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ENVIRONMENTAL A Davcom Business Publication

Jan/Feb 1988

Canada's crumbling infrastructure - a $2.4 billion opportunity Ho w the East was won - AQTE's triumph in Quebec How MISA will revolutionize industrial thinking

Why water meters are vital for environmental management

We do Environmental Analysis to help you control pollution

MISA Governments are taking an active role in recognizing and controlling hiazardous chemicals in the environment. In Ontario, regulations are being prepared under MISA,(Municipal-Indus trial Strategy for Abatement), to strictly control toxic contaminants in water, MISA will affect both the Industrial and the municipal sectors and will set the standards for other jurisdictions to follow. We at Mann Testing have established comprehensive screening methods to accurately identify and measure contami nants in water, air and soil samples. Recently, we have developed cost effective, automated analytical methods specifically for use with MISA.

Monitor Our experienced chemists can monitor hazardous chemicals In the following areas: •water; waste treatment effluents, drinking water, ground water

monitoring airborne chemicals from landfills and Industrial sites

detection of ultra-trace organics and metals in drinking water analysis for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PGDD)and furans(PGDF) analysis of soil, water and oils for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH's) analysis of specific compounds toxic metals

organic acids general water quality parameters


•soil; sediment and waste chemical sludges

All analysis of highly toxic materials is performed in our High Hazard Laboratory which is specifically designed to protect both the environment and personnel. This responsible approach is a reflection of our commitment to the preservation of the

•air; both outdoor and indoor


•foods; fish, animals, fruits, grains, vegetables

When you require environmental analysis or want more infor mation on our services, please call or write us.

and lakes

Quality The level of service provided assures the accurate measurement of chemicals by using state-of-the-art instrumentation and an extensive Quality Assurance/Quality Control Program. The result is a cost efficient service to our clients.

Expertise Some of the areas where our expertise has been successfully applied include: •EPA Priority Pollutant Analysis for trace organics and metals •characterizations of hazardous substances in landfill sites



PHONE:(416)890-2555 TELEX:06-960496

Circle reply card No. 101

The facts behind Environmental

Science & Engineering

Never before has so much

concern been expressed about environmental

degradation. Both the public and politicians are demand ing strong remedial action and this concern has translated into a $2.4

billion market annually in Canada. And never before has such absolute

nonsense been spouted by non technical people on many impor tant issues.

The scientists and engineers, who have given Canada an environ mental system the world might envy - albeit with many imperfec tions - are ignored in favour of selfproclaimed 'researchers' more skilled in garnering headlines than in the basic environmental sciences.

Yes, we know that our environ

ment continually



problems; but these must be tackled by innovative engineering, based on a solid grasp of engineering fun

We don't inherit the land, we borrow it from our children. Engineersand scien tists share a heavy responsibility to preserve our environment for future generations.

GWWA. Reflecting CWWA's char acter, his board comprises represen tatives from across Ganada. Robert

Ferguson, Metro-Toronto's Deputy Commissioner of Works and A1

the clamour of the mob. We should

Schwinghamer, City Engineer, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, are Vice Presidents with Gerard LePage, City Manager,Pierrefonds, Quebec, serving as Secretary-Treasurer. We intend to follow closely and report on the progress of this new national body.

not be too surprised at this. As a

It is also vital that scientists have

damentals. And yes, public input into environmental decision mak

ing is vital. But the fact remains that the voices of the real experts in the field are too often drowned out by


writer once observed,

'when there is a shortage of bread, the first thing the mob burns down is the bakery'. There is a need for strong editor ial leadership in Canada. Canada's technical fraternity, by nature unsuited to political activism, has gradually yielded the moral high ground to citizens' groups. ESifE intends to provide both a forum for technical information, as well as

leadership in the public arena. But there are other reasons for

starting a new environmental mag azine. While the industry has grown to a $2.4 billion market, traditional

media serving the field appear to have reduced editorial pages and conference coverage in recent years. The industry itself has respond ed by the creation of the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association.

William Gates, General Manager, Halifax Public Service Gommis-

sion, is the first President of the

a place to share their research find ings with others; just as it is vital that engineers may cross fertilize their experiences with their peer groups. More than ever, it is essen tial that manufacturers of pollution abatement and drinking water treatment equipment should have a powerful forum, where new devel opments can be displayed in arti cles, where appropriate and, of course, through advertising. Adver tising is vital to the success of ES6'E. There must also be a place for coverage of industry's growing responsibility to adopt stringent abatement measures. Tough new legislation promises heavy fines and jail sentences for industrial polluters. In short, ES&E will cover the

total interdisciplinary spectrum of environmental subjects, including hazardous waste disposal, energy recovery and occupational health and safety in the workplace.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

While the magazine is new to the field, the editor Tom Davey brings unrivalled experience and industry knowledge to the publication. Tom has been twice honoured by the


Business Press in

New York, as well as by the US based Water Pollution Control Fed

eration, for his editorials and arti cles. He has also won six national awards in Canada and served as Publications and Science Editor at the




Studies at the University of Toronto. To date he has won thirty writing awards, the most recent being from the Association of Pro fessional Engineers of Ontario for 'eloquently' defending the role of the engineer in environmental matters.

He has given many papers on environmental matters for the American Water Works Association and the Pollution Control Associa

tion of Ontario. He is a regular lec turer at the University of Toronto and has made a presentation at the World Health Organization confer ence on toxic spills in Rome, Italy. But a mere reiteration of such facts tends to obscure the fact that

Tom is a highly entertaining writer who employs satire to drive his points home. His past award win ning articles have included: Renl-amob, Let them eat sludge cake, and Nader's raiders in Scare Wars.

Steve Davey, Sales Director



Editor and Publisher TOM DAVEY Sales Director STEVE DAVEY


Editorial Assistant VIRGINIA MEYER

Contributing Editor JOHN M. MACGREGOR


Production Manager SAM ISGRO

Editorial Advisory Board George B. Crawford, P.Eng.

Jan/Feb 1988, Vol 1 No. 1

Why low bid systems are bad for Canada's

environment. Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Rod Holme, P.Eng.

Peter Laughton, P.Eng.


Industry Update

J.V. Morris, M.Sc., P.Eng. Mike Provart, M.Sc., P.Eng.

Water: Canada's most neglected resource

Pamela Stokes, Ph.D.

An exclusive article by Federal Environment Minister,

Environmental Science & Engineering is a bi-monthly business publication published by Davcom Communications Inc. An all Canadian publication, ES&E provides authoritative editorial coverage of Canada's municipal and industrial


Award-winning WTP expansion uses cost-effective piate settling process. By Brian Wheeler, P.Eng., MacLaren Engineers

8 11


systems, energy management, drinking water treatment and distribu tion, air pollution monitoring and control, solid and hazardous waste

treatment and disposal and occupa tional health and safety.

ES&E's readers Include consulting engineers, industrial plant managers and engineers, municipal engineers and officials, key provincial and federal environmental officials, water and wastewater treatment plant operators, contractors, equipment manufacturers, representatives and distributors and academics.

ES&E welcomes editorial contributions

from consulting engineers, research institutions, environmental associa tions, equipment suppliers and government agencies. ES&E does not accept any respon sibility whatsoever for the safekeeping of contributed material.

Tom McMillan

MISA's revolutionary approach to pollution abatement.

An exclusive article by Ontario's Environment Minister, Jim Bradley

Why water meters are vital for environmental management By David Hanes, Neptune Meters Canada The magnitude of infrastructure rehabiiitation

12 14

By James MacLaren, P.Eng.


Canada's environmental regulations - where are we going? By Colin Issacs, Pollution Probe


Rehabiiitation of abandoned industrial areas

By Andrea Tang, Proctor & Redfern Ltd.


How the east was won - AQTE's remarkable triumph By Tom Davey


Please send

photocopies, prints (not negatives), or other facsimllles of the written or

graphic material for consideration. Head Office - 10 Retch Or., Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 5N7, Tel: (416) 773-4376, 727-4666. All advertising space orders, copy, artwork, film, proofs, etc. should be sent to Environ mental Science & Engineering c/o Prestige Printing, 30 Industrial Pkwy. S., Aurora, Ontario, L4G 3W1.

Printed In Canada, by Prestige Printing Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means witfiout written permission of the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages In reviews.

New association speaks for Canada's water and wastewater

industry. By W.H. Gates, P.Eng., President, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association

What's New - Silicalite molecular sieves - a new

Q O Q7

optionjfor treatment plant designers

0^~0 I

Consultants' Directory Appointments & Classifieds

Yearly subscription rates: Canada $18.00, $25.00 for two years, $33.00 for

three years, $5.00 per single Issue; U.S.A. $32.00, $47.00 for two years; other foreign $53.00. Directory & Buyers' Guide Issue $15.00.

Second class postal rates pending.


34 38

Cover photo - Environmental treatment projects and infrastructure renewal have developed Into a booming $2.4 billion industry epitomized in this cover photograph, courtesy the Proctor & Redfern Group. Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Eeb 1988

Editorial comment by Tom Davey

Why low bid systems are bad for Canada's environment Nowadays, people know the price of everything, and the value of nothing - Oscar Wilde

The low bid system is

dedication. Environmental treat

rooted deeply in government buying practices. Any vari ance from the tendering system is viewed with great suspicion by the news media. Seldom is it seriously considered that value of certain goods and services simply cannot be determined by purchase price alone.

ment plants are often large and extremely complex operations. Year in, year out, they have to work unceasingly for decades. As public health is at stake, clearly after-sales service is a vital ingredient in treatment systems. Yet equipment suppli ers who provide exemplary service; who support seminars

Yet the services of television commentators and editorial

and conferences which do so much to advance the state-of-

writers are obtained by the very

the-art; who do R&D to improve and upgrade their products: -

opposite of the low bid system. Publishers, quite sensibly, pay what is necessary to getthe best or most appropriate - talent for their





commonplace for television net works to boast ofspending astro nomical sums of money for 'anchors', some of whom simply read lines written by other

people. I have yet to hear any network put out tenders for their talking heads, or newspapers seek low bids for their columnists.

incidently, so many environ mental articles and TV commen

taries do look as if they were writ ten by scribes hired under the low bidding system; but that is a sub ject for later discussion. While news media salaries are

based on talent, experience or 'ratings', many of these same commentators will hint darkly of ill-doing if any government agency buys its goods and ser vices the same way the media moguls do; by seeking out the best available product or talents for their various projects. And not just environmental spending is involved. Even advertising agencies are suspect if they are awarded any contract not put open to tender; yet such subjective factors as creativity, graphics, art direction, or any other of the diverse talents â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

very essence of the advertising world â&#x20AC;&#x201D; defy computation by normal buying practices. Likewise, many factors go

into value engineering. In consulting engineering, for example, there are some firms which, because they have heavy investments in both R&D and

staff upgrading, have developed great expertise in certain disci plines. Indeed, because some foreign governments insist on the best available technology, Canadian engineers are

frequently sent thousands of miles to remedy serious environ mental problems. Scientific and technological expertise cannot be measured using the same marketplace tools as those used for the purchase of sand and

gravel. Similarly, many govern ment buying practices actually stifle innovation in the develop ment of new, improved or more durable treatment equipment and processes. Service too is a vital compo nent of environmental purchas ing - yet is too often ignored by the tendering system. Canada Valve's





legendary figure in waterworks

these are the very firms who are at a disadvantage when bidding on price alone.

Although private sector com panies are very cost-conscious, they know the real value of product reputation and service. While private firms exist in an extremely competitive universe,

many are quite willing to pay for quality, without erecting weari some layers of bureaucracy. The private sector values product in novation, reliability and service, so the reputation of their sup pliers is highly regarded. They know only too well that the true value of reliability and service is not always reflected on purchase price alone. Sad to relate but many fine equipment suppliers have left, or reduced their involvement in the municipal markets. Their withdrawal is a blow to both the Canadian

environment and economy.

Mediocre equipment and proces ses will exact their own price both economic and environ mental - in the not too distant future.

ance that he would show up with the vital component which would solve the emergency. Many other manufacturers'

We have made some dazzling progress in the research and development of many environ mental products and processes. Perhaps its now time to develop an awareness of value engineering among municipal and provincial purchasing staffs and elected officials, in physics, as well as in purchasing, there simply are no

representatives display similar

free lunches to be had.


Whatever the time, no





weather, city engineers could phone Jack at home during crises â&#x20AC;&#x201D; with the full reassur

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

INDUSTRY UPDATE turer, a steel pickling plant and a detergent manufacturer. All

Montreal STP

officially opens

three identified substantial ben efits from waste reduction mea

Clifford Lincoln, Quebec Environment Minister, presided at the opening ceremony of the Montreal Urban Community's new sewage treatment plant. Located on the eastern tip of Montreal Island, the plant is the focal point of a $1.42-billion

sures. The steel pickling plant, for example, installed an acid recovery system which saved the company $379,000 in operat ing costs, eliminated waste and improved pickling efficiency. The 88-page manual also lists

project, begun in 1973, to end the discharging of raw sewage into

sources of information and financial assistance for

waters in the Montreal region.

companies interested in waste

The plant is the largest STP in

reduction and exchange.


For more information contact

Murray Creed, Tel:(416)923-2918,

Manual helps companies reduce wastes, cut costs The Ontario Waste Management

Corporation (OWMC) has pub lished a manual to help manu


hours. The lime stabilized sludge is further dried on site using a 'Brown Bear' to enhance the

natural drying process. The end product, at 50+% solids, will be utilized by area farmers on crop land.

EVENTS Whistler is venue for 1988 BCWWA Conference The 1988 BCWWA annual con

ference will be held at Whistler,

B.C. April 24-27.


theme is "Meeting at the Moun tain". Contact: Ken R. Kerr,

Sludge contract

P.Eng., Conference Chairman,

awarded Rupke & Associates Ltd. has

c/o Kerr Wood Leidal Associates

Ltd., 139 West 16th St., North Vancouver, B.C. V7M l'r3,(604)

facturing companies reduce

been awarded a contract in the

their wastes. The Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction

amount of $520,260.00 for lime stabilization and disposal of


Manual is a step-by-step guide to carrying out a systematic audit of plant processes, including a cost-benefit analysis.

sewage sludge from the City of

Annual Conference: Theme Environmental Reform -

Windsor Little River Water Pol lution Control Plant.

Rupke has established a 10

Case studies in the manual

acre site in Windsor where lime

explain how audits were carried

stabilization is carried out using

out in three different operations: a printed circuit board manufac

quick lime to increase the pH to 12+ for a period of at least 2

Annual Conference in Kingston, Ont. April 17-19 at the Ambassador Hotel.

ment Association at the Valhalla Hotel in Toronto.

OPCEA Directory of Members

President Larry Madden, Secre

and Products came in for some

tary Treasurer Ross Humphry

warm praise as Ross explained how tangible benefits were already evident from the Directory. A second one was planned for 1988, he said. A slide presentation of




Plaskon delivered some great one liners along with their reports.

Responses from the podium to questions from the floor were hoth swift and Swiftian in their




delivery. Clearly OPCEA is both in good hands and in good shape. Equipment suppliers who did not attend missed a

in brief news releases of their

cussed was the exhibition at the

forthcoming APCA/PCAO

products along with suggestions for scientific articles.





membership may be obtained from Ross Humphry, c/o Enmet Canada Limited, Suite 100, 2600

Edenhurst Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5A 3Z8. (418)276-2202



It's always good to see an old friend again and to hear of his progress.

Let me wish you and the family luck on the new publica tion. James W. MacLaren

Dear Tom:

Congratulations and best wishes for every success in the launching of your new magazine Environmental

Further details on OPCEA


OMWA, Holiday Inn, London D. Windsor,(416) 252-7060


Engineering was given by Steve Davey, ES&E Sales Director. Steve urged suppliers to send

most entertaining evening as well as a comprehensive review of their industry. In general, an air of optimism prevailed and suppliers who are not members could be missing some real benefits. Among the items dis

M4S3A6. (416) 489-7067. ence

Warmth and wit permeated the November meeting of the Ontario Poliutlon Control Equip


Challenge and Opportunity; Ambassador Hotel, Kingston. For registration and program details contact: Dr. H. McAdie, Ste 303, 2161 Yonge St., Toronto

May 1-4 - Joint Annual Confer

New OPCEA directory praised by manufacturers

The recently

April 17-19: APCA/PCAO Joint



Engineering. I have no doubt that this publication will develop to become one ofthe best in North America. Steve Bonk

President-Eiect, American Water Works Association

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Gartner Lee hosts environmental contamination course Gartner Lee Limited organized a two day course on the Funda mentals of Environmental Con tamination mid November in Toronto. The course attracted

representatives from municipal, provincial and federal govern ments,industry, and legal insur ance professions. The course illustrated a holis

tic approach to investigations, evaluations




contaminant problems, while providing guidance in planning responses in the event of environmental


Speakers from

Gartner Lee,

Cantox, Ontario Research Foundation, and Oster Hoskin & Harcourt



Solicitors provided an overview of techniques currently being used in the environmental field.

Quebec begins sludge study An R&D project to enhance the agricultural value of sewage

APEO Medal presented to George Crawford George Crawford, seen with his wife Ruth, won an APEO Medai for Engineering Exceilence at the Association's Awards Dinner in


A former Chairman

and President of Gore & Storrie

Limited, George has been a tire less worker for professional associations, including the AWWA Ontario Section and the Pollution Control Association of Ontario. He has served as PCAO President and also as a member

of the Board of Control of the Water Pollution Control Federa

tion. As an engineer, he has APEO medai is a recognition of worked on many significant the contributions he has made pollution control projects. The during his wide-ranging career. treatment plant will provide a focal point for this part of the project. The third stage will demonstrate the advantages of agricultural use of sludges, using different types of soils. Finally the project will assess the positive and negative effects

sludge has been initiated by the Quebec Environment Ministry. The three-year, four-part study will start by determining costs associated with current sludge treatment and disposal. The second stage will consist of a complete study of various aspects of enhancing the agricultural value of sludge; the Ottawa Regional Municipality sewage

of various treatment processes

on the agricultural value of sludges.










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Circle reply card No. 102 Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Circle reply card No. 103

WATER: Canada's most

neglected resource ES&E Staff met with Federal Environmental Minister Tom McMiiian in both Ottawa and Philadelphia last year where his vigorous presentations were well received by some of North America's top environmental professionals. In Philadelphia, we requested an exclusive review of his outspoken thesis which we are proud to publish in our inaugural issue. Mr. McMiiian's portrait is by world renowned photographer Karsh of Ottawa.

water from Georgian Bay to the city? If water is truly cheap,why do Canadians spend $100 million a year on bottled drink ing water? If Canadians view water as

cheap, and they do,it is because, as users, they have never had to pay anything close to what it costs to deliver it pure to the tap. It is arguably the single most heavily subsidized commodity in the marketplace today. Canadians are willing to pay $18,000 for a cubic metre of whiskey and $800 for the same amount of cola. And yet they have never been asked to pay more than 50 cents for a cubic

metre of pure water delivered not merely to the door, but to every floor of the house. If not to every room. Canadian water Is at once

Our country is the

(C) 1987, Karsh, Ottawa

world's worst waster

of water.




tries, our consumer price for the product is the lowest. We must start viewing water not only as a key to environmental health but also as a scarce commodity that has real value.

And we

should begin managing it - and

the world's best bargain and the worst delusion; for we pay dearly In the long run for such short sightedness. By underprlclngour water, we undervalue It. And by undervaluing water, we encour age Its waste. What Is more, municipalities are foregoing a source of revenue badly needed to ensure that water Is, In fact, delivered pure to the country's homes




places of recreation.

pricing it! - aocordingiy. In no part of Canada is fresh water so plentiful that we Canadians can

Water pollution has become so bad in this country that vast

continue to over-use and abuse it

take water quality for granted in their communities. Indeed, east of Ontario, only 10 per cent of waste water is treated; in all, a third of the Canadian population (8 million people) live in munici palities that do not treat their sewage. Elsewhere, sewage

in the way we have done in recent decades.

If water is so cheap, why are water treatment and delivery systems across Canada currently valued at $100 billion? If water is both cheap and abundant, why are some Torontonians proposing a $200 million pipeline to transport

numbers of Canadians cannot

to repair aging underground pipes alone. Faced with those bills, munic ipalities in every part of Canada are seeking a quick fix. Having ignored the problem for so long, without planning for the day of reckoning or budgeting for it, they now expect the federal government to help hail them out. The federal government has neither the cash nor the jurisdic tion to do so. At a time when the

federal government is too broke to pay its own hills without mas sive borrowings, it is certainly not in a position to pay the hills of other governments. Indeed, 33 per cent of all federal revenues are now requir ed to service the Government of

Canada's accumulated debt. By contrast, only 10 per cent of revenues are required to service provincial debts. For municipal ities, the figure is only 9 per cent. The federal government is, in fact, the most severely strapped jurisdiction in the country. It is therefore, the least able to incur more debt for any purpose, let alone for municipal infrastruc ture problems. Lest there be any doubt, let me stress the point: the federal government does not Intend to re launch multl-bllllon dollar pro grams to support municipal waterworks projects. Least of all are we Inclined to do so In a way that will perpetuate provincial and municipal management policies that undervalue water, underprlce It, reward over-use and foster waste at the federal

government's expense. The Federation of Canadian

Municipalities argues that infra

treatment systems are in such


deplorable shape that it will cost $3 billion over the nextfive years

beyond the fiscal capacity of local governments. But gross



Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Eeb 1988

revenues of Canadian munici

palities are now well over $40 billion a year. On average they spend only about 6 per cent of that revenue on water and waste water services. It's not a

question offiscal capacity -it's a question of priority. Some parts of the country are, of course, wealthier than others. The different provinces are not on an equal footing when it comes to paying for capitalintensive water projects. Butthe federal government already helps redress the imbalance in a massive way through transfer payments to the provinces and through regional development programs. In turn, each of the provinces has arrangements to

Faced with the need to invest

heavily in water projects over the next decade, Canada should now revolutionize its approach to the problem in line with what other countries are doing. The country should begin with a realistic pricing policy for consumers ~ residential and industrial alike - that achieves

three objectives:

Ontario's Durham region, per capita water use dropped 20 per cent between 1975 and 1983, when a realistic pricing policy was introduced.

When water

meters were first introduced in

Kingston in 1954, per capita pumpage plumetted by more than

a third (36 per cent). My message to everyone connected with delivering fresh water is: end the

Canadians are willing to pay $18,000 for a cubic metre of whiskey and yet they have never been asked to pay more than 50 cents for a cubic metre of pure water - delivered to every floor of the house.

ensure a minimum standard of

â&#x20AC;˘ encourages conservation; services within its borders,from â&#x20AC;˘ raises the cash necessary to one community to another. deliver pure water at the tap; Some of that money is ultimately â&#x20AC;˘ stimulates the kind of research drawn from the federal treasury, needed to bring costs down and especially in the so-called have- make our water systems more not provinces. effective. So, the question is not When water is given away or whether the federal government greatly undervalued, as it now is, is or is not going to assist the water will be wasted, it is no dif municipalities with the cost of ferent in that respect from oil or municipal infrastructure. It any other commodity: price already does! Rather, the ques drives consumption. tion is whether the federai In Europe, where water government is going to be hit charges are four times higher twice. And the answer to that than in Canada,per capita use is question is a resounding no. lessthanhalf that of Canada. In There is a better way for the country to deal with the problem than merely passing the buck from the municipalities to the federal government.

fire-saie pricing.

Not only are Canadian water rates the lowest of any in the industrialized world, they also seem to have been pulled out of the Mad Hatter's hat, with nothing but happenstance to explain why people in the same

province,in the same city, some times living even within the same block, pay markedly differ ent rates for their water. And it is not a coincidence that the cries for federal subsidies are loudest

from those areas of the country where the prices are lowest. Continued next page

The better way i have in mind is to introduce a water pricing system that bears some relation to the real value of the commodity and






delivering it to the consumer. Other industrial countries

have embraced the principle that the capital and operating costs of water supply and waste water treatment systems should be borne by consumers, Canada has yet to do so. Although state subsidies and tax advantages are used around the world, few countries rely as heavily as Canada does on those instru

ments to manage water. Such a heavy reliance on hiding the true cost of water has encour


Canadians both to

consume and to. waste a scarce resource.

Canada's freshwater resources represent a multi-billion dollar asset for tour ism, recreation, power generation and of course as the source of our drinking water. The f^Mnister argues that price drives consumption;that when water is undervalued it will be wasted leading to environmental neglect and pollution. Photo by Tom Davey.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

In industry and agriculture, the story is the same. Canadian industry pays about a quarter of what European industry pays,

As low as they are, municipal and other water rates are per haps the most common contact many people have with the

something that any one govern ment or any one politician can do alone. I myself have not



water resource management

American industry pays, for water. Our irrigation and indus trial pricing policies often reward consumption through lower rates for higher use. Unless we put in place a more realistic pricing policy, the country will have neither the funds to deliver pure water to

issue. Most persons or families in urban Canada pay, either directly or indirectly, for water supplied by a public utility.

istic approach to the subject, however unpopular I may now be in some municipal chambers




Canadians nor the incentive to ensure it remains available for

future generations.

Water rates,in fact, are so taken for granted that the obvious has escaped most water managers: rates could he a tremendously effective management tool. Convincing Canadians of the need to provide and conserve and, yes, pay for water is not

hesitated to call for a more real

for having done so. But mine is only one voice. I invite all Canadians to do their

part to help safeguard this price less resource. The obstacles should not be minimized. But neither should we underestimate

our capacity to exercise wise stewardship.

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Circle reply card No. 104 10

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Award-winning WTP expansion uses costeffective piate settiing process

The Lake Huron Water

Supply System was one of the first provinciallyowned and operated potable water supply systems in Ontario, serving the City of London and surrounding municipalities for more than 20 years. The original system, designed by MacLaren Engineers Inc. in 1965, included intake, low-lift pumping, water treatment by coagulation, flocculation and direct filtration, and high-lift pumping facilities. The treatment plant is located on the shore of Lake Huron, north of the Village of Grand Bend. Follow ing a series of pre-planned expansions of pumping capacities, including the 1977 construction of a booster pumping station at the mid point of the 50 km pipeline, the entire system approached its design hydraulic capacity of 340,000 cubic metres per day. However,treatment capacity and effectiveness was limited by adverse raw water conditions. Lake turbidity of over 100 units during storms, and twice yearly plankton blooms, resulted in short filter runs. Some

times, even low turbidity was diffi cult to treat. These experiences,

coupled with the desire to achieve increasingly higher standards of potable water, indicated a need to upgrade water treatment processes. In 1983, MacLaren Engineers became involved in the expansion and upgrading of the treatment

plant for the next 20-year period.

By Brian Wheeler, P.Eng. MacLaren Engineers Inc. London, Ontario

The project culminated in October 1986, with the start-up of a highly cost-effective plate settling process, the first application of this technol ogy at a large water treatment plant in Canada.

Pre-design studies completed by MacLaren indicated that supple

Lake Huron treatment plant, for example, amounted to about $4 million.

Turbidity in lake water is reduced by settling from more than 100 units to less than five units, while plank ton removal is in excess of 90 per cent. Following this high level of pre-treatment, the filters can now be designed and operated in a way which emphasizes treated water quality. Integral solids thickening units were also added to effectively concentrate settled solids for both

mentary treatment of the raw water

recycling and dewatering. Recycled

before it flowed through the existing

solids can now be used to stabilize

filters would be the best method of

the process, maintain the effective

treatment process upgrading. These studies, confirmed by pilot plant testing, also indicated that parallel plate settlers would be less costly and offer more potential advantages

ness of treatment when hard-tosettle solids are encountered in the

than other treatment alternatives.

Parallel plate settling incorpor ates the use of closely spaced paral lel plates and the control of flow between the individual plates by means of orifices.

This creates a

"laminar" flow regime. Laminar flow, and the related short settling pathways prior to particle removal,

raw water, reduce chemical coagu lant usage, and provide higher retention


contact times for

powdered activated carbon. Solids dewatering by centrifuge was adopted for the off-site disposal of excess water treatment residues.

Other complementary facilities designed by MacLaren for the treat ment plant included an upgraded chemical preparation storage and dosing system. Sodium hydroxide is

help to ensure a highly efficient and

used for corrosion control and the

uniform clarification process. Compared to conventional processes, parallel plate settling requires five to ten times less tank surface area. Thus, the overall facility can he enclosed and climatecontrolled more economically. The construction cost savings at the

control of post-filter precipitation of aluminum. Polymer feed systems were added to provide primary and secondary coagulants, and to aid solids dewatering. As well, more clear well storage and a new mainttenance building were provided as part of the overall expansion and upgrading program. The role of Axel Johnson Inc. in

first promoting consideration of plate settlers should be recognized. Ontario Ministry of Environment staff evaluated and approved the plate settling concept which led to the on-site pilot plant trials of the equipment. MacLaren Engineers developed a pre-selection tender document which allowed equipment suppliers to quote the inclined plate settlers and integral thickening units as one package. The success ful supplier was Ecodyne Ltd. Since system start-up, the process has achieved or exceeded the specified level of performance. 4 tanks each contain 38 plate units.

Each plate unit consists of 75 plates and 225 orifices.

Settling and Thickening Tank

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Editor's note: This project won an Award of Merit in the 1987 Canadian Consulting Engineer ing Awards Program. 11

MISA's revolutionary approach to pollution abatement The environment folio has often been a political minefield yet Ontario Environment Minister Jim Bradley proved a major asset in the Liberal Government's landslide victory of 1987. Environmental Science & Engineering asked the Minister to write an article on his government's MiSA program which will revolution ize the way industries and municipalities deal with pollution abatement processes.

discharge directly to rivers and lakes and for those with effluent

treated at municipal sewage works. It also presents important opportunities for the scientists, engineers, technicians and managers involved in industrial pollution abatement. Best Avail able Technology calls for the best that is available in scientific

MISA, the Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement, is the dynamic regulatory tool the Ontario government adopted to clean up Provincial waterways. MISA's ultimate objective is the virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances from municipal and industrial discharges into our waterways.

For each of nine major indus trial sectors and the municipal sewage treatment plants, MISA imposes first a monitoring regu lation which requires dischargers to test for the presence and report the quantities oftoxic substances in their effluent. This monitoring information will form the basis

of abatement regulations requir ing pollution reductions to the levels attainable by the Best Available Technology economically achievable. The limits, based on available technology, will get stricter as periodic reviews assess new and evolving technologies in each sector. The result will be a stepby-step tightening of pollution controls until toxic contaminant

discharges are virtually eliminated. This sets a challenging pollu

tion control agenda for Ontario industry - both for those which 12

and engineering expertise. Applying this technology to meet rising environmental standards in a cost-effective way is equally challenging to company managers who have to keep pace with the rest of their industry. There is, however, a way to score a bull's-eye on this moving target. The best shot at success for any company is changes in industrial processes which eliminate the creation of toxic wastes. Such moves would also

eliminate the capital costs of installing end-of-pipe controls as well as the operating costs of safe disposal of captured contaminants.

I am pleased that some of Ontario's dischargers have already applied the 4R principles with some success. Steico and Texaco in

Nanticoke have segregated their waste streams so that treatment

can be pollutant-specific and thus highly efficient. At Steico, this allows for recovery of ammonia from the coking process. It is mixed with sulphuric acid and sold as fertil izer. These efforts have resulted

in a drastic reduction in pollu tion loadings. Some municipalities are practising source control to keep certain pollutants, notably heavy metals, out of their sewer systems. The sludge can then be used as fertilizer.

Certain industries have gone even further hy changing the manufacturing process. AbitibiPrice, in Thunder Bay, has con verted from sulphite pulping to a semi-chemical, mechanical process which resulted in a dramatic increase in pulp yield -

When an industry is under economic pressure, corporate

from 65% to 90% - with a corres

survival instincts call for trim-

loadings. Companies which develop

ing fat and working lean. The environmental pressure of MISA, and the fact that this is a com

petitive world, are strong arguments for a fresh look at the basic processes, to trim material and energy waste, and eliminate unwanted toxic by-products. This benefits both private profit ability and the environment we all share.

A complete process review also provides an opportunity to identify wastes which, with some operational modifications, may become marketable to other companies for other uses. In fact, all of the 4R solutions should be explored - waste Reduction, Reuse,Recycling and Recovery.

ponding decrease in pollution

cost-effective and low-or no-

waste processes have an added advantage. Their competitors comprise a potential market for selling the process, thereby recovering development costs and profiting from those who are slow off the mark.

With MISA's progressive tight ening of allowable limits, i believe the biggest dividends -- both economic and environmental ~

wiil go to the companies which make early investments in research and development in these directions. Some compan ies will find closed-loop proces ses which discharge virtually no pollution. This is the MISA goal each discharger should strive for.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Here is a brief report on each sector's progress since the MISA program began in July 1986. Petroleum Refining Sector Regulation development for the petroleum refining sector is the most advanced. The draft

monitoring regulation has been produced and public review is complete. Public comment is now under review, and appropri ate fine-tuning of the draft regu lation is being done. The final monitoring regulation should be in place in March. Puip and Paper A draft monitoring regulation

is being prepared for public review next summer. This sector

is one of the greatest sources of toxic contaminants discharged to the environment. New analy tical techniques and laboratory

procedures are being developed to analyze various compounds in pulp and paper effluent,so the monitoring list can be completed.

electric plants. While there are outstanding issues, I expect to release a draft regulation by the end of the year. Iron and Steel

Three monitoring schedules have been agreed on for large integrated operations, specialty mills and mini-plants producing alloys. A pre-regulation pro gram has been agreed on and work will start shortly on draft ing a monitoring regulation. Target date for public review is October.

Metal Casting

This sector represents about 200 industries. A pre-regulation monitoring program has been drafted and is expected to be finalized in November. Public

release of a draft monitoring regulation is expected in the fall. Municipal Sector There are two key areas under

development in the municipal sector. Development of a sewer

use control program is underway for indirect dischargers. Exist ing control mechanisms around the world have heen reviewed

and assessed, and the report published. Preferred options for Ontario will be made public in March. A monitoring regulation for sewage treatment plants is also being developed for public review in December.

In all sectors, I expect to see abatement regulations within two years after completion of final monitoring regulations. While I appreciate the need for study and the lead-time required

to make process changes or purchase abatement equipment. Ministry staff and I will be looking for prompt and effective compliance. I believe that our objective, the virtual elimination of toxic con taminants from effluent dis

charges, is an achievable goal, and one that the people of Ontario are impatient to meet.

Organic Chemical Manufacturing A monitoring regulation for this sector is being developed. A draft regulation should be ready for release for public review in March.


Inorganic Sector

Some 20 companies have been identified in the inorganic sector.

Ministry staff are gathering information on the plant proces ses and treatment systems now in use.

Mining and Refining Mining operations, with remote locations and an average lifespan of five to seven years,

present a major challenge for MISA regulation. Pre-regulation monitoring has been completed and we hope to publish a draft regulation for public review in June. Electrical Generation

The Ministry has asked for two additional sample runs in pre-regulation monitoring in this sector. Discussions are still

under way on the range of facili ties to be defined in the sector -

nuclear plants owned by Atomic Energy Canada, independent generators selling to Hydro, inoperative plants and hydro

Much of the past economic growth was achieved through invisibie environ mental 'mortgages' which burdened later generations. By restoring our price less waterways, MISA can help preserve our ecology for future generations.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


Why water meters are vital for environmental management

A study performed by

the City of Vancouver in 1986, when that city was considering implementation of a metering program, predicted that longterm water consumption would he reduced hy approximately 20%.

Benefits of universal water

metering fall into two main cate gories and have far reaching effects on the system as a whole. These primary benefits are,first, a decrease in consumption, and secondly, a better management of the water distribution and treatment systems.

When examining the actual usage patterns, we find that the price elasticity of water demand is much higher for water used outdoors,than indoors. Outdoor use will subside greatly with metering as consumers see a direct correlation between costs

and the amount of water wasted

in the over-watering of lawns, etc.

Indoor usage on the other hand is less sensitive to price. Here behavioral changes are short-lived. The main long-term benefits come from the repair of leaks which would previously

have gone unattended and through the installation of more efficient water-saving fixtures. Overall, short-term consump tion is reduced hy up to 40% while the long-term consumption decreases hy about 20%. This

long-term decrease is where many of the benefits are realized. With a 20% drop in water con

sumed, the distribution and storage capacities increase, rela tive to the population served. Systems previously nearing capacity, and in need of renova tion or expansion, will now he able to more adequately meet consumers' needs. Capacity

expansion may he postponed or eliminated.

Some monies set

aside for increased capacity may now he used to overhaul existing

infrastructures, thereby reduc

ing system leaks and possible water contamination. 14

By David Hanes,

Neptune Meters Canada

a Central Meter Reading(CMR) system which allows the meters to he read through telephone or cable television lines. This state-

of-the-art technology allows a

By reducing system loads,

reading to he taken instantly

more water will he available for

without the need to even visit the

more productive purposes at higher residual pressures. Fire


protection and major industries

basis for water billing, tfie amount

Wfiere flat rates are used as a

are the main beneficiaries of the

paid by the consumer does not

increased water pressure. Resi dential users may also benefit as water pressure will not decrease drastically during peak con sumption times.

reflect the amount of water used. Thus the consumer has no Incen tive to reduce Inefficient use of water. Those who do make an

As consumption falls the load on the water and sewage treatment systems will similarly be reduced. Not only will vari able costs of these two systems be reduced, but captlal expendi tures Involving system upgrades

subsidizing their neighbours who do not. Metering provides the only system which equitably allo

may no longer be required. Through the use of a universal metering program, water utilities gain a great deal of information regarding usage

patterns, long-term trends and potential systemic inadequacies. This base of information will

help to ensure that meters are sized correctly to fill projected needs. Demand cycles and trends can he monitored, and

changes required to efficiently meet the consumption needs can he made. Essentially the water utility becomes more proactive

effort to limit waste are merely

cates the cost of the water to the consumer.

A complete metering system gives utilities a thorough know ledge ofthe water volumes distri buted hy metering the outgoing feed lines. Utilities will also know how much water

customers have received during particular periods. The differ ence between the volume distri buted and the volume hilled

represents unaccounted-for water. This variable represents loss due to leaks in the system

between the pumping station and the consumer's meter. By

efficiency of the meter reader hy allowing a reading to he taken

analyzing the unaccounted-for water, a utility can focus on problem areas within its distri bution system and take action to reduce systemic waste. Our company has been a sup plier of liquid flow meters to the

without the need to enter the

Canadian market for over 70

and less reactive.

Currently, there are systems available which enhance the

customer's premises. By reduc ing "call-hacks" the efficiency of the meter reading and hilling

system is greatly improved. The Neptune ARB (Automatic Reading and Billing) receptacle allows the water utility to take this benefit even farther. ARB

meters may he read using a hand-held reading unit called Unigun which will then store the information in its memory to he downloaded to a computer for hilling. The ARB receptacle is also the essential component to

years. We believe that only through universal water meter ing will municipalities he able to hill customers equitably and fully for the cost to provide good quality water. By reducing wastage, metering also reduces the quite unnecessary additional burdens




treatment systems. Meters, in

fact, give both economic and environmental



societies which adopt their use. References available request. Contact ES&E.


Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

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SERVICE/DISTRIBUTION ACROSS CANADA Circle reply card No. 105 Environmental Science & Engineering. Jan/Feh 1988

Circle reply card No. 106 15

The magnitude of Infrastructure rehabilitation One of Canada's best known consulting engineers presents a comprehensive review of Infrastructure problems. Jim MacLaren touches on experiences In the United Kingdom, the United States and Ontario. He notes that Gas, Electri

city and Telephone systems would not be accepted without metering. Awarded the Ontario Section AWWA's Fuller award In 1987, he was appointed Chairman ofthe Ontario Government's MISA Advisory Committee towards the end of'87 any built-up parts of







By James W. l\/lacLaren


from the preparation of a detailed inventory of its municipal water supply systems. The focus of several major studies in recent years

mains before 1950 and

has been "needs assessments";

these systems are now in an advanced

these typically identify infrastruc

stage of their working life. Repair and replacement of existing systems

ture investment needs, assess amounts and sources of financing

could now be expected to be taking up an increasing portion of municipal capital construction expenditures. The Ministry should therefore be keeping aware of these expenditure

available under current policies and calculate any gap between the two. These




community water systems which are defined as those serving 25 or

trends and needs for renewal and

more persons and having at least 15

replacement involving watermains and distribution systems. Policy and Planning Branch of the Ministry of the Environment in Its 1982 report entitled "Repair and Replacement of Existing Municipal Water and Sewerage Systems". This statement obviously res

service connections.

ponded to a growing concern throughout the western world over the aging of municipal infrastruc ture. Water supply systems for the past 40 years have been geared to an expansion program to service increasing demands and expanding service areas. However by the midSeventies, the water industry began to enter an era where an increasing length of its buried pipelines and services was reaching the end of its theoretical structural life, some portions being more than 100 years of age. Probably the first nation to become seriously concerned with this issue was the United Kingdom where




commenced to formally address the problem early as 1974 and completed its initial report in 1977 (1).

The key conclusions and recom mendations of that report were: •A serious lack of information on

lengths, diameters, age, materials and condition existed.


populations in excess of 10,000 •It was widely believed that current expenditures were Inadequate but more Information was required.

Each of the major studies under taken since 1980 faced several signi

ficant problems in developing a comprehensive and reliable

realistic costs and

estimate of the needs of these com



research Into

Improved renovation methods. Emphasis was placed on renovation rather than replacement and on Improved maintenance. •The physical life of cast Iron and A/G pipe of 8-Inch diameter or less was assumed at 80 years and for larger diameters 120 years at least. No similar figures were provided for PVC pipe.

Since then the British program has entered into high gear with most agencies, having completed their inventories and planning, commenced on their rehabilitation

and implementation programs. Considerable research has develop ed new methods of renovation as

well as defining the need for replace ment. More up-to-date estimates now value the distribution systems at $950 per capita but with annual

•Estimated costs of replacing all watermains were calculated at $720 per capita (Can. 1987 dollars) and

percent of renewal value.(2)Current expenditures are running only at $2.00 per capita per annum as yet. (U.K. values exclude the cost of

the annual cost of rehabilitation,

services and are based on 150 mm

assuming a combination of replace

avg. dia. and one metre of bury).



trated In obtaining adequate data,


renewal costs estimated at 14 to 1

capita or slightly less than one per cent per year In perpetuity.


less than 500 while only 5.3% serve


ment and renovations, $6.10 per


approximately 58,530 community systems in the U.S. serving 219 million persons(1984). About64% of these systems serve populations of

Unlike the United Kingdom, the United States has never benefitted

munity systems. One of the more significant was that developing accurate estimates of rehabilitation

costs is especially difficult since distribution systems are not readily visible, and therefore assessments are not easily performed. Since so

many variables can cause distribu tion system failures, standards for renovation or replacement have not been developed for the industry.The American Water Works Association

recommends planning for a replace ment cycle of 67 years, or a replace ment of one and one half percent of the system annually. Some major utilities argue that this is much too conservative; that a cycle of 120 years or more is justified, provided sound maintenance and rehabilita

tion programs are conducted on a planned annual basis. One of the first U.S. national needs

studies of the eighties was conducted for the Department of the Army in 1980 (3). It related to only the 756 largest urban supplies and estimated

that $47-$74 billion (1987 Canadian dollars) was needed to replace and renovate distribution systems for the period 1980-2000.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Since it stated that these systems served 123 million Americans the annual rehabilitation costs over the

forecast period equated to $19-$30 per capita per year. It was also indicated that, since a number of utilities had not established water

rates at a level sufficient to fully recover all operating and rehabilita tion costs, there would be a shortfall of at least 12 percent in providing

mined to proceed with its own study of the issue. In March of 1983, it authorized a study and report to be prepared by the writer with the assistance of Ministry personnel over a three-month period. (5). Its primary purpose was to "determine current and projected costs for rehabilitation of municipal water distribution systems (and sewerage systems) and provide

the needed rehabilitation funds.

sufficient detail in the cost estimates to serve as a reliable basis

Subsequent to that study the American Water Works Association

upon which to budget provincial

(4)reported in 1983 that the national


infrastructure needs for all water

works was only $37 billion (Can. 1987 dollars) for restoring existing facilities over a 10 year period. It concluded that this amount was

manageable through a 25 percent increase in water rates. Indeed it

indicated that, given the ability of all urban systems to support reha bilitation charges and their relative ly low rate structures, a federal grants program was "neither neces sary or desirable". Incidentally, a 1985 study by the AWWA generally confirmed




suggested a 35 percent rate increase. Since the Ontario Ministry of the Environment could find no equiva lent estimates for Canada, it deter

Major conclusions and recom mendations were: • There is a need to determine an

adequate inventory of municipal water distribution systems and to develop a meaningful rehabilitation program due to the significant number of systems in disrepair. • Based on 200 persons served per kilometer of main there are about

37,600 kilometers of watermains in

Ontario municipal systems having a current value of $21.2 billion or

$2,725.00 per capita served. • The useful life of a watermain can

not be characterized by age alone but depends on the original design, the materials employed, the manner of

construction, the level of its super vision in construction, the ground conditions, foundation disturbance

over the years, vibration, corrosion (both internal and external) and the level of its maintenance.

• Considering that some mains are more than 125 years old and the aver age age of mains in Ontario is probably 45 years (weighted) it should be possible to hold main breaks to no more than ten per 100 kilometers rather than a currently estimated 25. Also there is some indi cation that unaccounted-for water

exceeds the normal 15 percent of supply due primarily to excessive main leakage. • Larger Ontario municipalities have indicated that the life of watermains

can be extended well beyond 100 years with adequate rehabilitation programs involving the planned expenditure of $25.00 per capita but that actual expenditures on the aver age system are only about a third of this figure.

Following the Ontario report,the Federation of Canadian Municipal ities authorized a survey of Canada's urban infrastructure to be

prepared by Dr. G.W. Helnke and his


dour Contro

Water Disinfection

Cydnidi Refifo^l


E 255 WIcksteed Ave.. Toronto. Ontario M4H 1G8 ^ Manufacturing Plants: Toronto, Montreal, Moncton, Edmonton, New Westminster

ll Circle reply card No. 107 Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


Infrastructure, cont'd. associates at the University of Toronto(6) vi'hich included a section on water distribution systems. This

survey was subsequently sum marized in a report prepared by the Federation entitled, Canada's Urban Infrastructure (7).

The summary was based on 60 responses to a survey of 215 Canadian municipalities having populations in excess of 10,000 persons and representing in all about 50 percent of the nation's population in centres over 1,000 people. It disclosed that • water distribution systems were 31 years oid (not weighted). • 53 percent of systems were alright or better, the remainder requiring some level of repair. • only 19 percent responding indicat ed water distribution as the first prior ity of municipal rehabi l itation spending, 22 percent as second priority and 21 percent as third priority. • user fees provided most of the fund ing for operation, replacement and rehabilitation

of water distribution

systems (86%) - excluded capital for new works.

• the survey indicated that $90. per capita (1987 dollars) would


required to bring the water distribu tion facilities up to an acceptable level of service and that it was neces

sary to spend $7.81 per capita per year on main replacement out of a total of $30.66 per capita per year on water distribution operation.

It then recommended that the

three levels of government meet to determine the most appropriate means of improving and financing construction and rehabilitation of

municipal water infrastructure. It also recommended that a program

• generally the survey found Cana dian systems equal or better than

of appropriate pricing for municipal

American systems but that funding for system operations and capital has deteriorated over the past ten years due to inflation, cost of money and lack of senior government support.

equitable billing among metered users and appropriate pricing to ensure a revenue dependent utility. In January 1987, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment issued a second report on "The Need for a Rehabilitation Program for Water Distribution Systems in Ontario". (9). This study tended to ignore the

In September, 1985, the report of the Inquiry on Federal Water Policy "Current of Change" (8) was released. As a result of a program of extensive consultation, public hearings, research and publication undertaken by the Inquiry it found that there were currently more than 2,500 community water supply systems in Canada serving 20 million persons. It indicated that each of the utilities had a value in

excess of $3,300 per capita but that the ability of local governments to adequately respond to current water works system needs had been impeded by high interest rates, economic recession, the withdrawal of federal capital assistance pro grams and inadequate revenues.

waterworks be undertaken to ensure

1983 study and approach the issue from a new angle. It concentrated on acquiring data through question naires and computerizing the data for information development. It also focused on developing improved data from municipalities smaller than 7,500 persons through actual visitations. Its major findings were as follows: • it chose a worse case scenario that

assumed it might be necessary to replace all watermains in the province over the next 50 years that are currently more than 50 years old. It estimated that this would cost $77

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Circle reply card No. 108 18

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

million per year but that since not all would be replaced but some rehabil itated, the annual cost would reduce

to $50 million. (This is substantially less than the $180 million figure esti mated in the original 1983 report). • It confirmed that watermain breaks

were occurring at the average rate of 25 per 100 km per year as originally estimated and that if they were reduced to a practicable level of 10

breaks the saving could be $15 million annually. •the survey of unaccounted-for water Indicated that the average water loss from systems reporting was 12.5 percent. (This is at complete variance with the original report and with normal experience. The American Water Works Association considers a

system that can maintain an unac counted for water rate of 15 percent or less of supply as adequate). • In respect of small systems, the

report indicated that Inventory and service records are generally poor but that system needs are usually well known. Interesting figures for 1984 interpreted as 1987 dollars were pro vided on the cost per capita per year for water distribution operation as

repairs and maintenance renovation costs



adequate funds for


• a poor economy: economic factors including inflation in the late seventies and early eighties; the recession of the early eighties and high interest rates plus the withdrawal of senior government support had repre sented major deterrents to an adequate program. • it wil l cost almost $140 million

annually($86 mi l l ion for replacement and $54 million for renovation



rehabi litate and maintain Ontario's water mains and

services for the next 60 years and beyond - about 120 percent in excess of what is currently

being spent. ($140 million compares with $180 million set out In the 1983 MOE report and $50 million set out in the 1987 MOE report).

The final report in this seven year period was prepared for the U.S.

planned and underway in small to medium systems. The

major findings by the

National Council on Public Works

Improvement were • a national water supply infrastruc ture gap of the magnitude requiring a substantial federal subsidy does not exist. Water util ities experienc ing revenue shortfalls generally do not charge rates which cover full costs of the utility. • while





problem of considerable magnitude In some cities, urban water supplies do not constitute a national problem. • a national problem does exist for small water systems. The majority of smal l water systems are poorly managed due to 1) a lack of under standing of the water supply func tion 2) lack of technical training 3) inappropriate rate structures 4) lack of access to capital and 5) no econ omics of scale.

National Council on Public Works

Improvement. Entitled "Infrastruc ture Policy Issues in Water Supply" it was released in May, 1987 and serves as part of the information needed by the Council to report to

• The major recommendation of the report was that a national mandate to require water utilities to be finan cially self sufficient through water rates should be established.


replacement costs


Early In 1987, the Ontario Sewer

Water utilities experiencing revenue shortfaiis generally do not charge rates which cover full costs of the utility.

and Watermain Contractors Associ



its findings with

respect to the state of Ontario's water distribution system. This report (10) was based on previous Ontario studies, work carried out by the writer for the Association and the experi ence of the Association's member

ship in undertaking work on behalf of Ontario municipalities.

water infrastructure (11).

Based on reviews of past studies, it was the belief of this study that the best estimate for deferred main

tenance and replacement of U.S. water distribution systems was $0.9 to $2.7 billion per year (Canadian dollars) over the next 20 years or

This report concluded that in Ontario;

•Over the next 60 years about 25% of water distribution systems must be replaced and another 50% renovated.

•The required program would reduce water loss, improve system life expectancy, reduce ultimate costs to customers, create employ ment and better protect public health and safety. •The report indicated that the decline in the province's water dis tribution systems had occurred through • inadequate

the U.S. Congress on the state of

capital funds:

about $7.40 to $22. per capita per year. But it was pointed out that these studies were no substitute for local needs studies for there are

large variations between the aver ages for rehabilitation of distribu tion systems indicated by a national needs assessment as distinct from a

local needs study. Although the latter is similar to national studies in that it typically

identifies projects which need financing and estimates the short fall in available capital to undertake them, it does create a capital improvement program to outline requirements lying beyond recurrent or operational programs.

frequently designated for expansion rather than rehabili

Most larger communities were found to have such programs in place and to have included in them


distribution rehabilitation. There

available funds have been too


fore the national needs figure tends

revenue: far too often water is

to emphasize funds required to

sold at a price too low to


• inadequate


Environmental Science & Engineering. Jan/Eeb 1988



Although there are some contra dictions in these various studies, there is some fundamental agree ment in their findings which describe the magnitude of the problem as:

1. There is a genuine present need in most systems to establish an adequate inventory of the distribu tion system and to determine its physical state. 2. Current distribution systems with

adequate rehabilitation programs should he capable of a life of 100 years or more, some claim infinite. 3. The probable annual cost of an adequate, main rehabilitation pro gram embodying a combination of main renovation and replacement including customer service replace ment would cost $25 to $30 per

capita per year in perpetuity or about one percent of a current system replacement value of $3,000 per capita. Current expenditures according to actual surveys indicate a spending of only $8 to $10 per capita per year.

Assuming the average cost of water in Canadian municipalities at 31 Continued 19

Duratron Sac-Nuts

stop corrosion - period! Duratron Sacrificial Nuts stop costly corrosion of buried valves, fittings and mechanical joints on water, gas and oil systems. Sac-Nuts are made from special high-grade zinc,fusion-bonded to an inner steel core to provide solid contact with the fitting. Sac-Nut Advantages • Can be used as a primary nut • Unique design guarantees corrosion protection and structural Integrity In aggressive soils for a minimum of 40 years • Steel core allows nuts to be tightened to high torque specifications • More



economical than

stainless steel bolts

• Designed for mechanical joints, flanges and other bolted applications • Easy to Install with a standard socket or pipe wrench - no special equipment needed How it works

In moist soil, the zinc portion of the Sac-Nut releases electrons, making the iron parts nega tively charged. This forms a thin, protective layer of positive ions. The resulting ionicshield, or cathodic protection, neutralizes the damaging corrosive action of aggressive environments.

The release of electrons by zinc is inherently a self-regulating process, providing just the right amount of current to provide protection over a wide range of soils.

Life expectancy When twelve nuts are installed on a typical 6 inch valve assembly, with less than 30 square inches of exposed metal in 1000 ohm-cm

aggressive soils, effective corrosion protection* will be maintained for a minimum of 40 years. Quality coatings or paints applied to all steel and iron surfaces minimize the area of metal

exposed to the soil. This, in turn, reduces the amount of current required for protection, fur ther extending the effective lifespan of Sac-Nuts.

Sac-Nut Table of Sizes Size

Product no.

Weight in grams

Socket size

5/8 in.



1 1/2 in. 1 1/2 in.

3/4 in.



5/8 in.



1 3/4 in.

3/4 in.



1 3/4 in.

7/8 in.



1 7/8 in.



1 7/8 in.

1 in.

Sacrificial products also available through local waterworks suppliers.



Duratron Sacrificial Nuts are made from a

special high-grade zinc (99.99% pure), con forming to ASTM Standard B-418, Type II. They are suitable forsoil or water. Each nut has a fusion-bonded inner steel core, ensuring solid contact between bolts and fittings and allowing high-torquing of the nut.









Sac-Nut specifications



1,000 950

1 1





























(MV) +


Zinc Specifications for Underground Use ASTM B418 - Type II



Further technical details on Sac-Nuts and

copies of the Cathodic Protection Design Manuals are available from Duratron Systems.


0.005% maximum


0.003% maximum


0.0014% maximum

*Refer to the National Association of Corrosion Engineers



(NACE) Standard RP-01-69 for criteria on protecting iron and steel structures.

Also available - Duratron Sac-Washers

Sacrificial zinc washers - avaiiabie in sizes from 5/8 in. to 1 1/4 in.

Buratron SYSTEMS LIMITED 75 Nugget Avenue SCARBOROUGH, ONT. Ml S 381 (416)-299-4370

Patent Canada 1985

Ask about our other products and services: • Pipe Video Analysis • Sacrificial Washers - Nuts

• Buttress Log Pipe Systems • Sewer Rehabilitation

• Corrosion Surveys • Feasibility Reports and Budgets

• Intake Structures and Diffusers • Anodes and Accessories

Circle reply card No. 109

Patent U.S.A. 1987

funding of this order that would he divided equally between the three levels of governments was estimated to sustain the equivalent of almost 7,700 direct and indirect new jobs. In launching this program the OSWCA/TRIP Committee has the

co-operation and support of many Ontario associations including Municipal Engineers Association of Ontario

Consulting Engineers of Ontario Association of Municipalities of Ontario

Ontario Section, American Water Works Association

In response to initiatives such as the foregoing, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment announced on

June 24 of last year that the

Infrastructure, cont'd. cents per 1,000 litres and an overall consumption of 500 litres per capita per day the average annual munici pal charge on per capita basis is $57.25. To accommodate an increase

in spending of $15 per capita for adequate main rehabilitation would increase rates by 26 percent over those currently obtained. 4. The general feeling was that

many major urban water works systems had reasonable rehabilita tion schemes underway with respect to their distribution systems but that the smaller systems (serving less than 10,000 persons) represent

ed the major issue and had the major impact on national estimates. 5. All studies indicated the need for water utilities to set rates so as to be

ledge any liability in the support of the catch-up program. The CWWA program was originally initiated by the Federation of Canadian Munic

ipalities in response to its 1984 report on Canada's Urban Infra structure (7). The Federation contin ues to mount a strong lobby at the Federal level that supports the CWWA's





rehabilitation programs for roads, bridges, sewers, etc. The FCM was able to demonstrate that its $14

billion dollar municipal spending program, if financed by a one-third contribution



of the

federal, provincial and municipal governments over five years, would create more than 220,000 to 285,000

person-years of additional employ ment (12). The resulting larger economy would increase all govern

self-sufficient financially. Only by a user pay program can adequate system conditions be maintained and the water resource properly

expenditures permitting govern

conserved. 6. Most studies confirmed the need

spending. In the province of Ontario, the

for senior government capital assis tance to initiate the catch up program over the short term and to

Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con tractors Association launched a

set the wheels in motion for enforc

ing the ultimate revenue dependency of water utilities.

In support of these general findings the newly-created Canadian




Association has adopted a policy at the national level to promote the

ments' revenues and reduce some ments to recover much of the initial

similar program in support of their report on the "Evaluation of the Water Distribution Systems in Ontario"(10) previously outlined. The Association's program was designed to create an awareness amongst the general public throughout the province, members of the provincial legislature and

province under a "Lifelines" program (13) would pay at least 33 percent of the costs of rehabilitating deteriorating portions of municipal (sewer and) water pipes. Depending on a municipality's needs, these grants will cover no less than onethird of the rehabilitation costs involved and no less than half ofthe

study costs. New provincial spending is expected to rise from $11 million in the first year to $45 to $50 million by fiscal 1991-92. Already more than 130 municipalities have taken advantage of the program to launch or soon to commence needs

and planning studies representing a provincial commitment of more than $8 million by the end of October, 1987.

So much for the magnitude of the problem. In solving it there are certain issues that should be addressed. These issues were raised

in the previously mentioned studies. 1. REVENUE DEPENDENCY WATER UTILITIES


Revenue dependency or full cost pricing requires a program of appro priate accounting and legal proce dures to be undertaken to establish

the full cost of providing water works service. It is necessary to follow guidelines such as those set out by the AWWA (14) or by the Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs in the Municipal Financial Reporting Handbook to separate the utility's costs from the government's general account and to enter into enterprise fund accounting. This term has been defined by the U.S.

support of a catch-up program of $2


of the

National Council of Government

billion for municipal water distri bution systems in which the federal

immediacy and need for undertak ing corrective action involving an annual program of $141 million of new spending (about 2.5 times current levels) on distribution system rehabilitation. Allocating

Accounting (15) as: to account for

share should be 33%.

So far despite its avowed interest in water conservation the Federal

government has refused to acknow 22

of the


operations that are financed and operated in a manner similar to private business enterprises - where the intent of the governing body is that the costs (expenses, including

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

depreciation) of providing goods and services to the general public on a continuous basis be financed or

recovered primarily through user charges.

By disclosing the total cost of water as an example, an enterprise accounting system Identifies the necessary financial Information to

there cannot be fair and equitable pricing among customers and It Is virtually Impossible to construct an appropriate system of water rates

ing is non-achievable nor is it effec

unless It can be based on water con

of a water utility is dependent on metered systems including new pro

sumption. Our electrical, gas or tele phone systems could not function, nor would we accept them, without metering.

tive in the reduction in waste water

and pollution. Today the account ing, billing and fiscal management grams for automated meter data retrieval and management. 3. SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY

the extent to which revenue generat

reduced water use to economize on

In undertaking a major program of rehabilitation it is important to

ed from rates covers this cost.

system capacity or to conserve on

fully comprehend the terminology

determine the full cost of service and

It is then possible to establish a fair and equitable set of water rates directed to raising the needed revenues for the total cost of provid ing water and sewage service including system rehabilitation and expansion. Revenues can be set aside for rehabilitation,through the provision of a rate stabilization reserve; or, where there is a legiti mate concern that a municipal council may move to use water works surpluses for other purposes, by establishing a reserve fund for the specific purpose of water works under section 165 of the Ontario

Municipal Act.

Municipal water utilities experi encing growth and redevelopment should be encouraged to consider levying impact fees on development to gain monies for system expansion without placing undue pressure on existing water utility customers. The foregoing procedures, when supported by universal customer metering, permit utility operation to be established on a full beneficiary pay basis so that the operation Is revenue dependent, fair and equit able among users and oriented to the conservation of the utility's plant and to







Revenue dependency and institu tion building are paramount objec tives of the World Bank in estab

lishing adequate water supply systems in developing countries. Bank policy mandates as a loan prerequisite that a specific utility be established on a sound fiscal and

revenue dependent policy to manage the intended systems with appropriate administrative proced ures. Similar policy should be mandatory in Canada.

None of the objectives for

water use are attainable without


customer metering. Seasonal pric


the standards of service







Less than one-half of Canadian

water works currently have univer sal customer metering. The present cost of providing and installing metering is about $200 per customer, so that the decision to meter is not a cheap one.


Yet without universal metering.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


TEL. 416-335-8944


FAX, 416-335-8972


Circle reply card No. 110 23

Infrastructure, cont'd. Terminology as established by the Ontario Section of the Ameri can Water Works Association with


life and reduced downtime to less tfian a sure

tiling...or worse yet... your good luck.

Application Assurance... Product Reliability Security begins with the EURODRIVE Sales Engineer and Application Engineering Spe cialists working with you to precisely match the right Constant or Adjustable Speed Drive to the exact load, ambient, and duty cycle requirement. Then expect your Drive readily available In as little as 48 hours ...with precision manufactured product quality...and always meeting or exceed ing accepted standards worldwide. CSA, NEft^A,

different size.

Ministry of the

The work described under all of

Environment and others is defined

these four major terms can be

as: -


Maintenance as the systematic survey, inspection and cleaning of a watermain with valves and hydrants including minor repairs but not Involving reconstruction of the main structural fabric or altering of the original dimensions, li/laintenance Includes joint repair and repair of cracks, leaks or bursts. It also Includes similar repairs to services. Repair as the repair of the main structural fabric of the pipe Including valve and hydrant parts replacement

restoration or, if necessary, the replacement of a watermain together with its auxiliary struc tures so that it can continue to per form the purpose originally intend ed for a reasonable period of time.






lengths (10 meters or less) but not

It is important in embarking on a major rehabilitation program that a utility re-evaluate its stand ards and determine from experience the revisions that might be appro priate to accommodate in a new

the reconstruction of the whole of


the pipeline. Renovation - the operation of effective ly Improving the condition of an existing watermain by in-situ techni ques such as will provide substanti ally Increased life or efficiency. Replacement as the construction of a new watermain with all appurten

Indeed the Ontario Ministry of the Environment should seriously consider forming with the Ontario Section AWWA, the Municipal Engineers Association, the Consult ing Engineers of Ontario and the


Don't trust lower Installed costs, longer service


new conduit which may be designated at the same size or a





ances and services either In the same location or a new location so that the

fundamental purpose of the original watermain will be Incorporated In the

lEC, and AGfyiA.

Ontario Sewer and Watermain Con

tractors Association, a technical committee to develop improved standards for watermain construc tion in Ontario. • This committee should establish


We'll even add oil to the gearbox... so you'll never experience an accidental dry start up.


Don't Tempt Fate...

Contact Us Today To find out more...ask for our

Informative literature...or stop In one of our three Assembly Centers for a personal plant tour.






Bramalea, Ontario L6T 3W1 (416)791-1553






(MISA, Reg.309 etc.) • FIELD SAMPLING



Canadas>jDrjve Leader



Circle reply card No. 112

Circle reply card No. 111 24

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Innovative and Reliable

procedures for reviewing system experience to ensure that new methods benefit from past exper


ience. For instance the Rochester

Gas and Electric Corporation undertake a survey and publish a metallurgical report on every

by r.e. wright associates, inc.

main fracture in Its distribution

system to determine whether the cause of failure is due to corro

sion or to inadequate materials and design. • Although there are current

Quality, reliability, and ttiorough service . . . that's our commitment to you—and to ourselves ... on all R. E. Wright Associates' products and systems. Based on many years of successful field experience, we have built a solid reputation as a designer and manufacturer of Innovative, yet practical and cost-effective, environmental restoration equipment. Read about R. E. Wright Envi ronmental Restoration Systems' products below .. . then call toil free and learn more about these and other services.

AWWA, ASTM and even GSA

specifications governing the design and manufacture of water pipes, valves, hydrants and

service materials Including meters, there is nothing to pro vide guidance as to the relative life expectancy or durability of the various materials.

behind sales literature and in stall materials that have life

expectancies compatible with 100 years or better. • An appropriate technical com mittee should make value judge ments on which materials can be

adjudged as equal to the design llfes required. • Items such as depth of cover, main location, valve spacing, hydrant location, air relief valve requirement, service installation, bedding requirements, etc. be


set-up In virtually any diameter well to depths of more than 100 feet.

If we are

now replacing materials we anticipated having a much longer life, what do we expect of the replacement material? Is plastic service pipe equal to copper? Is ductile iron equal to PVG? We should stop hiding



Stationary, portable, and trailer-mounted models recover up to 6,000 gallons of oil per week from monitoring to large diameter wells. All operate with or without water table depression, adjusting automatically to changing water levels while leaving no measurable oil layer In the well. Patented design allows the Industry's fastest



standards addressing thecurrent requirements developed. • Since most of the main replace ment programs will take place under established thoroughfares we must determine In advance the conditions of trench sheath

ing that will be required by the Ministry of Labour under the Trench Excavators Act. Also some uti lities have determined


Remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's)from ground or process water with a custom designed air stripping tower designed to meet the specific needs of your site yet competitively priced with stock, non-custom units offered by other manufacturers. Features Include:

■ Written VOC removal guarantees. ■ Highest quality stainless steel construction for superior durability and chemical resistance.

■ Quick, on-time delivery. ■ Programmable controls with modular components for smooth Integration with complex process and multi-well collection systems.

■ Full size weather tight enclosures Incorporating Industrial quality components.

Options Include winterlzatlon, explosion-proof components, vapor phase treatment, and pre and/or post water treatment.


Now, for the first time you can apply the latest cost-effective technology capable of cleaning up water contaminated by sinkers such as creosote and heavy organlcs—without removing any groundwater. The Syphonid Is designed so that:

■ Pollutant and water are separated In the well, not In an expen sive surface process. ■ Contaminants are recovered at virtually any product Influx rate. There Is no need for heavy product build up before recovery begins. ■ All In-well components are constructed of Teflon® and stainless steel.


that in excavations being under taken in existing thoroughfares

These pumping systems effectively control plume migration while also providing a reliable means of collecting contaminated water for

unshrinkable backfall should be

subsequent treatment. More than 50 pump models are available for a wide variety of flow and pressure requirements. Stainless steel pumps, pump assemblies, and explosion-proof controls may be purchased separately or as a complete system.

employed to reduce eventual loss of pavement through post construction settlement.

The foregoing issues are raised to highlight conditions that should be



we assess the

magnitude of the problem of water distribution rehabilitation.

Editor's note: Space limitations prevented the printing of the references used in this article.

Authorized Canadian Representative:

GENEQ inc. 7978 JARRY E.. MONTREAL. QUEBEC. CANADA H1J 1H5 TEL.:(514) 354-2511 TELEX: 05-829568 223 SIGNET DRIVE. WESTON. ONTARIO. CANADA M9L 1V1 TEL.:(416) 747-9889 TELEX: 06-969732

For a copy of them, please contact ES&E.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feh 1988

Circle reply card No. 113 25

Gore Si Storrie Limited

George G. Powell, B.A.Sc,, P.Eng.

Robert A. Goodings, B.Sc., P.Eng.

John 0. Anderson, B.A.Sc., P.Eng.

The President of Gore & Storrie Limited, Robert A. Goodings, P.Eng., has announced the

formation of eight new divisions in the firm. The move follows significant growth in both the volume and diversity of the firm's environmental projects in recent years. G&S has earned an enviable reputation for engineering excellence, winning national awards for its water and wastewater treatment projects - the most recent being the 1986 Schreyer Award, the top honour of the Canadian Consulting Engineering competition.

But today, as never before, environmental treatment projects require innovative scientific, engineering and architectural talents to be focussed on a complex array of problems. The firm's human resources must be harnessed to their full potential on clients' behalf. To this end, the new G&S corporate structure is designed to develop and encourage individual responsibil ity and accountabi l ity, while taking ful l advantage of the collective resources in the various new Divisions. OFFICERS

Robert A. Goodings, B.Sc., P.Eng., President George G. Powell, B.A.Sc., P.Eng., Vice-President John C. Anderson, B.A.Sc., P.Eng., Vice-President DIVISIGN MANAGERS

Paul F. da Silva, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Wastewater Steve A. Black, M.S., P.Eng. - Wastewater Technology

* George V. Crawford, M.Sc., P.Eng. - Industrial Wastewater William J. Hargrave, Ph.D., P.Eng. - Water Technology

P. Erik Dullerud, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Structural Dinshaw D. Kanga, B.Arch., M.R.A.I.C. - Architectural Juris R. Laufers, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Electrical Vera Polyakova, M.Sc., P.Eng. - Instrumentation & Computer Control *Peter A. Vale, B.Sc., C.E.T. - Computer & CADD *Ronald T. MacDonald, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Field Services *Gerry Lynch, H.N.DIp. - Business Development REGIONAL MANAGERS

* Peter G. Steele, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Water Design Nell J. Perkins, M.Eng., P.Eng. - Energy & Waste Management * Peter A.T. Burrowes, B.Eng., P.Eng. - Incineration & Energy *H. Leslie MacMillan, B.Sc., (Eng.), P.Eng. - Solid Waste Management

David W. Smith, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Ottawa Les D. Smith, B.Sc., (Eng.), P.Eng. - St. Catharines Norman D. Muggins, B.Sc., P.Eng. - Barrie

* Philip G. Parry, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. - Energy & Waste Management (Construction) William W.S. Gray, P.Eng., C.Eng., M.I.C.E. - Municipal & Hydrotechnical

George B. Crawford, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. Ronald A.G. Simmons, B.Sc., (Eng.), P.Eng. * Denotes newly appointed Managers


Finally, the contributions of staff members at all levels are vital ingredients in the success of the new regime. The firm was founded in 1919, is entirely Canadian, and is owned by its principals and senior staff.

Winner of The Schrever Award

A Tradition of Excellence

1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone: 416-485-7715 Telex: 06-23283 Fax:(416)485-0014 26

EnuironmentaL Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Where are we going?

Canada's environmental regulations Colin Isaacs, Executive Director, Pollution Probe Foundation, Is one of Canada's most outspoken critics of Industrial pollution. He also enjoys the respect and confidence of many environmental scientists and engineers. In this article commissioned by ES&E, he stresses that governments must protect those environmentally enlightened firms from those companies who would seek competitive advantage at the expense of the environment.

Pollution Probe's eighteen

years as a Canadian environmental group have seen major change in the field of pollution control.

Eighteen years ago

there were no ministries of the

environment nor departments of the environment anywhere in Canada. In the last few years, by contrast, we have seen rapid growth in the numbers and diversity of regulatory and legislative initiatives and we have heard a cacophony of promises, threats and excuses from ministers, bureaucrats, boards, panels, and agencies of every kind. I expect the next decade to be one of even greater change. Huge bureaucratic regulatory initiatives from government are on the way out: Transportation

of Dangerous Goods Acts are too hig, too cumbersome, and too expensive for any govern ment today. We are heading into a time when governments will pass laws that say, in effect, "thou shall not pollute, and woe betide anyone who does pollute, for they shall be thrown in jail". Ontario is pro viding an example of that in its MISA process, where the rules say: you must cut back your toxic waste discharges to the lowest level that the best tech

nology anywhere has been able to achieve. We, the government, don't care how you do that, just do it, and don't get caught with any higher level of discharge. Enforcement of rules like this

can be cheap and effective, in much the same way that drinking and driving laws are

proving successful in that field. Meanwhile, don't look for any weakening of existing laws - politically, that just won't happen. Our political system still demands crisis response. Just as federal PCB regulations

Somewhat reminiscent of Fellini's famed

movie "8 1/2" this historic

photograph was the first of Pollution Probe's attempts to dramatize the environmental dangers in 1969. To the mournful strains of Chopin's Funeral March, the procession culminated In a service, attended by the Chaplain of Flart Flouse, to mark 'The death of Don River'. While many dismissed the event as an undergraduate stunt. Probe quickly became a force to be reckoned with in political circles.

followed the Kenora, Ont. spill, so politicians today must be seen to be doing something in response to any environmental incident. If an industry sector wants to avoid crisis response regulations, it must ensure that its entire population of companies stays free of inci dents: a mistake by one can cause much grief for anyone in a remotely similar business. Last spring the World Com mission on Environment and

Development, a United Nations Commission chaired by the Prime Minister of Norway, Mrs. Cro Harlem Brundtland, and comprised of leaders from around the world, published its

report under the title


Common Future. The report said that avoiding environ mental catastrophe is our great est priority today, that the prob lems are becoming so serious that they threaten our economic security, that we can no longer afford to mess up now and clean up later (react and cure), and that (the good news) we shouldn't even think of solving our environmental problems by

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Eeb 1988




Brundtland Commission said not

only that a healthy economy and a clean environment are compat ible objectives, not only that we can have jobs and environmental protection, the report said we MUST, because If we do not adopt a strategy of sustainable development, the polluted environment will destroy our economy.

Within the last few weeks the National Task Force on

Environment and Economy,set up by Canada's environment ministers, has echoed the Brundtland report. The Canadian Task Force, including such notable environmentalists

as David Buzzelll, President of Dow Canada, Ian Smyth, Presi dent of the Canadian Petroleum

Association, an d


McGlnnIs, Chairman

of the



of Com

merce, has said that environ mental and economic planning cannot proceed in separate spheres, and that long-term economic growth depends on a healthy environment. To Continued overleaf 27

Remediation of abandoned industriai areas

Soaring land prices in

downtown sections of older cities have made some abandoned fac

tory sites attractive options to developers. In many urban

areas developers are redevelop ing old industrial sites for bigb density residential use or restor ing industrial buildings for new commercial and office space. But many old sites contain unwanted industrial residuals

such as process by-products, cleaning agents or waste oils and off-specification products. Some sites require extensive remediation before construction

can begin. Landowners have recently begun to turn to consult ants specializing in remediation investigations and cleanup pro grams for assistance. In today's litigious society, residuals would pose liability problems if not audited by qualified profession als and site remediation work

undertaken. Qualified consult ants are skilled in identifying potential hot spots, developing sampling protocol, sampling, analysing and coordinating laboratory work,and developing a cleanup plan. Site investigations may

approved for such use by the By Andrea Tang, B.Sc. Special Waste Management Section The Proctor & Redfern Group reveal hazardous wastes associ

ated with manufacturing such as mercury vapour tubes, powdered dyes, carbon black dust, and containers of silicone polymer as well as contained and uncontained polycblorinated bipbenyls (PCBs). PCBs can be found in light ballasts, capaci tors from switching cabinets, and transformers of all sizes.

PCB plumes may turn up on con crete transformer pads, soil adjacent to transformer pads or wooden flooring supporting old transformers.

Consultants must work very closely with the property owner and the contractor retained to

clean up the hazardous material. After approval of a site remedia tion program to contain and remove hazardous waste, the contractor brings in equipment and begins the physical cleanup activity. Barrels containing PCB oil, contaminated flooring, contaminated soil, and contam inated concrete can be stored in




Environmental regulations, cont'd. protection. Such government industry, the National Task action rests upon a foundation Force has said such things as: at times, environmental bene

fits entail substantial expendi tures, and




of support by industry, non government organizations and, ultimately, the people.

recognized as a cost of doing Just as Pollution Probe business. Corporations provided leadership in 1982 should show leadership by ful- with its book Profit from Pollu fiiiing their responsibility to tion Prevention, so the National conserve







protect the environment. All and Economy is providing for corporations should adopt Canadians today a vision of a less polluted Canada and a codes of practice which en shrine this responsibility.... planet where success is measured by bow much we can leave for What is best for the environ ment may represent an expen our grandchildren. Growing sive policy for individual cor our way out of our environment porations if their competitors al problems is not a new are achieving lower costs by concept, but it is one whose time ignoring environmental stand has clearly come. Pollution Probe invites industry, labour, ards. in such cases govern ments have a role to play in community groups, and all promoting fair competition readers of this journal to join and ensuring environmental the action. 28

Ontario Ministry ofthe Environ ment. Carbon black is washed

from interior walls with a bigb pressure water spray and collect ed as sludge. Modified seaway containers contain spill trays and allow barrels containing PCBs and PCB equipment to be secured to the interior. The consultant pro vides on-site supervision as well as confirmational sampling during all of the site decontam ination work.

In addition to

complex technical assignments the consultant provides ongoing liaison with government agen cies and often an active neigh bourhood



PCB wastes are registered with the Ministry ofthe Environment and the site itself is registered as

a temporary PCB storage location. Public input to the remediation plan is elicited through public meetings. Since most developers wish to begin construction on the site as early as possible, part of the work program may include locating a suitable site to temp orarily store the contained and registered hazardous waste material. Once a site is located, it must be duly registered and approved as a temporary PCB storage site. Movement ofPCBs is coordinated with the Ministry of the Environment and a licen sed hazardous waste hauler.

The consultant is often assigned the responsibility for regularly scheduled inspections of the waste to ensure that there is no

risk to the environment or public health and safety. Too many cities bear the scars of abandoned factories


industrial sites. Well planned and carried out remediation pro grams can result in the release of valuable land for redevelopment or existing buildings for reuse. Remediation work on old indus

trial sites will ultimately en hance downtown areas. "These

sites can change from abandon ed and useless urban relics while

ceasing to be a threat to the environment, public health and safety.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

How the east was won -

AQTE's remarkable triumph wemy

years ago, on


By Tom Davey

bleak winter's day, I made my first journalistic foray


into la Belle Province.

The occasion

was a waterworks

opening at Jacques-Cartier, a city later destined to dissolve into the

Montreal Urban Community, as

on a roll. But while all of these spec tacular events entailed massive pub lic funding, the environment remained a poor relation. While well over $1 billion was

Queb ec's political boundaries

allocated for the 1976 Olympic Sta

evolved. At that time, AQTE, the Association Quebecoise des Tech

dium, Montreal still lacked even a

niques de I'Eau was a struggling infant whose raison d'etre was to

combat the environmental apathy, which prevailed in Quebec. The odds were fearsome. Envir

onmental indifference reigned

supreme as political figures poured funds into

diverse lavish enter

prises, while environmental priori ties were either ignored or given meagre handouts. The prevailing scenario was beautifully summed up in a cartoon by John Harper, who drew a gladitorial giant towering over a tiny infant. The caption read AQTE David versus Goliath? Indeed the

cartoon seemed even more approp riate as the years went by, with little change in the environmental lethargy. Montreal, fresh from its tour de

primary sewage plant. Commu niques warning residents to boil water in many communities were a frequent occurrence - even as politi cians postured for arenas and other projects which were more elegant than mere water and sewage treat ment plants. Funding for what few treatment plants there were was meagre, compared to the largesse poured out on more grandoise schemes.

But AQTE persisted; indeed speakers at an AQTE congress in the early eighties described the quality of drinking water as 'scan dalous'. The then AQTE president, Jean Paul Lanctot summed up the situation with commendable blunt-

ness. From now on, he said,'There should be no choice between the

construction of arenas or the purifi cation of drinking water'.

force of Expo '67, had gone on to reshape Expo into Man and His World. Then, against all odds. Mayor Jean Drapeau secured a

It was during my trips to the pro vince, that I became acquainted with Jacques-Cartier waterworks superintendent, Dominique

National Baseball franchise for the


Montreal Expos, years before Toronto got its Blue Jays. Then in a brilliant coup des grace, the Mayor climaxed his spectacular run when he clinched the 1976 Olympic Games for his city. The Mayor was

friends and he gradually introduced me to a network of Quebec environ mental figures, including the late Pat Bourgeois,an AQTE founder. I was treated with great courtesy whenever I visited Quebec and was continually astonished at the cour age and bluntness AQTE men and women displayed in public. I was to meet Pat Bourgeois at meetings across Canada, including "Van couver, Edmonton, Quebec City,




Montreal and in Atlantic Canada.

Eloquent in iroth French and Eng lish, Pat irecame a giant in Canada's environmental field.

Cabinet ministers were bluntly taken to task at AQTE conventions. Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

with a force unheard of in English Canada. But the barbs too often seemed ineffective. Indeed it was

said that Quebec had the environ

mental politics, but Ontario had the treatment plants. Undaunted, AQTE members continued their Herculean task of trying to cleanse the Augean stables. Tenacity was combined with forthrightness over many years, then, almost imperceptably, tangiirle results were observed. Montreal,

which for years had lacked a sewage treatment plant, now has Canada's largest treatment facility. Moreover, rehabilitation on the city's long neglected crumbling infrastructure was undertaken.

The scenario is

being repeated in many municipal ities across Quebec. AQTE, which spearheaded these treatment programs against all odds, also took the initiative in

hosting scientific and engineering seminars and conferences, provid ing further opportunities to advance

the state-of-the-art, not

only in Quebec, but in Canada as a whole.

The Goliath of indifference has

not yet disappeared from the Queirec scene, but the beast has been seriously wounded since AQTE first engaged it more than a quarter of a century ago. Those who doubt it need only look around them. They will see many modern treat ment plants or other projects either in place or under construction throughout the province - all work ing monuments to AQTE's victory against great odds. ES&E 29

New association speaks for Canada's water and wastewater industry

Water and waste-

executive members have met with Federal Environment

water treatment is a

huge industry in

Minister Tom McMillan,and his staff, to discuss critical issues in pricing structures and costs of municipal systems. CWWA set a precedent by meeting with Health and

Canada with some

$2.4 billion spent annually on treatment facilities across the

country. Expenditures on water supply systems have been esti mated at $1.3 billion, with $1.1

Welfare Canada's committee

billion for wastewater treatment.

The estimated replacement value of water systems is $62 billion, while wastewater systems would cost some $47.5 billion. No one could deny this industry has been well served by various regional bodies such as AQTE,the AWWA Sections and affiliates of the WPCF. With the

demise ofFACE,Canada clearly lacked a strong national association to bind the various

disciplines and interest groups of the environmental profes sionals.

To provide a much needed national presence, a new associ ation was launched late in 1986.

Its stated purpose was to provide a national voice for the owners

of Canada's municipal water and wastewater systems. As these are currently valued in excess of $100 billion, it is clear that such an important industry warrants a strong and vibrant national body to provide a forum linking environmental profes sionals in a common purpose. In 1984,the former Federation of Associations on the Canadian

Environment (FACE), was forced by mounting economic and public pressures on the nation's municipal water and wastewater industry to review its structure and goals. In the fall of 1986,the FACE executive, with the support of its sustaining members and the Federation of Canadian Munici

palities, decided that a new national association, supported by municipalities, was needed to meet the growing needs and concerns of municipal water and wastewater system owners and

charged with reviewing and up dating the 1978 Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and voicing the concerns of munici pal water suppliers. CWWA executives are also taking an active role in reviewing the

By W.H. Gates, P.Eng. President, Canadian Water & Wastewater Association

sive set of priorities, including: • communicating the interests and concerns of municipal water and wastewater system owners to the federal government • together with, or through, pro vincial or regional water and wastewater associations, repre sent the national interests of

municipal water and wastewater system owners to provin cial, territorial and interprovincial governments and/or agencies • as appropriate, carry out all such activities in conjunction with, or following consultation with provincial, territorial and national



municipalities • encourage the exchange of information among industry professionals, both nationally and internationally through conferences, seminars, public education, publications, training programs and other information activities, without duplicating the activities of regional associations • encourage dialogue between

Future projects are being planned with other water and wastewater associations. In the

Fall of 1988, an intensive work

shop on infrastructure renewal, co-sponsored by the American Water




being planned. The CWWA,in cooperation with the Rawson Academy of Aquatic Science, has





seminars organized on behalf of the Science Council of Canada.

CWWA, on contract with the Canadian International Devel

opment Agency, is also cohosting and organizing a series of five one-day seminars on new

approaches in water supply and sanitation techniques for devel oping countries. Additionally, a list of municipal water and wastewater professionals, inter ested in working on such CIDA projects, is being established. Following a request by pro vincial operator certification, education and training officials, CWWA




try and the general public

Committee, (Certification, Education & Training) which is responsible for reciprocity with in Canada for those working in

• initiate research and other activities that are needed to further the interests of the

try and the exchange of research, training and other

the water and wastewater indus

industry and the general public. CWWA has been working with municipalities, to deter mine Canada's infrastructure

operators. CWWA's founding executive

rehabilitation requirements, and to develop remedial

have already outlined an exten-

programs. Additionally,CWWA


Environmental Protection Act.

the water and wastewater indus

educational materials.

In these and other areas, the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association has a vital

role to play in the protection of the nation's environment and the health of all Canadians.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


Count on OWMC — for sound cost-effective waste management help . . .

LABORATORY — Waste characterization and treatability testing at our facilities.


ADVICE — On waste reduction, reuse, recycling and recovery as well as on-site waste treatment,

spill clean-up and site reclamation.

MANUAL — Our Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction Manual

($25.00) will help you make wise decisions and save waste

management dollars.

□ Ontario

Waste Management


2 Bloor Street West, 11th Floor Toronto, Ontario, M4W 3E2

Industrial Waste Audit and Reduction Manual

Advice & Manual:

(416) 923-2918 1-800-268-1179 (Toll Free) Laboratory:

(416) 637-2452 (Burlington) Circle reply card No. 115

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


WHAT'S NEW Rapid chemistry analysis dramatically cuts costs A new and unique service for deter result of greatly enhanced through mining 30 Standard Water Quality put which results from the combined Parameters is now available from savings of increased speed of analy Mann Aqua, a division of Mann sis, the near elimination of carry Testing Laboratories Ltd., Mississ- over and the near elimination of auga, Ontario. The service is change-over time between proced designed to save users both time and ures. money.

The instrument is used to deter

The Rapid Chemistry Analysis mine the concentration of an program was developed by Dr. Ross unknown,light absorbing substance McCurdy and his team at Mann by measurement of the light trans Aqua. The program uses state-of- mitted by the solution. Essentially, the-art equipment and technology, the instrument is a 'single' unit con all computer controlled. The service taining both robotic pipettors and stresses high quality, rapid turn- an analyser. Once the instrumentis around-time (5 days or less), small programmed, the primary functions sample size (100 mL), and low price of the operator are to load racks into ($60.00), while meeting the criteria of the instrument and initiate the sensitivity, precision and accuracy. analysis hy depressing the start The technology has been a vital key. All remaining steps are carried component in the clinical laboratory out and controlled by the instrument for years but has never been used to and microprocessor. analyze constituents in water sam To have increased the perform ples. After 18 months of develop ment, Mann Aqua has an instru ance of Mann Aqua to the same level ment that will perform multi- of productivity using standard pro component, multi-sample analysis cedures would have required much on environmental samples in greater resources and operating approximately one quarter the time costs. Mann Aqua taken by conventional automation. This dramatic time saving is the Circle reply card No. 150

Insertion flow monitor

measures full pipe flows The IFM-1 Insertion Flow Monitor

combines accurate, reliable, and repeatable flow monitoring with simple installation, even in flowing

pipes. IFM-1 assures long-term per formance using the MagSert probe

for clean, conductive fluids or the SoniSert probe for flows containing solids or non-conductive contamin

ants, such as grease or oil. The 15/16" diameter probe easily inserts through standard 1" corporation stops and valves. Pipe profiling accessories permit accurate moni toring of flows disturbed by pipe elbows, valves, etc. IFM-1 is said to be ideal for


Intrinsically Safe Controls The Warrick Series 37 with

Put the right mixer on the iine and watch your productivity soar. Lightnin portable mixers with the high efficiency

A310 impellers will


an intrinsically safe sensing circuit is ideal for interfacing with float switches in sewage,

contacts mean no extra

Capacity: 8 amp load

waste water, chemical and


sump applications

For more details on the

Safe: Sensing circuit cannot ignite flammable gases, fluids

Warrick Series 37

improve results up to 50%. You tel l us your problems, and we'l l specify the mixer. Re

or dust. Contains

member Lightnin guaran^^^^^^


tees both the mixer and


intrinsically safe


control, write or call ...


protection against power


Dependable circuitry and mechanical relay outputs virtually

the result.


eliminate false

triggering. Versatile: Latching and non-latching service avail able in one unit. Can

simultaneously handle two











(902) 422-9780

VANCOUVER (604) 254-0844

Circle reply card No. 116 32



Dovis Controls 4251 Dundas St. West,Toronto, Ontario M8X1Y3

(416)233-3211 Telex 06-967684 FAX(416)239-2386

Circle reply card No. 117 Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

process water and wastewater, cooling water, chlorination and chemical feed pacing, sewage, and pump output monitoring. A large selection of options and

detection personal monitor continu ously and simultaneously monitors

accessories are available for record

vides discrete bars to indicate gas concentrations and oxygen levels. Audio and visual alarms are pro vided, should any hazard exceed the

ing, totalizing, and controlling external equipment. Geneq Inc.

Circle reply card No. 151

and alarms to toxic and combustible

gases, as well as oxygen deficiency. An LCD bar graph display pro

alarm point. The CGS-80R is identi cal to the CGS-80, but features a remote sensor on a 20 foot cable.

Portable triple detection personal gas monitor

Both units are fully rechargeable and include carrying case,strap and battery charger. Enmet Canada

cycle; two 4-20 mA outputs, which are proportional to calculated inflow rate and pump rate respec tively; high inflow and low pump

Circle reply card No. 152

An Innovative flowmeter

for pumping stations The

Volumeter is



microprocessor-based flowmeter for use in sewage pumping stations with constant speed pumps. It operates by a patented principle, which actually calculates the flow

B Simultaneous, triple hazard monitoring instruments are fast becoming a standard when entering confined spaces. Enmet Canada's CGS-80 triple

rates for each wet-well cycle. Flow data consists of date, time,

inflow rate, pump rate, and totalized flow readings. Outputs include: a serial port, which transmits the above data at the end of each pump

rate alarms.

The Volumeter only requires a few wires to be run to it from the

pump control panel. It requires no calibration, or cleaning and is easy to install. As it has no primary sensing element, the Volumeter can be installed in stations, which do not have the necessary space requirements for ultrasonic or magnetic flowmeters.

To date, over 125 units have been installed throughout North America.


Circle reply card No. 153

POLLUTECH To make sure your environmental control programs are effective. POLLUTECH can help you with these environmental needs and services EFFLUENT TREATMENT

•Stream Surveys •Sampling & Analysis •Treatablllty Tests

•Operator Training •Start-Up & De-Bugging ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS

•Isokinetic Stack Sampling •Ambient Air Surveys •Process Control Strategy •Reg. 308 Dispersion Analysis

HAZARDOUS WASTES •Waste Classification

•Leachate Testing •Reg. 309 Applications •Handiing Proceedures •Disposal Alternatives CORPORATE CONSULTING •Environmental Assessments

•Riant Risk Audits

•industrial Hygiene •Occupational Health •Waste Recovery

Complete in-house facilities for organic & inorganic chemicai anaiysis, and bioiogicai monitoring. POLLUTECH LIMITED


768 Westgate Road

1149 Vanier Road

Oakville, Ont. L6L 5N2

Sarnia, Ont. N7S 3Y6

Tel: (416) 847-0065 Fax: (416) 847-3840

Tel: (519) 337-6721


Dialcom: 21-POU003

Dialcom: 21-POU004

Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions

Circie repiy card No. 118 Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

Circie repiy card No. 119 33

CONSULTANTS'DIRECTORY Water Supply & Sewage Disposal • Roads & Bridges Flood Control • Solid Waste Disposal Municipal Drains • Land Use Planning OUR EXPERTISE INCLUDES A SOLID AND EXTENSIVE BACKGROUND IN





R.V. Anderson Associates Limited consulting engineers

Water Resources

Transportation Municipal Services Land Development Tunnel and Shaft Design

Toronto (416) 497-8600

Welland (416) 735-3659

Pollution Control

Sewerage Systems Water Supply


system For effective separation of oil and solids from water, Aer-0-Flo Manu facturing offers the Great Lakes Environmental Dissolved Air Flota

tion system. Available in sizes ranging from 20 sq.ft. to 500sq.ft. of

flotation area, DAF units are equip ped with top mounted, variable speed chain and flight skimmers. Plant air, or an optional air com pressor, is used to provide compres sed air to the pressurization tank. Along with slant rib coalescing oil/water separators and inclined plate clarifiers, the DAF is a build ing block for a complete wastewater treatment system.

This company also offers a complete line of Marsh-McBirney full-pipe and open channel flow-



Dissolved air flotation

meters, which are available for rental or purchase. Aer-0-Flo Circle reply card No. 154










New flow monitoring system for open channel flow measurement






Waterloo, Ontario 519'579'3500 (Fax) 519-579-8986

C WATER RESOURCES Toronto, Ontario 416-858-2330 O LAB SERVICES

(Fax) 416-858-3779

Comprehensive Environmental

System Q, Montedoro-Whitney's


new, complete, state-of-the-art, portable flow monitoring system for open channel flow measurement is designed for demanding applica tions such as sewer system evalua tion surveys and infiltration/inflow

178 Louisa St


Kitchener, Ontario N2H 5M5 1-519-579-4230





The Q-Logger (see photo)uses an extremely accurate Soniflow probe to precisely measure bi-directional flow depth and velocity, with almost no maintenance. A rain gauge input measures rainfall data from an

external rain gauge. Q-Logger can flow proportionally trigger a wastewater sampler, with its option al sampler trigger output and can store 32,000 readings in battery protected memory. Geneq Inc.

Circle reply card No. 155 34

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


Versatile portable effluent sampler



environmental engineers & scientists urban planners transportation engineers





PORTER DILLON LIMITED TORONTO (4161 229-4646 • EDMONTON (403) 483-8094 ■ HALIFAX (902) 453-1 1 15



Professional Services In


Environmental Management Gartner Can-Am Instruments has announc

ed the introduction of the Sigma Streamline



Sampler to the Canadian market. Streamline has digital controls with an LED display and is watertight. It also features pre and post sample line purge,intake rinses and sample


•Environmental Strategies •Resources Planning •Waste Management •Hydrogeology

•Biology • Water Quality •Engineering Geology •Spi l l Response

140 Renfrew Drive • Markham - Ontario - L3R 683 ■ Tele* 06-986278

Telephone (416) 477-8400 Gore Sl Storrie Limited

fault detection and is fully calihratable to most sample volumes. Streamline 700 may be used for

Consulting Engineers & Arofiiteot


composite, 24 - one litre polypropy lene sample jars, or 24 - 350 ml. glass jars for priority pollutants.


1670 Bayview Avenue, Toronto. Ontario M4G 3C2 Telephone(416)485-7715

Can-Am Instruments Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 156

Fax(416)485-0014 Ottawa • St. Catharines • Barric

Resilient wedge gate valve available up to 54" Neo-Seguro gate valves feature all the advantages of resilient wedge gate valves including bubble-tight shut off, 100% round port full flow, no seat rings, which could cause accumulation of sediment, selfflushing design, and double o-ring seals in lieu of a stuffing box. Unlike other resilient wedge

Consultants for water and pollution control projects Knox

Martin Kretch Limited Consulting Engineers, Planners, Landscape Architects.

220 Advance Boulevard, Brampton ,Ontario. L6T 435(416)459-4780

MacLaren Engineers


Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management Consultants

ENVIROCLEAN Division of MacLaren Plansearch


CANADA N5Z 3L2 • TELEPHONE (519) 686-7558 comprehensive environmental laboratory and field services LABORATORY ANALYSIS

MacLaren Plansearch

• Atomic Absorption

OTHER SERVICES • Process Evaluation

• Gas Chfomatography

• Elflueni Sampling

• GC/MS • Stack Sampling • TOX, DOC.TOC Industrial Hygiene Surveys • Hazardous Waste Evaluation

' Water supply, ireaimeni & distribution

• Automated mapping & facilities management

' Wastewater collection, treatment, & disposal

• Transit structures

' Waste management

• Environmental studies, audits, & planning

' Energy from waste ' Water resources engineering

• Computer sciences

' Biological surveys

• Laboratory services

2235 Shepparii Avenue East

Branch offices: Kingston, London, Ottawa, Waterloo,

Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M2J 5A6

Windsor, Winnipeg

• Economic & social studies

Telephone: (416) 756-4919/3866


Marshall Macklin Monaghan



Consulting Engineers Surveyors Planners Hisey and Barrington Limited Consulting Professional Engineers

275 Duncan Mill Rd., Don Mills, Ontario MSB 2Y1

(416) 449-2500

R.R.#2, King City, Ontario LOG 1K0 727-4365

Toronto • Edmonton • Burlington • Mississauga• Whitby

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


POLLUTECH LIMITED Helping Management Make Better Environmental Decisions 768 WESTGATE ROAD, OAKVILLE, ONT. L6L 5N2 TEL: (416) 847-0065 FAX: (416) 847-3840

1149 VANIER ROAD,SARNIA, ONT. N7S3Y6 TEL: (519) 337-6721 DIALCOM: 21-POU003



PROCTOR & REDFERN GROUP Engineering, Pianning, Architecture, Landscape Architecture

valves, Neo-Seguro valves are avail able in sizes up to 54". Many have

45 Green Belt Drive

and pollution control projects across

been used on numerous water works Canada.

Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 3K3

The photo shows one of several

(416) 445-3600

48" valves used in one of Toronto's

Brampton, Hamilton, Kenora, Kingston, Kitchener, London, North Bay, Ottawa, St. Catharines, St. John's, Nfld., Sault Ste. Marie, Simcoe, Sudbury, Thunder Bay

sewage pumping stations. Valves are available in most con

struction materials, and with all

types of operators and actuators; NPT,flanged, MJ,and Victaulic, up to 54". Larger sizes are available on request. Neo Valves

Circle reply card No. 157




Transducer provides


linear measurement The Balluff Linear Displace

(416) 853-1223

ment Transducer, Series BTL is

paul theil associates limited consulting engineers 21 COVENTRY ROAD, BRAMPTON, ONTARIO L6T 4V7 (416) 792-2215

a ruggedly designed linear posi tioning device for use in hydrau lic cylinders, aggressive liquids, food handling, packaging and other



requiring measurement ofstroke lengths 150 to 3200 mm.

Specializing in Municipal Services, Stormwater Management and Urban Flood Relief






transducer allowing immediate measured value, even after a power loss. A magnetic ring serves as a travelling marker to determine the position of the measuring point. The actual signal conducting medium is enclosed in a high pressure rated stainless steel rod. Davis Controls Ltd.

Circle reply card No. 158 36

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

New Technology

Silicallte molecular sieves - a new

option for treatment plant designers THE PEROXSIV PROCESS OXIDATION STEP




















The silicalite sieves are also

A new molecular sieve process

transferred from water to air

application, under development by Union Carbide,could prove to be a major breakthrough for drinking water, wastewater and

• rapid system turnaround (2-8

industrial wastewater treatment

hrs) • bacteria growth not promoted • residual regeneration media is a safe disinfectant

processes, which require a high degree of purity.

• no molecular sieve product losses during regeneration

Peroxsiv, a proprietary novel water treatment technology, uses a new class ofsynthetically manufactured, hydrophohic/or-

Silicalite has been used in

ganophilic molecular sieves developed and patented by Union Carbide.

These media

can selectively remove and con centrate a range of target organics from water through adsorp tion on High Silica Zeolites (HSZ). Peroxsiv




concentrated organics with a dilute hydrogen peroxide solution into harmless products; indeed the residual H2O2 is actu

ally a safe disinfectant for pathogens in drinking water. On-going research indicates that




sieve process could potentially offer

many advantages over

studies for the removal of key contaminants such as henzene,

situ convenience and economy, combined with HSZ's organics

removal efficiency, could all add up to make the molecular sieves the most cost-effective, high

tech, option for municipal and industrial

water and


water treatment.

For further details, contact

Mrs. Dusanka Filipovich, P.Eng., Catalysts, Adsorbents and Process Systems, Union form, carbon tetra chloride, Carbide Canada Limited, Tel: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroe- (416) 488-1444, Ext. 1717. thylene, etc. Circle reply card No. 159

New system continuously produces activated silica Actasol continuously and automatically prepares com

pletely stable activated silica, allowing it to be utilized easier, faster and more economically. No aging is required. Sodium silicate and alumin

um sulphate are metered together with dilution water through a mixing block in such proportions that the final mixture contains from

nologies, including: • in-situ regeneration under mild process conditions • toxic organics conversion into harmless products

silica and has a pH of 6-6.5. In the mixing block,reactants pass through a zone of extremely high shear where the reaction actually takes place. The result is ready-to-use activated silica fed directly to the treatment plant's flocculation zone.

effluent produced • organic contaminants are not

stable in air up to 1300° C. Preliminary studies show that Peroxsiv's process design advantage, attractive proprie tary regeneration concept, in-

toluene, p-xylene, ethyl henzene, phenols, dihromochloromethane, dihromochloropropane, chloro

alternate water treatment tech

• non-hazardous desorhate

Hydrophohic molecular sieves have the capability for ultra low level removal of selected organic contaminants, adsorbing mole cules up to 6 Angstroms in size. They are crystalline, inorganic, microbiologically stable, electri cally neutral and acid resistant. The process is particularly effective for sorbing low mole cular weight, polar and nonpolar organics as well as organics (Cl - ClO) that are completely miscible in water.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988


Production can continue for a

three to four hour period, after which a flushing sequence

begins in order to eliminate precipitate build up. A water flush is introduced for approxi mately 30 seconds,followed by a 20 to 30 second hydrochloric acid injection. Actasol is enclosed in a free

standing fibreglass cabinet, preassembled and wired, ready for installation. For



contact Ahron Nahmias, Metcon Sales and Engineering Limited, Tel:(416) 738-2355. Circle reply card No. 160 37


EIMCO Equipment


James M. Brooker has been appointed Man ager, Wastewater Equipment Sales, in Eimco's Water and Wastewater Treatment Divi

sion, with responsibility for the Canadian Municipal market.

Previously Manager of the Environmental Sales Division of a large Canadian organiza tion, Jim has many years of experience related to Municipal wastewater treatment projects. He is currently President of the Pollution Control Association of Ontario.

J.E. Radley

A.P. Livingston

Eric MacDonald, M.Sc., P.Eng., manager of Ontario operations, is pleased to announce that Jeff Radley, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., has rejoined Associ ated Engineering as Project Manager and Senior Proccess Engineer. Mr.

Associated Engineering announces that Allen P. Livingston, P.Eng., has

Radley has more than 20 years of consulting engineering experience in

relocated from their Edmonton office

to their recently established Cntario operations in Toronto. As Vice Presi dent, Engineering Services, he is responsible for engineering quality and




the area of water and wastewater

Engineering. He will retain this role

treatment. His experience includes the Metro Toronto Easterly Plant, the

as well as leading the design of water and wastewater treatment projects in Cntario. His experience spans 26 years of consulting engineering in

City of Calgary Bearspaw Plant and eight plants in Korea and Malaysia, ranging in size from 40MI/Dto440MI/D.

the areas of water and wastewater

treatment design.




also suppliers of quality filter sands and gravel ANTHRAFILTER MEDIA & COAL LTD.

66 Brant Street, Hamilton, Onl L8L 6A8

Tel: (416) 523-1850



416/671-1010 I 800/556-0111 WORLD RENOWNED SINCE 1946

tVI. Schwartz

R. Walker

Mike Provart, Director, is pleased to announce two senior appointments to Dillon's Environmental Engine ering Division. Mayer Schwartz, P.Eng., Chief Environmental Engineer, has 30 years experience in municipal water and wastewater treatment, liquid industrial waste

Environmental Engineer, has spent

treatment and hazardous wastes

management for private sector and

government clients in Canada, the

USA and overseas.

Roland Walker, P.Eng., a Senior 38

the last 7 years with GCG Dillon in

Edmonton. He brings 10 years of

progressive experience in planning and designing projects for water supply and treatment, wastewater collection and treatment and solid

waste management. Roland has particular expertise in planning and implementing infrastructure reha bilitation gained from Dillon's close working relationship over the past 2 years with WRc inc.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Jan/Feb 1988

ANNOUNCING THE BIGGEST SAVINGS IN STANDARD WATER OUALFTY TESTING A new unique service for determining Standard Water Quality Parameters is now available from Mann Aqua, a division of Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.. The procedure was developed after 18 months of research by Dr. Ross McCurdy, Chief of the Pathology Department's Environmental Chemistry Unit and his team at Dalhousie University. Each of the developed procedures is being published in chemical analytical literature. We are excited to include this work as an integral part of our

Our package includes 30 standard water quality parameters using a combination of advanced robotics, spectrometry and micro processor technology to ensure accurate, reliable results. And, we need only ICQ mL of sample water. Plus, turn around time is 5 days or less, guaranteed! Results are mailed, telexed or faxed. The cost is a

fraction of traditional analysis-only $60.00* a savings of 50% to 80%! So when you need accurate, reliable Standard Water Quality Testing conducted fast and economically, call Mann Aqua.



6 7 8 9 10

Sodium Calcium Hardness Sulfate Silica Ammonia Iron




Magnesium Alkalinity

13 14

Copper pH Conductivity


Chloride Nitrate & Nitrite

16 17

Qrtho Phosphate Manganese


Zinc Colour

19 20



Total Organic Carbon


Bicarbonate Carbonate

23 24 25 26 27

Saturation pH Langelier Index


Anion Sum Cation Sum Ion Balance

29 30

T.D.S.(Theoretical) Conductivity (Theoretical)

QUANTITY: 100 mL TIME: 5 DAYS COST: ÂŤ60.<Âť 'Price is for potable water. Additional ctiarge tor turbid samples requiring pretreatment.

AMMN m 890.2S55 A Division of Mann Testing Laboratories Ltd.


5550 McAdam Road

Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1P1 Phone (416)890-2555 FAX (416)890-0370

Circle reply card No. 121

FLYGTPUTS THE MUSCLE IN YOUR The ability to constantly rise to the challenge has earned Flygt the reputation as the most dependable supplier of Electric Submersible Pumps. Today, with pumps exceeding

^600 horsepower, Flygt products continue to maintain their lead

over the competition with an ever-increasing range of pumping capacities.

Flygt has the experience, the resources and the products to suit any situation. If yours is particularly challenging, put the . power of Flygt behind you. Contact us now.

FI^tITT A division of JLll'X' Industries of Canada Ltd. FLYGT CANADA,300 Labrosse Ave., Pointe Claire, P.O. H9R 4V5

(514)695-0100•Telex 05-821844 Telefax (514)697-0602 ' Vancouver Calgary • Edmonton • Saskatoon Winnipeg • Hamilton •Etoblcoke Sudbury • Ottawa • Poinfe-Claire Quebec • Val d'Or•Moncton

Halifax ■ St. John's (Nfld.) USA:FLYGT CORPORATION, Ik, Conn.

Circle reply card No. 1221

Profile for Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) January 1988  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s first issue. Published in January 1988.

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ESEMAG) January 1988  

Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine’s first issue. Published in January 1988.

Profile for esemag