Security and Tourism: Concerted Local Policies

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European Forum for Urban Security

Security and Tourism: Concerted Local Policies The tourist city, regardless of its size or type of tourism, must consider security as a major concern in its development strategy. Whereas in the past, security and tourism policies were quite often ignored, dialogue between these two spheres is now essential. Through examples and recommendations, the aim of this publication is to encourage the establishment of local security and tourism strategies that participate in the city's sustainable development and in the quality of life of tourists and inhabitants alike.


This project was co-financed by the European Commission, Directorate General for Home Affairs – ISEC 2011. This document commits only its authors, and the Commission is not responsible for the use that might be made of the information contained herein.


European Forum for Urban Security

Security and Tourism: Concerted Local Policies


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>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> This publication was produced by the European Forum for Urban Security (Efus) and is the result of the 'Security & Tourism' project, carried out between 2013 and 2015. It was realised by Mark Burton-Page, Alberto Dotta and Carla Napolano, Programme Managers, under the direction of Elizabeth Johnston, Executive Director, and with the contributions from the project's partners and experts. The use and reproduction are royalty free if for non-commercial ends and on condition that the source be specified. Revision: Nathalie Bourgeois & Aled Bryon Translation: John Tyler Tuttle Layout: Michel & Michel – micheletmichel.com Printing: Cloîtres Imprimerie, Saint-Thonan - France

ISBN : 2-913181-45-7 EAN : 9782913181458 Legal deposit: October 2015 European Forum for Urban Security 10, rue des Montibœufs 75020 Paris – France Tel: + 33 (0)1 40 64 49 00 contact@efus.eu - www.efus.eu


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Acknowledgements

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> The 'Security & Tourism' project was carried out thanks to the commitment of representatives of the partner cities – Alba (Italy), Barcelona (Spain), Brasov (Romania), Brussels (Belgium), Munich (Germany), Rome (Italy) and SaintDenis (France) – and the Portuguese Victim Support Association (APAV). We thank the elected representatives and their teams for sharing their experience and knowledge, as well as the two project experts for their precious contribution. In addition to the European Commission and its financial support, without which this project and publication would not have been possible, we would also like to thank everyone who received us on our field trips and those who intervened during the final conference in Paris.

Project partners: Antonio Di Ciancia, Nicola Drocco, Ibrahim Osmani, Fabio Tripaldi (Alba, Italy), Gemma Garcia Miquel, Josep Lahosa (Barcelona, Spain), Larisa Andrei (Brasov, Romania), Thierry Hendrickx, Véronique Ketelaer (Brussels, Belgium), Christopher Habl, Raymond Saller, Christoph Trabert (Munich, Germany), Antonella Carbone, Patrizia Giganti, Visenta Iannicelli (Rome, Italy), Nathalie Bayon, Catherine Bedouret (Saint-Denis, France), João Lázaro, Carmen Rasquette (APAV, Portugal)


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Experts : Rob Mawby, Professor of Criminology, University of South Wales (United Kingdom) and Janez Mekinc, visiting Professor of Tourism, University of Primorska (Slovenia)

Other people we met in the course of the project: Mauro Carbone, Roberto Cerrato, Antonio Degiacomi, Giancarlo Drocco, Serena Galvagno, Maurizio Marello, Giuliano Viglione (Alba, Italy), Joan Carles Molinero, Joan Delort, Joaquim Forn, Laura Pérez, X. Sunyol, J. Torrella, E. Vázquez, S. Villaró (Barcelona, Spain), Ciolon Adrian, Sorin Dencescu, Ioana Dobrescu, Bianca Locincz-Kraila, Aldea Nicolae, Frangulea Pastor Catalin, Mircea Adrian Popa, Alina Simona Tecau, Carmen Teleanu, Bianca Tescasiu (Brasov, Romania), Philippe Close, Patrick Declerck, Maud Glorieux, Bettina Merelle, Laure Mesnil, Sara Visée (Brussels, Belgium), Roberto D’Alessio, Roberto Bacasirapa, Riccardo Capone, Maria Antonia Caruso, Iside Castagnola, Raffaele Clemente, Cecilia Corelli, Francesco Giovanetti, Marta Leonori, Rossella Matarazzo, Raffaella Modafferi, Antonello Mori, Virginia Proverbio, Giuseppina Valleti (Rome, Italy), Slimane Rabahallah (Saint-Denis, France).

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Contents

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Foreword........................................................................................p10 Chapter 1: Security & Tourism in Europe.......................p13 1. Tourism: a major economic impact............................................. p14 2. A close relationship between tourism and crime......................... p15 3. Two sectors that often ignore each other..................................... p16 4. A challenge for cities................................................................... p18 5. European cities in search of appropriate responses..................... p19

Chapter 2: Specific issues for Security & Tourism.....p21 1. Security, tourism policy and citizens........................................... p22 2. Image, communication and public spaces................................... p27

The environment of the city: managing public spaces................. p28 Tourism, mobility and security.................................................... p29  The social aspect of public spaces and its impact on tourism...... p30 Managing the image of the city.................................................... p31 3. Managing the security of large events......................................... p33 4. Managing nightlife in the city...................................................... p38 5. Trafficking in human beings, prostitution and sexual tourism.... p43 Recommendations.......................................................................... p45


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Chapter 3: Governance, methodologies and tools.....p49 1. Building cooperation................................................................... p50 2. Assessing the local situation...................................................... p55 3. From prevention to victim support............................................. p64

Prevention and information....................................................... p65 Policing strategies for security and tourism................................ p70 Supporting tourists who are victims of crime............................. p72 4. Using technologies..................................................................... p77 Recommendations......................................................................... p79

Perspectives..................................................................................p85 City profiles...................................................................................p87 References and further reading........................................p102

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Foreword

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Cities, regardless of their size or of the type of tourism they attract, must consider security as a major part of their development strategy. Whereas quite often in the past, security and tourism policies ignored each other, dialogue between these two domains is essential in allowing for the development of sustainable, quality tourism in Europe. The fact that our cities are increasingly open and global represents a fantastic richness and numerous opportunities but also a form of vulnerability. One cannot imagine hiding either daily crime or the problems that affect tourists and inhabitants alike, or, obviously, rarer but major risks such as terrorism. Distortions or even breaks that may be engendered by a difficult coexistence between tourists and residents can be prejudicial for the entire tourist ecosystem and harmful to the city's image. That is why Efus recommends taking public peace into account in the tourism development strategies and carrying out a proactive prevention policy that affirms itself as such and becomes an asset for the host city. Without being alarmist, the city thereby demonstrates to both its inhabitants and visitors that it is fully aware of the potential conflicts of use, of risks on both sides, and that it chooses to face up to them and create the conditions of a welcoming city. The tourism and security sectors have a lot to gain by working together and can no longer ignore each other without that diverting them from their respective objectives. Strategies combining security and tourism must be conceived to receive tourists as well as possible, fight against the specific crime that affects them, help them if they are victims, but also make them aware of their responsibilities so they do not cause nuisances, and, finally, find the means for a coexistence between residents and visitors.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

While cities, driven by their mayor and with the public and private partners of tourism, must commit to ensuring a safe, welcoming environment for their visitors, they must also ensure that the negative externalities of tourism do not perturb the citizens' quality of life. This publication aims at supporting the formulation of local concerted strategies through examples and recommendations stemming from the substantive work carried out by the partners of the Security & Tourism project as well as outside resources. We hope it will be a source of inspiration for cities.

Elizabeth Johnston Executive Director

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Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Chapter 1 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Security & Tourism in Europe >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

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1. Tourism: a major economic impact

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Europe is the world's number one tourist destination [1]. In 2014, 584 million international tourists arrived in Europe, generating 446 billion Euros in exports. “Thanks to these results, tourism has been a major contributor to the European economic recovery,” says the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in its 2014 annual report [2]. Europe is also the preferred tourist destination for Europeans themselves. In 2013, almost 40% of Europeans stayed in the European Union (EU), 5% more than in 2012. Tourism has a major impact on the EU’s economy, with tourism activities representing almost 5% of the EU’s gross domestic product (GDP) and providing almost 12% of all jobs within the EU [3]. As such, tourism is a vital economic activity in Europe, contributing to economic growth and social integration. In 2010, the European Commission implemented specific measures to consolidate the Union’s policy on tourism, guiding the action of member States through an integrated approach. The following priorities were established:

To stimulate competitiveness in the European tourism sector;  To promote the development of sustainable, responsible and highquality tourism;

 To consolidate the image and profile of Europe as a collection of sustainable and high-quality destinations;

 To maximise the potential of EU financial policies and instruments for developing tourism. Tourism has been the fastest-growing industry in the past few decades, both in commercial and economic terms. In an increasing number of regions around the world, travel has become more affordable and is no longer considered a luxury. While the industrial and economic dimensions of tourism are obviously key, it is also essential to take into account the fact that tourist flows consist of groups and individuals that have specific needs, especially when they travel. For this reason, the European strategy for tourism development must include measures


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

ensuring that visitors throughout Europe benefit from high standards of quality of life, culture and entertainment but also fundamental rights such as safety and security.

2. A close relationship between tourism and crime

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> According to the latest Eurobarometer [4], tourists in Europe feel safe and are very satisfied. Survey respondents from EU member States expressed a high degree of satisfaction about their holidays in 2014, especially safety (95%) and the quality of their accommodation (95%). In 2013, the World Economic Forum (WEF) published a report on competitiveness in the tourism sector of 141 States, putting special emphasis on security as an important factor for having a competitive tourism industry. Security is assessed according to the degree of crime, the threat of terrorism, the efficiency of security authorities and road safety. Five of the ten highest-ranking countries in security and safety are European (WEF 2013). However, there is an unwelcome but close relationship between tourism and crime. Although there are very few studies on this topic, research has shown that tourists are particularly at risk of suffering crime [5] . Regrettably, crime may also be linked to the mobility and vulnerability of tourists who may be disoriented in an environment where they don’t speak the language and are unfamiliar with the culture. Tourists can be tempting targets for criminals, in particular because of their wealthier lifestyle and/or belongings that are more easily reachable. Although tourists themselves are sometimes the perpetrators of offences or trouble [6], the link between tourism and crime is not inevitable. Some tourist areas and large events experience low levels of crime. When there is a certain level of criminality, the problem may manifest itself in different ways. In some tourism hotspots, tourists may experience high levels of property crime such as robbery, burglary or vehi-

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cle-related crime. In others, local residents may suffer from increased levels of crime and disorder associated predominantly with young, partying tourists. Research highlights that security in all its components has become a key factor in the quality and development of tourism and needs to be considered seriously at all levels of the tourist offer (safety of tourists and tourist destinations) [7]. Indeed, tourists may cancel their bookings or avoid booking trips to destinations deemed risky or choose safer places or return home. Many travellers inform themselves on the security of a destination before making a choice. Elsewhere, local residents may come to resent the presence of tourists, which they feel is affecting their quality of life [8]. The impact of security issues in tourist areas is thus widespread: it affects tourists, locals, and the tourism industry itself. On the other hand, in cases where public policies respond by providing additional support to tourist victims, findings show that the negative consequences of crime for the victim can notably be counterbalanced by the quality of support provided. [9]

3. Two sectors that often ignore each other

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Consequently, an effective response to crime in tourism areas should be an important part of both urban security policies and tourism planning. In many cases, the crime-reduction policies that are a feature of many European societies are equally applicable to tourism-related crime and disorder, albeit appropriately nuanced. However, while there are examples of tourism-specific crime and harm-reduction policies such as Tourist Victim Support schemes or Tourism Police units [10], they are the exception rather than the rule, partly because the tourism industry, comprising both the public and private sectors, has rarely been involved with urban security networks.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

This is well illustrated at both the international and national levels. For example, within the European Commission, crime and security are the responsibility of the Home Affairs or Justice Directorates, while tourism comes under Enterprise and Industry, which largely ignores crime and disorder in its policy statements [11]. In many European countries, crime and security come under the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Justice, while tourism falls within the remit of either the Department for Commerce and Industry, Foreign Affairs, Culture, or Sport, which again do not address the issue of tourism security [12]. Indeed, a review of national government websites indicates that most references to tourism and security issues are made by Foreign Affairs ministries, referring to either security matters affecting nationals abroad or to problems caused by nationals in the destination country. However, there is some evidence of a shift in thinking within the European Union, especially concerning the ways in which to deal with tourists who have experienced crime. This line of thought is fuelled by concerns that EU citizens travelling within the EU should be aware of and entitled to the same rights as those at home. This point is stressed from both a tourism perspective [13] and in terms of victims’ rights, as per the European Union's Charter of Fundamental Rights, which became legally binding through the 2009 Lisbon Treaty [14]. One of the main concerns is to guarantee that tourists be able to exercise their rights and find support when they are abroad, as highlighted by the European Commission: 'It is also important in this context that European citizens are aware of their rights and can take advantage of them when moving within or outside the European Union; they must be able to exercise their rights as European citizens as easily as within their own country.' [15] In fact, EU countries must guarantee that tourists be able to exercise their rights in daily situations (such as their rights as consumers and their freedom of movement) and also when they are in a crisis situation (for example, in a war situation or in case of natural catastrophe or when victim of crime).

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4. A challenge for cities

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> As detailed in the report by the UNWTO Tourist Safety and Security: Practical Measures for Destinations, published in 1996, national governments and local authorities attempt to develop measures and methods to prevent and fight crime targeting tourists, but also nuisances caused by tourism and specific forms of crime linked to tourism. The main objective is to guarantee the best possible coexistence between visitors and local residents. Tourism security issues should primarily be addressed through local partnerships and by introducing necessary public/private partnerships. Traditionally, security in tourism is perceived as a matter of national security [16]. It includes a number of measures by which a country can successfully ensure the protection of its territory, society and citizens in case of real or perceived threat. This means that the national authorities that receive tourists are responsible for ensuring their protection wherever they go, for example in transport, in restaurants, spas, or beach resorts. The forms and ways of ensuring national security on the one hand, and the chosen standard of safety on the other have a direct impact on tourist flows. Given the current economic context, which sharpens international competition, tourism is a key economic sector for many cities. Because the consequences of victimisation are damaging for the image of a tourist destination and can affect it in the long term, local authorities are increasingly keen to tackle the issues of security and peaceful coexistence between citizens and residents, and to fight against tourism-related crime. A large number of tourists choose to visit European cities of all sizes, some with a strong tradition of tourism, others less so, for holidays that can focus on culture (historic heritage, European Capitals of Culture), sports (large competitions and world cups), partying (nightlife, large events such as carnivals or festivals) or business or leisure (seminars, conferences, winter sports, seaside). Some cities and regions offer a combination of different types of tourism.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Because it lies in part on their historic and cultural heritage, tourism is also a matter of pride for cities, and they pay full attention to the image that they convey to potential tourists. Tourism has negative externalities and can be associated with specific forms of crime. Crime linked to tourism encompasses relatively minor crimes such as theft, pickpocketing, scams, and burglary, but can also include violent crimes such as rape, assault or kidnapping. Even if systems of security management vary across Europe, local authorities are often the best placed to develop, implement and evaluate prevention policies, and very often they have the legal competence to do so. They are also the best placed to tackle these issues by developing networks and partnerships that will manage these prevention policies based on a comprehensive view of the issues at stake.

5. European cities in search of appropriate responses

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> As early as 1993, Efus started to work on security and tourism through seminars held as part of the Secucities programme in Nabeul (Tunisia) and Toulouse (France) [17]. A number of questions were raised at the time, such as the support to tourists who are victims of crime as a means to improve the image of a city. Participants emphasised that the means to prevent and deter crime against tourists had to be considered part of an overall urban security policy. Efus followed up on this theme, especially through related projects on assistance to victims, prevention of drug and alcohol abuse in festive venues, and prevention of supporter violence in sports. Local authorities within the network expressed the need to share and gather collective intelligence on these issues.

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The first step in this process was undertaken during the Efus international conference of Aubervilliers and Saint-Denis in 2012, when a work group drafted a set of preliminary recommendations to be included in the 'Security, Democracy and Cities' Manifesto [18]. This group assembled a varied range of cities, including cities with relatively small tourism perimeters and that do not register high rates of crime or victimisation, as well as major tourist destinations with many different issues related to security. In the Manifesto recommendations, cities insisted that international cooperation should be promoted on issues related to security and tourism and that tourists should be considered temporary citizens, with rights and duties. This was the basis for the 'Security & Tourism' project.

he following issues were initially raised for the Security & Tourism T project:

>>

 Tourists can be victims of crimes including pickpocketing, burglary or assault. They can also be victims of a bad experience during their stay because of inconveniences linked to life in the city, such as nuisance in public areas.  Tourists can also cause nuisance or commit crimes. This is the case, for example, of hooligans at sports events, or tourists who drink excessively or use drugs, disturb the public peace during festive events or at night, or of tourists who damage monuments.  The sustainability of tourism and its impact on the local population and environment must also be taken into account. Even if tourism is a major economic and cultural asset, it can cause disruption of local life and the environment. Based on these issues, three central questions were raised: What are the specific security issues linked to tourism?  What is the role of cities and what type of governance should be adopted?  What are the tools and methods that cities can use for their security and tourism strategy?

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Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Chapter 2

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Specific issues linked to security and tourism

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1. Security, tourism policy and citizens

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> In cities with massive influxes of tourists, residents can develop a feeling of saturation, especially those who live close to the main tourist attractions. The pressure exerted by tourism on the local community can be high in terms of physical occupation of public spaces but also in terms of antisocial behaviour, vandalism, etc. Tourism can change the nature of an area with the rapid development of souvenir shops, restaurants dedicated to tourists, or even micro-criminality such as illegal street vendors, fraudulent tourist guides, etc. The development of a night-time economy in certain zones can also bring various nuisances, and especially noise as a significant factor that can damage the quality of life. When tourists are ill-informed about the rules and customs of the city or the specific neighbourhood they are visiting, or if they engage – consciously or not – in illegal activity, the relation between tourists and citizens can be tense or even conflictive: peaceful coexistence is threatened. However, the quality of the resident/visitor relation is key to creating an impression that will determine in part whether tourists feel secure or not. Relations between residents and tourists can be developed in many situations; for example, residents can work in the tourism industry or related services as guides, interpreters or receptionists, waiters, taxi drivers or in the public transport system. Contact can also be the result of a coincidence or occur in a more organised way, whether formally (volunteers at events, guided tours) or informally (greeters1). The acceptance or rejection of tourism by the local population is also linked to their acceptance or rejection of the tourism strategy designed by the various tourism stakeholders. In many different public policies, citizen participation can be encouraged by public authorities as they seek to reach consensus on long-term strategies. When dealing with matters of security and tourism, citizen participation is essential and 1- Volunteer inhabitants who guide tourists free of charge to help them discover their neighbourhood.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

can be planned at various levels. Consultation and information are the first indispensable steps in this process. Citizens can also play a role in planning, implementing and evaluating security and tourism public policies. Cities seek solutions to pacify the relationship between visitors and residents. Informing tourists about the unwritten rules and codes of behaviour that are shared in the community can be an excellent way to improve these relations, as shown below in the example of Barcelona. A complementary solution can be to involve residents as volunteer ambassadors to give out information or take part in initiatives aimed at ensuring the safety and feeling of security, as was done in Alba, Munich or Brasov. On the specific question of the involvement of volunteers in the security process, for example during major events, necessary common characteristics [19] include: The use of multiple languages skills;  The availability of adapted equipment (uniform, communication material); Adequate training should be provided;  Volunteers should be overseen by the police and the local municipality.

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Welcome to Barcelona: a guide for sustainable tourism that takes into account the existing codes and norms of the city Barcelona receives the tourist like a temporary citizen, entitled to accessing the city's services but with the duty to respect the norms and preserve good coexistence with the other citizens. The guide Welcome to Barcelona [20], an information and prevention tool targeted at visitors, was produced collectively with contributions from the public and private sectors. It is a reference tool in nine languages, available online at www.bcn.cat or in a print format, depending on the needs of each user.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Voluntary staff for the Alba International Truffle Fair The Italian town of Alba is relatively small (pop. 30,000) but has succeeded in developing an original tourism offer, based on the richness of its region. Long reserved to gastronomic connoisseurs, the International Truffle Fair has now become a mass event attracting some 300,000 visitors – or ten times the city's population – for six weeks every year. During the event, citizens are an integral part of the security arrangements. Up to 60 volunteers can be recruited to work with the local police and emergency services. According to the agreement between the city of Alba and volunteer associations, a volunteers coordinator is designated and deals directly with the local police. The volunteers' tasks include coordinating the flow at the entrance to streets closed to traffic during the festival; providing information to tourists; and helping festival-goers when need be by putting them in contact with the local police or emergency services. The principal characteristics of the volunteer programme at the Alba International Truffle Fair are:  Volunteers wear a uniform and a badge, which gives them visibility and accreditation;  They are in constant radio contact with the security and civil defence services;  They are supervised and coordinated by a central unit;  They are paired up on a certain number of strategic points;  They are recruited in local associations and must provide a medical certificate. Numerous retired carabinieri participate in the volunteer programme;  The volunteer programme operates year round, and volunteers can be called on at other times of the year for other missions (museums, schools, road safety, etc.);  Volunteers are all quite willing to meet visitors; they provide a real service to the community for which they receive no financial compensation.

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Citizens of Munich as ambassadors of their city Munich seeks to create a culture for welcoming tourists so that foreign visitors feel comfortable in the city. During major events that take place all over the city, such as the 2006 football championship and the 2010 Ecumenical Congress, Munich organised a volunteer programme. Inhabitants of Munich who speak at least two languages can apply to be official ambassadors for the city. Their role consists of guiding tourists and giving them information about German culture and customs. This programme is highly appreciated by foreign visitors who feel better received and more in security. For the city, this system has the advantage of being inexpensive (it provides only uniforms and meals). As for the ambassadors, they are proud to show their city to visitors and to make them feel welcome.

Brasov's volunteer scheme for large sports and cultural events A team of 400 volunteers was part of the organisation of the European Youth Olympic Winter Festival (EYOWF2) in 2013. Apart from their contribution to the smooth running of the event, the initiative gave them the opportunity to acquire new skills, build self-confidence and put civic values into practice. The volunteers were involved in various activities such as accreditation, catering, chaperoning, technical assistance, taking part in ceremonies, assisting the National Olympic Committee, competition activities, office work, services, language support, venue setup, etc. Most of them spoke at least one foreign language, mainly English, but also French, German, Russian, Turkish, Finnish or Dutch. Some 1,300 people from Romania and other countries (China, Czech Republic, Hungary, Great Britain, Slovakia) applied for a volunteer job. The

2- The aim of the European Youth Olympic Festival, created in 1990 by the International Olympic Committee, is to promote Olympic sports with young people and prepare them for the Olympic Games.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

majority were students but there were also housewives, unemployed people, working people and entrepreneurs. This scheme, which required considerable preparation, monitoring and management on the part of the EYOWF organisers, made a significant contribution to the success of the event. Most volunteers were extremely satisfied and enthusiastic, demonstrating their commitment throughout the festival.

2. Image, communication and public spaces

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> First impressions, the first minutes of visiting a new city have a significant part in whether or not the visitor will have a positive overall experience. The ultimate goal is to ensure that he or she will wish to come back and give positive feedback about a destination to family, friends and colleagues, and on social networks and websites. Given the impact of reviewing and commenting on the Internet, used by many to choose destinations and prepare trips, cities have made this a fast-growing topic of interest. As a result, they are gradually evolving towards a 'smart' ecosystem including communication and information technologies in their security and tourism strategies. These first impressions include: arrival at the airport or train station; transfer to the hotel; welcome at the reception desk or restaurant; first walk round the city; using the public transportation system; going into a shop, a museum, etc. Contributing to shaping these first impressions should be a priority for all the stakeholders who will interact with the visitor throughout his visit. The issues presented below play a role in the tourist's perception of security and the image of a city. Even if they are not, of course, specific to tourism, they are undoubtedly heightened in the case of visitors who discover a place for the first time and are not familiar with the urbanism, cultural context or language spoken in the city.

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>> The environment of the city: managing public spaces In addition to the visitor/resident relationship mentioned above, which is vital to creating a peaceful atmosphere for tourism, the physical environment in which the visitor moves as soon as he sets foot in the city is also important. Cleanliness, availability or lack of adapted information, directions, road signs, public lighting, graffiti, vandalism, or antisocial behaviour are closely linked with the perception of security or insecurity. Indeed, disrespectful behaviour or the state of abandonment of public spaces may be interpreted by citizens and tourists alike as a sign of the weakening of the social fabric and the absence of control by the public institutions. In many cities, alcohol-related problems (traffic accidents, litter – in particular broken glass -, noise, etc.) have also been identified as prejudicial for the tourism industry. The management of public areas is therefore a crucial and cross-cutting question, for example in the UNESCO zones of Brussels or Rome where tourism is particularly dense.

'Mister UNESCO' in Brussels The municipality of Brussels appointed a 'Mister UNESCO[21]', in charge of coordinating all the initiatives linked to the UNESCO zone – the city's most popular with tourists – in terms of commerce, urbanism and tourism. He ensures the respect of communal urbanism regulations and contributes to the revitalisation of this area by participating in the strategies set up by the city. He also carries out field and strategic work that covers several transversal competences: urbanistic, commercial, patrimonial, tourist, management of public spaces and cleanliness. In collaboration with the city services, work is organised around several main lines: fighting against real estate abandonment and revitalisation of large sites, buildings and empty floors above shops; advice for any project for transforming buildings and façades, for example in the framework of the application for a town-planning permit; elaboration of tools and actions for raising awareness and enhancement of the heritage.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Management of public areas of the UNESCO site in Rome The management of public areas in Rome consists, on the one hand, of activating the tools for ensuring the preservation of recognised UNESCO Heritage sites and, on the other, applying measures aimed at improving and upgrading Rome's neighbourhoods, including suburban ones. To follow up on UNESCO's recommendations3, Rome drew up a management plan that is an indispensable tool for defining and making operational a process of protection and joint development. In order to draw up this plan, a protocol agreement was signed in 2009 between the municipality of Rome, the Ministry of Cultural Assets and Activities and Tourism, the deputy commissioner for emergency interventions in archaeological zones in Rome and Ostia Antica, and the governing bodies of the diocese of Rome. The Roman authorities were given elements of strategy as well as implementation measures that were proposed and supported by the various signatory institutions of the protocol, represented within the Technical and Scientific Commission and referents of the Holy See. In addition, in order to evaluate the dynamics and orientation of the development strategies, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis was carried out.

>> Tourism, mobility and security Tourists from far and near are, by essence, on the move. In many cities, tourism-related security issues are more prevalent in the areas around airports and train stations where tourists arrive, have to find their way around, look after their luggage, etc. In many cities, train stations, and especially the immediate surroundings, have been identified as areas where more crimes against tourists are committed and where tourists can often be victims of scams. Taxis are also a frequent motive for complaint; tourists can be victims of fraud from illegal taxis, for example. Actions may be thought up to tackle the specific issues related to the mo3- and the clauses of law no. 777 of 2006

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bility of tourists: airlines, travel agencies and urban transportation systems, which all have a responsibility in terms of security, must be involved in the security and tourism strategy. One possible method is the creation of urban pedestrian zones with the objective of creating a friendlier, more pleasant environment for tourists.

>> The social aspect of public spaces and its impact on tourism In city centres, especially in highly frequented tourist areas, the image of the city may be affected by a concentration of homeless people and beggars. The over-solicitation or aggressive behaviour of beggars may have a negative impact on the feeling of security. In some places or during certain events, organised trafficking of human beings such as prostitution can also take place due to the opportunities offered by large concentrations of people. Most cities seek to socially (re)integrate these marginalised groups, rather than simply 'cleaning up' the streets with the sole aim of presenting a better image to visitors. Moreover, Brussels and Rome have stressed that the impact on their image of the presence of this kind of people in certain neighbourhoods is quite relative. Rome has an overall approach that concerns all vulnerable groups, including migrants, asylum-seekers and the homeless. In Brussels, the Hersham unit of the Brussels-Ixelles police zone is an example of this balanced approach.

The 'Hersham' unit of the BrusselsCapital-Ixelles police zone Police officers who are members of this unit are tasked with reducing nuisances created by homeless people, who are often seen wandering about in the public areas situated near the sites frequented by tourists (stations, city centre). The homeless tend to avoid the police since most of them have no identity papers. The project's objective consists of establishing a relationship of confidence with them and reducing, as far as possible, the nuisances they cause (public drunkenness, brawls, litter), as well as intervening to prevent attacks against them.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

To this end, the police inspectors resort to the following methods:  Making contact with the homeless;  Concluding agreements with them as to respecting norms of life in underground stations and public areas;  Sending the homeless to social care services;  Administrative work to regularise identity papers for the homeless of Belgian nationality;  Improving the image of the police among homeless people by banning any type of arbitrary intervention.

>> Managing the image of the city Communication and information are usually considered one of the first approaches to preventing crime. However, insisting on security might also contribute to creating a feeling of insecurity. This is particularly true considering that leisure tourism consists primarily of seeking pleasure and entertainment: over-emphasising crime, insecurity or nuisance might seem paradoxical and even be counter-productive. It is a touchy issue faced by many cities as they strive to build their image and 'brand' themselves. Obviously, the answer depends in large part on the social, cultural and political configuration of the city. Most cities consider that in order for the tourism experience to be of the highest quality, tourists must be informed about safety and security issues, and prevention tools have to be designed to respond to potential threats. They stress that adequate information should be given to a targeted audience at the right time. For example, airports are not very well suited for such communication campaigns because security is already a dominant feature, hence the target public might not be receptive. It is also paramount to adapting crime prevention tools specifically for tourists. Communication tools should be designed by both tourism and security professionals working in partnerships. Barcelona, Paris, Rome, Alba and Brasov have all created guidebooks that include safety tips for tourists.

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Terminology should be chosen carefully not only for information leaflets or brochures but also in the process of collecting information from tourists on security issues. Most cities are in favour of using the expression 'quality of life' to include security issues when addressing visitors. It is to be noted however that some cities have decided not to include security in their tourism communication campaigns and even consider that their security and tourism strategy should not be publicised. For some cities, such as Saint-Denis for example, image is a crucial issue. For years the whole area of the city and its surroundings (the administrative area of Seine-Saint-Denis) have had a poor image due to their high crime rate. This was particularly true following urban riots in 2005, which got wide national and international media coverage. Changing this image requires significant investment to rebrand the city and involves, among other things, media campaigns focused on the region’s numerous assets. The involvement of the citizens of Saint-Denis themselves as well as the many stakeholders in the region is also crucial. Although Saint-Denis does not have a specific communication strategy targeted at tourists, the municipality encourages its staff and tourism professionals to project a positive image of the city. Managing a city's image is also very often linked with the management of the complaint system. When tourists have had a bad experience, it is the support (on the spot) and follow-up (in the aftermath) they receive that can make a difference and even possibly turn a negative experience into a positive one. This is why the city of Rome chose to work on its complaint system as the main focus of the local audit conducted as part of the Security & Tourism project. For its part, Brussels stresses the importance of the satisfaction questionnaire aimed at improving the quality of the destination.

Visit Brussels: an online questionnaire and a 'quality academy' Visit Brussels is the tourism communication agency of the Brussels Region, whose mission is to broaden and strengthen the image of the city. In particular, it has developed two tools centred on the city's quality as a tourist destination that take security issues into account. They are intended for both visitors and local stakeholders in tourism.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Each month, a 'satisfaction barometer' summarises the results of an online questionnaire that includes, in particular, a question relating to security over the previous 12 months. This process does not pretend to be scientific but gives a snapshot of visitor satisfaction and allows for targeting the actions to be undertaken to improve the quality of the destination. The questionnaire is filled out voluntarily, and face-to-face interviews also take place periodically and randomly in different spots in Brussels. [23] Visit Brussels organises information sessions open to all tourism stakeholders in contact with visitors and who are keen to improve the quality of reception: hotels, B&Bs, youth hostels, restaurants, guides, reception desks, greeters, museums, shops and other service providers. A half-day practical session is devoted to security, with contributions from the police zone and the Brussels prevention department BRAVVO (existing initiatives and tools, techniques and good practices to counter the various phenomena having a negative impact on tourist security and satisfaction, useful contacts and measures to be taken in case of specific incidents). [24]

3. Managing the security of large events

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> In the worldwide competition for tourism, cities tend to define themselves, at least in part, through the events that they organise and host: events aimed at creating a vibrant, dynamic city, alive with sports, cultural shows, markets and fairs. From the small-scale event attracting mainly locals and nationals to the international event attracting millions, cities have had to engineer custom strategies, rooted in past experiences – including tragic experiences like the Love Parade in Duisburg in 2010 (where 21 persons were killed and 510 injured in a crowd panic reaction) –, to take into account an overall security perspective on these events. On the one hand, large events are essential drivers for economic development as well as for social cohesion and democracy, both for local

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residents and visitors. On the other, cities have to take into account their negative impact on security: human trafficking for sexual exploitation, theft, pickpocketing, risk of stampede or of incident affecting the infrastructure and equipment, antisocial behaviour, noise and disturbance for local residents, public health, psychosocial risks from alcohol, drug consumption and trafficking, supporter violence in sporting events, etc. Managing security for large events entails a high level of partnership working to plan security down to the smallest detail, taking into account the safety and security standards stemming from past catastrophes. Prevention campaigns and police patrols contribute to reducing the feeling of insecurity. Some other aspects that are often mentioned are the hardware security tools and technologies that can be developed in specific arenas like stadiums or the involvement of volunteers for information and security during events. The examples presented below show that cities can organise all sorts of large events – political summits, festivals, annual fairs, sports events [25] – as well as exceptional events, as was the case in Rome with the simultaneous beatification of two popes. Other major events were also mentioned by the cities such as Rolling Stones concerts and G20 summits.

Munich: managing the security of the Tollwood Festival Started in 1988 as an alternative summer 'tent festival' focusing on ecology and multiculturalism, the Tollwood Festival of Munich is now a mass event that attracts some 900,000 visitors each year. Lasting 25 days, the festival is installed in a sprawling, 30,000 square metre area situated near the Olympic Park. In order to manage security, the municipality of Munich has designed and implements a comprehensive concept together with the festival organisers and all the relevant stakeholders. The concept comprises general safety regulations (requirement to submit a special safety concept for the festival), emission control, fire safety regulations, first aid and emergency medical services, security services, regulations for hygiene and garbage disposal as well as traffic regulations.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

The strategy includes working with the police and festival organisers as well as the emergency medical services, the Munich Fire Department, the Munich Department for Public Order, the bands and artists, stand owners, visitors, and residents living around the area. An important aspect of this wide-ranging plan is the fact that it is prepared well in advance together with the organisers. Every year, they have to present a written plan for the upcoming festival to the Event and Convention Bureau of the municipal Department of Public Order. All the issues concerning security are discussed and planned months ahead. Also, there is an active communication campaign with local residents who receive information letters weeks before and are even offered backstage tours. This comprehensive strategy and the fact that it is based on a solid and broad partnership is undoubtedly one of the main reasons for the continuing success of the festival. In 25 years, there has never been any major incident, and the event has preserved its relaxed and peaceful familyfriendly character. It is also well accepted by the local population.

Barcelona, a city of events all year long Barcelona is a city that hosts large events throughout the year, attended by a great number of visitors, both Spanish and foreign, whether it be fairs, conventions or athletic competitions. Intelligent, forward-looking management of these events, based on a computer system, allows in particular for setting the major dates of tourist activity as well as the volume and the characteristics and needs of visitors, for example hotel capacity, according to the arrival of visitors at the train stations, port and airport. This system of shared information, called 'SIGT', the content of which is provided by public and private operators, is particularly useful for decision-making as regards transport, security, health and commerce as well as for the management of municipal services such as cleanliness and the upkeep of facilities. This gives Barcelona a monthly document that enables it to plan the 'tourist use' of the city.

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Ensuring security at Brussels' 'Winter Wonders' Christmas market The 'Winter Wonders' Christmas market is the largest event of the year in Brussels with more than a million and a half visitors, a large share of whom are tourists. Such an influx invariably poses security problems: presence of pickpockets, brawls, thefts and various infractions. Every year, a large number of BRAVVO's (the Brussels prevention department) Peace Guards are deployed and their presence reassures visitors. This action is supplemented by the theft-prevention campaign 'Safe in the City' [26]. In order to guarantee effective prevention, some 30 agents participate in 'Winter Wonders' every year. In the framework of the 'Safe in the City' campaign, the techno-prevention unit and communication service of the city of Brussels have collaborated with the municipal police for several years. A (BRAVVO) 'Safe in the City' project manager and a police inspector alert shopkeepers and put up posters and stickers in appropriate places in order to inform and alert visitors. Before the opening of the Christmas market, all the shopkeepers of the chalets are informed by letter of the 'Safe in the City' campaign and receive prevention material (stickers, leaflets) that they are invited to place on their stand as a sign of active participation in the prevention of pickpocketing and theft. The shopkeepers and managers of cafĂŠs, restaurants and hotels are also contacted directly, thus reinforcing the impact of the campaign. Moreover, BRAVVO has stepped up its collaboration with the event's organiser, the agency Brussels Major Events (BME), which was invited to broadcast a prevention message via audio and on the seven giant screens installed in the Christmas market.

Security at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis Located in Saint-Denis, the Stade de France is an outstanding venue that hosts the largest sports and musical events. With 80,000 seats including 27,000 on the field, 130 football matches, 120 rugby matches, concerts and other events take place there every year. On ave-


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

rage, the stadium hosts 30 major events annually and between 150 and 250 events of lesser importance. Each time, between 700 and 1,200 security agents are deployed. The event's organiser is responsible for public safety, whereas the director of security at the Stade de France is responsible for the building. However, the latter also makes proposals for the public security, and the two work in close collaboration. Several important security measures are systematically set up: all exits are cleared to allow total evacuation of the stadium in eight minutes; a curfew is imposed at 11.30pm (in order to enable the public to use public transport); alcohol is forbidden inside the stadium.

Brasov’s bid for the European Youth Olympic Winter Games Brasov was a candidate to host the 2020 Youth Olympic Games, a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival for young people to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games. Brasov's bid was based on the experience gained in successfully organising the 2013 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival and on the impact this event had on the development of the region4. Security was a key aspect of Brasov's bid. In its application, it emphasised the good results obtained during the 2013 event thanks to a broad security plan, which was drafted jointly by all the relevant organisations (police, gendarmerie and private security agencies in collaboration with the security department manager of the Organising Committee). Among others, this included a clear allocation of competencies among all the organisers (including external providers); a rigorous selection of the security agency; making all areas, sports venues, accommodations and ceremonies secure; the training of volunteers; and the purchase of topnotch communications equipment for security personnel.

4- The International Olympic Committee (IOC) announced on 31 July 2015 that the chosen city was Lausanne (Switzerland).

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Security measures during the beatification of two popes in Rome The beatification ceremonies for two popes in April 2014 represented an unprecedented challenge for the municipality of Rome, the Vatican and the Italian State. The event was extremely problematical owing to its planetary repercussion, the presence of international media and the massive influx of pilgrims and personalities. Approximately a million faithful gathered in Saint Peter's Square in the presence of popes Francis and Benedict XVI. Twenty-four kings, queens and heads of state, 10 government leaders as well as dignitaries from 122 countries were present. The security plan had been elaborated during technical meetings organised by police headquarters and updated every day in real time, before and during the event. In addition, a task force had been created the previous January, bringing together all the services concerned. The day of the ceremony, 2,400 carabinieri and agents of the police and the Guardia di Finanza as well as some 2,000 municipal policemen were deployed. The emergency services assembled 2,630 volunteers, more than 500 volunteers from the Opera Romana Pellegrinaggi, an organism of the Holy See, and some 1,000 Red Cross volunteers. Twenty first-aid posts were set up in various places in Saint Peter's Square. The centre of the Square was entirely closed off, made pedestrian and divided into several zones in which the distinguished guests and public were separated. Two underground lines and shuttles enabled pilgrims to get to Saint Peter's Square. More than 4,326 authorisations were delivered for coaches.

4. Managing nightlife in the city

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Tourists are also frequently users of the city by night. In their leisure time, they may change their habits and want to enjoy the nightlife on offer. This is reinforced by the fact that, around Europe, some areas are


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

known to be major festive nightlife destinations, and indeed promoted as such by the tourism industry itself. In these areas, negative externalities have to be managed in a context where young people are extremely mobile – as they benefit from low-cost offers to many destinations – and where competition is strong, particularly in city centres, where there is often a high concentration of bars, restaurants and clubs. Many challenges in terms of night-time management arise, especially regarding alcohol abuse [27]. These challenges mainly concern public peace and order, public health, litter, etc. Cities must upgrade their offer of services in order to increase the quality of nightlife and also adapt them to the specific needs of partygoers. This requires working horizontally, with flexibility and adaptability, and constantly innovating. One of the main aspects of this work is to provide an alternative, quality nightlife offer that may include cultural, sports or other festive events. Another aspect is to welcome nightlife as an opportunity and to manage the pressure this type of tourism puts on local populations. It is the role of local authorities to create the conditions for a healthy coexistence between the different users of the city at night – those who sleep, those who have leisure time, those who work – through a pragmatic, balanced approach. Mediation, especially on the important question of noise pollution, is essential. Information should be given to residents in order to raise awareness on the positive aspects of nightlife, as they may ignore its economic and cultural benefits. Beyond the festive, playful aspect of the night, which represents a major opportunity in tourist development for cities, they must also take into account the issues of mobility and security in public transport, access to public services (first aid, emergency, victim support), fighting discrimination, overcoming the feeling of insecurity through a reassuring human presence in public areas (mediators), or work on city planning and lighting. Below, the cities of Brussels and Rome present their experience in managing nightlife. In Saint-Denis, the experience of night-time mediation shows the advantages of adopting a global approach.

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Managing public peace in Brussels The mission of the Public Peace Manager (PPM) is to improve peace and the quality of life by supporting integrated actions to fight nuisances and improving the follow-up of interventions by local services (making progress on sensitive, complex cases linked to incivilities). Its perimeter of intervention is the city centre, in particular the tourist area, and the mixed areas of residence, commerce and nightlife. Since early 2013, 'public peace' coordination meetings have been organised regularly at City Hall between the police, the prevention departments, the municipal departments and the mayor's office in order to ensure monitoring of problematical sites and establishments having been the object of a report or questioning, especially for disturbance of the peace at night. The services involved in this 'public peace' coordination have different means of intervention at their disposal before cracking down:  Preventive contact to inform the manager of complaints concerning his establishment;  Reminding shopkeepers of the legislation;  A police fine as per municipal administrative sanctions (nocturnal disturbance, terrace);  A meeting between the manager of the establishment, the mayor's office and the PPM;  A temporary closing by order of the mayor. In addition to monitoring establishments in tourist areas, the PPM contributed to other initiatives:  Meetings with neighbourhood or shopkeepers' committees and/or complainants, which has, among other, resulted in elaborating a questionnaire and a survey on the quality of life in one neighbourhood in particular, Saint-Géry. Thanks to these meetings, dialogue remains open with public authorities and municipal departments;  Organisation of dialogues between complainants, the public authorities and the protagonists when there are disputes between neighbours or linked to a 'horeca' (hotels, restaurants, cafés) establishment;


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

 Collaboration in the 'Summer Plan' of the Saint-Géry neighbourhood (city centre): meeting with the shopkeepers and the representative of the college in charge of commerce and reminder of the rules of respect and tranquillity, constitution of a police patrol called 'Hypnos', centred on disturbance of the peace at night linked to horeca activities;  Prevention of alcohol abuse by minors through direct visits to shopkeepers with a policeman and a member of BRAVVO;  Development of a partnership with the Brussels Institute for Environmental Management (Institut bruxellois pour la Gestion de l'Environnement - IBGE) to raise awareness on noise among hotels, restaurants and cafés customers and managers through artistic performances (the Gentlemen Noceurs5).

Security of nightlife in Rome There are a certain number of municipal measures aimed at controlling alcohol consumption, unauthorised street hawking and the occupation of public property as well as prohibiting access to certain areas in order to make nightlife safer. In the Piazza Trilussa and Campo dei Fiori districts, City Hall has deployed a pilot system the goal of which is to improve quality of life and reduce the feeling of insecurity amongst residents and tourists. Anyone can thereby signal any incident whatsoever (technical problem, brawl...) by using a device equipped with a Bluetooth wireless data-exchange network. In a way, these devices are like small SOS call boxes. Captors send a signal to the closest cameras, which instantaneously transmit a visual alarm signal to the city of Rome's surveillance operations centre. It is there that the decision to intervene will be made. In order to fight against aggressions, preferential taxi fares have been implemented. These are offered to women returning home alone at night and to young people leaving discotheques on Friday and Saturday nights. 5- These are groups of four strolling actor-dancers who meet night revellers near Brussels cafés and bars to encourage them to respect the peace of local residents.

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Night-time mediation in Saint-Denis A city's nightlife must be taken into account globally, i.e. not only in its festive aspect but also as concerns the sharing of public spaces and action on the feeling of insecurity. The night-time mediation service in Saint-Denis was thus set up to meet several objectives:  To reinforce the human presence and help improve the feeling of security and relations among inhabitants;  To reassure by providing some degree of proximity;  To ensure an interface function by carrying out work in prevention, information, and accompaniment, by dispelling prejudices and by directing towards appropriate structures;  To ease tensions by settling conflicts and disputes between individuals by means other than intervention of the national police;  To decipher cultural behaviours to foster better communication and avoid misunderstandings between the population and institutions or between different groups of the population. The mediators' primary mission is to be visible and ensure a reassuring presence through their preventive patrols. Since 2011, they have intervened for various types of problems:  Intervention with large groups gathering in public areas or occupying common areas of blocks of flats and creating nuisances;  Reminder of regulations to shops that sell alcohol or create nuisances late at night;  Conflict management;  Orientation and accompaniment of drug users (crack);  Intervention for persons who are homeless, under the influence of alcohol and/or drug users whose behaviour can generate a feeling of insecurity;  Taking care of mugging victims;  Support for emergency services (firemen, police).


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

5. Trafficking in human beings, prostitution and sexual tourism

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Trafficking in human beings is one of the world's most developed and lucrative criminal activities. Even though it is difficult to collect precise figures, the number of known or presumed victims in the European Union increased by 18% between 2008 and 2010: 68% were women, 17% men, 12% girls and 3% boys. The primary form of trafficking in the EU between 2008 and 2010 was for sexual exploitation (62%). Although women and children constitute the majority of victims worldwide, the number of male victims is on the rise. Trafficking affects most countries of the world in one way or another. Cities, whether of origin, transit or destination of sexual tourism, have a major role to play in the fight against trafficking in human beings and sexual tourism, especially as concerns prevention through support and protection of victims, awareness-raising of the general public and tourists to discourage the demand, and the training of professionals who may be witnesses to it (taxi drivers, hoteliers, et al.). Cooperation between cities of origin and destination can also be developed to improve knowledge of the phenomenon and the identification of victims or even tourists guilty of illegal sexual tourism. The local level of governance, which relies on a network of partners, is pertinent for carrying out diagnoses as precise as possible of local sexual tourism and implementing appropriate prevention/repression measures. In France, several national associations are working in favour of persons in danger or in a situation of prostitution such as, for example, Les Amis du Bus des Femmes, the Lotus Bus-MĂŠdecins du Monde, the Nid movement, and ALC (as per the French acronym for Accompagnement, Lieux d'accueil, Carrefour ĂŠducatif et social - Accompaniment Shelters Educational and social crossroads). In Saint-Denis, the Amicale du Nid association, which offers prostitutes a day shelter in its premises, has carried out a local diagnosis on prostitution jointly with the municipality, which also includes a trai-

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ning offer for stakeholders in direct contact with the target public. The city has also set up a network of local stakeholders devoted to the prevention of prostitution.

ECPAT, a worldwide network for fighting paedophile sexual tourism ECPAT (End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes) is a worldwide network that brings together local organisations and the broader community of organisations that defend children's rights with the goal of eliminating the sexual exploitation of minors for commercial purposes. ECPAT has 85 members in 77 countries. In the domain of fighting sexual tourism involving children, ECPAT works on three levels:  Defending a stronger legislative framework and, in particular, encouraging States to implement extraterritorial legislation in order to pursue nationals who exploit children abroad. ECPAT also works with stakeholders the world over to advocate legislative reform based on the Convention on Child Rights and its optional protocols. In addition, ECPAT produces monitoring reports by country.  ECPAT has set up various partnerships with the tourism industry. For example, by committing to the partnership with the 'Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Exploitation in Travel and Tourism', tour operators and other tourism organisations pledge to make their clients and personnel aware of policies and measures aimed at protecting children.  ECPAT provides technical assistance, support and workshops to help legislators, the police, the tourism industry and international governmental agencies. ECPAT contributes to national research and the elaboration of regional trends as well as to research on delinquents' behaviour. The network also promotes hotlines on the Internet (to report cases). Thus, it has coordinated the development of the European Reporting Platform, which brings together 16 European reporting mechanisms in order to facilitate the reporting of cases.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Recommendations

Security and tourism: closely linked stakes Tourist cities, open cities In a context of development of infrastructures, multiplication of operators, and competition in territorial marketing strategies, the tourist city, open on the world, must base its tourism policy not only on economic exchange but also on intercultural exchange. Tourism is an opportunity for the city to be open, to benefit from emulation created by the cultural exchange between visitors and residents, and to bring out its diversity. Tourism gives inhabitants grounds for pride in their city. Integrating security and tourism policies must enable cities to reaffirm that they do not consider themselves fortresses but rather open networks, ready for economic and cultural exchanges, and for a high quality of life offered to all, residents and visitors alike.

Cities must encourage coexistence between residents and visitors To develop and maintain quality tourism, cities, regardless of their profile, must attend to encouraging coexistence between residents and visitors. This comes about by clearly emphasising the benefits that tourism brings to the local territory as well as by encouraging inhabitants to participate in the tourist life of their city. Sustainable tourism must allow all components of the city to profit from its positive consequences. A high concentration in the city centres can give rise to tourist pressure that engenders negative externalities and creates tensions between residents and visitors. Other neighbourhoods may have assets that can be publicised in order to deconcentrate tourism and thus restore the city as a global entity. Using and en-

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hancing the potential of the whole city must be an integral part of the security and tourism strategy. Furthermore, in order to overcome the apprehension that can be aroused by anything (or anyone) unknown or foreign, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the feeling of insecurity can be the consequence of behaviours that are due as much to visitors as to residents.

The tourist as a temporary citizen of a city, with rights and duties As soon as they set foot in a city, visitors become an integral part of it, becoming a citizen like the residents, even though this is only temporary. This involves a certain number of rights as well as duties that are part of citizenship. Resident and temporary citizens have the right to find, in every city, a set of environmental, social, cultural, economic and political conditions of life allowing for living with dignity but they also have the duty to seek to improve these conditions for all. Resident and temporary citizens must in particular use public spaces and services in a balanced, responsible way. As the result of a collaborative process between all the partners and stakeholders involved, it is up to every city to define the rights and duties of tourists. A certain number of visitor rights and duties, common on the European level, could be identified and borne by European institutions. The visitor must, in addition, be informed of local rules in order to avoid committing, consciously or not, criminal or reprehensible acts (such as the consumption of illicit substances or resorting to prostitution).


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Management of the city's image and communication as regards security Information can be provided to citizens on questions relating to security and the quality of life: appropriate wording must be found so that this communication does not create itself a feeling of insecurity. Concerned with the marketing of their territory, cities can choose to communicate more about the quality of life, respect of rules for 'living together' and the rights and duties of tourists, rather than on the sole aspects of security. If a safe, welcoming image is key in the decision to visit a given city, cities do not, in fact, want to project a law-and-order view of tourism (that can turn against them upon the slightest incident). The communication strategy can be rolled out by the tourism authorities, the media and individuals who are in a position to convey a positive image of the city, in particular the municipal personnel. Working on the city's image can involve the setting-up of a permanent monitoring of security issues that integrates the media, the Internet and social networks and taking security challenges into consideration in the market studies carried out for the different tourism sectors. Although marketing should not focus on security issues, it is, on the other hand, possible or even necessary, through campaigns closely targeting the right publics at the right moment, to communicate information and reflexes to adopt to be a safe tourist. Joint reflection on these prevention campaigns, which can exist in the form of a welcome booklet, leaflets, posters or promotional objects, must be involved in order to point out the best practices and angles of communication.

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Management of public spaces, the common property of visitors and residents Strongly linked to the image of a city, its public spaces must be thought of in terms of accessibility and clarity, particularly in major tourist areas. City planning, street furniture, parks, public lighting and the management of waste play an important role in producing a feeling of security or insecurity in residents and visitors alike. The first impression is crucial for the image that one has of a city. Although they do not see city centre as 'showcase areas' for tourists alone, cities must ensure that measures taken in these areas benefit the residents as much as the tourists. Making certain areas temporarily or permanently pedestrian, for example, is mutually beneficial and brings peace to public spaces whilst making them more clearly 'legible' and less stressful.

>>

The definition, setting up and dissemination of rules for the use of common public spaces also contributes to a better coexistence between visitors and residents, allowing for better quality of life, a reflection of the quality of the city. Observance of these rules, for example as concerns nightlife, should enable everyone to experience the city fully as a citizen rather than reduce it to a mere temporary use.

>


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Chapter 3

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Governance, methodologies and tools

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

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1. Building cooperation

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> In many cities, security policies and tourism policies are designed and implemented separately, without any correspondence or dialogue. Security and tourism policy makers largely ignore each other. This is due in part to the fact that tourism is generally considered through the angle of its economic impact and is often managed at the macro level. On the other hand, the problems and nuisance that tourism generates are usually tackled at the municipal or even neighbourhood level. As stated before, cooperation and interaction between all levels of governance (local, regional, national, European and international) are needed in order to improve the security of tourists, promote peaceful coexistence between tourists and citizens, and develop a sustainable tourism policy that takes into account the quality of life. The objectives of such cooperation are:  To develop a local partnership for security and tourism that can meet the challenges at stake with adequate means;  To engage all local partners, including local security forces, local civil servants, and hospitality businesses, and to create a common 'Security and Tourism culture';  To base the partnership on evidence, and to develop a local security audit on tourism;  To develop public/private partnerships on this issue. To meet these objectives, the starting point should be to assess the issues and needs on the subject. Conducting a local security audit on tourism is a good starting point. In most cases, stakeholders do not know each other, and a certain amount of network building has to be done in order to foster long, sustainable relations between security and tourism stakeholders. Dialogue must be established between all the stakeholders concerned by issues of security and tourism at the municipal level (tourist offices, security coordinators and elected officials), as well as police authorities, NGOs (victim support, mediation), representatives of the tourism


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

industry (hotels, restaurants, bars), but also embassies or consulates, transport authorities, and citizen representatives (volunteers or local neighbourhood associations). The aim of such meetings is to define together the needs of the tourism sector in terms of security and exchange of information. Furthermore, they are a means to build the network that is needed for developing joint actions. Below are examples of cooperation between tourism stakeholders and security stakeholders in Saint-Denis, Rome and Brasov. Task forces in these cities have met, often for the first time, in order to follow the audit process carried out during the Security & Tourism project. In Barcelona, Brussels and Alba, examples focus on public/private partnerships that are very often the cornerstone of the security and tourism strategy.

Developing a partnership between the security and tourism sectors in Saint-Denis The approach of the Security & Tourism project was presented to the partners in the framework of the Local Security and Crime Prevention Council (Conseil local de Sécurité et de Prévention de la Délinquance or CLSPD). This important authority in the local security framework meets every year in plenary session to collectively bring up local security challenges. The importance of the partners' participation in issues of security and tourism is recalled on the occasion of these meetings. A task force was set up, bringing together varied stakeholders, especially the city's services (culture, public order, statistics), the tourist office, municipal police, justice, the mediation stakeholders (night mediators and the association Partners for the City - Partenaires pour la Ville), those in charge of the historic site of the Basilica of Saint-Denis, hotels and the manager of the Stade de France. The meetings of this task force allowed for:  Making a preliminary assessment;  Formulating expectations concerning the security audit on tourism;

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 Following the smooth progress of this audit and participating in the reporting. The partners of the task force are now fully associated in the approach and will, in particular, promote actions stemming from the recommendations of the audit.

Rome, a joint, operational approach The Security & Tourism project, in which the local and national authorities have put considerable effort, has allowed for adopting a joint, structured approach. 1. Definition and evaluation of the main themes linked to tourist security in Rome. Two seminars were devoted to this in September 2014, in the presence of the partners, i.e., all the services of Rome Capitale concerned by the subject: the mayor's office, the department of tourism, the department of economic development and productive activities, the Capitoline superintendence in charge of cultural property, the department of culture, the department of social policies and the command of Rome's municipal police, with the participation of 12 contributors who presented the operations and actions underway. 2. Systematisation of the gathering of information on various aspects of security broached with the partners on the occasion of meetings organised at the European level. A guidebook, Turismo Sicuro a Roma (Safe Tourism in Rome), was created to avoid tourists being victims of unpleasant incidents. It includes useful information, prevention advice and information on the steps to take in case of theft or loss of documents and other personal objects. 3. The partners discussed the need to develop a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the system for registering complaints, reports and evaluations to which tourists and residents resorted between 2013 and 2014, and which led to the audit developed by the city of Rome.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Setting up partnerships for tourism in Brasov The municipality of Brasov is pursuing a dynamic policy for tourism development based on partnerships with the private and association sectors. Brasov's offer is based on its ability to stage large international events (NATO summit, Winter Youth Olympic Games), winter sports (neighbouring resort of Poiana Brasov) and the city's historical and cultural heritage. The public administration and the private sector have thus collaborated for these large events through:  The commitment of local hotels to provide the necessary number of rooms and to respect the requested quality standards;  The partnership between the city of Brasov and the cable car company of Poiana Brasov, which allowed users to order their pass by Internet;  Financing by the private sector of sports and cultural events, after an invitation to tender.

Barcelona and the tradition of public/ private partnership Barcelona is characterised by its tradition of participation and collaboration between the public and private sectors. Various committees and areas of cooperation between the city's stakeholders are inscribed in the municipal public policies. In addition to the Urban Security Council, there are, for example, 12 networks set up around the Por una Barcelona Inclusiva ('For an Inclusive Barcelona') agreement in which more than 500 entities from the tertiary sector and different public administrations participate. The Integrated Tourist Management System is another example: made up of public and private stakeholders, it allows for centralising information on tourism in the city for optimal management of visitors' needs.

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In Brussels, a public/private partnership centred on a joint strategy with hotels for crime prevention The Brussels Hotels Association (BHA) brings together 90% of the hotels in Brussels (independent and hotel chains) to defend the interests of the sector and tourism. This organisation pays particular attention to the crime prevention measures that can affect clients. For example, the hotels liaise with the police in reporting acts by making appropriate forms available to clients. Similarly, informative brochures comprising prevention advice against pickpocketing are available in hotels. Furthermore, the Brussels-Capital-Ixelles police zone and the Brussels Hotels Association collaborated on drawing up an overall, easy-to-use FAQ, summing up all the information useful for clients (aid service, police substations) and for the hotel sector (what to do in case of a given type of occurrence). A 'police contact sheet' including all the contact information of the relevant police units has also been distributed to all hoteliers. Moreover, the partners of the pickpocketing platform collaborated on the elaboration of a prevention video shown in hotels.

Alba: the shopkeepers' association and the local security and tourism partnership On an institutional level, there is an agreement on security between all the municipalities of the province of Cuneo and a cooperation agreement between the neighbouring municipalities on the coordination of police forces. The system for managing security during large events,


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

which involves the public and private sectors, is increasingly established. A growing number of shopkeepers, tour operators and volunteers are taking part. Cooperation in the field has led to setting up roundtables and discussion forums. A security plan detailing the procedures to be followed for every type of incident has been drawn up and includes scenarios for various cases of catastrophe (e.g., fire or traffic accidents) and an organisation chart in which the role of each participant is clearly indicated. This plan is sent to all relevant parties as well as to the prefect.

2. Assessing the local situation

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> A study of the local situation in security and tourism is a good place to start building knowledge and activities and structuring the partnership. A local security audit focused on tourism can be carried out by local authorities in cooperation with their partners and should be updated periodically in order to check the validity of the strategic goals and action plans. A methodology and appropriate tools should be designed, adapted to the needs of each city and to the existing security and tourism strategies. In general, the local security audit [28] can be defined primarily as a systematic analysis aiming to:  Obtain an exact representation of crime, victimisation, and perceptions of security in the city, either at a general level or in certain neighbourhoods;  Identify the local resources to be mobilised;  Establish priorities;  Serve as a basis for a strategy that will enable cities to meet these priorities. There are two main phases in a local security audits on tourism: diagnosis and support. The diagnosis phase may start with a broad assessment that results in a description of the relevant stakeholders,

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existing programmes and partnership bodies. The information may be gathered through, for example, semi-structured interviews, focus meetings and work groups (qualitative), documentation review and statistical studies (quantitative). In order to get a broader picture, data, figures, and maps can be commented on and put in perspective with other local, national and international situations. The questions relevant to this broad assessment are: What are the key tourism data in your city? Who are the different public and private stakeholders involved? What statistical data exist on crime against tourists (police figures)? What qualitative data is there on tourists’ fear of crime? What kind of partnership exists? What action has been taken? This broad assessment should lead to an objective analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the local situation, the quality of the partnership, the cooperation among stakeholders and the existing schemes. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis or other techniques can be used to come up with lists of: Issues and problems linked to the local context; The most prominent aspects of local needs; Internal resources or external expertise that can be involved. Taking this audit process to the next level should allow for the development of strategic and operational recommendations based on the needs and expectations of local stakeholders. A local strategy for security and tourism may then be drawn up and should include general objectives and a precise action plan for meeting them. Experience shows that strategies and recommendations should be tested as a hypothesis before they are actually approved formally by the partners and rolled out. This is the second phase of the local security audit, in which support activities may be developed in order to help local stakeholders to take ownership of the strategy. For example, the city can organise:  An internal work group on a strategic or thematic line of action (e.g.,


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

with the tourism professionals representing hotels, bars, restaurants, etc.);  A public meeting including residents (e.g. to gather their expectations regarding tourist/resident coexistence); A victimisation survey; A field study focusing on one place in particular (a major tourist site). Thanks to the continued evaluation of the impact of these activities, it should be possible to approve or adapt the strategy according to the needs of local partners and residents. Indeed a local strategy that is coproduced with partners, residents and civil society is more likely to work than a strategy that is designed without consultation. All the city partners of the 'Security & Tourism' project had to carry out a local security audit on tourism. This exercise proved to be challenging for the cities for many reasons: Security and tourism topics are often considered two separate worlds. As a result, there was a lack of understanding by the local stakeholders, which prompted cities to organise regular meetings in order to define together the scope of the audit; The absence of prior experience on the combination of these two topics among local outside consultants or experts caused delays and complicated the awarding of sub-contracting markets; The lack of existing statistical data on tourism and crime from the police or other institutions revealed the need to create new sets of data on crime and victimisation, and the challenge to improve and integrate existing data. The audits presented below are extremely varied and show the innovation potential of cities. When faced with the challenge of designing local security audits on tourism, they have come up with many different solutions in terms of methodology and outputs that are adapted to the context, needs and expectations of the local networks of stakeholders.

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A survey of shopkeepers in Alba In cooperation with the local shopkeepers' association, the municipality of Alba identified a certain number of important security problems in the city and environs, thanks to meetings and a questionnaire sent to all shops, service companies and host establishments (hotels especially). On the basis of the survey results, City Hall and the police elaborated short- and medium-term plans to improve the situation.

Barcelona: an audit centred on coexistence between tourists and residents Initially, the city of Barcelona had proposed an audit focusing on the analysis and development of a shared information system to improve the services involved in security and assistance to visitors (information, health, mobility, documentation, security, protection, emergencies). The first results showed that such a system was not in fact necessary for there already existed effective coordination between services and operators. The challenge being to maintain the balance between use of the city and coexistence between all citizens, permanent or temporary, the objective of the audit was therefore reoriented towards an approach based on the citizen's rights and duties. Whereas Barcelona positions itself as a city that welcomes worldwide citizenship, made up of persons with varied interests, origins and ambitions, the sustainability of tourism is the main line on which the necessary compromises will be elaborated. In this process, seven pillars of a sustainable tourism policy were identified: 1. Reception; 2. Public spaces and coexistence between residents and visitors; 3. Mobility and accessibility; 4. Cultural heritage;


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

5. Health; 6. Prevention, protection and security; 7. Hospitality. The process of elaborating these basic principles results from a common reflection between the services and operators of the public and private sectors, which centred on: Trends in urban tourism; The positive and negative impacts of tourism on cities;  The challenges and key themes for improving the link between city and tourism. A charter allowing for upholding these principles will be created as a result of the audit process. The objective is the balance and sustainability of tourism in the city, i.e., the coexistence of permanent and temporary citizens and the adequation between tourist services and the city's needs.

The audit process in Brasov Over the years, the city of Brasov has developed relations with the University of Transylvania, which provides City Hall with information and data on topics of interest. In the framework of the Security & Tourism project, the city requested that the audit be carried out by this university. It was centred on six themes: 1. Analysis of crime in Brasov over the past five years. This research was based on statistical data provided by specialised institutions. The objective was to obtain a clear view of security that could be used by the local authorities to design their security and tourism policy. 2. Quantitative research based on surveys of tourists in order to evaluate their perception of risks and to identify solutions. The research brought out certain useful data such as the principal reasons for tourists' concern; how this relates to public authorities; and possible causes for the feeling of insecurity amongst tourists or residents. 3. An online public debate about the tourism and security strategy. The

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object of this discussion was to identify how residents perceive the impact of tourism and tourists' security; which institutions should participate in the creation of a safe environment; and what solutions can allow for ensuring the security of tourists and residents. 4. A study on relations between tourists and residents and on the residents' evaluation of the economic and social impact of tourism on their city. Two discussion groups were organised with residents on the following topics: What, in their opinion makes a destination safe; their attitude towards tourists; situations they consider unpleasant for tourists; how to improve the reception of tourists; the city neighbourhoods they consider 'problematical' for tourists; comparisons between tourism in Brasov and other European cities. 5. Qualitative research to identify crime reduction measures and strategic orientations for security linked to tourism. A discussion group was organised with experts – qualified specialists representing the service sector, local representatives of the tourism sector and other specialists in different disciplines – on the theme: How to create a safe tourist destination. 6. A public debate on security and tourism that brought together 50 participants. During this debate, local representatives discussed with the audience some of the main topics linked to security and tourism in Brasov.

Saint-Denis: a broad security and tourism audit The audit carried out in Saint-Denis was based on three aspects: improvement of the city's image; a stronger quality tourism offer; and the participation of tourists in city life. It was necessary to base this audit on a partnership in order to act collectively, and the group of partners therefore met as many times as was necessary. Terms of reference were thus drawn up, specifying that the audit should, in particular, allow for honing knowledge of the tourist population in Saint-Denis and improve the offer by improving the reception of tourists.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

The audit, carried out by an outside firm, produced a precise analysis of the context, bringing out problems and offering concrete, operational recommendations for strengthening the tourism policy in line with the public order policy. Some of the main development lines selected were:  The strengthening of partnerships with local stakeholders (sites, museums, associations, cultural facilities);  The creation of structures for accommodation and catering. In particular, the audit recommended:  Setting up tools for evaluating attacks committed against tourists;  Measures to prevent offences against tourists;  Developing the policy aimed at enhancing the assets of Saint-Denis;  Making it easier to repress offences against tourists and heightening security in tourist areas;  Improving the care of tourists who are the victims of a crime.

Rome: analysis of the system for registering complaints The survey carried out by the Direction of Tourism gave a snapshot of the problems that prompt tourists to file complaints, report problems, or make suggestions, either directly to the services of Rome Capitale, or on websites or blogs. Particular attention was paid to accommodation (hotels or residences) and restaurants in the most-visited tourist areas of the centre. This survey was a preparatory step before a plan was drawn up for improving the tourism offer of Rome and its suburbs, and relied on the system set up by the city to receive complaints, i.e., the Tourist Information Points (TIP), the call centre 060608, the consumer protection office of the municipal administration, the public relations offices of all departments and town halls, as well as the mayor's office in charge of citizen relations. Complaints are given a file number by the office that receives them. It then sends them to the relevant department, which is responsible for responding as quickly as possible. Among all the complaints received

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during the period under consideration (2013 and the first half of 2014), 1,500 cases relating more specifically to tourism and security were selected to be analysed according to different categories (accommodation, restaurant services, transport, infrastructures, public areas, police, administrative services, cultural property...). The tourism services turned out to be particularly problematical with a failure rate of 23%. The primary causes were erroneous information and the lack of computing equipment and city maps. To that were added illegal encampments (15%), complications linked to infrastructure and public areas (13%), and public transport problems (10%). Another interesting point of the survey is that the highest number of cases concerned pickpockets and crooks, as well as beggars and street pedlars in tourism hotspots. This was particularly the case in areas with a constant flow of tourists, such as entrances to cultural sites, public transport, commercial areas and the market. [29]

A specific audit on Brussels nightlife The largest number of complaints for disturbance of the peace at night, brawls and other phenomena most often linked to public drunkenness concern areas situated near the Grand-Place and the pedestrian streets of the city centre, in the heart of the tourist sector. These are the incidents that have the greatest impact on public peace (as opposed to pickpocketing that goes unnoticed by residents). At the end of 2013, residents of the Saint-Géry neighbourhood complained to the city, through its Public Peace Manager (PPM), about nuisances linked to nightlife and other incidents that undermine the quality of life. Saint-Géry is a lively neighbourhood located quite close to the tourist area, where the situation sometimes becomes tense owing to the bustle in the city centre and nuisances that affect local residents. A questionnaire was proposed in order to objectivise the situation. It is important to recall that the nuisances are due less to tourism than to the general public who gathers in Saint-Géry to enjoy the local offer in hotels, restaurants and cafés.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

The main objectives of the study were to:  Objectivise the residents feeling about their quality of life;  Bring out the main nuisances responsible for the residents' malaise;  Collect expectations and proposals from inhabitants;  Better inform public authorities so that they can take the most adequate measures. A letter was distributed beforehand to the whole neighbourhood to alert residents about the upcoming pollsters' visit. The questionnaire was distributed over a period of three months to ensure the coherence of data. It was done door to door or by appointment, and all the streets of the neighbourhood were represented. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered at different times to allow for representing the largest public possible. The survey corroborated the observations reported by the local residents committee and the Public Peace Manager. The main findings concerned:  Noise pollution, especially music in nightlife venues and shops;  Linked to the first, crowds in the street (terraces blocking pavements, groups hanging out outside of establishments during the evening and night);  Linked to the first two; alcohol consumption (drunkenness, noise, brawls);  Problems of cleanliness in connection with partying. This questionnaire allowed for maintaining the dialogue between local residents and city services and monitoring measures for restricting nuisances. After this first survey, the city of Brussels, in connection with the Security & Tourism project, got down to elaborating a second questionnaire, this time aimed at tourists with the objective of identifying their perception of conviviality, the living environment and security, all of which interact. Moreover, in order to fight nightlife nuisances, the city of Brussels wants to develop an 'alcohol plan'. The principal measures planned are as follows:

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 Setting up a regular platform for dialogue, meetings and awarenessraising for the sector and establishment managers;  Including the issue of alcohol consumption amongst the other elements of the local policy for tourism and large events;  Training the stakeholders for situations of excessive alcohol consumption, improving the capacity for listening and dialogue, informing front-line stakeholders about therapeutic solutions;  Making partygoers aware of the social and health impact of excessive drinking (awareness by peers, information material about risks, prevention and awareness material in establishments) and showcasing the advantages of positive drinking behaviour to local residents (Gentlemen Noceurs);  Promoting responsible behaviour (general public media campaign, training the sector);  Environmental aspects: taking charge of homeless people, cleaning public areas, support for ad hoc facilities (smoking room…) in order to reduce nuisances;  Improving the coherence of existing regulations, specific regulation for 'horeca' establishments (identifying incidents that must be sanctioned) and limiting the sale of alcohol in the evening by grocer's shops open at night;  Implementing the 'Quality Night' label.

3. From prevention to victim support

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Depending on the circumstances in which cities elaborate their tourism and security strategy, they have many options for concrete action, from crime prevention to victim support, including law enforcement and mediation. Some cities have developed specific actions for security and tourism: information guidebooks, prevention campaigns, specific police units, tourist victim support schemes… Others have emphasised that strategies for security and tourism should not be developed solely


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

for tourists but also for residents. Keen to give equal treatment to both residents and tourists, they are not interested in setting up specific police units dedicated to tourism or victim support schemes for tourists only. In any case, adapted responses to the security issues in tourism must be developed. Issues that require the attention of security and tourism stakeholders are:  What are the available means for preventing crime or antisocial behaviour by tourists?  What are the best ways to fight crime that specifically targets tourists?  How to prevent and evaluate the victimisation of tourists?  How to improve care to victims while avoiding focusing only on their negative experience? This section presents a number of examples showing how Rome, Brussels, Saint-Denis and Munich are meeting these challenges[30]. It is also illustrated by real-life case studies that give further insight into the various security issues that a tourist may be confronted with.

>> Prevention and information In addition to the more classic schemes for the prevention of criminal behaviours that concern the general population, decision-makers may also provide adapted strategies for individual prevention aimed at tourists. These can include communication campaigns targeting tourists and encouraging them to be vigilant and avoid risky behaviours and giving them tips on what to do if they are victim of crime. Despite the lack of data on tourist victimisation in Europe, studies show that most crimes committed against tourists are opportunistic (offenders take advantage of the tourist’s vulnerability as a foreigner). Indeed, tourists are considered easy prey because they:  are easily identified by their different physical features compared with those of the local population (height, skin colour, clothes, hair colour);

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 frequently use maps, which gives the impression that they don’t know where they are and don’t know where to get help (even when there may be a police station nearby);  carry valuables (cameras and other items);  drive rental cars;  carry large amounts of cash and credit cards;  adopt a relaxed, carefree 'holiday behaviour', leaving their personal belongings well in sight and accessible to third parties; not paying attention to what is going on around them; not planning their routes, and often strolling in streets that are not under surveillance and from which there is no 'escape route'.

Case Study: Theft T. is visiting a foreign city. She is leaving a restaurant with a friend at around 11.30pm when two men grab her purse and pull it. She falls to the pavement, and her aggressors kick her. T. goes to a police station and files a complaint. She asks to make a telephone call to cancel her credit cards, but the police officers tell her that international calls are limited to 30 seconds. Afterwards, T. asks the police to escort her to her hotel because she is frightened and has no money. They refuse. T. is left with just enough money to pay for one more night at the hotel and doesn't know what to do for the rest of her holiday. The victim feels quite stressed, she is in need of emotional and practical support to contact her family. She needs information about her rights and the procedures to follow, and also has many doubts as to what she can do after returning home.

Involvement of local authorities is essential for increasing the effectiveness of awareness-raising campaigns. Safety issues may be different from one city to the next, and only the local government, together with other institutions, will be able to provide tourists with precise information on their safety, such as streets or locations to avoid, addresses and telephone


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

numbers of police stations, and contact information of main institutions based locally, among others. Thus, even in countries where national governments have put in place awareness campaigns for tourists, local authorities should implement additional strategies to prevent the victimisation of tourists, considering the social context and local resources. National campaigns have much more impact if they are combined with targeted local information and resources provided by local governments. Considering that those characteristics and behaviour may draw the attention of criminals, it is very important to make tourists aware and prepared so they can avoid opportunistic crimes, such as theft, pickpocketing and mugging.

Case study: Prevention T. is visiting another EU country. When she arrives at the hotel, she is given a brochure containing information on local spots to visit and tips for avoiding unfortunate incidents. The next day, she decides to go to see a musical with a friend and then to a restaurant located in a remote part of town. Having read the brochure, she is aware that she needs to take some measures to guarantee her safety, so she leaves her money and personal belongings in the hotel safe and goes out with just a small amount of cash on her. She also takes the brochure with her, thinking it might be useful to have the list of contacts in hand. She calls one of the taxi companies listed in the brochure to go to the restaurant and does the same on her way back. She does not carry any valuables and avoids walking in the streets at night. With this behaviour, T. and her friend have a good time and avoid risk situations.

APAV: the 'May I help you?' project The Portuguese Association for Victim Support (APAV according to the Portuguese acronym) developed an international project called 'May I help you?' with the aim of improving the services available to tourists who are victim of a crime and of ensuring that they be able to exercise

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their rights. As a result of the project, a brochure was created that includes a series of relevant information including practical advice on risky 'holiday behaviours'. The brochure is also available online in Portuguese, English and Spanish.[30]

Rome and its tourist information service In order to avoid the scattering of information and to better meet tourists' needs, the city of Rome has established a system making accessible a maximum of useful information from data gathered on two websites: www.060608.it and www.turismoroma.it. The exchanges between tourists and reception agents of the 'Tourist Information Points' (TIPs) as well as information provided by telephone are also included in this system. The information is centralised in a database that, in turn, feeds all the information services. There are ten TIPs spread out over the city's main tourist sites and transit points, which provide information in five languages and sell tourist passes (the Roma Pass) and bus tickets. Since 2013, guided visits are proposed, and guidebooks and other official products offered for sale. The 060608 call centre is open 365 days a year from 9am to 9pm. The website provides useful information as well as a ticket service for museums, concerts, theatres and other cultural events. The 060608 number, which also appears on the Facebook and Twitter social networks, constitutes an additional source of information for the official tourism site in Rome, www.turismoroma.it. The tourist information service plays another important role: it receives and handles complaints and reports from tourists and residents. These complaints are sent to the relevant office, which will provide a response in a maximum delay of 30 days. In Rome there is no specific victim-support structure for tourists. Nonetheless, the various relevant institutions have services (health, information, police, etc.) capable of helping in certain cases. However, communication between these services must be improved and made more coherent.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

'Safe in the City' campaign in Brussels To supplement existing tools and in view of the increasing number of certain types of incident, the city of Brussels decided to launch a communication campaign on security linked to tourism and available in various formats: leaflets, flyers, posters on advertising panels in public areas, and a new website. [31] The campaign is aimed particularly at burglary, theft in and of automobiles, and pickpocketing, which are on the rise. Originally intended for Brussels residents, it has since been expanded for specific publics such as clients of the hotel-restaurant sector, tourists and expatriates (in collaboration with the municipality of Ixelles). These publications contain specific advice adapted to target publics and are available in several languages. These are used in particular by the Peace Guards (Gardiens de la Paix), for example when a rise in crime is observed in some neighbourhoods (hotspots determined after analysis of data) or else events such as the Christmas market, 'Winter Wonders'. The aim of the campaign is to reassure the public and provide practical advice of caution. The slogan 'Aidez-nous Ă veiller sur vous' (Help us watch over you) is accompanied by a logo depicting a masked thief crossed out in red.

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'Useful tips for enjoying your stay and for coping with the unexpected' yer in Alba The municipality of Alba has produced an information flyer for tourists that includes practical advice as well as contacts for all municipal services concerned. This leaflet has a dual purpose: informing tourists without worrying them and giving them the same access to services as residents.

>> Policing strategies for security and tourism In addition to being systematically involved in the network of stakeholders who design and implement the prevention and mediation strategies linked to security and tourism, police forces from all levels of government can design measures adapted to the context of tourism. Police officers can be major stakeholders in crime prevention, mediation, victim support and of course law enforcement. Police exchange programmes, in which officers from one country patrol tourist zones in another, have been successfully implemented, for example in Croatia.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Police training programmes can also be designed specifically for ensuring tourists’ safety, focusing mainly on language and interpersonal skills. In addition, specific units such as the Brussels trekkers can be set up with appropriate tools and techniques to operate in tourist zones.

Croatia: international cooperation for a safe tourism season [32] Started in 2006, the 'Safe Tourism Season' project is based on international police cooperation. Thus in 2012, 59 foreign police officers from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, FYROM (Macedonia), Montenegro, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia and Ukraine were temporarily stationed in Croatia. These officers wore their national police uniforms and were unarmed. Their main task was to help the Croatian police communicate with tourists from their own country, thus contributing to crime prevention and traffic safety. Foreign police officers abide by Croatian regulations and do not apply any police measures.

Training the municipal police of Lisbon to intervene in a tourist area6 The Baixa Chiado area is one of the tourism hotspots of Lisbon: thousands of people disembark daily from cruise ships in the port. A pilot project set up by the municipality and in particular by the local police focused on creating a welcoming environment for tourists as well as on the resolution of problems linked to tourism that arise for residents. The activities set up primarily concerned the training of local police teams in foreign languages, communication and mediation and learning techniques of personal interaction aimed at improving relations with the population and tourists.

6- This action was developed in the framework of the IMPPULSE (IMproving Police-Population Understanding for Local SEcurity) project carried out by Efus.

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The trekkers unit of the Brussels Police Zone for the repression of pickpocketing The Brussels-Capital-Ixelles police zone is one of the few in the country to have a brigade of trekkers (from the Flemish trekken, which means 'pulling'), made up of police officers in charge of spotting pickpocketing and the perpetrators. The team is in charge of a 'Pickpocketing Action Plan', launched at the beginning of 2014 at the same time as the 2014-2017 zone security plan, which includes collaboration with the prevention partners (BRAVVO and the municipality of Ixelles). The measures envisaged are, in particular:  figures, information sessions;  Prevention: dialogue platform on the phenomenon, participation in the 'Safe in the City' campaign, actions during key events, heightening shopkeepers' awareness;  Repression: specific, concerted actions with the adjoining zones, collaboration with the public prosecutor's office, consciousness-raising of the Office of Foreigners, Press relations. The zone is also developing an action plan targeting nuisances.

>> Supporting tourists who are victim of crime 'Can I go to the police?' 'Will I have to pay for health care?' 'How can I contact a lawyer and how much will it cost?' 'How can I get my belongings back?' These are questions victims are confronted with. When the victim is a foreigner, these obstacles are even more daunting, since the victim is not familiar with his rights or with the institutions and legal system of the country where the incident took place. A crime or offence brings about negative consequences not only for those directly affected but also for those indirectly affected. Victims have physical, emotional and/or psychological after-effects and find themselves confronted with a new, unfamiliar world: the legal system.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

As a result, victim support must be an integral part of any security and tourism action plan. Existing procedures providing practical help to tourists who are victims of crime should be accessible in different languages. In addition, victimisation surveys can be realised to assess the efficiency of support schemes. When, despite all preventive efforts, crime does take place, there must be specific support strategies for tourists. Victim support schemes play an essential role in helping victims of crime to effectively exercise their rights and in encouraging them to overcome the negative consequences of victimisation. Quality and professional services should be provided free of charge to victims of all types of crime and must meet the specific needs and vulnerabilities of the different categories of victims including tourists. Usually tourists who are victims of crime face many obstacles to exercising their rights due to lack of knowledge of their rights in a foreign country, their ignorance about local institutions, the language barrier, and also the fact that they usually stay only a short while in the country and city. Considering these obstacles and the types of crime that mostly affect tourists, victim support services should be able to answer the following needs of tourist victims:  Emotional support right after the crime happened;  Psychological support for the victim (directly affected by the crime), friends and family (indirectly affected);  Access to a telephone;  Contact with mobile operators and credit card companies to cancel services;  Contact with airline companies to cancel or reschedule flights;  Contact with family members in the country of origin;  Internet access;  Access to urgent health care;  First aid help (food, medicine, clothes, toilet articles);

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 Legal advice concerning their rights as a victim of crime in the country they are visiting, at each phase of the criminal proceedings;  Escort to the police station, the court or other institutions;  Access to legal aid or other requests during criminal proceedings. In order to meet all the needs of tourist victims, support services must work with professionals from different areas, in particular psychology, law and social services. Partnerships can be set up with for example, a) local supermarkets, clothing shops and pharmacies to provide medication, clothes, nappies, toothpaste and other hygiene articles; b) transport companies so that victims who find themselves with no money can move about the city; c) hotel chains to accommodate victims who have had all or most of their money stolen.

ITAS, the Irish Tourist Assistance Service [34] ITAS – Irish Tourist Assistance Service is a specialist service offering immediate support and assistance to tourists who are victimised while visiting Ireland. The service is free and confidential. ITAS provides:  Emotional support and practical assistance;  Use of telephone/fax/email facilities,  Assisting with language difficulties;  Liaising with embassies, Gardaí (Police) and other agencies;  Assisting in arranging money transfers;  Re-issuing stolen travel documents;  Assisting with the cancellation of credit cards;  Arranging accommodation/meals if needed;  Organising transportation for stranded tourists;  Addressing medical needs.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

It is possible to build a tourist victim support scheme in European cities using structures and human resources that are already in place, using only the necessary funding to adapt them to the specific needs of tourists. For example, police stations can be used to install facilities where tourist victims will be supported, and the human resources can be trained and prepared by local NGOs or professionals with experience in victim support. This would give tourist victims of crime a 'one-stop shop' within the police station through which they could access different services: the police to register the complaint and other services to receive qualified support. Some services provided to tourist victims can also be seen as a benefit to be enjoyed during the rest of the holidays or sometime in the future, and it can go a long way in building a positive image for the city and country visited. Indeed, there is a chance that the visitor who has been well taken care of after an incident will share his experience with friends and family and online.

Case study: Support T. is a tourist from another EU country. When she arrived at the hotel, she was given a brochure with information on local spots to visit and some tips to avoid unfortunate incidents. One night, even though she is very careful with her belongings, she is robbed when going from the hotel to the train station. Her bag is stolen with almost all her belongings and money. T. goes to the police station and reports the crime. She is given access to the telephone and Internet and is able cancel her credit cards, contact her family to ask for a money transfer and book an appointment at the consulate for the next morning to receive a new passport. After all those proceedings, she talks to a psychologist of the Tourist Support Unit, expressing her feelings and concerns and receiving support. The Tourist Support Unit gives her a public transportation card, tickets for four meals at a local restaurant and a â‚Ź20 gift voucher to buy some clothes, since all her belongings were stolen. If she had not received that help, T. would have been lost. A day after the incident T. was able to continue her journey. The structured, quality support she received left her with a very good impression of the country.

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'SOS Victimes' in Saint-Denis The 'SOS Victimes' association, which assists victims of criminal offences, covers the whole Seine-Saint-Denis area. It was asked to join the security and tourism partnership in order to intervene on the issue of tourist victims in Saint-Denis. SOS Victimes is aimed at all victims of crime (street violence and intrafamily violence) and provides legal and psychological support. 47% of its work concerns voluntary acts of violence, half of which are committed in public spaces and half within the family. In the dĂŠpartement, the association takes care of approximately 5,000 victims a year.

Security and support for women during the Oktoberfest in Munich Every year, the Oktoberfest beer festival in Munich attracts some six million visitors, who consume some six million litres of beer. Installed on a sprawling site in the centre of the city for two weeks, the festival is a major challenge for Munich's security forces. The first point of contact for festival-goers in distress is the emergency centre where they can go for help in case of theft, injury or sexual assault. Owing to the enormous quantities of alcohol consumed during the festival, the prevention of alcohol-related problems is obviously a priority for the authorities and the police. One of the security agents' primary missions is to help drunken festival-goers avoid risk behaviour. There is also a medical tent where persons under the influence can sober up. The authorities are particularly vigilant concerning women, many of whom have a strong feeling of insecurity during the Oktoberfest. Thus, they can go to a dedicated tent to ask for help if they have been victims of an offence or sexual harassment. A team of psychologists is at their disposal and, should need be, can accompany them to the police station or home. This service is provided by the municipality in cooperation with various associations specialised in victim support such as Amyna, Imma, Frauennotruf and Hänsel & Gretel, which all offer services to women; some also run shelters.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

In order to avoid dangerous situations, the Service Point located at the entrance to the festival site provides visitors, especially women, with information on the impact of alcohol and on the services from which to seek assistance. Before the opening of the festival, the organisers analyse the site's 'dark zones', which are often used for criminal activities, and reduce risks by increasing public lighting or else by closing off those areas. Security patrols are deployed throughout the duration of the festival. The organisers make sure they have linguistic or multicultural skills by cooperating with foreign police forces (for example, Italian and British). They also make sure there are women on the police teams, for they are often more capable of defusing risk situations or simply communicating better with women in the public.

4. Using technologies

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Various technologies can be very useful for handling security issues in tourism. Tools such as CCTV, notwithstanding the debate on its usefulness in terms of crime prevention, can be essential for the management of public areas and for protecting heritage sites and, of course, for crowd control. Technologies such as geographical information systems for crime mapping can be used in the local security audit on tourism both before and after, in order to diagnose the risks and constantly review and adapt the responses.

Sistema Integrato Roma Sicura - SIRS (Integrated System for a Safer Rome) This system is an application of the WebGis type, conceived for gathering, analysing, checking and archiving information linked to urban security. It is accessible via the usual search engines by connecting to the Rome Capitale Intranet network. The integration of the Business Intelligence (BI) platform makes it more user-friendly. Administration users can consult data, question them interactively, export those that

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were selected by choosing the classic formats available, i.e., Word, Excel and Csv. One of the departments of the mayor's office is in charge of the smooth running of this dynamic supervision instrument, useful for decisionmaking and capable of treating, in an integrated way, all the information produced by the various offices and departments. In addition, it combines the analysis of processes and statistical results in order to classify all the listed elements: acts of vandalism, illegal situations, disturbance of the peace, etc. The first objective of the SIRS is to produce a map of urban risk and update it rapidly. Indeed, administrative authorities use it for their decision-making as regards integrated security (and therefore also for questions affecting tourism) in order to plan and coordinate interventions according to urgency and to provide the fastest, most effective solution to problems of residents and tourists with an aim to preserving the quality of social cohesion and preventing dangers.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Recommendations The city, linchpin of the 'security and tourism' strategy The concerted security and tourism strategy must be thought out in an overall framework that integrates all the stakeholders in these fields and, in particular, must be coordinated with strategies for sustainable development (culture, economy, environment‌).

The role of the city: developing and running a Security & Tourism network The local authority has a fundamental role, being the one that carries out the tourist strategy over the long term and also guarantor of the general interests of visitors and residents alike. As the unit that organises effective coordination between all levels of governance and between actions linked to tourism and those linked to security, it can and must favour joint responsibility amongst all the stakeholders in the tourism ecosystem. Security stakeholders must take an interest in tourism and vice versa: it is a condition for carrying out a policy in a collaborative manner. Developing a network of security and tourism partners will allow for identifying risks beforehand and finding joint solutions. The city's role must, in particular, be proactive as concerns prevention of insecurity linked to tourism. It must provide itself with the resources for planning as best as possible and acting before events occur that can be directly detrimental to tourism. If and when those occur, the city must deal with their negative externalities in the best possible way.

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A close partnership with all the stakeholders The network must be regularly contacted and called upon, and for effective coordination, the working schedule, culture and role of each network member must be respected. Awareness-raising actions, and even the joint training of partners on the respective challenges of both spheres, security and tourism, must be carried out. A dynamic, vibrant partnership must be built on the basis of mutual understanding, backed up by resources and a platform for dialogue and consultation. As part of existing informal networks wherein partners already know each other well, experience shows that the results are mutually beneficial and bring about improved living conditions for both residents and visitors. If necessary, the networks can be formalised by the signing of a partnership agreement with the objective of, for example, creating one or several thematic monitoring units on questions of security and tourism. With an objective of pooling and efficiency, it is preferable to first use the human and financial resources that each partner has at his disposal. Collective projects developed in response to problems encountered can be the object of specific co-financing.

Police, citizens, professionals: indissociable partners The police departments, whether attached directly to the city or to another level of governance (Region, State), play an essential role in the definition of priorities and security and tourism strategies, as well as in the implementation of measures that were agreed collectively. In certain much-visited urban tourist zones, the police are often the first point of contact for visitors, whom they can inform or accompany in case of a problem. It is important to make sure that the police units in the field are multicultural and multilingual, for this diversity is an important asset for welcoming tourists.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Local security and tourism policies must also include the citizens as full-fledged stakeholders in the information, construction and decision-making processes. Moreover, tourism can favour citizen participation: the action of volunteer residents can go a long way towards citizen participation in the daily management of tourism or large events. The security and tourism network must include professionals representing the local interests of the tourism industry, especially those sectors directly involved in welcoming tourists, such as hotels, bars and clubs, restaurants, etc. At the local level, it is fundamental to work with the community of shopkeepers and professional unions which, because they are on the front line in major tourist zones, have first-hand knowledge of the problems. Other stakeholders can be associated. Diplomatic representatives, embassies and consulates have a role in crisis management in the field and long-term monitoring of problems encountered by tourists. When there is such representation in the city, it must systematically be associated. Partnerships can also be developed with key mobility stakeholders such as public transport companies, airports, airlines and tour operators, in order to correctly understand flows in major tourist areas.

Responses ranging from prevention to repression by way of mediation and victim support The methods and tools available to local authorities for accompanying and implementing the concerted security and tourism strategy vary. A certain number of existing tools can be used and/or reclaimed; others call for specific engineering adapted to the situation. The responses of public authorities must take into account the necessary strategies to be applied in terms of repression, prevention, mediation and victim support. Responses must be balanced and integrated in a broader strategic perspective, in the framework of local partnerships. Partnerships can also be developed at the European level, especially in order to take tourists' mobility into account.

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To meet the challenges of security and tourism, cities must set up a support system for tourist victims and provide clear information and solutions so as to settle both the classic and exceptional problems linked to tourism, and this in spite of possible language difficulties. In their security and prevention strategy, cities can, in particular, inform tourists in a targeted way about a certain number of security points in order to prevent victimisation, alert them to the damaging effects of vandalism and nuisances, especially noise pollution, and make them aware of local rules and customs. Specific response protocols can be put in place concerning crisis management and police response as well as the normative regulation of activities that may be the source of nuisance or crime.

Local security and tourism audits: an essential tool Prior to any concerted security and tourism strategy, the city must carry out a local audit specifically targeting this issue. It means gathering the data from each of the partners and pinpointing the strengths and weaknesses of this partnership in order to set up the security and tourism strategy. The audit can thereby examine in particular security management in tourist areas, problems encountered and the existing stakeholders. For such an audit to truly reflect the situation on the ground and be useful, it is very important to involve local experts as well as, in the first place, local residents. It is judicious to use existing data but new criteria of scientific knowledge can also be established in order to consolidate the results of the audit and the ensuing recommendations. These audits must rely on specific data-gathering tools – which can take the form of visitor satisfaction surveys, victimisation surveys or questionnaires on the quality of life as perceived by the visitor – in order to detect a possible feeling of insecurity. In particular, data on crime against tourists and nuisances caused by tourists must be gathered systematically by the police. The collecting


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

criteria must integrate the visitor's situation so as to allow for the compilation of statistics and thereby better calibrate strategic decisions regarding security and tourism. It is necessary that the data be exploited in full transparency. Within the partnership, common tools for training and sharing of essential data must be developed. Useful technologies for local security and tourism policy, such as video surveillance, smartphone applications, and tools for gathering and exploiting data must be implemented in a clear, ethical framework. In order to produce common knowledge, an interesting approach consists of developing exploratory walks with residents as well as with tourism professionals. The exploratory walk allows for collecting, together in the field, useful information for improving security strategies such as, for example, the need for better information or signposting in public areas.

Support tools for tourist victims Tourists require adapted assistance and care, whether they are victims or perpetrators of an offence or crime. However this does not necessarily entail the creation of dedicated services. The treatment of tourists must be the same as that of other citizens, but the particular situation of their mobility also has to be taken into account. The management of the complaint system and comments and the responses that are given to the public are important. Indeed, the way a tourist victim is received and listened to can be decisive in his choice to return to the city or not and, more importantly perhaps, in what he will say around him and on social networks. The activities of the police survey, which aims at collecting proof of an offence, must be supplemented with victim support strategies, which can, moreover, have a positive impact on the legal repercussions. All the stakeholders mobilised on the issues of security and the quality of life of citizens, whether residents or visitors, must be made aware of the creation and dissemination of prevention campaigns.

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The know-how of the organisations working in victim support can be used to develop public services that provide support for tourists who are victims of crimes. It is fundamental to guarantee assistance to victims even after their return to their home country. In this sense, the partnership with embassies and consulates present in the city or region allows for providing advice and prevention materials, as well as guaranteeing rapid procedures for tourist victims (for example, as concerns identity papers).

Training the stakeholders Training front line stakeholders – police, hoteliers, shopkeepers, taxi drivers, guides – is important, for they can play their role in heightening tourists' awareness, or even take charge of them in case of incident.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Perspectives

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

The wealth of knowledge and know-how collected throughout the Security & Tourism project and exchanges that took place during the Paris conference on 25 June 2015 must lead Efus to continue its work with cities as well as with professionals from the tourism sector. A certain number of areas of work need to be examined further. Over the past few years, numerous partnerships have been built up between the private sector and local authorities, including on security issues. The mutual benefits no longer need to be demonstrated: over time, this cooperation contributes to local development by fostering long term relations between local authorities and professionals. However, it must be strengthened with the goal of developing infrastructures and services to tourists, integrating security problems in order to further the economic, social and cultural success of a tourist destination. The development of more systematic exchanges between cities and the economic stakeholders of tourism, a joint definition of security strategies, the identification of synergies and possible areas of cooperation must be mutual priorities. Local audits and exchanges with the cities' partners have underscored the need to deepen knowledge, notably figures, on the issue of tourism and security. This work must be carried out as much for the data of the police and other stakeholders who work for security as for the victimisation and perception surveys. Similarly, raising awareness and training tourism stakeholders on the stakes of prevention must be systematic while avoiding becoming too restrictive. Better measuring the degree of residents' involvement in this economic activity is an asset for the development of sustainable strategies that take into account the coexistence between the local population and visitors. A more refined analysis of the degrees of economic involvement, in order to study how the local population integrate or participate directly or indirectly in tourism in their city, would enable the authorities to work on successful strategies favouring better coexistence.

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City profiles >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> The cities that took part in the Security & Tourism project were different in many ways, with various types of tourism and different governance and management processes affecting both the security and the tourism policies. The profiles presented here give an insight into the 'security and tourism' situation of each of the project's partners, which reflect, at least partially, the diversity of European cities.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


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Alba Alba is located in the Piedmont region of northern Italy. The main tourism season is autumn, when the city hosts the annual Alba International White Truffle Fair. In 2013, Alba received an Eden European Destination of Excellence award in the 'accessible tourism' category. Population: 30,000 Annual number of tourists: Approx. 640,000

* All the figures included in the City Profiles were provided by the cities themselves.


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Types of tourism Luxury tourism, gastronomy and oenotourism Large events

Challenges A steadily growing number of tourists  Preparing for the massive influx of tourists during the annual Truffle Fair  Analysing comparatively the monthly number and types of crime between the festival months (September / October) and the rest of the year.

Management of tourism A public/private organisation, the Ente Turismo Alba Bra Langhe Roero, is in charge of managing and promoting tourism. It is composed of local municipalities, the Local Shopkeepers' Association, and other members. The marketing is managed by the Langhe Monferrato Roero Consortium and other smaller tour operators. The quality of hospitality and tourism-related business opportunities is a priority for Alba’s tourism policy.

Management of security The carabinieri and local police are in charge of security. Statistics concerning tourism are collected by the Piedmont Region, but the collection of data was interrupted in 2009-10 due to budget cuts. Alba has a CCTV system with 11 cameras, which is managed by the local carabinieri. For large events, a system of volunteering is put in place mainly for civil protection.

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Barcelona Barcelona is the administrative and economic capital of Catalonia. It is also an internationally famous tourist destination, endowed with a rich cultural and historical heritage, in particular eight UNESCO sites. Amongst its other assets: a pleasant climate, urban beaches and modern tourist infrastructures. Population: 1,620,000 Annual number of tourists: Approx. 27 million Number of overnight stays (2014): 17 million


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Types of tourism Large cultural, sports and economic events Cultural tourism Cruise boat tourism Business tourism

Challenges Ensuring the security of a very large number of tourists Preventing and fighting crime linked to tourism, especially pickpocketing Decentralising tourism from the city centre Managing coexistence between tourists and residents

Management of tourism Barcelona has good accessibility and connectivity. It is the largest port on the Mediterranean in terms of number of passengers (4th-largest in the world), with 2.4 million cruise passengers every year, and of merchandise. The airport registers some 35.2 million passengers every year, and trains (high-speed and international lines) approximately 3 million. As for urban public transport, it is used by 2.8 million visitors annually.

Management of security The city has its own police force, the Guardia Urbana (2,840 officers), a regional police, the Mossos d’Esquadra, and two national police forces, the Policia Nacional and Guardia Civil. As concerns citizen security, the city's mayor is the highest authority. The municipality of Barcelona has a special law and several structures of participation and coordination: the Junta Local de Seguridad (local security committee), the Consejo de Seguridad Urbana (urban security council), and the centre for operational coordination (CECOR), which, in particular, brings together all police stakeholders.

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Brasov Brasov is located in the central part of Romania, 166 kilometres north of Bucharest. Recently, with the help of EU structural funding, the municipality has been able to reinvent itself as one of the country's main tourist attractions. Population: 291,490 Annual number of tourists: Approx. 800,000 Number of overnight stays (2014): 1,078,297


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Types of tourism Winter sports and leisure tourism Cultural tourism

Challenges Raising awareness among tourists about the risk of theft and scams  Creating victim support services, in particular a victim support facility dedicated to tourists

 Promoting Brasov as a tourist destination with local residents  Calculating systematically the number of visitors in Brasov

Management of tourism The Brasov Metropolitan Area’s Strategy for Sustainable Development defines tourism as a contributing factor to sustainable development. This strategy provides a conceptual framework and a structural approach that can be applied to local business development and marketing. Furthermore, the objective of improving quality standards in tourism is included in the overall development plan for Brasov. At the municipal level, there is a tourism department within the Directorate for International Relations. Connections with tourism can also be found in the fact that the municipality is responsible for managing urban planning and the safety of citizens.

Management of security Brasov has an integrated system for the management of public order and security, which brings together the local police, the county police inspectorate, the Railway Station Police, the National Anticorruption Directorate, the gendarmerie, the fire brigade, and the Inspectorate for Emergency Situations. The Brasov city police are under the tutelage of the Brasov Local Council. Its main missions are to protect the fundamental rights and liberties of citizens, to protect private and public property, and to prevent crime. In 2010, Brasov created a new structure within the local police: the Tourist Police Department, with a staff of 27 officers. Its main mission is to maintain public order and ensure the safety of both citizens and tourists in the historic centre.

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Brussels The seat of some of the main European and other international institutions and the capital of Belgium, Brussels is a multifaceted city that attracts a great number of business visitors. It is also a historical centre with a rich heritage, which makes it an important leisure tourist destination. Population: 1,163,486* Annual number of tourists: Approx. 3.5 million Number of overnight stays (2014): 6,636,420

*All figures are for the Brussels-Capital region


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Types of tourism Professional tourism Leisure tourism

Challenges Theft prevention, mainly pickpocketing  Strengthening collaboration between the crime prevention and police services  Training police officers to welcome tourists (orientation and language skills) and improving victim support

 Developing public/private partnerships  Managing nuisances and incivilities during the tourist seasons, especially at night time, and improving cleanliness

Management of tourism In addition to tourist information offices, Brussels and its region have a dedicated agency, Visit Brussels, its mission being to broaden and boost the capital's image (link with the professionals of the sector, organisation and support for large events, communication). Visit Brussels has adopted an affinity-based marketing strategy aimed at targeting visitors not on geographical or demographic characteristics but on their shared interests.

Management of security Pickpocketing is by far the primary offence affecting tourists. To fight against this phenomenon, in addition to the division of territorial police that is in charge of security in the city centre, the police zone includes a specialised unit and has developed a joint, integrated 'Pickpocket' action plan. Coordination meetings take place regularly (in particular between the Brussels Hotel Association, the city's prevention service, BRAVVO, and the municipality of Ixelles). The Pickpocket plan takes up all the actions in the framework of the prevention chain (raising awareness of citizens, hoteliers and shopkeepers, pursuit of the theft-prevention 'Safe in the City' campaign, development of actions and new preventive materials intended for tourists, video clips, coordination with institutional partners as regards repression, etc.). An alcohol plan is being drafted.

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Munich Munich is the capital of Bavaria. The city is well known for its trade fairs and cultural/sports centres, but it is also recognised as a tourist destination. It is the 54th most-visited city in the world and the 19th most-visited in Europe. Population: 1.5 million Annual number of tourists: Approx.13 million Number of overnight stays (2014): 13,448,000


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Types of tourism Leisure tourism and shopping Large events Cultural tourism Health care tourism

Challenges Balancing the flow of tourists throughout the year  Improving the quality of service at the public tourist office and implementing a new marketing campaign

 Managing massive influxes of tourists for the two-week Oktoberfest, the largest beer festival in the world

 Developing an adequate methodology for analysing tourists’ perception of security, especially during mass events.

Management of tourism München Tourismus (Munich Tourism) is part of the Department of Labour and Economic Development of the City of Munich. Together with its partners from the private business sector – the Tourism Initiative Munich (Tourismusinitiative MünchenTIM e.V) – München Tourismus develops marketing and PR campaigns and products to promote tourism in the city and raise its profile on the international tourism market. The city's tourism strategy is determined by the Munich Tourism Commission, a joint board of the City Council and the local tourism industry.

Management of security The Munich Department of Public Order works in close coordination with the Munich police and other public security forces. It analyses the security situation and drafts responses together with the various stakeholders. As the competent authority for mass events, it ensures that prevention measures are taken in preparation of events and, during these events, that security is constantly evaluated in cooperation with the stakeholders.

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Rome Capital of Italy, Rome is one of the most important tourist destinations in the world and the third most-visited city of the European Union. Its historical and cultural heritage is exceptional. Population: 2,889,305 Annual number of tourists: Approx. 28 million Number of overnight stays (2013): 31,264,403

Types of tourism Cultural tourism Religious tourism


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Challenges Ensuring the safety of massive numbers of tourists Encouraging a more balanced distribution of tourists throughout the city  Developing more preventive measures on pickpocketing and other criminal/ minor offences

Growing other forms of tourism such as business and seaside tourism Developing safe nightlife

Management of tourism Rome is well connected by road, air, rail and sea. Fiumicino Airport is the principal arrival point in Italy with more than 32 million passengers in 2013. The port of Civitavecchia is Italy's main cruise port with more than 2.5 million passengers in 2013. The hotel sector is made up of 1,005 hotels and 5,238 assimilated structures for a total of 150,200 beds. Rome has an array of information tools for tourists, designed to provide a diversified response to multiple needs. In addition to online information and promotional material, a system for complaint management was created. To supplement this setup, strategic measures will be taken to improve the quality of the offer, develop new forms of tourism (business tourism, seashore) and expand the strategy to the whole region, especially so as to better spread the flows of tourists.

Management of security The value of the cultural heritage and the very high number of tourists require exceptional security measures, which are coordinated by the mayor's office. In Italy, security questions are, in large part, the remit of the State police, the carabinieri and agents of the Guardia di Finanza, amongst others. Rome Capitale has competence as concerns urban surveillance and has a municipal police force (Corpo di Polizia locale). The security issue is the object of a MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) to coordinate actions of the services of Rome Capitale, the Prefecture, the Province of Rome and the Lazio Region. Even though it is welcoming, the city suffers from a certain number of incivilities, i.e., behaviours that, without constituting veritable offences, nonetheless remain minor infractions. These consist of damage to the urban setting, such as graffiti or vandalism of which the perpetrators are also tourists, or misconduct such as noise pollution, harassment or aggressive attitudes. In the last few years, the mayor and all the services of Rome Capitale have implemented an important series of measures with the new Sistema Integrato Roma Sicura – SIRS (an integrated system meant to make Rome safer), the video surveillance network of cultural property, the creation of an operational unit at local police headquarters as well as the launching of an experimental project, Movida Sicura ('safe nightlife').

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Saint-Denis Located near Paris, Saint-Denis is the capital of the Seine-Saint-Denis département and the third-largest city in the Île de France region. It is one of nine municipalities making up the Plaine Commune urban community. The presence in Saint-Denis of the Stade de France, the country's largest stadium, which hosts major sports and entertainment events, and the Gothic basilica that is the necropolis of the kings of France have given the city international fame. Population: 110,000 Number of visitors to tourist sites: Approx. 270,000 Number of overnight stays (2013): 610,000

Types of tourism Cultural tourism Large events


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

Challenges The latent context of insecurity hampers tourist activities Improving the city's image and welcoming tourists by promoting historical sites Making residents aware of the importance of tourism for social development and the importance of security for the development of local tourism

Analysing crime that affects tourists Preventing and fighting prostitution, and collecting information on the links between prostitution and tourism

Management of tourism The city is carrying out considerable work to develop a more incisive tourism policy in order to enhance the richness of its local heritage and improve its image and the way it welcomes tourists. There is a tourist office in the city centre and an information point at the Stade de France, where a team of professionals advises and guides tourists, especially as concerns security (prevention and consciousness-raising) by seeking, amongst other things, to reassure visitors.

Management of security The city of Saint-Denis has become involved in a partnership with the State to serve a common objective of public order for the residents, and to fight against offences and, foremost, robbery with violence, which are the acts felt most sorely by the population. This city's commitment has resulted in a series of concrete actions:

Signing of the local security contract in 2000 and setting up the Local Security and Crime Prevention Council (CLSPD) in 2001

Opening of the House of Justice and Law in 2003 and the setting-up of four points of access to law in the neighbourhoods

Creation of a municipal police in 2004 SOS Victimes association on duty at the police station and the House of Justice In addition, the city is working to improve the quality of relations between the police and the population through a presence at neighbourhood meetings and participation in various local initiatives. It is also involved in prevention actions, mediation, prevention of reoffending and restorative justice measures aimed at juvenile offenders. In 2008, the municipality created a Public Peace Department, made up of municipal police, surveillance agents, environment guards and a Tranquillity Mission.

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References and further reading

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Efus resources Manifesto of Aubervilliers and Saint-Denis, Efus 2012  Guidance on Local Safety Audits, A compendium of International Practice, Efus 2008  GOAL: Preventing Violence in Sport, A Guidebook for Cities, Efus 2012  Safer Drinking Scenes, Alcohol, City and Nightlife, FFSU/Efus 2013

Research and studies  Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – 'Europe, the world's No 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe' [COM(2010) 352 final]  Tourist Safety and Security: Practical Measures for Destinations, UNWTO, (1996)  Amadeu Recasens, Eric Marlière, Escola de policia de Catalunya, Daphne Programme, et al. Violence between young people in nighttime leisure zones, a comparative European study. Brussels VUB Press (2007)  Carol Jones, Elaine Barclay and Rob Mawby, (Eds) The Problem of Pleasure, Leisure, Tourism and Crime, Routledge (2011)  École de guerre économique (2009). Rapport sur la compétitivité nocturne de Paris, rapport commandé par la mairie de Paris et la Chambre syndicale des cabarets artistiques (CSCAD).


Security and Tourism: concerted local policies

 Mansfield, Y., Pizam, A. (Eds.) (1996). Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues. Chichester, John Wiley&Sons.

Notes [1] Communication from the European Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of Regions Europe, the world’s no. 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe (COM (2010) (352 Final), European Commission, [2] World Tourism Organization (2015), UNWTO Annual Report 2014, UNWTO, Madrid [3] Europe, the world’s n. º1 tourist destination op. cit European Commission - IP/14/144 13/02/2014, Press release, February 2014, Tourism expected to grow again in 2014, led by strong domestic and European demand [4] Eurobarometer, Preferences of Europeans towards tourism, March 2015 [5] Chesney-Lind and Lind 1986; Mawby, Brunt and Hambly 1999; Michalko 2003; Stangeland 1998 [6] Mawby 2012 [7] Mekinc & Cvikl, 2013, 2014, Mansfeld & Pizam, 2006 [8] Davis et al. 1988; Milman and Pizam 1988; Ross 1992; Mawby 2007 [9] Mawby 2014 [10] Ibid [11] For example: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/ background/index_en.htm [12] See for example: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/ helping-the-uk-tourism-industry-to-grow [13] COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS Europe, the world's No 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=COM:2010:0352:FIN:EN:PDF [14] http://europa.eu/pol/justice/index_en.htm [15] Europe, the world’s no.1 tourist destination op. cit [16] Hall, Timothy & Duval, 2009

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[17] http://efus.eu/en/topics/people/victims/efus/286/ [18] Manifesto: http://efus.eu/files/2013/06/Manifeste-V-ang.pdf [19] http://www.cecops.org.uk/ [20]http://ajuntament.barcelona.cat/seguretatiprevencio/sites/default/files/ PDF/WELCOME_BCN_en.pdf [21] http://www.Brussels.be/artdet.cfm?id=6892&highlight=monsieur%2C Unesco [22] www.visitbrussels.be/qualitydestin [23] www.visitbrussels.be/qualityacademyat [24] GOAL: Preventing Violence in Sport, A Guidebook for Cities, Efus 2012 [25] www.safeinthecity [26] Safer Drinking Scenes, Alcohol, City and Nightlife, Efus 2013 [27] Guidance on Local Safety Audits, A compendium of International Practice, Efus 2008 [28] For further information, the survey is online at the following address: www.turismoroma.it [29] This section has been prepared by the Portuguese Association for Victim Support, APAV [30]: http://www.apav.pt/apav_v3/index.php/en/ [31] www.safeinthecity.be [32] European Commission ANNUAL TOURISM REPORT 2012 CROATIA: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/files/annual_reports/2013/ croatia_report_2012_en.pdf [33] http://efus.eu/fr/category/topics/responses/police/ [34] www.itas.ie

Photo credits Alba: Consorzio Turistico Langhe Monferrato e Roero Barcelona : Vladitto/iStock/Thinkstock - Ajuntament de Barcelona Brasov: Catalin Botescu – Local Police of Brasov Brussels: Antonio Ponte - Cyrus Pâques Munich: München Tourismus - Bayreuth2009 via Wikimedia Commons Rome: Andrea Cenni romaphotoshop.it – Efus Saint-Denis: Aiman Saad Ellaoui – Efus