Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) April 1989

Page 1


(SQ(gI?Q(S(g April 1989

A Davcom Business Publication


Rent-a-mob — Canada's free trade edge — a comment Proper sampling is critical for MISA objectives Understanding flow measurement principles Designing submersibie pumping stations

Quebec to spend $1.5 biiiion Is our drinking water safe?



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Circle reply card No. 126 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


Sales mrector STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Cra\A/ford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.

|(5Q®DQ(S® ® April 1989, Vol. 2 No. 2 Issued April, 1989

CONTENTS Rent-a-mob — Canada's free trade edge


A satirical look at the protest industry by Tom Davey Industry Update

Reports on MISA, CEPA Priority Substances and CFC recovery


Understanding flow measurement principles Article by George Pastoric


Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and Industrial


systems, energy

Quebec to spend $1.5 billion AQTE report from Hull by Tom Davey




drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and

Tips on the design of large submersible pumping stations

control, solid and hazardous waste

Article by Michael Wimmer


Proper sampling is critical for MiSA objectives Article by Valerie Todd and Steve Black


treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety. ES&E's readers include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental




wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and

Literature Reviews

An up-to-date range of information for specifiers

19 &26


ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research Institutions, environmental associa tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever

for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives),orotherfacsimilies of the written or graphic material

Huntsviiie waterworks — designed to harmonize with environment


R&D News — a scientific synopsis of water pollution Research and Development supplied by CAWPRC


What's New

for consideration.

A range of sampling, flow and pumping products

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora,

for specifiers


Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ

mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who mav quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $35.00 for one year, $65.00 for two years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $50.00, $90.00 for two years; other for eign $70.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $25.00 single issue. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

is our water safe to drink?


A commentary by Bob Ferguson, P.Eng. 'Ad Index' Aer-0-Flo BCA Industrial Bennett

Bondar Clegg Bristol Myers Can Am Canadian Drives Canadian Nuclear CEO


36 34 12 44 14 31 11

22, 23 10 2

Davis Controls

Ecodyne Enpoco Environment Show FAST

Flygt Geneq Gorman Rupp MacLaren

Mann Aqua

9, 21 15, 24 34 31 28 25 16 8 29 38

Mann Testing Metcon MISA Nortech

Bobbins & Myers Rockwell

SE\y Eurodrive Solinst

Terminal City Thomas Env.

43 18 5 33 34 20 17 27 7 14. 28

Sustained growth in harmony with the environment is the objective of al l environmental professionals

and artistically portrayed by our cover, courtesy. Totten, Sims, Hubicki. A water treatment story by the firm is on page 21.

Environmental Science & Engineering. April 1989

C&rwKlian Business I

CCAB membership applied for Jan. 1989 3

— Editorial comment by Tom Davey—

Rent-A-Mob — Canada's free trade edge

Many feared that Cana

trained at Winnipeg's Portage and Main area, giving them a winter endurance capability unmatched in North America. Designated as the Prairie survival mode, it gives an important psychological advantage in many campaigns. Research has shown that viewers often develop empathy with outdoor protests

dian companies would be swamped with the size and expertise of US

firms when Free Trade became a

reality. But C anadian supremacy is clearly emerging in one sector - the protest group business. The first Rent-A-Mob franchise

watched on TV in the comfort of

sprung up in California and,in true Canadian tradition, branch-plant operations quickly followed here. It is already clear that the Canadian genre is superior to parent opera

warm living rooms. In the Maritimes, special options such as gnarled, weatherbeaten fishermen

tions in the United States. Canadian



chises now offer a full range of scien tifically mixed groups which can he blended to suit particular protest situations.

Contentious environ

mental issues in particular have become a lucrative source of busi

ness. Fully computerized protest operations now also offer precisionblended demographic options gua ranteed to arouse media interest

while applying maximum pressure

on politicians. Placards, and other graphic aids used in protests, are available at reasonable rates.

'Extras' with largely nonspeaking parts, who merely wave banners while grunting slogans,(up to five monosyllabic words in

length) are available at discount rates. Protesters who actually understand what they are saying are extra. There's also a range of

pious hypocrites who can drip with sincerity on demand. For nuclear protests, 'extras' are available wearing T shirts bearing such slogans such as "2-4-6-8-we don't want to radiate!" Clients are warned it could be unwise to ask

these extras to actually count up to eight during TV interviews without careful coaching. Besides a wide range of provoca tive placards and banners, other protest aids are available,including bottles of genuine'Acid Rain'. These are ideal for sprinkling on the steps of legislative buildings or multi national headquarters. So far they have proven irresistible to gullible TV cameramen who film with the

mistaken idea that they are report ing hard news.

addressing complicated issues with an irritating manner while speaking from a lofty moral plane. They usually come in a modishly dressed, meticu lously arranged, casual look, comprising sandals, medallions and expensive woolens. Other options include tweed-clad gen teel types with affected English accents, guaranteed to put proletarian teeth on edge. At the other end of the protest spectrum, a special breed of bluecollar rednecks has been recruited

from louts involved in spectator

involving big oil companies. But Ontario is unrivalled in

its range of petulant protesters. Many have spent most of their lives in a university environ ment, being almost totally unsullied by the real world. Some of these professional stu dents have heen on the public teat for so long, their mouths have become 'O' shaped. The sheer abundance and depth of talent




allows organizers to assemble large, impressive gatherings which have had a high success rate in political intimidation. These academic protesters can

can add a most effective and con

which can break wineglasses. This unique and powerful species, Hockus Maternus, evolved over gen erations of pre-dawn Pee Wee

vincing dimension to any protest situation. By combining the inher ent Gallic verbal flair, with the emo tional Latin temperament, these groups can transform simple land fill hearings into events which resemble the storming of the Bas tille.

Canadian firms believe that

this emotional bonus gives them a definite edge over their counterparts in the United States.

Another Canadian plus can be

also be mixed with a blend of mal

contents which may include espe cially selected hockey-mothers, a deadly species of female found only in Canada.

Some of these are

leather-lunged ladies with tungsten-

tipped tonsils, capable of shrieks

hockey games.

When precision timing is com bined with a scientifically balanced, demographic mix,the results inevit ably attract news media more inter ested in colourful presentations than intellectual substance.

In the majority ofinstances,such protests achieve a public awareness

found in British Columbia where

which is completely disproportion

the protesters have especially mus cular forearms, capable of carrying heavy banners and placards for

ate to the merits of the issues. The


ultimate irony is that all too often, noisy, single-issue, pressure-groups can impose their will on a quiet, complacent majority - all in the name of democracy.

picket-line confrontations - a bonus feature offered without charge to

Rent-A-Mob has been adapted from a

Some firms offer clean-cut, artic

hours, with no sign of fatigue. This

capability evolved over generations

Other options may include an array of professorial dilet tantes with a capability of


fights at Toronto Argonaut football games. Their brief attention spans can result in a'continuous interrup tion mode' which quickly saps the intellectual energy of those trying to debate a reasonably balanced case to the public. There is also a special breed of impassioned protester - specially selected and trained in Quebec - who

ulate, university-educated protes ters with larynxes skilled in the enunciation of scientific terms.

are available.

posed against a picturesque back drop such as Peggy's Cove, their softly-spoken statements, simply oozing with sincerity, make excel lent protest material for projects

of labour



satire In Tom's book: 'All the views

West Coast clients.

In the Prairies,special groups are

fit to print'.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

HELPCLEANUP ONTAItm WATERWAYS • Ontario's waters are a precious resource. It is no longer acceptable to use them as a dumping ground for discharges that threaten our drinking water, fisheries and wildlife.

• The Ontario government is now adopting tough new measures to stop water

pollution at its source. MISA — Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement — will systematically cut back the flow of toxic pollutants with enforceable regulations that get tougher as abatement technology gets better. • All of Ontario's municipal sewage treatment plants and major industries will be regulated under the Environmental Protection Act. Convicted violators

of the act face fines of up to $100,000 a day and jail sentences. • MISA first develops monitoring regulations which require dischargers to

report the presence and quantities of toxic substances in theireffluent. This information is then used to formulate abatement regulations which set limits — at the source — on toxic dishcharge.

• But that's just the start. Water and biological studies will determine if these limits adequately protect the quality of the receiving water body and its aquatic inhabitants. If they do not, more stringent limits will be set. • MISA is tough, but also fair. Ful l public consultation plays a vital role in each step of the program. Before regulations are made law, your help is necessary. Monitoring regulations for the following sectors will soon be issued in draft form: metal casting, electric power, municipal sewage treatment plants and industrial minerals. Take this opportunity to make your voice heard. Your comments are invited. Your comments are necessary.

Our goal-the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminantsfrom all discharges into Ontario's waterways. Forfurther information on the


upcoming regulations, please contact: MISA Communications 135 St. Glair Avenue West

6th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M4V1P5



Municipal/industrial Strategy for Abatement

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Environment Ontario Jim Bradley, Minister

Circle reply card No. 133

Industry Update — study of Vernon's water supply system In B.C., a number of modifications and extensions have been made to

Vernon's water supply system over the last fifteen years following a comprehensive water study in 1974. The upgrading altered the flow dis tribution within the system. This, coupled with recent drought condi tions, prompted the city to commis sion Associated Engineering to carry out a master water study to investigate future improvements and system planning over the next several decades. The




recent years have changed the way in which the city water supply sys tem operates. A new and compre hensive study of the system was needed.

Associated Engineering is con ducting a study with two specific objectives: • to review existing water supply sources in terms of quality and quantity and the adequacy of the existing system to meet present and future demands.

•to investigate alternative water supply sources which may he util ized to meet the city's requirements to the year 2020.

The study will utilize the compu ter model of the existing water supply system prepared by the city in 1986 using the WATER program to address the future requirements of the city for water supply distribu tion and storage.

MISA forges ahead The Ontario Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement team is forging ahead with its formidable program. The following MISA Draft Effluent Monitoring Regula tions were recently released: • Iron and Steel Sector (released for a 30-day public comment period on Feb. 9, 1989) • Mineral Industry "Group A" (released for a 30-day public com ment period on Feb. 23, 1989) •Pulp and Paper Sector(released for a 30-day public comment period on March 2, 1989) • Inorganic Chemical Sector (released for a 30-day public com ment period on March 30, 1989). The release of the four draft efflu

ent monitoring regulations brings the number of sectors where draft

regulations have been developed to six. In addition to the 4 listed above, draft regulations have been deve loped for the Petroleum Sector and the Organic Chemical Manufactur ing Sector.

First priority substances list released The federal government identified 44 substances, including chemical families, for priority assessment as required under the new Canadian Environmental Protection


(CEPA). The Priority Substan ces List, was developed after six months of work by a panel of experts. As outlined in CEPA, each life cycle stage of the selected substan ces will be assessed for environmen

tal and human health impacts in order to guide the development of regulations. The government must complete assessments of all 44 substances

within a maximum of five years. Dioxins,furans, pulp mill effluents, arsenic, benzene, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons(PAHs), methyl tertiary - hutyl ether, and waste crankcase oils are the nine substances slated for earli est assessment.

About one-third of the priority

international sources.

The expert panel, chaired by Dr. Ross Hume Hall of McMaster Uni

versity, faced a major task in select ing candidate priority substances from thousands of industrial emis sions and effluents.

"The Priority Substances Listis a triumph for public input in this important area of public policy.And while it does not resolve the problem completely, it represents the first bite of a large meal,"added Dr. Hall. Dr. Hall and Environment Minis

ter Lucien Bouchard, said impor tant substances that do not appear on the list, such as chlorofluorocarhons(CFCs),lead, and mercury, are already regulated under CEPA. The government will examine options for strengthening controls over those substances. As well, such

important substances as halons and nitrogen oxides are the subject of international agreements, and ongoing regulatory efforts are being

substances are families of chemi

conducted in that context.

cals or effluents, each comprising up

CEPA provides a systematic approach to controlling toxic sub stances in Canada. The Priority Substances List is a key component in the control of chemicals already

to several hundred substances. The

list will be opened for review within three years in order to permit adjust ments or additions based on new data received from Canadian and

in use.

Final monitoring regulations have been developed for the Petro leum Refining Sector. Within the next few months, final monitoring regulations should be promulgated for the following sectors: Organic Chemical Manufacturing, Iron and Steel, Mineral Industry "Croup A", Pulp and Paper, and Inorganic Chemicals. Draft monitoring regu lations will be released shortly for the Metal Casting Sector. The three remaining sectors (Electric Power, Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants, and Industrial Minerals) will have draft monitoring regula tions by summer or early fall. Details from Frank Giorno,(416) 323-4648.

Water Pollution

Research Symposium The 24th Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, spon sored by Environment Canada and the Canadian Association on Water

Pollution Research and Control, was held at the Canada Centre for

Inland Waters in Burlington, Onta rio, February, 1989. This was one of the most successful of these annual

symposia with 132 delegates attend ing either of the two parallel techni cal sessions.

The session on water pollution control technology included six pap ers dealing with modelling for environmental

control, three


demonstration projects, and three describing laboratory studies. The parallel session on the impact of pol lutants on aquatic ecosystems included three research papers in each of the following subject areas: analytical procedures, environmen tal impact assessment, pollution effects at the ecosystem level, and biological aspects of toxic contami nation. LETTER

Dear Tom:

It was a treat for my family and I to enjoy your contribution to my retirement dinner. Down through the years it was always a pleasure to hear from you as you were one ofthe rare voices in the journalistic field who wrote very intelligently, accu rately and well about environmen tal matters.

Sincerely, Frank Horgan, P.Eng. Note: Mr. Horgan retired as Metro Toronto Works Commissioner, Feb

ruary 28 and some 550 eminent peo ple crowded the Royal York for his retirement dinner. Bob Ferguson, P.Eng., was master of ceremonies at a most spectacular evening, tak ing over as Commissioner the next day.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989




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Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 102

Industry Updatedeveloped by Union Carbide Can ada, complemented by the unique

Molecular sieves for

CFCs Recovery Much effort has been exerted by responsible corporations to elimi nate cblorofluorocarbons from pro ducts such as aerosols, but until environmentally acceptable replacements have been developed, there are many applications where CFCs will continue to be used. While

eliminating the use of CFCs is the ultimate objective, the immediate

need is to reduce as far as possible CFCs emissions to the atmosphere. Union

Carbide Canada believes

that certain products and processes may bold the key to controlling these emissions.

The highly volatile nature of CFCs requires that systems to cap ture CFC vapors incorporate either sophisticated low temperature cool ing systems, or high pressure ves sels. Such systems, while not generally economical,can be used at central facilities designed to handle large quantities. They are not prac tical in situations in which refriger ation, or air conditioning systems are repaired in the typical small scale residential, or industrial operations. Novel proprietary technology


one of a new family of synthetically manufactured hydrophobic adsor bents developed by Union Carbide.

Tests by an independent research laboratory, ORTECH International (formerly Ontario Research Foun dation) have clearly demonstrated that silicalite can indeed preferen tially adsorb CFCs from gas streams, at concentrations ranging from less than 0.5% (V/V) to 100% (V/V). Thus a control mechanism is envisaged, whereby canisters of sil

It is a crystalline, inorganic com pound manufactured in the form of pellets, or powder, which has a proven ability to selectively adsorb

person's equipment. 'The air containing the CFCs would be col lected and passed through the canis

properties of silicalite, a molecular sieve adsorbent, offers both mobil ity and cost-effectiveness for con

trol/recovery systems irrespective of size.

The silicalite molecular sieve is

organic molecules from liquid or gas streams. After adsorption, the chemical component(s) can be desorbed from the silicalite by purg ing and subsequently recovered by condensation under controlled pro cess conditions. This particular technology, combined with silicalite's organics removal efficiency, offers a particularly attractive solu tion to the immediate environmen

tal concern. Not only will emissions from current CFC sources be abated, but potential releases from newly created ones will be avoided, since a high purity CFC product is reco vered which is suitable for recycling and reuse. Recycling is the key first step in reducing emissions, or waste

icalite would be part of every repair

ters. Once saturated the canisters will then be returned to a central

processing facility where the silical ite would be regenerated and the CFC recovered for reuse. Union




accumulated a significant amount of proprietary information on the recovery/recycling of organics, including some very similar to the most commonly used CFCs. While additional development work is required to adapt the process to other specific CFCs, it is believed that the state of its technology would ensure that rapid validation and implementation can be

achieved. Details: Mrs. D. Flllpovlch, P.Eng. (416) 322-1618

Lick waste water handling probiems with Gorman-Rupp pumps With thousands in service, Gorman-

Rupp pumps are engineered for high performance and built for reliability and long life. Features such as solids handling capabilities, easily removable end-plate for quick servicing and

space-age control technology for safe, precise operation, make Gorman-Rupp pumps your best solution.

T-Senes Emergency Standby Pump with Autostart air-cooled engine. 3" to 10" sizes.

Duplex T-Series Pump Package with piping, valves and controls for automatic,

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Distributors across Canada. Consult the Yellow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

Circle reply card No. 103 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Understanding flow measurement principles ing technologies to see which might be the most desirable.

Techniques available to deter mine continuous open channel flow rates include;

• Empirical equations in conjunc tion with level measurements(Man ning's Equation), • Flume/weir primary elements used in conjunction with secondary level measuring devices, • Velocity level meters using veloci ty/area method. The first method is a slope/area method where the conduit itself acts

as a primary element. While the empirically derived equations can be correct, the actual slope of the


surface of the flowing water may differ significantly from that of the invert of the pipe and therefore be very difficult to measure. Rough

By George Pastoric*

pen channel flowmeter ing has become an area of increasing concern in light of new legislations

aimed at reducing pollution of our

All of this detracts from their

main concern, simply to measure

ness of the conduit lining is also a factor which, since it is not con stant, can be at best an estimate. Weirs and flumes offer tradi


tional solutions shaping a flow so

Once we define the application, we see before us a limited range of

that the level of the surface is in a

technologies available to meet the application. The user can then begin to evaluate various flowmeter


known relationship to flowrate. Measured level is worked back to Continued overleaf

water systems.

Authorities are imposing string ent demands on dischargers,asking them to report both the quality and quantity of materials being dis charged. Both sides are caught in a struggle to develop and work within

achievable terms of compliance. Flow measurement can be diffi

cult in that the original designs of discharge lines do not lend them selves very well to the installation requirements of most flowmetering technologies. Add the fact that these lines are never full, and that the level in these pipes is constantly changing - conditions which some flowmeters cannot cope with. Finally, flow monitoring may only be required for a limited time in some applications. This means that

Leak detection for

underground storage tanks. Proven

technology intrinsically safe @

the expense and trouble associated with accessing a suitable flowmeter

ing site, let alone that of installing any primary device can keep com pliance officers busy with construc tion projects when they should be looking at other concerns. Implementing a flowmetering technology that will fulfill the required accuracies can leave indus tries with large and costly construc tion projects which could involve fabrication of flowmetering sites and primary elements worth much more than the cost of any selected flowmeter(s).

The new Series DMS from Warrick Controls is the solution for

underground storage tank monitor ing. Utilizing intrinsically safe com ponents, the Series DfylS actively monitors up to fourtank systems for over-fill protection, leak detection

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

and can distinguish between hydro carbons and water.

The Series DMS is available for

double wall fibreglass and steel tanks, fuel tanks, chemical tanks

and monitoring wells. For more detailed information, write or call...

Dqvis Controls LIMITED

4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3

(416) 233-3211 Telex 06-967684 Fax (416) 239-2386

Circle reply card No. 104

Understanding flow measurement continued

Weirs can be adversely affected by the buildup of suspended solids and excessive approach velocities. They also cause a fairly high head loss.

Flumes are more expensive and more difficult to install, but offer better performance in the presence of suspended solids. Proper installa tion of flumes is critical to avoid

large errors. Both of these devices are also sub

ject to the ability of a level measur ing device to see the level and work it back through characterization to a flow rate.

Neither of these devices is of any use in a surcharge condition. Level measuring devices can also be some what affected by fog or mist, foam and echoes. The third method is that of veloc

ity and level measurement. A sen sor mounted in the invert of the pipe measures point velocity and point

level, working these electronically to represent mean velocity and cross sectional area. Q = Vx A,i.e.,Flow = velocity times area.

The sensor — as used by MarshMcBirney - is both a magnetic

velocity sensor and a differential pressure sensor. The two are com bined into a compact streamlined shape that can be easily hand held. It can be foot-mounted or mounted on stainless steel bands.

The technology is derived from spherical magnetic flowmeters first developed by Marsh-McBirney in 1971 to measure water current veloc

ities in two axes; the sum of the vectorial components offering current velocity and direction.

These systems offer benefits such as:

•Quick and easy installation, as the channel itself acts as a primary ele ment, the compact sensor is quite easy to install; • Compact size and easy installa tion also allows for an ability to withdraw the unit from the applica tion to verify its calibration or to measure flow in another application; •The ability to use the same unit to derive flow profiles to determine mean velocities (using a number of empirically derived methods);

The open-channel flow sensors were modified from the original sen sors to suit the application. This meant working with a single set of • During a surcharge condition, the flowmeter will indicate the actual electrodes for single axis bi directional velocity measurement, full pipe flow rate associated with the application, while the level mea incorporation of a differential pres surement might indicate a greater sure transducer to offer level mea surement and changing the shape of number giving an indication as to the new probe to offer negligible the extent of the surcharge. head loss, negligible affect on the These flowmeters proved as suc flow profile and a very low potential cessful in practice as they are simple for hang up of debris. in theory. They continue to repres ent a simple and elegant solution for They chose to stick with the mag netic measuring principle, as it is a most difficult range of flowmeteraccurate and reliable, resistant to ing applications. ES&E fouling and also because its local velocity measurement is accurate while independent of the electrical or acoustic properties of the flow *Mr. Pastoric is with Aer-0-Flo Envir media.


Confined-space entry

Available when needed


Consulting Engineers


The availability of specialized engineering talent is one of our

country's most valuable assets.


Regardless of the require ment, qualified indepen dent engineering firms are ready to effectively assist government, indus try and related profes sions. Their diverse skills

The Uni-Hoist is a confined-space

can be economically utilized, and only for the

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duration of the need.

Consulting engineers provide cost-effective, timely and technologically appropriate solutions to today's complex problems. From initial studies to successful completion, they deliver the ideas, the design and the management. For the names of firms with the

experience to help you, contact:

The Consulting Engineers of Ontario 86 Overlea Boulevard, Suite 403, Toronto, Ontario l\/i4H 1C6 Telephone; (416) 425-8027

Ontario Is great because it was engineered that way


Circle reply card No. 105 10

Consulting Engineers

of Ontario

around underground util ity vaults, sewers, pipelines, vats, storage tanks and other such confined spaces. It breaks down into two pieces and sets up in seconds. Total weight is 24.5 kg. May be used for lowering workers into confined spaces as well as emer gency rescue. The retrieval speed is 6 m/minute. Constructed of light weight anodized aluminum. More detailed information available.


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Circle reply card No. 106

Inacommuniqueissued atthe

17th AQTE Congress in Hull, Madame Lisa Bacon, Que

bec Vice-Premier and Envi

ronment Minister, announced a $1.5 billion clean up program - $200 mil lion to be spent on new projects. Funding will be over a three year period. Some $63 million will be allo cated to communities on the St.

Lawrence in order to clean up the river. Since 1987,229 municipalities have been allocated $877 million on clean up programs which will run

f1.5 billion A technical advisor from the min

istry then responded, presenting scientific data on treatment methods

such as ozonation, following which, he assured the questioner, such treated water would be safe.

One is always struck by the bluntness of Quebec's environmen tal professionals and no one speaks with greater forthrightness than AQTE men and women. A former AQTE President, Jean Paul Lane-

tot, issued a stirring ultimatum a few years ago which is proving to be prescient. From now on, he said, there must be no choice between the

construction of projects such as are nas - or those schemes which will

lead to the purification of drinking water in Quebec. Such massive funding is a clear indication that the choice has now

been made;the goal of pure water in Quebec clearly winning over are nas. 'I'om Davey

until 1996. She invited 119 munici

palities to participate in a new plan to clean up Quebec's waterways. The announcement is palpable evidence of AQTE's pioneering efforts over the years. When I first visited AQTE in 1968, the infant group was a veritable David facing a Goliath of environmental indiffer

ence in the province. In its 27 years the Association quebecoise des tech niques de I'eau has grown into a for midable group with tangible progress to its credit. Men like Dominique Lamoureaux and the late, and great, Pat Bourgeois, paved the way to make AQTE one of the most effective environmental

groups in Canada.

"Drinking water problems in Quebec are both simple and com plex," Gaston Blackburn,ministe rial delegate of Environment Quebec said at an AQTE congress press conference. They are simple if one compares Quebec's problems with many coun tries,even continents, be said;then I can assure you that our drinking water is of very good quality. But if one considers the panoply of organic and inorganic elements and chemicals to which humans may be susceptible - then the situation is complex.










He cited chlorine as an example. This disinfection method removes

major public health problems aris ing from pathogenic organisms which give rise to water-borne dis eases. However, this method also can develop trihalomethanes which could have potential health risks. At the press conference,the ministerial delegate was questioned by repor ters on the safety of drinking water drawn from the St. Lawrence even after treatment. A Radio Canada


Canadian Drives Inc. Specialists in Mechanical & Electrical Power Transmission Equipment

journalist enquired about a munici pality which wishes to use water from a lake, rather than use the St.


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Lawrence as a raw water source.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 107 11

Tips on the design of iarge submersibie pumping stations By Michael WImmer*

Environmental concerns

Inlet chamber

Pump ciiamber

Partition wall


have spurred a lot of acti vity in recent years with in industry and munici palities. A realization that indus trial effluents and municipal waste-

water must be contained and treated

has focused the attention of engi neering firms to come up with costeffective ways to deal with these problems. Accordingly, the trend to use increasingly large submersi ble pumps in compact, spacesaving, underground pumping stations has risen dramatically. Submersible pumps up to 400HP are now commonly used and the largest available units now exceed 700HP. This, in turn, has raised a number of ques tions concerning the design and dimensioning of large submers ible pumping stations. Literature available is mainly confined to presenting experience obtained from conventional pump-

o x-^ Bottom outlet

Fig. 1 Schematic drawingof the sump

ing stations with pumps for dry installation. Some rules generally apply, of course, but a great deal of additional information is needed by those responsible for designing sta tions to accommodate large sub mersible pumps. A considerable amount of basic

development was required within the area "How should the optimum

pumping station for submersible pumps be designed?" Flygt, one of the largest manufacturers of electric submersible drainage and sewage

pumps, decided to test its own theor

ies and also obtain new solutions by addressing some of its questions to

an independent scientific authority. The company chose the Uni versity of Nottingham, Eng land, an institution internation ally regarded in the hydraulics field.





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Circle reply card No. 108

The university was asked: In terms of hydraulic considerations, bow should pumping stations for large submersible pumps be designed? This involved investiga tion into a number of factors, all of which are important for both the manufacturer of large pumps and for pumping station designers. All design experiments were car ried out using a scale model accom modating modified small standard sewage pumps. The geometric scale used was 1:3. Inlet design of the model pumps, the location of the dis cbarge connection, etc., were modi fied so that they resembled the full-size pumps, both externally and internally. The results of these tests pro vided the basic data for the general rules and recommendations pres ented here, which cover most of the problems likely to be encountered in connection with the design of pump ing stations for large submersible

pump should be uniform, steady, •

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without swirl and without air, either entrained from a free surface, or released in local low pressure

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


Lack of uniformity can

lead to the motor operating away

from the optimum condition and reducing the hydraulic efficiency. An unsteady flow will cause fluc tuating loads on the motor, leading to noise, vibration, possibly with consequent bearing problems. It may also lead to a reduction in pump capacity. In order to design a satisfactory sump, the following points need to

Cmax ;•

be considered:

• Flow of water from the sump entrance should he directed approp

200 mm

riately towards the pump inlets in


order to achieve a flow with a min

imum of swirl and hydraulic loss. •In order to eliminate air entraining surface vortices in the sump, walls

must he placed so that stagnation regions in the flow are avoided as much as possible. In the immediate neighborhood of the pump inlet, it is often desirable to have a wall close

to the inlet to reduce any tendency to localized swirl and vorticity which can cause local air-cored or cavitat-

ing vortices. To avoid surface vorti ces, water depth must be greater than a certain minimum value.

• Although excessive turbulence or large eddies are to he avoided,some turbulence is useful in preventing the development and growth of per sistent vortices.

• Sediment, which could become foul, must not accumulate within the sump. Stagnant or very low velocity regions where sedimenta tion might occur are to be avoided. A sloping floor and fillets or benching are often used to assist in prevent

ing sedimentation. • Surface scum, floating sludge or general small debris sometimes remain in relatively quiet regions of the water surface; such material must be pumped away. The water level should he lowered as much as

possible at intervals so that veloci ties





increased, provided that air is not


drawn into the pump. This will also assist in preventing any tendency

water strikes a target or baffle wall. • In some circumstances, pumping

for the accumulation of sediment on the floor.

may be virtually continuous; in oth ers, the pump(s) may operate inter mittently or relatively infrequently,

•In some cases, partition walls may be required between pumps in a multi-pump installation. These walls will follow the general princi ple of being close to the pumps on either side.

• Many sumps receive water from a source at a relatively high inlet level, falling a significant distance into the sump. This will especially be the case whenever the pumps have lowered the water level in the

sump to the point at which all pumps are about to stop. It is neces sary to ensure that a minimal amount of air is entrained during this fall and that any air entrained has an opportunity to rise to the sur face before the flow reaches the

pumps; so a sufficiently long flow path between the sump entrance and the pump inlets must be pro vided. The energy of the fall should he dissipated to some extent, other wise excessively high velocities could exist within the sump. These requirements can he met, for exam ple, by arranging that the inflowing

/i t


with a minimal inflow to the sump. Some sumps will receive water at a relatively high level and others will receive it at the low elevation of the

sump floor. • The sump should be as small and as simple as possible in order to min imize the cost of construction. How

ever, a minimum volume of the sump may be specified for other rea sons, in order to provide for a min imum retention time, or to ensure that there are not more than a cer

tain maximum number of pump starts per hour. In addition to pump hydraulic requirements, which will include consideration of Net Posi

tive Suction Head(NPSH),it may he necessary to design the sump to deal specifically with sedimentation problems and to allow for occa sional total drainage. Principles to be adopted in the design of any sump are given in a number of design guides or "codes of practice". Nevertheless, it is not always easy to adopt the principles exactly, therefore, whenever a new design departs significantly from established practices, it is usually recommended that model tests of

the sump and its approaches be undertaken.

The results of the model tests con

ducted by the University of Not

A mm

Bmin .•

tingham have led to a standard or basic sump design (Figure 1) which satisfies the requirements described above. It has the following main features:



Cmax \

• the flow to the pump is as steady and uniform as possible and is free from swirl; • air is not entrained as a result of the elimination of all but small sur

face vortices; Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


Designing submersible pumps,







• air is not released from the water

under the pump inlet as a result of prevention of submerged vortex motion;

• any air entrained at, or near, the entrance to the sump is given ade quate opportunity to rise to the sur face.



Primary air entrainment is min imized by letting the flow from the inlet pipe impinge on and then flow down a partition wall forming an


inlet chamber. The chamber has bottom outlets which restrict the

flow so that it is partially filled with 5369 Maingate Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4W 106 (416) 625-9436

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water. Recirculation within it then

provides some time for the air to escape — some air will be carried forward into the pump chamber and will rise along the underside of the sloping floor of the inlet chamber and then to the free surface.


floor of the inlet chamber is positi oned so that the bottom outlets are

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always below the pump chamber minimum water level in order to

avoid secondary air entrainment. Outlets are in line with the pumps.

Circle reply card No. 140

The partition wall directly oppo site the inlet pipe must be high enough to ensure that the flow does not surge over it. Although the flow


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Circle reply card No. 109

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

in the inlet chamber is very turbu lent, it is still possible for various materials






chamber. Therefore, side overflow weirs or side gaps may be used to

prevent any accumulation of debris. To reduce the stagnation areas in which air entraining vortices could form, the outermost pumps in the

sump should be as close to the side walls as possible. This requirement can be satisfied by providing bench ing as shown in Figure 1.


i 1000 t.



900 800 700





This design, shown in Figure 2, can be used for a single pump as well as for the more common multi-pump system. It occupies a minimum of space and is a basis for more com

t E,F







plex arrangements. Single pump form a multi-pump station. The pump is held on an outlet elbow fixed to an anchor base,

which provides a wall near the pump inlet to minimize swirl of the water under the pump, with flow approaching the pump at right angles. The vertical delivery pipe is set close to the main back wall of the

sump in order to reduce the likeli hood of mass rotation and to sup press any tendency for vortex formation behind the pump. The dimensions shown on Graph 1 have been verified in model tests



units in various combinations can

z1 o



Graph I

Dimensions A — G in mm

and in practice. Overall dimensions required in a particular station are determined by the number and size of pumps to be used and by the"flow per pump". If an increase in sump volume is needed, it is best obtained by increasing dimension A. All dimensions locating the pump and the discharge connection

in relation to the sump floor and the pump base are usually specified in separate literature(Technical Speci fication) by the particular pump manufacturer. SUMP WITH SIDE ENTRY

The same design as shown in Fig ure 2 can also be modified for a side

Potable water.

Portable plant. Graver Monoplants are pre-engineered and pre-assembled into self-contained water treatment units easily transported and quickly installed. Seventeen standard sizes are available to treat from 20

gpm to 500 gpm,for municipal plants and wfierever addi tional or improved water is needed. Eacfi Monoplant contains clarification, filtration, ofiemical feed and gravity backwash systems. Conservatively designed, the Monoplant pro duces water with an effluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU.

For complete information, contact Ecodyne Ltd., Graver Water Division, Oakville, Ontario, 416/827-9821;

Calgary, Alberta, 403/255-9797


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 110 15

Designing submersible pumps,


lar outer structure.


The design principles of the standard rectangular sump can serve as a basis for the development of alternative arrangements. The length required for the basic sump arrangement, when the number of pumps is more than (approx.) six, can he a problem in some cases. In suchcases,a"(ioM6/e sump", with pumps placed on either side of the inlet, could be more con venient and practicable. From the point of view of construction, there can be advantages in using a circu-

structure, individual pump sump modules, similar to those used for the compact sump,can be accommo

entry, either as a mid-high or a hottom entry. In the case of a bottom entry, the inlet chamber is formed solely by the partition wall. (Fig. 3) With the discharge openings placed in the partition wall to guide the flow to the pumps,the top of the partition wall or some part of it, should be below the highest startlevel of any of the pumps, so that floating materials may flow into the pump chamber.

Inside such a


A different configuration utilizes a number of pumps mounted around a central inlet chamber, with a deliv ery chamber above it, as shown in Figure 4. The pumps are supplied from both sides of their support, through the bottom openings in the floor of the inlet chamber and also,

by overflow ports, to deal with high water level in the inlet chamber.

The last example, is drawn from a pumping station representing new, innovative design ideas. This station, with 14 large pumps, was

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carefully model-tested before con struction of the real station.


intention in giving the last example is to show that designs, other than the standard ones, can he success ful. However, any new design needs


careful consideration and should be

assessed by model tests, particu larly if the hydraulics have not been proven in similar previously-built



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Circle reply card No. 111

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Proper sampling critical to meeting MISA objectives unusual discharge to or from the treatment process.

By Valerie Y. Todd and Stephen A. Black*

Proper wastewater samp ling of municipal and in

dustrial wastewater dis

charges is critical to meeting the needs and ohjectives of Ontario's Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement(MISA)pro gram. Representative wastewater sampling is an essential component in developing a data-base to estab lish wastewater characteristics, control process operations, monitor treatment facility performance and assess effluent compliance or noncompliance. MISA monitoring regulations require extensive effluent discharge characterization which can only be realized if the samples collected and analysed accurately represent the discharges being monitored. Indi vidual industrial testing to deter mine quantity and quality of wastewater can be used to ascertain

loadings on municipal water pollu tion control plants (WPCP), aid in pretreatment efficiency evalua tions, alert municipalities of possi ble contaminant pass-through into the receiving waters and allocating cost to treat an industry's wastewater. Wastewater sampling of industrial and municipal effluent discharges to receiving waters is also required to assess the status of compliance with provincial regula

Composite samples consist of a number of grab or individual dis crete samples collected over a period of time, and combined on the basis of volume (fixed-volume-composite) or on the basis of flow (flowproportioned-composite). In a fixedvolume-composite sample, both the size of sample and the time interval between sampling are constant. A fixed-volume-composite sample is

tics at a given point in time. Grab samples are necessary for those analyses which must be performed immediately (eg. pH, dissolved oxy gen or other gases, residual chlo rine, temperature, bacteria), or for volatile organics which may be lost from the sample during open stor age. Grab samples may also be desired






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sampled is fairly consistent with time; when the waste stream flows are intermittent; where a composite sample would observe extreme vari ations in waste constituent concen

Continued overleaf

that holds

power compo

or individual discrete

Flow-proportioned composite

drive performance

nents allows us to



waste water treatment

The type of sample, grab or com posite, fixed-volume or flowproportioned is dictated by many factors including the data being sought, the unit process being sampled, the nature of the waste stream - intermittent or continuous, the variability of the stream constit uents and the regulatory require

samples reflect waste characteris

lected at a fixed or varied time inter

A promise of water/



generally used when the flow rate is known not to vary by more than ±15% such as for cooling water discharges and is often used to sample acti vated sludge in aeration basins, sludge in digestors and cakes from dewatering equipment. Flowproportioned sample volumes represent a defined proportion ofthe plant flow volume and can he col

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trations; or when trying to trace an Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 112


in question. Sampling equipment can be designed-to collect samples as a series of grabs at precise times, thus substituting for manual sam pling; as a series of grabs triggered by a flow measurement device such that the composite sample collected is flow proportioned over a specified time period or a continuous sample for a given time period. Automatic sampling is most effective when samples from several sampling points at frequent intervals are required simultaneously. Thus, automatic sampling may be more

Sampling critical to MISA Continued



manual sam

pling for extended periods of sam pling time. Although there is a possible reduction in human error inherent in manual sampling, the benefits of automatic sampling may be

Cliff Brewer, Darigold (left) and Doug Jackson, G&S,compliance monitoring.

samples are generally more repre

ual conditions present during the sampling period. The option then exists for extra samples to be col


if the


samplers malfunction during peri ods when unattended.


be used during a preliminary survey of the treatment facility. Manual sampling provides the advantage

samplers should be checked and inspected periodically with tubes replaced regularly and worn parts lected to document these conditions. and seals changed. The principal However, the number of hours maintenance strategy for automatic required to sample the wastewater samplers is to keep them clean. over a long period of time may Representative characterization simply cause manual sampling to be of wastewater requires the develop uneconomical. ment of a detailed sampling stra tegy and its effective execution. Automatic sampling is gener Proper and safe sampling tech ally used where a continuous record niques must be followed and sam of wastewater quality is required ples must be appropriately and is best suited for samples with preserved and stored until analysed. dissolved materials such as heavy Many decisions rest on the results of metals and biochemical oxygen wastewater analyses. Valid data demand (BOD). Automatic can only be attained if the sample samplers are available from various collected is representative of the manufacturers, but must be care wastewater being sampled. fully examined to ensure suitability

that the collector can observe unus

for the wastewater characteristics

sentative of the waste stream and

often specified as a regulatory requirement and are used to deter mine both the concentration and

quantity of pollutant being dis charged. Samples may be collected manu ally or by means of automatic sam pling equipment. Manual sampling is required for certain substances such as fats, oils and

greases, and is more appropriate for monitoring volatile organic mate rials. Manual sampling is fre quently used for initial wastewater characterization purposes and can

TN/Manning Portable Samplers

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Requires a Waterworks Engineer

Manning portable samplers have been the stand ard of the industry tor more than ten years. They are easily carried to the site to sample industrial wastes, municipal tlows or partorm stream and river sediment studies. They combine high perfor mance with rugged reliability for exceptional in-

A Waterworks Engineer, university gradu ate, preferably registered with the A.P.E.O. and with 5-10 years water treat ment plant operational and/or design experience in Canada, is required. Expe

the-field accuracy.

•Pressure-vacuum technique assures equalvolume samples independent of draw height, pump running time, hose length or diameter, sample consistency, and even partial hose blockage. •High pressure air purges before and after each sampling cycle assure uncontaminated samples. • High transport velocity prevents solids settling during sampling and provides truly representa tive samples. •Microprocessor-based controls are flexible and precise. •A wide range of contigurafions is available. Discrete, composite, toxic (all glass and Teflon wetted parts), and "suspended solids" or dual purge (air and water).

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(416) 738-2355

Circle reply card No. 113 18



Applications in confidence will be received until May 19,1989 by the General Manager and Secretary, Public Utilities Commission of the City of Brantford, 50 Wellington Street, P.O. Box 308, Brant ford, Ontario, N3T 5N8.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Literature Review New flowmonitor catalogue The latest detectronic 16 page catalogue covering their wide range of ultrasonic flow monitors and alarms for most liquid bas

Water Level Indicator


For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading water, test button, buzzer, op tional light. Solinst Canada Ltd.

ed flows in either closed conduit

or open conduit. Available for slurry flows to relatively clean water flows

Ramsey Lake Industrial Limited

Circle reply card No. 201 e.« T M e If f

Circle reply card No. 200



Two-Wire Level Transmitter Bulletin 50-123 iiiustrates the

Blodegradatlon microblal toxiclty testing New 24 page catalogue of en vironmental laboratory equip mentfrom Bioscience Manage ment Inc., a team of highly train ed specialists in environmental biotechnology - bridging the discipiines of bioiogical science, chemistry and environmental engineering for the efficient cleanup, recycle and reuse of waste products.

economicaily priced Kotron TwoWire Level Transmitter. This

model requires only two wires for both supply voltage and 4-20 mA output, and is CSA and FM listed intrinsicaily safe when used in conjunction with an approved barrier. A full range of rigid and flexibie sensing probes are availabie. The Bulletin briefly de scribes the Principle of Opera tion, the Operating Temperature Range, Minimum and Maximum Span, and other features. Magnetrol International

Quontlme Inc.

Circle replay card No. 202

Circle reply card No. 203

Aqua SBR Sequential Batch Reactor - a very efficient batch type ac tivated siudge treatment system, idealiy suited for high strength

Aqua 35 aerator/mixer

A direct drive aspirator type aerator/directional mixer. Com

bines directionai mixing with ef ficient oxygen transfer. Control and Metering Limited.

wastes and most cost effective

for flows up to 5 MOD. Control and Metering Limited.

Circle reply card No. 205

Circle reply card No. 204

Muffin Monster

Sewage siudge grinder, used typicaliy up stream of belt presses or pumps, the Muffin Monster very efficientiy grinds Afriendoideed INeeesVeneeew IMSn Monsler'chews n



Channel Monster

Horizontal rotating screen used in open channels and eliminates

oversize materials down to a size

a screenings handling problem at the headworks of a system. Control and Metering Limited.

(typicaliy 1/4" x 1/4" x 3/8")that

Circle reply card No. 207

does not affect downstream

equipment. Control and Metering Limited. Circle reply card No. 206

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989



A revolutionary automated meter reading and billing system that increases accuracy, productivity, efficiency, and control. Increases reading productivity. All that's needed to obtain an accurate read

ing is to place the TouchRead System reading to the TouchPad data transfer module on top of the register (pit-set meters), or outside the building (insideset meters), and push a button. This records the meter reading, customer identification number, and the time of

day the reading was taken into the TouchRead System Interrogator/Record er. Both visual and sound feedback let

the reader know that a valid reading has been obtained. These readings are then

ready for direct transfer into

a computer for processing. Increases

reading accu racy. Because the reading comes right from the register and records automatically, human errors in reading and posting are a thing of the past. And because the TouchPad data transfer module is accessible, even

In flooded pits, the TouchRead System virtually eliminates callbacks, curb reads, and other "guesstimates." Automates your billings. For utilities with up to 30,000 accounts, the photo on the right shows essentially ail that's

The TouchRead System includes software that makes it easy to learn and easy to use. The operator needs no specialized knowledge about computers -just typing skills.

needed to maintain customer files, calcu

late and print bills, and produce a wealth of useful management and accounting

reports. For larger systems, the IBM® PC interfaces with most existing mainframe billing computers. Additional TouchRead System benefits • Provides route Information

• Alerts to trouble • Permits reading of other register types • Easy installation, downloading and charging • Streamlines posting and account management • Reduces billing time.


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With inside-set meters, reading is taken from the meter register through the remote TouchPad"' data transfer module. No more

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For more information without obligation send the Action Request form to: BTR Measurement & Flow Control

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MBtBr Reading and Billing Sgstam In Tounh with the future

IBM is a registered trademark of International

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Circle reply card No. 114

Huntsville waterworks — designed to harmonize with naturai environment

Huntsvilleis atthe centre

of a dynamic and grow ing area in Ontario, with good employment opportunities and incomparable

four-season recreational activities.

A busy seasonal tourist industry has in recent years been reinforced further by a number of new residen tial developments, including resortcentred condominium complexes, particularly in the Hidden Valley area.

The Town of Hunstville is one of

six area municipalities in the Dis trict Municipality of Muskoka. It was formed at the inception of Dis trict Government in 1970 from an

amalgamation of the original Town of Huntsville with a former village and four adjacent townships. The natural environment, typical of the Canadian Shield, is one of rugged beauty defined hy steep wooded slopes, lakes, rivers and wetlands. The pres sures exerted hy human devel opment must be managed in an environmentally sensitive way.

The urban community of Hunts ville is served by water supply works which were established originally in 1896 and then constructed at var

ious stages during 1932, 1948 and 1960. The existing source of water is Hunter's Bay, with an intake extending some 90 m into the Bay, drawing water from the 4 m depth. Several years ago the District Municipality of Muskoka adopted a programme for the development of new water supply and treatment facilities to replace the aging system

equal modules,servicing an equival ent population of 8,976 persons in the primary urban community and built-up areas in close proximity. Provision is made for three addi tional modules to be constructed in

future providing an ultimate capac ity of 22,500 m^/d, for an ultimate equivalent population of 22,563 per sons. The nearby resort/recrea tional




included in the ultimate system as the need arises.

All potential surface sources of water in the Huntsville area includ

now in use.

In 1985, Totten Sims Huhicki

ing Fairy Lake, Lake Vernon, Chub

Associates, Engineers, Architects and Planners, in association with Rysco Engineering Corpora tion of Huntsville*, were retained by the District Municipality to pro vide complete engineering services for the project.

Lake,The Narrows and the existing source at Hunter's Bay, as well as groundwater sources, were evalu ated for their suitability as a supply. The optimum source, from Fairy Lake, was selected on the basis of an

The first task was to determine

the limits of the service area, the initial and ultimate populations and plant capacity. The treatment works have been designed with an initial capacity of 9,000 m'Vd in two

evaluation ofeconomic and environ mental considerations. Extensive

water quality sampling and current studies were carried out having regard for the effects of recreational use of the lake and the location of

Continued on page 24 (Announcement)

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Diaphragm Valves +GF+ Diaphragm Valves are

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(416)233-3211 Telex 06-967684 Fax (416) 239-2386

Inc., a new firm of consulting engineers, planners and scientists specializing in the environment.

The firm will commence operations in April at 7270 Woodbine Avenue, 3rd Floor, Markham, Ontario L3R 4B9(416) 475-7270 and plans to have a staff of 15 to 20 people by May. MacViro will help meet the rapidly expanding demand for environmental consulting services. Mr. Gillespie recently announced that Guy Cnoop Koopmans, Howard Slirimpton. Bob Honsberger, Jim Morrison and Dave Merriman have joined MacViro. George Aldworth, an associate consul tant, will work closely with MacVlro's staff.

Circle reply card No. 115 21

A The Human Energy Behind Nuclear Energy Erich KInitz is a graduate of West Humber Coiiegiate. He joined Ontario Hydro's Nuoiear Training Program in 1978 and quaiified as a licenced first operator in August 1985. He is seen here, with his family, at Montgomery Park adjacent to the Pickering Generating Station. They live about three kilometers from the station.

Circle reply card No. 116 22

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Nuclear Energy in Canada

SAFETY BY DESIGN "This is where i work. My family and i enjoy iiving in this community. I care about my family and 1 care about my work."

Operator Erich Kinitz is one of 65 licensed opera tors working shifts at the Pickering Nuclear Gen erating Station east of Toronto. He is in charge of the operation of one of the station's eight nuclear reactors.

"The massive reinforced concrete buildings you see in the background are for only one purpose:

Operators regularly test the independent safety systems to ensure they are in top working order. On-site inspectors from the federal regulatory

agency which licenses the station and its oper ators verify that all safety systems are being properly maintained.

Safety First Recently, the International Atomic Energy Agency sent experts from all over the world to perform a comprehensive safety review of operations at Pickering. "We rate very highly in the eyes of

to protect station staff and this community. If equipment fails or if we make a mistake, these buildings are there to prevent radioactive re

the world. When it comes to safety, we nevertake anything for granted."

leases from leaving the site."

Since CANDU started generating electricity in 1962,there has been one fundamental operating principle: Safety comes first.

F^il Safe Design Every Canadian nuclear reactor is also equipped with independent safety systems which automa tically shut down the reactor in the event of a major malfunction.

"Safety is built into the reactor design,fortified by stringent equipment standards, ingrained into every employee during training and continuous retraining, and reinforced in the day to day oper ation of the station."

"A CANDU reactor's control system is designed to automatically overcome the failure of a com

ponent or system, or a mistake by any station employee." "For instance,electricity is needed to hold shut-off rods above the reactor, if the power fails, gravity takes over and the shut-off rods drop into the reactor, shutting it down. Even if a series of mal functions were to occur, the system would simply shut itself off-independent of human action."

"This is a safe place to work and to live, if it wasn't, my family wouldn't be here. Why not drop by Pickering or one of the other CANDU stations in Canada and judge for yourself?"

For more information please contact: The Canadian Nuclear Association

Department EJ10 111 Elizabeth St., Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P7 or call toll-free: 1-800-387-4477


Canadian Nuclear Association

Association Nucleaire Canadienne


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


Huntsville Waterworks continued

upstream points of discharge. The new water intake(710 mm diameter) extends some 380 m into Fairy Lake and provides a minimum water depth of 12 m. The raw water pumping station at lake side supplies water via 175 m of 500 mm diameter watermain to

the new treatment plant located on the north side of Highway 60, two kilometres west of the Town centre.

The building has been designed to both respect the natural environ ment and present a pleasing public image on its very visible plateau adjacent to Highway 60. The struc ture has been partially buried into



the hill to reduce its mass and still

afford a view of Fairy Lake from planned future residential develop ment to the north.

The exposed aggregate treatment of the exterior precast concrete exte rior walls is a blend of Ottawa Val

ley pink toned aggregates selected to resemble the geological forma tions and outcroppings of metamor phosed granite so prevalent in the Muskoka area. Similar natural treatments have been extended to

the interior of the building. The green tinted glazing with dark green frames





expand the concept that the build ing is in harmony with its natural surroundings. The




designed around the functional and operational requirements of a water treatment facility and still afford a pleasant envir onment for staff.

ested parties. The total cost of the project including watermain improvements is estimated at approximately $11.6 million with 75% of the cost being funded by the MOE. Construction is anticipated to be complete by late 1989. ES&E

The main

entry and major circulation areas respect the fact that this facility will be the subject of educational field trips by local school groups and other inter

* In October 1988 Rysco merged with TSH to operate as a professional practice of Totten Sims Hublcki Associates.

ECODYNE LAMELLA SETTLERS You caift settle for less You can save space and instal lation time when you specify Ecodyne Lamella Settlers.

Ecodyne's 10 years experience in Lamella Settlers includes

single installations up to 90 MGD, treating a variety of raw waters including Great Lakes water. Graver Vt^ter Division

Custom designs are available with plastic or stainless steel plates, galvanized or SS selfsupporting troughs. No field assembly, no maintenance required. You can't settle for less.


We make water work

2201 Speers Road Oakville, Ontario L8L 2X9 Telephone(416)827-9821 Fax (416)827-8428

Other Ecodyne Divisions speciaiize in cooiing towers, evaporators and other process equipment for municipaiities, industry, and utiiities aoross North America.

Circle reply card No. 117

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


Another new idea from Fiygt. ■ Provides clean station environment.

■ Improves operating efficiency. ■ Reduces maintenance costs.

■ Easily retro-fitted to existing installations.

Flygt's new Auto-Cleanse® System solves various problems that arise In many pump stations. The system con sists of three unique components: an Adaptive Pump Control (ARC) unit, a powerful Flush Valve and the patented

NevaClog® impeller. The ARC controls all pumping operations to match the rate of flow. Because It works without a fixed start level,

it prevents the accumulation of grease and solids on the sump wall at any fixed water level. The Flush Valve automatically eliminates the build-up of sludge on the sump's bottom. Along with the ARC, the Flush Valve also inhibits the formation of floating crusts. The patented NevaClog® impeller ensures clog-free flow of highly charged sewage.

The Flygt Auto-Cleanse® System keeps the pumping station free from odour, sludge and grease deposits. It can readily be retro-fitted into

existing Flygt equipped pump ing stations. Best of all, because of reduced station mainten

ance costs, the system pays for itself quickly! For complete Information on this new Auto-Cleanse®

System, contact your nearest Flygt representative and ask to see the

Flygt Auto-Cleanse® video demonstration.

Flush Valvefor automatic prevention ofsludge.

NevaClog impeller for clog-freeflow ofeffluent.



ITT Fluid Technology Corporation

VALVE OPEN:power ful mixing is generated.

VALVE CLOSED:/m// capacity pumped through discharge.

FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514) 695-0100 Telex: 05-821844 Telefax:(514) 697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon ■ Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobicoke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Ciaire ■ Quebec ■ Vai d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. Jotin's (Nfid.) USA: FLYGT CORPORATION, Norwalk, Conn.

Good Ideas Take Flygt.

Circle reply card No. 118

Literature Review THE SUF^VULSATOn

The Superpulsator A super-high-speed clarifler/fiocculator combining the advan tages of a highly concentrated sludge blanket kept in expansion by pulsations and of internal


recirculation of the flocculated

sludge: this recirculation is ef fected by a system of inclined plates with deflectors which are located actually within the sludge blanket and allow the Superpulsator to reach very high upward flow rates. Degremont Inflico

Cyanide removal Using sodium hypochlorite (Javex-12) to quickly neutralize cyanide wastes is detailed. Bulletin reviews dosage re quirements, handling equip ment, and storage, safety and handling data. Particularly applicable to metal recovery or refining operations. Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 209

Circle reply card No. 208

The Plunger Pump Komline-Sanderson Positive Dis

lor slUMeStswBiesaodwsSBs.

placement Plunger Pumps are engineered for heavy-duty ser vice on difficult sludges, pulp and paper slurries and other tough waste handling problems. Simple in design, plunger pumps are rugged, durable and easy to maintain. Typical pump ing applications include dissolv ed air flotation sludges, sludge

The A500 high accuracy Transit time

ultrasonic flowmeter Bestobell introduces the interna


tionally proven Sparling A500 to



This inexpensive, high accuracy ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER

has no moving parts, and works by measuring the time differen tial in sound wave speed created by liquid flowing through a sen sor tube. Wet calibrated flow tubes are available in sizes from 3" to 48" and kit models are available for

thickener underflow and belt

filter press feed. Komline Sanderson

installation on existing pipework.

Circle reply card No. 210


Circle reply card No. 211


Non-contacting Instrumenta tion and sampling systems Since 1972, Manning has been a leader in supplying reliable, quality instrumentation for use in municipal and Industrial plants. TN/Manning is continuing this tradition by providing the best in


-it well suited for use in remote and/or hostile environments.

Typical monitoring applications include water levels, flow rates, rainfall, water quality, temper

non-intrusive flow, level meters,

samplers, portable flow monitors and software. TN/Manning also provides technology in noncontacting instrumentation for density, mass flow, weight and level to meet application needs. Metcon Sales and Eng.

Environmental Data Logger The Delta Logger is a low cost, versatile, multichannel data log ger. Its rugged, weatherproof case and long battery life make

A werssUle Riirftfehannel data logger

ature etc.

Hoskin Scientific Limited

Circle reply card No. 213

Circle reply card No. 212


Odour control

Treating odours with sodium hypochlorite Javex-12 is explain ed in new literature. Systems are discussed that dispense a spray of hypo to oxidize organic odours. Storage and air collec tion needs, as well as lab handl ing equipment are also dis cussed.

Bristol-Myers Manufacturing Circle reply card No. 214


Terratec Sludge Management Terratec provides experienced Consulting Services for Sludge Management Programs on agri cultural lands, and offers profes sional Sludge Contracting Ser vices including site evaluation and licensing, monitoring, developing public relations pro grams, and transportation and flotation spreading. Terratec pro vides complete Vacuum Cleanout Services for Digesters, Lagoons and Pumping Stations, including Confined Space Entry. Terratec

Circle reply card No. 215


Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Pollution Research and Control

R&D News


Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Details can be found on page 30.

High Performance Clarlfier As reported in Sciences et tech niques de I'eau, University of Water loo scientists P.L. Silveston and

R.R. Hudgins conducted tests at the Little River Pollution Control Plant, Windsor, Ontario, on the effective ness of a flow contraction baffle

installed in a pilot-scale clarifier to separate solids from activated sludge mixed liquor. Tests used two matched, 1.2-m diameter clarifiers, one of which was fitted with the baf fle in the form of a truncated cone

descending from the effluent weir. Significant reductions of suspended solids in the overflow were achieved in the baffled clarifier. The medium effluent solids from the baffled unit

were lower, ranging from 50 to 82% of the effluent solids of the parallel unhaffled clarifier.

derivatives was performed by gas chromatography. By operating a mass





selected ion monitoring mode,detec tion limits as low as 0.5 pg/L. could

ters, it was possible to induce biolog ical phosphate removal with nitrate alone, confirming the ability of dentrifying bacteria for this process. A preliminary comparison, however, suggested that nitrate may be less efficient than oxygen for phosphate uptake.

Continuous Monitoring for Spills Sampling methods for emergency response to spills into waterways should he essentially continuous and the analysis immediate so that remedial action can be implemented without delay. ORTECH Interna tional scientist G.H. Thomas des

acclimated biomass. As described

cribed the development of a prototype automated water sam pling and analysis system to dele gates attending the recent 24th Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research. The develop ment, with coauthors R.G. Denning of the Lamhton Industrial Society, and Tekmar Company scientist R.G. Westendorf,involved the adap tation of the dynamic headspace analysis technique to automated use at a remote sampling site. The system is capable of providing fre quent, prompt and quantitative monitoring results for selected vola tile organic compounds at the low pph level in river water.

in Environmental Technology Let

Continued overleaf

be achieved.

Phosphate Removal from Wastewater

The objective of a research project undertaken by University of British Columbia scientists Y. Comeau and

W.K. Oldham, together with a col league from the Netherlands, was to test the feasibility of using nitrate as sole electron acceptor for biologi cal phosphate removal from wastewater. Two sequencing hatch reactors, one with nitrate and the other one with air to supply oxygen, were used to develop two sets of

Aluminum in Drinking Water Seasonal differences of total alumi

num in drinking water from the cit


ies of Montreal and Laval have been



Ecole Polytechnique

scientists M. Bosisio and A.J. Dra-

peau. Laval's water treatment plant uses aluminum sulfate as a coagu

The Simplest Pump in the World

lant while Montreal does not use

any coagulation process. Using a flameless atomic absorption method, results published in Envir onmental Technology Letters show higher aluminum concentrations in Laval's drinking water (summer: 0.036; winter: 0.046 mg/L) with a


H7.50 us dedicated cost

per 100 ft, well

seasonal variation different from

Montreal (summer: 0.015; winter: 0.008 mg/L).

Chiorophenois in Puip and Paper Effluents

R.L. Hong-You and National Water Research Institute colleagues H.B. Lee and P.J.A. Fowlie have deve

loped a sensitive method for the determination of chlorinated phenolics in pulp and paper effluents. As described by this Wastewater Technology Centre scientist at the 24th Canadian Symposium on Water Pollution Research, the method based on an in situ acetylation recovery procedure was suc cessfully applied to thirty-one such compounds at concentrations as low as 4 jUg/L. Analysis of the acetyl

The WdTerrCl Pump is a simple, reliable, Inertia! pump, It comprises a special one-way foot valve and tubing up to 200 ft. long, Simply pump thie tube up and down, either manually or mechanically, Thereby the Inertia of the water Itself Is used to lift the water to the surface for efficient purging and sampling,

WaTerra Hand Pump Handle

WaTerra Power Pump

•Maximum portability, •Weighs only 3 lbs.

•Maximum efficiency.

•Ideal for remote locations. •Least cost,

• Up to 4 gal/min with one rigid tube. •2 or more strapped together give higher pumping rates.

•Least effort.

High quality instrumentation

Solinst Solinst Canada Ltd.,

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

2440 Industrial Street,

Burlington, Ont. L7P1A5


Circle reply card No. 119 27

R&D News contitiued


Leeches as Biological Monitors Leeches were used by K.J. Hall and C. Jacob as in situ monitors of the








5369 Maingate Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4W 106 (416) 625-9436 Unit 1, 2265 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5J 1K5 (416)823-0110 Fax: (416) 624-1496

biological availability of cbloropbenols to estimate the degree of contamination in the Fraser River

Estuary. As described in the Water Pollution Research Journal of Can ada, these researchers from the Westwater Research Centre and the

Greater Vancouver Regional Dis trict respectively, found that leeches readily concentrated the cbloropbenols and bad a slow depuration rate. Based on laboratory bioconcentration studies, leeches provided an estimate of average exposure concentrations from <0.1 to lOpg/L. in the river over the bioassay peri ods. Laboratory experiments dem onstrated a higher bioconcentration

potential and a longer equilibration time at higher temperatures. Estimation of Wastewater Treat

ment Capital Cost CAPDET is a computer-assisted procedure for design and evaluation of wastewater treatment facilities

Circle reply card No. 120

developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Environ mental Protection Agency. D.G. Wright and colleagues from McMas ter University and the Ontario Min istry of the Environment developed a simple and efficient procedure for applying CAPDET to the capital cost estimation of Canadian waste-

water treatment plants without altering the source code. As des cribed in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, the procedure provides construction cost esti mates that are within 20% of actual construction costs with a mean absolute error of 11% and an aver

age error of 2.3%.

Evaporation of Oil Spills

NEW, EFFICIENTEMULSION-BREAKING SEPARATORS: cut waste handling costs up to 98%

automatic, unattended operation capacities from 800 to 63,000 GPD leasing available free payback study

A paper published in Environmen tal Science and Technology by Uni versity of Toronto researchers W. Stiver, W.Y. Shiu and D. Mackay presents a theoretical treatment for the evaporation rate of specific hydrocarbons from crude oil spills. The fraction of a specific hydrocar bon remaining at any given evapor ative exposure (directly related to time) can be calculated from the hydrocarbon's vapour pressure. Experimental data from four crude oils support the theory and define the one unknown parameter. In addition, a technique is developed to predict fresh oil composition based

I handle fresh or salt water, I mechanical or chemical emulsions I use no chemicals Write for your free copy today, or call FAST Systems Ltd., 305 Lakeshore I Rd. E., Oakville, Ontario, L6J 1J3. Tel: (416) 842-4640, Tlx: 06-982422, Fax: (416) 842-0633. I Send me the facts on the FAST Oil/Water Separators. I Company I on Name



City city


Circle reply card No. 121



a weathered oil's composition and initial boiling point. Continued on page 30

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Introducing the MacLaren Team

EJ. Chart, President MacLaren Engineers/ MacLaren Plansearch

John N. Hilton, Genera! Manager, Environmental Process Engineering

Rod J. Juaneza,

William N. Neaves,

General Manager, Environmental Design

General Manager, Laboratory Services

The President of MacLaren Engineers/MacLaren Plansearch, Edwin J. Chart, is pleased to introduce MacLaren's environmental team:

Department Managers

Technical Managers

Richard B. German, Site Decommissioning Douglas B. Hodgins, Water Resources Engineering Michael J. Longland, Industrial Waste Management J. Michael McKernan, Winnipeg Studies Group John Neuman, Water Transmission and Distribution Jonathan W. Read, Municipal Waste Management Arthur M. Seanor, Earth Sciences John L. Sullivan, Occupational Health and Safety Lloyd W. Torrens, Environmental Planning

Derek Elion, Industrial Waste Treatment

Antoon van der Vooren, Air and Water Environment/Risk Assessment

Rein Kargel, Municipal Water Treatment Donald Kemp, Sewage Treatment Henry K. Miyamoto, Process Development and Optimization Jean-Yves Urbain, Air Pollution

Chief Project Engineer Theodore A. Constantine

Senior Advisor, Laboratory Services Roy Whitehead

This announcement marks MacLaren's renewed spirit of commitment to excellence in

environmental engineering and management. The new team is designed to respond to emerging client needs, while building upon the expertise MacLaren has developed during close to 40 years in the environmental field. Our clients can rely on our ongoing dedication to technical excellence and sound project management in: Water Supply, Treatment & Distribution Wastewater Collection, Treatment & Disposal Water Resources Engineering Solid & Hazardous Waste Management Site Decommissioning Rehabilitation of Municipal Infrastructure Automated Mapping & Facilities Management

Air Quality & Risk Assessment Environmental Audits Earth Sciences

Environmental Planning & Biology Occupational Health & Safety Water Quality & Process Development Laboratory Analysis

At MacLaren, we look forward to meeting the environmental challenges that are sure to emerge in the 1990s — and to assisting business and government find innovative answers to environmental questions. Atria North — Phase II

2235 Sheppard Avenue East


Willowdale, Ontario M2J 5A6

Telephone: (416) 756-4919 (416) 756-3866

Telecopier: (416) 756-4998

MacLaren Plansearch


In addition to Toronto, MacLaren operates from offices in London, Ottawa, Windsor and Waterloo.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 129


During late 1987, an outbreak of poi soning resulting from the ingestion

hlooms of Nitzschia pungcns, a widely distributed diatom not pre viously known to produce toxins. In a paper published in the Canadian ■Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic

of cultivated blue mussels from Car

Sciences, Bedford Institute of Ocea

digan Bay, Prince Edward Island

nography scientists D.V.S. Rao and R. Pocklington, together with their

R&D News continued

Source of Domoic Acid





Consultants' Directory Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal

Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN All aspects of civil, municipal and environmental ENGINEERING.


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Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soil, waste and water


225Sheppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2

league M.A. Quilliam, provide proof that the causative agent, domoic acid, is indeed produced by this dia tom. Domoic acid was found in cul

tures of Nitzschia pungens grown in medium prepared from Cardigan River water at concentrations rang ing from 0.03 to 0.8 pg/cell in var ious separate cultures harvested for chemical analysis 7-68 days after inoculation.

Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges


National Research Council col

Acid Neutralizing Capacity of Water

The acid neutralizing capacity of water is a parameter of great impor tance for studies of aquatic ecosys tems, particularly in light of the concern for acid rain. Scientists at the National Water Research Insti

tute and the National Water Quality Laboratory have issued a publica tion describing the determination of this parameter and discussing sev eral related conceptual and termino logical problems. The paper by I. Sekerka and his colleagues des cribes an automated, conductometric, acid-base titration system for the determination of the acid neu

tralizing capacity of water. The conductometric




simple, fast, sensitive, and more

(416) 226-0148





potentiometric titration method cur rently used.

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited

Recovery of Eutrophic Lakes

consulting engineers and architect Water Pollution Control Water Supply Water Resources

Environmental Planning Land Development Transportation Tunnels and Shafts Municipal Services Architecture

TORONTO (416) 497-8600

WELLAND (416) 735-3659

SUDBURY (705) 566-9581

(Dennis Consultants)

Little is known about the recovery of lakes from eutrophication, espe cially as it affects the cycling of nut rients other than phosphorus. Freshwater Institute researcher

D.W. Schinder and a U.S. colleague fertilized a naturally oligotrophic lake with nitrogen and phosphorus over two summers and examined

Aquatic Sciences inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


• spill site investigations and cleanups • underwater video inspections

• impact assessments • water quality monitoring

P.O. Box2205, Station B, St. Catharines, Ontario L2M 6P6








TELEPHONE: (416) 622-9502. FAX: (416) 622-6249


(416) 641-0941




the subsequent recovery. During the first year of recovery, phospho rus input from the sediments was not detectable while chlorophyll a and phosphorus concentrations both returned to prefertilization lev els. These and other results pub lished in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences showed that different elements may recover at different rates and that

the release of stored pools of nitro gen and carbon in the sediments plays a major role in delaying the recovery of these elements. For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, (819) 994-5424.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989




THE i Sample Sigma... Canada Liquid Samplers & Flowmeters Samplers and flowmeters get rough use and do hard time in corrosive en


vironments. Now there's Streamline,

designed to perform, built to survive. Tough impact resistant polyethylene construction.

The Envimnment Trade Show Exhibiting Equipment, Plant, Services and Systems for: • Waste management and recycling

Sealed keypad & watertight NEMA 4X,6 control housing. Easy to use self prompting 16 character display. Streamline gets the job done, the first time, every time, year after year. • Portable Samplers • Refrigerated Samplers • Ground Water Samplers • Open Channel Flowmeters 2495 HainesRoad

• Water and wastewater

•Air pollution

• Manufactun'ng • Transportation ofdangerous goods • The workplace

The Environment Congress The first Canadian conference taking a brood overviev/ of the total environment...water, earth and air. TO EXHIBIT, REGISTER OR SUBMIT OUTLINES FOR PAPERS, CONTAQ:

Mississauga, Ontario


P R O F E S S 1 O N A L

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INSTRUMENTS LTD. Ph. (416)277-0331 Fax (416)277-2588 Telex


SPONSORED BY Ontario Waste

Management Association

MANAGEMENT INC. 4920 Dundas Street West, Suite 302 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9A IB6 (416)234-1240

FAX (416) 234-1695 Member Canadian Association

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION Environmental Science and


erf Exposition Managers

Circle reply card No. 123 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Circle reply card No. 124


What's New Low cost groundwater monitoring pump

Pneumatic Pumping Wright modular recovery system is a system of pneumatically driven pumps and controllers that may be used for floating hydrocarbon or heavier-than-water


recovery and collection of VOCladen groundwater. Recovery pumps in this system, which may be used in wells as small as 3in. diameter,feature: no air con tact with in-well fluids, stainless steel and teflon construction with

Vitron 0-rings, adjustable flow rates from 0 to 4gpm,and,if desired, in-well separation. Controllers are available in both Nema 4 and Nema 7 for single unit control and Nema 4for multiple unit control. GENEQ INC.

Circle reply card No. 151

MultlRanger Plus Inexpensive pump consists of a special one-way foot valve and 1/2" I.D. tubing or pipe, up to 200 ft. long. Pumping the tube allows inertia to draw water

through the one-way valve to the surface. Many inexpensively dedicated wells can thus be sampled with a 3-lb. handle, or with the Power Pump. Solinst Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 150 Consultants' Directory Continued

MultiRanger Plus is Milltronics new, non-contacting ultrasonic sys tem for level or volume measure

ment of hulk solids and liquids in heights to 15m (45 feet). Operating in virtually any container type, the unit provides accuracy to 1/4% of range, or 2 mm within 3m. Flexibility is the key to this multi purpose measurement system. In addition to standard tank or bin

"Serving industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years" BARRINGER LABORATORIES

environmental and discharge analyses Reg. 309 and MiSA compliance radiochemicai analytical service fire assay and field sampling services Other Labs: Calgary, AB Denver, GO Kirkland Lake, ON

Main Lab; 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Mississauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel:(416) 890-8566, Fax:(416) 890-8575


beak consultants limited

measurement, MultiRanger Plus monitors open channel flow, deter mines actual lift station through put, controls as many as five pumps in wet wells, and can measure and control the differential between two levels.

Pickle Lake, ON Red Lake, ON Reno, DE Yellowknife, NWT

MultiRanger Plus is claimed to he extremely operator friendly. For enhanced ease of calibration and

operation, the operational features are segregated, one from another.

Tel:(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303

Environmental Specialists •Watershed Management •Process & Design Engineering •Fish Toxicity •Groundwater Contamination beak



Tel:(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303


Environmental Analysis MISA/EMPPL GC/MS 32

•Dioxins •Metal Scans

Conventional Pollutants All Matrices

Many commonly needed measure ments and parameters are now available with a single touch of the programmer keyboard. Milltronics

Circle reply card No. 152 Continued on page 35

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Field Proven. For over 15 years, Isco samplers have proven their reliability and versatility in the field. The newest gen eration, led by the Model 2700 Wastewater Sampler, has continued this tradition, providing the performance you need and have come to expect from Isco. Simple, self-prompting keypad controls make sampler set-up and operation

Six modes of operation with a wide range of time and flow settings allow use in a variety of sequential and composite sampling applications.


Reliable, microprocessorbased electronic circuitry with self-diagnostic software assures dependable operation.

The totaiiy sealed controller protects the electronics and mechanisms from corrosion and accidental submersion

(NEMA 4x and 6 ratings).

The corrosion resistant pump provides efficient sample

Battery or AC line power operation enables the sampler to be used for both portable

collection and maximizes

and fixed site sampling.

pump tubing life. Direct tubing to bottle sample collection eliminates hard to

Rugged, stainless steel

clean connections, metering chambers, etc., to minimize

hardware and durable construction assure

dependable performance

cross- contamination

even in harsh environments.

and assure representative sampling. 1

A variety of glass and plastic sample containers are

Durable, double-walled

available for use in both

construction with rigid foam

general purpose and priority pollutant sampling applications.

insulation and the

light-colored exterior aid in efficient sample cooling.

ISCO Wastewater samplers are sold and serviced exclusively in Canada by: NORTECH CONTROL EQUIPMENT INC. For more information contact us at an office near you Nortech Control Equipment

Lbs Equipment De Controle

135 The West Mall, Unit #4 Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 1C2

3274 Boul St. martin Quest, Suite 100

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. 300 - 5241 .Calgary Trai l S.B.. N.W.

Chomedey, Laval, Quebec H7T 1A1 Tel: (514) 331-4460 Fax: (514) 682-5992

Tel: (403) 434-8220 Fax: (403) 437-3145

Tel: (416) 622-7820 Fax: (416) 622-6776

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Edmonton, Alberta T6H 5G8

Nortech Control Equipment Inc. Commerce Place. 400 Burrard St. 14th Floor. Box 41. Vancouver. B.C. V6C 3G2

Tel: (604) 643-1709

Circle reply card No. 101


Wastewater Sludges are


No Problem for

Moyno® Pumps"

Enpoco Ultronlc pH control units will provide practical, on-site, on-going assurance of compliance with current waste bylaws. From passive acid neutralizers to sophisticated

This Moyno 2000 pump has accumulated over five years of trouble-free service in a wastewater treatment plant pumping municipal and paper mill sludges at 55 gpm,


60 psi. The pumpage contains 4-5% solids, including rags and wood chips, which would defeat many other kinds of pumps. Moyno pumps meet this challenge as well as polymer feed and circulating pump applications.



Enpoco has the right answer to your 3ur neutralization neuir problems. Contact us for information on

For Proven Pumping Application Experience, Consider the Source... Moyno Progressing Cavity Pumps

products best suited to your specific requirements.

For more information on Moyno Pumps contact: Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd. 17 Woodyatt Dr., P.O. Box 280 Brantford, Ontario, Canada N3T 5N6 Telephone 519-752-5447


405 Midwest Rd. Scarborough, Ont. M1P 3A6 Phone:(416)751-9007 Fax:(416) 751-9608

"Belgium 'Canada "Singapore "USA

Circle reply card No. 135

Circle reply card No. 134

BCA's Optimum Direct Filtration BACKWASH nOUCH

Water Treatment

System Til MEDIA






Direct Filtration


■ Compact design ■ Minimum cost and space ■ Combines contact fiocculation apd clarification processes in a unique upflow coagulation roughing filter with granular media which reduces turbidity by 95% ■ Tri-media polishing inverted bed filter captures any remaining solids with its high solids holding capacity to produce an effluent with less than 0.1 NTU turbidity, even with raw water turbidity of ICQ or more ■ Designed to treat highly colored water with low solids; something standard direct filtration units can't handle

■ Uses raw water with air scour to

flush the roughing filter. Treated water is used to backwash the polishing filter ■ Filter rinse-to-waste system is provided to settle and clear the media after each backwash ■ Dual media with PAC can be

provided for taste and odor removal ■ "True" lockage Plant pre-assembled and tested, with Control Valves, Chemical Feed Systems, Control Panel, Accessories as specified. On

site installation requires locating the Plant, making raw water, treated water



9688-187th Street, Surrey. B.C.

# 5-6115-4th St. S.E., Calgary Alta.


T2H 2H9

complete line

Phone:(604)888-4141 FAX:(604)000-3565


of Treatment and control



FROM B.C. Lcwer Mainland:

Alberto & Saskatchewan: 1-800-661-1490

For more

information on our

Equipment, call today.

526-7444 From Interior B.C. & Alberto: 1-800-663-4771





1916BrooksjdeBlvd., Winnipeg, Man. R3G2E6 PHONE(204)633-2173 FAX(204)694-7228

and electrical connections. BCA does

Plant start-up and trains operating personnel.


BCA industrial. CaNTRai.S LIMITED

■ Easy and economical to operate

Circle reply card No. 128 34

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

What's New continued

Easy-to-maintain flowmeter Model 8722 Magnetic Flowmeter Transmitter is an easy-to-maintain, inexpensive analog transmitter.

Analytical Laboratory Services • Water and Wastewater Analyses • MISA Effluent Monitoring Parameters • Radionuciide Analyses • Air Quality and Dustfall Analyses • Industrial and Hazardous Waste Classification

When combined with Rosemount's

Model 8711 flowtuhe, it provides a low-cost solution for a wide variety of obstructionless flow


Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. 5420Canotek Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1J 8X5 Tel.:(613) 749-2220 Fax:(6131 749-7170


ment applications, including: slur ries (pulp and paper, mining), chemical processing, and waste-


CmT=ST Environmental Analysis


Organic/Inorganic Chemistry Occupational Health & Safety Drug Testing

Suite 200

•Hazardous Waste Characterization

V6J 1J3

water flow.


1523 West 3rd Ave

Vancouver, B.C.

•Canadian Drinking Water Criteria

Fax; 604 731 2386


Tel; 604 734 7276






The Model 8711 flowtuhe incorpo rates a flangeless, lightweight

A Division Of




design being easier and less costly to install than conventional flanged units. It is available in 1/2- through 8-inch diameters. Ease of use is the Model 8722's




Waterloo, Ontario 519-579-3500 (Fax) 519-579-8986



Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320

(Fax) 416-858-3779


key benefit. It is housed in a cast aluminum NEMA 4X housing with

isolated junction box and integral meter. A hinged cover permits easy


access to both the electronics and


terminal block compartments. A modular electronics design enables



the Model 8722's electronic assem

blies to be quickly replaced without compromising accuracy.Rosemount Circle reply card No. 153

Portable peristaltic emergency hosepump New technology pump provides essential emergency response fea tures. MASTR peristaltic hosepump is a lightweight pump for emer gency response spills cleanup and sump transfer service. Self-priming up to 29 feet suction lift, it can run dry without damage. The internal U-tube and connections are the only components in contact with pumped

178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario N2H 5M5 1-519-579-4230

^Concord Scientific Corporation cJi^'suitTnTs^^' Occupational Hygiene Services

Analytical Lab Services Instrumentation Development

Pollution Control - System Design Dispersion and Acid

Indoor Air Quality Studies Safety and Environmental

Deposition Modeling


Hazard and Risk Control

Head Office: 2 TIPPEH RD., TORONTO, 0N1ARI0 M3H2V2 (416)630-6331

Branch Offices: OHAWA • CALGARY

fluid and are available in a choice of corrosion or abrasion-resistant materials. Also offered is a choice of

electric (T.E.F.C. or explosion-

proof), gasoline, diesel, hydraulic or pneumatic drives. Applications include acids, alkali, solvents, hydrocarbons, foams, toxic or hazardous wastes and debris laden slurries. Mecorsys Circle reply card No. 154




Continued on page 37

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


• Announcement •

Major expansion announced at Aer-0-Flo Environmental inc. Aero-O-Flo

Environmental Inc. has

announced major changes and acquisitions in the organization.

Change in Ownership and Directors Aer-O-Flo's senior management, Harry J. Marshall, C.E.T., Roy A. Budd, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., and Blake E. Tonogai, P.Eng., retain significant participation in the ownership of the new company with three additional share holders; Neil Carragher, M.Sc., C.Eng., has a consulting practice in mergers and acquisitions covering North America; Brian Pilutti, C.A., has an accounting practice specializing in small business accounting; and J.W. Gerald Rupke, M.Sc., P.Eng., has an Ontario-based consulting practice in environmental engineering and con tract operation of waste treatment systems. While the new shareholders will be members of

the Board of Directors, they will not have staff positions in the company. Expansion of Product Lines In order to better service clients, a number of

other companies are being brought into the AerO-Flo group,each bringing a unique and techno logically advanced product to be marketed as part of the Aer-O-Flo product line. The princi pals of Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc. are participants in ownership of these member com panies — as are the skilled entrepreneurs who pioneered these unique products and companies. Aer-O-Flo will ultimately market a complete and comprehensive line of wastewater treatment equipment and instrumentation. The member companies currently associated with Aer-O-Flo are:

Standing - Left to Right: M. Croston, J. Joritsma, T. Smith, D. Scroggins, B. Tonogai, H. Langner, N. Car

ragher. Sitting - Left to Right: G. Rupke, R. Budd, B. Piiutti, H. Marshall.

Volumetric International

John Jorritsma has provided the industry with a unique, highly-accurate and reliable flow mea surement device for sewage pumping stations. John will continue to design new products aimed at the flow monitoring, data-logging and infor mation handling areas. We look forward to bringing these state-of-the-art products to the marketplace. North American Environmental This U.S.-based firm will serve as the U.S. mar

keting and manufacturing arm of Aer-O-Flo. Final negotiations are underway with others involved with the manufacturing of screening systems, aeration devices and comminutors. While these new changes take effect, Aer-OFlo will continue to offer clients a unique service in solving environmental problems. We will con tinue to offer a systems approach to treating both industrial and municipal wastewaters.From pretreatment to tertiary treatment, Aer-O-Flo can handle all wastewaters. The Board of Directors believe that environ

tewater treatment. The use of the Rotordisk unit

mental equipment is based on a rapidly expand ing technology which requires constant surveil lance to maintain the firm's competitive advantage. To this end Aer-O-Flo Environ mental Inc. will continue to provide modern pro ducts geared to clients' needs. The expansions and mergers allow the firm to offer a full systems capability in integrated packages, designed to work as an engineered unit. The equipment will be backed up by trained field service personnel and technical application specialists to further

for pre-treatment of landfill leachate has been

enhance clients' investments.

demonstrated by a one year pilot study. A full scale system is currently under design to pretreat the leachate from Peel Region's Britannia

Credibility and service are considered to be the key to our success and have become the motto of our organization. We sell solutions,notjust hard

Road landfill site in Ontario.


C.M.S. Rotordisk Michael Croston and Tom Smith have mar

keted packaged RBCs in the 1,000 to 50,000 gpd range for over 15 years. Rotating Biological Con tactors have a well established reputation of being a cost-effective and reliable solution to many small volume wastewater generators. More recently the company has designed RBC units for air pollution control and chemical was

Aer-O-Flo Environmental Inc., 1175 Appleby Line, Unit C-3, Burlington, Ontario L7L 5H9 Tel: (416) 335-8944, Fax: (416) 335-8972

Circle reply card No. 122 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

What's New continued

Ultrasonic non-contact level transmitter


■ Solid & Hazardous Waste Management ■ Environmental Audits ■ Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply ■ Hydrogeology ■ Landfill Gas Ckjntrol & Utilization

■ Municipal Engineering

■ Wastewater Treatment

■ Construction Management

WaterlooX®'519-884-0510 Mississauga 416-629-0510 Fax 519-884-0525 ^ Fax 416-629-0515

ECHOTEL III Series 310 ultrasonic non-contact continuous level trans



mitter is ideal for most liquids and slurries. The 310's microprocessorbased electronics allows user selec

tion of many operating parameters including: range, span, set points, alarm modes, level or ullage mea


environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers




surement and the units of measure

ment for its five digit LCD display.



229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-8094.HALIFAX (902) 453-11 tS


Selectable units of measurement

include: feet, inches, meters, cen timeters, barrels, cubic inches,cubic feet, cubic meters,gallons and liters. The transmitter has a direct volume measurement feature which elimi

nates the need for calculating tank volumes, even in tanks with nonuniform cross-sections. Magnetrol

Circle reply card No. 155

Wastewater sampler for pollution monitoring

Professional Services in



Management Gartner

140 Renfrew Drive, Suite 102, Markham, Ontario L3R 8B6

Fax (416)477-1456 Telex 06-986278



Epic 1021 Wastewater Sampler automatically extracts samples of most liquids and deposits them into one or more containers for labora

tory analysis. It is available in five formats to suit all applications, from




Gore SkStorrie Limitied Consulting Engineers(Sr Architects


sampler to the more sophisticated


outdoor floor mounted version with


refrigeration. Primarily intended for industrial or municipal applications,for either permanent or temporary installa tion, the Epic 1021 can be used in factories, wastewater treatment plants, river monitoring stations and many other applications. The sampler is also suitable for universi ties and colleges for scientific pro jects, or private laboratories, in providing a monitoring service to industry on a contract basis.

Epic 1021 has a simple pocket sized programmer that may be used to implement the required program from the wide choice of control

options. Cancoppas Limited


1670 Bayview Avenue,Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-7715 Fa.x(416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga



Metals • Anions • Organics • PCBs • Volatiles Reg. 309 • MISA • Landfill Quality • Phytotox • Drinking Quality Sample Bottles and on-site sampling available FOR COMPLETE CATALOGUE WITH PRICES: TEL: 416-625-1544

FAX: 416-625-8368

Circle reply card No. 156 Enuironmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


What's New

UW engineers claim water clarification breakthrough the sludge from the walls and floor, and into a waste well. The clearest liquor should be at the top, where it can be drained and recycled. Although this is the principle upon which clarifiers are presently designed, the professors believe it is a naive theory. "Incoming liquids create density currents, similar to ocean waves," explains Professor Hudgins. "These underwater waves reflect back and forth across the

Robert Hudgins (left) and Peter Silveston check the water clarifier.

Two University of Waterloo researchers have deve loped a system they helieve could improve sewage clar

ification by 100 percent. Professors Robert Hudgins and Peter Silveston, of UW's department of chemi cal engineering, have been attempting to improve the design of sedimentation tanks, or clarifiers, presently used by municipalities across Canada. "Our testing shows that a sewage treatment plant could either double its capacity or improve the quality of clarified water, whichever would be best for that particular community," comments Hudgins. Their research has been focussed on circular clarifi

ers where the sludge or liquor to be clarified is fed into the centre of the tank. Ideally, the dense liquids gravi tate to the bottom, where a large rake slowly scrapes

tank, and disrupt the settling of the sediment. Whatis trying to get to the bottom can't, because the waves disrupt the layering of the sludge. In fact, incoming liquids create a wave that initially hits the opposite wall, pushing sludge up to the top of the clarifier, where only clear water is supposed to be." The professors developed a large cone, which can be placed in circular clarifiers. The cone interrupts nor mal wave action under the surface of the water. The

cone also traps those waves that do exist, and reflects them up and out of the tank, into the gutter, which collects the overflow.

The theory, was tested at the Little River Pollution Control Plant in Windsor, Ontario. They used two tanks, each four feet in diameter. "The results were nothing short of spectacular," Hudgins says. "With activated or secondary sludge (the most dense type of liquor) we improved the output

by a factor of two. In other words, a plant using the cones should be able to produce liquids that are twice as clear as the present level. Or,the plant could main tain the present quality of clarity while doubling its capacity."

We'll analyze 30 Water Quality Parameters and give you resulte that are fast, accurate and reproducible. FAST Our standard turnaround time for potable water is 5 days. We conducted 18 months of research to de

velop our Rapid Chemical Analysis program (ROAp)and have invested heavily in state-ofthe-art instrumentation and dedicated per sonnel in order to provide you with this level of service.

To date we have analyzed In excess of 260,000 parameters In samples from all ten provinces, all levels of government, major and minor consultants, large and small Industry, and private citizens. The confidence level of our clients Is extremely high. So when you require fast, accurate, repro ducible standard water quality analysis, give us a call. The service fee for potable water Is *60.00 per sample.

ACCURATE We use quality, micro-processor based instruments to achieve a high level of accuracy. And we require only 100 mL of sample water to perform a complefe analysis.


REPRODUCIBLE A sfrlngent quality control/quality assurance program combined with advanced robotics, spectrometry and micro-processor techno logy ensures our ability to generate reproducible results every time.

400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, MIsslssauga, Ont. L4Z 1N8 Phone (416) 890-2555 Fax (416) 890-0370


• Ammonia

• Potassium

♦ Ortho Phosphate

• T. 0. C.

• Anion Sum

• Calcium

• Iron*

• Manganese*

• Bicarbonate

• Cation Sum

• Hardness

• Copper* • pH • Conductivity

• Magnesium • Alkalinity

• Zinc*

• Carbonate

• Ion Balance

• Chloride

• Colour

• Turbidity

• Saturation pH • Langeller Index

• T.D.S.(Theor.)

• Nitrate & Nitrite

• Sulphate • Silica

*Total metal. Water soluble fraction available as an alternative.


• Conductivity(Theor.)

Circle reply card No. 130 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Consultants for water and pollution control projects Knox


Martin Kretch Limited



Consulting Engineers, Planners . Landscape Architects. Fax: (416) 459-7869


220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton , Ontar io. L6T 4J5(416)459-4780


IS MacLaren Engineers

Maclaren Plansearch

Environmental Engineering and Management Specialists

Surveylogger Detectronic's


Consulting Engineers, Planners, Scientists has

been designed to eliminate many of the problems associated with sewer

Branch offices: London, Ottawa, Waterloo, Windsor Winnipeg -

2235 Sheppard Avenue East Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6


Telephone: (416) 756-4919/3866

flow monitoring.

The Surveylogger averages the velocity of the sewage over the full vertical height to four meters. By combining that with a quick height measurement through a Druck pres sure transducer, the unit gives



actual total flow monitoring. This eliminates flow estimates through MacVlro Consultants Inc.

empirical formulas, according to the manufacturer.

7270 Woodbine Avenue, Third Floor • Markham, Ontario, L3R 4B9 • Telephone:(416) 475-7270 • TeleFAX;(416) 475-5994

Ramsey Lake Industrial Circle reply card No. 157

Consulting Engineers, Planners and Scientists, Specializing in the Environment


New acoustic flow switch available

• Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

Davis Controls Ltd., has announced the introduction of the Rattler flow detection device from

Grenmont Ltd. Rattler is designed

400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Got. L4Z 1N8 Phone: (416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

to detect flow/no flow situations in

pipes, chutes, hoppers and other locations where the presence or absence of flow can be critical. It

can be used in applications involv ing either liquids, slurries, or solids.

Environmental Analysis Trace Level Analysis of Organics/lnorganic/Metals

Davis Controls Ltd.

■ Complete MiSA Parameter List

Circle reply card No. 158

■ Ontario Drinlrlng Water Criteria

• Hazardous Waste Identification ■ Poiyctilorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans GC/lulS, Graptiite Furnace A.A., GC/ECD, ion Ctiromotograptiy, HPLC

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. Full-featured waste-

Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

water sampling line

5550 McAdam Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone:(416) 890-2555 Fax: (416) 890-0370

Series 2700 Wastewater Samplers from Isco are engineered for versa

tile, trouble-free operation. All mod els feature self-prompting keypad controls and a watertight, dusttight, corrosion resistant, and sub mersible enclosure (self-certified NEMA 4X and 6). Microprocessorbased electronics with built-in diag nostics ensure reliable operation. Unique, peristaltic pump promotes

long tubing life and allows represen-

IVlarsliali Macltlin Monaghan Limited Cornsuiting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources TORONTO, EDMONTON

Burlington, Mississauga, Wtiitby

275 Duncan Mi ll Road

Don Milis, Ontario MSB 2Y1

(416) 449-2500

Fax: (416) 449-6076

Continued overleaf

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989


! What's New continued

Sewer Flow Monitoring

noMixrfhnio TECHNICAL

Sewer Shed Typification


Data Collation Calibration


MiSA Spec



(519) 748-8024

NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists

waterwastewatertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehandling underwaterinvestigations computerapplicationsandanalysis treatmentpiantoperationassistance bio/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax; 682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. VST 1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax: 384-1201

tative timed or flow proportioned sample collection in sequential or composite modes. A complete line of accessories items are available for a

variety of general purpose or prior ity pollutant sampling applications. Nortech

Circle reply card No. 159



ORTECH International Waste Treatment

Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management Pilot Studies


Complete Digester

Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling


Ambient Air Studies


Emission Source Testing Occupational Health


Lagoon Cleaning Land Application Systems

Program Development

Energy & Environmental Engineering Division 2395 Speakman Drive

MIsslssauga, Ontario L5K 183

• Tel. 416 822-4111

Fax 416 823-1446 • Telex 06-982311

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers

Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. >€ Brant StreeL Hamilton, Ont L8L 6A8

Tel: (416) 523-1850

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief


• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges


(0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)

Eidon Technologies

PROCTOR & REDFERN Consulting Engineers, Planners, and GROUP

Div. Kienzoid Company Limited 1341 Matheson Blvd. East

Mississauga, Ont. L4W 1R1

Environmental Scientists

Tel.: (416) 629-3101


TECHNICAL WRITER M.Sc., M.B.A. available for con

Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3

Tel: (416) 445-3600 40

Fax: (416) 629-1637

Fax: (416) 445-5276

sulting or technical writing in BIO TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT or POLICY.

Margaret Loewen

(416) 848-4791

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

Is our water safe to drink?

Why is the quality of

that need to be addressed, such as who is responsible for regulating quality and advertising and is it being done consistently and com prehensively? The provinces are responsible for the filtered water aspect, the federal government for advertising and manufacturing of the devices employed. This subject warrants, and will he the subject of, subsequent articles. Although extremely limited,

municipal water supply subject to unsubstanti ated challenges, while bottled water, point of entry, and point of use devices, are advertised with unsubstantiated claims? Why does a paid advertisement in a news paper seem to generate more credi

bility than the proven record of municipal water quality over 50 years and confirmed with regular testing results that are available to the public? Why is a constituent which may be in bottled or home treated water considered by some to be a contaminant when it appears in municipal water? In the past, several firms have been investigated for misleading advertising and deception in mar keting practice in an attempt to pro mote their products. In most instances, there have been uncor roborated



there are some controls extended to bottled water. Because it is consi

R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng. and the health impact of chemicals (constituents) over decades are bet ter known, no one can say for cer tain "the water is safe to drink", nor should anyone unduly alarm the public and thereby encourage the use of alternative water supplies.

claims A constructive search for more

against the quality of the municipal water supply and the ability of their products to perform as advertised. City and provincial health departments across Canada verify that drinking water meets objec tives regularly in urban areas - even when there are problems with raw water quality. This is not to suggest that municipal officials are compla cent. They know full well there are potential raw water supply prob

and better programs and procedures to regulate and improve drinking water quality has resulted in their becoming progressively more elabo rate, complex, and informative. The capability of technology to detect constituents at progressively lower levels has improved faster than the ability of health experts to establish with certainty the potential health effect over long-time consumption.


It has turned zeros into numbers that are even smaller.

The City of Toronto's Environ

mental Protection Office currently is conducting an extensive study to determine whether the use of alter

native water (bottled or homefiltered) provides Toronto residents with water of equivalent or better quality than municipally-treated water. The background report pre pared to support the need for the study noted the high level of envir onmental concern in southern Onta

rio, particularly in relation to toxic pollutants present in Lake Ontario. An earlier 1984 study by the City's Department of Public Health, alarmed some residents when it noted the existence of 83 chemicals

found over the years in Toronto's drinking water and referred to it as a chemical stew.

Further, it noted

that seven of the chemicals are

human carcinogens and 23 are potential human carcinogens, with out citing the basis for conclusion that the concentrations reported constitute a risk to the consumer's

health. One responsible advocacy group once advised pregnant wom en not to drink municipal water. Until more evidence is established

For instance, in 1986, the Pro vince of Ontario launched its Drink

ing Water Surveillance Program which tests samples collected from water treatment plants in various municipalities for up to 188 organic and inorganic substances. By 1987, the program was operating in 44 locations. Eventually, it is intended to include all municipal drinking water supplies in the province. The latest reports from the program show only two instances of treated water samples not meeting provin cial standards. In both cases, only one parameter exceeded the stand ard and only by a marginal amount. Both problems are being corrected.

dered a food, bottled water is subject to federal regulation, namely. Div ision 12(which deals with prepack aged water and ice) of the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations. Div ision 12 is enforced by Health and Welfare Canada. This Department is responsible for the health and safety aspects of such problems, and the labelling is the concern of the Federal Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs. At present, the major provisions of Division 12 require that the pro duct be potable, that it not contain bacteria; that it not be modified (although it may contain added COa, fluoride and ozone); that its label state the geographical source of the water, total dissolved mineral salt content, total fluoride and any addition of fluoride and ozone. Health and Welfare Canada cur

rently is completing a Canada-wide, bacteriological survey on bottled water to assess whether,in addition to testing for coliform and aerobic colony counts, monitoring should include tests for pseudomonas and aeromonas. Other matters, such as the need to include "Keep refriger ated" or "Refrigerate after opening" on labels, are under consideration. A recent study by Regional Pub lic Health Engineer Willard J. D'Eon, of the Nova Scotia Depart ment of Health and Fitness provides

the basis for more sweeping changes to Division 12 than those cited above. After testing 19 bottled waters and four municipal waters,

Mr. D'Eon has found, amongst other things, that of the bottled waters tested:

The slogan, "We deliver water worth paying for,"conveys the sales

pitch that municipal tap water is somehow not worth paying for. It also suggests that the alternative (be it bottled or home-filtered) is worth paying for, presumably because it is "safe", "clean" or "pure". Home-treated water using a point-of-entry (POE) or point-of-use (POU)device raises many questions

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

• most of the mineral waters among them exceeded the 500 mg/L TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) objectives set for drinking water, as might be expected, but that the levels to which the objective was exceeded ranged from negligible to almost 3500 mg/L; • the carbonated waters among them showed sodium levels ranging Continued overleaf 41

is our water safe? continued


from trace levels to as much as 1250


Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2 TEL: (416) 847-0065 FAX: (416) 847-3840





• four significantly exceeded the 1 mg/L fluoride objective set for drinking water, with two clocking in at almost 6 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively; • three exceeded the objective con centrations for arsenic and one climbed to almost four times the less




(416) 853-1223

Water Supply•Pollution Control*Drainage'SCADA Simcoe Engineering Group Limited .Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building 345 Kingston Road,Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1

Tel (416) 286-2285 Fax (416) 286-1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo.

Head office:


Tel: (416) 668-9363 Fax: (416) 668-0221

sims hubicki

stringent .05 mg/L maximum acceptable concentration. At the recent 3rd Drinking Water Conference co-sponsored by the CWWA, a bottled water distributor in responding to discussions of the potential health effects of some bottled water, offered that some high sodium bottled waters are sold for medicinal purposes because of their mineral content, and are not intended for regular consumption. Where are the warnings? None of the municipal waters exceeded any of the objectives for any of the parameters tested; in most cases, they didn't even come close to reaching them. Based on his work, Mr. D'Eon has criticized Div ision 12 for failing to: • address chemical quality; • distinguish between mineral and spring water; • require enough parameter concen tration results on labels; • specify the responsibilities of the bottler or relate to provincial respon sibilities.

Engineers Architects and Planners Toronto, Whitby, Cobourg, Kingston

Bracebricdge, Ottawa, Simcoe, Waterloo, Huntsvilie ancj Kresin Engineering an(d Planning Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie



He has suggested that Division 12 be rewritten to rectify these prob lems and, in addition, that: • all waters except for mineral water should meet Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines for chemical qual ity; • warnings for specific parameters should he included on mineral water

labels; • ozonation (or its equivalent) be required; • a uniform, national coding system to he established.







Land Use Planning & Development, Environmental Approvals Waste Disposal and Municipal Law John R. Willms / Donna S.K. Shier / Catherina Spoel P. Douglas Petrie / David 0. Cox 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M5H 124

As the national organization of the owners of municipal water and wastewater systems, the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association

is urging the federal government to speed up its review of Division 12. At the same time, the CWWA will be urging that the current review be broadened to consider the issues

raised by the Nova Scotia study. CWWA congratulates Mr. D'Eon and the Nova Scotia Department of Health and Fitness on their contri bution to this issue.

416 863-0711 • Fax: 416 863-1938


*Mr. Ferguson is Commissioner of Works, Metropol itan Toronto, President of CWWA and a member of lAiii




ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.

Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989

MISAiscoming Municipal!Industrial Strategy lor Abatement is an Ontario

government program to strictly control toxic contaminates.


Mann Testing laboratories Ltd. is the first choice ofgovernment and industry for the identification of hazardous chemicals in the environment.

MANNisready Does your effluent meet MISA criteria?

Our fast, cost-effective services include:

Your first and best choice for

- Complete MISA parameter list testing capabilities

MISA testing. Mann has state-of-the-art instrumentation backed

-Priority pollutant analysis for trace organics and metals

by scientists and engineers - Landfill sites/chemical waste with over 100years characterization (Reg. 309) ofcombined experience in -Poiychlorinated dibenzodioxin complex environmental (PCDD)and furan(PCDF) analysis. analysis

iWANN Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd. 5550 McAdam Road,

Mississauga, Ontario L4Z1P1 Phone:(416)890-2555 Telex: 06-960496


- Poiychlorinated biphenyl (PCS)analysis - Ultra-low level analysis capabilities

Circle reply card No. 131 Environmental Science & Engineering, April 1989



The only thing we can't tell you is how deep it is. For any other water test, Bondar-Clegg provides precise analysis and quick turnaround. Bondar-CIegg laboratories have a record of excel lence and reliability that spans 25 years. It's a record that has enabled us to become the extensive, interna

tional laboratory organization we are today. Using modern analytical instrumentation, our expert staff provides answers to professionals and other individuals with environmental concerns.

We deliver fast, precise results for Regulation 309 testing, MISA requirements, water quality, PCB's,

trace metals, radionuclides, and more. You can have routine potability test results in five working days.

All we require is a one-litre sample. To ascertain its quality, we'll use MOE, APHA, EPA, and ASTM methods. And techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, and Liquid or Gas Chromatography. Bondar-Clegg is your best choice for fast, accurate water analysis. So contact us today to find out more. You may hire us as a laboratory, but we could turn out to be lifeguards.


Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road

Tel:(613) 749-2220

Ottawa, Ontario

Fax;(613) 749-7170

Circle reply card No. 132

K1J 8X5

Telex; 053-3233