Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) February-March 1990

Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

February/March 1990

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Convention previews - AWWA - BCWWA - PCAO - AWMA Zebra Mussels - a growing problem in the Great Lakes

Toxic site clean-up could cost $5 billion MISA - What's ahead for dischargers? Transformers - getting the PCBs out Who is generating your lab results? Lead in Ontario's drinking water The horrors of rustic living



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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM OAVEY


Sales Director STEVE OAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY OAVEY

Technical Advisory Board George B. Cra\wford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.

^(DUCBUiKDCB March 1990, Vol. 3 No. 1 Issued March, 1990


French historian reveais the horrors of rustic iiving Article by Tom Davey

industry Update

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

What's ahead for municipalities and indirect industriai dischargers

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. R. Bruce Smith



systems, energy


Article by George Crawford, P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business pubilcation published by Davcom Communications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and control


drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and

Transportable thermal oxidizer developed in BC


Modern techniques on sewer flow monitoring Article by Rizaz Jiwani, P.Eng.


Toxic site ciean-up could cost $5 billion Article by R. Bruce Smith


Lead in Ontario drinking water Article by H.J. Graham


Zebra Mussels - a growing problem in the Great Lakes Article by Don Lewis


Technology provides PCS transformer solutions Article by John McFarland


Metro-Toronto's water surpasses objectives Article by R.G. Ferguson


control, solid and hazardous waste

treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental




wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and academics. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental


tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives),orotherfacsimiiies of the written or graphic material for consideration.

MiSA: Who Will Guard the Guards

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should

Article by Dr. Ian Webber

Part ii

38 42

Cork can clean up oil spills

be sent to Environmental Science &

Who is generating your lab results?

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 industriai Pkwy. $., Aurora, Ontario,

Article by Pierre Beaumier, Ph.D., C. Chem., and Graham Chevreau, C.Chem.


R&D News

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Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly


What's New - a review of products and services

1990 Conferences - where they are and who to contact

rates: Canada

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Cover photo: We don't inherit the earth - we hold it in trust for our children. Today's environmental pro fessionals have enormous responsibilities in pro tecting the planet for future generations. ES&E staff will attend all oftheSpring meetingswhereenvironmental professionals meet to advance the state-of-

Directory & Buyers' Guide $35.00 sin gle issue. Second Class Mail

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CCAB membership applied for Jan.1989

Editorial Comment by Tom Davey-. French historian reveais the horrors

of rustic iiving hell for 30 million. But M. Braudel reveals that even the rich lived in conditions which

would disgust a modern workingclass Canadian family. Conven tional French historians tell us of

the wonders of the great chateaux -

the glory of Versailles, its splendid architecture, glistening mirrors and elegant interiors. We learn that the nobility used the elegant corridors

Science,engineering and

chemistry were the cutting edges of the Industrial

Revolution which - brutal

as It was in its early days - freed man from centuries of misery and depriv ation. Ironically, technology is often abused by ill-informed critics who seem totally unaware of their debt to engineers and scientists. To these people, the works of the remarkable Frenchman, Fernand Braudel, should be required reading. Conventional history tells us much about Pharoahs, Kings,

Queens, battles and geography, but surprisingly little about the lives of average people. The French histor ian, however, in books such as Structures of Everyday Life, has

as lavatories and vomitoriums.

But,if the stench of the nobility's houses in 1695 would nauseate

today's blue collar workers, the hovels of the poor, by far the over whelming majority, must have been unbearable. As the French historian so elo

quently puts it, the world, prior to industrial development, was a brutal, disease-ridden and hungry

place for its inhabitants, most of

those hardy ones who did, for the most part, had short lives punctuat ed by crippling diseases. Without contemporary science,there were no drugs to ease the pain, or machines to diagnose many medical condi tions which could easily be treated today. It is somewhat paradoxical that

the applied sciences, which enable us to live free from the crushing burdens of hunger and undernour ishment, are often spurned by today's youth. They seem unaware of the fact that many less fortunate countries, which still lack our tech nology, have to continue their pro tracted and unequal battle with nature. Even more tragic is the fact

that they are usually politically unable to complain about their miserable conditions to the leaders.

M. Braudel should be required

ants of those times were the fleas, lice, rats and other vermin which infested the houses of rich and poor

reading for today's scientific illiter ates and professional malcontents. If they knew a little more about history, they might become grateful for,instead of hostile to,the benefits


of science and technology which

He stresses that every human being horn before this century was actually lucky to have lived. Most

both enrich and extend their lives -

while creating a climate of political freedom to stridently complain

babies simply did not survive, and

about it all.

whom had very short life expectan cies. The most comfortable inhabit

rectified the historical omission of

the common man with penetrating insight and scholarship. M. Braudel weaves a tapestry

from historical facts which dispels many of the romantic illusions which some youthful environment alists have of the pre-industrial society. He ignores the more regal focus of his historical contemporaries and

PCBs and Cement Kilns — Letter to the Editor Dear Mr. Davey:

I recently had occasion to read an article of yours entitled "The scut tling of a pollution solution" which appeared in the September 22nd,

the mis-spending of millions of tax payers' dollars and for the scuttling of a very effective solution to this environmental problem. I feel that the environmental catastrophies of

1988 edition of The Globe and Mail

Smithville and St.-Basile-le-Grand

births, marriages and life expectan

(also Dec. '88 ES&E). Although I consider the event described by your article an extremely tragic one from an environmental perspective, I

cies of earlier societies. Also exam

know that it is entirely accurate.

in Quebec can be traced back to the publication of these grossly illinformed and irresponsible articles. Maybe I should be optimistic and see a glimmer of light in your article

ined are energy sources and uses, economics, social change and urbanization, all areas commonly neglected by more orthodox histor

very accurate post-mortem was car

deals with such fundamentals as


Many ecologists rightly link acid rain with Blake's Satanic Mills, but

now regard all industry and technol ogy with deep suspicion. M. Braudel's findings will undoubtedly shock some of our environmental zealots with their

suspicions of, and deep seated resist ance to, science and technology. In pre-industrial societies, mil lions laboured in appalling condi tions so that a few might live in luxury. Even at the turn of the cen tury it was said that Britain was a heaven for 30,000 people while being

It is perversely ironic that this ried in The Globe and Mail,the very periodical in which the inflamma tory and ill-informed articles a decade previous, had led to the scut tling of a most effective solution to this problem.

in that it at least demonstrates that

some environmental reporting is responsible and is concerned with the facts and is not the result of

one of the principal Ontario Minis try of the Environment staff actively involved in the test run and subsequent events at St. Lawrence

either rapacious opportunism or profound ignorance. I would hope that this article gets distributed to such groups as highschool students, university stu dents, environmental advocacy groups, law students and students of journalism, to help ensure that a similar tragedy does not repeat



I suspect it would be too much to hope for that the management ofThe

This article would be of great ser vice to the community,if it achieves

Globe and Mail and other Toronto

this result.

media recognize that they bear a good deal of the responsibility for

R.D. Samuel Stevens, President Solarchem Environmental Systems

I know this to be the case as I was

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990




Legal advice can be expensive - lack of it can be devastating Environmental Science <& Engineering - Canada's

largest magazine for environmental professionals - presents a one-day Seminar and Worksfiop on Environmental Law. Attendance will put you in close contact withi some of Canada's most distin

guished legal, engineering and scientific experts. You'll be able to l isten to and question speakers and workshop leaders on such topics as the Approval Process for Municipal Landfills or the Impact of MISA on Municipalities. Who should attend? Municipal officials, Industrial managers, real est ate developers, property owners, consulting engi neers and architects.

Other sessions will cover:

• the Storage and Transportation of Hazardous Wastes. This topic has made international head lines in recent months. Speakers and workshop leaders will enable managers to comply with the increasingly complex regulations facing Indus tries and municipalities.

Real Estate, Developing and Financing. In an age of spiralling real estate values,the potential prob lems In buying and selling contaminated land have multiplied rapidly and now pose serious ■ financial hazards to al l property owners, poten tial buyers, developers and financiers.

• Environmental prosecution and MOE search and

Due diligence and other legal issues.


Tentative speakers include: Jim Bishop, C.Chem., Vice President, Environmental Protec tion Laboratories and until recently. Director of Water Resour ces Brancti, Ontario Ministry of ttte Environment, treading ttre MOE's MiSA program. Mr. Bisltop's vast experience in various MISA complexities will be invaluable to participants.

• Anthony J Crutcher, P.Eng., a partner in ttre environmental engineering firm of Conestoga Rovers & Associates Ltd. He is a civil engineer specializing in waste management, water resources and tiydrogeology. He has been an expert witness before the Ontario Environmental Assessment Board and the

Ontario Municipal Board dealing with hydrogeoiogy, contami nated soil remediation and other waste management issues. Speakers from Blake, Cassels & Graydon,Barristers and Solici tors will include the following: • John Browniie, Q.C., a senior partner in the firm, who has defended corporate clients charged with environmental offen

• Burton Kellock, Q.C., is also a senior partner of the firm, with extensive experience in environmental and municipal lawareas seeking government approvals or defending commercial inter ests involved in environmental prosecutions. He is called on a regular basis to advise clients who are purchasing or selling industrial lands or involved in environmentally sensitive opera tions.

• Bruce Smith is a partner in the firm, practising commercial litigation with an emphasis on environmental law, financial institutions and corporate remedies. His environmental prac tice includes civi l remedies for environmental damage and Insurance claims.

• Robert Fishlock is an associate of the firm, who Is on the executive of the Ontario Environmental Law Section, Canadian Bar Association. He has advised commercial clients involved In

the sale or purchase of industrial land and businesses and the Impact of new environmental laws and regulations on busi nesses.


refunds for cancellations received in writing by Sep

Remember, what you don't know can hurt you - or your company. This seminar permits a rare Interface with top experts practising In the field. The format Is designed to ensure audience participation, enabling particular prob

tember 2.

lems to be addressed.

Fee $425.

After July 31, $475.

For two or more registrations, $400. per registrant. Full

The fee covers luncheon and

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Send cheques to Environmental Science & Engineering, 10 Fetch Crescent, Aurora, Ont. L4G 5N7 or Phone (416) 727-4666 for detaiis or FAX (416) 841-7271 Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1990

Circle reply card No.110


> feg


^^%S;thatA/0 system was the first big project that I worked on when Ijoined Air Products 22 years ago.That was back in 1990 and... back then this was all vacant land.

Now look at it. But that A/0 system has never bothered a soul."

"Look at those kids going down there to fish. Back in 1990 they'd have been lucky to catch anything at all, and if they did, their parents might have been wary of eating it." "I remember how hard we had to work to convince the consultants

and municipal people. The com pany's anaerobic selector technol ogy had been doing the job in other parts of the world for quite a few years, but it was just coming into its own in Canada. They knew it was good at biological nitrogen and

phosphorous removal but they didn't appreciate how efficient that plant would be in removing BOD while creating a non-bulking sludge." "I was the new boy on that job and it was me who stayed up nights making exhibits for the next days' meetings. Chemical cost savings. Energy savings over 20 years, thanks to lower pumping loads. And there were a lot of questions on odours, cold northern climates, loading ranges and of course capi tal costs. But in the end it got built. Of course nowadays it all seems pretty routine. I couldn't even guess how many new or expanded

"A/0" and "OASES"are trademarks of Air Products and Chemicals, Ina

Circle reply card No. 111

retrofit A/0 systems are on the job today in industry and municipalities right across the country." "Ah,the good old days. Things were more exciting back then." Air Products. AlO systemsfor biological nutrient removal. OASESÂŽ secondary treatment systemsfor municipal and industrial wastewater. Cost-effective oxygen supply and ozone generation equipment. For more information, contact Henry Frese at A ir Products, 2090 Steeles Avenue Fast, Braynpton, OntarioL6T1A7. Tel.(416) 791-2530. Fax (416) 791-6808.

AIR PRODUCTS Enuironmental Science & Engineering. March 1990

Industry Update EIA for Buffalo Lake

New shellfish toxin program

Stabilization Project Environmental Management Asso ciates of Calgary has been

appointed to conduct the Environ mental Impact Assessment (EIA) on the Buffalo Lake Stabilization

Project. "An independent EIA will be undertaken to identify the impacts of this proposed project," said Environment Minister Ralph Klein. "This enables us to assess the

environmental impacts and benef its of stabilizing Buffalo Lake."

The government is working to improve water management in the Parlby Creek/Buffalo Lake area for multi-purpose use. The Parlby Creek/Spotted Lake channelization is one component which is ongoing and is providing agricultural benef its. The objective of this next phase is to stabilize water levels of Buffalo Lake to enhance recreation and to

provide an assured water supply to the villages of Alix and Mirror.

Sewage treatment plant discharges shows modest improvements The Ontario Ministry of the Envir onment review of 1988 discharges from Ontario's municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) shows some improvement over previous performance. The recently released report shows that 253 of 362 sewage treat ment plants (70 percent) reporting in 1988 met each of the three provin cial guidelines for phosphorus, sus pended solids and biochemical oxygen demand. In 1987, 233 of 371 STPs (63 percent) were in com pliance. In 1986,211 of362STPs(58 percent) reporting met the limits. Of the 109 plants which were out of compliance with provincial guide lines, 97 have scheduled remedial actions. The remaining 12 plants have been instructed to report on how they intend to address their exceedences. Forty-nine STPs have failed to comply for three years in a row. Of these plants, 48 have reported remedial programs are underway. Presently, most limits are in the form of unenforceable guidelines. Under the MISA program, those guidelines will be replaced by a group of legally enforceable limits. Copies of the Report on the 1988 Discharges From Sewage Treat ment Plants in Ontario, are availa ble by calling (416) 323-4321.

The National Research Council's

Atlantic Research Laboratory (ARL) in Halifax and OceanChem Research, a division of OceanChem Labs Ltd. in Dartmouth, have

signed a two-year, $1 million agree ment to collaborate on research and

development related to shellfish tox ins. This collaborative research effort between NRC and OceanChem will

focus mainly on the diarrhetic shel lfish poisons (DSP) - namely okadaic acid and related compounds.

can continue to assure the safety of shellfish products." OceanChem's agreement with NRC also includes collaboration on

improved analytical methods to detect paralytic shellfish poisons and domoic acid (the mussel toxin). In December 1987, ARL scientists succeeded in identifying the domoic acid toxin responsible for at least two deaths and more than a hundred serious illnesses in Can


Working around the clock,

researchers isolated the toxin in a

These toxins have been detected in shellfish harvested in Maine. The

record 104 hours - a task which, under normal circumstances, could

research program will involve find ing sources of the DSPs, exploring methods for isolating and purifying the toxins and developing sensitive, reliable and cost-effective ways of testing for the presence of these tox

have taken months.

ins in shellfish.

Dr. Julie Marr of OceanChem, adds: "In view of the spreading of red tides (algal blooms increasingly found along coastlines throughout the world), it is possible that DSP could occur in Atlantic Canada in the not too distant future. The DSP

research program will help provide the regulatory agencies and fishing companies the means by which they

New OWMC waste

reduction program for the north OWMC has announced a new assist

ance program for industry in north

ern Ontario to help plants reduce hazardous wastes, cut down on con tamination of rivers and lakes and save money.

OWMC engineers will provide technical and waste audit advice

free of charge to selected industrial firms. They will recommend proven

waste reduction methods that pay off in the plant through savings in raw materials and through lower waste treatment and disposal charges. The individual firms will contribute equally with staff time, monitoring and the costs of analyti cal work. This new service for northern Ontario will be under the direction

of Les Kuczynski, an OWMC waste reduction engineer. "Technical assistance by OWMC in southern Ontario has resulted in numerous

savings in waste reduction," Mr. Kuczynski said. "For example, a medium sized electroplater was able to convert his 300 tonnes per year of hazardous plating waste into 100

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

OceanChem Labs will spend about $520,000 over the next two years, of which $265,000 is provided through a contribution of NRC's Biotechnology Program. Ocean Chem will provide two scientists and a technician who will work at ARL in Halifax.

ARL's participation, valued at about $445,000, will include scien tific and technical staff and the use

of state-of-the-art equipment and facilities. Drs. Michael Quilliam and Jeffrey Wright are the principal ARL researchers involved in this


tonnes of high grade metal hydrox ide, which he then sells to a northern Ontario smelter. He recovered his

$60,000 capital costs in less than one year. We expect to see equally impressive results at industrial plants in the north." The first step is a waste reduction audit, which is a detailed examina tion of the plant's production pro cess. It pinpoints how and where wastes can be reduced, reused, or

recycled by equipment or process changes. OWMC,or a local labora tory, will analyze the company's waste stream and monitor any improvements as a result of changes.

Fiowmetering contract for MISA requirements AER-O-FLO Environmental Inc. of

Burlington, Ontario has received a contract from Ontario Hydro to supply 19 open-channel flowmeters for Ontario Hydro MISA applica tions. The equipment will be used to monitor effluent flows from generat ing stations across the province to ensure that accurate fiowmetering is achieved according to the require ments of the MISA Program.

Industry Update: graphers to show how continents,

Fired employee receives compensation A company convicted of polluting, which fired a worker who cooper ated




investigators, has been ordered to pay the man compensation. The Ontario Labour Relations Board

(OLRB) ruled that VInod Mohlndra had been dismissed by Bakellte Thermosets Ltd. for complying with the Environmental Protection Act

(EPA). Section 134(b) of the act makes it an offence for a company to fire or discipline a worker who reports spills or environmental problems to the ministry. The Belle ville man became the first person to receive compensation under minis try legislation from the OLRB. "I am pleased with the Labor Board's decision to back Mr. Mohin-

dra's commendable cooperation with Environment Ontario pollu tion police. I encourage any worker who has knowledge of environmen tal offenses to come forward and

contact our Investigations and Enforcement Branch. Such people

will receive legal protection at min istry expense." Environment Minis ter Jim Bradley said. In a November 27,1989 ruling the OLRB concurred with Mr. Mohin-

dra's arguments that his dismissal, on the grounds of alleged absentee ism


on his behalf by the ministry.

On March 14, 1989, Bakelite Thermosets Ltd. was fined $100,000

after being convicted ofthree counts under the Ontario Water Resources Act and the EPA. The Belleville

chemical manufacturer pleaded guilty to all three counts, which included burning napthalene wastes in an unsuitable incinerator; permitting the discharge of phenolic wastes into the Bay of Quinte; and failing to keep records of PCB wastes stored on its premises.

phere in an area described as the world's "climate power house",

advances environmental

located some 640 kilometres north of New Guinea.

projects were carried out by an inter

Preliminary studies show that salinity is critical in determining changes in water density in the area. Scientists believe temperature is the leading factor. The saltiness in the south Pacific appears to be pushing the equatorial undercur rent away from its normal position, producing a rise in sea temperature to around 30 degrees C, making marine life impossible. Eddies(whirlpools)result in even warmer temperatures triggering off atmospheric convection. This change causes an El Nino,resulting in drought in Asia and Australia and flooding in central America. It depletes marine life in countries bor dering the ocean and also causes

national team of 190 scientists. It is

monsoons in India.

only the third

Dr. David Webb, National Envir onment Research Council,said that

International oceanographers aboard the British research ship RRS Charles Darwin have disco vered that a remote area of the west

ern Pacific may be responsible for global extremes in climate. Data collected on a 3V2-years cir-

cumnavigational voyage around the world by the research vessel will provide valuable information about the patterns of climatic change in Asia, the Americas and Australa sia, as well as the knock-on effects for Europe. The Charles Darwin recently returned to Britain from its 208,000kilometres voyage during which 30

time a British

research vessel has made such a

voyage since naturalist Charles Dar win returned on HMS Beagle in 1836. Oceans cover two-thirds of the

Earth's surface and are the dynamo of its global climate. The key to what causes floods and droughts in Asia, Latin America and Australia every three to four years is the El Nino phenomenon which,scientists believe, originates in the western Pacific. El Nino(The Infant)is the name given to a complex interaction between the ocean and the atmos 8


unsatisfactory perfor

mance, was punitive and awarded him $4,000 in compensation. Mr. Mohindra was represented at the OLRB hearing by counsel retained

The "Charles Darwin"


which are only "passengers" on

these plates, are slowly moving. Indonesia proves to be one of the world's most geographically active areas, lying at the junction of the Pacific, Asian and Australasian plates, which are converging at speeds of up to ten centimetres a

as soon as the data from the Charles

Darwin had been collated, models of the El Nino phenomenon would be made to help British meteorologists to forecast weather conditions with

precision while providing a greater understanding of global heating. Details of another research study undertaken by the scientists aboard the Charles Darwin on its ÂŁ12 mil lion research cruise concern the Earth's crust. Plate tectonics have enabled the vessel's oceano

UK tests new toxic

waste treatment process A new process for treating toxic wastes, now under development by the UK Atomic Energy Authority

(UKAEA), is claimed to be capable of reducing items such as paper tissues, rubber gloves, solvents and PCBs to simple chemicals like car bon dioxide and water.

Known as the Dounreay Silver

process because it is a product ofthe UKAEA's process plants operations group at Dounreay in Scotland,it is currently being tested on an electro chemical oxidation rig and to date all the organics undergoing treat ment with it have been successfully

destroyed, with the exception of PVC,polythene. Teflon and silicone compounds.

The small pilot plant built at Dounreay to demonstrate the pro cess is soon to be supplemented by the next size of plant, which is now being designed. The UKAEA says this will be a small commercial

plant for direct disposal of wastes at the factory that produces them, or for use by a disposal contractor tak ing in smaller quantities of more dangerous materials.

New Groundwater

Technology Office In Halifax, MS Groundwater Technology, Inc. has expanded its environmental assess ment and remediation services in Atlantic Canada with a new office in Halifax. A. Bruce Strum will serve

as manager of operations for the new office, with responsibilities for both business development and pro ject coordination. Mr. Strum was previously a contaminant hydrogeologist for an environmental con sulting firm in Halifax. A graduate of Acadia University where he spe cialized in petroleum hydrocarbon and subsurface remediation, he is a member of tbe National Water Well

Association, the Geological Society of Canada and the International

Association of Hydrogeologists.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Alberta funds increase

$5 million A funding increase of $5 million for the Alberta Water Supplies Assist ance Program has been announced. Alberta Transportation and Utili ties will receive $2.7 million to aug ment the




Program. Alberta Environment has been

allocated $2.3 million to continue

providing grants to rural lan downers for the construction


water wells and grants, equipment

BC Lab acquisition

The announcement was made at

Bacon Donaldson a $925,000.00 loan in 1989 to finance equipment purchases and the pilot plant con struction to further the development of a process for gold ores developed by Bacon Donaldson on behalf of Arseno Processing Ltd. Bacon

the openingof Bacon Donaldson's headquarters in Richmond, BC which has 43,000 square feet and contains offices, laboratories and pilot plant facilities. The Western

as a two-man engineering firm,spe cializing in metallurgy. The Com pany now provides services to business, industry and government

Diversified Fund (WDF) awarded

clients on five continents.

Bacon Donaldson has been acquired by Sherritt Gordon Ltd. providing Bacon Donaldson with resources to

implement an international market ing campaign.

Donaldson was established in 1972

and technical assistance for local

governments who have experienced water supply problems. The Farm Water Grant Program is scheduled to expire on March 31, 1991. The Program has already pro vided $26.2 million in grants to Alberta farmers and ranchers. The

additional $2.7 million in funding will



Government of

Alberta to deal with continuing heavy demand on the program. The well drilling and municipal water supply component under Alberta Environment's portion of the Water Supplies Assistance Pro gram has experienced a high level of demand. Since the program was announced in April 1988, over 8,000

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rural landowners and 38 communi ties have received assistance. The

program will expire on March 31, 1990 and it is expected over 9,000 rural landowners will receive assist-

Regs for mobile


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ment systems on federal lands and in federal facilities. The regulations and prescribed operating guidelines govern maximum emissions of hyd rogen chloride, PCBs, dioxins and furans, particulates,liquid and solid wastes. They also require the incor poration of fail-safe control sys tems. Any deviation from normal conditions will result in an auto matic incinerator shutdown.

The regulations, which are now in force, will govern operation of mobile PCB incinerators, such as the one being installed in Goose Bay, Labrador. The Canadian Environmental Protection

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tection of the environment.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 112

Industry Update= large modern power boilers, -when properly operated, are capable of meeting all existing environmental

Wiik & Hoeglund buys pipe facility


ment's concern; all citizens must work together to find solutions." "Using the information gathered from the Northwood tests, the Min

The study found that the power

istry will be able to develop approp riate design and operating

standards associated above chemicals.

Wiik & Hoegiund (Canada) Ltd. have purchased DuPont's polyethylene pipe production facilities located in Saskatooon, Saskatchewan. The acquisition doubles Wiik & Hoeglund's pipe production capacity, making them the largest polyethy lene pipe producer in Canada. The Saskatoon production facili ties are complementary to the firm's Huntsville, Ontario plant; the Sas katoon plant's capabilities centre around smaller diameter polyethy lene pipe while the Huntsville facil ity houses the world's largest polyethylene pipe manufacturing equipment.


boiler, destroyed more than 99.99

standards to ensure the safe burn

percent of the chlorophenols. Diox

ing of these wood wastes across the province," Mr. Strachan said. The report, entitled "Summary Report for a Test Burn of Chlorophenol Contaminated Wood Wastes at Northwood Pulp Mill, Prince George, B.C.", July 1989, is availa ble from the Victoria and regional offices of the B.C. Ministry of Envir onment, or from Environment Can ada's Western Canada office. West

ins and furans were found only in trace amounts. The 99.99 percent level of destruction for chlorophen ols is the typical performance target for special waste incinerators. Wood wastes are burned to produce power for pulp mills; a small fraction of those wastes may from time to time contain chlorophenols used in the treatment of lumber.

A team of scientists, engineers,


and technicians from Environment

Canada and the B.C. Ministry of Environment conducted the test

burn in September,1987 over a fourweek period. The test program was planned and designed in consulta

BC solution for wood wastes

We Have An

Opening For:

tion with officials from Northwood

Low levels of chlorophenols,dioxins and furans can be safely destroyed in properly designed and operated pulp mill power boilers,according to a joint study released by Federal Environment Minister Lucien Bou chard and B.C. Environment Minis

ter Bruce Strachan. A federal-prov incial test burn at Northwood Pulp Mill in Prince George, showed that



Timber Limited and

members of the local Canadian

Paperworkers Union. "The joint efforts of government, industry and labour are vital to suc cessfully addressing the many chal lenging environmental problems in a step toward sustainable develop ment," said Mr. Bouchard. "These problems are not only the govern



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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Environmental Testing


MISA-We Meet THE Standard From the beginning, we at

MISA legislation and Regula

Bondar-Clegg have based our service on the highest stan dards in testing and in meeting

tion 309 in the Province of Ontario.

We do this by using strict quality assurance procedures

We provide: • complete MISA parameter (ATG)capability • priority pollutant analysis

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all QA/QC and reporting protocols required by MISA (Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement)regulations. Our goal is to help you meet government environ mental standards in the best

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Telex:(613)053-3233 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

«. mn


Circle reply card No. 114


AUTO-CLEAIMSE Another new idea from Flygt. ■ Provides clean station environment.

■ Improves operating efficiency. ■ Reduces maintenance costs.

■ Easily retro-fitted to existing installations.

Flygt's new Auto-Cleanse® System solves various problems ttiat arise in many pump stations. The system con sists of three unique components: an Adaptive Pump Control (ARC) unit, a powerful Flush Valve and the patented

NevaClog® impeller. The ARC controls all pumping operations to match the rate of flow. Because It works without a fixed start level, It prevents the accumulation of grease and solids on the sump wall at any fixed water level.

The Flush Valve automatically eliminates the build-up of sludge on the sump's bottom. Along with the ARC,the Flush Valve also Inhibits the formation of floating crusts. The patented NevaClog® Impeller ensures clog-free flow of highly charged sewage.

The Flygt Auto-Cleanse® System keeps the pumping station free from odour, sludge and grease deposits. It can readily be retro-fitted into existing Flygt equipped pump ing stations. Best of all, because of reduced station mainten

ance costs, the system pays for Itself quickly! For complete information on this

new Auto-Cleanse®

System, contact your nearest Flygt representative and ask to see the

Flygt Auto-Cleanse® video demonstration.

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Circle reply card No. 115

=Industry Update UK River Barrage could produce "green" power An imaginative plan to generate electricity by environmentallyfriendly means, using a 16-km bar rage across the Severn Estuary, in western England, is being seriously considered by Britain's Department of Energy.

The barrage could satisfy as much as 7% of the present electricity demand in England and Wales by harnessing the flow of the tides. It could be Britain's biggest single source of clean energy in the next century; would reduce pollution and curb the greenhouse effect, and would be one of the largest renewa ble power schemes ever envisaged. Details of the project are in a report on a feasibility study under taken by the Severn Tidal Power Group - a consortium of British con struction companies - with financial support from the Department of Energy and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). The barrage would span the Sev ern Estuary from a point southwest of Cardiff in south Wales to a prom ontory near Weston-super-Mare in the English county of Avon. It would have two power stations,con taining 216 turbine generators, a shipping dock, and a dualcarriageway road linking motor ways on hoth shores.

Building work would take up to seven years and the cost is esti mated at $1,656 hillion, excluding the outlay on roads. A further $1.7 billion would be required for offbarrage transmission and grid rein forcement. The annual running costs are estimated at $140 million. At present, less than 1% of the United Kingdom's electricity is gen erated by renewable methods such as hydroelectricity, wind and wave power. About 15% comes from nuclear power, and the rest is pro duced hy conventional fossil fuelburning plants. The Government is keen to encourage renewable energy sources and has spent more than $300 million over the past 12 years

"green" power becomes more per suasive, the electricity companies are expected to pay more attention to improving production technol ogy.

Confined space seminar packs 'em in

one day seminar was conducted by Dr. Verne Brown with a question and answer period at the conclu sion. Guest panelists included Ken Fisher (Ontario Municipal Health and Safety Program), Larry Westlake(LA.P.A.)and Patrick O'Reilly (Ontario Ministry of Labour). Sim ilar seminars were held in Ottawa

and Montreal with equal success. Dr. Brown vfill be conducting a 4

Enmet Canada recently sponsored a Confined Space Safety Seminar in Mississauga, Ont. Over 90 represen tatives from industry, municipali

hour version of his seminar at the 1990 Industrial Accident Preven tion Association Conference in

ties and consultants attended. The

details. Fax:(416) 276-9048.

April. Contact Ross Humphry for

Environmental Law The Environmental Law Group at Blake Cassels & Graydon addresses the increasingly complex issues affecting business, municipalities and the environment. The Group provides an extensive range of legal services in all areas of environmental law including: Environmental Assessments & Approvals Environmental Litigation, Prosecutions & Hearings Waste Management & Disposal Transportation & Handling of Dangerous Goods Occupational Health & Safety Insurance Claims

Environmental Audits

Due Diligence (Mergers & Acquisitions) Sale of Land & Secured Transactions

The group consists of the following lawyers from a wide range of practice areas: John D. Brownlie, Q.C. Kathryn N. Feldman

Gordon Cameron Robert M. Fi.shlock

Albert J. Hudec

Ben A. Jetten

Jonathan W. Kahn

Burton H. Keliock, Q.C.

Gordon A.M. Currie

V. Phil Lalonde

Kevin P. McElcheran

Kenneth B. Mills

Joni R. Paulus

John L. Ronson

Karen A. Sis.son

R. Bruce Smith

M. Jacqueline Sheppard Mary Jane Stitt

Marvin R.V. Storrow. Q.C.

Gerald S. Swinkin

For more information contact:


York Region

Burton H. Keliock, Q.C. John D. Brownlie, Q.C. Gerald S. Swinkin (416) 86.3-2400 (416) 863-2400 (416) 733-4040



on research. A further $100 million

Albert J Hudec

Marvin R.V. Storrow, Q.C.

has been earmarked for the period

(403) 260-9400

(604) 631-3300

up to 1992. National Power, one of the two

privatised generating bodies that will succeed the CEGB, is to build three wind farms in Cornwall, the Pennines,in northern England,and Wales to generate electricity; and,as

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Blake,Cassels & GitAYDON Barristers & Solicitors

Circle reply card No. 116


MISA Sewer Use Control Program

What's Ahead for Municipalities and indirect industrial Dischargers and organics. Once these contami By: George Crawford, P.Eng.*

nants have been identified, dis

Environment Ontario's

cbarge levels will be set based upon the best available technology that is economically achievable (BATEA)

Municipal Industrial Stra tegy for Abatement(MISA)

for each industrial sector.



achieve these limits will be left to

implications for many industries and municipalities across Ontario. When the Ontario MISA program turns its focus on the municipal sec

individual industries provided that








industrial dischargers,likely during 1990, the impact will be dramatic. The demand for knowledgable staff, trained operators and additional funds for the construction and oper ation of pretreatment facilities may force many industries to drastically change the way they do business. Prudent, indirect dischargers will take a pro-active approach, obtain ing expert advice about upcoming regulatory changes, assessing tech nologies that are available to elimi nate, reduce or pretreat their wastes, and deciding how to work with their municipality to satisfy the MISA Sewer Use Control Program. MISA has already required major industrial sectors to carefully examine and monitor their waste-


discharges to determine

acceptable discharge levels, in par ticular for toxic or hazardous con

taminants such as heavy metals

actual choice


of technology


the sector effluent limits are met.

The impact of discharges to receiv ing streams will also be studied to determine





BATEA limits are sufficient for pro tection of the receiving water qual ity. If the receiving stream

requirement is more stringent than the BATEA effluent limits, then pro tection of the receiving stream will be the governing criteria. The sectors that to date have

been influenced by the MISA pro gram include mostly large indus trial sites that discharge directly to receiving streams. In the very near future, the focus of the Ontario MISA program will shift to the municipalities. When this shift occurs. It will have major Impact not

Ministry of the Environment is con sidering various options to reduce toxic discharges from these types of industries, known as indirect dis chargers.

only on the design and operation of municipal sewage treatment plants,

The purpose of the Sewer Use Control Program is in part to reduce the discharge of partially treated or

but also on the nearly 12,000 Indus tries that discharge wastewaters Into municipal sewer systems for treat ment at municipal sewage treatment

ultimate receiving stream, and also to ensure that toxic discharges do not adversely affect the operation of

plants. MISA includes a Sewer Use Control Program, within which the

untreated toxic contaminants to the




employed by the various municipali ties. When implemented, the MISA sewer use control program will force municipalities to set limits for indi rect dischargers on more than the conventional parameters such as oil and grease, BOD, pH,solvents, and heavy metals. When MISA is directed to munici

pal sewage treatment plants, the same criteria as for the industrial V

sectors already under the MISA pro gram will be employed. That is, municipal sewage treatment plant discharges will be monitored for their discharge of toxic metals and organics. Then the more stringent criteria of the BATEA or receiving stream impact will be used to deterConflnued overleaf

"Manager, Industrial Wastewater

Sludge tanks for Industrial waste pre-treatment. 14

Division, Gore & Storrie Limited

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

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In a word — you need Cantel MOBITEX,the exceptional new nation-wide mobile data communications system with optional voice capabilities from Cantel. Cantel MOBITEX saves you time and money by bringing to the field the capacity and capabilities of applications in key areas such as records management, customer history, fleet control, computer-aided dispatching, accurate two-way dispatching and many more. Plus, while being totally open to today's standard computer operating systems, MOBITEX is closed to unauthorized scanners by providing a superior level of security. The Cantel MOBITEX communications network is owned and

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 117


mine acceptable discharge limits for contaminants from municipal sew age treatment plants. It is anticipated that the new dis charge limits will have a major effect on the indirect dischargers connected to the sewer system. Just as was done to limit the heavy metals content in digested sludge for farmland application, munici palities will turn to the industries connected to their sewer systems

considers that there are presently 12,000 indirect industrial dis chargers in Ontario, and only about 400 municipal sewage treatment plants. Even if only 10% ofthe indi rect dischargers are required to con struct and

staff new


facilities, there will be a sudden increase in demand for trained and

qualified operators. As part of the Sewer Use Control Program, the Ontario ministry has

been met,so that a facility limit can not be obtained by dilution. That is the intent of the program, and should be supported. However, it can be expected that each industrial discharger will attempt to interpret local bylaws in order to minimize the impact on his operation, and therefore cooling water discharges will be one area of continuing debate.

What should be done by Indirect dischargers?

The impact on some Indirect dischargers could threaten their business viability

and require them to reduce their dis charge of toxic contaminants or organics. In many cases, these mandated reductions will be well

below existing sewer use bylaw lim its, and will be necessary in order to protect the municipal treatment plant operation and/or its effluent quality. The impact on some indirect dis chargers could threaten their busi ness viability. In many cases, indirect dischargers may not yet be fully aware of the possible ramifica

recently prepared a Model Sewer Use Bylaw. This document is intended as a reference for munici

palities when updating or standard izing their local sewer use bylaws, and includes specific limits for var ious contaminants.

One important area of concern relates to the discharge of cooling waters to sanitary, combined- and storm sewers. The Model Sewer Use

Bylaw addresses the discharge of storm water and cooling water, rec ognizing that dischargers should

tions. Industries within the Munici

not be allowed to dilute their waste-

pality of Metropolitan Toronto have already been put on notice by formal letter that the sewer use bylaws are being changed and that in future more stringent requirements may be necessary. Other municipalities have been equally pro-active, advis ing specific industries using their sewers of the upcoming program and its possible effects. However,as some of the case studies indicate,the road ahead will be long and hard for indirect dischargers. Some of the key changes that could result, as already evidenced in some of the

waters to achieve compliance. How ever, certain aspects are left open to interpretation. Under the model bylaw, discharges of "uncontaminated water" to a sanitary sewer are prohibited, however non-contact and once-through cooling waters are not specifically mentioned. An initial interpretation might there fore suggest that these cooling

case studies, include: •an increase in the cost ofindustrial

waste pretreatment.

• a sharp increase in the number of metal recovery and pretreatment systems at industrial indirect dis charger sites. • separation and reuse of cooling waters.

• construction and operation of bio logical pretreatment facilities for the removal of BOD and phenols. •greater control,recovery and treat ment of oil and grease discharges, particularly for mineral oils. • the hiring of dedicated and quali fied wastewater treatment plant operators.

•the need to monitor and report on the quality of discharge. If mandated, the need for certi fied operators may be a particularly difficult aspect,especially when one 16

Every indirect industrial dis charger should be aware ofthe char acteristics of his discharge to sewer, and his obligations under the exist ing sewer use bylaw in his munici pality. For many industries, representative samples ofthe wastewater presently being discharged should be analysed for all contami nants restricted under the Model

Sewer Use Bylaw. Such an analyti cal scan will likely cost about $700 per sample. Discussion with the municipality is essential. Once an indirect discharger is aware of his wastewater quality, he should meet with the municipality to discuss what future discharge limits will be set. In most cases the indirect dis

charger should ask for the discharge limits to be the same as those sug gested in the Ministry's Model Sewer Use Bylaw. If any indirect discharger is aware that his current discharged wastewater quality exceeds the lim its in the Model Sewer Use Bylaw,or

those limits expected to be set 6y his

local municipality, then he should make himself aware ofthe Ministrywaters are uncontaminated and developed "best available technol must be directed to storm sewer. ogy economically achievable" Under section 3, however, dis (BATEA) applicable to his type of charges to storm sewers are prohi discharge. The principal of the Min bited for once-through cooling istry program is that the ministry water, unless a Certificate of Appro will develop the BATEA, but that val had been received from the Min

local sewer use limits will be deve

istry and the municipality is in agreement with that approval. It therefore appears to be up to each municipality to develop an interpre tation and policy for the handling of cooling water discharges to sani tary and storm sewers. It is expected that many munici palities will adopt mass limits for contaminant discharges instead of,

loped and set by individual munici palities. If an indirect discharger

or in addition to, concentration lim its. This would accommodate the difficulties associated with the

separation and handling of cooling waters, particularly in existing facilities. Indeed, the model bylaw promotes this approach, stating that the volume of any water added for the purpose of meeting discharge limits should be disregarded when calculating whether the limit has

feels that he cannot achieve a com

pliant discharge, it is in his interest to




of the

BATEA developed by the Ministry in order to prepare for negotiations with his local municipality. For indirect dischargers, most of the above activities will be required by legislation, and will be essential to maintain the economic viability of their operations. At the same time, they are frequently too com plex for a typical industry to successfully comprehend and negotiate. A sharp increase in the demand for consulting advice has resulted, to help industry steer Continued overleaf

Knuironmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


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Circle reply card No. 118

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From: Aer-0-Flo Environmental

A wastewater

screen so effective it reduces BOD The Aer-0-Flo Drumshear Screen is ideal for

both industrial and municipal wastewater screening Superior capture rate of solids over conven tional models — 45 microns and up — which actually reduces BOD

Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving lower haulage and/or treatment costs

Rugged 1/4 Inch stainless steel construction — thicker and much more durable than the

usual 10 or 12 gauge metal Removable screen panels are a first In the

industry — allowing a change of openings Recoverable DIverter Flights, automatically remove screened solids from cylinder No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain

Internal and external Spray Cleaning System Low energy requirements

Vari-drive from 3 to 12 r.p.m. allows low h.p. electric motors

Only 4 wheels to lubricate — giving very low maintenance costs

No other screen on the market gives so much flexibility The low operating and maintenance costs of

the screen give substantial savings over the life of the equipment — as much as 2to 3times

better than comparable screens — a great investment for better environmental protec tion

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Circle reply card No. 120

Knuironmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

MISA update continued through the upcoming regulatory changes. Case Study No. 1: Big City Dairy

Many large municipalities have at least one milk processor con nected to their sewer system. Cur rent pretreatment of dairy and cheese wastes often includes oil and

grease collection, separation of whey, and control of pH. Dis charges of BOD, suspended solids and phosphorus are often well above sewer use bylaw limits. In many cases, high BOD discharges have been allowed, with the indus try paying a surcharge to the munic ipality for their discharge. One typical dairy in a large Onta rio city has kept itself well informed about its discharge, sewer use lim its, and upcoming changes under MISA. It has maintained good rela tions with the municipality, and each has kept the other advised of upcoming events and changes. The municipality has recently adopted a new sewer use bylaw patt erned after the Model Sewer Use

Bylaw. Because of the new bylaw, the industry has already embarked on a program to employ stricter con trol of pH and flow variations. Even with these pro-active steps, the municipality has indicated that a reduction in the concentration of

BOD in the discharge may still be required once the MISA sewer use control program is fully imple mented.

Such a reduction would

likely best be achieved by some form of biological treatment. It is too early to say whether this industry will be required to con struct and operate a biological pre-

Dairy waste treatment.

Case Study No. 2: Small Town Dairy Over the past few years, a major dairy in a rural municipality has successfully completed a coopera

tive program with the local munici pality that reduced the need for additional treatment at the dairy site. The dairy already owned and operated a biological treatment facility to reduce BOD concentra tions to acceptable limits for dis charge to the municipality sewer. Some upgrading of the facility was required, and, under a new Sewer Use Bylaw, more stringent limits were set on the effluent total phos phorus concentration. Initially,this meant that the dairy would be required to construct a chemical phosphorus removal system and larger clarification facility, with sludge handling, dewatering and disposal operations. Instead, the dairy worked cooperatively with the municipality to negotiate a dis charge agreement whereby a solu ble phosphorus limit was setinstead of a total phosphorus limit, and a higher concentration of suspended solids was allowed. As part of the agreement,the industry made a one

treatment facility for its wastewater. The municipality has taken the position that such a pre treatment facility will be required. The industry has noted the proxim ity of residences to the plant site, and the fact that odour complaints have already been received on occa sion from neighbors. Although they are not specifi cally discouraged under the MISA program, many municipalities are trying to eliminate the use of sur charge agreements. If this con tinues, then dairies in urban areas may soon be forced to construct and operate biological pretreatment facilities. In residential areas, tbey would then assume responsibility

local municipality to offset their capital costs for increased sludge handling, digestion and disposal facilities at the municipal sewage treatment plant. The industry also continues to pay a surcharge based on the effluent suspended solids con

for noise and odour control from


plant operations that are not a tradi tional part of their business. The need to acquire inhouse expertise and to train and keep skilled opera

Case Study No. 3: A Manufacturing Plant A manufacturing plant presently pretreats its wastewater primarily for oil and grease removal. Because of the nature of its manufacturing

tors will be an additional burden to such dairies.

time financial contribution to the

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

operation,the plant uses significant amounts of cooling water within the facility. However,because the plant is quite old,these cooling waters are presently discharged to common floor drains with process wastewaters. The present pretreatment sys tem is able to reduce the contaminant concentrations in these combined wastewaters down

to levels acceptable for discharge, even under the Model Sewer Use

Bylaw. The industry is aware, how ever,that much ofthe reason for this acceptable discharge quality is the inclusion of cooling waters in his effluent.

This industrial discharger is con cerned that the new bylaw will require the firm to separate cooling waters, leaving only pretreated pro cess waters for discharge to the sani tary sewer. This discharger has therefore already embarked on a program to investigate and find ways to pretreat wastewaters separ ate from cooling waters in order to satisfy the effluent limits proposed in the Model Sewer Use Bylaw. For this industry, the capital cost and operating requirements will be sig nificant, but achievable. For many industries in a similar situation, such costs could have a significant impact on the viability of the busi ness.

The industry in this case study recognizes that dischargers should not be allowed to dilute their waste-

waters with cooling waters in order to achieve effluent compliance. It is therefore taking a major initiative to prepare for stricter future limits. For this industry, the intent of the MISA sewer use control program will likely be satisfied. ES&E 19

Transportable thermal oxidizer developed In BC In 1988, Aqua-Guard Technologies Inc. obtained financing from the Canadian Government to design, build and test a road transportable thermal oxidizer(Rotary Kiln). The thermal oxidizer has provided an environmentally acceptable and cost-effective solution for efficiently processing materials contaminated with hydrocarbons. The resulting processed materials are suitable for disposal in municipal land fills or for return to the original site. The thermal oxidizer has gener ated a great deal of interest in both government and industry due to its versatility, mobility, and its consid erable potential for cost effective environmental control in disposing of oily waste materials quickly and safely. Final exhaust gases from the system meet Canadian and International atmospheric emis

as required.

The 45,000,000 B.T.U.s per hour escaping from the exhaust stack could






exchanger to produce steam or 10,000 KW/hr of electrical power as an end product from waste destruc tion.

The system is controlled by a fully automated, computer aided, control system. Sensors throughout the system monitor for emissions, temperatures, gas velocities, fuel input, excess air injection (both primary and secondary in the cyclone section of the afterburner), as well as the rotational speed ofthe kiln and throughput volume to ensure maximum production and efficiency as well as to maintain optimum operating conditions and complete combustion. ES&E

t â–

sions standards. There are no vis

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Aqua-Guard Technologies Inc. (originally Aqua-Guard Sales Inc.) was incorporated in 1979 to provide equipment and supply services in association with Bennett Environmen tal Consultants Ltd.



Helping to house Canadians


INVITATION TO BID The Research Division of Canada Mortgage and

Housing Corporation is looking for a multi-disciplinary group to undertake a survey of Canadian houses affected by soil gas migration, especially gases from hazardous lands. CMHC wishes to discover what contaminants have been measured and what remedial

steps have been taken in houses across the country. The goal of the research is to publish descriptions of successful remedial measures for use by municipal officials, housing agencies, and others. This is the first stage of a two-stage proposal call. Interested firms should submit a short letter by April 10,

1990 to the contract manager below. Five firms will be selected to submit a detailed proposal. For more information, contact: Don Fugier

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Research Division 682 Montreal Road

Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0P7

Telephone: (613) 748-2658 Fax Number:(613) 748-6192


Circle reply card No. 121 20

Is Our Business


Not Our Sideline.

If you need a leak-proof containerthat must be sterile, or if you need a clear container for sampling inorganics, or glass containers for sampling organics, or maybe you just need an ordinary plastic bottle, then call usi! We have containers for urine sampling, water sam

pling,(such as potable watertesting), inorganic/organic sampling, milk and food sampling, etc. Please let us know what your needs are and we will send you samples at no charge for you to try. P.S. We also have a full line of sampling accessories to make your job easier. We now have a MISA shipping containerthat holds an assortment of bottles both for inorganic and organic sampling. This container has two cold packs and is made of polystyrene foam. Remember, we also sell all the containers that go into it, whether they be plastic or glass. For more information, please call or write Systems Plus, Box 839, New Hamburg, Ontario NOB 2G0 Tel:(519) 743-8665 Fax:(519) 662-2536

Circle reply card No. 122 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990







to; flanged GROSSES

Pioneers in the design, manufacture and direct marketing of TC.' Waterworks Products dating back to 1906, Terminal City Iron Works today, is the only Western Canadian manufacturer of a complete line of Flanged Grey Iron Waterworks Fittings. These superior quality T.C.' Grey Iron Flanged Fittings conform to the ANSI B16.1 Specification and are available in sizes 4" through 24". Contact our experienced Sales Staff for prompt and efficient customer service.

WORKS LfD. Manufacturers of 'T.C.' Waterworks Products

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 123


Modem Techniques In Sewer Flow Monitoring

Since time immemorial, engineers have faced the challenge of measuring water flow rate in open channels reliably and accurately. Imaginative and technical skills are

further taxed when measurements of wastewater in sewer collection

systems are to be made in response to stringent regulatory initiatives

graphically illustrates these condi tions.

such as MISA*. In addition to the

If we could measure the velocity

variables associated with ordinary

at every point in the cross-sectional area, we would get an excellent aver age velocity figure. But this is not practical. On the other hand, meas uring just one point.and then trying to estimate average velocity (with out knowing the location of the elu sive magic isovel) has limitations too (although any velocity measu rement provides better flowrate

open channel flows, sewers often involve surface foam, submerged debris, corrosive atmospheres, nonuniform flow profiles, changing obstructional conditions, wide vari ations in diurnal flowrates, sur

charge conditions, reverse flows, and more. Instruments available for meas

uring the flowrate in sewer collec tion systems include mechanical and electronic, temporary(portable) and stationary, and submersible and

information than can he obtained

By Riyaz Jlwani, P.Eng. Geneq Inc.

Flowrate Measurements

above-ground instruments.

These instruments estimate flow-

iving average velocity, V, under all

rate by measuring only depth of the water; or there are other instru

flow conditions is much more diffi

ments that calculate sewer flow rate

instruments and their technologies

low instrument cost.

open channel can be characterized by lines representing different


when the flow is not under free flow


Open Channel Velocity Profiles The cross-sectional profile of an

conditions and an inability to detect

velocities (isovels) or by a crosssectional view characterizing the

reverse flows or measure flow under

flow profile along a vertical line up

surcharge conditions. This paper will discuss only those techniques that involve the mea surement of both depth and velocity of the wastewater stream.

Depth-Velocity Flow Measurement Flow rate is obtained by using the continuity equation: Q=V.A where Q-flow rate A-cross sectional area

V-average velocity of wastewater through A If the shape and dimensions of the conduit, and how deep the water is at a point in the conduit, are known,A can be easily derived. Der-

the centre of the channel. For a cir

cular pipe, these might appear as Fig. 1.

In Fig. 2, if velocity of the water is highest at point A,somewhat less at point B (the water's surface) and least at point C, the Average veloc ity overall is somewhere in between the velocities c and a.


where the velocity is coincidentally the same as whatever is the true

average velocity over the whole area. We will call this magic isovel, M.

If the position ofthis magic isovel were known, velocity could be mea sured at any point on the isovel and

equal to the average velocity for the entire stream. In real life, however,

that magic isovel moves up and down as the depth of the water changes. It also shifts to the right and left if the flow is disturbed or is

for Abatement. 22

Rough Pipe

there are some isovel circumstances

we would have a velocity value

*MISA - Municipal Industrial Strategy

1. Stationary Magic Point This method uses a simple veloc ity sensor to determine average

cult, and it is in the way they accomplish this that available

by measuring both the depth and the velocity of the wastewater. The advantages of using depthonly instruments are simplicity and tages include large inaccuracies

with just depth information). Existing Techniques for Sewer

not otherwise perfectly uniform. Its location even varies depending on pipe roughness and slope. Fig. 3

velocity by measuring at a point on the magic isovel. It assumes the

position of the isovel and that the isovel will not move in the future. We

know, however, that any change in flow profile, whether due to flow dis turbances or change in the water depth, will move the isovel. Since the sensor cannot track the shifting isovel, the velocity it measures will only coincidentally be the same as the true average velocity. In

2. Moveable Magic Point this method, the sensor

attempts to track the magic isovel as

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

it moves up and down with changes in the water depth. This certainly improves its chances of measuring at a point where the velocity is close to the true average velocity of the stream. However, sideways shifts in the profile due to flow irregulari ties or disturbances cannot be recog

We know that ideal conditions

seldom occur in sewers. In reality, sewer flow profiles vary greatly and can in fact change within one sewer from day to day. Therefore, much of the theory and empirical predictions simply don't work well in real-world sewers. Some of the conditions that


separate actual sewers from labora tory conditions are:

3. Constant Correction Factor

In this method, velocity is mea sured at a simple point either at the bottom of the channel or at a point somewhere above the bottom.


realizes that the velocity where it is measuring, is usually less than the true average velocity of the entire stream, so it multiplies the reading it obtains by a fixed constant, say 1.25, to achieve a velocity value that more closely approximates the true velocity. This method assumes a constant ratio,(for all flow profiles and depths), between the velocity at the fixed point where it takes the reading and the true average veloc ity. This method works well in applications where flow disturban ces are rare and the level of flow

doesn't change significantly. 4. Time of Flight In this method, tranducers are

Fig. 5a

• Y and T connections.

ity) varies with the depth of the water. As the velocity profile of a stream shifts upwards as water depth increases,it changes the ratio between the measured velocity and velocity in the magic isovel (or true average velocity). Empirical studies have yielded a family of these numbers, and these have been pro grammed into the instrument that can derive an estimate of time aver

age velocity, based not only on a locally measured simple velocity, but also on pipe diameter and fluid depth. This method, however, fails to recognize disturbed flows or changes in flow profiles.

mounted on the sides ofthe channel, opposite one another but with one

down stream from the other. By sending an acoustic signal across and down the stream and measur

ing the travel time between the transducers, a good average veloc ity reading of the stream across the horizontal plane can be obtained.

below the sensors.

5. Depth Modified Velocity A variation of the Constant Cor

rection Factor technique, the cor recting factor applied to the simple velocity measurement (to make it approximate the true average veloc-

• Broken and shifted pipe sections. • Water injected from feeders.

• Disturbing and/or slowing main flow stream.

• Rubble and debris on the pipe bot tom.

• Poorly made and shaped manhole inverts.

• Pipe rougher above the normal water line than helow.

• Disturbances caused by instru ments' own mounting hardware. As a result ofsuch conditions,the flow profile can vary dramatically, and in many cases, the resultant flow is unevenly divided on either side of the centre line of the pipe. Therefore, the traditional way the industry has looked at velocity pro file curves(by taking single point or single line measurements) is not always well suited to sewer flows. It is better to look at the problem in a multi-dimensional way. Mean Velocity Profiling



Velocity Profiling

(MVP) system consists of three separate velocity sensors, each

The instrument takes into account

the depth ofthe water, and knowing the relationship between the aver age velocity across the stream at that level and the true average velocity for that depth of flow (all obtained by previous empirical mea surement), it produces a good esti mate of average velocity. This system does not work very well when the level of the water drops

• Sudden pipe turns, pipe size changes, pipe slope changes.

Fig. 5b

6. Point Velocity Discharge Method Flow is calculated based on the

Manning Equation with the input of a simple velocity reading to modify the results. This method uses only a simple velocity reading taken at a fixed point, and while it takes into

account slope and pipe wall rough ness, it cannot recognize disturbed

flows or changes in flow profiles. Why a Better Way is Needed

All depth and depth-velocity flow rate instruments rely on fluid

measuring the velocity in separate areas: directly in front of the probe; up to the left and up to the right(see Fig. 4). If the actual flow profile is as in Fig. 5a. then MVP would be measur

ing the velocity at the three points as in Fig. 56. In an ideal case V2 and Vi should equal to one another, and both ofthem be greater than Vi. Ho w-

ever, if the flow pattern were as Fig. 6, we would expect V2 to be greater than either V i and Vi.

By analyzing the relationship among those individual velocities, and knowing the size and shape of

mechanics theory and/or empirical testing, and therefore assume a pre dictable situation in their applica tion. For example, if flow is not uniform, they assume that any changes in flow will still result in uniform changes in that profile. To varying degrees, these instruments can be adjusted to accomodate the

site situations behaving from the ory or textbook conditions under which its empirical data were col

lected, but, they are unable to recog nize flow profile changes in more Fig. 4

than one direction.

Environmental Science c6 Engineering. March 1990

Fig . 5

Continued on page 55 23

Flow Measurement A Return to Basics Necessity is the mother of invention

The means to an end

First; there was a waterway - then came the desire

MONITARIO has the experience and expertise

to measure flow. That desire has existed since the

to convert your MISA monitoring point into a flow metering station to the fullest compliance of the MISA regulation. MONITARIO will:

beginning of history but practical means to mea sure flow accurately had to be developed. The design and testing process for flumes and weirs has been driven by practicality. This has led to the development of many types of primary devi ces (flumes, control structures, weirs, orifaces, etc.). Development has not been merely for inter ests sake but to fit specific orgeneral applications. Applications are as numerous as there are water

• manufacture or supervise construction of the


selected device.

• select the device.

• design that device to fit the installation and flow rates both present and future.

• instal l that device either 'on the fly' or under dry

MISA regulations stipulate continuous


and accurate flow measurement. Some points along certain waterways have been designated MISA monitoring points. They require sampling and flow measurement be carried out to a degree of specified standards. Based on many characteristics stemming from the physical conditions of the waterway, flow ranges, water quality and others, a primary device selection may be made. This selection must also consider the capacities of the waterway and the quality of the waters being measured. In addition to its selection, the primary devices design condi tions for installation and operation must also be

• configure the specified secondary device to the primary device.

taken into account.

• support the installation with full documentation

including a secondary device calibration report, 'as installed' primary device references supporting the installation and an Association of Professional

Engineers of Ontario(APEG)certification of accu racy and installation.

MONITARIO is committed to the preservation of Ontario's waterways by helping industries and municipalities comply fully with Environmental regulations.

23 Old Park Lane

Remote Monitoring and Calibration Service

Kitchener, Ontario N2N 2J7 (519) 748-8024



Technical Support Applications Assistance


Circle reply card No. 124




Applications Support System Rentals

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


Toxic site ciean-up couid cost $5 biiiion greater responsibility for our legacy By R. Bruce Smith*

Our federal government recently announced that it has identified approxi mately 1,000 toxic waste

sites across Canada. Environment Minister Lucien Bouchard estimates

that total clean-up costs could reach $5 billion. The proclaimed goal of the federal government is to have the private sector pay 95 percent of that bill and to confine the govern ment's share to no more than 5 per cent. These objectives were announced with the usual pro nouncement



sites should he cleaned up at the expense of the responsible party, consistent with the "polluter-pays" principle. Over the past five years, the governments of Ontario, Saskatche wan and Canada have enacted legis lation which could achieve that goal in their respective jurisdictions. The federal government is offering incentives to other provinces to enact similar legislation. When leg islation is passed to implement the strategy, it typically includes provi sions which attack the evils of toxic

emissions, discharges, spills, and the transportation and disposal of hazardous waste. In this fashion, our politicians have successfully avoided public debate on whether the government should accept

of contaminated lands.

Understandably, politicians prefer to forget that government policy ignored (and sometimes approved)the abuses ofthe past and that today's "responsible parties" may have innocently acquired con taminated land from prior owners. Clearly, our governments are more concerned with protecting the pub lic purse than dealing equitably and fairly with a massive societal prob lem created by the failings of both government and business. In fact, government policy on toxic real est ate has been so successful that our

business community appears wil ling to quietly accept the entire burden of decades of environmental

neglect. The stakes are enormous for any business which owns,buys,sells, leases or finances real estate which

may be contaminated.

whether that business created the

So, how do our governments intend to shift $5 billion in clean-up costs to the private sector?


answer can be best understood by starting from the origins ofthe legis lation. When governments in both Canada




solution was to expand the scope of environmental liability to include any business which owns or con trols toxic real estate when the pollu tion is discovered or discharged,


began to look at the issue, they rec ognized that industrial wastes can lie dormant or hidden for decades

before the problem surfaces. By that time, the generator ofthe waste may have disappeared or gone insolvent leaving the public purse exposed for the clean-up costs. The American

pollution or simply inherited the waste of a prior owner or operator of the site.

This concept has been referred to as the so-called "deep-pockets" the ory of environmental liability. By that theory, government exposure for clean-up costs and third party claims can be shifted to the private sector unless the site has been com

pletely abandoned.

The concept

has, from its inception, had tre mendous appeal for both Canadian and American governments. The fairness of the policy is quite another issue.

The "deep-pockets" theory was first implemented in the United States by federal "Superfund" legis lation entitled the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compen sation and Liability Act. At the risk of oversimplification,the Superfund law works as follows. A government "Superfund" is established from fed eral tax revenues to pay the clean-up or "response" costs for designated sites. 'The Superfund is reimbursed by the generators of the waste and those businesses which "owned" or

"operated" the site when the con tamination





charged. Superfund claims are enforceable by court action and in some states by a lien against the land. Overall, the legislation has achieved great success in recovering Continued overleaf

Closed landfill site in Ontario. Proposed new sites are facing increasing opposition and rising transportation costs as local facilities become full.

Environmental Science & Engineering. March 1990

*R. Bruce Smith is a partner in Blake Casseis & Graydon, one of Canada's largest legal practices. 25

Toxic site cleanup could cost $5 billion continued Superfund claims from the private sector.

Most Canadian provinces have had legislation in place for many years which empowers Environ ment Ministers to clean up contami nated land at public expense and to sue the generator of the waste for reimbursement. Those powers have, however, rarely been exer cised. Apparently our governments do not wish to spend public money and prefer to shift the entire respon sibility onto private business.

makes great press for these govern ments as they promote their efforts to protect the environment. Where the legislation applies, civil liability for the cost of environ mental clean-ups is imposed on those persons and corporations responsible for the ownership or control of sources of contamination.

Where the defence of due diligence cannot be proven, liability may be imposed even though: • the business did not generate or

as a result of unlawful activity. Fines for officers, directors or employees can be $10,000 per day in

Ontario or $200,000 federally. Pri son terms can be up to one year in Ontario and three years federally. Persons or businesses caught by the legislation may be subject to control orders, spill orders, restoration and compliance orders and the suspen sion of permits, licences or vehicle plates. No provinces other than Ontario and Saskatchewan have brought similar legislation to first reading. But, recently, Mr. Bouchard offered them an incentive to do so. The fed

eral government will contribute

$100 million towards the clean-up

Inevitably a potent Canadian version of the "deep-pockets" theory of environmental liability was born

Inevitably, a potent Canadian version of the "deep-pockets" theory of environmental liability was born. The Canadian version provides that:

•As in the United States, liability is imposed on both the generators of the waste and those who own or con trol a site at the time contamination

is discovered or discharged. • The generator, owner or person in control will be strictly liable for environmental offences unless all

reasonable care or "due diligence" was exercised to prevent the occurrence.

• Personal liability is imposed on officers, directors and employees who fail to exercise all reasonable

care to prevent an unlawful dis charge or who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced, or partici pated in the commission of an offence.

• Fines and prison terms are mas sively increased against corpora tions and their officers, directors and employees. Enforcement budgets are expanded and convic tions vigorously pursued. • Finally, strict liability is imposed by statute for property damage and personal injuries suffered by third

cause the contamination in the first

place; • the land was bought innocently without knowledge of the contami nation; and • there was no intention to cause or

costs of 50 abandoned sites across

Canada. Any province which enacts legislation similar to the models passed by the Governments of Saskatchewan, Ontario and Can ada may participate in the federal program. With the current popular ity of the "deep-pockets" concept and recent federal incentives, it seems reasonable to expect that other provinces may enact similar legislation in the near future. But,it

release the pollution.

remains to be seen whether Cana

Statutory civil liability is supple mented by common law remedies including nuisance, trespass, negli gence, and strict liability (Rylands V. Fletcher). Civil remedies can include damages,injunctions, man datory orders, prejudgment interest and legal costs.

dian business can successfully lobby for statutory exemptions or broader defences (such as the "secured lender exemption" and the "innocent landowner defence" rec

On the criminal or quasi-criminal side of environmental liability, there are five types of offences

ognized in the United States). In short, a century of industrial pollution and landfill activities has left a legacy of environmental time bombs for businesses which depend on real estate. New legislation impacts on many commercial and

which include:

industrial businesses and the envir

•the discharge or release ofcontam inants from property under owner ship or control; • failure to immediately notify appropriate authorities upon a dis charge or spill of contaminants; • failure to obtain or comply with environmental permits or approvals

onmental net is ever expanding. Fortunately, some protective mea sures can be implemented to reduce the risk of civil and criminal liabil

ity for those who own, control, buy, sell, lease, finance, grant or take security upon land which may be contaminated. Where necessary,an

Fines for corporations can be up to $500,000 per day In Ontario or $1 million federally and may be Increased....


These concepts have been imple mented by three Canadian govern ments during the past five years with the proclamation of amend ments to the Environmental Protec tion Act of Ontario and the

Environmental Management and Protection Act of Saskatchewan and with the enactment of the Cana dian Environmental Protection Act.

Not only does this legislation pro vide heavy fire power in the war to shift responsibility from govern ment to the private sector,butit also 26

or to comply with environmental regulations and requirements; • failure to comply with legislative requirements for the transportation, storage and disposal of waste; and •failure to provide information or to co-operate with enforcement officers during their investigations or dur ing a search and seizure. Fines for corporations can be up to $500,000 per day in Ontario or $1 million federally and may be increased to include profits earned

interdisciplinary team of environ mental lawyers and engineers can be formed to thoroughly investigate the risks and regulatory compliance issues arising from any proposed transaction or continuing business operation. By understanding the risks and implementing appropriate precautions, you can protect your business opportunities and minim ize the enormous risk of environ

mental liability for contaminated land. ES&E

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

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minutes or until the water is cool

Lead in Ontario Drinking Water By H.J. Graham Ontario Ministry of the Environment

grab samples of flushed and over night, which theoretically give min imum and maximum values, are difficult to interpret. The addition of a random sample leads to more con fusion. Some of the same residences

Lead in drinking water is of great concern south of the border with a

proposed USEPA MCL of5 ug/L for the water entering the distribution system. It also requires corrosion control and public notification ifthe average lead concentration in the overnight standing water exceeds 10 ug/L. Public notification would also be required if more than 5% of the results exceeded 20 ug/L. In Ontario, lead is also an important issue with numerous studies being completed or in progress that will evaluate the situation and may ulti mately lead to a lower MAC. In Can ada and the USA,the current limit is 50 mg/L. The Ontario Drinking

Water Objectives(ODWO)are pres ently based on the quality at the free-flowing outlet of the ultimate consumer.

The main source of lead in drink

ing water appears to be lead services and the solder joining copper pip ing. Lead levels in drinking water are affected by many factors, some of which are aggressiveness of the water, temperature, age of the plumbing, and time the water is in contact with the lead. Sampling for lead is a problem since it is difficult to get a sample representative of the actual water consumed.

The Ministry ofthe Environment (MOE), has done extensive monitor ing of drinking water systems throughout Ontario. The standard

were sampled in several recent stu dies and the results of the grab sam ples could be extremely variable. in

Low concentrations were found surface waters and in most

ground waters. The flushed concen trations were low, while overnight concentrations

were somewhat

higher. Individual residences could have lead concentrations in stand

and of a constant temperature, the lead levels will generally be less than 5 ug/L. The Ministry of the Environment has recently been involved in an extensive survey that sampled schools and daycare facilities in all communities in Ontario. A total of

approximately 3,800 elementary schools (two fountains each) and 2,100 daycare facilities in schools and other buildings(one fountain or tap each) were sampled. The sam

ples taken from each tap/fountain were an overnight standing (Mon day morning at schools) and a five minute flushed sample. Flushed sample results were all below the

ing waters above the guideline level of 50 ug/L. In one MOE study, a composite sampler was used on the kitchen tap over a one-week period to get a better

the levels in drinking water, there are also several initiatives by the Federal and Ontario governments

estimate of the lead in water actu

to review the multitude of new infor

ally consumed. The sampler was activated only when the water was used for drinking or cooking, since water-use patterns can greatly infu-

mation on health effects, determine the allowable daily intake (ADI), examine the data on exposure, and

ence the lead concentration.

ADI. The Ministry of Health is also engaged in studies to determine the blood lead levels in children(a sensi tive sub-population) in relation to environmental exposure, including drinking water. This is the ultimate test to see if we have a problem with lead in drinking water. A new lead guideline, still based on the flushed sample, has been recommended by the Federal/Pro vincial Subcommittee on Drinking Water, the group that initiates the


seven municipalities sampled include major population areas and communities where high lead levels were found in previous studies. Daily composite samples had lead concentrations that were much more consistent than the corres

ponding grab samples. The above table indicates that

only 2% of all the samples obtained were over the ODWO of 50 ug/L. These exceedences were only in the random and overnight samples, taken prior to flushing. No flushed samples or composite samples con tained lead values above the ODWO. If the water is flushed for 5

ODWO. Besides the studies to determine

arrive at a suitable distribution of

process of setting new Canadian guidelines, and it is currently pro ceeding through the approval pro cess. Ontario would adopt the new value.



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Zebra Mussels - a growing problem In the Great Lakes

Zebra Mussels (Dreissena

the growth rate may be double that

polymorpha) are European

By Don Lewis, B.Sc.*

in some areas of the Great Lakes.

freshwater bivalves intro duced into the Great Lakes

occurs between June and October

Veliger and post veliger stages are the most sensitive and susceptible to

in 1986. It is speculated that they came in the ballast of ships from European ports which later dispersed them with ballast dis charges in North America(Lake St. Clair). Zebra Mussels are rapidly devel oping into the most serious and

potentially harmful pest and disper sal into all of the Great Lakes and

inland waterways appears to be inevitable. The mussels' ability to multiply and permanently attach to hard substrates make them a poten tial disaster both ecologically and economically. We know from our inspections and from communica tion with government bodies that mussels are present in large numbers in Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie and the Welland Canal at St. Catharines.

We believe that mussels may already be sporadically dispersed in Lake Ontario, especially in the major shipping lanes and ports. Our understanding of the biology of Zebra Mussels is based exten

sively on European sources. Our experience suggests that this infor mation may be conservative and mussels are maturing sooner and reproducing at a greater rate than the literature suggests. They are thought to mature in the second year of life and reproduction usually

when water temperature exceeds 12°C. Adult densities(50:50, male to female) have been documented at several hundred thousand/m^ in the western Lake Erie basin. It's not

difficult to see why dispersal is rapid when females produce from 30 to 40,000 eggs per individual. Both eggs and sperm are released into the water where fertilization produces the free swimming veliger stage. In thermally enriched reservoirs, reproduction may continue for sev eral months.

Larval development is optimal at 20-22°C. The free swimming larval stage lasts for 8 to 16 days, however asynchronous egg production and a differential rate of development between colonies means that this

important dispersal stage may be present for 2 to 8 months,from June to October and maybe longer. Lar vae eventually sink to the bottom and begin a fairly sedentary life. This post veliger stage is still mobile and crawls around as other mussels

and clams do, using a single muscu lar foot. Following its first season, mussels form thin threads called

byssal threads which they use to permanently attach themselves to a suitable substrate.

In European waters mussels grow to about 10 mm in their first year. Our experience indicates that

control measures. Adults live for 3

to 5 years as sedentary filter feeders in European waters. Dispersal

While the main mode of dispersal is through the passive movement of thousands of veliger larvae with currents, many may also be taken in with ships ballast water and trans ported great distances throughout the Great Lakes.

In addition, young adults can att ach and detach from the substrates

allowing them to be transported on ships hulls and move upstream, downstream or to inland lakes on

recreational watercraft. Obviously, dispersal of Zebra Mussels should be prevented where ever possible, unfortunately this is difficult if not impossible. Aggregates occur when groups of individuals attach to an appropriate substrate and to one another until large masses are formed. Problems

1) Blofouling

Industrial and domestic pipe lines are usually the most dramati cally impacted by Zebra Mussels. Because of their microscopic size, mussel larvae pass through travel ling screens and microstrainers to finally settle well inside service water systems. Aquatic Sciences has made presentations, under taken inspections and is monitoring for a wide variety of industry and business that already have or antici

pate problems with the mussel.These include food, chemical, and manu facturing industries as well as power plants, WTPs, nurseries, etc., that draw untreated water from lakes or rivers. Problems associated with mussel introduction into the Great Lakes have included:

• Bore reduction of intake pipes. • Blockage of small diameter pipes several km inland.

• Reduced flow through pipes caused hy turbulence. • Electrocorrosion of steel or cast iron.

• Tainting or contamination of water at death.

In addition,encrustations on ves sels, fishing gear and navigational

Commercial diver with underwater video camera for Zebra Mussei inspection on intake cribs.


*Aquatlc Sciences Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

aids have made the operation ofthis equipment difficult, time consuming and sometimes impossible. While these mussels may provide a new food source for aquatic wild life, their impact on the ecology of the Great Lakes could be dramatic.

These bivalves filter large amounts of potential food for native fish lar vae and may also significantly inhibit spawning of major game fish by coating major spawning beds with actively filtering individ uals.

The ability of the mussel to filter large volumes of water and remove nutrients was initially anticipated as beneficial; however, they may prove to be too effective, reducing food sources for native species or increasing clarity to the point of actually encouraging algal blooms. Investigations in Lake Erie indicate that water clarity has increased by as much as 11' in the past three years.


While all parties are hoping that some natural predator (fish, water fowl, crayfish) will take up the chal lenge and control populations to some extent, the ability of the mus sel to reproduce seems to preclude biological control as a major solu tion. However, it is possible that a parasite will develop to curb the pop

treatment. Aquatic Sciences is pro viding "on line" residual chlorine analysis for this study. The results achieved to this point differ from the original study but are also encou raging. These initial studies verify that chlorination is the treatment of cho

ice, for the time being,for the control of Zebra Mussel infestations. While

the concern for effluent quality is valid, a variety of methods are avail able to strip residual chlorine. The addition of bisulphite or the use of charcoal filters in line have been

effective in our experience. The concern over handling safety

Zebra Mussel

and the formation of Trihalome-

thanes (THMs) have prompted the search to find alternatives that may either reduce or eliminate chlorine

from some systems.

The list of

potential, but as yetunproven chem icals and materials, which may become available to industries in

plants or industrial complexes. Sand and charcoal filters, heat,elec trification and mechanical removal

have also been used with varying success to reduce mussel infesta tion.

the near or distant future, is grow ing, as laboratories and chemical manufacturers race to develop the

The challenge Is to develop an environmentally benign treatment that can oust chlorine as a proven

"silver bullet" for the elimination of the mussel from water treatment

effective and economical solution to

a rapidly developing problem. ES&E

Whc cares abcut

grcundwater quality?


Chlorination ofservice water sys

We dc!

tems is one of the most effective and

popular methods of controlling the mussel in the industrial complexes

of Europe. Aquatic Sciences Inc. has been directly involved in both of the Ministry of the Environment approved experimental control pro grams undertaken to date. The firm designed and is presently imple menting a control program, using chlorine gas, at a foundry located on the Detroit River. Chlorine gas is applied to the service water system (14,000 gpm), at a free residual level

The Ontaric Water Well Asscciatlcn - a voluntary trade association made up of water well drillers & borers, pump installers, manufacturers & sup pliers, hydrogeologists & engineers, and interested individuals, who work together to promote and protect groundwater.

similar to that found in drinking water. Levels of residual chlorine

were monitored with both portable and "on line" amperometric meters throughout the complex with emphasis on critical areas such as heat exchangers and effluent sew

Attend our Annual Convention and Trade Show

June 7, 8. 9. 1990

Sault Ste. Marie. Ontario

ers. Chlorine was eliminated from

the final effluent using bisulphite

For Membership or Convention information,

whenever residuals were detected


near the final treatment lagoon. Numbers of both larvae and adult

Mary Alderson, Secretary Manager

mussels which were eliminated,far

exceeded our expectations based on European literature. Liquid hypochlorite is presently being applied at a hydro electric facility on Lake Erie. 'This program design was based on preliminary

Ontario Water Well Association

R. R. #2, Grand Bend, Ontario NOM ITO

Phone:(519)243-3612 Fax:(519)243-1196

results obtained from our initial

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 128


Replacing a seal can put you out of business for hours.

to have a pump

One that

in minutes.

It isn't good business

Not that Gorman-

to waste a lot of man-

hours servicing a pump. That's the whole idea

behind Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps. They're built to service in minutes instead of hours.

Replacing a seal is just as easy as replacing the impeller or wearpiate. Simply remove the coverpiate. You don't have to disconnect

piping or use special tools.

3300 gpm with heads up to 130

Rupp seals need servicing often. They don't. They're made of tungsten titanium

feet. And, depending on pump size, they handle spherical solids up to 3 inches in diameter.

carbide. Just about the hardest surface known to man.


Manminutes instead of

A most intelligent use of manpower.

And Gorman-Rupp solids handiing pumps are engi


neered to do more

than just service in minutes. They'll do an around-theclock job. Ranging in size from 3 inches to 10 inches, they deliver up to

GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burweii Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone: (519)631-2870 Fax:(519)631-4624

Distributors across Canada. Consult the Yeiiow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps.Iliey keep you in business. 32

Circle reply card No. 129

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Technology Provides PCB Transformer Solutions

The service begins with one retro fill, to replace the Askarel fluid with a perchloroethhylene (Perc) based dielectric fluid. Compared with other Askarel replacement fluids, Perc has superior dielectric proper ties. It also can act as the reclassifi

available here. By John McFarland*

The difficulty in eliminating PCBs from transformers is effective removal of PCB molecules from the intricate

wood, paper and metal internals of

the unit. It's not enough to simply replace PCB containing fluid with the new fluid. If not thoroughly removed from the transformer coil, PCBs will migrate, or leach, back

Storage of these

fluids would be far more hazardous

than PCB storage, as TCBs are the components of Askarels that pro duce dioxins in a fire. The technol

ogy is active in the United States, reclassifying Askarel transformers to <50 ppm in 18-24 months, after four to seven retrofills.

into the new,clean dielectric fluid.If this leachback results in fluid recon-

tamination that exceeds regulatory

fill, and is now available in Canada.

limits (50 ppm), the transformer remains regulated and a financial

As seen with mineral oil units,

All technologies developed for removing PCBs from transformers

are based on maximizing PCB remo val, thereby minimizing leachback.

the most effective method of remov

ing PCBs from transformer inter nals is to continuously circulate PCB free fluid through the trans former while it is energized (hot).

The lower contamination levels in

This combination of heat and con tinuous circulation enhances leach

oil filled units led to technology development in this category first. Unlike technology for mineral oil

ing and decreases the time required to remove PCBs. This is the concept behind processor-based reclassifica

filled PCB contaminated



The Askarel fluid must be stored

(in all provinces except Alberta) until destruction is available.

Proper storage, however, is gener ally known to be less of a fire risk than continued use of Askarels in

Processor Based Reclassification

Concurrent with multiple retro fill technology, a processor-based technology was also developed and commercialized. This technology is quite different from multiple retro


cation and permanent dielectric fluid, so that only one outage/retrofill is required.

operating electrical transformers.

After the retrofill, and an exten sive maintenance/overhaul of the

transformer, a compact processor is installed to the transformer's top and bottom valves.

The processor circulates the die lectric fluid in a closed-loop,separat ing PCBs from the fluid and collecting them in concentrated amounts for subsequent removal. The processor is controlled by a sophisticated microprocessor which monitors and controls heat, flow rate, and the other process varia bles. The system is thus designed for reliable, unattended operation. The processing takes 9-12 months Continued overleaf

which became available in the early '8G's, Askarel technology was not developed or commercialized until recently.


Askarel-filled Transformers

Although a multiple retrofill technology has been developed, util izing chlorinated benzens CTCBs)as retrofill fluid and silicones for a

final dielectric, it is not feasible yet for Canada.

This is because the

method produces multiple volumes of PCB containing TCB fluid which must be processed or incinerated at specialized facilities not yet readily

Comprehensive Laboratory Services Include:

• All MISA Test Groups • Field Sampling • Sample Bottles CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd.

178 Louisa St.

Kitchener, Ontario

ENSR mobile RGB treatment unit, chemicaliy detoxifies and restores mineral oil containing PCBs in trans formers and bulk storage tanks.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


Tel:(S19) S79-4230 Fax:(S19) S79-636S

Specialists in Environmental Analyses

Circle reply card No. 131


Technolpgy Provides PCB Transformer Solutions cont'd. for thorough PCB removal. Reclassify or Replace Askarel Transformers

risk-reduction objectives. These fac tors include;

Some have constant load while oth

• Transformer Condition. Askarel

Pertinent factors when consider

transformers in use today are typi cally 10-50 years old. Well main tained units may be good candidates for retrofill, based on useful life and payback calcula tions. Following this, very old or unmaintained units may be better candidates for replacement. The

ing reclassification versus replace

transformers that are in the middle

ment are primarily associated with specific equipment details and the

range should be carefully evaluated electrically and economically to determine retrofill or replacement

Now that the reclassitication of

PCB containing transformers is a viable alternative to replacement and storage, there are new variables to


considered and


before making a PCB management decision.

feasibility. • Load. Transformers by applica tion are loaded very differently. ers have a very cyclic, variable load. Constant load



completion. • Size/Volume. Transformers by design vary in the number of gal lons of oil required to cool them. For example, a 1000 kVA Askarel trans former may vary from as few as 130 gallons to as many as 650 gallons of Askarel fluid. It is usually the older, less efficient transformers, how ever, that require a larger quantity

Are you responsible for routine potability testing, cfiecking process water suitability, or monitoring landfill leachates? If so, MANN AQUA can+ielp you confidently meet your objectives simply by using our i

of fluid; and these older units may be more economically replaced with higher efficiency units. • Outages. Transformers required to operate seven days per week and 24 hours per day should consider the outage requirements of replacement (1 lengthy outage) vs In-Situ Pro cessing for reclassification (1 short


• Location. Transformers that are

transformer owner's electrical and







not easily accessible and are extremely difficult to remove may be



better candidates for reclassifica


tion than replacement. For exam ple, Askarel transformers in a basement vault where the building


And in base you ttiink you're getting the whole picture with your present


has been constructed around the vault - or transformers on the 30th

testing . . .


floor of a 40-story building may be far more economical to reclassify. • Storage Requirements. Methods which require the least amount of fluid or carcass storage are more desirable. Although proper storage is more prudent than continued fluid use in operating transformers (fire risk), minimizing storage volume reduces long term risk of


YOU'RE MISSING! Ask yourself this .."Do my test results balance?... Are they complete?"... or. . . don't you really knowl

At MANN AQUA we know! Quality comes first because our expert system says so. And to prove if, we give you all of your theoretical Quality Control data so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is not missing. It's really quite simple: our computer checks the Ion balance. When the cations and

anions (-i- and ^)are not equal, either an analytical error exists which we'll correct before it leaves the lab, or something is in your sample which has not ' been tested for; in either case the theoretical conductivity pinpoints the solution. So if you didn't know what you were missing before . . .

environmental incident. Conclusion

Along with escalating PCB inci dents, media coverage, public con cern and financial losses, technologies have been made avail able for removing PCBs at their riskiest source; in operating electri cal transformers.

As recently as the last year, an alternative to replacement/storage


of Askarel transformers became

At MANN AQUA, you don't have to worry about ion imbalances... our expert system doesn't allow them. And remember, if your pluses and minus don't add up, we won't say "We told you so" - we'll tell you WFIY!


former specific variables, method


limitations, economics, and corpo rate risk management goals.

Changing the way professionals, like you, see their results. 34

widely available. This processorbased technology enables reclassifi cation of these highly contaminated units while eliminating the risks of transformer carcass transportation and storage. Careful exploration of all alterna tives reveals that many variables impact method selection — trans

Circle reply card No. 130

•John McFarland is General Manager of ENSR Operations. Ltd. in Canada.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March. 1990

The biggest trade fair for waste water

and waste disposal in the world

9th International Trade Fair

for Waste Water and Waste Disposal:

Sewage, Refuse, Recycling, Public Cleansing, Street Maintenance and Winter Road Service In conjunction with the 8th European Sewage and Refuse Symposium organized by The European Water Pollution Control Association e.V.(EWPCA), International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association (ISWA)and Verband

Kommunaler Stadtereinigungsbetriebe e.V,(VKS)

STOPPING WATER POLLUTION AT ITS SOURCE To protect Ontario's water resources, the provincial government is adopting tough new measures. Under MISA - Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement - the flow of toxic pollutants will be reduced and eliminated by limits set in enforceable regulations developed under the Environmental Protection Act.

HOW? • Monitoring regulations requiring nine direct discharging industrial sectors to test for a broad spectrum of potential pollutants and to report the quantities of toxic chemicals in their effluents over a 12month period - random audits will ensure accurate and represen tative monitoring • Abatement regulations based on the monitoring results and the best available technology economically achievable (BATEA) they will be periodically reviewed and toughened as technology gets better • Regulations will also be developed for municipal sewage treatment plants and over 18,000 companies that discharge into municipal sewer systems

• Public consultation on all MISA regulations

WHEN? The petroleum sector has completed monitoring and development

of the abatement regulation has begun. Results on the first six months of monitoring are now available on request. Monitoring regulations are in place for the following sectors: organic chemicals, iron and steel, inorganic chemicals, pulp and paper, metal mining, metal casting, and electric power. The regulation for industrial minerals will be implemented by March, 1990. All sectors will have completed their monitoring by mid-1991. Abatement regu lations for these sectors will follow the completion of their monitoring programs.

Over 1000 exhibiting companies from 23 countries present on an exhibition area of 107,000 sqm the full range of goods and services of the international waste water and waste disposal




Munich,22-26 May

For copies of the Preliminary Report for the First Six Months of Monitoring in the Petroleum Sector or any other MISA reports, please contact: Public Information Centre 135 St. Clair Avenue West

Toronto, Ontario M4V1P5



(416)323-4321 Pour obtenir des renseignements en frangais composer le 323-4321.


UNILINK,50 Weybright Court, Unit 41, Agincourt, Ont, MIS SAB, Tel. 416-291 -6359, Tfax 416-291 -0025

Environment Environnement Ontario

© Lufthansa Circle reply card No. 132

Jim Bradley. Minister/fnmistre


Circle reply card No. 133


Metro-Toronto's water surpasses objectives By R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng.*

A series of articles regarding water quality - focussing on municipal and bottled drinking water - appeared in the January 15, 1990, issue of Maclean's Magazine. Two ofthe arti cles dealt in considerable detail with

Metropolitan Toronto's water supply regarding chemical content and treatment procedures. The Metropolitan Toronto Works Department staff co-operated with Maclean's




December, 1989, providing factual data to inform the public about the safety of Toronto's water supply. While the article contained some of

the information we provided, in our opinion the tone and format used in presenting the subject were need lessly alarmist. Maclean's in turn, advised us that they believe they have taken a "balanced approach" on the subject and clearly stated in the article that Toronto's water eas

ily met Federal and Provincial drink ing water quality guidelines and is considered safe to drink. They min imized any suggestion that the arti cles were alarmist, or should create doubt about the municipal water supply. However, their use of the international danger signal(a diag onal in a circle)shown over a tap on the cover of the article clearly indi cates their intent.

We appreciate their clarifying comments following publication of the article. However, as with many

media reports on water quality, most of the public are left confused, concerned and possibly alarmed. The' magazine stated that: analy sis commissioned by Maclean's showed that a glass of Toronto tap water contained traces of 20 sub stances, some of which are poten tially toxic including zinc, copper, arsenic and chloroform. This should not be alarming unless the substances exceed objectives and guidelines, and are reasonably sus

pected of being a health hazard; none of which is applicable to Metro politan Toronto's drinking water. Unfortunately, the ability of medical and health experts to deter mine the health impact of parts per quadrillion, or trillion, has not deve loped as fast as analytical technol ogy which can identify minute quantities of constituents in water supplies. Nevertheless, the infer ence that these chemicals are poten tially toxic ignores the principle under which drinking water objec tives or guidelines are established. If municipal water quality is to be critic ized, and deemed a health hazard when it meets and is far better than

objectives and guidelines, then there is no purpose in having objectives and guidelines.

Drinking water guidelines are established on the basis of a lifetime

consumption of drinking water and include potential toxic or hazardous health effects. The chemicals referred to in the Maclean's articles

which were found in our water, are

Sbc midtni FgffiAY, oecÂŁt<ept is. >

Drought forces water-use cuts

all below guidelines objectives and potential toxic 'consumption levels as determined by those best quali fied to know.

Media reports and comments reg ularly ignore the fact that our drink ing water supply has consistently been tested and proven to be much better than the objectives or guide lines; yet media reports continue to describe it as potentially toxic or carcinogenic.

Regrettably, this creates confu sion and causes some unnecessarily concerned or misinformed citizens

to purchase bottled water or pointof-use (tap) treatment devices at much greater cost. They then receive water that is often no better

quality and possibly not as good. In certain cases, for example, high sodium bottled waters, or poorly maintained point-of-use-devices, could cause the water to be "poten tially" a health hazard. The consumer is spending this extra money and often receiving nothing but a feeling ofselfsatisfac tion or false assurance. The large sums of money being spent because of confusing articles on water quality could be better applied to the real needs of the consumer and the com

munity. We fully agree with some of the

All S. Florida faces restrictions



expressed by Maclean's and other

media. There is a need to identify, reduce and eliminate all sources of

The economic value of water became

a harsh reality to South Floridians who faced tough restrictions follow ing a protracted drought. South Florida largely relies on water stored in

Lake Okeechobee and

three Everglades water conserva tion areas. The available water was

at a record low 391 billion (US)gal lons at the end of 1989.

As some 1.2 million golfers are attracted to the state's almost 1,000 courses, golf generates $6 billion annually. The water restrictions might affect the lush greens as a 36

single golf course could use from 250,000 to one million US gallons in one evening's watering. Households in South Florida use

from 4,100 to 10,000 US gallons per month. Half of this domestic use on

average goes on lawn watering. Res trictions on lawn watering, car washing and other restrictions could result in a 15 percent saving — estimated at 29 billion gallons. Some utilities were studying new rate structures to give incentives for homeowners to save water.

pollution. It's perhaps worth noting that the City of Toronto - and later as it evolved into Metro - was build

ing sewage treatment and water treatment plants decades before the current media interest in the sub

ject. The public should be aware - not only that






hazards in our water - but that some

very responsible and highly qualified people are working constantly to maintain and improve drinking water quality. *Works Commissioner Metro-Toronto

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Product profile

Portable Sewage & Wastewater Flowmonitors

I.S. SURVEYLOGGER The Complete Intrinsically Safe System From Detectronic Zone O EEx ia lib T4

The 8 Volt I.S. SurveyLogger was introduced by Detectronic Limited to meet the increasing demand for an intrinsicaily safe sewerflow monitoring system.

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• Lead acid gel cell rechargeable batteries with up to 175,000 event logging capability per charge • 32,000 event logger • Sampler output plus RS232 output • Does not require primary device - no major construction cost • Quick fix hardware available

• Passes or surpasses MISA requirements • 2 Year warrantee on electronics

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 134


MISA: Who Will Guard the Guards — Part II analytical data 'sufficient for the pur pose'? The -following discussion illustrates the need not only for good QA/QC proce dures but also for analytical chemists who have a sufficient level of expertise to apply the necessary judgement to an analysis which is sufficient for the pur pose.

The USEPA methods manual, SW846, of test procedures is commonly used to quantitate PCB in environmental

samples. The manual describes both the method of sample cleanup as well as the analysis. The protocols are given in SW846 as method 8080.

By Ian Webber, Ph.D.*

The first part of this article

(ES&E Oct. '89) discussed the general role of quality control in laboratory operations to yield a quality assured product, the

quantitated result. The point was made that good laboratory practice requires the maintainance of a significant over head which must necessarily be reflected in the price of an analysis. Is the client paying for an answer or the answer. Which answer does the MISA program require? Who is liable for the interpreta tion of a reported value? The MISA program data are undoubt edly intended to have heen obtained as the answers from reputable laboratories using good laboratory practices. Subse quent interpretation of the data is usu ally done with the tacit assumption that the data is correct. Clearly, the potential ramifications of the data interpretation to an industry can be significant because, like the added cost of QA/QC measures, environmental controls are an added overhead. Few people would argue that pollution is desirable to shift the global equilibrium towards a more acceptable balance and even fewer peo

ple want to pay for the cost of environ mental responsibility. In that case, is the laboratory obligated to achieve ana lytical quantitation with reasonable quality assurance; or does regulated industry have a fiduciary responsibility to conform with environmental regula tions in a least cost manner and does that conformance include the risk

The electron capture detector used in the gas chromatograph is extremely sen sitive towards compounds which con tain halogen atoms,such as the chlorine of PCBs. However, the detector is not totally insensitive to other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. Indeed, the sensi tivity of the gas chromatographic quan titation is very dependent upon the level of interferences present. Sample cleanup methods are referenced in method 8080

and include cleanup by mixing with con centrated sulfuric acid, florisil adsorp tion and contact with mercury. The sample chromatograms derived from the electron capture detector in the gas chromatograph are interpreted according to the pattern of peaks and their retention times relative to known

standard mixtures. In the case of PCB

contamination, the Aroclor products, such as Aroclor 1016,1242, etc., each has a characteristic fingerprint. Packed columns for GC analysis do not have enough separating power for individual components ofa PCB mixture to yield anything but a series of enve

lopes. The pattern formed by the enve lopes tend to be characteristic ofthe PCB mixture and therefore the pattern, taken as a whole, is usually recognizable as PCB and may be quantitated as such by comparision with the envelopes pro duced by a standard Aroclor mixture.

The pattern produced on packed columns by some samples shows that the electron capture detector was respond ing to components which,in all probabil ity, contained a highly electronegative ie., electron attracting, element, such as chlorine. The pattern of envelopes in the chromatogram may not be distinguisha ble as any standard Aroclor product.

assessment of future liability? It is the author's opinion that the

laboratory should provide analytical data for the MISA program of such qual ity as to be able to support litigation whether or not it is used for that purpose. This statement concerning the quality


attributed to PCB.

Attempts are sometimes made to remove interferences from the oil to

allow an unequivocal identification of PCB by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy,(GC/MS). The mass selec tive detector in place of the electron cap ture detector is typically used as an identification tool for individual com

pounds and compound types. The response obtained in the machine is com pared with a computer stored library of known compound responses. A closely matched response is usually evidence enough to establish the identity of the component of interest. The GC/MS technique applied to com plex matrices such as oils, tends to swamp the detector with naturally occur ring compounds in the oil matrix. The signal then combines to give a resultant which is unintelligible to the mass spec trometer's computer. If at first a standard method of quan titation does not provide an unequivocal identification of PCBs, an unconven tional method might be adopted. In one case, an extensive cleanup of the sample was undertaken, starting with solvent extraction to concentrate the PCBs, if present, and followed by tbe recom mended cleanup protocols. Once the samples had been cleaned up, their anal ysis was performed by a combination of coupled instruments known as gas chro matography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). The coupled technique is typically used for ultra-trace analysis of dioxins and was designed to provide unequivo cal identification of trace amounts of

PCB-like compounds. Quantitation of the gas chromatogra phic results obtained from the use of packed columns and an electron capture detector, ie., GC/ECD, are calculated on the assumption that peak area is directly proportional to the amount of PCB pres ent. The relationship between peak area and component concentration is usually linear and a sample peak which is half the size of a standard peak will result from a sample which contains half as much as the standard. If, however,some *Webber-Mann Laboratories Inc.

The Apparent PCB Concentration of Samples is

Drastically Altered by the Method of Calculation Sample #

Calculated PCB Concentration

(ppm Aroclor 1016) Early Peaks Late Peaks Set (1) Set (2)

assurance of data should not be confused

with an interpretation of data based on either accuracy or precision. In some instances it is unnecessary, and conse quently not cost effective, to achieve three decimal place accuracy when a sin gle digit is sufficient. In addition, a result reported with implied precision might still be inaccurate. Again, are the

Since there is often no reason to suspect that any other chlorinated compounds similar to PCBs may be present in a sam ple the origin of the chlorine is usually

Later Peaks Set (3)


61.7 16.7










Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

of the peak area is the result of a coeluting material which is not the analyte of interest then it will appear that there is more present than is actually the case and the quantitative result will be biased on the high side. PCBs are not highly volatile com pounds and consequently the GC condi tions have to be such that the column

used for separation must be heated to about 200°C. The volatility of PCBs increases with temperature and as the amount of chlorine in the molecules

geners in the standard and the samples do not match. The samples may have been derived, for example, from a batch

The analytical data predicated on the assumption that the PCB contamination is due to a single Aroclor,namely Aroclor 1016, and that the relative peak intensi

of Aroclor 1242 which had been distilled

ties in the chromatogram match those of

to yield only the most volatile fraction as


Aroclor 1016. This might explain why there is relatively little of the less vola

available standard

Aroclor 1016

leads to a high bias in the result. This simplistic approach is not suitable for the quantitation of PCB contamination derived from partially decomposed Aroclors, mixtures of Aroclors, or PCBs which may not have originated from an Aroclor.

tile, more highly chlorinated congeners. Chemical degradation, on the other hand, tends to dechlorinate the more highly chlorinated material and then,as the chlorines are removed, the mixture becomes more concentrated in the less

The chromatograms of the samples

decreases. Aroclor 1016, because it con tains a high proportion of the less chlori nated congeners is more volatile than,

used for the above discussion do con tain a distribution of PCBs which match

say, Aroclor 1254 which has a much higher average number of chlorines per

the pattern found in Aroclor 1016. How ever, the relative amounts of PCB con

chlorinated material until it too eventu

ally becomes dechlorinated. Different isomers of PCB with the same number of chlorine substituents Continued overleaf

molecule. The effect is that at the normal

GC operating temperature, Aroclor 1016 is eluted much faster, in about 10 min utes, than Aroclor 1254,in about 20 min utes. The interfering components of the mixture tend to he more volatile than even the constituents of Aroclor 1016

and consequently these are eluted quickly and tend to spill over into the early part of the PCB fingerprint. Since the amount of interfering substances can be very much higher than the amount of PCB, and even though the detector is less sensitive to the interfer

ing substances, the co-elution of PCBs with other detector responsive materials causes a combinative effect on the peak area and a high quantitation bias is

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obtained. The relative effect of the inter

fering compounds on the quantitation of Aroclor 1254 is usually much less because the peaks which are used for quantitation elute much later than the interfering materials and the extent of overlap ofthe interference and PCB peak

c/o Ttie President, ENVIRONMENTAL ASSAYERS LTD., York Corporate Centre, Suite 120, 100 York Blvd., RIctimond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1J8

areas is much less.

Some of the problematic effects of interferences can be avoided by a combi nation of rigorous sample cleanup and subsequent analysis by capillary column GC. Capillary column technol ogy allows for much greater resolution of the components of mixtures and conse quently PCB components tend to become separated from interfering materials. There is still a very strong need for ade quate sample cleanup but the presence of interfering non-PCB components becomes much more easily recognized.

LEAK DETECTION FOR MONITORING WELLS Portable Hydrocarbon Vapour Detection The "Vapor-Safe" is a portable hydrocarbon vapour system capable of detecting leaks in underground monitoring wells.

The following analyses illustrate the discussion:-

The "Vapor-Safe" is completely portable, utilizing simple piug-in operation with readings display in

• the correlation coefficient for the stand

ard curve, which is a measure of the line arity of the detector response in the concentration range of interest, gets bet ter if one chooses peaks which appear later in the chromatogram than those normally used;

numerical values or colour bands.

Readings take only a few minutes.



The "Vapor-Safe" also provides indication of background vapours (previous contamination) and new vapours (recent contamination).

• the correlation coefficient is less than

satisfactory for the three early peaks usually chosen for quantitation; • the apparent concentration of PCBs in the samples falls dramatically when the

For more information on the

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standard curve is calculated on the basis

Circle reply card No. 135

of peaks wbich appear later in the chromatogram than the peaks which would be routinely chosen for quantita tion. This indicates that there is a sub stantial difference between the

Dqvis Controls

chromatograms ofthe standards and the samples.

2200 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario L6H 5R3

Tel: (416) 829-2000

Fax: (416) 829-2630

A High Bias is Obtained when

Residue Peaks are Inappropriately Calculated PCB Concentration (ppm 1016) Total Area Peak Height


30.7 59.6 51.6

60.6 55.0 147

73.0 65.5 53.9 54.6 50.7

60.4 58.4 48.8


18.7 13.7 56.8 22.0 4.4 37.7 44.1 23.2 27.9 27.6 44.4 23.0


0.9 19.7 N.D. N.D.

33.0 11.6 N.D.

7.6 7.6 13.1







N.D, -




not determinable.

can cause substantially different responses from electron capture detec tors. The accurate quantitation of PCBs therefore relies on the similarity between the sample chromatogram and the


standard Aroclor.


A calibration technique was proposed hy Webb and McCall which employed individual peak response factors. A tahle was developed for each Aro clor in which the weight-percent compo sition of each peak in the chromatogram was identified hy whole numbers which represented their retention times relative to a reference compound defined as 100. The weight-percent compositions of Aroclors were determined using GC/MS. The column used was a packed column with poor chromatographic reso lution compared with today's capillary columns. The individual peak calibra tions were valid only for the specific lots of Aroclors tested.

Sawyer (Sawyer, 1978.) has con

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ducted a similar characterization to Webb and McCall and concluded that


individual peak calihration is the most reliable approach for samples contain ing a non-Aroclor residue. The method of peak by peak compari

•blinking water and wastewater • Waste management and recycling

son is used in ASTM D-40S9. The concen

•Air poiiution •Processing and manufacturing

tration of PCB in each peak in the chromatogram is calculated from the individual response factors of the detec

•Soii contamination


• Monitoring and controls •Engineering

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The total PCB content is then

obtained by summing the concentra tions associated with each peak. An alternative, hut more approxi mate, calculation, noted by ASTM, can be made using the responses of the larger, more cleanly separated peaks in both the standard and the sample. Again, this makes the assumption that the chromatograms of the standard and sample match one another. ASTM notes that the PCB concentration calculated in this

way may be incorrect because the PCB content in an individual peak may he reduced or relatively enhanced by a nonstandard isomer distribution or impuri



ties. In order to minimize the effect of TEL. NO.

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION Environmental Science ond


variations between Aroclors, ASTM sug gests the use of a minimum of three peaks in the sample being analyzed but adds that the simplified calculation



should not be used in circumstances

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Member Conodion Associotion of Exposition Monogers 40

Circle reply card No. 136


where maximum accuracy is required. Indeed, EPA SW-846-8080 indicates that PCB residues should be quantitated by comparing total area or height of residue peaks to total area or height of peaks from appropriate Aroclor reference materials.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Peak Height Ratios for Standard Aroclors Remain Constant

The following calculations take the

but Vary for the Samples Under Investigation

above considerations into account on a

different set of samples. Based on three sets of calibration data for early,late and total areas of peaks, chromatograms were recalculated to yield significantly different data as shown in the following table.

The area of the chromatogram attrib utable to Aroclor 1016 in a standard is

approximately 58.8%. The remaining 41.2% is attributable to the region from the start of timing to 2.16 min. Of this total, 38.6% is the response ofthe detector to the solvent. This leaves only 2.5% which might be attributable to Aroclor 1016. Thus, the error induced in the cal culation by leaving this portion of the chromatogram out entirely is very small The Apparent Concentration of Aroclor 1016 In the Sample: Can Vary by Several llundrcclB of Percent Depending upon the Peak Chosen Retention


21.5 58.8 37.8 73.Ot 9.2 38.3 65.0 51.8 53.1 50.7 50.0 66.3

60.2 55.5


Time (min.)/Concentration 6.47


25.0 22.6



19.7 N.D.




>91.7 46.7 34.6 33.0 36.1 34.0 28.0

30.3 33.7 30.2

N.D. 33.0

11.6 N.D. 7.6 7.6 13.1 4.5 6.3 6.9 7.2

relative to the error induced by including non-PCB detector response in the same retention time range. For example, in the sample marked as (t) in the above table,the area ofthe total chromatogram occurring prior to 2.19 min.is 73.6%.This should be compared with the 41.2% in an Aroclor 1016 standard. In other words,

Height Ratios

min. 11.44




































Oil Oil Oil Oil


(1) (2) (3) (4)

to R^ = 8.04



7.7 5

about 70% of the total sample chromato gram area is attributable to non-PCB

itself to that type of quantitation method. In order to illustrate the point,


PCB concentrations have been calcu

Paragraph of the USEPA SW846/8080 method states the following; "Quantitate PCB residues by comparing total area or height of residue peaks to total area or height of peaks from appropriate Aroclor(s) reference mate rials. Measure total area or height response from common baseline under all peaks. Use only those peaks from sample that can be attributed to chlorobiphenyls. These peaks must also be present in chromatogram of reference materials. Mixture of Aroclors may he required to provide best match of GC patterns of sample and reference."

lated using the peak height method with peaks appearing at different retention

The gas chromatographic trace, in

many cases, does not conform with what would be expected from a standard Aro clor and, consequently, the quantitation of the PCB components must be done by comparing total area or height ofresidue peaks to total area or height of peaks from appropriate Aroclor(s). These requirements have been met in the fol lowing table and are contrasted with

times and the results listed below.

The peak height method is not accep table. The inherent inaccuracy is clearly illustrated. Inconsistencies in the peak height ratios have also been calculated. The peak height ratios of peaks in a standard Aroclor pattern should remain the same from sample to sample. How ever, because the samples contain PCB residues and not standard Aroclors the

peak height ratios vary. For this fact alone, the method of peak height analy sis is not valid for these samples and the analyst must revert to the only other alternative provided by the EPA SW-846 8080 method, ie., the comparison of total areas.

Clearly, the experience of the analyst is critical to the analytical data derived. The precision and accuracy of an analyt ical protocol, as measured by standard methods, may indicate thatthe quantita tion of ideal mixtures is within the

other methods of calculation.

expected limits. Without such a measure

It is not reasonable to attempt to quantitate the PCB residue contained in these samples by peak height because,in part,the chromatogram derived from the instrumentation typically does not lend

of control there is a much reduced likeli

hood of achieving reliable, scientifically defensible, results. In the absence of QA/AC requirements, Who Will Guard the Guards? ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 137


Cork can clean up oil spills Heat treated, granulated cork is an exceptional tool for absorbing oil spills. The cork product is oleophilic (it will absorb any solvent that is not water soluble) and hydrophobia (does not absorb water). It does not become saturated and sink - it floats.

Since Cork Can Inc. began Cana dian distribution in July 1988, response from industry has been favorable. A recent report of the Research and Productivity Council (RFC) in Fredricton, New Bruns wick, proved the product to he highly effective. RFC evaluated the ability of the granulated cork product, marketed as Cork Clean, to absorb hydrocar bons under a variety of conditions. It concluded that,"generally speak ing, the higher the viscosity of the hydrocarbon, the greater was its

pick-up by the cork product." RFC also reported that "the cork product does not appear to be a hazardous material(according to WHMIS clas sification guidelines) as it is a fairly innocuous, naturally occurring, hiomass-derived substance."

The ability of cork to absorb hydrocarbons was accidentally dis covered by British environmental

chemist Dr. Alfred Jones, who was experimenting with the insulating properties ofcork by-products. After exhaustive laboratory testing. Dr. Jones concluded that heat treated, granulated cork absorbs its own volume and up to eight times its weight in oil. Cork clearly outdoes clay pro ducts and sand in its oil absorbing capacities. Whereas cork is a true absorbent which takes oil into its

own physical structure, clay and sand are "adsorbents".

Oil does

stick or adhere to their surfaces, but it leaches off rather quickly. Thus an oil spill of 100 litres would require 600 litres of "kitty litter", but only 150 litres of "Cork Clean".

"The most unique quality of cork

bark, the second layer serving as a waterproof protection. This outer layer is harvested when the tree is 25 years old. As the bark regenerates, it can be reharvested every seven to eleven years thereafter. Since the trees live for hundreds of years,each tree is harvested many times.

Letter Dear Tom:

After 23 years with the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the last six of which were with Water

Resources Branch, I have made a decision to leave the Ministry. I am going to work in the private sector, for Environmental Protection Labor

atories, Inc.

While I am looking forward to the challenges of this new opportunity, I have some genuine regrets upon leaving MOE, because of the great people and programs I had a chance

is that it's a renewable resource and

to work with.

it's one hundred percent natural," says Elizabeth Nobbs, Cork Can President. She explains that cork, more commonly known for its use in wine bottles, is originally the outer hark of the Quercus Suber, an oak tree that grows in the warm cli mates of Spain,Portugal and North

You have been one of the people I truly enjoyed working with, and one I wanted to personally inform of my departure. I have always felt that whenever the real professionals in water pollution control needed a boost, you were there, with wit, wis dom, and a unique gift for expres sion. Jim Bishop, Director,

ern Africa. Cork trees


their trunk

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 139


lung" disease, which has crippled many and directly


or indirectly killed many others.

NUCLEAR POWER The death of84 men with the sinking ofthe oil drilling rig Ocean Ranger off the coast ofNewfoundland was a

great tragedy. It's one of many accidents in energy industries which claim human lives. All the more

reason, then, to re-examine the widely publicized mis

givings about the health hazards of nuclear energy foisted upon us by the "ecology" movement.

The Ocean Ranger tragedy was not, unfortunately, the first energy-related accident to claim numerous lives. Rather, the non-nuclear energy field has been plagued with a series of similar mishaps. Other recent offshore oil drilling rig mass fatalities include the capsizing of the 10,000-ton Alexander Kielland accommodation rig off Norway in the North Sea in March 1980, with the catastrophic loss of123lives; a November 1979 oil rig collapse during a storm in the Bohai Gulf of northeast China which killed 72 work

men; and a blow-out in October 1980 ofthe U.S.-owned

rig Tappmeyer off Saudi Arabia in which 18 people

perished. Coal mining, too, has been marred by numerous large-scale accidents the world over. In Canada, the Nova Scotia coal mine Springhill was the site of a disaster which claimed 39 lives in 1956,and another 74 in 1958. In the U.S., roughly 200 coal miners die in the line of duty every year; and in addition to cave-ins,coal miners have long been subject to the dread "black-

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tion is for more of the same, only more so. The same holds true for coal mining. If energy prices rise, one source ofadditional coal supplies may be to dig deeper -

into increasingly more dangerous terrain. Stripmining of coal nearer the surface brings in its wake the risk of water run-offs and slides and other hazards - all

vociferously pointed out to us by the self-styled ecologists. Other alternative energy supplies come with dangers of their own. India, for example, suffered a hydroelectric dam disaster which drowned thousands of people.

What of nuclear power? Despite the widespread media led wailing and gnashing ofteeth which accom panied the meltdown at Three Mile Island in Pennsyl vania, the plain fact is that not a single solitary radiation-related death has occurred in the Westin the

quarter century of commercial nuclear power genera tion (The contrast with the Chernobyl event is stark. There, the lack of double containment and a lower level of safety precaution produced a much larger pub lic sector type disaster.) And yet the litany goes on. Protestors at nuclear power stations continually attempt to halt operations - and are accorded a respectful-to fawning hearing by the nation's press. Although trespassers on private property, the protes tors are given credit for "morality" and "concern."

Based on the well-attended movie China Syndrome, starring political activists Jane Fonda and Jack Lemmon,the impartial observer would be led to think that oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectric power were cheap and safe energy sources, while nuclear energy was a mass killer. Can anyone imagine how the media would have reacted had the victims of the Ocean Ranger instead

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that the nuclear industry would have been brought to its knees. A sea of front page news coverage would have made the publicity accompanying the repatria tion of the Canadian Constitution seem pale by com parison.

It is long past time to redress this imbalanced anal ysis which has been perpetrated upon society. This does not mean,of course, that we must bring the same unreasoning passion to bear on the traditional energy industries that the left-wing "ecologists" have long

aimed at nuclear power. This would mean a serious curtailment of all energy supplies - and the death of millions of consumers who are dependent upon energy for their very lives. On the contrary, a more sober and measured evaluation would appear to be in order, one which looks carefully at the evidence before launching into public policy recommendations. When this is done, the conclusion is inescapable that nuclear power must be allowed to compete fairly with all other energy industries, withoutfear offavour on either side.

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Pure s









For years, H. Fontaine has been a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of equipment such as slide gates and submersible pumps, for the water and wastewater industry. Known for their simplicity, efficiency and durability, H. Fontaine fabricated gates offer such characteristics as stainless steel flange back construction and a

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Who is generating your iab resuits?

Environmental concern in

our society, has caused individuals, governments and industry to review their roles in the pollution of our air, water and soil.

We have now

become intolerant of technologies that contribute in any way to the deterioration of our air,our water,or our natural resources. Scientific evi

By Pierre Beaumler, Ph.D., C. Chem., Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. and Graham Chevreau, C. Chem.,Cones-

toga Rovers & Associates Ltd. There



currently for






newly-created disciplines of risk assessment and laboratory data validation. A proper assessment of

dence linking pollution levels with human health effects, and subse quent media attention, have suc ceeded in making the clean up ofthe environment a political issue. Com prehensive and tough environmen tal laws will be required to ensure that polluters do not escape the financial responsibilities associated with the investigation and cleanup

els of pollutants requires individu als who have a good understanding of chemistry, biology,and statistics, as the decisions that are made may have profound and far-reaching consequences. These decisions, however, can only he as accurate as the analytical data on which they

of toxins in the environment.

tial for industry, which faces serious

This climate has generated a sub stantial requirement for a new breed of chemists: many will be needed to act as advisers to the legal commun ity; as analysts; as environmental assessment specialists; and to act as industrial and governmental con sultants for all matters pertaining to chemistry and the environment.

financial considerations from the

the risks involved with certain lev

and more stringent guidelines for monitoring and discharging into water courses and sewers, and will also include financial penalties for non-compliance. The importance of reliable and legally defensible data means that chemical professionals who are able to evaluate the data generation pro cess from sample collection to analy sis will be In great demand. The fundamentals of the process for exa mining the quality and reliability of the data have been standardized in

the United States, and laboratory data which have been examined

Industrial Strategy for Abatement

using the newly-established guide lines for laboratory data are referred to as "validated" data. The process of evaluating the validity of data is simplified in the United States where a standardized group of ana lytical methods have been adopted, which include specific quality assu rance/quality control procedures. In Canada, however, provincial and federal guidelines require the data user to make decisions based, to a large extent, on his or her personal

(MiSA) will result in more specific

Continued overleaf

are based. Accurate data are essen

standpoint of monitoring dis charges, cleaning up spills, and pos sibly changing processes to reduce contamination levels in effluent.

The Ontario Ministry of the Envir

onment's (MOE) new



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ECO EQUIPMENT INC. Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

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Circle reply card No. 143


Lab results continued experience. The question that arises now Is who Is doing this work? Can Industry, the province or the munici pality rely on the Individual to be knowledgeable and act In a profes sional manner?

Will the work be

legally defensible? Is there a code of ethics which guides these profes sionals? Does the Individual have the

academic background from which he can make decisions or be recognized

by the courts as a professional? is there an easy way to recognize such a

professional? These questions are very relevant when our society is looking for solu tions to its environmental problems. In the province of Quebec, chemists must be licensed to practice the pro fession; This process was deemed necessary to maintain the quality of the chemical profession. In Ontario, a Bill of Law was passed in 1984 to establish an organization termed the "Association of the Chemical

Profession of Ontario" whose pur

pose is to obtain, establish and

maintain the professionalism ofthe chemist in the Province of Ontario. The association has outlined the fol

lowing requirements for member ship: • An Honours Degree or its equival ent in Chemistry, Chemical Engi neering or the Chemical Sciences from an institution accredited by the Association. In addition, two years of work experience under conditions acceptable to the Association are

required. Post graduate training will be credited as equivalent to work experience.

• Lower academic qualifications such as a three-year Bachelor's degree with a Chemistry Major with extensive experience (minimum 5 years) and a record of professional competence in the chemical field as evidenced by publications, patents, etc., may be acceptable.


• Individuals who have at least six

years of suitable experience in the chemical field but who do not pos sess the above academic qualifica tions may qualify for membership by

passing examinations set by the Association.

• In the case of a ruling by the Exami nations Board that the Documenta

tion supplied by an applicant does not meet the requirements for mem bership as specified in paragraphs A to C, and upon the recommendation of the Chairman of the Examination

Board, the applicant may be invited to an oral interview. This will be con

ducted by a committee convened by the Chairman of the Examination Board, and shall consist of at least

three ACPO Councillors plus other

appropriate chemists as required by the Chairman. The applicant shall be

supplied with the areas which may be covered in the interview at least two weeks before the date. Discussion

and written comments, if any, will guide the Chairman in his recom mendation to the Council in deter

Chances are, RGBs are lurking inside

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mining the final disposition of such application. • In addition to the above require ments, the applicant must provide satisfactory evidence of good char acter.

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ist (C.Chem.) in association with their name. A stamp is available to members to use on reports for the

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Circle reply card No. 144 48

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


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Safety "T" Handles attach easily to all our steps. They provide safe entry

We're designers and manufacturers of our own off-the-shelf, wide range of corrosion resistant Safety Steps, Ladders, Platforms, Guard Rails, Manhole Grates. We also custom design and fabri cate special safety equipment to match your specific applications. MSU products provide maximum security and safety for climbing or descending... whether outside a tower, chimney or inside a shaft.

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MSU Mississauga Ltd. 2222 South Sheridan Way, Mississauga, Ontario Canada L5J 2M4

(416)823-4340 Fax (416) 823-4947

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


Circle reply card No. 145


Acres International Limited

Who is Generating your results cont'd.

Consulting Engineers

Duty of a Chartered Chemist to the

Environmental Assessment• Waste Management•Industrial Hygiene Environmental Audits• Air Quality•Environmental Modeling

Public. Chartered Chemist shall;

480 University Avenue,Toronto, Canada MSG 1V2• Tel.416-595-2000 • Fax 416-595-2127

• place the public welfare above any considerations of self-interest, and resolve any conflicts infavourof pub lic good;

St. John's • Sydney • Halifax • Niagara Falls • Burlington • Winnipeg • Calgary • Vancouver

•ensure that environmental and eco

Wildlife Management• Land Use Planning

logical concerns are taken into account In the performance of his or her duties; Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN

All aspects of civil, municipal and environmental engineering.


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• protect the public welfare through cooperation with government, enforcement and consumer agen cies;

• report to the appropriate regulatory agency, without fear or favour, any deliberate breach of standards which

may endanger the safety and welfare of the public. Duty of a Chartered Chemist to his or her Employer A Chartered Chemist shall:

Environmental Auditing and Management Planning

• apprise himself or herself of the law as it relates to his or her practice, and

Waste Management solutions

endeavour to see that both the letter

to ttie 4 Rs


Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water

analytics, studies and troublestiooting

225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect

and spirit of the law are obeyed, in the performance of his or her duties; • advise his or her employer of possi ble contraventions of ethical stand

ards of practice and the law; • undertake to do only work which he or she is competent to carry out; • protect trade secrets or information acquired by virtue of his or her pro fessional capacity; • he honest, diligent and conscien tious in the performance of his or her duties.

Duty of a Chartered Chemist to his or Water Pollution Control Water Suppiy Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Deveiopment Transportation Tunneis and Shafts Municipai Services Architecture

TORONTO (416)497-8600

WELLAND (416)735-3659

Aquatic Sciences Inc.

SUDBURY (705)671-9903 (Dennis Consultants)

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• maintain confidentiality of matters disclosed by his or her client; • protect his or her client's property, he it physical or knowledge per se; • set fees which reflect fairly, the knowledge, skill and time involved, in performing the professional service. Duty of a Chartered Chemist to other Chartered Chemists, Subordinates

• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

her Client when In Private Practice A Chartered Chemist shall:

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

and other Professionals A Chartered Chemist shall:

• delegate responsibility, in chemical matters which require professional judgement, only to another qualified Chemist;

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6


• respect colleagues, subordinates Continued overleaf





TELEPHONE (416) 622-9502, FAX (416)622-6249



Need consulting,laboratory or equipment information? Refer to ES&E's Dec/Jan 1990 DIRECTORY & SPECIFIER'S GUIDE


. ENGINEERING Knuironmental Science & Engineering. March 1990

and other professionals, and not undertake to maliciously or other wise undermine another's reputation; • properly supervise nonprofessionai subordinates and other non-chemist professionals, to ensure that they are not exposed to undue risk in the performance of work in a





Waterloo, Ontario 519-579-3500 (FAX) 519-579-8986


Toronto, Ontario 416'856'2320 (FAX) 416-85a-3779


chemical environment;

• willingly Impart his or her knowl edge to subordinates and others; where appropriate, in order to enhance the overall standard of prac tice In his or her professional environ

Concord Scientific Corporation

ment. • Hazard and Risk Controi

Duty of a Chartered Chemist to Him self or Herseif A Chartered Chemist shall:

• maintain a high level of compe tence, by continuing his education throughout his or her practice; • present a good image to the public by maintaining high ethicai stand ards of practice. All Chartered



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abide by the code or be subject to a disciplinary board which has the power to revoke the professional sta


tus of the chemist.

In conclusion,environmentalism is in fashion, and eco-business is booming. New regulations are in

■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management I Landfill Gas Ckintrol & Utilizatbn

■ Municipal Engineering

the process of being promulgated which will have profound effects on everyone in the chemical commun ity. We chemists must realize that

I Environmental Audits

■ Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply

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aterloo"^®^* 519-884-0510 MjccjecQM^gTel. 416-629-0510 Waterloo 519-884-0525 "^'^^'^sauga 416-629-0515

our social responsibilities extend far beyond the laboratory, and that we have a duty to ensure that the scien tific community's views are heard and acted upon. We must become


Biiii=i!=@n Environmental Laboratories

chemical analysis treatability studies monitoring and assessment

more vocal, more visible and consid

erably more active in the politics of environmentalism.

All of the new

MISA regulations are initially released to the public as discussion papers, and criticisms and sugges tions are solicited for ninety days before a final form is decided upon. All professional chemists should be scrutinizing and discussing these proposals in detail, and conveying their thoughts, in writing, to the ministry. It is essential that proper and effective implementation of the new environmental laws involve

professional chemists, and it is in everyone's best interest - whether in

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CONSULTING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS 8uKe 1006, P.O. Box 2041, 20 Egiinton Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario M4R IKS Telephone: (416) 322-5701 MISA






industry, government or the public that all matters relating to the prac

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tice of chemistry in Ontario are performed only by a member of the

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990



How do we protect the environment in uranium

mining? The impact from mining activi ties on the environment results

primarily from the waste products that are generated. The ore in the ground containsonlyafraction of the mineral or metal that is pro duced by the mining operation.

mining or from an open pit, it is milled. The milling process, in which the ore is crushed and

treated with chemicals, extracts

the mineral leaving a waste pro duct called mil l tailings.

The rest of the material in the ore

Canada's uranium mines

In the same way that there is a common approach to the man agement of used nuclear fuels, there is a common approach to the management of tailings from uranium mine operations. How

take great care to ensure that the waste ortailings they produce do not causedamagetotheenvironment. The waste management objective throughout the nuclear history —from mines to reactors — is the same: to limit the release

of potentially harmful substances into the environment. While ura

nium mines account for only 2% of al l the mine tailings produced in Canada, they are leading the mining industry in providing environmental protection from potential ly harmful mining wastes.

Waste tailings can be defined as





extracted in the mining process but which contain none of the

mineral that is being sought. After ore is removed from the

ground, either by underground

chewan mines produce lower volumes of tailings. Different mines use different

chemicals in the milling process due to differences in the charac

teristics of ores. Sometimes, the

ends up as waste. This is a fact of mining. The uranium mines in Canada

amounts of uranium the Saskat

same chemicals are used in dif ferent concentrations. As a

result, tailings vary in composi tion from mine to mine.

ever, the method used varies from

mine to mine. Much depends on where the mine is located. The

quantity of tailings produced at a uranium mine is determined by the grade of the ore. The grade is a measure of the concentration of the uranium in the ore and varies from mine to mine. At the El l iot Lake uranium

mines in northern Ontario, some

1,000 kg of ore must be mined in order to produce 1 or 2 kilograms of uranium that can be used in the

production of electricity. The high-grade ore-bodies in north ern Saskatchewan yield between 20 and 400 kg of uranium from 1000 kg of ore. Consequently,for the production of identical

At the mill, a conveyor moves ore to crushers that grind it to tine sand.

In addition, there may be dif ferent environmental conditions at different mine sites. Each mine

therefore, uses a different method

of tailings management. The method used is selected to pro vide the best environmental pro tection under the circumstances for each mine.

Protecting the environment Mill tailings are produced as a mixture of solids and liquids, called a slurry. When these tail ings are discharged into atailings management area, the solids pre cipitate or settle out and the water drains off. The solid tailings that result are generally similar in composition to the ore that was originally extracted from the ground. As a consequence, the solid tailings are no more hazard ous than was the original rock. They are, however, more mobile and tailings management efforts are directed primarily to ensuring that the solid contained.

Ore from an open pit mine is loaded for transport to the m 52



At most uranium mines, dams Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

are used, generally In conjunc tion with natural barriers such as

hills, to define the tailings man agement area in which solid tail ings are held. However, at the Rabbit





Saskatchewan, dried mill tailings are placed into a mined out open pit, and at the Key Lake mine, a tailings management area l ined with bentonite clay has been created. The volume of water that Is left

as the solid tailings precipitate is too large to be stored indefi nitely. At some mines a portion of this waste can be reused in the

milling process; however, much of it must be discharged to the environment.

Before this can

happen, the water is cleaned by the addition of certain chemicals.

In particular, barium chloride is added to remove radium by precipitation. The water discharged from tailings management areas is monitored to ensure that it meets limits on chemical concentra

tions that have been prescribed by the government. These limits ensure that the impact on the

This tailings pond at Key Lake in northern Saskatchewan meets and exceeds

stringent government guidelines to ensure that our environment is respected. environment will be minimal.

Role of regulatory agencies Canada's uranium

mines are

among the most highly regulated industrial operations in the world. Both federal and provincial authorities play a significant role in inspecting and examining the

mine operations to ensure that both employees and the environ ment are protected. This article was sponsored by the Canadian Nuclear Association. For further details contact

the CNA, 111 Elizabeth St., Toronto, Ontario, MSG 1P7, Tel: 1-800-387-4477.

Circle reply card No. 146

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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Modern techniques in sewer flow monitoring continued from page 23




Engineering a whole new world.






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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

invertebrates and some mortality of fish occur.

As concluded in their

paper in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, these scient

R&D News

ists recommend a 100-metre set

back from surface waters to protect aquatic life during agricultural spraying of this pesticide. lAWPRC;

Leaching Heavy Metals from Sludge

Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Details can be found on page 60.

Before spreading municipal sludge on agricultural lands, it is impor tant to decrease its content of heavy

Analysis of PCBs In Sediments National Water Research Institute

associated with the uptake of metals by plants and their subsequent transfer to the food chain, and to

metals in order to minimize the risks

scientists have developed a simple new method for the analysis of environmental samples. As des cribed in the Journal of High Reso lution Chromatography, it combines the extraction of samples with supercritical fluids, and their analysis by high resolution gas chromatography equipped with a fused silica open tubular column and an electron capture detector. F.I. Onuska and K.A. Terry tested the method on PCB contaminated sediments. Extraction efficiencies

sediments prepared as Certified Ref erence Materials.

avoid metal contamination of sur

Biological Impact of Deltamethrin

Deltamethrin, a new degradable pesticide, is licensed for use on many crops including tobacco, pears, canola, mustard, potatoes, sunflowers, broccoli, cabbage, wheat and barley. Studies by R.J. Maguire and his Environment Can ada coworkers showed that Del

tamethrin disappears quickly when sprayed on a pond, having a halflife of about one hour.

of up to 100% in less than 15 minutes have been obtained.

when used on PCB contaminated

The method

has been shown to be quantitative

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described a bacterial leaching pro cess for reducing the heavy meial content of sludge. The process has been optimized for different sorts of municipal (primary, secondary; aerobic, anaerobic; digested and not) and industrial sludges. The results were compared with chemi cal


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Circle reply card No. 149 Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Simulation of Spills and Effluent Plumes

A paper published in Ecological Modelling by National Water Research Institute scientist I. Wong and coworkers describes a newly developed fast graphical microcom puter simulation procedure which displays the trajectory of spills or effluent plumes along a coastal region. A simple linear impulse response function based on meteoro logical data and current measure ments from




devices is applied to relate current to wind history. The procedure offers a number of display options for ine plume or patch generated by contin uous or instantaneous releases of

the pollutant. This procedure is being incorporated into the RAISON expert system for application to the Great Lakes.

with a 4-L amber glass bottle. The whole assembly is insulated and equipped with heating elements which permit collection of ice/snow samples. The samples are preserved in situ with methylene chloride and extracted again with methylene chloride in the laboratory. The apparatus was successfully tested in the

Great Lakes basin


rain/snow samples being analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biophenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

A planning-level methodology for evaluation of pollutant loadings from urban nonpoint sources was developed by J. Marsalek and H.Y.F. Ng and applied in Sarnia, Sault Ste. Marie, and Windsor. This methodology uses computed annual

The design and use of a year-round sampler for trace organic contami nants in wet precipitation are des cribed in the Journal of Great Lakes Research by Inland Waters Directo

uent concentrations,estimated from

Perkins. The sampler is electroni


Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is developing methods for the man agement and safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

These wastes

range from the highly radioactive UO2 fuel arising from the nuclear generation of electric power, to the arising from research in various Canadian institutions using


volumes of runoff and mean constit

cally controlled and features a 0.25meter-square stainless steel funnel

nonpoint sources contributed load ings which were comparable to or even higher than those from point

low-and-intermediate-level wastes

Evaluation of Urban Nonpaint

Trace Inorganics In Precipitation

rate scientists C.H. Chan and L.H.

stances, occurring at low levels, the

field sampling.

As described by





Institute scientists in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, the total loading for most constituents was predominantly from point sources in about three quarters of all cases.

radioactive isotopes. A Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering paper by AECL scientists J.C. Tait, P.J. Hayward and J.S. Devgun reviews the current research programs on materials and processes for the immobilization and containment of

UO2 fuel wastes, and the technical aspects of programs demonstrating the various technologies needed for implementing a disposal program for low-level wastes.

Continued on page 59

For some of the less common sub

They are all at stake when you select an environmental laboratory. Whether it's wastewater monitoring for MISA compliance, evaluation of hazardous waste, or a full-scale site investigation you need a lab that you can depend on to provide reliable data, quickly and cost-effectively.

For more than two decades Envirociean has earned

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Circle reply card No. 175


' Announcement ■

EPL: Setting the Standard of Excellence for Environmental Testing

Environment Protection Laboratories Inc.,

Dr. M.M.(Woody) Fisher,

(EPL), offering world-class environmental testing services, features the iatest tech nology for conducting trace level analysis of conventionai, organic and inGrganic environ


Dr. M.M.(Woody) Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., founder of EPL has a distinguished career in medical

sciences and was formerly Vice President Research, Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto.

mental contaminants. Located near Toronto's Pearson International

Airport, EPL has assembled Canada's largest con centration of latest generation analytical equip

M.M.(Woody) Fisher


Doug Langley, President

EPL's stated objectives are to become the indus try leader and the standard against which ail other testing services will be compared in terms of accu racy and service. EPL's immediate goal is to help clients meet every analytical requirement. To do so, it has assembled a staff of recognized leaders in environmental chemistry, regulations (MISA, CEPA, Air and Waste Reguiations) and in environ mental strategic planning.

To date, a cross-section of industry, govern ment, and consulting engineering firms have taken advantage of EPL's rapid turnaround and quality

Doug Langley, B.Sc., has over 20 years environmental consulting and management experience. His career began with Tom Beak


the development and growth of several of Canada's environ

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North America and abroad.

Jim Bishop, V.P. Sales & Service

Jim Bishop, B.Sc., has 25 years experience in environmental


EPL has restricted its focus to environmental

issues, and offers fuil planning, sampling, analyti cal, data management and liability management services to engineering, health care and legal clients. EPL fulfi lls all sampling, analytical, and QA/QC requirements of MISA and U.S. EPA regu lations.

EPL provides: • priority poilutant analysis. • total elemental and organic analyses (GC/MS, ICAP-ES, AAS). • complete MISA parameter coverage. • testing of all matrices (contaminated soil, waste water, surface and groundwater, hazardous and solid waste). • Dioxin, furan, PCB, and NDMA analyses. • environmental strategic planning. • environmental liability management.

Jim Bishop

Tim Munshaw, V.P. Laboratory

Tim Munshaw


chemistry. At the Ontario , Ministry of the Environment, he managed environmental, analytical and research facilities, and for the past 6 years as Director, Water Resources, he directed environmental protection programs including MISA, Great Lakes and Inland Lakes, Acid Rain and Drinking Water.


For more information contact Jim Bishop.


in the mid sixties. He has directed

Tim Munshaw, M.Sc., C.Chem., has a broad background of environmental chemistry experience with recognized expertise in trace organics and priority pollutant analyses including dioxin and furan analyses. He has managed numerous large chemistry projects for federal and provincial regulatory agencies and for the private sector.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

R&D News continued

Water Treatment wltti Powdered Activated Carbon

Bacterial Conjugation In Water

Increasing concern with colour, taste, and odour in municipal water supplies has led to the use of a var iety of coagulants, oxidants, and

Transfer of plasmid RP4 via conju gation between introduced Pseudomonas fluorescens donor and recipient cells was studied in agri

adsorbents for improving water

quality. Powdered activated carbon (FAG)is a good adsorbent for many organic materials in water. A Cana Trevors and his coworkers. As des dian Journal of Civil Engineering cribed in a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research, transcon- paper by S. Troxler, UMA Engineer jugants were recovered from non- ing Ltd., and University of Alberta cultural surface water samples by University of Guelph scientist J.T.

sterile (unfiltered) surface water that was incubated and amended

with dilute tryptone-yeast extract broth and 0.1% bentonite clay slurry. RP4 plasmid transfer was not observed in unamended filtered

water samples inoculated with donor and recipient cells. However, viable donor and recipient cells were usually present in reduced numbers in most water samples after 10 days.

Trophic State indicator for the Great Lakes

Several water quality parameters indicate that some areas of the

Great Lakes are becoming less eutrophic. An integrative indicator is therefore required to measure the re-establishment of mesotrophic conditions.


scientists D.W. Smith and E. Knet-

tig, presents a protocol for evaluat ing various PACs, taking into account the objective of the unit pro cess. Using a series of decision crite ria, more weight can be placed on the test parameters which relate to the cause of the quality problem. Collpfiage/Bacterlophage In

mal treatment and disinfection pro cesses and imply that coliform-free drinking waters are not necessarily pathogen-free. In their report, B.J. Dutka and his coworkers recom

mend that the coliphage test should be included as part of any potable water testing scheme. Metal Analysis of Lake Sediments The importance of postextraction readsorption of trace heavy metals has been evaluated for each step ofa sequential extraction procedure for bottom sediments by measuring the recovery of small amounts of trace elements added during the extrac tion of oxic lake sediments. For all

the cases but one examined by INRS-Eau scientists N. Belzile, P. Lecomte and A. Tessier, the trace element spikes(less than 100% ofthe amount present in control samples)


were recovered

A recent survey of treated and untreated urban well waters by

given by the experimental errors. The results reportedinEnvironmen tal Science and Technology contrast with the large percentages of postex traction readsorption observed for these trace elements in previous stu

National Water Research Institute

scientists revealed the presence of both coliphage and bacteriophage, although no coliforms were isolated. These results suggest that human

within the limits


enteric viruses can survive the nor

Continued overleaf


Research Institute scientist T. Reynoldson and two U.S. colleagues have examined the utility of using densities of mayfly larvae(Hexagenia limbata) in the sediments as an indicator of the lake trophic state. They concluded that when the mayfly densities reach 200 individu als per square metre, the aquatic ecosystem would be considered mesotrophic with concurrent improvements in fish production and water clarity.


Simcoe Engineering Group Limited Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building, 345 Kingston Road, Pickering, Ontario LIV 1A1

Tel: (416) 286-2285

Fax; (416) 286-1361

Branches: Mississouga and Buffalo

Biological Effects Monitoring Biological communities provide a direct means of observing the impact of contaminants because they are exposed to, and directly involved in, the transformations that contaminants undergo in fresh water ecosystems. The response of these communities provides a direct


Head office:

sims hubicki

Fax: (416) 668-0221

Tel: (416) 668-9363

Engineers Architects and Planners Toronto. Whitby. Cobourg. Kingston Bracebndge. Ottawa. Simcoe. Waterloo. Huntsville and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie

measure of the net toxic burden

impacting an ecosystem. The pur pose of a report by National Hydrol ogy Research Institute scientist W.F. Warwick is to review the role of

insects (chronomids) in aquatic communities and, in particular, the utility of morphological deformities in chronomid larvae for detecting and assessing the significance of contaminants ecosystem.






Consulting Engineers



Head Office: 51 Townline, Orangeviile, Ontario L9W 1V1 . 519-941-0330 ORANGEVILLE . FERGUS . GRAVENHURST . KITCHENER

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


R&D News continued

be maintained in a sample during a

have used a knowledge-based sys tem approach in selecting

BOD experiment. The DO in a reac tor is monitored by a probe and, as soon as it drops more than 0.1 mg/L below its set value, oxygen is added from an oxygen cylinder through a solenoid valve in proportion to the



DO deficit. The cumulative oxygen

Instead of choosing only one model and discarding the others, each

input gives the BOD for each reac

Watershed Acidification Modeis

D.C.L. Lam and coworkers at the National Water Research Institute



model is utilized in those cases

where it is most applicable, an approach which requires both quan titative and qualitative judgement to select the proper model. As des cribed in a paper published in Eco logical Modelling, predicted results for acid neutralization capacity in Southern Quebec and New Bruns wick agreed well with the observed results.

Respirometer Measurement of BOD

An automated Set-Point Respirome ter has been developed by McGill University scientists J. Pandher and R. Gehr. As described to dele

gates attending the 5th Eastern Regional Conference of the CAWPRC, this is a computercontrolled system which ensures that a desired DO concentration can

advantages in reducing both lea chate seepage and contaminant transport.

Sewage Sludge as a Forest Fertilizer

A recent paper in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering des cribes a study by D. Couillard which shows that sewage sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants can be used as an effective forest fertil

Leachate Contaminant System A paper published in the Canadian

Journal of Civil Engineering by University of Saskatchewan scient ists M.D. Haug, D.J.L. Forgie and S.L. Barbour presents the design concept for a sanitary landfill case study on a site that would not nor mally have been approved owing to the presence of a high water table. In this design, the base of the land fill was intentionally placed below the water table, and steps were taken to limit both groundwater intrusion into the landfill and lea

chate migration out of the landfill. Finite modelling demonstrated that placing a lined landfill below the groundwater table has definite






izer to increase the size and height of trees. Using anaerobic sludge from the Valcartier Wastewater Treat ment Plant to fertilize larch tree

samples in green houses, this INRSFau scientist found a 300% increase

in height and 210% increase in diameter.

Dynamic Modelling of Wastewater Treatment Plants

A paper presented by G.G. Patry, I. Takacs and Y.W. Yong at the Summer Computer Simulation Con ference in Austin, Texas describes the development and application of simulation-based technologies for the analysis and control of wastewater treatment plants. Fmphasis was placed by these McMaster Uni versity scientists on the develop ment of a General Purpose Simulator (GPS) for wastewater treatment plant modelling. The GPS described in their paper makes use of an advanced graphics-based modelling environment allowing the user to control and interact with

the simulation of the plant as the simulation progresses.

Rainfall-Runoff Modelling In a study of the sources of error in rainfall-runoff modelling, McMas ter University scientists G.G. Patry and A. Kennedy examined the effect of noise-corrupted runoff measure ments on estimates ofsurface runoff

pollutant loading to combined sewer systems and to receiving water bodies. As described in the Journa/

of Water Resources Planning and Management, the investigation revealed that under such conditions, a bias is introduced into the esti

mate of the pollutant load. The results of the study, which can be WILLMS & SHIER / BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS specializing in Land Use Planning & Development, Environmental Approvals,

Waste Disposal and Municipal Law

used to correct for the bias, can be incorporated in any rainfall-runoff model that makes use of the firstorder washoff model.

John R, Willms / Donna S.K. Shier

P. Douglas Petrie / C.C. Robert Wong / Thea M. Dorsey 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M5H

(416) 863-0711 • Fax: (416) 863-1938

For more Information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and




Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3,(819) 994-5424.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Literature Review The Plunger Pump Komline-Sanderson Positive Dis



placement Plunger Pumps are engineered for heavy-duty ser vice on difficult sludges, pulp and paper slurries and other tough waste handling problems. Simple in design, plunger pumps are rugged, durable and easy to maintain. Typical pump ing applications include dissolv ed air flotation sludges, sludge

Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochiorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosage re

quirements, handling equip ment, and storage, safety and handling data. Particularly ap plicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 201

thickener underflow and belt

filter press feed. Komllne Sanderson Circle reply card No. 207


A belt filter press for sludge dewatering - with over 500 oper ating in North America on a variety of industrial and muni cipal wastes.


_ [^UiL-ULl Antifreeze recycling catches on in Canada

The Andritz Presses are une

qualled for performance and mechanical reliability. The SMX-S8 press offers the highest throughput on a per meter basis of any press avail able today. Control and Metering Limited.

Doing good

Muffin Monster

A friend &i deed TMieast4tl«cUv«MutlbiMonster chcwsup

^noat cMrytMng coming down the pipe.

and cut costs. OWMC's Waste

Reduction Bulletin published quarterly for Ontario industry describes what others are doing to better manage their wastes, potential waste exchanges, ser vices available and upcoming events in the field.

Ontario Waste Management Corporation Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 202

Sewage sludge grinder, used typically up stream of dewatering presses, including centrifuges, also pumps and valves. The unique slow speed oper ating using 2 counter rotating shafts provides for excellent performance and mechanical reliability. Control and Metering Limited

Waste reduction

Keep up to date on the latest 4Rs technologies and methods to im prove your production efficiency

AquaSfi' how it works


Aqua SBR Sequential Batch Reactor - a very efficient batch type ac tivated sludge treatment system, ideally suited for high strength wastes and most cost effective

for flows up to 5 MGD. Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204


Odour control

UNiCASE™ Gearmotors &

Treating odours with sodium hypochiorite Javex-12 is explain ed in new literature. Systems are discussed that dispense a spray of hypo to oxidize organic

Speed Reducers Complete performance ratings

odours. Storage and air collec tion needs, as well as lab handl

ing equipment are also dis cussed.

Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 200

and dimensions for Nord's UNI

CASE line of gearmotors and speed reducers are detailed in this new 370-page catalog. Two types of parallel and right angle drives are included. Options such as outputflanges, solid and hollow output shafts, C-face and lEC inputflanges, and two types of motor mounting platforms are shown. Nord Gear Limited

Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990



a multi-purpose reactor BIOFOR biologically treats ef fluents with an oxygen demand of less than 400 mg/l and a max imum suspended solids content of 200 mg/i. It operates on the principle of a co-current upflow of water and air which provides the best distribution through the support media. Degremont Infiico

CO;?DtÂŁ5S pH Recorder

New field pH Recorder The Analytical Measurements Model 30-Wp CORDLESS Recording pH Meter offers a sim ple and effective means of monitoring and recording the pH of wastewater, pools, streams, chemical wastes and process streams. The unit is housed in a

Circle reply card No. 208 PTOtSERS m SaD>LF1ED pN MSTmAKHTATlON

rainproof case, and can be operated in the field for up to tfiree weeks without recharging the battery. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 209



Water Level Indicator

For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, op tional light.



Advertiser's Guide

Science & Engineering Environmental Science & Engi neering a bimonthiy business publication serving Canada's en vironmental protection industry allows direct penetration of this growing multi-billion dollar market.

ES&E's award-winning team pro vides authoritative coverage of Canada's municipal and indu strial environmental control

systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribution and air pollution

Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 210

monitoring and control. ES&E Circle reply card No. 211



Badger Meter is

dedicated to the develop


ment and manufacture Series 2000 Ultrasonic Level Measurement

Preprogrammed for all weirs and flumes. FlOV

Series 5000

Compound Measurement

System Designed to operate in open

â– Closed pipe Ultrasonic Transit-Time/Flow Tubes/Venturis/Turbines

of quality instrumentation for water and wastewater flows.


Badger has the expertise and knowledge to insure success in pressure pipe, open charmel, non-full pipe, retrofit or new applications.

Spool piece or strap-on sensor Series 4000 Transit-Time Ultrasonic

design 3" through 120 " line size.


Talk to the Flowmeter People. Talk to Badger. FLOW

channel or non-

fuil pipe.

Badger Meter,Inc.


Insert fuli-fianged cast iron or

P.O. Box581390Tulsa, OK74158-1390 (918) 836-8411 FAX: (918) 832-9962


Circle reply card No. 177

fabricated design

3" through 120" line size.

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

What's New Device diverts fish from intakes Whenever large volumes of water are drawn out of a lake or river, fish

and debris are a hazard for pumps and turbines. Water-borne debris is

easily controlled but fish present a more serious ecological problem.

incinerator casings. The casings are an integral part of the Joy high temperature incinerators that ther mally destruct sewage sludge. The units will be installed at a new sew

age plant currently under construc tion at Longueuil, Quebec. Plant operations are scheduled to begin in early 1991.

wi^ Sofid State


FMC introduced the SKRAM Fisb-

pulser to keep fish out of water

controlling the movement of fish at

Automatic dialing remote monitoring

control sites. A series of SKRAM


intakes. This electro mechanical device is a cost-efficient method of

Fisbpulser units are strung out and submerged across a water intake to form a sonic barrier. The main com

ponent of the system is a water-tight submersible cylinder that bouses the sound generating mechanism.It can be tuned to various sound fre

quencies, with minimal modifica tion, in response to the sensitivity of the target species. Typical applications include: power station intakes, municipal and industrial water intake struc

tures and virtually any channel or harbour where there is a benefit in

keeping out selected species of fish. The SKRAM Fisbpulser can also be used in aquaculture fish pens to direct fish to pumps for removal.

Verbatim is the next generation of automatic dialing remote monitor ing systems. Utilizing the Verbatim Speech System you can now record and store your own voice messages in permanent nonvolatile memory. Messages may consist of names, numbers, technical terms, and instructions using any language. Verbatim's ability to record mes sages is more flexible than limited vocabulary voice synthesized dial ers and its solid state reliability is superior to mechanical tape dialers. Designed for use by industrial

plants, water treatment plants, and utilities, the Verbatim continuously monitors the operation of a remote facility. On alarm. Verbatim selec tively calls the responsible person nel from your list of phone numbers and recites the appropriate alarm messages. And - at any time - call Verbatim for a status report on sta tion activity. Summa

Circle reply card No. 160


FMC of Canada Limited

Circle reply card No. 158 "Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years" BARRINGER LABORATORIES

Static Mixers for water

• environmental and discharge analyses

& waste treatment

• Reg. 309 and MISA compliance

• Phytotoxicology and Water Quality • fire assay and field sampling services

Static mixers can replace most rotating mixers used in water treat ment and

wastewater treatment

according to Koch Engineering. The most common applications for Koch

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd., Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, GO Kirkland Lake, ON

Pickle Lake, ON Red Lake, ON Reno, NV Yellowknife, NWT

in-line motionless mixers in water

and waste processing are:flash mix ing of treatment chemicals and

coagulating/flocculating agents, pH adjustment, disinfection and

decblorination, and sludge condi tioning with polymer, lime, ferric



Analytical Services Suite 200 1523 West 3rd Avs

chloride, etc.

, Environmental Analysis!

Koch claims its water and waste treatment processors offer cost sav


1 j


■ Orgsnic/fnorganic Chemistry ; ■ Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J ua Fax: 604 7312386

■ Occupational Health & Safety

ings in electrical power require ments and maintenance, while providing a more homogeneous out put than dynamic mixers.

Canadian Drinking Water Criteria >

■ OnigTMtinj kj UW U ■ GCIMS.6CVEC0:HPlftIC,KPJ L 20




Tel: 604 734 7276 604 734 TEST


Koch Engineering

Circle reply card No. 159

Comprehensive Environmental

Sludge incinerators



for Quebec Joy Technologies Canada Inc. has awarded a contract to Clemmer

178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario

Industries of Waterloo, Ont. for the

N2H 5M5

manufacture of two sewage sludge


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990




Static water

measuring device


environmental engineering & science urban planning transportation engineering building design





TORONTO(416)22^4646• EDMONTON (403)483-8094• HALIFAX (902) 4S3-1115

Setting the standard for * service


* quality * turnaround time

LABORATORIES INC. 6850 Goreway Drive, Toronto, L4V IPl, Tel: (416) 673-3255, FAX:(416) 673-7399


Packages include: 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) With FINE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD., UNIT #8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO (416)574-4977

American SIgma's Geoguard line of

groundwater sampling equipment includes a completely manual static water measuring device which pro duces an accurate and reproducible measurement. The Tape with Plopper consists of a fiiherglass tape on a reel with a stainless steel sounder attached to the end. The

tape is marked off in .01 increments

and is available in lengths of 100, 200, and 300 feet. Can-Am Instruments

Circle reply card No. 161

Carcinogenic dioxins Golder Associates Ltd. CONSULTING ENGINEERS

and furans reduced In

pulp mill effluent Petro-Canada claims to have deve

loped an exceptionally pure defoamer oil that reduces dioxins and

Golder Associates is pleased to announce the opening of an office at;

furans in pulp mill effluent. Defoamers are added to vats of pulp dur ing the bleaching process. Prior to Petro-Canada introducing its pro duct, most defoamer oils were made from solvent-refined base stocks. These contained a residue of aro

180 Columbia Street West

matic compounds containing prec

WATERLOO, ONTARIO N2L 3L3 Tel:(519) 746-2438 Fax:(519) 746-2536


Golder Associates, an employee owned con sulting engineering group of companies, pro vides comprehensive hydrogeological and geotechnical services through offices in Can ada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy and Australia. This new location

will provide services in contaminant hydrogeology, water resource development, site investi gation, site remediation and geotechnical engineering.




chlorine in the bleaching vats to becomes carcinogenic dioxins and furans. These were then discharged into the ecosystem. Petro-Canada's HT process elimi nates virtually all aromatics, including the precursors of chlori nated dioxins and furans.


Canada is able to certify extremely low precursor levels in their defoa mer oil, known as Purity PDO-2201. Solvent-refined defoamers have

about 30 to 100 parts per billion of dioxins and furans. Petro-Canada

can guarantee less than one part per billion. Petro-Canada

Circle reply card No. 162 64

Circle reply card No. 185

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

What's New


Inverter series offers

greater efficiency and reliability

• Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Ctiemical Analysis program teaturing 5-day turnaround 400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Ont. L4Z 1N8

Phone: (416) 890-9272

Fax: (416) 890-3023

Comprehensive Environmental Analytical Services Air Quality • Water Quality • Hazardous Waste ' Complete MISA Parameters

• Emission Testing

' Reg. 309 Compliance ' Polychlonnated Dibenzodioxins/Furans

• Ontario Drinking Water Criteria

' Ambient Air Monitoring

• Odorous Compounds • Rush Analysis Available

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

■WALKER LABORATORIES Complete Environmental Analytical Services SEW-EURODRIVE now offers the

new Freqrol Z-Series inverters from Mitsubishi. This new generation of inverters is more powerful, efficient, reliable and user-friendly than dver before. Freqrol Z-Series inverters are ideal for applications requiring controlled acceleration, decelera tion and variable speeds with AC induction motors from 1/2 to 75 HP. The new Z-Series inverters utilize

an advanced high gain, low power loss transistor design developed by Mitsubishi specifically for its inver

Contact Blake Smith, Manager Phone: (416) 227-4142 Facsimile: (416) 227-1034

Division of

lualher industries



Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

ter series. These transistors elimi

nate base amp driver circuitry, providing higher efficiency due to fewer components, more compact circuitry and lower operating temperatures. Fully digital 16-bit microproces sor technology allows greater func tionality, ease of operation, programming and communica tions. Up to 80+ user programmable functions (depending on the model) allow





custom-tailored to a wide variety of applications. Digital control of the sinusoidal



achieves a high frequency accuracy of 0.01 percent of preset output, and


TEL: (416) 847-0065

FAX: (416) 847-3840

1149 VANIER ROAD, SARNIA, ONT. N7S 3Y6 TEL: (519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965



MISA • Process/Wastewater • Soil • Solid Waste

Elemental Scans • Characterizations • PCB's • Sampling "16 SGS Locations Across Canada"

1903 Leslie St. Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2M3

Tel: (416) 445-5809 Fax: (416) 445-4152

resolution of 0.01 Hz.

Z-Series inverters require no screwdriver for adjustment. The front panel keypad and display allow precise adjustment and moni toring of speed, volts, amps, func tion settings or alarm conditions. Up to 15 alarm codes are provided to make troubleshooting easy. A wide

speed range is available,from 0.5 to 360 Hz. SEW-EURODRIVE


845 Hanington Court, Burlington, Ontario L7N 3P3 (416)639-6320 3650 Wcshittx>k Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 2L2 (604)222-1169 ANALYTTCAT.SERVTCF.S

• MISA analysis for over 50 plants • Ultra-trace Dioxins/Fuians by MS/MS • Certified by NYS-DOH

PROCESS ENGINF.ERTNG • Waste treatment evaluadon

• Bench and pilot scale testing • Technical/economic assessments

Circle reply card No. 157 Enuironmental Science & Engineering, March 1990


What's New — High efficiency aerators for wastewater treatment

provides both aeration and mixing, dramatically increasing waste water treatment efficiency. Effi ciency is further enhanced through exclusive mixing shrouds, produc ing a radial flow pattern which keeps the entire wastewater con tents of even the deepest basins in continual motion. Economical retrofit installations

with OKI aerators now make it pos sible to achieve dramatic improve ments in the efficiency of existing treatment plants. Outokumpu Circle reply card No. 154

New resin for

pipe and coatings

OKI subsurface aerators from Out-

A highly resistant resin that is espe cially suited for pipe and other industrial coatings has been intro duced by Guardsman Products, Ltd., Cornwall, Ont. The resin is also ideal for tank linings, primers and

okumpu Equipment Canada Ltd.


are ideal for use in both new and

Called VE 8520, the non-rubber modified resin has 20% elongation. It was developed by Interplastic Corporation, Minneapolis, Minn. Guardsman Products, Ltd. is the

existing treatment facilities. OKI claims that fewer units are required per installation, thanks to the ultrahigh oxygen transfer rate and effi cient operation. Installation costs, power costs and maintenance costs are all reduced.

Free-standing configuration and high-stability weighted-base of OKI aerators



need for

costly pontoons, bridges, special footings, or other support struc tures, while the use of a flexible hose connection to the high-capacity air intake significantly reduces piping requirements. Unique combination impeller

228MS Vane Anemometer The 228MS Vane Anemometer intro

duced by Solomat Instrumentation allows measurements in difficult to

reach areas. The probes supplied with the meter are available with a

telescoping shaft or a flexible shaft, allowing the probe head to be positi oned for optimum flow readings. Extension handles lengthen the probes up to 10 ft. Airspeed range is 0 to 8000 ft/min(units switchable to

m/s), with accuracy rated at +- 2% of reading. A versatile averaging function allows simple calculation of volumetric flows and an optional datalogging feature permits storage of up to 10,000 individual measure ments. Can-Am Instruments

exclusive Canadian distributor of

Interplastic's CoRezyn line of vinyl ester resins, which includes VE 8520. Developed to minimize cracking or crazing in SPI liner applications, where the

cause is



mechanical shock or physical abuse, VE 8520 retains good chemi cal resistance. It is 100% compatible with other CoRezyn epoxy-based, thermosetting resins. Guardsman Products, Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 155

Circle reply card No. 156


Specialized in Water and Soil Analysis Complete analytical services conducted according to MOE,EPA,APHA,ASTM and AOAC at competitive prices. Our comprehensive laboratory services include: * Environmental * Metals

* Industrial

* Agricultural

* Organic

* Inorganic

* Drinking water

* Waste water


* Feed













.Turbidity .Saturation pH

.Conductivity .Colour

.Cations Sum .T.D.S.

Anions Sum .Cond.(thcor)

.Redox Potential .Ion-Balance .T.D.S.(theor) .Langelier Index








.Nitrate/Nitrite .pH .Silica .SA.R.

With Fine Analysis Laboratories you can be assured of high quality, prompt service and an average turn around time of 4 business days. 83 BIGWIN RD. UNIT # 8, HAMILTON, ONT. LOR IPO. 66

Circle reply card No. 186

PHONE (416) 574^977

FAX: (416) 578-9195

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990





Advanced gas detection technology now at your fingertips. In the crucial field of portable gas detection, Sieger hands you the most remarkable and versatile product yet! Gas Leader.

A compact, light, microprocessor controlled multi-gas detector capable of continuously monitoring up to five gas parameters, with the facility for data

'Intrinsically Safe', Gas Leader is perfect for even the most testing atmospheres. Yet calibration and adjustment can be made by authorised personnel at the touch of a button and maintenance is simplicity itself.


Cost of ownership? Gas Leader shows the way with modular construction and plug-in sensor elements.

And offering 'hands on' personnel protection in the most hazardous working

detection requirements change. The sensor


Gas Leader's clear, easy to interpret alphanumeric LCD shows the concentrations of all gases simultaneously, and supports this with audio and visual alarms so that

nothing is left to chance. More than 12 hours continuous operation from one battery charge and certified

No need for a new instrument when combination can be altered to meet new conditions.

Add an outstanding range of accessories and the Gas Leader picture is complete. Advanced portable gas detection at your fingertips!

...it's in your hands now! SSCAN-CRODYNE CONTROLS

a Division of Safety Supply Canada Ltd., 90 West Beaver Creek Road, Richmond Hill, (Toronto), Ontario, Canada L4B 1E7 Tel: (416) 731-8975, Fax: (416) 731-9677

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

Circle reply card No. 178





Process Design Workshop on Industrial and Toxic Wastewater Management







/flfllLfTV ' /flBlUTV Tâ‚ŹCHNICnL /fiSIUTV 5(flVICâ‚ŹS IN(



/Municipal Engineers

with Wesley Eckenfelder and Norbert Schmidtke June 11-14, 1990 Walper Terrace, Kitchener Repeated by request following 1989 success, this SO-hour practical appiications-oriented workshop for professional engineers, scientists and environmental managers, covers the analysis, selection and design of processes to reduce, modify and remove undesirable constituents from industrial wastewaters and identifies opportunities for constituent recov ery, re-use and recycling. It provides a complete review and demonstra tion of different state-of-the-art technologies, hands-on experience in solving problems, and an up-to-date series of references (including the latest Eckenfelder text).

On behalf of our clients, we have positions available for: Municipal Service Engineers - Waterloo/Kingston/Toronto

Water and Sewage Treatment Engineers - Whitby/Toronto

W. Wesley Eckenfelder, CEO ofEckenfelder Inc., and Distinguished Professor Emeri tus of Environmental Engineering at Vanderbilt University, with 18 books, over 200 technical papers and many honours to his credit, is an internationally recognized authority in wastewater treatment. Norbert W.Schmidtke, President of Norbert

Highway Design Engineers - Toronto Municipal Site Inspectors - Toronto/Barrie Environmental Engineers throughout Ontario

Assistant Branch Manager for Municipal Services Consultant in Simcoe, Ontario Municipal Services Technologists with CAD AutoTroll - Cohourg/Toronto Hazardous Waste Engineers - Toronto

W.Schmidtke & Assocs.Ltd.and Professor

at the University of Guelph, has also pub lished prolifically, and gained interna tional recognition through his research, consultations to industry, consultants and government, and numerous professional training courses.

Registration Fee: $845. (Eariybird $785. before May 1,1990) Contact: Lyn James, CHi,36 Stuart Street, Gueiph,ON N1E 4S5 Tei: (519) 767-0197 Fax: (519) 744-4282

To apply, send your resume in confidence, quoting this ad to: Ability Group Technical Services Inc. 90 Eglinton Ave. East, Suite 511 Toronto, Ontario M4P 2H1 Tel:(416) 440-0555, Fax:(416)440-1563

Circle reply card No. 187

MISA Samplers and Flowmeters Nortech offers a complete line of water samplers,flowme ters and accessories to help you comply with current and future regulations. Water and dust tight, corrosion resistant and fully sub mersible ISCO samplers ensure the Integrity of yoursamples prior to analysis.

Refrigerated, stationary or portable samplers are availa ble. Time or flow proportioned samples can be collected in composite or sequential modes.

For further assistance or a free consultation, please con tact your nearest Nortech office.

NORTECH CONTROL EQUIPMENT INC. 135 The West Mail, Unit 4 Etobicoke, Ontario M9G 102


Telephone: Toronto (416) 622-7820


Tel: (514) 331-4460


Circle reply card No.179



Tel: (403) 434-8220

Tel: (604) 643-1709

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

■What's New New 15-minute lead test

Air stripping and catalytic converter technology

for drinking water

Groundwater Technology, Inc. has received a patent on the treatment of contaminated groundwater using

packed tower air stripping and cata lytic converter technology. The firm developed the process which

includes the Catalytic Scavenger™

vapor abatement system, produced by ORS Environmental Equipment, a division of Groundwater Technology.

Hach Company has introduced a fast, easy-to-use, and inexpensive test for lead in the 0-150 parts per

billion (ppb) range with a detection limit of less than 5 ppb. The new LeadTrak test concentrates lead in

an adsorption column, simplifying the technique required for lead test ing and eliminating solvent han dling and disposal problems.

Air stripping has been used for many years to remove volatile organic compounds dissolved in water. The process calls for blowing or bubbling air through cascading water so that the volatile com

pounds convert to their vapor phase. Formerly, the air was processed through granulated carbon or simply released to the atmosphere.

Apparatus for the 15-minute LeadTrak test is compact and easyto-use, making it the ideal test method for point-of-use testing. The

the Internalift is available.

waste disposal. The abatement system is availa ble for rent, lease or purchase through ORS Environmental Equip ment. Mounted on a trailer,it can be used to respond quickly and effec

tively to emergencies, pilot studies or for small quantities of contami

nated vapors. ORS

Circle reply card No. 152

West German facilities

folic acid. The additive is economi

cal and easy to use, requiring no modification of plant design or oper ation. Bloprlme Circle reply card No. 153

Circle reply card No. 150

screw, the Internalift consists of a steel cylinder enclosing conically pitched helical flights which are continuously welded to the cylind er's internal surface. The pump is supported by self-aligning rollers at the lower end and a spherical roller bearing at the top end. A full-color 24-page brochure fully describing

tion that destroys the compounds, leaving nothing for hazardous

shocks have been brought into com

DR/3000, DR/2000 or DR/3 Spectrophotometer. Hach Company

A variation on the Archimedean

volatile organic com

pliance solely through the use of

method can be used with a Hach



experiencing overload and toxic

everything needed to complete 20 tests. For laboratory testing, the

The Internalift™ pump from CPC Engineering continues to solve pumping problems. It can raise wastewater, storm water, oily liq uids, sewage, slurries and all types of solids-laden liquids 50 feet or more. It is suitable for municipal, industrial and irrigation applica


pounds is passed through a cata lytic converter, which oxidizes these compounds. The converter has a precious metal catalyst in the reac


new LeadTrak method is available as a DR 100 Colorimeter Test Kit, which includes a direct-reading, hand-held DR 100 Colorimeter and

design advantages over conventional pumps

site for disposal or regenerated. In the process, air contaminated

use folic acid (a vitamin belonging to the B complex) to achieve com pliance and improve performance, dosfolat™, the folic acid additive, has been used in Europe for over two years and is now available in North

LeadTrak is a Hach Company Trademark, Patent Pending.


The contaminated carbon may either be taken to a hazardous waste

The Internalift presents several advantages over conventional screw pumps and centrifugal pumps. For example, the continu ous welding makes leakage, backflow and jamming impossible, thus reducing downtime and increasing efficiency. Furthermore, because


pump output varies directly with the liquid level at the inlet, there is no risk of damage from running dry, and variable flows can be pumped at constant drive speeds. MIcrofloc

Circle reply card No. 151

Vitamin B additive

helps wastewater treatment plants A new product from West Germany can help wastewater treatment

CANVIRO Analytical Laboratories Ltd. is pleased to announce that Annette BIbaud has joined us in the capacity of QA/QC officer/MISA coordinator. A graduate from the Northern Alberta Institute of Tech

nology, Annette hasacquired consid erable experience with formal QA/QC procedures and has a work

ing knowledge of environmental regulations gained through her employment in the private sector. With the addition of Annette's knowl

plants meet regulatory require ments, at lower cost. For the first

edge and expertise, CANVIRQ Labs

time, secondary wastewater treat

lence in environmental testing.

ment plants in North America can

Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

continues its' commitment to excel


ES&E's 1990 Spring Conference Review It's conference time again and the new decade begins with a surge of Spring conferences. As always, AQTE began with the first major conference of the year and the AQTE Congress was held as we go to press. While the following information is based on information received and

subject to change, it is obvious from the topics that the conference committees are equal to the formidable challenges facing environmental professionals in the new decade. In particular, operations staff are playing an increasingly important role, a fact now demonstrated by the programs, in addition to the technical programs, ail the major meetings have excellent social and entertain ment events which make these

conferences a pleasure to attend for both delegates and spouses.

PCAO looks forward to the 1990's The Annual Conference ofthe Pollu tion Control Association of Ontario

will take place at the Radisson Hotel, London Centre, London, Ontario, April 8-10. It will include equipment displays by members of the Ontario Pollution


Equipment Association and tours of CMC's Diesel Division and Labatt's


Papers include a European update from the United Kingdom Water Research Centre; presenta tions on industrial compliance for MISA regulations; groundwater

Ont. Section

AWWA/OMWA Joint Annual Conference Canada's largest waterworks con ference will be held at the Holiday Inn in downtown Toronto, May 6-9. The keynote address is by R.G. Fer guson, Metro-Toronto Commis sioner of Works, a member of ES&E's Technical Advisory Board, and a regular contributor to this magazine. Technical papers will deal with aluminum; lead; disinfection by products (THM and DBP); Zebra Mussels; impact of new technology; water quality at the City of Edmon ton; utility management; optimiza tion; the impact of new technology and emergency response following

Phil Parry, Gore & Storrie, at(416) will have a Poster Session, phone

Cord Speirs, Environment Canada for details at (416) 336-4745.

Registration requests should be Faxed to Sandra Davey (416) 841-

7271, or write to PCAO, 10 Petch Crescent, Aurora, Ont. L4G 5N7. 70

conference under new name

The Air & W aste Management Asso ciation, (formerly APCA) will hold its first conference under its new

name at the Skyline Hotel, Toronto, April 22-24, along with an equip

ment display. This year the associa tion celebrates its 30th anniversary as a Section.

Topics will include papers on tox ics emission control; toxics as an

environmental priority and presen tations on regulatory developments; monitoring; pathways and fate; effects; control;future developments

pleaser as well as recognition ofthe waterworks people in the field-who keep the systems going. While the AWWA papers will deal with the technical aspects, the Ontario Municipal Water Association will focus on its role as a utility body.

and case studies. Conference Chair

man is Ed Piche, MOE,(416) 3261632.

Technical program details from Dr. Sid Barton, ORTECH Interna tional, (416) 822-4111, or FAX 8231446, or from Tony van der Vooren,

Tours will include the John St.

MacLaren PlanSearch Inc. (416)

Pumping Station-SkyDome. This pumping station, formerly on the site of the SkyDome, won an award

756-3866. There will be Poster Sessions

of excellence in the 1989 Environ

along with a cash prize for a student poster. Additional poster informa

R.V. Anderson & Associates Ltd.

tion from Maria Kelleher, CH2M Hill (416) 858-2320. Registration details from Harrie McAdie (416)

and was presented at the 1989 Sud-


mental Science & Engineering National Awards Competition for

BCW&WA Conference The Annual Conference of the Brit ish Columbia Water and Waste

balance of papers - ranging from pulp & paper to mining and treat ment plant operations.

499-9000 for details. The conference

AMWA holds first

effluent and emission assessment;

fier design. Steve McMinn, M.M. Dillon is Conference Chairman, (519) 4386192. Brian Evans, Proctor & Redfern is Program Chairman (416)

from Toronto to London. Contact


There's also a tapping contest which is always an exciting crowd

in the Conference Centre located in the heart of beautiful downtown Victoria. BCWWA Conference is

adian rail trip is no more, the organ izers are planning a group train trip

Other tours include the Ontario

Legislature, the R.C. Harris Filtra tion Plant and the City of Toronto. Registration details from Astrid

an '89 flood.

remediation; privatization of wastewater treatment plants; and papers giving case histories on industrial pollution abatement programs plus several presentations which recog nize the growing importance of oper ators. Other presentations will cover sludge management and clari-

445-3600. And while the famed Can

bury AWWA/OMWA conference.

Association will be held April 22-24,

the biggest event in the Province dedicated to Water, Waste Water and Industrial Waste topics. The tentative program shows a great

The traditional Technology Transfer Seminar is being planned for Wednesday, April 25, and will focus on operation and mainte nance ofsanitary sewer lift stations. Conference Highlights include: • An excellent Technical Program with three concurrent sessions.

• Spouses program including a tour of Craigdarroch Castle,lunch at the Old England Inn and ample oppor tunity to explore Victoria. • An opportunity to discuss prob lems, solutions and exchange ideas with others in your field. • An after hours Social program

designed to help delegates relax, meet other delegates and renew old acquaintances. 'This conference is an educational

opportunity that can benefit eve ryone from Utility Managers, Improvement District operators, to Operations Personnel. Plan to attend and be part of this dynamic progr&m in the quaint setting of Vic toria. If you would like to have your name put on the registration mail ing list, just send your business card or a short letter with your mailing

•A Manufacturer's Exposition with over fifty display booths. •Technology Transfer Seminar.

address to: Ken Silvester, c/o City of Victoria, No. 1 Centennial Square, Victoria, B.C. V8W 1P6. Fax: (604)

• Golf Tournament.


Environmental Science & Engineering, March 1990

SAMPLE SIGMA...CANADA Liquid samplers combining sample integrity with rugged practicality... that's STREAMLINE'". STREAMLINE™ innovation includes a patented liquid sensing system. Unlike other peristaltic pump sam plers, STREAMLINE™ delivers repeatable volumes by automatically compensating for changing lifts. And if the first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged

intake, STREAMLINE™ initiates a high pressure

purge and tries again. Most importantly, we understand that samplers get rough treatment... and STREAMLINE'" will take it. Electronics are

isolated in a watertight NEMA 4x, 6 housing and the roto-molded polyethylene case is more impact resistant than the ABS common to other samplers.


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Circle reply card No. 106

Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588


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Engineered for "storm water management," Ultra-Rib's unique PVC design provides a durable, high impact, non-corroding pipe for storm drain systems. Certified to CSA B182.4 and meeting ASTM F794, Uitra-Rib, with a Manning flow coefficient of n = .009, provides the lowest flow resistance of any storm drain pipe.

Engineered for Strength Proven in worldwide applications, Uitra-Rib meets the rigorous demands of shallow or deep burial. A seamless PVC pipe, Ultra-Rib's reinforcing ribs girdle the true circumference of the pipe, providing a pipe stiffness in excess of 320 kPa (46 lb./in./in.) while exacting tolerances provide ieaK-tight joints.

Ground Water Recharging

Made from PVC, Uitra-Rib is not affected by

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Ultra-Rib's economy - ease of handling, reduced installation time, complete line of fittings, and significant labour and maintenance savings- will make it the piping of choice.

Software and Design Brochure

Easy to cut on site

Get to know more about Ultra-Rib. Contact your nearest Scepter branch for our latest Uitra-Rib software and design brochure.





Where environmental concerns for recharging

the ground water are a preferred option to ponding, perforation of Uitra-Rib can accommodate design specifications.

807 Pharmacy Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario M1L 3K2 (416) 752-2200 fax: 416-752-8512 Scepter is a member of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.

Gaskets can easily be repositioned. VANCOUVER (604) 525-8621

(403) 236-8333

EDMONTON (403)468-4444

FAX 604-525-8607

FAX 403-279-8443

FAX 403-465-5617


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WINNIPEG (204)633-3111

FAX 306-934-2020

fax 204-633-3075

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fax 514-337-7886

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