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ENVIRONMENTAL o

(sn(Bm(D(B A Davcom Business Publication

nr""

An insider's perspective on Ontario's waste management industry No free lunch in NDP's free fridges

An expert reviews pipe trends Sludge control options

Preying on public fear

October 1989


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The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2mm to 1200mm Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel

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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


ISSN-0835-605X

ENVIRONMENTAL

Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO

B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON

CONTENTS

October 1989, Vol. 2 No. 5 Issued October, 1989

Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY

Technical Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.

No free lunches In NDP's fridges Editorial comment by Tom Davey

6

Industry Update

An Insider's perspective of Ontario's waste management Industry Article by Jack Shaw

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.

12

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication

published by Davcom Communications

MISA: Who will guard the guards?

inc.

Article by Dr. Ian Webber

17

Experts review pipe trends - Part II

21

An all Canadian publication,

ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial

environmental

control

systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu tion. air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

What are the environmental priorities?

Comment by R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng.

22

Coping with drycleaning solvents

25

Preying on the public's health and safety fears Article by John J. Barr and Stephen Johnson

28

ES&E's readers include consulting

engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental

officials,

water

and

wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers,

representatives and distrllxitors and academics.

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research Institutions, environmental

associa

tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives),orotherfacslmi-

iles of the written or graphic material

Literature Reviews

A range of products and services for specifiers

23, 29

The changing trends and options In sludge control and disposal

31

Article by Peter Nicol, P.Eng.

for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora,

What's New

34

R&D News - a scientific synopsis of water pollution research and development supplied by the CAWPRC

43

The significance of chain of custody Article by John MacLaren

49

Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs,etc.should be sent to Environmental Science &

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 tndustriai Pkwy. S., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed In Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $35.00 for one year, $65.00 for two years, $5.00 per single Issue; U.S.A. $50.00, $90.00 for two years; other for eign $70.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $25.00 single Issue.

Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Cover photo shows Canada's largest activated sludge facility - Metro-Toronto's Main Treatment Plant - with Lake Ontario and the city as a scenic backdrop. Gore & Storrie Ltd., associated with this plant for over 50 years, supplied the aerial photo. Peter NIcol, Manager of the G&S Munici pal Wastewater Division, wrote the feature on trends and options In sludge disposal on page 31.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

CarudUn BuiÂŤnÂŤst

CCAB membership applied for Jan.1989


From: Aer-0-Flo Environmental

A wastewater

screen so effective it reduces BOD The Aer-O-Flo Drumshear Screen is Ideal for

both Industrial and municipal wastewater screening

Superior capture rate of solids over conven tional models — 45 microns and up — which

actually reduces BOD Recovered solids have superior dry weight concentration giving iower haulage and/or treatment costs

Rugged 1/4 inch stainless steel construction — thicker and much more durable than the

usual 10 or 12 gauge metal Removable screen panels are a first in the

industry — allowing a change of openings Recoverable Diverter Flights, automaticaily remove screened solids from cylinder No Doctor Blades to operate and maintain Internai and external Spray Cleaning System Low energy requirements

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Only 4 wheels to lubricate — giving very low maintenance costs

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better than comparable screens — a great investment for better environmental protec tion

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc., 1175 Appleby Line, Unit C-3, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel: (416) 335-8944, Fax:(416) 335-8972

Circle reply card No. 101

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Editorial Comment by Tom Davey

No free lunches in NDP's free fridges fridges are scrapped, with equal amounts of CFCs required to recharge the new appliances. NDP Energy Critic Brian Ctiarlton says: "an organized fridge replacement program would, for the first time give us the ability to collect and drain-off those fridges before they are scrapped". He should be told that while some promising research

is going on in portable CFCs recov ery,no such facility on a commercial

An NDP report calls for

scale exists in Canada.

There was an estimated 19,600 tonnes of CFCs in use in Canada in

Ontario Hydro to give away energy-efficient refrigerators and other

1987 with about 43 percent used in

appliances to avoid building a new

rio to produce a HCFC 123, a CFC substitute, but this will not be ready

nuclear power station. This is imbecilic drivel masquerading as envir onmental statesmanship. To prematurely dump perfectly good appliances would be an appal ling environmental and economic catastroptie. Economically, It would waste hundreds of millions of dollars

which might be better spent on hospi tals, education and, perish the thought, even pollution abatement equipment.

Ontario Leader of the Opposi tion, Bob Rae, called for the free fridges, and other energy-efficient appliances, following an NDPsponsored study which claims Onta rio Hydro discriminates against energy-efficiency measures. "We should he paying people and we should be paying the system to save energy just as we now are paying Hydro to produce it," Mr. Rae said. Stupidity must be contagious at Queen's Park. Maybe it gets into the air conditioning ducts and is spread during question period, much like Legionaire's Disease. For example, the then* liberal Energy Minister Bob Wong's response to the NDP's ecological illiteracy was that this

various types of refrigerants. Dupont is building a $24 million plant In Onta

until sometime in 1990. CFCs are

major culprits in Ozone Layer deple tion as well as being a major influence in the 'greenhouse' effect - so the problem is one of global proportions. No one will argue that there is a vital need for energy-efficient devi ces but they are being built and are gradually replacing older models. For example, the furnace in my home uses a fraction of the energy used in our former house, which had 50 percent less floor space. And all

our appliances are rated for their energy efficiency except for one aging laundry dryer. But this is not a big problem; we are one of the few families in our area to use that great energy-saving device, a solar, windpowered rotary clothes dryer. Scrapping perfectly good appli ances would also require huge amounts of energy when manufac turing the thousands of tonnes of steel for the new ones. This in turn

would require millions of tonnes of coal for the coking ovens alone,com pounding the already serious acid rain problem. Then there's the millions of litres

shelving and other parts — all required to make the free fridges and stoves.

And what about the human ele ment in the selection of the new

appliances? What about colour co ordination, sizes, options and even quality? People are extraordinary fussy about colours and styles which match their homes - for Canadians

are Individuals, not easily regimented morons, marching in lock-step to the seductive tune of an NDP Pied Piper of freebies.

It may seem like nit-picking, hut who is going to co-ordinate this grand plan which could make DDay look like a garage sale? And before we can get these bright,shiny energy-efficient objects to the grate ful population there's another slight environmental drawback — trans

portation. Shipping the new appliances in, and taking the old ones out, v/ould require massive con sumption of transportation fuels, inevitably leading to increased highway congestion (Fridgelock?) and serious air pollution. People will unquestionably breathe more benzene, lead, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins, to name a few of the particulates from this increased traffic. And

finally there's the landfill situation one of our most pressing problems. Certainly many abandoned appliances could be recycled, but certain

of

their

entrails

will

undoubtedly end up in landfill sites exacerbating what is already one of our most serious problems. Someone should

tell

the

NDP

about the Second Law of Thermody namics which - loosely translated means that there can be no free

lunches in the proposed free fridges. "Bob Wong was switched from Energy to Citizenship in the last Ontario Cabinet reshuffle. Jim Brad

proposal, was not such a bad idea. As Mr. Wong seemed a perfectly

of paints, and toxic solvents, plus vast amounts of plastics, plus the

ley remains as Environment Ministera position he has held since the first

rational individual when we met

cyanides and other toxic chemicals used in the chromium plating of

Peterson formed.

him in Ottawa recently, it would he wise to have those ducts checked out

Liberal

- quickly! When scientists isolate the bac

terium which produces such idio cies, they'll probably name it imhecilus bacillus. And if common

sense proves to be the only antidote it could spread like the plague, espe cially with certain news media play ing the role of Typhoid Mary. Ecologically the free fridges could prove catastrophic. Vast

-r-llt'

Fridge proposals

amounts of CFCs (Chlorofluorocar-

bons) would be released as the Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

r^-It

Government was


AWMA call for papers

Environment Canada honours editor

The Air and Waste Management Association - Ontario Section (for merly the Air Pollution Control Association) will be holding its annual spring meeting April 22-24, 1990 at the Skyline Hotel, Toronto, Canada.

Topics will include: Toxics: An Environmental Priority and papers are invited on the following topic areas: regulatory developments, effluent and emission assessment, monitoring, fate processes, effects, control, future developments, and

jf

case studies.

Persons interested in presenting papers should send a short abstract to or call: Sid Barton, ORTECH International, 2395 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B3,(416)822-4111 or Fax:(416)8231446.

Ont. environment is a

$2-blllion industry

Tom Davey, (left) Editor and Pub lisher, Environmental Science & Engineering, received a Certificate of Honour during a televised ban quet ceremony at Ottawa's spectac ular new National Gallery in the 'outstanding communications cate

require significant spending by pri

Ontario's environmental protection industry generates an estimated $2billion in annual sales and 28,000 jobs. Environmental regulations

vate companies, utilities and municipalities in order to meet increasingly stringent standards.

This generates economic activity in

UK Water bills up 30% has

cent a year in the Northumbrian

announced plans for huge debt write-offs and a $2 billion "green dowry" for the water industry in the run-up to privatisation in November, provoking strong criti cism from Opposition MPs, trades unions, and environmental and con

region, inflation plus 4.5 percent in Thames, and inflation plus 3 per

The

British

Government

sumer groups.

Annual bills could eventually rise by up to 30 percent because the water businesses will be able to pass on many unforeseen costs — includ ing those of meeting European directives and inflation in the build

ing industry. The costs ofinstalling meters in homes,estimated at about £100 per household, and the cost of

meeting expected EC -rules to pre vent pesticides getting into water supplies have also yet to be included in the pricing formula. Mr. Michael Howard, Minister for Water, approved a pricing regime which will allow the 10 Eng lish and Welsh water authorities to

raise annual prices for the next 10 years by an average of 13 percent,at the current inflation rate.

Under the new system, each authority has been told how much it can increase prices above inflation for the next decade. The increases

range between inflation plus 7 per

cent in Yorkshire.

Mr. Howard said prices would be held down to an average 5 percent a year above inflation — now 8.3 per cent — on the average £117 water bill for the first five years. This would fall to an average 3.7 percent over inflation the second five years. He said the Government pro posed to wipe out £4.4 billion of debts and inject a further £1.024 bil lion in new cash into the water

authorities. This would put their successor companies in a position to fund new capital investment of £17.3 billion during the next 10

gory'. Tom met with Federal Envir

onment Minister Lucien Bouchard, at a reception prior to the banquet and the minister asked for addi tional data on some environmental

articles. The ceremony was tele vised during Environment Week. manufacturing, construction and consulting. In terms of private sec tor employment alone, the environ mental protection industry ranks with the clothing and wood products industries, an MOE report says. The study, prepared by Woods Gordon Management Consultants, provides the first in-depth charac terization of the environmental pro tection industry in Ontario. It includes air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid waste dispo sal and recycling, and the monitoring and analyzing of envir onmental data.

Firms responding to the mail sur vey reported growth rates of 17% to 32% per year since 1983, with the fas test growth reported in the wastewater field. Both purchasers and suppliers surveyed expected modest gains from free trade and continued growth in response to tightening government regulations.

Sollnst move gives test facilities

years.

Mr. Howard said the measures "will enable us to achieve the cleaner water environment we all want to see."

But as City advisors applauded the generous sale terms designed to woo investors, the Consumers'

Association warned:"This is going to hit a lot of consumers very hard and some are going to find their water rates rising in a way thatthey never thought possible." Manchester Guardian Weekly

Soiinst Canada Ltd. has moved. New

premises include an old saw mill, renovated and refurbished to pro vide a modern manufacturing envir onment. With bedrock only 20-40 feet below surface and the Credit

River close by, it is planned to install test boreholes. This will give Soiinst excellent facilities not only to test prototype instruments, but also to put on demonstrations and seminars. Soiinst Canada Ltd., The Williams Mill, 515 Main Street, Glen Williams, ON, L7G 3Sg.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


— Industry Update MISA law for pulp and paper mills

semi-annual tests for these persistant toxic chemicals at eight mills not using bleached pulp.

Ontario's 27 pulp and paper mills are now required by law to monitor wastewaters discharged to lakes

Flow monitoring will be required to provide consistency in establish ing the total loading of contami

and rivers for 130 contaminants.

nants. The monitoring regulation

"This is an important step in cleaning up an industry which has traditionally been a major polluter of Ontario waterways," said Envir onment Minister Jim Bradley.

This 12-month comprehensive monitoring program will let the MOE know for the first time the full

range of toxic pollutants and amounts discharged. With the detailed results in hand, the MOE will formulate an abatement regula

tion requiring the mills to reduce toxic discharges to the level attaina ble by the hest available pollution control technology that is economi cally achievable. Each mill must sample its own wastewater discharges and have them tested to ministry specifica tions. Random ministry audits will verify that results are accurate and representative. The regulation stip ulates quality control and quality assurance procedures for collecting, storing, analyzing and checking samples.

The regulation prescribes moni toring schedules for process efflu ent, cooling water, backwash, waste disposal site effluent, emergency overflow and stormwater effluent.

It also requires all mills to monitor

process wastewater dally for four

has been promulgated under the Ontario Environmental Protection

Act. Violators face fines of up to $25,000 a day for first offences and $50,000 for subsequent convictions. Pulp and paper mills must com mence monitoring on Jan. 1, 1990. This lead-in time will allow the com

panies to purchase and Install the required equipment, to arrange for

sonnel.

Costs incurred under the regula tion will be borne by the industry. The ministry has estimated the total incremental capital and operating costs for all mills at between $7.5 million and $11 million. Costs to individual mills are estimated to

range from $158,500 (Beaver Wood Fibre Co., 'Thorold) to $1,227,400 (Domtar Inc., Red Rock). The ministry developed this regu lation in consultation with the pulp and paper industry, Environment Canada and the MISA Advisory Committee of independent environ mental experts.

Candu is tops again! The latest figures published by Nuclear Engineering International put CANDU at the top of the list of the hest 10 performing power reactors (of 150 MW and above)in 1988. Among the top ten performing reactors five are CANDU reactors from all three Canadian provinces. CANDU is the most efficient in the world and could play a major role in mitigating the Green house Effect.

LEA K DETECTION FOR MONITORING WELLS Portable Hydrocarbon Vapour Detection

conventional pollutants,three times a week for a fifth conventional pollu tant, weekly for two metals, and monthly for 113 contaminants. Addi

The "Vapor-Safe" is a portable hydrocarbon vapour system capable of detecting leaks In underground monitoring wells.

tional substances to be tested for

monthly, weekly and three times a week are stipulated for each type of

The "Vapor-Safe" is completely portable, utilizing simple plug-In operation with readings display In

mill.

The ministry and the industry will also conduct semi-annual open scans using a mass spectrometer to identify any chemicals present which are not being specifically

laboratory services and to train per

numerical values or colour bands.

Readings take only a few minutes.

PEA

GRAVEk SACK

The "Vapor-Safe" also provides Indication of background vapours (previous contamination) and new vapours (recent contamination).

tested for under the regulation.

Monthly biological monitoring is also required. Toxicity tests will be

For more Information on the

run on mill effluents using Rainbow Trout and another sensitive orga

"Vapor-Safe" write or call. . .

nism,Dap/inio magna (water fleas). The new regulation will require monthly testing of process wastewater discharges for dioxins and furans at nine Kraft mills and one

de-inking mill that use chlorine or chlorine derivatives to bleach pulp. There also will be bi-monthly moni toring for dioxins and furans at nine mills using bleached pulp,as well as Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Dqvis Controis LIMITED

4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3

(416) 233-2311

FAX:(416) 239-2386

Circle reply card No. 102


Industry Update — Is Britain really the Dirty Man of Europe? Is it now safer to drink tap water in France, Italy, and Spain than the UK? Ministers and water

authority spokesmen are doing their best to divert attention from our

sorry record on water standards by pleading that poor standards exist across the rest of the continent. But that is the oldest trick in the crimi

nal's book:"Others are doing it too. Sir." It has never been an adequate defence in the criminal courts;and it

will be just as inadequate before the European Court of Justice if the European Commission goes ahead with its threatened action.

A century ago the UK led the world in the drive to raise the standards of

drinking water. It was the Victorians who pioneered removing harmful microbiological elements through piped water, better sewers, and siow sand filters. It was foreign tap water that was suspect. But no longer, for three reasons: intensive farming methods, with suppiies contaminated

have been achieved. Not only has

Neglect on tap Hi-tech quick fixes have created their own problems. The new chemi cal water purifying process failed to pick up the water-borne parasite, cryptosporidium, which infected an Oxfordshire reservior.

No Euro

pean state has a more intensive farming system than Britain. In many areas, but particularly where there is vulnerable ground water and low rainfall, the levels of nitrate are higher than in most parts of Europe. There is still disagreement over what the precise permissible level of nitrate should be; but there can be no dispute about the Euro

pean Commission's standards for lead pollution. The current stand ard is 50 micrograms per litre. In America, the Environmental Pro tection Agency is proposing a stand

iead

ard five times more stringent because of the proven link between lead and brain damage, especially in children. Nearly half of all homes in Britain receive water through lead pipes. It is now nine years since the

pipes and old sewers; and the new rapid chemical purifying process,

European Commission issued its directive setting minimum drinking

by nitrates and pesticides; cuts to the capital investment programme for urgently needed renovation to the Victorian

infrastructure

like

iess effective than the oid, siow sand

water standards and four years

filters.

since those standards were meant to

the UK failed to reach them — on

concentrations of lead, nitrates,pes ticides, aluminium and other chemi cals — but the Government is still

refusing to set itself a timetable for achieving these targets. An amend ment to the Water Bill by the Lords, setting a 1993 deadline, was

squashed by the Government in the Commons. Appropriately,the Euro pean Commission has now stepped in and given the Government two months to set itself a deadline or

face the European Court. With water privatisation set for flotation in November, ministers have been

desperate to keep the spotlight away from the $20 billion investment pro

gramme needed in the industry. But this is notjust a question of the pub lic right to know; the potential shareholders need to be told as well.

Manchester Guardian Weekly

Atomic Radiation In its latest report to the United Nation General Assembly,the U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects

of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) states that the radiation dose a per son receives annually from all Continued on page 10

L SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

The safe alternative For water di.sinfection, wastewater

treatment, odour control, cyanide removal. BRISTOL-MYERS MANUFACTURING A DIVISION OF BRISTOL-MYERS CANADA INC. 255 Wlcksteed Ave., Toronto, Ont. M4H 1G8 Tel.(416) 421-6000. Fax.(416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver

Circle reply card No. 103

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


SAMPLE SIGMA...CANADA Liquid samplers combining sample integrity with rugged practicality ... that's STREAMLINE ". STREAMLINE"" innovation includes a patented liquid sensing system. Unlike other peristaltic pump sam plers, STREAMLINE"" delivers repeatable volumes by automatically compensating for changing lifts. And if the first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged

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FAC

worldwide

activities related

to

nuclear power is a tiny fraction of the total dose from natural sources

(0.0002 millisievert compared to 2,4 millisieverts from natural sources, mainly radon).

Melville to get Canada's first municipal EDR system NEW,EFFICIENT EMULSION-BREAKING SEPARATORS: cut waste handling costs ■ automatic, unattended up to 98% operation handle fresh or salt water, mechanical or chemical

■ capacities from 800 to 63,000 GPD

emulsions

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Write for your free copy today, or call FAST Systems Inc. 1717 Sublette Ave., St. Louis, Missouri, 68110, USA Tel:(314) 781-3278, Fax:781-5568, Tlx: 447224

Send me the facts on the FAST Oil/Water Separators. Name Company

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Melville, Saskatchewan's water treatment plant is installing an electrodialysis reversal system. An EDR system will be part of an expansion of the town's plant, origi nally designed by Associated Engi neering in 1959. The latest expansion of the town's facilities calls for a WTP for

the demineralization of a deep well water supply using the process of electrodialysis reversal with a pro duction rate of 1900 m^ /d.

The plant will be expanded to house four pressure filters for pretreatment, iron and manganese removal and an electrodialysis rev ersal package plant that will treat water with a TDS of 1900 mg/1 and produce water containing 475 mg/1 at a recovery rate of 85 percent. The water treatment plant cost of $1.14 million is part of an overall water supply project cost of $1.6 mil lion and is scheduled for completion by March 1990.

■THOMAS ENVIRONMENTAL GROUP.

Associated Engineering will pro vide design work on the project.

GLOBE '90

PCB MANAGEMENT

• ON-SITE TREATMENT

Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, called on the Environment Industry to set the pace towards attaining sustainable development. More

DIVERSIFIED REMOVAL AND

• SITE CLEAN-UP AND

ness community heard Mr. Mulro-

COMPLETE WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT

RESTORATION

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than 500 members of Canada's busi

ney's plea at a luncheon sponsored by GLOBE '90, in Vancouver, Brit ish Columbia.

GLOBE '90 is a major interna tional Environment Industry Trade Fair and Conference, presenting "Global Opportunities for Business and the Environment", March 1923, 1990, at the Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre and B.C. Place Stadium.

Mr. Mulroney challenged busi ness leaders to respond to the Brundtland Commission's call for

Sustainable Development world wide.

At GLOBE '90, experts from all

disciplines and from both developed and developing countries will meet to promote the practical application of sustainable development. Trade Fair and Conference inquiries to:

Circle reply card No. 105 10

GLOBE '90, #250-1130 West Bender

St., Vancouver, B.C. V6E 4A4, Tel: (604) 681-6126, Fax: (604) 681-1049.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Replacing a seal can put you out of business for hours.

$

One that

to have a pump in minutes.

It isn't good business to waste a lot of man-

tiours servicing a pump. Thiat's the whole idea

behind Gorman-Rupp soiids handling pumps. They're built to service in minutes instead of hours.

Replacing a seal is just as easy as replacing the impeller or wearplate. Simply remove the coverplate. You don't have to disconnect

piping or use special tools.

-i-

Not that Gorman-

3300 gpm with heads up to 130

Rupp seals need servicing often. They don't. They're made of tungsten titanium

feet. And, depending on pump size, they handle spherical solids up to 3 inches in diameter.

carbide. Just about the hardest surface known to man.

manhours.

Manminutes instead of

A most intelligent use of manpower.

And Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps are engi

TM

neered to do more

than just sen/ice in minutes. They'll do an around-theclock job. Ranging in size from 3 inches to 10 inches, they deliver up to

GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 Fax:(519)631-4624

Distributors across Canada. Consult the Yellow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

Gorman-Rupp solids handling pumps.They keep you in business Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Circle reply card No. 107

11


An insider's perspective of Ontario's waste management industry

For the past eight years I have worked in and around

the Ontario waste manage ment industry; for five of them involved in the management

of a group of companies that act in the role of an intermediary. I would like to focus on the often misunder stood role of these intermediaries

By Jack Shaw, President Mosaic Chemical Corporation assume are the same as the Ontario

regulations. The biggest factor contributing to the difference in approaches between the two countries is the

tants, technology companies and engineering firms, who in the future will likely play an increasingly important role in the waste manage ment function. The two intermediaries I will

address are; licenced carriers and licenced transfer stations.

The issues I will address are; what can a generator reasonably expect from them and are there potential risks in the relationship?

providing services between the initial generator of the waste and the final disposition of the waste. Often I have been struck by some

apparent freedom to shift responsi bility for waste from the generator to third parties, either by contractor statute. The applicable legislation

of the distinctions between our American-based clients and those

is contained in Section 40(a) of the

Licenced Carriers

Environmental Protection Act.

based in Canada. While my obser

This is a significant difference from the United States, where my understanding is, that generators are essentially responsible for their wastes forever; and it is this respon sibility that we see in the cases of disposal site clean-ups.

In order to transport wastes regu lated by Regulation 309, a carrier

vations cannot be construed

as

scientific I believe they are represen tative, and are as follows; • In Ontario waste carriers play a more significant role than do carri ers in the United States.

• In general the decision making process with respect to waste man agement is a lower level function and a lower priority in Ontariobased organizations than in Ameri can-based organizations. • When a disposal site audit is undertaken it is invariably an American-based organization. • American-based organizations

I would now like to focus on how I

view the way the Ontario waste indus try operates.

The traditional waste manage ment industry in Ontario consists of; • Licenced carriers • Licenced transfer stations

tend to be much more aware of envir

• Licenced disposal sites With recent regulatory changes the historic recycling industry has

onmental legislation than their Ontario-based counterparts, although their knowledge is of the American regulations which they

segment. I have ignored the myriad of other waste management indus try components such as consul-

been included in the transfer station

must have a'Provisional Certificate

of Approval for a Waste Manage ment System'issued by the Ministry of the Environment(MOE). In order to receive this Certificate

the carrier must make application to the Ministry and satisfy certain requirements with respect to driver training and insurance. The regula tions require that carriers must have automotive insurance cover

age in the amount of $1,000,000 and for certain wastes(PCBs and patho logical wastes), carriers must post security with the Ministry, above the insurance requirements. The Certificate or licence will

identify the vehicles that the carrier can use, the waste classes that the

carrier can transport and the dispo sal sites or transfer stations that the carrier can use. This certificate must be carried in the vehicle at all times.

As well as the transportation requirements imposed by Regula tion 309, the carrier must also comply with all of the requirements imposed by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, where appli cable.

Licenced carriers in Ontario per form a significantly different func tion than they do in other jurisdic tions, particularly in the United States. In Ontario carriers typically have the contact, or contract, with the waste generator. It is the carrier that will arrange with the generator for samples of the waste stream,fill out necessary forms at the disposal

site, arrange for the disposal codes to be put in place, and finally to arrange the scheduling at the receiv ing site, be it a transfer site or a final disposal site.

m

In the final analysis it is the car

Closed landfill site In Ontario. Proposed new sites are facing Increasing opposition and rising transportation costs as local facilities become full. 12

rier who in effect controls the dispo sal routing of the waste material

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


and as such ends up sub-contracting the receiving site as part of the tran saction.

This differs significantly from the experience in the United States, where the generator and the site operator contract directly and the carrier is contracted to move the material. While this is not a mate

rial change when viewed simply from the perspective of moving wastes from the generator to the receiving site, it does imply a signifi cant difference in attitude towards

the waste management process in the two jurisdictions. My interpreta

tion of this difference is, that, because of the perceived or real increase in potential liability in the waste management function, Amer ican waste generators have taken a much stronger role in controlling the waste management area. The critical role played by carri ers in Ontario is that they function in what I consider to be a waste

management role, matching the generator's needs with the receiving sites capabilities. This is an important function

Licenced carriers in Ontario perform a significantly different function than they do in other jurisdictions, particularly the United States.

ship of the waste transfers when the carrier picks up the material at the site. Approximately 10 percent of

of the waste. There are essentially two types of transfer stations, bulk ing operations and processing sites.

our clients have requested such con tracts, which we willingly sign.

In a bulking operation wastes with

and one that the licenced carriers

However at the same time, we

are experienced at doing. It does however, have the potential to

inform our client that the advice of

create some risks for the unwary or uninformed buyer, since the respon sibility for the proper waste man

agement remains with the generator.

our legal counsel is that such an ownership transfer is undertaken simply to circumvent potential lia bilities under Part IX of the EPA

and as such,the ownership transfer may not be recognized by the courts.

similar characteristics are bulked

together for transshipment to final processing sites. At processing sites the wastes are treated and the resul

tant material from the processing is either recycled/reused or sent for final disposition. From the generator's perspective, transfer stations offer an economi

cal, efficient method of access to final disposition sites. Transfer sta tions are licenced by the Ministry of the Environment, and operate

.American waste generators have taken a much stronger role In controlling the waste management area

under one of two types of certifi cates. Certificate of Approval for a

Many of our clients are not as

a formal application process is fol lowed with the M.O.E. plus exten sive work with the community in which the facility is to be located. Depending on the nature ofthe facil ity, a public hearing may be required. During the process, the site oper ator will present a detailed technical plan that will form the basis of the operating Certificate. This plan will then determine the future opera

Waste Disposal Site (Bulking) or Certificate of Approval for a Waste Disposal Site (Ihocessing). In order to receive the Certificate

aware of this fact as I would like

them to be. Many clients believe that if they use a licenced carrier, and receive the relevant copies of the documentation,they have comp lied with the necessary regulations. While this is an attractive proposi tion, it is not true. The generator of the waste is responsible for that

The bottom line is that the generator

is responsible for the material dur ing transit, with the carrier. To briefly recap here, typically the licenced carrier acts as a match

maker between generator require ments and receiving site capabili

ties, sub-contracting the receiving site for the work. The caveat that

absent a contract to the contrary. A related aspect is that the gener ator of the waste, as the owner of the

generators must be aware of is that they are responsible to ensure that their wastes are received at a prop erly licenced receiving site and that they share liability for any conse quences of an accident during tran

waste, is jointly liable with the car

sit.

rier of the material, should there be an incident involving the material

responsible to ensure that all activi

The process of obtaining a certifi cate is a long, difficult process, touched on here only in passing, by way of background.

ties are carried out in accordance with the relevant Certificate issued

most interesting aspects of the

waste until such time it is received at

a properly licenced receiving site,

during transit.

This liability is

Further, the generator is

detailed in Part IX of the Environ

by the M.O.E.

mental Protection Act, commonly referred to as the Spills Bill. Some generators, aware of this

Licenced Transfer Station The transfer station is an interme

provision, have contracts with their

diate point between the original gen

carriers which specify that owner-

erator and the ultimate disposal site

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

tions of the transfer station.

Transfer stations are one of the

Ontario waste industry. They are, by definition, notfinal disposal sites or the ultimate 'graves' of wastes, simply a way station in the life cycle of chemicals. The reason I believe Continued on page 14 13


Ontario's waste

management industry they are interesting is that when a waste is received

at a licenced

receiving site in Ontario,the owner ship of the waste transfers to the receiving site, as per the Environ

This is clearly of major benefit to Ontario waste generators, as the responsibility for the subsequent management of the waste shifts

from the original generator to the transfer station.

From a legal standpoint it would appear that the generator's liability

mental Protection Act. I find this

ends when the waste is received at

interesting because the phrase Cra

the licenced receiving site,subject to a contract to the contrary. The cau tion that generators should followup is that they want to ensure that the operations of the receiving site conform to their operating certifi

dle to Grave waste management tracking system is used to describe the waste management process in Ontario. To me the implication of this statement is that the waste gen erator is responsible for this waste from cradle to grave and that the government monitors this process. However as used in Ontario, the statement appears to mean that the movement of wastes through the various stages of its management are monitored, but only on a global level and not by individual waste. This ownership transfer has interesting implications and has in my opinion, affected the nature of the waste management process in Ontario. It has also, in practical

terms,eliminated the types of poten tial liabilities for waste generators that are incurred in the United

States under Superfund clean-ups.

cate.

In my view it is unfortunate that the current system actually encour ages waste generators not to accept responsibility for the ultimate fate of the wastes that they generate. At one level it would appear that a nar row interpretation of the regula tions encourages actions which are

contradictory to the spirit of the leg islation in that they encourage gen erators, who are the most know

ledgeable about the handling of the material, to shift the burden of responsibility to carriers and receiv ing sites, who may not be as capable of dealing with incidents involving the material. At the same time,this

action may increase the costs to society as a whole of the waste man agement process as we collectively pay to remedy past mistakes. As well, the regulatory structure may lull generators into a false sense of security. To date,litigation in Canada has not tested the valid

ity of either the contracts or the sta tutes that shift ownership, and the implied liability of waste manage ment to third parties. At the very least, generators should be aware of the potential negative impact on their corporate reputations, and profits, of having their company associated with questionable or improper waste management proce dures.

Increasingly, society is exhibit ing a tendency to hold the producer of wastes accountable for its man

agement. While there may not be a legal responsibility, there is the potential for damage to profits if

wastes are found to be improperly handled.

As a result, a corporate policy for waste management, that explicitly considers both the short and long term consequences and cost of waste disposal practices, should be in place, if for no other reason than to

maximise the long term profit poten tial of the organization. Such a position must be deve loped at senior levels within the organization and must address the

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waste generation through either process change or implementation of in-house management programs. • The final disposition procedures

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legal requirements as well as poten tial fallout from questionable waste

fication of all of the wastes that are

currently generated in the organiza tion, and the process that generates them. Economic criteria can be used

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Environmental Science <& Engineering, October 1989


well as economic criteria, the politi cal acceptability of continuing to generate certain waste streams should be considered.

From this step a two-part list will likely be developed; one identifying wastes or types of wastes that will be phased out over time, and one identifying wastes that will con tinue to be generated.

tegy for its wastes. This then leads to the third component of the state ment, ensuring that this happens. This is relatively straight forward if the company deals directly with a site that offers the chosen technol-

ducting improper disposal practices, from either a legal or a public relations point of view. A small amount offoresight and plan ning in this area will not make the organization any money, but can

In the waste Industry itself, the licencing process Is focussing increasingly on Best Available Economic Technology

For both types of wastes the pre ferred method of waste treatment should be identified. This treatment

ogy. This is not always practical

may be based simply on economic

availability and instead, the com

criteria, or it may encompass a

pany may wish to deal with a

however, for reasons of service

range of factors. Increasingly eco transfer site. nomic costs are likely to be one of In order to ensure compliance many factors considered in deter with the company's stated disposal mining the ultimate disposition of options, the company can request a the waste. In the waste industry complete description of the disposal itself, the licencing process is focuss procedures, either from the carrier ing increasingly on Best Available or the transfer site. This should Economic Technology. This include the name of all the organiza approach makes sense for compan tions involved and copies of the ies to use in their internal decision appropriate operating licences. As making process, distilling the issue well it may be desirable to conduct to the question of how can the site visits of the locations that are to hazardous properties of the waste be used in order to satisfy the organ best be neutralized, considering the ization that all activities conform to economic realities of the decision

making process.

Through this stage the company will identify what it considers to be the appropriate management stra

the standards expected.

This entire process is relatively inexpensive, particularly when con

exposure and public embarrass ment. And, as a major side benefit, the organization will be increasing the effort to protect the environment

for the benefit and use of society at large. In conclusion, It Is my opinion that the legislation framework In Ontario has made It attractive for many waste generators to allow the control of their waste management process to pass to third parties. While this may satisfy the legal requirements, com panies would be well advised to look past the basic legal responsibilities and consider the entire area of waste

management In the broader perspec tive of responsible corporate behav iour, In order to minimize any negative Impacts of perceived unac ceptable practices.

sidered in terms of the cost of con-

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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


MISA: Who Will Guard the Guards?

Quality is one of the most Ian Webber, Ph.D.

misinterpreted words in the English language. The dictionary defini tion IS that which makes a thing what it is and leaves the interpreta tion of what it is up to the communi cator. The interpretation of the word often depends upon what a per son wants to hear and is frequently taken to mean that the thing talked about is good. "Quality" is almost never used to mean bad quality. The same slant occurs in the interpreta tion of service industry products, including analytical data from labo

PCB site remediation activities.

ratories.

The meaningful question which

and the population at large could

should be asked of a chemical labor

amount to settlements which are

atory service is "Are the data ade quate?" This question presupposes that the questioner has a sufficient knowledge of Quality Assurance and Quality Control to be able to make an

many orders of magnitude higher than the cost of disposal. Would it

informed conclusion. Very few nonchemists are in a position to be able to assess the adequacy of the data which they pay a lab to generate. Indeed, many labs do not turn out technically sound, statistically valid and properly documented data because they are under no pressure to do so. This fact alone is one of the

main reasons why there is such a range of charges by different labs for the same test.

For example, a PCB-in-oil analy sis may be $30 per sample from lab (A)but $90 per sample from lab (B). A good non-Chemist manager would choose the significantly cheaper figure with the assumption that all other things are equal. To put it simply, the manager may have chosen to pay 33% of the cost for the wrong result. On the other hand,the result may be accurate. The differ ence between the two costs should reflect how close to the truth the

result is and not the lab's gross mar gin. The MISA program is intended to reduce the pollution entering the Canadian environment by first establishing the quantity and type

of pollution which is taking place. If an analytical result, such as the PCB analysis above, is reported as 147 ppm PCB and in reality the con centration is 38 ppm PCB, a com pany would not only face the enormous liability of cleaning up the supposedly contaminated envir onment, but also the cost of disposal of the waste. In addition, the cost of

liability suits of exposed workers

not be better to have the assurance

that the analytical data were close to the truth and legally defensible rather than generated by the "by gosh and by golly" method of a lab offering the lowest price in town? A result which has far-reaching implications will undoubtedly be reviewed very carefully. The sample would probably be split and sent to several different labs and, if possi ble, the sample source would be resampled. ASTM committee D-27.07 has

been responsible for the develop ment and evaluation of method D-

4059 "Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Insulating Liquids by Gas Chromatography". The method gives a "Precision and Bias" statement together with a lower limit of detection. The scope of the method notes that it can be applied to the determination of PCB in insu

lating liquids contaminated by Aroclors, or mixtures of Aroclors, but that "The technique may not be applicable to the determination of PCB from other sources of contami

nation". Today, PCB analysis by the ASTM method for insulating oils, or the more rigorous and gen eral EPA protocol for other matrices is much more accurate and precise than the state-of-the-art 10 years ago but nevertheless relies heavily on the experience ofthe analyst.The following table illustrates the range of results achieved by a group of 19 Independent laboratories on the analysis of RGBs In Insulating oils. The range of values between the laboratories varies from not detect

ing the PCB at all in some samples to a variation of more than one order

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

of magnitude. Analytical data are reflective of the expertise and experience of the

people involved and a properly con structed measurement program will therefore have key individuals. These will be the people who will guard the guards. Quality Assurance(QA)is a man agement activity where Quality Control is a functional activity. The overall operation of a QA/QC pro gram to yield data which is suitable for its intended use requires that a knowledgeable person who is not

directly involved with the sampling or analysis is assigned the responsi bility of ensuring that QA/QC mea sures are properly employed. Other key individuals in the laboratory organization who are responsible for quality control must include the sampling monitor, an analysis monitor, a data manage ment monitor and a quality assu rance manager. All of these people add to the cost of measurement but

they are cost effective since their input allows the data to become ade quate. There is clearly no point in either generating or paying for lab data which is inadequate, based on the assumption that the lab person nel are the experts and know what they are doing. In the past, analytical chemistry has been assumed to always yield unequivocal results. It was partly the interpretation of analytical data which adequate for the pur

pose which gave rise to today's regu lations concerning polychlorinated biphenyls,(PCBs). The Toxic Sub stances Control Act (TSCA) was initiated as a result of a PCB poison

ing which took place in northern Japan between the summer of 1968 Continued on page 19 17


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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


The Range of Detected Value.? Extends One Order of

Aroclor 1260 Mean

Cone tn.

High Low

Value

Aroclor

1254

Aroclor

19.4 10 19.9

107

79

37

36

57

51

14

19

21

96.6 48

41

41

41

15.2 0

243 31.4

43 0

311

71

85 102

167

30

0

the laboratories contracted to under take their MISA work should have

1242

121 48 148

Value Value

Over

Magnitude

5.9 3.8 5.9

Std. Dev. True

and global environments will prop erly match the impact to Canadian industry. The guards who will guard the guards should he the QA/QC per sonnel responsible for the adequacy of data. Industry should ensure that

operating data validation and reporting procedures which yield interpretable information with an adequate level of confidence. The project QA Officer need not he a laboratory employee and companies which request MISA analyses may elect to hire third party consultants

37

19.5 5.2 16.3

to review data.

and January 1969. The apparent cause of the poisoning was traced to the consumption of a particular brand of rice bran oil. The contami

nation of the product had been caused by leakage of PCBs from a heat exchanger used to process the oil. The name Yusho, meaning rice oil disease was given to the incident. The technology of analytical chemistry needed almost 10 years before polychlorinated dihenzofurans,(PCDFs), were identified as a part of the Yusho oil contamination. In addition, polychlorinated quaterphenyls(PCQs)were found in the oil

at concentrations similar to PCBs.

The presence of PCQs initially caused the estimates of PCB con tamination to he stated at the 2000-

3000 ppm PCB level because, at the time, they were an unrecognized interference.

There is mounting evidence to suggest that TSCA has resulted in the regulation of the mother of com pounds of concern rather than the primary causative agents. It has yet to be determined whether MISA data will be ade

quate for the purpose and whether the impact to the Canadian, U.S.

This is the first part of Dr. Webber's focus on QA/QC problems. The next issue of ES&E wiii carry part 2 of his viewpoint. Dr. Webber is the Chairman of

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19


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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Experts review past and future trend In pipes - Part ii Pipes are the veins and arteries of environmental infrastructures - out of sight and usually ignored by the communities they serve so well. It's an important yet neglected subject - so ES&E commissioned some expert viewpoints on past and future pipe trends. Many municipalities wili find valuabie insights in these views. In the August issue of ES&E,John Neuman,P.Eng., Manager,Water Systems, MacLaren Engineers Inc., outlined some trends in pipe for municipal infrastructure. At that time,space preciuded the inclusion of his entire submission. This month Mr. Neuman completes his anaiysis of current and future pipe use. tion of all three levels ofgovernment - federal, provincial, and municipal with each picking up a third of the cost. The municipalities and pro vinces have identified some willing ness to participate - so far Ottawa has not.

tenance and rehabilitation is not

• Materials that will not corrode in

undertaken on a timely basis, the future consequences could be very

the proposed soil environment, • Protective coatings to insulate the

between the pipe material and the water it conveys. The corrosion res istance of a pipe material depends on the particular water quality, as well as on the properties of the pipe. To control internal corrosion, therefore, requires one of the follow ing: • Modification of the water quality,

• Placement of a protective barrier tion, public hearings, and research. between the water and the pipe, or The final report, entitled. Currents • Use of pipe materials that will not corrode under the water quality of Change, was published in Sep tember 1985.

The inquiry was struck by the enormous task of providing and maintaining adequate municipal water, wastewater, and drainage

threat.

pipe from the surrounding environ deterioration is

mainly due to corrosion. Internal

Canada's freshwater resources. Included were extensive consulta

pipe material and surrounding soil. Stray currents offer an additional To control external corrosion,the following can be employed:

corrosion is initiated by a reaction

In January 1984, the Inquiry on Federal Water Policy was estab lished to review the management of

and

• Use of corrosion-resistant linings, coatings, and paints. Similarly, external corrosion is caused by a reaction between the

Whatever the price tag, there is a significant cost involved with infrastructure renewal and system rehabilitation. If programmes are not implemented and needed main

serious. Watermain

John Neuman, P.Eng. MacLaren Engineers Inc.

such as pH adjustments, • Provision of cathodic protection,

present. The most common methods used are:

• Proper design including selection of system materials,

systems in Canada. The final report • Modification of water quality.

ment, and • Cathodic protection. Ductile iron pipe is usually cement-mortar lined to prevent internal corrosion, and protected from external corrosion by a

petroleum-based asphaltic seal coat ing. Loose polyethylene encase ment was initially used only in corrosive soils, but lately has been used more extensively in all envir onments because of its low cost. In

highly corrosive soils, a special coat ing of fibre reinforced polymer con crete is also used.

Steel pipe also uses cementmortar linings, but a wider variety of external coatings are employed. These include coal-tar enamel, cement-mortar, tape coating sysContinued on page 42

also noted that many communities need to rehabilitate aging water

supply and wastewater treatment systems, and commented that the total replacement costs of Canadian waterworks and wastewater sys tems are estimated at $62 billion

and $47.5 billion, respectively. A study in 1984 by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) identified a need for $12 to $15 bil

lion to rectify current urban infrastructure problems and to rehabilitate existing facilities to appropriate and acceptable levels. This total of approximately $15 bil lion, which also included roads and

bridges has been referred to as FCM's "Big Fix".

FCM has called for the participa Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

21


What are the environmental priorities?

Polls report that those ques

Probe.

public issue of greatest interest, and further, that they are willing to pay more for reduction of the impact of urban life on the envir onment — often called pollution. This should not be surprising; nor should the fact that both envi

ronmental advocates and public works professionals would gener ally agree on the issues and prob

in the direction of environmental

lems that should be addressed — and on the solutions that should be

included — in any comprehensive action plan for environmental improvement. Where you will find differences are in priorities, target dates for completion, and the estimated amount ofincremental environmen

tal impact that will result from each individual project or initiative. Polls and advocacy efforts unfortunately, have not provided the essential answers for priorities,cost, or source of funding in the past. Let's look, as an example, at Pol lution Probe, an advocacy agency

that has played a leading role in the increasing environmental aware ness. Probe focussed attention on

Environmental advocates

and public works professionals shoulcl now be working more closely together on specific solutions and priorities for these problem areas. Why can't advocacy groups, indus try and public works people now work more closely as a team? These priorities are essential if we are to move efficiently together

tioned about the environ ment indicate that it is the

By R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng. many major environmental issues. Their recent new policy of working with industry to identify solutions to the problems, was an excellent

change in direction. Unfortunately, the specific choices of initial pro ducts — biodegradable diapers, and fertilizer — were criticized and did

not represent or offer solutions to the major problems facing the envir onment today. But their recent policy of working to identify solutions,as well as prob lems, remains a good one. Those public works with potential for improvement, are well identified often thanks to the help of Pollution

improvement. A recent remedial action plan produced with public participation produced an excellent program of environmental improve ment, but provided no priorities and budget. Advocacy without participation in priorities is incomplete and less effective than it could be. A sche

dule for environmental improve ment is essential and can only be set after due consideration for other

important municipal improvements such as transit,fire, police, and com munity services. Advocacy and criticism must also address the affordability of the solutions. How much more improve ment can we afford in the next

year's, and in the five and ten year, projected operating and capital municipal budgets? Surely there must also be some consideration

Global Opportunities

given to the Federal and Provincial debt, as well as the municipal tax

For Business and

rate increase that will result.

the Environment

Pollution Probe's new policy of including solutions as well as prob

A North American

lems on its agenda was a good idea. If they, and other advocates, would

Premiere GLOBE'90 is a truly international meeting and marketplace involving more than 50 countries and focusing on the development and application of practical solutions to today's environmental challenges and the business opportunities they represent. Take advantage of access to the products, services and technology erf over 500 exhibitors from six environmental management sectors at the GLOBE '90 Trade Fair.Join your colleagues from industry, government, business, international lending institutions, environmental groups, and the academic world at the GLOBE '90 Conference. Be part of the most important Trade Fair and Conference of the decade.

March 19-23,1990 Vancouver,British Coiumbia,Canada A joint production of Major Event Management Inc. and the Government of Canada

also join with public works people, as well as with industries and help to identify solutions and to resolve

priorities, we may collectively achieve more environmental action and results.

R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng. is MetroToronto Commissioner of Works, President, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association and a member of

ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board. ANNOUNCEMENT

CH2MHILL

GLOBE

Lr.'fitfi'll'T ENGINEERING ■■■■r UD. On September 1,1989, CANVIRO Con

Yes, I want to become

sultants officially changed its name to CH2M HILL ENGINEERING LTD., the last stage of a transition that began three years ago when CANVIRO

Name;

part of GLOBE '90, send application

became a division of CH2fVI HILL.

Company:

Established in Calgary in 1978, CH2M HILL ENGINEERING LTD. has

GLOBE '90

City;

Tel:

Canada V6E4A4

Country:

Fax:

Tel(604)681-6126 Fax(604)681-1049

Postal Code:

Telex:

Suite250-1130W. Fender St.

22

offices in Alberta and Ontario. The firm is affiliated with GH2lv1 HILL INC. of

Vancouver, B.C.

Circle reply card No. 117

Corvallis, Oregon, the largest environ mental engineering firm in the United States with 4,000 employees in more than 50 offices worldwide.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Literature Review Highest Dryness wHh Andritz High Intensity Press

/ fjfcde% j

High Intensity Press The High Intensity Press is a secondary dewatering press us ed downstream of belt presses, vacuum filters, centrifuges, etc. Final cake dryness can be im proved by an additional 5to 12%. Control and Metering Limited.

CPF-SMX belt presses A twin wire press for sludge

SMX-C

dewatering - with over 400 oper ating in North America - very weil established for performance and mechanicai reiiabiiity. Control and Metering Limited. Circle reply card No. 201

Circle reply card No. 200

â&#x2013; BBSSBaS

Andritz pre-thickeners Rotary Screen (RST) and Gravi ty Dewatering Table (GDT) are used to enhance performance of

Continuous Sand Filtration

DYNmNDFOXER

belt or screw presses. Control and Metering Limited. Circle reply card No. 202

The DynaSand Filter is a con tinuous backwash, upflow, deep bed granular media filter. The filter media is continuously cleaned by recycling the sand in ternally through an air-lift pipe and sand washer. The regener ated sand is redistributed on top of the sand bed aliowing for a continuous uninterrupted flow of filtrate and reject water. A. Johnson (Canada) Inc. Process Equipment Division Circle reply card No. 203

Everything you wanted to know about Reg. 308 and Con

Densadeg ciarifiers Degremont presents its new

tinuous Emission Stack Gas

Densadeg range of ciarifiers. These technologically advanced units are the cuimination of many years of experience in perfecting

Monitoring Instruments The most complete supplier in Ontario is AMKO Systems Inc. We represent big name manu facturers. AMKO has the best

products for most competitive prices. Give us a call. We'd be happy to share what we know with you. AMKO Systems Inc.

water ciarification. mm

Degremont Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

ODOUR

CONTROI

Odour control

Treating odours with sodium hypochlorite Javex-12 is expiained in new literature. Systems are discussed that dispense a spray

of hypo to oxidize organic odours. Storage and air collec

tion needs, as weil as lab handl

ing equipment are also dis cussed.

Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

CYANIDE REMOVAI

Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochlorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detaiied. Builetin reviews dosage re quirements, handiing equip ment, and storage, safety and handiing data. Particularly ap plicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 207

23


How important Is nuclear energy In the world? A clean alternative

plants generating electricity by

around the world are producing as much electricity as was gener

Now, more nations are looking at nuclear power to reduce the

the end of the nineties. The com

ated in the world from all sources

serious

only 25 years ago. While for some people, nuclear reactors are an option down the road, they are a reality for most of the world's more prosperous

quences of burning fossil fuels. Producing electricity from ura nium does not release gases into the atmosphere that contribute to such environmental problems as acid rain, the greenhouse effect and depletion of the ozone layer.

In

1989,

nuclear

reactors

environmental

bined capacity of all the reactors will reach 500,000 megawatts or

conse

about the same amount of elec

tricity generated by all of the world's hydro dams today. While

these

numbers

are

Twenty six countries of which 16 are industrialized nations, rely on nuclear energy to help meet their requirements for electricity. The world's nuclear power reactors

advantages, the role of nuclear energy will increase considerably by the end of this century. The

produce more than 16 percent of

tion in 22 countries wil l result in

important, the significance of nuclear power is even more impressive when we look a little closer at countries which rely heavily on nuclear power. France and Belgium rely most heavily on nuclear energy. More than two-thirds of all electricity produced in those countries comes from nuclear power.

al l the electricity consumed.

more than 500 nuclear power

The United States has the larg-

economies. There

are

more

than

400

nuclear reactors in the world. Because of its environmental

141 reactors now under construc

REACTORS IN OPERATION OR UNDER CONSTRUCTION

AROUND THE WORLD AT THE END Of 1988

Argentina Belgium

3

Finland

4

7

France

63

GDR FRG

Brazil

3

Bulgaria

8

Canada Ctilna

22

Cuba

Czectiostavakia

3 2

16

Hungary India

Italy Japan

Mexico

Nettierlands

11

Pakistan

24 6

Pttlllpplnes

14 5

Poland Romania Soutti Africa

55

Soutti Korea

2 2 1

Spain

17

Sweden

12

1 8 5

Taiwan

2

11

Switzerland UK USA U.S.S.R.

Yugoslavia

5

6 43 125

73 1

Total In service:419

Total under construction: 141

24

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


est nucleargenerating capacity in the world yet nuclear reactors generate only 18 percent of the power required by Americans, although several states rely on nuclear energy for more than half of their electricity supply. Here in Canada, 15 percent of all the electricity produced comes from nuclear power plants. How ever, the provinces of New Bruns wick and Ontario rely more heavily on nuclear power. In 1988, Ontario's 16 GANDU reac

tors produced about 50 percent of that province's electricity and a single unit at Point Lepreau gen erated 40 percent of New Bruns wick's electricity.

strong economies by creating their own nuclear generated elec tricity sources. Today, nuclear power provides roughly 50 per cent of the electricity produced in these countries. Availability of electricity at a competitive cost has placed them at the forefront of international competition. Those countries with emerging international economies as well

as developing nations will require vast supplies of energy if they are to grow and provide better health and food for their populations. The options for these emerg ing economies are often very

Nuclear power is not new Splitting the uranium atom to generate the heat that is used to produce steam forthe production of electricity, has been a commer

cial reality for more than 30 years. The world's electric utilities have

more than 5,000 reactor years of operating experience. This is equivalent to 419 reactors in the world today times the number of

years each has been producing electricity.

Canada is the world's largest supplier of uranium to electric utilities worldwide. This availabil

energy rich like Canada. Their choices in many instances are to

ity of uranium combined with Canada's CANDU, the best per forming reactor technology in the world, puts Canada at the fore

cut and burn their forests, to use

front In nuclear energy today and well into the next century.

trialized countries, it is more and

vast quantities of local or imported coal or to build and operate their own nuclear power

more a choice for developing

reactors.

countries which do not have natu

Without secure and dependa ble supplies of electricity many of

A growing need in the worid Nuclear energy is not only an appropriate alternative for indus

ral energy resources in their own territory. Newly developed coun tries such as South Korea and Taiwan have been able to build

limited as most of them are not

these

countries

remain

impoverished and underdeve loped.

Letter on solvent recovery Dear Mr. Davey,

Our 15 plants in the National Capital region have been using a system to eliminate the production of hazard ous toxic waste in stills since January, 1989. To follow how it has helped, it is necessary to explain how a drycleaning machine works.

A typical machine would consist of the following: (A)the main drum of the machine which contains the garments; this is similar to the drum of an automatic

washing machine. A control system will enable the machine to process the garments through a cycle suit able for the type of garments to be cleaned. Normally this will be a wash in solvent pumped up from the base tank (B), a spin to remove solvent, and a warm air drying cycle to evaporate the solvent from the gar ments.

This drying cycle takes place in a closed circuit where the air in the machine is blown by a fan(F)from

a heater(H)over the garments and to a condenser(C2). Solvent is thus removed from the air which is then

reheated and passed back to the drurii to remove more solvent.

At the end ofthe drying cycle any solvent which has not been condensed is purged from the system by open ing a vent. This purge then passes to and is absorbed by a secondary recovery system, usually a refrigera tion unit. The solid soils are rapidly removed in the wash and deposited onto the filter (F). The non-solid

soiling is dropped to the still and is boiled. The vapours rise from the still to the condenser (Cl) and the solvent is returned to the base tank via a water

separator.

would

This article was sponsored by the Canadian Nuclear Association. For further details contact the

GNA, 111 Elizabeth St., Toronto, Ontario, MSG 1P7, Tel: 1-800387-4477.

Circle reply card No. 118

MacLarentech Inc. Hazardous Waste Specialists Safe, cost-effective hazardous waste management Is essential for industry today. As environmental regulations become more complex, so do the potential liabilities faced by generators of hazardous waste The need for sound methods to reduce, handle and dispose of hazardous waste has never been greater.

MacLarentech Inc. is an experienced, full-service engineering firm. We develop comprehensive waste management programs tailored to the specific needs of your industry and your company. Our hazardous waste management services include:

»/n-plant waste audits • Waste handling and transportation • Waste cleanup •Asbestos surveys •PCB management • Water and waste treatment'

•Contingency planning •Emergency response •Plant and site decommissioning •Community relations •Regulatory approval •Site remediation •Site characterization

•Containment systems and storage structures •Laboratory analysis MacLarentech Inc.

Atria North — Phase II

2235 Sheppard Ave. E. Willowdale, Ontario, M2J 5A6, Canada Contacts: Rick German and Art Seanor

Tel: (416) 756-9453, FAX: (416) 756-4998

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Circle reply card No. 119

25


Dry cleaning solvent recovery, cont'd. The tailings must then be removed from the still and these represent the bulk of the hazardous toxic waste that must be removed frequently from the still, and stored properly for collection by a licensed hazard

HeATER

FAN

ous waste carrier.

We have been able to eliminate the production of hazardous waste in our stills by using the following

process which completely removes the need for any distillation to take place. The process is called the "Clear Clean System" and it works like this: a small 2 ounce "sock" of an oxidising powder is placed in the drycleaning machine button trap.

CAGE

SUTTON

Itrap

This "sock" is earthen to a magnesium rod. An electrical reaction takes place between the powerful oxidising agent in the "sock" and the non-volatile

BASE TANK

DISTILLATION

residues breaking down the molecules into their con

Environmental Engineer Enthusiastic, creative, profassionai engineer required for a progressive environmentai and occupationai heaith consulting firm serving the interests and needs of industry in Ontario and Canada. As a leader in environmental

management and environmentai engineering solutions, the company considers environmentai auditing to be its main strength. As an intermediate or senior level management posi

stituent particles; these particles are odourless and colourless. Once a day we have to run a load of damp polyester/cotton towels to remove these rendered harmless particles from the solvent. To ensure that the "sock" is broken down slowly during processing, a quantity of mineral oil is added to the solvent to ensure a time release effect on the oxidis

tion, candidates should possess a graduate or post

ing agent.

graduate degree in engineering and a minimum 5 years work experience. Well developed interpersonal skills are

The cost of eliminating one of the main problem areas in our Industry is very minor; each sock lasts for

essential.

about $2,500.00 of processed drycleaning and costs

A good package of salary and benefits is offered com mensurate with experience.

about $15.00. We have also found another side benefit

To apply, please sand your resume In confidence to: Person nel, ALTECH Environmental Consulting Ltd., 225 Sheppard Ave, W„ Wlllowdale, Ontario IVI2N IN2, Tel: (416) 226-0148. All correspondence will be kept confidential.

namely that the addition of the mineral oil to the sol vent gives an improved handle and feel to natural

ANSI

fibres such as wool, silk and linen. Brian Kerr - Partner, Spic and Span.

CO rs Pure - Clear - Natural WATER

CQ

Canadian designed and built ANSI pumps from Smart Turner. Manufacturers of chemical process

Getting More Precious

pumps with a reputation for consistent perfor mance, minimum maintenance,

solid design and sound appli cation. Call or fax today for a quotation on your process pump requirements.

YOU CAN •Prevent foul taste and odour

• Make your steel piping last years longer

•Lower piping and pumping costs

•Prevent corrosion and

sludge buildup • Reduce cost of

cathodic protection Insist tfiat AWWA-approved coatings and linings be done by Purity Pipe We tiave proven experience SMART

V-

TURNER LIMITED

PURITY PIPE LTD.

(6G4) 591-1234 Fax (604) 590-5642

Smart Turner Limited, )9I Barton St. E., Box 2027, Hamilton, Ont., L8N 3S8 Telephone (416)527-4567 / Fax (416)527-7173

Circle reply card No. 121 26

Circle reply card No. 120

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


>

...V^tedihasthe amlyzE'... 1111 â&#x2013; hen it comes to analytical

'â&#x2013; systems, Westech has been

helping Canada's process Industries optimize their operation and provide effective pollution monitoring for over two decades. Solutions to process and environmental problems are our specialty. Whatever the complexity of your particular needs, Westech has proven time after time that we can meet your requirements.

VANCOUVER

Tel; (604) 278-5112 Fax: (604) 278-5126 EDMONTON

Our total commitment can include

initial system design through to field commissioning and on-site training. We will get as involved as you say. if you have a requirement for an accurate and reliable analyzer or analyzer system,

CALGARY

Tel: (403) 252-8803 Fax: (403) 253-6803

DuPont 2 Stream SO2 Photometric Analyzer

give Westech a call. Westech has the answer.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Tel: (403) 464-4740 Fax: (403) 467-1605

RFGINA

Tel: (306) 757-5006 Fax: (306) 757-2205

MiSSiSSAUGA

Tel: (416) 890-5265 Fax: (416) 890-6213

MONTREAL

Tel: (514) 367-4036 Fax: (514) 631-0857

HALIFAX

Tel: (902) 639-2324 Fax: (902) 639-9035

Circle reply card No. 122

27


Preying on the public's health and safety fears

Protesters 9^t lessons on arrests

Scientist campaigning for funds to put polluters under spotlight

ments

\x-out>\®

ovev PC6 srtP

By John J. Barr and Stephen Johnson*

Thereis a disturbing trend in

our society's preoccupation

competitor's product or service, and to administer a mortal blow to its

reputation before any defence can be mounted.

special-interest groups and the cor porate sector have figured out how

If you can't compete with your competitor, change the ground rules. Get people worrying about whether his product is safe or healthy. Then count on healthenvironmental hysteria to finish

to use environmental and health

him off.

with health and environ

mental protection. Some of the smarter tacticians in both the

issues as political and commercial weapons against their competitors. And unless government, the media and consumers get smarter and a lot more skeptical about these issues, we're all going to be held ran som by some very smart manipula tors of public opinion. Cynics that they are,the manipu lators evidently have concluded that the average Canadian has three beliefs;

• If the media report that a product may be unhealthy or environmen tally dangerous, it probably is. • Any denial of the above — espe cially if it comes from a corporation — is probably a lie. •In the face of any such charge,it's

always better to be safe than sorry — take it off the market first, and we'll do the scientific investigation later (if ever). If most of us really do think this way, it then becomes possible for a corporation or a special-interest

group to target its opponent's or 28

An example is the recent ban on Chilean produce. The discovery of two poisoned grapes in Philadel phia generated a wave of hysteria throughout government and the grocery industry. Chile's produce was arbitrarily removed from the shelves and its economy was dealt a blow from which it will take years to recover.

It has been reported that the U.S. embassy in Chile received a warn ing several weeks before the grapes were "discovered" in Philadelphia. Obviously, leftist opposition groups anxious to embarrass the Pinochet

regime and speed its departure are suspect. Less obvious possibilities are Chile's competitors,both abroad and in the United States. Leave aside for a moment the

An even more interesting question is, who poisoned the grapes and what did they hope to accomplish? Are we seeing the emergence of a new competitive tool designed to exploit people's health fears? If you want to cripple your com petitor economically, start a whisper campaign — or better yet, newspaper headlines —questioning the health and safety of his product. Then count on political and media hysteria to sandbag him before his defences are ready. There are many examples of cor porations or pressure groups fight ing off health or environmental issues that have been planted, not by environmentalists or health advocates, but by their competitors. The growth potential for this kind of commercial guerrilla war fare boggles the mind. Think of some possible permutations: natu ral gas suppliers who wantto reduce competition from nuclear energy; organic insecticide manufacturers who want to stop competition from synthetics; butter versus marga rine; canola oil versus soybean oil... This is not to say that health or environmental concerns aren't leg itimate. Nor should people not worry about poisoned produce, dan gerous chemicals or cholesterol. However, a growing number of these charges may be half-truths deeply tainted by commercial or pol itical motives.

Unless we all want to be gulled by every charge that comes along — and they're coming thicker and fas ter every year — maybe we had better all suppress our kneejerk reac tions a little.

A recent poll of leading govern

ment officials, academics and jour nalists conducted by COMPAS, a Canadian survey firm, found that most of this "public policy elite" now favors criminal penalties against

corporations convicted of environ mental offences.

Think of the implications. Now, if you're smart enough, maybe you won't have to stop with blackening the name of your competitor's pro duct. Maybe you can also land its chief executive

officer

before

a

judge.

question of whether government

and the grocery industry shouldn't have thought a little more carefully before taking all Chilean produce (notjust the grapes)out ofthe stores.

*Mr. Barr and Mr. Johnson are vice-

presidents with Burson-Marsteller public affairs consultants in Toronto.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Literature Review SNAP-LOCK

O LINK-PIPEâ&#x201E;˘

Stainless steel Insertion Repair Method. Simple and fast repairs now available for 8-inch, 10-inch,

e

Slurry, sludge and suspended solids measurement

12-inch and 15-inch pipe in muni cipal sewer systems for struc

V)l ^'1

Improved measurement of slurry, sludge, and suspended solids

The highly accurate MSM40 Ultrasonic Sludge Meter from Bestobell, operates by measur ing the attenuation of an ultra sonic beam passing through li quid. The MSM40 determines the density of slurries and sludges from .5% to 50%,and its readings are unaffected by vibra tion, temperature, or viscosity.

tural cracks and infiltration

without excavation or pavement repair. Reiineoniy the damaged sections.

I. 8. Inspection Services Ltd. Circle reply card No. 208

Bestobell

Circle reply card No. 209 inspection Services

CORPORATE AND MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW breaks Corporate

CORDLESS pH Recorder

new ground in addressing environ

AND

mental concerns foremost to cor

Municipal

porations and municipalities.

Environmental Law

This new work contains detailed

information on the roles of federal,

provincial and municipal govern ments. it examines the complexi

streams. The unit is housed in a

ties of Federal and Ontario environ mental controls. Constitutional

controls affecting environmental relations and the legal bases for governmental actions are also

New field pH Recorder The Analytical Measurements Model 30-Wp CORDLESS Recording pH Meter offers a sim ple and effective means of monitoring and recording the pH of wastewater, pools, streams, chemical wastes and process

PIONEERS IN SIMPLIREO pH INSTRUMENTATION

examined.

rainproof case, and can be operated in the field for up to three weeks without recharging the battery. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 211

Carswell

Circle reply card No. 210

The Komline-Sanderson

Products for Environmental

Productsfor Environmental

Analysis

#

Analysis BDH offers a complete range of standards, reagents and chromatography columns specifical ly for environmental analysis. This 27-page brochure focuses on products for voiatiie/semivolatiie organic analysis and in organic analysis. All products meet BDH's exacting quality standards. BDH Inc.

o

gravity belt concentrator The Komline-Sanderson Grava-

belf" is a sludge/slurry thickener with both municipal and in dustrial applications. As a free standing system, it uses gravity drainage to thicken sludge prior to mechanical dewatering or trucking. "nteKomJow-Sandefson Mftvbeitconcentjatof reducton.

Komline-Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 213

Circle reply card No. 212

VklatlO UtrUt.tcUull

[iUllL^ULl 'Coro well on the road to

[ solving waste problems

Do you have a story to telt?

Waste reduction

Water Level Indicator

Keep up to date on the latest 4Rs technologies and methods to im prove your production efficiency

For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, op tional light.

and cut costs. OWMC's Waste

Reduction Bulletin published quarterly for Ontario industry describes what others are doing to better manage their wastes, potential waste exchanges, ser vices available and upcoming events in the field.

Ontario Waste Management Corporation Circle reply card No. 214

Enuironmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 215

29


The Victaulic system...the complete,fast, economical and reliable way to join pipe. Sludge clean-out and maintenance

Saving money in municipal treatment

are a snap. Each joint is a two-bolt

plant piping since 1925.

expansion are easy. Products are

The Victaulic system not only saves substantial time during initial installation, it also helps reduce

operation and maintenance costs. You work with only two bolts,

compared with 8 to 12 for flanges. No bolt hole alignment problems.

Easy field or shop pipe preparation.

union. Add-ons, changes, and

available for AWWA ductile or IPS steel, sUinless, aluminum and PVC—even a transition coupling from ductile to steel.

Grooved end plug, butterfly, ball and check valves are installed with

two couplings. Fittings are grooved, ready for field installation. And products are available worldwide. Next municipal waste treatment,

New Vic-Plug® valve provides exceptional flow, low maintenance, andfast, easy grooved coupling installation.

water treatment, lift station or

pump house, put the Victaulic system to work. We'll go the limit and beyond to save you time and reduce costs.

\Xc

i t LJI i goes the limit...

For more information, contact

your Victaulic Distributor, or write

and beyond.

Victaulic Company of Canada Limited, Rexdale, Ontario M9W Only Victaulic has a complete line of couplings,

fittings, and valvesfor AWV^A ductile and IPS steel, stainless, aluminum, or PVC pipe.

Circle reply card 30

5N7. Or call 416-675-5575. FAX: 416-675-5729. No. 123

Victaulic and Vic-Plug arc registered tradctiutks oi VicuuUc Cottipany ol Canada Limited.

©1989 Victaulic. AH rights reserved.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


The changing trends and options in sludge control and disposal

The most costly phase of municipal wastev/ater treatment is invariably sludge handling and dispo sal. Sludge produced represents about 0.5 percent of the total volume of sewage treated. Yet disposal costs range from 30-50 percent ofthe total cost of wastewater treatment.

Traditionally, sewage treatment was designed to optimize effluent quality. Until recently,little empha

sis was placed on sludge handling and disposal. It is now a problem area and one where the target keeps changing,as society strives towards more stringent effluent standards regarding contaminants removal. Contaminants generally end up in sludges, changing both quality and quantity. Environmental concerns

and

practices are also changing. Sludge management schemes that were

deemed practical yesterday are often no longer acceptable. Sludge management options are numerous because all available unit processes must be considered for cost-effective

sludge disposal. Environmental, public health, and public accep tance viewpoints must he consi dered when choosing sludge options. Due to the dilute, active, and unstable nature ofraw sludge as it is removed from the sewage stream, various stabilization, conditioning.

before final disposal. Usually,raw sludge is first thick

sludge on land to complement the fertilization of crops is the most widely established method ofsludge utilization in Ontario. Sludges sta bilized by either anaerobic or aero bic digestion are transported to agricultural fields and spread on the

ened to reduce the water content and

land in accordance with "Ontario's

volume of sludge. Thickening may be achieved by gravity thickening, gravity belt thickening, centrifuga-

zation on Agricultural Lands." Sta bilized sludge serves as both a soil

By Peter G. Nicol,* P.Eng. dewatering, and reduction pro cesses must be undertaken to treat it

tion, or dissolved air flotation. The sludge is then stabilized by either anaerobic or aerobic digestion. Stabilization reduces the poten tial for sludge to generate offensive odours and reduces the number of

pathogenic organisms present in the sludge. Sludge processing beyond the stabilization stage is specific to the

ultimate utilization/disposal opera tion and any dewatering stage. If a dewatering stage is required for volume reduction and increased

solids concentration, chemical con ditioning using inorganic flocculants such as alum, ferric chloride, and lime, or organic polyelectro-

lytes, provides improved sludge dewaterability for various types of mechanical dewatering equipment.

Suitably treated, sludge may be utilized on agricultural land,provid ing it meets established guidelines; or it may be disposed of by landfilling, composting, or incineration. Application of liquid digested

Guidelines for Sewage Sludge Utili conditioner and as a partial replace ment for commercial fertilizers.

Liquid digested sludge acts as a soil conditioner by facilitating nut rient uptake,increasing water reten tion, permitting easier root penetration, and improving soil tex ture.

As a partial replacement for com mercial fertilizers, liquid anaerobically digested sludges provide a quick-acting source of nitrogen, supply phosphorus requirements for grass or cereal crops, and even pro vide small amounts of potassium as well as many trace elements required by plants. Stabilized sewage sludges may not always be suitable for utiliza tion on agricultural land as a result of sludge quality constraints or because of limited accessible utiliza

tion properties. One alternative to agricultural utilization is landfilling of the stabilized sludge at a designated site, either alone or codisposed with solid waste. Ade quate drainage and runoff control are necessary to prevent contamina

I

tion of groundwater and nearby sur face waters. But in general, adherence to proper sanitary landfilling procedures can minimize many potential health,environmen tal, and aesthetic problems asso ciated with sludge landfilling. Landfilling continues to be a pop ular sludge disposal option, but there is ever-increasing competition for available landfill space. When considering the disposal of sludge at a landfill site, it is necessary to pro vide as small a sludge volume for disposal as possible because landfill operations usually charge on a mass basis for all materials disposed of at the site.

Liquid digested sludge, which is mostly water, would not be consi dered for disposal in a landfill site because of leaching problems, the Sludge Fluid Bed Incinerator at left wltti extiaust duct taking hot gases up to waste heat recovery boiler at award-winning Lakeview WPCP. Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

inability to compact the liquid sludge, handling difficulties in cold Continued overleaf 31


Sludge control and disposal continued weather, and the costs associated with hauling such a volume to the landfill. Sludge landfill operations require varied degrees of sludge dewatering. In general, landfill operations are most successful when the dewatered sludge solids concentrations are in excess of 30 percent.

this sludge disposal alternative to a landfill operation not commonly utilized in present day landfill oper ations. Landfill operations of this type involve excavation of trenches so that the sludge dewatered to between 15 and 20 percent dry solids concentration may be buried below the original ground surface. Normal

Increased leachate problems,

operating procedure requires daily

potential odour and methane gas problems and additional soils amendment requirements for landfilling a sludge of less than 30 per

coverage with excavated soil, which also adds bulk to the landfill sludge. Using organic chemicals,such as polyelectrolytes, an anaerobically digested mixture of primary and

cent solids concentration, restrict

secondary sludges can be dewatered by either centrifuges or continuous belt filter presses to approximately 20 percent dry solids content. But if these

units are considered for

mechanical dewatering of primary

and secondary sludge, additional air drying at the landfill site prior to the final disposal will be required. Recessed plate pressure filters using polyelectrolytes have had con sistent success in dewatering anae

robically digested mixtures of primary plus waste activated sludges to 30 percent solids or better. Recently, new advances in the design oflong bowl centrifuges have increased the sludge dewatering

capabilities of these units. Toronto's

BACON DONALDSON

Consulting Engineers

& ASSOCIATES LTD.

Main Treatment Plant, using new

state-of-the-art centrifuges (centri-

presses) using polyelectrolytes as conditioning agents, consistently produced dewatered anaerobically digested sludge cake concentrations in excess of 30 percent solids. Cake of higher solids content may be pro duced

Analytical Services

with

primary treatment

sludges as biological sludges are more difficult to dewater.

Characterization of effluent streams to

establish a basis for treatment strategies.

Composting is a more complex and labor-intensive operation than

the dewatering and disposal to land fill options. The end product, how ever, has a higher solids content and

Electron Optics

can be used as a soil conditioner.

Composted sludge can be suitable for a lift cover and final dressing in

Characterization of contaminants:

â&#x20AC;˘ Transmission Electron Microscope with selected area electron diffraction.

â&#x20AC;˘ High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope with X-ray analyzer capable of quantitative analysis, image processing and light-element detection.

a landfill operation or for parkland and golfcourse landscaping. Non-reactor systemsfor compost ing sewage sludge generally require large land areas, have relatively high operating costs, and increase

the potential risk of odour and dust generation at the composting facil ity.

Reactor systems for composting sewage sludge provide an enclosed facility requiring minimum land and labor requirements, reduced

Technology Development Evaluation of possible treatment routes and batch laboratory testing. Development of novel treatment processes.

maintenance schedules, and effec

tive control of process odours. Sewage sludge composting systerns provide year-round operation, good pathogen control, easy stor age, and the possibility of market ing the composted product. The concentration of heavy metals in

Pilot Studies Continuous pilot scale testing of selected processes.

the sludge is not, however, reduced by composting the material. Com posting is, therefore, not a viable alternative to disposal of sludges with high concentrations of heavy metals. As well, marketing of the composted material requires a sales force and will have to compete on

12271 Horseshoe Way, Richmond, B.C. V7A 4Z1

the compost market.

Telephone (604) 277- 2322 Fax (604) 274-7235

advantages over other utilization and disposal alternatives. It redu ces the sludge to a compact, inert

Circle reply card No. 124 32

Incineration

offers significant

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


residue consisting of about 20 per cent of the original solids; and it eliminates some potential environ mental problems by completely des troying pathogens and parasites while also degrading many toxic organic chemicals. Metals, how ever, are not degraded, but are con centrated

in

the

ash

and

in

particulate matter entrained in the exhaust gases generated by the pro cess.

Effective scrubbers or other

pollution control devices are required to prevent degradation of air quality. Disposal ofthe ash must also be addressed and dealt with.

When sewage sludge is hurned in incinerators in the presence of suffi cient oxygen,the flammable constit

sidered to he sanitary, odourless, and free from toxic organic chemi cals. Heavy metals present in the ash are generally immobilized in soils due to the high pH of the ash. Prior to sanitary landfill disposal, incinerator ash is normally stored in large on-site ash ponds. Technology to convert sewage sludges to oil has recently been deve loped at Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Center (WTC)in Burlington, Ontario. The conversion process involves the heating of sludge previously dried to a solids concentration of 95 percent

to a temperature of 300-350 degrees Celsius for about 30 minutes in an

oxygen-free environment. Several by-products are produced: oil, char, reactive water, and nonreactive water, and non-condens able gas. Preliminary cost analyses of the technology, based on the results of laboratory-scale studies at WTC have heen completed, and the City of Halifax has been selected as the

site of the first full-scale system as part of the new City of Halifax Was tewater Treatment Plant. ES&E 'Gore & Storrie Ltd.

uents are converted to their basic

TESTING WATER QUALITY?

chemical components (mainly car bon dioxide and water). Two types of incinerators are widely used in North America: the multiple-hearth furnace and the

Are you responsible for routine potability testing, checking process water suitability, or monitoring landfill leachates? If so, MANN AQUA can help you confidently meet your objectives simply by using our j

fluidized-bed furnace.

1

While the

multiple-hearth furnaces are dura ble and simple to operate, they are sensitive to process upsets such as changes in sludge feed rate or char

30 PARAMETER RAPID CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PACKAGE(RCAP) FAST

.5 DAYS

acteristics, so afterburners are

COST EFFECTIVE ....

required to raise the off-gas temper ature. Capital costs for these incin

SAMPLE SIZE EFFICIENT:;::..^.

erators

with

afterburners

are

approximately 10-15 percent more than those for fluid bed incinera

tors. Operating costs are also higher since multiple-hearth furna ces require approximately twice the quantity of auxiliary fuel to operate at the proper off-gas temperatures. Incineration ash is generaiiy consi dered to be sanitary, odouriess and free from toxic organic chemicais

The fluidized-bed furnace con

sists of a vertical, ceramic-lined, steel drum containing a sand bed into which air is injected, which expands the bed and reduces its den sity to the point where it responds as a fluid. Bed temperature is main tained

- $70 100 mL

And in case you think you're getting the whoie picture wirh your present testing ^ . .

YOU DON'fKNtm WHAT YOU'RE MISSING! Ask yourself this.."Do my test results baiance?. . Are they compiete?' or. . . don't you really know! At MANN AQUA we know! Quality comes first because our expert system

says so. And to prove it, we give you all of your theoretical Quality Control data so you can see for yourself just what your water is or is not missing. It's really quite simple: our computer checks the ion balance. When the cations and anions (â&#x20AC;˘+- and -)are not equal, either an analytical error exists which we'll correct before it leaves the lab, or something is in your sample which has not been tested for; in either case the theoretical conductivity pinpoints the

solution. So if you didn't know what you were missing before . . .

at between 769 and 816

degrees Celsius. Sludge is fed either directly into the bed or just above it, and ash,some sand,and stack gases exit through the top of the unit. Exhaust gases can be used to indi rectly pre-heat incoming incinera tion air through a heat exchanger. Because of the high exit tempera ture of the gases, odorous com pounds and toxic organic compounds are usually destroyed in the incineration chamber, and no afterburner is required. Pollution control devices are necessary to remove sand, ash,and heavy metals from the stack gases.

NOW YOU DO. At MANN AQUA, you don't have to worry about ion imbalances ...our expert

system doesn't allow them. And remember, if your pluses and minus don't add up, we won't say "We told you so"- we'll tell you WHY!

MDiNN

MANN AQUA LABORATQRIES LTD.

#6-400 Matheson Boulevard East.,

lli Mississauga, Qntario L4Z 1N8 Phone (416) 890-2555 Fax (416) 890-0370

Changing the way professionals, like you, see their results.

Incineration ash is generally con Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Circle reply card No. 128

33


What's New rotation speeds of successive shafts eliminates the sticking and clog ging problems common to other designs and facilitates processing a wide range of sludges, including those of sticky composition. The

The K-S Thermal

Sludge Dryer Komline-Sanderson has announced

the introduction of the K-S Sludge Dryer to municipal markets. The dryer has been specifically designed for the drying of municipal sludge and utilizes an exclusive multiple shaft/multiple paddle concept that continuously lifts, mixes and

user can tailor the final cake solids

content to the disposal method in use — from 40-80% and beyond. Komline-Sanderson

Circle reply card No. 150

exposes new material to the heat transfer surface.

Software designs/

The arrangement of positive and negative agitators and differential

models water

r

n

distribution systems Waterworks All-in-One PC Software

analyses water distribution systems then prints and plots results from

THE ENVIRONMENT: DO YOU KNOW ENOUGH?

the

familiar

Lotus

environment.

Designers, municipal and consult ing engineers, city planners and fire protection officers should all be able

THE ENVIRONMENT TRADE SHOW

to make use of this new Lotus Add-

In from Synex Systems Corp., of Vancouver, BC.

& CONGRESS

Circle reply card No. 149

DEC. 4 & 5, 1989 METRO TORONTO CONVENTION CENTRE

•WATER • APPLIED TECHNOLOGY

-AIR

Environment show

-SOIL

THE CONGRESS:A two-day synopsis for busy professionals provided by over 40 expert speakers with solutions to environmental problems.

THE EXECUTIVE UPDATE: A half-day, concentrated session,

and Congress Business, municipalities and government can evaluate, and com pare currently-available environ mental goods and services in Toronto's downtown Metro Conven

Dec. 4, for senior corporate executives, officers and directors focussed on liability/disaster plans/regulatory overkill and the

tion Centre from December 4-6,1989. Over 100 companies will display environmental expertise and equip

new consumer.

ment.

Visitors can also register for The Environment Congress which is designed for policy and decision makers. The Congress features over 50 international speakers. Subjects

PLUS A 140 BOOTH TRADE SHOW □ I am interested In exhibiting in THE ENVIRONMENT SHOW. Please forward an Exhibitors Kit.

from the "Greenhouse Effect" to

□ 1 am interested in pre-registering for

"Corporate Liability" will be covered through case studies, research reports and technical pap ers. Contact Stephanie Grant (416)

the trade show.

□ Please forward the Preliminary Congress Outline and registration information.

234-1240.

The CWWA is holding its Annual Conference in parallel with the

Name.

show at the same location.

Title _

Company.

We Have

Address _

Openings For:

City.

.Phone.

Prov.

. Postal.

Technical Sales Representa tive and Production Coordina tor - Waste Water Treatment

Equipment.

"THE ENVIRONMENT SHOW",

4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302, Toronto, Ontario M9A 1B6.

Tel. (416) 234-1240 Fax (416) 234-1695

J

L. 34

Circle reply card No. 129

P.J. Hannah Equipment Sales Corp., Brampton, Ontario, Tel: (416) 450-6174.

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Announcement

European water expert joins Associated Engineering

^

A.

vV Eric MacDonald

Jan Janssens

A1 Livingston

Eric MacDonald, Vice President

of Water Storage Upstream of Intakes" (16th I.W.S.A. World Congress, Rome, 1986);

workshops or seminars in devel oping countries and newly-

• "Innovationsin WaterTreatment

• Mendoza (Argentina) (1987): I.W.S.A. - COCODEV Workshop "Rehabilitation and Upgrading of

and General Manager of Asso ciated Engineering (Ont.) Ltd., is pleased to announce that J.G. (Jan) Janssens, M.Sc., will be joining the firm. Mr. Janssens, a world authority on water treat ment will be leaving the position of Chief Engineer, Antwerp Waterworks, Belgium. He has over 16 years of practical and research experience in water and wastewater process engineering. Mr. Janssens will bring to Can ada extensive experience related to European practice in water treatment and the credentials of

having published over 50 papers in the field of filtration, ozonation,

activated carbon adsorption and dissolved air flotation processes many of which, are directly related to concerns in Canada.

He istheauthororleading con

Technology" and "Practice of Rapid Filtration" (17th I.W.S.A. World Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 1988); Mr. Janssens recent treatment

industrialized countries, such as;

Water Treatment Works", on the

subject "Filtration (Rapid Sand and Slow Sand)".

100,000

• Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

m3/d flocculation - dissolved air

(1987): I.W.S.A. - COCODEV Seminar "Water Supply Technol ogy, A New Horizon", on the sub jects "Design and Operation of

experience includes a

flotation filtration plant in Ant werp, Belgium. His practical experience includes extensive laboratory and pilot plant design and operation related to treat ment processes. He has provided consulting services in many parts of the world related to water and wastewater treatment. From 1983 to 1989 he was lecturer in Water Treatment for the Dutch Water

Supply Association and has taught wastewater purification

Floe Removal Processes" and

"Rehabilitation and Upgrading of Sedimentation

and

Filtration

Units".

• Jakarta (Indonesia) (1988): I.W.S.A. - COCODEV Workshop "Rehabilitation and Upgrading of Water Treatment Works", on the subject "Filtration". "The

recruitment

of

Jan

Janssens is considered a major step forward in Associated Engi

tributor of:

and water treatment at the Uni

• "New Developments and Opera tional Experiences in Coagula tion and Flocculation" (13th I.W.S.A. World Congress, Paris, 1980); • "Filtration in Drinking Waterand Wastewater Treatment" (14th I.W.S.A. World Congress, Zurich, 1982);

versity of Brussels where he is currently completing his doctoral

degree. He Is an active partici

to provide world-class consulting

pant, currently Technical Direc tor, in I.W.S.A. (International Water Supply Association) hav

services in the fields of water and

ing

neering.

•"Advantages and Disadvantages

author or lecturer In a number of

Suite 525, 21 Four Seasons Place, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9B 6J8,

contributed to several

neering's on-going commitment

wastewater treatment," says Al

Livingston, Vice President, Engi

I.W.S.A. World Congresses. He has participated as an

ASSOCIATED

Tei:(416) 622-9502, Fax:(416) 622-6249 ENGINEERING Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Circle reply card No. 130

35


What's New IR Gas Detector is important component of NASA Space Station Astro International Corporation's IR (Infra-Red) Combustible and Nox ious Gas Detectors ensure fail-safe

LEL monitoring of C-H gases or ambient monitoring of CO/CO2 as well as P.P.M. monitoring of a wide range of noxious gases. Unlike cata

lytic bead systems, IR is an active system which constantly maintains calibration while providing a fault alarm in the event of malfunction.

Recently, ttie

company

was

awarded a multi-million dollar con

tract from NASA to supply Gas Detectors for the US space station. Powered by 24 Volt DC, the 5600AT series hazardous gas detec

tor provides a 4-20 mA analog signal output. Designed for hazardous applications, it is compatible with existing control room equipment. A solid-state dual wavelength system with an open sample cell arrangement is used. Two discrete. narrow-hand optical interference fil ters detect gases providing true zero for absolute reference. Virtually maintenance-free in operation, the 5600AT uses compensating circui try for IR source and detector aging, dirt accumulation and system gain

Environmental liabilities don't

go away by themselves. You've got to meet them head on, armed with the best possible resources. That's why you should know about Ground-

waterTechnology. As the recognized world

changes.

leader In environmental reme

and serviced in Canada,Astro Inter national Corporation products are available with or without complete control equipment packages. Astro's IR transmitter technique has been used in process analyzers since 1976 and in ambient gas detec

CSA approved and warranted

diation, we specialize in health risk assess

ment, labora

tory analysis, on-site blore-

medlatlon, monitoring and closure of all

tors since 1980. B & J Cleland Ltd.

types of hazard ous situations,

Circle reply card No. 153

from small leaks to multimillion dollar sites. Our Innova

tive technology has resulted In state-of-the-art recovery equipment, Including the patented ScavengerÂŽ system, that has set Industry standards worldwide. We research, design, engineer and manufac ture total solutions to complex

Letter Dear Mr. Davey,

I was most pleased to read in your subject article that M.M. Dillon had been recognized with an ES&E award of meritfor their design of the

Issues.

Why wait for a problem to

Township of Atikokan, Water Treat ment Plant. This application of

surface? Groundwater Technol

ogy has successfully managed more than 4000 projects. Our

ozone for the treatment of colour reduction is indeed the first use in

52 offices worldwide can

prevent the threat of environ mental and financial disaster

the province of Ontario,of ozone at a water treatment plant. Atikokan joins more than 60 installations in

I

right now. Call Jim Vaughan at (416)670-1700.

Canada using ozone for water treat ment.

Groundwater

Technology,Inc. World leader in Integrated environmental solutions. Offices: Montreal, Quebec(514)353-6939; Misslssauga, Ontario (416)670-1700; Halifax, Nova Scotia (902)422-0585

The story however, omitted to name the supplier of the ozone equipment. Hankin Atlas Ozone Sys tems Limited, is the manufacturer of

the two Ozotecâ&#x201E;˘ Ozone generating systems, each producing 23 kg/day of ozone, and the only Canadian manufacturer of large scale com mercial ozone generating equip ment for municipal and industrial application. On behalf of Hankin Atlas Ozone

Systems Limited, I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate Dil lon on their well deserved award.

Ronald L. Larocque, P.Eng., Vice President & General Manager 36

Circle reply card No. 131

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Reducing oversize solids in wastewater

V.J

Dimminutor reduces oversized sol ids

in

wastewater

streams

to

enhance downstream processes or

improve pumping. Three rotary and stationary cut ters intermesh at close clearances,

cutting and shearing solids to a size small enough to pass through the slots of a special semi-circular screen. Franklin Miller Inc.

Circle reply card No. 151

New analyzer measures O2 levels In flue gases

...every time... with Crane The new

3000 in-situ zirconium

Resiiient Seated Gate Vaives.

oxide excess oxygen flue gas ana

Durable... dependable... dollar-saving performance results from

lyzer utilizes a self-protecting sensor

product benefits like:

cell feature. This patented Westinghouse design automatically protects

•eight point guiding •double 0-rlng seals

•elastomer-coated disc

the sensor electrodes from harmful

corrosive gases found in many com

•smooth bore

•epojQ'-coated interior •polygonal mechanical joint flange

bustion processes.

The World Class 3000 package offers full field-repairability of the

oxygen analyzer prohe. Westinghouse

Circle reply card No. 152

Tough terminal for harsh environments

•bronze stem & stem nut

•T-shaped stem-nut •strategically placed ribs

Fully compliant with AWWA Standard C509,the Crane Resilient

Seated Gate Valve is a proven top performer, meeting the most demanding challenges of water/sewage/industrial application. Crane Resilient Seated Gate Valve...

No. 1 in performance! Crane Canada Inc.

A new industrial work station from Control & Readout is designed to work in harsh operating environ ments. Criter was designed for situations where the operator is in

CRANE

Valve & Industrial Division

446, Grey Street, Suite 206 Brantford, Ont. I\I3S7L6

Continued on page 39

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

Circle reply card No. 132

37


Product profile

Portable Sewage & Wastewater Flowmonitors

I.S. SURVEYLOGGER The Complete Intrinsically Safe Turnkey System From Detectronic Zone O EEx ia lib T4

The 8 Volt I.S. SurveyLogger was introduced by Detectronic

Limited to meet the increasing demand for an intrinsicaliy safe sewerflow monitoring system.

NON - I.S. SURVEYLOGGER The new 12 Voit Non-1.S. SurveyLogger combines aii of the advanced features and appearance of its predecessor. It is a designated wastewater monitoring system.

FEATURES • Accurate MEAN Velocity Monitoring with on-site verification • Accurate Average Height Monitoring with on-site verification • Accurate flow analysis without massaging

• Fuii feature analysis software for any concentric shape • Aii connections via MIL Spec Connectors

• Lead acid gel ceil rechargeable batteries with up to 175,000 event logging capability per charge • 32,000 event logger

• Sampler output plus RS232 output • Does not require primary device - no major construction cost • Quick fix hardware available

• Passes or surpasses MISA requirements • 2 Year warrantee on electronics

• Environmentally protected, surge charge proofed, fiberglass reinforced PVC enclosures. Built for sewers in Canadian environment.

• Tamper-proof microprocessor logic

Agent and Distributor enquiries welcomed

RAMSEY LAKE INDUSTRIAL UMITED Serving Industry Since 1975 Walden Plaza,P.O. Box 158, Lively, Ontario POM 2E0; Telephone:(705)692-4734; Fax:(705) 692-4735

38

Circle reply card No. 133

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


dirty, wet, or corrosive surround ings, yet needs to enter data or view plant conditions from a control com puter or PLC.

text and graphic displays. Criter(CRL1056)industrial work stations will interface with host devices fitted with RS422/485 serial

The station removes the need for

Volumetric flow

computer is field programmable

communications(optionally RS232)

panel mounted push buttons and indicators to be wired remotely from the main computer or PLC, yet pro vides full operator information with

and which can send and receive

ASCII characters. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 154

Consultants Directory r

Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning OVR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN ALL ASPECTS OF CIVIL. MUNICIPAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING.

A

Ainley and Associates Limited! CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS

VCOLLINGWOOD l?05) 445-3451 BARRIE (705) 726 33/] BELLEVILLE (613) 966 4343 Environmental Auditing and Management Planning Waste Management solutions

ALTECH

to ttie 4 Rs

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.

Wastewater Treatment

design engineering

Environmental and occupational

Air, soil, waste and water

health and safety specialists

analytics, studies and troublestiooting

Serving industry in Canada

225Sheppard Ave, W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

Operating on the bubbler principle, the Sigma 8100 Volumetric Flow Computer totalizes, records and dis

plays flow in an open, partially filled channel.

The 8100 has the capability for field programming discharge coeffi cients representing the primary measuring device or circular pipe where the measurement is to be

taken. Readouts in MGD, CFS or cubic meters/minute are possible. The 8100 may also be utilized to monitor and record liquid level only. An 18 Amp-hr. battery allows five day unattended operation. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card no. 155

(416) 226-0148

Monitor measures O2

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers and architect Water Pollution Control Environmental Planning Land Development Water Supply Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Water Resources Municipal Services Architecture TORONTO (416)497-8600

WELUAND (416)735-3659

AquaticSciences Inc.

The new Detektor Oxygen Defi ciency Monitor from Rosemount Analytical continuously measures oxygen in the 0-25% range,reporting the level on a bright, direct reading digital display.

SUDBURY (705)671-9903 (Dennis Consultants)

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers

UNDERWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

• spill site investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

In the 0 - 25% range

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2IV1 6P6

(416)641-0941 Placed wherever oxygen defi ciency poses a threat to the safety of workers, a flashing display and

ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING

SERVICES

audible alarm will alert workers to danger.

Designed for simple operation, the Detektor Model 2201,features an

Water

Wastewater

self-diagnostics, and a user access

STE. 525. 21 FOUR SEASONS PLACE

ETOBICOKE, ONTARIO M9B 6J8

TELEPHONE.(416) 622-9502. FAX: (416) 622-6249

easy to use keypad, one-man single pushbutton calibration, test key,

ASSOCIATED

.ENGINEERING

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

code. Rosemount Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 156 39


"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

New variable

BARRINGER LABORATORIES

speed drives

• environmental and discharge analyses • Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • radiochemical analytical service • fire assay and field sampling services Pickle Lake, ON Red Lake, ON Reno, DE Yellowknife, NWT

Other Labs:

Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Calgary, AB

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel:(416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575

Denver, CO Kirkland Lake, ON

Analytical Laboratory Services • Water and Wastewater Analyses• MISA Effluent Monitoring Parameters • Radionuclide Analyses • Air Quality and Dustfall Analyses • Industrial and Hazardous V^'aste (llassificalion

Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd.

BONDAR-CLEGG

5420 Canotek Road, Ottawa, Ontario. K 1J 8X5 Tel.:(613) 749-2220Fax:(613) 749-7170

CanTest Ltd

CAiNfnsr !

Professional

Analytical Services Suite 200

>

1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver,8C

Environmental Analysis i B Organic/Inorganic Chemistry

-

'

A

ii j

V6J1J8

B Hazardous Waste Characterization Fax: 604 731 2386

'b Canadian Drinking Water Criteria: ■ Occupational Health & Safety |

B Drug Testing \j i i\~-: 'J ■ GC/MS.GD/ECD.HPLC,IC,ICP L 20

ANALYTICAL

Tel: 604 734 7276 604734 TEST

t

V

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

u

HAZARDOUS WASTE SERVICES

V

WATER RESOURCES

G

LAB SERVICES

Despite the increased power and greater variability, Varigear drives are no larger than previous units. Varigear drives are modular, allowing them to be combined with various reduction gear units to increase variability even further. A wide variety of mounting positions and configurations, as well as optional adjustment and indication

CH2MHILL

even the most specialized applica tions. SEW-Eurodrlve Company of

accessories are available to meet

ENGINEERS INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

to 8:1.

EXCELLENCE

ENVIRONMENTAL

U

The newly enhanced Varigear Wide V-belt Variable Speed Drives from SEW-EURODRIVE transmit up to 100 percent more power, while expanding the speed range from 6:1

/.IfX ENGINEERING ltd.

Canada

Circle reply card No. 157 Waterloo, Ontario 519'579-3S00

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Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320 (FAX)4 16-858-3779

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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Flygt's inteliigent supervisory system

CRA Consulting Engineers CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES LIMITED SPECIAUZING IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SERVICES TO INDUSTRIAL AND

Flygt has perfected a powerful and innovative supervisory control and

data acquisition system designed for large or small water treatment networks. The MACTEC system combines the finest in computerized hardware and introduces the power ful AQUALEX software package which provides full automated con trol of water, wastewater, and pumping stations, locally or remotely. It also provides a man agement system for real time and historical data acquisition and ana lyses.

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Circle reply card No. 159

Davis introduces

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Davis Controls Ltd. has introduced

the SX 300 microprocessor based counter. The 8X300is a 6digit coun ter housed in a DIN style case with a 72 mm square front bezel. The small case and front bezel require minimal space yet provide easy to access and easy to read programming keypad and LED display. The SX 300 counter is designed for a single direction count input from a solid state sensor or switch.

The DC input versions will count up to 2500 counts per second and the AC versions will count up to 250C counts per minute. Two individu

ally programmable relays provide a wide variety of output combinations to suit most applications. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 160 ES&E welcomes editorial submis

sions for What's New. Send your releases to us at 10 Fetch Cr., Aurora, ON, L4G 5N7.

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Professional Services in

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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

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Lee 41


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Consultants for water and pollution control projects

for

use

of concrete

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Poly vinyl pipe is generally resist

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it is a nonconductor, galvanic and electrochemical effects are not a

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Over the next ten years, the exist

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change. One of the most important sales factors is cost, and the impact of the free trade agreement on this has yet

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to be determined.

As the magnitude of the infras tructure

rehabilitation

becomes

known and programmes are imple mented, it is probable that in future cost comparisons will include lifecycle costing, that is, consideration of the timing for future replacement of the product purchased. The effectiveness of the polyethy lene sleeve used to protect ductile pipe has not been conclusively dem onstrated to everyone's satisfaction, although test results to date appear optimistic. Steel pipe can compete on a tech nical basis, but cost considerations have limited its widespread use in all sizes.

Concrete pressure pipe should continue its popularity, especially in larger sizes. This popularity will be threatened by more widespread use of poiyvinyi in larger sizes, since AWWA 0905 for PVC in sizes from 350 to 900 mm was approved in Jan

uary 1989 and particularly if the cost of crude oil remains relatively low. ES&E

42

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Cleanup of Sinking Hazardous Materiais Chemicals denser than water and

having a low solubility are very dif ficult to deal with if accidentally spilled into water bodies. Chemicals in this category include aromatic organics, halogenated hydrocar bons, some organometallic com pounds, and the elements bromine and mercury. Having a tendency to fall to or flow near the river bottom, the sinkers may permeate the sedi ments if they are in a liquid form. They can produce chronic toxic effects in aquatic flora and fauna. A report issued by Environment Can

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

R&D News

lAWPRC

Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Details can be found on page 50.

ada's Technology Development and Technical Services Branch reviews

the

various possible courses of

action available to deal with this

A promise of water/

type of contamination and exam ines their limitations and costs.

Radioactivity of Lake Ontario Sediments

Ontario Hydro scientists D.W. Rodgers and R.S. McKinley have assessed the "^"Co and '-"Cs activity of nearshore Lake Ontario sedi

ments in the vicinity of the Picker ing nuclear generating complex. As reported in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada,detectible '"Cs activity was widely dis tributed in sediments along the lake near Pickering Nuclear Generation Station (NGS) "A". In contrast, detectible ""Co activity was largely restricted to an area located near the

discharge of Pickering "A" NGS. The widespread distribution of'''Cs is consistent with diffuse input of the radionuclide through fallout, while the restricted distribution of

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Review of Water Quality Models W.G. Booty and D.C.L. Lam, National Water Research Institute, have produced an extensive review of water quality models developed in the last few years for predicting the impacts, pathways,fate, and effects of nutrient and toxic chemicals in

freshwater systems. The principal characteristics and applications of 38 nutrient and 35 toxic chemical models are summarized in tabular form. The document should be use

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43


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R&D News biological origin for their uptake capacity from solutions. The hiomass of various species of alga could adsorb metals including chromium, gold cobalt, silver, arsenic, and plat inum, often out-performing acti vated carbon and ion exchange resins.

As described in the Water

Pollution Research Journal of Can ada,the sequestered metals could he eluted from the biomass and the biosorbent material reused several

times over. Biosorption of metals by appropriately processed inactive

tional Joint Commission have pro posed an integrated strategy to evaluate the effects ofcontaminants in sediments. Data on the commun

ity structure of benthic fauna,along with chemical and physical data, were used to map the spacial extent of impacts in the Detroit River. As discussed by T. Reynoldson and M. Zarull in their report, the approach led to the determination of possible causative factors and the identifica tion of contaminant concentration

microbial biomass offers considera

thresholds specific for the area below which negligible impacts

ble potential for technological pro

should be realized.

Toxlcity of Lake St. Glair The Water Pollution Research Jour

nal of Canada reports on a study by K.L.E. Kaiser, J.M. Rebo and K. Kwasniewska on the toxicity of Lake St. Glair and parts of the St. Glair River delta. These National Water Research Institute scientists

tested surface water samples from 67 stations for acute toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum with the Microtoxâ&#x201E;˘ test. The results indicate

the existence of zones oflow toxicity in most of the northern,western and Continued overleaf

cess exploitation.

Anoxic-Aerobic Sludge Digestion In two papers published in Environ mental Technology Letters, C.J. Jenkins, E.G. Ministry of Environ ment, and D.S. Mavinic, University of British Columbia, demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating, at regular intervals, non-aerated con ditions in aerobic sludge digestion. In comparison with aerobic diges tion, anoxic-aerobic digestion yielded comparable percent solids reduction despite using only 42 per cent as much air.

Simple solutions to complex problems

Anoxic-aerobic

digestion also maintained neutral mixed-liquor pH levels at 'no cost'. With respect to supernatant quality there was a reduction of nitrate-

nitrite levels by two orders of magni tude, and of phosphate levels by one-half to one-third. An overall rat

ing system was developed which suggested that anoxic-aerobic sludge digestion out-performed both lime-control

and

conventional

digestion modes. Effect of Interbasin Transfers on

Water Quality A study by University of Saskatche wan scientists on diversions of water from the Saskatchewan River

system has revealed that the quality of water flowing into diversion schemes,utilizing existing drainage systems of glacial and proglacial drainage channels, has been degraded from natural causes. As described by E. Davis, V.H. Remenda, and E.K. Sauer in the Wate Pollution Research Journal of Canada, increases in mineral salts

and phosphates have,in some cases, rendered the diverted water of little

use for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes. Water transfer proposals should take into account the degradation potential of alternative diversion routes.

Biological Assessment of Con taminated Sediments Scientists from the National Water Research Institute and the Interna

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Circle reply card No. 136

45


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southern nearshore areas (up to

approximately 5 km from shore) of the lake, and generally the absence of toxicity in the central offshore part and the eastern nearshore area of the lake and in the river.

Canadian Textile Industry Effluents

A report issued recently by E.G. Chen

of Environment Canada's

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited

Industrial Programs Branch assesses the environmental prob lems associated with discharges

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

from Canadian textile mills located

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rio (44%), Mills with secondary was tewater treatment had BOD and

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Toxic Chemicals in Urban Runoff National Water Research Institute scientist J, Marsalek and H. Schroeter of the Grand River Con

servation Authority have measured the annual loadings of toxic conta minants in the runoff from twelve urban centres in the Canadian

Great Lakes Basin. As reported in the Water Pollution Research Jour

nal of Canada, the highest basin loadings were computed for zinc (300 t/yr), lead (100 t/yr), and some other inorganics. Among organic substances, the highest individual loadings were for polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons (e.g. fluoranthrene-200 kg/yr),followed by RGBs (80 kg/yr), some chlorinated ben zenes (1,2-dichlorobenzene-30 kg/yr), and some organochlorine pesticides.

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part of silviculture management strategy for initial reforestation plantation site preparation and to improve the yield potential of conif erous species. Studies were under taken by D.A. Williamson to

azinone on aquatic systems follow ing its application. As reported by this Manitoba Department of Envir onment scientist in the Water Pollu

tion Research Journal of Canada, lateral movement of the herbicide

was limited with less than 10 /rg/L 46

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989.


detected in groundwater samples within 5 m of the application site. Hexazinone residues were detected

in test wells for a period of up to about three years.

paul theil associates limited

ft

consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Water Quality Guidelines for Specializing in Municipal Services,

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cific water uses.

Removal of Oil from Produced Waters

Horticultural peat was used by T. Viraraghavan and G.N. Mathavan to assess its potential for the remo val of oil from produced waters reco vered from the petroleum field operations. As described by these University of Regina scientists in Environmental Technology Letters, laboratory column studies showed an average oil removal of approxi mately 80%. Scale-up and kinetic models based

THE

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on column break

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(f.

Continued overleaf

c^/

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Water Supply•Pollution Control-Drainage-SCADA

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Entries for the 1990 competition are invited from consulting engi neers, environmental manufactur ers, municipalities, government agencies and scientists. Categories

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=zi=:z:R&D News Anaerobic Sludge Settleabllity A paper by E. Andras, K.J. Kennedy and D.A. Richardson recently pub lished in Environmental Technol

ogy Letters describes a simple, inexpensive method for evaluating settling properties of granular sludges. These National Research

Engineers Architects and Planners Toronto. Whitby. Cobourg. Kingston Bracebridge, Ottawa, SImcoe. Waterloo, Huntsville and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd.. Sault Ste, Marie

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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989


Environmental sampling and testing

The significance of chain ofcustody

Environmental samples are

physical evidence of the

in the testing process and the results

obtained.

• Sampie preparation: The labora tory must have protective proce dures built into the sample prepara tion process to ensure that samples

state of the environment at

a given time in a particular locality. The sample may be either soil, water or air and contain only minute traces of contaminants, but it is essential that proper handling procedures and documentation are maintained to preserve the integrity of the sample and the acceptability of the analytical results. There are some basic steps that a testing and sampling organization

can be identified at all times and are

kept clear of possible contamina tion. Basic housekeeping proce dures such as keeping glassware, benching and fume hoods clean and maintaining adequate dust control and ventilation systems are essen tial. • Instrumentation: Detailed docu mentation of instrument calibra

must take in connection with test

samples to ensure their integrity in the event that the results may be cited as evidence. This may be for purposes of enforcement or during litigation proceedings. Test results must be authenti

cated by: first, demonstrating that the sample taken was the sample received for testing, and the sample that was tested (i.e. establishing a chain of custody)and second, show ing that the testing methods used produce accurate results and that the test was properly conducted. Chain of Custody Requirements The laboratory must be able to

show that the chain ofcustody ofthe test sample was of sufficient com pleteness to make it impossible that the sample might have been exchanged with another, or have been contaminated or tampered with in any manner. This means that the laboratory must have standard operating procedures that are followed throughout, and that sample movements are fully docu mented and traceable.

•Sampie identification: Each sample or sample container should be labelled with a unique number iden

tifying its source location, time and date of sampling.

This number

should be cross referenced to the

seal on the sample container and the laboratory work order or log book. • Sampie seals: These should be

tion, purging cycles and operator

By John MacLaren*

identification

pie should be given a unique labora tory work number. The laboratory log-in clerk should inspect the ship ping container and sample bottles and document receiving informa tion including the condition of the sample bottles, presence of labels, tags and seals, the shipping papers and resolve any discrepancies that might arise. •Storage: Once sample bottles have been accepted by the laboratory, checked and logged in, they should

should enable the order in which

samples were run on each instru ment to be reconstructed and should

give full descriptions of any prob lems encountered during analysis, actions taken to resolve them and

the procedures for arriving at an interpretation of the results. The results should be fully documented. • Quality control and assurance: A full QC/QA procedure should be

routine for all testing laboratories. It should include instrument cali

bration, detection limits, repeatabil ity, standards and the traceability of those standards to recognized

ins. The storage area should be secure, where there is no danger of damaging the sample by, for exam ple, excessive heat, cold, moisture, or contamination.

Testing Method The second aspect to authenticat ing the test results is to establish that the testing process produces accurate results when properly con

ducted and that the tests were prop erly conducted. For test results entered into evidence, the testing methodology used must be recog nized as a method which provides technically acceptable, reliable and accurate data. This can be accomp lished by using methods approved by scientific bodies or regulatory authorities such as the American

Public Health Association, Ameri can Society for Testing and Mate rials, Environmental Protection

Agency (USA), various government ministries, or referral to expert wit nesses in specific technical applica tions.

possession,in his view after being in

To establish that the tests were

bis physical possession, in a secure area, or is locked or sealed to prevent tampering. • Receiving; When the samples

properly conducted, the laboratory will need to show that the proce dures and protocols were properly followed. This involves keeping detailed written records of the steps

arrive at the laboratory, each sam-

main

tions until laboratory testing beg

affixed in such a way as to ensure

off.

be

be stored under controlled condi

that any attempt to tamper with the sample are obvious. Seals are typi cally crimped lead wires or adhesive tapes that hreak rather than peel • Custody: The sample is under cus tody if it is in an authorized person's

should

tained. The laboratory log books

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

national

or international stand

ards. Furthermore, quality assu rance parameters should be applied to all stages of laboratory opera tions including sample receipt,sam ple storage, sample transfers, preparation and results collation. • Documentation: At the completion of the analysis for each sample, all the

documentation

and

results

should be collected together in a sin gle file for checking and approval by the laboratory manager. When he is satisfied with the quality and com pleteness of the work,the results can be communicated to the client. The

complete job file should then be filed in a secure area. Conclusion

The goal of the program and pre cautions outlined above should be to leave no room for doubt whether the

sample taken was that received and

tested. It confirms the integrity of the results as those pertaining to the sample in question and helps to ensure that quality control proce dures are observed throughout. *Bondar-Clegg & Co. Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 251

49


R&D News Viruses in the Assomption River System Institut Armand Frappier scientist P. Raymond has detected animal enteroviruses reoviruses, and human enteric viruses in a large number of water samples from the Assomption River and its tributar ies. As described in Water Science

and Technology, the probable sour ces of these were, respectively, mas sive pig raising and broiler chicken farms in the area, and untreated

the University of Alberta and the

Hydrogen Peroxide in Lake Waters

Freshwater Institute determined

National Water Research Institute scientists D.R.S. Lean and J.H.

the toxicity of 21 alkylquinolines using luminescent bacteria. As des cribed in a paper accepted for publi cation in Water Research, the toxicity values differed by two orders of magnitude and varied according to the degree of substitu tion and molecular structure. Good correlation with static fish bioas-

says was obtained.

domestic waste waters. The various

virus types were detected in up to 72% of the samples in concentra tions as high as 145 mpniu/L. Sea sonal variations were observed for

all virus types with an increase in viral concentration early in the fall.

Yeasts as Water Quality Indicators A paper describing the results of a study by J.P. Sherry on the ability of fifteen agar media to recover viable yeasts from pond, river, and lake

Toxicity of Alkylquinolines Polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles occur in fossil fuels and, through their presence in combus tion products, have become wides pread in the environment. Many toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects have been dem

water has been accepted for publica tion in the Journal of Microbiologi cal Methods. During the course of the study, undertaken to improve the potential of yeasts as microbial indicators of water quality, it was found that the type of water sample appeared to influence the abilities of the media to resuscitate yeasts, and that no one medium was superior for all water samples. Specific improve

onstrated for such contaminants. In order to assess their environmental

techniques were recommended by

impact. Environment Canada's D.A. Birkholz and colleagues from

ments to present yeast enumeration this National Water Research Insti tute researcher.

WATER AND WASTE TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT Groundwater cleanup Landfill leachate Mine effluents

Metallic waste effluents BOD reduction Arsenic removal

Carey, together with an American colleague, measured depth profiles of hydrogen peroxide concentration at three stations on Lake Erie and one each in Lake Ontario and in Jacks Lake. As described in the

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, epilimnetic con centrations followed changes in solar radiation suggesting that the formation resulted from photochem ical or perhaps photoautotrophic processes. Mid-day hydrogen perox ide concentrations of 100-200 nM/L were observed at all locations. As a

powerful oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide can influence metal speciation, degradation of some organic pollutants as well as the survival and behaviour of organisms. Assessment of Pollutant Stress

The early detection and quantifica tion of pollutant-induced ecosystem stress remains a leading area of interest for agencies involved in impact assessment and environ mental management. Using fresh water molluscs, K.E. Day, J.L. Metcalfe and S.P. Batchelor have

measured biochemical changes at the molecular and cellular level, including changes in the intracellular concentrations of free amino acid. As described in a National

Water Research Institute report, the results have been encouraging. Using caged mussels in the Yamaska River in Quebec, these researchers found that their free amino acids increase in relation to

the extent of local pollution from agriculture. For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

Incorporating state-of-the-art processes: — Ion exchange including patented continuous moving bed systems. — Biological treatment systems, anaerobic and aerobic. — Oil/Water separation, high solids and coalescing. — Membrane filtration systems, including ceramic crossflow and

tion on Water Poiiution Researcti and

Controi, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3,(819) 994-5424.

Index

reverse osmosis. Aer-0-Flo

— Aluminas, including selective adsorbents. — Electrolytic cells for metal recovery. — Sorption Filter, patented metal removal system.

4

SEW Eurodrive

Environment Conf. 34

Smart Turner Summa

26 15

FAST Systems

Terminal City

16

Thomas Env,

10 30

35

Bacon Donaldson

32

Big 0 Bondar Clegg Bristol Myers

51 20 8 9 2 19

Can Am

Cancoppas Ganviro

IWT-HIMSLEY INTERNATIONAL

CNA

24,25

Crane

Davis Controls

An Alcoa Separations Technology Company

Don Oliver

115B Matheson Blvd. W., Suite 211, Mississauga, Ontario L5R 3L1 Phone:(416) 568-4100, Fax:(416) 568-5100

Globe '90

Goiman Rupp Groundwater Tech

50

Circle reply card No. 137

Hach Hazco

18 19 50 44 25 33 45 26 15 38 52 43

Assoc. Eng.

37

7.14 18 10 22 11 36

IWT Flimsley Liquid Air MacLaren

Mann Aqua OWMC

Purity Pipe Quontime

Ramsey Lake Scepter

Victaulic Westech

27

Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, October 1989

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Circle reply card No. 138

51


^

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VX

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Scepter salutes AWWA C905 a new standard of excellence. Increased Flow Rate

Based on coefficient of flow C=150 Hazen-

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pumping costs and/or size of pipe ' required.

With the publication of the new AWWA Standard C905,'Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Water Transmission Pipe (nominal diameters 14" 36")', specifiers have available a worthy companion to AWWA G900, the original PVC pipe standard for sizes up to 12". PVC distribution piping conforming to C900 has established the record of performance that sets the measure for PVC transmission pipe in the larger sizes. Hydrostatic strength, excellent sustained flow rates, corrosion resistance, durability, and ease of installation and maintenance, are the traditional characteristics of PVC distribution

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Scepter introduced large diameter PVC transmission pipe 20 years ago and has been active in the development of standards, test methods, and quality assurance measures. In addition to meeting the requirements of AWWA C905, Scepter Centurionâ&#x201E;˘ PVC transmission pipe meets or exceeds the requirements of Uni-

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Circle reply card No. 139

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 1989  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) October 1989  

Profile for esemag