Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) June 1988

Page 1


A Davcom Business Publication

Economic growth in environmental harmony — Brundtland

Controlling air pollution from municipal incineration Buffalo Pound expands water treatment facilities And may the farce be with you - comment Focus on instrumentation




from Cancoppas Wide Range of Applications The Epic 1011 programmable portable wastewater sampler provides cost effective automatic sampling to assist In monitoring municipal and Industrial

Flowmeters.... Magnetic 2mm to 1200mm Strain Gauge Ultrasonic Open Channel



A general purpose unit designed to extract samples of most liquids

Dissolved Oxygen - Self Cleaning

Including crude sewage and even some sludges from an open source and to deposit them Into a container or sequentially Into an array of 12 or 24

Ultrasonic Blanket Level Detectors

Valve Positioners, Actuators, Indicators, Controllers and Transducers

EPIC 1011 Portable Wastewater


separate containers for

subsequent analysis.

For more information circie number below or contact

"Specialists In Instrunnentation and Precision Devices"


Exclusive Canadian Representative:

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone (416)845-4841 1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 06-982363

Oakville, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telefax (416)849-6776


The EPS 1030 Sludge Sampler Is designed to extract samples of sewage sludge from a flowing pipeline or alternatively from a sludge holding tank via the tank wall. The machine represents the only really practical method of acquiring sludge samples on a regular basis and Is unique In Its ability to sample sludges containing a high level of nonhomogeneous suspended solids.

The EPS 1020 Effluent

Sampler is designed to extract samples of liquid from an open channel or tank and deposit them In either a single composite container or sequentially into an array of 24 X '/2 litre containers

for subsequent retrieval and analysis.

Typical Applications

* Anaerobic digester feeds/

Typical Applications


* (irude sewage

* Mechanical dewatering device

* Settled sewage * Final effluent * Raw sludge


* Road tanker loading/ discharge terminals * Sea tanker loading terminals

* Most industrial effluents

* Consolidation tank feeds EPS 1020

EPS 1030

Effluent Sampler

Sludge Sampler For more information circle number below or contact

Exclusive Canadian Representative:

For more Information circle number below or contact

Exclusive Canadian Representative:

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone (416)845-4841

CANCOPPAS LIMITED Telephone (416)845-4841

1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 06-982363

1049 N. Service Road East

Telex 06-982363

Oakville, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telefax (416)849-6776

Oakville, Ontario L6H 1A5

Telefax (416)849-6776

Circle reply card No. 126

Circle reply card No. 125

ISSN-0835-605X Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY


Sales Director STEVE DAVEY Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER


Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR Production Manager SAM ISGRO B.C. Sales Representative RON GANTON

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng. Rod Holme, P.Eng. Peter Laughton, M.Eng., P.Eng.

J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.


June 1988, Vol. 1 No. 3 Issued June, 1988

And may the farce be with you Editorial comment by Tom Davey

5 6 10

Industry Update Reader Feedback

Pamela Stokes, Ph.D.

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial


Controlling air pollution from waste plants An article by Harry Jackson


Windsor Is top team In tap-off


AWWA/OMWA conference photo report by Tom Davey

_L 13


systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

Literature Review Section


ES&E's readers Include consulting

MISA dominates 1988 APCA/PCAO conference

engineers. Industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal

Photo report by Tom Davey


BCW&WA conference report


What's New? A range of products for the convenience of specifiers


Flowmetering - a new approach An article by John Jorritsma






wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and academics.

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental


tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed

material. Please send photocopies, prints (not negatives),or other facsimilies of the written or graphic material for consideration.

How to Implement the Brundtland recommendations

Head Office - 10 Fetch Or., Aurora,

An article by Roy Aitken


Ontario, Oanada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 industrial Pkwy. $., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed in Oanada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in reviews. Yearly


Scientific sampling of wastewater

An article by P.J. Smith


Consultants' Directory


Buffalo Pound water plant to expand

rates: Canada

$25.00 for one year, $35.00 for two years, $5.00 per single issue; U.S.A. $32.00, $47.00 for two years; other foreign $53.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide $15.00 single issue. Second Class Mail

Registration No. 7750

Cover photos: Instrumentation plays an increas ing roie in water and wastewater operations as depicted in these photos, courtesy. Associated Engineering.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988



Announces Canada's National

Environmental Awards Program In spite of Its enormous environmental and econ omic significance, the environmental treatment industry has not had its own awards program -

which deal with occupational health and safety. Entries must have been substantially completed within atwo year period,ending DecemberSI, 1988.

unti l now!

Equipment. Processes, systems, monitoring or analytical instruments, or treatment equipment

Environmental Science & Engineering recog nizes the crucial impact environmental profes sionals have on our society - an impact seldom understood by the public they serve so wel l. ES&E has decided to sponsor a National Environ mental Awards Program, designed to honour those environmental projects which employ the innovative application of engineering and scien tific fundamentals for the benefit of the environ ment.

While many fine water and wastewater treat ment projects won awards in engineering compe titions - environmental projects often competed against roads, bridges, structures or other public works. As the environmental industry is a $2.4 billion industry, with a great responsibility to safeguard human health, as well as protect the environment for future generations, we feel this vibrant industry now merits its own awards program.

Accordingly we have met with distinguished scientists and engineers and discussed the crea tion of the Environmental Science & Engineering National Awards Program. Judging will be based on the sound application of innovative science and engineering in projects which treat water,

which advance the state-of-the-art in water and

wastewater treatment or air pollution abatement. Entries must have been placed in operation with in a three year period ending December 31, 1988. As some equipment can be difficult to place in a given time frame, at least one application, using the equipment, should be cited and documented. Projects must be essentially Canadian but over seas work using Canadian designs - or equipment - wil l be considered eligible. How to Enter. We would appreciate a notice of intent but all entries which qualify, and which arrive by December 31, 1988, will be considered. Entries must be in a binder approximately 11" x 8". A 1,200 word summary of the project-a maximum three pages - should be enclosed, along with drawings, photographs and captions. If the draw ings cannot be reduced conveniently, they may be sent in pockets, or bound so they can be unfolded. Short excerpts of specifications, where relevant, may be included. Additional data may be presented through captioning. Wtiile entries should be neat, concise and

written with clarity, elaborate or expensive pre sentations are actively discouraged.

wastewater, or which have a beneficial effect on

the environment through energy management, air pollution abatement, flood controls or other in-place-works. The judges' decisions wi ll be final and wil l be made independently of ES&E. Categories are: Potable water. Water drinking processes, treat ment plants, aquifer remediation or other tech nologies used in drinking water treatment,supply and distribution. Entries must have been sub

stantially completed and working satisfactorily, within a two year period ending DecemberSI, 1988. Wastewater treatment. Any plant or process treating industrial or municipal wastes with such variants as energy management or recycling. Entries must have been substantially completed, and working satisfactorily, within a two year period, ending December 31, 1988. Air Pollution. Any project, or equipment used to mitigate air pollution problems or otherwise have a beneficial effect. This category includes those projects dealing with indoor air quality problems

Winning entries wi l l be announced in the Spring of 1989 and honoured by an engraved plaque and also published in a 1989 issueof ES&E. Additionally, we are in the midst of discussions for presentations to be made at an appropriate environmental conference, depending on the winning entries. A poster session of finalists' work is also being planned in cooperation with professional associations. We invite entries for the 1989 Awards program and it would be appreciated if we could have written Notices of I ntent by Septem ber 15. Dead line detai Is will be published in subsequent issues of ES&E. The name of this contest is copyrighted by Davcom Communications Inc. and the competi tion outline is considered proprietorial. All deci sions will be final and the entries wil l become the

property of Davcom Communications Inc. Only one entry per category wil l be accepted. The competition is open to industrial firms, munici palities, consulting engineers, equipment manu facturers and suppliers. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


And may the farce be with you

Justastruth is said to be

wild abandon. An unsub stantiated rumour was

the first casualty of war, accuracy is also a frequent victim in the

treated like the finding ofthe Dead Sea Scrolls.

news media battle for readers' attention. There are some 110

Now we regularly have news items on various proposals to which reporters add a touch of Weasel phraseology such as:

daily newspapers in Canada, 660 radio stations and 121 televi

sion stations - not counting the

"But environmentalists warn that there could be side effects to

innumerable American radio

and TV stations which spill over our borders. Additionally, there are thousands of weekly papers, at least 350 in Ontario alone, plus thousands of specialized magazines. These news media often have a voracious appetite for apocalyptic stories dealing with environmental issues.

Traditionally, all the media used what Rudyard Kipling called his five honest serving men:- who,why, where,what and when. Indeed, the popular CTV program W-5 is probably based on the five Ws. (ES&E purists will know that originally there was a sixth serving man How - but, as this ruined the alliteration, it seems to have atrophied over the years.) Eons ago, when I was a young journalist, if any one ofthe W's was missing from a report, it was deemed sloppy journalism. Only on rare and special occasions were unattrihuted quotes permit ted.

Lately one of the most impor tant W's has been missing - the who. What has been substituted

the new project....A new landfill site has been selected - but many citizens fear that there could be a long term side effect..." and so on.

Such leaks are a boon to some

voiced were often solemn, and sometimes apocalyptic in their predictions, these sources still felt compelled to withhold the legitimacy of their offices, or the validity of their qualifications from us. Undoubtedly it was only sheer modesty which pre vented the disclosure of some

impressive credentials. Today many major environ mental reports contain quotes from anonymous sources, commenting on the stories. Not long ago, following federal spending cuts, a scientific docu ment purporting to show new toxic problems in Lake Ontario was, appropriately, leaked to the press. The report claimed to he scientific, but no scientists were quoted, yet the issue claimed banner headlines. Yet the very

basis of scientific methodology is by subjecting research find ings to peer review and scrutiny under strictly controlled condi

is another important W: the Weasel words and phrases, which use quotes from anonymous sources, all to often at the expense of veracity.

To my mind this particular 'leak' was suspect:- it came

In the 1980's the trend to

from civil servants with a

anonymous quotes grew rapidly. A lot of high officials, concerned citizens, along with a few self-

strong motivation to gener ate public alarm as a form of job security. They found a willing ally in the news media which - leaving no metaphor unmixed - splashed

anointed environmentalists

began to warn us about a lot of important matters. Yet although the concerns they


the leaked data about with

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

bureaucrats and,ironically are a serious danger to the media themselves, according to veteran journalist Richard Mowrer.

He wrote how a US

newspaper, highly renewed for its integrity, had handled one front page story. The article indicated that the United States

and Libya were again on a colli sion course and that another

bombing of Libya was in the offing. Sources for this infor mation were quoted on 30 occa sions — but none were identified.

Unhappily for the paper the report turned out to be false, leading to charges - perhaps from other unnamed sources - that the

story had been planted as part of a disinformation operation. Mr. Mowrer then quoted a journal ism professor who responded to the sad story with this advice:Suspect everything! If your mother tells you she loves you, check it out.

Sometimes new heights of absurdity are reached as uniden tified spokespersons battle for our hearts and minds. When unnamed White House officials said that Greece was lax on

fighting terrorism, a Greek offic ial, who asked not to be identi fied, denied the assertions. The

story, incidently, carried no by line. May the farce be with them.

Industry Update — Safe disposal of PCBs Is possible NRC scientists have found a new

method to render high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls safe for disposal. The Division of Chemistry devel oped a method to neutralize PCBs chemically by removing chlorine from the toxic chemicals which were used

as lubricants,insulators and cooling agents in industrial electrical equip ment - mainly transformers - as well as additives to rubbers, paints, waxes and asphalts. Other chemical methods exist but

none so far has been proven effective when dealing with high concentra tions of PCBs. Non-treated PCBs must be care

risks to the environment", explains Dr. Dave Griller, head of the

ization, recently announced that

Organic Chemistry section at NRC. PCB production was banned in

Tom McMillan is the 1988 recipient

North America in the mid-70's when

service to the environment by a public official. At its annual meeting in San Francisco, California, Mr. McMillan received the Edgar

it was found that the chemical posed a threat to the environment, but nearly 25,000 tonnes of PCBs still have to be disposed of in Canada. The discovery was made possible through basic research on reactive intermediates - chemical agents

responsible for the transformation

of the club's highest award for

Wayburn Award for outstanding environmental work by a political leader. It is the first time since the award was created in 1979 that a

out of PCBs, neutralizing the com

Pump rental company wins Gorman-Rupp

pound to allow safe disposal. Cana dian companies who wish to develop the process can contact NRC's Industrial



release of harmful emissions in the

Tom McMillan receives

much lower temperature with no


foreign government official has been honored by the Sierra Club.

fully burned at a very high tempera ture - up to 1,000°C - to avoid the

sites to incinerators and burned at a


of a substance into another. Dr. Griller and his team identified one intermediate that takes the chlorine

Program (IRAP).

atmosphere during disposal. "Using our process, PCBs could be treated and the by products could be transported from their storage



prestigious Sierra Club Award The U.S. Sierra Club, America's oldest national conservation organ-

New air quality index system Metropolitan Toronto and Oshawa Burlington, Cornwall, Guelph, Kingston, Kitchener, London, munities to be served by a new air Mississauga, North Bay, Oakville, pollution reporting system which Ottawa, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder provides information to the public Bay and Waterloo. In Hamilton and other major areas, several AQI four times each day. Environment Minister Jim installations will be set up to allow Bradley announced "The new Air indices to be prepared for specific Quality Index (AQI) system will areas. warn people when high pollution The AQI will be broken down into levels are present, and give hourly five categories: updates as long as they persist. AQI Very Good: AQI 0-15, no augments the 16-year-old Air Pollu adverse effects on people, animals tion Index (API) by measuring, or plants. analysing and reporting on a wider Good: AQI 16-31, no adverse range of pollutants." effects on people or animals, and The existing API system mea negligible effects on plants, property sures two pollutants, sulphur diox or aesthetic values. ide and suspended particulate Moderate: AQI 32-49, negligible matter, which promote respiratory effects on people and animals; may illnesses. The API will continue to affect sensitive plants, property or have become the first Ontario com

be used


as an alert and action

aesthetic values.

Poor: AQI 50-99, adverse effects The new AQI will include the on sensitive people or animals; sig API, and add carbon monoxide, nificant damage to vegetation, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide - all of property or aesthetic values. which can affect health - as well as Very Poor: 100-plus, health total reduced sulphur compounds problems to a large segment of the which can cause severe odor exposed population. problems. In Metro Toronto, separate Under AQI, the public will be indices will be reported for East informed 4 times daily of what the York, Etobicoke, North York, Scar air quality is and what is the most borough, Toronto and York. significant pollutant at that time. AQI will be introduced in all other Under special adverse conditions, cities currently using API: the report will be updated hourly, Hamilton, Niagara Falls, St. day and night, and the public will be Catharines, Sarnia, Sudbury, and informed as to when the pollution Windsor. It will also be installed in problem will likely end.

Suntract Rentals of Weston, Ontario recently received from Gorman-Rupp a "First in Sales of Contractor Pumps" award for 1987 and a "Million Dollar Club" award.

Bill Horn,Vice-President and Gen eral Manager of Gorman-Rupp of Canada Limited (right) presents awards plaque to Yank Dale, Ontario Pump Sales Manager for Suntract Rentals.

NS introduces new

environmental legislation Nova Scotia Environment Minister, Roland Thornhill, has introduced a series ofenvironmental bills,includ ing a new Environmental Assess ment Act,in the Nova Scotia legisla ture. Bill 10,the new Environmental Assessment Act, requires the devel

opers of large undertakings to register them with the Environment Department, and gives the Minister the authority to order environment al assessment reports. Bill 4, an Act to Amend Chapter 335 of the province's Water Act was given first reading in February. It extends the authority of the Gover nor in Council to make regulations concerning water quality stand ards or guidelines and defining water contaminants to be prohibited or strictly controlled.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Vital operator's role Is unknown to society The key role that treatment plant operators play in our society was outlined at an Environment Ontario

training course by ES&E publisher Tom Davey. He noted that; "A pilot entrusted with the lives of 300 people in a $10 million plane is given a high profile in our society. A driver in charge of a $200,000 bus carrying 50 people also enjoys prestige - along with a full under standing of his responsibility for people's lives. "Yet a treatment plant operator, responsible for the lives of millions operating a treatment facility worth

Burnaby installs sewers for future development In anticipation of future develop ment of the Big Bend Industrial Subdivision, the District of Burnaby, B.C. is providing a sani tary sewage collection system. The system discharges into the existing Greater Vancouver Regional District trunk sewer system. The collection system consists of gravity sanitary sewer mains, a sewage pump station, featuring duplex sub mersible pumps with permanent standby power, and a sewage force-

struction drawings and contract documents and construction includ

ing inspection services. "The unfavourable ground condi tions were a challenge on this pro ject," says Mr.Bird. "There is a high water table and the low strength soils are susceptible to significant settling under load. "There was insufficient time for

effective preloading of the pumpstation site and pipeline routes, although we knew thatfuture filling

main routed to the GYRD trunk sewer.

of the area around the site was a

tens of millions of dollars - is

"The construction schedule for

virtually unknown to the public. Ironically, the only time the opera tor's existence is noted is usually when reporters phone to ask probing questions about drinking water safety." He said that reporters seldom have an understanding of toxi cology, epidemiology or parasitology - nor do they know the differ

the system was accelerated so that


To meet these challenges, AE pre pared a design featuring piled foun dations for the pumpstation, electri cal kiosk and genset, combined with flexible pipelines. The $400,000 pro ject was scheduled for completion in

sewer service would be available for the GVRD's new solid waste inciner

ation facility located at Big Bend," says Associated Engineering's pro ject manager Ed Bird. AE was responsible for the devel opment of alternate concepts for sewage collection systems for the Big Bend area - a largely unserviced

ence between harmless bacteria -

industrial subdivision - as well as

used as indicators for beach pollu tion - and pathogenic organisms.

detail design, preparation of con


Other companies involved in the project included Golder Associates, West Coast Corrosion Prevention Ltd. and Van Der Zalm Construction.


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Circle reply card No. 101 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Circle reply card No. 102

Industry Update — LaRocque opens new

manufacturing of

fields oiurban drainage, instrumen tation and control, remote monitor ing and WPCP troubleshooting and design. Company founder. Randy McLean, says that Monitario can calibrate most types of flow meter ing systems, from venturi tubes to velocity: area meters. Calibrations

laboratory equipment for soil, geo-

are carried out in accordance to the

facilities LaRocque Drilling Supplies and LaRocque Geotek Inc. recently opened new facilities in Blainville, Quebec. LaRocque Geotek specializes in the sale


same standards used in developing pollution control and monitoring, , the MISA regulations. For further details contact biodegradable drilling fluids as well Monitario Tel:(519) 748-8024. as soil bentonite membranes for

technical instrumentation, water

municipal and industrial waste disposal. LaRocque Drilling Supplies caters to exploration diamond dril ling and well monitoring industries. For further details, contact L. Normand Beaulieu, Tel:(514)430-6666.

New monitoring and calibration service

company formed Monitario Technical Services Inc.

has been formed to supply technical expertise and service to environ mental consulting professionals. The company can support an engine ering firm with expertise in the

PEOPLE George Crawford, former chair man of Gore & Storrie, has won this year's Carson F. Morrison award. Presented by Canadian Consulting Engineer magazine, the award honors George's technical, business and ethical contribution to

the engineering profession, particu larly in the environmental field. Now a senior consultant with G&S, he is also on the editorial advisory board of Environmental Science &


The federal government has named representatives from industry, government, academic and citizens'

groups to serve on the Priority Sub stances Panel under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Members include: Dr. Don

MacKay of the University of Toronto; Dr. Don Ecobichon of McGill University; Jack Siemia-

tycki of Quebec's Institut Armand Frappier; Daniel Green of MontreG-based Societe pour vaincre la pollution (SVP); Carol Rubin of the BC Coalition for Alter

natives to Pesticides; Dr. Ann Robinson of the Ontario Labor

Ministry; Bill Neff ofthe Canadian Chemical Producers' Association; Charles Ferguson, head of environmental affairs for Inco; and Dr. Ross Hume Hall of McMaster

University, panel chairman. The panel is to provide federal Environ ment





Ministers a list of 50 priority sub stances having such characteris tics as: toxic; persistent; exposed to humans; dispersed over a wide geographical area; detected in the Canadian environment; in Canadian commerce, with the potential to enter the environment in significant quantities; and those substances known to bioaccumulate in the food chain.








TEL: (416) 335-8944 FAX: (416) 335-8972

Circle reply card No. 103 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

New report outlines steps to reduce Kraft Pulp and Paper Mill pollution Ontario's nine kraft pulp and paper mills should act promptly to reduce the amount of persistent toxic con taminants in their discharges to waterways,a commit

tee of experts has recommended in a new report. Formation of these toxic chemical wastes,including dioxins and furans, should be eliminated over the

long-term, the committee said in a report to Environ ment Minister Jim Bradley.

The report estimates that the nine kraft mills dis charge daily about 33 tonnes of chlorinated chemical contaminants, some of them persistent toxic substan ces which can hiomagnify as they move up the food chain.

The effluents from eight of the nine mills were fre

quently found to be lethal (acutely toxic) to fish in laboratory tests conducted in 1985 and 1986. The report states that pollution control technology, capable of significantly reducing persistent toxic com pounds and conventional pollutants, is available for all Ontario kraft mills and is clearly affordable for most Ontario mills.

The report recommends that the major contamin ant measure the ministry should regulate in kraft mill effluent is Total Organically Bound Halogen(TOX), a measurement of a broad range of chlorinated chemical contaminants (organochlorines). This approach is used to regulate Swedish mills, the committee noted. "The real cause for concern about organochlorines is the unknown degree to which highly toxic and per sistent organochlorines are formed, and escape to the environment. It is a safe assumption that in time, more environmentally undesirable substances will he discovered, just as unexpected as the chlorinated diox ins," the report states. The report makes several recommendations on the development of a water pollution reduction strategy for kraft mills. Four levels of pollution control are identified. Each level requires successively more stringent limits on toxic discharges, with LevelI repre senting the most toxic discharge, and Level IV the cleanest.

Most Ontario kraft mills are currently at Levels I or II, with effluent lethal to fish. E.B. Eddy in Espanola is at Level III. The report says that most other mills can achieve Level III within three years with little net cost. This level would require the mills to reduce the discharge of TOX by at least 50 per cent and produce an effluent that is not lethal to fish.

The report states that Level IV, which represents a further reduction of TOX discharge, is attainable with in five years. Kraft mills can cut toxic discharges by reducing the

amount of chlorine currently used in the bleaching process, the report states. Two major technologiesoxygen bleaching and high chlorine substitution-are identified as alternatives. Both technologies are econ omical and lower production costs by reducing chlorine use.

The report points out that these alternative produc tion methods are being successfully employed by many of Ontario's international competitors. Ontario kraft mills are not at a competitive disad vantage compared to the U.S. and Sweden with respect to tax treatment, the committee found. The report recommends that the ministry regulate effluent limits, and industry decide on the best method to reach these limits. This is consistent with the MISA

(Municipal/Industrial Strategy for Abatement) approach already underway. The pulp and paper

NEW Gorman-Rupp Electronic Pressure Switch. The new Electronic Pressure Switch has

been designed to control the operation of your Gorman-Rupp lift station. It's incredibly accurate and reliable. It's remarkably simple and safe to operate. It's exceptionally economical, and it can be incorporated into most Gorman-Rupp control panels. The basic EPS unit comes with pinpoint precision Start/Stop settings for one to four pumps. Or the same unit can be used to control two pumps, while monitoring the wet well with High and Low Water Alarms. An optional EPSX Expander comes with extra output capacity to expand capability. It can be used to control multi-speed motors or up to eight pumps in larger systems. The new Gorman-Rupp EPS System; accuracy, reliability, economy, and unbelievable flexibility. Distributors across Canada.

Consult the Yellow Pages for your nearest Gorman-Rupp distributor. TM

GORMANRUPP Gorman-Rupp of Canada Ltd. 70 Burwell Rd., St. Ttiomas, Ont. N5P 3R7 Phone:(519)631-2870 • Telex: 064-73530

industry is covered by MISA.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Circle reply card No. 104

Reader Feedback Dear Tom:

I just finished reading How the East was won - AQTE's triumph in Quebec? in the January/Febru ary ES&E and it retains the good taste of the AQTE article on page 29. What you have written Tom was just right. The legacy of Pat Bourgeois' spirit and the hard working AQTE period while JeanPaul Lanctot was president have made what AQTE is today. I take this opportunity to personnally thank you for the support you have been for tbe association. In a

certain way,you have been our voice out of Quebec to our sister associa tions in Canada.

Western Canada Water and Sewage

is able to understand the complexi ties of environmental issues and get the word out to regulators, politic ians, scientists, engineers and the public, in a way that is balanced, accurate, and readable. Best wishes on this venture, and


I am also writing to inform you of the upcoming Canadian Waste Management Conference to be held in Winnipeg in October 1988. This is the 10th Anniversary of this Confer

continued success.

ence and as I was a member of the

J.N. Bishop, Director, Water Resources Branch, MOE

Steering Committee for the First Conference held in Winnipeg, I am

proud to see how this Conference Dear Tom:

I just received Vol. 1, No. 1 ofES&E. Thank you. It was read with interest from cover to cover.

You have been

present to all our main events and an accomplice to all our claims before our governments;I thank you for that.

I'll remain one of your best fans. Just keep yourself in good shape; environment people need you. From a friend of la belle province.

Denis Lapointe, M.ing.env. AQTE President 1984-1985 Les Consultants LBCD International inc. Dear Tom: work - we all need a clear voice that

Manitoba Environment

Dear Tom:

Congratulations Tom, on a Truly Valuable Dear Tom:

First let me congratulate you on the birth of your new Journal and wish you success in this endeavor. A new Canadian Magazine devoted to environmental

Congratulations! Keep up the fine


your sake and that of our industry,I hope that you have given birth to a giant. Congratulations! Burnell L. Hodgins, P.Eng. International Water Supply Ltd.

has evolved into the most signifi cant yearly event in Canada in the Waste Management Area. D.R. Thompson, P.Eng. Head, Waste Management, Environmental Control Services,

concerns is


welcome. I remember when you were in Winnipeg many years ago and the excellent support and cover age which you provided to the


is a fair return on investment. State-

of-the-art technology can never be bought on price. I know I can speak on behalf of many reputable suppliers and manufacturers when I say. Thank

you. Dave Calder T.D. Rooke Associates Ltd.


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Circle reply card No. 105 10


Involvement in any market can only be made possible, where there

Circle reply card No. 106 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Introducing Re-Chem Environmental Management Inc. A New Environmental Waste

Management Service Company Why, you ask?

Another environmental

service group! Do I really need environmental management services - isn't it enougti to have waste disposal services?

Environmental liability now goes far beyond the corporate screen. it can affect all corporate personnel, including management and directors! Now, you must not only perform within the regula tions, but also be able to demonstrate that you have taken ail steps to comply with the law - in spirit, as wel l as in detail, if you cannot demonstrateduediligence, you could sti ll be successfully prosecuted for an inadvertent non-compliance. So, when you buy waste disposal services, you want to know that you are complying fully with all regulatory authori ties and their regulations.

Have you protected yourself and your company? Do you have cradle-to-grave documentation of your waste's disposal route? Are your staff fully-trained in waste handling proce dures? Do you (and they) have supporting documentation?

What if your wastes are improperly identified?

Re-Chem Environmental Management inc. provides the foiiowing services: • Classification under the Environmental Protec

tion and Transportation Acts. • Transportation of prepackaged or bulk wastes anywhere in Canada.

• Processing inorganic, aqueous, or organic wastes. • Recycle and reuse - reduces disposal costs, while saving raw materials. • Disposal - final site selection, including registra tions, documentation and follow-up.


Environmental Management Inc. 5300 Fairview St.

Burlington, Ontario Phone; (416) 847-6809

Fax: (416) 639-8059

Circle reply card No. 107 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Controlling air pollution from waste plants By Harry Jackson Flakt Canada Ltd.

Thecomposition of Munici

pal Solid Waste is very complex and when incin erated many different chemical species will be emitted including: fly ash, CO, CO:^, NQx





and SO2. Since the solid waste con


tains chlorides (from salt and PVC)

and heavy metals,there is a compar atively high rate of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid and heavy metals emitted in the gas. The solid waste, due to its non-homogenic composition, is difficult to inciner





ate and there are often measurable

rates of hydrocarbons emitted in the gas. Impurities in the incineration gases are very complex,compared to most other combustion processes (eg. coal, oil, etc.). Until recently, gas cleaning efforts have been primarily focused on the collection of fly ash,typically with electrostatic precipitators, where gaseous operating tempera tures have been in the range of 210 280°C (410 - 540°F). Due to the high concentrations of heavy metals and acidic gases,how ever, the requirements for gas cleaning have changed,and become more stringent in recent years.

At this point, a brief summary of the different types of gas cleaning equipment may be appropriate. The term "gas cleaning" is used in the



Fig. A - Electrostatic Preclpltatorwith Scrubberequlpped with one washing stage and two heat recovery stages.

broad sense to include particulate and/or gaseous control. Cyclones These are purely inertial collect ors and remove particulate only and thus will not be considered in this discussion. Wet Scrubber

Historically, the classical method to collect particles and acid gases was to use the combination of an electrostatic precipitator follow

ed by a wet scrubber. Many such plants are in operation throughout the world, most typically used in

cleaning and chemical recovery of gases emitted from soda recovery boilers in the pulp industry, (see Fig. A) A low pressure scrubber is very efficient for acid gas control, al though the ability to remove small particulates is rather poor. Further more, an air pollution problem is only converted to a water pollution problem. The exhaust gas is satur ated with steam. And, since the water is very corrosive, investment and maintenance costs are high. Notwithstanding these problems, an interesting aspect of this ap proach is the possibility to recover heat from the condensing water in the scrubber.

Another type of wet scrubber is that where the gas passes through a packed bed to enhance the contact of the gas to the reaction material. After passing through the bed, the saturated gas passes to atmosphere via a de-mister section usually con sisting of a series of baffles. (Fig. B) This type ofscrubber has not gen erally been used in incinerator applications due to the high cost of the special materials of construction and plugging problems in the packed bed. Dry Scrubbing Due to the many difficulties and high costs associated with wet scab bing, there has been a great effort to develop dry scrubbing systems for incinerators and power plants. The contact between the gas and the lime slurry is very good in the hall 12

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

bed reactor, which assures very high acid gas removal efficiency. This has been used in systems treat ing gas from solid waste incinera tors since the later 1970's. The final

particulate removal is obtained in an electrostatic precipitator or bag filter.

The reactor is highly mechanical, requires a degree of corrosion-resist ant materials in its construction

and can be rather expensive to operate and maintain. The next step in control of gase ous and particulate contaminants took the form of a reactor using either hydrated lime in the dry form or a slurried lime solution. In the latter case the lime solution is fed

into the reactor through spray noz zles and intermixes with the gas to remove Hydrogen Fluoride (H.F.), Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). The spray nozzles may be either mechanical rotary atomizing nozzles or dualfluid (air/liquid). This type of plant can become cumbersome due to the

requirement for lime preparation and slurry pumping equipment. The advantage of such equipment is that a more efficient use of the lime

is achieved than with the dry lime system.

Gas, after passing through the reactor, goes to a fabric filter where the bulk of the particulate is removed. This particulate removal can also be achieved with an electro

static precipitator. The alternative to the lime slurry system utilizes dry hydrated lime as the reaction medium; otherwise, the system is similar to the lime slurry arrangement. The advantage of this system is that the reaction material being in the dry form is much easier to handle.

It may be appropriate at this point to consider the final particu late control equipment in more detail.

Bag Filter Bag filters may best be described as oversized sophisticated vacuum cleaners. There are basically two types used generally for industrial purposes:

1. The low ratio type in which the dirty gas passes from the inside of the filter bag to the outside; or the high ratio type in which the dirty gas flows from outside to inside with the particulate being collected on the outside of the filter media.

In both cases the principle is the same, i.e. to form a "primary cake" on the filter media and thus form a

collecting surface for the particu late to be removed.

There are

several means of removing particu

described briefly as follows: Shaker Type Cleaning of the filter media is achieved by mechanically shaking the bag support frames. The open bottoms of the bags are clamped to a fixed tube plate and the closed tops are attached to the shaker/support frames.

Numerous methods are

adopted to impart the shaking action to the bags, e.g. eccentric drives, links, electric or pneumatic vibrators.

Shaker Type - Sectionalized The cleaning principle is the same except that the filter is built in sections so that one section at a time

is isolated from the gas flow and the shaking mechanism is initiated. This system avoids the possibility of "puffing" during the cleaning cycle. Reverse Jet

This system of bag cleaning uses compressed air usually around 80100 psi. A nozzle releases a short burst of compressed air into the bags via a venturi tube at the top of each bag. This burst of air causes a pressure wave to travel down the bag,inflating the media as it passes, dislodging the filter cake. Reverse Pulse

This system is similar in princi ple to the Reverse Jet where the gas flow is from the outside to the inside

of the bags and lower pressure "pulse" air can be used without Venturis and with the incorporation of an air storage tank and subse quent reduction of pressure losses in the "pulse" system. This principle gives a lower energy consumption for cleaning while maintaining a fast, strong pulse.

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Reverse Air

The principle used in the reverse air cleaning systems is relatively simple in that the flow of gas through the bag is reversed thus causing the bag material to collapse


Bramalea, Ontario L6T 3W1 (416)791-1553

and release the collected dust. For

difficult applications, a combina tion of "reverse air" and "shaker

type" cleaning is often used. The reverse air is usually re-circulated from the clean exhaust side of the filter unit.

The purpose of the cleaning mechanism is to dislodge sufficient dust to maintain a desired (or designed) pressure drop while still maintaining the primary cake on

Canadas^Drive Leader

the filter media.

For incinerator applications, the filter media must be carefully select ed, having consideration for temper-

late from the filter media. These are

Cont'd. overleaf

EURODRIVE Circle reply card No. 108

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Air pollution control (Cont'd, from pg. 13) ature, moisture, acidity and abrasive nature of the gas and dust to be handled. It should be recogniz ed that continuing research is being carried out on filter media, mainly directed to providing longer service life.

The principal advantages and disadvantages of fabric(bag)filters for incinerator applications are: Advantages High collection efficiencies on

very fine dust; collection efficiency not affected by changes in gas composition; enhancement of HcL, HF and SOa removal due to reten tion time on filter media.



Relatively high pressure drop; difficulty in handling saturated gases; limited bag life.

Electrostatic Precipitators An electrostatic precipitator is a dust collection device which uses an

electrical field to separate and remove solid or liquid particles from a gas stream. The fundamental pro cesses involved are particle charging and particle migration. There are two types of electrostatic precipitators: the two stage precipi tator; and the single stage precipi tator.

In the two stage precipitator the particles are first charged and then collected separately on collecting plates. This type of precipitator uses a positive high potential and dust removal efficiency, is limited to approximately 95-96%, thus limiting its use to smaller commercial appli cations. The single stage precipita tor is that which is used for indus

trial applications and will thus be described in a little more detail.

In the single stage precipitator, the dirty gas flows through a series of passages formed by parallel rows of plates (collecting electrodes) and wires (emitting on discharge elec trodes). The profile ofthe plates and the types of wires vary, depending on the manufacturer but all serve the same function.

Michael R. Robertson

Petro-Canada is pleased to announce the appointment of Michael R. Robertson to the position of Director, Environmental Affairs, Corporate Division. Located in Calgary, Mr. Robertson is responsible for the development and management of the Corporation's environmental programs and services. He holds an M.Sc. from the University of Alberta, and has over 20 years of related expe rience in government and industry, including seven years with Petro-Canada. Mr. Robertson was previously Manager, Field Services, Petro-Canada Resources Division.

Petro-Canada remains solidly committed to following environmentally sound work practices in all its operations. This appointment and the reorganization of the Environmental Affairs function rein

force this strong commitment. These initiatives will assist the Corporation in continuing to take a proactive and responsible approach when dealing with environmental issues associated with

its operations.

Discharge wires are connected to a transformer which supplies a DC current, usually at 40-50 kilovolts. This causes a corona discharge on the wire, establishing a powerful ionizing field. The particles in the carrier gas become charged, migrate to and are deposited on the ground ed collecting plates. The particles then lose their charge and are removed from the collecting elec trodes by mechanical rapping, vibration or water washing. Advantages and disadvantages of electrostatic precipitators relative to incineration applications are: Advantages Low pressure drop; can handle wide range of gas temperatures; can he designed for high efficiency. Disadvantages Performance affected by varia tions in gas and dust analyses; rela

tively high initial cost; may be less efficient in removal of trace metals.

Flakt in


could be operated either in the Dry or Wet-Dry modes. The results from this test program clearly indicate the ability of the Flakt system to meet the most stringent emission requirements for Dioxins, Furans, Heavy Metals and Particulates. Conclusion

The selection of a dry lime injec tion system in contrast to a lime

slurry injection reactor will depend on various cost factors and not on

required performance. Flakt, in its test programs, has demonstrated that either system is capable of achieving the high removal efficien cies required to meet emission stan dards. For MSW incinerators in the

300 TM/day of refuse range,the dry injection systems are more cost effective due to lower capital and power costs.

As individual incinerator capa city increases, however, a point is reached where multiple dry injec tion reactors are required and a single spray dryer reactor can handle the gas flow at lower initial


capital cost. From that point on,the spray dryer will be more cost-effec tive in spite of the higher per tonne

with a demonstration gas cleaning


Fig. B

Environment Canada carried out a

series of very comprehensive tests


Packed tower

system on a mass burning Munici pal Waste Incinerator in Quebec City. The demonstration gas clean ing system was designed so that it

operating costs. For the new plants planned, a mixture of reactor types is anticipated depending for the most part on gas volume or refuse throughput.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Droplet Separators

Efficiency/High Capacity mist dropiet separators meet The selection of droplet separators is based on droplet size, efficiency, pressure drop, flow direction and liquid loading. Hence, no single type ofseparator is suitablefor all applica



With our comprehensive range of mist eliminators, we can handle virtu ally any industrial application from 0.5 micron up.

// / 1\\

/( I \ \^

Type: LTV-1500 vane type Flow, vertical


Scrubbers, Evaporators, etc.

Type: HRT Axial spin type Flow, any direction For. Stacks to prevent "rain" Ventilation exhausts

• LTV-1500: A no-hook vane type separator specially designed for verti cal flow. Basis velocity is 800 ft/min. The absence of the hook prevents reentrainment and plugging. • HRT: An Axial spin type used to handle plugging or high liquid carry over situations. Basis velocity is 1800 — 2400 ft/min. Ideal for preventing "stack rain". Capacities to 200,000 CFM.

n (3

• LTH-2000: A family of aerodynamically shaped vanes with 1 — 4 hooks. Very high efficiency at low pressure drop. Basis velocity 1000 — 2400 ft/min, depending on type. • HRT — Fan System: For applica

Type: LTH-2000 vane type Flow, horizontal


Ventiiation/air washers


Type: HRT-Fan System Flow, any direction For. Fan protection. Fouling applications

tions where dirt or fibre cause fan

wheel balance problems, we recom mend this combination unit. Addi

tional liquid can be sprayed into the HRT inlet without causing carryover. Micron-Scrubber® is designed for aerosol-, fog-, and

• MS: The

plume-type emissions. (SO3, HCl, etc.)

• Mesh Demisters: Knitted type for vapor demisting. The unique Kimre structured mesh for difficult demisting and scrubbing applications.

Leaders in Droplet Separator Equipment....

Type: Mesh demisters Flow, horizontal/vertical


Aerosol/mist collection. Specialty scrubbers

Type: MS Micron-Scrubber® Flow, horizontal/vertical


Aerosol scrubbing. Acid mist remoyai

Watson Process

Systems 2751 John Street, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 2Y8

(416) 475-2511 Fax: (416) 475-7638

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Circle reply card No. 109


AWWA/OMWA Conference Report

Windsor is top team in tap-off

A near record crowd of joint

some 700 delegates and spouses arrived in London, Ont. for the annual conference of the

Photo report by Tom Davey of 160 applications for study grants. Environment




Drawing attention to biomagnification problems, Dr. Mackay said that toxic concentrations at one part per million in water could be magni fied to one part per one hundred

Ontario Section AWWA and the

mere 34.

thousand in a fish.

Ontario Municipal Water Associa tion (OMWA). A thrilling highlight was the Windsor team's superb per formance as they won the final of the Pipe Tapping contest in the awe

Commenting on the urgent need for metering he asked city without metering? He said

middle of a public quest for purity, he said, before pointing out that drinking water was one of the smaller routes for the ingestion of

Canadian environmental

contaminants in water in humans.

some time of 1 min. 53.06 seconds!

This ensured Windsor a trip to Orlando to compete with the best in North America in a final tap-off. In a theme address, Water-ensur ing our future, Professor Donald Mackay ranged effortlessly over a plethora of water resource problems. Dr. Mackay,a professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto, was critical of the federal role in funding environmental research.



the federal

government had ceased to be a source of funding in this area. He did not leave the Ontario govern ment unscathed either, noting that

"Would we ever deliver electri

problems faced jurisdictional overkill - the result? paralysis

by analysis, stressing that we needed remediation and treat

ment projects studies. He also



as some

well as heartfelt

laughter when he discoursed on the public's perception of bottled water and the safety of public drinking water supplies. He noted that one supermarket was selling bottled water at approximately 40 cents a bottle, comparing this to public water supplies which arrive in the home for about 40 cents a cubic metre.

We are in the

Professor Mackay said the clean up of the Great Lakes was a chal lenging task. Population increases, he said, would make it difficult to maintain even current standards.

But the answer was not to pipe Lake Huron water to Metro-Toronto, but to clean up current sources of pollu

tion - we need political leadersship to accomplish this, he stressed. The most important thing governments could do was to implement a userpay scenario, he said. OMWA members also had some

extremely vigorous exchanges in their annual meeting. Among the


Clockwise from top left: Mike Provart, right, presents the Howard Award to Warren Fallis; leftto right Hershel Guttman, Section Chairman George Mierzynski, and Vince Suffolleta; Jim Craig gets the covetted Fuller pin from Bob Chuck; and the victorious Windsor tapping team. 16

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

decades the water industry has cited its successes in virtually eliminating diseases from drinking water obtained




Recently a parasite, Giardia Lamhlia, has become familiar. Virtually all warm blooded animals

seem capable of carrying giardia so, once it encroaches into a water

The pipe tapping contest combineci the action ot a vigorous sporting event with an engineering chalienge. Spectators ioved it! to as little as 285 milligrams per litre. many items covered was the fair In England, he had observed the pricing of water during an especial

ly lively debate, some OMWA members aggressively pursuing a user-pay philosophy. It was pointed out that




obtained from the MOE in grants had to be raised from the people hj^ taxation. Moreover, the higher the level of funding, the less control water commissions had over their

operations. "Why should taxpayers support those municipalities who neglect their systems?" one speaker enquired pointedly. Peterborough's Dick Beck noted that the annual





which had comprehensive jurisdic tion over all watershed aspects, including watershed control, river management, source development, distribution and treatment of all

waters, drainage, maintenance and operations of water and wastewater systems. "Each of these water regions are controlled by one juris diction - the water authority," he said.

Turning to what he termed "sur face water challenges," he said for

supply, it has a tendency to stay there, he said. He outlined some water treatment techniques which could remove Giardia *, including coagulation, sedimentation and fil tration. "Recently we have become aware of another bug called Cryptosporidium - the name is much larger than the bug - and drinking water with Cryptosporidium can cause great discomfort and illness to humans" he warned.

The conference had many fine technical and scientific papers, including presentations on ozonation, UV disinfection, iron and manganese removal and that often neglected aspect of water supply fire protection.

"A Bulletin on Giardia was available

at the Ontario Drinking Water Infor mation Council Display. ES&E will send copies on written request to those readers requiring further data on this parasite.

dues for OMWA were insignificant compared to the dues paid to the

comparable municipal electrical

ALL WEATHER FIBERGLASS COVERS more than 600 installations


AWWA past President Robert Chuck dwelled upon his findings after travelling around the world as



AWWA President. He noted that he

Round covers

had seen ancient Roman aqueducts, built 2000 years ago to transport water





hundreds of miles away. From this

impressive example of ancient water engineering, he went on to describe innovative water develop ment schemes in Hong Kong where


dams were constructed in low-lying tidal estuarine areas; then brackish

water was pumped out and fresh

Rectangular Barrel covers

Rectangular arch covers

stream waters were introduced to

the newly constructed reservoirs. Turning to North American salinity problems, he said the Colorado River had levels of more

than 800 milligrams per litre at the Mexican border through many reservoirs and irrigation projects

upstream of Mexico. He told the con ference that the world's largest reverse osmosis plant was now under construction in Yuma, Arizona which should be completed and working next year, supplying some 80 million US gallons a day to Mexico. This plant will be capable of lowering salinity levels 70 percent


fixed and floating digesters


Box 280, 1 Canbar St., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 4A7 (519)886-2880, Telex 069-55255, Fax (519)886-5546

Circle reply card No. 110 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Literature Review To get prompt Information on any catalogues or bulletins listed,


circle the numbers on ES&E's READER SERVICE CARD.

If this has already been used, write: Reader Service,

Environmental Science & Engineering,

New system continuously produces activated silica Actasol continuously and automatically prepares complete ly stable activated silica, allowing it to be utilized easier, faster and more economicaliy. No aging is required. Sodium silicate and aluminum sulphate are metered together with dilution water through a mixing block in such pro portions that the final mixture con tains from 2-5% silica and has a pH of 6-6.5

10 Fetch Crescent, Aurora, Ont. L4G 5N7

Metcon Sales and Engineering Circle reply card No. 200


■««—» lotMSMnAim

Portable water treatment plants Graver Monoplant packaged water treatment systems from Ecodyne are pre-engineered and factory built, readily transportable and quickly installed. Seventeen stan

Aluminum manhole steps Designed for use in corrosive en vironments, the MSU #360 polyethyelene coated aluminum man hole step Is the only manhole step

dard sizes are available to treat

in North America which is listed

from 20 gpm to 500 gpm, for muni cipal plants and wherever potable water Is required. Each Monoplant contains pre-treatment, chemical

with Underwriters' Laboratories.

All MSU steps bear the mark "UL listed - manhole rung #33R7". This UL listing assures the user all MSU #360 steps are manufactured with quality materials and are within the tolerances stipulated by Under

feeds and filters, a solids recircula-

tlon type high rate (Floe Barrier equipped) clarifier and gravity backwash filter system. Conser vatively designed and rated, Monoplants produce water with an ef fluent turbidity of less than 1 JTU. Ecodyne Ltd. Circle reply card No. 202

writers' Laboratories.

MSU Mississauga Ltd. Circle reply card No. 201

Horizontal rotating screen Waste handling system that screens and grinds solids in a sim ple, cost-effective operation. This

Continuous pressure filter Continuous belt press for sludge dewatering - the Andrltz presses

screen continuously diverts solids from waste streams directly into a


are renowned for mechanical in

revolutionary horizontal rotating

tegrity and performance under

Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 204


Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 203

Sewage vyaste grinders Mechanical grinder for sludge, screenings and wastewater, com bining efficient operation with low maintenance requirements. Control and Metering Limited

Surface aerators

Mechanical, floating direct-drive

aerators available In 1 to 75 HP sizes In various materials of con

struction, including all stainless steels.

Control and Metering Limited Circle reply card No. 205


Circle reply card No. 206 A friend in deed

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

Kotron™ Two-Wire Level Transmitter Bulletin 50-123 Illustrates the

Fluids handling products This new 182-page Fluids Flandling Buyers Guide catalogue lists

economically priced Kotron Two-

and illustrates all available In

Wire Level Transmitter. This model

dustrial plastic pipe, valves, fittings and tanks that are commonly us

requires only two wires for both supply voltage and 4-20 mA out put, and is FM listed Intrinsically safe when used In conjunction with an approved barrier. A full range of rigid and flexible sensing probes are available. The Bulletin briefly describes the Principle of Opera tion, the Operating Temperature Range, Minimum and Maximum Span, and other Standard Fea

ed In the Industrial and chemical

fields for corrosive liquid handling. The catalogue also has a 40 page engineering reference section and chemical resistance charts. Fabricated Piastics Limited

Circle reply card No. 208


Magnetroi international Circle reply card No. 207 Streaming Current Detector The Petrollte Streaming Current Detector gives you a quick, precise indication of your chemical feed rate's effectiveness on your water treatment system. The unit can

Eimco Delta-Stack Ciarifiers Eimco Delta-Stak ciarifiers com


bine the simplicity of gravity settl ing with Inclined plate sedimenta tion principles. The patented


design reduces space require ments and costs while providing operational simplicity and high

communicate with a controller to

regulate the Injection pump If the feed rate Is too high or too low saving you as much as 30% In

overflow rates. Distribution, deaeration, flocculation, defoam-

ing, clarification, and thickening are simultaneously performed in a single vessel.

chemical costs. The SOD can also be connected with a recorder or

low or high level alarms, depen ding on your application needs.


Metcon Sales &

Circie repiy card No. 218

Engineering Limited Circie repiy card No. 209


The heart of the pump TheTASC Variable Speed Drive re mains at the forefront of design and performance necessary to meet the present day demands for technology. TheTASC Unit has25 years of superb reliability in the in

New Environmental Catalogue The new 60 page Environmental Catalogue from Solltest covers a wide range of instrumentation for the sampling, monitoring and analysis of soil and water. Samplers, lyslmeters, tenslometers, water quality meters and permlaneters are among the many

dustrial field and comes with a five

year warranty. We supply the heart of the pump. Canadian Drives-the driving force in electrical variable speed drive systems. Canadian Drives inc.

items illustrated.

Hoskin Scientific Ltd.

Circie reply card No. 211 IIIIIE

Circie reply card No. 210

A500 Transit time flowmeter

New unique electronic

Non-contact liquid level



The A500 flowmeter measures

The Mobrey Sonapulse MSP90 transmits ultrasonic pulses from a transducer unit at the top of the tank five times per second. These pulses are reflected back from the

flow by Injecting pulses of high frequency (ultrasonic) vibrational energy into the liquid passing through the sensor tube. It can measure flow In potable and waste water, effluents, some slurries and

non-conductive liquids. Bestobeii Canada

Circle repiy card No. 212

Non contact liquid level measurement

Mobrey sonapulse MSP90

liquid surface and received by the same unit. By measuring the time delay between the transmitted and received signals the MSP90 can calculate the level or contents of

the tank, or the flow through flumes or weirs.

Bestobeii Canada Limited.

Circie reply card No. 213

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Sludge depth meter no moving parts fyiodel 600 continuously moni tors the sludge/llquld interface in gravity Clarifiers and Dissolved Air Flotation Thickeners. System is used for automatic desludging, variable rate sludge with drawal, sludge inventory recor

Flow rate measurements in small sewers

The Isco Flow Poke is a unique, FLOW POKE

portable Instrument that uses a patented design to allow flow rate readings to be obtained from small sewers without entering the manholel In the past, there has not been a convenient or

ding, or alarming. Alphanumeric

practical way to take an Indi vidual flow rate reading from a obtain an accurate flow rate

L.C.D. indicates sludge depth, plus error messages, errors trap ped & corrected, set-points, & a self-diagnostic system analysis.


Portable model also available.


Markland Specialty Engineering Ltd.

sewer. The Isco Flow Poke now

makes it possible to quickly ISCO

Circle reply card No. 214

Circle reply card No. 215

High quality whiteprinting without ammonia, odour or venting The Oce 4020 non-ammonia

whiteprinter produces dry, odourless, high quality prints up


Big scale - redox-pH meter pH & mV readings The Analytical Model 707 mV, Redox-pH Meter is a rugged line operated, reliable Instrument featuring a big 7" scale, 0-14 pH and + 0-700 mV.

to 48 Inches wide. Blackline

presentation prints, sepia and mylar intermediates are produc ed in a single pass. The 4020 requires no warm-up and runs quietly without heat or venting, so it can be placed anywhere in the office. The simple operation and low maintenance design en sure reliability and long life.

pH i m

Also available Is a 9V Battery operated. Model 707mVB. Analytical Measurements of Canada Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 217

Abso Blue Prints Limited

Circle reply card No. 216


waste management help ...

LABORATORY Services available: Waste characterization; environmental monitoring; treatability testing; methods development.

ADVICE On waste minimization; on-site waste treatment; waste exchange; government regulation and compliance; spill cleanup and site reclamation. Tbdmical Services &r WasfB Management

MANUAL Our Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction Manual($25.00) will help you make wise decisions and save waste management dollars.



Waste Management Corporation

2 Bloor Street West. Toronto. Ontario. M4W 3E2 Advice & Manual

(416) 923-2918 1-800-268-1179 (Toll Free)

Laboratory: (416) 637-2452 (Burlington)

Circle reply card No. 117 20

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

MISA dominates 1988 APCA/PCAO conference

A strong emphasis on MISA

dominated the joint

annual conference of the Air Pollution Control Association and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario.

There was also a highly successful exhibition put on by suppliers under the direction of Terry Matthews. Christine Hart, MPP, Parlia mentary Assistant to Environment Minister Jim Bradley, was a key note speaker. Strict control ofindus trial discharges would address the problems of contaminated sewage sludge, the release of volatile organ ic chemicals in the sewers and occu

pational problems in sewage treat ment plants. Those municipalities unwilling to enforce controls would be charged. Additional sewer-use programs would be directed at the reduction of household hazardous

wastes going down drains, support for industrial low-waste processes,

Photo report by Tom Davey and the restriction of environment


product formula

tions. Nars Borodczak of Environ

Ontario is evaluating data collected on 150 parameters at 40 sewage treatment plants. Metals,PCBs and dioxins are being found in the influ ent, effluent and sludge. A final report will be issued in the near future, he said.

Water Resources

The final version of the revised

Branch, outlined the progress of the Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program. He stressed that attention being paid to industrial sewer users required a new joint working group be set up, comprising municipal and industry association representatives. The

Municipal Model-Sewer-Use Bylaw has been completed and reviewed and will be released very soon. Nars outlined progress in devel oping the monitoring regulations

ment Ontario's

MOE's sewer-use discussion paper outlining its draft control policy and widely expected to advocate tough, BAT-based (Best Available Tech

nology) pretreatment standards - is scheduled





comments shortly. Under the MISA preregulatory monitoring program, Environment

for the nine industrial sectors under

MISA: Pulp and Paper; Organic Chemicals; Mining; Minerals; Iron and Steel; Metal Casting;Inorganic Chemicals; Electric Power Genera tion; and Petroleum Refining. Steven Radcliffe, an engineer with the MOE, summarized regula tory and policy initiatives planned by his ministry's Waste Manage ment Branch. There are, he said, Continued next page


â– vrc).\




Clockwise - 1. Incoming PCAO President, George Powell, accepts ttie gavel from Jim Brooker, 2. Michael Adams, Envlronics, 3. (left) Terry Matthews, equipment show organizer, 4. Greg Jackson, Eurodrlve. Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


paperwork exemptions to promote recycling. Amendments to 309,dealing with a new municipal landfill classifica tion system and operating standards are to be introduced. Applying immediately to new sites they will be phased in for existing sites over a two-and-a-half year period. As they also apply to industrial landfill sites that accept "municipal wastes,"

N â– 1*11 %

definitions will be amended to in clude nonhazardous industrial solid

wastes such as foundry sand. Turning to the PCB waste problem, he pointed out that the cur rent PCB Regulation (11/82) is scheduled to be updated and folded into the Mobile PCB Destruction

WPCF Treasurer Paul Kuhn (left)presents Gerrie Wynen with the Hatfield Award. some 15,000 hazwaste generators effect later in 1988 and will refer to registered under the province's such exemptions as recyclable Waste Management - General materials, reductions in paperwork and relaxations for field operations. Regulation 309. The MOE is track ing an estimated 125,000 waste Regulation 309 will be amended to clarify any unclear areas of certain transactions a year. Last year it waste classes and promote product received manifests for 1.2 million stewardship; for example, contam tonnes of hazardous and liquid inated solvents - such as naphtha industrial wastes. Amendments to Regulation 309, petroleum - could be returned to manufacturers in return for fresh partly in response to this increased activity, are scheduled to come into supplies and there could be possible

Reduce volume

Facilities Regulation (148/86). He said a new PCB classification, "PCB-Contaminated Liquids," will be defined as containing 50 to 5,000

ppm (by weight) PCB. He said also that new handling, storage and transfer requirements are to be set. Ron Mondoux a former PCAO

President, and Vice President of Eimco, was presented with the coveted Bedell Award with Gerrie

Wynen taking the Hatfield Award for operations. For




MISA please call(416)323-4321.

Stabilize and sanitize

sludges for easier, ecoiogicaiiy sound waste disposal.

of plant effluents.






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Circle reply card No. 112 Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

BCW&WA met at the mountain

WKsfler Cofifen

Jack Robinson, President of AWWA presenting long service award to Doug Webber. B. Hyslop, P. Turgoose, B. Walker and H. McConnell at head table, Hans Krause got the covetted Fuller award. Where can you hold conference events outdoors in opportunity for membership to grow to over 1000 by April? British Columhia of course. The BC Water & 1990 - an ambitious target considering the BC popula Waste Association gathered at the famed Whistler tion - but the track record indicates it can be achieved. Chlorine training and information was a priority Conference Centre for its 15th Annual Meeting. Out going President Peter Turgoose reported that and an experimental 'hands on school' in Nanaimo membership had risen to 860, an astonishing number was a great success. Photo, top left, shows AWWA for the BC population. He said that at this time the BC President Jack Robinson, presenting a long service association had decided not to join the Canadian award to Doug Webber. Incoming President of the BCW&WA, Bill Hyslop, is shown in plaid shirt. Water And Wastewater Association because of the high costs of maintaining a Director. He said the The equipment exhibition was felt to be one of the strongest ever and delegates took the opportunity to BCWWA mandate was education and training. tour the Whistler wastewater facility where they could Mr. Turgoose's report said the BC Ministry of see some equipment in action. Environment and Parks had confirmed its support for an Industrial Waste Committee. He saw this as an Photos Ron Ganton & Bill Hyslop.




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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

What's New Software/hardware

system cuts office management costs A new software/hardware system from B&J Cleland Ltd. dramatically improves invoicing, bookkeeping and payroll management proce dures, saving time and money. The system can be leased monthly and is designed for com panies, whose operations involve hourly labour charges applied to specific projects. These include con tractors in all fields, and engineer ing, plumbing, heating and air con ditioning companies. Accurate record keeping of labour-intensive work, or projects, where bookkeep ing errors can be costly is ensured, according to the company. Designed to be user-friendly, the system permits staff with no prior computer knowledge to carry out

complicated invoicing, bookkeeping and payroll management proce dures with ease. B&J Cleland Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 160

of a fault/alarm situation, the monitor automatically dials up to 8 pre-determined phone numbers, ringing up to 99 times each, to advise key personnel of location and

length adjustment and a 25:1 speed adjustment. Liquid ends are avail able in acrylic, PVC, polypropolyne, teflon and 316 stainless steel. Capa city ranges, through 22 models,

current fault status. Additional features

from 0.156 1/hr. to 120 1/hr. ProMinent Fluid Controls

of the

25G/Real Voice include the capabil

Circle reply card No. 163

ity to monitor four fault contacts

plus power failure. The fault recog nition delays are individually pro grammable. Alarms such as level, pressure, flow, shutdown, tempera ture, intrusion or any other alert conditions may be monitored.

Wastewater sampler uses no mechanical

moving parts

Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 162

Prominent Electronic

Metering Pumps ProMinent range of chemical metering pumps offers a complete range of outputs as well as all ancil lary equipment necessary to con struct a complete chemical feed station.

'Real Voice' alarm

monitor introduced Microtel 250/Real Voice dialing alarm monitor for use in operation malfunction



Microtel 250/Real Voice accepts spoken messages into the system microphone then translates them into a digital memory. In the event

Design of the ProMinent elec tronic pump is simple. The only moving part is the wear-free arma ture of the solenoid which is coupled directly to the diaphragm in the metering head. The teflon coated, steel reinforced EPDM diaphragm has





1.25 mm resulting in long diaphragm life. Output capacity can be varied in a ratio of 250:1 via 10:1 stroke

New engine in the Ag-Chem 2004 Ag-Gator

Duckbill style water pollution samplers operate without mechanicÂŁd moving parts, thereby reducing maintenance costs, according to the manufacturer.

No pumps, scoops, or vacuums are used. High velocity pneumatic sample ejection, and the Duckbill 'living screen' inlet eliminate clog ging in the tubes. An air post-purge blows lines dry between samples, so tubes can't freeze. The system was designed to operate even in heavily loaded waters, such as raw sewage, pulp and paper effluent, and industrial wastewater.

Markland Specialty Engineering Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 164


New LFD Flocculator

combines low speed, high efficiency A new flocculator from Mixing Equipment Co. delivers reliable, high efficiency mixing in low speed applications. The Lightnin LFD Flocculator features the A305 impel ler to provide up to 40 percent better results than conventional pitched

Surface or subsurface apply liquid sludge witb Ag-Chem's 2004 AgGator.




charged 6BTA-5.9 4 cycle diesel engine is aftercooled for more fuel efficiency. A 2200 gallon rated pres

cation cycle. Inject sludge to 10 inch depths with 4 injector shanks, or surface spread with a single, high volume splash plate deflector nozzle in swaths of 12' to 35'.

Ag-Chem Equipment Co., Inc.

sure/vacuum tank offers fast load

and unload with an 11 minute appli

Circle reply card No. 161

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

blade turbines. Gear box factors far exceed AGMA standards.

Maintenance is minimal. Top entry means no submerged bearings to foul, maintain or replace; bearing life is estimated at more tban 10,000 hours. Modular construction pro vides wide speed range selection. Mixing Equipment Co.

Circle reply card No. 165 25

Flowmetering - a new approach

Measuring the flow of water has never been

easy. The oldest known principles were measur ing height in a known primary device and measuring the speed of flowing water over a certain dis tance.

Later, the impeller flowmeter was introduced and is still in use for

clean water and for hydrographic surveys of flow in rivers and larger bodies of water. For raw sewage, these impeller devices are not practi cal because of grease build-up and

By John Jorritsma, President Volumetric Ltd.

other flowmeters don't do. In line

meters measure pump rate, and

openchannel meters measure inflow rate.

Description of operation Upon installation, the Volumeter requires only two values to be pro grammed into it before it can totalize flow. These values are the Intermediate Volume and Total INTF.RMF.DTATF VOLUME

The Volumeter does not require a straight length of pipe before and after the meter. This is particularly important when retrofitting an existing pumping station. In new pumping stations, money can he saved by simpler pipe configura tions and by eliminating the need for special metering chambers. The unit does not require regular maintenance such

as ultra-sonic

cleaning of electrodes, regular recalibration and other suggested main tenance.

Also, the presentation of data is different from other meters. All flow data from the Volumeter can be

printed on an optional dot matrix printer and consists of Date, Time, LEAD PUMP STARTINTERMEDIATE STOP LEVELTOTAL SUIvlP VOLUME

other solid matter which may be present. The magnetic flowmeter was for a long time a good choice in these applications along with open-

Sump Volume, which are volumes

channel and venturi meters. Next

The Volumeter measures the time it takes the Intermediate Volume to

came doppler shift flow meters, sonic (speed of sound) meters and insertion type magmeters. All these

which have been measured from the

pumping station's wetwell.

another on outflow rate-can be used

tioned flowmeters; some ofthem are not accurate in raw sewage; some of them require a certain length of straight pipe upstream and down stream of the flowmeter; some require full pipes and some are dif

fill during its inflow cycle. Since the Volumeter is programmed with this value, it can now calculate the aver age inflow rate using equation one. When the sewage level reaches the upper level of this volume, this is when the lead pump is called into operation by the pump control panel. At this point the Volumeter starts a new timing cycle to measure the time it takes for the Total Sump Volume, or the pump duty volume, to empty. When the sewage level

ficult to install.


Nowadays there is an increased importance in knowing accurately what happens in pumping stations for the purpose of collecting pay ments for sewage pumped and also to see at what capacity the pumps are pumping (pumping costs money) and pump maintenance. Another aspect is to he able to see at what time (maximum and minimum) flows occur and to per form infiltration studies by monitor ing flow during dry and wet periods.

volume, the pumps are stopped by the pump control panel. It now has the value of the Total Sump Volume

devices are excellent for various

flow measurement applications. For measuring flow in sewage pumping stations, there are a few difficulties with the previously men

Inflow rate. Pump rate and Totalized flow. This data is printed after each pump cycle. Other features include a High Inflow alarm, a Pump Performance alarm and a contact to operate an optional remote Totalizer. Two 4-20 mA outputs - one on inflow rate and



level of this

for recording, indicating or process control. The Volumeter is designed for sewage pumping stations that have constant speed pumps and where volumes in the wetwell be

tween duty levels can be accurately determined.

To date, over 125 Volumeters have been installed across Canada

and the U.S. Installation is very simple, as only a few wires need to be connected to the existing pump control panel. It works with any kind of level detection system, and can also be used as a portable unit. Volumetric Ltd. is also market

to empty. The relative pump capa city is calculated using equation

ing a new type of flowmeter; the Volumeter Model VMPC,which will totalize flow during continuous run ning of pumps in systems with com bined storm and sanitary sewage. For this device, patents are pending


in the U.S. and Canada. ES&E

and the time it took for this volume

Equation One Intermediate Volume Inflow Rate Time To Fill Intermediate Volume

The Volumeter Model VM micro

processor based flowmeter designed and patented by Volumetric Ltd. is

Equation Two Total Sump Volume

different from other meters in that it

does not sense the flow. Instead, it calculates the flow by using known

Time Pumps Take To Empty Total Sump Volume

volumes in the wetwell and its own accurate time base. The Volumeter

not only gives the outflow rate (pump rate) accurately but it also monitors the inflow rate, something 26

â– + Inflow Rate

Outflow Rate

Total Flow = total sump volume + (infl. rate x pump time)(per cycle)

Circle reply card No. 166

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


How to implement the Brundtland recommendations

In 1983 the United Nations established the World Com mission on Environment and

Development with a mandate to propose long term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development by the year 2000 and beyond. The commission was chaired by Madam Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway. She selected a multi national group of 23 people to participate; diplomats, politicians, scientists and academics, representing all major geographical areas of the world. All the major power groups were represented, the Russians, the Americans, the West Europeans and the Chinese. There were no industrialists, but to be fair, the Commission travelled the world and talked with all sorts of interest

groups, including industrialists. The Commission recognized quickly that it was essential to find common ground that would allow everyone to get on board with this

tions the environment in which we

By W.R.O. Aitken Roy Aitken is Executive Vice-President INCO Limited and Vice Chairman of the Nationai Task Force.

live and the society in which we function. The Brundtland


built on a set of common philosophy statements. The first says the environment does not exist as a

study. The last thing needed was yet another environmental issues only study. They had to recognize the involvement of all sectors of

society while avoiding confrontation based on the past. The focus had to be on the future and the objectives had to be constructive. With such a

mandate, the Commission could easily identify sufficient common interest to allow the development of a measure of consensus. Similarly Canada's National Task Force on

the Environment and the Economy,

composed of people whose percep tions of the ideal society differed widely, could also arrive at a high degree of consensus on the need for action to preserve for future genera-

sphere separate from human actions, ambitions and needs, and attempts to defend it in isolation from human concerns, have given the very word environment a conno tation of naivety. That is quite an extraordinary statement to come of a group of environmentalists, but it was an expression of realism. This perceptive philosophy unfortunately is not reflected in the structure of our governments, neither provincially nor nationally. There is little or no structural link

age between environment and econ omic ministries in our governmental systems. We have missed that target and we must do something about it. In 1986 the Brundtland Commis

sion visited Canada. Following that visit the Canadian Council for Resource and Environment

Ministers(CCREM)established the National Task Force on Environ

ment and Economy with an objec tive to initiate dialogue on environ ment/economy integration among Canada's environment ministers, senior executive officers from Canadian industry and representa tives from environmental organiza tions and the academic community, to recommend actions and to report back in Sevtember, 1987. The Task Force composition was unusual and provided all sorts of opportunity for conflict. It included the Federal Environment Minister

and Ministers from Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Alberta and the Yukon. Turf wars are not unknown in the relation

ships between Ottawa and the prov inces. In the background were The Brundtland Report could affect the global economy In the same dramatic fashion as the Industrial Revolution did over two centuries ago. Water then played a vital role In the manufacture of goods with little thought to the severe destruction of the environment. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal, above was the longest in Britain when completed In 1816 after being delayed until Napoleon was defeated. It transformed inland towns Into ports which could ship heavy machinery and other goods to world markets. But workers paid a heavy price in the form of severe air and water pollution in their communities. Factories were even worse, moving the poet William Blake to write his immortal lines on the 'dark, satanic mills'. The Brundtland Report says we can and must have economic expansion with environmental harmony - a challenge to environmental scientists and engineers.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

bureaucrats who weren't at all sure

that they liked this initiative; a powerful group, not invited to the party and perhaps concerned that they might be saddled with impos sible targets. We had seven repre sentatives from industry, including major companies such as Alcan, Dow, Inco and Noranda, all of which have been known to contri

bute to environmental pollution; Cont'd, overleaf 27

Scientific sampiing of waste water some techniques and hardware

Brundtland report (cont'd.) associations such as the Canadian


Association, the

Chamber of Commerce and the

the liquid, say one sample every 1000 litres, or on a straightforward Epic Products Ltd. time basis, say every hour. The flow proportional method does, of course, require that the sampler is coupled important part of any pro to a flowmeter, which in turn must cess which improves the have a contact closure output which treatment or handling of pulses at suitable flow increments. liquids. This is true for sewage treat ment, where the liquid may be crude Design consideration Obviously the design of any item sewage or raw sludge; for the water supply industry, where the liquid of automatic equipment is of great can he potable water from rivers or importance as, by definition, an reservoirs; and for general process automatic device must operate effic industries such as pulp and paper or iently and reliably without the need metal finishing, where the liquid for human attention. can be waste water discharged into On the face of it, automatic liquid rivers or sewers. samplers would seem to be very Traditionally samples have been simple pieces of equipment. All they taken manually, by the simple expe are required to do is extract a small dient of filling a bottle with liquid to volume of water from a channel or be tested. However, automatic pipeline and deposit it in a suitable sampling has enjoyed increasing container. However, the efficiency success over the last few years, and reliability of this simple opera mainly because of the scientific tion depend very much on the thought and ingenuity exercised at manner in which it is carried out. the design stage. Automatic samplers An appraisal is given of the Automatic samplers sample in a various design criteria relating to very consistent way, they contain automatic liquid samplers for samp the samples in a manner to suit the ling both from open channels and purpose, and they do this at exactly from closed pipes. In addition, oper the desired frequency for as long as ating techniques are described for is required. Not only are samples machines available commercially taken in a very scientific manner which satisfy each of these applica but they are often subsequently tions. deposited in a refrigerated sample Automatic samplers are finding container housing for storage, as it increasing application today in has been discovered that biologically tasks ranging from performance active liquids suffer the least degra monitoring of sewage works to the dation at 4°C. determination of charging para Today's automatic samplers also meters for traders who discharge offer options as far as the method effluent. They can also be used in and mode of operation is concerned. trouble-shooting operations and in For example, samples can either be scientific investigatory work into deposited into one bottle to form an process improvement. average or composite sample, or All samplers are judged on their they can be segregated into a number of separate bottles to pro ability to take representative vide a profile over a given period. In samples consistently and reliably, addition, samples can be taken without fouling or blocking. either according to the rate offlow of Samplers which do not meet these criteria could cause money to be wasted on fruitless sample analyses, P.J. Smith

Scientific sampling is an


but could also cause serious secon

Proctor & Redfern Limited The Board

of Directors of Proctor &

Redfern Limited are pleased to announce the appointment of Stuart G. Angus, P.Eng. as President and Chief Executive Officer of the firm and Douglas W. Scott, P.Eng. as Chairman of the Board. The appointments mark the retirement of Donald B. Redfern, P.Eng. from the firm after forty years of service. Upon his retirement,



Chairman of the Board.




dary cost consequences in terms of unnecessarily high effluent charges. As with any item of automatic equipment, good initial design

based upon experience and profes sional expertise is the key to contin uing, effective performance.

Ontario Waste Management Corporation. Here was a group of individual executives who might reasonably enter into this exercise with a degree of suspicion, wonder ing whether we were being sucked in

to legitimize a new pressure group tactic. Given that sort of concern, you could be sure that the industry representatives would not take a passive position, but would want to

be particularly pro-active. Just as the Brundtland Commis sion had found the need for common

ground, so did this group. The com mission report gave it a start. It noted that our common future is not a prediction of ever increasing environmental decay, poverty and hardship in an ever more polluted world among ever decreasing resources. We see instead the possi bility for a new era of ecotiomic growth, one that must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base; and we believe such growth to be abso lutely essential to alleviate the great poverty that is deepening in much of the developing world. But, the Com mission's hope for the future is con ditional on decisive political action in managing environmental resour ces





human progress and human surviv al.

This concept of a new era of economic growth took the industrial members of the task force beyond the Club of Rome's limits to

growth type shutdown scenarios, with which we had all been familiar, relating to environmental initiatives back in the 1970s. The Brundtland

report concluded that we needed growth to drive policies of sustain able development, policies which would give the third world a chance. While industrialists can't live with

shutdown scenarios in which they don't believe, they can live with those exhortations calling for growth which is sustainable econ

omically and environmentally. Industrial members of the Task

Force had no problem with that approach. We have no intention of using 1920s technology. We build clean plants today. Tbe technol ogy exists now to allow us to do

so. We are not looking for a hid den subsidy in the form of a license to pollute. We are not unreasonable people. We have children too.

Cancoppas is the exclusive Repre sentative for Epic for Canada.

We need major government economic development documents

to demonstrate that development

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

programs are economically and environmentally sustainable. The separation of Resource and Environment Ministers, which presently exists, mitigates against real integration of programs. The Council of Resource and Environ

ment Ministers is composed entirely of Environment Ministers with not one Resource Minister. We need to do better than that. There needs to he formal mechanisms to hold mini

sters accountable for promoting environmentally sound economic developments. It does not make sense




Ministers imposing policies which do not recognize the economic impact of those policies. Equally, Development Ministers should not he allowed to promote development which is not environmentally sound. Government funding pro grams should he conditional on meeting environmental standards. There is no way that we should have taxpayers' money being spent on supporting dirty projects; and here I am not talking about the cleanup of existing problem industries where

ceptable effluents into munici pal sewer systems, present a different problem. In that respect

the only environmental assessment process generally known today is the governmental one - which can take

the Canadian Chamber ofCommerce

forever. Industry can't afford time delays and will not accept the process as it stands. A way has to he found to accelerate the process, to make it acceptable.

may have a very large part to play. Nevertheless, leadership within industry is important just as it is in government, and the BCNl, with access and influence must he on hoard.


Government processes for evaluation of economic develop ment projects should include




industries or big businesses already conduct some form ofenvironmental


assessment on contemplated new projects. They are well advised to do

members to comply with environ mental requirements. There may he some conflict in that situation, because smaller operations may not have the resources or the technology,

associations should

endorse, support and promote environmental assessment.


so. We all know that it is much

easier, and in the long run cheaper, to build it clean tban to clean up later. If there is a problem with this objective it is that





hut it is time we faced the conflict.

Continued next page

Consultants' Directory Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning

assistance will he needed. I am talk

ing about the support which may he offered for new development pur poses - in this country or anywhere


important role to play in informing their members of the significance of environment/economy linkages. They must particularly encourage







socio-economic and environ

mental analysis. We hear lots about pay equity, well, this is environment equity. That may sound like a lot of government hashing, hut believe me this was not a one sided exercise.

Industry must get on hoard and show, in the same way as the First Ministers, their commitment to this objective. The Business Council on

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National Issues and the Canadian Chamber of Commerce should form

environment/economy task forces. The president of BCNl, has already

R.V. Anderson Associates Limited


consulting engineers





expressing his support for the task BCNl is symbolic in the same sense

Sewerage Systems Water Supply

as the first ministers. This after all

Water Resources

Transportation Municipal Services Land Development Tunnel and Stiaft Design

is the grouping of the Chief Execu tive Officers of Canada's 150 largest

Toronto (416) 497-8600

Welland (416) 735-3669



Pollution Control


businesses, and yet the 150 largest businesses in this country are not the real environmental problem. They are very visible, they are well known, they can he regulated, mon itored and controlled, they have modern technology and resources to deal with their problems. The 1,500 smallest busines ses, backyard shops, some of which unfortunately have been known to deposit totally unac




TELEPHONE (416) 622-9502

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988





beak consultants limited


Tel:(416) 458-4044 Fax:(416) 458-7303

Brundtland report (cont'd.) If associations won't undertake an

Entfironmental Specialists •Watershed Management •Process & Design Engineering •Fish Toxicity •Groundwater Contamination

element of policing of their members, then they invite policing by government and we have enough of that already. Industry must operate responsib ly in all jurisdictions, foreign as well as domestic. If we go offshore, then we must behave as if we were at




home. My own company is a good example in this respect. When we

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established our mine and smelter in


Environmental Analysis •MISA/EMPPL •GC/MS

•Dioxins •Metal Scans

•Conventional Pollutants •All Matrices

Indonesia 15 years ago, there were no environmental regulations there. In the vacuum we chose to design to Ontario standards.

We need to develop different analytical methodologies for pro ject assessment. If we consider costbenefit analysis, traditional return on investment techniques don't work in relation to the value of the





A Division Of









Waterloo, Ontario 519-579-3500 (Fax] 519-579-8986 Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2330


(Fax) 416-858-3779


environment. In a free enterprise world we compete for investment

capital. Unless we provide returns that satisfy investors, we don't get it. So we need to find better ways to analyse and evaluate environmen tal risks and impacts, and the econ omic research organizations of the country should explore the tools which we might use to develop pricing mechanisms and incentive systems which would make an environmental investment attrac tive on a cost/benefit basis.


We need carrots as well as sticks.

Analyses 178 Louisa St., Kitchener, Ontario N2H SMS 1-S19-S79-4230

There are many papers written on contaminant charge schemes and tradeable emission/discharge rights. I don't like these. To me, they smack of buying the right to


We hear about financial

assurance and performance deposits. Well we need to balance the ledger and hear something about investment tax credits and

Concord Scientific Corporation

credits for improving on environ mental standards.

Hazard and Risk Control

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We need to upgrade environ mental education, particularly at elementary and junior high school levels.

Environmental economics

should be included in high school and undergraduate study courses. This is one for the future, and we need to do better than we are doing now. Environmental instruction





to our children is given largely by people who appear to get most of their knowledge and interpretation of the subject from the media which are not an

original source of factual data on this topic. Then we need a mechanism to ensure that the initiative which has

been started by the Task Force is kept going. The task force recom30

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


mended multi-sectoral round tables


on the environment and the economy with chairpersons appointed by the first ministers.

These round

tables would operate principally at provincial and territorial levels. The provinces would send members to a


environmental engineers & scientists urban pianners transportation engineers




chairperson of that one being appointed by tbe prime minister. The sequence which I followed in running through the recommenda tions of the task force, started with a Minister


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ended with round tables reporting to First Ministers. So what has hap pened since the report was issued and where is all this activity going? The report was tabled and accepted at the First Minister's meeting in



federal level round table witb the



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The provinces appear to be moving ahead with Quebec in


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MISA,regulation 308 on air quality, toxic waste regulations, and "rigbt to know" legislation will leave few untoucbed.

People, particularly those in small businesses, are extremely con cerned about what,if anything,they Continued next page


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issues related to their industrial activities. The combination of

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Lavalln 31

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decent people who don't want to destroy the environment for their children. Nevertheless, many small businesses simply do not have the technology, resources or time to address some of the problems that they may create.


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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

business to take the initiative. If

business does not, then we all miss a chance which may not surface again for another decade, resulting in a decade of adversarial, punitive legislation. None of us can afford that, least of all our children.ES&E

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Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988


Buffalo pound water plant to expand physical removal processes. Over all, the contactors have been quite successful in dealing with taste and odour, although some minor break through did occur for a short period in 1986 after a particularly heavy









Suggestions from the plant oper ating staff to ease this problem have been incorporated in the expansion. The physical removal of the bottom portion of the carbon for regenera tion, which is done on-site in a per manent facility, has proven to be labour intensive. The new contac









Associated Engineering


of Regina recently com pleted the design and tendering of the Stage 1 Expansion of the Buffalo Pound Water




serves the Cities of Regina and Moose Jaw. The Stage 1 Expansion will increase the plant capacity by

50% to 205 Ml/d and incorporates provisions for the future Stage 2 Expansion which will bring the capacity to 275 Ml/d. The Stage 1 Expansion adds two new cascade aeration and tapered flocculation pretreatment facilities; one will serve the existing four circu lar clarifiers and the other will serve

the two Stage 1 square clarifiers to be supplied by Eimeo Envirotech. Also added under Stage 1 will be four additional granular carbon (GAG) contactors. The cascade aeration step has been added primarily to alleviate oxygen oversaturation which occurs in the winter months and

causes problems with floe settling in the clarifiers and air binding of the filters. The aerator is also expected to play a part in taste and odour reduction during the summer months.

Associated Engineering designed a pilot plant cascade aerator, which was constructed by the Buffalo Pound staff, and tests were carried out to optimize the step configura tion to be used in the design. The four-stage flocculation facili ties were added to restore the floccu 34

lation process to the overall treat ment.

Plant staff had discovered

during the initial operation of the existing clarifiers that operation of the solids recirculation turbines in

the clarifiers actually accentuated the taste and odour problem so the turbines were shut down. The result

of the shutdown was an impairment of the normal flocculation function within the clarifiers and overall

plant efficiency suffered. The clari fiers will continue to operate in this mode, but will now receive a well flocculated water. The new clarifier will not be fitted with a solids recir

culation zone or turbine, but is designed to be able to be retrofitted with this equipment. The flocculation and flash mix

equipment is to he supplied by Prochem Mixing Equipment. Eight GAG contactors went onstream three years ago to deal with the severe taste and odour problem caused by heavy algae blooms which occur every summer in the

tors will be slightly larger than the existing ones and Associated Engineering has modified the underdrain design and tank bottom configuration to improve carbon removal when regeneration is required.

New powdered activated carbon (PAG) feed equipment is also being added under the Stage 1 Expansion. Pilot testing done by Dr. Gammie and Plant Superintendent, Richard Berard, P.Eng., estab lished the usefulness of PAG in

shaving of geosmin peaks. This peak shaving results in far less load on the GAG contactors with a result ant increase in bed life and effective

ness. Injection outlets for the PAG slurry are provided at various points in the treatment process.

Other features of the projects include expansion of the waste management facilities, new alum storage and feed pumps, new chlorination storage, doubling of the capacity of the polyelectrolyte, soda ash, chlorination and other chemi cal feed systems, improvements to the heating and ventilation, expan sion of the plant laboratory, addi tion of new workshops and mainten ance facilities, a new high lift pumping structure, a new supervis ory control and data acquisition system, provision for future addi tional treated water storage, a second pipeline from Buffalo Pound Lake, and other expansions. Other contracts to be let include a new sub

raw water source - Buffalo Pound Lake. GAG was chosen as the best

station and raw water pumping

solution to the problem after lengthy on-site testing by another consulting firm and the plant chemist. Dr. Les Gammie. Several different options were studied during this testing includ ing; upflow granular carbon contac tors, massive powdered activated carbon addition, dissolved air float ation, chlorine dioxide addition, ozone, ultra-violet light and various

ly house three 1306 kW (1750 hp) pumps with a combined capacity of 281 Ml/d. The existing 2900 m long

station. This station will eventual

1050 mm will be twinned in the future with a 1350 mm diameter

pipeline and a new 1675 mm diame ter intake will be installed.

Gonstruction of the Stage 1 Expansion has begun and comple tion and commissioning is set for June of 1989.

Environmental Science & Engineering, June 1988

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