Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) August 1988

Page 1


A Davcom Business Publication

Municipal operators solve industrial wastewater problems Journalists flock to greenhouse' meeting - Comment

Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering How Vancouver deals with hazardous materials

Controlling corrosion - the facts Beaver Fever's fascinating parasite

August 1988



from Cancoppas Wide Range of Applications The Epic 1011 programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist In monitoring municipal and Industrial

Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2mm to 1200mm Strain Gauge Uitrasonic Open Channel



Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning

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Ultrasonic Blanket Level

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Circle reply card No. 127



The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler Is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and is unique In its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

The EPS 1020 Effluent

Sampler Is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them In either a single composite container or sequentially Into an array of 24 X y2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

Typical Applications * Anaerobic digester feeds/ contents/outputs

Typical Applications

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1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 08-982383

1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 08-982383

Oakvllle, Ontario L8H 1A5

Telefax (418)849-8778

Oakvllle, Ontario L8H 1A5

Telefax (418)849-8778

Circle reply card No. 126

Circle reply card No. 125

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON Sales Representative PENNY DAVEY

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng. J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.


August 1988, Vol 1 No. 4 Issued August, 1988

Journalists flock to greenhouse conference

Editorial Comment by Tom Davey

Industry Update


Pamela Stokes, Ph.D. Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial


The facts behind premature corrosion of waterworks systems and equipment Article by Hank St. Onge


Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering By Brian Allen, P.Eng.



systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu

CWWA examines International municipal

tion, air pollution

environmental management

monitoring and

control, solid and hazardous waste

treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental



Article by Penina Coopersmitb

Our future - a climate for change

18 20


wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and

Municipal operators help solve Industrial wastewater problems



ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions,



tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives), orotherfacsimilies of the written or graphic material for consideration.

Head Office - 10 Retch Cr., Aurora,

Software system helps Vancouver deal with hazardous materials

Beaver fever and water supplies - the facts

What's New? A range of pumps, pipes and valves for the convenience of specifiers

24 26 29

Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 industrial Pkwy. $., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Consultants' Directory

How to protect water mains from corrosion Article by Ken Hicks

Printed in Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly subscription rates: Canada $25.00 for one year, $35.00 for two years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $32.00, $47.00 for two years; other foreign $53.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $15.00 single issue.

Cover photo: depicts the Increasingly important role of operations staff In municipal plants, courtesy. The

Second Class Mail

Proctor & Redfern Group.

Registration No. 7750 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988






















Circle reply card No. 101

PHONE # 299-4370

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Journalists flock to greenhouse conference

Environment Canada's

After outlining the various gases - and their sources - which were accumulating to create the greenhouse effect, he noted that the warming trend was still not scien tifically proven. But, he noted,

strategy to focus atten tion on the global impli cations of the greenhouse effect, was undeniably a huge suc cess. Shortly after the G-7 economic conference was held in Toronto, the

while threats of serious environ

Pavlovian reflexes to the siren lure

mental damage were not conclusive, he felt that the serious warnings were at least as valid as any predic tions made by economists. The sophisticated audience loved that

of the government's public relations

thrust at the dismal science. ES&E

machine. Serious German science

will publish excerpts from Dr. Hare's paper in a subsequent issue. One fact emerged with undeni able clarity. Environmental matters clearly enjoy top priority with both provincial and federal governments. In more than two decades of report ing, 1 have never before seen any Canadian Prime Minister give such high profile attention to an ecologi





again flocked to the downtown core like homing pigeons on a second lap. Reporters had responded with

writers mixed with languid English journalists and trendy television types from California merged with the legions of Canadian journalists in the splendidly appointed media room. And minutes after presenta tions, copies, in both official lan guages, were made available in the newsroom. We were really pampered. Madam Brundtland,Norwegian Prime Minister, who had headed the UN study into economics and the environment, played a prominent role while Stephen Lewis, Cana da's UN ambassador, gave the gathering a most eloquent interna tional



In fact, at one time,some feared that the scientific delegates might actually outnumber the news media. Luckily good sense prevailed. A few strategic phone calls quickly alerted a reserve contingent at the CBC who dispatched a cavalcade of cameramen flanked by infantry

from CBC radio, so restoring

cal conference. It seems the environ

ment has finally moved to the front ranks of governmental priorities. Over two centuries ago, the

the imbalance.


But the meeting did bring forth many fine scientific presentations.

formed manufacturing methods, so beginning the global warming trend. English factory owners




Environment Canada's Dr.

Brian Mulroney and Environment

the gathering with the full dignity of

Howard Ferguson, for example, was tireless in his efforts to synthe size and explain various warming-

a national event.

The distinctive

trend scenarios to journalists. The

news media ID badges - like pendul ums around so many necks - swung gently like battle honours for a major PR coup. But the conference also at tracted some of the best scientific

organizers too began the scientific presentations with a superb paper by Dr. Kenneth Hare, a brilliant scientist who wanders effortlessly through the intricacies of several disciplines, distilling the complexi

the deadly effects of our prodig

minds researching the green house environmental problems.

ties of the greenhouse threat with wit, humour and scientific insights.


Minister Tom McMillan invested


ignored the ravages theycaused, saying "where there's muck there's money." Huge fortunes were made by mortgaging environmental burdens on the

backs of future generations. Now, Canadian politicians clearly understand that there are also elections to be lost - if ious




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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Circle reply card No. 102


; Announcement"

New G&S Group Opening in Cambridge, Ontario

ES&E launches National

Awards Program Several distinguished scientists and engineers have volunteered as judges in Environmental Science & Engineering's National Awards Program. Details were first an

nounced in the June ES&E (page 4). The awards will honour environ Greg Scheifele

Derek Coleman

The President of Gore & Storrie

Al Sandilands

sion of this new service for the com

Limited, Mr. R.A. Goodings, is pany. Mr. Scheifele holds a B.A. pieased to announce the appoint (Honours) in Physical Geography ment of Derek J. Coleman, Ph.D., from the University of Guelph and a Manager of Gore & Storrie's new M.A. in Regional Pianning and Environmentai Pianning Services Resource Development from the Uni group. Based in Cambridge, Ontario, versity of Waterloo. Mr. Sandilands the new office provides services in gained a B.Sc. in Biology from the ecology, forestry, and iandscape University of Waterloo. architecture, as well as environment

The group has an extensive back ground in environmentai impact studies, ecological pianning and design, land development, pits and quarries, pipelines, and environment al planning methodologies and research. These services will supple

al pianning for Federal, Provincial, Municipal, and private sector clients. Dr. Coleman gained his B.Sc.F. from the University of Toronto, his M.Sc. from the University of Guelph and his Ph.D. from the University of Waterloo. Gregory W. Scheifele, senior forester and environmental planner, and Allan P. Sandilands,senior biolo gist are key professional staff that wil l work with Dr. Coleman in the provi



& Storrie's traditional

engineering expertise in the water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, and solid waste manage ment fields.

mental projects in the water, wastewater and air pollution categories. There will also be a category for in novative environmental equipment. This contest is framed to en

courage participation without expensively prepared entries, in fact elaborate or expensive presentations are actively dis couraged. While the deadline is December

31, 1988, letters of intent would be appreciated by September 31.

Winners will be honoured by engraved plaques at appropriate conventions and finalists will be en

couraged to participate in poster ses sions. The winning entries will also be featured editorially in ES&E and promoted in the national news media. Judges decisions will be completely independent of Environ

mental Science & Engineering and its affiliated companies.

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Circle reply card No. 103

Circle reply card No. 104 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

— Industry Update DuPont and NRC seek CFC alternatives

Consulting Engineers

Du Pont Canada is joining the

energy technology. They assist the

of Ontario elect

National Research

efficient transfer and circulation of


Council of

Canada and Energy, Mines and hot and cold air for heating and cool Resources Canada to work on refrig ing systems. Heat pumps also help erant alternatives to CFCs (chloro- reduce carbon dioxide emissions fluorocarbons), called HCFCs which are the major contributor to (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). the greenhouse effect. The joint research program is Earlier Du Pont Canada announ ced an orderly phase-out of CFC pro duction, while seeking alternatives to CFCs, which have been linked to changes in the earth's ozone layer.

under the administration of Dr. Ian

Lowe, National Research Council, with Michael Wiggin of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and

John Smale, Senior Technical Con Du Pont Canada will provide sultant, Du Pont Canada Inc. The researchers with test quantities of new developmental refrigerants for the alternative refrigerants as well use in the joint research program as joint funding. Included in the are called HCFCs. These com study are refrigerants R-22, R-134a, pounds, unlike CFCs, contain a R-123 as well as others. Special hydrogen atom. The presence of attention will be given to their appli hydrogen significantly reduces the cation to heat pumps. atmospheric life of the HCFC chem

Heat pumps are a key develop ment in the search for more efficient

Canada moving to protect ozone layer Environment

Minister Tom

ical bonds, so that HCFCs break up before reaching the stratosphere.

ments in the environmental field, he

ling. These controls will allow Canada to target more precisely pro ducts or uses that should be reduced

or phased out so as to decrease the use of chemicals with the highest ozone-depleting potential. The second report, along with an

McMillan recently released a report outlining the most promising con trol options to meet Canada's obli gations under the international Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The ozone layer, located in the stratosphere, shields the earth against harmful ultravio let rays from the sun. The report is a first step in developing regulations to reduce the use of ozone-depleting

impact of the proposed options, is expected in the fall. According to Mr. McMillan, that report is import

chemicals in Canada.

Steve Bonk's inaugural speech as

The Protocol is scheduled to enter

into force on January 1, 1989, pro vided that 11 countries representing two-thirds of the global 1986 consumption of ozone-depleting substances (CFCs and halons) ratify the treaty. Canada cannot meet its interna

tional obligations to protect the ozone layer until the Canadian Environmental Protection Act has

been passed by the Senate. The international treaty signed in Montreal last September by 24 countries, including Canada, calls for a 50 percent reduction in chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs)over a 10-year period and a freeze on halons at 1986 levels. Through tough control mea sures, Canada will achieve the 50 percent cut called for in the Protocol and will go even further. Environment Canada is prepar ing a second options report that will consider the feasibility of such con trol measures as new-use or specific product restrictions; codes of prac tice; recycle, recapture and re-use requirements; and mandatory label

Douglas P. Sexsmith, P.Eng. The Association of Consulting Engineers of Ontario (CEO) is pleased to announce that D.P. Sexsmith, P.Eng. has been elected President. Douglas Sexsmith is President of the Consulting Firm, Kostuch Engineering Limited, Brockville, Ontario. A civil engineer with significant professional achieve has


numerous technical

papers on the subject. He is actively involved with and holds senior posi tions in a number of associations and learned societies. He is a Rotarian

and has chaired campaigns for the Canadian Cancer Society.

assessment of the socio-economic

ant because, based on newinforma-

tion, the international scientific community now believes that an 85 percent reduction is necessary to preserve the ozone layer.

Steve Bonk makes spectacular debut in Orlando AWWA President left no one in doubt that the association had elect

ed an eloquent yet outspoken leader, capable of injecting humour as well as bluntness in a powerful message. Veteran AWWA members said bis

speech was one of the best ever de livered at an annual conference.

Steve challenged the water supply industry to exceed water quality standards whenever possible, Steve Bonk, (left) takes over not merely meet them. He said it was time the industry put aside its reassured Americans that, as defensive posture and took some AWWA President, he had no plans bold initiatives to restore public con to replace the ducks with Canada fidence in an industry which has Geese, which would be known as served society well. He stressed that 'Bonk's honkers'. the best way to build confidence was With such a strong message, to be clearly seen to be exceeding American AWWA members knew accepted water quality standards. that they had elected a most capable Yet, although he pulled no leader. Canadians too had voted punches, the serious message was with their feet as well as on the bal punctuated with wit and self depre lots for they were to be seen every cating humour which had his audi where at the conference. Steve's ence helpless with laughter. Having debut was celebrated in great style delivered some telling remarks to at a reception afterwards. The the industry, he then referred to the record will show that Steve Bonk got Peabody ducks which are a feature off to a great start in his term of of every hotel of that name. Steve office. Steve Davey

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

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Circle reply card No. 105

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Industry Update ed

NRC studying corrosion Corrosion is the degradation of salt-in accelerating the corrosive materials, particularly metals, due process. to chemical processes such as oxida These studies will lead to a better tion or the action of a chemical understanding of how to make metals more resistant to corrosion. agent. Many industrial processes Understanding the corrosion pro cess, and metal surface chemistry in actually rely on the growth of oxide layers as protection against cata general, is crucial. Using analytical techniques strophic attack and eventual failure. such as Auger electron spectrometry These layers, known as oxide scales, (SIMS), National Research Council naturally form when metals are scientists are studying the chemistry exposed to temperatures as high as of surface oxide layers in order to 1500°C. By studying the structure find out what causes them to fail. In and chemistry of high temperature particular, aqueous corrosion oxides, NRC scientists hope to studies are looking at the role of improve the performance of metals halide ions-such as chlorides, the used in many thermally cycled notorious rusting agents in road industrial processes.





removed." The program for upgrad ing tanks at private outlets comple ments initiatives "already well underway for upgrading tanks at retail outlets and removing aban doned tanks," Mr. Wrye said. "Without this protection, automotive fuel could leak into

the groundwater, contaminat ing Ontario's drinking supplies and waterways for great distances.

Canadlan is keynote speaker at Ventilation'88 Dr. Howard Goodfellow, Presi dent of Goodfellow Consultants Inc.

Law to prevent underground tanks from leaking A






storage of automotive fuels in pri vately owned underground tanks has received second reading in the Ontario Legislature. William Wrye,

owners of underground tanks at farms, transportation companies, factories, institutions, municipali ties and other private outlets to register with the ministry. Suppliers would be prohibited from filling tanks that do not meet safety and registration requirements. Mr. Wrye said the legislation would enable his Fuels Safety

Minister of Consumer and Commer

Branch "to meet our 1991 deadline

cial Relations,said the amendments to the Gasoline Handling Act would "help prevent underground storage tanks from leaking." The legislation would require

for having all underground steel tanks and associated piping protect-

of Mississauga, Ontario will be giving the keynote address at Ventilation '88 - 2nd International

Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control at Imperial College, London, England, Septem ber 20-23, 1988. He has agreed to serve on ES&E's editorial advisory board to cover areas of air pollution control, and occupational health and safety. He is President-elect of the Occupation al Hygiene Association of Ontario.

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Penny Davey has joined Anuironmental Science & Engineering as a sales representative. A graduate from Queen's University with a degree in English literature. Penny is very familiar with the environ mental scene. She has assisted at seminars and conferences for the Pollution Control Association of

Ontario. Prior to joining ES&El she worked in sales for a multi-national

fixed and floating digesters


communications company.

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Circle reply card No. 106 Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988

The facts behind premature corrosion of waterworks systems and equipment This article has been prepared on the basis of many years experience in the analysis of underground failures involving metallic system design. This information takes into consider ation the immediate needs of the

cation when designed properly. By Hank St. Onge, President Duratron Systems Ltd.


straint that may have contributed to slow acceptance of corrective mea sures was the beliefthat the problem was with the product rather than system design. Basically the failed pipe was the focus of attention and thought to he the source of the trouble. Some product manufactur

6. Sacrificial anodes

ers looked to hot soils as the contri

Piping Materials

buting factor, others recommended

The selected watermain should he cement-lined ductile iron class 50

municipal and private sectors who are looking for a straight-forward but effective means of installing water works systems without fear of pre mature failure. The purpose is not to radically change existing standards but to complement present procedures in achieving controlled long life systems. Design errors of the fifties and sixties became increasingly evident in the seventies and eighties

thicker walled pipe and some sug gested covering the pipe with plastic

when corrosion failures occurred in

material. Hence it became econom

astronomical proportions. However very few designers knew then what they know now.

ically necessary to look to plastic pipe as the end-all solution.

Premature corrosion fail

Plastics had their share of prob lems in the beginning hut improve ments in manufacturing techniques and installation procedure provided

mented, but it took indus try a very long time to come to grips with the problem, let alone understanding it. One re-


ure is now

well docu



systems with higher strength and ductility as compared to plastics are ideally suited for waterworks appli-

Slr Humphry Davy — dreamer, hero and legend

Around 1805 a young

English hoy named Humphry spent his time watching large, wooden hulled naval ships go out to sea. Young Humphry dreamed he would sail on one of these sleek, majestic warships which gave Britain the mastery of the sea after the Battle of Trafalgar that year. A few years later, he noticed that two ships not only looked different hut moved through the water at a greater speed. On close inspection he saw that the hulls were clad with

a copper skin,allowing them to glide through the water. This new concept fascinated him.

In 1820 Humphry's dream came true, when he was accepted by the Royal Navy, and assigned to serve





copper skin in the vicinity of holts was in excellent condition, whereas the copper furthest away from the holts had pitted and turned a green ish colour.

He concluded that the

iron holts sacrificed themselves pre maturely in the process of providing some protection to the copper skin.

In his final report he suggested using copper rivets to fasten the copper skin. But that was not all he recommended. Humphry had dis covered something very unique; he strongly advised that iron strips he also mounted separately at intervals around the ship's hull, and so in 1824 cathodic protection was horn.

The Royal Navy soon had the fastest fleet of warships and became the most feared around the world.

section of the naval yard. His first assignment was to

For his work he was knighted by the

ships. After just a few weeks at sea the copper sheeting came apart at the seams. The iron fasteners hold

ing them together dissolved in the sea water and two warships sank when returning from battle. Detailed

7. Spot check monitoring DESIGN FACTS

complete with a quality paint finish. The same goes for valves, hydrants and fittings. Light weight cast iron is also acceptable if cost-effective. Domestic services should he copper and preferably coated by the manu facturers. Main stops and curb valves should he brass or bronze

and mastic coated during installa tion. Service rods made of factory coated steel and connected using a stainless steel pin is the best choice. Corrosion - What it is

in the research and development investigate serious problems being experienced with copper hulled

1. Coated iron pipe and fittings 2. Cement internal lining 3. Copper services 4. Brass fittings - stops 5. Electrical grounding - neutrals

monarchy. Now better known as Sir Humphry Davy he also invented a miner's safety lamp which did not explode in the presence of methane which saved countless lives.


Humphry, who was also a poet and a friend of William Wordsworth, was clearly a scientist who was also a man of diverse talents.

Basically, corrosion is a reaction involving the movement of electrons within the metals travelling between two differently charged surfaces. This induced reaction or voltage cell occurs when the metals are exposed to soil or water. Corrosion results

only at the most negatively charged surfaces; the anode part of the cell. Corrosion cells are developed on the metal





design sources:

1. A minor corrosion cell develops due to metal impurities and nonuniform alloying. 2. A significant cell develops when the metals are exposed to dissimilar soils such as clay and sand. 3. A major cell develops when the system is fabricated of different

metals such as copper and iron. Since it is difficult to negate cor rosion cells using only present day pipe materials, it became important to include additional dispensable products in order to transfer the cor rosion part of the cell to an appropri ate pre-designed location. Galvanic Series - Metal Potentials

All metals exposed to soil or water generate low to high values of electrical energy, depending on alloying or manufacturing process. Thus, each metal can he measured


Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988

and expressed in volts, which in turn can be listed in order ofgalvanic energy level. When any two metals in the galvanic series are connected together and exposed to soil or water,the metal with the most nega tive potential corrodes at an increas ed rate while the least negative metal becomes immune to corrosion. This series of metals listed in order

of energy level is a valuable source of information to the design engine er planning metallic facilities for underground use. Voltmeters - Reference Electrode

Voltmeters of the high impedance analog type or the more modern digital electronic type are employed for measurement.

A stable refer

ence electrode is commonly used with the voltmeter, usually a copper/copper sulfate half cell (CU/CUS04). This reference elec trode is the one most used for evalu

ating underground corrosion prob lems.

recommend pipes be coated and cathodic protection applied. A quality paint coating significantly reduces









required for complete protection. This means that smaller low cost




anodes can be used to provide long




and efficient life.





















the cathodic reaction of iron. This is




important. According to N.A.C.E. Publications (National Association of Corrosion Engineers), the initial design current for protecting poorly coated iron is in the range of 0.1 milliamps per sq. ft. The current required for protecting copper tubing is around 1.5 milliamps per sq. ft. Refer to N.A.C.E. Corrosion Engineers Reference Book.








Current required for protecting iron depends on the conductivity of the soil and the amount of exposed bare metal in contact with that soil. Also

affecting current requirement is the polarization phenomenon caused by





(mv) Cu CuS04



target range of 800-1100mv on the metal surface. POLARIZATION PHENOMENON Polarization is the term used in

cathodic protection when the accumulation of hydrogen ions(H+)

Cathodic protection is the applica

A criterion of cathodic protection is

on the surface of steel or iron be

tion of controlled direct current to the surface of a buried metallic

a standard

achievement of cathodic protection.

comes saturated to the point where electron current flow drops to a min

structure. This current is designed to offset or negate the structures cor rosion current induced by the soil. When applied properly, the metal structure becomes polarized or shielded by soil ions. This action substantially reduces cathodic pro

Refer to N.A.C.E.standard RP-0T69 latest edition for further detail. The

imum. Under this condition the iron

tection current.

around 350-400mv. For best results


used to estimate the

criterion, used most often for steel and iron structures exposed to a soil or water is the 850mv potential refer enced to a Cu/CuS04 electrode.

The criterion for copper piping is when working with mixed metals such as copper and iron it is suggest

Direct current for cathodic protec tion is generated by attaching higher energy metals such as zinc which can protect steel, iron or cop

sidered when practical. The design engineer is not

per. High energy metals applied for this purpose are commonly referred

demonstrated by other means that

to as sacrificial anodes. IMPRESSED CURRENT

Another method of producing direct current involves the use of power supplies such as rectifiers or impres sed current systems. Power rectifiers are capable of providing large amounts of current to protect older piping at existing sites. Banks of sacrificial anodes are also ideally suited for existing systems. COATING EFFECTS

ed that the criterion for iron be con

limited to these criteria if it can be the control of corrosion has been

achieved. Protecting older existing systems for example may require other

cost effective criteria that

allow for less than 850mv poten tials. Keep in mind that the first lOOmv shift in the negative direction substantially reduces the structures corrosion current. APPLICATION OF GALVANIC ANODES

Galvanic sacrificial anodes such as

magnesium and zinc are most often used for the protection of buried

Paint and coatings have been used

metallic structures. Both materials

on buried metals for decades. Their

generate electron current when in

intent is to reduce corrosion by form ing a barrier between the metal and

contact with lower base materials

the soil.

This is true in the area

where the coating is intact, however,

in spots where the metal is exposed, corrosion can be intensified and fail ure could result sooner than if the

metal was completely bare. It is for this reason the pipeline industry

such as steel or iron. Choosing the

right sacrificial metal for a particu lar application requires more than just the knowledge of the anode's potential and current output. The chosen anode for use in close prox imity to a structure should be cap able of operating efficiently within a

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

cathode is said to be polarized or shielded making it immune to self corrosion. This is a very important factor when designing or monitor ing cathodic protection systems. Polarization is achieved by intro ducing a specific amount of electron current into the metal, to arrive at a

predetermined range of stabilized potentials. Full polarization is time dependent and usually based on soil moisture content and initial current

applied. The ideal level of polariza tion (ion effect) is to have it reach a potential as close as possible to the sacrificial anode's potential. This would obviously reduce the current required and extend the anode life significantly. HYDROGEN OVERVOLTAGE

POTENTIAL (1120MV) There is however, a limiting polarization level called the"Hydro gen overvoltage potential", beyond which free hydrogen gas bubbles will be formed and break away. Exceeding this 1120mv potential, in addition to causing hydrogen gas, leads to an increase in pH at the structure surface. This combination of effects cause unwanted failure to the coated surface as well as a sub stantial increase in wasted anode

current. For these reasons, it is de sirable to limit the potential of a structure surface to llOOmv with

respect to a copper sulfate reference electrode. Special high grade zinc anodes have an output potential of 11

just less than the maximum hydro gen overvoltage potentials and are therefore used in a design aimed at achieving efficient cathodic protec

should be electrically conductive wherever possible using bond straps, wedges or other means. Modular or factory attached sacri

tion. This metal lends itself to be at

ficial anodes such as steel cored zinc

tached directly to the structure, al lowing for modular or integral com ponent design. Since magnesium anodes have a higher output poten tial than the maximum allowable

nuts and washers are ideally suited for new valve and fittings compon ents. Split ring anodes can he used on push joint types. Zinc, because of its unique potential, is certainly the

overvoltage potential, it is recom

most suited metal for installation in

mended that they be installed remote from the protected structure.

close proximity or in contact with new iron and copper structures.


distance of 1.5 metres should

allow enough voltage drop through the soil to minimize hydrogen evolu tion and wasted current.


anodes are useful in protecting older systems by installing hanks of anodes remote from pipe. Refer to NACE publication: Control of Pipeline Corrosion by A.W. Peabody. SACRIFICIAL ANODE INSTALLATION

New Systems

Existing Older Systems

Galvanic zinc or Magnesium anodes are commonly installed on existing waterworks by angering methods. Banks of 36# Zinc or 32#

zinc anode for each component, including copper services and buried neutrals. All components

Electrical Grounding Accidental A.C. fault currents and

electrical grounding through water works is advantageous for safe elec trical operation. The electrical industry should take advantage of metallic systems incorporating sacrificial anode components as these units not only control corro sion, they improve the grounding needs.




extremely useful for protecting the electrical system, where bare con

Magnesium are angered down to

centric neutrals are installed. The

about 8-10 ft. at 3 metre intervals

increased use of plastic watermain materials make anodes necessary for reliable operation.

along the boulevard adjacent to the watermain. These groups of anodes are connected to a header cable and

brought into a test stationdocated at a hydrant. Instrument readings can be taken at test stations to measure

When designing new systems using conventional materials, it is important to include a sacrificial

installed at these poles to monitor the cathodic protection system. This type of installation is extremely ef fective and economical, with no required excavation to the water-

potentials, current output and anode life projections. In many locations, the connection of anode

banks can he made through the grounding system at street lighting poles. Test stations are normally

Reduce volume

of plant


Measuring the cathodic poten tials using appropriate voltmeters and reference electrodes provides the owner with the only visible assurance that a buried system is adequately protected from its soil environment.

Since full cathodic

protection is achieved on iron in aggressive soils at 850mv to a

copper sulfate electrode, readings at this level indicate good results. In many cases readings below 850mv are considered protected using other criteria requirements. Spot check monitoring at 2-3 year intervals is

usually adequate.



Consulting engineers, water works management, product manu facturers and the electrical indus

try must generate a common ground or means for mutual co-operation in

developing compatible, long range solutions for electrical and water

works systems. The use of anode protected components on new com bined systems is a sound design practice. The investment is relative ly low, but the benefit is substantial. As for existing older systems,assistance programs are available

Roediger's "Sieve Drum Concentrator" reduces

plant tankage requirements and improves dry solids performance of dewatering devices. Typically, 150 GPM at 0.3% D.S. becomes 7.5 GPM at 6% D.S. plus clear filtrate. Call (416) 736-9888 for information. Also for pumps and dredges for sludges, abrasive slurries, corrosives,sump and emergency spills.

96 Martin Ross Ave.

Oownsview, Ont. M3J 2L4


Circle reply card No. 107 12




of the

Environment for Ontario, with respect to rehabilitation, cathodic protection and needs studies. Also in draft form is an Ontario version

of the AWWA manual and guide for retro-fitting existing waterworks with cathodic protection. Remem

ber, Metallic Systems do not experi Fax: 1416) 736-9890

ence soil or operational failures when properly engineered and designed.

Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Announcement Gone S.Storrie Limited

Gore & Storrie Limited extends horizons with new Research Centre G&S has created a new Research Centre which will combine

scientific expertise with the firm's tradition of innovation --

based on the practical applica tion of engineering and process fundamentals.

The Research

Centre facility has been design ed to address complex R&D

problems and will house a team of scientists and engineers with a wide range of expertise in the environmental field, including chemical and biological special ists.

This team will be able to

draw on interdisciplinary sup port services of water and wastewater treatability laboratories, as well as an expanded analy tical facility. Increasingly stringent government regulation ofindus trial and municipal effluents, along with society's concerns about water, encouraged Gore & Storrie to create the Research


The new facility will

augment the firm's traditional services for physical and chemi cal analyses of water and wastewater samples, laboratory and pilot process studies, monitoring programs, quality assessment and quality control, and compu

with the Centre's staff. When • Bench and pilot scale slow required, all services may be sand filtration tests complemented by structural, • Activated carbon removal of organics including taste and architectural, mechanical, elec odours trical, instrumentation and com puter control, as well as CADD • Alternative disinfection tech niques for trihalomethane con capabilities. The 10,000 sq. ft. building will trol house approximately 4,500 sq.ft. • Optimization of coagulation, of analytical laboratory and flocculation and filtration pro 5,500 sq. ft. of water and waste- cesses water process, research and Overall, Gore & Storrie's development areas. Gore & Research Centre's aim is to meet Storrie's activities and current the increasingly sensitive R&D interests include extensive needs of environmental engine research and development work ering through the continued ap in the following specific areas: plication of appropriate treat ment technologies as well as Wastewater analytical, operational or pro • Chemical selection and opti cess problems. The Centre will mization of physical/chemical be a significant addition to the treatment processes. firm's range of consulting ser • Bench scale biodegradability vices. testing • Bench and pilot scale anaero bic reactor treatability testing G&S Research Centre • Bench scale sludge thickening 55 Research Road, and dewatering testing Toronto, Ontario, • Dissolved air flotation testing Canada M4G 2G8 Telephone:(416) 485-7715, Water Fax:(416)467-LABS, • Bench and pilot scale ozone Telex: 06 23283 treatability studies

terized data interpretation capa bilities. In addition,the Research Centre will have trained staff to

conduct receiving-water impact assessment studies and develop

process requirements for treat ment and removal of conven tional and toxic contaminants

leading to improved facility designs and operations support.

Appropriately located at 55 Research Road in East York,the Research Centre, a modern facil

ity comprising some 10,000 square feet, is in close proximity to the G&S head office at 1670

Bayview Avenue,Toronto. Gore & Storrie has assigned top calibre engineers and scientists

Dr. William J. Hargrave, P.Eng., Manager Water Technology Division

to assume research and techni

(right) and Steve A. Black, P.Eng. M.A.Sc., Manager WastewaterTechnology Division are responsible for the operation and management of

cal development roles along

the new Research Centre.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988



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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

HELPCLEAN UP ONTARIO'S WATERWAYS The Ontario government is now adopting tough new measures to stop water pollution at its source. MISA—Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement—will systematically cut back the flow of toxic pollutants with enforceable regulations that get tougher as abatement technology gets better.

Under MISA,the Ministry of the Environment will soon release a discussion paper presenting its proposal for controlling industrial discharges to sewers. These discharges pose a threat to the environment,the health of sewage treatment plant workers and the effective operation of sewage treatment plants. The proposed program will impose provinciolly-regulated discharge limits on 12,000 industries that discharge to sewers. Provincial regulation will also require Ontario municipalities to enforce these limits. Amendments will be mode to provincial legislation

to allow the province to prosecute both municipalities and industry ifor non-compliance. We Want Your Comments

The discussion paper presenting the proposed program will be released in September for a 90-day public review period. The Ministry of the Environment needs your comments and suggestions to help make this the best sewer use control program possible.

Please obtain a copy of the discussion paper,"Controlling Industrial Discharges to Sewers",from the address below and submit your comments to Jim Bradley, Minister of the Environment, 135 St. Glair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M4V 1P5.

Our goal-the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminantsfrom all discharges into Ontario's waterways. To obtain copies of the discussion paper, please contact:


Public Information Centre Environment Ontario

135 St. Cloir Ave. West

Toronto, Ontario M4V 1P5



Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


Ontario Jim Bradley, Minister

Circle reply card No. 109


Polymers - an effective tool for sludge dewatering By Brian Allen, P.Eng. Indachem Supply

Flocculation, during water

and wastewater treatment, has been induced by add ing synthetic polymer to the flow or tank as a standard proce dure for many years. One of the advantages of using polymeric flocculants is that polymers produce floes which can be much stronger or larger than those formed by inor ganic salts. It has also been known over the

years that polymer needed to be acti vated to be most effective.


recent years, however, not much information was available on the most efficient method of activation.

The popular belief has been that

retention time (aging) is the key factor. This thinking is rapidly changing because of research being conducted on the effects that hydrodynamic forces have on the activa tion process.

Before investigating the import ance of hydrodynamic forces, we should briefly review how polymers work in the treatment process. The phrase "opposites attract" describes the basic principal of electrostatic attraction. If you place two particles

AttheSeaway Pollution Control Planttwo Polyblend unitsare used. Thesmal-

ler unit feeds polymer to ttie dissolved air flotation unit, wtille the larger one feeds a two-metre belt filter press. negative (anionic) charge. The resulting larger clumps of material can be more easily filtered or settled out of the water than the tiny indi vidual suspended particles. For many years, alum and ferric chloride have been used for this pur pose in water treatment, but these materials have a number of draw backs:

• they have a small molecular size greatly limiting their effectiveness in flocculation.

• they are both positively charged ... one with a positive electrical (cationic) and thus will attract only charge and the other with a negative negatively charged particles. electrical charge...near each other, • they either depend upon or have a they will be pulled together. substantial effect upon the pH of In the same way, if you place a treated solution. substance with a positive (cationic) • because of the additional volume charge in water, it will attract parti of salts required in treatment, cles of suspended solids that have a sludge accumulation is increased.

Polymers, on the other hand, may have an extremely large mole cular size, offering thousands of charged sites. They can attract large numbers of suspended parti cles, forming sizeable "clumps" that can be rapidly settled out or he easily filtered. Most importantly, polymeric flocculants are effective because the

polymer chains are sufficiently extensive to attach to the surface or

adsorb on more than one particle, thus binding or "bridging"the parti cles together. When a polymer mole cule comes into contact with a col

loidal particle, some of the function al groups of polymer adsorb at the

particle surface, leaving the remainder of the molecule extend

ing out into the solution. If a second

particle with some vacant adsorp tion sites contacts these extended

segments, attachment can occur. A

particle-polymer-particle complex is thus formed, in which the polymer serves as a bridge. They can be also manufactured


with sites that are positively or negatively charged, or electrically neutral. This allows more effective

flocculation by attracting suspended solids, no matter what electrical

charge they have. The effectiveness of the polymer is not greatly affected by the pH of the treated solution, and the polymers themselves have less effect on solution pH than inor ganic salts.

There are basically three forms of polymeric flocculants used in water A Komllne Sanderson dissolved air flotation unhand a two-metre Parkson belt

filter press are part of the plants new sludge dewatering system. 16

and wastewater treatment:solution, emulsion and dry. Solution type polymers are normally readily solu ble in water. Emulsion polymers

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

consist of polymer-gel particles in oil. Dry polymers are the most con centrated and tightly entangled and must he converted into a solution

state hy dissolution into the desired amount of water.

There are literally thousands of different formulations of these three

basic forms of polymers. To properly activate each formulation requires knowledge of the polymer, charac teristics of the dilution water and

the hydrodynamic force needed. However, the only controllable factor during normal plant operation is the hydrodynamic force. Exper ience can he a help in determining the right mixing scheme required, but it is necessary to understand the role of hydrodynamic force in the polymer activation process to achieve maximum performance. The hydrodynamic force required in activating emulsion or dry poly mer is a vigorous agitation for a short period of time. This force strips off the surrounding oil in

emulsion polymer, prevents polymer gels from forming aggregates and will break partially swollen gels into smaller units. If you do not have control of the hydrodynamic regimes, extensive aging is neces sary and the process of full activa tion can be a long one. The aging process in activating a polymer is the time it takes for the polymer molecules to absorb water and extend into a long chain. Each molecule will swell about six times

in diameter and expand about 280 times in volume when we prepare a 0.5% polymer solution from emulsion polymer. The swelling time is direct ly proportional to the square of the particle size. To reduce the actual aging time, it is extremely important that the initial wetting of emulsion and dry polymer be accomplished with a high shearing effect. The high shear that the polymer encounters

force when, after they have been extended, they are re-exposed to a high-shear environment. Once an extended chain of polymer molecules is broken it loses its ability to serve effectively as a bridge between particles. Proctor




recently designed a sludge dewatering system at the Seaway Pollution Control Plant in Port Colborne, Ontario, which incorporates a poly

mer feed system, a belt filter press and associated sludge transfer equipment. Indachem Supply worked with the consultant and the Regional Municipality of Niagara to customdesign the polymer feed system to utilize existing plant equipment.

The Polyblend system was chosen because it eliminated the need to

construct an addition to the plant to house a conventional polymer mixing system.

The operators manually mix 25 kg. of powdered polymer in 1840 litres of water, producing a 1.38% polymer solution. The system dilutes, activates and feeds polymer to a Komline Sanderson dissolved air flotation unit and a two-meter

Parkson belt filter press at typically a 0.1% concentration.

The dewatering system produces 1 dry ton of solids per hour at a poly mer consumption rate of 5 - 5.5 kg. per dry ton. Filter cake solids of 2427% are achieved with this system.

Price; $350.00

Plan now to attend

($400.00 after Nov. 31)

Environmental Audit Seminar How to avoid environmental iiabiiities December 6, 1988, Constellation Hotel, Toronto, Ontario The Environmental Audit is the most exciting and significant tool of the decade for environmental professionals. This seminar - the first in a series- will explore and interpret various problems and opportunities in the new

field of Environmental Auditing. Experts will show how to identify and manage risks in vital areas such as regulatory compliance and contaminant liability while using environmentally sound management practices. The seminar will provide an in-depth focus on the How To'factors of conducting an Audit.

The Question of Privilege - legal pro

Who should attend?

Corporate executives, legal counsel, environmental professionals In Industry and government. Investors and merger and aqulsltlons professionals.

tection and the Audit

Presentations will include;


What is Environmental Auditing? What are the Issues? - How do you respond to them?

The 'How To' Session How to set up an Auditing program within your company. Audit protocols - what they should How to conduct an Audit:

Civi l

- On-slte procedures - On-slte skills required Audit outputs - the environment as a good business strategy.

as it enters a mixing chamber will


- Case studies of the Audit

break it up into much smaller parti cles. These smaller particles will absorb water and become homogen ous faster. Aging time for some polymers can be reduced from as



When to use them. How to use them.

Corporate Audits Prepurchase Audits Forensic Audits

much as an hour to less than a minute.

The technical aspects of the shearing force are too complex to include in this article as they deal with the entry point of polymer into the mixing chamber, impeller dia meter and blade width compared to the diameter of the chamber and others.

Maintaining a uniform shear

field, however, is vitally important. Polymer molecules are easily ruptured by excessive hydrodynamic

Attendance is limited to 200. Don't be

Various Environmental Auditing tools.

disappointed. Call Environmental Science & Engineering right away at (416) 727-4666 for a registration form, or circle No. 260 on the self-addressed Reader Service Card and mail It.

The seminar is sponsored by Aitech Environmental Consulting Ltd., Environ mental Science & Engineering and Price Waterhouse Management Consult ants.

Aitech has had extensive experience in conducting corporate Environ mental Audits and Prepurchase Environmental Audits. Price Waterhouse is an internationaiiy renowned auditing and manage ment consulting firm, whose expertise goes beyond traditional financial

auditing to span innovative and comprehensive audit methodologies. Environmental Science & Engineering staff have organized many con ferences on pollution abatement and waste management. The publisher has also given papers to the World Health Organization and various Univer sity and association seminars on environmental topics.

Circle reply card No. 260 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


CWWA examines international

municipal environment management

In afew short years,Canada's municipalities have moved from viewing involvement in

In addition, both reports high light the rapid growth of what are being called the "environmental

international affairs with

industries" on the one hand and of

suspicion, and even hostility, to recognizing with enthusiasm that international aid and trade provide outlets for municipal skills, as well as opportunities for economic devel

the importance of public sector involvement





Canadian International Develop-


grams on the other. Municipal E n v i r o n menial Management includes the essential urban services of distributing and treating water, collecting and treat ing wastewater and managing solid waste collection and disposal. All


Elected municipal officials have shown leadership and creativity in their support for emergency aid (eg. Ethiopia), in working with develop ment agencies to drum up ongoing support for Third World develop ment programs(eg. WaterCan)and - largely through their national association, the Federation of Cana dian Municipalities (FCM) - in establishing ongoing mechanisms for enhancing trade through wellplanned trade missions, twinning and, to a lesser extent, professional exchanges and joint ventures. Recent reports prepared for


industry-related aid and trade pro


By Penina Coppersmith Executive Director, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association

ment Agency make it clear that important as these first steps may

be, they are but first steps; in relation both to international trade and aid, public sector resources available in Canada's municipalities have only begun to be tapped.





municipalities excel. They also have at their disposal, an enormous pool of human resources in the longterm planning, management and operation of a variety of technolo gies and systems. As both developing and develop ed countries increasingly shop for environmental systems that include a "software", human resource management component, as well as the hardware,these municipal skills can and should be deployed. They

standards in watei

By aiQ^ measure.


Circle reply card No. 110

Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

could complement the expertise of the consulting engineering com munity, private sector manufactur ers and suppliers as well as those federal and provincial employees whose strengths are in the areas of design and construction, product development, marketing and research.

By providing a complete pack age, through new forms of public/ private sector partnerships or joint ventures, Canada's competitive edge in international trade will be strengthened. On the aid side, the complete package approach can help compensate for the absence of sufficient trained personnel which

For these reasons, CWWA is exploring with various federal departments the possibility of get ting support for a two-year period to help launch a comprehensive inter national municipal environmental management program. During this initial phase, the program would consist of at least four components: role definition, creation of a roster of municipal personnel, development of alternative approaches to second ing municipal personnel and a number of pilot or demonstration projects. Potential

contributors of the

municipal environmental manage ment sector must be examined in

While developing and maintain ing a roster of interested municipal employees is a fairly straightfor ward if time-consuming task, the secondment of municipal employees is a novel concept for Canada's municipalities. It is essential, there fore, to be creative as well as practi cal in suggesting ways this might occur.

Secondments could involve

swaps with the other orders of government and/or the private sector. Or they might entail development of sabbatical pro grams, new ways of defining profes sional development or of instituting "professional development leaves" structured similar to maternity leaves.

tax base, fuller employment and other financial advantages that concern municipal governments. But in addition, the opportunities provided to staff to develop new pro grams, test new products, stretch professional expertise, provide new skills and knowledge that can be

relation to the expertise provided by the consulting and academic com munities, by manufacturers and suppliers and by other orders of government. It then becomes possi ble to define the role municipal per sonnel can play in such activities as evaluating municipal technological and resource needs, developing and helping to implement appropriate management systems, long-term financial strategies and human resource development programs; and assisting in the development, testing and marketing of innovative technologies for use both in Canada

As well as identifying the range of potential international aid and trade activities appropriate to municipal environmental strengths and expertise, it is necessary from the outset of the program to demon strate its advantages. Toward this end, the CWWA envisions selecting a fairly limited number of short and long-term pilot or demonstration projects that it would assist in plan ning, executing and monitoring in conjunction with its municipal members, its regional association

transferred back to the home-front.

and abroad.

private sector members.

often has made the introduction of

sophisticated systems difficult or even counterproductive.

For municipalities, the advant ages also are several-fold. Of course, increased business for Canadian firms translates into an enhanced






Capital Controls offers field-proven instrumentation for collecting water data. From analyzers, indicators, and monitors to recorders, transmitters, and control lers. As discrete units or integrated systems. In

portable, rack, wall, or cabinet configurations. Name a critical variable and most likely we have

an instrument to measure it. Temperature, pH/ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity. Ammonia, nitrate, or fluoride content. Residual analysis from chlorine to potassium permanganate. Even sludge blanket levels.

Accuracy,reliability, economy. At Capital Controls, they're our highest standards. '

Call 800-523-2553. In PA: 800-242-7590. Outside the U.S.: 215-822-2901.

Or write: Capital Controls Company, Inc., . P.O. Box 211, Colmar, PA 18915, U.S.A.

(^CAPITAL CONTROLS Advanced Technologies in Water Disinfection

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


Our future - a climate for change Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland addressed the World Conference on The Changing Atmosphere in Toronto.

Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environ

ment and Development is the political consensus ofcommis sioners from 21 countries. Through a broad process of experience,learn ing and debate, we arrived at a com mon analysis of the global issues we all face. With a sense of profound gratitude I have come to Canada. I

thank the Canadian people and institutions who supported us. I thank the Canadian Government, in particular Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Minister of the Environment Tom McMillan for their commitment and for the

example they have been setting for other industrialized countries.

We know now that not only CO2,but a number of other gases as well con tribute to global heating. Presently these other trace gases cause one third of the total global warming. And unless something is done,their contribution in the next 50 years will double the effect of CO2.

Scientists still have no unani

mous view on the magnitude of the climate change problem, hut it is established beyond any doubt that we will experience a global change in climate. An average global temp erature increase over the next 50

years of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees is enor mous. It took between 10 and 20,000 years for the world's temperature to increase about 5 degrees. The impact of climatic change may be greater and more drastic than any other challenges that mankind has faced with the exception of the threat of nuclear war. cal balance will be drastic. The time

span needed for plants to adjust to a new climate is normally hundreds of years. The deserts will expand. The crops in today's marginal areas will Extremes of weather -

storms, rainfalls,frost or heat - may become more common. The sea level

may rise 1 meter or more, and with 1/3 of the world's population living in low-lying coastal areas, such a


countries will be the ones most

severely affected. All of this may not happen,or not that severely. But the potential risks are so high that we cannot sit back hoping that problems will go away. We are the ones who must take the initiatives. We must set the

The effects on the whole ecologi

be lost.

development will have dramatic consequences. Political stability may he threatened in many parts of the world, and the number ofecologi cal refugees may increase. In sum, climatic change will affect us all profoundly, regardless of where we live. And as always, the poorest

limits and we must prevent the potential disasters for future gener ations, from whom we have borrow ed this earth.

Time has come to

develop an action plan for protecting the atmosphere. Acid rain, deple tion of the ozone layer and climatic change are not separate problems. They are heavily interlinked with each other. We have come to a thres

hold. If we cross this threshold, we may not be able to return.



TERRA-GATOR® the productive solution to fluid waste! Your waste problem could become plant nutrients that brighten municipal parks or boost crop yields on the farm. Disposing waste sludge with the Terra-Gator pressurized in jection system is an effective method of accelerating the process of decomposition.

The injection system can dispose up to 4000 gallons in a 4 minute cycle. Odor problems are minimized.




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4900 Viking Drive

200- 1130 W. Render St.

Minneapolis, MN 55435 (612)835-2476

Circle reply card No. 111 20

Vancouver, B.C. V6E 4A4 Telephone (604)681-8828

Circle reply card No. 112 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Product Profile



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Vaughan's Vertical, Horizontal and Pedestal Chopper Pumps are famous for their unique ability to simultaneously chop and pump solids while withstanding the harshest pumping environments. The Vaughan Electric Submersible Chopper Pump Incorporates this same technology to give vou the most reliable sollds-handllng pump available - bar none!

THE RIGHT PUMP FOR TOUGH SOLIDS There Is no other pump In the world like a Vaughan. It will pump when other pumps plug. It will run long after other pumps are worn out. It will save you money and quietly make you a hero for installing a pump that will continuously handle the toughest Canadian applications. Contact your local Canadian agent. He can help you choose the right Vaughan Chopper Pump for the job In sizes up to 100 horsepower and capacities to 138 liters/sec.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Richmond, B.0. V6V 1W1

Circle reply card No. 113


Municipal operators help solve industrial wastewater



Sample Sigma... Canada Liquid Samplers & Flowmeters Samplers and flowmeters get rough use and do hard time In corrosive en

vironments. Now there's Streamline, designed to perform, built to survive.

Tough impact resistant polyethylene construction.

Operators can sometimes effect great

improvements by applying their skill and experience in the development ofimprov ed treatment modes. Cobourg is a case in point. The Town of Cobourg has two waste treatment plants. In 1984 the Town's original plant, re built in 1972, was compelled to treat the town's

industrial effluent when the residential/com

mercial inflow was split by approximately 50%. Sewage flows equivalent to about 5,000 people were removed from the system and transferred to a new plant. The second plant built in 1984 cur

rently treats most of the domestic waste. By sep

Sealed keypad & watertight NEMA 4X,6 control housing. Easy to use self prompting 16 character display. Streamline gets the job done, the first time, every time, year after year. •Portable Samplers • Refrigerated Samplers • Ground Water Samplers • Open Channel Flowmeters

arating the two influent streams for treatment, the Town and its major industries have been given the opportunity to work together to effec tively improve the quality of industrial waste streams which are treated and released into local

drainage systems. The Town's major industries contribute 90% of the flow and 95% of the BOD to the older plant. For plant operators throughout Ontario, treat ment of industrial wastes can be extremely chal

lenging. For the operator of a plant receiving 90% industrial flow, the challenges to effectively treating the sewage are almost enormous. Once

2495 HainesRoad

Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4Y i Y7

the domestic sewage was redirected in 1984, the effluent in the older plant became variable, espe cially as industries increased production sched ules during these favourable economic times.

INSTRUMENTS LTD. Ph. (416)277-0331 Fax (416)277-2588 Telex


Circle reply card No. 114 22

The operator of the Cohourg plant, Brian

Davey, began to recognize and record changes in the appearance of the plant influent and relate it to each ofthe major industries. With this obser vation, he believed that the problems associated with contaminants and various influent para meters such as high BOD levels could be effec tively addressed. Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Brian Davey had developed a simple but effec

tive laboratory table-top viability test whereby samples of the industrial effluent, diluted to a normal influent ratio, were added to a jar with mixed liquor. Proctor & Redfern was retained by the Town to assist in expanding the attributes of the test to improve its accuracy. P&R's Brian Evans said "The bacteria react as if tbey are seeing the liquor as a normal daily operation. Within minutes staff could qualitatively deter mine which industries were affecting the system by microscopically monitoring physical and bio logical changes to invertebrates such as Vortiecilla, Aspediscus, Ciliates and other macro fauna."

By correlating the results to the effluent of par ticular industries, the municipality and industry were able to work together to effectively treat the effluent and reduce the pollution to receiving water bodies. When the waste stream was cor

rected under a trial period, the effluent BOD and suspended solids from the sewage treatment plant dropped to less than 10 mg/L suspended solids and BOD. Even with highly soluble BOD from local industries, the plant is now working well and keeps in compliance with Ontario Min istry of the Environment requirements. Town engineer. Ken Rumball, fostered constructive

dialogue between the Town and its major indus tries which resulted in successful discbarge management at the older plant.

Win tpe^attie ^Against

^Corrosion For years, Dens^..8brrosion Control Systems have been proving ttieir sffectlveness against the tough^sf corroslonpiTOlems. With ease of appllcatiomafid a provecHfack record, Denso products can beThe solutiprtfo your anti-corrosion needs.

LASTS FOR I^tCdES Dense protection goes opiTOrking year after year — requiring little or no mpurffenance — and remains com

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J^nso Petrolatum Primers, Maspe^and Tapes, "can be applied to both wet and drysurfaces — even underwater,and require llttleprfio surface preparation.

Denso PPS providespoffosion protection for pipes carrying high tempprdfure liquids and gases. Proven installations undefand over insulation.

DensoJW^ine Piling Systems, incoroprdting MarirueRMing Tape and the Cover Wrap Sysf^ have bpm proven world wide for the protpetion of tubular

and H piles, particularly in salt waJerTidal zone areas. A

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Densopol 60 and SO^cbld applied pipewraps con sisting of adhesiv^.,rtjbber bitumen with fabric rein

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Circle reply card No. 115 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


416-291-7756 Circle reply card No. 116


Software system helps Vancouver deal with hazardous materials

The District of North

wide range of residential, recrea

ment maintains five fire stations, a

Vancouver Fire Depart ment (NVFD) has grown

tional and social amenities. Within half an hour of Canada's third

Training/Maintenance Centre, six Engine Companies, a Simon

from a collection of volun

largest city (Vancouver), the Dis trict is convenient as a bedroom

Snorkel (100'), Hazardous Material Van and Trailer, Command Vehicle

community, highly accessible, and attractive to industry because of an integrated transportation system, consisting of an efficient and well maintained network of secondary roads, deep sea and coastal port facilities and two major railways.

and thirteen support vehicles manned by a paid staff of 140. Since the early stages of the department, firefighters have been actively involved in developing prefire plans for all high life/hazard occupancies. In 1976 this program


was further enhanced with the introduction of a full-time Pre-Plan Officer.

teer companies in 1908 to one of the largest and best equipped Fire Departments in British Columbia. To keep pace with the district which it serves, NVFD has continuously upgraded its personnel and equip ment. One of the most recent mea

sures to improve service was the implementation of a software system to assist in responding to incidents involving hazardous materials. The system is installed on a personal computer which is monitored in the department's command vehicle (van) and is thus able to supply on-the-spot informa tion accurately and quickly to fire men in the field. Development and implementation of this chemical emergency response information software was jointly carried out by the NVFD and a private sector com pany, Bennett Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.

The District of North Vancouver, located in South Western British

Columbia, overlooks Burrard Inlet and is backed by the Coast Moun tains. The district, with a population of 67,000 has 85% of the total





Narrows bridges provide excellent north/south access, while the Trans Canada Highway offers equally convenient access to the Vancouver

Following the famous Mississauga, Ont., train derailment, the

Island ferry system as well as other parts of the Lower Mainland and

ipal Council initiated a Community

interior B.C. Most industrial activities are related to the waterfront which fea

tures loading terminals, ship building and repair facilities, whole sale warehouses, petro-chemical and wood product companies. The major chemical producing/storage facilities are owned and/or operated by Dow Chemical, Mohawk Oil, Albright & Wilson Americas, Canadian Occidental Petroleum and Vancouver Wharves.

In 1954, paid firefighters were introduced and by 1968 the NVFD had become the fifth largest in

assessed land value based on resi

British Columbia and one ofthe best

dential properties, and includes a

equipped in Canada. The depart-

New toxic pollution sampler sign of ttie MISA times New Epic lOllT Portable Wastewater Sampler is a reflection of the increasing concern being shown by water authorities both at home and abroad over levels of toxic

materials finding their way into the water cycle. To measure minute amounts of these deadly elements requires very sensitive measuring equipment. Equally important, samples on which to perform test measurements must be absolutely representative of the media being examined — not corrupted in any way by the materials of construction of the equipment used to extract the sample. The new Epic 101 IT is construct ed in such a way that all the wetted parts are made from P.T.F.E. glass and surgical grade silicon rubber, all of which are completely inert and in no way contribute to or modify the sample extracted. Additionally, all wetted parts can be instantly removed for sterilization.


The 101IT is based on the well

established and highly successful 1011 concept. The 1011 has a detachable programmer combining a very high level of program sophis tication with simple 4 button opera tion. This means that the sampler will on one hand meet the require ments of the most demanding appli

District of North Vancouver Munic

Hazards Task Force made up ofresi dents and members of the business

community. One recommendation was that the fire department com puterize its emergency response pro cedures. The Location and Informa

tion Files for Emergencies (LIFE)

system was developed over the next four years by conducting a detailed study of what was being done else where in North America. The District of North Vancouver's com

puter resources were examined and a computer aided dispatch (CAD) system installed. The LIFE system couples a Location file, containing geographical data about the munici pality with a Building Information fide, which contains information on buildings and businesses in the community. The file contains infor mation regarding the type of occu pancy, construction, fire protection, and the type and quantity of danger ous goods manufactured and/or stored in the buildings. The infor mation available from the depart ment's computer system, coupled Managing Environmental Contaminants Seminar

cation while on the other it can be


operated with ease by unskilled staff. A compact lightweight battery powered unit, it uses the well proven air pump vacuum system giving a 7 metre lift.

Environmental Contaminants

Now,the lOllT offers all the new advanced MKII software features

as recently incorporated in the 1011 such as day/night differential rate sampling, event sampling, 8 langu age capability, container overfill protection, wash routine for virtual ly zero cross contamination, etc. Cancoppas Limited

Circle reply card No. 158

3-4, 1988, Managing

Seminar-MEC'88, to be held at the Bristol Place Hotel in Toronto. Atten

dees will develop an understanding of sources and

characteristics of

waste materials and leachates, path ways for waste movement in the air, ground and surface water and Cana dian regulatory requirements. The course will be presented by a team of specialists from various professional organizations. For further informa tion, contact Annis Dupont, Gartner Lee Limited, 140 Renfrew Drive, Ste. 102, Markham, Ontario, L3R 8B6,

(416) 477-8400, Fax: (415) 477-1456.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

with pre-fire plans (which were not computerized) provided the first line

Another option considered the outright purchase of an existing

of defence in the event of an emer

information database. However, this was found unacceptable because it did not meet fire depart

gency involving dangerous goods. In 1986, the fire department was approached by Bennett Environ mental Consultants Ltd. (BECL), with the idea of developing a compu ter program capable of storing both text (inventories and response data) and graphic site maps (pre-fire plans) of all locations in the munici palities where dangerous goods were found. The consultants devel

oped the program based upon their oil spill sensitivity mapping soft ware, and their background in the development of emergency response

ment needs.

The CCINFO database, provided by the Canadian Centre for Occupa tional Health and Safety, was ulti mately selected. These data, which are normally provided on a ROM disk, were transferred to magnetic storage (hard disk) to eliminate the requirement for the ROM disk player. This transfer also allowed the data to be re-formatted and edited.

The software was installed on

two IBM compatible "AT"computers. One has been installed in the N VFD

command vehile, which responds to all major emergencies, especially those involving dangerous goods. The other computer will be installed in the Centre.



Conclusion The installation of this software in a command vehicle and commun

ications office provides the NVFD with a powerful tool in responding to


material incidents.

Decisions can be made quickly and with assurance.


The first step taken was to locate all those sites within the jurisdiction of the fire department which stored, used, or generated dangerous (chemical) goods.


This list included hardware and

paint stores, as well as other loca tions storing small amounts of chemicals. A logical cut-off point was needed to insure the inclusion of

those sites which posed a major threat while limiting the inclusion of those which posed minor threats, and still remaining within the con straints of the project budget. The decision was made to include all

industrial chemical sites, munici

pal pools and water treatment facili ties (due to the presence of chlorine) and local ice rinks.

A map of the entire area was digi tized and loaded into the computer. The digitized map shows: chemical sites, schools, hospitals, hydro sub stations. roads and railways. Each of the schools and hospitals also had detailed files entered into an interlinked database which

included pertinent information in the event of an emergency. The site

plan of each chemical site was digi tized and entered into the computer. Different types of information were colour coded for quick recognition by fire fighters. Different chemicals were located with appropriate TDG placards. The next step involved the entry of the chemical inventory, emergen cy access phone numbers and contact names into a simple, easily updated database. As it was necessary to provide specific emergency response proce dures for the various chemicals, a number of options were considered and tested. Initially, an attempt was made to generate a database which


derive information

from many different sources. This proved to be extremely time consuming, therefore economically

When you're looking for a creative design solution that stands the test of time,call on consulting engineers.You'll get the exper tise of cost-effective problem solvers who provide the assurance of high quality and the esthetics of good taste in every type of

design-for a price that amounts to less than 1% of the total life time cost of the average project. And that's easy to swallow For information on consulting engineer services and firms in your area,contact us.

The Consulting Engineers of Ontario 86 Overlea Boulevard, Suite 403, Toronto, Ontario M4H 1C6 Telephone: (416) 425-8027

Ontario is great because it was engineered that way


Consulting Engineers of Ontario


Circle reply card No. 117 Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


Beaver fever and

water supplies — the facts Giardiasis, or Beaver Fever,is a parasitic disease which can be transmitted through water supplies as well as by contact from humans or animals. Because beavers were

suspected as the source of the first outbreaks detected in Colorado, Giardiasis became known as Beaver Fever. However, the organism has also been isolated from other animals including dogs, cats, horses, deer, sheep, coyotes, and muskrats. There have been no known outbreaks of Giardiasis


ECONOMY LIFT STATION This 6' X 6' above ground lift station comes complete from the Gorman-Rupp factory. Everything is standard. Nothing is optional. Just add power and connect piping to get into the above-ground lift station business in an inexpensive way. Outside, the neat, trim fiberglass body has a tough weather side. The base is reinforced concrete. And there's practically no maintenance.

Inside, Gorman-Rupp's T Series pumps are a cinch to service. You don't have to

disconnect piping. You don't need special tools.

Just remove the coverplate to clean out clogs, service the seal, inspect the impeller or wearplate. Or just remove the rotating assembly to service the shaft or bearings. Either way, you're serviced and back in operation in minutes.

Gorman-Rupp compact above-ground lift stations.

The best way to economize without stepping down in quality and features. Distributors across Canada.

Consuit the Yeiiow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor.

from municipal drinking water supplies in Ontario; however, water-related epidemics have been identified in Alberta and several U.S. States. Scientists feel it is

unlikely that the disease has spread dramatically in the short period it has been identified. It is more prob able that modern medicine can now identify Giardiasis infections which previously were misdiagnosed as other gastric ailments. Beaver Fever can be characterized by nausea, anor exia, cramps, diarrhoea and flatulence. None of these things are pleasant, but scientists stress that Giardia sis is not regarded as a life-threatening infection. Researchers say it is a "well adjusted parasite, which does not want to kill the host it feeds on."

Mental institutions, day-care centres and other similar institutions, because of the possi bility of lower levels of personal hygiene, are high-risk situations for Giardia infections. The disease is caused by the organism Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite of the Order Protomonadina. In spite of its formidable name, it is not at all a life-threatening disease. At least half the infections of Giardia lamblia may produce no symptoms. Chronic, suhacute and acute symptoms do occur with infections which, if persistent, can cause serious fatigue and weight loss. The disease can last for as long as three months, after which the body either eliminates the parasite, or comes to terms with it, often with little negative effect. Giardia lamblia has two stages in its life cycle: a .trophozoite, and a cyst. Trophozoites appear as pearshaped cells with sucking disks on their ventral sur face by which they attach themselves to their host's intestines. They range in size from 9 to 21 microns long, by 6 to 12 microns wide. Quite fragile,the tropho zoites cannot survive outside their hosts.

The egg-shaped cysts are approximately the same size but have smooth walls and are much tougher than the trophozoites. These cysts can survive in quite hostile environments for long periods, especially in cold water. They have been known to survive as long as 77 days in water at 8 degrees Celsius, but survival Continued on page 28

GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Thomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 • Telex: 064-73530

Circle reply card No. 118 26

Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988

Introducing Re-Chem Environmental Management Inc. A New Environmental Waste

Management Service Company Why, you ask? service group!

Another environmental

Do I really need environmental management services - isn't it enoughi to have waste disposal services?

Environmental llabillty now goes far beyond the corporate screen. It can affect all corporate personnel, including management and directors! Now, you must not only perform within the regula tions, but also be able to demonstrate that you have taken al l steps to comply with the law - in spirit, as well as in detai l. If you cannot demonstrate due dili gence, you could sti l l be successfully prosecuted for an inadvertent non-compliance. So, when you buy waste disposal services, you want to know that you are complying fully with al l regulatory authori ties and their regulations.

Have you protected yourself and your company? Do you have cradle-to-grave documentation of your waste's disposal route? Are your staff fully-trained in waste handling proce dures? Do you (and they) have supporting documentation?

What if your wastes are improperly identified?

Re-Chem Environmental Management Inc. provides the following services: • Classification under the Environmental Protec

tion and Transportation Acts. • Transportation of prepackaged or bulk wastes anywhere in Canada. • Processing inorganic, aqueous, or organic wastes. • Recycle and reuse - reduces disposal costs, while saving raw materials.

• Disposal - final site selection, including registra tions, documentation and follow-up.


Environmental Management Inc. 5300 Fairview St.

Burlington, Ontario Phone: (416) 847-6809

Enuironmental Science & Engineering, August 198H

Fax: (416) 639-8059

Circle reply card No. 119


time drops to between 5 to 24 days in water at 20 degrees C. They can also resist levels of free chlorine which would kill most bacteria and viruses

present in water during normal water treatment.

In humans, the disease begins when the parasite is ingested in its cyst form. It then passes into the stomach where the acid triggers a change, releasing what are now trophozoites. These attach them selves to the intestine walls. There

they absorb food, reproduce and release their offspring into the digestive tract, where they once more encyst. From initial infection, to the passage of the first cysts from the hosts, the disease usually has a nine-day cycle. Cysts enter the environment through infected fecal material on land, in water, or in food. Animals

may pick up the infection from human feces, after which they may contaminate water sources, commencing a new cycle of infec tion through the human consumers. Additionally, humans may pick up the infection from direct contact with animals.

While water taken from lakes can

be a source of Giardiasis, the cysts settle rapidly. Natural sedimenta tion can remove and cover the para

sites quickly, keeping them out of the water and away from man until they perish. As contamination from animal feces is more likely to occur at, or near, the water's edge, any risks can be further minimized by locating the drinking water intake pipes at some distance away from

Colorado, where the water may he otherwise pure, streams

the shoreline, as is the case with

ers and other rural dwellers.

most municipal water systems.

treated water taken from streams, even in so-called pristine areas, where campers might feel secure from any pollution, may contain

Normal chlorination will not kill

the cysts in drinking water, but they are substantially removed by the conventional drinking water treat ment processes of coagulation, sedi mentation and filtration. Coagula tion combines many of the cysts into 'floes' which are formed into large, soft lumps of sediment in the water being drawn from the lakes for treat ment. Once a floc-containing cyst is formed, it can be 'settled out' of the water, or trapped by the filters.

have often become a source of

Giardiasis infection, because of animal feces entering the water courses.

A few simple precautions can greatly minimize the risks to cottag Un

cysts. However, the cysts can be effectively inactivated simply by boiling the drinking water. Research shows that the conven

tional water plants treating munici pal water supplies,if well-engineered and ably-operated, are effective in preventing the transmission of water-borne Giardiasis.

Indeed, human contact with both

While well water in rural areas is

wild life and domestic animals is

usually safe, because the soil acts like a natural filter, some waters taken from surface sources may con tain Giardia cysts.

a much more likely source of the disease. The public can greatly

Ironically, streams in isolated areas, because of flow and con tinuous turbulence, are more

likely to keep the cysts in sus pension in areas where the parasites are present. Even in mountain




reduce the risk of infection from this

parasite simply by observing the safeguards listed in this article. The Trophozoite (A) and Cyst (B) stages of the parasite are shown in the diagrams. Data supplied by the Ontario Drink ing Water information Council.

We'll analyze 30 Water Quality Parameters and give you results that are fast, accurate and reproducible. FAST Our standard turnaround time for potable water is 5 days. We conducted 18 months of research to de


velop our Rapid Chemical Analysis program (RCAp)and have invested heavily in state-ofthe-art instrumentation and dedicated per sonnel in order to provide you with this level of service.

ACCURATE We use quality, micro-processor based instruments to achieve a high level of accuracy. And we require only 100 ml of sample water to perform a complete analysis.


REPRODUCIBLE A stringent quality control/quality assurance program combined with advanced robotics, spectrometry and micro-processor techno logy ensures our ability to generate reproducible results every time.

• Sodium

• Ammonia

• Calcium

• Iron*

• Hardness

• Copper*

• Sulphate

• pH

• Silica

• Conductivity

400 Matheson Blvd. E., Unit 6, Mississauga, Ont. L4Z1N8 Phone (416) 890-2555 Fax (416) 890-0370

30 PARAMETERS OF SERVICE • Potassium • Ortho Phosphate • T. 0. C. • Manganese* • Bicarbonate • Magnesium • Alkalinity • Zinc* • Carbonate • Saturation pH • Chloride • Colour • Langelier Index • Nitrate & Nitrite • Turbidity

'Total metal. Water soluble fraction available as an alternative.


To date we have analyzed in excess of 260,000 parameters in samples from all ten provinces, all levels of government, major and minor consultants, large and small industry, and private citizens. The confidence level of our clients is extremely high. So when you require fast, accurate, repro ducible standard water quality analysis, give us a call. The service fee for potable water is ®60.00 per sample.

• Anion Sum • Cation Sum • Ion Balance

• T.D.S.(Theor.) • Conductivity(Theor.)

Circle reply card No. 120 Environmental Science <& Engineering. August 1988

New recessed impellor vortex pumps

What's: New Double diaphram pumps

motion of the rotor, inherent in all progressing cavity pumps, into the concentric rotation required at the drive shaft. By using a connecting rod running inside a hollow drive shaft, the overall pump length is kept to a minimum without increas ing the angularity of the universal joints. This results in less move

With interchangeable flapper and ball valves, air-operated Roper double-vacuum pumps can transfer practically any material, liquid or solid mixed with liquid, that can be moved through a hose or line. A manual override feature en

Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd.

ables the air valve to be manually operated even if one side is blocked by solids. Liquidex Equipment

Circle reply card No. 151

Circle reply card No. 152

ment and wear of these critical components.

Consultants' Directory Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning

Hayward Gordon's new Torus XR Series of recessed impellor vortex pumps is designed to withstand the severe




grit and primary sludge pumping applications. These pumps feature hard metal wetend components (600 BHN), which previously were considered to





Environmental Auditing and planning Regulatory affairs management

be unmachinable.

Through the use of electro dis charge machining and specialized low speed tooling, all wetend com ponents are produced with machin ed fits for ease of assembly and posi tive seating. Machinability of the impellor allows the pump to be tailored for direct drive configurations, thereby eliminating the necessity of V-belt or variable speed drive options. Hayward Gordon Circle reply card No. 150


Waste Auditing and management planning

Environmental and occupational health and safety specialists Serving industry in Canada

Air, soii, waste and water analytics/studies

225Sheppard Ave. W., Wiiiowdale, Ontario M2N 1N2


R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers

Water Resources

Transportatlon Municipal Services Land Development Tunnel and Shaft Design

Toronto (416) 497-8600

Welland (416) 735-3669

Pollution Control

Progressing cavity pump features telescoping drive train


Sewerage Systems Water Supply

Bobbins & Myers Canada,Ltd., has introduced a new line of industrial

pumps with capacities to 3,000 gpm and nominal pressure capabilities to 540 psi. The Moyno 2000 is the first pro gressing cavity pump to be offered with a standard three-year limited warranty against defects in mater ials and workmanship. The drive train and pumping element design are said to result in longer life and











easier maintenance.

It is the only progressing cavity pump to offer a telescoping drive train, used to convert the eccentric


beak consultants

Tel; (416) 458-4044 Fax:(416)458-7303


Environmental Specialists •Watershed Management •Process & Design Engineering •Fish Toxicity •Groundwater Contamination Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988





Tel;(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303

Resilient seated

gate valve


Environmental Analysis MISA/EMPPL GC/MS

Conventional Pollutants All Matrices

•Dioxins •Metal Scans






A Division Of




Waterloo, Ontario 519'579-3500 (Fax) 519-579-8986


Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2330 (Fax) 416-858-3779


A resilient seated gate valve that complies with AWWA standard 0509 is available from Crane in

mechanical joint, flanged, join-tite and join-tite to flanged versions. The main features of this valve

include an eight point internal guid ing, an elastomer coated disc and an epoxy coated interior to resist corro

Comprehensive Environmental

sion and reduce wear on the gate


elastomer. Available in sizes from 100 to 300

178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario


N2H 5M5 1-519-579-4230

mm,the Crane resilient seated gate valve reflects a new design approach that meets the demands of water, sewage and industrial appli cations. Crane Canada Inc.

Circle reply card No. 153

Concord Scientific Corporation S^'suitTnts • Hazard and Risk Control

Analytical Lab Services

• Occupational Hygiene Services • Pollution Control-System Design • Dispersion and Acid

Instrumentation Development

Deposition Modeling

Indoor Air Quality Studies

Progressing cavity, positive displacement pumps The Moyno 1000 progressing cavity design is said to offer many advant-

Safety and Environmental ANNOUNCEMENT


Head Office: 2 TIPPETT RD., TORONTO, ONTARIO M3H 2V2 (416)630-6331

Brancfi Offices: OHAWA•CALGARY





R.G. Ferguson, P.Eng. R.G. Ferguson, Deputy Commissioner of Works, Metropolitan Toronto, has been elected President of the Cana dian Water and Wastewater Associa




environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers

Halifax Water Commission. The 1988/89 Board also Includes two




PORTER DILLON LIMITED TORONTO (416) 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 403-8094 • HALIFAX (902) 453-1115



tion (CWWA) for 1 988-1 989, succeeding the founding President, W.H. Gates, General Manager of the

VIce-Presldents, A! Schwinghammer, City Engineer, City of Moose Jaw, and Michael J. O'Connor, Chief Com missioner, Sewerage and Drainage, Greater Vancouver Regional District.

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


• Attitudes and perceptions about environmental issues • Custom and syndicated public opinion research

ages not found in other types of posi tive displacement pumps, such as longer life, especially in abrasive applications, and high viscosity capabilities with low-shear pumping


45 Charles Street East, Toronto M4Y 1S2 Tel.(416)964-1397 FAX(416)964-2486


The design also gives consistent, smooth metered flow that is free

from pulsations and variations in velocity and volume. The easily regulated pumps, available with capacities to 145 GPM and pres sures to 230 PSI, have no valves to stick or wear out. A wide selection of construction materials is available

to meet specific applications. The Moyno 1000 close-coupled configuration offers maximum per

Professional Services In

Environmental Management Gartner Limited

•Environmental Strategies •Resources Planning •Waste Management •Hydrogeology

•Biology •Water Quality •Engineering Geology •Spi l l Response

140 Renfrew Drive ■ Markham - Ontario • L3R 6B3 • Telex 06-986278

formance in a minimal amount of

Telephone (416) 477-8400

physical space. Standard, off-theshelf gearmotors, can be coupled to the pumps without modification.

Gore S,Storrie Limited

This feature eliminates cost and

Consulting Engineers & Architects

time delays associated with other close-coupled positive displacement pumps that do require special motor shaft configurations. Robbins & Myers Canada, Ltd.



1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-7715

Circle reply card No. 154

Eax(416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barrie





Division of MacLaren Plansearch 320 ADELAIDE STREET SOUTH, LONDON, ONTARIO

CANADA N5Z 3L2 • TELEPHONE (519) 686-7558

Hisey and Barrington Limited Consulting Professional Engineers

R.R.#2, King City, Ontario LOG 1 KG 727-4365

Albert Bruiey, M.Sc., P.Eng., with 25 years experience in university teach ing, research and the pulp and paper industry has recently joined Gartner


• Atomic Absorption » Gas Chromatography • GC/MS

OTHER SERVICES • Process Evaluation

• Effluent Sampling • Stack Sampling industrial Hygiene Surveys

• TOX.DOC. TOO • Hazardous Waste Evaluation

Consultants for water anid pollution control projects Knox Martin

Kretch Limited

Lee Limited as a Senior Consultant -

Chemical Process Engineering. Mr.

Bruiey, is a graduate of Queen's University and holds a M.Sc. degree in Pulp & Paper Technology from the

comprehensive environmental laboratory and field services

Consulting Engineers. Planners. Landscape Architects. Fax; (416) 459-7869 220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton .Ontario. L6T 435(416)459-4780

New York State College of Forestry.

Along with his teaching and research experience, he has managed and

Marshall Macklln Monaghan

directed numerous mi l l process studies relating to environmental control and energy conservation.

Prior to joining Gartner Lee, Mr. Bruiey was Manager of Environment al Services and Energy Coordinator with Great Lakes Forest Products

Limited in Thunder Bay.

Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners

275 Duncan Mill Rd., Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2Y1 (416) 449-2500 Toronto•Edmonton • Burlington • Mississauga• Whitby

Environmental Science & Engineering. August 1988


MacLaren Engineers

MacLaren Piansearch

Non clog pumps Smart Turner Non Clog Pumps are

Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management Consultants • Automated mapping & facilities management • Hydrogeology & contaminant migration

• Water supply, treatment & distribution • Wastewater collection, treatment, & disposal

• Environmental studies, audits, & planning • Computer sciences

• Waste management

• Energy from waste

• Water resources engineering

• Economic & social studies

• Biological surveys

• Laboratory services

2235 Sheppard Avenue East

Branch offices; Kingston, London, Ottawa, Waterloo,

Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6

Windsor, Winnipeg

Telephone; (416) 756-4919/3866


NovaTec Consultants Inc. Environmental Engineers & Scientists waterwastewatertreatment effluentdisposal sludgehandling underwaterinvestigations computerapplicationsandanalysis treatmentplantoperationassistance bio/chemnutrientremoval #300,40 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A1E7 (604)-682-8777 Fax;682-3521 #1, 665 Queens Avenue, Victoria, B.C. V8T1L9 (604)-384-1499 Fax:384-1201

ONTARIO RESEARCH FOUNDATION Energy & Environmental Engineering Division □

Waste Treatment

□ □

□ □

Technology Development Water Quality Surveys Waste Management

Pilot Studies

Analytical Services Contaminant Transport Modelling

Ambient Air Studies

Emission Source Testing Occupational Health

2395 Speakman Drive

Mississauga, Ontario L5K 183 □ Tel. 416 822^111 □ Fax 416 823-1446 □ Telex 06-982311

designed to handle liquids such as sewage, sludge, pulp, stock, or food stuffs containing up to 3 inch or larger diameter solids. High effic iency and hydraulic stability allow application of each model with the appropriate bearing housing to en sure smooth, trouble free operation with the minimum of maintenance.

The centreline discharge feature makes old side discharge designs with their need for left and right ro tation arrangements, redundant. In the horizontal arrangement, the centreline discharge and full casing mount allow true back pullout with use of a spacer coupling. Smart Turner Non Clog Pumps are produced in a range of 7 models, all of which are available in vertical

frame mounted drive, vertical flex ible shaft drive, or horizontal arrangements. Smart Turner Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 155

Replace aged sewers without excavating Duratron Systems has developed a method of replacing dilapidated sewers without excavation or costly restoration, traffic diversions and interruptions to service. The Buttress-Loc system com prises special threaded manholesized lengths of polyethylene pipe, which are inserted into the old sewer

paul theil associates limited

and screwed together, forming one continuous, leak-free liner. The an

consulting engineers

nular space is then sealed at the manholes or completely grouted for added strength.


can be reconnected using remote

Laterals or service connections

equipment and procedures also developed by Duratron. Duratron Systems Circle reply card No. 156

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief

New direct torque monitoring system


The new Model TS Torque Monitor ing System from SEW-Eurodrive utilizes accurate magnetic proximity switches to provide contactless, wear-free torque measurement and limiting. Rugged, corrosion-resistant stainless steel and heavy plated internal parts, as well as hermetical ly sealed proximity switches and explosion-proof design are said to


GROUP Consulting Engineering Planning, Architecture. Landscape Architecture

45 Green Belt Drive

Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 3K3 (416) 445-3600

Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay 32

make the Model TS ideal for the

most demanding environments. The unit is designed for use with a compound gear drive (including

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

variable speed drives) and is especi ally suitable for applications with ratios of 200:1 and higher. Available in a wide variety of

POLLUTECH LIMITED Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

mounting positions and configura tions, the Model TS provides contin uous torque monitoring and readout


in either clockwise or counterclock

TEL: (416) 847-0065

wise directions. A simple, reliable pointer and scale is operated mech anically without sensitive instru


FAX: (416) 847-3840

1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT. N7S 3Y6 TEL:(519)339-8787 DIALCOM:21-POU003

ments or electronics. SEW-Eurodrive



(416) 853-1223

FILTER MEDIA • Anthracite Filter Coal • Filter Sand & Gravel

• Ion Exchange Resin • Filter Cartridges (0.35, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 & 100 micron)

Eldon Technologies Limited 1260 Lakeshore Rd. E.

Water Supply•Pollution Control*Drainage-SCADA Simcoe Engineering Group Limited .Consulting Engineers Simcoe Building 345 Kingston Road.Pickering,Ontario. L1V 1A1

Tel (416) 286-2285 Fax (416) 286-1361 Branches Brampton. Buffalo.

Mississauga, Ont. L5E 3B8 Tel.; (416) 271-1600

Fax: (416) 271-0554




hubicki Engineers Architects and Planners


also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel

Toronto, Whitby, Cobourg, Kingston


Bracebridge, Ottawa, Simcoe, Waterloo and Kresin Engineering and Planning Ltd., Sauit Ste, Marie

66 Brant Street, Hamilton, Ont L8L 6A8

Tel:(416) 523-1850












Complete Digester and

Lagoon Cleaning

WILLMS & SHIER / BARRISTERS & SOLICITORS specializing in Land Use Planning & Development, Environmental Approvals Waste Disposal and Municipal Law

Land Application Systems

John R. Willms / Donna S.K. Shier / Cathenna Spoel

Program Development

73 Richmond Street West. Suite 200, Toronto, Ontario M5H 1Z4

P. Douglas Petrie / David O, Cox 416 863-0711 • Fax; 416 863-1938

Tef; (416) 648-3463 1435 Jerseyvllle Rd. W., Jerseyville, Ontario LOR 1R0

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988


How to protect water mains from cor'-osion

be in place. As we know a cell con sists of four parts, the anode, the cathode, a metallic path for the cur

primarily working with the gas transmission industry, it has only been in recent years that we have be come fully involved with municipal water and waste water projects, be coming recognized as a major player in the fight against corrosion on underground watermains and other equipment in valve chambers. The primary system used in this type of work is the petrolatum tape products. After applications of a pacifying primer and a putty-like filler material around bolted config urations, soft, pliable, non-toxic, non-oxidizing tape is easily applied spirally by hand to totally encapsul

rent to flow between the anode and

ate the iron or steel structure.

the cathode and an electrolyte

Being inert and non-oxidizing, this material remains pliable throughout a long lifetime and can be easily removed for inspection or

By Ken Hicks Dense of Canada Limited

Corrosion is a complex and high priority subject in the water and wastewater industry. Although the

companies in the United States, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, are member companies of Winn




Limited of London, England. Winn & Coales began manufacturing cor-

theoretical side of corrosion is com

plex, most of us are very aware of basic principles; that not all metals have the same tendency to corrode, that some metals tend to sacrifice

themselves and in doing so protect adjoining metals and that for corro sion to occur, a corrosion cell must

which will allow current flow sur

material to eliminate contact be

rosion coatings for the gas industry in the early 1930's and since that time have expanded their operation to a worldwide network of subsidiary companies and distributors with major projects as diverse as oil car rying pipelines in the Middle East to the protection oflargediameter jetty piles in the northern parts of Austra

tween the electrolyte and the metal


rounding the anode and cathode. At this point, we see the most basic solution to the corrosion cell, the elimination of one of these factors.

The principle behind all Denso corrosion coatings is the isolation of the metal structure by encasement in a relatively thick, soft, inert

Although Denso of Canada has


Denso of Canada and its sister

been in operation for some 20 years.

remedial type work.

From these few simple steps, metallic structures in direct bury, or in chambers, can be made safe from the corrosive influences of soil or

moist, possibly salt laden air, and escalating costs of materials and labour for unproductive repair work

need no longer be a factor in every day operations.

If you treat all polymers alike, Aey won't work! If you treat each polymer as an individual, you can help it reach its full potential, and, you'll get better flocculation and faster dewatering. Because the new PolyBlendŽ systems are programmable for dosing, dilution rate, aging, and energy, you'll be able to get improved performance out of the polymers you're using now and in the future. The new PolyBlend systems work with any polymer—dry, solution, or emulsion, and some of our

newest models allow you to change from one to another at the flip of a switch. For details, call or write:


Rexdale, Ontario Canada M9W 3A5 Tel. 416/743-3751 FAX 416/743-2038


Circle reply card No. 121

Environmental Science & Engineering, August 1988

Company Profile

Purospan Indiistiies Inc. Filterpresses

'lectronic measuring and ontrols}>stems

Purospan, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Canadian company, Magna

International, delivers complete industrial waste water systems to meet the environmental and resource recovery

requirements of a large part of the manufacturing sector including;

lE-AQUATOR® uUrafiltration

Compact cianjiers

• Electroplating • Anodising • Printed Circuit Board Production


• Metal Hardening • Scouring Plants • Paint Shops • Latex Processing

• Photographic Proc. Labs • Printing works

on exchange circulation



Pursopan is the exclusive licensee of Gulling Products for North America. The Gulling Company of West Germany is one of Europe's leading producers of engineered environmental systems.

Purospan is backed by over 25 years of experience in this field derived from over 1000 successful installations world-wide by

Gulling. This knowledge, combined with the renowned manufacturing expertise of Magna International gives Purospan the leading edge. MEFAX System

Batch and

Circle reply card No. 122

continuous detoxification plants Purospan Industries Inc. A Magna International Company

594 Newpark Boulevard, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada L3Y 4X1 Telephone:(416) 853-0777, Telefax:(416) 853-4449


Canada Valve

PROVIDING EXPERIENCE AND QUALITY PRODUCTS FOR YOUR WATERWORKS NEEDS Canada Valve has been long serving your needs with a simple strategy — top products and top people. Canada Valve carries a full line of top-quality waterworks products in each of our Canada-wide distribution centres. But even more important to you, is that every Canada Valve employee is a trained professional — with the expert knowledge to provide solu tions to your water supply problems. Top products and top people. Coll us sooni HEAD OFFICE

1 1IC Adam St.

Canada Valve Inc.

Belleville, Ontario K8N 5K3

Regina, Saskotchewon

305 Sheldon Dr.


S4N 5Y3

Cambridge, Ontario

1015 Hargrieve Rd.

Canada NIT 1A7

London, Ontario N6E 1P6



Dex: 519-621-7288

1460 Rue Cunord

Laval, Quebec H7S 2B7

40 Kress Road


840 Cynthio St. Saskatoon, Saskotchewon

25 George St.

S7L 5Z7

Barrie, Ontario L4N 2G5



514-384-7360 1250 Rue Volta

Bouchervllle, Quebec J4B 6G6

1275 Kelley Lake Rd. Sudbury, Ontario P3E 5P5 705-675-2111


3155 Huron Church Rd.

15 Bentley Ave.

Windsor, Ontario N9E 4H6

Ottawa, Ontario K2£ 617



452 Bowes Rd., Unit ttl

4140 Morris Drive

Concord, Ontario L4K 1K2

Burlington, Ont. L7L 5L6



120 Acheson Rd. Winterburn, Alberta TOE 2N0 403-962-6655 Telex: 037-3550 9664 - 199A St.

Langley, British Columbia V3A4P8 604-888-2163

(Canada ValveI DIVISION MUELI-ER CANADA INC. Circle reply card No. 123