FIFA World Cup 2014: analysis of the accessibility of airports Aurélio Ferreira Braga <firstname.lastname@example.org> National Land Transport Agency - (ANTT) Belo Horizonte –MG– Brazil Phone/fax: +55 31 3287-7054 Erivelton Pires Guedes <email@example.com> Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA) Brasília – DF – Brazil Phone/fax: +55 61 3315-5237 Rogério Pecci Filho <firstname.lastname@example.org National Civil Aviation Agency - Brazil (ANAC) Brasília – DF – Brazil Phone/fax: +55 61 3441-8482
Airports that can fit the demand for air travel is a basic condition for the development of a nation. However, being able to arrive at airports is also equally important. This study applied the methodology proposed by Braga, Guedes and Pecci (2009) for the calculation of accessibility in airports at 12 cities that will host the FIFA World Cup in 2014 in Brazil. The methodology is based on the geographical location of the population served and the land transport infrastructure available for each airport. The data were analyzed with a geographic information system applied to transport (Transcad). The necessary data for each city were collected and updated, in particular: population, highways, railroads and location of airports. Special attention was given to the average speed of road, because there were several changes since 2006 (reference date of the work of Braga et all, 2009). The proposed indicators were calculated for each airport: sum of distances of highways (contained in the area reachable within 2 hours of land travel), population and GDP. Some considerations are made about some airports, such as some comparisons with the previous study. Improvements to the methodology are also proposed. KEYWORDS Air transport and the environment Air transport, land use and agglomeration Geography
1. INTRODUCTION - THE BRAZILIANÂ´S AIR TRANSPORTATION The Brazilian air transportation is growing rapidly, especially in the last decade. During this period the industry went through a period of greater market freedom and large companies had serious problems, some have closed and new ones emerged. The country also went through a serious crisis, which started timidly during the football World Cup in Germany, where many Brazilians got stuck in Europe due to problems of Varig. Following two major accidents (in 2006 and 2007) led the Brazilian aviation to a large negative highlight in the Brazilian media, with numerous delays and confusion at airports. Moreover, the economic and political stability have broadened the possibilities of air, previously restricted to a small part of the population. This growth in air transport can be better understood by Charts 1 and 2 below: Graphic 1 â€“ Air traffic evolution - Brazil 2000 - 2008 (source: ANAC) Air traffic evolution - Brazil 2008
800 Km Domestic
90 80 70
0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
100 Km Total
Table 1 – Domestic Passenger Movement – 2003 to 2009 Infraero Airports Year Domestic Passenger Movement Growth 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
61.268.864 71.489.102 83.483.534 90.005.151 97.951.731 99.974.794 115.002.400
Growth 2009/2003 87,7% Source: Infraero/DOPL (2010) at Brazilian Transportation Database
Graphic 2 – Domestic Passenger Movement – 2003 to 2009 - Infraero Airports Domestic Passenger Movement - Infraero 140 000 000 120 000 000 100 000 000 80 000 000 60 000 000 40 000 000 20 000 000 0 2003
Table 1 and graphic 2 show that the number of passengers carried grew by about 88% between 2003 and 2009. At the same time also increased the average size of our aircrafts, which also has increased year after year. This growth in average size of aircraft contributes to reducing the cost of tickets and also reduces the pressure for
infrastructure. On the other hand, is also decreasing the number of locations served and the frequency of flights between cities pairs. The international airports located in 12 cities that will host World Cup games in 2014 are located in areas relatively remote from population centers they serve. They serve large cities, some of them among the largest in the world - such as Sao Paulo 1, currently about 20 million inhabitants. These airports are connected to the centers that serve originally by road. Some airports have, in their original designs, the rail link as an option - but not yet implemented. Currently the construction of a TAV between the states of Rio de Janeiro 2 and Sao Paulo is in design phase and bidding, which contains the highest demand of passengers between cities in Brazil (about 7.3 million passengers for the year 2008, modes combined air and road between the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo). Figure 1 shows the initial plan. The project starts in the city of Campinas (SP), stop by at Guarulhos Airport (SBGR, in S達o Paulo) and runs through the center of Rio de Janeiro, passing by Gale達o Airport (SBGL, in Rio de Janeiro).
S達o Paulo city is the capital of S達o Paulo state (SP)
Rio de Janeiro city is the capital of Rio de Janeiro state (RJ)
Figure 1 – high-speed train Rio-São Paulo - initial design
2. CITIES WHICH WILL HOST THE WORLD CUP SOCCER IN 2014 The FIFA World Cup will take place in Brazil for the second time (last hosted FIFA's flagship event in 1950). 12 cities will host the matches: Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Manaus, Natal, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo (FIFA, 2010). As already mentioned these cities are among the largest and most important of the country and also contribute to spread the games around the country. The largest are in the Southeast (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro / RJ and Belo Horizonte / MG). These three cities account for about 41% of the number of domestic passengers
carried (Infraero, 2009) and 86% of the number of international passengers carried (Infraero, 2009). Table 2 below shows the importance of this group of cities within the national air transport. The first 12 airports in the table are the international airports studied in this work and the last 3, highlighted, are the airports for domestic flights from the cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro / RJ and Belo Horizonte / MG.
Table 2 – passengers carried (source: Infraero, 2009) Passengers Airport Pax dom Pax Intern SBGR - Guarulhos SBBR - Brasília SBGL - Galeão SBSV - Salvador SBCF - Confins SBPA - Porto Alegre SBRF - Recife SBCT - Curitiba SBFZ - Fortaleza SBEG - Manaus SBNT - Natal SBCY - Cuiabá SBSP - Congonhas SBRJ - Santos-Dumont SBBH - Pampulha Total
TOTAL INFRAERO 3 Market share
13.268.119 12.056.606 9.215.475 6.738.661 5.371.633 5.256.133 5.042.301 4.764.800 3.987.752 2.149.657 1.766.387 1.670.744 13.699.657 5.099.477 596.579 90.683.981
8.459.530 157.219 2.613.181 314.059 245.538 351.570 208.264 88.933 223.899 150.365 127.726 960 166 1.781 12.943.191
Pax Total 21.727.649 12.213.825 11.828.656 7.052.720 5.617.171 5.607.703 5.250.565 4.853.733 4.211.651 2.300.022 1.894.113 1.671.704 13.699.657 5.099.643 598.360 103.627.172
13.133.216 128.135.616 98,6%
It may be noted that these 12 cities operate almost 80% of Brazil's domestic passengers and almost all international passengers. Due to the fast growing demand for air travel, almost all of these airports are with a high rate demand / capacity. So the government is preparing a plan of readjustment of the capacity of these airports, in order both the World Cup and the demand in future years. Among these works, should be highlighted the building of a new airport that will serve the city of Natal, in the nearby town of Sao Goncalo do Amarante. This airport is
Infraero - Empresa Brasileira de Infraestrutura Aeroportuária - is a federal public company in Brazil, responsible for administering the country's main airports.
expected to be one of the largest in the country and is slated to launch in May 2014 in time to attend the 2014 World Cup. Natal is the capital of Brazil closest to Europe. The following figures (Fig. 2 and 3) show the map of Brazil in the world and the 12 host cities of 20144 World Cup highlights.
Figure 2 â€“ Brazil and host cities
These maps can be viewed and analyzed dynamically by IpeaMapas site, available at http://mapas.ipea.gov.br 4
Brazil – FIFA World Cup 2014 hosts – airport accessibility
Figure 3 – Brazil and FIFA World cup 2014 hosts Besides the works already mentioned, also deserve mention some government actions that cause changes in the figures. They are basically improvements and concessions of some highways. The concessions generally provide for the need for investment in both physical and operational improvements of the highways and in works by increasing the capacity of them. The most prominent of these actions are below: Concession of the BR-381, between São Paulo (SP) and Belo Horizonte (MG)
Works are planned to physical and operational improvements in addition to expanding capacity. These works will increase the accessibility of Confins Airport (SBCF) and Guarulhos Airport (SBGR).
Beltway São Paulo (SP) The ring road was completed recently in São Paulo. This work should speed the trip around the city of São Paulo, avoiding the passage through that city, when not
needed. This work has also increased the accessibility of the Guarulhos Airport (SBGR). However, since the work was completed recently it was not included in the current study.
Concession of 680 km of highways in Bahia (BA) Auction of the National Land Transport Agency (ANTT) conducted in 2009, granted extension of 680.6 km of highways in the state of Bahia, which will be maintained by the private sector for the next 25 years. The blocks are: BR-116/BA Feira de Santana - Div.BA MG 554.1 km, BR-324/BA Salvador - 113.2 km Feira de Santana, BA-526-324 Entr.BR Entr.BA -528 9.3 km Entr.BA and BA-528-526 - Access to Naval Base Aratu 4 km. These operators will work to expand the capacity of the road, as well as some physical and operational improvements. These works will increase the accessibility of the airport of Salvador (SBSV). (ANTT, 2010)
3. INDICATORS OF ACESSIBILITY IN AIRPORTS It was adopted in this work, the methodology proposed by Braga, Guedes and Pecci (2009) for the calculation of accessibility in airports. Accessibility treated here refers to the possibility of an individual or goods arrive at the desired destination. Among the determinants of accessibility it can be highlighted the performance of the transport system, patterns of land use and availability of mesh (road, rail and public transport). Improvements in accessibility standards typically provide benefits, among which we highlight: the economy, more alternative services and products. This is a primary objective of the transportation system, because the improvement of accessibility allows citizens to have access to products and activities they want. This methodology has proposed the calculation of objective indicators within an area bounded by an amorphous curve, two hours away from an airport. The selected indicators are: GDP, population, length of railways and length of highways. To calculate that curve it was used specialized software (Transcad), in which it was built an algorithm to enable automated calculation of limit points of the curves of each airport. Data for this study came from official sources in each sector and updated to the latest data available. Thus, GDP (at current prices in 2008) and population (estimated in 2009) were obtained from the IBGE and the geographic files of roads and railways are from PNLT (National Plan of Logistics and Transport, from the Ministry of Transport, 2007). The airport data came from the National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) and Infraero.
It is worth remembering that the database has some lacks of highways newly created, such as the Beltway of S達o Paulo. Therefore, such roads were not computed in this study. Besides, the highway that connects the airport Confins to Belo Horizonte (MG)-called Green Line - has recently been reformed, duplicated and segregated. Inaugurated in December 2008, this is one of the largest works of recent years in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte. At Green Line, various interventions have enabled fast and secure access to north and northeast areas of Belo Horizonte and Tancredo Neves International Airport. A key benefit expected is to reduce the journey time from the Tancredo Neves International Airport (SBCF), in Confins, and Belo Horizonte downtown. At early situation, the time of the route was one hour and, with the end of the work, the duration should be reduced to 35 minutes (SETOP, 2010). Thus, for this particular highway, adjustments were made at the average speed of its segments. As will be seen later on, note that the Tancredo Neves International Airport (SBCF) has had a large increase in the indicators of accessibility, in comparison with other airports that were studied last year. It was used maps containing highways, railways and airports with major transport characteristics, especially the average speed of terrestrial systems. The main aspects considered in this study were the estimate of the journey times and the land transport offer, expressed as the sum of the distance (in kilometers) of highway within the considered area. The methodology and the previous study indicate the sum of distance of the railways as an indicator. However, as in Brazil there is no significant passenger rail to the airports studied, it was chosen in this study to not use this indicator. According to the proposed methodology, the point two hours away from the airport limits the catchment area proposed for this work. The result is an amorphous curve in the road system. An important point to note is the decision of the Board of Civil Aviation (CONAC) which, in its CONAC Resolution 009/2007 (CONAC, 2007), determines that the transportation alternatives that serve the airports must be observed. This resolution provides the integration and streamlining of government investments in airports in order to minimize the imbalances of the planned investments.
4. RESULTS After processing the data, curves were generated for each airport. For each curve was performed, with the aid of software Transcad, the accounting of the total population, GDP, the sum of distances (in km) of roads contained, the total area and number of towns served.
The calculation of the population was based on the average number of inhabitants per municipality. This method is not the most appropriate, because in Brazil there are municipalities with very different housing densities within the cities themselves. However, for the purposes of this study this is not relevant. In the case of the update the study, it will be easy to recalculate this variable with new data. The ideal data for this case is the census sector. As the previous census in Brazil was in 2000 and the next will be held this year, it is believed that there would be no great advantage in using the data from census tracts in this work and this would greatly increase the analysis effort. Table 3 below summarizes the parameters calculated using the curves defined by the proposed methodology. Table 3 – Results
City 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
São Paulo Brasília Rio de Janeiro Salvador Belo Horizonte Porto Alegre Recife Curitiba Fortaleza Manaus Natal Cuiabá Total Brazil
Airport SBGR SBBR SBGL SBSV SBCF SBPA SBRF SBCT SBFZ SBEG SBNT SBCY
AREA (km2) 31 398 24 766 23 014 16 395 27 533 25 613 21 576 31 592 21 211 6 336 23 706 18 750 271 891 8 514 876
Road (Km) 3 715 3 202 3 417 1 876 2 660 2 724 2 760 2 715 2 087 225 2 669 1 779 29 829 268 596
GDP 2007 (106 USD) 371 305 58 602 130 392 32 001 54 988 51 766 32 165 54 992 18 660 6 048 8 520 5 415 824 854 1 415 433
Cities POP 2009 served (103 inhab) 141 32 73 65 113 124 120 81 56 5 110 18 938 5 565
27 620 3 839 14 188 4 975 6 406 5 192 6 958 4 978 4 330 591 2 203 772 82 052 191 483
It is observed that 43% of the population, producing 58% of GDP, is contained in the area of influence of these airports, which occupies only 3.2% of Brazilian's territory. Of these 12 airports studied, 8 were studied in 2009, based on data from previous years. As the roads databases are similar (except roads around the Confins Airport) it will not be made comparisons with every airport in the previous study. However, as the accessibility of the Confins Airport has increased, it will be discussed further here. Table 4 below shows the comparison of areas covered and roads in these areas for three situations studied.
Table 4 â€“ Comparison of results to
Situation 1 2 3
Confins Airport (Belo Horizonte - SBCF)
AREA (% Brazil)
6 217 14 769
0.07% 0.17% 0.32%
Road (% Brazil) 0.27% 0.55% 0.99%
The situation 1 refers to the previous study based on data prior to changes on the Green Line and the situation 2 refers to the simulation previously performed, assuming the increase in average speed on roads surrounding the airport confines of 40%. Finally, the situation 3 refers to the time after the completion of construction of the Green Line, with a marked increase in the average speed of automobiles. Note into the table that the considered area increased from 0.07% of the area of the country to 0.32%. Likewise, the total length of roads contained increased from 0.27% to 0.99%. This shows that investment in roads has made the airport more accessible and, therefore, attractive to passengers. This can be checked also by increased demand from this airport, above the average for Brazil. Figure 4 below shows the situation described above. The blue color represents the first situation, the brown (hatched) represents the situation 2 and the green color represents the current situation.
Confins Airport (SBCF) - Belo Horizonte (MG)
Figure 4 â€“ Confins Influence area in 3 moments At the end of the works mentioned above, the airports of Confins, Guarulhos and Rio de Janeiro will be closer. Figure 5 shows this situation. The planned improvements to the highway that connects Belo Horizonte to Sao Paulo will accentuate this feature.
Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP) and Belo Horizonte (MG)
Figure 5 – Influence area of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte airports Finally, it is also worth the fact that areas of the airports of Recife (PE) and Natal (RN) are also very close, as shown in Figure 9 below. With the various works being done in the region this feature will increase further.
Natal (RN) and Recife (PE)
Figure 6 â€“ Influence area of Natal and Recife airports 5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS This work is an application of the methodology proposed by Braga, Guedes e Pecci (2009) into the airports in 12 cities that will host the world cup in 2014. The terrestrial accessibility to these airports is a challenge from Brazil, not only for the 2014 World Cup but also to meet the growing demand for air transportation in the country. The concept of accessibility applied, using the methodology proposed, approached the subject using the travel time from the airport to a point two hours away from this airport using the road. The railroad was not included in this work. The study was made with the support of specialized software in the analysis of transport and integrated way. Thus, it is possible to build a model more complete that would enable the public administrator to make better decisions, especially in matters related to transport infrastructure (not just airports, but also railroads and highways).
It is stressed in this work once again the recommendation of CONAC: at the analyze for new investments in airports it is mandatory to look existing investments, both in airports and other transports systems. One of the difficulties encountered in previous work was to obtain complete, comprehensive and integrated data. Despite this difficulty persists, the country has advanced in this field with the creation of an infrastructure dedicated to spatial data (INDE - National Spatial Data Infrastructure). It is important to remember that accessibility discussed here can have negative effects and therefore be undesirable in some cases. Thus, the numbers should be considered as part of the analysis and not as a final solution of a problem. The paper cited a series of works that are underway or studies for all levels of government. Thus, it can be believed that the application of this methodology will help administrators to make better decisions with those additional indicators. As a suggestion for improving the methodology it was noted the need to create an indicator based on the provision of public transport, encompassing both the frequency and fare. Finally, the country has a great need to invest in the integration of airports to the downtown cities.
REFERENCES ANAC (2010) – www.anac.gov.br, website visited in 2010 May Braga, A. .F; Vieira, A. B.; Coutinho e Souza, .E V.; Guedes, E. .P (2007) - Uso de geoprocessamento em inspeções técnicas nas ferrovias concedidas - V Congresso Brasileiro de Regulação, Recife Braga, A. F., Guedes, E. P., Pecci Filho, R. (2009) - PROPOSAL FOR CALCULATION OF AIRPORTS ACCESSIBILITY WITH USE OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS, XIII ATRS Conference, Dubai Brazilian Transportation Database – BTD (2010) - Latin American Center for Transportation Economics - Available at www.nectar.ita.br/btd (Source: Infraero/DOPL 2010) CALIPER Co., (2005) - TRANSCAD - Geographic Information System for Windows. Manual. CONAC (2007) - CONSELHO DE AVIAÇÃO CIVIL-– Resolução nr 009/2007 - Da infraestrutura aeroportuária, website visited in 2010 Jan FIFA (2010) - http://www.fifa.com/, website visited in 2010 May IBGE (2010) – www.ibge.gov.br, website visited in 2010 May INDE (2010) – www.inde.gov.br, website visited in 2010 May
MinistĂŠrio dos Transportes (2010) - http://www.tavbrasil.gov.br/, website visited in 2010 Apr SETOP (2010) - Secretaria de Estado de Transportes e Obras PĂşblicas de Minas Gerais - http://www.transportes.mg.gov.br/, website visited in 2010 Apr
Annex Tancredo Neves International Airport (SBCF- Confins/MG)
Figure 7 – SBCF influence area Brasília International Airport - Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek (SBBR Distrito Federal)
Figure 8 – SBBR influence area
Rio de Janeiro International Airport / Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim (SBGL – Rio de Janeiro/RJ)
Figure 9 – SBGL influence area Recife International Airport /Guararapes-Gilberto Freyre (SBRF – Recife/PE)
Figure 10 – SBRF influence area
Pinto Martins International Airport (SBFZ – Fortaleza/CE)
Figure 11 – SBFZ influence area Salvador International Airport - Dep. Luís Eduardo Magalhães (SBSV – Salvador/BA)
Figure 12 – SBSV influence area
São Paulo International Airport /Guarulhos-Governador André Franco Montoro (SBGR – São Paulo/SP)
Figure 13 – SBGR influence area Eduardo Gomes International Airport - Manaus (SBEG – Manaus/AM)
Figure 14 – SBEG influence area
Natal International Airport (SBNT- Natal/RN)
Figure 15 – SBNT influence area Cuiabá International Airport (SBCY- Cuiabá/MS)
Figure 16 –SBCY influence area
Afonso Pena International Airport (SBCT – Curitiba/PR)
Figure 17 – SBCT influence area Salgado Filho International Airport (SBPA – Porto Alegre/RS)
Figure 18 – SBPA influence area Obs: All maps of this work are available interactively on the website: http://mapas.ipea.gov.br