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ENVIRONMENTAL (SUCBUiKDCB A Davcom Business Publication

Space age technology at dirt cheap prices - editorial comment Canada's water resources - paralysis by analysis? Detecting underground tank ieaks Reviewing odour control options R&D News - a new ES&E feature

February 1989




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Circle reply card No. 126

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM OAVEY


Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY OAVEY

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, ,P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng.


February 1989, Vol 2 No. 1 Issued February 1989

Space age technologies at dirt cheap prices Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Industry Update

Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.


Dr. Howard Goodfellow

Robert Ferguson, P.Eng.

Leak detection of underground storage tanks Article by Fred Bentley and Douglas Muldoon


Noise may become designated substance Article by Tom Branny


systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

Sewage treatment piant odour control Article by G. Aldworth


ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, Industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal

Article by Don Mackay, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial






Drastic action needed to protect Canada's water resources



wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and

R&D News

A new ES&E service


New technology uses oxygen to control odour and corrosion problems in wastewater systems Article by Michael J. Fullam


academics. ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental


tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives),or other facslmllles of the written or graphic material for consideration.

Use of a water product for treatment of industrial effluents

Article by J.J. Ganczarczyk, PhD., P.Eng.

Literature Reviews

24 26

Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora,

Ontario, Canada, L4Q 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. 8., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1. Printed In Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. , Yearly subscription rates: Canada $35.00 for one year, $65.00 for two years,^ $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $50.00, $90.00 for two years; other for eign $70.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $25.00 single issue.

What's New?

A range of products for specifiers

Consultants' Directory

27 28

Cover Picture: Foundries are large producers of indus trial wastewaters. Suspended solidsand certain organic chemicals are typical treatment problems. Canadian Business H Press

Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Dillon investigated the requirements for suspended solids removal at a foundry in southern Ontario. Small

scale testing was used to define the process require ments, and specialized equipment, common to mining and ore processing industries, was specified and selected.

As well, the project involved expansion of a building to house new sludge dewatering facilities.

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Editorial comment by Tom Davey Anecdotal evidence vs scientific methods

Space age technologies at dirt cheap prices

The public quite often does

Regrettably the general public is unaware of the genuine progress

not trust the quality of its drinking water - but many water quality criticisms are

which has been made in water treat

ment, especially in disease control. In 1882, in some areas of Ontario,18 persons out of every 1,000 suffered from typhoid or similar diseases. Well into the 20th century, death

based on anecdotal evidence rather

than the scientific methods used by scientists the world over. Anecdo

tal evidence is dramatic - it is perfect for a 20 second television news clip





were officially described as 'astro nomical' by the City of Toronto

in environmental stories. For exam

ple a skillful close-up of an emo tional mother claiming her child

Health Department. Typhoid was

has suffered skin rashes since a fac

rampant then in

tory opened can have a powerful effect on a viewing audience. The mother is clearly sincere - the rash genuine - the close-up of the infection sickening. But there may

death rates higher than in major

be no link whatsoever between the

factory's activities and the child's

floor of every home. The figure of50

skin rash. Children have had skin

cents a cubic metre comes from

infections since the Cro-Magnum Man. Factories - which the poet Wil

Environment Canada. Actually, I think these estimates are high. In some municipalities, especially unmetered ones, drinking water might cost as little as 25 cents a cubic metre. Scotch whisky costs $18,000 a cubic metre - cola costs about $800 per cubic metre. But, depending on where you live,it costs


Blake described

as 'dark

Satanic mills' - began a mere two centuries ago with the Industrial Revolution.

Epidemiology - the study of the causes of diseases - calls for a review

of many cases over a systematic time frame, not any single isolated incident. And while no scientist would use an isolated case as evi

dence, it is common for TV produc ers to use anecdotal interviews with enthusiasm. It is a clash between a

news medium, whose mission is to entertain as well as inform - and the

systematic methods of scientific res

earch. The result? Many people simply do not trust the quality of their drinking water.

Drinking water professionals are caught in a double bind. While they are driven by a low price ethic which continually stresses the importance of keeping costs and

taxes down - society increasingly demands space age water quality standards. Quite literally drinking water is dirt cheap - in fact, dirt is far more expensive than potable water. Try buying topsoil, or even clean fill, for 50 cents a cubic metre delivered

to your driveway. In fact, try buying anything at 50 cents a cubic metre. Then relate 50 cents for a cubic

metre of potable water which has been pumped from aquifers or lakes, purified, transported many miles then delivered to virtually every

up to $2 for about five tonnes of

treated water - delivered rightinside the house.

Yet we are discussing a water treatment industry which is now

doing research and development and pilot studies for the removal of toxins at parts per quadrillion. A part per quadrillion is comparable

Ontario, with

European cities. The incidence of typhoid fever was also high in Ottawa for the first decade of this century. As the dis ease was usually confined to the lower-class districts, civic officials

showed little concern about the pre valence of the sickness until it swept across that city in January 1911. In July 1912, the city was stricken with another serious epidemic with almost 2,000 people contracting typhoid and 91 dying from it. A commission later concurred that the

civic authorities had been negligent in not following the recommenda tions of an engineering consultant to use the hypochlorite treatment process for drinking water. In those days, the pioneering activists were the engineers and scientists. These people cam paigned for chlorination and other water purification methods, often against politicians and others who

fought the proposals on the grounds

to one second in about 30 million

of costs. The activists were success

years - an incredibly low figure. This sort of precision is more in keeping with the NASA space program rather than an industry that sells its products for less than 50 cents a

ful. Death rates dropped dramati cally. Disinfection of Toronto water

Certainly drinking water profes sionals face many serious problems but research is currently underway

supplies began in 1910. By 1928, a drop in typhoid fever deaths from 44.2 to 0.9 deaths per thousand was reported by Dr. A. Moffat,ofthe City of Toronto's Health Department. Over the same period,infant mortal ity rates per 1000 live births dropped


from 139.2 to 6.3.

cubic metre.

many advanced treatment

methods. These include reverse osmosis which is used on naval ves

sels to produce potable water at sea, as well as to purify drinking water on land, granular activated carbon, molecular sieves which can selec

tively take out various organic tox ins at incredibly small concentra tions, and ozonation. All are promising high-tech solutions to current and future problems.

This terrible slaughter ofinfants, we should remember, did not occur in the Third World or the Middle Ages, but in Canada and within liv ing memory. While no scientist I know is complacent about the for-

midible environmental problems confronting us, the general public should be aware that substantial

progress has been made in eradicat ing water-borne diseases.

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Industry Update Handbook available on PCBs Environment Canada has pub lished a "Handbook on PCBs in

Electrical Equipment", for owners and users of electrical equipment that was designed to contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It provides background informa tion on PCBs,including federal leg islation that pertains to them and simple procedures for identifying equipment containing PCBs. Proce dures and options for handling and controlling PCBs and PCB equip ment are discussed, including prev entive maintenance, PCB substi tutes, containment systems, preparation for storage and storage. This edition of the handbook is based on a technical revision car

ried out by M.M. Dillon Limited under contract Canada.



to receive the Engineering Medal in the Management Category. The medal is awarded in recognition of a distinguished career. Until his retirement earlier last year after forty years of service, Don was Chairman, CEO, and President of Proctor & Redfern. His leadership was characterized by a strong belief that good management equals good engineering, and that continuing education is essential in the profes sion of engineering. Winners of the Engineering Medal were honoured at a presentation ceremony in Toronto on November 5, 1988. P&R has designed many water, wastewater and other environmen

tal projects over the past seven decades.

Alberta launches

storage tank management program Alberta Premier Don Getty, Envir

Don Redfern Awarded

Engineering Medal Donald B. Redfern, P.Eng., has been selected by the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario,

onment Minister Dr.Ian C. Reid and Labour Minister Rick Orman have

announced the startup of an esti mated $3.9 million, five year pro gram to improve management of underground fuel storage tanks. Increasing concern has been

expressed across Canada about pub lic safety and the contamination of groundwater from leaking under ground fuel storage tanks in both urban and rural areas. Estimates indicate Alberta has more than

20,000 underground fuel tanks, some of which may be leaking. The program will conduct an inventory of all active and aban doned underground tanks, assess them for existing or potential leaks and require remedial action to pre vent further leakage.

AQTE appoints new general manager Madame Nycol Pageau-Goyette has been appointed General Manager of I'Association quebecoise des tech niques de Feau, taking over from Raymond Larivee who resigned last year after nearly thirteen years in that capacity. Madame Pageau-Goyette is the Chairman of Pageau Goyette & Associes, a firm specializing in the management of associations, public relations, project management and communications, she founded eleven years ago.

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bar screen

Industry Update z OWMC submits final assessment

then, OWMC has conducted detailed, site specific tests, and sub

Babichuk Engineering and Con tracting Ltd., of Edmonton,






The Ontario Waste Management Corporation has submitted its final

Assessment for government and public review last February. The proposed facility would be capable of treating up to 300,000

Environmental Assessment for a

tonnes of industrial waste each

proposed industrial waste treat ment and disposal facility to the

year. It would consist of a high temperature rotary kiln to destroy organic waste, a physical/chemical treatment plant to detoxify inor ganic waste, a solidification plant to solidify treated waste residues, and an engineered landfill for the dispo

Minister of the Environment.

OWMC is proposing to build and operate a modern industrial waste treatment and disposal facility on a 124 hectare site in the Township of West Lincoln, Regional Municipal ity of Niagara. To obtain govern ment approval for this project, it is required to submit a detailed envir onmental assessment document

and other approval requests, which will ultimately undergo full public hearings under the Consolidated Hearings Act. There are presently three residen ces on the proposed site, which was selected in September 1985 by OWMC, after an extensive, province-wide site selection and facility development process. Since

sal of solidified residues from these treatment processes.

A summary of the E.A. is availa ble as a separate document from Murray Creed, OWMC (416) 9232918.

The new company, located at Edmonton, is responsible for the development and marketing of the Insituform Process of pipe rehabili tation throughout Canada. Insitu form Canada intends to expand the number of Canadian sub-licencees

and joint ventures, and further develop the businesses of existing ones, by enhancing market aware ness and acceptance of the process. Insituform



joint ventures are currently operat ing in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia.

Insituform Canada

Intends to set up an Insitutube plant in Edmonton to serve the Canadian market.

insituform joint

The company has also been granted a non-exclusive licence for

venture formed

the Caribbean islands and should

The Guernsey-based Insituform Group Limited has announced the

be eligible for funding by the Cana dian government under its aid to developing nations program. This will allow crews to be utilized during


of Insituform


Ltd., a 50%-50% joint venture with


Canada to cut SO2 50% by 1994 Canada is proceeding to cut its 80:^ pollution by 50 per cent by 1994, from 1980 levels with Ontario committed to a 60 per cent province wide cutback.

Most of the reduc

tions will come from four big Onta rio polluters which generate four-fifths of the emissions. Onta

rio's program, called Countdown Acid Rain, was adopted in 1985 and is now well under way and on sche dule, Jim Bradley, Ontario Minis ter

of the

Environment told


bi-national acid rain meeting in December.

Countdown Acid Rain sets spe cific emission limits for the Inco and

Falconbridge nickel smelters in Sudbury, Algoma Steel's iron ore sintering plant in Wawa, and all of Ontario Hydro's fossil-fueled gener ating plants. Each regulation sets a permanent cap on emissions, to be reached by a fixed deadline in 1994. Caps are set at one-third the SO^ pol lution levels these four enterprises emitted in 1980. These regulations are not appealable, and are backed by $25,00G-a-day fines and, in cases of defiance, jail sentences for execu tives and company directors.

Regulated companies have filed five progress reports to date, detail ing the status of their abatement plans. Their emissions during 1987 totalled 1.147 million metric tons of

sulphur dioxide. The total regulated

limit for 1987 was 1.389 million met

sions in 1987 were 85,000 metric

ric tons. All four companies were confident they would remain within the specified limits for 1988. "Future reported emissions will be checked by independent audit so that we can be sure that they are meeting the requirements of the regulations", said Mr. Bradley. "For Inco, the single largest acid rain polluter on the continent, the

tons. Rather than invest in abate

current 685 thousand metric ton limit will be cut to 265 thousand met

ric tons in 1994. The company intends to achieve this by smelting cleaner ore - obtained by increasing

pyrrhotite rejection - and with a new system of flash smelting for bulk concentrate. Flash smelting produ ces a gas rich in 80^: which is to be used as a raw material in an up graded acid plant. A production scale test of the flash smelting pro cess was successfully completed last year," the minister said. "Similarly at Falconbridge, increased pyrrhotite rejection is playing a part in abatement. Fal conbridge are continuing to develop further process refinements to ensure they can stay within the 1994

legal limit of 100 thousand metric tons a year.

"Algoma Steel's current ceiling is 180,000 metric tons, with a 125,000 metric ton limit going into effect in 1994. Total sulphur dioxide emis

ment technology, Algoma is elect ing to limit ore production to keep within the regulated emission lim its. Any production increases will have to be preceded by abatement measures to keep Algoma within its Countdown Acid Rain limits.

Ontario Hydro operates five coalfired generating plants. Two oilfired units were reactivated late last

year to provide peaking capacity. The utility's installations produced 332,000 metric tons of 80:^ last year. The specified limit was 370,000. The utility is presently undergo ing an environmental assessment for the retro-fit of flue gas scrubbers on selected generating units. Other fuel-switching, process change and energy conservation options are being studied to ensure that the 1994 target of 175,000 metric tons for sul phur dioxide is met. Countdown Acid Rain also requires limits on nit ric oxide to a specified total limit of 215,000 metric tons for the two acid gases combined. Mr. Bradley said while we have yet to establish the precise costs of all these control options. Hydro alone expects to spend billions of dollars complying. Inco has bud geted three-hundred million dollars to reach its 1994 limits.

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Report shows Ontario discharges improving A 1987 Ministry ofthe Environment review of discharges from Ontario's municipal sewage treatment plants shows some improvement in perfor mance over 1986.

The report shows that 233(63 per cent)of371 sewage treatment plants (STPs) reporting met each of the three provincial guidelines: phos phorus, suspended solids and bio chemical oxygen demand. In 1986, 211(58 percent)of362 plants were in compliance. In keeping with the reporting requirements of the International Joint Commission, the 262 STPs which discharge into the Great

compliance with one or more guide lines for three years in a row. All 46 have remedial programs underway. To help speed these environmen tal improvements,in 1987 the minis try enhanced its direct grants program to municipalities for upgrading and expanding STPs. Under the program, municipalities with populations greater than 7,500 seeking to fix pollution problems are eligible for 33 percent provincial funding. Previously, the province provided a maximum of 15 percent of the costs.

change, over the past 18 months the ministry has committed an addi tional $87 million to municipalities for STP upgrading.

the limit each month tested.

Of the 138 plants which were out of compliance with provincial guide lines, 116 or 84 percent have sche duled remedial actions.

Forty six STPs have been out of


The 1987 results showed that, overall, industrial dischargers complied with individual monthly limits for which there is a guideline 6,444 times out of 7,311 monitored, or 88.1 percent of the time. Last

year, industrial dischargers comp lied with monthly limits for which there is a guideline 6,063 times out of 7,047, or 86 percent of the time.

New P&R Industrial discharges also improving


An update of industrial dis chargers to Ontario waterways shows a modest improvement over

Rod Holme, P.Eng., has been appointed Manager of Proctor &

Lakes Basin are monitored on a

monthly basis for phosphorus dis charges. In 1987, 162 (62 percent) met the guidelines each month tested. In 1986, 132 of 258 (51 per cent) Great Lakes Basin STPs met

As a result of this

Sixty-two of 157 (39.5 percent) industrial dischargers met ministry requirements for each month tested in 1987. In 1986, 53 of 154 (34.4 per cent) of the sources monitored met ministry limits for each month

1986 results.

The report found that 105 of the 157 (67 percent) industries moni tored in 1987 met annual average limits. In 1986, 87 of the 154 (56.5 percent) dischargers complied with annual requirements.

Redfern's Water and Waste Tech

nology Group, comprised of engi neers, scientists, and support staff providing services in the fields of water supply, distribution and treat ment, and, wastewater collection and treatment. Rod also serves on

ES&E's Editorial Advisory Board.


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Circie reply card No. 103


— Industry Update

Environmental Challenges: Thinking Globally and Acting Locally

Metropolitan Toronto's Works Commissioner Retires

Joint Annual Conference of tfie Pollution Control

Association of Ontario and the Air & Waste Manage ment Association, Ontario Section (formerly APCA).

Frank Horgan, P.Eng., Commis sioner of Works for Metropolitan Toronto, has retired after 42 years of service.

Born in St. Catharines, Ontario, where his father was employed on Welland Canal construction, Frank

April 23 - 25, 1989

was raised and educated in New

Brunswick, graduating in Civil Engineering from the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton. Fol

Hamilton Convention Centre,

lowing graduation in 1946 he was employed with the Geodetic Service

Hamilton, Ontario

of Mines and Resources in Ottawa

This conference will feature a large exhibition of suppliers to the water and air pollution control fields. Such topics as urban air quality, PCB destruction, odour control, MISA, hazardous waste management wil l be covered in concurrent technical sessions. There wil l be a day session of special interest to operators and poster sessions.


A Past-President of the

City Engineers Association, he was honoured by the American Public Works Association as one ofthe Top Ten Public Works Leaders of the Year.

For further information, contact: Exhibits - Hans Leygraaf, Brim Liquidex (416) 677-0140

and British Columbia before joining the City of Toronto. Highly regarded by the engineer ing profession in North America, he actively participated in many asso

Registration - Sandra Davey, PCAO,(416) 841-1317

Frank Horgan leaves Metropoli tan Toronto with an enviable public works infrastructure.


Circle reply card No. 104


R. Larry Madden


Butterfly Valves -|-GF-|-Butterfly valvesareengineered and proven worldwideforthe safe handling of

Ernest W. Latal, President of Arlat Technology Inc., Is pleased to announce the appointment of R. Larry Madden as Vice President, Sales and Marketing. Mr. Madden brings to the position over a decade of experience in the engineered equipment field and wi ll be responsible for promotion of the firms products and services in both the Canadian and US marketplace. Active in the local area, Mr. Mad den was President of the Ontario Pol

aggressive media. For more detailed information, write or coll . . .

Dqvis Controls LIMITED

4251 Dundas St. West, Toronto, Ontario M8X 1Y3

(416) 233-3211 Telex 06-967684 Fax (416) 232-2386

lution Control Equipment Associa tion in 1987 and currently serves as the associations director of market

ing. Arlat Technology Inc. is a Cana dian owned company specializing in the manufacture and representation of a complete line of engineered pro cess equipment for the water and wastewater treatment field.

Circle reply card No. 105

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


Associated Engineering continues strong growth

The Board of Directors of Associated

Engineering made a commitment in the summer of 1986 to expand the firm's geographic base into central

Canada from its traditional western Canadian

operations. The public's growing awareness of environmental issues coupled with Associated Engineering's leading position in the field of water and wastewater treatment encouraged the Board to support a significant investment in Ontario. Associated Engineering(Ont.)Ltd. was incorporated to market engineering services related to water and wastewater projects. The expansion was accomplished by relocat ing a core of specialized senior engineers from within the company and supplementing them with locally recruited staff. Eric MacDonald is

the Ontario manager while AI Livingston directs the engineering activities. Both have a Left to right: Jeff Radley, Al Livingston, Eric Mac strong engineering background in water resour Donald and Basil O'Brien. ces and wastewater treatment.

the Province. It is currently executing projects for the Ministry of the Environment,the Munici pality of Metropolitan Toronto and for the Regional Municipalities of Halton, Niagara and Waterloo. Associated Engineering has con tinued to develop its Ontario operations by local recruiting and further transfer of senior staff. Recruitment has extended to Europe for expe rienced technical specialists who can contribute 1980's. Al Livingston brings with him 25 years expe their unique research and development knowl rience with the company in water and waste- edge of advanced treatment techniques. water treatment. He has played lead roles in the A recent addition to the Ontario staff is Basil design and construction of plants for the cities of O'Brien. Mr. O'Brien headed the company's Edmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge, Red Deer, Reg- Water and Wastewater Treatment Department ina and Accra (Ghana). Mr. Livingston is cur for many years in Edmonton before moving to rently directing the company's pre-design study Calgary. Over the last several years he has man into expanding the R.L. Clark Filtration Plant aged such major projects as the Calgary Bearsfor Metropolitan Toronto. He is also the project paw Water Treatment Plant,the Bearspaw River manager for the Grand River components of the Intake and Pump Station, Crowsnest Pass Sew Regional Municipality of Waterloo's Mannheim age Treatment Plant and Taber Industrial Efflu Water Supply and for the Ministry of the Envir ent Treatment Plant. onment's project for upgrading of the instrumen To accommodate continued expansion. Asso tation and control system for Lake Huron Water ciated Engineering recently moved into new Supply System. office accommodation. The Company's many Some two years after incorporation, the clients and business associates were hosted to an Ontario company, based in Etobicoke, (Metro- open house held on February 23,1989 to meet the Toronto) has established a solid foundation in Associated Team. Eric MacDonald was a key individual in the design and construction of the major Area Water Supply Systems centred around the City of Edmonton involving large trunk pipelines, stor age reservoirs, pumping stations and control systems. He was also able to demonstrate his strong management abilities in southern Alberta through the "lean periods" of the early

Suite 525, 21 Four Seasons Place,

Etobicoke, Ontario, MSB 6J8,

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Circle reply card No. 106

Leak detection of underground storage tanks Example of a typical Installation - Double wall fibreglass

, Intrinsically safe monitor panel

Raintight system cap

access opening at the top ofthe tank and are positioned in the annular space to monitor for the presence of either water or hydrocarbons. In double wall steel tanks, the same type ofsystem can be used; however, access to the annular space is typi cally through a monitoring pipe located at the end of the tank. Other


monitoring systems for double wall

carbon leak sensor


Level alarm sensor

Dry annular space

tanks may include applying a posi tive or negative pressure to the annular space then monitoring for pressure change. The downside of this method is pressure fluctuations causing a false alarm which are trig gered by temperature changes. Single Wall Tanks

By Fred Bentley* and Douglas Muldoon**

New government initia

tives concerning proper storage and monitoring of material in under

ground storage facilities are pres ently meandering through the departmental processes. While users of underground storage tanks (USTs), are currently subject to the guidelines set out in the 'Gas Han dling Act', or similar legislation,the new government proposals promise stricter regulations and penalties. Though we can only speculate on the range and severity of the forth coming initiatives, it is fairly safe to assume these two basic premises: 1. There will be tighter control of all UST's with particular emphasis on toxic material. 2. Leakage from underground storage facilities will not be tolerated.

Leak detection monitoring is anticipated to become a common practice with UST's as a preventative maintenance method. Rather

than discover tank leakage the old fashioned way - contaminated water resources and soil resulting in costly clean-ups, penalties and bad publicity, owners of UST's are look ing for methods of monitoring their storage tanks for leaks and poten tial leaks. The following discussion outlines options available for leak detection monitoring of existing and new installations on a variety of tank types and applications. New Installations

With new installations, the deci sion on what will best suit the instal

lation for monitoring equipment is simplified because the owner is not 10

locked into conforming to parame ters such as tank material,tank type (double or single wall), piping, etc. Environmental conditions of the

area will often dictate required equipment and a monitoring system can be easily tailored to match. Soil composition for instance, may in some areas only tolerate fibreglass tanks and piping. The potential of a catastrophe resulting from a tank leak, proximity of the tank to lakes, rivers, ponds or underground water supplies as well as the potential environmental damage and costs should a leak occur, are all mitigat ing factors that will determine the requirements for a new installation.

Aside from government restrictions,

For single wall tank monitoring, the options are somewhat more com plex and may consist of external and/or internal tank monitoring devices. As a new tank is installed, the common practice is to install monitoring wells in the tank exca vation.

These are usually plastic or noncorrodible perforated pipe which are buried when the excavation is hack-

filled. Once in place, these monitor ing wells become the location to monitor for product leaks. Another possibility for leak detection of sin gle wall tanks would consist of mon itoring the level of product stored, either manually or electronically. Accuracy with this method is diffi

which in many cases cite the exact equipment to be used, tank owners


have flexibility in the size, type and style of the installation with a moni toring system installed with the tank, designed to match the tank requirements.

Vapour Detection Primarily two methods are employed to detect product contami nation. Vapour detection consists of

Double Wall Tanks

A method for detecting leaks in double wall fibreglass tanks is the

hydrostatic monitoring system. This method consists of filling the annular space (the area between the inner and outer walls), with a con ductive fluid and monitoring the

a sensor located in the well which

reacts to the presence of hydrocar bon vapours. This sensor can then be connected to either a portable or permanent monitor which detects change in resistance of the sensor and indicates that hydrocarbon vapours have entered the well.

Vapours can reach the monitoring well by migrating through the por

level of this fluid with an electronic

ous backfill or can be emitted from

control/alarm system. A change in

contamination floating on groundwater. If a leak should occur, typi cally the vapours will reach the well sooner than any measurable liquid product. Checking or monitoring for liq

the fluid level sounds an alarm at

the control panel warning of a possi ble





method for detecting leaks in this type of tank - fibreglass or steel - is the dry monitoring system. In these installations, a sensor is installed in the tank's annular space which is then wired to an alarm panel. In double wall fibreglass tanks, the sensors are installed through an

uid contamination in the well is the

other alternative. Usually a device is used that floats on groundwater within the monitoring well which contains a sensor to detect contami

nating liquids which float hut do

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

not mix with water. In many instan ces, groundwater is not present in the well, nullifying this option. On existing tank installations the choices for monitoring are

ALL WEATHER FIBERGLASS COVERS more than 600 installations


limited. Limited access to the tank


means less options and access for providing monitoring equipment. Where there are existing double wall tanks, the options previously dis cussed are all proven methods, how ever, owners should contact the

Round covers

* «it^

tank manufacturer to ensure com-

patability with the leak detection system. Many single wall tanks have been installed without provi sions (buried conduit), for perman ent leak detection monitoring

Rectangular Barrel covers

Rectangular arch covers


To circumvent this, portable monitoring equipment for leak detection is being introduced based on the methods discussed earlier.

The safe storage of material in underground storage tanks is soon to be a regulated obligation. Ideally the tanks will he installed with prac tical, effective monitoring systems to ensure absolute safety to the

' ''


fixed and floating digesters


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Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Noise May Become A Designated Substance pressure level (Leq), sound exposure level referred to one second (SEL),

frequency, and time distribution of the noise levels (Histogram). All these data must be collected during sampling periods. It should be noted that proposed noise regula tions would require that steady, intermittent, varying and impulsive noises should all be integrated to determine true noise exposures. Survey data should be presented in a manner whicb permits easy interpretation by both managers and employees. Data can also be used to select effective personal hearing protection as well as to develop strategies for engineering sound controls. In order to be useful,

by Tom Branny*

The Ontario Ministry of Labour is considering identifying noise in the workplace as a designated


If noise becomes so

designated, every employer will be obligated to assess noise levels in the workplace and to file records. Apart from legal requirements, a properly conducted noise survey should result in improved manage

testing. Generally, the objectives should be threefold. Surveys should identify those sources producing the loudest or most irritating noise, pro vide data to formulate more detailed

surveys if required, and suggest con trol strategies. Proper noise surveys must include both area and personnel

data samples,taken over a sufficient time period, to reflect true exposure of the workers. The data collected

must also include employee dosage, maximum level, equivalent sound

the survey

must address both

employee concerns and manage ment responsibilities. Information obtained from the

noise survey can become part of the information bank used in a hearing conservation program. Compliance with relevant Provincial Regula tions will minimize potential liabili ties, preserve hearing ability and prevent any further damage.

*The Proctor & Redfern Group

ment-worker relations as well as

improved employee morale, by dem onstrating management's serious intention to evaluate and control

potential noise-related problems.

Leak detection for

Noise can bave physical, psycho logical and social impacts which can result in damaged hearing,

underground storage

interference with communications


and reduced work efficiency. If employees complain of being nega tively affected by noise, remedial action should be considered by man agement. Response need not be limited to the use of personal protec tive hearing equipment. General surveys can determine the types of noise causing a nuisance, its sour ces, employee exposure time, and noise levels.

If management considers under taking a survey, it must decide if in-house capabilities exist to con duct such a survey. Factors such as equipment, training, experience, and credibility of the surveyor are extremely important in the decision. Cost of an independent survey should be less than an internal one

because it is unlikely that the survey would have to be repeated, unless


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significant changes in the manufac turing process occur. Both employ ees and management may prefer independent surveys. Clearly defined objectives of noise surveys are imperative prior to

and can distinguish between hydro carbons and water.

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Circle reply card No. 110 Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


Sewage treatment plant odour control - reviewing the options STACK NOZZLE COUNTERCURRENT VERTICAL PACKED BED SCRUBBER SIZE


83 m OIA

* 5 • 56 m HIGH

RATING: 5 2 m'/s SATURATED (20 - 35*C)



18,700 m'/h ot 1240 Po 11.2 kW or 1060 rpm

ing odorous organic fumes with oxidizing solutions such as sodium hypochlorite, potassium perman ganate, hydrogen peroxide; or with oxidizing gases such as ozone and chlorine.












packed bed scrubber, chemical fog scrubber, and Waterloo-scrubber (developed in Canada at U. of



-ph probe •ORP PROBf

• activated carbon adsorption i.e. adsorbing organic fumes on the carbon's surfaces, followed by replacement or thermal regenera tion.

• afterburning - for oxidizing and/or dissociating organic constit uents at higher temperatures(above 650°C)in a fume incinerator or flare, FIGURE



Increasingly odour control in By G. Aldworth

sewage treatment plants be

comes more and more vital

because flows are increasing, there are more plants, MOE regula tions are tightening, unions are screaming, and the consciousness of the neighbouring community is growing. In part, these odours are like those from the human body. At a certain point, dismay turns to repug nance, and one's neighbour says for goodness sake, can't you do some thing about that? Most odours are not injurious to health, as they are non-toxic. How ever, odour problems are often tied in with other plant considerations such as safety hazards (digester gas) and worker health concerns (air-borne bacteria, trace organics, etc.), so that any odour clean-up pro gram tends to become multi-faceted in character.

Odour sources

Broadly speaking, odour from sewage treatment can be in the form of either inorganic gases from bacte rial activity in sewage, or organic vapours from anaerobic decomposi tion of nitrogen and sulphur bearing substances.

Several odorous con

stituents have extremely low odour thresholds. They can be detected as low as 10 parts per billion! Exam ples of odorous inorganic gases are hydrogen-sulphide ("rotten-egg" smell) and ammonia - both formed 14

by the putrifying action of bacteria on entrained organic solids in sewage.

On the other hand, odorous organic vapours are typified by mercaptans, skatoles, aldehydes, and organic acids, which are released

during anaerobic sludge digestion and related processes. Very potent odours emanate from ammonia-based compounds asso ciated with decaying flesh, such as diamine, ethylamine, putrescine, etc., but these are more applicable to rendering plants than sewage treat ment.

Abatement options Here are some approaches which should be considered; • increased dilution - with fresh

air, using higher building ventila tion rates for example. • improved dispersion - from a higher stack or equivalent, to increase dilution in the atmosphere. • disinfection - killing of odourcausing bacteria in stale sewage by disinfection agents such as chlorine and ozone.

or even in a conventional boiler. It is

possible to use lower temperatures in a catalytic afterburner. • mashing agents - widely availa ble, but generally restricted to emer gency situations in smaller plants. • others - including earth-filters, electrostatic precipitators, ultra violet/ozone, etc.

Odour control examples Here are some recent examples of odour control projects in Canadian sewage treatment plants: • hypochlorite scrubbers at Lon don's Greenway PCC for cleansing process exhaust air before its release to the neighbourhood. Specifically, odorous air from the dewatering area is oxidized by sodium-hypochlorite solution in a packed-bed scrubber. A typical unit is shown in Figure 1, and features special media packing such as "telleretes" which serve to increase the spray contact area between odorous gas and oxid izing solution. •secondary treatment odour control in larger facilities such as Metro Toronto's Humber, Highland Creek, and Main treatment plants. Typi cally, off-gases from covered aera tion tanks are oxidized with ozone in

•pre-aeration - using air diffusion in raw sewage to reduce septicity, release entrained hydrogen sul phide, and promote freshness for improved downstream treatment. • water scrubbing (vapour con densation) - for contacting moist, warm odorous fumes in order to

absorb condensable gases, leaving only the "non-condensables" for subsequent dispersion or treatment. • chemical scrubbing - for react

large contact chambers before being released to the atmosphere. • high-rate ventilation design for enclosed grit and primary tanks at the Region of Ottawa-Carleton's Green Creek PCC. To reduce the

extremely high cost of conventional fresh-air heating during very cold winters, we utilized the heat-content of raw sewage at 7 to 12°C to warm the incoming air via a sewage/glycol coil, together with a "run-

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

around" glycol loop between outgoing warm exhaust air at 12°C

typically and incoming cold fresh


air as low as -35°C.

•utilization of process air blowers to extract odorous air from Humher's

Grit Building, and discharge it to aeration tanks for cleansing. A sim ilar technique can he utilized effec tively with fluid-bed incinerators, such as at London Greenway and MOE Lakeview, where fluidizing-


STW parking-


air blowers deliver odorous air from

the sludge holding tank to the incin erators for thermal destruction.

• use of high stacks at Winnipeg's North End WPCC to disperse venti lation air from enclosed aerated-

grit, pre-aeration, aeration and final tanks.

In order to further reduce

potential health risks to indoor workers, a fihreglass cover was

recently designed for the preaeration tanks so that foul odours

can he preferentially collected and then discharged to the stack.

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•installation of a selective hooding and high-rate ventilation system in the sludge dewatering area for indoor worker protection at Metro

• Other modules available include:

Toronto's Main plant. Here is an example of a facility which came under strong pressure from the union and intense scrutiny by the media,resulting in a control scheme

For information contact:

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of substantial cost.

• complaints from neighbours and the





advanced sludge composting facil ity which uses aerated static piles in an outdoor setting, eventually resulted in proposals for upgraded sludge disposal methods. This included in-tank composting(Amer ican Bio Tech) with immediate with drawal of odorous off-gases from reactor tanks. These gases were

then passed through a seven-stage scrubber of the chemical-fog type, characterized

by successive air-

atomized nozzles producing a very fine mist of water, caustic, hypochlorite, and other chemical solutions. The West Windsor plant was one of








the first to utilize an earth (Boden) filter for odour reduction of process exhaust air.


Any odour problem is, by nature, highly contentious and greatly pol itical. But we all know that odours

are intrinsic in sewage treatment,so the time has come to take a good look at plant upgrading where required. In the meantime, the search continues for more costeffective methods of odour control. ES&E

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Mr. Aldworth is with MacLaren Engineers/Lavalin.

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Circle reply card No. 112


Paralysis by analysis

Drastic action needed to protect Canada's water resources at a concentration of 1 nanogram (10-" g) per litre(ng/L)in water may he able to concentrate in fish and

achieve levels of about 1 milligram per kilogram (or ppm) which is a concentration increase by a factor of 1 million. Because of this extreme

Distributive property, one mouthful of fish can contain the equivalent of a million mouthfuls of water thus

providing a vehicle for unusually high human exposure.


Second, are chemicals which are Directive

or which influence the

future growth patterns of orga nisms. Most chemicals are toxic if

Donald Mackay, PhD., P.Eng., a professor of chemical engineering at the U of T, criticises federal research cutbacks in this outspoken article. He also criticises "jurisdictionai overkill and paralysis by analysis". Dr. Mackay cites

Ontario's MISA program as an example of enlightened leadership.

Manychallenges current

ly face those who pro vide water supply and disposal in Canada to day. Perhaps most difficult of all, is the issue of the large number oftoxic contaminants which are present in natural waters and are thus inevita

bly present in drinking water. Perhaps we can best address this issue by examining four aspects. First, the identification of the nature and severity of the problem, second somejurisdictionai and legal aspects, then our present scientific and engineering knowledge of causes and effects, and finally whether or not there is the political will to pay for the remedies.

taken in sufficient quantities. That toxicity is often caused merely by the disruptive nature of the burden of chemical in the organism. To humans 50 g of alcohol is quite dis ruptive and 200 g may he fatal. A more insidious problem is caused by chemicals, which in very tiny amounts, are able to affect the orga nism, not by disrupting it directly, hut by directing its growth patterns down undesired pathways. These include carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens.

By Dr. Don Mackay

for Abatement (MISA) program which is now well underway. These programs have not yet reduced con tamination levels. It is likely that it will he some years before this occurs, because the initial phases will tend to be data gathering, decid ing what should be done and who should pay, rather than actually accomplishing reductions in levels of toxic substances. But the direc

tion is clear. The public is demand ing, and will get, a cleaner water environment.

By analogy, a fly weighing 1 milligram impacting a jumbo jet weighing 500 tonnes has very little effect on the jet - hut the same mass of blood clot lodging in precisely the wrong place in the pilot's brain at a critical moment could result in disaster. This is not because of the mass of the clot hut because it is able

to direct a sequence of events which ultimately leads to disas ter.

Finally, is the Durability or per sistence of chemicals. Like humans

and other animals, chemicals have a distinct lifetime in the environ

The 3Ds Ontario has published its list of


tants which has about 180 chemi

the Issue

cals which are believed to he present in Ontario's water, are regarded as being sufficiently toxic to he of con

ment which is dictated by their reac tivity in the air, water, soil and sediments and especially their sus ceptibility to hiodegradation. Many chemicals such as organic ligneous material of natural origin, PCBs, DDT are very durable. They will

public with a continual stream of

cern and so are candidates for moni


bad news about toxic chemicals. Much of this news is drawn from the

toring and control. It is likely that

many years. They can build up high concentrations and undertake long environmental journeys permitting them to impact organisms which

Effluent Monitoring Priority Pollu

The news media bombard the

numerous scientific reports which discuss toxic chemicals in water and recommend various remedial

even more chemicals will be added

to this list as analytical methods improve and new information flows



environment for

into the system. Perhaps there are three proper ties (the three Ds) of chemicals

are some distance from the source. Short-lived chemicals tend to he less

limited to locations close to the dis

tal Protection Act, and in Ontario

which cause concern. First are chemicals which are Distributive or

the Municipal-Industrial Strategy

hioconcentrate. For example,PCBs

actions. Resulting public pressures caused the Federal government to enact the Canadian Environmen


of a problem because they are charge point and are unable to build up high concentrations.

Environmental Science cfe Engineering, February 1989

Of particular and growing con cern are the organochlorine com pounds, that is chemicals contain ing the carbon-chlorine bond. Such compounds are not believed to be produced naturally thus enzymes possess only a limited capability of degrading them. Many of the chem icals on the Ontario list are organochlorines. There is a widely held belief that we should organize a chemical lifestyle to avoid produc ing, using and discharging such

the average member of the public and probably sounds twice as bad as 10 milligrams/litre despite the fact

thus be dealing with an instinctive reaction, not just obstinate intoler

that it is 500 times lower. We are

This may explain in part why the public feels intensely uncomfortable

now dealing with concentrations in the range of nanograms or picograms or femtograms per litre. Even scientists have difficulty remember ing what these prefices mean. This problem of the incomprehensibility of tinyness raises severe difficulties. When can we ever communicate the concentrations in units that will

chemicals because of their durabil

enlighten and satisfy a sceptical

ity, and in many cases their toxicity.


Chemicals such as PCBs or DDT

which possess distributive, directive and durable properties are thus criti cal environmental contaminants.

In large measure the Ontario MISA program is being directed to control ling emissions of these chemicals from sources such as the chemical

and pulp and paper industries. As challenging, will be the problem of controlling the emission of such chemicals from homes and light industry into sewers, and thus into natural waters.

The Incomprehensibility of Tinyness Most environmental regulatory agencies were organized into groups handling chemicals which are clas sified as air pollutants, agricultural chemicals, water pollutants, etc. It is now clear that this categorization is no longer appropriate. All chemi cals have, at least to some extent, the potential to migrate into all media such as air, water, soil and sediment and thus impact humans by inhalation of air, drinking water, eating food, vegetation, meat and fish. It is often not clear which expo sure route is dominant.

Intolerance The public has apparently a strong and growing inherent intol erance, or instinctive dislike, for contaminated air, water and food. How else can one explain the prac tice of buying bottled water at 40 cents per litre when water of as good quality is available at a cost of 40 cents per thousand litres from the tap? Almost every village has its health food store selling chemicalfree, natural organically-grown foods. I have a theory that this dis trust of contamination has deep instinctive origins. Many animals test whether or not to eat material by smell. Their very survival depends on success

fully discriminating between poi sonous and non-poisonous food. As any wine connosieur knows our

about drinking water which has been drawn from lakes or rivers which are known to be contami

nated, and whose fish exhibit abberations such as high incidences of tumours.

Protestations that the

water has been treated very tho roughly or that the concentration of compound X is only one part per bil lion are unlikely to resolve this con cern. The concern may be illogical but it is certainly real. Real concern results in real political action. Wit ness tbe growing intolerance of smoking! A simple test of tolerance to con tamination is to take a group of peo ple and ask them what level of cleanliness they would expect in a consumer product such as grated cheese. The Health Protection Branch of National Health and Wel

fare has guidelines which specifies the amount of insect fragments, dead mites, rodent hairs and metal pieces which may be found in sam ples of grated cheese. Most people would be horrified to learn that

there could be any amount of any of these contaminants in purchased grated cheese. Table 1 shows that significant amounts are "accepta ble", at least to food inspectors. How

Table 1: Excerptfrom Extraneous Material Guidelines that Relate to the Safety and Cleanliness of Food. (Health Protection Branch, Ottawa) for a 225 g sample of grated cheese. n








Rodent hairs




Other Mammalian hair (not human)




Human hair




Rigid metal pieces 0.1 - 1.0 mm Rigid metal pieces 1.0 - 2.0 mm Rigid metal pieces >2.0 mm

3 3








insect fragments (not mites) Mites (dead)

We must

also face the reality that it is no longer credible to state that there is no dioxin in water. Compounds such as the dioxins are presentin all these media, although the concen trations may be well below current analytical detection levels. We must educate the public to accept the fact that it will never be possible to completely elimi




8 34 3 3 0 16 3 0

Explanation: n number of samples to be taken


maximum number of marginally acceptable samples

m M

acceptable amount marginally acceptable amount

nate all toxic chemicals from

drinking water. If none are found in drinking water it is merely because the analytical

senses of taste and smell are closely vival we have evolved a strong

ces in recent years?

instruments used were not suf

instinctive desire to select and eat

ficiently expensive. A fundamental problem in this educational task is that the public and indeed many engineers and scientists, have an inadequate understanding of the concentration units used in reporting levels of

only clean, uncontaminated food. Any food which smells,or looks con

really a health problem. It is a per ception problem. We must recognize that the pub lic's attitude to drinking water is linked intimately to the perception

toxic chemicals. A concentration of

20 micrograms/litre means little to

linked. It may be that to ensure sur

taminated produces a strong emo tional reaction. Is this the cause of

many people have died by eating insect fragments, mites or metal pie Tbis is not

the bizarre and deeply entrenched

of the contamination of the lake

dislikes of some children for some

from which it is drawn. The percep tion may be highly emotional, but it

foods such as spinach or broccoli? When you crack open a rotten egg the response is immediate! We may

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Continued overleaf 17

Drastic act/on needed, cont'd.

is certainly real. I suggest that the ohvious remedy is to decontaminate



rivers and lakes back to the level at

which ecosystems thrive, free from


such as tumours. Only when the public can see organisms, prefera bly the charismatic ones with big brown eyes, thriving and drinking directly from the lake, can there he full assurance that treated drinking






unusual incidences of abberations





575 648


2 282 106 73





J 284




2 165 kg





187 kg


water drawn from that lake will be

safe and acceptable. SURFACE SEDIMENT MASS 18225 kg ANNUAL

Jurisdictional Issues



Some environmental issues such

as the indoor pollution problem, suffer from lack of jurisdictional attention in that nobody wants to accept responsibility. If we examine some of the jurisdictional actors who are responsible for controlling the contamination in the region of Lake Ontario, we find a very differ ent picture. There is the Ontario Ministry of

Figure 1: An estimated mass balance diagram for PCBs in Lake Ontario about 1985 in units of kilograms per year. ural Resources. On the US side are the EPA and the New York State

Department of Environmental Con servation. At the International level is the International Joint Com

which control emissions into the

mission whose Water Quality Board






Department of the Environment



lake. The Department of Fisheries

alone has 31 committees deliberat

and Oceans worries about its fish, as does the Ontario Ministry of Nat-

ing about the state of the water. National




becomes concerned when the water

is drunk, the Department of Trans port and the Canadian Coast Guard become active when you float on it; the Department of Public Works is continually rearranging (dredging) the sediments and harbours, as is the US Army Corps of Engineers. Municipalities and industry draw


The safe alternative For water disinfection, wastewater


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Circle reply card No. 113

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

water from the lakes, consultants

study it and produce glossy reports. Universities study it and produce generally incomprehensible scien tific reports. Environmental non governmental organizations (ENGOs) protest about it, the Inter

being devoted to understanding how the two interact.

There is a tremendous enthusi asm within the Ontario scientific

national Association of Great Lakes

community to undertake studies of this type. The only substantial funding for environmental work is now from the Ontario Ministry of

Research researches it, groups such

the Environment. Yet in its recent

as this are concerned about it. Har

bour and seaway commissions have important interests. No doubt there are many others. I suggest we are suffering from jurisdictional overkill or paralysis by analysis. It is almost impossible for any one ofthese organizations to take any action without consulting several of the others, forming inter departmental committees and enter ing into prolonged negotiations. Communication is often poor, at times reluctant, and occasionally hostile.

We must find a way out of this bureaucratic log jam. The only hope is strong political leadership backed by a vociferous demanding public.

Science, Knowledge, Technology and Understanding In the last ten years considerable progress has been made in under standing the way in which toxic chemicals enter lakes and migrate between water, sediments and the atmosphere. Figure I gives an example of the way in which PCBs are believed to have moved through out the Lake Ontario environment

in the last ten years. It is a tremend ous intellectual challenge to under stand the processes and deduce amounts subject to each process. Mass Balance diagrams such as Figure I are very difficult to assem ble. It requires years of patient work but I am convinced that unless we

understand the basic pathways of toxic chemicals we will never be able

to regulate or control them properly. By analogy, the chief executive officer of a large corporation must have an intimate understanding of the cash-flow throughout her organ ization - where the money comes from, where it goes,the relative prof itability of the various sectors. Only when she has this understanding can she properly direct the organiza tion down more profitable paths. The same principle applies to toxic chemicals. Yet we are trying to manage toxic chemicals without understanding their cash-flows. This is an immense problem because there is a multitude of lakes

and a multitude of toxic chemicals,

awards, it could fund only 11.9% of the proposals submitted. The new proposals funded in the area of water amounted to only $239,000. The Federal government scrapped its




research program and now has no

peer reviewed funding program for water research by Canadian univer sities. Report after report has dem onstrated the need for more science, but this falls on deaf ears in Ottawa.

Not only are universities starved of research funds, but they are unable to provide educational research opportunities for graduate students wishing to devote their scientific or engineering careers to the solution of water pollution problems. It is important to emphasize that while we lack understanding of the effects of toxic chemicals, it is now Continued on page 30

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and a miniscule amount of effort

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Circle reply card No. 114 19

Supplied by the Canadian Association on Water Poilution Research and Controi

Slaughterhouse Effluent Treatment

R&D News


Readers wishing further information on R&D News items are encouraged to contact Dr. Hugh Eisenhauer. Detaiis can be found on page 34.

Improved Bioassay

agar plate methods. The procedure


is a convenient and economical tool

The colour and turbidity of water samples can interfere with toxicant screening procedures. An algalATP microplate bioassay test was therefore modified by researcher K.K. Kwan in order to eliminate

interference from coloured samples. As described in a National Water

in quantitative toxicological studies of chemical compounds.

Water Quality Index The Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering has published the results of a study by INRS-Eau scientists D.A. Cluis, Y. Lefebvre and C. Laberge on a new local index

Research Institute report, greater sensitivity and accuracy can now be obtained with tests which were pre viously affected by the colour or the turbidity of samples.


Optimization of Upflow





makes use of linear

weighting functions calculated on Anaerobic Reactor Treatment


at the


Research Institute have studied the

effect of the hydraulic regime on the granule size distribution in an upflow anaerobic reactor. As des cribed by S.R. Guiot and co-workers in a paper presented at the 4th East ern Regional CAWPRC Conference, the study was conducted using a 17 litre upflow anaerobic sludge bed and filter using'sugar wastes at var ious strengths and dilution rates. The result indicated that an upflow liquid velocity of about 1 m/h was best for granule development with optimal size (2-3 mm) and specific activity.

Rapid Toxicity Assessment

A paper accepted for publication in Water Research presents a simple, rapid and sensitive technique for determining the chemical toxicity of both

water-soluble and insoluble

compounds by using a direct agar diffusion assay. The procedure developed by National Water Research Institute scientists D. Liu, Y.K. Chau and B.J. Dutka involves the use of an effective carrier solvent

system to dissolve the test chemi cals and a 30°C incubation tempera ture to accelerate bacterial growth on the seeded agar plate. Under optimum conditions, test results are obtainable within a 3-4 hr. time frame instead of the 18-48 hr. incu

bation required by conventional 20




upstream and downstream mea surements of parameters which are affected by specific effluents. The procedure ranks each parameter value with regard to the maximum and minimum values observed before and after the outfall. Linear characteristics of the index struc

ture allow simple conversion from local databases to broader ones, thus allowing the measure of the cumulative impacts downstream.

Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Activated Sludge Process Perturbations in the organic load ings to an activated sludge process with corresponding oxygen demands usually translate into fluc tuations in the dissolved oxygen lev els in

excess of 93% could be achieved in as little as six hours retention time at


Orthophosphate reduction

under the same conditions was 90%.

Extremely high specific utilization rates were observed and revealed

that the process is about ten times faster than mesophilic processes for slaughterhouse effluent treatment. The maximal specific growth rate and the endogenous respiration rate were also superior to those for meso philic systems.


impacts on a receiving water body. This index

INRS-Eau researchers D. Couillard, S. Cariepy and F.T. Tran assessed the thermophilic aerobic process for the treatment of meat processing effluents using a mixed bacterial culture in a semi-continuously fed laboratory bioreactor without recy cling the cells. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, COD reduction in

the aeration tank.


objective of work undertaken by Thermonic Inc. scientist M. Robitaille and N. Therien of the Univer

sity of Sherbrooke was to study the dynamic behaviour of an activated sludge process submitted to low lev els of dissolved oxygen in the aera tion tank maintained constant over

short periods of time. Results des cribed at the 4th Eastern Region CAWPRC Conference showed that, during the perturbation period, all process rates were virtually unaf fected for dissolved oxygen levels of 0.9 mg/1 or greater. However, the net rates for substrate assimilation

and oxygen consumption decreased with decreasing oxygen levels.

Trace Contaminants in

Sewage Treatment Plants Scientists




Technology Centre and Canviro Consultants measured the variabil

ity of toxic trace contaminants in influents and effluents at three full-

scale municipal sewage treatment plants. As described by H. Melcer, H. Monteith and B.C. Nutt in a

paper published in Water Science and Technology, metals and vola tile organic compounds were the dominant contaminants found in

the influents. In the effluents, organic concentrations were close to detectable levels and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were almost never detected. Some influent metal and

organic contaminants varied diurnally while others appeared to fluc tuate randomly with periodic spike inputs. The variability of most efflu ent trace contaminant concentra

tions was considerably attenuated in comparison to influent trace con taminant concentrations.

Water Quality Modelling Investigations by Ontario Ministry of the Environment and University of Waterloo scientists on the proba bility behaviour of monthly statisti cal estimates of water quality parameters reveal that the govern ing probability distributions are not fixed but change on a monthly basis. Probability density functions were developed by L. Logan, V. Gra ham and T.E. Unny using a fiveparameter polynomial density function, which allows successful preservation of the key moments of

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Potable Water Safety

the baseline water quality sequence. As described in the Canadian Jour

nal of Civil Engineering, stochastic models for transformed series of

concentration of total phosphorus and suspended solids are deter mined using the ARIMA process. The methodology developed pro vides a framework for modelling baseline water quality data at var ious tributaries.

Biologically Available Metals in Sediments The National Research Council of

Canada has published a report (NRC 27694) which describes the nature of sediments, the geochemical behaviour of metals, and direct and indirect influences of biological processes on sediment chemistry; factors affecting the biological availability of metals to organisms and the fate of metals once within

dali, Serrener Consultation Ltd., and McGill University scientists R. Leduc and V.T.V. Nguyen to predict BOD variations of lagoon systems. As described in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, a

National Water Research Institute

scientists B.J, Dutka and A. El-

Shaarawi, and Peruvian colleagues tested twenty samples of drinking water from five different distribu

mass balance for BOD is written for

tion line sources in Lima, Peru, for

each lagoon assuming that com plete mixing and first-order kinetics of biodegradation occur. A random

coliphage content. Bacteriological quality of these waters was assessed by a variety of techniques. In 47'fii of the samples, coliphage were the only indicator organisms present. As suggested in a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, the incidence of coliphage in these pota ble water supplies reflects the proba bility of human pathogenic virus also surviving the treatment pro cess. In the bacteriological tests the Presence/Absence and hydrogen sulphide paper strip techniques were found to be equally or more sen sitive indicators of the presence of

disturbance term that accounts for

input noise is added to the determi nistic differential equation and values are derived to obtain expecta tion and variance of effluent BOD

concentration. The model gives a reliable prediction of lagoons' out put fluctuations, and represents a

new tool for uncertainty modelling of facultative aerated lagoons.

Centrifugal Analysis

coliform/fecal coliform bacteria than were the total and fecal coli form MPN tests.

the organism; the trophic transfer of metals from sediment; the use of organisms to assay for sediment

of Ammonia

In a paper accepted for publication in Water Research, Dalhousie Uni

versity researchers R.F. McCurdy

Uncertainty Modelling of Lagoon Systems

metal impacts; and the measure ment of sediment metal bioavaila-

and R. Boss, and J. Dale of Mann Aqua Laboratories, Ltd., describe a reliable and efficient procedure for measuring ammonia in natural

bility. Major gaps in knowledge are outlined and recommendations are made for future research.

A stochastic differential equation model has been developed by S. Oul-

Continued on page 34

BCA's Optimum Direct Filtration Water Treatment




fiie "NEW" DF-AC Direct Filtration

^ lOW{« MtOIA RilAININC SCREfN Water Treatment System FEATURES ■ Compact design ■ Minimum cost and space ■ Combines contact flocculation and

clarification processes in a unique upflow coagulation roughing filter with granular media which reduces turbidity by 95% ■ Tri-media polishing inverted bed filter captures any remaining solids with its high solids holding capacity to produce an effluent with less than 0.1 NTU turbidity, even with raw water turbidity of 100 or more ■ Designed to treat highly colored water with low solids; something standard direct filtration units can't handle

■ Uses raw water with air scour to

flush the roughing filter. Treated water is used to backwash the polishing filter ■ Filter rinse-to-waste system is provided to settle and clear the media

For more information

after each backwash

of Treatment and control

■ Dual media with PAC can be

provided for taste and odor removal ■ "True" Package Plant pre-assembled



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# 5-6115-4th SI, S.E., Calgary Alta.

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Phone:(604) 666-4141 FAX:(604)666-3565

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TOLL FREE NUMBERS FROM B.C. LcMver Mainland: 526-7444

TOLLFREE NUMBERS Alberta & Saskatchewan: 1-600-661-1490

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and tested, with Control Valves,

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Chemical Feed Systems, Control r^el, Accessories as specified. On site installation requires locating the Plant, making raw water, treated water


Phone:(403) 463-2038

1916 Brookside Blvd.. Winnipeg, Man. R3C 2E6 PHONE(204)633-2173

FAX (204)694-7228

and electrical connections. BCA does

Plant start-up and trains operating personnel.


bca industrial controls limiteo

■ Easy and economical to operate

Circle reply card No. 115 Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


New technology uses oxygen to control odour and corrosion problems in wastewater systems Figure 1 - Sidestream Pumping System

distance to the treatment plant. Air injection is mostly nitrogen, about 78% by volume in fact. This increases the chance of gas locks in the system. Oxygen injection also eliminates the need for compressors and associated equipment. For these reasons there has been consid

erable interest in pure oxygen sys tems in recent years. When flow conditions are turbu

lent, oxygen can simply be injected directly into wastewater streams. The high shear forces present ensure that the oxygen bubbles do not coalesce before dissolution is Typlc&l Operating Parameter* flow - 10-20% of main flow

pressure - 60-100 psig

complete. When less turbulent con ditions prevail, however,the oxygen bubbles will rise and collect in the

gas space above the wastewater, greatly reducing the dissolution rate. It is Important to control odour and corrosion problems caused by hydrogen sulphide in any wastewater coilection system, in recent years there has been interest in using oxygen for this purpose. This paper by Michael J. Fullam, outlines some of the methods by which oxygen can be injected into wastewater using technology developed by the Linde Division of Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc.

The mechanisms for the generation of hydrogen sulphide in wastewater are well understood. When

dissolved oxygen concentrations are less than 0.1 mg/1 - 1.0 mg/1

In this case, an alternative

method must be used.

Sidestream pumping, where a portion of the wastewater stream is oxygenated under pressures as high as 100 psig and then mixed back into the main flow, have been used successfully in various applications

10 - 20% ofthe total flow, a vertical or horizontal pipeline contactor, an oxygen flow control system and an oxygen source. A typical high pres sure sidestream pumping system is shown in figure 1. A drawback of this system is the energy costs asso ciated with such high pressures. It

constructed as small as 3 in. in

diameter to as large as 26 in. in diameter, although most are in the 6

- 12" range. Well depths are nor mally between 60-175 feet. The flow of oxygen can be paced from most types of proportional wastewater flow signals so that the gas is used as efficiently as possible. Oxygen can be supplied from high pressure cylinders,from a bulk liquid oxygen tank or from a small on-site plant. The choice of one sys tem over another is mainly due to volume and economic considera tions. ES&E

Mike Fullam Is a Development Engi neer with Linde Canada Inc., devel

oping gas-liquid mixing technology for environmental and water treat

ment applications.

was with this in mind that Linde Dissolver. 50% POWER REDUCTION

Figure 2 - Linde in-Ground Oxygen Dissolver

gravity or fore* r

Linde's In-Ground Oxygen Dis solver is a proprietary gas/liquid sidestream




been shown to use up to 50% less power than traditional sidestream methods while obtaining very high levels of dissolved oxygen. As with other sidestreams, a pump is nor mally required, however,the operat ing pressure of most Linde In-Ground Oxygen Dissolvers is in the 10 - 50 psig range. A wastewater sidestream and oxygen are fed into

is about five times that of oxygen in

a specially lined, vertical under ground pipeline. The natural gravi

air. Thus, higher levels of residual oxygen can be dissolved into wastewater using pure oxygen, an impor tant consideration if there is a long

tational pressure at the bottom of the pipeline causes most of the oxy gen to dissolve. The oxygenated wastewater is then brought to the


Oxygen Dis solver is custom designed to suit the individual customer requirements based on a computer model deve loped by Linde. Many of these units have been put into service in the past several years. Sizes have been

ponents of the system are a pump,

phates present to sulphides. These sulphides, in particular H2 S, enter the airspace above the wastewater, causing the characteristic rotten egg odour and associated corrosion problems. Higher levels ofdissolved oxygen, however, eliminate the sul phate reduction and hence control


in figure 2. Each In-Ground

usually capable of pumping about

developed the In-Ground Oxygen

Oxygen-can be added as oxygen in air or as a pure gas from an oxy gen source. The addition of pure oxygen has several important advantages over oxygen in air. The solubility of oxygen in wastewater

main flow. A typical Linde InGround Oxygen Dissolver is shown

for several decades. The main com

anaerobic bacteria reduce the sul

the Hz S formation.

surface where it is remixed with the



Typical Operating Parameters flow - 18-26* of main flow

presaura - 10-50 palg

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


Dillon Opens New Environmental Laboratories

Thescope and range ofser vices







steadily grown during the 45 year history ofthe Company.The opening of the Dillon Environ mental Laboratories in February 1989 completes a cycle of growth within Dillon's Environmental

Engineering, Science and Planning Groups.

The Laboratories offer

clients a full service capability for treatahility studies and chemical

analysis. They complement existing Dillon services in environmental

planning and science studies and in the design of water and wastewater treatment facilities.

Located at 215 Traders Boule

vard East in Mississauga, Ont. (close to Highways 10 and 401), the laboratories are convenient to all local clients. The facilities are also close to Pearson International Air

port for clients outside Ontario. Such access is vital, not only for

analytical samples, hut also for pro ject specialists who require testing facilities





treatahility. Treatahility and analysis are the major components ofthe service Dil lon Environmental Laboratories

provide to both the public and pri vate sectors. The Laboratories also

take advantage of their position in the multi-disciplinary approach of Dillon. The existence of a treatahil

ity capability also enables the firm's professionals to carry out research and development in their own areas of expertise.

The other major service offered by the Environmental Laboratories

is a full field capability in acquisi tion of samples, measurement of flow and delivery of samples to the Laboratories. When integrated with a full multi-disciplinary capability, Dillon offers a single-window approach to regulatory compliance required by new effluent discharge

Roger Wilkes, Brian Bobbie, John Lock, Les Johnston (seated), Tom Hunter. Waterloo and Metro Toronto.


addition to pilot work on conven tional treatment, Dillon engineers have piloted advanced technologies like ozonation and activated carbon


for drinking water. Industrial waste management treatahililty work has been principally with the automo tive, metal fabricating, petroleum refining, mining and food indus

laboratories. With the Quality Assu rance requirement of regulatory initiatives like MISA,it is apparent that Quality must be assured through appropriate documentation

tries. Dillon treatahility experience has dealt with oily water, phenolic

with each set of data.

wastes, paint wastes and conven tional biological treatment. In leachate treatment, the Company is an

industry leader in the application of anaerobic treatment technology. The


landfill treatment

plant, which was pilot tested and designed in-house, was a 1988 Cana dian Consulting Engineer/ACEC award winner (see ES&E October 1988). For chemical analysis, Dillon Environmental Laboratories offer a

full service capability. State-of-theart instrumentation in GC/MS,ICP and Ion Chromatography are util


SIILLŠini Environment:al Laboratories

Dillon Environmental Laborato

ries are staffed with experts in anal ysis and treatahility. Mr. B.A. (Brian) Bobbie is Dillon's Labora tory Manager of Analysis at the Traders Boulevard facility. Brian is a specialist in Trace Organic Analysis. The Laboratories' services are

integrated into Dillon's comprehen sive services through the Environ mental Chemistry Group at Dillon's Willowdale office. Two key individ uals are Dr. L.E.(Les) Johnston and Dr. J.D. (John) Lock. Les Johnston, whose training is in Ana lytical Chemistry, has spent 20

years in industry; at Dillon he pro

are available to meet the needs of



vides a bridge between Analytical Science, Applied Chemistry and Dil lon's Environmental Engineers. John Lock's background in Organic Chemistry and Drinking Water Quality further supports the

regulatory compliance monitoring, environmental impact assessment support work and trouble-shooting for industrial processing industries. From the conceptual planning stage



tion, specialized testing and conventional analytical equipment

Dillon's expertise in treatahility covers the major issues in treatment today: water, wastewater and leadesign have recently been under taken for Atikokan, Region of


ized at the Laboratories. In addi



ries, Quality Assurance has always been an integral component of the service. Dillon perceives that Qual ity Assurance is not adequately

of Dillon Environmental Laborato

Laboratories' staff in direction and

interpretation of analysis for water quality projects.

Dillon Environmental Laboratories, 215 Traders Boulevard East, Unit 3, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 2E5 Ptione:(416) 568-1414

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Fax: (416) 568-1339

Circle reply card No. 116


Use of a waste product for treatment of industrial effluents

Some integrated ste l mil s

generate a solid waste pro duct, hot iron desulfurization slag, also called dekish station slag, which is formed by application of calcium carbide to hot metal for the purpose of sulfur removal from original concentra

By J.J. Ganczarczyk, Ph.D., P.Eng. of calcium carbide, some calcium oxide and sulfide, and iron oxides. A

typical elemental composition of

tions in the range of 0.04% to an

desulfurization slag is 45-48% of iron, 10-15% of calcium and 1.5-1.6% of sulfur. This slag may effectively

acceptable concentration of 0.01%. The resulting slag contains excess

types of industrial effluents. The

be used for treatment of several


treatment effects of the desulfuriza

tion slag are based on the release of sulfide and hydroxide ions on its contact with water, and on sorption qualities of iron oxides. A high con centration of iron in this slag indi cates the possibility of its recycle to the blast furnace after sintering. Only high sulfur contents in this material may adversely affect the attractiveness of the slag reuse. However,the same utilization of the slag may also be considered after its use for wastewater treatment. Was-

tewater treatment sludge can be dewatered, dried, sintered, and directed to the blast furnace. The

recycled material will contain much less sulfur than the original slag (Fig. 1). DESULFURIZATION SLAG The hot metal desulfurization


slag is completely different by its chemical composition from other metallurgical slags like blast fur nace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag, etc. Specifically, this differ ence in composition is indicated by much higher contents of sulfur and iron in the desulfurization slag, and a substantial presence of silica and

CANADA MAY 16-18,1989



Misslssauga, Ontario



The complete Canadian

Call For Papers Contact:

Canawest Media Agency (See below)

oxides in some other

slags. The desulfurization slag eas ily releases the sulfide and hydrox ide ions, and this appears to be a major mechanism of its effective ness in removing the soluble ions of heavy metals from the treated was tewater. This natural combination

of hydroxide/sulfide precipitation seems to be advantageous in view of the other studies on hydroxide and sulfide precipitation of such ions. The application of other metallur gical sludges for removal of heavy metal ions from solution is based

mostly on the rather limited sorption properties of calcium silicates or cal

exhibition for marketing your products and services including the generation, treatment, disposal, storage, transportation, safety and regulation of dangerous and

completely different technological significance. On the other hand,the apparent sorption properties of iron oxides in the desulfurization slag should not be ignored as they may

hazardous materials and environmental

other components of wastewater like phenolics and cyanide, present

For Further Exhibition Information, Contact:



Suite 260, 4936 - 87 Street Edmonton, Alberta T6E 5W3

cium aluminosilicates and has a

be instrumental in removing some

in some industrial effluents.


sorption phenomena of iron oxides may also contribute to removal of some metal ions.

Tel:(403) 466-6622 Fax (403) 469-1398



CANAWEST MEDIA AGENCY LTD. â&#x20AC;˘ Tel:(403) 466-6622 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax:(403)469-1398

WASTEWATER TREATMENT Industrial effluents from iron

and steel manufacturing, except

Circle reply card No. 117 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

wastewater from coke-making, are usually treated by physio-chemical methods including sedimentation, neutralization, coagulation, chemi cal oxidation, sorption and filtra tion. A typical example of such wastewater may he a blast furnace water recirculation system blowdown which contains suspended sol ids, some metal cations, ammonia, cyanide, phenolics, and sometimes some scaling inhibitors. A typical

Desulfurlzatlon Slag


treatment of the hlowdown includes

Sintering Plant

coagulation with ferric salts and an organic polymer, followed by a breakpoint chlorination. Experi

Wastewater Treatment

ments have indicated that the desul-

furization slag can be used for

Sludge Processing

treatment of the blast furnace blow-

down wastewater in a one-stage operation for removal of residual suspended solids and all objectiona ble soluble components except Fig. 1.

ammonia. The removal of soluble

heavy metals from industrial efflu ents by application of this slag may be performed at a broader pH range than required for hydroxide or sulfide precipitation alone. GENERATION OF DESULFURIZATION SLAG

The generation of the desulfurization slag at integrated steel mills is much larger than the require ments for this product for treatment

Uciiization of the Desulfurlzatlon Slag

of the blast furnace water recircula-


tion hlowdown at the same plants. Therefore, the slag can even be con sidered a marketable commodity for

The University of Toronto has patented the application of desulfurization slag for wastewater treat ment (US Patent 4,705,638 of November 10, 1987). More informa

use for some wastewater treatment

elsewhere, before possible recy cling ofthe produced sludge through a sintering operation to blast fur nace as a good substitute for iron

tion can be obtained from Universi

ty's Innovations Foundation (416) 978-5117 or from the author at(416) 978-5399.


For chlotine gas detection,there is safety in numbers,

Our economical j. laHj system is e^andable |i lanH to eight points.



Capital Controls offers reliable chlorine gas detection for just about any size operation. Even for those that grow. Our Series 1600 includes single and multichannel systems. The latter can be cost effectively expanded up to eight points, merely by adding sensors. There are many reasons to specify Series 1600. Like 4-20 mA sensor signals that permit noise-free transmission from up to 3,000 feet away. Or displays and interfaces so readily under standable that you will not need the instruction manual for day-to-day operation. Plus, the option of a rechargeable battery that ensures dependable back-up power. Make safety your number one priority. Make Series 1600 your chlorine gas detector. Call 800-523-2553. In PA: 800-242-7590. Outside the U.S.: 215-822-2901. Or write:

Capital Controls Company, Inc., P.O. Box 211, Colmar, PA 18915, U.S.A. Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

1^ CAPITAL CONTROLS Circle reply card No. 118


Literature Review SNAP-LOCK

Stainless steel Insertion Repair Method.Simple and fast repairs now available for 8-inch, 10-inch,

12-Inch and 15-inch pipe in muni cipal sewer systems for struc tural cracks and infiltration Inspection Services

without excavation or pavement repair. Reline only the damaged sections.

I. 8. Inspection Services Ltd. Circle reply card No. 200

Ifasf jUvrf

Water Level Indicator

For groundwater monitoring, tapes have permanently em bossed black markers every cm. with metres marked in red, (or feet & tenths). Available in lengths from 15-600 m. mounted on a sturdy free-standing reel with carrying handle. Included are probes designed to avoid false readings in cascading

Saiflple Sigma...

water, test button, buzzer,

optional light. Sollnst Canada Ltd.


Circle reply card No. 201

Liquid Samplers & Flowmeters Samplers and flowmeters get rough Continuous Sand Filtration DYNRSfiNDFETER



The DynaSand Filter is a con tinuous backwash, upflow, deep bed granular media filter. The filter media is continuously cleaned by recycling the sand in ternally through an air-lift pipe and sand washer. The regener ated sand is redistributed on top of the sand bed allowing for a continuous uninterrupted flow of filtrate and reject water. Axel Johnson (Canada) Inc. Circle reply card No. 202

Waste Water Analysis Equipment The Continental Hydrodyne Analytical System combines the latest in simplified photometric instrumentation with fully pre pared colour determining re agents, in ready-to-use glass vials. The result is an accurate

and simple system for industrial and municipal water and waste water analysis. Models with radiation detection, pH meters, turbidity meters, etc. are also

use and do hard time in corrosive en

vironments. Now there's Streamline,

designed to perform, built to survive. Tough impact resistant polyethylene construction.

Sealed keypad & watertight NEMA 4X,6 control housing. Easy to use self prompting 16 character display. Streamline gets the job done, the first time, every time, year after year. • Portable Samplers • Refrigerated Samplers • Ground Water Samplers • Open Channel Flowmeters 2495 HainesRbad

Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4Y1Y7

INSTRUMENTS LTD. ph. (416)277-0331 Fax (416)277-2588 Telex



Pyxis Systems Group Circle reply card No. 212

Circle reply card No. 113 26

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

What's New. Odour Neutralizer X-O IOC neutralizes offensive

odours from clarifiers, grit extrac tors, dome covers, dewatering lift and head stations as well as sludge lagoons. X-O may be fogged through perimeter line blower systems, bar rel mounted aerators, X-O aerator injection systems and as a substi tute for toxic oxidizing chemicals in all types of air scrubbing units. X-O

Circle reply card No. 150

odours through "true odour counter

Ergonomlcally designed leak detector

action", not just by masking, according to the manufacturer. Micro-Mist Systems may be used

Non-toxic and biodegradable, Odor-Con chemically surrounds and destroys odourant molecules. As it is highly concentrated, only

Aqua-Scope fluid leak detectors are designed to allow operators com plete freedom of movement and the ability to concentrate on the audio or visual signals. The units work by amplifying the different frequencies generated by a leak. A ground or a test rod micro phone picks up the sound frequen cies. Electrosonic circuitry amplifies the sound of the leak for the headset and receiver. The opera tor then interprets differences in sig nal strength to localize the leak for fast pinpointing. A complete Aqua-Scope unit comes with the electronic module, ground and test rod microphones, sound protection headset and carry ing case. Heath Consultants

four to six ounces is needed to mix

Circle reply card No. 153

around odourous areas and utilized

directly into exhaust systems and stacks.

Also available are, Vapor-Matic Odour Control Units,which produce a safe vapour screen around the entire plant, lagoon, digester, tank, etc.

Both systems are available on a fully-refundable loan basis. Odomaster Canada

Circle reply card No. 151

Counteractive odour

New biodegradable odour control agent

control systems nnOMASTER



with a gallon of water. Filters satu rated with Odor-Con can reduce or eliminate airborne odours. It can

Monitoring underground storage tank leaks

also be used with a spray bottle or poured directly on a spill. Odor-Con has been used in sew

Warrick Controls' Series DMS

age treatment plants and in sludge disposal operations. Surco's spot application odour con trol system eliminates noxious

Underground Storage Tank Moni toring System is designed for leak detection applications like double

Heath Consultants

Circle reply card No. 152

wall tanks.

Corrosion Fighting" Specialty Fittings



Robar's specialty waterworks fittings are manufactured with corrosion-resistant

coatings and materials ... a sample of these products are shown below ...

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2606 All Stainless

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- Lagoon Aerators - Chopper Pumps - Stainless Steel Gates

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Bronze 2706 Saddles Corrosion Protective

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- Belt Filter Presses

- FRP Tank/Digester Covers - MIcrofloc Water Plants

- Odour Control Systems For further details, please contact ...

Over 2000 Installations UNIT 2, 10 ALDEN RD., MARKHAM,ONTARIO L3R2S1 (416) 475-1545 Fax: (416) 475-2021

Circle reply card No. 120 Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

ROBAR INDUSTRIES LTD. 12945 - 78th Avenue, Surrey, B.C. V3W 2X8 Phone (604) 591-8811 FAX (604) 591-5288 Toll Free 800-663-6553

Circle reply card No. 121 27

What's New The control panel can distin

guish between water and hydrocar bon leaks, and can monitor two

detection points(sump and overfill) per channel. The leak detection cap is con

Fleet operators can use the pro gram to detect leaks from under ground storage tanks at a fraction of

structed of cast iron in a Nema 4

the cost of electronic level sensors or

enclosure. The leak detection probe contains separate sensors to detect water or hydrocarbon leaks. A leak detection monitoring pro gram is available for fibreglass, double wall steel tanks, chemical tanks,fuel oil tanks and monitoring

soil probes. PG-GasBar uses sophisticated statistical analysis routines to detect leaks as small as one drop per second. It is easy to use and can be run on virtually any PC-compatible computer.

wells. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 154

Software program detects gas leaks Enghouse Systems has introduced a new software program called PCGasBar to help manage under ground gasoline storage tanks.

Consultants' Directory Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN




Leakage from underground gaso line storage tanks is a very serious problem in Canada, and a major concern to Government officials. Environment Canada has esti

mated that at least 10,000 tanks are currently leaking in Canada. Enghouse Systems Limited

Ainley and Associates Limited | CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS .

COLLINGWOOD (705) 445-3451

0ARRIE (705) 726-3371

• Environmental Auditing and planning • Regulatory affairs

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD. Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving Industry in Canada

Circle reply card No. 155

BELLEVILLE (613) 966-4243

New personal protection gas


• Waste Auditing and management planning • Air, soil, waste and water analytics/studies

225Stieppard Ave. W., Willowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


detector Potentially life threatening situa tions caused by exposure to flamma ble, toxic or oxygen deficient gas can be detected by a new multi function gas hazard detector from Nortech.

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers

Water Resources

Transportatlon Municipal Services Land Development Tunnel and Shaft Design

Toronto (416) 497-8600

Welland (416) 735-3659

Pollution Control

Sewerage Systems Water Supply

^/VARNING Dangerous gasses

Analytical Laboratory Services • Water and Wastewater Analyses • MISA Effluent Monitoring Parameters• Radionuciide Analyses • Air Quality and Dustfall Analyses • Industrial and Hazardous Waste Classification

Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1J 8X5 Tel.:(613) 749-2220Fax:(613) 749-7170


Certified explosion proof, this lightweight detector is enclosed in a water-tight stainless steel housing.

Separate audible and visual alarms 28

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

for each gas sensor warn of danger ous exposure levels.

AquaticSciences Inc.

Environmental Scientists Commercial Divers


A large digital meter displays actual levels.

Nortech Control Equipment Inc.

Circle reply card No. 156

• spil l site Investigations and cleanups

• underwater video inspections

• impact assessments

• water quality monitoring

P.O. Box 2205, Station B,St. Gattiarlnes, Ontario L2I\/1 6P6

Automatic dialing











TELEPHONE:(416) 622-9502, FAX: (416) 622-6249

ADAS Automatic Dialing Alarm Systems from Butler National, use a synthetic voice to advise approp riate personnel over standard tele phone lines of a potential hazardous problem. With pre-determined or user pro grammed speech, the "ADAS" dial ers






• environmental and discharge analyses • Reg. 309 and MISA compliance • radlochemlcal analytical service • fire assay and field sampling services Main Lab: 5735 McAdam Rd.,

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Mlsslssauga, Ontario, L4Z 1N9, Tel: (416) 890-8566, Fax:(416)890-8575

Air filtration


Systems Enmet's air filtration panels are designed with a three stage filtra tion system which incorporates all plastic filter elements.


"Serving Industry & Gov't. Over 25 Years"

Automatic Dialing Alarm Systems.

Circle reply card No. 157


beak consultants limited

Other Labs: Calgary, AB

Pickle Lake, ON Red Lake, ON

Denver, CO Kirkland Lake, ON

Reno, DE Yellowknife, NWT

Tel:(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303

Environmental Specialists •Watershed Management •Process & Design Engineering •Fish Toxicity •Groundwater Contamination





Tel:(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303


Environmental Analysis The filtration system removes oil, water, solid particulate matter and objectionable odours from com pressed air. The high-efficiency coalescer contains no glass, asbestos,or inorganic fibres which are com monly used in the construction of standard filters of this type.


•Dioxins •Metal Scans




TREA TMENT A Division Of

Three and six man respirator models are offered with optional carbon monoxide and oxygen


monitors. Enmet Canada Ltd.


Circle reply card No. 158

Conventional Pollutants All Matrices




Waterloo, Ontario 519-579-3500

(Fax) 519-579-8986 C LAB SERVICES

Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2320 (Fax) 416-858-3779


Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


What's New Ego Pro for lagoon

Comprehensive Environmental


Analyses 178 Louisa St., Kitchene Kitchener, Ontario N2H 5M5 5M. 1-519-579-4230

Ego Pro by EGO Equipment has been developed for use with all static aeration devices, In new or existing aerobic-facultative lagoons. The unit offers cost savings by permit

ting seasonal shutdown of the system without the danger of fouling or clogging. Treatment efficiency Is enhanced,

^Concord Scientific Corporation cJl^suitTnTs'' Hazard and Risk Control

Occupational Hygiene Services Pollution Control - System Design Dispersion and Acid Deposition Modeling

Analytical Lab Services Instrumentation Development Indoor Air Quality Studies

Safety and Environmental

as the design prevents unwanted disturbance and re-suspenslon of the lower anaerobic solids layer. Sized to suit all currently avail able static tube aerators. Its special profile ensures unrestricted flows. ECO Equipment Inc.

Circle reply card No. 159


Head Office: 2 TIPPETT RD„ TOROtJTO, ONIARIO t^3H 2V2 (416)630-6331

Brancfi Offices: OTTAWA•CALGARY

Drastic action cont'd, from pg. 19

abundantly clear what the imme diate actions should be. Too often, lack of scientific knowledge is used as an excuse for inaction, especially

CRA Consulting Engineers

In the acid rain Issue. Scientists will


■ ■ ■ ■

Solid & Hazardous Waste Management ■ Environmental Audits Environmental Assessment ■ Water Supply ■ Hydrogeology Landfill Gas Control & Utilizatbn ■ Wastewater Treatment Municipal Engineering ■ Construction Management

Wfltprloo Mjeciceaijns Tel. 416-629-0510 Waterloo Tel. 519-884-0510 519-884-0525 M'SSISSauga 416-629-0515

never admit that they understand a problem sufficiently. There is always more to be discovered. Iam told that consultants have rubber

stamps which state "Recommenda tion 1. Further study Is needed". It Is clear that there Is one, and only one, road to decontamination - It Is to reduce the loadings or kilograms

per day of toxic chemicals Into the Great Lakes.

Once the chemicals

are In the lakes nothing can be done about them. Loading reduction Is thus the thrust of the enlightened MISA program. Recent studies have shown that

(1) If loadings are reduced by half then the level of contamination of




the Great Lakes will be approxi mately reduced by half, and (11) that lakes will respond very rapidly to these loading reductions, often within a year or two. Even for Lake Superior, In which water resides for some 185 years, a reduction In load ing will often produce a reduction In water concentration within a couple of years. This Is because most chem icals leave the water, not only by outflow, but also by sedimentation, volatilization or reaction.

SIILL©in) environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers





PORTER DILLON LIMITED TORONTO (415) 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-8094 • HALIFAX (902) 453-1 n 5



This Is

very good news and suggests that If we can act In a concerted way to reduce loadings, the Great Lakes may be restored relatively rapidly to a state of cleanliness, just as the Thames recovered very rapidly when Londoners finally decided after centuries of abuse to clean up their river. Remedial actions are thus obvious and need not be

delayed for lack of science. Science Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

will play a critical role in deciding when we have reached a state of vir

tual elimination, i.e. how clean is clean enough? It is a tragic comment on the state of environmental science

that vvre do not yet have one fully validated mass balance state ment for one toxic chemical in one of the Great Lakes.

Professional Services in



Management Gartner

140 Renfrew Drive, Suite 102, Markham, Ontario L3R 8B6

Fax (416) 477-1456 Telex 06-986278

(416) 477-8400


Political Will and Money The costs of remediating or dec ontaminating our water resources are going to be substantial. Mainte

nance and improvement of urban infrastructure will be expensive. Sewage treatment plants must be upgraded, industrial discharges controlled and comprehensive pro grams of monitoring and scientific investigation put in place. But all we find is bickering between the var ious levels of government as to who is going to pay. It is interesting to contrast this intolerable





1670 Bayvlew Avenue,Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-7715 Fax(416)485-00,14

Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie • Cambridge • Mississauga

Consultants for water and pollution control projects

that of electricity. In Scarborough Ontario, a city of nearly half a mil

Knox Martin

lion, in 1986 each residential custo mer consumed 317 cubic metres of

water at 43 cents per cubic metre, costing a total of $136. The amount spent on electricity was $560. - four times greater. One could argue that

Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers. Planners . Landscape Architects. Fax: 1416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton ,Ontario. L6T 405(416)459-4780

efforts directed to water resources

should be at least a quarter of those devoted to electricity supply. Onta rio Hydro is a large, dynamic organ ization which conducts annually about $80 million worth of research, finances mega projects such as Pick ering and Darlington and announ

'Specializing In Inorganic Water Quality Analysis • 30 Parameter Rapid Chemical Analysis program featuring 5-day turnaround

ces with little fanfare that it will

spend $500 million retubing reac tors. There is acceptance that the consumer pays the full price for elec tricity, including provision of new services, upgrading of existing ser


400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Ont. L4Z 1N8 Phone: (416) 890-2555

Fax: (416) 890-0370

Environmental Analysis

vices and research into new technol

ogies. In short, the user pays. In contrast, the provision of drinking water, maintenance of infrastructure, treatment of

Organic/inorganic Chemistry Occupational Health & Safety

wastes and control of contami nation of rivers and lakes is

Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.

badly fragmented, financially

Professional Analytical Services Since 1972

starved and research has virtu-

5550 McAdam Road. Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone:(416)890-2555 Telex: 06-960496 Fax:(416)890-0370

• Complete MISA Parameter List • Ontario Drinking Water Criteria • Hazardous Waste Identification • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/Furans GC/MS, Graphite Furnace A.A., GG/ECD, Ion Chromatography, HPLC

Continued overleaf

Marshall Macklin Monaghan Limited Process


Hisey and Barrington Limited

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

Specialists in Environmental Planning and Engineering, Hydrogeology, Waste Management and Water Resources

Consulting Professional Engineers TORONTO, EDMONTON

R.R.#2, King City, Ontario LOG 1K0

Burlington, Mississauga, Whitby


Environmental Science & Engineering, Eebruary 1989

275 Duncan Mi ll Road

Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2Y1

(416) 449-2500

Fax: (416) 449-6076 31

Maclaren Engineers

Maclaren Plansearch

Drastic action needed, cont'd.

ally ceased. Surely average custo

Environmental Engineering and Management Specialists

mers would be willing to pay some surcharge on water bills if they

Consulting Engineers, Planners, Scientists

could be assured that funds were to

be used for the improvement of Branch offices: London, Ottawa, Waterloo, Windsor Winnipeg _

2235 Sheppard Avenue East Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6


Telephone: (416) 756-4919/3866

water resources and for scientific

research. Regrettably there is no present mechanism by which this can be done.

Interestingly, any suggestion that electricity be provided to a home but not metered would be met

NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists waterwastev/atertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehandling underwaterinvestigations computerappilcatlonsandanalysis

treatmentplantoperatlonassistance blo/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax:682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. VST 1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax:384-1201

with derision.

Yet we persist in

supplying many consumers with unrnetered water. We have to seek a better mechanism whereby the full

costs of maintaining Canada's water resources, providing drinking water and treating sewage are more

adequately funded. 1 hope that part of this will be a complementary pro gram of scientific research. Again, this needs political leader ship. Bitching by municipalities and scientists has become a tire

some burden, which most politi cians have learned to accept and ignore.

ORTECH International Waste Treatment


Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management


Pilot Studies


Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling Ambient Air Studies

Emission Source Testing Occupational Health

Energy & Environmental Engineering Division 2395 Speakman Drive Mississauga, Ontario L5K 1B3 â&#x20AC;˘ Tel. 416 822-4111

Some Conclusions We face a challenging task of ste wardship of Canada's water resour ces. Contamination by toxic chemicals is only one of the issues, but it is a crucial one which we have

Fax 416 823-1446 â&#x20AC;˘ Telex 06-982311

addressed ineffectively. It is clear that the public has a strong aver sion to contaminated water,that we need to clean up the raw water resource, and manage it more care fully. There is clearly a changing

public attitude in the direction of

paul theil associates limited

increased intolerance of contamina

consulting engineers

tion. We must respond. What then are the impediments


to progress? I have suggested three. First is the problem ofjurisdictional overkill, in

Specializing in Municipal Services,

Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief





nated. No amount of reports, law suits or committee meetings will

Environmental Scientists


Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St, Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay 45 Green Belt Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 3K3

Tel: (416) 445-3600

water can

be decontami

result in cleaner water. There must

IP Consulting Engineers, Planners, and



have proliferated to the extent that the taxpayer is no longer served by a lean, responsive organization, but instead is met by frustration, delays and interjurisdictional squabbles. Second, there is inadequate support of science and engineering, which are ultimately the only methods by

Fax: (416) 445-5276

be pragmatic engineering measures and public education to reduce load ings of toxic chemicals. Third,is the problem of funding. I am not sug gesting that we create a water analog to Ontario Hydro but we must adopt some of the principles which enable Ontario Hydro to be successful, far sighted and respon sive. We must seek a mechanism by

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

Drastic action needed


which the user is able to pay directly for improved service. So what can be done? We have to break out of this deadlock of bureau

cratic squabbling, scientific bitch ing and poverty-pleading. It can only be done if there is political lead ership, and strong public support for that leadership. There are signs of this political leadership in Ontario. The status and impact of the Onta rio Ministry of Environment has risen remarkably under the leader ship of Jim Bradley. We have to send a clear signal to the politicians, such as Mr. Bradley, that the pres ent situation is intolerable; that they must break the present dead lock, and that they will have our full

Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2


TEL: (416) 847-0065


FAX: (416) 847-3840


DIALCOM: 21-P0U004




(416) 853-1223

support in efforts to decontaminate our lakes and rivers. Then we might enter into a new and more enlight ened era of stewardship of our pre cious water resources. ES&E

Water Supply•Pollution Control*Drainage'SCADA Classifieds

Simcoe Engineering Group Limited .Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building 345 Kingston Rood,Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1

Tel (416) 286-2285 Fax (416) 286-1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo


Complete Digester and


Head office:

sims hubicki

Fax: (416) 668-0221

Tel: (416) 668-9363

Engineers Architects and Planners

Lagoon Cleaning Land Application Systems

Toronto, Wtiitby, Cobourg, Kingston

Program Development

Bracebridge, Ottawa, Simcoe, Waterloo, Huntsville and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie

Tel: (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyville Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0


Consulting engineers




also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD. 66 Brant StroeL Hamilton, OnL L8L 6A8

Tel:(416) 523-1850




specializing in Land Use Planning & Development. Environmental Approvals, Waste Disposal and Municipal Law

' Anthracite Filter Coal

• Filter Sand & Gravel

John R, Wlllms / Donna S.K, Shier / Catherina Spoel

• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges

P Douglas Petrle / David O. Cox 73 Richmond Street West, Suite 200, Toronto, Oniario M5H 1Z4

(0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 A 100 micron)

416 863-0711 • Fax: 416 863-1938

Eldon Technologies Limited 1260 Lakeshore Rd. E.

Mississauga. Ont. L5E 3B8 Tel. (416) 271-1600

Fax: (416) 271-0554 nrrmrwrHii

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989


decreased sample-size requirement (85 yul), and technical ease of opera

R&D News,

Continued from page 21


phosphate (ortho, organic, or condensed) on performances at 1.21.8 g COD/(d.L.) of reactor volume. As described in the Canadian Jour

water using a Cobas Fara centrifu gal analyser. The procedure has a detection limit of 0.10 mg/1 with a precision of0.74 to 2.13%. Analytical recovery ranged from 97.5% to 99.1% and

results correlated

well with

those obtained by the standard phenate method. The new proce dure has several practical advan tages including increased throughput (112 samples per h),

Treatment of Landfill Leachates

nal of Civil Engineering, the results indicate that the "optimal" ratio of COD/P lies between 15,000 and

Technical University of Nova Sco tia scientists D. Thirumurthi and

G.R. Groskopf monitored three laboratory model anaerobic fixed film reactors,fed by a pretreated leachate, at 35°C for 10 months to esti mate the effects of different concentrations and the forms of

34,300. Anaerobes did not prefer any one form of POj over the other two.

Contaminant Transport in Rivers National Water Research Institute

scientists studied the role played by particles and associated microbes in contaminant transport in the Yamaska River. The 20-40 micron

I l^w BiP Thie FcPUsiPAVOhl




particle-size fraction, which was the predominant component in the water, exhibited the highest effi ciency for binding contaminants. As proposed in a report by S.S. Rao, J.H. Wong and E.G. Krishnappan, this fraction, rich in organic matter and associated bacteria, probably plays a key role in the transport of organic contaminants in the Yamaska and similar rivers.

Detection of Dioxins

A modified radio immunoassay method for the rapid detection of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in environmental samples has been developed by J.P. Sherry and coworkers at the National Water

Research Institute. The procedure is a screening test that can improve analytical efficiency and reduce costs. It is relatively sensitive, repeatable and amenable to auto mation, and should p^-ove useful in environmental surveillance and n$A

monitoring programs.


Expecting a quality-designed project within budget and on time, when you accept the lowest bid,can leave you teetering on the brink of disaster.

For more information, contact Dr. H.R. Elsenhauer, Canadian Associa tion on Water Pollution Research and

If you call on the qualifications, business experience and creative solutions ofconsulting engineers,you'll get the quality design assurance that responds exactly to your specific needs and typically amounts to less than 1% of the project's total lifetime cost, with better construction efficiency,long-term operating reliability

and easy maintenance. And that will m^e you a towering success. For a brochure on consulting engineer services,contact us.

Control, Conservation and Protec tion, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

K1A 0H3.

Ad Index Associated Eng.


BCA Industrial

The Consulting Engineers of Ontario 86 Overlea Boulevard, Suite 403, Toronto, Ontario M4H 106 Telephone: (416) 425-8027



Bonder Glegg

36: Mann Aquaiiii

Napier Roid

Bristol Myers


Can Am

26 Odomaster

Consulting Engineers


11: . Bobar

of Ontario



Circle reply card No. 122


::1S ;Ha2tech


Ontario is great because it was engineered that way

Degremont :s: Dillon

° Controls


A recent

report provides detailed descrip tions as an aid to analysts wishing to implement the technique in a rou tine laboratory.

Capital: Coritrols ^ CEO

Davis Controls



. il'MU


25 Sew Eurbdnve ■


A4 :Summa EngTIf ' 2


5 23 35 24 11

Terminal CigL ■

13 Thomas Env.


12 15

Environmental Science & Engineering, February 1989

PUMP UP IHE VOLUME. FLYGT SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ARE READY. CP - Stationary, wet CS - Transportable, with pipe or hose connec installation with guide bars and automatic

tion, for lowering .

discharge connection.

directly into water. I

CT- Stationary, dry installation on a concrete stand.


Ever since Flygt originated the submersible pump and its modern technology, we've been introducing a variety of pumps for every need. Today, Flygt produces the world's largest range of submersible heavy duty pumps up to 700 h.p.l Flygt C-pumps are designed In three configurations especially for tough work lifting large volumes of water efficiently.

They have been proven through extensive applications in handling waste water, water intake, water drainage, sludge handling and other situations, both industrial and municipal.

AVMSL station in Longueuil, Quebec.

Flygt C-pumps are designed to allow maximum flexibility of installation. Because they are submersible, there Is no need for long shafts. This eliminates the risk of flooding the motor and ensures reliable performance.

For complete Information on Flygt's versatile C-pumps, contact your local Flygt representative. Good Ideas Take Flygt. Circle reply card No. 123



ITT Fluid Technology Corporation FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe-Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5 (514)695-0100 Telex: 05-821844 Telefax:(514)697-0602 Vancouver ■ Calgary ■ Edmonton ■ Saskatoon •Winnipeg ■ Hamilton ■ Etobiooke ■ Sudbury ■ Ottawa ■ Pointe-Ciaire ■ Quebec ■ Val d'Or ■ Moncton ■ Halifax ■ St. Jotin's (Nfld.)


Which rocks should this sample be poured over? Is it drinkable? Or should it be poured out? You'll get a fast, accurate answer from Bondar-Clegg. Bondar-Clegg laboratories have a record of excel lence and reliability that spans 25 years. It's a record that has enabled us to become the extensive, interna tional laboratory organization we are today. Using modern analytical instrumentation, our expert staff provides answers to professionals and other individuals with environmental concerns.

We deliver fast, precise results for Regulation 309 testing, MISA requirements, water quality, PCB's,

trace metals, radionuclides, and more. You can have

routine potability test results in five working days. All we require is a one-litre sample. To ascertain its quality, we'll use MOE, APHA, EPA, and ASTM methods. And techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Argon Plasma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, and Liquid or Gas Chromatography. Bondar-Clegg is your best choice for fast, accurate water analysis. So contact us today to find out more. We'll satisf}' your thirst for knowledge.


Bondar-Clegg & Company Ltd. 5420 Canotek Road Ottawa, Ontario K1J 8X5 Tel:(613) 749-2220 Fax:(613) 749-7170 Telex: 053-3233

Circle reply card No. 124

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) February 1989  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) February 1989  

Profile for esemag