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ENVIRONMENTAL o

(SQ(gDQC(g

Q)

I

A Davcom Business Publication

August 1989

The incredible shrinking pie syndrome

Hydrant maintenance - can you really sleep soundly? Steve Bonk's triumph in Sudbury National Environmental Awards

Experts review pipe trends Focus on instrumentation

The Greenhouse Effect II

R&D News


EFFLUENT SAMPLER

AUTOMATIC LIQUID SAMPLING WHEREVER IT'S NEEDED Wide Range of Applications

The EPS 1021 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an array of

The Epic 1011T

programmable portable wastewater sampler

provides ct)st effective automatic sampling to assist in monitoring municipal and industrial

24 X 1/2 litre containers

wastewater.

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

A general purpose unit designed to extract

samples of most liquids including-crude sewage and even-some sludges from an open source and to depositthem into a container or sequentially into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers for subsequent analysis.

Typical Applications * Crude sewage * Settled sewage * Final effluent

* Raw sludge * Most industrial effluents

EPIC1011T

Portable Wastewater Sampler To MISA Specifications

EPS 1021

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications Circle reply card No. 125

SLUDGE SAMPLER The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids. Typical Applications * Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

* lyiechanical dewatering device

Circle reply card No. 127

Also available

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2nnm to 1200mm Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel

Analysers....

Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning Ultrasonic Blanket Level Detectors

feeds

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Valve Positioners, Actuators,

Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

Sludge Sampler For more information circle number below or contact

"Specialists in Instrumentation ancf Precision Devices"

Exclusive Canadian Representative:

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone (416) 845-4841 1049 N. Service Road East Oakville, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telex 06-982363 Telefax (416) 849-6776

Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science <6 Engineering, August 1989


ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY

ENVIRONMENTAL

Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY OAVEY

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Cra\wford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.

CONTENTS

August 1989, Vol. 2 No. 4 issued August, 1989

The incredible shrinking pie syndrome

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Industry Update

6

Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Hydrant maintenance - can you really sleep soundly?

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.

Article by Stanley Mason

11

Steve Bonk triumphs at Sudbury AWWA/OMWA Conference Article by Tom Davey

13

The Global Greenhouse Effect â&#x20AC;&#x201D; part II Second in a series - by Dr. Ken Hare

14

Developments In permeability testing Article by Gartner Lee

18

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monttily business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial

environmental

control

systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal

Instrumentation testing - Its Importance to wastewater treatment plant control

environmental

Article by S.G. Nutt

officials,

water

and

wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and academics.

20

Experts review pipe trends

Reviews by James Leppard, Dale Knox,

22

Hershel Guttman and John Neuman ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental

associa

tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), orotherfacslmilies of the written or graphic material

ES&E's National Environmental Award-winning projects

R&D News - a scientific synopsis of water pollution research and development supplied by CAWPR

28,43 32

for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Fetch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should

What's New

be sent to Environmental Science &

Perforated plastic pipe can also recharge water tables Article by Veso Sobot

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. Aurora, Ontario,

51,53 58

L4G 3W1.

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates; Canada $35.00 for one year, $65.00 for two

years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $50.00, $90.00 for two years; other for eign $70.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $25.00 single issue. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Cover Story. Relocation of a massive 144 year old water pumping station to make way for ttie SkyDome won top honours for R.V. Anderson and Associates in the Water Treatment Category of ES&E's National Environmental Awards Contest.

Top picture shows the pumping station in ourcover montage, courtesy R.V. Anderson and Associates.

Details of ail award-winning projects are contained in this issue.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Pivu

CCAB membership applied for Jan.1989


.•■I"

-

"■""''x.ij-

PLEASE DRINK TO OUR 70TH BIRTHDAY. The Gore & Storrie consulting practice began

in 1919. Since that time, we've designed many of Canada's water and wastewater treatment plants, including some of the most advanced facilities in the country. Many of our projects won national engineering design awards. The Canadian Engineer reported in 1919: "Announcement has been made of the organization of a new firm of consulting engineers, Gore, Nasmith & Storrie

of Toronto, who will specialize in allforms of public health engineering, including water works, sewerage, sewage disposal, and bacteriological research." Our, founders showed great foresight in basing

their practice on the environmental field, and the company has consistently built and expanded on the firm foundation they established so long ago. As we celebrate our 70 years in business, we are also making a move for the better. Now that our staff has grown to over 350 people, we have regrouped head office staff in larger premises at 255 Consumers Road, North York, M2J 5B6. We look

forward to many more years of working with clients to keep Canada in the forefront of environmental science and

technology.

Gore & Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers

255 Consumers Road, North York, Ontario M2J 5B6, Telephone (416) 499-9000, Fax (416) 499-4687, Telex 06-986146 Barrie/St. Catharines/Cambridge/Ottawa/Mississauga Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


^^Editorial Comment by Tom Davey

The incredible

shrinking pie syndrome

Recently the government

ize today's environmental prob lems. But the engineers and scientists who specialize in environ mental engineering are not the voi ces sought hy contemporary society. Serious papers showing progress in

ran an ad campaign show ing a gleaming Canadian coin having a large pie shape chunk cut from it. While designed to illustrate service charges of our huge debt burden,the

environmental

mutilated coin was also an unwit

ting metaphor for a deep-seated sickness in Canadian politics - the shrinking pie syndrome. Until recently, Canada's diverse indus trial base and quality oflife were the envy of the world. Yet in a few short years, some rather shrill singleissue groups have deflected us unswervingly towards the have-not What Canada needs are economic

are victims of the malaise which

subjugates their expertise to that of

self-proclaimed experts and pres sure groups.

Entrepreneurs who risk capital, energy and talent, competing in highly competitive fields are only too aware of the shrinking pie syn drome. In a world where unemploy ment is an increasingly social evil, many jobs remain vacant while unemployment rises. Yet a newspaper columnist recently demanded jobs for eve ryone as a social right. He did not detail any specifics in ten column inches of drivel I read, hut I yearned to ask him if he would like to have a

vasectomy performed hy someone with a right to the task,regardless of qualifications or ability? Or per haps he would like to fly a plane which was built and crewed by staff who were there because of a right to

the positions? A shortage of apartments? Bring in the rent controls which drive

are

kestack to protest acid rain, or dem

onstrate in some eye-catctiing costume, and your message is virtu ally certain to appear that same day on the nation's televisions.

Yet daring climbs and cute cos tumes treat not a cubic centimeter of

nations.

pie makers. What the country is developing into is a nation of pie she ers; a veritable army of people who work unceasingly to carve their share out of a shrinking economy. The nation's energy and intellectual resources are increasingly being diverted away from economically sound enterprises into the narrow cul-de-sacs of single-issue group interests. Builders, businessmen and environmental engineers, all

remediation

often ignored by the media in favor of colorful gimmicks. Climb a smo

aary industry of rent control hureaucracies, replete with grants for tenants' groups. This way enormous energies are directed, not towards increasing rental housing stock, but toward ensuring that tenant's rights are protected. Looking after the less for tunate in society is a noble ideal, but the largest beneficiaries of rent con trols are those who were tenants

when controls were imposed. Mean while the truly needy remain home less while apartment building languishes. In the environmental field the

same thrust is evident. Engineers and scientists from both public and private sectors are often brusquely dismissed as tools of the establish

ment while the views of the vocal, but often unqualified, citizens' groups are eagerly picked up and amplified by the news media. Envi ronmental protest groups are often amongst the finest pie siicers.

There are some dedicated engi neers whose life's work has been

devoted towards environmental pro tection. I know several senior engi neers who fought for legislation and public funding at a time when it was not fashionable to do so. They then directed their efforts to procuring the design and construction of billion-dollar treatment schemes which were state-of-the-art when constructed.

The world, alas,is still imperfect. As in every other industrialized country, serious toxic problems are

away the very people who build

literally surfacing in Canada, pos

affordable housing. Abandon the mason's trowel in favor of the lawy er's brief; then create a huge secon-

ing threats to the environment and our drinking water sources.

No stunts are required to dramat

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

acid rain, nor reduce the serious toxic problems we face, indeed some protesters have actually caused pro mising rehabilitation projects to be abandoned, not because they were impractical, but because the demon strators made the projects politically unacceptable. In employment creation, entre

preneurs rate less than department bureaucrats. Under rent controls, builders become inferior to rent

review officers; and with environ mental matters, protesters rank

higher than professional engineers. In short the vicarious experts have assumed dominance over the intrin

sic ones. Professional advice, based on training, education and expe rience in highly specialized fields,is ignored in favor ofthose groups who can manipulate the political pres sure points so that the pies are sliced their way. Economic viability, or even common sense, seldom plays a role in the pie-slicing syndrome. But with ecological problems, we must ultimately rely on scientists and engineers who work with the proven methodology of applied science which has served us so well

in the past. There is positively no other way to stop further environ mental deterioration. Regrettably, this fact of life seems lost on our

politicians. Increasingly they gov ern us through opinion polls, while reacting to protesters carrying pla cards as though they were armed revolutionaries.

Winston

Churchill once noted

that: In war, truth is so precious it must sometimes be accompanied by a body-guard oflies. These days out right lies are rare - it's the halftruths from the pie siicers which can be so very damaging. ES&E


Industry Updatez Saving the St. Lawrence River Federal

Environment

Minister

Lucien Bouchard and his Quebec counterpart, Lise Bacon, have released a list of fifty industrial plants along the St. Lawrence River which will be given priority by the two governments in the next few years.

The two governments have set as

their objective a 90 percent reduc tion in all liquid toxic waste by the most serious industrial polluters

along the St. Lawrence River by

all legislative and regulatory instru

1993.

ments available.

The main sectors in question include the pulp and paper, metal lurgy, chemical, petroleum, mining and surface-finishing industries. In June 1988, the federal govern ment â&#x2013; announced a $110-million plan under which $14 million would

The federal government wants to completely eliminate controlled

be allocated to evaluate the nature

CFCs within the next 10 years.

and quantity of toxic waste, and to develop priority action. The federal and Quebec governments have also agreed to negotiate pollutioncontrol protocols with the plants, or to pursue their negotiations, using

Environment Minister Lucien Bouchard also called on the rest of

WE MEASURE FLOW

Canada to phase out CFCs

the world community to set as its common target a reduction of no less than 85% by no later than 1999. The announcement was made on

the opening day of a three-day Inter national Meeting of Legal and Pol icy Experts on the Protection of the Atmosphere, hosted by Canada under the auspices of the United Nations.

Kraft Mills required to reduce discharges

AER-O-FLO MANUFACTURING HAS A COMPLETE LINE OF FLOW MEASURING DEVICES FOR OPEN CHANNEL AND FULL PIPE APPLICATION.

The Ministry of the Environment is requiring Ontario's nine kraft pulp and paper mills to reduce their toxic discharges. New

Control

Orders

will

be

issued requiring each kraft mill to reduce its discharge of total chlori nated organic compounds, mea sured as adsorbent organic halides (AOX), to no more than 2.5 kilo grams per air-dried tonne of manu factured bleached pulp (kg/Adt) by

.COMPUTERIZED FLOW REPORTS/STUDIES

December 31, 1991. Preliminary tests suggest that

.STATE-OF-THE-ART MICROPROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY

present AOX levels at six ofthe nine mills exceed 2.5 kg/Adt, ranging as high as 7.1 kg/Adt. These nine mills discharge an

.NON-FOULING SENSORS

estimated 200 tonnes of chlorinated

organic chemicals into waterways daily.

.TRUE FLOW MEASUREMENT USING VELOCITY

Ontario

Gorman Rupp to buy Patterson Pump

AND LEVEL

. RENT, LEASE,PURCHASE

AND WE ENGINEER AND SUPPLY EQUIPMENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER AER-O-FLO ENVIRONMENTAL INC.

1175 APPLEBY LINE, UNIT 03 BURLINGTON, ONTARIO, L7L 5H9

The Gorman-Rupp Company, a Mansfield, Ohio based pump manu facturer, is announcing it has signed a letter of intent to purchase the assets of the Patterson Pump Company from Banner Industries, Cleveland, Ohio.

Patterson Pump, located in Toccoa, Georgia, is a manufacturer of pumps and related pumping equip ment to the municipal, industrial and fire pump markets. William B. Horn, Vice-President & General Manager of Gorman-Rupp of Canada Limited, St. Thomas,

TEL: (416) 335-8944, FAX: (416) 335-8972

Ontario says there would be no immediate affect on the St. Thomas

plant. Patterson will function as a separate division with their own marketing and manufacturing. Circle reply card No. 102

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


ENVIRONMENT ONTA R10 ANNOUNCES

Environmental firm

Implementation of Pollution Control

wins business award marr-o-rco

Measures for Urban Stormwater Runoff

LIIVIMUIIiyi LIVIHL.

BIOTMSNE

The Third Seminar on Pollution Control Planning

ROD

September 21 -22,1989 Skyline Hotel,655 Dixon Road,Toronto Topics include ■ Best management practices and source contol ■ Stormwater quality control through pond design ■ Structural control and related implications for combined sewer overflows(CSOs) ■ Provincial stromwater quality and CSO control initiatives

■ Overview of USEPA CSO strategy & stormwater regulation Aer-O-Flo's Neil Carragher, left with Harry Marshall.

$225 until September 8,1989 • $275 after September 8, 1989 $125 one-day registration fee • Special rates for students Two-day fee includes lunches, refreshments, banquet and a copy of the proceedings.

Aer-0-Flo Environmental Inc. was a winner at a Halifax conference

sponsored by the Financial Post to

find the most attractive emerging and growing companies in Canada. Harry Marshall, President, was pres

For registration or further information please contact: Ms. Carol Morris, Beak Consultants

ented with the honour before 400

attendees, representing

major

14 Abacus Road, Brampton, Ontario L6T 5B7 Phone:(416)458-4044

banks, institutional investors for pension funds, investment dealers and venture capital investors. Dele gates voted by secret ballot with

Environment Ontario

results tabulated by Clarkson Gor

Circle reply card No. 104

don.

WE S10CK PUMPS AND PARTS NOT EXCUSES An excuse instead of a shipment. That's no way to run a company. And it's certainly not the way Gorman-Rupp is run. We've already invested a substantial amount of cash In a complete inventory of pumps and parts, because we believe inventory is better than money in the bank to our customers. So, when you place an order for one of our over 500 different pump models, there's an excellent possibility that the pump or the parts to build It James C. Gorman President and are in stock, enabling us to ship it to you promptly. Chief Executive Officer The same holds true for our 12,000 parts. We ship 97% in 48 hours. We realize pumps are a small part of your business. But, when

^■

one breaks down, they're a big part.

Action instead of excuses! This country wasn't built on excuses." | i Neither was this company.

*

We ship 97% of our ports in 48 hours. They keep you in business. TM Gorman-Rupp ipp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone: (519) 631-2870• Telex: 064-73530 Fax: (519) 631-4624

GORMANRUPP

Distributors across Canada. Consult the >fe//ow Pages for your nearest Gorman.-Rupp Distributor

Ivtail to: Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.

Please send Information on

70 Burwell Rd., St. Tfiomas, Ont. N5P 3R7

ttie following pumps: □ Above Ground Lift Stations

□ Below Ground Lift Stations

□ Emergency Stand By Unit □ Submersibles □ Booster Stations

Name . Title

Company Street

City

Prov.-

.P.O. .

Ptione #

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 103


Industry Update= Controls tightened on waste transport Transportation

Minister Benoit

Bouchard and Environment Minis ter Lucien Bouchard have announced that Canada is streng

thening the legal provisions that govern transportation of hazardous wastes.

include materials destined for recy cling;

tland, Ontario. HCFC-123 is a leading candidate

•establish a uniform manifest sys

to replace CFC-11 in industrial refrigeration equipment, insulation

tem; • introduce a new document to

improve the notification require ments for international shipments; and

•require 30 days advance notice of PCB shipments destined for interprovincial transportation.

and cushioning foam. It could also

be a component in blends being developed to replace CFC-113 as a cleaning agent for printed circuit boards.

The new plant is expected to be on-stream in 1990, to supply devel

The amendments to the Trans

opmental and initial market needs

portation of Dangerous Goods Regu

for Du Pont customers worldwide in

lations will broaden the application

of the existing regulations and establish a better tracking system for domestic and international

1991.

Du Pont Announces

First HCFC-123 Plant In Canada

movement of hazardous wastes.

The amended regulation will: • extend the existing provisions

governing hazardous wastes to

The ozone depletion potential of HCFC-123 is 98% lower than that of CFC-11.

Du Pont Canada will spend $24 mil lion to build global Du Pont's first large-scale HCFC-123 plant in Mai-

MISA becomes law for

organic chemical manufacturers

Ainley Graham and Associates Limited

Ontario's 17 organic chemical manufacturers must now monitor

the wastewaters they discharge to rivers and lakes for 152 contami

nants as the Effluent Monitoring

Regulation for the Organic Chemi cal Manufacturing Sector became law April 25, 1989. "This 12-month comprehensive monitoring program will let us know for the first time the full range of toxic pollutants and total amounts discharged to Ontario waterways by organic chemical manufacturers," said Environment Minister Jim Bradley. "With these detailed results in

Alvin Morrison

P. William Ainiey

Terence Hardy

ANNOUNCEMENT

Mr. P. William Ainiey,Presidentof Ainiey and Associates Limited,is pleased to announce the acquisition of A.J. Graham Engineering Consultants Ltd. Under the new ownership, the company has been re-named Ainiey Graham and Associates Limited, Consulting Engineers and Planners.

The newly-formed management will comprise Mr. P. William Ainiey,

P.Eng., as President, Mr. Aivin Morrison,P.Eng.,as Vice President Transpor tation Engineering, and Mr. Terence Hardy, P.Eng., as Vice President Municipal Engineering. Mr. Morrison has been a Director of A.J. Graham Engineering Consul tants Ltd. since 1971. He is a Designated Consulting Engineer and has more than thirty years experience in land development and transportation

engineering for both the public and private sectors. Mr. Hardy recently joined the firm after several years as Manager of the Ottawa branch office for a major, international consulting engineering firm. Also a Designated Consulting Engineer, he has twenty-five years

hand, we will formulate an abate ment regulation requiring the chem ical plants to reduce their toxic discharges to the level attainable by the best available pollution control technology that is economically achievable," he added. Each plant must sample its own discharges and have them tested to standards specified in the regula tion. Random ministry audits will verify that results are accurate and representative. The regulation stip ulates quality control and quality assurance procedures for collecting, storing, analyzing and checking samples. Enforcement of the regulation is

provided under the Ontario Envir onmental Protection Act. Violators

face fines of up to $50,000 a day.

experience in municipal and environmental engineering, including storm and sanitary sewers, water supply, waste treatment and solid waste man agement.

A.J. Graham Engineering Consultants Ltd. was originally founded in 1962 and has its head office in the City of Gloucester. Ainiey and Associates Limited was established in 1961 and has its head office in Collingwood, with branch offices in Barrie and Belleville. The two companies have a com

bined staff of approximately 150, offering services in urban and regional planning,environmental studies, structural, municipal and transportation engineering.

Hare report quoted

by Ont. Energy Minister Ontario has a $30-billion investment

in nuclear-generated electricity. Today, more than half our electric

ity is generated in nuclear-powered stations. In the mid-1990s, when

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


T

FIRST IN THE WEST

A No. 1 Slide Gate

Hydrant B No. 20P Slide Gate

Hydrant

C C71-P Compression Hydrant D H105 Heritage Model Hydrant

E G712P High-hazard Hydrant F No. 8120 Uni-body Hydrant

FIRE HYDRANTS Founded in 1906, Terminal City is the only manufacturer of high quality fire hydrants in British Columbia. Canadian owned and operated, the Vancouver factory produces both slide gate and compression type hydrants. Six different models are available to suit installation needs, architectural dictates and fire fighting requirements. Contact Terminal City today for full details.

V)1en»tU*talSit(f iron works ltd. Manufacturers of 'T.C! Waterworks Products

1909 Franklin Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L1R1 • Phone (604) 253-7525 • FAX (604) 253-6365

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 105


Industry Update= Darlington is fully on line, more than 60 per cent of our electricity will be nuclear-generated, Ontario Energy Minister Bob Wong told the Canadian Nuclear Society. That's

one of the reasons why Ontario sup ports continuing research on nuclear-generated electricity, he said.

"Over the years, there has been

MISA Monitoring Reguiation becomes Law for Iron and Steel producers

widespread public concern over nuclear safety, over the costs of nuclear-generated electricity, the relative cost of generating electric ity using other fuels, and over the disposal of radioactive waste. "In response to public concern about nuclear safety, the govern ment

Ontario's seven iron and steel pro ducers must now monitor the waste-

waters they discharge to rivers and lakes for 140 contaminants.

The

Effluent Monitoring Regulation for the Iron and Steel Sector has been

promulgated, following a public comment period. "This comprehensive monitoring will tell us,for the first time,the full range of toxic pollutants and total amounts discharged to waterways from iron and steel producers," Environment Minister Jim Bradley

says. "With these detailed results in hand, we will formulate an abate ment regulation requiring iron and steel producers to reduce their toxic discharges to the level attainable by the best available pollution control technology that is economically achievable," he said. Each plant must sample its own discharges and have them tested to standards specified in the regula tion, with random ministry audits to verify that results are accurate and representative. The regulation stip ulates quality control and quality assurance procedures for collecting, storing, analyzing and checking samples. Enforcement ofthe regula tion is provided under the Ontario Environmental Protection Act. Vio

lators face fines of up to $50,000 a day. Companies in this sector have five months to comply with the regu lation.

commissioned

the

Hare

Costs incurred under the regula

Report, which concluded, and I tion will be borne by the industry. quote: No significant adverse The estimated costs for the large impact has been detected in either mills are; Stelco (Hamilton) $1.85 the work-force or the public. The million, Stelco (Nanticoke)$0.5 mil risk of accidents serious enough to lion, Algoma Steel(Sault Ste. Marie) affect the public adversely can

$2 million and Dofasco (Hamilton) never be zero, but it is very remote." $2.8 million. Estimated monitoring Mr. Wong said he told the Energy costs for the smaller operations are: Lake Ontario Steel (Whitby) Choices conference that a major $340,000, Atlas Specialty Steels new generating station is one of (Welland) $300,000 and Ivaco Ontario's energy options. He also specified that a new nuclear gener (L'Original) $28,000. ating station is clearly a possibility, Final discharges to waterways reminding people that our existing nuclear stations produce about half will be monitored daily for four sub stances, three times a week for 12 our electricity, efficiently and contaminants, weekly for eight to 12 safely. substances, monthly for 86 (small mills) or 117 contaminants (large mills), and quarterly for 140(small) or 149 pollutants (large). Other waste streams have different moni

toring schedules. As well, provision

Acres and Mann-Testing Laboratories open

has been made for additional sam

pling to be carried out for a period of up to six months following the com pletion of the initial one year regula tory monitoring period.

Monthly biological monitoring is also required. Toxicity tests will be run on mill effluents using Rainbow Trout and another sensitive orga nism, Daphnia magna(water fleas). Flow monitoring will be regulated to provide consistency in establishing the total loading of contaminants.

new Lab Acres International Limited

has

announced a joint venture with Mann Testing Laboratories which has led to the formation of Acres

Analytical Limited. The new Niagara Falls-based laboratory will serve clients with a variety of testing requirements, ranging from compliance with the Ontario Government's Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA)to process quality control.

WATTS/MUESCO AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES Serving the municipal waterworks, irrigation and industrial markets. Featuring; Deep Weil Pump

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WATTS REGULATOR OF CANADA LIMITED, 4211 Mainway, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5N9 Telephone: (416) 332-4090

Circle reply card No. 106 10

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Hydrant maintenance - can you really sleep soundly? Fire hydrants are too often taken for granted â&#x20AC;&#x201D; yet they save homeowners hundreds of dollars

annually In reduced Insurance premiums. Stan Mason* reviews the situation for ES&E.

Over the past 10 years many hours have been spent, many words have been spoken and many articles have been published on the topic of fire hydrant maintenance. Have they been effective? Manufacturers,the National Fire Code of Canada, and the American Water Works Association's publica tions may all have had some effect; but probably the National Fire Code of Canada, published by the National Research Council through its Association Committee on the

National Fire Code, has had the greatest impact. Subsection 6.6.4 of this Code is very clear with refer ence to maintenance and record

keeping. By and large this Code is used by the Provincial Authorities having jurisdiction. The American Water Works Association's 1980 revision of Man-

Fire trucks ready to respond to emergencies - but will all the fire hydrants be at the same level of readiness?

ual M17 - Installation, Field Testing and Maintenance of Fire Hydrants, brought up-to-date the recom mended practices in maintenance and recording of maintenance, along with proper flow testing procedures. In 1987 AWWA made available two software programs for fire hydrants. The computer age is now into "hydrantflow testing" and "hydrant maintenance".

have continued their efforts towards

proper hydrant maintenance by means of updating manuals and brochures on the topic. Some manu facturers provide in-plant mainte nance seminars.

These allow the

people responsible for the hands-on maintenance to become knowledge able about the products they deal with. More and more manufactur

ers are being asked to present fire

Manufacturers of fire hydrants

Continued overleaf

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FAX: (619) 438-2980

CORPORAT ION

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA (619) 438-8282 / Telex; 5106003386

FAX: (619) 438-2980

Circle reply card No. 107 11


Hydrants continued

ular maintenance program already

hydrant maintenance papers at the various Operator Schools held across Canada by the water and wastewater organizations.

exists.

From information available in

British Columbia,one would have to suspect that we still have a long way to go before we achieve the goal of all fire hydrants being under regu lar maintenance programs. There has been an increase in the demand

for spare parts of 15% to 20% over the past 10 years. Some of this increase is a result of additional hydrants

being installed in areas where a reg

Some of the increase is a

result of 10 years of additional hydrants being installed with some of these units being repaired only after it was discovered they were faulty. Some of the increase is a result of the "already converted" expanding an existing program, even though they have not installed any new hydrants in the past 10 years.

If one were an optimist, one might conclude that an additional 10%-15% existing owners of hydrants have instigated regular

A promise of water/ waste water treatment

drive performance that holds water.

\ 'Stanley J. Mason, P.Eng., is Presi dent, Terminal City Ironworks.

yearly maintenance programs than were doing so in 1980. There are approximately 400 owners of hydrants in B.C. Assuming that 100 of them were maintaining their hydrants in 1980 (a high assump tion) then there are now approxi mately 145 out of 400 (or 36% of the owners)doing regular maintenance. There is still a long way to go before all owners of fire hydrants, both public and private, establish a program of regular service and maintenance. "Underground" sto

Tie modular

ries still come forward of instances

design of our complete line

from:

of fire hydrant failures resulting • isolating gate valves, ahead of the fire hydrant being shut off; • no internal operating parts in the hydrant; • firemen being unable to open the hydrant nearest the fire and having to run to the next block; •"dry barrel" hydrants being frozen because of ground water inside the barrel entering through the drain mechanism... All of which are pre ventable failures with proper ser

of water/waste water treatment

drives and power compo

nents allows us to

quickly configure a drive to your exact specifications. That, combined with our three

vice and maintenance.

assembly plants and five technical offices across Canada, means we can

deliver the right drive into your hands faster usually within 48 hours. Give us your most demanding drive

application. And your tightest delivery deadline. We can meet them both.

Customer Service/Assembly Centres Toronto — From area code (416); 1 -800-387-2461 All other areas: 1-800-387-2420 Montreal —1-800-361-2928 Vancouver —1-800-972-5481

hydrants be regularly maintained and records kept of this mainte

Moncton —1-800-361-2928

Winnipeg —1-800-665-1242 Sudbury —1-800-387-2420 Edmonton —(403)438-2175

nance.

SEW-EURGDRIVE COMPANY OF CANADA, LTD. SOCIETE SEW-EURODRIVE DU CANADA LTEE

EURODRIVE

Too many Canadian taxpayers and home owners still go to sleep every night with confidence in the "fire plug" down the street - even though the only maintenance it had this year was a coat of paint. It is true that a properly recorded main tenance and flow testing program will improve insurance ratings in the area. It is true that many Pro vincial Fire Codes require that

Customer Service Centres

Pius AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTORS coast-to-coast.

Although all of the printed proce dures, computer software programs, recommended practices and regula tions are available, we are pumping

210 Walker Drive, Bramalea, Ontario LOT 3W1

air if there is no enforcement of the

(416)791-1553

regulations or if the funds are not provided to adequately do the job!

Circle reply card No. 108 12

m

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


AWWA/OMWA Sudbury conference report

Steve Bonk triumphs at Sudbury Annual Conference water quality standards of tomor row but just to meet the standards of today. He also said the industry could build more reliability into sys

By Tom Davey

Theconference was a person

al triumph for Steve Bonk as he wound up his year as AWWA

President.

tems.

When he presented Paul Emery with the coveted AWWA Honorary Membership, he acknowledged that Paul had paved the way for his suc

The

Sudhury meeting was his first offi cial visit to the Ontario Section as

President, and he explained how the city was special to him in many ways. Not only did he and wife Norma begin their married life there

cessful campaign earlier. The Fuller

pin went to John Pawley, who later got his plaque in Los Angeles; the

Howard Award to James Roughiey,

hut two of their children were born

the Gold Water Drop Award to H.N.

in the city. Now,as the sixth Cana dian to achieve the Presidency since 1881, he stood before a packed audit orium to deliver his first presiden

Potter and the Presidential Recruit

ing Silver Award to Doris Windsor.

Fort Erie won the coveted Pipe tap ping contest.

tial address to the Ontario Section.

With his commanding height and resonant voice, Steve quickly captured the rapt attention of dele gates as he adroitly used self depre cating humour to trace the rocky path which ultimately led to his elec tion as President - and his subse

• not recognizing the public demand for water which tastes good all the

Winners in the water category of Environmental Science & Engineer ing's National Award Program were presented with their plaques.

time;

Ken

• not,in some cases,keeping the pub lic properly informed on the state of

accepted the Award of Excellence for relocating a huge 144 year old pumping station on the site of the new SkyDome; Dillon's Mike Provart accepted the Award of Merit for the Atikokan Water Treatment Plant,

Steve Bonk

quent travels during his term of their water systems; office. But he laced his eloquence • not realizing that it was in a com with some tough home truths. As in petitive market with the bottled his inaugural speech in Orlando, water and home treatment device Florida, he urged the waterworks industries; industry to constantly strive for bet • being complacent while some ter water quality, not to just defend water systems fell apart? itself against critics. Steve said current public and pol Steve asked if the waterworks itical support could enable the industry was not taking the public industry to overhaul aging under for granted by: ground systems; develop new sour • Keeping water prices artificially ces of supply; upgrade treatment low; facilities, not necessarily to meet the

Morrison

of

R.V.

Anderson

and Rod Holme of Proctor & Redfern

accepted the Award of Merit in the Equipment Category for developing the Proportional Sampler. Full details are reported elsewhere in this issue.

Sudhury proved to be a gracious host city for this most successful conference.

1

The Ontario Waterworks Equipment Association not only played hosts at the clubrooms but also sponsored Casino Nite with proceeds going to the Sick Kids Hospital. Left to right: Ken Hicks, Denso; Hank St. Onge, Duratron; Cal Hannah, Scepter; and Fuller winner John Pawley. Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

13


The Global Greenhouse effect rience a lesser but still formidable

F. Kenneth Hare*

In the June Issue of ES&E, Dr. Hare

traced the origins of the Greenhouse Effect. In part II of his article he examines some of the possible climatic changes from a warming trend.

How Big a Change in Cli

warming. Effects on Water

(Iv) Less can be said about rainfall and the hydrologic cycle, but It appears l ikely that available soil moisture may be less abundant In Northern Hemisphere mid-latltudes— which Include the world's chief wheat

mate can we expect from the greenhouse effect? Here I am guided by the

and corn growing areas. Water demand will Increase generally.

conclusions of Vlllach 1985, which I

(v) Sea-level may rise between 20 and 140 centimetres during a warming of the sort foreseen In (II) above, chiefly because of expansion of the ocean water column (and only secondarily of glacial melting). A rise In the upper part of this range would seriously affect low-lying coastal areas, espe cially In theworld'sgreatdeltas. More catastrophic rises due to major dis ruptions of the Antarctic and Green land glaciers are unlikely In the next

paraphrase briefly below: Time-Scale

(I) The augmented greenhouse effect is currently due about half to rising carbon dioxide levels, and half to the

other greenhouse gases—chiefly the chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, methane and ozone. All are known to

be Increasing (ozone In the lower lay ers ony) as the result of human activi ties. The combined future effect may

be the equivalent of a carbon dioxide doubling by the 2030's~l.e., In less than a half-century.

Expected Warming

(II) Such a doubling may Induce a

global surface temperature Increase of between 1.5°C and 4.5°C, accord

ing to existing atmosphere-ocean models. The slowness of the oceans

to warm up may, however, delay the effect by some decades. Values out side the cited

range cannot be

excluded.

Unequal Effects

(I II) The Impact of this warming Is likely to be geographically nonuniform. High latitudes will warm the most, especially In autumn and win ter. Equatorial regions will expe-

century.

These five predictions are parts ofthe near-consensus that I spoke of earlier. They are accepted, with dif ferences of detail, by most students of climate. They rest on direct mea surement, on predictions of future energy use and technological change, and on elaborate modelling of both the economic and ocean-

atmosphere systems.

HE HANGING

nTM^SPHERE

The green

and calm conditions are interspers ed. Some of these variations may last for years, and become economi cally-damaging epochs. In any

given decade the effect of such anomalies

will

hide

the

slow

changes of the greenhouse effect. The latter has been likened to a faint

signal behind the noise that afflicts AM radio reception. In all probabil ity, the warming in mid-latitudes will show itself mainly by increas ing numbers of dry, hot summers and mild winters-ofthe sort already common in the 1980's. The entire

year 1982/83, for example, was of this sort in many parts of the world, because of a huge anomaly-the socalled el Nino/Southern Oscillation

effect-in the Pacific Ocean. Here in Canada the Great Lakes barely froze. In fact we already get entire

years that resemble what will be

house effect has become the central

normal five decades from now-over

research problem of the field. It has attracted large resources of time,

limited parts of the earth. We are in effect allowed to rehearse the green house warming, and to examine its potential economic impact by direct inspection. We get glimpses of the probable future from such events.

money and talent. Even so, a large measure of uncertainty attaches to all five predictions. Politicians and economic decision-makers are used

to uncertainties. This set of predic tions is no exception. may mislead a listener unaccus tomed to geophysical magnitudes. In fact, the five predictions, if reaiised, wiil amount to a revoiutionary change in worid ciimate, of a sort not rivaiied in the history of civilization. Not since the abrupt end of glacial climates a little over 10,000 years

Has the Greenhouse Warming Yet Shown itself?

The past two decades have seen many climatic anomalies. The worst has been the vast African

desiccation, a much broader process than the so-called Sahelian drought. Analyses by many climatologists, notably Nicholson and Lamb, have demonstrated that this devastating

process began in the 1960's, and con

ago have temperatures changed as much, or as rapidly. The next cen tury may therefore see large impacts on the human economy, with the first signs already upon us. It will

tinues to this day with consequences

also see, if these changes are real

recorded history, on a world scale. It

ized, a potentially dangerous dis

is hence reasonable to ask: is this

equilibrium between soil, vegetation and climate. The world's ecosys tems will be destabilized, in a fashion that cannot yet be predicted

the greenhouse effect at work? Because ofthe large variability of climate just referred to, this has been a difficult question to answer. Extensive reviews, for example by Evans, Forester and Wardie (1987),

in detail. I have no doubt that we are

14

Climate is naturally variable: droughts follow floods, heat waves follow cold waves, winds, storms

Sea-Level

The calm recital of these ideas

Dr. Ken Hare

In practice the greenhouse warm ing will reveal itself in subtle ways.

discussing the central environmental problem of our times.

well-known to us all.

There have

been many other major anomalies of other sorts. Several years of the 1980's have been the warmest in

Continued on page 17

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Rockwell Introduces ATouch Of The future. THE ROCKWELL TOUCHREAD SYSTEM.

A revolutionary automated meter reading and billing system that increases accuracy, productivity, efficiency, and control. Increases reading productivity. All that's needed to obtain an accurate read

ing is to place the TouchRead System reading to the TouchPad data transfer module on top of the register (pit-set meters), or outside the building (insideset meters), and push a button. This records the meter reading, customer identification number, and the time of

day the reading was taken into the TouchRead System interrogator/Record er. Both visual and sound feedback let

the reader know that a valid reading has been obtained. These readings are then

ready for direct transfer into

a computer for processing. Increases

reading accu racy. Because the reading comes right from the register and records automatically, human errors in reading and posting are a thing of the past. And because the TouchPad data transfer module is accessible, even

in flooded pits, the TouchRead System virtually eliminates callbacks, curb reads, and other "guesstimates." Automates your billings. For utilities with up to 30,000 accounts,the photo on the right shows essentially all that's

The TouchRead System inciudes software that makes it easy to learn and easy to use. The operator needs no specialized knowledge about computers -just typing skills.

needed to maintain customer files, calcu

late and print bills, and produce a wealth of useful management and accounting

reports. For larger systems, the IBM® PC interfaces with most existing mainframe billing computers. Additional TouchRead System benefits • Provides route information

• Alerts to trouble • Permits reading of other register types • Easy installation, downloading and charging • Streamlines posting and account management • Reduces billing time.

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Grooved end plug, butterfly, ball and check valves are installed with

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Victaulic and Vic-Plug are registered tradenurks of Victaulic Company of Canada Limited.

Š1989 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


The Global Greenhouse Effect (cont'd.) that the answer must be "yes". They have mounted large world research efforts to specify the problem,and to identify potential socioeconomic impacts, Since before the 1972 Stockholm

Conference

on

the

Human Environment in fact, they have been driven by the sense that the biological and physical sciences of the environment have growing predictive powers, and that these should be used to influence the future course of human action. But the world-views of states

men, politicians and business peo ple have been hard to change. For the most part large-scale policies on the national and world scales ignore the possibility that major environ mental change may be ushered in by climatic change, and specifically by the greenhouse effect. With great respect to Mrs. Brundtland, Our

This Conference is the latest in a

series of assaults on this perceptual gap. It has brought together people in the midst of the political struggle into sharp focus. In preparation for it, and for the forthcoming second World Climate Conference(in 1990), the Beijer Institute conducted the two workshops referred to above as Villach-Bellagio 1987. The report of these two workshops neatly identi fies the gaps we have to bridge here in Toronto. I shall not repeat the list. Instead I shall close with com

ments and questions that I believe demand an answer;

Minister

Common Future makes little of the

Brian Mulroney where Dr. Harespoke.

climatic factor. Beyond admitting

(i) The question of scale is para mount, when action is being sought. The greenhouse effect is world-wide, both as to causes and as to impacts. Any conceivable action to control, mitigate or adapt to the effect must be taken on the world scale, by the world community. The same applies to the questions of ecological impacts. Do

that weather-related variations in

the political means exist, or can they

Madam Gro Brundtland is a key fig ure in the move for sustainable devel

opment on a global scale.

Picture

was taken at the Toronto conference

on The Changing Atmosphere which she

attended

with

Prime

and by McCracken and Luther (1985), are available. The problem is to identify the measurable proper ties most likely to point unmistaka bly to the greenhouse effect. What, for example, should we look for in the outgoing radiative characteris tics of the planet, as detected by satellites? How should we expect stratospheric temperatures to respond? Can sea-level measure

food supply may continue, the report rarely touches on climate. In so not doing it is moving parallel to the great bulk of social, economic and political comment. Yet there is abundant evidence

of the sensitivity of various aspects of the human economy to climatic

existing climatic records?

None of these approaches has yet given an unequivocal answer. But painstaking examination of the glo bal surface air and sea temperature records over the past century and a quarter has begun to yield good results. Analysis by Jones et al. (1986), for example, shows a global rise of temperature between 1860 and 1980 of approximately 0.5 to 0.6C. Villach 1985 estimates that the

greenhouse effect over the past cen tury should have raised tempera tures between 0.3 and 0.7C.

The

observed signal is thus compatible with the predicted greenhouse warming.

Firmer answers to this question will have to wait a few years. But I should like to express the personal view, based on long experience rather than personal research, that we are indeed witnessing the begin nings of the process, and that the delegates did not come to this Con ference to chase a will-o'-the-wisp. What is the Significance of the Greenhouse Effect?

Do these predictions have a major significance for the future of humankind? Here we encounter a

real divergence of view. Most of my scientific colleagues feel certain

in Our Common Future-and poses the same difficulties.

(ii) A second class of global, climate-

induced issues arise from such things as desertification, energy policy and the condition of the seas and fisher

ies.

If not global, al l are widely

dispersedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and defy intranational

ments offer firm evidence? And can

we detect the greenhouse signal in

be devised, to tackle so broad a prob lem? This isan issue likethose raised

solution.

Any conceivable action must be taken on

the world scale.

(ill) Questions of acid deposition, and more generally of toxic air pollution, tend to be more limited in area (inter national or regional), to involve a more limited number of states, and to be amenable to specific technical solutions. Yet Europe and North

impact-and to the reverse pheno menon, the impact of human activi ties on climate via the greenhouse

scientific consensus.

effect and other mechanisms. The

move beyond stalemate?

World Climate Impacts Programme has produced a long literature on the climate-economy links. Here I refer, for example, to the excellent series emerging from HASA (Interna tional Institute for Applied Systems Analysis), under the leadership of Martin Parry (HASA, 1987), and to the series of impact studies com pleted here in Canada (Climate Change Digest, 87, 1-4; 88 1-2) on such diverse fields as agricultural yields. Great Lakes water levels and

Beyond these questions the scien tific community sees grounds for

the effects of sea-level rise. I can

testify that these interdisciplinary studies all had one common aspect; that they were conceived,sponsored and to some extent conducted by atmospheric and ocean scientists (with the help, it must at once be added,of engineers, economists and agricultural scientists). The stimu lus did not come from senior govern

America have found them hard to

handle, in spite of a large degree of How can we

deep concern about the conditions of

the world's eco-system, fresh water, food supply and human health-all on our later agenda. The green house effect touches deeply on these concerns.

*Dr. Hare is Chancellor of Trent Uni

versity and Chairman of Canada's Climate Program Planning Board. Dr. Hare was a keynote speakerat last year's greenhouse effect conference. Proceedings of this international meeting became available last month and can be obtained from the Cana dian Climate Centre, 4905 Dufferin

St., Downsview, Ont., M3H 5T4. A

cheque for $25.00 payable to Receiver General of Canada should be enclosed with orders.

ment or top corporate management.

Environmental Science <& Engineering, August 1989

17


INSTRUMENTATION

Developments in permeability testing

The Permtest system was developed by Gartner Lee Limited in 1985 to character

ize the permeability (hy draulic conductivity) of rock forma tions. This system was developed from the low permeability testing conducted for the radioactive waste

disposal programs. It provides the advantages of the technology deve loped from these programs in a sys tem which is portable and cost-effec tive even for small scale investiga tions.

Permtest has been used on pro jects dealing with site assessment, ground water supply for municipali ties and industry, geotechnical investigations for excavation in rock, ground water contamination at landfills and non-aqueous phase chemicals in the subsurface industrial facilities.

at

Two types of permeability testing services can be conducted. The more

traditional open hole permeability testing and hydraulic head determi nations are possible in most stand

ard sized boreholes. The other type of testing is a slim-line system for analyses within existing ground water monitors.

The open hole testing equipment has three key components: 1) the single or double inflatable rubber packers to isolate the inter val of interest; 2) high precision pressure sensors which measure pressures within and above the interval, and; 3) a surface computer acquisition system that can display and store real-time pressures from the downhole sensors. (See illustration) The packer separation in the dou ble packer arrangement is variable and can be field adjusted to suit the needs of each project or borehole. The smallest interval that can be

practically tested is 30 cm and the largest is 10 m. The equipment, including the packers, can be disas sembled for decontamination pur poses or the rubber and plastic components can be replaced on-site. Down hole equipment is positioned in the borehole using a manual or

power winch.

An example application of the open hole testing procedure was a landfill investigation. This site was located on fractured granitic rock. The system was used to locate the most permeable zones so that ground water monitors to detect con tamination could be located approp riately. The slim-line monitoring system employs a small rubber packer which is inserted into the existing ground water monitor. The packer is then expanded inside the monitor.

The pressure sensor is strung through the inner mandrel of the packer with an 0-ring seal. The sealed monitor is subjected to an over-pressure of compressed nitro gen which depresses the water level. This over-pressure is then quickly released and the response of the water level is recorded as a function

of time to assess the rock permeabil ity. Monitors of 1 to 3 inch internal diameter can be tested with the slim

line system.

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18

Circle reply card No. 111

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


An example application of the slim-line testing procedures was in an existing monitoring network at an industrial facility. The response

HYDROGEOLOGIC FORMATION TESTING

of the water level in the rock at this

COMPUTER

FREQUENCY metern

site was too fast(within seconds)to provide accurate slug test results

ACQUISITION system

with manual measurements.

The surface acquisition equip ment for either system is a micro computer powered by a portable generator. The computer controls the graphic presentation of data,the data collection rate, signal input conversions, data analysis and peri odic data storage. Data can he acquired as fast as one pressure reading per half second. This rapid data acquisition rate is critical when measuring permea ble formations with quick response times. Preliminary hydrogeologic analysis of the testing data can be conducted on-site with the computer system and the appropriate analy sis software. A variety of testing techniques are possible, including slug injection or withdrawal, con stant rate testing, constant head testing, and pump testing. As the need for more sophisti

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Circle reply card No. 113 19


Instrumentation Testing - its importance to wastewater treatment plant control

Since the early 1970's, the

By S.G. Nutt*

puhlic sector, which has the responsihility of regulating wastewater

treatment

plant operation, and the private sec tor, who have the responsibility of designing, and in many cases oper ating, wastewater treatment plants, have been actively pursuing the

goal of treatment plant instrumen tation and automation (I&A). The driving force behind I&A has been

the potential for reducing operating labour costs, reducing energy and chemical costs, and improving plant performance through auto matic process control. These goals have been achieved in many process industries, notably the chemical and petrochemical industries. How ever, successful implementation of I&A in the wastewater treatment

industry has been fraught with diffi culties.

In 1976, a U.S. EPA-sponsored survey of 50 American wastewater treatment plants showed that 31 percent of the process control instru mentation in place at these facilities had a performance record that was less than satisfactory. Attendees at an EPA-sponsored seminar on the application of I&A systems in was tewater treatment facilities identi

fied problems with measurement instrumentation and servomecha-

nisms as one of three major I&A

problem areas and recommended improved instrumentation testing. As a direct result of these unfavou

rable experiences with I&A sys tems, the industry has developed a lack of confidence in the reliability of available instrumentation. The

advantages demonstrated by such on-line control strategies as dis solved oxygen control,step-feed con trol and solids retention time (SRT) control seemed to be outweighed by maintenance problems associated with the sensing devices required for their implementation.

tions and marketing information prior to release of products. The tra ditional approach for users has been to acquire a range of "equivalent" equipment from suppliers and to conduct their own testing prior to purchase. Examples of this approach to instrumentation selec tion are common. For instance, the Metropolitan Wastewater Treat ment Plant of Minneapolis-St. Paul

recently completed a costly test pro gram involving sludge cake mois ture analyzers, dissolved oxygen analyzers, flow meters (wastewater and sludge), sludge blanket level detectors and sludge density analyz ers.

Manufacturers' in-house

water treatment industry

that

improved I&A equipment is needed and that testing and certification would assist in meeting this need. That is not to say that considerable amounts of money are not already being spent for instrumentation testing and evaluation. Manufacturers rely on their own in-house testing and sponsor field tests to develop equipment specifica20

ITA are threefold:

i) to establish a clearinghouse on information concerning water and wastewater instrumentation; ii) to assist members in developing improved test procedures for instru mentation

that

the

individual

agency wishes to evaluate; and ill) to conduct laboratory and field evaluations of various instruments

of general interest to the member ship. The three objectives are aimed at the overall goal of enhancing the ability of the members to obtain the most suitable water and wastewater instrumentation available. All ITA

sponsored testing is done according to a formal test protocol developed specifically for the type of instru

manufacturer and the user. Manu

ment under test.

facturers must supply test instru mentation to a large number of

and users, as well as acknowledged experts in the field of instrumenta tion and control, contribute to the development of the test protocol. The testing is conducted by an inde pendent test laboratory under the close supervision of the ITA Techni cal Committee. Test reports are

potential buyers. Users mustsupply the resources to conduct tests. There

is considerable duplication of effort as each major buyer may conduct tests on the same instrumentation

in his own facility. Test results are not readily available to the general user community.

Manufacturers

Perhaps the major shortcoming of the traditional testing approach

available to the ITA membership and to the general public for a fee. All ITA tests incorporate two components, a bench test and a field

is that no formal test standard or

test.

protocol is used. The testing is done to fulfill the specific, limited aims of the testing agency. Inadequate staff and equipment are often avail able to properly evaluate the instru

ITA presently has a total of 38 members, representing municipali ties, regulatory agencies,industries and consultants throughout North

mentation

under

test.

Results

generated are seldom thorough and are not transferable to other agen cies to support purchasing deci sions. The end result is that neither the manufacturer nor the user are

well served

by this testing

approach. The ITA approach

The traditional testing approach There is a consensus in the waste-

and

directly-sponsored field testing of their own equipment and the users' pre-purchase testing are expensive and time-consuming for both the

tion evaluations began in 1956 and, in 1961, a user group was formed to pool resources for the purpose of instrumentation testing. Similar groups now exist in several Euro pean countries. The objectives of

The

Water

and

Wastewater

Instrumentation Testing Associa tion of North America (ITA) is a non-profit association of water and wastewater instrumentation users

who have joined together to improve the reliability of available instru

mentation through a scientific, con trolled approach to instrument testing. The concept ofa formal test ing institute is not unique to North

America. In England,instrumenta

Status of ITA

America.

To-date tests have been

completed on total residual chlorine analyzers, dissolved oxygen analyz ers, and flowmeters for wastewater collection system applications. An updated test of total and free resid ual chlorine analyzers is nearing completion and a test of large-scale wastewater flowmeters is on-going. Future plans include testing of a range of suspended solids, turbidity and sludge density meters. The ITA clearing house is in full operation, offering members a Cen tral Data Bank of costs and specifi cations for a variety of instruments, a Reference Centre for supply and repair data, and a Research Service. *Canvlro Consultants

Division of GH2M Hill Engineering Ltd.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Announcement ■

SGS Canada expands XRAL Environmental's laboratory capacity toxicology, safety related issues, and laboratory management. Assisting Morton are John Novog, Business Development Manager, and Karen Lopez, Laboratory Man ager, both having over 10 years environmental laboratory expe rience.

Founded in 1878, SGS is the

Some of XRAL Environmental's staff with iab manager, Karen Lopez(far right).

world's largestindependent testing and inspection organization. Traditional ly, these services have assisted global commercial transactions connected with buying and selling, trading and shipping. SGS operates

estimation, process control, and metal balance. Supervisory func tions include loading, discharge of trans-shipment to avoid losses, pre vent

contamination

and

assure

XRAL Environmental, based in Don Mills, Ont., recently expanded the laboratory to approximately 5000 square feet. XRAL Environ mental's SGS affiliate, X-Ray Assay Laboratories, is conveniently located virtually next door. X-Ray Assay Laboratories consists of over 12,500 square feet of laboratory/of fice space at its central location alone. X-Ray Assay has a proud reputation of serving the oil & gas and mining exploration communi ties for over 35 years. In 1988, a sequential/40 channel simultane ous ICAP spectrometer was added to our list of major instrumentation to keep pace with increasing heavy metal characterizations required for soils, sludges, and wastewaters. XRAL Environmental's testing

of 199 affiliated companies, 1000 offices, and over 200 specialized

proper handling and conditions for marine transportation. There are many other important facets to SGS including the Marine Services Division, the Agricultural Division, and the Industrial & Con

laboratories.

of

sumer Products Division involved

• Lakefill/Landfill Soil Criteria

Inspection and/or Analysis pro vided by SGS is accepted by bank ing institutions around the world. Diverse analytical testing capabili ties range from testing retail pro

in functions ranging from claims

• Industrial Hygiene • Heavy Metal Scans (Sludges, Wastewaters) • Airborne Silica Monitoring (Mining/Manufacturing) • Municipal Sewer By-Law Discharges

in over 140 countries with a network

A

Certificate

ducts such as furniture and textiles,

to pharmaceuticals,coal and miner als, petrochemicals, edible oils, foods,chemicals,fertilizers,cement, and environmental samples. Wha tever a client's interest, SGS offers protection through quality and quantity checks from the risks of delay, damage, accident, loss and the liability of litigation on behalf of its clients.

Among the engineering services offered by SGS is the metrology ser vice including the calibration of all types of tanks: land, ship, barge, rail, and road tank cars. Liquid flow measurement services include; loop calibration, meter proving, and

documentation and settlements to

risk assessment and knowledge of export markets' regulations. Cana dian manufacturers, through SGS, may determine the grade or quality of imported raw materials at source by an independent,recognized third

• Water and Waste water

• Regulation 309(Hazardous Waste) • MISA Effluents

• RGBs

• WHMIS Training, Transporta

party.

SGS has been operating in Can ada since the 1940's establishing 13 laboratories from Saint John, N.B.to Vancouver and over 20 offices coast to coast from Dartmouth to Kitimat.

Our head office in Canada is located in Vancouver.

As of Jan. 1, 1989, Dr. Morton Kaiserman became Divisional Man

ager of XRAL Environmental. Dr. Kaiserman was previously techni cal director of SGS's Standard Bio

logical Laboratories in Mississauga and has an extensive background in

maintenance of instrumentation. The Minerals Division function

includes performing independent audits of mining, concentration, smelting and refining operations to review sampling programmes, assaying, grade control, reserve

capability Includes:

tion of Dangerous Goods Consulting

In view of the imminent tighten ing of government regulation of emissions, discharges, wastes, ambient air, and worker safety, XRAL Environmental is laying the foundation for full-service environ

mental testing tailored to the needs of industry. For further information regard

ing environmental testing, WHMIS, TDG Regulations, and other Health & Safety regulations, contact:

XRAL ENVIRONMENTAL

A Division of SGS Supervision Services Inc. 1903 Leslie St., Don Mills, Ontario MSB 3M2 Tel:(416) 445-5809 Fax:(416) 445-4152

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 114

21


Experts review past and future trend in pipes Pipes are the veins and arteries of environmentai infrastructures - out of sight and usualiy ignored by the communities they serve so weli. It's an important yet neglected subject - so ES&E commissioned some expert viewpoints on past and future pipe trends. Many municipalities will find valuable insights in these reviews.

James F. Leppard, P.Eng. Macviro

Over the past 25-30 years there have heen some exciting changes in the type of watermain pipe materials available to the municipal water works industry. During this period, some traditional

i

materials have

faded from common use, some have

undergone changes and improve ments while some new products have gained wide acceptance. Until the

mid-1980's asbestos

cement (AC) pipe was commonly used in the municipal field in areas

with very aggressive soils. This was especially true in Western Canada where the life expectancy of iron pipe was relatively short because of corrosive soils. Available in sizes up to 400 mm,it was an ideal pipe mate

rial for municipal distribution sys tems.

In 1984, the use of AC pipe con taining a particular fibre was banned throughout Canada. This

fibre was suspected of being a car cinogen when ingested as fine dust. This put workers at risk especially during the cutting and grinding of AC pipe. As a result, Johns Manville ceased production of AC pipe in Canada leaving Atlas as the only Canadian producer. This, plus the

growing acceptance of PVC pipe, has led to a decline in the general acceptance and use of AC pipe. Ductile iron pipe was first intro duced to the Canadian waterworks

industry in the early 1960's. Because of its strength, ductility and tough ness it has been widely accepted as a material that is well suited to with

PVC pipe has been widely used in

both used. The final decision usu

this area since the late 70's. At this

ally is based upon the comparative

stand high stresses and pressures. Available in sizes up to 600 mm,it became popular for use in many water distribution systems. This material, however, is sus ceptible to both external corrosion

time, probably every municipality has used it to a certain degree and most use it exclusively. This of course applies to smaller diameters,

cost of the two materials in those

and internal tuberculation. To com

areas. Again, there is virtually no use of AC pipe for watermains in Ductile iron, PVC and,to a lesser

bat these problems, a number of measures have been developed including polyethylene sleeves, yellow-jacket, epoxy and cementi-

extent, Polyethelene pipe, are com monly used for sewage forcemain

tious external coatings and cementitious internal linings. Canron's

Dale A. Knox, P.Eng. [nterprovlncial Engineering Ltd. N.S.

300 mm and below. Concrete pipe is used for most large sanitary and

storm sewers, but there has been limited use recently of the ribbed PVC pipe for installation up to 900 mm. AC pipe was used quite exten sively at one time hut its use has declined and I am not aware of any current use or local distributor.

In the Metropolitan Halifax area, watermain pipe is almost exclu sively ductile iron except in the larger sizes where concrete pressure pipe is used. In the smaller areas outside the Metropolitan area, Lloyd Douglas of MacLenan Sales (a local distributor for municipal service materials) reports that duc tile iron and PVC pressure pipe are

this area.

installations.

With regard to the trend of the next few years, I do not expect to see any radical change from the present use except possibly we will see greater use of PVC pipe on the inter mediate sewer installations, i.e. up to 750 mm. There may also be an increase in the use of PVC pipe for watermain as there is increasing

Hyprotec pipe, which is a cementmortar lined and coated ductile iron

pipe, is an example of recent devel opment to protect ductile iron pipe from corrosion.

A new zinc coated product is also available. The zinc acts as a sacrifi cial anode for the ductile iron and

provides a degree of cathodic protec

iron pipe in this area. For instance, cathodic protection is being installed on many of the ductile

tion to the pipe. With stiff competition from PVC and reinforced concrete pipe, the future of ductile iron pipe for buried municipal watermains may be

watermain installations in Halifax at this time.

pipe choice for valve chambers.

concern about corrosion of ductile

uncertain. It should continue to be a

Continued on page 25 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


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23


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field

Experts review pipe trends (continued from page 22) pipe is ideally suited for transmis sion pipelines, irrigation networks, water intakes and other applica tions where large diameter pressure pipe is required. The recent development growth in

Ontario has increased

water

demands which has significantly increased the need for large diame ter pressure pipe. With limited com petition in the smaller sizes from PVC and ductile iron and only steel pipe as a competitor in the larger sizes, the indications are that the use of reinforced concrete pressure pipe will continue for both new and rehabilitation projects. James Leppard

pumping stations and similar installations.

In the mid to late 1960's, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe was first considered by the AWWA as an acceptable water pipe material and in the mid-1970's, AWWA C-900 was developed for the use of PVC pipe. Since that time, PVC pipe has grown in acceptance by the water works industry and is now recog nized by many as possessing the most suitable qualities for pressure pipe. There are, however,some who are still uncertain about the long term endurance of PVC pipe. But, over the past 5 years, one manufac turer has reported a doubling in the total weight of PVC pipe produced. This can only be interpreted as the result of increased acceptance of PVC pipe. Originally produced in sizes up to 300 mm, PVC pipe was considered a good material for dis tribution systems. Recently com pleted in 1988, the AWWA C-905 specification for PVC pipe up to 900 mm will encourage the use of PVC in trunk and supply lines. This will make for some interesting choi ces in the future between PVC,Duc tile Iron and Reinforced Concrete

Pressure Pipe.

Another interesting aspect of PVC is the availability of PVC fit tings. Although currently not widely in use, the future may see the increased use of these fittings. This will only take place as the municipal water works industry becomes more comfortable with PVC pipe and fit tings.

Reinforced concrete pressure pipe was first developed over 40 years ago and since that time has been recognized as an acceptable pipe in the waterworks industry. This pipe optimises the use of steel and con crete and is produced as two types: (i)the lined cylinder type,and (ii)the embedded-cylinder type. Available in sizes from 400 mm and larger,the

Cement

lined

and

concrete-

encased steel pipe has been used almost exclusively by Metropolitan Toronto since 1954. This type of watermain can be considered as

constructed

rather

than

installed as it is basically welded steel pipe that is lined and encased in the field. Metro has successfully used this pipe in sizes ranging from 750 mm to 2250 mm with few if any problems. Although other municipalities have, on occasion, tendered this type of pipe, reinforced concrete pressure pipe has been selected because of lower costs.

Neverthe

less, Metro are dedicated to this type of pipe and will continue to use it in the future. The potential for other municipalities to use this pipe appears limited. High density polyethylene pipe is a material that is not widely used in municipal distribution systems except where there is a potential for freezing. The material is very robust and can withstand the stress Continued on page 26

Hershel Guttman, P.Eng., R.V. Anderson & Associates

We usually first confer with our municipal clients on the matter as each community has its own set of standards based on local experience with various materials over a period of time. Selection criteria usually used are based on soil characteris

tics, cost of material, ease of instal lation, regional experience with various materials, and availability of pipe. The selection of pipe material usually falls into two categories; those under 450 millimeter diame

ter; and those pipes 450 diameter and larger. For pipes under 450 mil limeter diameter the choice is usu

ally made between ductile iron and cement lined pipe (AWWA C151) and PVC pipe(AWWA C900). Usu ally the choice between ductile iron and PVC is made on the basis of economics. In this case the trend has been towards the use of PVC

pipe exclusively with the use of sacrificial anodes for pipe fittings and valves in areas where the soil

promotes corrosion. It should be noted that the longterm viability ofPVC pipe is indeter minate

at

this

time

and

as

a

consequence, some communities

prefer the use of ductile iron mains with cast iron fittings that are pro tected from corrosion if required. This corrosion protection could take

costly than either ductile iron or PVC. However, it is still a useful conservative choice in that it offers

external corrosion protection, with a proven record of longevity. For pipes 450 millimeter diameter and larger, the choices are between ductile iron pipe, concrete pressure pipe, and concrete encased cement lined steel pipe. In most cases how ever, the concrete pressure pipe is more economical and offers more

positive corrosion protection than ductile iron pipe. Therefore, the trend over the last couple of decades

has been to use concrete pressure pipe. For large diameter water mains, welded steel pipe with

the form of sacrificial anodes or spe cially coated pipe and fittings. In

cement lining and concrete encase;

other words, in this case the choice

of the larger municipalities use this type of construction exclusively for

seems to be between the devil you know rather than the devil you don't know. For 350 diameter and 400 dia

meter pipe, concrete pressure pipe is also available, but is generally more

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

ment is a durable alternative. Some

their trunk water mains and have

been doing so for decades. It gener ally has proven to be trouble free as well as economical.

25


RAINFALL RECORDING Hoskin Scientific offers a range of Rainfall systems to suit your requirements: We provide:

• choice of three tipping bucket rain gauges from the light duty seasonal

Pipe trends continued

of water freezing in the pipe. To date its use in municipal situations has been limited to northern climates

and shallow buried situations, such as irrigation systems. In

types to the rugged Rimco gauge • measurement ranges from .1 mm to 1 mm per contact closure • recording of rainfall events with a rugged battery powered Canadian made data logger for up to 16000 readings • PC compatible

more "normal" situations,

other materials such as PVC have a

great price advantage, partially due to material costs and partially due to the extra costs associated with

the heat fusing of the HDPE pipe. It would appear that HDPE pipe

software with direct PC connec

will remain at its current status for the forseeable future. Since it is not

tion or optional modem telemetry

blessed with an AWWA specifica tion, and with the growing accep tance of PVC,it appears that it will not make any further inroads in the municipal water systems. Instead it

wK

• Data from the

logger is pre sented graphically

I

and in tabular form

detailing rainfall and time

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us

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4210 Morris Drive

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Circle reply card No. 117

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seems destined to be used primarily for cold climate, industrial, irriga tion and marine applications. In general, it would appear that the current status of pipe materials will remain unchanged for some time. Reinforced concrete pressure

pipe will continue to he the choice for large diameter mains (Metro Toronto excepted) while PVC and ductile iron will continue to go head to head in the smaller sizes with per haps PVC being the eventual winner. However,the most interest ing competition seems to be looming in the 450 to 900 mm range where reinforced concrete, PVC and duc tile iron will all he after a share of

the market place.

John Neuman, P.Eng. MacLaren Engineers inc.

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As we approach the end ofthe 1980s, a look hack over pipe developments, and a review of current issues, helps

provide some insight into the future Circle reply card No. 118 26

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


of this field. My information relates mainly to water systems, although some comments also apply to sew ers.

In recent years, at least six main types of watermain have been avail able for use. This list includes cast

iron, ductile iron, steel, concrete pressure, asbestos cement,and polyvinyl pipe. Two other types of plastic pipe, polyethylene and polybutylene,:have also been availa ble hut their~use has generally been limited to services.

Cast iron pipe has the longest his tory in Canada. Production was car ried on for more than a century, and cast iron has been in widespread use for decades. Production of cast iron

piping and fittings has decreased however and; at the present time, there is no production of cast iron in Ontario.

Today, all iron pipe is manufac tured of ductile iron, which is distin guished from other irons by the orientation of the free graphite. This gives ductile iron high strength and ductility and it is widely used in the waterworks industry. Steel also has a long history of use in Canada and throughout the world. Useful properties of steel include its great strength, its ability to yield and bend without breaking, and its res

affected by most types of corrosion. In summary, the following types of pipe have been most popular over the past five years in Southern Ontario:

• Ductile iron, especially in sizes of 600 mm or less, • Steel in all sizes, but especially at diameters of 900 mm or greater, • Concrete pressure in sizes of 400 mm and greater, and • Polyvinyl in sizes of 300 mm or less.

In January 1984, the Inquiry on Federal Water Policy was estab

lished to review the management of Canada's freshwater resources. The

inquiry was "struck by the enor mous task of providing and main taining adequate municipal water, wastewater, and drainage systems in Canada". The final report also noted that many communities need to rehabilitate aging water supply and wastewater treatment systems, and

commented

that

the

total

replacement costs of Canadian waterworks and wastewater sys tems are estimated at $62 billion

and $47.5 billion, respectively.

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istance to shock.

Since the 1950s, there has been a large increase in the use of concrete pressure pipe in the water supply field. Design of this type of pipe combines the strengths of steel and concrete, and several types are manufactured and used.

r-'

Asbestos cement pipe, which was introduced

to

North

SystehiQ'

f

American

markets during the 1930s, is of a mixture of portland cement and asbestos fibres. Although exposure to airborne asbestos fibre has been

identified as a severe health hazard, studies attempting to establish a link between asbestos-cement pipe, consumption of water, and cancer, have been inconclusive. However, concerns over health (particularly among asbestos-industry workers), have led to restrictions on asbestos

use. At the same time, production of asbestos-cement water pipe has ceased in Ontario.

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Polyvinyl piping (PVC) had limited use before the 1960s.

In

1966, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) appointed a committee to study and report on the adaptability of plastic pipe for use within the water industry. The first edition of AWWA C900, which included PVC in sizes from 100 - 300

mm in diameter, was approved in 1975. PVC pipe,in addition to being

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lightweight and plastic, is not Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 119

27


1989 Environmental Science & Engineering Award Winners ES&E's National Environmental Awards program attracted entries from some of our most famous firms.

Significantly, some of Canada's most distinguisfied engineers and scientists volunteered tfieir time and expertise as judges, incurring our gratitude. ES&E also

ment Association and the Ontario Section, AWWA,and the OMWA, for their generous permission to present

appropriate awards at their annual conferences. Already

thanks ail Presidents and Executives of the Pollution

the 1990 Awards Program is being prepared. Potential entrants should write to the Publisher now,with a simple letter of intent. Meanwhile, congratulations to the 1989

Control Association of Ontario,the Air & Waste Manage

winners.

Awards presentations at the AWWA/OMWA Confer ence at Sudbury, Water Treatment Category. Top left: Rod Holme, Proctor & Redfern, Ken Morrison, R.V. Anderson & Associates, Mike Provart, M.M. Dillon with

accepted the Award of Excellence for Porter Dillon. Bottom row, left to right: Alexandra Kantardjieff, Le

Tom Davey on right. Wastewater winners were pres

Groupe Teknika, Tom Davey and the Mayor of Orford, Penny Davey, ES&E,with Reg Tansony, Markland Spe cialty Engineering, and Paul Da Silva, Gore & Storrle.

ented

Continued on page 33.

28

In

Hamilton, Ontario

when

Mike

Provart

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


,tis

'

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We deliver fast, precise results for Regulation 309 testing, MISA requirements, water quality, RGB's,

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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 120 29


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Physical and RF readings require vehicle fleets, which in turn require expensive maintenance. And fuel. And repair. And insurance. CMR relieves you of these costs.

bills and reduced cash flo\Ar.

Evening and weekend reads can undermine public relations. Accurate, non-intrusive CMR enhances your company's image within the community and reduces time spent handling customer complaints.

Central Meter Reading(CMR®)from Neptune is the field proven solution to meter reading problems. Already in service at thousands of meter sites throughout North America, CMR is available for testing or system wide installation.

Schlumberger Industries Neptune Measurement Division 7275 West Credit Avenue

Mississauga, Ontario L5N5M9

1-800-263-0669

Call for our informative videotape or a financial feasibility analysis. They're both free. They'll both show you that meter reading freedom is what CMR is all about.

Circle reply card No. 121


PUMP UP 1HEVOUJME. FLYGT SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ARE READY. CP - Stationary, Viret installation with guide bars and automatic

discharge connection.

Transportable, with pipe or hose connec tion, for lowering „ directly Into water.

concrete stand

.

Ever since Flygt originated the submersible pump and its modern technology, we've been introducing a variety of pumps for every need. Today, Flygt produces the world's largest range of submersible heavy duty pumps up to 700 h.p.!

Flygt C-pumps are designed in three configurations especially for tough work lifting large volumes of water efficiently.

They have been proven through extensive applications in handling waste water, water intake, water drainage, sludge handling and other situations, both industrial and municipal. Flygt C-pumps are designed to allow maximum flexibility of installation. Because they are submersible, there is no need for long shafts. This eliminates the risk of flooding the motor and ensures reliable performance. For complete information on Flygt's versatile C-pumps, contact your local Flygt representative. Good Ideas Take Flygt. 32

Circle reply card No. 122

AVMSL station in Longueuil, Quebec.

imoTni

Flygt ITT Fluid Technology Corporation

FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514)695-0100 Telex; 05-821844 Telefax:(514)697-0602

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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Relocation of Water Pumping Station for SkyDome Award of Excellence - Water - R.V. Anderson Associates the new pumphouse into the City's water distribution network; smcn

• connection to the Toronto Island

ROYAL

'ROPQl

OPOrj

CONVENTION

Water Purification Plant supply tunnel, approximately 27 metres below ground; • connection to the R.C. Harris

iQWEP

Water Filtration Plant supply tun nel, approximately 36 metres below ground. Connection to this tunnel from the R.C. Harris Water Filtration

Plant ultimately represented the key to unlocking the site for Sky Dome construction. This 16 km tun nel was under a static head of 18 metres at the John Street site and had never been dewatered since its

[•^PLANA^

construction in 1932.

SlATlow

The design

required the new connection be made

ilAPO/NFp

without

reduction

in

the

hydraulic head or lengthy disrup ^!£ss;fA7

A unique challenge in mak

■^STBOUND

fASTBQund

Diagram of SkyDome area - see cover for inside photos.

ing room for Toronto's renowned SkyDome was the relocation of a 144 year old complex which housed Metro's largest water pumping station.

The development of the original John Street Water Pumping Station dates back to 1841, when the City of Toronto entered into a contract with

the City of Toronto Gas, light and Water Company to provide water to Toronto. In 1873, the pumping sta

tion was purchased by the City of Toronto Board of Water Commis

sioners, and was later assumed by Metropolitan Toronto in 1954. Over the years, the pumping works pro gressed from a minor structure sit ting on a spit of land projecting into Toronto Harbour, using steam driven pumps, to a major compo nent in the Metropolitan Water Works system, as well as the com

plex which housed the Central

to study the feasibility of modifying Metropolitan Toronto's John Street Water Pumping Station, to accom modate a domed stadium over most

of the pumping station, located at the base of the CN Tower.

The result of this study was an

imaginative initiative to develop a new pumping station, clearing the way for SkyDome. The design con solidated an intricate, expansive 2.5 hectare piping network into a stateof-the-art pumping facility, using less than .25 hectare of the highly prized downtown real estate. A cru cial element of the engineering was the finite schedule for transfer of

equipment and operations from the old to the new Installation, while

maintaining absolute reliability within Toronto's water supply sys tem.

The construction included sev

eral unique features:

Maintenance Facility.

• relocation of nine pumps from the

Demolition of the original facility has since been completed and the

over a four month period, during

rise of SkyDome as a world class

sporting facility has added yet another page in the history book on John Street Water Pumping Station.

In 1984, CN Real Estate engaged R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

original station, in groups of three,

part of which time both pumping

facilities were operating "on-line"; • the capability to draw from two

separate filtered water supply sour

ces and discharge into two separate feeder systems; • construction of two new 1800 mm

tion to the water supply from the tunnel.

The innovative concept for this "wet connection" involved;

• tunneling a supply main from the new pumping station into the origi nal 1932 construction access shaft; • constructing a temporary stand-

pipe on top of the access shaft to equalize water pressure with the old tunnel;

• underwater improvements to the opening from the old tunnel into the access shaft.

Three, 35-minute-dives were required to complete the connection, followed by additional dives to close

off the supply tunnel to the old sta tion.

In September, 1987, the transi tion of operations from the old to new pumping station was com pleted ahead of schedule, at a budget of approximately $20 million. The "fast track" construction approach reduced the work period to approxi mately 14 months, from the original estimate of 24 months.

Equipment Suppliers Delaval

Pumps Keystone Valves Isolating valves FerrantI Packard Transformers B.B.C. Brown Boverl

Electrical switch gear

watermains beneath SkyDome to tie

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

33


Regional Landfill, Leachate Treatment

Facilities, Halifax County, N.S. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Award of Excellence â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Wastewater â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Porter Dillon Limited would enable operators to modify process variables sufficiently to accommodate the scale of transition.

No precedent was available for design of such a system, nor did there exist any operational expe rience world-wide.

Three million

dollars was budgeted for the facility. The final capital budget was $3.2 million, approximately 6.7% over the original budget, but within the budget allotted following the close of general contract tenders. The facility was tendered for con struction in February 1986. Con

struction was substantially complete in January 1987 and the plant was commissioned in March

and April of that year. The plant

Highway 101 Regional Landfill, developed in 1976, is owned and operat ed by the Metropolitan Authority, which includes the Cities of Halifax and Dartmouth, the

County of Halifax and the Town of

start-up was in March 1987, and the

biological units were started up undertaken by Porter Diiion Limited in 1984 and, with encouraging results, a pilot testing program was

early in April 1987. The official opening was in June 1987. The anaerobic process, once it attained

equilibrium, has consistently

initiated.

With funding assistance from the

National Research Council, a pilot

removed more than 95% of the lea

chate organic strength. A major potential contamination problem of landfill leachate in the

site approximately 30 km from

facility was moved to the site and operated for a five month period. In February 1985, design of the

Sackville River has heen success

Halifax, receiving on average 1100

full scale Leachate Treatment Facil

fully resolved. The plant has oper

tonnes of refuse per day, primarily municipal and commercial. No hazardous or toxic wastes are per

ity was commissioned, the first plant in Canada to use this technol ogy for full-scale operation and the

mitted.

first on-site leachate treatment

ated without any major difficulties. Porter Dillon Limited are proud of the success of this project, as is the oper ations group of Halifax County, who have contributed so apprecia bly, and the Metropolitan Author ity, who demonstrated confidence in the technological choice. The National Research Council sup

Bedford. It occupies a 140 hectare

A leachate collection system was part of the original construction of the site. Leachate was collected in a

perforated PVC underdrain system arranged in herringbone fashion below the landfill. Treatment was

achieved by two aerated lagoons in series. With time, leachate increased in both strength and

quantity. This resulted in overload ing of lagoons and inadequate treat ment, therefore, a program to improve treatment was initiated to assure protection of water quality to the receiving stream, the Sackville River.

Sampling and analysis of lea chate characteristics led to a deci

sion to investigate a high rate anaerobic process to significantly reduce the organic strength of the leachate. Although there had heen developments in the high rate anae robic process in North America, there was very limited knowledge of its application to a landfill leachate. Laboratory bench scale studies were 34

plant in the country. The concept offered a potentially 20% capital cost savings over conventional tech

nology. It is simple to operate and considerably

more economic for

operations and maintenance proce

ported the development of the pro

dures than more conventional tech

cess, and Environment Canada, contributed to the capital cost through its DRECTprogram (Devel opment and Demonstration of Resource and Energy Conservation Technology).

nologies. The high rate anaerobic process dramatically reduces the strong waste (organic removal rates

as high as 90% were projected). Plant effluent discharges to the existing upgraded lagoons where it is aerated to polish the effluent before it discharges through siltation ponds to the Sackville River.

This process accepts variances in the leachate better than other pro cesses investigated, providing the greatest degree of protection for the Sackville River. Methane gas is extracted as a process by-product to provide energy for all space and pro cess heating needs of the plant. The challenge involved first

selecting and developing the pro cess, and second, preparing a detail

design which, when constructed.

Equipment Suppliers Eimco Process Equipment inc. Reactor covers

Sludge thickener and dewatering unit Dorr-Oiiver Canada Ltd.

Hot water heat exchangers

Ecoguard Systems Ltd. Reactor media Komiine Sanderson Ltd.

Sludge plunger pumps Summa Engineering Ltd. Instrumentation and

control equipment

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, August 1989


Corrosion Fighting" Specialty Fittings

Providing a full range of instrumentation and

control systems for pollution control requirements.

ROBAR

Robar's specialty waterworks t'lttings are manufactured with corrosion-resistant

coatings and materials ... a sample of these products are shown below ...

ts?

ygaii

mm'

2606 All Stainless

The Original'

Steel Service

All Stainless Steel

Saddle.

Repair Clamps.

i k\

Bronze 2706 Saddles

In house capabilities: • Design/Build • Programming of programmable

Corrosion Protective

With Wide Stainless

Coaling 1506 Couplings

Steel Straps.

With Stainicss Steel Bolts.

controllers

• Complete system Integrating capability

For further information contact: Summa Engineering Limited 1275 Egiinton Ave. East, Unit 49, Mississauga, Ontario L4W 2Z2, Tel:(416) 624-3188, Fax:(416) 624-1293

For further details, please contact...

4'

ROBAR INDUSTRIES LTD. 12945 - 78th Avenue, Surrey, B.C. V3W 2X8 Phone (604) 591-8811 FAX (604) 591-5288 Toll Free 800-663-6553

Circle reply card No. 123

Circle reply card No. 124

EIMCO Process Equipment Congratulates

Porter Dillon on their

Award of Excellence

in the Environmental Science & Engineering National Awards Contest

EIMCO provided the two EIMCO fixed digester covers, an EIMCO BST sludge

thickener and an EIMCO automated precoat vacuum filter for sludge dewatering, for this leachate treatment project. EIMCO-suppliers of process equipment for all your industrial and municipal water and wastewater requirements.

Process

EIMCO Equipment

5155 Creekbank Road

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 1X2 (416) 625-6070, Fax: (416) 625-3519, Tlx: 06-901455

A Division of Baker hiugfies Canada inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

Circle reply card No. 125 35


Canton Orford Wastewater Treatment Plant Mention Honorable - Wastewater - Le Groupe Teknika immersed media (biodagene) along with air injection at the bottom. The fundamental point in this aerobic environment is the porous media, facilitating bacteria attachment. The Canton Orford wastewater

treatment plant is the first biologi cal aerated filter Biocarbone to be installed in Canada. lamella sedimektahon

Canton Orford is one of the

The presence of Magog munici pal beach at the point where the Cherry River discharges in Lake Memphremagog along with the fact that Memphremagog is the drink ing water source for the Sherbrooke Metropolitan area, prompted a request for particular decontamina tion (chemicals prohibited) and the Ultra-Violet mode was selected as a means to achieve 900 fecal coliform

CHERRY RIVER

most popular tourist desti nations in Quebec. Locat

ed at the base of Mount

Orford, one ofthe biggest ski centres in the province, and surrounded by several beautiful lakes, it has a per manent population of about 2,000. This population grows to 12,000 dur ing some days of the peak ski area season, creating a unique environ mental problem. And in addition to the problem, the Cherry River (the effluent receiving body) discharges ahead of Magog municipal beach in Lake Memphremagog. To protect this unique environ ment and solidify its leading role as a vacation destination, the Munici pality decided to tackle water pollu tion by installing an innovative wastewater treatment system.

The process choice was a key ele ment since the variability of the wastewater required a system flexi ble enough to react rapidly to all conditions, while being simple to operate. At the same time, the chosen system needed to be easily

amenable to future upgrading. A combination of a physicochemical and biological filtration, Biocarbone, provided the needed flexibility. To smooth load and flow variations, half of the existing Imhoff tank was converted to a flow

equalization basin, preceded by rough screening and grease remo val. Microprocessor control system limits the hydraulic load on the fol lowing wastewater treatment units.

The organic load (variation 1:10) is equalized through physicochemical primary treatment and a lamella settler. The lamella settler

provides a superior sedimentation to the traditional units for less pro jected surface area. This wastewater treatment step also meets the very stringent effluent criteria for phosphorus (0,5 mg P, per liter annually). Secondary treatment is achieved by two biological aerated filter cells

(Biocarbone type). The biological aerated filtration of the type selected implies percolation of settled primary effluent through an

counts (after photoreactivation) per 100 ml.

During the last decade,fixed film biological wastewater treatment processes have gained popularity and proved their efficiency and sim plicity. The wastewater aerated biological treatment technology combining aeration and sedimenta tion in one step, has been used suc cessfully in several municipal and industrial applications in Europe and Japan. Active biomass, necessary for the treatment, is composed of microor ganisms attached on the fixed media, of coarse granular material, while the wastewater is fed downw

ards. The necessary oxygen for the biological activity is injected at the bottom of the filter, countercurrent to the flow. The filter wash-out is

periodic, and the spent wastewater is returned to the inflow well.

Equipment Suppliers John Meunier Inc. Automatic bar screen

Biological aerated filter

The Awards Judges

Lamella settler

Environmental Science & Engineering's National Awards Competition was judged by a panel of distinguished experts, including: Dr. Gary Heinke, P.Eng., Dean of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto; Dr. Philip Jones, P.Eng., Department of Civil Engineering, U of T; Dr. Jurek Ganczarczyk, P.Eng., Department of Civil Engineering, U of T; James Bishop, Director, Water Resources, Environment Ontario; Dr. Kenneth Roberts, P.Eng., Water

Systron Proqulp

Resources, Environment Ontario; Gerry Rees, Water Resources, Environment Ontario; Ed Piche, Director, Air Resources, Environment Ontario; Robert G.

Ferguson, P.Eng., Metro-Toronto Works Commissioner; and Geoff Scott, P.Eng., Past President, Water Pollution Control Federation (US). 36

Sludge pumps

Trojan Technologies Inc. U. V. disinfection system Flygt Canada Variable speed primary pumps Aerzen Blowers

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


TURN^ON THE LIGHT /

TURN TO NATURALLY EFFECTIVE UV DISINFECTION

FOR SAFE, EFFICIENT WASTEWATER TREATMENT. Ultraviolet ligtit is nature's own way ot purifying water â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and now, it's America's best solution tor wastewater disinfection. Safe for the

environment. Low in operating cost. Proven effective since the

beginning of time. Today's UV technology gives municipalities a real alternative to chemical disinfection. Our modular

open-channel systems minimize construction costs and maintenonce

overhead, while they provide consistent, reliable disinfection for

up to 500 million gallons per day.

There's a brighter future ahead for our cities and waterways. Find out about it from your wastewater treatment engineering specialist, or call Trojan Technologies.

UV 2000

s-

C*

/

ULTRAVIOLET WATER DISINFECTION For more information on ultrovtoiet water treatment systems,contact; *

Trojan TECHNOLOGIES INC. 845 Consortium Court, London, Ontario N6E 288

Tei.:(519)685-6660 Telex: 064-7219 Fax:(519)681-8355


Literature Review Safety climbing equipment Make your manholes and pum ping stations more secure with safety ladders and access handles from MSU MIssissauga Ltd.

Self-cleaning

Aqua Guard 'Screen

bar/fiiter screen

The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter Screen is a continuous, selfcleaning device which utilizes a uniquely designed filter-rake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and suspended materials from a moving liquid stream. Identical

A condnaoiis, self-cleaning bar/filter

MSU safety ladders and access handles

are

available

in

aluminum, stainless steel, poly ethylene coated aluminum and polyethylene coated stainless steel. Designed for absolute safe climbing and corrosion resist ance, all equipment is simple to

filter elements are mounted

MSU Mississauga Ltd.

horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts to form an endless moving belt. A. Johnson (Canada) Inc. Process Equipment Division

Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

AjWMfON

r

Install and maintenance free.

Water Level Indicator Wee^LetH ktttrr

For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, op tional light.

CORDLESS pH Recorder

- 'V:

streams. The unit is housed in a

PJWeEftS IN SIMPUnED pH INSTRUMENTATION

Solinst Canada Ltd.

CORPORATE AND MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW breaks

new ground In addressing environ AND

Municipal

Environmental Law

mental concerns foremost to cor

porations and municipalities. This new work contains detailed

information on the roles of federal,

provincial and municipal govern ments. It examines the complexi

rainproof case, and can be operated In the field for up to three weeks without recharging the battery. Analytical Measurements Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 202

CORPORATI

New field pH Recorder The Analytical Measurements Model 30-Wp CORDLESS Recording pH Meter offers a sim ple and effective means of monitoring and recording the pH of wastewater, pools, streams, chemical wastes and process

AIR

COMPRESSORS & VACUUM PUMPS C£M Catabg aid Sdection Glide

ties of Federal and Ontario environ mental controls. Constitutional

controls affecting environmental relations and the legal bases for governmental actions are also

Air Compressors/ Vacuum Pumps Built tough for instrumentation in water and wastewater plants and environmental sampling equip ment, Thomas Industries' oilless air compressors and vacuum pumps range from 1/30 to 1HP. Standard piston, diaphragm, or linear models of fer pressure to 210 PSIG, vacuum to 29" Hg and displace ment to 7.2 CFM.

examined.

London Compressed Air Equipment Ltd.

Carsweii

Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

Echotel® lii 910 ievei switch Bulletin 51-105 illustrates the

economically priced Echotel® iii Tip Sensitive Level Switch. This model Is ideal for point sensor applications in clean or dirty li quids and requires no field calibration. The transducer Is constructed of 316 Stainless Steel and is available in 7 stan

dard lengths with a NEMA 7/9 housing. Magnetroi international Circie reply card No. 206

iThissiinple !sensor lay well be • thelow-cost

jsidutiimto

your level control

requirements. Aimiher sound idea from aasBSl

Low cost level controls for water and waste Bestobell's MULTITRODES are

multi-point probe assemblies, providing pump control and

alarm functions in difficult ap plications such as sumps. Leak proof, 1-1/2" diameter, corrosion resistant PVG probes, with In tegral Avesta 570 stainless steel sensors. Bracket suspended sensors are unaffected by swirl. Can be removed without enter

ing sump or pit. Bestobell

Circle reply card No. 207

38

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


An environment-oriented

siudge management program Award of Merit â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Wastewater â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Gore & Storrle Limited

A unique sludge handling

for the incinerators,eliminating the need for a separate fume incinerator or chemical scrubbing system.

and disposal scheme is in operation at the Lakeview

OVERFLOW PPNG

Water Pollution

Design of a hybrid anaerobic pro cess for the thermal conditioning sidestream followed six years of laboratory and pilot scale studies. The studies were funded by Envir

Control

Plant (WPCP) in Mississauga, Ontario. The innovative sludge management program includes; Canada's first sludge centrifuge process to thicken waste activated sludge without the use of polyelec-

trolytes; Canada's first closed loop thermal sludge conditioning and

SUSPENDED

GROWTH

ZONE

FEED ANO RECIRCULATION PPM6

THE

HYAN

REACTOR

incineration system that operates without the use of costly supplemen

tary fuel; and the world's first hybrid anaerobic process (HYAN) that converts the liquid sidestreams from thermal sludge conditioning to a recoverable fuel gas. Traditional methods of sludge treatment and disposal have become difficult and costly. The spreading of sludges on land is res tricted, particularly for sludges con taining heavy metals. This was a major problem at Lakeview. Landfilling, another option, requires additional dewatering of the sludges. The Lakeview solution is the result of joint efforts over two decades by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment(MOE)in coopera tion with the Region of Peel and Gore & Storrie Limited, handling sludges generated from the treat ment of 285 million litres of sewage per day. Incineration is a viable alterna

tive to traditional sludge disposal methods, provided operating costs can be minimized. Incineration and

heat recovery systems form the core of the Lakeview sludge manage ment program. Importantly, the selected thickening, conditioning, incineration and sidestream treat

ment processes do not reduce the inventory of non-renewahle resour ces, and in fact create excess energy as a resource for other uses. An innovative waste activated

sludge thickening process uses 8 long bowl centrifuges. Long bowl centrifuges were evaluated as the most cost effective thickening alter

native because they eliminated the use of expensive coagulant chemi cals, such as polyelectrolytes. The conventional return of waste

activated sludge to primary clarifiers yields sludges at low solids con-

centrations ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 percent. Full scale testing by G&S at several plants has demonstrated that separate thickening of the WAS gives two benefits: the WAS concen tration is increased to 4 percent;and the primary sludge concentration increases to 5 percent or above. When combined, the plant sludges are at concentrations ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 percent. Sludge condition ing and dewatering equipment requirements are reduced by 50 per cent for these more concentrated

sludges. The thermal sludge conditioning facility consists of three 100 gpm and two 200 gpm treatment streams, as well as five decant tanks and six

vacuum filters. High pressure steam is used to thermally condition sludges, the conditioned sludge requiring no chemicals for dewater ing, and when conditioned in this manner, dewatered sludge burns autogenously, requiring no supple mental fuel. Steam is required for the process to operate. At Lakeview, the necessary steam is recovered as waste heat energy from the inciner ators, creating an effective closed loop energy conservation system. The incineration system, con sists of two fluidized bed incinera

tors, two waste heat recovery boilers and two Venturi scrubbing systems to clean gases leaving the incinera tor. Energy recovered by the waste heat boilers replaces approximately 3.5 million cubic metres per year of natural gas that would otherwise be required to generate steam for ther mal conditioning. The annual sav ings have been conservatively estimated at $680,000. Odourous

onment Canada,the Ontario Minis

try of the Environment, the Region of Peel and Gore & Storrie Limited.

The hybrid configuration, which Gore & Storrie developed for the Lakeview WPCP, had never before been used. The hybrid facility was constructed by modifying two exist ing 27 metre diameter sludge diges ters. Since their commissioning in April 1985,the facility has generally achieved 72% COD and 80% BOD

reductions, while producing between 10,000 and 14,000 cubic metres per day of fuel gas. At these

BOD reductions, plant energy requirements are reduced, saving about $210,000 per year. HYAN technology also protects the air environment because it is

designed as a closed tank process. The contained gases, a usable fuel

having a value of $440,000 per year, are added to the incineration sys tem. The energy then recovered is sufficient to heat all of the plant buildings. In summer, the excess gas is used to burn additional odour ous gases collected from around the

plant, further protecting the air environment.

The project would not have been successful without the combined

efforts of the engineering, opera tions and maintenance groups.

Equipment Suppliers Pennwalt of Canada, Sharpies - Stokes DIv. Sludge thickening centrifuges Wemco/Hldrostai/Llsie Metrlx

Process Pumps Sullivan Strong Scott Screw conveyors Dezurik

Plug and knife gate valves

Control & Metering instrumentation

Westinghouse Motor control centres

plant air is used as combustion air

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

39


Water treatment using ozone at Atlkokan Award of Merit — Water — M.M. Dilion • an off-gas destruction unit to destroy any ozone left in the air exhausted from the ozone contact tank.

Ozone is a toxic, corrosive gas. All ozone generation and use are confined to a single room isolated from the rest of the plant. Colour causing humics are coag ulated and flocculated with alum

and polyelectrolyte before filtration in four dual media (anthracite and silica sand)filters. Design filter rate

I SLUCX3E TO SANITARY SEWER

is 8.6 m-Vhr/m^. The filters are constant level filters. The filter effluent control

valve opens further to compensate

#1

for increased head loss as solids accumulate in the filter.

TOWNSHIP OF ATIKOKAN

WATER IREATMSNf PLANT

Diu-on

The Township of Atlkokan

Water Treatment Plant is the first in Ontario to use ozone. Construction was

completed in March 1988 at a cost of $4.3 million. The plant replaces a 35year old pumphouse which supplied fluoridated and disinfected river water to the community. The raw water from the Atlkokan

River is typical of Northern Ontario water; soft, unbuffered and coloured by humic substances leached from trees and plants. The humics also cause a "swampy" taste. Iron, dis solved from unlined watermains, aggravates the colour and taste problems. Many residents were obtaining drinking water from a well at the airport. A study of water sources by Dillon concluded that the Atlkokan

River was the best practical source of water. Required treatment included:

• colour removal, • taste and odour control,

•stabilization ofthe aggressive water, • disinfection by chlorination. Conventional

colour

removal

processes are ineffective in winter because alum floe does not settle

readily. A number of alternatives, including ozonation and adsorption on biologically regenerated activat ed carbon were pilot tested. Ozona tion for colour removal and taste

and odour control, chemical coagu lation of remaining colour followed by direct filtration was selected as the treatment process. Cost for colour removal with a combination of ozone and alum is less than either ozone or alum alone. 40

SO€MATIC

Design 20-year water demands are:

• Average day: • Maximum day: • Peak hour:

3000 m^/day 6000 m^/day 104 L/s

• Maximum day plus fire: 228 L/s The plant is designed to treat 6000 mVday. Water to meet the daily short-term peak demands and fire flows is taken from an on-site storage reservoir.

Designed by Dillon, the treat ment plant takes raw waterfrom the Atlkokan River. A new low lift pumphouse pumps the raw water 800m towards the Town to the Treat ment Plant which is across the road

from the Community Centre and borders the Municipal Golf Course.

The Plant is screened by existing trees.

Raw water is first treated by bub bling ozonized air through it. Ozone is a strong oxidant which oxidizes

(bleaches) humic compounds to reduce colour and swampy tastes. Required ozone dosage is about 3 mg/L. The ozone system is capable

Filters are cleaned by surface wash and water backwashing when head loss reaches 1.5m of water column. Backwash can also be initi

ated manually at the operator's con venience. Wash water is discharged to a wash water decant tank and solids are allowed to settle. The clear water is decanted to a small

stream running through the golf course. The sludge, containing about 0.1 per cent solids, is pumped to a sanitary sewer when the added flow will not disrupt the Sewage Treatment Plant.

Filtered water is dosed with fluor

ide, lime for pH correction and stab ilization of the aggressive water and

chlorinated before discharging to the reservoir.

The high lift pumps maintain pressure in the municipal distribu tion grid. There is no elevated stor age. The high lift pumps can meet peak demands(228 L/s) with one of the large pumps out of service. This brand new water treatment

plant will provide Atikokans with an abundant supply of safe, pala table and attractive water.

of an 8 mg/L dose.

Since ozone is an unstable gas,it must be produced on site as required. The ozone system comprises:

• two air preparation units to pro duce clean, dry, oil-free compressed air,

•two Corona discharge ozone gener ators, each capable of producing 23 kg of ozone per day at a maximum concentration of 1.5 per cent ozone

Equipment Suppliers Ecodyne Limited Filtration equipment Worthington Pumps Waiiace & Tiernan

Chemicai feed pumps Western System Controis Instrumentation

in air, • a co-current ozone contact tank

providing ten minutes' retention for the raw water.

Atias Polar Generator set

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


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BARSCREEN SCREW COMPACTOR

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Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly Installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wherever addi tional or Improved water Is needed.

Each Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, chemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

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41


SometimesItTakesThe Most

The results of a two year drought are pretty harsh reminders of how much we depend on water. Realizing how fragile our environ

mentis,Canada has started looking at ways to protect clean water and clean up wastewater.

Consulting engineers have the spe cific training and experience needed to tackle this kind of complex problem. All over the country, consulting engineers are

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helping to clean up our waterways,light our streets, breathe new life into old build

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Teieptione:(416)425-8027 FAX:(416)425-8035 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Markland Series 600

Sludge Depth Meter Award of Excellence - Equipment Markland Specialty Engineering Ltd.

The Markland Series 600 Sludge

Depth Meter continuously moni tors the location of the sludge blanket in settling tanks without using moving parts. It is a microproces sor based, patented, intelligent, state-of-

the-art instrument. The Model 600-DAF

sludge depth meter continuously moni tors the sludge/liquid interface in the Dis solved Air Flotation process. The meter's software algorithm in cludes a hierarchy of error traps to detect, and correct or reject bad data. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) communicates with the Operator using words. For exam ple, the meter will shut itself down if it detects a broken wire or other malfunc

tion, and the LCD then will read "Signal Lost - Check Manual".

The Manual tells the Operator to push a button which causes the LCD to display a memory dump that identifies the prob lem. This is a great help in troubleshoot ing since these meters are in service all over the world.

The meter has other unique features such as automatic intensity control of the infrared beam, which boosts the power as the probe gets dirty to overcome fouling, and also to automatically compensate for thick or thin sludges. Originally Markland had planned to provide a Gain control for the Operator to adjust, but as sludge can be thick in the morning and thin in the afternoon (rain storm, plant upset, etc.), manual adjust ment was impractical, so they designed the meter's algorithm to do this automati cally. Another unique feature is the no loss of memory on power failure without using backup batteries, where the users first indication of a battery malfunction might be a tank full of sludge. This meter uses a non-volatile memory permanently written (and overwritten) onto an EEPROM to retain critical memory,even upon extended power failure.

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Circle reply card No. 130 Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

43


The P&R Proportional Sampler Award of Merit — Equipment — The Proctor & Redfern Group

Contaminants in drinking

•The PRP Sampler constantly sam ples at the preset percentage of

water, especially lead, have recently become major concerns in many municipalities, raising emotional responses from the public. The solu tion to the issue is closely tied to the

water consumed.

• The PRP Sampler is durable and resistant to breakage while being used because of its glass fibre coat ing. • The PRP Sampler will sample any proportion of water required for test ing without disrupting the daily rou

method of measurement of the con

taminant rather than its presence. The method of calculation of con

sumption of metals such as lead, copper, and zinc, has often been the subject of scientific debate.

tine of the household.

Guesswork and extrapolations of data have been eliminated from

sampling and analysing household and institutional drinking water for consumption of metals, with the use of the Proctor & Redfern Propor tional Sampler (PRP Sampler). Now, health officials and scientists

can precisely determine the level of consumption of metals in drinking water at any point in a distribution system incorporating the routine drinking habits of occupants. The PRP Sampler contributes signifi cantly to the speedy development of

pling method relies upon no water use overnight and requires calcula tions, including extrapolations of data to establish the concentration

of metals in normal drinking or cooking water. Automated methods of water sam

pling draw a preset volume of water each time that the tap is used. These methods faii to take into account var

ying water pressures and the time that the tap was run and the total volume of water drawn.

The PRP Sampler constantly measures to mitigate risks to health brought about by the introduction of removes the same percentage of metals into water supplies and flow and takes into account variable pressures and flow times. No other delivery systems. Traditional methods of sampling equipment currently In use for sam are based upon drawing a sample of pling and measuring water has this capability. The PRP Sampler has household water early in the morn ing prior to any use of standing several advantages over automated water left undisturbed overnight. devices. These include; The plumbing system is then • Reduction of the nuisance factor because fewer pieces of equipment flushed for five minutes, and are required. another sample taken. This sam

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metals. • Safe levels of metals in the drink

ing water can be accurately moni tored on an ongoing basis, inexpensively, safely, and reliably. Design of the PRP Sampler essentially consists of a glass column within a glass tube. The

sampler is coated with a fibreglass resin material which ensures that it

cannot he easily broken. The device is connected to the household faucet

with a screw cap containing a plas tic washer.

The outlet of the sampler is capa ble of being narrowed by the use of

depends upon the desired sample volume (ie. 5%, 10%). The short, 10 cm.sampler enables the faucet to be used freely with no chance of colli sion with the walls of the sink. Dur

ing operation,the restricted outlet of the sampler causes the sampler to fill with water immediately at mod erate to high flow rates, and acts as an extension ofthe faucet. A propor tion

of the

water can then

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sampled following calibration before and after the test period at the sampling location. Diverted water samples run down an acid washed tygon tube

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maintenance-free and reusable.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


MISAiscoming Municipal/Industrial Strategy lor Abatement Is an Ontario

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Circle reply card No. 131 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

45


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This conference serves as a forum for presenting innovative environmentai technologies and progress on research projects funded through the Research Advisory Committee of Environment Ontario. The conference wiil be of particular interest to environmental groups and consultants, industry, municipalities, provincial and federal governments, as well as universities and research institutions. Research in the fields of air pollution, water quality, liquid and solid waste, analytical methods and instrument development, and environmental socioeconomics will be presented in five concurrent sessions, a panel discussion and in poster displays. For Further Information Please contact : Conference Secretariat

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Microprocessor controlled dissolved oxygen analyzer

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Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochlorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosage re quirements, handling equip ment, and storage, safety and handling data. Particularly ap plicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 209

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Treating odours with sodium hypochlorite Javex-12 is explain ed In new literature. Systems are discussed that dispense a spray of hypo to oxidize organic odours. Storage and air collec tion needs, as well as lab handl ing equipment are also dis cussed.

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46

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Letters to

consulting engineers and architect

the Editor Dear Mr. Davey: I am writing to commend you on

your amusing and provocative edi

Water Pollution Control Water Supply Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Municipal Services Architecture

TORONTO (416)497-8600

WELLAND (416)735-3659

torial in the April edition of ES&E

(Rent-a-mob). Beneath the humour though the hard edge of truth was evident. Pressure groups play an important role in democracy: they help a country align itself with its realities. One has only to look at the sorry state of the environment in countries

where

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served

• underwater video inspections

their

influence-

becomes disproportional to their size and their knowledge. This happens all too frequently. One tragic example is the excellent tech nology developed in Canada in the 1970's to incinerate PCBs (see ES&E Dec. '89). It was safe and and

had

export potential.

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The scientific and engineering community is powerless in such situations. They have neither the skills nor the inclination to lobby effectively through the press. And reporters are less interested in a bal anced opinion than in one that will make it to the front page. Most scientists recognize that they can't win; the ignoramus or, even worse, the demagogue,carries the day. The

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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

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Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

Oxygen Uptake Rate Measurement B. Aidum and D.W. Smith have

R&D News

AWPBC

Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Detaiis can be found on page 51.

Bioassay Field Applications

developed an apparatus for the auto matic measurement of the oxygen uptake rate value of the mixed liquor in an activated sludge treatment process. As described in the Cana dian Journal of Civil Engineering, this unit is capable of collecting a volume of sample,aerating the sam ple, measuring the oxygen concen tration at preselected times, and calculating the oxygen uptake rate

Characteristics of Sediment Loads

on a routine basis. The value and alternative uses of routine monitor

cent marine bacterium Photobacte-

In a paper published in the Cana dian Journal of Civil Engineering,

rium phosphoreum as the test organism. In a paper published in

W.T. Dickinson and D.R. Green have reviewed the literature and

ing of the oxygen uptake rate are discussed by these University of Alberta scientists, along with possi ble applications such as detection of toxic compounds entering the plant and adjustment of sludge return

The Microtoxâ&#x201E;˘ toxicity test is a bioassay employing the lumines

the Water Pollution Research Jour

analysed the data on suspended

nal of Canada, K.L.E. Kaiser, K.R. Lum and V.S. Palabrica present new Microtox toxicity data on the

stream sediments in southern Onta

St. Lawrence River and discuss the

results in conjunction with other biological, chemical, and physical data collected at the same time. These National Water Research Institute scientists assess the

advantages and limitations of this bioassay for exploratory work on water contamination in the Great

Lakes and in other aquatic orga-

rio. These University of Guelph scientists highlight knowledge and identify gaps with reference to stream loadings,seasonal and areal variahility, extreme events, sources of sediments, and sediment and water quality. Suspended sediment has been documented to be both a

pollutant carrier or source of con tamination, and a sink or trap for pollutants such as phosphorus, organic compounds, pesticides, and heavy metals.

rates.

Determination of Biomass The exact estimation of biomass in

tbe presence of carbonaceous carri ers is an unresolved problem. Uni versity of Toronto researchers have proposed a method of calculating the biomass content by the determi nation of nitrogen in the mixed

liquor suspended solids. In a paper published in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, P.R. Senthilnathan and J.J. Ganczarc-

LEAK DETECTION FOR MONITORING WELLS Portable Hydrocarbon Vapour Detection

zyk compared their method with the standard differential ignition tech nique. It wasfound that the calcula tion based on the nitrogen analysis gave a more reliable estimate of bio mass in systems containing carbo naceous particles tban the standard method.

Modelling the Effects of Acid Rain Freshwater

Institute

researchers

D.W. Schindler, S.E.M. Kasian and

The "Vapor-Safe" is a portable hydrocarbon vapour system capable of detecting leaks In underground monitoring wells. The "Vapor-Safe" Is completely portable, utilizing simple plug-In operation with readings display In numerical values or colour bands.

Readings take only a few minutes. The "Vapor-Safe" also provides

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R.H. Hesselein used models to pre dict changes in the pH of acid sensi tive lakes in the northeastern and

midwestern United States, and to predict the degree of biotic impover ishment caused by acid precipita tion. As described in Environmental

Science and Technology,the largest predicted declines in median pH were 0.6 unit in the Adirondacks and 0.7 unit in the Poconos/Catskills. This would result in elimina tion of 40-70% of acid-sensitive taxa

such as leaches, molluscs, and insects, and significant damage to cyprinids, centrarchids and salmonids. Predictions for other regions within the study area are also dis cussed.

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Circle reply card No. 134 48

Decay of Chlorine in Diluted Municipal Effluents Laboratory studies were conducted by S.T. Abdel-Gawad and J.K. Bewtra to develop a model for the overall decay of total residual chlorine Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


under various conditions in natural

streams. As described by these Uni versity of Windsor researchers in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engi neering, the important parameters governing the chlorine decay were photolysis, evaporation,free radical oxidation, temperature, and turbu lence. The decay was catalysed by ultraviolet light and the rate increased significantly as the ratio of area to. volume of container increased. The average level of tur

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Biological Leachate Treatment A paper by the University of Saskat chewan's D.J.L. Forgie in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Can ada presents a review of North American and European literature concerning the physical and chemi

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the biological treatment methods that have been used or could be used to treat leachate. Leachate charac

teristics of particular interest include BOD, COD, molecular weight of the organics,volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and metals. It is demonstrated that biological lea chate treatment is most appropriate when the BOD/COD ratio is greater than 0.4 and the molecular weight of the majority of the organics is less than 500 g/mole.

Mercury in the Wabigoon-Engiish Rivers A paper by Ontario Ministry of the

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cribes the mercury concentrations, and their interrelationships, in various compartments of the Wabigoon-Engiish River system. The highly significant correlations observed were attributed to a rapid equilibrium between methyl and inorganic mercury in and between various abiotic components of the ecosystem and subsequent incorpo ration into food webs.

Sediment-

water partioning for inorganic and methylmercury is also rapid. There fore, in lakes and slow moving river reaches, it is likely that local envir onmental variables largely govern mercury body burdens in biota.

Analysis of Demoic Acid Demote

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neurotoxin

responsible for sickness and death in some humans who ate cultivated blue mussels from eastern P.E.I, in late November 1987. Two reversed-

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immediate need - one with detection

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phytoplankton. Delegates attend ing the 72nd Canadian Chemical Conference heard a paper by Bed ford Institute of Oceanography researcher R. Pocklington,and M.A. Quilliam, National Research Coun

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colleagues at the National Water

Ministry of the Environment stu died this exchange which reduces the theoretical residence time in the

harbour and contributes to improve ment of the harbour water quality through dilution and oxygenation. As reported in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada, these researchers conclude that the bene ficial effect of dilution far exceeds the contamination of western Lake

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Persistence of Metolachlor and Aldlcarb in Groundwater

The mobility and persistence of the herbicide metolachlor and the pesti cide aldicarb were studied by B.T. Bowman using field lysimeters. As described in the Journal of Environ mental Quality, one-half ofthe cores received only rainfall while the remainder received rainfall plus simulated rainfalls followed by sim ulated irrigation for the duration of the study. This Agriculture Canada scientist found that metolachlor

was transported rapidly only in the supplementary watering treatment

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canal which facilitates a substan

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weeks. Aldicarb rapidly converted to its sulfoxide and sulfone. Under normal rainfall, 9% of these leached

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Analysis of PCBs and Organochilorlne Pesticides An improved method has been deve loped by B.F. Scott and F.I. Onuska to determine PCB concentrations, by congeners, in environmental water and sediment samples. The

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


chromatographic method described in a National Water Research Insti

tute report has been optimized to

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minimize the mutual interference

ARCHITECTS

between organochlorine pesticides and PCB cogeners. As a result,such

pesticides can also be identified and quantified in the same chromato graphic run. The method provides results which are comparable to standard methodology but which

PLANNERS

A NATIONAL S. INTERNATIONAL COMPANY

OFFICES ACROSS CANAOA S. OVERSEAS

M.M. DILLON LIMITED

can he obtained in substantially less

SIILL©in)

time.

TORONTO LONDON OTTAWA WINDSOR

Effect of Media on Hybrid The

Anaerobic Reactors effects of cross-flow media

angle and depth on hybrid upflowsludge-blanket-filter reactors treat ing a medium strength wastewater were investigated by National Res earch Council's K.J. Kennedy and

environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers

WINNIPEG REGINA

GCG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED EDMONTON RED DEER YELLOWKNIFE

PORTER DILLON LIMITED TORONTO (416) 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-8094 • HALIFAX (902) 453-1115

HALIFAX

co-workers. The results described in

a paper accepted for publication in

THE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS GROUP LIMITED

Water Research showed that media

angle, media depth, and sludge bed height had a relatively minor effect on sludge retention and COD. Hydraulic retention time and con comitant volumetric loading rate had the largest impact. Improved settleability was observed in the reactor containing random media

CONSULTING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Suite 1006, P.O. Box 2041, 20 Egllnton Avenue Weet, Toronto, Ontario M4R 1K8 Telephone: (416) 322-5701

MISA IC/AA/QC/HPLC

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS

ONSITE GO MEASUREMENT

WATER/AIR QUALITY

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

and the reactor with the shallow

packing slope. Sludge activity,how ever, was independent of settleabil ity.

Offices/Laboratories in Toronto • Markham • Montred

Fine Analysis Laboratories Radioactivity in Lake Ontario Sediments

S.R. Joshi has recently published the results of his study of radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments off the mouth of the Niagara River.

These recently deposited fine grained sediments contain highly toxic plutonium and americium radionuclides originating from global

Specialized in Water and Soil Analysis Packages Include: • 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) • 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis ($50.00/sample) Our emphasis is on high quality, best service and guaranteed turn around time of 5 days. 83 Bigwin Rd., Unit #8,Hamilton,Ont.LOR IPO (416)574-4977

fallout as well as low level releases

from the West Valley radioactive waste management site. As des cribed in Water, Air and Soil Pollu tion, this National Water Research Institute scientist demonstrated

this through sediment core radionuclide inventories, radionuclide activity ratios, and assignment of independently derived dates to sedi ment core segments. The data show that nearly all of these West Valley-

140 Renfrew Drive, Suite 102, Markham, Ontario

Professional Services in

L3R 8B6

Fax (416)477-1456

Environmentai

Telex 06-986278

Management Gartner

(416) 477-8400

Lee

delivered radionuclides reside in the bottom sediments.

Gore S.Storrie Limited Consulting Engineers

WASTEWATER • WATER •SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES•DRAINAGE

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Eisenhauer, Canadian Associa

WATER RESOURCES• ENERGY RECOVERY • ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING

tion on Water Poiiution Research and

LABORATORY SERVICES-ANALYTICAL & PROCESS R&D

Controi, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3,(819) 994-5424.

Environmental Science <6 Engineering, August 1989

255 Consumers Road, North Yorl<, Ontario M2J 5B6 Telephone(416)499-9000 Fax(416)499-4687 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga

51


Mix-Flush Valve

sive media in a wide range of appli cations.

Flygt Mix-Flush valve provides a fully automatic system for flushing lift stations or pump sumps.

They are said to be safe, adapta ble from manual to actuated,easy to operate and corrosion resistant.

The motorized valve is attached

Available in a wide selection ofsizes

to the pump volute (can be retro fitted to existing Flygt installa tions) and provides a jet-flushing stream from the pump's discharge while the pump is running. After a predetermined period of time, the valve closes automatically, allow ing the pump to deliver full capacity.

and configurations, GF hall valves function without causing pressure loss,close quickly,are maintenancefree and are available in PVC, CPVC, PP and PVDF. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 151

Flygt Canada

Molded plastic butterfly valves

Circle reply card No. 150

Ball valves for

aggressive media

Circle reply card No. 152

Fabco Plastics' new line of precision molded butterfly valves are availa ble in diameters of 3", 4" and 6",

CRANE-McAvlty M67 Hydrant

molded of chemically resistant PVC

AWWA. It carries a pressure rating of 150 psi with a maximum tempera

The Crane-McAvlty M67 incorpo rates many outstanding features including a superior four-section breakaway flange, bronze-to-bronze contact between seat and casing, a needle bearing that lowers torque for rapid opening and an optional

ture resistance of 140°F. Construc tion features include a solid

hook-up of pumper hose.

thermoplastic body and disc, a triple elastomeric shaft seal, and solid

meet, or exceed, AWWA specifica

material.

The butterfly valve bolt pattern meets ANSI and DIN specifications and the dimensional standards of

George Fischer ball valves are designed to convey pure and aggres

Fabco Plastics

boot-type seat. Low friction poly propylene bearings allow easy oper ation of the valve handle.

100 mm Storz connection for faster The

M67 is

manufactured

to

tion C-502 and is also U.L.C. and

F.M. approved. Crane Canada Inc. Circle reply card No. 153

L

BRISTOL-MYERS MANUFACTURING A DIVISION OF BRISTOL-MYERS CANADA INC.

255 WIcksteed Ave., Toronto, Ont. M4H'lG8 Tel.(416) 421-6000. Fax.(416) 425-9320 Plant locations: Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver 52

Circle reply card No. 137

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Chlorine dioxide

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

disinfection system

Knox Martin

Wallace & TIernan introduces,

pre-assembled, packaged Series 85250 on-site chlorine dioxide generat ing systems which automatically monitor input variables to maintain proper sodium chlorite/chlorine

Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax: (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton.Ontario. L6T 445(416)459-4780

/water ratios to ensure a 96 to 98%

efficient operation without using acid or excess chlorine. The unique simple batching cycle is actuated by level probes in the holding tank. A remote vacuum chlorinator is

used to precisely mix chlorine gas with water to produce a high concen tration chlorine solution. This solu tion reacts in the chlorine dioxide

generating tower with sodium chlor ite metered from customer's tank.

System operation and alarm sta tus are indicated with LED's on the

control panel diagram, any mal function shuts down the system. Chlorine dioxide is a powerful disinfectant and oxidising agent; unlike chlorine it is unaffected by

]A FOMAINE,CDWIE,BURCTO &>4SaaATES UMITED Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario

WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT • STORMWATER DRAINAGE LAND DEVELOPMENT • ROADS AND BRIDGES • STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE STUDIES • MECHANIOALAND ELECTRICALSYSTEMS

3260 DEVON DRIVE, WINDSOR,ONTARIO, N8X 4L4

(519) 966-2250

BRANCH OFFICE-WOODSTOCK

FAX:(519) 966-5523

(519) 539-2015

pH, does not react with ammonia and other impurities which con sume chlorine and does not produce THM's or TOX. Wallace & TIernan

Maclaren Engineers

Maclaren Plansearch

Circle reply card No. 154

Portable flowmeter has

Environmental Engineering and Management Specialists

built in real time clock

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Scientists

MSR Magmeter Manufacturing has introduced a fully self-contained portable flowmeter to measure and monitor the flow of any conductive

2235 Sheppard Avenue East Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6

Branch offices: London, Ottawa, Waterloo, Windsor Winnipeg

Lavalin

Telephone: (416) 756-4919/3866

liquid or slurry in pipes from 2" - 48" diameter.

It is keypad programmeable to any pipe size in inches or meters and provides an instantaneous or aver age flow reading in M-', Ft'', USG or IG as desired. A built in real time clock and

o

memory allows flow condition moni toring over an extended period of time.

MacVIro Consultants Inc.

An RS232 port connection is pro

vided for download to a datalogger

7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9 • Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416) 475-5994

or computer.

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing In ttie Environment

MANN AQUA • Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

;^)VMNN MSR Magmeter Manufacturing Ltd.

400 Matheson Blvd. E. Unit 6, IVIississauga, Ont. L4Z INS

Phone: (416) 890-2555

Fax: (416) 890-0370

Circle reply card No. 155 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

53


Environmental Analysis Trace Level Analysis of Organics/lnorganic/Metals ■ Complete MISA Parameter List • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria Hazardous Waste Identification • Polychlorinated Dibenzodloxins/Furans GC/MS, Graphite Furnace A.A., GC/ECD, Ion Chromotography, HPLC

What'fi New Microprocessor controlled DO analyzer

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources 275 Duncan Mill Road

Model 1054DOissaid to be suited for

Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2Y1

the continuous monitoring of DO in a variety of process and water appiications. Featuring a selection of amperometric sensors, it comple ments an existing line of analyzers measuring pH, ORP and conductiv

TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

(416) 449-2500

ENVIRONMENTAL

CONSULTANTS

Fax: (416) 449-6076

®Monenco Engineering a whole new world.

Environmental

Contaminant

Audits Toronto,Ontario

Hydrogeology

(416) 743-3456

Air Quality/ Occupational Health Industrial

Wastewater

Treatment

Fax

(416) 743-2926

Site Decommissioning/ Cleanup

Calgary, Alberta

Underground Tank Management Laboratory Services

(403) 298-4170 Fax

(403) 298-4125

Sewer Flow Monitoring

naMimnRio

Sewer Shed Typifigation

SERVICE

TECHNICAL

Data Collation ■'TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING PROFESSIONAL"

23 OLD PARK LANE, KITCHENER, ONI. N2N 2J7

Calibration MisA Spec Reports (519) 748-8024

NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists waterwastewatertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehandling underwaterinvestigations computerapplicationsandanalysis treatmentpiantoperatlonassistance bio/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 PoweU Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A 1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax: 682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. VST 1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax: 384-1201

ity.

When coupled with an equili brium sensor. Model 1054DO can monitor dissolved oxygen in secon dary settling lagoons. Calibration and the setting of alarm and dead hand values in ppm (mg/i) and/or % saturation are eas ily accomplished by simply depress ing the single function keys located on the front panel. The analyzer also offers self diagnostics to alert

an operator if corrective action is required. Rosemount Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 156

Over 50 new Kotron"^"

RF level sensing probes Magnetroi has released over 50 new Kotron RF Level Sensing Probes in their new sales huiietin, #50-125.

These probes are avaiiahie in a wide variety of configurations including hare, insulated, stiiiweii, inactive sheath, ground wire 90° bend, prox imity plate, reference rod, faced flanges, and flexible. Materials of construction include 316 stainless

steel, Monei, Hasteiioy B and 0, Kynar, PVC, Polypropylene, Haiar and Teflon.

ORTECH International Waste Treatment

Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management Pilot Studies

A a

tions

Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling

A

Ambient Air Studies

A A

Emission Source Testing Occupational Health

54

■ Tel. 416 822-4111

and part numbers which

allows the user to select the approp riate sensing probe for his applica

tion. These probes may he combined with most Kotron RF Level Switches and Transmitters to allow

the user to design the level sensing

Energy & Environmental Engineering Division 2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K 1B3

The new literature

includes a matrix of the configura

Fax 416 823-1446 • Telex 06-982311

system most appropriate for his needs. Magnetroi International Circle reply card No. 157

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


♦ WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, STORAGE and

V-Notch weir kit NB Instruments low-cost V-notch

weir kit is suitable for measuring flow in pipes from 8 to 42 inches in diameter.

DISTRIBUTION

♦ MUNICIPAL Se INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER COLLECTION and TREATMENT ♦ WATER

SON

L

I

M

i

CONSULTINC

T

E

RESOURCES

♦PROJECT A: CONSTRUCTION

ENCIINEEFIINCI D

MANAGEMENT

♦ ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS

ENGINEERS

♦ MUNICIPAL

ENGINEERING

Kitchener, Bracebrldge;, Port EllgIn 871 VICTORIA STREET NORTH

KITCHENER, ONTARIO

SUITE 300

N83 3S4

Tell (519) 579-4410

Faxi (519) 741-3603

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

The mounting arrangementfacil itates quick installation and elimi nates the need for tools.

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief

With no

sophisticated air huhhler system to leak or parts to wear out, the weir is said to he ideal for spot checking flows in most sewer lines and less

POLLUTECH LIMITED

expensive than conventional devi ces. Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

Circle reply card No. 158

Portable composite sampling for toxic and conventional pollutants Streamline Model 700 portable com posite sampler is designed for the representative collection of toxic and conventional pollutants. It can he supplied with a 3 gallon polyethylene or 2-1/2 gallon glass

768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2 TEL:(416) 847-0065 FAX: (416) 847-3840

1149 VANIER ROAD, SARNIA.ONT. N7S3Y6 TEL: (519) 339-8787 FAX: (519) 336-6965

THE

PROCTOR & REDFERN IP Consulting Engineers, Planners, and Environmental Scientists

container and 3/8" ID intake line of

WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION WASTEWATER COLLECTION AND TREATMENT SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

vinyl or Teflon. Its patented liquid sensing sys

Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London. North Bay,

tem delivers repeatahle volumes by automatically compensating for changing lifts. Ifthe first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged intake, Streamline's peristaltic pump initiates a high pressure purge and tries again. The 700 is fully self-prompting with a sealed membrane switch key pad and a 16 character alpha

Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3

Tel: (416) 445-3600

Fax: (416) 445-5276

(f.

numeric display.

(§ijd.

POLLUTION CONTROL & CONTRACT OPERATION 471 D'ARCY STREET, NEWMARKET, ONTARIO L3Y 1M9

(416) 853-1223

Water Supply•Pollution Control*Drainage-SCADA Simcoe Engineering Group Limited .Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building 345 Kingston Road,Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1 Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Tel (416) 286—2285 Fax (416) 286—1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo.

Circle reply card No. 159 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

55


What's New New Data Logger/Alarm The 705 Data Logger is powerful, easy-to-use and can keep track of up to 114 analogue inputs plus 32 digital (event)inputs. The operator console of the 705 Data Logger may be up to 1 km away from its input console, which is situ ated on the plant itself close to the equipment or pro cess being monitored, reducing cabling costs. Cancoppas

Circle reply card No. 160

THE

ENVIRONMENT

Rotameter type of flowmeters

SHOW

and monitors

TECHNOLOGY AT WORK

Although the principle is the same as that of the

rotameter, there is no tube that expands conically

THE ENVIRONMENT

IS NOT A BLACK & WHITE ISSUE

upwards. Instead, this patented instrument has a cilindrical guide tube with a conical slot on its circum

ference. This design eliminates the problem of guiding a cylindrical float in a conical tube. Since the annular space between the float and the guide tube is large and remains constant,the instrument is not very sensitive to dirt. Sum ma

Circle reply card No. 161

New nitrogen and vox analyzers

METRO TORONTO CONVENTION CENTRE Toronto Canada December 4th - 6th 1989

The Environment Trade Show Exhibiting Equipment, Plant, Services and Systems for; • Waste management and recycling • Water and wastewater

•Air pollution • Manufactun'ng • Transportation ofdangerous goods • The workplace

Rosemount Analytical has introduced two analyzers for nitrogen and volatile organic halides. DN-1000 employs chemiluminescence methodology for selective detection of nitrogen in a wide range of concentrations. Special design considerations allow versatility to accommodate diverse applications in

hydrocarbon processing,chemical production,quality control and environmental monitoring.

DX-25 provides fast, inexpensive VOX analysis in

The Environment Congress The first Canadian conference taking a brood overview of the total environment...water, earth and air.

drinking water, groundwater and soil for water treat ment and environmental monitoring. The DX-25is an

effective screening device for determining GC/MSjustification and is used for THM Formation Potential

measurements in drinking water. Technical Marketing Associates Limited

TO EXHIBIT, REGISTER OR SUBMIT OUTLINES FOR PAPERS, CONTACT:

Circle reply card No. 162

PROFESS IONAL

Removing PCBs from Transformers

Show & Association

FOB detoxification of askarel-filled transformers is

t-1ANAGEMENT INC. 4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302 SPONSORED BY Ontario Waste

Management Association

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9A IB6 (416) 234-1240 FAX (416)234-1695 Member Canadian Association

of Exposition Managers

Environmental Science and

Engineering

now being offered by ENSR Operations, Ltd. The company also provides PCB detoxification for mineral oil-filled transformers.

Askarel is the name commonly given to "pure"PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl)fluids used as coolants in a great many transformers. ENSR

CAcy

56

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION

Circle reply card No. 138

Circle reply card No. 163 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


Perma-Loc

SUSSEX ENVIRONMENTAL

Incorporated in MOE guidelines

SERVICES INC.

Perma-Loc PVC pipe is thoroughly researched with the first submis

sions to the Ontario Ministry of the

AFFORDABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT + PROJECT

MANAGEMENT

+ HAZARDOUS

+ EXCAVATION

+ SOLVENT

+ SITE

+ WASTE

REMEDIATION

+ ON-8ITE

TREATMENT

WASTE

REMOVAL

RECOVERY

RECYCLING

+ TRANSPORTATION

SERVICES

Environment made in 1980. Deliber BRANCH OFFICES

ations to designate Perma-Loc as an alternate material were not con

ACROSS CANADA

Bus:(519)659-7271 Fax:(519)659-7420

P.O. Box 3055

London, Ontario NBA 1J2

cluded until January, 1989. While acceptance of Perma-Loc Class V pipe and fittings in 450 mm, 600 mm,675 mm and 750 mm sizes by the Ministry of the Environment is not an endorsement of the pro duct, it does indicate that PVC pipe is continuing to gain wider recogni

Head office:

totten

Tel: (416) 668-9363 Fax; (416) 668-0221

sims hubicki Engineers Architects and Planners

tion as an alternative to concrete

Toronto. Whitby, Cobourg, Kingston

sewer pipe. Perma-Loc PVC Class V pipe and

Bracebridge, Ottawa, Simcoe, Waterloo, Huntsville and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie

fittings are CSA certified. PermaLoc Class IV pipe is approved for storm sewer application by the M.T.C. for the province of Ontario.

TRITON €HGIN€€RING SCRVICCS LIMITCD

Canron

Consulting engineers

Circle reply card No. 164

ORANGEVILIE- FERGUS- GRAVENHURST

Classifieds SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

TERRAThC3l\^ SLUDGE MANAGEMENT

ROADS AND BRIDGES

MUNICIPAL SERVICES

FLOOD CONTROL

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Complete Digester and

WATER AND EARTH

Lagoon Cleaning Land Application Systems

^SCIENCE ASSOCIATES LTD.

Program Development Tel; (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0

• HYDROGEOLOGY • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING • WASTE MANAGEMENT

BOX 430, CARP, ONTARIO KOA 1L0 (613) 839-3053 FAX (613) 839-5376 BRANCH OFFICES IN KINGSTON & KITCHENER

CARBONITE

WILLMS & SHIER / BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS Specializing in

FILTER MEDIA ANTHRACITE FILTER MEDIA

also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel

Land Use Planning & Development. Environmental Approvals Waste Disposal and Municipal Law John R. Willms / Donna S.K. Shier

P. Douglas Petrie / C.C. Robert Wong 73 Richmond Streel West, Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4 416 863-0711 • Fax: 416 863-1938

ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. 66 Brant StreeL Hamilton, OnL L8L 6A8

Tel;(416) 523-1850 rsKiiiiiiuiiKii

ANTHRACITE FILTER GOAL (FILT-OCITEI • Filter Sand & Gravel

• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges (0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)

PROVIDING SPECIALIZED INDUSTRIAL WATER SERVICES ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL INC.

845 Hamngton Court, Burlington, Ontario L7N 3F3 (416)639-6320 3650 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C.

Eldon Technologies Div. Klenzoid Company Limited 1341 Matheson Blvd. East

Mississauga, Ont. L4W 1R1 Tel.: (416) 629-3101 Fax: (416) 629-1637

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

ANAI.VTTCAT .SERVICES

MISA analysis for over 50 plants Ultra-trace Dioxins/Furans by MS/MS Certified by bTYS-DOH

V6S 2L.2 (604)222-1169

PROCESS ENGINEERING • Waste treatment evaluation

• Bencti and pilot scale testing • Technical / economic assessments

57


Perforated plastic pipe can also recharge water tables By Veso Sobot, P.Eng.*

Inthe past,designing storm sew

ers has been relatively straight forward. The goal has been to quickly collect runoff and dis pose of it into the nearest water course. Unfortunately, the result has often been downstream flood

ing, erosion and increased pollution. Growing sensitivity to the envir onment has forced many engineers to re-evaluate storm water design philosophies, some a century old. New runoff regulations,such as zero discharge or zero increase, have prompted radical re-design of storm water disposal systems. With new designs, piping needs are changing as well. Engineers now need storm sewer pipes that will give them more than just quick removal of water. Today's designs require pipes to store water, recharge water tables, or reduce

hydrograph can be effectively divided into two components; one is

amount of water. Basically,storage volume can be calculated by taking

infiltrated to the ground while the

total

water velocities.

other is transmitted to the down

deducting allowable runoff and exfiltration volume. Key to deter mining exfiltration volume is the permeability of surrounding soils. The implications of these new

This will have

major implications on pipe specifi cations in the years ahead. One increasingly popular method of meeting zero increase reg ulations is to use perforated pipes to convey, store and/or dispose of storm water. There can be major advantages to such systems. Surface runoff hydrographs which have been exaggerated as a result of impervious areas can be directed to the ground water, thus helping return the catchment to its natural condition. Also, the runoff

Installation of fabric wrapped perforafed corrugated polyetfiyiene pipe in Manotick, Ontario. Subsurface disposal uses the soi l to cost effectively treat storm water.

stream branches of the drainage network. Downstream pipes can be significantly reduced in size.

But the major advantage of sub surface disposal is that stormwater which is contaminated by sus

pended material can be effectively treated by percolation through the soil very economically. This is not possible without chemical treat ment in either a super pipe or a pond installation.

A trench and perforated pipe sys tem is designed to store a specific

Big O Bondar Clegg Bristol Myers BTR Can Am

Cancoppas CEO Crane Davis Controls Duratron

Ecodyne Eimco Environment Conf.

6 59

23 29 52 15 24 2 42 43

26, 48 19 41 35

runoff and

designs on piping are major. Pipe manufacturers, recognizing the demand, have started to move to

manufacture perforated pipes in combination with filter materials

that keep the soil out of the system. Perforated pipes currently available include porous concrete, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), corrugated polyeth ylene(PE),and corrugated steel pipe (CSP). Although well suited for some

Ad Index Aer-0-Flo BF Goodrich

accumulated

Gorman Rupp

7 26 41

Hoskin Scientific John Meunier

Mann Aqua Mann Testing Labs Microbics MCE

19 45 11

6, 46 30, 31

Neptune Meters Rehau Robar

46 35

Scepter

60 12 35

SEW Eurodrive

Summa Engineering Terminal City Iron Works Thomas Env.

9 49

Fabricated Plastics

56 19

Trojan Tech.

37

FAST Systems Flygt Geneq

49 32 27

Victaulic

Watts/Muesco

16 10

X-Ray Labs

21

Gore & Storrie

4

applications, porous concrete pipes have tended to be more expensive than PVC or corrugated polyethy lene. Corrosion from corrugated steel pipes have raised some envir onmental concerns.

Plastic pipes have typically required less time to install because

their longer laying lengths and ease of handling, reducing construction costs. With municipalities con stantly being forced to do more with

less because of dwindling budgets, the cost savings available by using plastic pipes - whether PVC or corru gated polyethylene - should trans late to their increased use in the storm sewer applications in the years to come as well.

'Marketing Manager, Big '0' Inc. 58

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989


l/MAl Ontario municipalities repair about 9500 breaks annually. This number is likely to increase along with costs, disruption of service and potential hazards associated with corroding water distribution systems In Canada.

Corrosion is the principal cause of an estimated 20,000 watermain breaks across Canada annually. How many watermain breaks will occur in your municipality? In Ontario alone the average annual breaks is an astounding 25 per 100 km. This results in an annual emergency repair cost of approximately $65 million. It is further estimated that 15% of the water

supplied is unaccounted for. Current predictions are that break frequency is likely to increase.

Why is our infrastructure failing? Soil resistivity, soil contamination, dissimilar metal couples and the extensive use of copper services are major contributors to corrosion. It is likely to get worse as thinner-walled ductile iron pipe continues to experience a relatively high failure frequency. Without expensive remedial programs, Canada's existing iron watermain systems will continue to corrode at an alarming rate.

are expensive, and, while slowing the corrosion process, they do not eliminate it. Your best protection is to use PVC large diameter pipe! PVC is corrosion-free! PVC will not corrode. Recent tests

conducted on 22-year-old PVC watermain pipe showed no deterioration and no loss of strength. Results of the tests performed for quick burst pressure, flattening and impact resistance concluded that the 22year-old PVC pipe would meet or exceed today's strictly enforced standards. Based on the results of these tests, consider the

Can you afford not to use PVC pressure pipe? Protecting the integrity of Canada's municipal infrastructure is a tremendous responsibility. The long-term performance capabilities of PVC eliminate corrosion, withstand stress, provide excellent flow rates and reduce operating and maintenance costs. For tomorrow's

needs, choose PVC today!

■■

-

long-term performance value of PVC pressure piping.

■'

No other pipe material has been so scrutinized or tested.

Since the introduction of PVC pipe in the mid 1930s, no other pipe material has

PvC pressure pipe is manuTacwrea to

The best protection is no protection.

been so scrutinized or tested.

PVC piping does not require any corrosion protection. Bonded coatings and polyethylene encasement for metal pipe offer limited protection and may require additional expensive cathodic protection. Retrofit programs for existing metal pipes

standards, PVC piping is designed for durability, structural integrity and functional longevity. Smooth interior walls provide a high flow and minimum head loss for the life of the system. Scale buildup and internal corrosion are virtually eliminated.

BFGoodrich

Manufactured to AWWA C900 and C905

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1989

C900

and C905 standards.

CANADA'S LEADING MANUFACTURER OF PVC RESINS & COMPOUNDS For more information contact:

B.F. Goodrich Canada Inc. 175 Columbia St. W., Box 1625 .Waterloo, Ontario

N2J4N9 (519)888-3349 fax 519-888-3388

Circle reply card No. 139

59


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A New Standard for PVC

Injection-Moulded Gasketed Fittings. A New Standard of Excellence With the publication of CSA Standard B137.2-M89,

Scepter Centurion injection-moulded gasketed PVC fittings for pressure applications can now be specified with an extra measure of confidence. Specify Scepter Centurion 4", 6" and 8" PVC fittings for Class 150 and Class ICQ PVC pipe as per AWWA Standard C900, with both pipe and fittings CSA Certified.

A One-Material System Scepter's gasketed fittings offer all the benefits of PVC piping - corrosion resistance, hydrostatic strength, economy, ease of handling, reduced installation time and significant labour and maintenance savings. The demanding requirements of CSA B137.2-M89 support the uniform quality level of our one-material piping system for conveying water and other fluids under pressure.

IPS-OD Compatible Although Scepter Centurion fittings are designed for AWWA C900 pipes with C.I.O.D., connecting into existing IPS-OD pipes is possible. This is easily accomplished using a transition gasket available from Scepter.

Compatible with AWWA C900 Design Philosophy For more than 20 years. Scepter has been a pioneer developer of PVC pipe and fittings. To develop the Centurion fittings. Scepter based its design upon the industry consensus emerging from recom mendations of the American Water Works

Association. Although some thought it couldn't be done. Scepter was able to combine three things successfully: a high molecular weight PVC compound able to withstand high injection-moulding temperatures, state-of-the-art computer technology for precise quality control, and

injection-moulding machines capable of

producing the unusual pressures needed to pack the moulds. CSA B137.2-M89 establishes the

baseline for gasketed fittings. Once again. Scepter has made the technological breakthroughs that lead the industry.

WHEfiB INNO VA TION i

IS

AN

ATTITUDE

807 Pharmacy Avenue Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MIL3K2 (416)752-2200 fax:416-752-8512

J

Scepter is a member of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.

CAN/CSA-B137.2-M69, "PVC Injection-Moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure Applications" is available from the Canadian Standards Association, 178 Rexdale Blvd., Rexdale, Ontario M9W1R3. (416) 747-4044

Circle reply card No. 140

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) August 1989  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) August 1989  

Profile for esemag