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Galapagos Senior Explorers In Country Lesson Packet


Contents Global Citizenship Being a global citizen ➜What makes a global citizen? ➜Global citizenship as a tourist ➜Political history of Ecuador ➜Impact of Dollarization Negotiations ➜Basic Practice ➜Common Negotiation Terminology ➜Common “Hard Tactics” ➜Playing a different game ➜Galapagos Negotiation Background ➜Galapagos Cases

Media Production Camerawork ➜Interesting Angles ➜Planning and combining shots ➜New perspectives Production! ➜Sample Script ➜Sample Storyboard ➜Create your own storyboard Project Planning

Systems Thinking ➜Summary of Components ➜Identifying Loops

➜What’s in a Genre? ➜Content and Audience ➜Checklist

The Galapagos Islands Scientific History ➜Do you know Darwin? ➜Map of The Voyage of the Beagle ➜Pages from Voyage of H.M.S Beagle ➜Natural Selection at Work ➜Exercise: Darwin’s Finches Human History ➜Notable figures ➜The Galapagos Affair ➜The Air Base on Baltra ➜Forms of Artistic Expression ➜Visions of Galapagos Art of the Galapagos ➜Forms of Artistic Expression ➜Visions of Galapagos


Global Citizenship


What is a global citizen? There are many possible elements of global citizenship. What do you think are the most important? Choose four elements from the box (or add your own), and add the reasoning and an example for each. One is done as an example.

speaking English fluently

speaking several languages

having empathy for others

studying economics

studying world history

traveling to other countries

following news from around the world

living abroad

being open to new experiences

having friends from other countries

knowing how to use the latest technologies

traveling in the developing world

Global citizenship requires speaking English fluently because English has become the common language for business, academics, and tourism. An example of this is almost every international airport uses English to announce arrivals and departures. Global citizenship requires

because

Global citizenship requires

because

Global citizenship requires

because

Global citizenship requires

because

An example of this is

An example of this is

An example of this is

An example of this is


Exercising Global Citizenship When Abroad Prioritize the following from 1-9 When traveling to a new country, you should… _____

Purchase souvenirs. Find the perfect item to remember your trip!

_____

Study the history of the country and its people. Understand the background and significance of the sites that you visit!

_____

Learn the basics of the language. Be able to communicate with those around you!

_____

Study the geography of the country. Be able to map your itinerary!

_____

Do something adventurous! Being in a different country is the best place to try on a ‘new you’!

_____

Study the natural history and current ecology. Understand the wildlife (birds, animals, plants, etc) that you see around you!

_____

Talk to natives from the country. Strike up a conversation and ask them about their daily lives, plans for the future, hopes and dreams. Make new friends!

_____

Communicate with your friends and family back home through photographs, video, postcards, and letters. Share the adventure!

_____

Have fun! Being a tourist is about enjoying the experience, after all!


The past is never dead. It's not even past. William Faulkner Pursuing the history of any nation always begins with a list of events, dates, and people. We begin sometime before ‘independence’, move through a few wars, a few elections, and several ‘discoveries’. The importance of studying history lies not in the memorization of these items, but in the consideration of how each may affect life in the modern world. The events of the past continue to impact us today, shaping our habits, perceptions, and interactions. Knowing history is knowing how the past influences the present. Thus, the careful consideration of a nation’s history is perhaps the most critical factor for ensuring travel as a true global citizen. !

Read the following pages, consider how each may impact life Ecuador today.


Political History of Ecuador Year(s)

Event

1535

Spanish conquistadors annihilate the Incan Empire, conquer the native Ecuadorians, and establish colonial rule over Ecuador.

1820-1830

With support from the Venezuelan liberator Simon Bolivar, Ecuador achieves independence.

1941

Tensions arise over disputed Amazon territories, and Peru invades Ecuador. A peace accord is brokered, with Ecuador relinquishing half of its territory.

Impact Today?


Political History of Ecuador Year(s)

Event

1970s

Following the discovery of oil, Ecuador’s government budget, exports, and per-capita income increase fivefold. As industry develops, a small middle class begins to emerge.

1981

After 150 years of a mix of military and civilian rule, President Jamie Roldos dies in a mysterious plane crash. Conspiracy theorists point to US constituents with interests in Ecuadorian oil.

2000

Facing spiraling inflation, contracting GDP, and default on external debts, Ecuador dumps the national currency and dollarizes the economy.

Impact Today?


Political History of Ecuador Year(s)

Event

2006

Rafael Correa is elected as President. Correa has called for taxes on the oil industry and announced that Ecuador would default on ‘illegitimate’ foreign debt.

2008

65% of Ecuadorians vote in favor of a new constitution, which expands the powers of the President, increases spending on health care and the poor, and enshrines the protection of indigenous people and the environment.

Impact Today?


The impact of dollarization What do these charts tell us? What else do we need to know? Poverty Headcount

GDP Growth Rate

Real Interest Rate


Side A Congratulations! Your uncle has left you a small piece of land on Isabela and 100,000 USD. This land, roughly one acre in size, is in a good location for a hotel, with possible access to roads and sources of water and electricity. It has never been developed, but your uncle did secure permits to build a hotel of 20-30 rooms on the land. These permits can be transferred to another person.

Your lawyer has told you that the value of the land was assessed at 85,000 USD in 2000, and 120,000 USD in 2010. If a hotel with 25 rooms is constructed on the land, then the value of the land could increase to well over 1 million USD. You have been approached by a local businessman who would like to purchase the land. Your cousin has already offered to buy your land for 100,000 USD. You would like to see if you can do better than that.


Side B Congratulations! Your uncle has left you 1 million USD! You would like to use the money to build a hotel of 25 rooms on Isabela. You have done the budgeting, and know that building the hotel will cost: Construction Materials: 450,000 USD Construction Labor: 250,000 USD Incidentals: 50,000 USD Permits for hotel: 50,000 USD This leaves 200,000 USD to purchase land on which to build your hotel. Your lawyer has told you of a piece that may be for sale. This land, roughly one acre in size, is in a good location for a hotel, with possible access to roads and sources of water and electricity. It has never been developed. The value of the land was assessed at 80,000 USD in 1990 and 85,000 USD in 2000. Your cousin has a similar piece of land available for purchase for 125,000 USD. You would like to see if you can do better than that.


Common Negotiations Terminology BATNA

BATNA

WIN-SET

WIN-SET

ZOPA


Common “Hard Tactics� of Positional Negotiations

Deliberate Deception Psychological Warfare Positional Pressure Tactics


Playing a different game: Principled Negotiations

Separate the people from the problem Focus on interests, not positions

Invent options for mutual gain

Insist on using objective criteria


Endangered Galapagos In 2007, UNESCO added the Galapagos to its list of ‘Endangered World Heritage Sites’, a painful illustration of the impotence of the international conservation movement. The Galapagos Islands had been one of the first World Heritage sites to be listed by UNESCO in 1978. Such a listing was intended to ensure that the fragile ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands would be protected for all time. Instead, the Galapagos had experienced rapid change. From 1978 onwards, the Galapagos experienced a massive increase of human activity. The average rate of population growth in the 300 square kilometers reserved for human settlement has been 6.4% per year, three times greater than in mainland Ecuador. Illegal immigrants from the mainland have largely contributed to its population increase. The archipelago attracted some 140,000 tourists each year, putting continuous pressure on the islands’ flora and fauna ecosystems. Both the population increase and the rising number of tourists visiting the islands have led to a substantial rise in imports. One of the adverse effects of the growth in trade was the introduction of domestic animals and plant sorts previously unknown to the island group, which, in turn, threatened the native unique plant and animal life.

History of Conflict The development of sea cucumber fishing in the archipelago in the early 1990s has led to several conflicts. Owing to the global demand for sea cucumbers, spiny lobster, and (illegal) shark fins, the gross income of the Galápagos fishing sector skyrocketed. By some reports, it was possible to earn $500 a day, compared to a yearly income in Ecuador of $1324. With money to be made, many locals declared themselves to be fishers and mainland Ecuadorians began to flood the islands. The number of registered pepinos (sea cucumber fishers) in Galápagos rose more than 70% from 1999 to 2000 alone. Efforts by park officials to place restrictions on the sea cucumber harvest led to the shooting of one park official and threats to other officials working for the park and for the Charles Darwin Research Station. In 1995, the Ecuadorian government tried to place a ban on sea cucumber fishing. The Galapagos representative in Congress, Eduardo Veliz Rinones fought against the ban, writing his own conservation bill and pushed it through Congress. When the President Ballen vetoed the bill at the last minute, Congressman Veliz stirred up a rebellion in the Galapagos. Riots ensued throughout he the islands. Officials seized about 80,000 sea cucumbers that had been fished illegally and arrested over 30 fishermen.


The Rise of Tourism Structured tourism in the Galapagos began in the late 1960s, with less than ten hotels and ships catering 2,000 tourists annually. Tourism was slow to develop, with visitation in 1985 under 20,000 per year. Limits on the number of boat permits led to the replacement of small tour boats with increasingly larger vessels, often owned by non-Galapagos citizens. The Galapagos did not have enough experienced and knowledgeable guides to service this influx. Many large companies hired outside guides with less familiarity with the islands. The economic inflows of tourist dollars did not reach many Galapagos citizens.

Special Law on the Galapagos In 1998, the Ecuadorian government managed to pass the Special Law on the Galapagos, which inter alia ➜ established the Galapagos Marina Reserve out to 40 miles offshore ➜ prohibited fishing in that protected area to all but local residents using ''artisanal'' means ➜ required a quota system for lobster and sea cucumber harvests The Special Law defines four human population types in the Islands:

1. 2. 3. 4.

undocumented or “illegal” workers from the mainland of Ecuador “permanent residents” or the native population of Galapagos “temporary residents” or workers subject to legal residence restrictions of labor contracts, “tourists.”

Despite the Special Law, the fisherman lobby remained strong. In 2004, forty marines were called in to reinforce the guards at the National Park and the Darwin Research Center, as the fishermen protested the reduction of their harvest. The fishermen had threatened to kill Lonesome George unless the government gave into their demands. Tourism also increased markedly. By 2006, there were at least 80 vessels and 65 hotels capable of simultaneously accommodating nearly 3,500 guests per night. More than 120,000 tourists arrived in the archipelago in 2005. UNESCO’s decision to include the Galapagos Islands on its List of World Heritage in Danger drew international attention to the plight of the islands. This decision met with fierce opposition by many residents who feared a decline in tourism.


SOURCES: Center for Galapagos Studies. http://galapagos.unc.edu/about/galapagosislands

Bruce Epler. Tourism, the Economy, Population growth, and Conservation in the Galapagos. http://www.darwinfoundation.org/english/_upload/Epler_Tourism_Report-en_5-08.pdf

NY Times. Where Darwin Mused, Strife Over Ecosystem http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/27/world/27GALA.html

Carol Ann Bassett. (2009) Galapagos At the Crossroads

Henry Nicholls. (2007) Lonesome George: The Life and Loves of the World's Most Famous Tortoise.

John Kricher (2006) Galรกpagos: A Natural History.

Allegretti, Arren Mendezona; Vaske, Jerry J.; Finchum, Ryan (2012) Conflict and normative sanctions among Galapagos fishermen

Viva Travel Guides. The Galapagos Fishing War. http://www.vivatravelguides.com/southamerica/ecuador/the-galapagos-islands/galapagos-overview/galapagos-ecotourism-andmanag/the-galapagos-fishing-war/


Case A You have been asked to represent the Galapagos fishing industry (consisting of 2000 families) in the upcoming negotiations. They are concerned that UNESCO’s decision will result in further

tightening of restrictions on fishing harvest. Currently, the regulations include: ➜ Sea Cucumber quotas of 50,000 pounds annually ➜ Lobster quotas of 200,000 pounds annually ➜ A complete ban on harvesting of shark fins

➜ Restrictions on fishing permits to 2000 Galapagos residents The fishermen understand the necessity of preserving the marine habitat, and are willing to accept reductions in the number of fishing permits. However, they feel that the Ecuadorian government has

restricted their livelihoods and ignored the destruction caused by the tourism industry. Unless the agreement includes new incomegenerating opportunities, the fishermen are ready to protest once again.

*Please note that the details of this case are fictionalized for the purposes of the negotiation


Case B You have been asked to represent the Ecuadorian government in the upcoming negotiations. Embarrassed by the international attention, the government has stated that it will take “all necessary actions” to get the Galapagos Islands removed from the list of endangered World Heritage sites. This includes new regulations restricting the number of tourists entering the Galapagos to 95,000 per year. However, the government is also aware of the potential lost revenues from this action. The government is willing to lower the tax on the tourism industry from 5 percent to 1 percent of profits, but only if the industry can increase the share of tourist dollars flowing to Galapagos citizens. Finally, the government wishes to avoid another protest from the fishing industry. The current fishing regulations include: ➜ ➜ ➜ ➜

Lobster quotas of 200,000 pounds annually Sea Cucumber quotas of 50,000 pounds annually A complete ban on harvesting of shark fins Restrictions on fishing permits to 2000 Galapagos residents

The government would like to cut the fishing permits to 1500 Galapagos residents, and has set aside 5 million USD to assist current fishermen in new employment opportunities. The government wishes to ensure that this money only benefits fishermen, however, and not the tourist industry.

*Please note that the details of this case are fictionalized for the purposes of the negotiation


Case C You have been asked to represent the Galapagos tourist industry in the upcoming negotiations. Data from the tourist industry show:

2004

2005

2006

Number of Tourists

100,000

122,000

125,000

Tax % on Profits

5

5

5

% of Employees who are Galapagos citizens

35

20

25

The tourist industry recognizes the necessity of removing the Islands from the list of endangered sites and is willing to make concessions to achieve this goal. The tourist operators have long been interested in contracting with fishermen to engage in boating tours in the Marine Reserve, but are concerned about the impact on their profits. The tourist industry understands that the number of tourists will need to decrease, but refuses to accept any deal without a cut in taxes to at least 3 percent.

*Please note that the details of this case are fictionalized for the purposes of the negotiation


Case D You have been asked to represent UNESCO in the upcoming negotiations. UNESCO will only remove the Islands from the list of endangered

sites if the following conditions are met:

➜ The Ecuadorian government increases funding and patrols to control the illegal harvesting of shark fins. ➜ Tourism in the islands is restricted to 100,000 visitors annually.

➜ Any tourist activities must be environmentally sensitive

Acting under its mandate to “build peace in the minds of men and women worldwide”, UNESCO seeks to find an equitable solution to the Galapagos Island dispute. Therefore, UNESCO will only accept

the negotiation results if all parties agree.

*Please note that the details of this case are fictionalized for the purposes of the negotiation


SYSTEMS THINKING SUMMARY OF COMPONENTS Variables

Links

➜Elements in a story that vary over time ➜Qualitative or quantitative ➜Dynamic ➜Phrased in neutral language

➜Represent causality

Thought Bubbles

Delays

➜Indicates the thinking that leads to the action/choice

➜Shows the slowdowns naturally occurring in a system


SYSTEMS THINKING HOW TO IDENTIFY LOOPS You have a reinforcing loop if… ➜The story you are hearing is self-feeding, self-perpetuating, growing, or declining. ➜The story can either be about growth (virtuous cycle) or a spiral of death (vicious cycle). ➜When you begin at any variable in the loop and go all the way around the loop, if that variable is still going in the same direction as when you stated, you have a reinforcing loop.

You have a balancing loop if… ➜The story you are hearing is self-correcting, goal-seeking, or oscillating. ➜When you begin at any variable in the loop and go all the way around the loop, that variable is now going in the opposite direction as when you started, you have a balancing loop.


Media Production


BASIC ANGLES AND SHOTS Turn on your video cameras and try your hand at filming each of these types of shots. Remember: it’s important to have different types of camera angles to tell a good story.

Close Up This shot gives us detail and emotions What are they thinking, what are they feeling?


BASIC ANGLES AND SHOTS

Medium Shot This shot tells us what the characters are DOING


BASIC ANGLES AND SHOTS

Wide Shot This shot establishes the scene. Where are we?


Planning and Combining Shots You need to make a 30 second PSA demonstrating the importance of guarding your possessions in the airport. What shots do you need? What camera angles should you use for each shot?

Shot Subject

Camera Angle

Passengers waiting (crowd)

Wide


New Camera Perspectives

Now try filming from new and different perspectives. Try these now and try to incorporate some of these techniques into your filming each day. ➜Try lying on your back – What kind of perspectives does this view offer? ➜Film from standing on top of a chair. ➜Spin in a circle with the camera filming, facing outward. ➜Find a person or object you’d like to film. Walk around the object or person in a circle, keeping the camera on the person or object in the center. ➜Choose another person or object you’d like to film. Now take ten steps away from the person/object. Turn the camera on and walk slowly towards the object you are filming. Now do it in reverse, pulling out and taking a few steps backwards. ➜Pick an interesting angle of your own and try filming from it! Note, limit your use of the zoom feature on the camera. The zoom will make it harder to edit and look less professional. If you want to get closer or further from something you’re filming, move the camera.


Sample Script


Sample Storyboard


Blank Storyboard


Blank Storyboard


Blank Storyboard


Blank Storyboard


What’s in a Genre? Take some time to explore the different video genres and their examples below. Notice that there is a difference between genre and content. Public Service Announcement Less to Moderately Challenging Production Level ➜ Messages in the public interest distributed by the media without charge ➜ Objective of raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue ➜ Examples: The Need for Penguin Habitats on the Galapagos, End Childhood Hunger with Jeff Bridges

Travel/Promotional Video Moderately Challenging Production Level ➜ A video promoting a particular organization, project, trip, etc. ➜ Videos encourage/recruit travelers by highlighting what visitors might experience there ➜ Example: Lonely Planet Travel TV


Educational Videos Moderately Challenging Production Level ➜ Primary purpose is to educate audiences with information ➜ Often about wildlife, geography, and history ➜ Example: Tortoise Restoration Project

News Report Moderately Challenging Production Level ➜ Informs the public about a current event in the news ➜ Fast-Paced, mixes studio and field reports ➜ Example: CNN Headline News

Short Documentary Challenging Production Level ➜ An-depth look at a particular issue, telling a more nuanced story often over time ➜ It may be historical, scientific, political, cover a topic of human interest ➜ Example: Black and Blue: Beneath the Gulf Oil Disaster


Content and Audience

It is critical to define a specific topic and audience for your video. The more specific and focused both are, the more effective your project will be. Topics might include the following: ➜Sustaining Ecotourism in the Galapagos ➜Mysteries behind Darwin’s exploration ➜The Problem of Sea Turtles Nesting Habits Your audience might be: ➜Classmates in my high school ➜People who read my weekly blog ➜Students who might be interested in joining the program next summer ➜Kids in North America who care about the environment


Checklist Genre selected

Audience Chosen Team Roles Assigned

Script Drafted Storyboard Drafted

Crucial footage determined


The Galapagos Islands


Do you know Darwin? Quiz Rules You must answer each question You must put down a “wager� beside each answer from 1-9. Each number can only be used once. If you get the answer correct, you win your wager.

QUESTIONS When was Charles Darwin born? a) b) c) d)

Clergyman Farmer Teacher Lawyer

a) b) c) d)

1709 1901 1809 1825

What job was Darwin supposed to take before becoming a naturalist?

What was the primary purpose of the Beagle expedition? a) b) c) d)

To break record time to circumnavigating the globe To map the harbors and coastlines of South America To establish a colony on the Galapagos Islands To find gold in South America

What was Darwin originally interested in studying on the islands?

WAGERS


QUESTIONS

How many skins, bones, and carcasses did Darwin ship back to England from his voyage on the Beagle?

On Punta Alta, which animal did Darwin

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

WAGERS 1,112 3,475 5,436 10,001

NOT find remains of?

A giant ground sloth An extinct form of horse An armadillo An ostrich

What birds originally fascinated Darwin on the islands? Which of the following statements about Darwin is true? a) b) c) d)

He failed to convince people that life evolves He thought that the biggest animals are at an advantage in natural selection His book did not sell well None of the above

True or False? Darwin himself described and identified most the fossils that that he collected in South America

What happened to the tortoises collected by Darwin and the Beagle crew?


The Voyage of the Beagle


Pages from Voyage of H.M.S Beagle: A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World by Charles Darwin. Illustrated Version 1889.


Natural Selection at Work in The Galapagos

Š California State University Department of Biology

Peter and Rosemary Grant


Darwin’s Finches

Look at the drawings of finishes from the Galapagos Islands. ➜What would each finch be best suited to eat? ➜What would each finch be unable to eat? ➜Where would each finch spend most of its time? ➜What else would you hypothesize?


Notable Figures in the History of the Galapagos Islands

Fray Tomás de Berlanga

William Dampier

Jose Maria Villamil

Look at the portraits and listen to the lecture ➜What do you notice? ➜How are the men similar?

➜How are they different? ➜How do you think modern-day Galapagos citizens feel about each of these men?


The Galapagos Affair Listen to the story. What do you think really happened? Will we ever know the truth?

Dore Strauch and Dr. Friedrich Ritter

The Wittmer Family

Robert Philippson, Rudolf Lorenz, and "Baroness" Eloise Wehrborn de Wagner-Bosque


ARTISTIC EXPRESSION There are many ways of expressing yourself artistically, including photographs, drawings, abstract art, jewelry, and poetry. Look at the following depictions of iguanas. All were inspired by marina and land iguanas in the Galapagos. Which would you like to create? Which one ‘scares’ you?

Fran Hogan

VividScreen

Tom Pohrt Tony Johnston Marty Magic


Visions of the Galapagos Look at the images on the following pages

What vision do they depict of the Galapagos Islands? What ideas are they trying to convey?


Lemaître engraving of “Chatam” 1850


Engraving: Gigantic Land Tortoise,—A Present for Her Majesty. In July 13, 1850 issue of Illustrated London News


Leong, S/Sgt. Sing Centerfold cartoon of “The Rock” from the The Caribbean Breeze. Vol. 4, No. 10, Nov. 1944. New Orleans, LA: Sixth Air Force.


Chancellor, John. 1980. Painting. HMS Beagle in the Galรกpagos


Mike Keefe. Denver Post. 2001


Fishermen- Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island) Š UNESCO 2006


T-Shirt for Sale on isakoos.com (14.99)


Starbucks Galapagos Special Reserve San Cristobal Coffee, launched in 2010


Galapagos Tablet-PC, manufactured by Sharp for Japanese market in 2011


Sample in country packet for students  
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