A Davcom Business Publication
Municipal operators solve industrial wastewater problems Journalists flock to greenhouse' meeting - Comment
Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering How Vancouver deals with hazardous materials
Controlling corrosion - the facts Beaver Fever's fascinating parasite
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Circle reply card No. 126
Circle reply card No. 125
ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY
Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER
Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY
Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.
'<$D(gOQ(S<$ & CONTENTS
August 1988, Vol 1 No. 4 Issued August, 1988
Journalists flock to greenhouse conference
Editorial Comment by Tom Davey
Pamela Stokes, Ph.D. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial
The facts behind premature corrosion of waterworks systems and equipment Article by Hank St. Onge
Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering By Brian Allen, P.Eng.
systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu
CWWA examines International municipal
tion, air pollution
control, solid and hazardous waste
treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.
ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental
Article by Penina Coopersmitb
Our future - a climate for change
wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and
Municipal operators help solve Industrial wastewater problems
ES&E welcomes editorial contributions
from consulting engineers, research institutions,
tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), orotherfacsimilies of the written or graphic material for consideration.
Head Office - 10 Retch Cr., Aurora,
Software system helps Vancouver deal with hazardous materials
Beaver fever and water supplies - the facts
What's New? A range of pumps, pipes and valves for the convenience of specifiers
24 26 29
Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 industrial Pkwy. $., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.
How to protect water mains from corrosion Article by Ken Hicks
Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $25.00 for one year, $35.00 for two years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $32.00, $47.00 for two years; other foreign $53.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $15.00 single issue.
Cover photo: depicts the Increasingly important role of operations staff In municipal plants, courtesy. The
Second Class Mail
Proctor & Redfern Group.
Registration No. 7750 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Editorial comment by Tom Davey
Journalists flock to greenhouse conference
After outlining the various gases - and their sources - which were accumulating to create the greenhouse effect, he noted that the warming trend was still not scien tifically proven. But, he noted,
strategy to focus atten tion on the global impli cations of the greenhouse effect, was undeniably a huge suc cess. Shortly after the G-7 economic conference was held in Toronto, the
while threats of serious environ
Pavlovian reflexes to the siren lure
mental damage were not conclusive, he felt that the serious warnings were at least as valid as any predic tions made by economists. The sophisticated audience loved that
of the government's public relations
thrust at the dismal science. ES&E
machine. Serious German science
will publish excerpts from Dr. Hare's paper in a subsequent issue. One fact emerged with undeni able clarity. Environmental matters clearly enjoy top priority with both provincial and federal governments. In more than two decades of report ing, 1 have never before seen any Canadian Prime Minister give such high profile attention to an ecologi
again flocked to the downtown core like homing pigeons on a second lap. Reporters had responded with
writers mixed with languid English journalists and trendy television types from California merged with the legions of Canadian journalists in the splendidly appointed media room. And minutes after presenta tions, copies, in both official lan guages, were made available in the newsroom. We were really pampered. Madam Brundtland,Norwegian Prime Minister, who had headed the UN study into economics and the environment, played a prominent role while Stephen Lewis, Cana da's UN ambassador, gave the gathering a most eloquent interna tional
In fact, at one time,some feared that the scientific delegates might actually outnumber the news media. Luckily good sense prevailed. A few strategic phone calls quickly alerted a reserve contingent at the CBC who dispatched a cavalcade of cameramen flanked by infantry
from CBC radio, so restoring
cal conference. It seems the environ
ment has finally moved to the front ranks of governmental priorities. Over two centuries ago, the
But the meeting did bring forth many fine scientific presentations.
formed manufacturing methods, so beginning the global warming trend. English factory owners
Environment Canada's Dr.
Brian Mulroney and Environment
the gathering with the full dignity of
Howard Ferguson, for example, was tireless in his efforts to synthe size and explain various warming-
a national event.
trend scenarios to journalists. The
news media ID badges - like pendul ums around so many necks - swung gently like battle honours for a major PR coup. But the conference also at tracted some of the best scientific
organizers too began the scientific presentations with a superb paper by Dr. Kenneth Hare, a brilliant scientist who wanders effortlessly through the intricacies of several disciplines, distilling the complexi
the deadly effects of our prodig
minds researching the green house environmental problems.
ties of the greenhouse threat with wit, humour and scientific insights.
Minister Tom McMillan invested
ignored the ravages theycaused, saying "where there's muck there's money." Huge fortunes were made by mortgaging environmental burdens on the
backs of future generations. Now, Canadian politicians clearly understand that there are also elections to be lost - if ious
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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Circle reply card No. 102
New G&S Group Opening in Cambridge, Ontario
ES&E launches National
Awards Program Several distinguished scientists and engineers have volunteered as judges in Environmental Science & Engineering's National Awards Program. Details were first an
nounced in the June ES&E (page 4). The awards will honour environ Greg Scheifele
The President of Gore & Storrie
sion of this new service for the com
Limited, Mr. R.A. Goodings, is pany. Mr. Scheifele holds a B.A. pieased to announce the appoint (Honours) in Physical Geography ment of Derek J. Coleman, Ph.D., from the University of Guelph and a Manager of Gore & Storrie's new M.A. in Regional Pianning and Environmentai Pianning Services Resource Development from the Uni group. Based in Cambridge, Ontario, versity of Waterloo. Mr. Sandilands the new office provides services in gained a B.Sc. in Biology from the ecology, forestry, and iandscape University of Waterloo. architecture, as well as environment
The group has an extensive back ground in environmentai impact studies, ecological pianning and design, land development, pits and quarries, pipelines, and environment al planning methodologies and research. These services will supple
al pianning for Federal, Provincial, Municipal, and private sector clients. Dr. Coleman gained his B.Sc.F. from the University of Toronto, his M.Sc. from the University of Guelph and his Ph.D. from the University of Waterloo. Gregory W. Scheifele, senior forester and environmental planner, and Allan P. Sandilands,senior biolo gist are key professional staff that wil l work with Dr. Coleman in the provi
& Storrie's traditional
engineering expertise in the water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, and solid waste manage ment fields.
mental projects in the water, wastewater and air pollution categories. There will also be a category for in novative environmental equipment. This contest is framed to en
courage participation without expensively prepared entries, in fact elaborate or expensive presentations are actively dis couraged. While the deadline is December
31, 1988, letters of intent would be appreciated by September 31.
Winners will be honoured by engraved plaques at appropriate conventions and finalists will be en
couraged to participate in poster ses sions. The winning entries will also be featured editorially in ES&E and promoted in the national news media. Judges decisions will be completely independent of Environ
mental Science & Engineering and its affiliated companies.
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Circle reply card No. 103
Circle reply card No. 104 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Industry Update DuPont and NRC seek CFC alternatives
Du Pont Canada is joining the
energy technology. They assist the
of Ontario elect
efficient transfer and circulation of
Canada and Energy, Mines and hot and cold air for heating and cool Resources Canada to work on refrig ing systems. Heat pumps also help erant alternatives to CFCs (chloro- reduce carbon dioxide emissions fluorocarbons), called HCFCs which are the major contributor to (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). the greenhouse effect. The joint research program is Earlier Du Pont Canada announ ced an orderly phase-out of CFC pro duction, while seeking alternatives to CFCs, which have been linked to changes in the earth's ozone layer.
under the administration of Dr. Ian
Lowe, National Research Council, with Michael Wiggin of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and
John Smale, Senior Technical Con Du Pont Canada will provide sultant, Du Pont Canada Inc. The researchers with test quantities of new developmental refrigerants for the alternative refrigerants as well use in the joint research program as joint funding. Included in the are called HCFCs. These com study are refrigerants R-22, R-134a, pounds, unlike CFCs, contain a R-123 as well as others. Special hydrogen atom. The presence of attention will be given to their appli hydrogen significantly reduces the cation to heat pumps. atmospheric life of the HCFC chem
Heat pumps are a key develop ment in the search for more efficient
Canada moving to protect ozone layer Environment
ical bonds, so that HCFCs break up before reaching the stratosphere.
ments in the environmental field, he
ling. These controls will allow Canada to target more precisely pro ducts or uses that should be reduced
or phased out so as to decrease the use of chemicals with the highest ozone-depleting potential. The second report, along with an
McMillan recently released a report outlining the most promising con trol options to meet Canada's obli gations under the international Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The ozone layer, located in the stratosphere, shields the earth against harmful ultravio let rays from the sun. The report is a first step in developing regulations to reduce the use of ozone-depleting
impact of the proposed options, is expected in the fall. According to Mr. McMillan, that report is import
chemicals in Canada.
Steve Bonk's inaugural speech as
The Protocol is scheduled to enter
into force on January 1, 1989, pro vided that 11 countries representing two-thirds of the global 1986 consumption of ozone-depleting substances (CFCs and halons) ratify the treaty. Canada cannot meet its interna
tional obligations to protect the ozone layer until the Canadian Environmental Protection Act has
been passed by the Senate. The international treaty signed in Montreal last September by 24 countries, including Canada, calls for a 50 percent reduction in chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)over a 10-year period and a freeze on halons at 1986 levels. Through tough control mea sures, Canada will achieve the 50 percent cut called for in the Protocol and will go even further. Environment Canada is prepar ing a second options report that will consider the feasibility of such con trol measures as new-use or specific product restrictions; codes of prac tice; recycle, recapture and re-use requirements; and mandatory label
Douglas P. Sexsmith, P.Eng. The Association of Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) is pleased to announce that D.P. Sexsmith, P.Eng. has been elected President. Douglas Sexsmith is President of the Consulting Firm, Kostuch Engineering Limited, Brockville, Ontario. A civil engineer with significant professional achieve has
papers on the subject. He is actively involved with and holds senior posi tions in a number of associations and learned societies. He is a Rotarian
and has chaired campaigns for the Canadian Cancer Society.
assessment of the socio-economic
ant because, based on newinforma-
tion, the international scientific community now believes that an 85 percent reduction is necessary to preserve the ozone layer.
Steve Bonk makes spectacular debut in Orlando AWWA President left no one in doubt that the association had elect
ed an eloquent yet outspoken leader, capable of injecting humour as well as bluntness in a powerful message. Veteran AWWA members said bis
speech was one of the best ever de livered at an annual conference.
Steve challenged the water supply industry to exceed water quality standards whenever possible, Steve Bonk, (left) takes over not merely meet them. He said it was time the industry put aside its reassured Americans that, as defensive posture and took some AWWA President, he had no plans bold initiatives to restore public con to replace the ducks with Canada fidence in an industry which has Geese, which would be known as served society well. He stressed that 'Bonk's honkers'. the best way to build confidence was With such a strong message, to be clearly seen to be exceeding American AWWA members knew accepted water quality standards. that they had elected a most capable Yet, although he pulled no leader. Canadians too had voted punches, the serious message was with their feet as well as on the bal punctuated with wit and self depre lots for they were to be seen every cating humour which had his audi where at the conference. Steve's ence helpless with laughter. Having debut was celebrated in great style delivered some telling remarks to at a reception afterwards. The the industry, he then referred to the record will show that Steve Bonk got Peabody ducks which are a feature off to a great start in his term of of every hotel of that name. Steve office. Steve Davey
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
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Circle reply card No. 105
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Industry Update ed
NRC studying corrosion Corrosion is the degradation of salt-in accelerating the corrosive materials, particularly metals, due process. to chemical processes such as oxida These studies will lead to a better tion or the action of a chemical understanding of how to make metals more resistant to corrosion. agent. Many industrial processes Understanding the corrosion pro cess, and metal surface chemistry in actually rely on the growth of oxide layers as protection against cata general, is crucial. Using analytical techniques strophic attack and eventual failure. such as Auger electron spectrometry These layers, known as oxide scales, (SIMS), National Research Council naturally form when metals are scientists are studying the chemistry exposed to temperatures as high as of surface oxide layers in order to 1500Â°C. By studying the structure find out what causes them to fail. In and chemistry of high temperature particular, aqueous corrosion oxides, NRC scientists hope to studies are looking at the role of improve the performance of metals halide ions-such as chlorides, the used in many thermally cycled notorious rusting agents in road industrial processes.
removed." The program for upgrad ing tanks at private outlets comple ments initiatives "already well underway for upgrading tanks at retail outlets and removing aban doned tanks," Mr. Wrye said. "Without this protection, automotive fuel could leak into
the groundwater, contaminat ing Ontario's drinking supplies and waterways for great distances.
Canadlan is keynote speaker at Ventilation'88 Dr. Howard Goodfellow, Presi dent of Goodfellow Consultants Inc.
Law to prevent underground tanks from leaking A
storage of automotive fuels in pri vately owned underground tanks has received second reading in the Ontario Legislature. William Wrye,
owners of underground tanks at farms, transportation companies, factories, institutions, municipali ties and other private outlets to register with the ministry. Suppliers would be prohibited from filling tanks that do not meet safety and registration requirements. Mr. Wrye said the legislation would enable his Fuels Safety
Minister of Consumer and Commer
Branch "to meet our 1991 deadline
cial Relations,said the amendments to the Gasoline Handling Act would "help prevent underground storage tanks from leaking." The legislation would require
for having all underground steel tanks and associated piping protect-
of Mississauga, Ontario will be giving the keynote address at Ventilation '88 - 2nd International
Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control at Imperial College, London, England, Septem ber 20-23, 1988. He has agreed to serve on ES&E's editorial advisory board to cover areas of air pollution control, and occupational health and safety. He is President-elect of the Occupation al Hygiene Association of Ontario.
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Circle reply card No. 106 Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988
The facts behind premature corrosion of waterworks systems and equipment This article has been prepared on the basis of many years experience in the analysis of underground failures involving metallic system design. This information takes into consider ation the immediate needs of the
cation when designed properly. By Hank St. Onge, President Duratron Systems Ltd.
SEVEN DESIGN INGREDIENTS:
straint that may have contributed to slow acceptance of corrective mea sures was the beliefthat the problem was with the product rather than system design. Basically the failed pipe was the focus of attention and thought to he the source of the trouble. Some product manufactur
6. Sacrificial anodes
ers looked to hot soils as the contri
buting factor, others recommended
The selected watermain should he cement-lined ductile iron class 50
municipal and private sectors who are looking for a straight-forward but effective means of installing water works systems without fear of pre mature failure. The purpose is not to radically change existing standards but to complement present procedures in achieving controlled long life systems. Design errors of the fifties and sixties became increasingly evident in the seventies and eighties
thicker walled pipe and some sug gested covering the pipe with plastic
when corrosion failures occurred in
material. Hence it became econom
astronomical proportions. However very few designers knew then what they know now.
ically necessary to look to plastic pipe as the end-all solution.
Premature corrosion fail
Plastics had their share of prob lems in the beginning hut improve ments in manufacturing techniques and installation procedure provided
mented, but it took indus try a very long time to come to grips with the problem, let alone understanding it. One re-
ure is now
systems with higher strength and ductility as compared to plastics are ideally suited for waterworks appli-
Slr Humphry Davy â&#x20AC;&#x201D; dreamer, hero and legend
Around 1805 a young
English hoy named Humphry spent his time watching large, wooden hulled naval ships go out to sea. Young Humphry dreamed he would sail on one of these sleek, majestic warships which gave Britain the mastery of the sea after the Battle of Trafalgar that year. A few years later, he noticed that two ships not only looked different hut moved through the water at a greater speed. On close inspection he saw that the hulls were clad with
a copper skin,allowing them to glide through the water. This new concept fascinated him.
In 1820 Humphry's dream came true, when he was accepted by the Royal Navy, and assigned to serve
copper skin in the vicinity of holts was in excellent condition, whereas the copper furthest away from the holts had pitted and turned a green ish colour.
He concluded that the
iron holts sacrificed themselves pre maturely in the process of providing some protection to the copper skin.
In his final report he suggested using copper rivets to fasten the copper skin. But that was not all he recommended. Humphry had dis covered something very unique; he strongly advised that iron strips he also mounted separately at intervals around the ship's hull, and so in 1824 cathodic protection was horn.
The Royal Navy soon had the fastest fleet of warships and became the most feared around the world.
section of the naval yard. His first assignment was to
For his work he was knighted by the
ships. After just a few weeks at sea the copper sheeting came apart at the seams. The iron fasteners hold
ing them together dissolved in the sea water and two warships sank when returning from battle. Detailed
7. Spot check monitoring DESIGN FACTS
complete with a quality paint finish. The same goes for valves, hydrants and fittings. Light weight cast iron is also acceptable if cost-effective. Domestic services should he copper and preferably coated by the manu facturers. Main stops and curb valves should he brass or bronze
and mastic coated during installa tion. Service rods made of factory coated steel and connected using a stainless steel pin is the best choice. Corrosion - What it is
in the research and development investigate serious problems being experienced with copper hulled
1. Coated iron pipe and fittings 2. Cement internal lining 3. Copper services 4. Brass fittings - stops 5. Electrical grounding - neutrals
monarchy. Now better known as Sir Humphry Davy he also invented a miner's safety lamp which did not explode in the presence of methane which saved countless lives.
Humphry, who was also a poet and a friend of William Wordsworth, was clearly a scientist who was also a man of diverse talents.
Basically, corrosion is a reaction involving the movement of electrons within the metals travelling between two differently charged surfaces. This induced reaction or voltage cell occurs when the metals are exposed to soil or water. Corrosion results
only at the most negatively charged surfaces; the anode part of the cell. Corrosion cells are developed on the metal
1. A minor corrosion cell develops due to metal impurities and nonuniform alloying. 2. A significant cell develops when the metals are exposed to dissimilar soils such as clay and sand. 3. A major cell develops when the system is fabricated of different
metals such as copper and iron. Since it is difficult to negate cor rosion cells using only present day pipe materials, it became important to include additional dispensable products in order to transfer the cor rosion part of the cell to an appropri ate pre-designed location. Galvanic Series - Metal Potentials
All metals exposed to soil or water generate low to high values of electrical energy, depending on alloying or manufacturing process. Thus, each metal can he measured
Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988
and expressed in volts, which in turn can be listed in order ofgalvanic energy level. When any two metals in the galvanic series are connected together and exposed to soil or water,the metal with the most nega tive potential corrodes at an increas ed rate while the least negative metal becomes immune to corrosion. This series of metals listed in order
of energy level is a valuable source of information to the design engine er planning metallic facilities for underground use. Voltmeters - Reference Electrode
Voltmeters of the high impedance analog type or the more modern digital electronic type are employed for measurement.
A stable refer
ence electrode is commonly used with the voltmeter, usually a copper/copper sulfate half cell (CU/CUS04). This reference elec trode is the one most used for evalu
ating underground corrosion prob lems.
recommend pipes be coated and cathodic protection applied. A quality paint coating significantly reduces
GALVANIC SERIES OF METAL IN MILLIVOLTS
(IN MODERATELY CORROSIVE SOILS) METALS
CORR. RATE LBS/AMP/YR
required for complete protection. This means that smaller low cost
anodes can be used to provide long
and efficient life.
the cathodic reaction of iron. This is
important. According to N.A.C.E. Publications (National Association of Corrosion Engineers), the initial design current for protecting poorly coated iron is in the range of 0.1 milliamps per sq. ft. The current required for protecting copper tubing is around 1.5 milliamps per sq. ft. Refer to N.A.C.E. Corrosion Engineers Reference Book.
Current required for protecting iron depends on the conductivity of the soil and the amount of exposed bare metal in contact with that soil. Also
affecting current requirement is the polarization phenomenon caused by
CRITERIA FOR PROTECTION
(mv) Cu CuS04
target range of 800-1100mv on the metal surface. POLARIZATION PHENOMENON Polarization is the term used in
cathodic protection when the accumulation of hydrogen ions(H+)
Cathodic protection is the applica
A criterion of cathodic protection is
on the surface of steel or iron be
tion of controlled direct current to the surface of a buried metallic
achievement of cathodic protection.
comes saturated to the point where electron current flow drops to a min
structure. This current is designed to offset or negate the structures cor rosion current induced by the soil. When applied properly, the metal structure becomes polarized or shielded by soil ions. This action substantially reduces cathodic pro
Refer to N.A.C.E.standard RP-0T69 latest edition for further detail. The
imum. Under this condition the iron
around 350-400mv. For best results
SACRIFICIAL METAL CURRENT
used to estimate the
criterion, used most often for steel and iron structures exposed to a soil or water is the 850mv potential refer enced to a Cu/CuS04 electrode.
The criterion for copper piping is when working with mixed metals such as copper and iron it is suggest
Direct current for cathodic protec tion is generated by attaching higher energy metals such as zinc which can protect steel, iron or cop
sidered when practical. The design engineer is not
per. High energy metals applied for this purpose are commonly referred
demonstrated by other means that
to as sacrificial anodes. IMPRESSED CURRENT
Another method of producing direct current involves the use of power supplies such as rectifiers or impres sed current systems. Power rectifiers are capable of providing large amounts of current to protect older piping at existing sites. Banks of sacrificial anodes are also ideally suited for existing systems. COATING EFFECTS
ed that the criterion for iron be con
limited to these criteria if it can be the control of corrosion has been
achieved. Protecting older existing systems for example may require other
cost effective criteria that
allow for less than 850mv poten tials. Keep in mind that the first lOOmv shift in the negative direction substantially reduces the structures corrosion current. APPLICATION OF GALVANIC ANODES
Galvanic sacrificial anodes such as
magnesium and zinc are most often used for the protection of buried
Paint and coatings have been used
metallic structures. Both materials
on buried metals for decades. Their
generate electron current when in
intent is to reduce corrosion by form ing a barrier between the metal and
contact with lower base materials
This is true in the area
where the coating is intact, however,
in spots where the metal is exposed, corrosion can be intensified and fail ure could result sooner than if the
metal was completely bare. It is for this reason the pipeline industry
such as steel or iron. Choosing the
right sacrificial metal for a particu lar application requires more than just the knowledge of the anode's potential and current output. The chosen anode for use in close prox imity to a structure should be cap able of operating efficiently within a
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
cathode is said to be polarized or shielded making it immune to self corrosion. This is a very important factor when designing or monitor ing cathodic protection systems. Polarization is achieved by intro ducing a specific amount of electron current into the metal, to arrive at a
predetermined range of stabilized potentials. Full polarization is time dependent and usually based on soil moisture content and initial current
applied. The ideal level of polariza tion (ion effect) is to have it reach a potential as close as possible to the sacrificial anode's potential. This would obviously reduce the current required and extend the anode life significantly. HYDROGEN OVERVOLTAGE
POTENTIAL (1120MV) There is however, a limiting polarization level called the"Hydro gen overvoltage potential", beyond which free hydrogen gas bubbles will be formed and break away. Exceeding this 1120mv potential, in addition to causing hydrogen gas, leads to an increase in pH at the structure surface. This combination of effects cause unwanted failure to the coated surface as well as a sub stantial increase in wasted anode
current. For these reasons, it is de sirable to limit the potential of a structure surface to llOOmv with
respect to a copper sulfate reference electrode. Special high grade zinc anodes have an output potential of 11
just less than the maximum hydro gen overvoltage potentials and are therefore used in a design aimed at achieving efficient cathodic protec
should be electrically conductive wherever possible using bond straps, wedges or other means. Modular or factory attached sacri
tion. This metal lends itself to be at
ficial anodes such as steel cored zinc
tached directly to the structure, al lowing for modular or integral com ponent design. Since magnesium anodes have a higher output poten tial than the maximum allowable
nuts and washers are ideally suited for new valve and fittings compon ents. Split ring anodes can he used on push joint types. Zinc, because of its unique potential, is certainly the
overvoltage potential, it is recom
most suited metal for installation in
mended that they be installed remote from the protected structure.
close proximity or in contact with new iron and copper structures.
distance of 1.5 metres should
allow enough voltage drop through the soil to minimize hydrogen evolu tion and wasted current.
anodes are useful in protecting older systems by installing hanks of anodes remote from pipe. Refer to NACE publication: Control of Pipeline Corrosion by A.W. Peabody. SACRIFICIAL ANODE INSTALLATION
Existing Older Systems
Galvanic zinc or Magnesium anodes are commonly installed on existing waterworks by angering methods. Banks of 36# Zinc or 32#
zinc anode for each component, including copper services and buried neutrals. All components
Electrical Grounding Accidental A.C. fault currents and
electrical grounding through water works is advantageous for safe elec trical operation. The electrical industry should take advantage of metallic systems incorporating sacrificial anode components as these units not only control corro sion, they improve the grounding needs.
extremely useful for protecting the electrical system, where bare con
Magnesium are angered down to
centric neutrals are installed. The
about 8-10 ft. at 3 metre intervals
increased use of plastic watermain materials make anodes necessary for reliable operation.
along the boulevard adjacent to the watermain. These groups of anodes are connected to a header cable and
brought into a test stationdocated at a hydrant. Instrument readings can be taken at test stations to measure
When designing new systems using conventional materials, it is important to include a sacrificial
installed at these poles to monitor the cathodic protection system. This type of installation is extremely ef fective and economical, with no required excavation to the water-
potentials, current output and anode life projections. In many locations, the connection of anode
banks can he made through the grounding system at street lighting poles. Test stations are normally
Measuring the cathodic poten tials using appropriate voltmeters and reference electrodes provides the owner with the only visible assurance that a buried system is adequately protected from its soil environment.
Since full cathodic
protection is achieved on iron in aggressive soils at 850mv to a
copper sulfate electrode, readings at this level indicate good results. In many cases readings below 850mv are considered protected using other criteria requirements. Spot check monitoring at 2-3 year intervals is
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Consulting engineers, water works management, product manu facturers and the electrical indus
try must generate a common ground or means for mutual co-operation in
developing compatible, long range solutions for electrical and water
works systems. The use of anode protected components on new com bined systems is a sound design practice. The investment is relative ly low, but the benefit is substantial. As for existing older systems,assistance programs are available
Roediger's "Sieve Drum Concentrator" reduces
plant tankage requirements and improves dry solids performance of dewatering devices. Typically, 150 GPM at 0.3% D.S. becomes 7.5 GPM at 6% D.S. plus clear filtrate. Call (416) 736-9888 for information. Also for pumps and dredges for sludges, abrasive slurries, corrosives,sump and emergency spills.
96 Martin Ross Ave.
Oownsview, Ont. M3J 2L4
Circle reply card No. 107 12
Environment for Ontario, with respect to rehabilitation, cathodic protection and needs studies. Also in draft form is an Ontario version
of the AWWA manual and guide for retro-fitting existing waterworks with cathodic protection. Remem
ber, Metallic Systems do not experi Fax: 1416) 736-9890
ence soil or operational failures when properly engineered and designed.
Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Announcement Gone S.Storrie Limited
Gore & Storrie Limited extends horizons with new Research Centre G&S has created a new Research Centre which will combine
scientific expertise with the firm's tradition of innovation --
based on the practical applica tion of engineering and process fundamentals.
Centre facility has been design ed to address complex R&D
problems and will house a team of scientists and engineers with a wide range of expertise in the environmental field, including chemical and biological special ists.
This team will be able to
draw on interdisciplinary sup port services of water and wastewater treatability laboratories, as well as an expanded analy tical facility. Increasingly stringent government regulation ofindus trial and municipal effluents, along with society's concerns about water, encouraged Gore & Storrie to create the Research
The new facility will
augment the firm's traditional services for physical and chemi cal analyses of water and wastewater samples, laboratory and pilot process studies, monitoring programs, quality assessment and quality control, and compu
with the Centre's staff. When • Bench and pilot scale slow required, all services may be sand filtration tests complemented by structural, • Activated carbon removal of organics including taste and architectural, mechanical, elec odours trical, instrumentation and com puter control, as well as CADD • Alternative disinfection tech niques for trihalomethane con capabilities. The 10,000 sq. ft. building will trol house approximately 4,500 sq.ft. • Optimization of coagulation, of analytical laboratory and flocculation and filtration pro 5,500 sq. ft. of water and waste- cesses water process, research and Overall, Gore & Storrie's development areas. Gore & Research Centre's aim is to meet Storrie's activities and current the increasingly sensitive R&D interests include extensive needs of environmental engine research and development work ering through the continued ap in the following specific areas: plication of appropriate treat ment technologies as well as Wastewater analytical, operational or pro • Chemical selection and opti cess problems. The Centre will mization of physical/chemical be a significant addition to the treatment processes. firm's range of consulting ser • Bench scale biodegradability vices. testing • Bench and pilot scale anaero bic reactor treatability testing G&S Research Centre • Bench scale sludge thickening 55 Research Road, and dewatering testing Toronto, Ontario, • Dissolved air flotation testing Canada M4G 2G8 Telephone:(416) 485-7715, Water Fax:(416)467-LABS, • Bench and pilot scale ozone Telex: 06 23283 treatability studies
terized data interpretation capa bilities. In addition,the Research Centre will have trained staff to
conduct receiving-water impact assessment studies and develop
process requirements for treat ment and removal of conven tional and toxic contaminants
leading to improved facility designs and operations support.
Appropriately located at 55 Research Road in East York,the Research Centre, a modern facil
ity comprising some 10,000 square feet, is in close proximity to the G&S head office at 1670
Bayview Avenue,Toronto. Gore & Storrie has assigned top calibre engineers and scientists
Dr. William J. Hargrave, P.Eng., Manager Water Technology Division
to assume research and techni
(right) and Steve A. Black, P.Eng. M.A.Sc., Manager WastewaterTechnology Division are responsible for the operation and management of
cal development roles along
the new Research Centre.
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
NEW,EFFICIENT EMULSION-BREAKING SEPARATORS: ■ ■ cut waste handling costs up to 98% ■ handle fresh or salt water, mechanical or chemical
emulsions ■ use no chemicals
■ automatic, unattended operation ■ capacities from 800 to 63,000 GPD
■ leasing available ■ free payback study
Write for your free copy today,or call FAST Systems Ltd.,305 Lakesfiore Rd. E., Oakvllle, Ontario, L6J US. Tel: (416) 842-4640, Tlx: 06-982422, Fax: (416) 842-0633.
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Circle reply card No. 108
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
HELPCLEAN UP ONTARIO'S WATERWAYS The Ontario government is now adopting tough new measures to stop water pollution at its source. MISAâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatementâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;will systematically cut back the flow of toxic pollutants with enforceable regulations that get tougher as abatement technology gets better.
Under MISA,the Ministry of the Environment will soon release a discussion paper presenting its proposal for controlling industrial discharges to sewers. These discharges pose a threat to the environment,the health of sewage treatment plant workers and the effective operation of sewage treatment plants. The proposed program will impose provinciolly-regulated discharge limits on 12,000 industries that discharge to sewers. Provincial regulation will also require Ontario municipalities to enforce these limits. Amendments will be mode to provincial legislation
to allow the province to prosecute both municipalities and industry ifor non-compliance. We Want Your Comments
The discussion paper presenting the proposed program will be released in September for a 90-day public review period. The Ministry of the Environment needs your comments and suggestions to help make this the best sewer use control program possible.
Please obtain a copy of the discussion paper,"Controlling Industrial Discharges to Sewers",from the address below and submit your comments to Jim Bradley, Minister of the Environment, 135 St. Glair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M4V 1P5.
Our goal-the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminantsfrom all discharges into Ontario's waterways. To obtain copies of the discussion paper, please contact:
STOPPING WATER POLLUTION AT ITS SOURCE
Public Information Centre Environment Ontario
135 St. Cloir Ave. West
Toronto, Ontario M4V 1P5
Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Ontario Jim Bradley, Minister
Circle reply card No. 109
Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering By Brian Allen, P.Eng. Indachem Supply
Flocculation, during water
and wastewater treatment, has been induced by add ing synthetic polymer to the flow or tank as a standard proce dure for many years. One of the advantages of using polymeric flocculants is that polymers produce floes which can be much stronger or larger than those formed by inor ganic salts. It has also been known over the
years that polymer needed to be acti vated to be most effective.
recent years, however, not much information was available on the most efficient method of activation.
The popular belief has been that
retention time (aging) is the key factor. This thinking is rapidly changing because of research being conducted on the effects that hydrodynamic forces have on the activa tion process.
Before investigating the import ance of hydrodynamic forces, we should briefly review how polymers work in the treatment process. The phrase "opposites attract" describes the basic principal of electrostatic attraction. If you place two particles
AttheSeaway Pollution Control Planttwo Polyblend unitsare used. Thesmal-
ler unit feeds polymer to ttie dissolved air flotation unit, wtille the larger one feeds a two-metre belt filter press. negative (anionic) charge. The resulting larger clumps of material can be more easily filtered or settled out of the water than the tiny indi vidual suspended particles. For many years, alum and ferric chloride have been used for this pur pose in water treatment, but these materials have a number of draw backs:
• they have a small molecular size greatly limiting their effectiveness in flocculation.
• they are both positively charged ... one with a positive electrical (cationic) and thus will attract only charge and the other with a negative negatively charged particles. electrical charge...near each other, • they either depend upon or have a they will be pulled together. substantial effect upon the pH of In the same way, if you place a treated solution. substance with a positive (cationic) • because of the additional volume charge in water, it will attract parti of salts required in treatment, cles of suspended solids that have a sludge accumulation is increased.
Polymers, on the other hand, may have an extremely large mole cular size, offering thousands of charged sites. They can attract large numbers of suspended parti cles, forming sizeable "clumps" that can be rapidly settled out or he easily filtered. Most importantly, polymeric flocculants are effective because the
polymer chains are sufficiently extensive to attach to the surface or
adsorb on more than one particle, thus binding or "bridging"the parti cles together. When a polymer mole cule comes into contact with a col
loidal particle, some of the function al groups of polymer adsorb at the
particle surface, leaving the remainder of the molecule extend
ing out into the solution. If a second
particle with some vacant adsorp tion sites contacts these extended
segments, attachment can occur. A
particle-polymer-particle complex is thus formed, in which the polymer serves as a bridge. They can be also manufactured
with sites that are positively or negatively charged, or electrically neutral. This allows more effective
flocculation by attracting suspended solids, no matter what electrical
charge they have. The effectiveness of the polymer is not greatly affected by the pH of the treated solution, and the polymers themselves have less effect on solution pH than inor ganic salts.
There are basically three forms of polymeric flocculants used in water A Komllne Sanderson dissolved air flotation unhand a two-metre Parkson belt
filter press are part of the plants new sludge dewatering system. 16
and wastewater treatment:solution, emulsion and dry. Solution type polymers are normally readily solu ble in water. Emulsion polymers
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
consist of polymer-gel particles in oil. Dry polymers are the most con centrated and tightly entangled and must he converted into a solution
state hy dissolution into the desired amount of water.
There are literally thousands of different formulations of these three
basic forms of polymers. To properly activate each formulation requires knowledge of the polymer, charac teristics of the dilution water and
the hydrodynamic force needed. However, the only controllable factor during normal plant operation is the hydrodynamic force. Exper ience can he a help in determining the right mixing scheme required, but it is necessary to understand the role of hydrodynamic force in the polymer activation process to achieve maximum performance. The hydrodynamic force required in activating emulsion or dry poly mer is a vigorous agitation for a short period of time. This force strips off the surrounding oil in
emulsion polymer, prevents polymer gels from forming aggregates and will break partially swollen gels into smaller units. If you do not have control of the hydrodynamic regimes, extensive aging is neces sary and the process of full activa tion can be a long one. The aging process in activating a polymer is the time it takes for the polymer molecules to absorb water and extend into a long chain. Each molecule will swell about six times
in diameter and expand about 280 times in volume when we prepare a 0.5% polymer solution from emulsion polymer. The swelling time is direct ly proportional to the square of the particle size. To reduce the actual aging time, it is extremely important that the initial wetting of emulsion and dry polymer be accomplished with a high shearing effect. The high shear that the polymer encounters
force when, after they have been extended, they are re-exposed to a high-shear environment. Once an extended chain of polymer molecules is broken it loses its ability to serve effectively as a bridge between particles. Proctor
recently designed a sludge dewatering system at the Seaway Pollution Control Plant in Port Colborne, Ontario, which incorporates a poly
mer feed system, a belt filter press and associated sludge transfer equipment. Indachem Supply worked with the consultant and the Regional Municipality of Niagara to customdesign the polymer feed system to utilize existing plant equipment.
The Polyblend system was chosen because it eliminated the need to
construct an addition to the plant to house a conventional polymer mixing system.
The operators manually mix 25 kg. of powdered polymer in 1840 litres of water, producing a 1.38% polymer solution. The system dilutes, activates and feeds polymer to a Komline Sanderson dissolved air flotation unit and a two-meter
Parkson belt filter press at typically a 0.1% concentration.
The dewatering system produces 1 dry ton of solids per hour at a poly mer consumption rate of 5 - 5.5 kg. per dry ton. Filter cake solids of 2427% are achieved with this system.
Plan now to attend
($400.00 after Nov. 31)
Environmental Audit Seminar How to avoid environmental iiabiiities December 6, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario The Environmental Audit is the most exciting and significant tool of the decade for environmental professionals. This seminar - the first in a series- will explore and interpret various problems and opportunities in the new
field of Environmental Auditing. Experts will show how to identify and manage risks in vital areas such as regulatory compliance and contaminant liability while using environmentally sound management practices. The seminar will provide an in-depth focus on the How To'factors of conducting an Audit.
The Question of Privilege - legal pro
Who should attend?
Corporate executives, legal counsel, environmental professionals In Industry and government. Investors and merger and aqulsltlons professionals.
tection and the Audit
Presentations will include;
What is Environmental Auditing? What are the Issues? - How do you respond to them?
The 'How To' Session How to set up an Auditing program within your company. Audit protocols - what they should How to conduct an Audit:
- On-slte procedures - On-slte skills required Audit outputs - the environment as a good business strategy.
as it enters a mixing chamber will
- Case studies of the Audit
break it up into much smaller parti cles. These smaller particles will absorb water and become homogen ous faster. Aging time for some polymers can be reduced from as
When to use them. How to use them.
Corporate Audits Prepurchase Audits Forensic Audits
much as an hour to less than a minute.
The technical aspects of the shearing force are too complex to include in this article as they deal with the entry point of polymer into the mixing chamber, impeller dia meter and blade width compared to the diameter of the chamber and others.
Maintaining a uniform shear
field, however, is vitally important. Polymer molecules are easily ruptured by excessive hydrodynamic
Attendance is limited to 200. Don't be
Various Environmental Auditing tools.
disappointed. Call Environmental Science & Engineering right away at (416) 727-4666 for a registration form, or circle No. 260 on the self-addressed Reader Service Card and mail It.
The seminar is sponsored by Aitech Environmental Consulting Ltd., Environ mental Science & Engineering and Price Waterhouse Management Consult ants.
Aitech has had extensive experience in conducting corporate Environ mental Audits and Prepurchase Environmental Audits. Price Waterhouse is an internationaiiy renowned auditing and manage ment consulting firm, whose expertise goes beyond traditional financial
auditing to span innovative and comprehensive audit methodologies. Environmental Science & Engineering staff have organized many con ferences on pollution abatement and waste management. The publisher has also given papers to the World Health Organization and various Univer sity and association seminars on environmental topics.
Circle reply card No. 260 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
CWWA examines international
municipal environment management
In afew short years,Canada's municipalities have moved from viewing involvement in
In addition, both reports high light the rapid growth of what are being called the "environmental
international affairs with
industries" on the one hand and of
suspicion, and even hostility, to recognizing with enthusiasm that international aid and trade provide outlets for municipal skills, as well as opportunities for economic devel
the importance of public sector involvement
Canadian International Develop-
grams on the other. Municipal E n v i r o n menial Management includes the essential urban services of distributing and treating water, collecting and treat ing wastewater and managing solid waste collection and disposal. All
Elected municipal officials have shown leadership and creativity in their support for emergency aid (eg. Ethiopia), in working with develop ment agencies to drum up ongoing support for Third World develop ment programs(eg. WaterCan)and - largely through their national association, the Federation of Cana dian Municipalities (FCM) - in establishing ongoing mechanisms for enhancing trade through wellplanned trade missions, twinning and, to a lesser extent, professional exchanges and joint ventures. Recent reports prepared for
industry-related aid and trade pro
By Penina Coppersmith Executive Director, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association
ment Agency make it clear that important as these first steps may
be, they are but first steps; in relation both to international trade and aid, public sector resources available in Canada's municipalities have only begun to be tapped.
municipalities excel. They also have at their disposal, an enormous pool of human resources in the longterm planning, management and operation of a variety of technolo gies and systems. As both developing and develop ed countries increasingly shop for environmental systems that include a "software", human resource management component, as well as the hardware,these municipal skills can and should be deployed. They
standards in watei
By aiQ^ measure.
Circle reply card No. 110
Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
could complement the expertise of the consulting engineering com munity, private sector manufactur ers and suppliers as well as those federal and provincial employees whose strengths are in the areas of design and construction, product development, marketing and research.
By providing a complete pack age, through new forms of public/ private sector partnerships or joint ventures, Canada's competitive edge in international trade will be strengthened. On the aid side, the complete package approach can help compensate for the absence of sufficient trained personnel which
For these reasons, CWWA is exploring with various federal departments the possibility of get ting support for a two-year period to help launch a comprehensive inter national municipal environmental management program. During this initial phase, the program would consist of at least four components: role definition, creation of a roster of municipal personnel, development of alternative approaches to second ing municipal personnel and a number of pilot or demonstration projects. Potential
contributors of the
municipal environmental manage ment sector must be examined in
While developing and maintain ing a roster of interested municipal employees is a fairly straightfor ward if time-consuming task, the secondment of municipal employees is a novel concept for Canada's municipalities. It is essential, there fore, to be creative as well as practi cal in suggesting ways this might occur.
Secondments could involve
swaps with the other orders of government and/or the private sector. Or they might entail development of sabbatical pro grams, new ways of defining profes sional development or of instituting "professional development leaves" structured similar to maternity leaves.
tax base, fuller employment and other financial advantages that concern municipal governments. But in addition, the opportunities provided to staff to develop new pro grams, test new products, stretch professional expertise, provide new skills and knowledge that can be
relation to the expertise provided by the consulting and academic com munities, by manufacturers and suppliers and by other orders of government. It then becomes possi ble to define the role municipal per sonnel can play in such activities as evaluating municipal technological and resource needs, developing and helping to implement appropriate management systems, long-term financial strategies and human resource development programs; and assisting in the development, testing and marketing of innovative technologies for use both in Canada
As well as identifying the range of potential international aid and trade activities appropriate to municipal environmental strengths and expertise, it is necessary from the outset of the program to demon strate its advantages. Toward this end, the CWWA envisions selecting a fairly limited number of short and long-term pilot or demonstration projects that it would assist in plan ning, executing and monitoring in conjunction with its municipal members, its regional association
transferred back to the home-front.
private sector members.
often has made the introduction of
sophisticated systems difficult or even counterproductive.
For municipalities, the advant ages also are several-fold. Of course, increased business for Canadian firms translates into an enhanced
Capital Controls offers field-proven instrumentation for collecting water data. From analyzers, indicators, and monitors to recorders, transmitters, and control lers. As discrete units or integrated systems. In
portable, rack, wall, or cabinet configurations. Name a critical variable and most likely we have
an instrument to measure it. Temperature, pH/ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity. Ammonia, nitrate, or fluoride content. Residual analysis from chlorine to potassium permanganate. Even sludge blanket levels.
Accuracy,reliability, economy. At Capital Controls, they're our highest standards. '
Call 800-523-2553. In PA: 800-242-7590. Outside the U.S.: 215-822-2901.
Or write: Capital Controls Company, Inc., . P.O. Box 211, Colmar, PA 18915, U.S.A.
(^CAPITAL CONTROLS Advanced Technologies in Water Disinfection
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Our future - a climate for change Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland addressed the World Conference on The Changing Atmosphere in Toronto.
Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environ
ment and Development is the political consensus ofcommis sioners from 21 countries. Through a broad process of experience,learn ing and debate, we arrived at a com mon analysis of the global issues we all face. With a sense of profound gratitude I have come to Canada. I
thank the Canadian people and institutions who supported us. I thank the Canadian Government, in particular Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Minister of the Environment Tom McMillan for their commitment and for the
example they have been setting for other industrialized countries.
We know now that not only CO2,but a number of other gases as well con tribute to global heating. Presently these other trace gases cause one third of the total global warming. And unless something is done,their contribution in the next 50 years will double the effect of CO2.
Scientists still have no unani
mous view on the magnitude of the climate change problem, hut it is established beyond any doubt that we will experience a global change in climate. An average global temp erature increase over the next 50
years of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees is enor mous. It took between 10 and 20,000 years for the world's temperature to increase about 5 degrees. The impact of climatic change may be greater and more drastic than any other challenges that mankind has faced with the exception of the threat of nuclear war. cal balance will be drastic. The time
span needed for plants to adjust to a new climate is normally hundreds of years. The deserts will expand. The crops in today's marginal areas will Extremes of weather -
storms, rainfalls,frost or heat - may become more common. The sea level
may rise 1 meter or more, and with 1/3 of the world's population living in low-lying coastal areas, such a
countries will be the ones most
severely affected. All of this may not happen,or not that severely. But the potential risks are so high that we cannot sit back hoping that problems will go away. We are the ones who must take the initiatives. We must set the
The effects on the whole ecologi
development will have dramatic consequences. Political stability may he threatened in many parts of the world, and the number ofecologi cal refugees may increase. In sum, climatic change will affect us all profoundly, regardless of where we live. And as always, the poorest
limits and we must prevent the potential disasters for future gener ations, from whom we have borrow ed this earth.
Time has come to
develop an action plan for protecting the atmosphere. Acid rain, deple tion of the ozone layer and climatic change are not separate problems. They are heavily interlinked with each other. We have come to a thres
hold. If we cross this threshold, we may not be able to return.
CHEMfS WHMS/EMERGENCY RESPONSE SOFTWARE
.... FOR YOUR PC
TERRA-GATOR® the productive solution to fluid waste! Your waste problem could become plant nutrients that brighten municipal parks or boost crop yields on the farm. Disposing waste sludge with the Terra-Gator pressurized in jection system is an effective method of accelerating the process of decomposition.
The injection system can dispose up to 4000 gallons in a 4 minute cycle. Odor problems are minimized.
• WHMIS MODULES FOR: • MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
• WORKPLACE LABELS • CHEMICAL INVENTORY • SITE MAPS AND FLOOR PLANS • EMPLOYEE TRAINING
• COMBINE THESE MODULES - AND OTHERS INTO A POWERFUL EMERGENCY
Terra-Gator systems have flotation tires and high torque power units that provide mobility in areas unsuitable for
• COST - BENEFICIAL SOLUTIONS FOR:
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On-the-site field service is unequalled in the industry—a good reason why Terra-Gator is favored by engineers.
• CHEMICAL USERS AND PRODUCERS • MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL FIRE DEPTS.
BENNETT ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
4900 Viking Drive
200- 1130 W. Render St.
Minneapolis, MN 55435 (612)835-2476
Circle reply card No. 111 20
Vancouver, B.C. V6E 4A4 Telephone (604)681-8828
Circle reply card No. 112 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
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Vaughan's Vertical, Horizontal and Pedestal Chopper Pumps are famous for their unique ability to simultaneously chop and pump solids while withstanding the harshest pumping environments. The Vaughan Electric Submersible Chopper Pump Incorporates this same technology to give vou the most reliable sollds-handllng pump available - bar none!
THE RIGHT PUMP FOR TOUGH SOLIDS There Is no other pump In the world like a Vaughan. It will pump when other pumps plug. It will run long after other pumps are worn out. It will save you money and quietly make you a hero for installing a pump that will continuously handle the toughest Canadian applications. Contact your local Canadian agent. He can help you choose the right Vaughan Chopper Pump for the job In sizes up to 100 horsepower and capacities to 138 liters/sec.
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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Richmond, B.0. V6V 1W1
Circle reply card No. 113
Municipal operators help solve industrial wastewater
Sample Sigma... Canada Liquid Samplers & Flowmeters Samplers and flowmeters get rough use and do hard time In corrosive en
vironments. Now there's Streamline, designed to perform, built to survive.
Tough impact resistant polyethylene construction.
Operators can sometimes effect great
improvements by applying their skill and experience in the development ofimprov ed treatment modes. Cobourg is a case in point. The Town of Cobourg has two waste treatment plants. In 1984 the Town's original plant, re built in 1972, was compelled to treat the town's
industrial effluent when the residential/com
mercial inflow was split by approximately 50%. Sewage flows equivalent to about 5,000 people were removed from the system and transferred to a new plant. The second plant built in 1984 cur
rently treats most of the domestic waste. By sep
Sealed keypad & watertight NEMA 4X,6 control housing. Easy to use self prompting 16 character display. Streamline gets the job done, the first time, every time, year after year. •Portable Samplers • Refrigerated Samplers • Ground Water Samplers • Open Channel Flowmeters
arating the two influent streams for treatment, the Town and its major industries have been given the opportunity to work together to effec tively improve the quality of industrial waste streams which are treated and released into local
drainage systems. The Town's major industries contribute 90% of the flow and 95% of the BOD to the older plant. For plant operators throughout Ontario, treat ment of industrial wastes can be extremely chal
lenging. For the operator of a plant receiving 90% industrial flow, the challenges to effectively treating the sewage are almost enormous. Once
Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4Y i Y7
the domestic sewage was redirected in 1984, the effluent in the older plant became variable, espe cially as industries increased production sched ules during these favourable economic times.
INSTRUMENTS LTD. Ph. (416)277-0331 Fax (416)277-2588 Telex
Circle reply card No. 114 22
The operator of the Cohourg plant, Brian
Davey, began to recognize and record changes in the appearance of the plant influent and relate it to each ofthe major industries. With this obser vation, he believed that the problems associated with contaminants and various influent para meters such as high BOD levels could be effec tively addressed. Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Brian Davey had developed a simple but effec
tive laboratory table-top viability test whereby samples of the industrial effluent, diluted to a normal influent ratio, were added to a jar with mixed liquor. Proctor & Redfern was retained by the Town to assist in expanding the attributes of the test to improve its accuracy. P&R's Brian Evans said "The bacteria react as if tbey are seeing the liquor as a normal daily operation. Within minutes staff could qualitatively deter mine which industries were affecting the system by microscopically monitoring physical and bio logical changes to invertebrates such as Vortiecilla, Aspediscus, Ciliates and other macro fauna."
By correlating the results to the effluent of par ticular industries, the municipality and industry were able to work together to effectively treat the effluent and reduce the pollution to receiving water bodies. When the waste stream was cor
rected under a trial period, the effluent BOD and suspended solids from the sewage treatment plant dropped to less than 10 mg/L suspended solids and BOD. Even with highly soluble BOD from local industries, the plant is now working well and keeps in compliance with Ontario Min istry of the Environment requirements. Town engineer. Ken Rumball, fostered constructive
dialogue between the Town and its major indus tries which resulted in successful discbarge management at the older plant.
Win tpe^attie ^Against
^Corrosion For years, Dens^..8brrosion Control Systems have been proving ttieir sffectlveness against the tough^sf corroslonpiTOlems. With ease of appllcatiomafid a provecHfack record, Denso products can beThe solutiprtfo your anti-corrosion needs.
LASTS FOR I^tCdES Dense protection goes opiTOrking year after year — requiring little or no mpurffenance — and remains com
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J^nso Petrolatum Primers, Maspe^and Tapes, "can be applied to both wet and drysurfaces — even underwater,and require llttleprfio surface preparation.
Denso PPS providespoffosion protection for pipes carrying high tempprdfure liquids and gases. Proven installations undefand over insulation.
DensoJW^ine Piling Systems, incoroprdting MarirueRMing Tape and the Cover Wrap Sysf^ have bpm proven world wide for the protpetion of tubular
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Densopol 60 and SO^cbld applied pipewraps con sisting of adhesiv^.,rtjbber bitumen with fabric rein
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Circle reply card No. 115 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
CALL THE DENSOJNEOLINE
416-291-7756 Circle reply card No. 116
Software system helps Vancouver deal with hazardous materials
The District of North
wide range of residential, recrea
ment maintains five fire stations, a
Vancouver Fire Depart ment (NVFD) has grown
tional and social amenities. Within half an hour of Canada's third
Training/Maintenance Centre, six Engine Companies, a Simon
from a collection of volun
largest city (Vancouver), the Dis trict is convenient as a bedroom
Snorkel (100'), Hazardous Material Van and Trailer, Command Vehicle
community, highly accessible, and attractive to industry because of an integrated transportation system, consisting of an efficient and well maintained network of secondary roads, deep sea and coastal port facilities and two major railways.
and thirteen support vehicles manned by a paid staff of 140. Since the early stages of the department, firefighters have been actively involved in developing prefire plans for all high life/hazard occupancies. In 1976 this program
was further enhanced with the introduction of a full-time Pre-Plan Officer.
teer companies in 1908 to one of the largest and best equipped Fire Departments in British Columbia. To keep pace with the district which it serves, NVFD has continuously upgraded its personnel and equip ment. One of the most recent mea
sures to improve service was the implementation of a software system to assist in responding to incidents involving hazardous materials. The system is installed on a personal computer which is monitored in the department's command vehicle (van) and is thus able to supply on-the-spot informa tion accurately and quickly to fire men in the field. Development and implementation of this chemical emergency response information software was jointly carried out by the NVFD and a private sector com pany, Bennett Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.
The District of North Vancouver, located in South Western British
Columbia, overlooks Burrard Inlet and is backed by the Coast Moun tains. The district, with a population of 67,000 has 85% of the total
Narrows bridges provide excellent north/south access, while the Trans Canada Highway offers equally convenient access to the Vancouver
Following the famous Mississauga, Ont., train derailment, the
Island ferry system as well as other parts of the Lower Mainland and
ipal Council initiated a Community
interior B.C. Most industrial activities are related to the waterfront which fea
tures loading terminals, ship building and repair facilities, whole sale warehouses, petro-chemical and wood product companies. The major chemical producing/storage facilities are owned and/or operated by Dow Chemical, Mohawk Oil, Albright & Wilson Americas, Canadian Occidental Petroleum and Vancouver Wharves.
In 1954, paid firefighters were introduced and by 1968 the NVFD had become the fifth largest in
assessed land value based on resi
British Columbia and one ofthe best
dential properties, and includes a
equipped in Canada. The depart-
New toxic pollution sampler sign of ttie MISA times New Epic lOllT Portable Wastewater Sampler is a reflection of the increasing concern being shown by water authorities both at home and abroad over levels of toxic
materials finding their way into the water cycle. To measure minute amounts of these deadly elements requires very sensitive measuring equipment. Equally important, samples on which to perform test measurements must be absolutely representative of the media being examined â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not corrupted in any way by the materials of construction of the equipment used to extract the sample. The new Epic 101 IT is construct ed in such a way that all the wetted parts are made from P.T.F.E. glass and surgical grade silicon rubber, all of which are completely inert and in no way contribute to or modify the sample extracted. Additionally, all wetted parts can be instantly removed for sterilization.
The 101IT is based on the well
established and highly successful 1011 concept. The 1011 has a detachable programmer combining a very high level of program sophis tication with simple 4 button opera tion. This means that the sampler will on one hand meet the require ments of the most demanding appli
District of North Vancouver Munic
Hazards Task Force made up ofresi dents and members of the business
community. One recommendation was that the fire department com puterize its emergency response pro cedures. The Location and Informa
tion Files for Emergencies (LIFE)
system was developed over the next four years by conducting a detailed study of what was being done else where in North America. The District of North Vancouver's com
puter resources were examined and a computer aided dispatch (CAD) system installed. The LIFE system couples a Location file, containing geographical data about the munici pality with a Building Information fide, which contains information on buildings and businesses in the community. The file contains infor mation regarding the type of occu pancy, construction, fire protection, and the type and quantity of danger ous goods manufactured and/or stored in the buildings. The infor mation available from the depart ment's computer system, coupled Managing Environmental Contaminants Seminar
cation while on the other it can be
operated with ease by unskilled staff. A compact lightweight battery powered unit, it uses the well proven air pump vacuum system giving a 7 metre lift.
Now,the lOllT offers all the new advanced MKII software features
as recently incorporated in the 1011 such as day/night differential rate sampling, event sampling, 8 langu age capability, container overfill protection, wash routine for virtual ly zero cross contamination, etc. Cancoppas Limited
Circle reply card No. 158
3-4, 1988, Managing
Seminar-MEC'88, to be held at the Bristol Place Hotel in Toronto. Atten
dees will develop an understanding of sources and
waste materials and leachates, path ways for waste movement in the air, ground and surface water and Cana dian regulatory requirements. The course will be presented by a team of specialists from various professional organizations. For further informa tion, contact Annis Dupont, Gartner Lee Limited, 140 Renfrew Drive, Ste. 102, Markham, Ontario, L3R 8B6,
(416) 477-8400, Fax: (415) 477-1456.
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
with pre-fire plans (which were not computerized) provided the first line
Another option considered the outright purchase of an existing
of defence in the event of an emer
information database. However, this was found unacceptable because it did not meet fire depart
gency involving dangerous goods. In 1986, the fire department was approached by Bennett Environ mental Consultants Ltd. (BECL), with the idea of developing a compu ter program capable of storing both text (inventories and response data) and graphic site maps (pre-fire plans) of all locations in the munici palities where dangerous goods were found. The consultants devel
oped the program based upon their oil spill sensitivity mapping soft ware, and their background in the development of emergency response
The CCINFO database, provided by the Canadian Centre for Occupa tional Health and Safety, was ulti mately selected. These data, which are normally provided on a ROM disk, were transferred to magnetic storage (hard disk) to eliminate the requirement for the ROM disk player. This transfer also allowed the data to be re-formatted and edited.
The software was installed on
two IBM compatible "AT"computers. One has been installed in the N VFD
command vehile, which responds to all major emergencies, especially those involving dangerous goods. The other computer will be installed in the Centre.
Conclusion The installation of this software in a command vehicle and commun
ications office provides the NVFD with a powerful tool in responding to
Decisions can be made quickly and with assurance.
The first step taken was to locate all those sites within the jurisdiction of the fire department which stored, used, or generated dangerous (chemical) goods.
This list included hardware and
paint stores, as well as other loca tions storing small amounts of chemicals. A logical cut-off point was needed to insure the inclusion of
those sites which posed a major threat while limiting the inclusion of those which posed minor threats, and still remaining within the con straints of the project budget. The decision was made to include all
industrial chemical sites, munici
pal pools and water treatment facili ties (due to the presence of chlorine) and local ice rinks.
A map of the entire area was digi tized and loaded into the computer. The digitized map shows: chemical sites, schools, hospitals, hydro sub stations. roads and railways. Each of the schools and hospitals also had detailed files entered into an interlinked database which
included pertinent information in the event of an emergency. The site
plan of each chemical site was digi tized and entered into the computer. Different types of information were colour coded for quick recognition by fire fighters. Different chemicals were located with appropriate TDG placards. The next step involved the entry of the chemical inventory, emergen cy access phone numbers and contact names into a simple, easily updated database. As it was necessary to provide specific emergency response proce dures for the various chemicals, a number of options were considered and tested. Initially, an attempt was made to generate a database which
from many different sources. This proved to be extremely time consuming, therefore economically
When you're looking for a creative design solution that stands the test of time,call on consulting engineers.You'll get the exper tise of cost-effective problem solvers who provide the assurance of high quality and the esthetics of good taste in every type of
design-for a price that amounts to less than 1% of the total life time cost of the average project. And that's easy to swallow For information on consulting engineer services and firms in your area,contact us.
The Consulting Engineers of Ontario 86 Overlea Boulevard, Suite 403, Toronto, Ontario M4H 1C6 Telephone: (416) 425-8027
Ontario is great because it was engineered that way
Consulting Engineers of Ontario
Circle reply card No. 117 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Beaver fever and
water supplies â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the facts Giardiasis, or Beaver Fever,is a parasitic disease which can be transmitted through water supplies as well as by contact from humans or animals. Because beavers were
suspected as the source of the first outbreaks detected in Colorado, Giardiasis became known as Beaver Fever. However, the organism has also been isolated from other animals including dogs, cats, horses, deer, sheep, coyotes, and muskrats. There have been no known outbreaks of Giardiasis
ECONOMY LIFT STATION This 6' X 6' above ground lift station comes complete from the Gorman-Rupp factory. Everything is standard. Nothing is optional. Just add power and connect piping to get into the above-ground lift station business in an inexpensive way. Outside, the neat, trim fiberglass body has a tough weather side. The base is reinforced concrete. And there's practically no maintenance.
Inside, Gorman-Rupp's T Series pumps are a cinch to service. You don't have to
disconnect piping. You don't need special tools.
Just remove the coverplate to clean out clogs, service the seal, inspect the impeller or wearplate. Or just remove the rotating assembly to service the shaft or bearings. Either way, you're serviced and back in operation in minutes.
Gorman-Rupp compact above-ground lift stations.
The best way to economize without stepping down in quality and features. Distributors across Canada.
Consuit the Yeiiow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.
from municipal drinking water supplies in Ontario; however, water-related epidemics have been identified in Alberta and several U.S. States. Scientists feel it is
unlikely that the disease has spread dramatically in the short period it has been identified. It is more prob able that modern medicine can now identify Giardiasis infections which previously were misdiagnosed as other gastric ailments. Beaver Fever can be characterized by nausea, anor exia, cramps, diarrhoea and flatulence. None of these things are pleasant, but scientists stress that Giardia sis is not regarded as a life-threatening infection. Researchers say it is a "well adjusted parasite, which does not want to kill the host it feeds on."
Mental institutions, day-care centres and other similar institutions, because of the possi bility of lower levels of personal hygiene, are high-risk situations for Giardia infections. The disease is caused by the organism Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite of the Order Protomonadina. In spite of its formidable name, it is not at all a life-threatening disease. At least half the infections of Giardia lamblia may produce no symptoms. Chronic, suhacute and acute symptoms do occur with infections which, if persistent, can cause serious fatigue and weight loss. The disease can last for as long as three months, after which the body either eliminates the parasite, or comes to terms with it, often with little negative effect. Giardia lamblia has two stages in its life cycle: a .trophozoite, and a cyst. Trophozoites appear as pearshaped cells with sucking disks on their ventral sur face by which they attach themselves to their host's intestines. They range in size from 9 to 21 microns long, by 6 to 12 microns wide. Quite fragile,the tropho zoites cannot survive outside their hosts.
The egg-shaped cysts are approximately the same size but have smooth walls and are much tougher than the trophozoites. These cysts can survive in quite hostile environments for long periods, especially in cold water. They have been known to survive as long as 77 days in water at 8 degrees Celsius, but survival Continued on page 28
GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 â&#x20AC;˘ Telex: 064-73530
Circle reply card No. 118 26
Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988
Introducing Re-Chem Environmental Management Inc. A New Environmental Waste
Management Service Company Why, you ask? service group!
Do I really need environmental management services - isn't it enoughi to have waste disposal services?
Environmental llabillty now goes far beyond the corporate screen. It can affect all corporate personnel, including management and directors! Now, you must not only perform within the regula tions, but also be able to demonstrate that you have taken al l steps to comply with the law - in spirit, as well as in detai l. If you cannot demonstrate due dili gence, you could sti l l be successfully prosecuted for an inadvertent non-compliance. So, when you buy waste disposal services, you want to know that you are complying fully with al l regulatory authori ties and their regulations.
Have you protected yourself and your company? Do you have cradle-to-grave documentation of your waste's disposal route? Are your staff fully-trained in waste handling proce dures? Do you (and they) have supporting documentation?
What if your wastes are improperly identified?
Re-Chem Environmental Management Inc. provides the following services: • Classification under the Environmental Protec
tion and Transportation Acts. • Transportation of prepackaged or bulk wastes anywhere in Canada. • Processing inorganic, aqueous, or organic wastes. • Recycle and reuse - reduces disposal costs, while saving raw materials.
• Disposal - final site selection, including registra tions, documentation and follow-up.
Environmental Management Inc. 5300 Fairview St.
Burlington, Ontario Phone: (416) 847-6809
Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 198H
Fax: (416) 639-8059
Circle reply card No. 119
time drops to between 5 to 24 days in water at 20 degrees C. They can also resist levels of free chlorine which would kill most bacteria and viruses
present in water during normal water treatment.
In humans, the disease begins when the parasite is ingested in its cyst form. It then passes into the stomach where the acid triggers a change, releasing what are now trophozoites. These attach them selves to the intestine walls. There
they absorb food, reproduce and release their offspring into the digestive tract, where they once more encyst. From initial infection, to the passage of the first cysts from the hosts, the disease usually has a nine-day cycle. Cysts enter the environment through infected fecal material on land, in water, or in food. Animals
may pick up the infection from human feces, after which they may contaminate water sources, commencing a new cycle of infec tion through the human consumers. Additionally, humans may pick up the infection from direct contact with animals.
While water taken from lakes can
be a source of Giardiasis, the cysts settle rapidly. Natural sedimenta tion can remove and cover the para
sites quickly, keeping them out of the water and away from man until they perish. As contamination from animal feces is more likely to occur at, or near, the water's edge, any risks can be further minimized by locating the drinking water intake pipes at some distance away from
Colorado, where the water may he otherwise pure, streams
the shoreline, as is the case with
ers and other rural dwellers.
most municipal water systems.
treated water taken from streams, even in so-called pristine areas, where campers might feel secure from any pollution, may contain
Normal chlorination will not kill
the cysts in drinking water, but they are substantially removed by the conventional drinking water treat ment processes of coagulation, sedi mentation and filtration. Coagula tion combines many of the cysts into 'floes' which are formed into large, soft lumps of sediment in the water being drawn from the lakes for treat ment. Once a floc-containing cyst is formed, it can be 'settled out' of the water, or trapped by the filters.
have often become a source of
Giardiasis infection, because of animal feces entering the water courses.
A few simple precautions can greatly minimize the risks to cottag Un
cysts. However, the cysts can be effectively inactivated simply by boiling the drinking water. Research shows that the conven
tional water plants treating munici pal water supplies,if well-engineered and ably-operated, are effective in preventing the transmission of water-borne Giardiasis.
Indeed, human contact with both
While well water in rural areas is
wild life and domestic animals is
usually safe, because the soil acts like a natural filter, some waters taken from surface sources may con tain Giardia cysts.
a much more likely source of the disease. The public can greatly
Ironically, streams in isolated areas, because of flow and con tinuous turbulence, are more
likely to keep the cysts in sus pension in areas where the parasites are present. Even in mountain
reduce the risk of infection from this
parasite simply by observing the safeguards listed in this article. The Trophozoite (A) and Cyst (B) stages of the parasite are shown in the diagrams. Data supplied by the Ontario Drink ing Water information Council.
We'll analyze 30 Water Quality Parameters and give you results that are fast, accurate and reproducible. FAST Our standard turnaround time for potable water is 5 days. We conducted 18 months of research to de
velop our Rapid Chemical Analysis program (RCAp)and have invested heavily in state-ofthe-art instrumentation and dedicated per sonnel in order to provide you with this level of service.
ACCURATE We use quality, micro-processor based instruments to achieve a high level of accuracy. And we require only 100 ml of sample water to perform a complete analysis.
REPRODUCIBLE A stringent quality control/quality assurance program combined with advanced robotics, spectrometry and micro-processor techno logy ensures our ability to generate reproducible results every time.
400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Ont. L4Z1N8 Phone (416) 890-2555 Fax (416) 890-0370
30 PARAMETERS OF SERVICE • Potassium • Ortho Phosphate • T. 0. C. • Manganese* • Bicarbonate • Magnesium • Alkalinity • Zinc* • Carbonate • Saturation pH • Chloride • Colour • Langelier Index • Nitrate & Nitrite • Turbidity
'Total metal. Water soluble fraction available as an alternative.
To date we have analyzed in excess of 260,000 parameters in samples from all ten provinces, all levels of government, major and minor consultants, large and small industry, and private citizens. The confidence level of our clients is extremely high. So when you require fast, accurate, repro ducible standard water quality analysis, give us a call. The service fee for potable water is ®60.00 per sample.
• Anion Sum • Cation Sum • Ion Balance
• T.D.S.(Theor.) • Conductivity(Theor.)
Circle reply card No. 120 Environmental Science <& Engineering. August 1988
New recessed impellor vortex pumps
What's: New Double diaphram pumps
motion of the rotor, inherent in all progressing cavity pumps, into the concentric rotation required at the drive shaft. By using a connecting rod running inside a hollow drive shaft, the overall pump length is kept to a minimum without increas ing the angularity of the universal joints. This results in less move
With interchangeable flapper and ball valves, air-operated Roper double-vacuum pumps can transfer practically any material, liquid or solid mixed with liquid, that can be moved through a hose or line. A manual override feature en
Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd.
ables the air valve to be manually operated even if one side is blocked by solids. Liquidex Equipment
Circle reply card No. 151
Circle reply card No. 152
ment and wear of these critical components.
Consultants' Directory Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning
Hayward Gordon's new Torus XR Series of recessed impellor vortex pumps is designed to withstand the severe
grit and primary sludge pumping applications. These pumps feature hard metal wetend components (600 BHN), which previously were considered to
OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN
ALL ASPECTS OF CIVIL. MUNICIPAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING.
Ainley and Associates Limited| CONSULTING ENGINEERS & PLANNERS COLLINGWOOD
Environmental Auditing and planning Regulatory affairs management
Through the use of electro dis charge machining and specialized low speed tooling, all wetend com ponents are produced with machin ed fits for ease of assembly and posi tive seating. Machinability of the impellor allows the pump to be tailored for direct drive configurations, thereby eliminating the necessity of V-belt or variable speed drive options. Hayward Gordon Circle reply card No. 150
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTING LTD.
Waste Auditing and management planning
Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada
Air, soii, waste and water analytics/studies
225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2
R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers
Transportatlon Municipal Services Land Development Tunnel and Shaft Design
Toronto (416) 497-8600
Welland (416) 735-3669
Progressing cavity pump features telescoping drive train
Sewerage Systems Water Supply
Bobbins & Myers Canada,Ltd., has introduced a new line of industrial
pumps with capacities to 3,000 gpm and nominal pressure capabilities to 540 psi. The Moyno 2000 is the first pro gressing cavity pump to be offered with a standard three-year limited warranty against defects in mater ials and workmanship. The drive train and pumping element design are said to result in longer life and
ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL Water
STE. 107. 16 FOUR SEASONS PLACE
TORONTO. ONTARIO M9B 6E5 TELEPHONE (416) 622-9502
It is the only progressing cavity pump to offer a telescoping drive train, used to convert the eccentric
Tel; (416) 458-4044 Fax:(416)458-7303
Environmental Specialists •Watershed Management •Process & Design Engineering •Fish Toxicity •Groundwater Contamination Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Tel;(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303
Environmental Analysis MISA/EMPPL GC/MS
Conventional Pollutants All Matrices
•Dioxins •Metal Scans
C INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREA TMENT
A Division Of
C MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER
CHZM HILL ENGINEERING LTD.
Waterloo, Ontario 519'579-3500 (Fax) 519-579-8986
C HAZARDOUS WASTE SERVICES C WATER RESOURCES
Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2330 (Fax) 416-858-3779
C LAB SERVICES
A resilient seated gate valve that complies with AWWA standard 0509 is available from Crane in
mechanical joint, flanged, join-tite and join-tite to flanged versions. The main features of this valve
include an eight point internal guid ing, an elastomer coated disc and an epoxy coated interior to resist corro
sion and reduce wear on the gate
elastomer. Available in sizes from 100 to 300
178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario
N2H 5M5 1-519-579-4230
mm,the Crane resilient seated gate valve reflects a new design approach that meets the demands of water, sewage and industrial appli cations. Crane Canada Inc.
Circle reply card No. 153
Concord Scientific Corporation S^'suitTnts • Hazard and Risk Control
Analytical Lab Services
• Occupational Hygiene Services • Pollution Control-System Design • Dispersion and Acid
Indoor Air Quality Studies
Progressing cavity, positive displacement pumps The Moyno 1000 progressing cavity design is said to offer many advant-
Safety and Environmental ANNOUNCEMENT
Head Office: 2 TIPPETT RD., TORONTO, ONTARIO M3H 2V2 (416)630-6331
Brancfi Offices: OHAWA•CALGARY
ENGINEERS planners ARCHiTECrrS
A NATIONAL S. INTEBNATIONAL COMPANY
OFFICES ACROSS CANAOA S. OVERSEAS
R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng. R.G. Ferguson, Deputy Commissioner of Works, Metropolitan Toronto, has been elected President of the Cana dian Water and Wastewater Associa
M.M. DILLON LIMITED
TORONTO LONDON OTTAWA WINDSOR
environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers
Halifax Water Commission. The 1988/89 Board also Includes two
QCG DILLON CONSULTING LIMITED
PORTER DILLON LIMITED TORONTO (416) 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 403-8094 • HALIFAX (902) 453-1115
tion (CWWA) for 1 988-1 989, succeeding the founding President, W.H. Gates, General Manager of the
VIce-Presldents, A! Schwinghammer, City Engineer, City of Moose Jaw, and Michael J. O'Connor, Chief Com missioner, Sewerage and Drainage, Greater Vancouver Regional District.
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
F.-N-V-I-RON-l-r.-.S SPECIALISTS IN PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH
• Attitudes and perceptions about environmental issues • Custom and syndicated public opinion research
ages not found in other types of posi tive displacement pumps, such as longer life, especially in abrasive applications, and high viscosity capabilities with low-shear pumping
CONTACT: Keith Neuman, Ph.D. ENVIRONICS RESEARCH GROUP LIMITED
45 Charles Street East, Toronto M4Y 1S2 Tel.(416)964-1397 FAX(416)964-2486
The design also gives consistent, smooth metered flow that is free
from pulsations and variations in velocity and volume. The easily regulated pumps, available with capacities to 145 GPM and pres sures to 230 PSI, have no valves to stick or wear out. A wide selection of construction materials is available
to meet specific applications. The Moyno 1000 close-coupled configuration offers maximum per
Professional Services In
Environmental Management Gartner Limited
•Environmental Strategies •Resources Planning •Waste Management •Hydrogeology
•Biology •Water Quality •Engineering Geology •Spi l l Response
140 Renfrew Drive ■ Markham - Ontario • L3R 6B3 • Telex 06-986278
formance in a minimal amount of
Telephone (416) 477-8400
physical space. Standard, off-theshelf gearmotors, can be coupled to the pumps without modification.
Gore S,Storrie Limited
This feature eliminates cost and
Consulting Engineers & Architects
time delays associated with other close-coupled positive displacement pumps that do require special motor shaft configurations. Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd.
WATER • SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTES • WASTEWATER
DRAINAGE • WATER RESOURCES • ENERGY RECOVERY
1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-7715
Circle reply card No. 154
Eax(416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie
GARTNER LEE LTD. Process
Division of MacLaren Plansearch 320 ADELAIDE STREET SOUTH, LONDON, ONTARIO
CANADA N5Z 3L2 • TELEPHONE (519) 686-7558
Hisey and Barrington Limited Consulting Professional Engineers
R.R.#2, King City, Ontario LOG 1 KG 727-4365
Albert Bruiey, M.Sc., P.Eng., with 25 years experience in university teach ing, research and the pulp and paper industry has recently joined Gartner
• Atomic Absorption » Gas Chromatography • GC/MS
OTHER SERVICES • Process Evaluation
• Effluent Sampling • Stack Sampling industrial Hygiene Surveys
• TOX.DOC. TOO • Hazardous Waste Evaluation
Consultants for water anid pollution control projects Knox Martin
Lee Limited as a Senior Consultant -
Chemical Process Engineering. Mr.
Bruiey, is a graduate of Queen's University and holds a M.Sc. degree in Pulp & Paper Technology from the
comprehensive environmental laboratory and field services
Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax; (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton .Ontario. L6T 435(416)459-4780
New York State College of Forestry.
Along with his teaching and research experience, he has managed and
Marshall Macklln Monaghan
directed numerous mi l l process studies relating to environmental control and energy conservation.
Prior to joining Gartner Lee, Mr. Bruiey was Manager of Environment al Services and Energy Coordinator with Great Lakes Forest Products
Limited in Thunder Bay.
Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners
275 Duncan Mill Rd., Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2Y1 (416) 449-2500 Toronto•Edmonton • Burlington • Mississauga• Whitby
Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988
Non clog pumps Smart Turner Non Clog Pumps are
Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management Consultants • Automated mapping & facilities management • Hydrogeology & contaminant migration
• Water supply, treatment & distribution • Wastewater collection, treatment, & disposal
• Environmental studies, audits, & planning • Computer sciences
• Waste management
• Energy from waste
• Water resources engineering
• Economic & social studies
• Biological surveys
• Laboratory services
2235 Sheppard Avenue East
Branch offices; Kingston, London, Ottawa, Waterloo,
Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6
Telephone; (416) 756-4919/3866
NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists waterwastewatertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehandling underwaterinvestigations computerapplicationsandanalysis treatmentplantoperationassistance bio/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax;682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. V8T1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax:384-1201
ONTARIO RESEARCH FOUNDATION Energy & Environmental Engineering Division □
Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management
Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling
Ambient Air Studies
Emission Source Testing Occupational Health
2395 Speakman Drive
Mississauga, Ontario L5K 183 □ Tel. 416 822^111 □ Fax 416 823-1446 □ Telex 06-982311
designed to handle liquids such as sewage, sludge, pulp, stock, or food stuffs containing up to 3 inch or larger diameter solids. High effic iency and hydraulic stability allow application of each model with the appropriate bearing housing to en sure smooth, trouble free operation with the minimum of maintenance.
The centreline discharge feature makes old side discharge designs with their need for left and right ro tation arrangements, redundant. In the horizontal arrangement, the centreline discharge and full casing mount allow true back pullout with use of a spacer coupling. Smart Turner Non Clog Pumps are produced in a range of 7 models, all of which are available in vertical
frame mounted drive, vertical flex ible shaft drive, or horizontal arrangements. Smart Turner Ltd.
Circle reply card No. 155
Replace aged sewers without excavating Duratron Systems has developed a method of replacing dilapidated sewers without excavation or costly restoration, traffic diversions and interruptions to service. The Buttress-Loc system com prises special threaded manholesized lengths of polyethylene pipe, which are inserted into the old sewer
paul theil associates limited
and screwed together, forming one continuous, leak-free liner. The an
nular space is then sealed at the manholes or completely grouted for added strength.
21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215
can be reconnected using remote
Laterals or service connections
equipment and procedures also developed by Duratron. Duratron Systems Circle reply card No. 156
Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief
New direct torque monitoring system
The new Model TS Torque Monitor ing System from SEW-Eurodrive utilizes accurate magnetic proximity switches to provide contactless, wear-free torque measurement and limiting. Rugged, corrosion-resistant stainless steel and heavy plated internal parts, as well as hermetical ly sealed proximity switches and explosion-proof design are said to
PROCTOR & REDFERN
GROUP Consulting Engineering Planning, Architecture. Landscape Architecture
45 Green Belt Drive
Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 3K3 (416) 445-3600
Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay 32
make the Model TS ideal for the
most demanding environments. The unit is designed for use with a compound gear drive (including
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
variable speed drives) and is especi ally suitable for applications with ratios of 200:1 and higher. Available in a wide variety of
POLLUTECH LIMITED Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions
mounting positions and configura tions, the Model TS provides contin uous torque monitoring and readout
768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2
in either clockwise or counterclock
TEL: (416) 847-0065
wise directions. A simple, reliable pointer and scale is operated mech anically without sensitive instru
FAX: (416) 847-3840
1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT. N7S 3Y6 TEL:(519)339-8787 DIALCOM:21-POU003
ments or electronics. SEW-Eurodrive
Circle reply card No. 157 POLLUTION CONTROL & CONTRACT OPERATION 471 D'ARCY STREET, NEWMARKET, ONTARIO L3Y 1M9
FILTER MEDIA • Anthracite Filter Coal • Filter Sand & Gravel
• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges (0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)
Eldon Technologies Limited 1260 Lakeshore Rd. E.
Water Supply•Pollution Control*Drainage-SCADA Simcoe Engineering Group Limited .Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building 345 Kingston Road.Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1
Tel (416) 286-2285 Fax (416) 286-1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo.
Mississauga, Ont. L5E 3B8 Tel.; (416) 271-1600
Fax: (416) 271-0554
CARBONITE FILTER MEDIA
hubicki Engineers Architects and Planners
ANTHRACITE FILTER MEDIA
also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel
Toronto, Whitby, Cobourg, Kingston
ANTHRAFiLTER MEDIA & COAL LTD.
Bracebridge, Ottawa, Simcoe, Waterloo and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sauit Ste, Marie
66 Brant Street, Hamilton, Ont L8L 6A8
TRITON CNGINCCRIHG SCRVICCS LIMITED
Consulting Engineers ECONOMICAL • EFFECTIVE FULLY GUARANTEED CAtVIAOA
5URC0 PRODUCTS, <NC
WORLD RENOWNED SINCE 1946
ROADS AND BRIDGES MUNICIPAL SERVICES FLOOD CONTROL WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
SLUDGE SLUDG MANAGEMENT
Complete Digester and
WILLMS & SHIER / BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS specializing in Land Use Planning & Development, Environmental Approvals Waste Disposal and Municipal Law
Land Application Systems
John R. Willms / Donna S.K. Shier / Cathenna Spoel
73 Richmond Street West. Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4
P. Douglas Petrie / David O, Cox 416 863-0711 • Fax; 416 863-1938
Tef; (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyvllle Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
How to protect water mains from cor'-osion
be in place. As we know a cell con sists of four parts, the anode, the cathode, a metallic path for the cur
primarily working with the gas transmission industry, it has only been in recent years that we have be come fully involved with municipal water and waste water projects, be coming recognized as a major player in the fight against corrosion on underground watermains and other equipment in valve chambers. The primary system used in this type of work is the petrolatum tape products. After applications of a pacifying primer and a putty-like filler material around bolted config urations, soft, pliable, non-toxic, non-oxidizing tape is easily applied spirally by hand to totally encapsul
rent to flow between the anode and
ate the iron or steel structure.
the cathode and an electrolyte
Being inert and non-oxidizing, this material remains pliable throughout a long lifetime and can be easily removed for inspection or
By Ken Hicks Dense of Canada Limited
Corrosion is a complex and high priority subject in the water and wastewater industry. Although the
companies in the United States, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, are member companies of Winn
Limited of London, England. Winn & Coales began manufacturing cor-
theoretical side of corrosion is com
plex, most of us are very aware of basic principles; that not all metals have the same tendency to corrode, that some metals tend to sacrifice
themselves and in doing so protect adjoining metals and that for corro sion to occur, a corrosion cell must
which will allow current flow sur
material to eliminate contact be
rosion coatings for the gas industry in the early 1930's and since that time have expanded their operation to a worldwide network of subsidiary companies and distributors with major projects as diverse as oil car rying pipelines in the Middle East to the protection oflargediameter jetty piles in the northern parts of Austra
tween the electrolyte and the metal
rounding the anode and cathode. At this point, we see the most basic solution to the corrosion cell, the elimination of one of these factors.
The principle behind all Denso corrosion coatings is the isolation of the metal structure by encasement in a relatively thick, soft, inert
Although Denso of Canada has
Denso of Canada and its sister
been in operation for some 20 years.
remedial type work.
From these few simple steps, metallic structures in direct bury, or in chambers, can be made safe from the corrosive influences of soil or
moist, possibly salt laden air, and escalating costs of materials and labour for unproductive repair work
need no longer be a factor in every day operations.
If you treat all polymers alike, Aey won't work! If you treat each polymer as an individual, you can help it reach its full potential, and, you'll get better flocculation and faster dewatering. Because the new PolyBlendÂŽ systems are programmable for dosing, dilution rate, aging, and energy, you'll be able to get improved performance out of the polymers you're using now and in the future. The new PolyBlend systems work with any polymerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;dry, solution, or emulsion, and some of our
newest models allow you to change from one to another at the flip of a switch. For details, call or write:
INDACHEM SUPPLY 14A Taber Road
Rexdale, Ontario Canada M9W 3A5 Tel. 416/743-3751 FAX 416/743-2038
Circle reply card No. 121
Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988
Purospan Indiistiies Inc. Filterpresses
'lectronic measuring and ontrols}>stems
Purospan, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Canadian company, Magna
International, delivers complete industrial waste water systems to meet the environmental and resource recovery
requirements of a large part of the manufacturing sector including;
• Electroplating • Anodising • Printed Circuit Board Production
• Metal Hardening • Scouring Plants • Paint Shops • Latex Processing
• Photographic Proc. Labs • Printing works
on exchange circulation
Pursopan is the exclusive licensee of Gulling Products for North America. The Gulling Company of West Germany is one of Europe's leading producers of engineered environmental systems.
Purospan is backed by over 25 years of experience in this field derived from over 1000 successful installations world-wide by
Gulling. This knowledge, combined with the renowned manufacturing expertise of Magna International gives Purospan the leading edge. MEFAX System
Circle reply card No. 122
continuous detoxification plants Purospan Industries Inc. A Magna International Company
594 Newpark Boulevard, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada L3Y 4X1 Telephone:(416) 853-0777, Telefax:(416) 853-4449
PROVIDING EXPERIENCE AND QUALITY PRODUCTS FOR YOUR WATERWORKS NEEDS Canada Valve has been long serving your needs with a simple strategy — top products and top people. Canada Valve carries a full line of top-quality waterworks products in each of our Canada-wide distribution centres. But even more important to you, is that every Canada Valve employee is a trained professional — with the expert knowledge to provide solu tions to your water supply problems. Top products and top people. Coll us sooni HEAD OFFICE
1 1IC Adam St.
Canada Valve Inc.
Belleville, Ontario K8N 5K3
305 Sheldon Dr.
1015 Hargrieve Rd.
Canada NIT 1A7
London, Ontario N6E 1P6
1460 Rue Cunord
Laval, Quebec H7S 2B7
40 Kress Road
840 Cynthio St. Saskatoon, Saskotchewon
25 George St.
Barrie, Ontario L4N 2G5
514-384-7360 1250 Rue Volta
Bouchervllle, Quebec J4B 6G6
1275 Kelley Lake Rd. Sudbury, Ontario P3E 5P5 705-675-2111
3155 Huron Church Rd.
15 Bentley Ave.
Windsor, Ontario N9E 4H6
Ottawa, Ontario K2£ 617
452 Bowes Rd., Unit ttl
4140 Morris Drive
Concord, Ontario L4K 1K2
Burlington, Ont. L7L 5L6
120 Acheson Rd. Winterburn, Alberta TOE 2N0 403-962-6655 Telex: 037-3550 9664 - 199A St.
Langley, British Columbia V3A4P8 604-888-2163
(Canada ValveI DIVISION MUELI-ER CANADA INC. Circle reply card No. 123