Public Policies for Nightlife: Governance and Participation

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METHODOLOGY GUIDE Public Policies for Nightlife: Governance and Participation

The Nightlife Platform was created on 12 January 2017. It is a space for reflection and proposals that gathers local and national elected officials and practitioners that are interested in nightlife as well as professional organisations, universities, experts and citizens. It offers its partner members an interdisciplinary and expert approach in order to better understand what is at stake in nightlife and provide keys for analysis and strategy so that nightlife can become a genuine asset for local territories. Culture, tourism, security, public peace, transport, health, risk reduction, economy and development are some of the topics that the Platform, as a resource at the service of local and regional authorities, has worked on over the years. By pooling reflections and experiences, it brings together experts, professionals, elected officials, citizens and local stakeholders. It has a European dimension and as such is enriched by international experience. Each year, the Platform organises a conference in order to share its work and spark discussion: reviewing practices, developing a new paradigm and building together the resources that contribute to the implementation of effective and useful public policies for all local territories. The Nightlife Platform is coordinated by Culture Bar-Bars, the French National Federation of Cafés Culture.


The 2021 Guide for the Governance of Nightlife includes two new elements. The first one is the input from new European cities, i.e. Budapest, Mannheim, Rotterdam, Turin, Vilnius and Zurich. The second one is the topic of crisis management (in the form of practice sheets at the end of the guide) from the perspective of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis, which profoundly affected the management of nightlife, but also brought about innovations and questions about the public policies that should be implemented in the years to come.

The Nightlife Plateform is coordinated by


Contents.......................................................................................................................................................................................................3 1. Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................................................4 2. Mobilising stakeholders...............................................................................................................................................................5 3. Political and operational management: thinking globally, acting transversally......................................... 6 4. The organisation of the different bodies and their modus operandi................................................................... 8 The different bodies and their modus operandi............................................................................................................... 8 The process.............................................................................................................................................................................. 16 Stakeholder involvement...................................................................................................................................................... 21 5. Communication..............................................................................................................................................................................23 Priority issues........................................................................................................................................................................................28 Effectiveness of the process................................................................................................................................................28 Relevance of the process.....................................................................................................................................................28 Territorial adequacy...............................................................................................................................................................29 Secondary questions...........................................................................................................................................................................29 Internal and external coherence in the process............................................................................................................29 The systemic impact of the process.................................................................................................................................30 Efficiency of the process....................................................................................................................................................................30 Conditions of success and points of strength .........................................................................................................................30 Obstacles.................................................................................................................................................................................................30

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1. INTRODUCTION This guide was produced during discussions led by the Nightlife Platform. It is mostly based on the experiences of the cities of Bordeaux, Liège, Nantes and Paris, and on the work carried out by the European Forum for Urban Security with other European cities. It is aimed at elected officials and project leaders who are in charge of implementing a global nightlife policy at the local level: developing night-time leisure activities, dynamism and attractiveness of the territory; promotion of nightlife; regulation of festive practices and behaviours; prevention of risky behaviours as well as harmful and detrimental acts, etc. The objective of this guide is to foster the mobilisation of stakeholders in the design, implementation and evaluation of local nightlife policies. Note: this second edition includes examples of other local authorities in various EU Member States, featuring practices and experiences from different urban contexts and relevant governance methods, actors and tools.

Nightplatform Members (Seminar in Bordeaux - 2018 ; Remote meeting in 2021)


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STAKEHOLDERS Municipality: • Relevant elected local officials • Relevant directorates and departments • District town halls


Administrative offices (or any other institution/body representing the State with jurisdiction over a territory that includes several municipalities): • The prefect (in France) • Relevant services Law Enforcement: • Local and national police • Civil guard Neighbouring towns, the city, the Community of Municipalities Other institutions: governing bodies of the different territorial levels (such as the departmental council or the Regions, in France), as well as every supramunicipal agency having jurisdiction in domains that are linked to nightlife governance (for example, the Regional Health Agency, the Fire brigade, etc.) the Ombudsman or Public Defender of Rights, etc.

Trade organisations

The trade organisations of nightlife venues and evening event organisers, worker unions, business organisations, new economy stakeholders, etc.

Specialist operators and organisations

Transport companies; urban planners; hospitals; authors, musicians and publishing society(ies) (such as SACEM in France or SGAE in Spain), French and/or European Urban Security Forums; other European and international networks, etc.

Civil society stakeholders (NGOs)

• NGOs that work in the field of prevention, mediation and awareness. • Cultural associations and collectives; resident associations; healthcare, risk reduction and prevention and mediation associations; anti-discrimination associations; feminist associations; charities (nighttime ‘patrols’), student associations; transport-user associations etc.


Inhabitants, commuters, neighbourhood committees, citizen committees, locals’ representatives, etc.

Nightlife figures

Artists, managers of well-known venues, festival organisers, etc.


Researchers, scientific committees, think tanks.


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3. POLITICAL AND OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT: THINK GLOBALLY, ACT TRANSVERSALLY POLITICAL MANAGEMENT Who has the right to make a global political decision involving numerous sector-specific officials? We have observed 3 different models: • The Mayor: Liège, Turin. • A specifically-dedicated municipal deputy or councillor; Nantes, Paris, Bordeaux, Vilnius. • Co-management between several deputies commissioned by the Mayor: Bordeaux (from 2018 to 2020). For district Mayors: in Paris, nomination of one elected official as Night Mayor. Since 2020, Bordeaux has a municipal councillor in charge of Nightlife, appointed as such by Mayor Pierre Hurmic. Several European cities have a Night Mayor. These individuals are not elected officials, but rather people from outside of the municipality, generally stakeholders in nightlife culture who are elected or appointed by the Mayor and officially recognized in their function, sometimes having also financial resources like in London, Lausanne, Mannheim, Tbilisi, or the main Dutch cities (like Amsterdam and Rotterdam). Other cities use various iterations of this model. This is the case in Zurich, where the area of nightlife is politically managed by the Council of the Night Mayor (not an elected official but a group of six nightlife campaigners from different professional backgrounds). It is thus more a matter of the convergence of different stakeholders’ interests and needs who agree on particular points rather than a long-term strategy with a cross-cutting approach. Furthermore, this model enables an important lobbying approach for active groups and networks.


In the 7th district of BUDAPEST, the political leadership is performed by three deputy mayors who are in charge of the Security / Tranquillity and Urban Development portfolios. They work in close cooperation with: police experts and representatives; local surveillance bodies (a specifically Hungarian example, the Rendészeti Igazgatóság); tourism and urban development experts; as well as with civil society representatives, nightlife-related business owners and the inhabitants of the district.

7th district of Budapest (nightview)

In VILNIUS, the nightlife strategy is led by an elected municipal councillor who works in collaboration a working group called Nighttime Economy Commission and with an independent NGO called ‘Vilnius Night Alliance’(1), which represents venues, organisers and artists.


(1) Official website for Vilnius Night Alliance:

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In TURIN, the municipality is still ironing out its local nightlife strategy. The Mayor (who has chosen to be in charge of some specific areas such as crime prevention and security) manages nightlife matters on a case by case basis with the help of the Deputy Mayor for innovation and other deputies – such as those in charge of youth or industry. In MANNHEIM, the Night Mayor, the first in Germany, is responsible for all matters relating to nightlife and therefore acts as a point of contact. After the first nomination, this position has been filled through a classic application process rather than through a public vote. The position is under the jurisdiction of NEXT Mannheim, a body that is under the supervision of the department for urban cultural development. This body is entirely financed by the city of Mannheim and the Mayor is president of its executive board. This system allows for demands to be rapidly dealt with by the relevant municipal or police departments. OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT A project manager from a relevant department can be tasked with: 1. Coordinating the different bodies in charge of implementing the nightlife policy: • Organising plenary assemblies and moderating working groups (in order to maintain overall consistency and supervise general matters such as schedules, follow-up on decisions, etc., are shared across the board); • Coordinating between the different directorates, the relevant municipal departments, the working groups and all the city’s external partners; • Managing internal communication: mailing lists, newsletters, digital library, etc. 2. Ensuring the implementation of an action plan for nightlife: • Identifying and mobilising the necessary resources to implement actions; • Supervising and evaluating all of the actions implemented by the city and its partners; • Facilitating the exchange of practices with other cities; • Participating in the promotion of the city’s nightlife policy.

Credit Ville de Paris

In PARIS, NANTES and BORDEAUX, the project leader or coordinator works with nightlife advisers in each relevant municipal administration, thus ensuring synergies and cooperation across the board. In other cities, coordination and transverse work are less structured and can sometimes be difficult, but they still remain key for an efficient implementation of the strategy.

Meeting with nightlife deputy Frédéric Hocquard, City of Paris, and residents associations

In BORDEAUX, a project team meets every six weeks for an operational follow-up. Its members lead and moderate the thematic commissions and technical meetings.



‘Bordeaux, la Nuit’ is coordinated by the Local Security and Crime Prevention Council (LSCPC) (department of social urban development), historically in charge of the management of nightlife party culture (since 2007) and supervised by the Deputy Director of LSCPC and the General Director of Solidarity and Citizenship. The General Director of Services intervenes in structural projects (Observatoire de la Nuit for the monitoring and evaluation of different data in the available public spaces). The legitimacy of the project leader and of the nightlife correspondents is essential; it can be enacted with an engagement letter from the General Director of Services. In BORDEAUX, the project team has an official mandate. The project team and the coordinator are thus identified as such within their directorate and by all the municipal services.

Summer presentation of «Bord’Oasis», a water bar concept; with Cyrille Jaber, Deputy in charge of Nightlife, and Amine Smihi, Deputy in charge of Public Order, Crime Prevention and Security, City of Bordeaux. With teams of Hangover Café, Tendances Alternatives Festives, Avenir Santé, Bordeaux Métropole Médiation

In NANTES, within the directorate general Citizenship and Inclusive Territories, and under the authority of the Deputy General Director, the City at Night project manager is tasked with implementing all the planned actions and to ensure that the Nantes at Night public policy is carried out in a cross-cutting manner across the board. A Technical Committee was created to precisely ensure that the different directorates actually implement the actions across the board. It gathers all the relevant directorates: Democracy and Strategy, Public Tranquillity, Public Health, Culture, Community Life and Youth, Regulations and Public Space Management, Transport, Neighbourhood Teams, Social Inclusion, etc.

Gildas Salaün, Deputy in charge of Trade and Nightlife, Thibaut Guiné, city councillor for local contracts, 15mincity and last kilometer logistic, and Emeline Meimoun, Nightlife project manager, in front of the nighstation in «Parc des Chantiers - Ile de Nantes», City of Nantes

In LIÈGE, the service leading the city’s crime prevention plan was chosen to lead the project. This department is under the direct authority of the mayor (Bourgmestre). It has a long experience of intersectoral consultation on various themes. Its main areas of work are crime prevention, the reduction of public nuisance and social cohesion. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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Liège’s Night Council is intended to be multisectoral. Indeed, it gathers local elected officials and representatives from the nightlife scene and police, as well as other concerned parties. In MANNHEIM, the stakeholders involved in the city’s nightlife strategy are mainly: the police, associations working on harm reduction and the prevention of discrimination, resident organisations, mediation services, cultural stakeholders and transport companies. They are involved in each stage of the implementation of an action (conception, decision and implementation). The person responsible for the operational coordination is the Director of the city’s Department of Urban Cultural Development. In ROTTERDAM, the range of stakeholders involved in the nightlife policy is relatively large. Besides the local elected officials who are responsible for nightlife, these are nightlife venue trade bodies, professional nightlife event organisers, resident associations, cultural stakeholders, tourism stakeholders, transport companies and the local police, as well as nightlife customers themselves. Of course, this group of key stakeholders also includes justice representatives, associations who act against discrimination, or even, in a less direct way, researchers who work on nightlife. Operational management is mainly the responsibility of the city’s department of security. Coordination with other departments in the city is a key issue. In BUDAPEST’s 7th district, operational coordination is ensured by the relevant district town hall in collaboration with representatives of key stakeholders, such as the police, the Local Surveillance Body both for the whole city and for the 7th district, and the municipal Civil Guard. In order for the domain of nightlife to be properly assimilated within the organisation/body/administration, it is sometimes necessary to dedicate time and support. It’s worth taking the time to present the project to the city’s different departments, or even on an individual basis, as well as to present progress reports at executive committee meetings. This allows for the different municipal departments to grasp the scope of the project and their role as contributors, actors or facilitators. The project should be presented and explained at every opportunity, i.e. through the internal magazine, at interdepartmental meetings, at seminars, or conferences attended by elected officials. If the nightlife strategy is treated as a project, then a project method, framework and reporting techniques can be used. For example, a progress report is sent to the select committee every three months and the minutes from project team meetings are communicated to the Director General of Services. It is sometimes difficult to mobilise the departments for initiatives that are not led by ‘their’ elected official. In order for the departments to appropriate the subject matter, it is important to bear in mind a ‘win-win’ form of cooperation. For example, the fact that working in a network allows for collecting information that can be of interest to certain departments and should therefore be shared with them.

4. THE PROCESS AND MODERATION OF GOVERNANCE BODIES THE GOVERNANCE BODIES AND THEIR MODUS OPERANDI The different bodies that take part in the implementation of a nightlife strategy in a city can greatly vary, depending on each city’s particular context, problems and resources. In this section we firstly present the bodies which are obviously involved, as well as other groups which complement and support the nightlife policy and whose participation vary from city to city. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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– CENTRAL BODIES – • Night Councils Night Councils exist in some form or another in most cities that have developed nightlife strategies, such as Bordeaux, Liège, Nantes and Paris. They gather all the stakeholders involved in nightlife. We call ‘night councils’ (although the precise title may vary) all the bodies that gather the relevant actors for consultation or concertation in the decision making-process. These councils can take many forms, from a limited council composed of representatives from different sectors (Liège) to an open network which can assemble hundreds of people (Paris and Bordeaux). Example : Example : Example :

document explaining the modus operandi of the Paris Night Council the different workshops of the Nantes Night Council: night-time mobility, Luciole, vulnerable groups, night-time mediation different Bordeaux la Nuit committees.

• Plenary Assembly The plenary assembly gathers all the members of the Night Council. Meetings are held once or twice a year with the aim of reporting on the progress of the actions and discussing development prospects or a particular theme. reporting on Paris’ plenary assemblies Nantes’s Night Council’s website

Credit Ville de Paris

Exemple : Exemple :

Plenary session of the Paris Nightlife Council (2019 and 2021)

• STEERING COMMITTEE A steering committee (with less members than a plenary assembly) can aim to approve and check the implementation of plans proposed by working groups or initiated by City Hall, to take into account the cross-cutting aspects of the different actions, to evaluate the Council’s work, to organise the exchange of practices with other French and European cities, etc. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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In PARIS, a steering committee was established from the start in order to greenlight the action plan: local elected officials, the Police prefecture, the Paris prefecture, representatives of the elected officials in charge of nightlife in the different district town halls (mairies d’arrondissement). The steering committee doesn’t meet anymore, given that political negotiation is led bilaterally. ‘BORDEAUX, la nuit ’ is based on a project process; certain issues that require a cross-cutting approach are handled by the General Director of Services. A select committee ensures the political and technical co-management as well as the cross-cutting aspect of the project. It is composed of relevant elected officials and general directors, as well as the project team. In October 2020, an elected officials’ seminar, in the presence of the mayor, presented the audit, the various topics (security, economy, health, vulnerability, transport, ecology, etc.), and the governance and priorities for the months to come. The ecological approach, in a broad sense, is at the heart of the initial orientations as well as the impact of the pandemic on the nightlife sector.

Credit Ville de Nantes

In NANTES, governance is carried out through: • A policy committee composed of about ten elected officials, which defines the ‘Ville la nuit’ public policy and meets before every Night Council plenary meeting. • A ‘Ville la nuit’ technical committee, which ensures that the project management and action implementation are done in a cross-cutting manner. It meets prior to the Night Council. • A project group gathering the different directorates that are directly involved in implementing the action plan, which meets several times a year. • Thematic working groups that gather the relevant partners and work on specific, concrete domains (i.e. night-time mediation, exceptional nights, etc.) • A project leader who ensures the overall management of the mission, compliance with the work schedule and the implementation of decisions by the technical and political committees. • One officer acting as correspondent in each directorate, tasked with implementing their own actions and and linking between their policy domain and the nightlife policy.

Nightlife council with Johanna Roland, City of Nantes’ Mayor

• Thematic working groups They gather relevant partners who work on concrete domains. For example, the Parisian Night Council has seven thematic working groups: • New nightlife spaces in Paris. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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• • • • • •

Prevention of risky behaviour. Nightlife and discrimination. Night transport. Public peace. Businesses and work at night. Information on and promotion of nightlife.

These groups’ missions are to: • Share a diagnosis on their domain of activity. • Determine common objectives. • Propose plans to City Hall. • Support the implementation of the selected actions and take part in their evaluation. These objectives and actions can be outlined in fact sheets. All the fact sheets together constitute the action plan for nightlife. Each group can be co-led by the nightlife project leader and the people representing the relevant municipal directorates. The groups are invited to meet when needed.

Credit Vanina Hallab

In BORDEAUX, four thematic committees were set up as soon as the Night Council was established in order to operationalise the following domains: • Nightlife – health and public peace. • Planning – transport and inhabitants. • Culture and Leisure. • Night-time Economy.

Bordeaux la Nuit meets with the municipal teams in charge of street lighting, cleanliness, and night-time incivilities, and with the elected officials in charge of cleanliness (Mr Papadato) and nightlife (Cyrille Jaber)

Two more thematic committees have been planned since 2020: Night Ecology and Communication. In January 2021, ‘Bordeaux, la nuit ’ started working on the creation of a Night Observatory. This tool will measure, cross-examine and analyse data. It will also include mappings and qualitative data gathered through night-time exploratory walks. The decision to


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establish such an observatory was taken after consultation with the different departments, the elected officials and the partners of ‘Bordeaux, la nuit ’. Featuring thematic data, the observatory will be a valuable tool for all the partners and for decision-making and management. It will contribute to tailoring the responses and nightlife strategy to the reality on the ground. In NANTES, the Night Council has an annual work programme that is established according to the evaluation of nightlife and discussed in a plenary session. There are two ways to participate: • Through the two Night Council annual plenaries, whose objectives are to debate in-depth issues, to report on the local authority actions, and to share and showcase projects and initiatives carried out by the network’s actors. • Throughout the year through working groups, workshops or practices. In LIÈGE, there are two committees that work on the one hand on crime prevention and security and on the other on commercial dynamics. They also work within thematic workshops on specific issues. These workshops are established according to the priorities set by the Night Council plenary assembly. The Night Council follows up on a previous project in the central district of Le Carré, a nightlife hotspot, which created synergies that allow for both partying and public peace.

Credit Ville de Liège

The priority topics of the Night Council are the following: • Work on other festive neighbourhoods. • Noise pollution. • Communication.

The «Un carré qui tourne Rond» project paved the way for the creation of the Liège Nightlife Council

In MANNHEIM, work on different priority topics is organised in thematic round tables with the relevant stakeholders.


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Credit City of Zurich

In ZURICH, several municipal bodies are active and co-produce the nightlife strategy. The main stakeholders are: the Zurich Commission for Bars and Clubs, the City Hall Night Council (not an elected official but a group of six nightlife campaigners coming from various professional backgrounds), the Safer-Clubbing initiative (which promotes safer party venues), several risk-reduction organisations (mobile Drug Checking,, the municipal police, as well as bodies involved in security. A transverse Working Group helps the local government in making decisions with regards to nightlife policy (advisory role).

A district in Zurich, nightview

In VILNIUS, the decisions are discussed with ‘Vilnius Night Alliance’, which is a network of cultural, economic and social stakeholders in the Lithuanian capital. This body does not take political decisions. However, as a major stakeholder in nightlife, the ‘Vilnius Night Alliance’ contributes to the drafting of the city’s nightlife strategy.

– COMPLEMENTARY INSTITUTIONAL BODIES – • Action groups Action groups support City Hall in the implementation of certain actions. They are not permanent; their duration depends on the time it takes for the relevant measures to be implemented. The people invited to participate in action groups are chosen by City Hall based on their skills and personal expertise. These groups aim to produce operational solutions and do not necessarily reflect the Night Council in its plenary form. Thus for BORDEAUX, specific groups have been set up to work on two districts undergoing urban transformation. These groups have paved the way for a ‘mediation-concertation’ approach. Since 2016, two experiments have been led by the Directorate of Social Urban Development, the Directorate General Cultural Affairs and the district town halls to promote high-quality nightlife and to reconcile nightlife and tranquillity: a ‘coordinated time-table’ with night-time operators and the ‘un jour, une nuit ’ (‘one day, on night’) operation (see the practice sheets produced together with the European Forum for Urban Security: Un jour, une Nuit at Bassins à Flot and the coordinated time-table.) GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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Credit Ville de Bordeaux

The philosophy of intervention is based on the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, notably article 27 which guarantees ‘the right to rest’ and article 24 which guarantees citizens’ freedom to participate in cultural activities. The idea is for the city to work with cultural actors and citizens in order to, on the one hand protect the “freedom to sleep” and on the other ensure cultural actors can operate. These two rights are, effectively, contradictory, but can be reconciled. In BORDEAUX, another action group was set up internally in 2021 in order to identify available public spaces for event planning.

In PARIS, action groups were involved on a case by case basis to draft the Paris Nightlife Manifesto (Manifeste parisien de la vie nocturne) and a practical guide for nightlife professionals, as well as to build an alliance between the Tourism Office, the City’s Directorate of Communication and nightlife professionals, and to reflect on the ‘metropolisation’ of the nightlife offer, etc. In LIÈGE, working groups were at first focused on two nightlife areas (le Carré and rue Roture). They contacted several types of actors (residents, traders, landlords). Furthermore, in order to enhance cooperation and the relationship with the partners, two mediators were named (one representing the City and the other the nightlife sector). In TURIN, a round table led by the Deputy Mayor is organised each time a nightlife problem or conflict arises. This round table gathers the following actors: resident committees (gathering representatives of the relevant areas), the committee of nightlife businesses, and the city’s official authorities (mayor and relevant assessors). Through this round table, the committees can voice their concerns, their views and their demands. It is not a decision-making body but rather a forum for dialogue and negotiation where demands and needs are expressed. • Local consultation committees Local consultation committees gather, under the aegis of City Hall (or district town halls), local residents, nightlife establishments and the police precinct. In some neighbourhoods, they contribute to defining how nightlife should function. In general, their objective is to reduce nuisance linked to nightlife such as noise, cleanliness, incivilities, etc.


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These committees can implement solutions such as: • A charter on the proper use of streets. • Awareness, training, prevention, mediation and enforcement of actions. • Systems for measuring the level of noise. • Sound-proofing equipment. • Coordination of the reports sent by local residents • etc. Example: a nightlife monitoring system is set up in Bordeaux. It reports on dysfunctional establishments. This technical meeting gathers State, city and metropolis services as well as mediation. Members exchange information and bring their expertise in order to design a shared response. Such responses are balanced and operational, ranging from mediation to summons. Such meetings allow for exchanging views and actions according to the problem at hand (noise nuisance, management of a public space, regulatory aspects). In ZURICH, in order to involve other actors such as local residents, the city organises round tables in the different neighbourhoods, which are moderated by professionals. The needs expressed can thus be directly dealt with by the decision makers. In TURIN, local residents have neighbourhood or area committees as well as a neighbourhood consultative committee that communicates the demands or reactions expressed in committees to the municipal officers in charge of managing the nightlife policy.

• Night Owl Committee In order for night revellers to have a voice in the Night Council, the City of Paris established a ‘Night Owl Committee’ on 3 November 2016. The ‘night owls’ are customers of nightlife establishments such as bars, concert halls, night clubs, night-time exhibitions, sports and other public services that are open in the evening (gyms, swimming pools, libraries, leisure centres, etc.). This Committee gathers 15 women and 15 men selected at random. It has three objectives: • To initiate and advocate projects with the Paris City Hall in order to improve Parisian nightlife. • To support the Paris City Hall’s actions in order to achieve greater impact. • To voice the concerns of nightlife users and give their opinion on nightlife public policies either through formal mechanisms or by convening the Night Council in order to broaden the scope and improve the efficiency of the said policies. Members of the committee meet in plenary sessions every two or three months and work in teams on specific themes or projects. In practice, they tend to work on projects they initiate since the Paris action plan on nightlife was adopted before this committee was established.

In BORDEAUX, Bordeaux, la Nuit set up a fifth thematic committee titled ‘Nightlife Users’. Dialogue with local residents and their participation in the different bodies of Bordeaux la Nuit is a key priority. Their involvement will enrich debates, apart from the partners’ contributions.


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Credit Ville de Bordeaux

This committee works on ‘nightlife users’, a term that implies that people can either be neighbours, or the beneficiaries of the nightlife offer, or actors in the cultural and social life, or a night-time worker, or a user of night-time transport. Without downplaying the problems felt by inhabitants who live near nightlife venues, they do not necessarily reflect the views of all inhabitants. This approach is based on an audit and the presentation of the work carried out to residents of Bordeaux (nightlife users, workers, citizen councillors, members of permanent neighbourhood committees). Workshops were then organised on issues such as night-time crime prevention, the use of the night, and security. This work has been interrupted because of the Covid crisis.

In MANNHEIM, the participation of the relevant actors is organised through thematic round tables, neighbourhood working groups and informal meetings. These three types of participation are considered equally important as regards the design of activities. Surveys on the needs of the nightlife scene are regularly carried out, including during the Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the Night Mayor is in permanent contact with the stakeholders via different communication channels and can pick up on and deal with requests, needs or criticisms quickly and directly. The nightlife strategy is thus based on the principles that problems evolve and solutions must be adapted. It is not set in stone and remains flexible to problems which may arise.


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Credit Study in Torino

TURIN is still in the process of drafting its global nightlife strategy. For now, the City intervenes according to concerns, conflicts or problems that may arise. For example, if there are complaints about nuisance in a specific neighbourhood, the Mayor of Turin issues a decree to solve the problem, ordering the closing at specific times of the relevant local businesses. In this case, the local police are in charge of enforcing the regulation.

Main square, City of Turin, nightview


Design of the action plan


Strategy Elaboration

Action Plan elaboration



• The implementation of the process Reality on the ground shows that any nightlife governance body/structure in a city must be set up with the involvement of the relevant political powers. It is important to identify the main actors and to specify the objectives, expectations and resources.


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There are several examples of such initial step: In PARIS, the process started with a series of bilateral meetings between: • the Deputy Mayor in charge of nightlife and the relevant sectoral deputies; • the nightlife policy programme manager and the night ‘correspondents’ in the relevant municipal directorates; • the elected official and/or the programme manager and external partners. Through these preliminary exchanges, the needs, resources, expectations, etc. were identified. In BORDEAUX, there were also preliminary meetings to present the general context, recall the work already carried out on the issue of nightlife management, and confirm the project’s objectives, scope and method. The objective was also for the municipal staff to appropriate the issue of nightlife, to better understand the realities of nightlife and thus to focus the conversation on conflicts linked to festive nightlife. In LIÈGE, the establishment of the Night Council was based on an existing project titled Un carré qui tourne rond (note from the translator: this is a reference to a project carried out in the Le Carré central district of the city). The partnership established in one specific neighbourhood was broadened in order to include other areas and other partners. Work could thus start on a basis that everybody knew and appreciated. In the 7th district of BUDAPEST, a working group on the governance of nightlife was set up, gathering the various nightlife stakeholders: local elected officials, police, Local Surveillance Body, owners/managers of nightlife venues, representatives of local residents, experts in tourism and in urban planning. This working group was established in November 2019. Its objective was to co-produce rules on the governance of nightlife, which were approved through a vote in June 2020. This type of body is a prelude to the establishment of a Night Council or other type of permanent body dedicated to nightlife governance. • The diagnosis The diagnosis is an essential step in the implementation of a nightlife strategy. Knowing and understanding the local situation is key in order to know how to act. A successful diagnosis should shed light on the city’s situation from different angles: context, demography, economy, how citizens perceive things, risk and protection factors, resources, stakeholders, etc. Establishing a nightlife diagnosis can consist of: • collecting the data held by the municipal departments and the partners, which requires a lot of dedication; • commissioning surveys in order to complete the set of data. Night-time exploratory walks involving different stakeholders are a good way to arrive at a diagnosis that is shared at a micro-local level. These walks also contribute to creating a common culture.

In PARIS, a first series of surveys was commissioned on the occasion of the 2010 Summit on Nightlife (‘états généraux de la nuit ’). This preliminary diagnosis was then complemented through bilateral meetings and exchanges in the thematic workshops. A survey was commissioned in 2015 on night-time polarities in Paris. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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Credit Vanina Hallab

In BORDEAUX, a Transmedia Anthropological Diagnosis (TAD) was designed and carried out in 2017 by David Mourgues, an anthropologist and communications specialist. This support document can be used to assess the transverse approach, define the municipal vision about nightlife, and to continue the implementation of the Bordeaux, la Nuit project. The document summarizes the method, observations, reflections and analysis. Nine themes, including powerful and innovative recommendations, are included in the TAD. Some 50 partners and heads of networks were consulted. The document was presented in a select committee with the Mayor in attendance, and then to all the local elected officials, the general directors and the department directors. It was presented to the partners when the Night Council was established, in 2018. This document has been praised by the partners, both for its content and its form. It is available to the general public at the following web address:

Observation on nightlife mobility with nightlife deputy Cyrille Jaber

Credit Ville de Nantes

NANTES chose to audit the local nightlife before establishing the Night Council. With the help of a design agency, the City of Nantes set up a dialogue body that was open to all interested residents of Nantes: associations working on the quality of life, economic players, citizens, employees, health and care associations, etc. This work enabled to map out local nightlife and to select the themes that the Night Council should tackle. It was also an occasion for the different stakeholders to get to know each other. The diagnosis was completed by surveys by the urban planning agency for Nantes and its surrounding area (AURAN according to the French acronym): a survey of night-time, a complementary diagnosis and a study on night-time mobility.

Hangar à Bananes and Anneaux de Buren, nightview, City of Nantes


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In LIÈGE, the establishment of a Night Council was based on the information held by the various communal departments (police, complaints to the Mayor). Reaching a precise diagnosis is now a priority action.

Credit Daniel Lucak

In MANNHEIM, the audit phase allowed to clarify the issues and demands of the nightlife stakeholders through participatory schemes as mentioned above, or through personal observation or other sources.

Banks of the River Rhine, Mannheim, nightview

• Strategy development The city must position itself as representing the public interest. It must design a global political vision and anticipate the future of its local nightlife. The scope of the project is determined according to these parameters. The city must then first define a strategy on which it can mobilise its partners. PARIS promotes a fair balance between the various ways night is ‘used’, the attractiveness and diversity of Parisian nights, and accessibility for all. This vision has four axes: development, promotion, regulation and participation. This strategy was formalised with the participation of the relevant stakeholders in the Paris manifesto on nightlife. BORDEAUX has traditionally promoted policies based on balance, dialogue and moderation. Acculturation and adherence to the project are based on balanced work axes. Today, the guiding principle is summarised by the concept of ‘peaceful nights’, which speaks about the necessary sharing of the night. NANTES also promotes the balance between the city that sleeps, the city that plays, and the city that works, but also the ‘invisible’ city populated by vulnerable people. The challenge is to strengthen this strategy through consensus and to find the exact words so that everybody agrees on a text. This is a phase where words are important: sleep is more than a ‘right’, it’s a ‘need’, etc. It is necessary to explain to the partners to what extent they can have an influence, and who decides in the end. In practice, depending on the subject matter and the partners, one can follow an approach based on dialogue, co-conception, co-construction, co-decision making, common implementation, or delegation, etc. In fact, the approach must be flexible and adapted to each particular project or action.


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In ZURICH, the objective is mainly the economic and cultural development of the night-time offer, with effect on other cross-cutting aspects. The stakeholders are focusing on priorities such as coexistence, the promotion of nightlife, the diversification of cultural activities and on prevention and risk reduction activities. There is no official nightlife strategy document because there is no single strategy. The most interesting or innovative practices are mentioned by politicians and networks when they talk to the public or the media.

In MANNHEIM, based on the demands collected through participatory formats, the Night Mayor drafts an initial concept about the issue at hand, in coordination with urban cultural development, and defines the various interest groups (stakeholders).

• Development of the action plan

The action plan is developed by thematic working groups on the basis of principles defined by the city during the first diagnosis.

In PARIS, draft versions of the action sheets were discussed in the working groups. Two meetings for each thematic working group, i.e. 2 meetings multiplied by 7 groups were necessary to design the action plan. The programme manager ensured global consistency based on the fact that some actions touched several themes, such as the training of professionals, awareness on the different uses, mobility, etc. In the end, 37 actions were validated by the steering committee.

In BORDEAUX, several recommendations resulted from the Bordeaux at night diagnosis, as well as from the project’s capacity to initiate new actions based on emerging phenomena, and as a response to the Covid crisis (the end of lockdown of Bordeaux at night). Thematic committees are in charge of design and implementation.

In NANTES, the action plan foresees 12 main actions resulting from the diagnosis of Nantes’ nightlife, which must be validated by Council members. Most of these actions are discussed with the Council. As such, as the action plan progresses, it is enriched with the stakeholders’ proposals.

In LIÈGE, an action plan drafted by a thematic working group has been submitted for approval to the Night Council. A number of targeted actions have already been carried out in the le Carré neighbourhood. Local regulations ban alcohol consumption in the streets and the sale of alcohol in retail shops on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and on the eve of bank holidays. In order to make these regulations known to the public, the prevention plan has included for the past 5 years meetings with college students in Liège. Other actions put in place were the resurfacing of cobbled streets, an increase in public waste bins, and sign posts warning against incivilities.


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In MANNHEIM, the initial concept that was elaborated in a previous phase is presented to the relevant people so that they can suggest improvements and comment on it. In the following step, the concept is reviewed and the suggestions and comments are incorporated.

In summary, there is a phase of ‘diagnosis and drafting of the strategy and action plan’ during which everything is done at the same time. The project manager has the duty to identify the elements that will inform the different methodological phases of the process.

Nightlife Platform Annual Meetings (Paris 2017 ; Berlin 2018)

• The implementation

This is the main task of the elected official and the project manager. The dynamic of development subsides. There is no longer a need to gather thematic working groups except for the follow-up of actions which are of course slower to apply than to develop. The implementation of actions is thus mainly done through action groups, and the follow-up by plenary assemblies.

In NANTES, in order to encourage citizen participation, a call for projects is issued each year (under the title ‘The times of the night’) with a budget of €50,000:


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Credit Ville de Nantes

It is open to all types of associations working in fields such as solidarity, equality, health, culture, sciences, as well as neighbourhood associations, traders, etc. Each year, a theme is chosen together with the Night Council, such as the prevention of risks when leaving sex work; the conditions in which homeless people are taken into care; the coexistence between women and men in public spaces; ‘living exceptional nights’, etc. The City of Paris has followed suit and issues since 2019 a yearly call for projects with roughly the same budget.

The City of Nantes has a transport network that operates at night

In LIÈGE, the implementation of actions in the le Carré neighbourhood required strong commitment from the different partners. Because there were numerous stakeholders involved, it was possible to act in a diversified, complementary and concerted manner. For example, the police adapted its modus operandi; City Hall invested heavily in urban planning (street lights, public waste bins, visual communication) and created a specific communal set of rules to respond to practical problems. Prevention actions were organised around nightlife venues and in secondary schools with a multidisciplinary approach.

• Evaluating the actions The evaluation of actions must be conducted on a permanent basis throughout the implementation phase and shared with all the relevant stakeholders. The data collected from the evaluation and the analysis of results must inform and contribute to improving the implementation of the strategy. In PARIS, a contractor designed a comprehensive evaluation plan in consultation with some of the Night Council partners. However, only resident associations are fully involved in the implementation of the operational evaluation plan. In BORDEAUX, actions such as the concerted schedule are reviewed in meetings with the operators where qualitative reporting and indicators are discussed. In NANTES, the Night Council will hold a session to evaluate the action plan in a participatory manner. In LIÈGE, actions are evaluated in the thematic workshops in order to re-design the practices if need be.


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STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT The partners take part in the process in different ways. We can distinguish between: - The ‘pilots’ who are in charge of implementing the actions, or some of them, featured in the programme; they are involved in several working groups and regularly attend meetings; they are in favour of the approach. - The ‘supporters’: they are not in charge of implementing actions, but they regularly attend the working group sessions they’re invited to and are in favour of the approach. - The ‘observers’ attend few meetings and do not have an opinion about the approach. - The ‘opponents’ are very involved in the meetings and are against the approach. They’re not necessarily against the principle behind the approach, but they systematically behave in a confrontational manner. - The ‘lobbyists’ are engaged with the process; they contribute and support the approach while promoting the interests of one group in particular.

Nightlife Council Members Cartography for the City of Paris 12

Leaders Supporters



Vivre Paris network

Prefect of the Region

nightlife professionals

8 Thematic associations


Associations as legal entities



Other neighbourhood associations

Police prefecture

trade unions


other state organisations



employer associations

other sectors administrative public institutions / universities

other CT


Express reservations






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Credit Vanina Hallab

BORDEAUX chose to implement the project internally and within the network (partners) through the Transmedia Anthropological Diagnosis, the Night Council and the committees, in order to conduct progressive reflection and to promote dialogue. In short, the working circle is progressively widening: internal (the City and Metropolis), the network (institutions, economic operators, nightlife operators, hospitals, associations), and external (the public at large). This progressive method allows for acculturation and overcoming obstacles. It takes time but it strengthens the project (allies and opinion leaders).

Bordeaux at Night on a night ‘patrol’ as part of the night-time prevention scheme ‘Inversons la tendance’

In MANNHEIM, discussions are organised after the actions are implemented in order to evaluate such implementation and determine whether some aspects or elements should be improved. Through this constant dialogue, projects can be adapted long after their first implementation. Most of the time, the evaluation is qualitative and done through surveys of the main stakeholders. Quantitative evaluations are rare. All the projects and concepts are directly based on the Mannheim 2030 model, and thus indirectly on the 17 Sustainable Development Objectives of the United Nations. This ensures consistency with the City of Mannheim’s strategic objectives.

Credit City of Rotterdam

In ROTTERDAM, in order to develop relevant strategies and interventions related to security at night, the partners exchange information and consult each other. Co-production and co-decision-making are at the heart of the process.

Bar terrace at night, City of Rotterdam


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5. COMMUNICATION Communication is key to foster the participation of stakeholders. In BORDEAUX, the Direction of Communications, which sits on the Bordeaux la Nuit select committee, has drafted a communication strategy. The Transmedia Anthropological Diagnosis suggested that Bordeaux la Nuit be an umbrella-brand grouping all the actions, initiatives and projects of the City related to nightlife. It is consistent with the City’s general communication strategy and visual identity (Bordeaux, ma ville). The challenges identified by the Direction of Communications are to be able to communicate about an issue that is both political and technical in an intellectual, aesthetic and participatory manner. The objectives are the following: • Manage the network (Night Council / committees) and inform about all the projects’ progress. • Propose a project identity and make it visible. • Inform residents about the municipal nightlife policy, showcase the practices, and ensure that the actions already in place are understood. • Get support from national and European networks (Nightlife Platform, European and French Forums for Urban Security, the project’s scientific committee). Tools:

Transverse communication: Don’t hesitate to give sectoral elected officials and/or officers from the operational directorates the information/news you have that may interest them. Such information is often very useful to them, and sharing it is a way of thanking them for their time and resources.

Tools: • Annual reports: draft an annual report as any association would do, to be discussed in plenary session. Example: the 2014-2020 Paris progress report. • Thematic web page, which will give partners a general view on the topic and through which they can themselves communicate. Examples : Conseil de la Nuit (Night Council) on the website Bordeaux la nuit: on the website • Database: include in a database all the people who are involved and specify which category they belong to, which working groups they take part in, etc. This will allow you to target your communication and avoid overflowing your partners’ inbox with information that does not concern them. • News flashes: for example to inform the members of a working group on night-time transport of a new development in this area. • Newsletters: regularly inform (i.e. quarterly) all the stakeholders about the actions, news, etc. It is important to organise contributions beforehand. It’s also important to send news flashes to people who are heavily involved in the project: they will feel appreciated. is a useful tool to create a newsletter, and it gives statistics on readership. Bordeaux sent a newsletter to all the project partners 3 times a year. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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• Social media: give information in real time and share news about nightlife. Recommandation: create a secret group in order to avoid ‘out-of-line’ comments. Examples : Facebook group of the Paris Night Council – this is a closed group. Facebook Bordeaux la Nuit

• Digital library: to give all the partners access to relevant documents. a Google Drive is an easy solution

Credit Ville de Paris

Example : Drive of the Paris Night Council

Credit Ville de Paris

Fêtez Clair Association

Nightmediators form Pierrots de la Nuit Association, City of Paris


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In NANTES, the Directorate for Information and Relationships with Citizens set out the objectives of this public policy: • To allow the residents of Nantes and the metropolis to appropriate the municipal action. • To share information about night-time/nightlife (offer and services). • To take part in the action / reflection at the local and national level. The City uses different communication channels: • A special section on nightlife on the City’s website. • Mid-term reviews submitted to the municipal Bureau. • Information sent regularly to the members of the Night Council (database). • News on the city website. • Social media. • Municipal magazine • Video clips (one example: here)

In LIÈGE, communication is considered a key priority.

Credit Ville de Liège

In order to make a success of the Night Council and keep the momentum, several communication actions have been designed: • Press conferences. • Several communication tools (flyers, videos). Facebook group of the Un carré qui tourne rond project (in the le Carré neighbourhood). • Creation and management of a Facebook page. • Work on the visual identity: logo and images. • Website of the City of Liège. • Mid-term review at the Communal Council. • Information sessions in schools for students aged 16 to 17. • Prevention messages for party-goers in original ways (tattoos, ash trays, etc.).


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Credit Ville de Liège

In ZURICH, the City created a mailing list together with the participants in the round tables so that they can be informed about the progress of the actions and the decisions taken. This also allows for direct sharing of information. They use tools such as the municipal newsletter, the Facebook page, and the websites of existing networks. In ROTTERDAM, the City’s main communication channels are the municipal website and social media. On the Rotterdam Tourist Information website, there is a page on nightlife aimed notably at tourists. Indeed, tourists are important stakeholders in the nightlife of a number of cities, but they’re not always sufficiently informed. In TURIN, the official document presenting the policy is currently being drafted by all the relevant stakeholders under the direction of the mayor. In the 7th district of BUDAPEST, the district mayor has created communication channels with local residents, the owners of nightlife venues and local associations. In addition, the district town hall set up spaces for professional exchanges with nightlife venue owners, and forums to inform residents of relevant regulations. It also regularly publishes information documents. In MANNHEIM, the Night Mayor’s activities and projects are regularly featured on the NEXT Mannheim website and on social media. A newsletter is also periodically sent to all relevant stakeholders. Internal communication is done through the above-mentioned channels. Mannheim also has close relations with local, regional, national and international media, and City Hall is currently working on various information documents.


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Credit Ville de Liège

Communication Campaigns in Bordeaux, Liège and Paris Cities


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Participating in a national, European and international network: Understanding other cities’ problems and how they tackle them is important to improve one’s own local policies. Participating in national, European and international networks will allow cities to exchange inspiring practices and to learn with peers on every aspect of the strategy. This concerns all municipal staff (technical staff, executives, elected officials). Also, because of the increasing impact of tourism on cities’ nightlife economy, it is important to establish links with the countries of origin of tourists as well as with those who receive tourists. This can lead to better services as well as improved security. The city of TURIN is leading the EU-funded ToNite project as part of the Urban Innovative Actions European programme. The city works with several European partners as part of this project, such as Engineering Informatica Spa, Experientia srl, SocialFare srl and ANCI Piemonte, as well as the European Forum for Urban Security (Efus). The ToNite project has brought new dynamism to Turin’s night-time life and enhanced feelings of security in the population. It also has promoted multiculturalism, which is embodied in the demographics of the two neighbourhoods where the ToNite project was applied, both situated near the Dora River. The project also seeks to improve the perception of the social community by increasing the offer of new local services and policies.

Credit Ben van Skyhawk

In MANNHEIM, the Night Mayor is a member of the Global Night Time network as well as the Global Night Mayor Advocacy Network. These networks are platforms for the exchange of information among worldwide nightlife stakeholders. The City is also a member of the EuroCities network in the areas of ‘economic development’ and ‘culture’ through cultural urban development.

Revellers in the streets of a nightlife district in Mannheim

Evaluating participation: The evaluation of the process covers: • The efficiency of the process and how its effects actually correspond to the objectives. • The relevance of the process: how the objectives correspond to the target audience’s needs and expectations. • The territorial adequacy of the process: the relationship between the way in which efforts are spread and territorial specificities (at the level of the district, the neighbourhood, etc.). In a secondary manner, evaluation can also concern: • The process’ internal and external consistency: the adequacy between the specific approach’s process and that of the City and other relevant authorities. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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Credit Céline Degrave

• The process’ efficiency: ratio between the results and the resources that were mobilised. • The process’ systemic impact, i.e. the project’s logic, both in the effects it seeks and in its knock-out effects.

Plenary session of the Nightlife Platform, working on nightlife governance evaluation tools


• Efficiency of the process - To what extent does the participatory process contribute to the design of shared actions in the area of nightlife? - To what extent did the process include the stakeholders? - To what extent did the stakeholders influence decision-making? Have the proposed actions been adopted? - To what extent did the process lead to new ideas? - To what extent did the process reduce conflicts and pacify relationships between the stakeholders? - To what extent did the process contribute to defining a nightlife culture in terms of diagnosis and solutions ? - To what extent does the process facilitate or strengthen local dialogue?

➢ Analysing the process indicators by comparing them with the expected results. • The relevance of the process - To what extent does the process correspond to the stakeholders’ expectations? As regards organisation, modus operandi, decision making process, pace?

➢ Solicit the views of stakeholders

Recommandation a series of interviews with a representative panel of stakeholders works better than questionnaires that no one returns (see the example of Paris).


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• Territorial adequacy of the process - To what extent do the local consultation schemes set up through the process correspond to specific local needs?

➢ Cross-analyse the local consultation mappings and issues (see the example of Paris) The City of Nantes conducts a participatory evaluation of some of its schemes. For example, there was an evaluation schedule for the workshop on mobility, which is available here.


• The internal and external consistency of the process - From an internal point of view, is the process adapted to the City’s decision making process? -From an external point of view, is it adapted to the decision making process at the metropolis and regional level?

➢ Data to produce: through an analysis of the different bodies’ decision-making POLARITÉS NOCTURNES



Saint-Ouen Clichy



ti ar t-M n i a



na lS


gare de l’Est

gare Saint Lazare Bois de Boulogne


8e Berges de la









gare Montparnasse





pôle d’appropriation conviviale de l’espace public (saison estivale)

gare de Lyon

pôle de mobilité

Bois de Vincennes

Parc Montsouris


Malakoff Montrouge

Charentonle-Pont IvrysurSeine

Gentilly Arcueil

(gares Noctilien) SaintMandé



2 km

Densité de débits de boissons avec licence IV




Les Lilas

la Tournelle Quais de l’Ile-Saint-Louis



Buttes Chaumont

4e Quai de

Champ de Mars


Le PréSaintGervais

Place de la République

Passerelle des Arts







Bassin de la Villette

17e NeuillysurSeine





Sources: Préfecture de Police - 2017, Ville de Paris-DPE

Le KremlinBicêtre

Examples of datas produced for the nightlife council : nightlife polarisations in Paris City


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• Systemic impact of the process - To what extent does the process influence decision making practices outside of its scope? - Does it contribute to building relationships among the stakeholders or other projects in other domains than nightlife? - Does it contribute to spreading a participatory culture in the City? Among the stakeholders?

➢ Data to be collected through internal reporting, feedback and/or interviews with stakeholders • Efficiency of the process - Is there a good ratio between the resources that were used (discussion time) and the results that were obtained? - Compared to other consultation methods in other cities? Compared to a non-participatory modus operandi?

➢ Result and resource indicators to be applied to different cities or feedback between cities GR AD IENT BULLE T POINT


Global and transverse approach – Common interests: an attractive, peaceful night. Publicize the philosophy / political vision.



Attractive city.


Political will, elected official that cuts across the board. Inclusive approach, mobilisation and diversity of actors, presence of


organisations that represent professionals and residents.


Common objectives > strategy > action plan / project mode.


Shared diagnosis / evaluation.


Existence of local consultation committees.


Transversality coordinated among the different directorates/departments. Participation in national / European networks.

In TURIN, the involvement of all the main stakeholders in co-building, co-designing and co-producing an efficient nightlife governance is key for its success and implementation. In other words, residents of nightlife neighbourhoods, party-goers, night-time business associations and the city’s official authorities must work together, without excluding anyone, to understand how to organise and structure an attractive nightlife without sacrificing other parties’ ‘interests’. This means taking into account local residents’ right to live in a secure, protected and liveable neighbourhood, the right of revellers to attend events, and the right of business associations to improve their trade. In this context, taking into account all the opinions and reactions of the relevant parties, in particular through a round table convened whenever necessary or when problems arise, is an asset. The process of listening to representatives from the said committees ensures all opinions and relevant demands are taken into account. GUIDE MÉTHODOLOGIQUE METHODOLOGY GUIDE

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In BUDAPEST 7th district, an important success factor is that communication is consistent, open and honest. Such communication should foster constructive exchanges and debates. These will feed into and inform the drafting and co-production of regulations. Once applied, it is also crucial to monitor and evaluate such regulations. Another important point is the need for political will in order to design efficient and sustainable governance.

Credit City of Vilnius

In VILNIUS, an important success factor is the Mayor’s, the other local elected officials’ and residents’ political support. Cooperation with the national government is also key. Lastly, it is important to review and reform the legislative framework.

Nightlife in a district of Vilnius

In MANNHEIM, two essential conditions for successful implementation are the involvement of the different stakeholder groups and efficient communication. This includes authorities, the department of security, police, nightlife stakeholders (workers and operators from the culture sector), as well as resident associations, other relevant associations and citizens. All these actors must be informed and encouraged to participate in order for the strategies to be successfully implemented. The public call for applications for the position of Night Mayor already ensured such participation of different groups of actors. This inclusive procedure has since been used in all the projects related to the governance of nightlife. Short discussion loops and better mediation between the different interest groups enable better understanding and exchanges at all levels. Time, the will to dialogue and compromise and excellent knowledge of the night-time economy are important resources for a successful nightlife policy. Besides, there is now a central point of contact for all questions linked to night-time culture and economy. This fosters networking in the night-time culture. It has a media impact and it contributes to increasing the visibility of the dynamic and needs of the night-time culture. Furthermore, as a ‘connector’ and initiator, the Night Mayor can bring momentum and innovation to these networks in order to sustainably develop and strengthen the local night culture for the benefit of all relevant parties.


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Opposition among stakeholders, diverging interests, lack of a common culture. Difficult coordination between the departments, insufficient involvement of the elected officials. Stakeholders frustrated by the results as compared to their expectations (slowness, lack of resources) / How to evolve from elaboration / deliberation to implementation / participation? Lack of resources. Territorial disparity. Agents’ working conditions > dialogue with the unions. Quick evolution of the context, economic or health crisis > resilience.






In TURIN, as nightlife is considered as a dynamic phenomenon, it is difficult to structure it and manage it in an optimal way. In other words, the issues linked to nightlife are complex and varied and require a global approach that takes into account the interests of all parties and ensures a secure, protected environment. Besides, in Turin, the City doesn’t decide where nightlife should take place or not, which makes it more difficult to manage it. Like other cities, the 7th district of BUDAPEST is facing important financial needs. Consequently, implementing the nightlife governance reform can only be done little by little. In VILNIUS, one of the main obstacles is a very limited activity and the need to define an agenda and priorities. So far, there hasn’t been any operational cooperation between local stakeholders and the national government.

Credit Ville de Nantes

In MANNHEIM, problems with the budget and the allocation of staff illustrate how difficult it can be to implement a nightlife strategy, especially at times of crisis such as the Covid pandemic. Furthermore, the Night Mayor operates as a neutral link between the different interest groups. This said, political decisions are useful for certain domains of night-time culture. For example, another body such as a municipal Night Council could be useful to foster action. It could provide a platform for directly discussing nightlife issues with political representatives. This would preserve the objectivity of the Night Mayor and ensure better integration of political representatives.

Bivouac in a greenhouse of the Jardin des Plantes. This project was funded by the ‘Temps de la Nuit’ project in Nantes


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The following authors contributed to the guide Public Policy for Nightlife: Governance and Participation: Thierry Charlois, Project Manager on Nightlife Policy, City of Paris.

Vanina Hallab, Coordinator of the Bordeaux at Night - Local Security and Crime Prevention Council

(Bordeaux la Nuit - Conseil Local de Sécurité et de Prévention de la Délinquance), Directorate for Urban Social Development, City of Bordeaux

Eszter Karácsony, Programme Manager, European Forum for Urban Security Emeline Meimoun, Programme Manager “The City at Night”, City of Nantes

Martí Navarro Regàs, Programme Manager, European Forum for Urban Security Manon Reynders, Lead of the Night Council, City of Liège

The Nightlife Platform wishes to thank its members for having revised and enriched this document. We

thank the cities of Rotterdam, Zurich, Mannheim, Turin, Vilnius and the 7th district of Budapest for their valuable contribution and for sharing information on their nightlife governance. If you have any question or wish to join the Nightlife Platform, please contact: Translation: Nathalie Bourgeois

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