Page 1

ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

June 1989


The global greenhouse effect - a scientific perspective Fashion's adverse environmental effects - a comment

NB technology treats potato wastes/powers factory

Cathodic mains protection could save $1M per Km Our infrastructure - is it really crumbling? Novel process removes and recycles CFCs

UV experiments in beach clean-ups



Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them in either a single composite container or sequentially into an array of

The Epic 1011T

programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist In monitoring

24 X 1/2 litre containers

municipal and Industrial

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.


A general purpose unit designed to extract

samples of most liquids Including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them into a container or sequentially Into an array of 12 or 24 separate containers tor subsequent analysis.

Typical Applications * Crude sewage * Settled sewage * Final effluent

* Raw sludge * Most industrial effluents

EPIC 1011T EPS 1021

Portable Wastewater Sampler

Effluent Sampler To MISA Specifications

To MISA Specifications

Circle reply card No. 125

SLUDGE SAMPLER The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique in its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids. Typical Applications * Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

* Mechanical dewatering device

Circle reply card No. 127

Also available

from Cancoppas Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2mnn to 1200mm

Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel


Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning Ultrasonic Blanket Level Detectors


* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals

* Sea tanker loading terminals * Consolidation tank feeds EPS 1030

Valve Positioners, Actuators, Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

Sludge Sampler For more information circie number below or contact

Exclusive Canadian Representative:

"Specialists In instrumentation and Precision Devices"

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone"(416) 845-4841 1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 06-982363

Oakville, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telefax (416) 849-6776

Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM OAVEY


Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGGR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng. Dr. Howard Goodfellow


systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu

tion, air pollution

June 1989, Vol. 2 No. 3 Issued June, 1989

How fashions have adverse environmental effects

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

N.B. technology treats potato wastes and powers factory In Idaho

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthiy business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and environmental


Industry Update

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.




Cathodic protection could save $1l\/l per Km


An article by Bob Gummow

The global greenhouse effect


An in-depth look by Dr. Kenneth Hare

monitoring and

control, solid and hazardous waste

treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental




Is our Infrastructure crumbling?

An article by R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng.


Novel process removes and recovers CFCs from discharge gas streams


wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distritxitors and

Literature reviews


An up-to-date range of information for specifiers


ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions,



tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), orotherfacsimilies of the written or graphic material

Experimental UV project at London's Fanshawe Beach An article by Maria Kelleher


PCAO/AMWA conference report


R&D News — a scientific synopsis of water pollution research and development supplied by the CAWPRC


for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork,film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environmental Science &

Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. S., Aurora, Ontario,

BC W&WA conference report What's New

A range of products for specifiers

L4G 3W1.

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly


rates: Canada

$35.00 for one year, $65.00 for two years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $50.00, $90.00 for two years; other for eign $70.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $25.00 single issue. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

38 39

CWWA reviews drinking water guidelines

An article by A1 Schwinghamer


New oil/water recovery system handles difficult wastewater streams

Our cover montage,courtesyTotten,Sims, Hublckl, is a graphic metaphor of the greenhouse effect, infrastructure and the need for environmental pro tection - all subjects of articles in this issue.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


CanMjlan Butneu ■ Pm»

CCAB membership applied for Jan.1989

Wlntfae^attle gainst

Corrosion THE

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been proving tireir Bffectiveness against the tOL corrosion DLTOlems. With ease of appiication^d a


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Dense protection goes ofHtrarking year after year — requiring iittie or no rnpHlfenance — and remains com-

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beat; ease of,afpication and proven lasting ability;,. WORKS ANYWHERE J^nso Petrolatum Primers, Masjics and Tapes, 'can be applied to both wet and dpysurfaces — even underwater,and require littleprfTO surface preparation. Dense PPS providescmosion protection for pipes

carrying high tempprafure liquids and gases. Proven instailations unftefand over insulation.

DensoJW^ine Piling Systems, incoroprSting Marine^ing Tape and the Cover Wrap System have boen proven world wide for the protpetion of tubular

"and H piles, particuiariy in salt wajerdidai zone areas. A system tailor made to meet yptffrequirements. Densopol 60 and SOXold applied pipewraps con

sisting of adhesiv^,HlJbber bitumen with fabric rein-^ torcement iamtRated to a 500 micron backing giyif

outstandipgdrTipact resistance, excellent resisjartce to

cathgdtdoisbonding and very high adh^skJn propertjs

Dense Protal, a range of btudh or airless spray

The Environment Trade Show

applied coatings for the projettfion of steel from corro

Exhibiting Equipment, Plant, Services and Systems for;

sion. With minimal sur^eapreparation,can be applied to damp surfaces givifig a high build, permanently flexi-^

• Waste management and tecycling

bie attractive^aamg. Densoj3r6ducts cover the range of appiic^ttOns in

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Dense has been around a iongjirfie, and is still going strong, if you need anti-corceSion and sealant protec

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The Environment Congress The first Canadian conference taking a brood overview


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of the total environment...water, earth and air. TO EXHIBIT, REGISTER OR SUBMITOUTLINES FOR PAPERS, CONTACT: P R O F E S S I O N A L

Show & Association

SPONSORED BY Ontario Waste

MANAGEMENT INC. 4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9A 1B6 (416)2344240 FAX (416) 234-1695

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OFFICIAL PUBLICATION Environmental Science and





Circle reply card No. 101

Circle reply card No. 102

Canada's first ecological think tank

Massey College was the perfect venuefor Canada's first Environ

How fashions

mental Think Tank some 13 years ago. Spacious book-lined rooms, an atrium garden and candle-lit dining, all combined to evoke a feeling of reverence for the integrity of thought and the creation of innovative policies. This modern architectural masterpiece somehow brings the scholastic tranquility of a medieval monastery to the very heart of Metro-Toronto. Convened by the U of T's Dr. Philip Jones,the gathering attracted some of the brightest scientific names in the environ mental world*.

have adverse

The scientific brain-power was awesome. Simply by breathing deeply, one's IQ could rise a few points. As my credentials seemed woefully inade quate amid such luminaries, I ruefully concluded that my invitation was an affirmative action gesture — perhaps on behalf of the cerebrally dlsadvantaged.


Discussions ranged from single or multi-disciplinary problems, to the very core of the environmental sciences — including the effect of chlorofluorocarhons (CFCs)in the atmosphere from air conditioners and other sour


ces. The academics did not exclude universities from their eloquent criticism as they interwove philosopy with their deep-seated expertise in complex scientific problems. It was during a lull in these intellectual barrages that I ventured an opinion that fashion was a major factor in environmental deterioration.

Fashion!echoed the scientists. I felt like Oliver Twist, who on having asked for more, was confronted by Mr. Bumble the Beagle. Hesitantly, I explained that vast amounts of energy were expended —

along with accompanying CFCs discharges which affect the Ozone Layer — simply because clothing styles developed in temperate climates were

slavishly followed in hot countries. Even with temperatures in the 90's, businessmen still dressed in styles,such as three-piece suits, which demand increasing use of air conditioning in homes, offices and automobiles. Ironically, as more women are taking their rightful place in the business world, many ladies have abandoned their sensible and cool summer dresses in favour of business suits. Fashion also makes huge demands on other

ecological areas. Hair sprays and many cosmetic chemicals place heavy burdens on the environment during manufacture, in use, and following disposal. Recent Greenhouse Effect conferences in Toronto and London have

renewed the scientific focus on CFCs and the ozone layer, having been addressed somewhat presciently by the Think Tank scientists in 1976.

But there are many other areas, besides clothing, where fashion adversely Impacts on the environment, the lifestyles of some homeowners being espe cially wasteful. Even during recent protracted droughts, many watered their lawns lavishly — often illegally — because they insisted on perfectly green grass. Many also seemed Ignorant of the fact that in droughts, brown grass is dormant, not dead, until the rains return. They are often aided and abetted by fixed-rate water policies which ignore the self policing benefits of water metering. Then, all too often, lavish applications ofchemicals follow to ensure that

this same green grass is innocent of dandelions and other botanical species. Finally, the raucus din of gas-powered edge trimmers, or the jet-like whine of grass clipping blowers, often add noise pollution to the list of environ mental outrages — all in the name of urban chic and fashionable living. Fashion, in fact, has a major but largely unrecognized impact on our environment. A simple recognition of this fact could result in major energy savings as well as equalling the effectiveness of major remediation projects. Perhaps it's time for Dr. Jones to convene another Think Tank.

Editorial comment 'Attendees included:

by Tom Davey

Dr. Ian McTaggart-Cowan, then Chairman of the Canadian Environmental Advisory Council and twin brother, Dr. Pat McTaggart-Cowan, a past Execu tive Director ot the Science Council ot Canada. Dr. Don Chant, Vice President

and Provost ot the U ot T, now President ot OWMC attended, along with Dr. Ken Hare. Dr. Hare was Director ot the Institute tor Environmental Studies at the U ot T when the Think Tank was convened. Many other scientists, too numerous to mention here, participated, including academics from York,

McMaster and Waterloo Universities. Ontario Environment Minister George Kerr, David Caverly, then Chairman ot the Ontario Environmental Hearing Board, and Dr. Robert Slater, now a senior policy advisor to the Federal Minister ot the Environment, gave government perspectives.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

A facility to treat toxic leachate at a Halifax, N.S. landfill site has won

effluent in an environmentally sen sitive resort area. Ultra-violet light

an award of excellence in Canada's first National Environmental Awards

was used as a disinfection method to avoid the use of chemicals.

Program. Porter Dillon, a Halifax-

R.V. Anderson won the Award of Excellence in the Water Treatment

based firm of consulting engineers and scientists, received the Award of Excellence in the Wastewater Cate

gory. Innovative technology draws off high strength wastes leaching from the site and treats them in an anaerobic reactor which reaches

95% efficiency before discharge into ponds for a final treatment. Toronto-based consultants. Gore & Storrle won the Award of Merit for a

process which converts wastewater sludges into fuel without chemicals for de-watering. The awardwinning project at the Lakeview Water Pollution Control Plant in

Category for its work in relocating a 144 year old pumping station for the Toronto's new Skydome. The design consolidated an intricate 2.5 hectare pumping network into a state-of-the-art pumping facility using less than .25 of an hectare of highly prized downtown real estate. M.M. Dillon won an Award of Merit for the Atikokan water treatment

plant. The plant was the first municipal facility in Ontario to use Ozone following extensive pilot tests for colour removal and taste and odour control.

Peel Region, Ontario, turns the sludge into fuel with annual savings estimated at $680,000 per year in plant operations and heating. Le Groupe Teknika won an honor

In the equipment category, Markland Specialty Engineering Limited

able mention for a treatment pro cess at Mount Orford, one of

tinuously monitors the location of the sludge blanket without moving

Quebec's largest ski centres. The firm used both biological treatment and filtration to create high quality

parts. Proctor & Redfern won the Award

won the Award of Excellence for the

Markland series 600 sludge depth meter. This solid state device con

of Merit in this category for the P&R

Proportional Sampler. This sampler enables health officials and scientists to precisely determine the level of consumption of metals in drinking water at any point in the distribution systems. Wastewater winners were pres ented at the Joint Annual Confer ence of the Pollution Control Association of Ontario/Air & Waste

Management Association. Water Treatment winners were presented at the Joint Annual Conference of

the A WWA,Ontario Section and the

Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion.

The competition is believed to be the first of its kind to honour the work of Canada's environmental

design professionals and was spon sored by Environmental Science & Engineering magazine. The contest was judged by many distinguished experts, including Dr. Gary Heinke, P.Eng., Dean of Civil Engineering,

University ofToronto. Full coverage of this competition and a list of judges will be published In the next Issue of Environmental Science & Engineer ing.

WE S10CK PUMPS AND PARTS NOT EXCUSES An excuse instead of a shipment. That's no way to run a company. And it's certainly not the way Gorman-Rupp is run. We've aiready invested a substantial amount of cash In a complete inventory of pumps and parts, because we believe inventory is better than money in the bank to our customers. So, when you place an order for one of our over 500 different pump models, there's an excellent possibility that the pump or the parts to build it James C. Gorman are in stock, enabling us to ship it to you promptly. President and Chief Executive Officer The same holds true for our 12,000 parts. We ship 97% in 48 hours. We realize pumps are a small part of your business. But, when

one breaks down, they're a big part.


Action instead of excuses! This country wasn't built on excuses. *\ Neither was this company.

We ship 97% of our parts in 48 hours. They keep you in business. TM Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.

70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone: (519) 631-2870 • Telex: 064-73530 Fax: (519) 631-4624


Distributors across Canada. Consult the >fe//ow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp Distributor

Mail to: Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd.

Please send information on

70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7

ttie following pumps: □ Above Ground Lift Stations □ Below Ground Lift Stations

□ Emergency Stand By Unit □ Submerslbles □ Booster Stations

Name .

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Phone #_

Circle reply card No. 104

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

— Industry Update Funding announced for Alberta water supplies program Alberta's provincial Cabinet has approved of $9.5 million dollars in funding for Alberta Environment's portion ofthe W ater Supplies Assist ance Program. The Alberta Water Supplies Assistance Program was developed to provide assistance to rural land holders and communities experienc ing water deficiencies. The program also encourages Albertans to take precautions against similar situa tions by ensuring more drought res istant groundwater supplies for the future.

Utilities; Forestry, Lands and Wild life; Environment and Agriculture are coordinating their efforts in assisting rural landholders and communities.

Alberta Environment is provid ing grants and technical assistance to individual rural landholders for the construction of new water wells

and improvement of existing water wells. Grants, equipment and tech nical assistance is also provided to communities to replenish existing supplies, develop temporary replacement supplies or modify existing works that have become ineffective due to the current dry

Under the Program, four provin cial government departments, con sisting of Transportation and conditions.

cipitators used to recover process chemicals from the flue gases given off by recovery boilers. The recovery boiler being built at Howe Sound Pulp and Paper Ltd., Port Mellon, BC, is the largest ever built anywhere in the world for a pulp and paper company, and a Flakt precipitator will handle up to 475,000 cu.ft. per minute, with a cleaning efficiency of 99.7'lii. The three other companies are the new Daishowa mill at Peace

River, Alberta, Repap/Miramichi Paper Partnership at Newcastle, NB, and the James MacLaren mill at Thurso, Quebec.

Kent enters water meter market Kent Meters Inc., a leading manufac turer of water meters for over 105

Alberta sets pulp mill technology standards Alberta's pulp and paper industry must implement environmental standards which are reflective of

"leading edge technology", accord ing to Environment Minister Dr. Ian C. Reid.

These standards are designed to put Alberta mills amongst world leaders in controlling the produc tion of dioxins and other organic compounds and in minimizing the release of these compounds into the environment.

Association Annual Convention

years with plants world wide, has

helps members meet these needs. During the 1989 Edmonton Conven tion, exhibit space will be available for up to 70 companies or organiza tions to display their products and

now established warehouse and sales offices in Canada to service


Further details from

WCW&WA (403) 259-4041.

Four P&P mills order

seven preclpitators Flakt Canada Ltd., of Ottawa has received orders from four pulp and paper companies, totalling over $18

million, for seven electrostatic pre-

the Canadian water works industry. Located in Mississauga, Ont., Kent will maintain a local inventory of AWWA C700 positive displace ment turbine and compound meters. The meters can be equipped with either self-generating remote regis ters or Scancoder encoder type regis ter.

Kent Meters claim high metering accuracy, dependability and a com prehensive warranty problem. Con tact: John Lobb (416) 238-9622.

The Minister said that Alberta

will be requiring expanding or new mills to incorporate all the latest technologies including extended delignification, oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide substitu

tion in the first chlorine stage of bleaching. The bleaching process is what creates organic halogens, specifi cally dioxins. The Alberta standards were deve

loped after several months of eva luation of technologies and effluent treatment systems throughout North America and Europe. The evaluation resulted in information about how to control effluents far






OCTOBER 3 - 6, 1989 The theme for the 1989 convention focuses on the skills members

require to face the challenges of the 1990's. As our industry continues to grow in size and complexity, custo mer expectations for higher service levels must be met. The Western Canada Water and Wastewater

Renovations extend life of B.C. STP Work to upgrade the D.S. MacKay Environmental Centre in Vernon, B.C., was essentially completed iii late April 1988 with the commission ing of both upgraded anaerobic digesters and digester gas handling

secondary clarifiers, two anerobic digestors and a waste gas burner system. Equipment in the low lift pumping station, two trickling filter pumping systems, the chlorination system, the primary sludge pump systems. ing system, and the headworks This followed the earlier commis screening facility were also removed sioning of the upgraded primary and replaced. and secondary treatment trains Two new effluent screw lift which were completely renovated pumps and an effluent screening and brought on line in early 1988. facility were installed along with The renovation of worn-out mate

rials and process equipment for the treatment trains, which were origi nally constructed in the early 1940's, will extend the life of the plant by ten to 15 years. The upgrading project also improves capacity by eliminating hydraulic bottlenecks in the plant. It also pro vides new liquid alum and polymer storage and feed facilities for inplant phosphorus removal for those times when the lake discharge mode of effluent disposal is required. Work on the project consisted of removing and replacing mechanical process equipment for two primary clarifiers, two trickling filters, two

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

yard piping and general electrical upgrading.

Associated Engineering was responsible for the pilot testing of liquid alum and polymer feed sys tems for in-plant phosphorus remo val. The company also provided conceptual and detailed design, tender assistance, construction inspection, start-up and commis sioning, and preparation of an oper ations manual.

The $1.6 million upgrading pro ject was jointly financed by the Min istry of Environment, as part of the Okanagan Water Quality Control Project, and the City of Vernon.

N.B. technology treats potato wastes and powers factory In Idaho

Using an innovative wastewater treatment technol

ogy designed and devel oped in New Brunswick, a major Idaho potato processor is meeting pollution control standards and benefiting from an energy by product. ADI International Inc. based in

Fredericton, has completed con struction of a new wastewater treat

ment facility for the J.R. SImplot Company of Boise, Idaho, a leading food processing firm in the United States and one of the largest potato

processing companies in the world. Located in Burley, Idaho, the $5 million US system, provides treat ment of wastewater from the Sim-

plot Company's potato processing and ethanol plants just across the river at Heyburn. Construction of the patented sys tem - known as an ADI-BVF anae

robic digester - started in 1987. The project's key component is a 22 mil lion gallon polyethylene-lined ear then and concrete basin measuring

272 by 540 feet and extending 24 feet

Biogas is removed under vacuum through 24 mm diameter PVC and stainless pipe.

above ground level. An insulated cover floats atop the tank, and the structure's exterior walls are covered with crushed stone. It is

designed to prevent water from accumulating on the cover.

Leak detection for

underground storage tanks.



technology Intrinsically

Process wastewater, averaging

2.9 mgd, from the potato and ethanol plants is fed,independently or combined, into the digester. At full capacity it will be able to treat 150,000 - 200,000 pounds per day of COD load while producing over one million cubic feet per day of biogas. The hydraulic retention time in the digester is eight days with average BOD and SS removals of 80 percent predicted. Treatment occurs as the micro-organisms biologically digest sugar, alcohol, starch and potato solids to produce water and other compounds, and biogas. The new system, which operates in conjunction with existing treat ment facilities, will improve water conservation. It is also energy effi cient producing a biogas which will be recovered, compressed, and piped over one mile to be used to displace fossil fuel required in the process boilers.

Simplot's Heyburn plant pro

safe @

cesses french fries and other frozen

potato products for the food service and retail markets. The new Series DMS from Warrick Controls is the solution for

and can distinguish between hydro carbons and water.

underground storage tank monitor ing. Utilizing intrinsically safe com

double wall fibreglass and steel

ponents, the Series DMS actively

tanks, fuel tanks, chemical tanks

monitors up to four tank systems for over-fill protection, leak detection

and monitoring wells. For more

The Series DMS is available for

detailed information, write or call...

Dqvis Controls LIMITED

4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3

(416)233-3211 Telex 06-967684 Fax (416) 239-2386

The ethanol

plant, also at Heyburn, converts potato by-products to fuel grade ethanol, a gasoline additive. The project brings the Simplot Company's investment in wastewater treatment at Heyburn to

approximately $10 million US since the plant opened in 1961. The treatment system for J.R.

Simplot's Heyburn plant has since been cited for awards by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Control Asso ciation and the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency. "They(Simplot)

Circle reply card No. 105 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

have installed an innovative, stateof-the-art treatment process that could be adopted by other firms in the food industry who produce highstrength organic wastes," says Robie Russell, EPA's Northwest Regional Administrator. ADI International has been mar

keting engineered anaerobic treat ment systems for industrial waste for the past ten years. The Com pany has nearly twenty systems worldwide, including two systems operating in Europe, four in India, two in Canada and eleven either

operating or in the design/construc tion stage in the USA. Companies using them include several with yearly sales in the billions such as McCain Foods, Sara Lee, Abbott Laboratories, Staley and J.R. Simplot. ADI's technology is also suita ble for dairy, meat and poultry

processing wastes, and a host of other high strength wastewaters. Research and development work at ADI Research, another member of the ADI group of companies, in the late 1970s and early 1980s paved the way for the installation of such systems at food processing plants in England, France, Canada and Aus

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Write for your free copy today,or call FAST Systems Ltd.,305 Lakeshore Rd. E., Oakvllle, Ontario, L6J 1J3. Tel:(416) 842-4640, Tlx: 06-982422, Fax:(416) 842-0633.

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The marketing and engineering of these systems is managed by

Circle reply card No. 107

Vice-President, Dr. Bob Landine.

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Circle reply card No. 106


Cathodic protection could save $1M per Km

Thecost ofrehabilitating the

38,000 km of water distribu tion piping in Ontario, cur rently valued at $21.2 bil lion (1) has recently become a major issue. Not only is it estimated that 15% of the water supplied is unac counted for but the average annual breaks per 100 km is an astounding 25 resulting in annual emergency

repair costs estimated at $65 mil lion. (2) An Ontario Ministry of Environ

ment report further estimated that the cost for replacing Ontario's water system would be $50 million annually, assuming only 50% of the water piping required reconstruc tion over the next 50 years.(3) Since most current water rate charges are

insufficient to provide replacement funding, who will pay the cost of this rehabilitation? Despite a call for government funding by the

By Bob Gummow, P.Eng.* another, or even within the same distribution network. There is how

ever an emerging profile of a typical water distribution system with respect to its corrosion activity. As a result


special funding echo through our


in the literature and from observa

tions made during previous watermain corrosion investigations, a

relatively consistent picture can be presented as in Figure 1. The typical water distribution system has a core piping system (Zone 1) comprised of grey cast iron which was originally installed with lead, steel, or galvanized steel servi ces and predates WWII. This piping has presented only a moderate cor-

Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con tractors Association, it is apparent

that these requests are unlikely to be successful. Yet as the appeals for


gleaned from participation in sev eral "needs" assessments, from con clusions of various studies reported






industry, municipalities continue to repair about 9500 breaks annually with



Numerous studies(5,6) have iden tified corrosion to be the primary cause of both grey cast iron and duc tile iron watermain failures. Accord

ingly, if corrosion can be reduced, then the service life can be propor tionately extended and the "break" rate decreased.

Corrosion activity is not uniform from one distribution system to


rosion problem despite its advanced age. Zone 2, also composed of grey cast iron, but installed mostly after the war, has copper services and has exhibited a high corrosion break fre quency compared to the grey cast iron in Zone 1. Owing to the fre quent breakage experienced by the grey cast iron, a shift to the use of mid-60's and this piping material has experienced corrosion failures after only a few years of service. More recently, plastic has gained wide acceptance because of its superior handling and corrosion res istance characteristics, although with external corrosion protection is also being used. Piping in Zone 4 exhibits very few break failures at

CZl -


the moment.

does not corrode. The corrosion rate

which is proportional to the magni tude of the corrosion current (i) is very much dependent on the relative surface areas of the copper with

respect to the iron. The larger the copper/iron surface area ratio then the greater will be the corrosion rate. The corrosion rate is also influenced

tating impact of copper on the useful life of iron pipe is qualitatively illus trated in Figure 3. (7) Here it can be seen that the life of

an iron main can be expected to be a factor of 5 greater when copper is not connected to the iron compared to the normal situation wherein iron

is electrically interconnected to the copper service. When copper is not in electrical contact with the iron a

life approaching 100 years is a reas onable expectation. A relatively high failure fre quency on ductile iron, despite its lesser age compared to the grey cast iron in either Zone 1 or 2, is caused

by the combination of the copper services and the thinner wall thick ness of ductile iron. Examination of

Figure 4, showing a typical corro sion depth versus time curve, indi

cates that for grey cast iron having

Galvanic Corrosion Influence of

a wall thickness double that of duc

Copper Water Services

tile iron, the time to penetration


difference in corrosion

behaviour between the piping of 10

Here the iron main is the anode of

a corrosion cell and corrodes; whe reas, the copper is a cathode and

soil electrical resistivity. The devas


ductile iron either cement lined or

□ «■

attributable to galvanic corrosion arising from the interconnection of copper service piping as illustrated in Figure 2.

corrosion rate will be. The dramatic increase in road salt use since WWII has caused a substantial decrease in

ductile iron (Zone 3) occurred in the Material Composition Matrix for Typical Water Distribution System

Zone 1 and that in Zones 2 and 3 is

by the electrical resistivity of the surrounding soil. The lower the soil resistivity is, then the greater the

that this

number will continue to grow. The Environment Ministry estimates however, that if the break frequency could be reduced to 10 breaks per 100 km, then an annual savings of $15 million would be realized. (4)

AGE OF MAINS (years)

through grey cast iron would be a factor of 4 or 5 longer than for the

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

ductile. It is not surprising then to find ductile iron corrosion failures


in as little as 5 years after installa tion. Cement Mortar Lined

Ductile Iron Piping Many municipalities


installed cement mortar lined duc

tile iron pipe in the 60's and 70's have not experienced the high fail ure frequency that the unlined duc tile iron pipe has shown. This does not mean that corrosion activity is

any less, but rather that the cement lining is instrumental in maintain ing a leak-free pipe as illustrated in Figure 5. Here, even though corro sion has penetrated the ductile iron, the cement mortar lining will pre vent perforation until the corrosion has advanced enough to expose a large surface area of the lining. Ulti mately,the lining will fail as a result of a physical disturbance either from the soil side or from the water

side. One, therefore, would expect failures to occur later in the piping life and in bunches. Cathodic Protection Can Save

$1 Million per Km The costs of addressing the watermain failures by reconstruct

ing new facilities is staggering hut inevitable if breaks are allowed to

continue. Fortunately cathodic pro tection offers a cost effective alter

native to replacement. There are currently several protection pro-

Excellent Opportunity




Process Engineer References

Environmentai engineering projects

1. MacLaren, James, W.,"The Mag

across Nortti America and overseas

nitude of Infrastructure Rehabilita

tion", Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb. 1988, p. 17 2. Canadian Construction Record, "Fed's Urged to Ante Up", April 1988, p. 18. 3. Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment, "The Need for a Rehabilita tion Program for Water Distribution Systems in Ontario", Jan. 1987. 4. Ibid (1), p.18-19. 5. Fitzgerald, John H., "Corrosion as a Primary Cause of Cast Iron Main Breaks", A VFWA Journal, August 1968. 6. Remus, Gerald J., "Experience with Main Breaks in Four Large Cit ies - Detroit," AWWA Journal, August 1968. 7. Hatfield, Brian, "Melbourne Water Distribution System Corro sion and its Mitigation", AWWA Victorian Branch Regional Confer ence, Oct. 1981.





'Vice-President of Engineering Corrosion Service Company Limited

wiii be chaiienging the successfui candidate for this position. The pro jects wiii be industrial wastewater treatment (anaerobic and aerobic processes), water treatment, and soiid wastes management. In addi tion, the candidate wii i be based in the peacefui and ioveiy city of Fredericton, N.B. A great position in a great iocation. Candidates shouid meet the foi-

iowing quaiifications: • M.Sc. or Ph.D. in engineering • At least 5 years of experience in the

environmentai engineering fieid (stu dies, investigations, design, fieidwork operations and maintenance) • Good communications skills

• Leadership abiiities A good package of saiary and

benefits is offered with the package commensurate with qualifications. Send your appiication to: Andrew Steeves, P.O. Box 44, Station A, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 4Y2.

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On behalfofour clients, we havepositions WALL THICKNESS






grams that can be retrofitted to existing piping networks and included on new facilities which

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Engineering Technologists •Cartographer/Planner Technician

can save municipalities future replacement and repair costs. It has

•Air Quality Engineers


been estimated that the 20 years

•Waste Management Engineers

•Chemical Engineers

savings realized by cathodically

protecting rather than replacing is between 1/2 to 1 million dollars per kilometer of main. In view of the

increasing difficulty in raising addi tional tax dollars, cathodic protec tion may be the only feasible option that is available to maintain the integrity of our iron water distribu



To apply, send your resume in confidence to: Ability Group Technical Services Inc. 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 511 Toronto, Ontario. M4P 2Y3 Attention; Dept. ESE 689 Fax: (416) 440-1563, Tel: (416) 440-0555

tion systems.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


The Global Greenhouse effect until Mikhail Budyko made it impos

Fedorov of the Soviet Union. I had

F. Kenneth Hare*

sible for western scientists to over

A British air pollution spec

ialist, G.S. Callendar, put

look the Soviet perspective. In the west, I suggest that the next land mark was Gilbert N. Piass's (1956) paper in which he proposed a refine

forward the view in 1938 that the carbon dioxide

emphasized that carbon dioxide

the job of compiling the papers for that event, and recall sitting in an office in Geneva biting my finger nails because we could get little response from businessmen, engi neers, doctors, farmers and fisher men; and little or none from politicians (except in the Soviet Union, where Fedorov's position made him impossible to ignore).

concentration in the atmosphere

was increasing because offossil fuel burning. This must lead, he argued, to a rise of surface temperatures, and hence to world wide climatic

ment in Callendar's ideas.


enrichment of the atmosphere would inevitably lead to a warmer world. He wrote on the eve of the

International Geophysical Year, which led in 1957 to the establish

The Toronto Conference was a most welcome initiative. We owe

change. He was not the first to rec

ment ofthelong Mauna Loa monitor

much to Tom McMillan for tirelessly

ognize the importance of this gas in

ing series for carbon dioxide, led then as now by C. David Keeling

advocating the coming together of science, technology and politics,

the atmosphere, low though its con centration might be. But I mark his

paper as the point at which climate began to move centre-stage in world affairs. We are thus celebrating a sort of half-century.

I was a student at the time, work

ing under Sir David Brunt. I recall his distaste for carbon dioxide, a gas

that complicated the calculation of radiative transfers in the atmos-

phere-and which provided the raw material for photosynthesis, and hence life on earth. David Brunt's sense of the niceties was that biol

ogy was a troublesome field. When I began with him (in 1938) he advised me to read James Cierk Maxweii's

Theory of Heat, and to avoid all bio logical works. Fortunately I ignored his advice.

Soviet scientists may adopt a dif ferent chronology, because conver

gence of climatology into a single, unified science that ignores super

power politics did not take place


and to Mrs. Gro Brundtiand and her

pollution-which is what the carbon

Commission for having created nothing short of a new paradigm

dioxide increase amounts to-would

within which we can now work

The realization that global air

have profound political implica (World Commission on Environ tions was slow in coming. In 1964- ment and Development, 1987). We 65 Roger Reveile (1965) led a US have been convened, not only White House inspired study of the because it is conceded on all sides burning of fossil fuels, and its rela that environment and socio tion to the steadily rising carbon economic development must be con dioxide concentration, which by sidered together; hut because we have realised that the major then was a measured fact. From thence it was an easy step into the climate-related social issues-the greenhouse effect, acid deposition, International Biological Pro gramme, which took the carbon the ozone problem, desertification, cycle as one of its de facto themes. I energy alternatives and polar prob recall a landmark paper by George lems-are all connected. None is Woodweii in a popular journal(1970) exclusively climatic, and none can that made it clear that atmospheric be treated in isolation. All are inter scientists could no longer ignore the connected, and call for concerted biologists. There was resistance to international action. the idea that physics was not the only relevant science; but soon the What is the Greenhouse Effect? claims of the chemists and the biolo Most of the gases of the atmosgists to be heard could not be disre phere--notably nitrogen and garded. The 1960s and 1970s oxygen-have little effect on the marked the change from physics- earth's climate. Solar and terres based meteorology (of which clima trial radiation alike can pass tology was a lowly part) to widely through them without much hin interdisciplinary atmospheric drance. If they were the only con science with climate as the central stituents, the earth would he a far problem. And now we are sailing harsher place, with hotter days and into even stormier waters-those of colder nights and a quite different global change, in which we face the climatic geography. challenge of bringing all the scien Certain minor gases change all ces of the inhabited earth together this. They have a vital property in within a manageable framework. common: they allow the ready pene tration of solar energy to the earth's But these were advances in scien tific outlook. In spite of the 1973- surface, hut retard the return 1974 food crisis, in spite of the upward flow of infrared radiation. Sahelian desiccation, in spite of the The active natural constituents are water vapour(less than 4 per cent hy near-death of the Peruvian fisher volume), carbon dioxide (nearing ies, the political, economic and tech nological implications of climate 350 parts per million by volume, remained little realised. In 1979 the first World Climate Conference was

Dr. Ken Hare 12

held in Geneva, largely because of the combined sponsorship of two outstanding men, Robert M. White of the United States, and Yevgeny

ppmv) and various less abundant substances, notably nitrous oxide, ozone and methane. All play critical roles in the maintenance of life on

earth. Of importance here is that

they combine to resist the upward

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Greenhouse Gases, known by its very suitable acronym, AGGG. Because there are wide divergences of opinion about the magnitude, nature and future evolution of the

effect, these three agencies also sponsor occasional international assessments. One was held at Vill-

ach, Austria, in October 1985. I shall refer to the report of this assessment as Villach 1985.Thanks to the initiative of Gordon Goodman

and the Beljer Institute, this was fol lowed in 1987 by policy-oriented

workshops at Villach (September 28-October 2) and Bellagio, Italy (November 9-13). Again I refer to the combined reports of these work shops as Villach-Bellagio 1987. The outcome of these and many other meetings has been a nearconsensus, expressed in the docu ments just cited. Scientific truth is

Madam Gro Brundtland with Brian Muironey.

established not by consensus,but by the best evidence. In this case, how

flow of heat to space. Hence they

ever, the evidence is in the form of monitoring results plus scientific

warm the earth's surface.

This purely natural greenhouse effect raises surface temperatures to a global average of 15°C, which is

as warmth, industrial energy and food is altering the optical proper ties of the atmosphere, and thereby threatening world climate and the well-being of all living things.

about 35°C warmer than would be

But human interference does not

the case if they were not present. Water vapour is the key constituent, notably because it may condense as

stop there. We are adding synthetic substances to the atmosphere at a great rate. Most are harmless, as far as we know. Sulphur hexafluoride.

cloud--and clouds act even more

effectively as resistances to the escape of heat (though they also retard the inward flow of sunlight). The attractiveness of this planet to life depends overwhelmingly on the natural greenhouse effect. Now we are concerned more with the effects of the observed increase

in the concentrations of these gases (Rasmussen and Khalil, 1986). We have not detected any increase in water vapour, though it has almost certainly occurred. Ozone may actu ally be undergoing a slight overall decrease (as well as a shift in verti cal distribution). But carbon diox ide, currently at 349 ppmv, is

increasing by about 0.4 per cent per annum, or 15 ppmv per decade. Methane is increasing even more

drastically, at about 1 per cent per

modelling. The former is still par tial and ambiguous.

The latter

yields results that differ greatly according to the initial assumptions (themselves debatable), and the cho ice of atmosphere-ocean


used to derive the results. The out

come is a large measure of uncer tainty. We, the scientific

community, did not bring the decision-makers together to con


vince them that we are now sure of


ourselves, but to note that there is


now a near-consensus on certain

for example, is essential to electrical switching gear. Most of it is

makers to the need for alertness! But

broad conclusions-and that these

are firm enough to alert the decision-

released in

the northern hemis

phere, yet it was detected a decade and a half ago at great altitudes in the Antarctic. It is inert, and does no known harm. Quite different are the chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs), the primary refrigerant gases, which are also wholly synthetic in origin. Their role in attacking ozone in the stratosphere is already notorious. What is not so well known is that

one point I shall stress at once: that these results, while clouded with uncertainty, are at least as firm as those of macroeconomic and econo

metric analysis. If decision-makers

are willing to listen to economists, they should be even readier to listen

to the natural scientists as regards future outcomes of the greenhouse effect.

*Dr. Hare is Ghancellor of Trent Uni

comes largely from fossil fuel burn ing, and to a lesser extent from land and forest clearing, and soil was tage. Methane we associate with various wetland agricultural practi ces, such as rice cultivation, and possibly with changes in high-

they are powerful greenhouse gases; in spite of their low concentrations, they will soon become the third greenhouse agent in order, after water vapour and carbon dioxidenotwithstanding the recent interna tional convention aiming at their replacement. As concern about these changes has mounted, major efforts have been launched to get a grip on what is happening. The World Meteoro logical Organization and the United

latitude marshlands. Nitrous oxide-

Nations Environment Programme

-the least effectively studied-is probably coming off farmland. The

joined together with the Interna

Inthe next Issue of ES&E Dr. Hare

tional CounciTof Scientific Unions

human search for necessities such

to form an Advisory Group on the

examines the question: how big a change in climate is likely?

annum (Blake and Rowland, 1988). Nitrous oxide's increase is slower, but quite unmistakable. In each case we are satisfied that the effect is human-induced. Carbon dioxide

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

versity and Chairman of Canada's Climate Program Planning Board. Dr. Hare was a keynote speaker at last year's greenhouse effect conference. Proceedings of this international meeting became available last month and can be obtained from the Cana dian Climate Centre, 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, Ont., M3H 5T4. A

cheque for $25.00 payable to Receiver General of Canada should be enclosed with orders.


Is our Infrastructure really crumbling? on imprecise surveys with little sup porting data. They must be seen as very approximate estimates, which serve only the purpose of generating financial support. Let's step back and look at our



• have the system owners neglected maintenance and repair? •is it crumbling, unreliable, hazard ous?

• is the quality of service and of the product reduced by its state of main tenance?

While we really have enough information about the condition of

our infrastructure, by any measure, the answer is no to all of the above. Much of the water and waste-

Inrrastructure was one of many subjects covered in Sudbury at the AWWA/OMWA's highly successful conference - Photo report next issue.

By R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng.*

Since the early 1980s, there

have been a number of stud ies and estimates on the future cost of maintenance

and repair of our water supply and wastewater systems. Reference is often made to our crumbling infras tructure and the need for rehabilita

tion — estimates ranging from $50

water infrastructure is out of sight, out of mind, and taken for granted. Many of our sewers are near capac

million (1987) to $180 million (1983) annually for Ontario alone.(1) The cost to bring water supply

ity and cannot be inspected, and few perform sophisticated testing that would forewarn of a future problem.

distribution systems up to an accep table level of service has been esti

mated to be $90 per capita (1987), or $7.81 per capita per year on watermain replacement out of a $30.66 per capita per year total distribution system operation cost.(2) Such various estimates are based

(1) Ontario Ministry of the Environ ment 1983 - 1987.

(2) Federation of Canadian Munici palities - 1987. Continued on page 16

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989







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Infrastructure Crumbling? Cont'd. Some road surfaces, bridges, and elevated structures show the inevit

able potholes,spalling concrete,and rust.

However, our systems are not as had as sometimes described, and our

managers have done well with the available funds. Publicity unfortu nately may be leaving a false impression of the condition of our infrastructure and the people who manage it in Canada. This is an area where Canadians do extremely

well. Our infrastructure design and operation is marketable around the world and we can be proud of it. What then is the purpose of the stu dies and estimates? some of the reasons;

Let's look at

Water Is not universally metered with the result that unit costs are not

known and consumption Is Increased and wasteful. Expenditures will be required for expansion of both the water supply and sewage treatment facilities



that could

avoided or reduced by metering.


Water is not always sold at its true full cost of production, or paid for directly by the user, which also contributes to increased consump tion. The cost of operations and maintenance remains, at least in part, a component of the basic prop erty tax rate and must therefore compete with other services for its share of the annual tax rate. In the

budget approval process, it is usu ally maintenance, not operations, that is reduced to adhere to budget targets or limits. In a competition with other more visible and more

popular public services, water and wastewater services all too often lose out. The Federal Government discon

AHOTHB^ pesi(5N

tinued contributions to municipal infrastructure projects in 1980 and many would like to see them reinstitute financial support. The publicity given to the infrastructure condition and rehabilitation costs issue does focus attention on the

effort to secure their resumption of federal financial support. 'To their credit, some provinces are currently

providing financial assistance for municipal infrastructure. For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment currently contrib utes 15% to the capital cost of most water supply and wastewater treat ment projects, and 33 1/3% to wastewater treatment projects designed for


CWWA has proposed undertak ing a cost and pricing study for the Federal Government that will estab

lish a standardized cost reporting procedure that will facilitate com parison and evaluation, and will help to identify appropriate pricing. The CWWA has also joined with the Federation of Canadian Municipali ties and others in urging the Federal Government to reinstitute its finan

cial support for the nation's infras tructure.

The difference between useful technology and technology that's out of control is the quality and reliability of the design. So for creative so lutions to high-tech problems, cal l on the qualifications and experience of consulting engineers. You'll get problem-solving design expertise and a solution that typically amounts to less than 1% of the project's lifetime cost, with better construction efficiency, long-term operating reliability and easy maintenance. It's the best application for long-life performance at a down-to-earth price. For information on consulting engineer services and firms in your area, contact us.

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But what is happening in the interim? Don't we really know enough about the real condition of our infrastructure and the priorities for its maintenance? We certainly need more frequent and sophisti

cated inspection. While the debate goes on about whether the Federal Government should be supporting municipal infrastructure mainte nance, let's consider some alterna tive sources of funding for the infrastructure.

I chose to avoid the crumbling and



because of the inaccurate implica

tions of neglect; but we certainly need maintenance, extensions and enhancements of service, to meet

increasing demand for service; and the need to make aging systems

Circle reply card No. 111 16

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

more reliable in terms of service, supply, and avoidance of hazardous and environmental impact. Unan ticipated failure and extended loss of service and subsequent environ mental impact is becoming less acceptable — even as emergencies. The need for greater reliability is providing opportunities to enhance the infrastructure system. This need for more secure envir

onmental protection necessitates and justifies increased expendi tures. Polls claim that 80% of the

public is willing to pay more for environmental protection. In excess of 100 million doilars is

spent each year on bottled water and home


devices, which

supply water which may be no better, and may not be as good as municipal water. The Federal Government should restrain the unsubstantiated

advertising claims made by some salesmen of bottled water while the news media could be more careful

and balanced in reporting criticism of municipal water and its signifi cance.. This suggestion should not be construed as endorsing any let up in the increasing public education and vigilance on environmental issues. Many people who lack the facts, and read unsubstantiated crit icism and challenge, are confused

sible from money appropriated for public works.

about municipal water in relation to bottled and home treated water. The

increasing sales of substitutes are consuming hard earned dollars from the household budget at the same time that taxes are increasing. The consumer is paying more and perhaps, in some cases, getting the same, or less, quality of water. This money would be better spent on improving the municipal water supply infrastructure. If the Federal

Public works infrastructure, expansion, operation and mainte nance, shouid be removed from the property tax rate to the fullest extent possible and made a "user charge". Water supply and wastewater treat ment can be paid for directly by the user if it is metered. Let's get on with user charge, it wili lead to conserva tion, cost efficiency, and adequate maintenance funding.

Government would help to eliminate unsubstantiated advertising ciaims, municipal water customers would have saved enough to pay to maintain

Rather than the crumbling infrastructure issue, let's talk about the sound business practice issue. What private company would sell its "widgets"for less than their full cost on a regular basis? Let's charge the full price for measured service and we will have the money to maintain

the infrastructure.

As the amount of money that we are obliged to invest in the environ mental and regulatory approval process increases,the amount ofser vice delivered per tax dollar has decreased. There are many exam ples of projects where disproportion ate percentages of cost are being required to satisfy the approval pro cess. Approval processes, that take

our infrastructure.

Infrastructure funding is the best investment a municipality can make.

too long and stray from the issue by trying to do more than is necessary, are dissipating limited financial

What else can

be self-

liquidating, generate tax revenue from development, and may remain a valuable asset for over 100 vears?

resources in reducing the money


available to deliver and maintain essential services. It is time to reas sess the balance and ensure that we

'Commissioner of Works, Metropoii-

get as much service delivery as pos



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Is nuclear energy a good choice for the environment? No need for long transmission lines

Electricity can be generated in many aggravated by the global reduction of different ways. But to provide tiie forest areas which absorb 00^. The amount of electricity needed to supply rise in global temperature threatens to our fiomes and industries in Canada cause melting of the polar ice caps and only three energy sources can do the result In catastrophic flooding of highly job today. These are: nuclear energy, populated and fertile coastal areas the energy released by splitting atoms; around the world. Nuclear energy does not produce fossil fuels,the burning of coal, oil and natural gas; and hydro energy,the use any carbon dioxide and does not con tribute to the greenhouse effect. of falling or running water. Nuclear energy also avoids caus All three methods have some ad verse effects on the environment. But ing acid rain. This is because nuclear nuclear energy can often be the best energy does not produce sulphur di choice environmentally. Here are some oxide(SOj) nor other acid gases which are released by the burning of coal. of the reasons.

Nuclear energy can avoid the con struction of very long and environmen tally troublesome transmission lines. They are often needed when hydro

electric generation is used far from the consumer. Nuclear plants can be built quite close to where the electric ity is needed. Today all the major hy dro sources near Canada's main pop ulation centres have already been harnessed.

Very small amounts of waste Because uranium contains many

thousand times more energy than fos sil fuels, the volume of waste from a nuclear power station is very small, although it is highly radioactive. It Is all concentrated In one place where It is carefully monitored and safely controlled. Waste containing natural radioactivity is also produced in the mining and processing of uranium. This material is also handled safely. Nuclear power plants do release very

Acid rain has been identified as a ma

jor cause of environmental damage

No "greenhouse effect" and no

to our lakes and forests.

acid rain

Nuclear energy avoids the "green house effect" perhaps one of the most serious environmental problems fac ing mankind today and which threat ens to cause a global temperature rise. The greenhouse effect comesfrom the build-up of carbon dioxide(CO^)In the atmosphere caused by the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal. It is also

No flooding of large areas Nuclear energy avoids the flooding of large areas above a hydro dam. Flooding can often have serious en vironmental and social consequences such as the cutting of large areas of forest, the destruction of fertile land and the displacement of people from

small amounts of radiation into the en vironment but these releases are no

the flooded areas.

42,000 Tons CO2 ■ ■■ a

600 Tons Acid Gas

10 Tons Fly Ash

Every Day 2,000 MW

1,300 Tons Ash

Pollutants released to ttie environment from a coal-fired plant wittiout "scrubbers". Scrubbers do not prevent ttie release of CO,wtilch causes ttie greentiouse effect 18

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

greater than the radioactivity released by the burning of coal to produce the same amount of energy. Finally nuclear reactors do not release poisonous metals such as arsenic, lead and mer cury nor any toxic gases into the atmosphere.

ods has a place, especially for some remote locations. However, given their current technological development, their use could create, rather than solve,environmental problems if they were used to produce electricity in the amounts needed today. As an example,for wind generators to produce all the electricity needed A comparison About 16% of the world's electrical to supply a city of 3 million people energy comes from nuclear power. If such as Toronto, the land required this energy came instead from coal, would be about 40 times the area of each year more than 1 ¼2 billion extra Metropolitan Toronto.This is more than tons of CO2,2 million tons of SO2,and four times the area of Prince Edward 1 million tons of nitrogen oxides would Island. To produce the required electricity, go into the atmosphere — even if the coal plants had the best equipment some 40,000 wind generators, each for removing these emissions. In ad with four blades sweeping a 19 m di dition, about 150,000 tons of poison ameter, positioned on top of a tower ous heavy metals would be released about 39m high would be needed. Apart from the vast land requirement, into the atmosphere.

Toronto, sits on 2 sq. km of land. If that same city's electricity were to be supplied by solar collectors a land area twice the size of Metropoli tan Toronto would be needed.

If the equivalent electricity were supplied by the burning of wood, an area of natural forest the size of Prince

Edward Island, would be needed, not to mention the environmental prob lems caused by wood cutting, its trans portation and burning. These are just some of the reasons that many leading environmentalists around the world recognize the im portance of nuclear energy as a good choice,and often the preferred choice, in meeting the world's needs for elec tricity today.

and the visual and noise effects of the

Solar, wind and biomass energy It has often been suggested that so lar, wind and biomass energy can overcome environmental problems caused by other forms of electricity generation. Undoubtedly each of these meth

wind generator towers themselves,the environmental impact would be enor mous. Also, backup generation sys tems would still be required for calm wind conditions.

By contrast, the Pickering nuclear station, which can more than supply

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Novel process removes and recovers CFCs from discharge gas streams

In response to the serious haz

ards posed by the uncontrolled

CFC Use in Canada (1987)

release of CFCs into the atmo

sphere, an international con ference was held in Montreal in Sep tember of 1987, followed by an agreement signed by 24 countries, including Canada, to reduce CFC emissions by 50% by the year 1999. This agreement was known as the Montreal Protocol. In addition, the City ofToronto is considering imple menting a by-law to prohibit the manufacture, sale and use of CFCs. Butfor any legislation to succeed, technologies have to be developed to remove and reduce CFC emissions.

Furthermore, until suitable replace ments for CFCs can be instituted, it is crucial that CFC recycling pro

Quantity (tonnes)


Refri gerants Blowing Agents Aerosol Propellents Sol vents Miscellaneous


Molecular Sieve Technology


8,500 6,500 2,300 1,600







12 8

and a saturation pore volume of ÂŤ 0.2 cm^/g. At ambient temperature, it

A proprietary novel technology

will adsorb molecules with a kinetic

for the recovery of the halogenated hydrocarbons in gas streams uses a new class of synthetically manufac

diameter of less than 6A and reject those with greater diameters. In contrast to the preference of alumi-

grams be implemented. In response to this need. Union Carbide Canada Ltd., in co-operation with ORTECH International, developed an effec tive new technology that allows the practical removal and subsequent recycling of CFCs from emission

tured hydrophohic-organophillic silicalite molecular sieves, developed by Union Carbide.


pore diameter near 6 angstrom (A)

Silicalite is an adsorbent with a

-.1 -Vs ,â–


nosilicate zeolite surfaces for water

and other polar molecules, silicalite has a very low selectivity for the adsorption of water and a very high preference for the adsorption of organic molecules smaller than its limiting pore size. This hydrophobic and organophillic selectivity occurs in several different ways. Adsorption of organic molecules on silicalite takes place by the volume filling of micropores. The mechanism by which this happens is physical adsorption. In contrast, water does not fill the pores at any relative pressure, although some water does become adsorbed owing to residual hydroxyl groups which persist on the silicalite after thermal removal

GEORGE FISCHER+GF+ Ball Valves +GF+ Ball Valves are ideal for use

where pure and aggressive media are conveyed. +GF+ Ball Valves are used universally, from fish

farming and general industrial

processes to sophisticated water purification plants. For more detailed information, write or

Dqvis Controls.... 4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3

(416)233-3211 Telex 06-967684 Fax (416) 239-2386

of the organic ion in the precursor. Therefore, silicalite can selectively adsorb organic molecules from liq uid and gaseous mixtures. These crystalline, inorganic media are also electrically neutral, acid resistant, non-comhustible, non-reactive, and thermally, hydrothermally and oxidatively stable, with no ion exchange or cata lytic properties. The High Silica Zeolite (HSZ) product characteristics, combined with an attractive proprietary rec overy procedure, featuring low temperature purging and subse quent condensation at the con trolled process conditions, eliminate: (a) the need for special construction material for adsorbers; and (b) pos sibility of adsorbate catalytic decomposition potentially contamiContinued


Circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

...Wfestecliliastihe aiiaJtyzep... killI hen it comes to analytical

111 systems, Westech has been ^ ^ ^ helping Canada's process industries optimize their operation and provide effective pollution monitoring for over two decades.

Solutions to process and environmental problems are our specialty. Whatever the complexity of your particular needs, Westech has proven time after time that we can meet your requirements.


Our total commitment can include

initial system design through to field commissioning and on-site training. We will get as involved as you say. if you have a requirement for an accurate and reliable analyzer or analyzer system, give Westech a call.

DuPont 2 Stream SO2 Photometric Analyzer

Westech has the answer.



Tel: (604) 278-5112 Fax: (604) 278-5126

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Tel: (902) 639-2324 Fax: (902) 639-9035

Circle reply card No. 116 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


CFC Recovery continued

Cement Kiln modifications reduce emissions

nating the recovered product and causing corrosive effects. In fact, a St. Lawrence Cement Inc. has properly designed system ensures announced completion offirst phase high-yield recovery operation in a modifications to its preheater kiln safe, non-reactive environment, (known as Kiln #3). The $15 million generating high purity products retrofit project, which began in August of 1987, was initiated with suitable for recycling and reuse. the goal of improving plant effi CFC Removal/Recovery System ciency and reducing dust emissions A bench scale system was con from the plant in Mississauga, Ont. structed at ORTECH to investigate

the feasibility of using a silicalite molecular sieve as a CFC adsorbent,

and to explore the possibility of rec overy of the adsorbed CFC for reuse. All tests were conducted on a

CFC whose specific identity cannot be revealed for proprietary reasons. It can be disclosed, however, that the compound's physical and chemi cal properties were quite similar to CFC-113 which is used as a refriger ant in commercial air conditioners. CFC-113 is also extensively used as

The large preheater kiln can now operate with improved process effi ciency, increased capacity and improved dust collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitators. The modifications also allow special cements to be produced on the more efficient preheater kiln rather than the older, wet process kiln. Up to now, production of special cements on the wet process kilns resulted in increased dust emissions.

Charles Coles, General Manager

says "These modifications will bring opacity readings of the main stack within the air emission guide lines set forth under the Environ mental Protection Act."

Kiln #3 is now equipped with a single more efficient precalciner, a larger alkali bypass system with a baghouse, a new raw meal distribu tion and withdrawal system and a new air atomized water spray sys tem for the main cooling tower. These modifications will reduce

dust emissions in several ways. The preheater kiln dust emissions will be reduced with the improved perfor mance of the electrostatic precipitator. And the previous emissions from wet process kilns when produc

ing special cements will no longer occur because these products will now be produced on the preheater kiln.

a cleaning solvent to remove solder ing residue from printed circuit viously adsorbed CFC is now vola


Once saturated with the CFC

tilized and desorbed from the sieve.

hydrocarbon, the canister of adsor bent was regenerated. The desorp-

The CFCs enriched purge gas stream is directed to a high effi

tion train uses heated inert carrier

ciency condenser. The liquefied CFC hydrocarbon is collected down stream as an end product, while dec ontaminated, CFC free carrier purge gas is either recycled back to

gas as a regeneration media. The purge gas passes through the canis ter at the controlled flowrate for a

predetermined period of time. Pre-

the system or vented. The experimental program, con ducted at ORTECH, showed that the CFC recovery efficiency of approximately 98% and product pur ity of 99-99.9% w/w (as determined by CCMS analysis) are easily achievable by utilization of this Union Carbide technology. Initially obtained lab results were success

fully reproduced in several "real" situations, in the presence of water vapour and trace amounts of other

ALL WEATHER FIBERGLASS COVERS more than 600 installations

contaminants in the gas streams.


These highly encouraging bench scale test results, demonstrating a


high yield of high purity product, have satisfied all aspects of techni cal feasibility criteria for the pro

Round covers


posed technology with a worldwide patent protected position. It is conceivable that the pro cess will not require an excessive

capital expenditure or high operat ing costs. Economics will vary from

Rectangular Barrel covers

Rectangular arch covers

case to case, depending on the throughput, concentration, back ground contaminants, specified

yield and purity characteristics, etc. In summary, the Union Carbide

process described in this paper which removes and recovers CFCs

from gas discharge streams pro vided promising results; indeed it may be considered as potentially the best available technology economi


cally achievable for many cases where solving industrial dilemmas, while addressing environmental concerns, is crucial.


fixed and floating digesters

These data were excerpted from a

presentation by D. Fllipovich, P.Eng.,


Box 280, 1 Canbar St., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 4A7 (519)886-2880, Telex 069-55255, Fax (519)886-5546

Union Carbide Canada Ltd., and G.P.

Vicevic, B.Sc.(Eng.), ORTECH Inter national.

Circle reply card No. 117 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jane 1989

The Victaulic system...the complete,fast, economical and reliable way to join pipe. Saving money in municipal treatment plant piping since 1925. The Victaulic system not only saves substantial time during initial installation, it also helps reduce operation and maintenance costs. You work with only two bolts, compared with 8 to 12 for flanges. No bolt hole alignment problems. Easy field or shop pipe preparation.

Sludge clean-out and maintenance are a snap. Each joint is a two-bolt union. Add-ons, changes, and expansion are easy. Products are available for AWWA ductile or IPS

steel, stainless, aluminum and

PVC—even a transition coupling from ductile to steel.

Grooved end plug, butterfly, ball and check valves are installed with

two couplings. Fittings are grooved, ready for field installation. And products are available worldwide. Next municipal waste treatment,

New Vic-Plug® valve provides exceptional flow, low maintenance, andfast, easy grooved coupling installation.

water treatment, lift station or

pump house, put the VictauUc system to work. We'U go the limit and beyond to save you time and


reduce costs.

Eor more information, contact

goes the limit... and beyond.

your Victaulic Distributor, or write Victaulic Company of Canada Only Victaulic has a complete line of couplings, fittings, and valvesfor AWWA ductile and IPS steel, stainless, aluminum, or PVC pipe.

Limited, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5N7. Or caU 416-675-5575.

Victaulic and Vic-Plug are registered trademarks of Victaulic Company of Canada Limited.

FAX: 416-675-5729.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

©1989 Victaulic. All rights reserved.

Circle reply card No. 118


Literature Review Water LevH Ueier

Water Level Indicator

For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, op tional light.

fEIMCO Process rifiiiipineni Company


Eimco Delta-Stak Clarifiers Eimco Delta-Stak clarifiers com

bine the simplicity of gravity set tling with inclined plate sedimen tation principles. The patented design reduces space require ments and costs while providing operational simplicity and high overflow rates. Distribution, deaeration, flocculation, de-

foaming, clarification, and thickening are simultaneously performed in a single vessel.

Sollnst Canada Ltd.


Circle reply card No. 200

Circle reply card No. 201

Centra-Shear rotary screen The Contra-Shear principle in troduces liquid under minimum headloss conditions and rotates

the screen in the opposite direc tion so that maximum shear

velocity is achieved. This is us ed for the initial separation of solids from liquid and not only does the Contra-Shear system carry this out at reduced cost, it also increases substantially the amount of liquid which can be handled on a specific screen

Aqua Guard 'Screen

Self-cleaning bar/filter screen

The Aqua Guard Bar/Filter

A continuous, sell-cleaning bar/flltei'

Screen is a continuous, selfcleaning device which utilizes a

uniquely designed filter-rake combination to automatically remove a wide range of floating and suspended materials from a moving liquid stream. Identical

T , ••

filter elements are mounted


size. Eimco

horizontally and vertically on a series of parallel shafts to form an endless moving belt. A. Johnson (Canada) Inc. Circle reply card No. 203

Circle reply card No. 202

i V'

Non-clog fine bubble diffusers

Advanced belt filter press

Eimco ELASTOX Diffusers utilize

Komline-Sanderson belt filter

a specially formulated rubber

presses are designed for con tinuous operation, energy effi ciency, high throughput and maximum dewatering with high cake yields and long operational

membrane which, in operation, produces a uniform flow of very fine air bubbles providing high oxygen transfer efficiency. The effectiveness, reliability, and low maintenance requirements of

life in the hostile environments of

sludge dewatering and process deliquoring.

ELASTOX diffusers have been

proven over a 20 year period.

The K»n8ne>Sandcrsmi betf



tof meohanicai dewi^ingi

Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

Aqua SBR Sequential Batch Reactor - a very efficient batch type ac tivated sludge treatment system. Ideally suited for high strength

Aqua 35 Aerator/mixer A direct drive aspirator type aerator/directional mixer. Com

wastes and most cost effective

bines directional mixing with ef ficient oxygen transfer. Control and Metering Limited.

for flows up to 5 MGD.

Circle reply card No. 207

Control and Metering Limited. Circle reply card No. 206


Enuironmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Rockwell Introduces The SR-n


Meter Rockwell guarantees that the new SR-II will meet the AWWA new-meter

accuracy standard for a full five years,four more years than our pre vious guarantee...to provide you with more revenue over a longer period oftime, and the repaired meter accu racy standard for an additional 10 years.The SR-Il achieves its greater accuracy through ahydrodynamicallybalanced piston, optimum measuring element design and precise-fit component parts.


Because ofits design and the precision with which it's manufactured,the SR-II meter delivers lowflow sensi

tivity that exceeds AWWA standards, resulting in your getting all the revenue you deserve. And its accuracy at

higher flow rates is even more impres sive, resulting in a combination that allows Rockwell to guarantee the SR-II will meet AWWA new-meter

accuracy standards for five full years. LOW HEADLOSS.The SR-II

provides 20 percentlower headloss at 20 gallons per minute than typical most vulnerable wear point in any water meter is the measuring element, positive displacement meters,thanks to its much improved flow pattern. and wear eventually takes its toll in This can result in lower energy costs reduced accuracy. for you and improved water pres To significantly reduce the forces that cause wearing ofthe measuring sure for your customers. element,the SR-II measuring chamber CUSTOMER SERVICE. The Rockwell name is synonymous with is designed with dual inlet ports which separate the flow of water into quality and service to its customers, and that's important. Rockwell not two equd parts. This design causes only stands behind its products, but the piston to be hydrodynamically suspended with essentially equal stands ready to assist you with applications and technical support. forces above and below, resulting in IMPRESSIVE RELIABILITY.The



For more information about

far less wear.

TAMPER RESISTANCE. Until now, Rockwell products and services the SR meter has been the most

write: Rockwell International of

tamper-resistant meter available. But

Canada Limited, Measurement and


Flow Control Division, 214 Bayview flexibility it offers. The hermetically- Drive, RO. Box 8400,Barrie, Ontario sealed register is secured within L4M5N2(705)737-4l6l, or indi its housing by a unique stainless-steel cate your interest using the attached locking bolt that requires a special Action Request Card. the SR-II is even better because ofthe

tool for removal. This makes it

extremely difficult for your customers to get free water, but also gives you the flexibility to access the register without interrupting service to your customer.

ACTION REQUEST □Please have a Rockwell representative contact me for a detailed discussion about the benefits of the SR-ll/TouchRead System. □Please send me a copy of the Rockwell Water Journal featuring information about the Rockwell SR-Ii Water Meter.

Rockwell International

□ Please send me a copy of the Rockwell Water journal featuring information about the Rockwell TouchRead System.

..where science gets down to business

Circle reply card No. 119





-â– -ii

Which rocks should this sample be poured over? Is it drinkable? Or should it be poured out? You'll get a fast, accurate answer from Bondar-Clegg. Bondar-Clegg laboratories have a record of excel lence and reliability that spans 25 years. It's a record that has enabled us to become the extensive, interna

tional laboratory organization we are today. Using modern analytical instrumentation, our expert staff provides answers to professionals and other individuals with environmental concerns.

"We deliver fast, precise results for Regulation 309 testing, MISA requirements, water quality, PCB's,

trace metals, radionuclides, and more. You can have

routine potability test results in five working days. All we require is a one-litre sample. To ascertain its quality, we'll use MOE, APHA, EPA, and ASTM methods. And techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation

Analysis, and Liquid or Gas Chromatograpby. Bondar-Clegg is your best choice for fast, accurate water analysis. So contact us today to find out more. We'll satisfy your thirst for knowledge.


Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road

Tel: (613) 749-2220 26

Circle reply card No. 120

Ottawa, Ontario

Fax: (613) 749-7170

K1J 8X5

Telex: 053-3233

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Ultraviolet Disinfection of Beachwater

Experimental UV Project at London's Fanshawe Beach hen heatwaves occur where freshwater lakes

abound, it is difficult to tell children that they cannot swim in inviting lake water. However every summer sees fre quent beach closures. The Ontario Ministry of Health has established a criterion that recreational beach water must meet a fecal coliform

reading of less than 100 counts per 100 ml. Public beaches in Ontario

are routinely tested to ensure that the beach water quality meets this requirement. If beach water exceeds this level more than three sampling occasions in a row, the beach is

posted unsafe for swimming and is closed until the water quality recov ers.

This situation prompted the Ontario Ministry of the Environ

ment to pursue the potential for using UV disinfection to control the quality of beach water in an effort to keep public beaches open all

and was secured at the base of the

By Maria Kelleher

swimming area by attachment to

CANVIRO Consultants

rock anchors located at50ft. centres

along the lake floor. A water intake UV disinfection has been used

is located at one end of the beach and directs beach water to a wet well

successfully for many years in fish

from which two submersible pumps

hatcheries and also in the food

deliver the water to the UV reactors.

industry, and the experimental pro gram described in this article was developed in an effort to find innov ative uses for this technology.

reactors were located on a hill over

The Upper Thames River Conser vation Authority Day-Use beach in Fanshawe Park outside London, Ontario was chosen for the experi mental program. The beach had suffered from closures for a number of summers and the UTRCA were

anxious to provide an amenity which would stay open throughout the summer season. Also,the beach had an existing power supply, and was close to the MOE laboratories in

residual is preferred for a number of

London, Ontario which was an advantage during the pilot testing and full scale monitoring phases of the project. The design concept chosen was a combination of other designs used in slightly different circumstances. It consisted of isolating a section of beach from the surrounding water body by installation of a heavy vinyl curtain, similar to swimming pool liner material. The vinyl cur tain was attached to styrofoam


floats located at the water surface.

summer. Some beaches in Ontario have cordoned off a section of beach

water by surrounding it with a vinyl "curtain" and have used chlorine

successfully to control the fecal coli form count in the beach water at

acceptable levels. However, chlori nated water creates problems down stream when it escapes from cordoned off beach areas, hence a disinfectant which does not leave a

In the Fanshawe design the UV

looking the beach area. This loca tion was chosen to be above high water levels occasionally expe rienced in the Fanshawe Reservoir, and also to be out of public view in an area screened by trees. Disin fected water from the UV reactors was re-introduced to the beach

through twin multiport diffusers located at the opposite end of the beach to the water intake. The sys tem was designed to achieve a com plete turnover of beach contents every four hours, which resulted in a requirement for a pumping capacity of 110 L/S. The design was deve

loped with twin submersible pumps, twin UV reactors and twin outlet

pipes and diffusers to allow greater operational flexibility, which is essential for an experimental facil ity. The UV dosage required to pro vide acceptable disinfection of the Fanshawe Beach water was deter

mined through a pilot testing pro

gram carried out at the beach in the summer of 1986. The pilot testing

program determined that a dosage of 6.7 ws/L would achieve the one

log fecal coliform reduction in lake water quality required to meet MOE water quality criteria. It was decided to provide this dosage in a gravity fed UV system, as this allowed easier access to the UV

lamps for experimental purposes. The required dosage was provided by two UV reactors, each consisting of a concrete channel containing 20 UV lamps. The UV system was designed and constructed in 1987, and had its first complete operational season in 1988. A comprehensive monitoring program was carried out by MOE staff from London throughout the summer season. Samples were

'Unsafe For Swimming" signs are increasingly posted on beaches every where. UV disinfection may help alleviate the problem in some areas. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

taken of UV reactor influent and effluent and beach water both inside and outside the curtained off beach

area three times per week through27

out the summer season, and were

analyzed for a number of bacterialogical and pbysical/cbemical parameters. On a few occasions such as at busy long weekends, intensive sampling was carried out over a 3-day period. Results of the first summer of

operation showed that even though the U V reactor portion ofthe facility operated above specifications, and produced excellent disinfection results, the system could not main tain fecal coliform levels within the

curtained off beach section at accep table levels. Photoreactivation of bacteria was ruled out as a mass bal

ance carried out on fecal streptococ cus, which does not photoreactivate, indicated that a large source of bac terial/fecal contamination was con

stantly being introduced to the beach area. It was noted that fecal coliform

coliform counts of up to 200,000 per 100 grams of sediment. This identi

operation was that the UV portion of the design performed well, but

fied the bottom sediments as an obvious source of contamination of

extraneous contamination was dif ficult to control. A second monitor

beach water which a technology such as UV, which does not have

ing season is proposed for summer

any residual, cannot easily control.

gull net be constructed over the beach area to prevent seagulls gain ing access to the experimental

The deterioration of water clarity to

a point where a Secchi disc could only be seen to a depth of 300-450 mm also became a safety concern. The second major unexpected development was that the styrofoam booms used to support the

vinyl curtain became an ideal roost ing ground for quite a large flock of seagulls (estimated at 150-200). It was felt that these contributed a

high bacterial load to the beach area which could not be disinfected until

the water was pumped through the UV reactors. Some springs were also discovered flowing through the floor of the beach area. These were

counts in the morning were gener

tested and found to be quite highly

ally lower than in the afternoon,

contaminated and were therefore

and also that water clarity deterio rated in the afternoon after bather

likely contributing to the beach con tamination problem. The source of these springs was identified and

activity had increased at the beach. This led to the suspicion that con

of 1989. It has been proposed that a

beach section. It's also proposed to excavate existing sediments and place clean sand over the beach floor prior to the bathing season. The proposed monitoring program will include testing of the beach sed iments to determine the rate at which contamination of sediments occurs over a summer season. It is

hoped that by taking the above mea sures, the practicality of using UV for this application can be estab lished.

Funding was provided by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The author acknowledges extensive help and support provided by Gary Palmateer, MOE London, Fritz Engler, MOE Toronto and Tom Wey, UTRCA, throughout this project.

tested and found to be contamina

tamination of the beach water was

tion free, hence it was concluded

related to suspension of sediments. Testing of the beach bottom sedi ments, which was carried out near

that the spring water became con taminated as it moved through the

Looking for a company name or phone number? Use ES&E's December Directory of Suppliers,

bottom sediments.

Consultants and Laboratories.

the end of the season indicated fecal

The conclusion of the first year of

The No Problem Bar Screen Degremont Infilco's automatic, self-cleaning climber screen, the screen that has no submerged

In case of blockage the spring mounted comb passes over the obstruction without damage.


moving parts.


At Degremont Infiico we are always trying to make your job easier, that is why we have developed the self-cleaning climber screen.

Advantages: scraper blade • Ease of installation

• Mechanical simplicity • No submerged moving parts • Easy maintenance

cleaning comb

to 30'0". It can discharge screen

ings at great heights and can be installed in deep channels.

Its simple operating mechanism ensures efficient performance. Maintenance is easy because all

moving parts are above water.

s^Degremont Infiico Ltd.


160-D St. Joseph Blvd., Lachine Quebec H8S 2L3 (514)634-8011

. *

bar screen

4325 Steeles Avenue West, Downsview

Ontario M3N 1V7 (416)661-5521 300 205 - 9th Avenue S.E., Calgary Alberta T2P 0G8 (403)237-6859

Circle reply card No. 121 28


u;- conveyor

Our climber screen is easy to

install in any municipal or indus trial treatment plant intake chan nel. It will fit any width from 1'6"


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

A truly Innovative flowmeter and pump monitoring system for sewage pumping stations

The VOLUMETER ADVANTAGES No pipe gallery modifications needed

No restrictions on outgoing piping geometry Not affected by pipe diameter, scaling, sludge/grease buildup, or size of solids Micro-processor based No calibration required No primary flow element

Readings not affected by low flow, velocity, viscosity, temperature Field adjustable Unlimited flow range Remote or local mounting Completely self-contained Computer compatibility Recorded and/or printed data

Alarms on inflow and pump capacity

Ideal as a

Pump Performance Indicator

Hundreds of installations VOLUMETEP

across Canada and the U.S.

Pumo Starr L j intermeoiate l

PumD stop L

lift station WET WE

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc., 1175 Appleby Line, Unit C3, Burlington, Ontario,L7L 5H9, Tel:(416)335-8944, Fax:(416)335-8972 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Circle reply card No. 122


Literature Review Ion Trap System Finnigan-MAT, recently unveiled the most advanced high perfor mance benchtop GC/MS system available: the Ion Trap System 40 (ITS40™).The ITS40 achieves its extremely high performance by combining the complete spec

I CORDLESS pH Recorder

CrYVlAlConvvl Cf

KCU* Cm* Rmm

New field pH Recorder The Analytical Measurements Model 30-Wp CORDLESS Recording pH Meter offers a sim ple and effective means of monitoring and recording the pH of wastewater, pools, streams, chemical wastes and process

trum and ultra-trace detection at

streams. The unit is housed in a

the picogram level. The ITS40 system provides an excellent price/performance ratio surpass ing any other benchtop GC/MS

rainproof case, and can be operated in the field for up to

ttiree weeks without recharging

on the market.

the battery. Analytical Measurements

Technical Marketing

Circle reply card No. 209


Associates Limited

Circle reply card No. 208

Sludge Depth Meter ... No Moving Parts



Markland Meter continuously monitors the sludge/liquid inter face in gravity Clarifiers and

matic pushbutton calibration

simplifies operation, and auto matic dynamic damping smooths the meter output in nonhomogeneous slurries and sludges. Ultrasound is not af fected by changes in color. A

Dissolved Air Flotation Thick

eners. System is used for auto matic desludging, variable rate sludge withdrawal, sludge in ventory recording, or alarming. Alphanumeric L.C.D. indicates sludge depth, plus error mess ages,errors trapped & corrected, set-points, and a self-diagnostic system analysis. Markland Specialty Engineering Ltd.

ES&E-89 Award

Winner Seep.6

Markland Series 501 uses ultra

sound to resist fouling. Auto

4-page brochure details the various models and illustrations

describe how it works. Engineer ing Specifications are included. Markland Specialty Engineer ing Ltd. Circle reply card No. 211

Circle reply card No. 210

On-Site Oil Recovery Services

HIOC INDUSTRIAL ODOR CONTROL X-0 IOC is a new product developed specitically for treatment of nuisance odor generated during waste treatment operations. It is unique because it is a

true odor neutrotizer that requires very iiltle retention lime to neutralize maiodor. All that is needed,is to introduce

[ElOC industrial ODOR


X-0 IOC into an airflow.

Whatever your odor problem X-0 IOC

is the answer. There is an application


method and dilution rate suiteble for


your specific odor control needs. Select the best application for the circum stances and X-0 gets the job done.





attraction that Inactivates bad odor


on contact in the air. X-0 Is non-toxic,


X-0 woi1(s by a natural bond like

non-flammable, non-eorrostve and


With its trailer-mounted systems, Petroeycle Inc. separates oily sludges and petroleum slops into clean oil, water and solids containing no free oil.

Using a new technological centrifugal separator having a mean production capacity of 10 m^/h,the Petroeycle pro cess leads to:

REHAB SALES AND SERVICES P.O. Bo* 156 Cotlingwood. Ontario L9Y 3Z5 Call (705) 445-3233 For a free sample

•Oil recovery up to 99%

"Waste minimization

•BS&W as low as 0.5%

•Reduce disposal cost

•Eliminate the risks of

"Process contaminated

waste transportation

oil containing up to 20% solids

PETRACYCLEi 666 Trans-Canada,St.-David,Quebec,G6W 6M7 Tel:(418) 835-3750 Fax:(418) 835-5882

Circle reply card No. 123 30

Circle reply card No. 124

PCAO/AWMA Ontario Section Conference Report Emphasis was directed to problems and concerns operations' officials will experience when faced with actual implementation of MISA reg ulations, scheduled for January 1990.

His presentation focussed on a municipal perspective of Ontario's proposed regulation and subsequent enforcement standards in


future. "Real World" applications and a discussion of the program's practical success were included. Peter Laughton was presented

with the WPCF Bedell award, Reg

John Jackson, Toxic Wastes Research Centre.

he Spring joint conference

commercial mobile/transportable

of the PCAO and the Ont ario Section of the Air and

destruction technologies including rotary kiln, infra-red energy, circu lation bed combustion and plasma arc systems. Mobile sodium-based and PEG/KOH processes to decon

Waste Management Associ ation attracted some 550 delegates. There was also a highly successful exhibition run by the Ontario Pollu tion Control Equipment Associa tion.

The Hamilton conference led off

two associations while also mark

considered to be proven commercial destruction technologies. Four com

ing the additional focus of waste management by AWMA which was formerly the Air Pollution Control Association, fondly known as

panies operate

mobile PCB-

contaminated oil dechlorination

John Jackson, Coordinator, Toxic Wastes Research Coalition; The Ontario Waste Management Corpo

technologies in Canada. The paper listed low temperature oxidation, chlorine removal, vitrification, biodegradation and thermal extraction as promising technologies. Len Yust, Municipal Engineers Association of Ontario spoke on the environmental industry's most hotly debated topic - MISA. He said

ration - is it the solution to Ontario's

among other things, that it could actually discourage industries from recycling their wastes. His presen tation drew a long and detailed rebuttal by OWMC's Dr. Chao, dur

ing question period. In a technical review of PCB des

Peter Brand handed over the reins of

office to Steve Toplack. This is the last joint conference between the

taminate PCB contaminated oil are

with a controversial presentation by

Hazardous wastes problems'? He said OWMC was created in 1982, yet it could be some years before they would actually build and operate a disposal plant. He went on to ques tion the need for the facility, saying,

Ranton, MOE,received the Hatfield plaque and Geoff Scott and Bill Case picked up WPCF Life Membership plaques. Retiring PCAO President George Powell turned over the gavel to Bob PIckett; in turn AWMA President

the MOE would soon release MISA

compliance monitoring regulations for Ontario's municipal wastewater treatment facilities for public review. The development, philo sophy, and background of the regulations and the impact on municipalities were summarized.

APCA. Both Peter Brand and Steve

Toplack noted that the acronym, APCA,affectionately used for years, was easier to pronounce than the new initials. AWMA has offered a

$200 prize for a new logo, or idea, leading to the adoption of logo by the Ont. section.

AWMA presented service awards to chairmen of various committees and conference chairmen and

announced the $1000 Brad Drowley scholarship winner which, for the second year running, went to Robert Burk. Al Kruzlns of PBK Engineer ing was conference chairman ofthis highly successful event. Tom Davey

truction methods, P. Piersol of ORTECH International surveyed over 60 companies and organiza tions to obtain information on pro cesses which destroy liquid or solid PCB wastes. Stationary rotary kiln incineration with flue gas treatment

had been proven commercially at several US and European cities. Canada had three stationary indus trial hazardous wastes facilities

under development;the Alberta Spe cial Waste Management Corpora tion in Swan Hills, which uses a

rocking kiln technology while the Ontario Waste Management Corpo ration and the Selenco/Sanivan

Group in Quebec both propose to use rotary kilns. Eight North American compan ies were identified which offer near-

Left Alexandra Kantardjieff, P.Eng., M.Sc.A., of Le Groupe Teknika wltti ttie

Mayor of Orford prior to accepting an Honourable Mention in Environmental Science & Engineering's awards program. (See page 6).

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

R&D News



Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Detaiis can be found on page 37.

potato-processing wastewater treated anaerobically by a UASB

higher. As explained in the JournaZ of Great Lakes Research,patterns of variation in contaminant concen

studied by University of New Bruns

trations support the conclusion that industries along the Canadian side of the St. Clair River are the primary

wick researcher K.C. Lin and a U.S.

source of both lead and cadmium.

reactor and an anaerobic filter were

colleague using an intermittently aerated completely mixed reactor in the laboratory. A daily organic loading of 0.45 kg COD/m'was app lied. The hydraulic retention time and solids retention time in the reac tor were 2.0 and 40 days, respec


The aerobic-anoxic cycle

time was one hour. The effects of aeration fraction and methanol

addition (during denitrification) are discussed in Environmental Tech nology Letters. Leeches as Biomonitors

for Chlorophenols In a joint National Water Research Institute - Ontario Ministry of the Environment study, J.L. Metcalfe


A. Hayton exposed caged

leeches above and below a pulp and

paper mill complex on the Rainy River and near a wood preserving

plant on Thunder Bay Harbour. Results showed that concentrations

Algal Growth in the Thompson River In a joint research program involv ing the Inland W aters Directorate of Environment Canada and Weyerhaeuser Canada Ltd., M.L. Bothwell, S. Jasper and R.J. Daley studied algal biomass in tbeThomp son River, B.C. It was established that higher algal biomass levels downstream from Kamloops Lake were caused by phosphorus origi nating from pulpmill effluent dis charges. As described in a scientific report soon to be released, these researchers found that, at the solu ble reactive phosphorus concentra tions found in the river(3-4 ppb.), the periphytic algae were growing at or near the maximum rate possible during the critical late winter - early spring period. Significant improve ment would result only after a 90% reduction of reactive phosphorus in

of chlorophenols were elevated above pre-exposure levels in leeches caged over 100 km downstream of the pulp mill complex, even though they could not be detected in water or suspended solids. Tissue residues also provided information on the origin, distribution and bioavailability of chlorophenols discharged from the wood preserving plant on Thunder Bay Habour.

the effluent.

Heavy Metals in the St. Clair River

eral factors which could result in a

Leaks from Underground Storage Tanks Steel tanks have been

used for

underground storage of petroleum products and derivatives for about thirty years. The oldest tanks have now exceeded their design life and product leaks related to corrosion problems are increasing. The length of the tank's life is one ofsev


petroleum product leak which can

C.W. Pugsley, P.D.N. Herbert and P.M. McQuarrie assessed the level

contaminate soil and water in the




of lead and cadmium in unionid clams and sediments from 102 sites in Lake St. Clair and from the Cana dian side of the Detroit and St. Clair

rivers. Overall, lead and cadmium levels in sediments averaged 20.5 and 0.18 mg/kg dry weight respec tively. Lead concentrations in clams averaged only one-half those in sediments, whereas cadmium concentrations 32


30 times




Mavinic was to study process changes that could be used to main tain nitrite build-up and overcome V

Treatment of Potato Wastewater Nitrification and denitrification of

Acclimation to Free Ammonia

The objective of a research program undertaken by O. Turk, Novatec Consultants Inc., and University of

immediate surroundings. The dif ferent recovery and treatment tech niques applicable to hydrocarboncontaminated soil and water due to

underground storage tank leaks have been summarized in a report issued by Environment Canada's Technology Development and Tech nical Services Branch.


and prevention are briefly discussed and some examples of available equipment are given.

the effects of acclimation to free ammonia and allow the use of a shortened nitrification/denitrifica-

tion pathway for nitrogen removal from highly nitrogenous wastes. The study described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research employed bench-scale activated sludge cells. Of the mea sures investigated to overcome the effects of acclimation, the most effective was internal denitrifica tion.

Coliphage in Egyptian Drinking Water A study funded by the International

Development Research Centre (IDRC) and co-authored by B.J. Dutka, National Water Research Institute, has demonstrated the util ity of the coliphage test for assess ing drinking water supplies in greater Cairo, Egypt. The incidence of coliphage viruses in water supp lies reflects the probability of find ing human pathogenic viruses. Coliphages were detected in several Egyptian samples for which con ventional tests (fecal and total coliform counts) gave negative results. As described in Applied and Envir onmental Microbiology, the use of the coliphage test appears to pro vide a better assessment of drinking water supplies than conventional procedures.

Acute Toxicity of Hexazinone Hexazinone is a broad spectrum her bicide used for vegetation control including brush control in coastal British Columbia forests. Environ ment Canada's Environmental Pro tection scientists in the Pacific and

Yukon Region undertook a study of the acute toxicity of hexazinone and its formulated products and their carriers to juvenile Pacific salmonids. As described in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and

Toxicology, the bioassay study revealed that hexazinone is toxic to

these fish and to a greater extent than its formulated commercial pro ducts. The authors, M.T. Wan,R.C. Watts and D.J. Moul,attributed this to a reduction of the toxicity by the inert non-toxic carriers present.

Hexazinone also has the potential to destroy riparian vegetation of sal mon habitat.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Bioaccumulation of Metals

University of Toronto scientists G. Krantzberg and P.M. Stokes com pared the bioaccumulation of metals for two populations of chiro-

the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, are of consid erable significance in the interpretation of biomonitoring data. Additional results also indicate that

lakes differing in their metal con

chronic exposure to elevated metal levels may result in the development


of metal tolerance.

nomid larvae collected from acidic Results from labora

tory experiments indicated that chironomid larvae from the more

contaminated lake were able to reg ulate or control their accumulation

of Cu, Ni, and to some extent, Mn. Both populations regulated Zn, and neither population could regulate PborCd. These results, described in

Analysis of Nitrogen-Containing PAHs A relatively fast and simple method for the detection and quantitation of azaarenes (nitrogen-containing PAHs) in sediment samples has been developed by National Water

Onuska and K.A. Terry. As des cribed in a recent report,the method, which achieves detection limits of 1

to 10 /Ug/kg, has the potential to inte grate the analysis of the azaarenes with that ofthe PAHs. The analysis of the azaarenes is achieved using open tubular column gas chromatography with thermionic detection and mass spectrometry. The method was applied to Hamilton Harbour sediment samples and the recoveries of individual azaarenes were evaluated. Continued

Research Institute researchers F.I.


• ••

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R&D News Continued

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University of Waterloo's J.A. Cherry and U.S. colleagues have investigated the nature of diffusive transport through clay beneath an actual hazardous waste disposal site. As described in Environmental

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about 15 cm., waste-derived chloride

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fill. The authors conclude that, for liners of typical thickness, simple diffusion can cause breakthrough of mobile contaminants in approxi mately 5 years.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


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determined the increase in water bacterial densities due to sediment

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

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attributed to the cell walls of the microbial biomass.

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

Offlcee/Laboratorios in Toronto • Markham • Montred


B.C. Water & Waste Association conference The BC Water & Waste Association Conference in

Kelowna featured a strong exhibition along with its technical and social programs. In his President's

Report, Bill Hyslop noted that one regional district suffered major drinking water problems, two major oilspills threatened the coastline, dioxins had moved from being a curiosity to a common topic of conversa tion and people learned that the Expo site was proba bly one of the most contaminated sites in BC. His report stressed that it was BCW&WA members - the people in the environment business - who must address issues and implement solutions. The associa tion has established a Research Foundation to provide

direct funding where appropriate and, more impor tantly, the mechanism to solicit support from members in worthwhile projects carried out by the AWWA Research Foundation and the soon-to-be active WPCF Research Foundation.

Beth Turner, WPCF Past President (Centre) made an impassioned speech on the many environmental issues which would shortly confront Canada, chal lenging BCW&WA to meet them. Fred Elwell, AWWA Vice President, spoke on Acid Rain and its effects on drinking water, before touching on water shortages in the Boston area, the three year drought in California and its effects on the water industry.

•>ictn oupplu'.') 1 iffr â–







British Columbia Waste

Asa Stion AWWA

S'iAPlb leaf piAsncs 'ORANT:,. CliPi** - fBl

piAsmuEs '^PLE leaf


fflffRAlfWat sawcB,

Pictures from an exhibition. This photographic montage by Ron Ganton captures some of the people and activities of the BC Water & Waste Association. ES&E intends to publish selected excerpts from this conference in subsequent issues.


Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

What's New Free software package for efficient storm

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ter. Utilizing hoop stresses gener ated at installation, this material is said to he unique in its ability to be located at any point within a man

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A medium sized multi-discipline consulting engineering firm in Southwestern Ontario has vacancies for professional engi neers.

Applicants must have a sound technical background and excel lent communication and project management skills. Reporting to a principal of the firm, successful candidates will be respon sible for communication with clients and government agencies, design, design review, and management of al l phases of a project from early development through to and including con tract administration.

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HELP CLEAN UP ONTARIO'S WATERWAYS • Ontario's waters are a precious resource. It is no longer aaeptable to use tliem as a dumping ground for discharges that threaten our drinking water, fisheries and wildlife.

• The Ontario government Is now adopting tough new measures to stop water pollution at Its source. I4ISA - Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement - will systematically cut back the flow of toxic pollutants with enforceable regulations that get tougher as abatement technology gets better.

• All of Ontario's municipal sewage treatment plants and major Industries will be regulated under the Environmental Protection Act. Convicted violators of the act face fines of up to $500,000 a day and jail sentences. • MISA first develops monitoring regulations which require dischargers to report the presence and quantities of toxic substances In their effluent. This Information is then used to formulate abatement regulations which set limits - at the source - on toxic discharge.

• But that's just the start. Water and biological studies will determine If these limits adequately protect the quality of the receiving water body and Its aquatic Inhabitants. If they do not, more stringent limits will be set. • MISA Is tough, but also fair. Full public consultation plays a vital role in each step of ttie program. Before regulations are made law, your help Is necessary. Monitoring regulation for the tollowing sectors will soon be issued In draft form; metal casting, electric power, municipal sewage treatment plants and Industrial minerals. Take this opportunity to make your voice heard. Your comments are invited. Your comments are necessary.

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Circle reply card No. 132 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


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spectrophotometer Hach Company has introduced its latest spectrophotometer, the DR/2000. The microprocessorcontrolled DR/2000 has over 120

calibrations preprogrammed in memory, eliminating manual con version of absorhance data. In addi

tion, up to 50 user-generated calibrations can be stored quickly and easily with the aid of prompting software. Message displays can be

lyses in the visible wavelength range of 400-900 nm, the DR/2000 features a high-dispersion prism for precise operation and rugged, com pact design. Other features include; serial interface, automatic decimal placement, digital timer and optional battery operation for field

Platinum line

temperature transmitter

or on-site use.

Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 153

A promise of water/ waste water treatment

drive performance

Davis Controls Ltd., has introduced

the Hy-Cal Engineering CT-880-A platinum line temperature transmit ter. Designed to provide premium performance for temperature mea surement in applications requiring rugged capabilities, it provides high performance 2 wire, 4-20 mA signal conditioning for 100 Ohm and 1000 Ohm platinum RTD's. It is FM approved,intrinsically safe - no bar riers required - and is housed in an explosion proof enclosure suitable

that holds

for hazardous environments. It also


has optional intrinsically safe RTD's and thermowells which may be mounted remotely or integrally with the unit.

The zero and span adjustments of

Ihe modular design of our complete line

the CT-880-A are located on the out side of the enclosure to allow for on-

site adjustments. Independent zero and span adjustments cut calibra

of water/waste

tion time; full calibration can be achieved at various test points with

water treatment

drives and power compo

out repetition. Minimum span temperature is 35°F with a maxi

nents allows us to

mum of 1112°F. Davis Controls

quickly configure a drive to your exact specifications. That,

Circle reply card No. 154

Pressure filter tests

combined with our three

slurries in lab or field

assembly plants and five technical offices across

Canada, means we can

deliver the right drive into your hands faster usually within 48 hours. Give us your most demanding drive application. And your tightest delivery deadline. We can meet them both.

Customer Service/Assembly Centres Toronto — From area code (416): 1-800-387-2461 All other areas: 1-800-387-2420 Montreal —1-800-361-2928 Vancouver — 1 -800-972-5481

A wide range of tests can be per formed on slurries with the Labox, portable pressure filter available from Outokumpu Equipment Can ada Ltd. Ideally suited for use in mining, pulp and paper, chemical, pharmaceutical, wastewater treat ment, and other process and manu facturing applications, Labox is

equally at home in the laboratory or

Customer Service Centres

in the field. The entire unit is housed

Moncton —1-800-361-2928

Winnipeg —1-800-665-1242 Sudbury— 1-800-387-2420 Edmonton — (403)438-2175 Plus AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTORS coast-to-coast.

in a briefcase-size carrying case weighing just 12.5 kg. Labox makes it possible to always test fresh non-aged samples, eliminates the need for the Buchner



210 Walker Drive, Bramalea, Ontario L6T 3W1


funnel, and requires only com pressed air to operate. Outokumpu Equipment Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 155 Circle reply card No. 133 40

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

pH/ISE meter gives true 140 Renfrew Drive, Suite 102, Markham, Ontario


non-linear calibration Hach Company introduces the new Hach One Laboratory pH/ISE Meter. This microprocessor-controlled instrument features both linear and true non-linear calibration for accurate results at all concentration

Services in

L3R 8B6

Fax (416)477-1456


Telex 06-986278

Management Gartner

(416) 477-8400


levels. Up to six calibration stand ards can be used. If response is not linear, the meter statistically fits a

high order polynomial for precise, non-linear calibration. Ion concen

tration is displayed directly, elimi nating the need to construct time-consuming calibration curves. Users can select from six opera tional modes,including: pH,concentration, mV, relative mV, incremental methods and tempera ture.

Gore &Storrie Limited Consulting engineers & Architects WASTEWATER • WATER • SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES • DRAINAGE


1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-77IS Fax (416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga

Hach Company

Circle reply card No. 156

Hermetically sealed switch for float/displacer operated

Consultants for water anct pollution control projects

level controls Magnetrol announces the HS

Knox Martin

switch, a hermetically sealed switch mechanism now available for Mag netrol float/displacer operated level controls. The HS switch mecha nism is ideal for use in level control

applications in steam plants, refin eries and any other corrosive atmos

pheres where level controls are subject to environmental attack. The positively pressurized capsule isolates the mechanism's moving parts from the environment and pro tects against corrosion, switch con tact. oxidation, tampering, and accumulation of deposits leading to switch hang-up. The glass-to-metal feed through prevents air leakage

Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners, Landscape Architects. Fax: |416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard,Brampton,Ontario. L6T 445(416)459-4780

\A FOMAINE,CDWIE,BUR4nO&/1SBaaATES UMITED Consulting Engineers

Windsor, Ontario






(519) 966-2250


FAX:(519) 966-5523

(519) 539-2015

into the switch mechanism and the 316 stainless steel construction res

ists corrosion. The switch is CSA, FM and UL approved for hazardous

Maclaren Engineers

MacLaren Ptansearch

and non-hazardous locations. Ter minal block model eliminates the

need for a conduit mounted junction

Environmental Engineering and Management Specialists


Consulting Engineers, Planners, Scientists 2235 Sheppard Avenue East Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6

Branch offices: London, Ottawa, Waterloo, Windsor Winnipeg


Telephone: {416) 756-4919/3866



MacVIro Consultants Inc. 7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markhom, Ontorlo, L3R 4B9• Telephone:(416)475-7270 • TeleFAX:(416) 475-5994

Magnetrol International

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in ttie Environment

Circle reply card No. 157 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


mm Mm

• Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

Workshop Announcement

Workshop on

400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Got. L4Z 1N8 Phone; (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

Flow Measurement The Water and Wastewater instru

ment Testing Association (ITA) and Environment

Environmental Analysis Trace Level Analysis of Organics/lnorganic/Metals ■ Complete MISA Parameter List ■ Ontario Drinking Water Criteria ■ Hazardous Waste Identification ■ Poiyctilorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans GC/MS, Graptiite Furnace A.A., GC/ECD, ion Ctiromotograptiy, HPLC

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Professional Analytical Services Since 1972 5550 McAdam Road. Mississauga, Ontario Ptnone: (416) 890-2555

L4Z 1P1

Fax: (416) 890-0370



Technology Centre (WTC) will hosta 2-day specialty workshop on flow measurement at the Canada Centre

for Inland Waters (CCIW) in Burling ton, Ont. September 12-13, 1989. Presentations

wi ll



impact of regulatory agency pro grams and reporting requirements, fundamental principles for flow mea surement, practical selection and installation criteria, and field tech

Marshall Mackiin Monaghan Limited

niques for verifying accuracy and monitoring flow meter performance. For details contact Jean Stafford, WTC, CCIW, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O.

5050, Burlington, Ont. L7R 4A6, (416) 336-4598, Fax: (416) 336-4765.

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering. Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

275 Duncan Mi ll Road

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby

Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2Y1

(416) 449-2500


Fax: (416) 449-6076



Engineering a whole new worid.



Audits Toronto,Ontario


(416) 743-3456

Air Quality/ Occupational Healtti Industrial





Site Decommissioning/Cleanup

Calgary, Alberta

Underground Tank Management Laboratory Services

(403) 298-4170




(403) 298-4125

Sewer Flow Monitoring

Sewer Shed Typification Data Collation




MiSA Spec Reports (519) 748-8024

NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists waterwastewatertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehanidling underwaterinvestigations computerapplicationsandanalysis treatmeritpiantoperationassistance bio/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A 1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax: 682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. VST 1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax:384-1201 42

Canron modifies PVC

pipe manufacturing process Canron has made recent changes in the manufacture of Perma-Loc large diameter PVC sewer pipe to give an extra margin of strength. The main improvement is that the seam of this spiral wound pipe is now fusion welded - a change which simplifies production and gives an extremely strong bond. Other improvements include laser-printed identification on the pipe wail, for extra clarity; 0-ring material with greater iow-temperature resiliency and wrapping to pro tect the 0-ring while the pipe is in transit. Perma-Loc is available in two

classes: Class IV, for storm sewers, 450-900 mm; and Class V, for storm and sanitary sewers, 450-750 mm. A full range of fittings are available. Perma-Loc Class V has ASTM, and CSA approvals. Canron

Circle reply card No. 159

Composite wastewater sampler Markiand's low cost Model 105 fea

tures no mechanical moving parts for reduced maintenance. This is a

fixed installation composite sam

pling system that utilizes Mark iand's Duckbill® Style Remote

Sampler pick-up head. The system

is used for monitoring industrial

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

ORTECH International

wastewater and sewage treatment

plant influent and effluent.


time between samples is set on a

clock dial, or,the system can be con nected to a Flow Meter for'Flow Pro

portional' samples.

The sampler


Waste Treatment


Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management


Pilot Studies


Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling


Ambient Air Studies


Emission Source Testing Occupational Health

can also be used in a'stand by' mode

with no samples being extracted until a parameter goes out of limits.

Energy & Environmental Engineering Division 2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K 1B3 • Tei. 416 822-4111 • Fax 416 823-1446 • Telex 06-982311

Markland Specialty

Circle reply card No. 160

paul theil associates limited

Low cost 30 amp mercury contactor

consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief

POLLUTECH LIMITED Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions Low cost Durakool mercury dis


placement contactor,available from

TEL: (416) 847-0065

Davis Controls Ltd., is designed for switching high-current electrical loads up to 30 amps. For use with resistive loads, such as beating sys


PROCTOR & REDFERN IP Consulting Engineers, Planners, and Environmental Scientists


Features include quiet operation,

environments, such as dust, mois ture, chemical vapours and liquids. This unit measures 3W x 3'/«" and

requires no more space than an elec

1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA,ONT. N7S3Y6 TEL:(519)339-8787 DIALCOIVl: 21-POU003


tems, processing equipment and appliances, the Durakool triple pole 30 amp contactor is available in coil voltages from 6 to 480 VAC 50/60 Hz, and from 6 to 250 VDC. long life, rapid on/off cycling and the capability of working in adverse

FAX: (416) 847-3840


Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie. Simcoe,

Sudbury, Thunder Bay 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3 Tel: (416) 445-3600 Fax: (416) 445-5276

tromechanical contactor. Davis Controis Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 161


Fabricated Plastics

to make random-fill

packing in Canada



(416) 853-1223

Water Supply•Pollution Control* Drainage*SCADA Tri-Packs, a random-fill column

packing is now being produced in Canada by Fabricated Plastics Ltd. Less susceptible to plugging, Tri-

Simcoe Engineering Group Limited - Consulting Engineers Simcoe Buiiding 345 Kingston Road,Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1

Tei (416) 286-2285 Fax (416) 286-1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989





Packs' globular geometry also redu ces energy and capital costs when compared to all other spherical packing, according to the manufacturer.





















P.O. Box 3055


London. Ontano N6A 1J2

At the same time, the precise, structurally uniform packing main tains its performance in packed columns for: odour removal, acid scrubbing, degasification, VOC removal, and biological filtration. Fabricated Plastics Limited

Head office:


Circle reply card No. 162

Tel; (416) 668-9363 Fax: (416) 668-0221

sims hubicki


Engineers Architects and Planners Toronto. Whitby. Coboiirg. Kingston


Bracebridge. Ottawa. Simcoe. Waterloo, Huntsville


and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sault Ste Marie










Compiete Digester


and specializirig in

Lagoon Cieaning

Land Use Planning & Developmenl. Environmental Approvals, Waste Disposal and Municipal Law

Land Appiicafion Sysfems

John R. Willms / Donna S.K Shier / Catherina Spoel

Program Development

P Douglas Petne / David 0 Cox 73 Richmond Street West. Suite 200. Toronto Ontario M5H t ZJ

416 663-0711 • Fax; 416 663-1938

Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyvilie Rd. W., Jerseyville. Ontario LOR 1R0




845 Harrington Court, Burlington, Ontario L7N 3P3 (416)639 - 6320 3650 West Rock Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 2L2 (604)660 - 1689

• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges (0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)

Eldon Technologies Div. Klenzoid Company Limited


MISA analysis for over 50 plants Ultra-trace Dioxins/Furans by MS/MS Certified by NYS-DOH

PROCESS ENGINEERING • Waste treatment evaluation

• Bench and pilot scale testing

Tel.: (416) 629-3101

Fax: (416) 629-1637

• Technical / economic assessments


Fine Analysis Laboratories Specialized in Water and Soil Analysis Packages Include; • 35 Parameter of water quality analysis ($55.00/sample) • 16 Parameter of soil quality analysis {$50.00/sample) Our emphasis is on high quality, best service and guaranteed turn around time of 5 days. 83 Bigwin Rd., Unit #8,Hamilton,Ont.LOR IPO (416)574-4977 44

1341 Matheson Blvd. East

Mississauga, Ont. L4W 1R1


also suppliers of quality filter sands and grave! ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. 66 Brant Street, Hamilton, Ont L8L 6A6

Tel:(416) 523-1850

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

CWWA reviews drinking water quaiity guideiines

I n the spring of 1988, Health

By Al Schwinghamer*

and Welfare Canada released

an updated version of its 1978 Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The new guidelines include numeric values for 88 parameters, of which 67 are hased on health considerations. The

broadened scope of the 1988 guide lines is intended to address growing public concern about the possible presence of a wide range of indus trial and other chemicals in drink

ing water supplies. In order to assess the implica tions for municipal water system owners and operators of the new guidelines, the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA) established a Drinking Water Qual ity Guidelines Review Committee. Members were drawn from a cross-

section of Canada's municipal sys tems. Although most are associated with large urban systems, a fair number are also experienced with the concerns and practices of small systems. Committee members'com ments were compiled and submitted to Health and Welfare Canada for consideration.

While the diversity of views expressed made consolidation diffi cult, there were a number of areas on which most members agreed. On the positive side, most found the addition of limits for many new syn thetic organic chemicals to be very useful, especially for pesticides which increasingly are being found in drinking water supplies. Similarly, the inclusion of Inte rim Maximum Acceptable Concen trations (IMACs) was welcomed.

porting documentation was availa ble, they pointed out the absence of any indication as to when this would happen left them with no alternative other than to comment on material at hand. This observa tion formed the basis of the second

concern raised by virtually all of the review


members -

adoption,subsequent review or revi sion ~ the role of affected parties, including system owners and opera tors and the general public, should be spelled out. The review commit tee recommended, as well, that sys tem owners and operators he formally represented in this process through their association,the CWWA. In the absence of a formal frame

work for reviewing and commenting on these or future guidelines, many of the committee's members questi

namely, the desirability of a clearly stated, standardized, formal proce dure for reviewing and updating the guidelines. The committee is recommending to Health and Welfare that a proce

and effort required to obtain and consolidate tbeir comments was warranted. The committee is hope

dure be established that includes a

ful, however, that arrangements

period of notification of the intent to review a guideline or guidelines, a clearly stipulated time for respond ing to such notification, a statement of the process that will he used to review the guideline or guidelines and a time frame for responding to the revision prior to its adoption.

future, input from all those with an interest in Canada's drinking water quality will he welcome, useful and usable. In addition, as discussed by Bob Ferguson in the April '89 issue of Environmental Science & Engi neering, the CWWA has requested

Procedures also should be estab

that Health and Welfare consider

lished, they contended, for com menting on a guideline or guidelines once adopted, that is for initiating a subsequent review. At each step in this process intention to review, the review.

applying the guidelines to bottled

oned whether the considerable time

can be made that will ensure that in


'Chairman, CWWA Drinking Water Quaiity Guideiines Review Commit tee.



These values are hased on less toxi-



cological information than a final Maximum Acceptable Concentra tion (MAC), but the availability of the value makes managing water quality problems easier. On a more critical note, the com mittee was virtually unanimous in questioning the utility of releasing the guidelines without any support ing background documentation. Neither the selection of particular





substances nor the rationale for the numeric values accorded them is

provided. This, many felt, severely hampered their ability to comment usefully and specifically on the guidelines. Nor do the guidelines contain



5369 Maingate Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4W 106 (416) 625-9436 Unit 1, 2265 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5J 1K5 (416) 823-0110 Fax:(416) 624-1496


appropriate analytical protocols or QA/QC measures for organic chem ical analyses. This leaves water purveyors with no guidance in an important new area. While it might have been better to undertake the review once the sup-

Circle reply card No. 134 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989


New oil/water recovery system handles difficult wastewater streams FAST Systems has developed a new oil/water recovery system based upon its PACE Oil/Water Separator technology. The system processes oily emulsions which contain too much oil to permit efficient concen tration using ultrafiltration, and too much water to permit sale of the oil. Designed for a major automotive stamping plant, the system will accept and process virtually any oily wastewater which might be dis charged from the plant. A heavy loading of dirt and other solids is assumed. The system produces three separate discharge streams: • relatively dry solids for dispo sal as solid waste, • solids-free oil of over 95 per cent concentration which can

be sold or used to fire boilers, and •oil-free water which can be re

used or legally discharged. Consistent with the labour-saving policies of the stamping plant, the system is completely automatic; per formance does not depend upon the skill of the operator. There are no adjustments, and the equipment can be serviced by ordinary mainte nance personnel. Background. The system is based upon FAST Systems' experience with both high-speed centrifuges and the processing of wastewater containing oily emulsions. High speed centrifuges are used with marine diesel engines to purify fuel and lubricating oils. These devices are capable of generating a light phase containing very little water. The centrifuge heavy phase pro vides an ideal feed for the PACE Oil-

/Water Separator. It is solids-free, and the oil content ofthe emulsion is minimized.

At the same time,FAST Systems' PACE Oil/Water Separator has uniAd Index Ability Group Aer-O-Flo

Big 0 Bondar Clegg


29 OBC


Cancoppas CD Nova CEO

Davis Controls

Deep Stiaft

Mann Aqua


Metropolitan Env.





MSU Mississauga












SEW Eurodrive



que characteristics which match very well with those of the centrif uge:

The filter removes entrained solids

•PACE is a continuous process, and can accept the centrifuge heavy phase on a demand

ped from emulsions to over 60

percent, and its oil discharge is therefore an ideal feed for the

the centrifuge. The centrifuge lightphase contains minimal water and is solids-free. It is suitable for sale.

The centrifuge heavy--phase nor mally contains several hundred


The concept of combining PACE and centrifuge characteristics into an integrated system dates back

It was originally

developed to recover saleable oilfrom

producing oil wells in the final stage of flooding.

Problem Statement. A stamping plant produces approximately 4,800 gallons per day of oily wastewater with an average oil content of approximately 70 percent. This oil content is too high for simple ultrafiltration to be either technically or economically feasible. At the same

time, the water content of 30 percent is too high to permit either sale of the oil or cost-free disposal. The result is that 1.5 million gallons per year are being hauled at very sub stantial cost to the operation. This provides the basis for on-site pro cessing with an attractive payback. In addition,labour costs and skill requirements are critical. The

equipment must be operated with an absolute minimum of human inter vention, and must be maintainable

PPM oil. This heavy-phase is fed to the PACE Oil/Water Separator. Able to process chemical emul sions, PACE produces oil-free water (normally less than 15 PPM)which can be legally discharged. The oil stripped from the emulsion is con centrated to over 60 percent and is

then returned to the process.

If that were the complete descrip tion,the system would not work!The centrifuge and PACE unit are inter connected in a unique manner to provide a regenerative and continu ous process which capitalizes on the best features of both. Continuous Process.

The overall process is continuous and self-


• The paper filter senses pres sure drop and indexes on a demand basis. This maintains

desired throughput while min imizing paper consumption. • The centrifuge runs continu ously, concentrating oil in the light-phase to predetermined levels and removing oil from the heavy-phase.

by ordinary personnel. Given the flows and savings possible, this

• The PACE unit runs on a

effectively rules out chemical treat ment, dissolved air flotation and other labour-intensive approaches. The oil concentration varies sub

ped and started at any time. It automatically discharges oilfree water and ejects accumu

stantially from day-to-day. As a result, a simple centrifuge installa tion would not ensure a light phase with a high enough oil content to permit resale. At the same time, the centrifuge heavy phase still con tains too much oil to permit legal discharge. Variability is the hallmark of

industrial wastewater. A properly designed system must be capable of producing the desired result despite

demand basis. It can be stop

lated oil as the oil is stripped from the emulsion.

The individual subsystems are fully interlocked and their operation is balanced using simple level con trols.

Self-Cleaning. Since the paper filter

cycles on a demand basis, the only human intervention required is peri odic replacement ofthe feed roll. The

centrifuge is a self-cleaner. That is, the bowl is automatically flushed and dumped at regular intervals to


8, 20

Thomas Env.


Victaulic Watdoc Westech


tent, solids loading,etc. Last but not

prevent accumulation of colloidal


least, the system must provide a

solids. Circle reply card No. 163




payback sufficient to warrant expenditure of capital funds.




substantial variations in oil con

System Operation. Raw wastewater 46


Filtered wastewater is then fed to


•PACE concentrates oil strip

several years.

and deposits them in a hopper for disposal as a relatively dry solid

Terminal City

Environment Show

viously used to collect wastewater

for the hauler, this tank now acts as a surge buffer. Wastewater passes through an indexing paper filter.


Degremont Infiico 28 Denso

6 19

Canadian Nuclear Assn.



Can Am Instruments

FAST Systems Gorman-Rupp

is collected in a large tank. Pre By Alan Fleischer*

*Alan Fleischer is the President of FAST Systems, Inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1989

SAMPLE SIGMA...CANADA Liquid samplers combining sample integrity with

intake, STREAMLINE™ initiates a high pressure "

rugged practicality... that's STREAMLINE™.

purge and tries again. Most importantly, we understand that samplers get rough treatment...

STREAMLINE™ innovation includes a patented liquid sensing system. Unlike other peristaltic pump sam

and STREAMLINE™ will take it. Electronics are

plers, STREAMLINE™ delivers repeatable volumes by

isolated in a watertight NEMA 4x, 6 housing and the roto-molded polyethylene case is more impact resistant than the ABS common to other samplers.

automatically compensating for changing lifts. And if

the first attempt to take a sample fails due to a plugged

l=f 3

■ V; Distributed By:

"Complies with MISA Specifications" Portable Samplers•Refrigerated Samplers Ground Water Samplers•Open Channel Flowmeters

Representatives Across CanaM

% /


2495 Raines Road

Mississauga,Ontario L4Y 1Y7 Tel (416) 277-0331 FAX (416) 277-2588

can plastic storm sewer pipe withstand 104 feet of fill?


YOU BET IT CAN! Some people think that polyethylene pipe is not strong enough for high fill applications. Big 'O' says they're wrong - and has the evidence to prove iti

Test results* show that corrugated high density polyethylene pipe - H DPE - performs better under high fill conditions tfian traditional

Introducing BOSS N-12™ If optimum hydraulics is your concern, try our new BOSS N-12 smoothwall pipe. BOSS N-12 has the familiar corrugated exterbr for strength PLUS a smooth interior with a Manning's'n 0.012-just right for storm sewers or culverts.

piping materials.

BOSS™ corrugated and Boss N-12 smoothwall pipe - practical, reliable solutions to your storm water problems. Make a point of getting to know them

After burial under 32 m(104ft.) of fill along Route 279 north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 600 mm (24-inch) pipe registered just 3to 4% vertical deflection. Concrete pipe installed upstream and

better. Ask for our free software and

manual on the design of storm sewer and infiltration trenches with polyethylene pipe. Software is available for IBM PC/XT/AT or compatibles.

downstream under the same conditions failed.

But strength isn't the whole story. HDPE delivers excellent resistance to both

chemical attack and abrasion - many times greater than either concrete or

*For more irrformation, contact Big 'O' at: Big'O'Corporate Office


254 Thames Road East

Exeter Ontario NOM ISO

(519)235-0870 Abbotsford, B.C. (604)850-0753 Taber, Alberta (403)223-3521 Longueull, Quebec (514)651-0403


Circle reply card No. 136


Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1989  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1989  

Profile for esemag