open cut methods, hut as a munic ipal representative, I must ask the question: What's in It for me and the taxpayers that I represent? ES&E

nated the need to caulk the joint and therefore, saved 1-2 hours of the pipelayers time per joint. And it did. The joint would leak for several days after being placed into service

to be investigated, pressure grouted, the asphalt wearing surface replaced and the curbs and side walks largely replaced. The total repair cost was about $180,000 for this single failure. Although the others were not as expensive, proba bly averaging about $10,000 to

area or investments in untried or

new to the market material is, at best a dubious step and at worst the savings are not commensurate with the risk.

A vivid example of this is the mineral lead watermain joint mate rial, used first in the 1920's and finally discontinued with the advent of the mechanical joint about 1955. Instead of pure lead, a

and then would have sealed itself -

the compound reacts with water and expands to fill the joint without

tional methods, a very rare occurence in my experience, no-dig methods will remain a curiosity to he occasionally admired, hut not to be considered for daily wear and tear. Unless the developers of these systems can substantially underbid Conventional methods, market

Need consulting,laboratory or equipment Information? Refer to ES&E's Dec/Jan 1990 DIRECTORY & SPECIFIER'S GUIDE

Manager, Groundwater Resources Engineering

Buttress-Loc Sewer

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The successful candidate wi ll be a P.Eng., with a Bachelor level degree In Civil or Environmental Engi neering or Applied Science and a minimum Master level degree In Water Resources or Environmental Engineering or an equivalent Applied Science pro gram. A high degree of facility with Karst topography groundwater analysis Is required, as well as six or more years direct technical experience and progressively Increasing supervisory responsibilities, interested candidates should forward resumes to:

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

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Replacement is easy, quick, cheap and adaptable. • Filter cloths are produced from multi-layered needlefelt with high strength properties. You can specify differ ent filters for various treatment options but the units are especially suitable for sewage effluent. • Economical? Two workers can replace a filter in two hours. The fabric is guaranteed for one year. • Low power and low ongoing operating costs make it a truly cost efficient unit.

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• Suitable for retrofitting and plant upgrade in existing plants as well as for new developments requiring tertiaiy treatment.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 130


Trenchless technology arrives in Ontario

A successful Trenchless Technology Seminar was held recently, organized by the AWWA Ont.Section

and the Pollution Control Associa

tion of Ontario, being part of a "NoDig",two-day transfer ofinformation on this emerging technology. Special international guest speakers pres ented papers including Ted Flaxman, Chairman, International Society for Trenchless Technology; Haydn White, representing the expe rience

of the



Authority, U.K.; Professor Dietrich Stein, of Bochum University in West Germany, co-author of the book Microtunnelling - Installation and Renewal of Nonman-Size Supply and Sewage Lines by the Trenchless Construction Method; and Rich Thomasson of the Washington Sub urban Sanitary Commission and originator for the proposed North American Society for Trenchless Technology. The Ontario Sewer and Watermain Contractors Associ

ation was also a sponsor of the seminar.

Several Canadian experts offered their views on where and how the

By Douglas Dunbar and Hershel Guttman*

where disruption can he very expen sive;

•provide more economic methods of providing communities with utility

technology could be applied in Onta rio, such as Ronald Munkley, Vice President of Consumer's Gas,whose

paper provided much of the small bore information for this article.

Key areas identified for further study are in; methods to construct and connect services; means to

effectively deal with obstructions such as boulders. It was also stressed that more

extensive geotechnical investiga tions should be carried out prior to construction in order to effectively use any of the "no-dig" techniques. Overview

International interest in the devel

opment oftrenchless excavations has grown rapidly in the past few years. Among the needs which various trenchless techniques aim to fulfill include: •the renewal of deteriorated sewers

and other utility lines in older deve loped areas; •installation in congested inner cit ies and under roads and railways


Many techniques which now form important parts of trenchless technology have been well deve loped in a few countries or within certain industries for many years,in particular Japan and Germany. Of the diverse techniques now available,there are four strong lines of commercial development emerg

ing: impact moling; slurry and EPB microtunnelling; steered auger bor ing and directional drilling. Impact Moling This construction technique, also known as earth piercing in the USA, has become one of the most widely used methods, mainly because of recent improvements in equipment. This is especially true if one includes pipe ramming and pipe replacement

by bursting methods. The principal factors favoring impact moling are low equipment costs and the rela tively low level of skill required. The main disadvantages are the lack of accuracy over long pushes and diffi-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

culties arising in loose, wet or rocky ground. Impact ramming, however, has some advantage in wet or gravely ground if driving is carried out with an open-ended lead pipe, which effectively seals off unstable ground. Recent



resulted in better control of the tools

used, as well as in more accurate launching and greater use of track ing using electromagnetic equip ment.


Microtunnelling is defined as a method of installing small diameter pipes (in the range of 300 to 900 mm ID) by the use of an automatic remote-controlled shield which can

be steered accurately to line and grade. The extension of slurry shield and earth pressure balance tech niques from large tunnels to small diameter equipment made possible the concept of microtunnelling equipment for installing pipe accu rately in subaqueous conditions. Development of the microtunneller took place mainly in Japan. Machines have now been developed which are capable of crushing gravel and boulders, which has greatly extended the technique. Most microtunnelling equipment is expensive and requires skilled operators, but with increasing expe rience there are now several contrac

tors who are capable of operating such machines. Developments are being aimed at dealing with hostile ground conditions. Microtunnelling is rapidly becoming an economic alternative to open-cut trenching in most situations in spite of the high initial costs.

Auger Boring

Steered auger boring machines are steered in the drive shaft, and not at the face, as is the case with microtunnellers. Standard auger machines are not generally suited to water-bearing ground but many can be adapted by applying air or water pressure at the face and mucking out through an auger sealing device. Directional Driiiing Large scale directional drilling has been available since the 1970's.

Recent equipment development and steering techniques have become available both for long crossings, such as beneath estuaries, and for shorter crossings. According to Ron Munkley "Directional Drilling is costly but is very effective in situations where a pipeline must drop significantly below its regular grade to avoid an obstacle. It is particularly useful for large river or waterway crossings

Duratron's Hank St. Onge addressing the seminar. since it eliminates most of the envir onmental and other concerns asso

ciated with such crossings".

dig" approach to pipeline construc tion or rehabilitation were:

• a minimum of traffic disruption and its attendant hidden public

The boring is first accomplished costs; with a small diameter drillhead, •significantly less haulage of exca which is remotely operated and vated material yielding reduced directed. This process can be landfill demands and truck distur assisted by water jets located in the bances; drillhead. A reamer following the • reduced environmental impacts, bore is used to expand the hole to the particularly where stream or trans desired size and then the pipe is portation corridor crossings are pulled through this hole. involved; and Other Topics of Discussion

• where medium sized sewers or

Several other forms of "no-dig" technologies were identified and described, such as slip boring, wet boring, torpedoes, and the use of "keyhole" techniques for small bore needs. Rehabilitation techniques

water mains are involved, particu larly in depths requiring shoring,

for sewers and water mains were

also discussed, including an excel lent 20-minute video on the cleaning and cement lining of existing castiron water mains by Silvio Cesario, of the Scarborough P.U.C. Applications of Trenchiess Technology Some form of trenchiess technol

ogy is appropriate for the installa

tion of all of the major components of the infrastructure of a modern

city: • water mains; •sanitary and storm sewers,includ

ing connections to individual resid ences;

• gas mains; • hydro ducts. According to Ron Munkley, "trenchiess technology has been used in the natural gas industry for years as a means to reducing con struction and reinstatement time, to reduce costs, to complete works with a minimum of public inconvenience and to protect the environment." The main arguments offered dur ing the day in favor of using a "no-

Environmental Science. & Engineering, May 1990

significant cost savings could accrue.

Summary In order to be acceptable as a via ble alternative to open cut construc tion, any trenchiess technology must satisfy the following require ments:

• it must compete successfully in unit cost; • minimize traffic disruption and interference with the public gener ally; • must be capable of negotiating all manner of ground and groundwater conditions; • must be capable of installing pipe within a few centimeters of design line and grade; • pipe and pipe joints and appurte nances must be watertight; •develop a manhole system suitable for jacking in the order of 100m. It is felt that these criteria are

now being satisfied by the best of the trenchiess technology systems which have been developed in North America and abroad. ES&E

*Douglas Dunbar and Hershel Guttman are principals in the firm of R.V. Anderson Associates Limited, Willowdale, Ontario. 33

extraction with methanol or aceton-

Environmental monitoring using immunoassay biotechnology has been employed in fermentation and cheese making

processes. However,it is only in the last decade this high technology field has found its way into monitor ing chemicals present in the envir onment.

Immunoassay (lA)is an analyti cal technique which utilizes the spe cific nature of antibody binding for the determination of most any

target molecule. The technique has found very wide applicability in the area of clinical biochemistry for the analysis of serum proteins, infec By Randy K. Leavitt, Ph.D.*

Present methods of analysis for chemicals in the environ

ment require time consum ing isolation and cleanup procedures, expensive analytical equipment, and highly trained per sonnel. While in most cases classic

instrumental techniques allow the analyst to achieve multi-analyte determinations from a single chromatographic "run", pressure is mounting from public and govern ment agencies to test more samples for more analytes at a lower cost. Adding fuel to the fire is the expand ing knowledge ofthe effects ofchem

tious disease, and biochemical imbalances. Immunoassays have also been used for the determination

of small molecules such as drugs and chemicals of environmental concern. The method is based on the

principle that an antibody, gener ated against the target molecule, will bind only with the target mole cule - it has no affinity for the matrix

components. Since the antibo dy/analyte reaction cannot be mea sured directly, a labelled derivative of the target molecule is used as an auxiliary reagent. Labels are typi cally radioisotopes, fluorescence markers or enzymes.

Antibodies to target analyte are produced in host animals such as rabbits, sheep or goats. These are

icals in food and the environment.

immobilized in a stable fashion to

The result has been a large expendi

polystyrene test tubes or microwells. An enzyme is attached to a standard of the target analyte to form an enzyme conjugate. The conjugate

ture of human and financial resour

ces directed toward discovering better ways of doing the same ana

lyses, expanding the scope of multianalyte determinations, increasing the throughput of samples ana lyzed, and reaching exceedingly lower limits of detection. Much of this research has centred around more efficient extraction proce

dures, improved instruments and chromatographic systems, and automated analyses. In recent

years the field of biotechnology has been exploited for solving some of these problems. Biotechnology is defined as: the application of science and engineer ing to the direct or indirect use of living organisms, and their parts or products, in their natural or modi fied forms, to provide goods and ser vices'.By this definition "biotech nology" dates back to antiquity. Man has used animals for food,loco

motion, companionship, and recrea tion for millenia.

More recently.

and test matrix are added to a tube

or microwell where they compete for antibody combining sites.

The conjugate is hound by the antib ody in a proportion inverse to the amount of free target analyte pres


detection of chemicals used in the

agriculture sector. Excellent tests exist for triazine herbicides, chlori

nated phenoxyacetic acids, chlori nated phenols, cyclodienes, N-methylcarhamates and Benomyl. Immunoassays for dibenzodioxins and


have been

reported^ but are not yet commer cially available. This limited line of immunoassay based tests is not a function ofthe technology's capabil ity. Rather, it is due to the small number of companies which have recognized the impact this method

could have and which also possess the technical capability to manufac ture effective tests.

Immunoassay, as it has evolved to this point is a rapid and inexpen sive technology. Screening results on literally hundreds ofsamples can be achieved in less than two hours.

The tests which are available today

retail for $10.00 to $25.00per sample depending on target analyte. 'The technology has been adapted for either laboratory or field use. No specialized labour training or educa tion is required. The downside is that multi-analyte determinations are not possible unless the target compounds cross react with the antibody. Further, the test does not have the ability to distinguish between cross reacting species.

Thus, immunoassay is not a tool to be used for confirmatory or absolute

quantification purposes. It cannot replace gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. However, the speed, simplicity, sensitivity and low-cost make immunoassay a very

efficient and potentially valuable adjunct to these more classical ana lytical methods. ES&E

ent in the test matrix. Following a simple wash step to remove 'Weldon J.Shindler, D.B.,"Canadian Bio unreacted matrix components and technology Industry Sourcebook", Minis try of State for Science and Technology, conjugate, enzyme substrate is Government of Canada, July 1988. added. The enzyme which is bound 2 Albro P.W., Luster M.I., Chae K., Chaudto the antibody reacts with sub hary S.K., Clark G., Lawson L.D., Corbett strate to produce a coloured product J.T., McKlnney J.D., "A Radioimmunoaswhich can be easily measured. say for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-DioxIns", A negative result is very Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 50, 137-146, coloured. Interpretation of the 1979. results is therefore very simple: a Luster M.I., Aibro P.W., Chae K., Lawson L.D., Corbett J.T., McKlnney J.D., tube or well having less colour than "Radioimmunoassay for Quantitatlon of the negative control is a presump 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran", Anal. tive positive. Some tests are so sen Chem., 52. 1497-1500, 1980. sitive that positive results can be Stanker L.H., Watkins B., Vanderlaan M., obtained at parts-per-trillion con Budde W.L., "Development of an Immu centrations. Aqueous matrices can noassay for Chlorinated Dioxins Based on usually be analysed with no pre- a Monoclonal Antibody and an Enzyme treatment.

'Bioman Products Inc.

itrile. The organic extract can fre quently be analysed directly. Current commercially available immunoassay kits for environmen tal monitoring focus primarily on

Soil and other such

matrices require a very simple

Circle reply card No. 256

Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELiSA)", Chemosphere, 16, 1635-1639, 1987.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990



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Ultraviolet Light Disinfection of Wastewater


Itraviolet (UV) light as a means of disinfecting wastewater is emerging as

By Rory Murphy Trojan Technologies Inc.

the most economical and

faithfully replicate the biochemical

t technically echnica

feasible alternative to chlorination. In the mid-seventies, wastewater was disinfected almost

exclusively with chlorine. Research revealed that chlorine residuals in

receiving waters were deleterious to the aquatic biota. Chlorination also produces chlorinated compounds that may be toxic to humans and animals. Regulations have been introduced that set limitations on the chlorine residual level in waste-

water discharged to certain streams and lakes. These residual concen trations have been set at levels that

require the wastewater to be dechlorinated or require the chlorina tion process to be discontinued and replaced with ultraviolet light disin fection.

UV light disinfects by damaging

ous materials such as chlorine gas.

information in these nucleic acids.

Nucleic acids will absorb light of dif ferent wavelengths but demonstrate a maximum absorption when exposed to light between 255 and 260 nm. Low-pressure mercury

for DNA. Numerous studies have demon

Two plants are under construction In Quebec City, an east and west plant, each with a capacity to treat 403,000 m^/day and 342,000 mVday respectively. It Is estimated that the ultraviolet disinfection system will

strated that the 260-nm UV light has the strongest germicidal effect on microbes. UV irradiation is thus absorbed

by the nucleic acids in microorga nisms, and damages or modifies the genetic information. That damage renders a cell unable to replicate and

preventing it from replicating.

no toxicity to fish when compared to


undisinfected wastewater.



ultraviolet wastewater disinfection

vapor lamps generate light with a large majority of their spectrum at 254 nm, which is very close to the maximum absorption wavelength

results in death of that cell. UV irradiated effluent exhibits


City will have two of the largest systems in the world. Both of these systems will be manufactured by Trojan Technologies,Inc. ofLondon

the DNA of the bacterial cell thus

acids, DNA and RNA, which store genetic information. To live and reproduce, the cell must be able to

To date, over twenty wastewater treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and Brit ish Columbia have changed over to ultraviolet light disinfection. Over thirty more are in the design stage. When completed in 1991, Quebec

Another advantage of ultraviolet light is that it eliminates the trans portation and handling of hazard


eliminate the use of over 700 tons of

chlorine per year from the effluent being discharged Into the St. Law rence River. The Quebec Ministry of Environment encourages the use of U V as an alternative to chlorination In

Its wastewater treatment plants. For many years UV was per ceived as not being an effective dis infectant of wastewater unless some

type of filtration system proceeded

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Telephone (416) 527-4567 Fax (416) 527-7173

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

help determine the contributions of the above three components to

it. Better understanding of the fac tors that affect the performance of UV and improvements to the design of the equipment has largely dis pelled this perception. During the early eighties, UV systems were introduced which were specifically designed for wastewater disinfec tion. These were open channel grav ity flow systems. These systems have performed

tors to reduction in UV transmis

much better than the enclosed ves

sion through that particular

sel type reactors used in the nine teen seventies. Many of these systems failed and have been replaced with open channel type systems. Performance in each case has shown a marked improvement. The quality of the wastewater entering UV disinfection equipment

reduce UV transmission. If the absorhance at 254 nm of the filtrate

resulting from removal of the sus pended solids by 0.45 micron filtra tion is very low compared to the total absorhance before filtration, then the removed suspended solids were the most important contribu

of one or more banks of UV lamps, ballast panels, controls and effluent

table 1

Peak Hourly


•transmission of UV light through the wastewater, and possible: • coating of the lamps by UV absorbing materials in the wastewater.

Several wastewater components can reduce UV transmission:

Capital Costs


UV Equipment

$ 5,140









Assumptions Labour Costs; $15/HR Power Costs: 6<:/KW/HR Lamp Replacement Costs: Hourly Flowrate

12 month disinfection season

pounds may be a problem. If removal of colloids by coagula tion followed by filtration reduces

by the typical 0.45 micron filter used to remove and determine suspended solids. Measurement of UV absorhance

(or transmittance) at 254 nanome ters in a UV spectrophotometer can

level control device.

The controls

consist of a lamp and UV intensity monitoring system and associated

still further the absorhance of the

alarms. The status ofthe UV inten

filtrate, then some semi-quantita

sity within the bank of lamps and the status of each lamp can be moni tored both locally and remotely at

tive indication of colloid contribu tion to reduction of UV transmit tance can be obtained.

These kinds oftests are not defin

itive, but when interpreted by some one having familiarity with the particular wastewater being treated, wastewater chemistry and

treatment technologies, a starting point is obtained to pinpoint poten tial or real problems and to develop corrective approaches.

introduction both in capital and operating costs. The exposure time required to achieve adequate disinfection is in the order of4-6 seconds with UV sys tems compared to 15 minutes for

which are too small to be removed

$ 60.00

Average Daily Flowrate assumed to be 0.50 Peak

ceal the microbes within the sus

Colloids are particles such as pro teins, microbial cell wall polymers, and large humic acid complexes



The economics of UV have become more attractive since its

• colloids which scatter and absorb UV before it reaches the microbes.


$ 85,000

• suspended solids which shadow external microbes from light or con pended solids, •soluble UV absorbing organic and inorganic chemicals, and



Disinfection is a function of UV

the wastewater which influences:

of various sizes.

If the filtrate has a


the wastewater treatment plant and the various operations performed prior to UV disinfection. UV disin fection is therefore an integral part of the wastewater treatment pro cess, and the cooperation of UV equipment manufacturer, plant design engineers and plant opera tors will help ensure optimal design of systems for UV disinfection and addressing of problems as they might arise in retrofitted systems.

the nominal output intensity of the lamps is modulated by the quality of

Table 1 shows the typical capital and operating costs of UV systems

high absorhance, then colloids and/or UV absorbing soluble com-


depends on equipment design but

tact chamber with one train of the tank modified to suit.

These costs are for new plants, the cost of systems retrofitted in existing plants will vary with the particular conditions prevailing at existing plants. UV systems consist

is a function of both the influent to

dose, and dose is a product of hght intensity and residence time within the UV equipment. Neither inten sity nor residence time are constant for any particular UV installation. Residence time is dependent on the equipment design but varies with the flow rates through that equipment. Light intensity too

will vary with the design flowrate. Very often the UV system is retrofit ted into the existing chlorine con

chlorination or ozonation. This alone saves on contact tanks and

space which is especially important when a treatment plant has to expand. The U V equipment can be located in a building or out ofdoors. All that is required is an effluent channel measuring 8 metres in length and 1.2 metres in depth with a width that

Environmental Science. & Engineering, May 1990

the main control centre. Maintenance tasks will consist of

periodic cleaning of the lamps and, depending on the design configura tion of the equipment, lamps will have to be changed out every 12-24 months.

The safety precautions which must be taken by the operator are relatively simple when compared with chlorination and ozonation.

The operator should avoid exposure of skin and eyes to the burning lamps. A face shield is recom mended rather than safety glasses as it better protects facial skin and eyes.

Increasing regulation concern ing the amount of chlorine residual in wastewaters discharged to rivers and lakes ensures that alternatives

will have to be found. To date, UV is emerging as the most economic and technically feasible alternative. It also has the advantage of not hav ing a negative environmental impact on the wastewater and con sequently the receiving streams and lakes. ES&E 39

Cement kilns could prevent future Hagersvllle and St. Baslle-le-Grand disasters The industries that generate hazardous wastes treat 62 percent



Of the 2.3 million tonnes

needing off-site treatment, about one million tonnes are combustible


and could potentially be used as fuel in cement kilns. Less than 20 per cent of hazardous wastes are cur

rently being reused or recycled, partly because of economic factors and partly because of a regulatory and social ambience which is fre

By Charles M. Cole*

Disposal of wastes has

reached a crisis point. If waste disposal is not handled in the proper

manner, we face the risk of repeated environmental disasters, such as the Hagersville tire fire in Ontario or the PCB warehouse fire at St.-

Basile-le-Grand in Quebec. With each disaster, environmental risks

multiply at an alarming rate. As a society, we can no longer adopt a "wait and see" attitude. Our concerns must be addressed today. The time has come to adopt a more

aggressive and proactive role in bringing about the measures and methods necessary to effectively

implement responsible waste management.

The cement industry in Canada has long held the view that it can

play a vital role in alleviating the waste management problem. World wide,the industry has already had a substantial impact on waste man agement in several European coun tries, as well as Japan and the U.S.,

environmental aspects of this technology.

quently hostile to resource recovery projects. With the Hagersville disaster so fresh in our minds, it has become evident that the disposal of tires is a major concern. In Ontario alone, it has been estimated that there are

ments have not been received on

nine million tires per year requiring disposal. That means waste dispo sal sites are growing at a rate of 11 tires per minute. Under present cir cumstances, the maximum number that can be recycled in any manner is approximately 22 percent. That leaves seven million tires a year going to landfill sites or tire storage. The cement industry feels that rather than wasting any more time letting these tires accumulate, they should immediately be used as a val

this document. Consequently, the

uable fuel resource.

St. Lawrence Cement of Missis-

sauga is presently proceeding under the Environmental Assessment Act

for approval to burn Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) produced from nonrecyclable, non-hazardous, munici pal solid waste as a partial fuel in its cement kilns. The draft Environ mental Assessment Document has

been filed with the Ministry for 17 months and as yet, all of the com environmental assessment cannot

proceed. But the time to act on these con

cerns has long since passed. As an indication of just how serious the waste disposal problem is in Can ada, a brief look at some numbers present us with an alarming tale with no end in sight. Canada gener ates six million tonnes of hazardous waste and 16 million tonnes of munic

ipal waste annually.

Ontario and

Quebec account for 80 percent of these hazardous wastes and 60 per cent of the municipal wastes.

with remarkable success. For exam

It has been

proven time and time again that the advantages far outweigh the disad vantages.

The scientific community has long been aware of the unique prop erties of the cement kiln. The pro duction





burning of limestone at extremely high temperatures. When heated to its melting point, ground-up limes tone is transformed into clinker, which has the hydraulic properties required for cement to harden when it reacts with water.

Heating limestone requires large


(END 1988)

ple, the burning of tires In rotary cement kilns is a well accepted means of disposing of waste tires in a total of 29 plants In Europe.

Unfortunately, this type of aggressive approach does not hold true for Ontario, or Canada. Two

1000 -

years ago, St. Mary's Cement had a proposal before the Ministry of the Environment to burn tires as fuel in

its kiln. This proposal has been refused, as has a proposal to make a test burn to verify the industry's claims with respect to the positive



8 a

8 8

â– "Ceneral Manager, St. Lawrence Cement 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

quantities of fossil fuel, primarily coal. A portion of this coal can be replaced by non-recyclable wastes such as used oil, solvents, tires or


refuse derived fuel.


Cement kilns are especially appropriate vehicles for destroying wastes effectively and safely, for a number of reasons:

• Extremely high flame tempera tures, ranging from 1950 to 2300 degrees Celsius are attained in the burning zone of cement kilns. •Maintenance ofthese high temper atures, which allow for the safe des truction of the most highly toxic materials, is guaranteed by the fact that it is technically impossible to produce cement at lower tempera tures.

•Kiln burning entails a long reten tion time of the wastes at high temperatures. Conventional incin erators typically operate at a temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius for only one second; while cement kilns operate at much higher








Society's unwanted by-products, such as used tires and municipal waste make a valuable fuel resource

for the cement industry and could replace up to 20 percent of the coal used in the manufacturing process. That also translates into reduced

consumption of a non-renewable

ingly clear that we must continue to voice our concerns over any more bureaucratic delays in these mat ters. That is why the cement indus try has once again approached the Ontario government - in this case to propose to actively work together in implementing a viable technology, so we can take immediate action to



solve this problem. We are very much aware that waste disposal in our society is a politically difficult issue, but this is not the time to be stalled in procedu ral red tape. The problem must be addressed now if we are to maintain

46.4% 25.8%

the standard of living we've learned to enjoy. ES&E

B □ m





temperatures for 7 to 10 seconds. • Exhaust gases are 'scrubbed' by the thousands of tonnes of ground

resource in producing an essential product.

limestone fed into cement kilns each

plants in Ontario agreed to use tires to replace 20 percent of their fuel, they could consume approximately seven million tires per year. Although this would put to good use tires presently being generated for disposal, it would not address the problem existing with the piles of tires presently distributed through out the province. But whether the problem be tires, municipal waste, or PCBs, the cement kiln option must become an integral part of the province's waste management strategies. The result will be a more environmentally secure and economically sound waste disposal system. When assessing the environmen tal impact of the Hagersville inci dent, coupled with the knowledge that steps had been taken two years ago that would have possibly


• Cement kilns do not produce ash requiring disposal in landfill sites, as the ash which is produced becomes chemically bound as part of the cement itself.

These important characteristics make the cement kiln the most effi cient waste destruction device now in existence.

It is also important to realize that extensive tests conducted through out Europe have proven conclu sively that using waste such as tires in kilns has no detrimental effect

with respect to the quantity of green house gasses produced. Experience in those countries has proven that when you add all those advantages together, total destruc tion of the waste takes place and emissions from the kiln are essen

tially unchanged from when con ventional fuels (i.e. coal) are used.

We estimate that if all the cement

avoided it, it has become increas

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Thorburn Penny Limited is proud to announce that David Ohashi, P.Eng., has joined the firm as a Project Manager in the Municipal Services Division.

David has over 10 years expe rience in the field of Water Supply and Wastewater Engineering. He will provide valuable management skills for existing and future pro jects of our company. 41

Representative sampling — a prerequisite for today's tough effluent standards

The Ontario Ministry of Environment's MISA pro gram has focused attention on the need for proper sampling and analytical tech

niques. Polluters now face increased fines and the potential of considerable negative publicity if effluent discharge limits are not met.

The current



concentrate on regulating direct dis chargers in 8 main industrial cate gories. These industries will be required to identify and measure the discharge of toxic substances and conventional contaminants (BOD, SS, heavy metals, etc.)in their efflu ents. In addition, they will have to use the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable(BATEA) to reduce discharges to effluent requirements specific to the indus trial sector and may have to carry out receiving waterhody impact assessments (hiomonitoring) of

the form of return on investment

By Brian Evans*

and the ongoing Demonstration Studies of its implementation in six

(ROI). They might as well view this requirement as an Environmental Tax as there will be few exceptions granted and there is no traditional ROI.

The only direct advantage

Ontario communities has necessi

tated that all industries must gear up to analyze their effluents on a regular basis if they are not already doing so. Industries on a sewer system will soon face several decisions such as:

• Implement appropriate pretreatment;

• Negotiate a surcharge agreement with the owning authority; • Evaluate alternative discharge arrangements such as becoming a direct discharger; • Closing down and moving else where. The cold hard facts are that the

their effluents.

cost of doing business in Ontario just went up. This can be particu larly serious for industries that have not previously been required to treat

The publication of a new proto type municipal sewer use by-law

discharges or for companies that are used to evaluating expenditures in

accrues to industries who have res

trictions on current production quo tas because of existing discharge agreements. These can be increased by improving the quality of pretreatment thereby allowing addi

tional processing in the existing facility. Indirectly,there is a benefit from being perceived as environ mentally responsible. These potentially detrimental situations focus attention on a vital

component of the above evalua tions, namely correct and represen tative sampling and analytical techniques which are required to create a useful database. Incorrect

methodology can result in addi tional analytical requirements which in the long term can impact on the capital costs of pre-treatment Continued overleaf

Measuring C02 for lAQ Studies? Environmental

Auditing Symposium May 29 - 30, 1990 at the

Ottawa Congress Centre

A forum on policies, techniques and trends presented by leading practitioners Recommended for

• professionals in the chemical, mining, forestry, petroleum and manufacturing industries • environmental engineers and managers • auditing consultants • municipal governments • provincial and federal agencies responsible for environmental protection For further information, contact:

Peter Hunt, Program Coordinator The Banff Centre for Management

solution. • Warm-up less than 3 minutes • Sample pump incorporated • 8 Hours operation between charges • No Consumable Gases required • Sealed optical system NORTECH CONTROL EQUIPMENT INC. 135 The West Mall, Unit 4 Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 102

Box 1020

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The Banff Centre

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Circle reply card No. 135 42

The ADC PM Series of infrared gas analyzers offers a veiy cost effective



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Circle reply card No. 136

Is this company's effluent

breaking the law? Maybe!

In 1989, a new model sewer use by-law was unveiled in Ontario and is being

adopted by municipalities province-vdde as an interim measure until the incor poration of MISA. This means that for thousands of Ontario companies, sewer effluent regula tions will become stricter with increased enforcement and penalties for pollu tion violations.

What can your company do NOW to prepare for the FGTGRE? Does your effluent quality meet current regulations? Do you know? Chemical analysis of your effluent can provide the answers you need and help you make proper decisions based on hard facts...now and in future. The relatively inexpensive cost of characterizing your wastewater NOW can pale in comparison with FGTGRE penalties or fines for violation! As a division of SGS Supervision Services Inc., the world's largest independent

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 137


HfiZCO RENTS Performance

Representative effluent sampling continued

and costs of the treatability studies.

Three key components in the development of an appropriate database are; •Proper sampling equipment and techniques;

•Appropriate preservation and transport methods; •Reliable and cost-effective analytical methods.

Samples can be divided into broad categories namely grab and composite,and can be collected man ually or automatically. The grab samples reflect waste characteristics at a given pointin time while manually collected samples are difficult to composite accurately and are only used as an initial characterization. Most industries have production cycles which result in variations of discharges on an hourly, daily, weekly or seasonal basis. Such industries are best served by flow paced composite samples especially on a short term basis. Seasonal, and in certain cases

weekly, variations are usually accounted for by repeti tive samples. Sampling Equipment

Composite samples require special samplers which come in a wide variety of models and should he selected according to site specific needs. Typical

samplers can be rented for between $100 to $500 per week or purchased for between $3,000 and $10,000 depending on the degree ofsophistication. A decision whether to buy or rent depends on the size ofindustry and degree of effluent monitoring. Many consultants offer the appropriate sampling equipment as part of


their services.

Typical options available in automatic samplers

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•Flow proportional versus fixed volume sampling; •Duckbill or suction collection device;

•Suction versus pumping withdrawal mechanism. When installing a sampler, care should be taken to

sample at a location where theflow is representative of the facility output and at a depth where velocity and particulate settling do not affect sample quality. An important component of the MISA and new sewer use by-law is the requirement that discharges meet both a concentration and a load limit. The latter

implies that some form of flow measurement is required. In most industries this can be accomplished by using the existing clean water usage and subtract ing the process and in-plant use. All that would be required would he an initial calibration of the flow


meter followed by an annual check. In the event that no raw metering is available,or is unreliable, or incom

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plete, flows can he measured by rented samplers from suppliers or consultants. However,this provides only an initial indication and it is recommended that some

permanent measuring device be installed.


Sample handling

The cost and the implications of a detailed analyti cal evaluation are significant. Any company starting on the road should ensure that its own staff are ade


quately trained to collect, handle and if required, pro

6547D Mississauga Road •.Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1A6

cess and analyze samples. If there are some doubts, then the staff member could be trained at one of the


416-858-3215 44

Circle reply card No. 138

many appropriate courses offered by the Community Colleges or by the MOE. If requirements are short term, then consultants should be hired to do the work or at least train staff to perform these services. Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Many of the analyses for com pounds being monitored under MISA or the new sewer use hy-law are sensitive to external effects such

as elevated temperature and con tamination which cause for exam

ple, the degradation or alteration of state from particulate to soluble. Long transport or storage periods under these conditions should he avoided in order to minimize these

impacts. Proper sample handling techniques must he employed. Most compounds including vola-


tiles and heavy metals transform if


improperly preserved. Conse quently, analyses performed at a later stage may not he truly repre sentative of the initial sample. Spe



cific chemicals such as acids are

generally added to stabilize sam ples. In other cases,chilling or freez ing is employed. In situ measurements such as pH,tempera ture, residual chlorine and dissolved gases analyses are usually per formed immediately. Automatic samplers are availa ble with many different options which assist in maintaining sample integrity. These include refrigera tion, stainless steel, glass and teflon attachments.

The need for these

depends on the analyses required; for example, when organics and spe cifically volatiles are required. Most analytical laboratories are located a significant distance from the industry and samples have to be transported. Care should he taken to minimize alteration ofthe sample during this period. Sample han dling should he professional, con tainers should he thoroughly clean, preservation and refrigeration should be employed and elapsed time should he as short as possible.


Exhibiting Equipment, Machinery,Systemsand Servicesfor: • Drinking water and wastewater • Waste management and recycling •Air pollution

• Processing and manufacturing • Soil contamination

• Monitoring and controls • Engineering

Analytical services

The MISA program has placed a greater emphasis on analytical techniques. Simple analytical tech niques now only form a small part of any analytical data set. While many industries may have in-house analytical capability, the MISA requirements have necessitated

The Environment Congress: solving interrelated problems affecting the environment - water, earth and air. 'lease send more

Information (

□ Exhibiting □ Congress 3 Visiting


that outside laboratories become a

fact of life. Many specialist labora


tories have been founded to meet these needs. Most consultants have


also either expanded, upgraded, or even established laboratories to offer a better service to their clients

and to meet this growing demand. Before hiring any analytical ser vice, several factors should he evalu ated. The long-term nature of most sampling programs necessitate this. Examples are listed below.

TEL. NO OFFICIAL PUBLICATION Environmental Science and


• Turn around time is also critical. Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990



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c&«ii 45

Representative effluent sampling, continued The ability of a laboratory to offer a


rapid response is important if reme dial steps are required. In certain cases, long delays are unavoidable such as with volatile organic scans, but in general, a turn around time of approximately 14 days for basic analyses is not unreasonable.

• Responsibility of a laboratory is important. It should have a good track record and be recognized as having good quality control. The quality control (QC) and quality assessment(QA) are vital consider ing the critical decisions made on the basis ofthis data. An example is

Alfred Egerton, President of Egetec Enterprises Inc., Is pleased to announce the appointment of RIyaz JlwanI, M.Sc., P.Eng., Gen eral ft/lanager of Its Canadian Operations. Mr. JlwanI brings 7 years of pro gressive experience, In the envir onmental engineering Industry, with particular expertise In the water and wastewater Industry. Egetec, a member of the Istec Group Is a designer and Integrator of environmental monitoring sys tems, and Is a noted distributor of Environmental



Science products.

the evaluation regarding the type (and hence cost) of pre-treatment. If any doubt exists,the MOE should be consulted or possibly even your resi dent consultant.

•Pick-up service is not an important factor, but is convenient if regular analyses are required. This step will ensure proper handling of samples from the time they leave the facility. The advent of MISA has resulted

in the requirement of routine moni toring for a whole new batch of sophisticated parameters. In all, 29 groups have been identified. The cost of analyzing all is extremely high. On the average,complete ana lysis on a sample will cost approxi mately $4,500. While all these tests

are only required in rare cases,it can become extremely significant when weekly or even monthly repetitions are required. The 29 groups can be broken down into several sub-groups for simple comparisons. Traditional analyses such as BOD,SS, Ptot', pH, ammonia, etc., cost in the $15 - $40

range. A common heavy metal scan costs approximately $120 and an open metals scan,$600. The organic fraction, which is made up of the volatiles and the extractables, can cost up to $3,000 with former costing $500 and the latter $2,500. The potentially high cost of ana lyses should be clearly evaluated before deciding on whether to do them internally or externally. The impact on discharge infractions,the type and scope of pre-treatment required, and the decision on whether to pay the surcharge fee or pre-treat all hinge on sound sam pling, handling and analytical tech niques. Any company attempting a discharge evaluation should seriously consider hiring outside experts to fully evaluate all aspects of the problem. ES&E *Brlan Evans Is the MISAcoordinator

with the Proctor & Redfern Group In Toronto.

ANNOUNCEMENT Richard J. Rush and Stephen G. Nutt are pleased to announce the formation of XCG Consultants Limited. The company,located in Kitchener, Ontario, will provide senior envir onmental engineering consulting to industry,

government agencies and to other profession als who require specialized advice or project management assistance in dealing with envir onmental matters.

Richard J. Rush, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. has worked continuously in the environ

mental engineering field since 1970. His experience includes


design of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and sludge

management systems. Since the early 1980's, Richard has been responsible for the hydrogeoiogicai, hazardousand solid wastedivision of

a major Canadian consulting engi neering firm. During this period, he was responsible for a diverse range

Richard and Stephen's almost forty years of combined consulting experience covers virtu ally every aspect of environmental engineer ing. XCG Consultants, by its small size and the specialized nature of its services, is structured to allow you direct access to that experience. The 1990's will require innovative solutions to complex environmental problems. XCG Con sultants is prepared to assist you in meeting these challenges.

of industrial and hazardous waste

site assessments, clean-up plans, property environmental audits and construction/remediation


ment at PCS sites, leaking under ground fuel tank sites, solvent spills,

Stephen G. Nutt, fVI.Eng., P.Eng., has been involved In the environmental

engineering field since 1973.

Throughout his career, he has focussed on the process aspects of municipal and Industrial wastewater treatment. His industrial wastewater

expertise spans virtually all industrial

categories including petroleum and chemical sectors, mining, metal fin ishing and iron & steel, food indus tries, pulp & paper and automotive manufacturing. This experience includes In-plant waste management as well as end-of-pipe treatment. He has also been responsible for pro cess optimization studies, environ mental




study reports for sewage treatment

coal tar sites, as well as sites contam

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pesticides, oil, lead,

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Circle reply card No. 140

Fax 519/741-5627

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

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Sustainable development and Global Warming Lyn McLeod, Ontario Minister of Energy, spoke at ttie Toronto Symposium on Global Warming in Marcti when a Discussion Paper was presented to various groups including environmentalists and Industrial figures. This article contains excerpts from both her presentation and the Discussion Paper.

the steps that can be taken to reduce

The term sustainable devel

The term sustainable develop ment may mean different things to different people. The heart of the concept, however,will continue to be

those emissions are beneficial in

their own right. But if the warnings about possi ble climatic changes are correct,and we do nothing, a steep price will

have to be paid. Not by us, but by the generations to come that were so much on the mind of the Brundtland Commission.

year. My colleagues and I concluded that it would be imprudent to ignore the possible implications of a con tinuing buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the words of the final communique: The conse quences of inaction are unaccepta ble.

nition, which says sustainable development is that which meets the needs of the. present without com

should make sense in their own

promising the ability of future gen

right. And the suggestions con tained in our discussion paper have that virtue. They are essentially

and attainable objective.

erations to meet their own needs.

surround the question of global warming. But even if there really is no global warming trend, we lose nothing by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To the contrary, many of

annual conference in Toronto last

The discussion paper sets out a series of possible first steps in a pro posed action plan that would embody two key principles. The first, is that the actions taken now

opment has been a little overworked of late. It may even be in danger of becom ing a cliche - and that is something we simply cannot allow to happen. Sustainable development is a real Scientists have referred to some of the scientific uncertainties which

- serious as these problems may be. We are now facing concerns about a buildup in the atmosphere ofcarbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases - problems which could well have far-reaching implications for future generations. This was essentially the position taken by Canada's federal and pro vincial energy ministers at our

the Brundtland Commission's defi

David Buzzelil, of Dow, has also

expressed the thought that sustai nable development is a journey - and I tbink that captures the idea that it's how we proceed that counts. We are no longer talking only about depletion of resources and pollution

conservation measures which call for consideration of more efficient

use of energy in all sectors - indus trial, commercial, institutional and residential.

Besides reducing greenhouse gas



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mission to his many years of ser vice with the Ministry of the Environment. Mr. Toth has remained a devoted advocate of a cleaner environment in Ontario. At


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the time of his appointment, he was Manager of the Ministry's Municipal Approvals Section. 48

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Acres International Limited Consulting Engineers Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality• Environmental Modeling Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning 480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel.416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127 St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

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tive in world markets - a desirable

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touch the farthest star. So,too, when

it comes to using energy. Turn on your air conditioner...drive to the var iety store...throw the switch to start an assembly line - do any of these things and the atmosphere is impacted in a small, but incremental way.

There is an atmospheric effect when you make a call on the electric ity supply, for much of our electric ity generation is based on the burning of fossil fuels - which are, of course, a primary source of green house gas emissions. Everybody knows that automo bile exhaust contains a number of

harmful emissions, such as carbon monoxide. We may be less aware that the average automobile in the course of a year also emits some thing like five metric tonnes of car bon dioxide - the most important of the greenhouse gases. The build up of greenhouse gases is, of course, a global problem. Cana da's contribution to the concentra

tion of gases is in the neighborhood of 2.5 percent of the world total - and Ontario's


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Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990



Ac 49

Sustainable development & Global Warming continued from page 49 either the problem or the solution. Canada, which uses more energy per capita than almost any other nation on earth, bears its full share of responsibility for what is happen

ing to the global atmosphere, and for taking steps to remedy it. And Ontario, as Canada's largest energy-user, fully shares that responsibility. In 1988 the Ontario Government

passed the Energy Efficiency Act - a piece of legislation that allows us to set energy-efficiency standards for all energy-using equipment and household appliances sold in Onta rio. The first regulations are already in place, and others are soon to follow. We have




Hydro to make demand manage ment and conservation a top prior ity - a move that will reduce the increasing demand on the provin ce's current electricity generating facilities and relieve Hydro of some

of the pressure to build more facili ties.

In addition, the Ministry of Energy is carrying out a variety of programs aimed at promoting energy efficiency in the industrial, municipal, institutional and resi

ing of methane gas on landfill sites. The second guiding principle to be addressed is the involvement of

dential sectors.

For example, one of them - the Institutional Energy Management Program - contributed to an innova tive system for heating and cooling the buildings at Carleton Univer sity in Ottawa. What makes the sys tem unique is that it makes use of water pumped from 250 feet under the ground for the provision of heat ing and cooling. This novel approach enables the university to reduce its consumption of natural gas by one million cubic feet a year. In the process, Carleton also saves more than $400,000 annually on its natural gas bills. We're also very proud of Ener-

Search - a program that supports the development of innovative energy technologies. One of the more exciting projects we are Involved with is the development of a process here in Ontario that could make hydrogen a fuel of the future. The Discussion Paper sets out a

series of possible first steps that could have the effect of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in Ontario - everything from changes in the Building Code to encourage more energy-efficient construction, to regulations governing the vent

the whole Ontario community in responding to the problem of green house gas emissions. Edmund Burke once declared that

our antagonist is our helper. He that wrestles us strengthens our nerves, and sharpens our skill. Yet even better than the antagonist is the constructive critic.

In attempting to deal with a prob lem as large as this one,the enemy is not likely to be lassitude so much as a feeling of helplessness. We see that the problem is global in scope that greenhouse gases are being spewed into the air by smokestacks in Frankfurt and by the burning of forests in the Amazon Basin. We know that our own contribution to

the total problem is relatively small, and are tempted to conclude that nothing we do will change any thing. Why bother? Well, I happen to think there are very good reasons why we should bother. But word quickly gets around in today's glo

bal village,imparting a ripple effect to human actions. What we do here

in Ontario can matter. And, with leadership at the federal level, what we do in Canada as a whole can mat ter to others. ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


Circle reply card No. 144


Ventilation design for contaminant control

Ventilation is an old art that has been of concern for cen turies. It has been stated the. Neanderthal took venti

lation into account in the design of their caves. Already by the time of the birth of Christ, the famous Roman architect Vitruvius discussed

the location, orientation and plan

ning of buildings with regards to ventilation.

The simplest definition for venti lation and the one that I prefer is; Ventilation - control of the environ ment with airflow. The three generic types of ventilation systems are general or dilution ventilation, displacement ventilation, and local exhaust ventilation (sometimes called LEV, dust control, fume con trol, mist control, etc.). General or dilution ventilation depends on dis persion and dilution for the contam inant removal process. Displace ment ventilation is based on using buoyancy and momentum forces to develop a stratification with clean air below and the contaminated air

in the well defined layer above the breathing zone for the occupant. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is based on capture at the source. LEV has a capture device - a hood which is an important element of the ventilation system. Figure 1 is a pictorial representation of the three types of ventilation systems. Indoor Air Quality Ventilation is an important tech nology for the 1990's. It is easy to think of many applications of venti lation and the role it plays in our society. The simplest fact is that each of us require about 15 kg/day of air to breathe. Our bodies require that this air be of acceptable quality

By Howard D. Goodfellow, Ph.D.*

in order to keep us healthy. Recent statistics show that our population now spends on average about 80 to 90% of their time indoors. (50 years ago, that percentage was in the 6070%). For any time that we spend indoors, there has to be a ventilation system of some description provid ing air (fresh, clean air we hope) for

perlecl displacement

hood f


pollutant source

Figure 1 : Types ol Venlllatlon Systems


Smoltln« Sid. 62-1961

ASHRAE 62-19616 Minimum

\ ASA S14 (1946)

I was at the Healthy Building '88 conference in Stockholm, Sweden where the conference theme was on

Healthy Buildings and how to avoid sick buildings. The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been defined as a building where more than 20% of the building occupants complain

ASKBAE «2-79 Minlmu



62-1961 Minlmun

1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025

YEAR Figure 2 : History of Recommended and Minimum Ventilation Rates

of symptoms of malaise, headaches, breathing problems, etc. There were

if you use the prescriptive method. Figure 2 shows the history of recom

more than 600 in attendance and at

mended and minimum ventilation

least one-third of the papers and

rates in the U.S. for acceptable indoor air quality. The data show that large changes are primarily

technical discussions were on the

subject of ventilation. For example, major causes (75%) of sick buildings based on an examination of 350

buildings in the U.S. were poor ven tilation, poor filtration, and contam inated HVAC systems. We have recently completed a survey of about 30 schools in the Toronto area and

poor/inadequate ventilation was

observed in more than 50% of the schools. Ventilation in our houses is

also becoming an important con cern, especially for some of the new energy efficient homes with many new synthetic materials of construc tion and home furnishings. The symposium demonstrated clearly that a new level of understandingin

the ventilation technology field is

required in order to ensure proper Let us assume that you are a

3) Local Exhaust Ventilation

23 Stale Co<I»((I922)

us to breathe.

Heating, Ventilation, Air Condi

2) Displacement

eilllnoi(l<95] ASHVE RsqulremenI

ventilation of our houses.

perlect mixing

VENTILATION RATE, dm per person

tioning (HVAC) engineer and are responsible for the ventilation design for a new office complex. The architect along with the project design team have specified the office space and layout configura tions. As a design engineer, you are responsible for the HVAC design to give an acceptable air quality. Being a skilled practitioner, you obtain a copy of ANSI/ASHRAE 62-1981 R entitled Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. As you review this document, the first thing that you notice is a two-path approach involving the use of the

based on comfort levels not health

effects, and there is still no consen sus today on the proper ventilation rate. Scientific data do not exist to

support the proposed design ventila tion rates. Using the performance approach, it is necessary to have information on acceptable indoor contaminant levels.

Such stand

ards do not exist at the present time although many countries have com mittees working on establishing indoor air quality guidelines. This appears to be a monumental task as over 8,000 chemicals have been identified in the indoor environ

ment. Very little scientific data exist on the potential health effects of these chemicals on an individual basis or interactions with other chemicals.

Prof. Fanger of Denmark has sug

gested a new method for measuring the quality of air in an occupied space. He has proposed that large numbers of low level contaminants can combine to be noticeable to the

occupants as annoying and can con tribute to a feeling of malaise. For these cases, no medical causes can be found. Prof. Fanger has coined the term "olf" (for olfaction) for this quantity. An "olf is the amount of air pollutant or bioeffluents emitted by a standard person. A standard person is defined as an adult work ing in an office or the like, who is

prescriptive method or the perfor

mance method. A further detailed

'President, Goodfellow Consultants

analysis shows that the ventilation rates as specified are only minimum

Inc. and a member of ES&E's Advi

sory Board.

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

sedentary and in thermal comfort, and with a hygienic standard cor responding to 0.7 baths/day. Prof. Fanger has performed many office experiments using an odour panel who were trained to quantify the odour of an average office worker. This panel was then taken to several locations under different conditions

to judge the odour of any environ ment in terms of a number of olfs.

Table 1 shows the results from 20

different buildings in Copenhagen. The results show the larger pollu tant contributions by the space and the HVAC system. This represents

above areas but it will be many years before the total integrated package is developed. I will discuss some current research and deve

lopment activities in the hood design field. Hoods represent an essential ele ment of the local exhaust ventila

tion system. They represent the first line of defense (i.e. the first oppor tunity to capture the conatminant at the source). Hoods can be classified by types into four groups

Group A Group B Group 0 Group D

Enclosures Booths Captor Hoods Receptor Hoods

For each hood group, technical characteristics and design equa tions can he developed. Recent research and development activities have included the development of computer models to predict hood efficiencies as well as the wides

pread use of fluid dynamic model ling and tracer gas applications. ■


a new technique to measure Indoor



Air Quality and provides design gui dance for the HVAC engineers.


LTD. Waterloo, Ontario S19-S79-3500 (FAX) 519-579-3986

o HAZARDOUS WASTE SERVICES Table 1. lAQ Test Results from Denmark

Pollutant Sources

Olfactlon Quantity

outdoor air

occupants office space HVAC system Total

0 olfs

D WATER RESOURCES Toronto, Ontar/o 4 16'858-2320


42 olfs 58 olfs 62 olfs

Concord Scientific Corporation cJiisuitTnt"'^'

162 olfs

Industrial Ventilation

A second example of the techni cal problems faced by practicing ventilation engineers is in the design of ventilation systems for industrial plants. The ventilation standard or guideline which must be complied with is based on a contam inant exposure limit. This is an 8

hour Threshold Limit Value (TLV) which represents the permissible exposure for workers. Although some research is being done at this time, there are large gaps in the scientific literature. There is only

(FAX) 416-858-3779

• Hazard and Risk Control

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sources, establish hood perfor mance, calculate the migration of contaminant into the workplace

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■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management

which must be available to establish

Instrumentation Development Indoor Air Quality Studies Safety and Environmental

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limited technical data to allow cal culations of emission rates from

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a priori worker exposure levels in an industrial workplace is as follows: i) characterize the emission source

ii) define contaminant pathways



from source to hood


iii) establish hood design equations and performance for a specific hood iv) define building ventilation flow



v) establish worker activities and work practice vi) calculate worker exposure. Using a systems approach, it is possible to treat each of the above steps as an element of the total worker exposure model. In the past, almost all ventilation system designs were based on empirical and rule-of-thumb approaches with minimal science or proper engineer ing activities. Scientific activities are currently underway in all of the


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Environmental Science & Engineering. May 1990



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Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

R&D News

the most affected by sulfide. Data analysis produced retardation coef ficients of 0.6 L/mg for acetate and 1.2 L/mg for propionate. Methanogenic Degradation of Selected Phenols

As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research,P.M.


Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Details can be found on page 60.

Fedorak, W.B. Kindzierski and S.E. Hrudey evaluated five anilines and two hydantoins commonly found in coal

Acidification of Nova Scotia Surface Water

rienced LRTAP acidification (46%), those acidified by local/natural

Water Quality Branch scientist G. Howell, together with R. Gelinas

sources (20%), and those with limited acidification (34%).

and J. Slaats of the Canadian Wild

Sulfide Toxiclty to

life Service used a microcomputerbased geographic information system to integrate and analyse water quality and population den sity data in an attempt to distin guish between local and transboun-

Anaerobic Processes

The effects of sulfide on anaerobic

degradation of lactate, butyrate, propionate, and acetate were stu died in batch serum bottles by Uni

dary acidification sources in Nova Scotia. As described in the Water

Pollution Research Journal of Can ada, these scientists used water quality data from 332 lakes to derive a potential local acidification map, and another map which illustrated acidification response. When the two were combined,the results iden tified those lakes which had expe

versity of Manitoba researchers J.A. Oleszkiewicz, T.Marstaller and D.M. McCartney. As described in Environmental Technology Letters,




batch culture, serum bottle tests to determine whether they inhibited phenol- or p-cresol-degrading methanogenic cultures. These Uni versity of Alberta scientists found that degradation and subsequent methanogenisis of phenol was unaf fected by the substantial quantities ofthe substituted anilines, while the results with p-cresol were unaffected by the hydantoins. Extended incu bation periods showed that none of the three isomers of ring substituted methyl anilines and neither of the two hydantoins were readily degraded to methane.

maintenance of higher pH (7.7-7.9) allowed

for tolerance of much

Underestimation of

higher concentrations of sulfide pointing to un-ionized H2S as the inhibitory sulfide species. Lactate

R.J. Maguire and R.J. Tkacz have found significant concentrations of

utilization was the least affected

PCBs and other chlorinated hydro-

while propionate degradation was

Continued overleaf

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

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MISA Governments are taking an active role in recognizing and controlling tiazardous ctiemicals in the environment. In Ontario, regulations are being prepared under MISA,(Municipal-Indus trial Strategy for Abatement), to strictly control toxic contaminants in water. MISA will affect both the industrial and the municipal sectors and will set the standards for other jurisdictions to follow. We at Mann Testing have established comprehensive screening methods to accurately identify and measure contami nants in water, air and soil samples. Recently, we have developed

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R&D News, continued carbons in



extracts of filtered Niagara River water at pH 12 after the water had been throughly extracted at pH 1. As described by these National Water Research Institute scientists

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in Chemosphere, this finding may he the result of a strong association

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Denltriflcation of Leachate

D. Mavinic and colleagues from the University of British Columbia and Virginia Polytech and State Univer sity, used a single-sludge, nitrification-denitrification system to treat a high ammonia, low biodegradable

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Copper compounds have been widely used in industrial processes and agriculture. As a result, ele vated copper concentrations can be found in many areas of the bios phere. To better understand the toxicity of copper to organisms, it is necessary to understand the mecha nism by which copper influences

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Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In the Environment

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


R&D News, continued

ENVIRONMENTAL • Hydrogeology





• Engineering geoiogy geology Environmentai audits

Site decommissioning & rehabiiitation


MALROZ Engineering inc.168 Montreai St. Kingston,Ont. K7K 3G4 Tel:(613)548-3446


biological and chemical processes in the environment. A review pub lished by Guelph University scient ists C.A,Flemming and J.T. Trevors in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, examines copper toxicity, microhial resistance mechanisms, and factors influencing copper speciation and toxicity in the environment. Structure of Activated Sludge Floes

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in Biotechnology and Bioenginee.ring. The study of these sections, after staining, revealed that the dis tribution of microorganisms and of extracellular polymers in the flocs varied randomly leaving large water channels and reservoirs in some of the flocs. Based on the




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Journal of Canada. A total of 224 water samples were extracted at up to 1 L/min, with dichloromethane

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a certain size limit. Direct observa tion of the interior of the flocs indi

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results, these University of Toronto scientists suggested that the acti vated sludge flocs might be charac terized by the fractal concept within

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Model of Lake Acidity A simple dose-effect model express ing the relationships between lake acidity, weighted mean annual sulfate concentration in wet deposi tion, Ca, Mg, and true colour has been developed by J, Dupont and Y. Grimard. As described in a paper published in Water, Air and SoilPol lution, the results obtained with this model show that an airborne sulfate

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Proctor & Redfern limited Consulting Engineers Architects Planners Environmental Scientists Water Supply, Treatment, and Dustribution

Removal of Organlcs by

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Pervaporation is a new membrane process that has application in the removal of organic compoundsfrom wastewater, leachate and contami nated groundwater. In pervapora tion, one side of dense, non-porous

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membrane is in contact with water

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luation presently underway is expected to significantly improve both the permeation rate and the concentration factor.

Rainy River Quality In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Can ada, W ater Quality Branch scientist J.C. Merriman reports on the distri bution of organic contaminants in water and suspended solids of the Rainy River. Samples were taken


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from stations on the river and from the final effluents of two bleached


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downstream end of the river, there was no impact evident for the com pounds analysed.


Poiyaiuminum-siiicate-suifate Coagulant

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Alum performance as a coagulant for water clarification is very often reduced at water temperatures

Head office:

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below 5°C. Domtar scientists G.A. Milette and M. Bosisio evaluated a

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new replacement coagulant, polyaluminium-silicate-sulfate (PASS).

and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie

As described in Sciences et tech

niques de I'eau, it was found that PASS reacts faster in cold water

than alum,settled water turbidity is often lower than one NTU, and its quality is only slightly affected by coagulant overdose. As a conse quence, PASS is now used regpilarly

at the Domtar fine paper plant in Windsor, Quebec although alum use continues during the summer months. Continued overleaf



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990


nants in sludge applied on agricul

R&D N0WS, Continued Pesticides Research and Monitoring

The second annual report of Envir onment Canada's pesticides pro gram summarizes the results of

projects undertaken during 19871988 by the department's regional and district offices, research insti tutes and centres, branches and ser

vices. Topics related to pesticides in the aquatic environment include identification of sources, persist ence and fate in surface and ground water, toxicity and environmental risk, analytical methods develop ment including bioindicators, and the results of monitoring programs. Also included in the report are dis cussion documents summarizing

tural lands.

tives requires considering seasonal variability, biological critical peri ods, interactions with other varia bles, and effects of cumulative exposure and lags in functional responses. Designing an effective and efficient monitoring program to determine compliance with sitespecific objectives involves allocat ing the sampling effort according to

these factors. In a paper published

index is included at the end to ena

ble readers to easily identify studies related to a particular topic. Site Specific Water Quality Objectives

The development of site-specific water quality guidelines and objec

tion or to the health of animals eat

ing the crops. Furthermore, plant uptake of organic contaminants is apparently unlikely to represent a hazard for agricultural production.

in the Water Pollution Research

Journal of Canada, Inland Waters Directorate scientists D. Valiela and

P.H. Whitfield outline a hierarchical

approach to determining this alloca tion process.

the environmental effects of five

pesticides: oxyfluorfen, pentachlorophenol, triadimefon, metsulfuronmethyl and propiconazole. An

M. Webber and his

colleagues found that 1,1-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethylbenzene added in munici pal sludge are unlikely to persist for more than a few days. They do not represent a hazard to crop produc

Land Disposal of Municipal Sludge Concern has been expressed that organic contaminants in municipal sludge applied to agricultural land could present health and environ mental hazards. In a joint Environ ment Canada - Ontario Ministry of the Environment project. Wastewater Technology Centre scientists studied the fate of organic contami-


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St. Croix River Water Quality Prior to 1970,pulp mill discharges to the St. Croix River reduced dis

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Atlantic Salmon.

Although returns of this species are still below the objective, fisheries biologists have been pleased with the increasing returns and other aspects of the salmon restoration program-

Telephone:(416)238-0007 Dynamic Models tor High Rate


Anaerobic Treatment


Wastewater Technology Centre scientists have assessed dynamic models for a high rate anaerobic treatment process. A pilot scale anaerobic hybrid reactor was oper ated by R.M. Jones and E.R. Hall under steady state and dynamic conditions using a pulp and paper



mill effluent as a feedstock. Data

collected during experimentation on the pilot plant were used to evaluate two different mechanistic dynamic



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Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Kee^j^Technology Ahe^ofthe Imagination As air qualj^standards for

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» Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

• Reg. 309 Compliance

• Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans • Ambient Air Monitoring

» Odorous Compounds

► Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370


TEL: (416) 847-0065

FAX: (416) 847-3840


TEL: (519) 339-8787

FAX: (519) 336-6965




Elemental Scans • Characterizations • RGB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St.

Tel: (416) 445-5809

Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2M3

Fax: (416) 445-4152


3650 WesbrookMaU, Vancouver. B.C.


• MISA analysis for over 50 plants • Ultra-trace Dioxins/Furans by MS/MS • Ortified by NYS-DOH


Fifteen to 20 years ago peristaltic pumps were universally accepted as the means to draw wastewater sam

ples out of channels and deposit them into bottles for subsequent analysis. Unfortunately the method had a number of shortcom

ings, including sample volume inconsistency, unpredictable pump tube splitting (often with very messy results) and high power demand (giving short duty cycles with battery powered portable units); these being just a few of the principal problems with the system. During the 70's, a new sample technique using an air pump and a sample chamber started to gain pop ularity both in North America and Europe, but it too suffered from problems — notably the overpo wered pumps which were employed. While lifting the samples in a very impressive manner, they created a high vacuum which when exerted on the liquid surface, caused deran gement of the sample. The high

power pump again gave only a short duty cycle from the battery. A key

element in this system was, and is,

the electronic detector which stops

systems were not uncommon.

Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2

designed for MISA challenge

the pump when it senses that the sample chamber is fully charged. Some devices, at that time, suffered from unreliability and flooding of


Product Profile Air pump wastewater

V6S 2L2 (604)222-1169

PROCESS ENGINEERING • Waste treatment evaluation

• Bench and pilot scale testing • Technical / economic assessments

A basically sound system eventu ally found disfavour simply through its engineering never having had the opportunity to evolve. The EPIC 1011 Portable Wastewater Sampler employs the very latest mechanical and electronic technology, overcom ing the disadvantages of its prede cessor without any of the inherent "peristalitic pump" problems. The 1011 has during the past 2 years been refined to meet with the demands of the latest MISA (Munic

ipal and Industrial Strategy for Abatement) wastewater monitoring legislation and a fixed site model, the 1021 Wastewater Sampler has also been introduced.

EPIC samplers have moulded plastic cases and have been designed with a great deal of atten tion to operator convenience. Many container formats are available (in

both plastic and glass), enabling exact selection for each application. Facilities for maintaining samples at low temperatures are available with both feed and portable units. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science. & Engineering, May 1990

New improved Kent compound meter

New, Rugged Sampler Engineered And Priced For Canadian Markets! Simple, Four-Button Operation; Changes From Discrete To Composite Sampling In Seconds! Program Menu and Prompting Pad

16- Digit LCD


New and improved Kent COMBOÂŽ Compound meter, in sizes 2" to 8", offers precision performance.

Rechargeable 12-VDC Battery



This meter features new conven

tional laying lengths, affording ease of installation, offers test ports allowing for field testing and drain plugs permitting in-service repairs. Kent claims prohlem-free perfor mance, greater accuracy, with more precise low and high end flow - plus higher revenues for cost conscious

Simplest Controller

On The Market

Waterproof Trigger Input

\ ^ Waterproof, \. Modular (M


water utilities. Kent Meters Inc.

Circle reply card No. 150 Detectronic Series 4 CM Flowmeter

Ice Cooling Capacity For Up To 3 Days

Impact And Corrosion Resistant

Detectronic microprocessor based

Polyethylene Housing

effluent flowmeters are based on the

fundamentals of mean velocity monitoring and average height by either pressure or sonic methodol ogy.

Outputs are; RS232 (RS422 optional), 0-20mA, O-lOV, flow pro portional pulse for sampler, counter pulse, plus preset alarm contacts; velocity, height, flow and time. The logger module records in velocity, height flow and real time.

Double-Wall Insulated

24 One-Liter




Collection Hose

The local transmitter communi cates to the remote controller via 24 VDC.

Every discrete or composite sampling feature you need-including cooling capability-is built into

Remote controller power supply by either 24 VDC or 115/220 VAC. For problem flow areas or wide channels, multi-transducer units are available. Ramsey Lake

Available at a highly competitive price, this new sampler was developed by

Buhler's new Model PSB-90.

German and Canadian

Velocity profile monitor Detectronic's ultrasonic point veloc ity monitor. Model 32LCM, is designed to provide velocity profiles for sewers, open channels, creeks or rivers.

The 32LCM is: Electronically cal ibrated, verifiable, certifiable, accu rate, repeatable, linear and tamper-proof. The 32LCM is available in stand

ard or water-proof enclosures. Ramsey Lake

engineers specifically for Canada. Built to the highest standards of European quality, the unit is rugged, very reliable, and extremely simple to operate. Glass or plastic bottles, and Teflon tubing are available. Call or write for more information.

Compiles with MISA specifications!


GENEQ inc. 7978 Jarry E., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1J1H5 Tel:(514)354-2511, FAX:(514)354-6948 223 Signet Drive, Weston, Qntario, Canada M9L1V1 Tel:(416)747-9889, FAX:(416) 747-7570

Circle reply card No. 151 Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Circle reply card No. 103


^emtnnr SHBEBS


Legal advice can be expensive - lack of it can be devastating Environmental Science & Engineering - Canada's

largest magazine for environmental professionals - presents a one-day Seminar and Workshop on Environmental Law. Attendance will put you in close contact with some of Canada's most distin

guished legal, engineering and scientific experts. You'll be able to listen to and question speakers and workshop leaders on such topics as the Approval Process for Municipal Landfills or the Impact of MISA on Municipalities. Who should attend? Municipal officials, industrial managers, real est ate developers, property owners, consulting engi neers and architects.

Other sessions will cover:

• the Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Wastes. This topic has made international head l ines in recent months. Speakers and workshop leaders will enable managers to comply with the increasingly complex regulations facing indus tries and municipalities.

• Real Estate, Developing and Financing. In an age of spiralling real estate values,the potential prob lems in buying and selling contaminated land have multiplied rapidly and now pose serious financial hazards to all property owners, poten tial buyers, developers and financiers.

• Environmental prosecution and MOE search and

• Due diligence and other legal issues.


Tentative speakers Include: Jim Bishop, C.Chem., Vice President, Environmental Protec tion Laboratories and until recently, Director of Water Resour ces Branch, Ontario tylinistry of the Environment, heading the MOE's MISA program. Mr. Bishop's vast experience in various MISA complexities will be invaluable to participants.

• Anthony J Crutcher, P.Eng., a partner In the environmental engineering firm of Conestoga Rovers & Associates Ltd. He is a civil engineer specializing in waste management, water resources and hydrogeology. He has been an expert witness before the Ontario Environmental Assessment Board and the

Ontario Municipal Board dealing with hydrogeology, contami nated soil remediation and other waste management issues.

Speakers from Blake, Cassels & Graydon,Barristers and Solici tors win include the following: • John Brownlie, Q.C., a senior partner in the firm, who has defended corporate clients charged with environmental offen

• Burton Kellock, Q.C., is also a senior partner of the firm, with extensive experience in environmental and municipal lawareas seeking government approvals or defending commercial inter ests involved in environmental prosecutions. He is called on a regular basis to advise clients who are purchasing or selling industrial lands or involved in environmentally sensitive opera tions.

• Bruce Smith Is a partner in the firm, practising commercial litigation with an emphasis on environmental law, financial institutions and corporate remedies. His environmental prac tice includes civil remedies for environmental damage and insurance claims.

• Robert Fishlock is an associate of the firm, who is on the executive of the Ontario Environmental Law Section, Canadian Bar Association. He has advised commercial clients involved in

the sale or purchase of industrial land and businesses and the impact of new environmental laws and regulations on busi nesses.


refunds for cancellations received in writing by Sep

Remervber, what you don't know can hurt you - or your company. This seminar permits a rare interlace with top experts practising In the field. The format Is designed to ensure audience participation, enabling particular prob

tember 2.

lems to be addressed.

Fee $425.

After July 31, $475.

For two or more registrations, $400. per registrant. Full

The fee covers luncheon and

available seminar papers.

Send cheques to Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Crescent, Aurora, Ont. L4G 5N7 or Phone (416) 727-4666 for details or FAX (416) 841-7271


Circle reply card No. 110

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

What's New Mixing without moving parts

free operation. Mounted on unique all stainless

Rehau introduces new

"No-Dig" technoiogy Rauline, a short section polymer pipe system is installed using the hurst lining technique, and requires no open trenching. This system is used primarily in the renovation of sewer systems,

and features lockahle,push fitjoints that are rubber sealed. The pipe can withstand high tensile and com-

steel floats or brackets, it uses a spe cially designed propeller to aerate and mix in any specific direction or in the entire basin. All aeration and

mixing occurs below the water sur face, eliminating spraying and splashing. Aer-0-Flo Circle reply card No. 162 Ad Index

pressive forces.

Joints are within the pipe wall, and provide a smooth interior and exterior pipe surface. Rehau

Circle reply card No. 161

Horizontally mixing

energy consumption, improved pro cess control, and product quality. Saves chemicals, eliminates

overdosing, and has minimal space requirements. Also has low capital costs for a completely sealed system. Statiflo

Circle reply card No. 160

Free and Total Chlorine


contained. Features include a uni

que solid shaft design allowing a larger aspirating tube for greater oxygen transfer with less horsep ower, plus sealed tapered roller bear ings for continuous maintenance-

Whether you need quick, simpleto-perform spot cheeks, advanced in-lab instrumentation, or continuous on-line monitoring, Hach has a chlorine analysis system to meet your needs and budget. Each

Graydon Bondar Clegg

14 17 71



Cone Davis Controls

55 12 62 19 56

Lit. Reviews

Mann Aqua Mann Testing Mln. oi Energy



MSU MIsslssauga Nortech

68 15 42


Prominent Fluids


9 47

Ramsey Lake Ind. Robar

51 25

Dense Duratron










Envlroclean ES&E Seminar Executive Man.

32 66 48 69

Flygt Geneq


SEW Eurodrlve Smart Turner

Ter, City Iron Works The Env. Show

Totten Sims Hublckl


38 21 45 48 26

Gore & Storrle


VIctaullc Watts/Muesco

Gorman Rupp

4 18

Westech Western Research





Hazco Heath Consultants

44 47

X-Ral Labs XCG


H. Fontaine

Analysis Systems


Test Kits

■ Ideal for field or laboratory use ■ Ready-to-use, unit-dose reagents ■ Rugged carrying cases ■ Complete reagent reordering information

Digital Titrator, drop count titration, and colorimetric methods

Colorimeters & Spectrophotometers


35 61


■ Preprogrammed calibrations ■ Comprehensive manuals • Ready-to-use, unit-dose reagents ■ Available as portable laboratories ■ 0-5 mg/L range, 0.1 mg/L resolution ■ Programmable mV, V or mA recorder output ■ Operates unattended 28 days • Dual set-point alarms

On-Llne instrumentation

Model CL17 Chlorine Analyzer

Pump-Colorimeter Chlorine Analyzer

■ NEMA-4X enclosure

■ ■ ■ ■

system uses Hach's USEPA*-

approved DPD chemistry, which helps provide accurate results. And all Hach chlorine systems come with everything required for testing, including premeasured reagents and easy-to-follow, stepby-step instructions.

KWH Pipe

CXicX Laboratory instruments

From simple to sophisticated and always accurate





New patent-pending TORNADO® aerator provides horizontal mixing to aerate and mix basins up to 10 times more efficiently than alterna tive methods. Designed for ponds, lagoons, oxidation ditches, and tanks, TORNADO is totally self-


B.F. Goodrlch Bannf Centre Blake Cassels

Can Am

aspirating aerator Statiflow mixers have no moving parts for virtually maintenance free operation. Features include low

Asr-O-Flo Air Products

Self-cleaning sample ceil Positive-displacement sample pump Complete range options Three tests per minute

•United Suics Environmental Protection Agency

For more information, ask for literature number HACH COMPANY P.O. Box 389

[HACH, Loveiand, Colorado 80539 U.S.A.

Sales outlets throughout Canada ■ Instrument Service Centre in Winnipeg

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

Telephone:(303)669-3050 FAX:(303) 669-2932

Circle reply card No. 226


What's New utes instead of hours.

Water leakage control

Sampler for MISA regs

Complete products and services for underground pipe location and leak

Manning Priority Pollutant Samplers


Heath is a single source for water leakage control equipment and ser vices and the exclusive distributor of Metrotech and Sewerin locator

and detection products for efficient pipe tracing, leak detection and pin pointing. Advanced sonic technology and

fully automatic underground pipe locators help crews, make leakage control surveys simple, fast and

offer a number of features making them highly effective for MISA sam pling. Sample repeatability is assured by the unit's proven vacuum pump method, and a pro grammable choice of 2, 4, or 8 bottle configuration accomodates any sampling schedule. The samplers' Time Override Function and Sample Event Output signal ensure that minimum sam ples are attained and sampling is

Replacing seals is as easy as replacing the impeller or wearplate. Simply remove the coverplate. Gorman-Rupp seals are made of tungsten titanium carbide. Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps range in size from 3inches to 10 inches and deliver 3,300 gpm

with heads up to 130 feet. Depend ing on pump size, they can handle spherical solids up to 3 inches in diameter. Gorman-Rupp

Circle reply card No. 166

verified. METCON

Circle reply card No. 164


Technical facilities provide quick, economical equipment

repairs, maintenance and calibra tion for a wide range ofinstruments. Heath

Circle reply card No. 163


Underground leak detection "Vapor-Safe" is a portable hydrocar bon vapour system capable of detecting leaks in underground monitoring wells. "Vapor-Safe"is completely porta ble, utilizing simple plug-in opera tion with readings display in numerical values or colour bands.

Readings take only a few minutes. The system also provides indica tion of background vapours (pre


vious contamination) and



vapours (recent contamination). Davis Controls



Circle reply card No. 165

Pumps can be serviced

Range of safety steps, ladders, platforms, guard rails MSU are designers and manufactur ers of their own off-the-shelf range of corrosion resistant Safety Steps,

Ladders, Platforms, Guard Rails and Manhole Grates. MSU also cus

tom designs and fabricates special safety equipment to match specific applications. These products provide maxi mum security and safety for climb ing or descending...whether outside a tower, chimney or inside a shaft. With Manhole steps, MSU's#360 is the only one that's been tested and listed with Underwriters Laborato

ries and each one proudly hears the

In minutes

Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps are built to service in min

UL mark. MSU

Circle reply card No. 167



Monenco Consultants Limited, Is pleased to announce the opening of new state-of-the-art environmental laboratory facilities In MIsslssauga, Ontario.


The expanded laboratory and environmental R&D facilities will enable the Environmental Division to offer full environmental, occupational health and

Complete Digester and

hygiene, and analytical services to our clients. Effective May 1990,the new laboratory and offices will be located at: 160 Traders Boulevard

Lagoon Cleaning

MIsslssauga, Ontario

Land Appiication Systems

L4Z 3K7

Program Deveiopment Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyvilie Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0

As a result of this expansion, Monenco requires the following senior professional staff at our Rexdale and MIsslssauga offices: HYDROGEOLOGISTS and WASTE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERS

Candidates should have 5 to 10 years experience In the following fields: contaminant hydrogeology,soil and water remediation,and contract spec


ifications. Experience In groundwater and contaminant modelling would be an asset.


Ideal candidates wi ll have 10 years experience In Industrial wastewater

treatment, preferably In the organic chemical and/or pulp and paper Indus

also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD.

tries. Reply In confidence to: Human Resources Manager

66 Brant Strast. Hamiltan. Ont. LBL6A8

Tel: (416) 523-1850

180 Attwell Drive, Suite 400 Rexdale, Ontario

Fax: 523-6270

M9W 6A9


Monenco Consultants Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990



WET OR DRY, FLYGT KEEPS PUMPING IT OUT. Flygt's wet CP pumps are easy to install. Ttiey can be mounted quickly and simply on guide bars and lowered into the liquid. The discharge connection is fixed to the sump floor so that when the pump is lowered on

the guide bars, it automatically engages the discharge connection and releases automatically when it is raised.

Flygt's dry CT pumps are installed alongside the pump sump and mounted on a stand with inlet pipes. Like all Flygt pumps, they are submersible and cannot be damaged by accidental flooding.

All of our 0 pumps are compact, efficient, and available in sizes from 1 to 700 HP.

Backed by years of application engineering experience, they can reduce operating costs by up to 75%. They provide reliable perfor mance and the peace of mind you have come to expect from Flygt.

For complete Information on our versatile C pumps,contact your local Flygt representative. Good Ideas Take Flygt. Circle reply card No. 227


Flygt ITT Fluid Technology Corporation

FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514)695-0100 Telex: 05-821844 Telefax:(514) 697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Ciaire ■ Quebec ■ Vai d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax•St. Jotin's (Nfid.) USA: FLYGT CORPORATION, Norwalk, Conn.


Whats NewNew personal

long been recognized by industries

chlorine monitor

chlorine. In fact, most dangerous incidents involving chlorine gas occur as a result of leakages in hulk chlorine storage or cylinder storage.

New chlorine monitor joins the range of NEOTOX personal, pocketsized gas monitors said to be extre mely accurate and reliable. The electrochemical chlorine sensor is another NEOTRONICS in-house

development in sensor technology. The new sensor has been exten

sively field tested and provides sta bility and long life. The dangers associated with the use and handling of chlorine have

which manufacture or handle bulk

The new chlorine NEOTOX should

ensure that the atmospheres in such confined spaces are safe prior to entry. It will also continuously mon itor the worker's breathing zone to warn of accidental releases of chlo rine.

It provides a standard audible alarm at the threshold limit value of

2 parts per million, although the alarm set point is user settable. Chlorine concentrations are dig itally displayed in the range of0.1 to 199.0 parts per million.

Westinghouse Environmental Services


Circle reply card No. 152


•Hydrogeological Assesments •Real Estate Transaction Environmental Audits

•Engineering Services •Solid and Hazardous Landfill Design •Bioremediation (Insitu-Bioreactor-Composting) •Laboratory Services •On Site Remediation •Chemical Soil Fixation


•Sensor Controlled Pneumatic and Electric Pumps •Carbon Treatment Cell

•Air Stripping Towers

•Off Gas Treatment Systems •Clarifiers

•Oil Water Separators •Vacuum Extraction Systems

I.E. ITed) Pollock, Fh.D., P.Eng. CH2M HILL ENGINEERING LTD, is very pleased to announce that Ted Pollock has joined the Waterloo office as Industrial Services Division Manager. Previously employed by a major consulting firm in California, Dr. Pollock brings to this posi tion over 20 years of environmental engi neering experience. His experience, both in Canada and the United States, encom passes the fields of industrial wastewater

treatment, contaminated

groundwater remediation, and hazard ous waste management.

Supported by a staff of


employee-owned Canadian engineering firm with principal offices in Calgary and Waterloo. The firm offers a complete range of environmental engineering ser vices from initial feasibility studies, to process development, detailed engineer ing design, and onsite construction man

1600 Seasoned Professionals.

For Information Call


agement. or write to

Westinghouse Canada Inc. 5905 Chemin St.-Frangois, Ville St.-Laurent, Qu6bec H4S 1B6



Committed to Quality 70

Circle reply card No. 170


Environmental Science & Engineering, May 1990

SAMPLE SIGMA...CANADA Liquid samplers combining sample integrity with rugged practicality... that's STREAMLINE'". STREAMLINE'" innovation includes a patented liquid sensing system. Unlike other peristaltic pump sam plers, STREAMLINE'" delivers repeatable volumes by automatically compensating for changing lifts. And if the first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged

intake, STREAMLINE'" initiates a high pressure purge and tries again. Most importantly, we understand that samplers get rough treatment... and STREAMLINE'" will take it. Electronics are

isolated in a watertight NEMA 4x, 6 housing and the roto-molded polyethylene case is more impact resistant than the ABS common to other samplers.

Distributed By:

Representatives Across Canad 2495 Raines Road

'Complies with MISA Specifications' Portable Samplers• Refrlgeratecf Samplers Ground Water Samplers•Open Channel Fiowmeters




Mississauga Onlario L4Y1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

... a new era in

"engineered storm water management." CSA Certified

Not Affected by Acid Rain

Engineered for "storm water management," Ultra-Rib's unique PVC design provides a durable, high impact, non-corroding pipe for storm drain systems. Certified to CSA B182.4 and meeting ASTM F794, Ultra-Rib, with a Manning flow coefficient of n = .009, provides the lowest flow resistance of any storm drain pipe.

Made from PVC, Ultra-Rib is not affected by aggressive soils and the low pH's of acid rain.

Engineered for Strength Proven in worldwide applications, Ultra-Rib meets the rigorous demands of shallow or deep burial. A seamless PVC pipe, Ultra-Rib's reinforcing ribs girdle the true circumference of the pipe, providing a pipe stiffness in excess of 320 kPa (46 lb./in./in.) while exacting tolerances provide leak-tight joints.

Ground Water Recharging

Cost Effective

Ultra-Rib's economy - ease of handling, reduced installation time, complete line of fittings, and significant labour and maintenance savings- will make it the piping of choice.

Software and Design Brochure Get to know more about Ultra-Rib. Contact your



Easy to cut on site.

nearest Scepter branch for our latest Ultra-Rib software and design brochure.


Where environmental concerns for recharging the ground water are a preferred option to ponding, perforation of Ultra-Rib can accommodate design specifications.

Leak-tight joints prevent infiltration




807 Pharmacy Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario Ml L 3K2 (416)752-2200 fax: 416-752-8512 ninfote Scepter Is a member of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association. Gaskets can easily be repositioned.

VANCOUVER (604) 525-8621

CALGARY (403)236-8333

EDMONTON (403)468-4444

SASKATOON (306) 933-4664

FAX 604-525-8607

FAX 403-279-8443

FAX 403-465-5617

FAX 306-934-2020

WINNIPEG (204)633-3111 FAX 204-633-3075

Circle reply card No. 101

MONTREAL (514)337-2624

SAINT JOHN (506) 632-9000

BEDFORD (902) 835-8684

FAX 514-337-7886

FAX 506-633-6019

FAX 902-835-502!