2022 eBarns Report

Page 1

2022

Barns Report

COLLEGE OF FOOD, AGRICULTURAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


2022 eBarns Report

eBarns

“connecting science to farmers”

eBarns is a program at The Ohio State University dedicated to advancing production agriculture through the use of field-scale and applied research. The eBarns 20 Report is a combination of the research conducted on partner farms and Ohio State agricultural research stations throughout Ohio. Curre on enhancing animal production, growing high-quality forages, precision nutrient management analyticaltoolsfordigitalagriculture.

In this first addition of eBarns we have included research studies not only from the past ye previousyearsthathaveyettobesummarizedinaproducerfriendlymanner.Itisourgoaltoco resultsfromappliedlivestock,forage,andmanurenutrientmanagementinthispublicatio

2022 Research Recap 32 Total Studies • • • • • • •

7 Forages 5 Dairy 4 Beef 7 Small Ruminant 7 Manure Nutrients 1 Swine 1 Poultry

16 Counties 19 Research Sites

Disclaimer Notice: The information provided in this document is intended for educational purposes only. Mention or use of specific products or services, along with illustrations, does not constitute Endorsement by The Ohio State University. The Ohio State University assumes no responsibility for any damages that may occur through adoption of the programs/techniques described in this document.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Editorial

Welcometothe20editionoftheOhioState eBarnsReport.Weareexcitedthisisourfirsteditionoft reportandwewanttoextendoursincerethankstoallofthosewhohavemade eBarns the Report OhioState possibleinThis 20. projectwouldnothavehappenedwithoutthesupportofouron-farmcooperat Extensioneducators,fieldspecialists,faculty,sta-,students,industrypartners,andcountl havedevotedtheirtime,energy,andexpertise.Itistrulythecollaborativenatureofevery ultimatelyprovidedata-driveninformationtothousandsoffarmersand,relevant, theiradvisors and in actionablemanner.

WiththisbeingourfirstyeareBarns forthe Report we are grateful to everyone for their time and vision from thecreationofthereportandtheneededon-farmlinkageswithfarmersandtheir ,we advisors wouldliketothankpeopleliketheOhioTopFarmers,whobelievethattheland-grantmission wanttoseeCFAESexpanditse-ortshelpingOhiofarmersimprovetheiroperations.Theyhavesup thisprojectasweworktogettimelyinformationintothehandsoffarmerseBarns andsupported o-the ge ground.WeappreciatetheessentialsupportfromOhioTopFarmers.Thisspecialeditionisdedi

Aswereflectonthepastcoupleofyears,theCOVID-19pandemiccontinuedtoimpacttheagriculture andbeyond.Asweworkthroughthepandemic,supplychainandlaborissuescreateduniquechall Somelivestockresearchwasabletocontinueduringthistimewhileotherprojects , wered supplyshortages,labor,andnowenergycostshaveimpactedthesupplyandcostsofinputs.Fert areatanall-timehighthisyearwithitbeingdi-culttopurchasecropprotectionproducts.F farmers,the201growingseasonwasfavorableandlivestockpricesareatornearrecordhighs,al profitpotentialthisyear.

The eBarnsteamwasabletoreporton32studiesfrom16countiesinthispublication. eareexcitedW about this continued growth of the program, and the eBarnsteammembersarelookingforwardtomoreexciting projectsinthefuture.

Wehopeyoufindthe20 eBarnsReportinformativeandvaluable.Welookforwardtocontinuings ofthequalityandvarietyoflivestock,forage,nutrientmanagementandresearchhappeninga ofOhio.Ifyouareinterestedincooperatingwithusinfutureyearsorhaveanyfeedback,pleasec ru-.72@osu.edu. Sincerely, The 2022 eBarns Team

The eBarns Report is published on an annual basis. To view past reports, visit our website at go.osu.edu/ebarnsreports .


Table of Contents OhioStateDigitalAgProgram . Report Guide. . eFieldsContributors .. 201GrowingSeasonWeather . . OhioFarmCustomRates . Ohio State Forages Research AnnualForagesNutritionSummary . AnnualForagesNutritionSummary . CoverCropForage .. Fall Oats Nitrogen Rate. . WinterAnnualCereals .. HighMoldLevelsFoundinCorn .. DON Reduction.. Fungicide and DON Reduction. . Ohio State Dairy Research FarmBusinessAnalysis&Benchmarking .. BobVeal .. BenchmarkingCalfHealth .. DCADAmmonia . DDGs Dig.. Ohio State Beef Research Ticks.. CornProcessing .. FeedingTimexCornProcessing . FeedingTimexDietFormation . Ohio State Small Ruminant Research Delayed Lamb Weaning. . FallLambsAnnual & Forages . Soy Hulls Lambs. . Goat Browsing. . SheepAISummary . Sheep Water Preference. . Ohio State Manure Nutrients Research Manure Dry Matter vs NPK. . LiquidManureNutrientConcentration .. NIRSensingforManureApplication . ManureCompost .. ManureCompost .. ManureCompost .. ManureCompost .. MeetingTri-StateFertilityNeeds..78 Ohio State Swine Research MarketHogSpaceRequirements . Ohio State Poultry Research HighlyPathogenicAvianInfluenza .. Acknowledgments .. Glossary..86

4|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

6 10 12

8

14 18 20 2 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

38 40

42

44 46

52

50

48

54 56

58 60 62 64 6 68 72

70 74 76

82

80 84


Forages

Dairy

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Beef

Swine

Poultry

Ohio State University Department of Animal Science Advancing knowledge of animal sciences for the betterment of animals and humans… Our areas of research and teaching includes, •

Growth, development, and meat science

Breeding,genetics,&reproduction

Mammarybiology&milkquality

Animalwelfare&behavior

Nutrition&microbiology

Wastemanagement&bio-fuels

Human-Animalinteractions

Our Purpose

Visitusansci.osu.edu. at 20

eBarns Report | 5


Ohio State Digital Ag Program OHIO STATE

DigitalAg ABOUT US

The Digital Agricul ture Program at The Ohio State University embodies the best of the land grant mission – creation, validation, and dissemination of cutting-edge agricultural production technologies. The central focus of this program is the interaction automation, sensing, and data analytics to optimize crop production in order to address environmental quality, sustainabili and profitability. Research is focused on execution of site-specific nutrient management practices, de helddevicesforin-fielddatacapture,autonomousfunctionalityofmachinery,remotesensingsolutio toenhancetiming,placementande-cacyofinputswithincroppingsystems.

VISION

MISSION • • •

Uniting the pr ivateandpublicsectorstodriveinnovationforthebenefitoffarmers. Partneringwithfarmerstotranslateinnovationintolong-termprofitabilityforproductionagr Delivering timely and relevant information for the advancement of digital agriculture technologies.

WHAT IS DIGIT AL AGRICULTURE?

The premise of digital agriculture includes the advancement of farm operations through implementation of precisio agriculture strategies, prescriptive agriculture and data-based decision making. Digital agriculture is a holistic picture of t data space in agriculture, trends related to services directing input management and the value of data usage for improvin productivityandprofitabilityoffarmoperations.

“Digital Agriculture” combines multiple data sources with advanced crop and environmental analyses to provide support for on-farm decision making.

6|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Ohio State Livestock Production Resources Forages Pasturecomprisesofmorethan1.4millionofOhiofarmland. For more information visit the Integrated Forage Management Team at forages.osu.edu. Dairy Cattle OhioisthenumberoneSwisscheeseproducingstate. FormoreinformationondairyproductionvisittheOhioDairyResource dairy.osu.edu. Centerat Beef Cattle Since2018,OhioranksinthetopfiveforBeefQualityAssurancecertifications. FormoreinformationonbeefproductionvisittheOSUExtension Teamatbeef.osu.edu. Beef Small Ruminants OhioisthelargestsheepproducingstateEastoftheMississippi . River FormoreinformationonsmallruminantproductionvisittheOSUExtension Teamat Sheep sheep.osu.edu. Manure Nutrients Rightsource,rightrate,righttime,rightplace,right . technology FormoreinformationvisittheOhioCompostingandManureManagement ocamm.osu.edu. at Swine In20,Ohioproducedmorethan1.3millionpoundsofporkandsoldmorethan5.1million hogs. FormoreinformationvisittheOhioPorkInformation porkinfo.osu.edu. Centerat Poultry OhioisrankednumbertwointheNationforeggproduction. For more information visit the OSU Poultry Team at u.osu.edu/poultry.

20

eBarns Report | 7


Report Guide OBJECTIVE

Location Box

Find study information, objectives, study design, graphs, and summary on the left page. Find results, summaries, project contact, and statistical summary on the right page.

Look to see the county where the studywasconducted.

STUDY INFORMATION

STUDY INFORMATION Planting Date 5/3201

Start Date 10/52

Harvest Date 10/2

End Date 8/1206 Species Swine

Variety Becks607V2P

Start Point 50lb.(DOF,DOA,DIM)

Population 34,0sds/ac

End Point 30lb(DOF,DOA,DIM)

Acres 70 Treatments 5

Treatments 5

Reps 7

Reps 4 Experimental Pen Unit

Treatment Width 40ft. Tillage Conventional

Genetics CommercialLine

Management Fertilizer, Herbicide, Insecticide

Breed YorkshireCrossx Duroc

PreviousCrop Soybeans

Sex EqualBarrow:Gilt

Row Spacing 30in.

Health Protection Asneeded

Soil Type Crosbysiltloam,52% Celinasiltloam,48%

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

RESULTS STUDY DESIGN

Response Variable

The study design provides a background on thestudy.Thiscouldincludeabriefhistory of research, observations that led to the implementationofthisstudy,explanationofthe studydesign,etc.

Treatment

Treatment

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

8|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• The observations section of the report allows us to provide any relevant information that the researchers noticedthroughoutthedurationoftheproject. • Observations allow for a deeper understanding of the studyresults.

The summary section proves results and findingsfromthestudy. Thankyoufortakingthetimetoexploreour 20 eBarns Report!

RESULTS Treatments (XXX)

Avg. Emergence (plants/ac)

Moisture (%)

Yield (bu/ac)

LSD: TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Least SignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:

TOOLS OF THE TRADE This section allows us to display the tools and technology used to make each study possible.

PROJECT CONTACT

TheProjectContactsectionprovid the name of the researcher along with theiremailaddress.Weencourage you to contact them if you have questionsaboutanindividualstu

20

eBarnsReport|9


eBarns Contributors

Tim Barnes

Brady Campbell

OSU Extension

Department of Animal Sciences

Tim McDermott

Pierce Paul

Jessica Pempek

Christina Pfaff

OSU Extension

Department of Plant Pathology

Department of Animal Sciences

OSU Extension

Clint Schroeder

Dianne Shoemaker

Extension Educator Marion County

Extension Educator Franklin County

Extension Educator Allen County OSU Extension

Assistant Professor

Professor

Field Specialist OSU Extension

10|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Rylee Combs

eBarns 2022 Intern

John Fulton Professor

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Assistant Professor

Farm Business Technician

Haley Shoemaker

Ryanna Tietje

OSU Extension

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Program Coordinator Columbiana County

Student Assistant


Forages

Dairy

Greg Habing

Associate Professor Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine

Beef

Jason Hartschuh Extension Educator Crawford County OSU Extension

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Elizabeth Hawkins

Eric Richer

OSU Extension

Department of Animal Sciences

OSU Extension

Associate Professor

Benjamin Wenner

Aaron Wilson

OSU Extension

Department of Animal Sciences

Byrd-Polar Climate Center

Associate Professor

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Garth Ruff

Extension Educator Fulton County

Barry Ward

Leader, Production Business Management

Associate Professor

OSU Extension

Alejandro Relling

Poultry

Dee Jepsen

Assistant Professor, Field Specialist

Lisa Pfeifer

Educational Program Manager

Swine

Field Specialist OSU Extension

Haley Zynda

Extension Educator Wayne County

Extension Climatologist

20

OSU Extension

eBarns Report | 11


2021 Growing Season Weather

Continuinglastyear’strend,201delivereddecentweatherconditionsforthisyear’sgrowingseasonfo aroundOhio.Highlightsincludeonethedriestwinterandspringsofthelastdecade,timelysummerra harvestweather(foreveryonenotlivinginnorthwestOhio)Through . November,201ranksasthe9thwarmest wettestonrecord(1895-present)forOhioaccordingtheNationalCentersforEnvironmental Thefollowing Information. isa summaryofthegrowingseasonandseasonalbreakdownof201. Spring (March – May) Springgoto-toawarmstartacrosstheBuckeye State, as March ranked as the 13th warmest March onrecord(1895-present)This . wasfollowedbya modestlywarmAprilbutcoolerthanaverageMay. Despite the cool late season conditions, most of Ohioexperiencedtypicalfinalfreezedatesbetween April21andMay10(Fig.1).Itwasthedriestspring since2013,withanaverageof8.34”orabout75% ofnormalrainfall.Allthreemonthsaveragedbelow normal.Thedrynesswaswidespreadacrossmuch of the state, with the driest areas found across the northerncounties.Ohio’smaximumcoverageof droughtconditionsoccurredonApril27when70%of thestatewasclassifiedasabnormallydryand2% wasinmoderatedroughtconditions.Thedryweather allowed for a bump up in the reported number of suitablefieldworkdaystoNASSwith14.5daysin Figure 1: Date of Last 32°F temperature in Spring 2021. Figure April,counteringthedecliningtrendexperienced since courtesy of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (https:// 195(Fig.2).Spring201ranksasthe25thwarmest mrcc.purdue.edu/). and40thdriestforOhio. Summer (June – August)

Summerwaswarmerthanaveragewiththe17thand10thwarmestJune August and onrecord,respectively.Overnight lowtemperatureswereparticularlywarm(tiedwith195,20and201asthe2ndwarmest).Sandwichedinbetween wasJuly,arathermildandwetmonth.Infact,itwasthe13thwettestJulyonrecord.Julyalsofeaturedfrequ smoke-filledskiesthathelpedlimitincomingsolarradiationandleadtoacoolerthanaveragemont

Figure 2: Suitable fieldwork days as reported to NASS for April (blue – solid) and October (orange – dashed) for 1995-2021. Dotted lines show the trends over the period for each month.

12|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Figure 3: Left) Total precipitation in inches for June – August 2021. Right) Percent of normal precipitation in percentage for June – August 2021. Figure courtesy of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (https://mrcc. purdue.edu/).


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Figure3showstherainfalldistributionandpercentofnormal Thefor state theseason. pickedupbetween10-2inches ofrainfall(statewideaverageof14.5inchesor17%ofnormal),about40%ofthisfallinginJuly.InAugust,western countiesturneddry,running1–3-inchdeficitsforthemonthacrossportionsofWilliams,Fulton,Henry,andHa Counties.ConditionsdriedconsiderablyacrossPickaway,Ross,andPikeCountiesaswell.However,drou thissummerwasheldtoaminimumwithonlypocketsofabnormallydryconditionsscattered There across were the shortperiodsoflowstreamflowsandsoilmoisturedeficits,butthesechallengeshadminimalimpactov 201ranksasthe13thwarmestand15thwettestonrecord. Autumn (September – November)

Fallwasabitofarollercoastertemperaturewise.AfterawarmerthanaverageSeptember,whichranks warmestonrecord,OhioexperienceditswarmestOctoberonrecord.Thisrecordwarmthwasdrivenstro lows,averaging51.3°For8.5°Fabovenormal.Thissignifiantlydelayedfirstfreeze,withmuchofthestatenotexperie thefirst32°FtemperatureuntilNovember(Fig.4).Novemberturned ,about chilly 2°Fbelowaverageandranksasthe 5thcoolestNovemberonrecord.

Precipitationvariedacrosstheseasonaswell,startingandendingdry.Defiance, withavery Fulton, wetHenry, October Lucas,Williams,andWoodCountiesallexperiencedtheirwettestOctoberonrecordwith7-9inchesofrain thearea,morethandoublethenormalmonthlyrainfall(Fig.5).ConditionsweremuchdierinNovember(rank themiddlethirdofthe127-yearrecord),whichhelpedmuchofthestatecompletefallharvestandactivie improvementtofieldconditionsinnorthwestOhio.Fall201ranksasthe6thwarmestand35thwettestonre

Figure 4: Date of First 32°F temperature in Autumn 2021. Figure courtesy of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (https://mrcc.purdue.edu/).

TOOLS OF THE TRADE FARM (Field Application Resource Monitor) This tool (farm.bpcrc.osu.edu) allows users to define their locations of interest and receive 12- and 24-hour precipitation forecasts (current and historical) to aid in the application of fertilizer, manure, and/or pesticides.

Figure 5: Percent of normal precipitation in percentage for October 2021. Figure courtesy of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (https://mrcc.purdue.edu/).

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con Dr.AaronB.Wilson ExtensionClimateSpecialist wilson.10@osu.edu

20

eBarns Report | 13


Ohio Farm Custom Rates

Custom work is common in farming, especially for tasks that require specialized equipment or expert k task.BarryWard,Leader,ProductionBusinessManagementalongwithJohnBarkerandEricRicher(Extensio workedtodevelopthe20OhioFarmCustomRates.Thispublicationprovidesanextensivelistofaverage that were derived from a statewide survey of 37 farmers, custom operators, farm managers, and landowner FarmCustomRatespublicationisaresourceyoucanuseonyouroperationasareferenceinyoureconomi theprovidedrates(exceptwherenoted)includetheimplementandtractorifrequired,allvariable fuel,oil,lube,twine,etc.,andthelaborfortheoperation. Some of the custom rates provided in the publication vary widely, due to thefollowingvariables: • • • • • •

Typeorsizeofequipmentused Sizeandshapeoffields Conditionofthecrop Skill level of labor Amountoflaborneededinrelationtotheequipmentcapabilities Costmargindi-erencesforfull-timecustomoperatorscomparedto farmers supplementing current income

The custom rates provided in the publication summarize the survey respondents.The reported numbers are t (ormean),standarddeviation,median,minimum,maximum,andrange.Averagecustomratesareasimpleaverag survey responses.As a custom provider, the average rates reported in this publication may not cover performingthecustomservice.Asacustomer,youmaynotbeabletohireacustomservicefortheaverage thisfactsheet.Calculateyourowncostscarefullybeforedeterminingtheratetochargeorpay.Thed areintendedtoshowarepresentativefarmingindustrycostforspecifiedmachinesandoperationsi CustomRatespublicationincludesotherresourcesthatcanhelpyoucalculateandconsiderthet givenmachineryoperation.

Custom Farming (All machinery operations for harvesting)

Avg

ChopCornSilageTon /

$6.50

Std

Median

$1.7

Max

$7.0

Min

$7.50

Range

$4.50

Chop,Haul,FillCornSilageTon /

$10.

$1.89

$10.

$13.0

$8.0

MowingAcre /

1.40 $

$2.56

1.0 $

$15.0

$7.50

Mowing/ConditioningAcre /

$13.0

$3.28

$14.0

$20.

$6.0

$7.6

$5.3

$12.0

$8.2

$13.94

$8.2 $16.35

$9.7

RakingAcre /

$7.10

$2.47

$7.0

$15.0

$4.0

$9.5

$4.65

TeddingAcre /

$6.20

$1.68

$5.7

$10.

$4.0

$7.8

$4.51

Baled / Dropped in Field /Bale

$0.9

$0.42

$0.78

$2.0

$0.4

$1.3

$0.47

Baled and Loaded on Wagon / Bale

$1.0

$0.4

$1.0

$2.0

$0.35

$1.42

$0.62

Haul&Store/Bale

$0.5

$0.9

$0.5

$0.5

$0.25

$0.5

$0.37

Baled, Loaded, Hauled and Stored / Bale

$1.40

$0.39

$1.50

$2.0

$0.75

$1.7

$0.9

$9.60

$1.34

Small Square Bales

Large Round Bales 600-1000# Baled and Dropped in Field / Bale

$10.

$7.0

$10.89

$8.21

$15.0

$7.0

$12.56

$7.62

$9.0

$12.50

Baled, Net Wrapped and Left in Field / Bale

$10.

$2.47

(PlasticIncluded)/Bale Baled and Wrapped Wet in Plastic $16.20

$2.79

$15.0

$20.

$13.0

$18.9

$13.4

(PlasticIncluded)/Bale

$16.20

$2.86

$17.0

$20.

$12.0

$19.06

$13.4

Baled and Dropped in Field / Bale

$10.2

$3.62

Complete Hay Harvest - Cost per Ton

$17.0

$4.89

Large Square Bales

14|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

$9.75 $15.0

$7.50 $28.0

$20. $14.0

$6.57 $2.5

$13.82 $12.78


Forages

Dairy

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Beef

Fertilizer Application - Ground

Avg

DryBulkAcre / LiquidKnifeAcre /

$7.0

Std $1.87 $3.2

LiquidSprayAcre /

Max

$7.0

1.30 $ $1.73

$3.85 $18.0

$7.0 $12.0

$4.50

$7.0

$15.20

Min

$12.0

$10.5

$7.60

AnhydrousAcre /

Median

Swine

Poultry

Range $8.

$5.14

$14.7

$8.03 $9.32

$5.87

$4.80

$14.0

$26.0

$7.0

$20.4

LateSeasonNApplication-CoultersAcre / $13.20

$3.51

$14.0

$19.50

$7.0

$16.73

$9.71

LateSeasonNApplication-DropsAcre /

$2.87

$12.0

$17.0

$7.0

$14.5

$8.76

$15.0

$5.0

$10.43

$5.81

1.60 $

VariableRateFertilizerAcre /

Planting Operations - Conventional Till

$8.10

$2.31

PlantCorn30”RowsAcre /

Avg

$7.5

Median

Max

Min

Range

$5.82

$20.

$50.

$10.

$25.8

$14.9

PlantCornw/StarterFertilizer30”RowsAcre / $21.0

$5.91

$20.

$50.

$10.

$27.06

$15.23

VariableRateCornPlantingAcre /

$2.0

$5.93

$20.

$38.0

$14.0

$27.93

$16.07

PlantSoybeans15”or30”RowsAcre /

$20.1

$6.19

$20.

$50.

$26.8

$13.90

VariableRateSoybeanPlantingAcre /

$20.

$4.87

$20.

$35.0

$25.0

$15.28

DrillSoybeansAcre /

$18.0

$5.28

$17.25

$40.

$8.0

$23.0

$12.74

DrillSmallGrainsAcre /

$17.30

$3.9

$17.25

$27.0

$8.0

$21.3

$13.

Planting Operations - No-Till

$20.

Std

$10.43

PlantCorn30”RowsAcre /

Avg

Median

$14.0

Max

Min

Range

$6.19

$20.

$50.

$10.

$26.5

$13.8

PlantCornw/StarterFertilizer30”RowsAcre / $21.0

$6.8

$20.

$50.

$10.

$27.8

$14.52

VariableRateCornPlantingAcre /

$2.30

$6.29

$20.

$38.0

$14.0

$28.60

$16.02

PlantSoybeans15”or30”RowsAcre /

$20.1

$6.4

$20.

$50.

$26.53

$13.6

VariableRateSoybeanPlantingAcre /

$20.5

$4.13

$20.

$28.0

$24.63

$16.37

DrillSoybeansAcre /

$18.0

$5.3

$16.85

$30.

$8.0

$23.8

$12.68

DrillSmallGrainsAcre /

$17.60

$4.72

$17.0

$30.

$8.0

$2.9

$12.86

=TOOLS OF THE TRADE Enterprise Budget You can canaccess accessthethe Ohio Ohio Farm Crop Custom Enterprise Rates Budgets by visiting by go.osu.edu/customrates20 visiting go.osu.edu/enterpriseor by budgets using theor QR bycode using to the visitQR the code site. to visit the site.

$20.1

Std

$6.0

$6.0 $14.0

PROJECT CONTACT

For inquiries about this informa contact.. Barry Ward Production Business Management ward.8@osu.edu

20

eBarns Report | 15


Ohio State Forages Research

For201, eBarnsforageresearchwasfocusedonincreasingforageproducti Some exciting and innovating projects were executed this year, with 4 uni being conducted across the state. 201 Forage research presented eBarns covers in both precision nutrient management and species selection. Below are h 201 eBarnsForageresearch: 10 acres of forage

7 forage studies

FormoreforageresearchandfeedingmanagementfromOhioStateUniversityEx explorethefollowingresources:

Ohio Forage Performance Tests The purpose of the Ohio Forage Performance Test is to evaluate forage varieties of alfalfa, annual rye grass, and covercropsforyieldandotheragronomiccharacteristics. This evaluation gives forage producers comparative information for selecting the best varieties for their Ohio Forage Performance Tests uniqueproductionsystems.Formoreinformationvisit: go.osu.edu/OhioForages. Agronomic Crops Team - Forages Research TheAgronomicCropsTeamperformsinteresting researchstudiesonayearlybasis.Resources,fact sheets, and articles on alfalfa, winter annuals, and summerannualscanbefoundhereontheAgronomic CropsTeamwebsite: go.osu.edu/CropTeamForages.

Forage Team

16|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Dairy Team

AgronomicCropsTeam Forage Research

Beef Team


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Species for Planting by Mid-July CornPlantSilage

Highestsinglecutforageyieldpotentialofallchoices. Silagequalitywillbelowerthanwithnormalplantingdates. Riskwillbegettingitharvestedatrightmoistureforgoodferment

Forage Sorghum Sorghum Sudangrass Sudangrass

Bestharvestedassilage. Brownmidrib(BMR)varietiesarebestforlactatingcows.Convention varietiesareokayifBMRseedisnotavailable. Canproduce3-4tonsofdrymatter/acre. Riskofprussicacid(hydrogencyanidegas)iffrosted.

Soybean Silage

Reasonablealternativetoreplacealfalfaforage. Checkseedtreatmentandherbicidelabels,manyrestrictforageus

Bestsuitedtobeefandsheep;loweryieldthansorghumgrasses. Canharvestashayorsilage.

Te-Grass

Bestsuitedtobeefandsheep;manyproduceasingleharvest. Bestharvestedassilage. Pearlmilletdoesnotproduceprussicacidafterfrostdamage.

Millets

Bestharvestedassilage. Mixturesofannualgrasseswith Mixturesofsorghumgrassesormilletsorevenoatsandspringtriti soybean soybeanarefeasibleandcanimproveforagequalitycharacteristic

Species for Planting Late-July to Mid-September Oat or Spring Triticale

Canbemowedandwiltedtocorrectharvestmoisture. Harvestingashaycanbechallenging. Earlierplantingdatesprovidemoreautumnyield.

Oat or Spring Triticale Plus WinterCereals

Wintercereals(Winterrye,Winterwheat,Wintertriticale)canbeadd oatorspringtriticaletoaddaforageharvestearlynextspring.Win canalsocontributealittleextraautumnyieldtothemixture.

Oat or Spring Triticale Plus Field Peas

Fieldpeascanimproveforagequality(especiallycrudeproteinconte willincreaseseedcost.

Italian Rye grass

Earlierplantingdatesprovidemoreautumnyield. Excellentforagequalityinthefall. PotentialforthreeharvestsnextyearstartinginlateApril.

20

eBarns Report | 17


Annual Forages Nutrient Summary OBJECTIVE

CFAES Wooster

Examine forage quality of summer sown annual forages and determine whether or not sheep would graze selected forages.

Planting Date 8/9201 Harvest Date 10/82 Variety See Treatments Population Variable Acres 1.4 Treatments 7

WayneCounty

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

OARDC

Treatment Width 20ft. Tillage No-Till Management Fertilizer, Insecticide PreviousCrop Fescue Pasture Row Spacing Broadcast Soil Type RavennaSiltLoam,4% CanfieldSiltLoam,31% Wooster-RiddlesSilt Loam,24%

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

Reps 3

Planting Date

100

Harvest Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

JUN

1.48

4.7

2.07

Cumulative 198 GDDs 549

1181

JUL 1856

7.4 2580

AUG

SEP

3.67

2.46 3074

Total 21.6 3074

STUDY DESIGN Seven annual forage varieties were planted as demonstrationsheepgrazingplots. Plotsweresownin4replicatesattheOARDC SmallRuminantResearchUnitinAugust201. Varietiesincludedbothwarmandcoolseason brassicas,grasses,legumes,andsmallgrains. InOctober201,sampleswerecollectedwith ina2ft.x2ft.Foragesquare. Forage yield and dry matter content were calculated by drying the harvested in a forced air ovendryerat10ºC. Forage nutrient analyses were conducted in an accredited forage testing laboratory using Near Infrared(NIR)technology.

18|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Drone photo of all the forages and sheep.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

Liquid cattle manure was applied prior to planting • to Under aid the conditions of the demonstration, all insofteningthegroundforsoilcultivation. annual forages presented proved to be palatable andprovidednutrientswhichmetorexceeded Conditionsweredryattimeofplantingrain wasneeded. thenutritionalrequirementsofopenewesdur Atimelyrainfell2daysafterplanting. theautumnseason. Slight burning occurred on the leaves of the turnips. • Brassica and legume type forages were lower This may be attributed to residual herbicide in spraying in dry matter and greater in crude protein when equipment when fields were treated with insecticide for with warm season annuals such as compared armywormcontrol. sorghumsudangrassandEgyptianwheat. • Sudan grass and Egyptian wheat had a greaterconcentrationoffiberasshownbyADFand NDF values when compared with all other forage species. • Overall, annual forages as shown in this demonstration may serve as a viable alternative for feedstu-sinthefallandwinterseasons.

RESULTS Treatments

DM (%)

CP (%)

ADF (%)

NDF (%)

Purple Top Turnip

15.0

23.68

16.03

19.7

Winfred Forage Brassica 15.8

24.18

17.84

25.39

Daikon Radish

13.65

27.8

17.90

24.83

Everleaf Oats

17.49

28.6

23.90

41.98

Sorghum Sudan

26.78

18.7

29.3

52.31

Egyptian Wheat

25.3

18.6

31.09

5.1

CrimsonClover

13.29

31.25

21.74

30.8

*Onlyprovidingforagequalityresults(i.e.,DM,CP,ADF,NDF)hereasyieldresultshavebeenpublishedineFields

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

PROJECT CONTACT

2ft. x 2ft. Forage Square

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

A calibrated forage square was used for forage collection to ensure uniform harvest for DM comparisons. Subsamples of forage clippings were collected for submission to determine nutrient analysis.

BradyCampbell

zynda.7@osu.edu

campbell.1279@osu.edu or Haley Zynda

20

eBarnsReport|19


Annual Forages Nutrient Summary OBJECTIVE Evaluate forage value of winter annual cereal crops and their change in yield and nutritional value as they matured from head in boot, Feekes 10.0, to head fully emerged and beginning pollination at Feekes 10.5.

STUDY INFORMATION Planting Date Fall2018,Fall2019, Fall20 Harvest Date Spring2019,Spring 20,Spring201

CFAES OARDC Statewide

STUDY DESIGN

This study was a 3 year, 3 location analysis of winter annual cerealforagesyieldandnutritionalvalue. Each site was randomized complete block split plot design for harvestdate. ThetheLocationswereinJackson,Custer,andFremontOhio. Plots were had harvested forages at each location when the cereal grain species with in the boot stage and when the head wasfullyemerged.

Variety See Treatments Population 2bu/ac Acres 2 Treatments 8 Reps 7 Treatment Width 10ft. Tillage Minimum Management Fertilizer, Herbicide PreviousCrop Varies Row Spacing 7.5in. Soil Type Varies Winter forages handle excess rainfall at North Central Ag Research Station.

FEEKES GROWTH STAGES

20|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

Location had a significant e-ect on yield but did• not Maturityhadasignificante-ectonyieldand e-ecttherankingofyieldbyspeciesorthefactthatyield qualitywithyieldincreasingasspeciesmature increasedwhilenutritionalqualitydeclined. • Crudeproteinhadasignificantdeclineforall species between head in the boot and head fully Allvarietieshandledspringmoisturewell. emergedbutnotbetweenspecies. Maturity patterns were variable with the exception of • TDNhowever significantlydeclinedbetween har Cereal Rye being the first forage to reach stage Feekes vestdatesbutwassignificantlyhigherforwhea 10.5 thanotherspeciesonbothharvestdates. • Total yield increase with maturity with Triticale Planting conditions varied across sites, ranging from full andCerealRyehavingsignificantlyhigheryields tillagetono-tillandstandingorchardgrass. at head in the boot and only Triticale having significantlyhigheryieldthanotherspeciesathe fullyemerged.

RESULTS Treatments

Yield ton/ac DM

Crude Protein

TDN

NDF

Wheat10.

1.06

1.5

6.17

46.3

Triticale10.

1.3

10.9

61.50

56.37

CerealRye10.

1.26

10.9

63.1

54.37

HybridRye10.

1.02

1.29

64.87

50.1

Wheat10.5

1.5

9.31

62.0

5.3

Triticale10.5

2.03

8.7

58.0

6.90

CerealRye10.5

1.6

8.61

5.7

68.47

HybridRye10.5

1.60

9.28

56.93

65.93

LSD:1.6

LSD:3.5

LSD:1.8

CV:8.20%

CV:3.10%

CV:2.10%

Treatment Means with the same LSD:0.2 letterarenotsignificantlydi-erent accordingtoFisher’sProtected LeastSignificantDi-erences CV:6.90% (LSD)testatalpha=0.1

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Wet Chemistry Forage analysis

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

A precise method to measure the nutrients available to livestock in forages including energy, crude protein, and estimates of the forages digestibility.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarnsReport|21


Cover Crop Forage OBJECTIVE

Jackson Ag Research Station

Evaluate four winter annual small grains for the forage value when harvested at boot stage and flowering.

Planting Date 10/82 Harvest Date 1/20&6 5 Variety See Treatments Population 2bu/ac Acres 2 Treatments 8

JacksonCounty

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

OARDC

Treatment Width 10ft. Tillage Minimum Management Fertilizer PreviousCrop Pasture Row Spacing 7.5in. Soil Type PiopolisSiltLoam,63% OmulgaSiltLoam,30%

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

Reps 4

100

Planting Date

Harvest Dates

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

3.2

8.65

Cumulative 259 GDDs

JUN 3.6

458

642

JUL 2.4 894

1304

AUG

SEP

3.25

6.25 196

Total 27.39 196

STUDY DESIGN Winter annual forages are a great way to maximizereturnsperacreforlivestock farmers. Selecting the best winter annual cereal crop a-ectsyield,foragequality,andspeedof maturity. Alltreatmentsreceived50poundsofnitrogen andwereplantedatthesametime. Harvest was determined by growth state for eachspecieswiththefirstharvestatFeekes 10.whentheheadwasstillinthebootand secondharvestasatFeekes10.5duringearly pollination. Trial layout with barley on the left and triticale on the right.

2|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

Allspeciesgreenedupquicklyinthespringandgrew • Speciesandharvestdatehadasignificante-ect well.Theywereslowgrowingtostartfollowingcooleronbothforageyieldandquality. springtemperatures.Astarkexampleofthisisthat • Allspeciestookaboutthreeweekstochange it took 3 weeks to progress from head in the boot to flowering.Thisusualtakesoneweekincerealryeand2 from head in the boot to head fully emerged whichisoneweeklongerthanusual. weeksinotherspecies. •

Asplantsmatured,allspeciessawasignificant increaseinNDF.

Onlycerealryehadasignificantyieldincrease betweenthetwoharvestdates.

Unlike other studies crude protein did not significantlychangebetweenmaturitiesbutTDN significantlydecreasedwithmaturity.

RESULTS Treatments Rye10.

TDN

NDF

Crude Protein

Yield (tons/ac DM)

61.90c

59.0c

10.d

1.50b

Wheat10.

6.90a

46.50e

12.0bc

1.80ab

Barley10.

65.0b

50.9d

13.0ab

1.70ab

62.90c

58.0c

10.5cd

1.50b

52.60e

72.0a

10.9cd

1.90a

Wheat10.5

53.10e

65.40b

13.70a

2.10a

Barley10.5

54.80d

63.70b

14.20a

2.0a

51.90e

74.10a

9.0d

1.80ab

LSD:3.2

LSD:1.5

LSD:0.3

CV:4.2%

CV:10.3%

CV:15.3%

Triticale10. Rye10.5

Triticale10.5

Treatment Means with the same letter LSD:1.5 arenotsignificantlydi-erentaccording toFisher’sProtectedLeastSignificant CV:2.7% Di-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Grain Drill

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Grain drill for seeding cereal grains with good seed to soil contact and uniform seeding rate.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarnsReport|23


Fall Oats Nitrogen Rate OBJECTIVE

NC Ag Research Station

Assess the effect of nitrogen rate on oats yield at multiple planting dates.

OARDC SanduskyCounty

9/3201

Harvest Date 1/520 , Variety Feed Grade Oats Population 10lbs/ac Acres 1 Treatments 3 Reps 4 Treatment Width 10ft. Tillage No-Till Management Fertilizer, Fungicide PreviousCrop Wheat Row Spacing 7.5in. Soil Type HoytvilleClay Loam,10%

MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

Planting Date 8/3201,7

WEATHER INFORMATION Planting Window

100

Harvest Window

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

STUDY INFORMATION

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

JUN

2.69

4.37

4.13

Cumulative 138 GDDs

448

132

JUL 1879

6.5 26

AUG

SEP

2.73

4.09 3210

Total 24.6 3210

STUDY DESIGN Thisstudywasdesignedtoassesse-ectof nitrogenrateandplantingdateonfalloats. Nitrogenrateswere46,92and138poundsof nitrogenperacre. PlantingdateswereAugustAugust 3, 17and September3. Plotswereharvestedjustaftertheheadswere emergedforthefirsttwoplantingsdatesand afterastuntingfrostforthethirdplantingdate. The study was laid out in a randomized completeblockdesign. Plot with 92 lbs N applied on the left, 138 lbs N applied to the middle, and 46 lbs N applied on the right.

24|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• Both planting date and nitrogen rate had a Oats were much slower growing this year with oats significante-ectonbothoatsyieldandforage headingoutaround75daysfortheAugustplantingdate quality. insteadof60days. • The higher nitrogen rate of 138 lbs had a The September planting was still not in head when significantlyhigheryieldthan46lbsatthefirstt harvested.Allthreeplantingshadsomecrownrustat plantingdays. harvest,whichweoftenonlyseeinourearlyAugust • Themiddlenitrogenrateof92lbshadsimilaryield plantings. atthefirstplantingdateandsignificantlyles We did have warmer weather later in the growing withamid-Augustplantingdate. seasonthisthannormal. • Nitrogenratehadasignificante-ectoncrude protein with the higher nitrogen rates having higher crudeprotein. • Plantingdatehadthemostsignificante-ectonN • The September planting date had the lowest NDF butitwasalsotheleastmatureatharvest.

RESULTS

Treatments

TDN

NDF

Crude Protein

Yield (tons/ac DM)

8/3:46lbsNitrogen

65.70ab

58.10c

7.80e

2.0cd

8/3:92lbsNitrogen

67.0a

5.60d

9.50cd

2.50b

8/3:1lbsNitrogen

62.0b

56.40d

12.70a

2.70ab

8/17:46lbsNitrogen

62.80b

60.b

8.70de

1.60d

8/17:92lbsNitrogen

62.40b

59.20bc

10.5bc

2.30bc

8/17:3lbsNitrogen

62.30b

58.10c

12.30a

3.0a

9/3:46lbsNitrogen

53.0c

62.30a

10.4c

0.6e

9/3:2lbsNitrogen

49.60cd

62.70a

12.0ab

0.7e

51.0cd

62.0a

12.0a

0.9e

LSD:3.5

LSD:1.5

LSD:0.4

CV:4.8%

CV:1.5%

CV:19.0%

9/3:18lbsNitrogen

Treatment Means with the same letter LSD:1.6 arenotsignificantlydi-erentaccording toFisher’sProtectedLeastSignificant CV:2.% Di-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Precision Nitrogen Applicator

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Precision nitrogen applicator was used to apply the exact amount of nitrogen to each plot for consistent research on nitrogen rates.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarnsReport|25


Winter Annual Cereals OBJECTIVE

NC Ag Research Station

Evaluate four winter annual small grains for their forage value when harvested at Feekes 10 and 10.5.

Harvest Date /2701,54 1/20,58 Variety WinterAnnualCereal Species Population 2bu/ac Acres 2 Treatments 8 Reps 4 Treatment Width 10ft. Tillage Minimum Management Fertilizer PreviousCrop Wheat Row Spacing 7.5in. Soil Type HoytvilleClayLoam, 10%

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

Planting Date 10/72

SanduskyCounty

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

STUDY INFORMATION

OARDC

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

STUDY DESIGN

APR

MAY

JUN

4.7

7.

1.6

Cumulative 126 GDDs

Winter annual forages are a great way to maximizereturnsperacreforlivestock farmers. Selecting the best winter annual cereal crop a-ectsyield,foragequality,andspeedof maturity. Alltreatmentsreceived50poundsofnitrogen andwereplantedatthesametime. Harvest was determined by growth stage for eachspecieswiththefirstharvestatFeekes 10.whentheheadwasstillinthebootand secondharvestasatFeekes10.5duringearly pollination. Plots were randomized complete block split plots to allow us to best compare maturity harvestdi-erencesandspecies.

26|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Harvest Window

Planting Date

196

JUL

251

2.69 389

AUG

SEP

4.37

4.13 69

1383

Total 25.39 1383

Spring triticale and oats in the plots.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

This is the third year conducting this winter annual foragevarietytrial. Therewerelargedi-erencesinthespeedthatspecies maturedfrombootstage10.toanthesis10.5 • We saw similar results this year with the yields Allspecieshadzerolodging.

significantlyincreasingacrossallspeciesast plantsmatured.

Rye still moved between these two growth stages with inaweek. Other species such as Triticale took two weeks to move betweengrowthstages.

RESULTS Treatments Rye10.

TDN

We also saw the similar trend with all species experiencingaqualitydeclineastheymatured.T qualitydeclinewasnotthesameforallspecies

Oneexampleofthiswaswheatwhichsawno significantchangeinTDNasitmatured.

Crude Protein

NDF

Yield (tons/ac DM)

58.0b

63.70c

10.4b

3.20cd

Wheat10.

63.90a

46.0g

9.40b

2.90de

Barley10.

58.40a

62.0cd

9.70b

2.70ef

57.80b

60.2e

9.60b

2.50f

5.0c

6.50b

12.40a

4.0b

Wheat10.5

62.50a

54.90f

1.90a

3.80b

Barley10.5

59.60b

61.0de

12.70a

3.0c

54.10c

68.50a

12.50a

5.0a

LSD:1.6

LSD:1.4

LSD:0.4

CV:1.8%

CV:8.4%

CV:7.1%

Triticale10. Rye10.5

Triticale10.5

Treatment Means with the same letter are not LSD:2.3 significantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected CV:2.7% LeastSignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Wet Chemistry Forage Analysis

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Wet chemistry forage analysis was used to test the nutrient concentration of forages to determine its feed value.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarnsReport|27


High Mold Levels Found in Corn

Gibberella zeae (alsoknownas Fusarium graminearum),isthepathogenthatcausesstalkrotandGibberellaea ofcorn.Thefungustypicallyinfectsviathesilkchannel,causingapinkish-whitemoldtodevelopatthe Relativelywarm,wetweather(rainfallorhighrelativehumidity)duringandaftersilking(R1growthsta conditionsforthedevelopmentofearrot.Duringinfectionandcolonization ,thefungusproduces oftheear several mycotoxins,includingdeoxynivalenol(DON),alsocalledvomitoxin. Asaresult,highlevelsofGibberellaearrotseve andresultingmoldygrainareusuallyaccompaniedbyhighlevelsofvomitoxin.

Moldy leaves and stubble It is not uncommon to see dust during harvest as fragments of dead, dry plant parts and soil particles become suspended intotheairasthecombinedrivesthoughthefield.However,theconcerninsomeyearsisthatthedust andparticularlydarkerincolorthanusual.Onepossibleexplanationisthatleavesdiedprematur tolate-seasondiseasessuchastarspot,grayleafspot,andnortherncornleafblight.Whenexposedtow conditionstheseleaveswillproducelotsoffungalspores.Forinstance,underwetconditions,nort lesionsproducelargeamountsofdark-coloredsporethatareeasilysuspendedintheaironcethepl thecombine.Inaddition,saprophyticfungisuchasAlternaria,whichalsoproducedark-coloredspores,m deadplanttissueexposedtowet,humidlate-seasonconditions,addingtotheamountofdarkparticl duringharvest.

Ear rot contributes to vomitoxin Anytimethereisslowgraindry-downorlate-seasonrainfall,thereispotentialforhighlevelsofoneo (Gibberella,Fusarium,DiplodiaandTrichoderma).Ofthese,Gibberellaearrot(GER)hasbeenthemostfrequen reportedandistheearrotofgreatestconcernssincegrainharvestedfromGER-a-ectedfieldswillbec vomitoxinandothermycotoxins.OneoftheprimaryconsequencesofGERisvomitoxincontamination ’s ofdrie grainswithsolubles(DDGS),anutrient-richco-productofethanolproductionthatiscommonlysoldasan animalfeed.Vomitoxinisnotdestroyedduringethanolproduction,norisitremovedintheethanolfr becomesconcentratedinthegrainfraction.Thisleadstothree-foldhigherlevelsofthetoxininDDGSo foundintheoriginalgrain.Consequently,ethanolplantsmayrejectGER-a-ectgrainwithhighlevelsofv Sampling and testing to detect molds Moldy kernels are typically not evenly distributed in a grain lot, andasaresult,toxin-contaminatedgrainarefoundinpockets (hotspots).Consequently,poorsamplingand/ortestingtechnique mayleadtoincorrectestimationofvomitoxininthegrainlot. For instance, a sample pulled from a hot spot may lead to an overestimation of the overall level of contamination on the load.Priortotesting,producers(ortheiragents)mayrequest asecondsamplebedrawniftheyfeelthefirstsamplewasnot representativeoftheentirelot.Followingvomitoxintesting, producers/agentshavetherighttorejectthecommoditytesters’ results and ask the handler to send the sample to a federally licensedgraininspectorforare-test.RefertoOhioCode926.31 fordetails. Severelydiseasedandtoxincontaminatedgrainareusually smaller than healthy grain and covered with fungal mycelium (mold).Comparedtohealthygrain,diseasedgrainbreakeasily during harvest, transport, and other forms of grain handling, increasingthenumberoffineparticlesandtheamountofdustin thegrainlot.Fieldswithearrotproblemsshouldbeharvestedas soonaspossibleandhandledseparatelyfromhealthyfield,even ifitmeansharvestingthosefieldatahigher-than-usualmoisture content.Adjustthecombinetominimizedamagetothegrainand increasing the fan speed will help to remove lightweight grain anddustparticles,andasaresult,reducethelevelofmycotoxin inthegrainlot.Onceharvested,grainshouldbedrieddownto below15%moistureandstorageinacleandrybin.

28|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Minimizing the Risk of Vomitoxin in Storage Therearenocommerciallyavailabletreatmentsforreliablyreducingvomitoxininharvestedgrain.P earrotresistanthybridsisthebestapproachforreducingthediseaseandtoxincontaminationin applicationsatR1haveshownpromisingresults,butfurtherresearch Toxinlevels isneeded. canincreaseinstorageif conditionsarenotdryandcool.Warm,moistpocketsinthegrainpromotemolddevelopment,causingtheg deteriorateandtoxinlevelstoincrease.Aerationisimportanttokeepthegraindryandcool.Howev thatwhilecooltemperatures,aircirculation,andlowmoisturelevelswillminimizefungalgrowthan thesewillnotdecreasetheleveloftoxinthatwasalreadypresentingrain omitoxin goingis into very storage. stableVand willnotbereducedwithdrying.

Respiratory Alert – Harvesting and handling moldy grain may expose workers to mycotoxin and high dust concentrations Weararespiratortoprotectagainstdusty,moldyandtoxicsubstances.Therearetwotypesofdisposab choose,eithertheN95(whichfiltersout95%ofairborneparticulates)ortheN99(whichfiltersout9%ofairborne particulates). TheP10maskisformfittingandisnotdisposable.Thisstylerequiresarespiratorfittesttoensurethe disposableaircartridgestoo-erthebestprotectionagainstdusts . andmoldsintheair Neverweara1-strapmaskonthefarm,astheydonoto-erthelevelofprotectionneededinagriculturale withhighorganicparticles.

How to wear the respirators correctly MakesuretoweareitheranN95,N99orP10maskwheneverworkingindustyandmoldyenvironments,especiallyat thegrainstorageandhandlingbins. 1. Themaskshouldhaveatightfitoveryournoseandmouth,andrequirescontactwithsmooth , skin.Fac eyeglassesandcertaindentalappliancescanpreventthemaskfrommakingasealaroundyourface. 2. .Therespiratorsareavailableinmanysizesandvariousconfigurations,makingsuretheproperfitca 3. Alwaysusebothstrapstoholdthemaskinplaceandpreventairfromleakinginaroundtheedges.

When to throw out the N95 mask ConsidertheN95andN99respiratorssimilartotheairfilterinyourvehicle. 1. Whenthemaskgetscloggedbeyondacomfortablecondition,replaceitwithanewmask.Likewise,ifthei themaskbecomesdirty,disposeofit. 2. Replacemasksiftheybecomewet,tornorhavestretchedoutstraps. 3. N95andN99masksaremadetobedisposable,theycannotbecleanedordisinfected.

Therearenorecommendationsforhowmanyminutesorhoursamaskwilllastinagricultural Aface environm maskfilterisratedtoabsorbatotalmassof20mg,howeveronthefarm,thetimetoreachthislevelisnot respiratorwillbea-ectedbypersonalhygiene,breathingresistanceanddensityoftheaircontamina vary-aswilltheheat,humidityandotherenvironmentalconditionswhileperformingthejob.

Summary Highmoisturecornhasthepotentialtomoldandemitmoldsporesduringharvestorkers andstorage should period protectthemselvesfromgraindust,includingthemycotoxinsandfungi,withN95,N99orP10respirators.Singles dustmasksareworthlessinmanyagriculturalenvironments,especiallymoldygrain.

PROJECT CONTACT AgriculturalSafetyandHealthProgram ForinquiriesaboutthisarticlecontactDeeJepsen(jepsen.4@osu.edu)orLisa .6@osu. Pfeifer edu). (pfeifer

20

eBarnsReport|29


DON Reduction OBJECTIVE Assess the effect of a slant screen grain cleaner on corn vomotoxin (DON) levels.

eBarns Collaborating Farm OSUExtension CrawfordCounty

STUDY INFORMATION Crop 201Corn CleaningDate 2/301 Wind Speed 5.mph Wind Direction North Fill Speed 1,50bu/hr Treatments 3 Reps 4 Bushels 2,0

Corn pre-clean on right, screening in the middle, and clean on the right.

10inchhomemadeslant GrainCleaner Type with 1/4 inch screen

STUDY DESIGN This study was designed to look at the ability of a 1/4 inch slant screen to clean corn and reducetheDONlevelsinthecorn. Samples were pulled as the corn entered the cleaner and as it left the cleaner and was loadedinthetruck. Samples of the screening which were removed fromthecornwerealsotestedforDONlevels.

30|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Grain cleaning slant.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

OBSERVATIONS

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• Duringgraincleaningwecouldseevisualdi-erences between the sample entering the grain cleaner and exitingthegraincleaner. • Thesamplegoinginthetruckhadlessfines,broken kernels,andsmallblackkernelsinit. •

GraincleaningdidnotsignificantlylowerDON levelsinthistrial. We have seen instances where grain cleaning has lowered DON levels from the teens to single digits. In this case through the grain was already in the single digits and we were not able to lower it as muchaswewerewanting.

RESULTS DON (ppm)

Treatments CleanGrain

2.8a

Screenings

3.9a

Grain from load out

3.2a

TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erent accordingtoFisher’sProtectedLeastSignificantDi-erences(LSD)test atalpha=0.1

LSD:1.3 CV:28.7%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE DON Quick Test

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

To determine the level of DON in corn at the elevator before unloading the corn into there storage facility.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarns Report | 31


Fungicide and DON Reduction OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Evaluate the effect of foliar fungicide on corn silage yield and quality.

OSUExtension CrawfordCounty

Planting Date 5/1820 Harvest Date 9/102 Variety DeKalb57-9 Population 35,0sds/ac Acres 49 Treatments 2

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

Treatment Width 15ft. Tillage Conventional Management Fertilizer, Fungicide, Herbicide PreviousCrop Corn Row Spacing 30in. Soil Type CardingtonSilt Loam,65% TiroSiltLoam,16% Bennington Silt Loam,14%

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

Reps 3

100

Planting Date

Harvest Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

JUN

2.18

5.69

5.82

Cumulative 206 GDDs 567

12

JUL 6.30 195

2643

AUG

SEP

4.18

2.7 3156

Total 26.89 3156

STUDY DESIGN This study was designed as a randomized complete block study comparing the application of Miravas Neo fungicide utilizing undercoverdropstonofungicideapplication. The crop was harvest and silage and moisturescorrectedto65%moistureforall treatments. Samples were then submitted for laboratory analysisoffeedqualityandvomitoxin concentration. Corn silage infected with tar spot.

32|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Small Ruminant

Beef

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• Miravis Neo fungicide application on corn LowdiseasepressurewaspresentduringVTfungicide intendedforsilagehadasignificante-ecton applicationbutgrayleafspotwaspresent. yield,moisture,andvomitoxinlevels. Atcornsilageharvesttimetherewassignificanttarspot and gray leaf spot pressure the disease level ratings for • Silageyieldcorrectedto65%moisturesawa3 bothweresignificantlyhigherthoughfortheuntreated tonadvantagetofungicideapplication. control. • Thesilagewasalsosixpercentwetterwhere fungicidewasapplied. •

Therewasalsoasignificantdi-erencein vomotxoinlevelswiththeuntreatedplotsha DONlevelsof3.1whichishigherthanthe recommendation of 1 ppm for high producing dairycows.

ThetreatedplotsonlyhadDONlevelsof0.5 which is low enough for high producing dairy cowconsumption.

RESULTS Treatments

Deoxynivalenol/ Zearalenone

Fungicide applied with Undercover drops No Fungicide application

Crude Protein

0.5/9

3.1/705

NEL

aNDF

Yield Moisture (tons/ac (%) @ 65% moisture)

8.05

0.74

38.90

68.70

27.0a

7.20

0.74

38.10

62.90

24.0b

LSD:Least 2.6 TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Significant Di-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:6.2%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Lab DON Analysis

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

To assess the level of mycotoxins present in the silage. High levels of mycotoxins can cause health and productivity issues in livestock.

JasonHartschuh ExtensionEducator,CrawfordCounty hartschuh.1@osu.edu (419)562-873

20

eBarns Report | 33


Farm Business Analysis & Benchmarking OBJECTIVE Help Ohio’s farm families achieve financial success in today’s challenging marketplaces.

eBarns Collaborating Farm OSUExtension

CooperatingCounties

STUDY INFORMATION

In 201, 21 dairy farms participated in the 20 Farm Business Analysis and Benchmarking Program. Eighteen conventionallymanagedfarmswithcows 7,364 completedtheanalysismeetingallinternalaccuracychecks farms provided detailed financial and production information to complete a whole farm analysis.They a analysisoftheirdairyandcropenterprises.Herdsizerangedfrom72tomorethan1,20cows.

Dairyenterpriseresultsarereportedfortheaverageofallfarmsandthehighsorted 25% bynetreturnpe are also summarized by profitability group and by herd size. Benchmark reports are available both per c hundredweight(cwt)ofmilk. Find the full report at https://farmprofitability.osu.edu

STUDY DESIGN Technicians work directly with farms to developandcomplete: • • • • • •

Balance Sheets, cost and market valuations, beginning and end of year IncomeStatement,accrualadjusted StatementofCashFlows EnterpriseAnalysis CostofProduction Per cow, per cwt, per acre, per bushel, or per ton

Shaded counties indicate farms participating in analysis.

OBSERVATIONS

20 was expected to be the year that milk prices returned to profitable levels following five years of ver Increasing cow numbers challenged that expectation as the year began, and the COVID-19 shutdown of inst andrestaurantsinMarchslammedthatdoorshut.Thefollowingmonths’ClassIIImilkpriceswerearol alowof$12.4inMaytoahighof$24.5inJuly–whichwasnotseeninon-farmmilkchecksduetoearlierchanges toClassImilkpriceformulas.

Coronavirus Food Assistance Programs made available to farmers were critical to most farms’ bott averagenetreturnpercowof$759(Table1),thehighestinfouryears(Table2).

34|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Soybean Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

RESULTS Table Table 1. Direct and overhead costs and net returns per 2. Comparison of total cost of production per cwt and cow and per cwt, 18 Ohio dairy farms, Ohio Farm Business returnpercow,conventionalOhiodairyfarms,2017-. AnalysisProgram.

2020

Avg. of All Herds

Avg. of High 25% By Net Return

Per Cow DirectCosts

$4,07

$5,128

Direct&Overhead $4,832 Costs $5,93

Net Return

$759

$1,56

Per Hundredweight (cwt.) of Milk FeedCosts

$10.4

$10.7

TotalDirectCosts $17.60

$17.0

Direct&Overhead $19.30 Costs $18.54

Net Return

$3.0

$3.8

Milk Sold PerCow

25,036lbs.

30,164lbs.

2017 2018 2019 2020 Number of Herds

28

19

17

4 year avg.

18

Average of All Herds

Direct&Over headCOPper $18.73 $18.45 $19.30 $19.30 cwt. Net Return per $42 $155 $250 $759 cow¹ Average of High 20 – 25%² Direct&Over headCOPper $17.69 $15.48 $17.24 $18.54 cwt. Net Return per $802 $748 $897 $1,56 cow¹ $18.95

$320

$17.24 $901

¹Accrual adjusted receipts less expenses including ec depreciation.²Homeraisedfeedvaluedatcostofproduction 2019high20%,high25%sortedonnetreturnpercow.

SUMMARY • •

Averagenetreturnspercowwerepositivein20.16ofthe18enterprisesgeneratedpositivenetretur allfarmsaveraging$759percow. Netreturnswereheavilyimpactedbynon-milkincomeinThis 20. includedindemnitiesfromUSDA’sDairy MarginCoverageProgramandparticipationinCoronavirusFoodAssistancePrograms.Withoutpart oneorbothoftheseprograms,eightofthefarmswouldhaveexperiencedanaveragenetlossof$30perco with10farmsgeneratingpositivereturnsofapproximately . $325percow Overtime,netreturnsmustbepositiveandofsu-cientquantitytocoverfamilylivingneeds,prin andpayincometaxliabilities.Additionaldollarscanbeinvestedeitherinoroutsideofthefa

TOOLS OF THE TRADE 2020 Ohio Farm Business Summary Whole farm business analysis monitors overall profitability, working capital and net worth change. Enterprise analysis provides complete cost of production data to effectively inform marketing and management decisions. Personalized benchmark reports identify opportunities to control costs and increase profitability.

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,contact ChristinaPfa-(pfa-.58@osu.edu) HaleyShoemaker(shoemaker.306@osu.edu) ClintSchroeder(schroeder.307@osu.edu) DianneShoemaker(shoemaker.3@osu.edu)

20

eBarns Report | 35


Bob Veal Health OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Assess the condition of dairy calves destined for bob veal on arrival at an abattoir in Ohio, and determine risk factors for poor health outcomes.

IndustryCollaboratio WayneCounty

STUDY DESIGN

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 1/20 6 End Date 9/3201 Species “Bob”vealcalves Start Point Aprrox.1week End Point Approx.3weeks

Thiscross-sectionalcohortstudywasconductedatanabat NortheasternOhio.Asamplesizeof420calveswasselected. DatacollectiontookplacebetweenJuneandSeptember201. Bloodsamplesandclinicalhealthdatafrom420calvesacross12 cohortswerecollectedwithin2haftercalvesarrived . att Theresearchteamcompletedallclinicalhealthexaminati using a standardized health scoring system adapted from previous researchwithyoungcalves.

Treatments 0;Cross-sectionalstudy Reps 0;Cross-sectionalstudy Experimental Calf Unit Genetics Commercial Breed Variousbreeds Sex 52Bulls:48Heifers Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

201A0047 Bob Veal team.

RESULTS Health Outcome

Total Animals

Arthritis

420

Normal No. 412

%

Abnormal

98.10

(95.7,4)

95% Cl

419

395

94.30

(90.3,8)

Dehydration

420

132

31.40

(19.,430)

Depression

420

348

82.90

(78.1,6)

Diarrhea

420

356

84.0

(80.,96)

417

251

60.2

(46.,739)

36|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

%

8

Broken ribs or tail

Thin body condition

No. 24 28

16

1.90

(0.65,429) 5.73

(1.70,95)

95% Cl

68.0

(57.0,81)

72

17.0

(12.4,9)

64

15.20

(10.5,2) 39.80

(26.1,53)


Forages

Soybean Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

OBSERVATIONS

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

Themajorityofcalveswerehypoglycemic (73.9%)onarrivalattheabattoir,usingacutoof4.95mmol/L. • Inaddition,68.%wereconsidereddehydrated usingaskintenttest,39.6%hadthinbody- con Within our study population, nearly half of the calves dition,andapproximatelyoneoutofeveryfour (48.1%;20/)wereheifers. calves(25.7%)hadnavelinflammation. Breed was also a significant risk factor for thin • body Nearlyone-fourth(23.4%)ofcalveshadpoor condition.Jerseyandcrossbreedcalveswerelesslikely transferofpassiveimmunity,usingacuto-of5.1 tohaveabodyconditionscoreofcompared 0 toHolstein-g/dL. Friesiancalves. • This suggests that calves did not receive an adequatevolumeofcolostrumorcolostrumof Calves were sourced from three buying stations in New acceptablequality. York;Pennsylvania;andOhio. On arrival to the abattoir, nearly all (95.%; 401/2) calves had at least one abnormal health outcome, and 82.1% (345/20) of calves had two or more abnormal healthoutcomes.

RESULTS Health Outcome

Total Animals

Normal No.

%

Abnormal 95% Cl

No.

%

95% Cl

Failed transfer of passive immunity 419

321

76.0

(71.,85)

98

23.40

(18.5,23)

Fever

419

380

90.7

(85.,9)

39

9.310

(4.10,5)

Hypoglycemia

349

26.10

(18.7,34)

258

73.90

(6.,813)

74.30

(70.4,82)

108

25.70

(21.8,96)

89.50

(86.3,927)

10.5

(7.25,13)

Navelinflammation

420

Respiratory disease

420

91 312 1

44

¹Abnormalhealthoutcomeswereconsideredforarthritis(jointscorebroken 2),≥ ribsortail(score=de 1), skintenttest(score≥1),depression(score≥1),diarrhea(fecalscore=1),thinbodycondition(bodyconditionsc failed 1), transferofpassiveimmunity(totalproteinlevel5.1g/< dL)fever , (rectaltemperature103.°F)≥ hypoglycemia , (bloodglucoselevelmmol/ 4.95 < L)navel , inflammation(scorerespiratory 2), ≥ disease(eyes,ears,ornosescores2) ≥

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Body Condition Scoring

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

By assessing calf condition on arrival at abattoirs, we can design evidence-based interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality prior to arrival.

JessicaPempek AnimalWelfareSpecialist pempek.4@osu.edu (614)29-0

20

eBarns Report | 37


Benchmarking Dairy Calf Health OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Determine the prevalence of failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) via colostrum intake, dehydration, and disease in dairy calves on arrival to livestock dealers; also determine risk factors for poor health outcomes in surplus dairy calves.

IndustryCollaboratio Statewide

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 5/120 End Date 9/120 Species Surplus dairy calves Start Point Approx.1day End Point Approx.10days Treatments 0;Cross-sectionalstudy Reps 0;Cross-sectionalstudy Experimental Calf Unit Genetics Commercial Breed Holstein/Jersey

Example of healthy calf.

Sex 78Bulls:2Heifers Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

2019A0039

CALF HEALTH OBSERVATIONS Variable

0

1

2

3

NavelInflammation30.7 43.0 19.80 6.60 Dehydration 30.8 6.0 2.40 0.20 TwolivestockdealersinOhiowerevisited2-3 Depression 70.1 2.50 6.40 0.90 times per week between May and September Arthritis 8.90 9.70 1.20 0.20 201. Eye Discharge 81.20 12.0 5.60 1.10 Calves(n=19)were , clinicallyevaluatedon Nose Discharge 0 8 . 7 9 0 6 . 1 0.50 0.10 arrivalforsignsofnavelinflammation, - dehydra Ear Droop 0 2 . 6 9 0 7 . 2 0.30 0.90 tion, depression, arthritis, respiratory disease, Diarrhea 86.90 13.10 diarrhea,andfever. One blood sample was obtained to determine Fever 78.60 21.40 FTPI,antibodiesfromcolostrum. Percentageofcalveswithspecificscoresforeachhealthoutcome

STUDY DESIGN

evaluated; clinically relevant scores bolded in red

38|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Soybean Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

OBSERVATIONS

RESULTS

Themajorityofdairycalvesweremale826/103), (78%, and2%(37/106)werefemale.

Recommendations For Transfer of Passive Immunity

Calveswerefrom180di-erentsources.

Most calves (65%) were from dairy farms, but some Category (35%) were sourced from auctions or other livestock Excellent dealers,indicatingtheyweresoldmultipletimes.

SUMMARY

STP

Standards

>6.2g/dL

>40%

Good

5.8to6.1g/dL

~30%

Fair

5.1to5.7g/dL

~20%

Poor

<5.1g/dL

<10%

Prevalence (%)

FailedTransferofPassiveImmunity(FTPI) • 21.4%ofdairycalveshadFTPI(<5.2g/dL) Calf Serum Protein Values • 40.2%dairycalveshadfairorpoorTPI(<5.8g/ dL) Excellent (>=6.2 g/dL) Good (5.8 to 6.1 g/dL) Fair (5.1 to 5.7 g/dL) Poor (<5.1 g/dL) CalveshadloweroddsofFTPIwhen • Sourcedfromanauction/livestockdealervs.100 a dairyfarm(OR:0.45;9%CI:0.27–0.76) 90 • Bodyweight>40.8kg(OR:0.62;95%CI0.4– 0.89) 35.6 37.6 80 43.1 Conclusions 52.7 • Approximatelyoneoutofeveryfivedairycalves70 hadFTPI,with~43%havingsuboptimalTPI. 60 • LowsalebodyweightwasariskfactorforFTPI. 20.2 16.8 • Male calves were more likely to have navel 50 15.6 inflammation,eyedischarge,anddepression 40 15.8 comparedtofemalecalves. 23.2 • This research highlights the opportunity for im20.6 27.5 30 provements in surplus calf production to improve 19.6 20 health before calves enter veal or dairy beef production. 22.4 10 20.6

0

16.7

Male

Female

12.0

Dairy

Auction or Dealer

Proportion of male and female surplus calves from di-erent source poor,fair,goodandexcellentserumtotalproteinvalues.

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Health Evaluation

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

By assessing calf condition during marketing, we can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality prior to arrival at the abattoir / when calves enter “formula-fed” veal or dairy-beef industries.

JessicaPempek AnimalWelfareSpecialist pempek.4@osu.edu (614)29-0

20

eBarnsReport|39


DCAD Manure Emissions OBJECTIVE Determine the effect of decreased DCAD (not less than 0 mEq/kg DM) on milk production, dry matter intake, and manure ammonia emissions. Decreased DCAD decreases the pH of urine, therefore can potentially reduce the pH of the manure and the ammonia volatilization from manure.

CFAES Wooster OARDC WayneCounty

Mid-Lactation Diet at Various DCAD Levels DCAD Level

STUDY INFORMATION

Diet Composition (%) CornSilage

Start Date 7/1420

Start Point 95±17DIM End Point 137±DIM Treatments 3 Reps 9blocks Experimental Head Unit Genetics Commercial Breed Holstein

53.10

6.2

6.2

6.2

9.68

9.43

9.18

13.60

13.0

TraceMineralMix

13.0

0.7

MegAnion

0.7

0.7 1.6

2.3

0

Urea

0.48

Soy hulls

Low

53.10

CornGrain SoybeanMeal,48%

Medium

53.10

AlfalfaSilage

End Date 9/201 Species Dairy

High

0.24 1.0

0 10.8

10.6

Fat

2.31

2.31

2.31

Vit-MinMix

2.56

2.41

2.6

*Fedwithaimof3%refusal

Sex Cow Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

A20195

STUDY DESIGN Dietarycation-aniondi-erence(DCAD)of therationfedtocowsa-ectsproductionand healthofdairycows. 27cowswerefedanadjustmentdietfor1 weekpriortoexperimentaltreatments. Cowswerefedexperimentaldietsfor6weeks. Productionandintakewasmonitored. Feces and urine were collected during the last 3 days in spot sampling and incubated for 5 daystomeasuregasoutput.

40|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Krauss Dairy CFAES Wooster.


Forages

Soybean Dairy

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Beef

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

All diets resulted in lower milk fat percentage • Decreasing than DCADfrom193mEq/kgDMdidnot expected. reduceoverallammoniaemissionssignificantly eventhoughurineandmanurepHwassignifi The milk fat decrease is potentially attributed to a greater cantly reduced. than expected concentration of linoleic acid in the diet, • Milk fat yield and energy corrected milk had a leading to biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in tendencytodecreasewithdecreasingDCAD, diet-inducedmilkfatdepression. but dry matter intake and total milk yield were Manure ammonia emission was not decreased as una-ected. expected.Apossibleexplanationforthisresultisthehigh fecaltourineratio,thusincreasingthebu-eringcapacity ofthemanure. Total milk production decreased numerically, which is why milk protein content appears to be increased, but overall milk protein yield was not di-erent among treatments. It waslikelyadilutione-ect.

RESULTS Response Variable

High

Medium

Low

SEM

Linear p-Value

Quadratic p-Value

DMI, kg/d

23.0

23.10

2.40

0.65

0.24

0.71

Milk Production, kg/d

39.80

40.5

37.80

1.2

0.16

0.21

MilkFat,%

2.34

2.35

0.18

0.41

0.58

3.0

3.05

3.14

0.4

0.3

0.7

8.5

8.3

6.72

0.18

<0.1

7.5

7.40

6.9

0.15

<0.1

MilkProtein,%

2.5

Urine pH, at incubation Manure pH, start of incubation CumulativeAmmonia, g/cow Milk fat, kg/d Milk Protein, kg/d

35.80

3.60 1.0

30.8

1.2

0.46

2.75

0.16

0.89

0.86

0.5

0.8

0.6

1.6

0.3

0.7

0.21

0.9 1.8

<0.1

PvaluesP≤0.5indicatestatisticallysignificantdi-erencesbetweenhigh,medium,andlowtreatments.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Manure Incubators Manure incubation was used in this experiment to collect the gases coming off the surface of the manure. Air collection bags were changed every 24 hr over the course of 5 days.

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con Haley Zynda ExtensionEducator,WayneCounty zynda.7@osu.edu

20

eBarns Report | 41


DDGs Digestibility OBJECTIVE Comparison of milk production among cows fed a soybean meal-based diet (CON), a high-protein corn distillers grain diet (DG), or a high-protein corn distillers with yeast diet (DGY). We also sought to evaluate manure characteristics and gas emissions from manure. In addition, we also made observations of the effect of DCAD and DDG on production.

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 10/29 End Date 1/20 Species Dairy Start Point 98±17DIM End Point 143 DIM Treatments 4 Reps 10 Experimental Head Unit Genetics Commercial Breed Holstein Freisan Sex Cows Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

2019A0026

CFAES Wooster OARDC WayneCounty

Mid-Lactation Diet at Various DM Levels Percent DM Diet Composition

CON

CornSilage 43.0 Grass/Legume Silage 9.70 GroundCorn 15.20 SB Meal 10.7 Soyplus 4.20 Cottonseed,whole5.10 Urea 0.21 DDG 0 DDG w/ Yeast 0 Soy hulls 8.10 Fat 1.20 TM Salts 0.71 Limestone 0.96 Dical Phosphate 0.42 Mag-Ox 0.4 Mag Sulfate 0.1 Coppersulfate 0.2 PotassiumCl 0.8 Potassium 0 Carbonate Sodium Bicarb 0

DG 43.0

DG-Y

DG-DCAD

43.0

43.0

9.70

9.70

17.80

9.70

17.80

17.0

0.4

0.4

0.4

0

0

0

5.10

5.10

5.10

0.21

0.21

0.21

20.

0 0

20.

20.

0

0

0 0

0 0

0

0.71

0.71

0.71

1.23

1.23

1.23

0.42

0.42

0.42

0.12

0.12

0.12

0

0

0.3

0

0.3 0.85

0.3 0.85

0

0

0

0.73

0

0

0.23

STUDY DESIGN 40lactatingHolsteincowswereblockedby parity, DIM, and milk yield and randomly assignedto1of4treatments. Cowswereontrialfor6.5weeks:10daysof covariate,2weeksofadaptation,and3weeks ofexperimentalobservations. Therewere10blocksof4cowseach. Thestudywassplitinto2phasesbecauseof space constraints; therefore, 5 blocks were usedforeachphase. Milk production, feed intake, digestibility, and manure characteristics were all observed and recorded.

42|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Milk Bulk Tank, Krauss Dairy.


Forages

Soybean Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• Dry matter intake and total milk yield tended to decrease withdistiller’sgrainsincludedat20%ofthediet.

IncludingDDGat20%ofthediettendedto decrease milk yield and milk fat yield but did not a-ectDMI. NDF digestibility also tended to decrease with the addition • Using DDG with yeast was observed to have no of distillers’ grains, therefore a possible explanation for beneficiale-ect. decreasedmilkyieldandmilkfatproduction. • IncreasingtheDCADofaDDGdietisrecom UrinepHdecreasedwiththeinclusionofdistillers’ grains mended toalleviatesomee-ectoftheDDG, because of their increased sulfur content (sulfur/sulfate suchamilkfatyield. actsasananion)anddecreasedtheDCADofthediet. • However,digestibilitywasnota-ected byin creasing the DCAD of a DDG diet. Elevated DCAD even with the distillers’ grains did not • In regard to manure characteristics, increasing alleviatethedigestibilitye-ectsofthedistillers grains. concentration of DDG in the diet increases hydrogensulfideemissionsfrommanurebecause ofincreasedsulfurexcretion.

RESULTS Response Variable

CON

DMI, kg/d 24.0 Milk yield, kg/d 42.0 Milkfat,% 3.65 Milk fat, kg/d 1.5a Milkprotein,% 3.14ab Milk protein, kg/d 1.3 Drymatterdigestibility,% 67.10a NDFDigestibility,% 4.60a Urine pH, at incubation 8.46a Manure pH, at incubation 7.16a Cumulativeammonia,g/cow 40.7 Cumulativehydrogensulfide,g/cow59.0

DGDCAD

DG

DGY

SEM

p-Value

24.

23.80

24.

0.56

0.9

39.

39.50

40.2

0.78

0.6

.153 1.24b 3.18 a

.473 1.43ab 3.06b 1.2 63.1b 38.0b 8.46a 6.80 ab 45.70

0.17

0.17 0.8

0.3 0.4

0.9

1.26 62.0b 37.10 b 7.58b 6.2b 41.70

.283 1.27b 3.16 a 1.25 63.0 b 37.80 b 7.89b 6.47b 46.30

891.0

937.0

741.0

0.3

0.7 0.81

<0.1 1.58

<0.1 0.12

<0.1 0.15

0.2 4.81

0.5

193.0

0.36

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.1

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Manure Gas Collection Manure was incubated using an air flow and collection bag system. Air was drawn into collection bags for 30 seconds every 30 minutes over 5 days. Collection bags were replaced every 24 hours.

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con Haley Zynda ExtensionEducator,WayneCounty zynda.7@osu.edu

20

eBarns Report | 43


Ticks Introduction

Ticks and the diseases that they vector to livestock, companion animals and humans have become an increasingly larger public health risk. There are five tick species of medical importance in Ohio theAmerican Dog tick, the Black Legged or Deer tick, the Lone Star tick, the Gulf Coast tick and theA Longhornedtick.

Acommon misconception is that ticks are only active in the spring and summer. While ticks are more inAprilthroughSeptember,tickshaveamulti-yearlifecycle,andcanbeencounteredanymonthofthe Ticks hatch from eggs as larvae, then as they feed and mature, they progress through their life cycl becoming a nymph then an adult, feeding from multiple hosts in this process and it can take two to three years tofullycompletethisprocessdependingontheirspecies.Tickshuntviaquesting,wheretheticku twopairsoflegstoholdontovegetationanditsfronttwopairsoflegstograbpreyasitwalkspast

Types The American Dog Tick prefers a more open The Gulf Coast Tick has recently become habitat including pasture, meadows, and lawns. established in southwestern Ohio. This tick is This tick is a prominent vector of Rocky Mountain worrisome as it has the potential to vector the SpottedFeverandTularemia. zoonotic disease, Leptospirosis, to multiple species.This is tick prefers an open environment The Black Legged or Deer Tick prefers to includingmeadows,pasture,andlawns. liveinwoodedhabitat.Thistickisthe - primaryvec tor for Lyme disease plus can also vector Babesia, The Asian Longhorned Tick is an invaAnaplasmosisandviraldisease. sivetickthatwasrecentlyidentifiedinOhioin This 20. tickisuniqueinthatitreproduces The Lone Star Tick is an aggressive feeder via parthenogenesis, meaning the female does andpreferswoodedhabitat.Thistickis - thenot report need a male to breed, allowing it to produce edcausativeagentfortheAlpha-galor - Mammaextremenumbersofticksonitshost.Thistick lianMuscleAllergyreactionwherepersonwho has the ability to vector disease to cattle as well has an allergic reaction when bitten can become ascausemortalitythroughfeeding. allergictomeatincludingbeef,pork,andvenison.

Black Legged or Deer Tick (IxodesScapularis)

4|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Lone Star Tick (AmblyommaAmericanum)


Forages

Dairy

Small Ruminant

Beef

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Prevention Strategies List – A Personal and Family Bio-security Plan •

Wearlightcoloredlongsleeve/longpantclothingwhenenteringtickhabitat.

Makesuretowearpermethrintreatedclothinganduserepellentsaslabeledforprevention read,understand,andfollowalllabelinstructions.

Talktoyourveterinarianaboutwhatproductsyoucanuseforyouranimals.

Engorged Deer Tick.

Proper Tick Removal.

Proper Tick Removal •

Doathoroughtickcheckafterexitingtickhabitatandwhen . youshower

Familiarizeyourselfwiththeproperremovalmethodsforembeddedticks:

Usepointytweezersoratickremovaltook.

Graspthetickasclosetoyourskinaspossible.

Gentlybutfirmlypullstraightuptoremovethetick.

Thendisinfectthebitesiteandwashyourhandswith. soapandwater

Savethetickforidentification.

Contactyourphysicianifyouhaveremovedanembeddedtickorsuspectdisease.

Outreachonticksforpublichealthsupportedbyagrant NIFA2017635 fromUSDA

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,co TimothyS.McDermott ExtensionEducator,FranklinCounty AmericanDogTick (DermacentorVariabilis)

mcdermott.15@osu.edu

AsianLonghornedTick (HaemaphysalisLongicornis) (614)-297

20

eBarns Report | 45


Corn Processing OBJECTIVE

Eastern Ag Research Station

Determine the effect of corn processing on growth and intramuscular fat deposition in feedlot cattle.

OARDC NobleCounty

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 4/52017

CARCASS RESULTS Response Variable

End Date 12/07 Species Beef Start Point Age

WSC

CC

%USDAQualityGrade

End Point Days on Feed Treatments 2 Reps 4 Experimental Pen Unit Genetics Commercial Breed AngusCrossbreed Sex EqualSteer:Heifer Health Protection Asneeded

Choice 48.65

52.98

Prime 25.4

18.09

HotCarcassWeight

765.0

Dressing Percent

761.0 60.2 86.43

94.8 13.48

14.0

%USDAYieldGrade1-3

59.0

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

RibeyeArea

2016A002

WSC: Whole Shelled Corn CC: Cracked Corn

STUDY DESIGN The study was designed to see if using whole shelledcornincreasesintramuscular fat(mar bling)depositioninfeedlotcattle. BackgroundedAngus-crosscattle(initialbody weight[BW]=613±2lbs)wereusedina feedlotsettingforanaverageof230days. Cattlewereallottedin12pens(6pensper treatmentwith8animalsperpen)Treatments . were1)crackedcornCCor2)wholeshelled cornWSC. Cattle on feed at the Eastern Ag Research Station.

46|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

The transition to the feedlot diet occurred using a two- dailygainandfinalBWweresimilar, • Average rationblend. regardlessoftreatment. • forage CattlefedCChadreduceddrymatterintake After being adapted to the finishing concentrate, (DMI)whencomparedwiththosefedWSC. inclusionwasgraduallyreduced. • ThislesserDMIresultedinimprovedgain:feed Afterthediettransitionperiod,feedo-eredwasgradually ratioforcattlefedCCcomparedwithcattlefe increased. Bunks were observed daily and feed o-ered WSC. wasincreased(DM 5% basis)ifbunkswerecleandays 2 • Therewasnoe-ectofcornprocessingonhot inarow. carcass weight, dressing percentage, or marAheifer on the WSC and a steer on the CC diet did notblingscore. adapt to the feeding system and were removed from the experimentwithintheadaptationperiod. Cattle were individually weighed on days 0, 14 28, and 56and,then,every28dduringthetrialuntilthelastday ofthetrial.

PERFORMANCE RESULTS Response Variable

Whole Shelled Corn

BodyWeight(lbs)

192.

184.09

ADG(lbs/day) DMI(lbs/day) Gain:Feed(lb:lb) IntramuscularFat%

Cracked Corn

2.94

2.91

1 20.

18.76

0.128a

0.145b

8.30a

7.81b

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Grow Safe Feeding System

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

The Grow Safe system by reading the animals RFID tag is able to track feed intake throughout the day. This system provides valuable feed intake information at an individual animal level.

AlejandroE.Relling AssociateProfessor,OARDCAnimal Sciences relling.1@osu.edu (30)26-9

20

eBarns Report | 47


Feeding Time x Corn Processing OBJECTIVE

CFAES Wooster

Evaluate the effect of oscillating time of feeding and grain corn processing on growth and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

OARDC WayneCounty

STUDY INFORMATION

STUDY DESIGN

The study was designed to see if the use of whole shelled corn would help to prevent digestive problems when feeding timewasinaonando-schedule. Onehundredsixty-fivesteers(initialbodyweight[BW] 609.8±12lbs)wereblockedbyinitialBWandallottedto 24 pens. Pens within each block were randomly assigned based on a 2×factorialarrangementoftreatments. ThetwofactorswereCoP(wholeshelledcornvs.ground corn[GC])andfeedingtime(FT)(constantFTvs.2hours OFT). Animalswerefedthesamediet,onlychangingtheCoP methoddependingonthetreatment. Feedo-eredandfeedrefusalswerecollecteddaily. Bodyweightwascollectedatstartingdayoftheexperime (day1)andevery28daysuntiltheendoftheexperiment. Attheendoftheexperiment,animalswereharvestedina commercial slaughter facility, and carcass data were collectedbyaUSDAgrader.

Start Date 8/1206 End Date 6/15207 Species Beef Start Point 609.8±12lbs End Point 0.5in.ofBackFat Treatments 4 Reps 6 Experimental Pen Unit Genetics Commercial Breed AngusCrossbreed Sex Steer Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

2015A013 0

CARCASS RESULTS Response Variable HotCarcassWeight

CONT-GC 751.30

745.80

Back Fat RibeyeArea Marbling

CONT-WSC

OFT-GC 761.20

0.58

OFT-WSC 754.60

0.6

0.6

0.62

12.46

12.4

12.65

12.39

734.0a

712.80a

675.80b

715.0a

CONT,constantfeedingtime;CoP,maine-ectofcornprocessing;FT,maine-ectoffeedingtime;GC,groundcorn;OFT,oscillatingfeedingtime; WSC,wholeshelledcorn. Marblingscorescale:marbling40–490=slight,50–590=small,60–690=modest,70–790=moderate,80–890=slightlyabundant. Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

48|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

Steers in this study were not implanted or backgrounded • Feedingtimedidnota-ectcarcasscharacterist foraperiodoftimebeforeenteringthefinishingphase. • Marbling score tended to decrease (CoP × ChangingFTmightbeafactorthatstresses theani FT interaction; P = 0.8) due to a decrease in mals; however, providing enough feed without drastic intramuscular fat deposition in the GC-OFT changesinDMImightmakeupforthee-ectofchang cattle compared with the cattle in the other three ingFTinaprogrammedandsystematicmanner. treatments. There is little data on feeding behavior and animal • Oscillating feeding system tends to decrease growth. marbling score when corn is processed, but not Inconsistent feeding behavior has been associated whenitisfedasWSC. with decreases in growth rate, and an increased risk of • Inconclusion,a2-houroscillationinFTmightnot ruminalacidosis. decreasesteerfeedlotperformance.Thismaybe due to the high degree of control of DMI with feed bunkmanagement.

PERFORMANCE RESULTS Response Variable BodyWeight(lbs)

CONT-GC 1235.08

124.90

ADG(lbs/day) DMI(lbs/day) Gain:Feed(lb:lb)

CONT-WSC

1254.83

3.09

3.16

19.85 0.16

OFT-WSC

1258.

1 3. 20.

OFT-GC

3.7

0.16

19.5

20.63 0.16

0.16

CONT-GC:Steersfedatthesametimewithadietofgroundcorn CONT-WSC:Steersfedatthesametimeadietwithwholeshelledcorn OFT-GC:Steersfedattheosculatingfeedingtime(2-hdi-erence)adietwithgroundcorn OFT-WSC:Steersfedattheosculatingfeedingtime(2-hdi-erence)adietwithwholeshelledcorn

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE USDA Beef Carcass Grading USDA beef carcass grades are based off of the percentage of intramuscular fat within the ribeye (longissimus dorsi) between the 12th and 13th rib. Quality grades are used to help predict consumer eating satisfaction of beef. The grading card shown is a marbling score of Modest 0, Average Choice.

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con AlejandroE.Relling AssociateProfessor,OARDCAnimal Sciences relling.1@osu.edu (30)26-9

20

eBarnsReport|49


Feeding Time x Diet Formation OBJECTIVE

CFAES Wooster

Evaluate the effect of oscillating time of feeding and diet formulation on growth and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

STUDY INFORMATION STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 8/1520 End Date 6/120 Species Beef Start Point 617.3±92lbs End Point 0.5in.ofBackFat Treatments 3 Reps 8 Experimental Pen Unit Genetics Commercial Breed AngusCrossbred Sex Steer Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

2015A013 0

OARDC WayneCounty

CARCASS RESULTS Response Variable

CONT

HotCarcassWeight 72.40

OFT 732.10

Back Fat

%LowChoiceor Greater USDAYieldGrade

734.50

0.45

RibeyeArea Marbling

ODF

0.48

12.70

0.5

12.90

567.0

12.70

56.0 83.90

564.0

2.67

84.0 2.69

76.0 2.84

Marbling score scale: marbling 40–490 = slight, 50–590 = small, 60–690 = modest,70–790=moderate,80–890=slightlyabundant. Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

STUDY DESIGN Atotalof168steers(initialBW617.3±92lbs) wereblockedbyinitialBWinto2BWblockgroups andallottedto24pens,resultinginpensofsteers ineachblockthathadsimilarinitialBW(56.± 0.41and68±1.32lbsforlightandheavyBW blocks,respectively).Penswithineachblockwere thenrandomlyassignedandequallydistributedto1 of3treatments:(1)controldiet(CONT),animalsin this group received the same diet at the same time ofdayeachday;(2)oscillatingfeedingtime(OFT), theseanimalsreceivedthesamedietastheCONT, but they were fed 1 hour earlier on odd numbered days and 1 hour later on even numbered days; and (3)oscillatingdietformulation(ODF),theseanimals received the diet at the same time everyday, but diet formulationchangeddaily. Individually housed feedlot research at Wooster Beef Animalperformance(BW,DMI,andG:F)was Research Center. measuredover16to174days.Attheendofthe experiment,steerswereweighedandslaughtered, andcarcasscharacteristicswereevaluated.

50|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

OBSERVATIONS

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• Despite one of the treatments being oscillating Despite that there is general concern that feeding time feeding times, the oscillating diet formulation and mixing accuracy are indispensable to increase group was fed at a di-erent time (2 hours later) feedlot productivity, slight changes in feeding time and than the control group, however there were no diet composition, in systems with slick bunk management, di-erences among groups for performance or maynotdecreasefeedlotperformance. carcass characteristics Moreresearchisneededtoestablishthemaximumdaily • SteersonCONTshowperformanceandcarcass variation in nutrient concentration and feeding time with characteristicsimilartowhatwasexpectedfo di-erent types of diets in which animal performance is thistypeofdiet. notcompromised. • Bunk management can a-ect performance, carcass characteristic, and production e-cien offeedlotcattle. • Therewasnotreatmente-ectdi-erenceforany variable. • Small daily nutrient or feed delivery timing variationsdonota-ectperformanceandcarcass characteristics when whole corn is fed to feedlot cattle.

PERFORMANCE RESULTS Response Variable BodyWeight(lbs)

Control 1243.6

Gain:Feed(lb:lb)

Oscillating Diet Formulation (ODF)

1256.8

ADG(lbs/day) FeedIntake(lbs/day)

Oscillating Feeding Time (OFT)

1256.8

3.68

3.7

21.43

3.7

2.01 0.17

21.74 0.17

0.17

Control:Steerswerefedthesamedietatthesametimeeveryday OFT:Steersfedthesamedietasthecontroldietbuttheywerefed1hourearlierontheodddaysandonehourlaterontheevend ODF:Steersfedatthesametimeeveryday,butnutrientcompositionchangeddaily.TheaveragenutrientcompositionoftheONCwa ofthecontrol,but10%(asfedbases)DDGSwasaddedontheevendaysand10%(asfedbases)removedontheodddays.

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE TMR Mixing Wagon

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Mixing wagons are useful tools to deliver a total mixed ration daily. This method of feeding ensures that each bite the animal takes is uniform in composition.

AlejandroE.Relling AssociateProfessor,OARDCAnimal Sciences relling.1@osu.edu (30)26-9

20

eBarns Report | 51


Delayed Lamb Weaning OBJECTIVE

CFAES Wooster

Evaluate the effects of alternative weaning strategies on lamb growth and health when placed on pastures known to be infected with parasites.

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 7/82015 End Date 9/2015 Species Sheep Start Point 60days End Point 120days Treatments 4 Reps 3 Experimental Pasture/Paddock Unit

OARDC WayneCounty

FECAL EGG COUNT DATA Fecal Egg Pasture Count, Control eggs/g Actual d28 d42 d56 Estimated d28 d42 d56

Ewe

5.a 7.0 a 8.3 a

Social Feedlot SEM¹ Facilitator Control

5.2ab 6.a 7.3a

234.7 1470.3

4.2b 4.9 b 5.2 b

124.3 725.1

4013.9

1086.

17.3

4.9ab 7.4a 7.8a

0.4 0.39 0.46

56.7 124.3

-

2430.6

17.3

-

-

162.0

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

Genetics Commercial Breed HampshirexDorsetand Su-olkxDorsetCross bred lambs Sex 36ewelambs: 36wetherlambs Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

2015A0061

STUDY DESIGN

Ewe and lamb pair on pasture/paddock.

72crossbredlambsand27Dorsetbasedewesweregrazedduringthesummerof2015fromJulytoSeptemberatthe OARDCSmallRuminantResearchUnit.Lambswereweanedatanindustryaverageof60daysofageandplacedinon offourtreatments.Eachtreatment,controloftraditionalweaningonpasture,lambslefton-ewe,lamb tator,andlambsweanedintofeedlotwasreplicatedthreetimesandhadsixlambsperreplicate.Anim monitoredevery14daysoverthecourseofthegrazingperiodtodeterminelambgrowthandaveragedailyg Additionally,healthparameterswerecollectedevery14daysusingFAMACHA©eyescoresaswellasfecaland samples.Fecalsampleswereusedtodeterminethenumberofparasiticeggsbeingdepositedbyeachlamb eggs/gramoffecalmaterial.Bloodsampleswereprocessedtodetermineanemiastatususingameasurem cellvolume(PCV-monitorsproportionofredbloodcellsandplasmainabloodsample).Foragesampleswere tomonitorforagequantityandquality.

52|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• Delay weaned lambs demonstrated an overall Delayed weaning did not compromise future ewe greaterfinalBWandADG. reproductive performance as delayed weaned ewes re• Lambsweanedtopastureat60daysofage bred during the scheduled breeding period and remained demonstrateddecreasedgrowthrates(i.e.,BW productivewithintheflock. andADG)andincreasedsignsofparasitic - infec Grazing was cut short because of a decrease in forage tion(i.e.,FEC). drymatteravailability. • Prolonging weaning in parasitized pastures had Parasite treatment was deemed necessary when lambs positivegrowthandhealthbenefitsforpastur demonstratedaPCVvalueof21%orless.

RESULTS Pasture Control

Ewe

Social Facilitator

Feedlot

SEM

BW, lbs. d28

50.b

5.8a

49.8b

42.1c

1.87

d42

54.0b

6.8a

5.1b

50.3b

1.87

d56

54.2b

69.4a

5.3bc

60.2c

1.87

d28

0.18ab

0.3a

0.15ab

0.9b

0.8

d42

0.29b

0.79a

0.37bc

0.6ac

0.8

d56

0.2b

0.18b

0.2b

0.71a

0.8

ADG, lbs./day

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Rising Plate Meter

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

A rising plate meter is an excellent tool to quickly estimate forage dry matter production. This tool is only used for grass-based pastures and does require some calibtation that can be easily done using a forage square.

BradyCampbell StateSmallRuminantExtension Specialist campbell.1279@osu.edu (30)26-5

20

eBarns Report | 53


Fall Lambs & Annual Forages OBJECTIVE

Eastern Ag Research Station

Investigate the effect of annual forages on the growth and parasite resilience of growing, fall-born lambs.

Start Date 1/5209

NobleCounty

WEATHER SUMMARY

End Date 12/309 Species Sheep Precipitation (in)

Start Point 60days End Point 120days Treatments 3 Reps 3

1.4

60

1.2

50

1

40

0.8

30

0.6

20

0.4

10

0.2

Experimental Pasture/Paddock Unit

0

Genetics Commercial

0

Breed DorsetandSu-olkx DorsetCrossbredlambs Sex 27ewelambs: 27wetherlambs Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

Average Air Temperature (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

OARDC

Date Precipitation (in)

Average Air Temperature (°F)

Average Daily Precipitation and Temperature Summary from the Eastern Agricu ResearchStation:November5,2019toDecember31,209.

2017A0029

STUDY DESIGN 54 fall born lambs were grazed on one of three pastures(oat,turnip,stockpiledpasture)atthe EasternAgriculturalResearchStation.Lambs grazedfor56daysasenvironmentalconditions andforagequalitycouldnolongersupportanimal growth.Lambbodyweightwascollectedevery14 days to determine lamb growth and average daily gain(ADG). Additionally,lambparasitestatuswasmonitored every14daysbycollectingFAMACHA©eye scoresaswellasfecalandbloodsamples.Fecal samples were used to determine the number of parasitic eggs being deposited by each lamb in termsofeggs/gramoffecalmaterial.Blood - sam ples were processed to determine anemia status usingameasurementofPCV.Foragesamples werecollectedtomonitorforagequantityand quality.

54|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Eastern Agricultural Research Station lambs grazing.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Small SUMMARY • Lambs Ruminant Average ambient air temperature over the course of grazing turnips had the greatest BW and OBSERVATIONS

ADGwhencomparedwithlambsgrazingoats the grazing experiment varied from 5 to 2°F. Oats will experience winter kill at temperatures of 28.5°F. Asandstockpiledpasture. • Oat and stockpiled pasture lambs had similar showninFigureoats 1, experiencedtemperaturesbelow bodyweightandaveragedailygain. thisthresholdonthreeseparateoccasions. • Lambparasiteresiliencedidnotdi-erbetween As a result, forage quality decreased rapidly, further foragetreatmentgroups. contributing to decreased growth rates shown with oat • Overall, in ambient temperatures above freezing grazedlambs. (32°F),annualforagesserveasaviablealter Interestingly, brassicas (i.e., turnips) did not experience nativetoextendthegrazingseasonasthese winter kill as the lower threshold for this forage species forages retain high nutritive value in inclement is 21°F, which was not experienced during the winter weatherconditions. grazingperiod. Nolambsrequiredparasitetreatmentinthisexperiment. Two lambs from oat pastures were removed from the studyduetoreasonsunrelatedtograzingtreatments.

RESULTS Turnip Body weight, lbs. d28 d42 d56 ADG, lbs./day d28 d42 d56 Overall ADG, lbs./day

Oat

Stockpiled

SEM 2.51

0.26 64.2a 6.1 a

6.95 54.b 5.1 b

5.8 56.2b 57.1 b

0.48a 0.28 a 0.15

0 .19b -0.17c 0.5

0.27b 0.3 b 0.6

0.4

0.5 0.24a

0.3b

0.7b

Withinarow,meanswithoutacommonsuperscriptletterdi-er,P-value<0.5

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Flexinet Portable electric netted fencing used to subdivide pastures into grazing paddocks. Great for rotational grazing and easy to use.

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

campbell.1279@osu.edu

BradyCampbell StateSmallRuminantExtension Specialist (30)26-5

20

eBarns Report | 55


Soy Hulls & Lambs OBJECTIVE

Eastern Ag Research Station

Evaluate the use of soybean hulls as a fiber source for finishing lambs in feedlot conditions, comparing with a hay diet.

OARDC NobleCounty

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date MD/DD/201 Start Date 6/1209 End Date MD/DD/201 End Date 9/120 Breed/Genetics Species Sheep SexM:F 0: Start Point 65lbs Total Headage 0 End Point 89daysonfeed Treatments 0 Treatments 2 Reps 0 Reps 5 Start Point 0 Experimental Pen End Point Unit Management Genetics Commercial

Harvested Breed DorsetCrossbreed Row Spacing Sex Wethers Soil Type Soil Type,(52%) Health Protec tion As needed SoilType,(23%) FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

DIET COMPOSITION Percent in DM Basis Soy Hulls Diet

Hay Diet

GroundCorn

62.0

62.0

Soybean Meal

1.0

1.0

Soy Hulls

24.10

-

Grass Hay

-

CrudeProtein NDF

14.85

14.9

1 2.

20.7

24.10

2018A0031

STUDY DESIGN Toconducttheexperiment60wetherswere hosedin12pens,with5wethersperpen,and wereassignedtoeitheroneoftwodiets. Thefirstdietconsistedofanenergy,protein, mineral, and vitamin concentrate pellet fed at 76%andsecond-cutgrasshayfedat24% tothetotaldiet.Theseconddietwassimilar, but instead of using hay, soybean hulls pellets wereusedasafibersource. To guarantee that both groups had the same ratio of concentrate to forage, the hay was individually weighed every day and fed based onthepreviousdaysfeedintake.

56|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Market lambs at the Eastern Ag Research Station.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Small SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

Ruminant • These results

demonstrate that there are no di-erences in animal performance when comparing thefibersourcesofhaytosoyhulls. • Afterreviewingtheanimalperformanceparameters, therewerenodi-erencesinlambfinalbodyweight, Therefore, those lambs that were o-ered soy averagedailygain,orgaintofeedratio. hulls required more feed (0.1 lbs./head/day) on • Inaddition,althoughnotsignificantlydi-erent,lamb adailybasis. o-eredsoyhullstendedtohaveagreaterdrymatter This may not seem like much, but when feeding intake when compared to those lambs that were 10 head per day, that adds up to 10 extra o-eredhay. poundsoffeedneededperday.Again,notalarge increase of feed needed, but an increase none theless. It was noted that there was a tendency for lambs that consumed soy hulls to have a greater dry matter intake when compared to lambs consuminghay.

RESULTS Hay FinalWeight(lbs)

86.0

Soybean Hulls 86.0

ADG(lbs/day)

0.36

0.38

DMI(lbs/day)

3.40

3.50

1 0.

1 0.

Gain:Feed(lb:lb)

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

PROJECT CONTACT

Soybean Hulls Soybean hulls are a by-product of the extraction of oil from soybean seeds. The beans are then cracked, and their hulls, which mainly consist of the outer coats, are removed. Hulls are fibrous materials with no place in human food, but are very valuable for ruminants.

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con AlejandroE.Relling relling.1@osu.edu or BradyCampbell campbell.1279@osu.edu

20

eBarns Report | 57


Conservation Browsing Using Goats OBJECTIVE

Pomerene Forest Lab

To describe the variation in browse quality of woody understory vegetation in an invaded oak-hickory forest and evaluate evidence for differences in browse selection based on vegetation composition and availability and browsing pressure.

OARDC CoshoctonCounty

STUDY DESIGN STUDY INFORMATION Start Date July20 End Date August20 Species Goats Start Point Day 1 End Point Day 14 Treatments 3 Reps 6 Experimental Plot Unit Genetics Commercial Breed BoerCrossbred Sex Does Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum

Totalvegetationbiomasssmallerthansixandahalffeet estimatedin19browsingplots.Vegetationwasidentifiedby thegenusorspecieslevel.EightfemaleBoercrossbredgoa were selected for the conservation grazing and twelve plots wereassignedtoeitherhighorlowbrowsingpressures.Ah browsingpressure(equivalentto412goatdays/acre)was implementedasabrowsingperiodoffourdaysina3,80ft2 circleusingeightgoats,whilealowbrowsingpressure (equ alentto206goatdays/acre)hadthesamenumberofanimals andarea,butthebrowsingperiodlastedonlytwodays.The remainingsixplotswereassignedtomechanical- clearing ing plant species and direct observations of goat behavior and bite-size,thespeciesconsumedbythegoatswerequantifie usinga“bitecategory”methodology.Browsedplantspecies were then collected for nutritional analysis with a commercial foragelaboratory.Usingvegetationbiomassandplantspe composition, the browsing plots were clustered and named usingthemostabundantspecies.Theamountofbite-size wasquantifiedtomeasurethebrowseintakebygoatsanda indexknownasthe“JacobselectivityIndex”wasimplement to estimate goat preference for various plant species using the total biomass present before conservation grazing and the biomassremovedbythegoats.

Section of wooded area in grazing plot.

58|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Goats during grazing period.


Forages

Dairy

Beef

OBSERVATIONS

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Small Ruminant

Themostabundantspeciesintheforestunderstorywerethenativeshrubspicebush(Linderabenzo species multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), privet (Ligustrum spp.), and oriental bittersweet (Celastrus browsed plots, four browse clusters were identified: multiflora-bittersweet, spicebush, privet-spic privet.Spicebushhadthehighestproteinandlowestaciddetergentfiber(ADF)neutral , detergentfibe Total sugar content (NSC) and lignin were highest for the privet. Mineral content was similar among spicebushpresentedhighconcentrationsofMnandZn,andorientalbittersweetwasrichinFe.

Themostabundantvegetationwasalsothemostconsumedbiomass(multiflorarose,spicebush,privet,a Goats consumed a similar amount of spicebush compared to multiflora, even when spicebush biomass wa variability of biomass intake and preference were observed based on browse clusters. The preferen generallypositiveforprivetandspicebushwithnosignificantvariationbetweenthebrowseclus trendingpreferenceforprivetandmultifloraroseduringdaysand 3 (high 4 pressure)comparedtoand 1 . (low 2 pr

SUMMARY • • • •

Plantspeciesandbrowseclusterswerebetterpredictorsofselectionthanbrowsingpressur Goatsappearedtoselectbiomassbasedoncomplextrade-o-sbetweentheamountofavailablevege physicalcharacteristicsofthespecies(e.g.thorns),and nutritional theplants’ content. Forgreatercontrolofinvasivespeciesbygoats(e.g.,multiflorarose),ahighbrowsingpressure - should ered. Despitethehighconsumptionofmultiflorarose,thegoatsgenerallyavoidedthatspecies.

RESULTS

Di-erencesinbrowseselectivitybetween(b)species×browsingdayirrespectiveofbrowseclusters.Pointsrepresentindividu whiskersindicate95%confidenceinterval.Lettersindicate <0.5)di-erences significant species. (P

TOOLS OF THE TRADE

PROJECT CONTACT

Electronet

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Portable electric fencing and a solar charging station. Implementing this set-up in your invaded woodlot would likely be more successful using a battery-powered fencing charger as sunlight required for solar charging is insufficient in the woods after two to three days.

BenjaminWenner wenner.20@osu.edu or Matt Davies davies.1@osu. 4 edu

20

eBarnsReport|59


Sheep AI Summary OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Measure the Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination lambing rate using frozen semen in Ohio seedstock flocks.

OSUExtension MarionCounty

STUDY Start INFORMATION Date MD/DD/201 End Date Start Date MD/ 2017 DD/201 Breed/Genetics End Date 20 Sex M:F 0:Sheep Species TotalStart Headage Point Treatments End Point

0>1 year

LAMBING PERCENTAGE Lambing Percentage from Frozen Semen 80.00% 70.00%

0<7years

60.00%

Reps 01 Treatments Start Point 0 Reps Multi.YearSummary End Point Experimental Head Management Unit

50.00%

Harvested Genetics Seedstock Production Breed Various Row Spacing Soil Type Sex Ewe SoilType,(52%) SoilType,(23%) Health Protection Asneeded

40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

FeedAccess Adlibitum

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

SixYearAverage=%9.06

STUDY DESIGN Laparoscopicartificialinsemination(LAI)isan intrauterine method of insemination, to bypass theuniqueanatomicallytortuouscervixin sheep. SuccessofLAIprogramsdependonproper implementation of the estrus synchronization program, animal selection, and knowledge of theLAIprocess. Thedatawascollectedfromseedstockflocks usingLAItechnicianswithmultipleannualLAI opportunities. Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination Technician performing insemination with frozen semen.

60|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Small SUMMARY Ruminant The body condition score of 3-4, reduced stress, and• These results provide replication of the standard OBSERVATIONS

LaparoscopicArtificialInseminationprocedure proper administration of LAI procedures result in higher lambing rates. 14 days after LAI turn out with cleanup performed by technicians for Ohio seedstock producers. ramfor4days. • Numerousvariablesexistwhichmayinfluence Blood test for pregnancy at 28 days. Ultrasound for theresultsforaspecificflock. pregnancyat40days. • Thissummaryexhibitsa60.9%lambingrate usingviablefrozensemenforasixyearperiod.

RESULTS Response Variable

Year

Bred

Lambed

Birth Rate

2017

Birth Rate

2018

42

27

Birth Rate

2019

42

27

Birth Rate

20

44

21

Birth Rate

201

153

91

55

36

Birth Rate

33

20

Total

23

369

25

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Laparoscope Use veterinarian accepted procedures for Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination using frozen semen.

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

barnes.821@osu.edu

Tim Barnes ExtensionEducator,MarionCounty (740)91-32

20

eBarnsReport|61


Sheep Water Preference OBJECTIVE

Waterman Agricultural Lab

To determine the preference of sheep for color of waterer and cleanliness of waterer.

OSUAnimalScience FranklinCounty

DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION STUDY INFORMATION a

Start Date 201 End Date 201

a

Species Sheep Start Point Day0 End Point 14 days Treatments 3

b

Reps 4 Experimental Pen Unit Genetics Commercial Breed DorsetandSu-olkx DorsetCrossbredlambs Sex EqualWethers:Ewes Health Protection Asneeded

Average daily water consumption increased by blue or yellow bucket vers bucket in the study on color preference by sheep. Di-erent letters di-er (P = 0.2) SE=0.143

FeedAccess Adlibitum IACUC#

201A007.

STUDY DESIGN Sheepweredividedintofourpens- (experi mentalunits)consistingoftwopensofwether lambsandtwopensofpregnantewes. Inexperiment1,sheepweregivenwater- buck etsofthreecolors(black,yellow,andblue)that were randomly ordered after cleaning twice daily.Thisstudylasted7days. Inexperiment2,sheepweregivenwater buckets of a single color that were randomly ordered after following one of these cleaning routines:1)cleaneddailywithascrubbrush, 2)cleanedevery4dayswithascrubbrush,or 3)cleanedevery7dayswithascrubbrush. Thisstudylasted14days. Image of buckets demonstrating the buckets cleaned once daily (1),

once every 4 days (4), and once every week (7).

62|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Small SUMMARY Ruminant Sheep (and other species) prefer to drink water that • Sheep is inexperiment1drankmorewaterfrom OBSERVATIONS

cleaner and from waterer’s where the bottom is more blue or yellow buckets than they did from the visible. blackbucket.Thisincreasewasnearlydouble. • Sheepinexperiment2drankmorewaterfrom Since dry matter intake is driven by water consumption, buckets cleaned daily than buckets cleaned feed intake can be improved in most growing livestock weekly.Thisincreasewasmorethandoubled. withavailabilityofclean,freshwater. • Water consumption patterns of sheep became Producers should inspect and clean waterer’s atmore least imbalancedastimeincreasedpostclean onceweekly. ing. • Byday7,roughly70%ofwaterconsumedwas from the cleanest bucket and it is likely that water consumed from any other bucket was only by necessityratherthanchoice.

RESULTS

Averagedproportionofdailywaterintakeoverthecourseoftwo-weekstudy.Bluebarsarebucketscleaneddaily,stripedbarsa cleanedevery4days,andbrownbarsarebucketscleanedweekly.

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Different Colored Buckets Sheep have dichromatic vision. An understanding that sheep can recognize different colors leads to the possibility that they may prefer certain colors over others, giving producers the ability to manipulate the waterers to reflect the overall preference.

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con BenjaminWenner

AssociateProfessor,AnimalSciences wenner.20@osu.edu (614)8-9

20

eBarnsReport|63


Manure Dry Matter versus NPK OBJECTIVE Understand the relationship between dry matter and NPK nutrients in liquid manure during application.

eBarns Collaborating Farm OSUExtension Statewide

Side-dressing liquid manure using draghose and an injection toolbar.

STUDY DESIGN

Amulti-farmstudywasconductedfromMay20throughSeptember201duringliquidmanureapplicationinDarke, Auglaize,Wayne,andWilliamsCounties,withallmanuresourcesbeingfromswinepitsalongwith addition portacrossthestate.Manurewasappliedviaadrag-lineapplicatorwithsamplingportsinstalledo rowsofthetoolbar.Duringfieldapplication,manuresampleswerecollectedforthedurationofpumping timeintervalof15to20minutes.AcompletesampleanalysiswasdoneatBrooksideLaboratoriesandthes wereevaluatedforchangesinmanuredrymatterandNPKconcentrations.Dataanalysiswasrunonthes resultscomparingthechangesofdrymatter(DM)toNPK(TotalN,P2O5andK2O)usingcorrelationanalysis tode terminethestrengthoftherelationshipofeachnutrient A. correlation toDryMatter of1.0isperfectandacorrelation of0.9-75ishighlyandanycorrelationthatisnegativeexpressesaninverserelationship.

64|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Small Ruminant

Beef

Dairy

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• TotalNwascorrelatedwithDMforsixofthe Sources of variation are present in all aspects of manure storage and management. Pit management varied from eight pits with pits 1 and 8 resulting in low R values. onecollaboratortothenextbeyondagitation.Theuse of • each P2O5concentrationswerehighlycorrelatedwith pit additives and pit management were unique to DM for both the agitated and unagitated pits farm. (Rrangedfrom0.79and1.0;seetableand The variation in manure color changed as the dry matter figures). changed throughout application. Depending on the • K2OconcentrationwasnotcorrelatedwithDM manure pump, as the capacity of manure supplied to foranyofthepits. the field increased larger amount of concentrated solids • Of interest, agitation generated more consistenwereseenafterapplication. cy and higher N and P concentrations causing theNandP2O5versusDMdatatoclustermore (seeagitationfigures).

RESULTS

Unagitated Pits P205 Total N K2O

Agitated Pits

Pit 1

Pit2

Pit 3

Pit 4

Pit 5

Pit6

Pit 7

Pit 8

1.0

0.9

1.0

1.0

0.96

0.81

0.9

0.79

0.4

0.9 0.39

-0.8

-0.12

0.97 -0.28

0.91

0.92 0.45

0.85

0.75 0.59

-0.3

-0.65 0.1

Correlation coefficients (R) comparing DM and nutrient concentrations.

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Manure Pit Agitator Manure pits should be agitated prior to pumping to ensure that nutrients are evenly dispersed during pumping and application.

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con JohnFulton

Professor, Department of Food, AgriculturalandBiologicalEnginee fulton.20@osu.edu

20

eBarnsReport|65


Liquid Manure Nutrient Concentration OBJECTIVE Characterize potential variations in liquid swine manure nutrient concentrations as pits are pumped for field application.

eBarns Collaborating Farm OSUExtension Statewide

STUDY DESIGN Amulti-farmstudywasconductedfrom May20throughSeptember201while liquidmanurewasbeingappliedbefore planting,atside-dressincorn,orafter harvest. The cooperating farms were in Darke, Auglaize,Wayne,andWilliamsCounties with all manure sources being from swine pits along with additional support across thestate. During manure application samples were collected at the applicator to develop adatasetofas-appliednutrientsover time. Samples were collected for the duration of the application process at a time intervalof15to20minutes.Samplebottles were labeled and then taken to Brookside Laboratories for complete sample analysis to determine Lost by Ignition + Mineral Matter(DryMatter)Total , N,AmmoniaN, P2O5,K2O. Lab results were then summarized and then analyzed to evaluate changes in manure dry matter and nutrient concentrationforthepits. Pumping rate, agitation, and timing of sample collection were noted at each pit to clarify changes in nutrient concentrationandidentifytrendsfromthedata.

P2O5 results collected from unagitated swine pits.

P2O5 results collected from agitated swine pits.

Sample collection while side-dressing liquid manure in corn.

6|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• Fortheunagitatedpits,P2O5tendedtochange During application, manure from the unagitated pits asthepitwaspumpedwhereasP2O5variedfor had visual changes in consistency from the beginning the agitated pits but was more constant over the to the end of pumping in both color and viscosity. ln the unagitated pits manure became darker in color, thetime flow ofapplication(seeFigures). • Concentrationdi-erencesinTotalN,P2O5and of the manure slowed as the pit emptied, and viscosity K2Oweredi-erentbetweenpits(seeTable). increased. Total N varied for both the unagitated and agitatThe agitated pits were more consistent regarding flow ed pits with Total N variation much higher for the during pumping, and the color change was not as unagitatedpits(CV=9.1%to23.%;seeTable). noticeablefrombeginningtoend.Agitationdidnotbreak Ofnote,theaverageTotalN(35-49lbs/10 up all the solids, but it eliminated the visual inconsistency gals)washigherfortheagitatedpits. of color and minimized changes in viscosity. Of note, pit • TheaverageP2O5wassignificantlyhigherfor 1 had no pit additive used and had a noticeably higher theagitatedpits(19-27lbs/10gals)butthe amountofsuspendedsolidsnearthesurface. variationinP2O5concentrationwasveryhigh Application was also ended before emptying the pit, fortheunagitatedpitswiththeCVs - rangingbe leaving a third of the pit to be applied in the spring, tween64.8%and13.7% while pits 2, 3 and 4 used additives and were pumped • Agitationduringpumpingcreatedamore homo completely. geneousliquidmanureascanbeseenwiththe lowerCVsforP2O5andK20.

RESULTS Unagitated Pit 1 Avg.TotalN(lbs/10gal)

21.0

Pit 3

27.0

CVTotalN(%)

9.10

4.90 1.0

9.0

Avg.P205(lbs/10gal) CVP205(%)

64.80

Avg.K2O(lbs/10gal)

18.0

CVK2O(%)

Pit 2

Pit 4

26.0

27.0 10.5

15.20

1.70

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Manure Sample Collection The development of a multiple year sampling reference is the best management practice to develop accurate application rates. Collect a sample during each application, avoiding crusted areas on the surface of the pit. These samples can be used together to calculate an ongoing optimal application rate.

1.90

6.30

27.0

1.60

25.0

7.80

2.50

36.0 2.0

5.30

27.0

12.0 30.

Pit 8 42.0

8.70

19.0

24.0

Pit 7 43.0

4.80

127.0 2.0

Pit 6 49.0

6.0

126.40 26.0

Pit 5 35.0

8.0

105.2

2.40

Agitated

5.80 34.0

1.90

3.0 2.40

2.70

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con JohnFulton

Professor, Department of Food, AgriculturalandBiologicalEnginee fulton.20@osu.edu

20

eBarnsReport|67


NIR Sensing for Manure Application OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Understand how Near Infrared sensors can be utilized to estimate as-applied manure nutrients during liquid manure application.

OSUExtension Statewide

STUDY DESIGN Anon-farmcollaborationwassetupbetweenOhio State,eFieldscollaboratingfarms,andJohnDeere tousetheHarvestLabThe 30. HarvestLab30 isanNIRsensorthatsensesas-appliedmanure nutrients within slurry manure which can be installed onanyliquidmanureapplicationequipmentequipped withaflowmeter.Duringapplicationthesensor com municateswithaGPSreceivermappingas-applied manurenutrients.Thesensordisplaysallreadings on the in cab display similar to the yield results in a combine.Forthisstudy,acalibrationcurve devel oped for swine manure was used to determine as appliednutrients.Throughoutapplicationsamples were collected at the toolbar and then compared to the sensor readings looking for trends/bias and to see if the nutrient changes from beginning to end were capturedinthemaps. Cab display screen of the sensor during application.

OBSERVATIONS

Therewerevisualdi-erencesinthemanureduringapplicationateachlocation.Asseeninthedi-erenc 1 and 2 if a single pit sample could be relied upon to predict the nutrients during application the m same.Asingularpitsampleconcludesthatallnutrientsvaryproportionallytoeachotherbutthe the nutrients vary independently of one another. NIR sensors by design are very precise but are only as calibration curves the sensors are referencing to determine nutrient value. The NIR calibration livestockproductionsystemhereinNorthAmericaarestillbeupdatedanddevelopedtobecomeasa With time the sensors could be as accurate as a lab but by creating a compact and mobil sensor, labs have an advantage in computing/processing capacity.As technology continues to progress so will the calibration curves sensorincreasingtheaccuracyofthissystem.Ofnote,pitwas 2 amixedmanuresourcebeef 85% manureandswine 15% manurewhichacalibrationcurvedoesnotexistfor.

Total Nitrogen as-applied map

68|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

P2O5 as-applied map


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY • • • •

The sensor calibration curves used in this study werenotdevelopedforthemixedmanure - sourc esthatwerefieldapplied. ResultsindicatedtheNIRsensordidagoodjob ofrelativelyestimatingtheP2O5andTotal Nitro genvariationsduringfieldapplication. Calibrationcurvesforthetypeofswine/ beefma nuremixappliedduringthisstudywouldadjust theresultsmoretothe1:line. Avalueofthetechnologywasthefeedbackwith thein-cabdisplaytotheoperatorduring applica tion to show changes in N and P concentrations allowinganoperatortheopportunityinthefield andatthepumptoadjustormaintain - therecom mendedNandPrates(seeas-appliedmaps). ThevariationinTotalNitrogenandP2O5within theas-appliedmapsillustratesthechallengeofa singlepointpitsampletoinformfieldapplication.

RESULTS

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Near-infrared (NIR) Liquid Manure Sensors Provide the capability to estimate NPK, DM and more during the pumping of pits and field applications. The sensor technology provides operators real-time feedback during field application especially indicating changes in nutrient concentrations at the time of application.

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con JohnFulton

Professor, Department of Food, AgriculturalandBiologicalEnginee fulton.20@osu.edu

20

eBarnsReport|69


Manure Compost OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of composting as a method to reduce the volume, weight and moisture and increase the nutrient density of solid manure.

eBarns Collaborating Farm OSUExtension FultonCounty

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 1/20 End Date 4/1520

NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION

Variety Fresh Manure, CompostedManure Treatments 2 Reps 8 Species Dairy Beef Genetics Commercial Breed Dairy Beef Sex Male Manure Type Pen Pack Growth 40-8lbs DietComposi - Corn,Soybean, tion DDG, Straw

STUDY DESIGN Thiswasanon-farmresearchdesign.Each producer was asked to establish one baseline compost windrow that was to be turned weekly withacommercialcompostturner. Freshmanurewasweighed,turnedfor6-8 weeks and then scaled out as composted manure.Eachproducerwasaskedtotakeinitial andendingvolumemeasurements. Three manure analyses were taken from each producer’swindrowweekly,justaftercompost turning(sampleswereadequatelymixed). Analysesevaluatednitrogen,phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, organic matter, organiccarbonandcarbon-nitrogenratiosto track nutrient changes over the course of the trial. Five producers participated in this study with 8 Compost and manure being applied in alternating strips for the field uniquecompostwindrows(piles). trial.

70|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• Acrossallresearchsites,thetotalfreshman Digitaltemperaturemonitors(HOBO)wereusedtotrack putintocompostwindrowswas258tonsand temperatures over time to ensure ideal temperatures thecompostedmanuretotalwas12tonsinthe were120-4degreesFahrenheit. end. Several of the test windrows started with temperatures • Nutrient density for key nutrients phosphorus, overorneardegrees 160 Fahrenheitbeforestabilizingin potassium,sulfurandcalciumdoubled(ormore). theidealrange. • Therewasnosignificantdi-erenceintotal Over the course of the project, we were able to see that usablenitrogenfromthestarttothefinishoft the nutrient density of phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and trial. calciumallnearlydoubled. • Freshmanuresamplesaveraged6%moisture andcompostedmanureaveraged53%moisture. The observed loss of volume and weight was driven • (aka‘loads’)werereducedby28%asa mostly by the reduction in moisture. This allowedVolume for result ofcompostingmanurefor6to8weeks. compost to be hauled farther because fewer loads were needed.

RESULTS TKN Treatments (lbs/ ton)

P (lbs/ ton)

K (lbs/ ton)

7.80a

7.80b

15.0

1.40

Composted 7.50a Manure

2.40a

34.10

3.10

12.0

LSD:0.45 CV:6.3

LSD:7.4 CV:56.23

LSD:6.10 CV:28.3

LSD:0.4 CV:2.8

LSD:2.6 CV:37.2

Fresh Manure

S (lbs/ ton)

Ca Moisture (lbs/ (%) ton) 4.10

OM (%)

OC (%)

C:N

67.0

30.1

17.40

21.30a

48.20

42.70

24.80

20.7a

LSD:3.02 CV:5.96

LSD:3.54 CV:1.07

LSD:2.06 CV:1.07

LSD:1.98 CV:10.69

TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtectedLeastSignificantDi-e =0.1

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Case IH Magnum 190 with this CVT is invaluable for pulling the compost turner at ultra-slow speeds.

Eric Richer ExtensionEducator,FultonCounty richer.5@osu.edu (419)50-62

20

eBarns Report | 71


Manure Compost OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Evaluate the yield impact when compost or manure are used as the nutrient source in corn silage.

Planting Date 5/120 Harvest Date 9/201 Variety Beck's592 Population 3,250sds/ac Acres 20 Treatments 2

FultonCounty

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

OSUExtension

Management Fertilizer, Herbicide, Insecticide PreviousCrop Corn Row Spacing 30in. Soil Type ColonieFineSand,48% Tedrow Loamy Fine Sand,17% Granby Loamy Fine Sand,14%

STUDY DESIGN

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

Tillage Minimum

Planting Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

JUN

1.83

2.39

4.5

Cumulative 189 GDDs

This study was designed in a randomized completeblockdesign.Thetwotreatments wereapproximately5tons/acofcomposted cattlemanureand10tons/acpenpackcattle manure(directfromthebarn).Composted manure was turned in a windrow weekly for 7 weekspriortofieldapplication. Nutrient analyses indicated that the compost was twice the nutrient density of manure for keynutrientsP,K,S,andCa.Allorganic nutrientswereappliedinAprilpriortocorn plantingandlightlyincorporatedthenextday. Allfieldoperations,starterapplicationrates and side dress nitrogen were consistent across alltreatments.

72|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Harvest Date

0

Reps 3 Treatment Width 40ft.

100

538

189

JUL 3.9 1874

2601

AUG

SEP

2.08

4.76 3111

Total 18.90 3111

Compost being applied at 5 ton per acre.


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Manure Nutrients

Small Ruminant

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• Therewasnostatisticaldi-erenceinyield This trial site did not have a history of manure betweenthetreatments. application.Soilanalysesshowedsoiltestphosphorus (STP)inthemaintenancerange,soiltestpotassium (STK)belowthemaintenancerange,organicmatterof• Whiletherewasnostatisticalyielddi-erence the numerical yield advantage in favor of the 1.7%and5.0CEC. manure treatment is likely from the more plant Therewerenovisualdi-erencesbetweenthemanureavailablenitrogenatplanting. andcomposttreatments.Thisfarmreceivedadequate rainfallduringpollination. • Additionalreplicationsofthisstudyareneed Generally,weatherconditionswereexcellentfor toconfirmtheresultsofthisstudy. growingcornatthislocation.Visualobservationofthe cornsilagefrombothtreatmentsindicated‘excellent’ quality.

RESULTS Treatments

Avg. Emergence (plants/ac)

Manure

Compost

Moisture (%)

Yield (tons/ac)

31,0

57.80

23.80a

32,50

57.80

2.70a

LSD:1.7 TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Least SignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:3.1%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE HCL Machine

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

This HCL Works CT-12 pull-type compost turner can accommodate a 6 ft x 12 ft foot windrow. The compost turner serves to mix and add oxygen to the compost windrow.

Eric Richer ExtensionEducator,FultonCounty richer.5@osu.edu (419)50-62

20

eBarns Report | 73


Manure Compost OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Evaluate the yield impact when compost or manure are used as the nutrient source in corn.

OSUExtension FultonCounty

Planting Date 5/1920 Harvest Date 10/2 Variety Pioneer0843AM Population 34,0sds/ac Acres 10 Treatments 3

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

STUDY INFORMATION

Management Fertilizer, Insecticide PreviousCrop Wheat Row Spacing 30in. Soil Type DelReySiltLoam,41% LenaweeSiltyClay Loam,28% KibbieLoam,13%

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

Tillage Conventional

Harvest Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

STUDY DESIGN

Planting Date

0

Reps 3 Treatment Width 15ft.

100

APR

MAY

JUN

1.94

2.7

5.68

Cumulative 203 GDDs 56

12

JUL 1895

8.25 2593

AUG

SEP

2.4

4.03 3089

Total 24.1 3089

This study was designed in a randomized completeblockdesign.Thethreetreatments were3tons/acofcompostedcattlemanure,6 ton/acpenpackcattlemanure(directfromthe barn)andcheckstripwithoutorganicnutrients. Compostedmanurewasturnedinawindrow weeklyfor6weekspriortofieldapplication. Nutrient analyses indicated that the compost was twice the nutrient density of manure for keynutrientsP,K,S,andCa. Allorganicnutrientswereappliedinthefallof 20andlightlyincorporatedthenextday. Allfieldoperations,starterapplicationrates and side dress nitrogen were consistent across alltreatments. Compost strips to the left (darker) and manure strips on the right.

74|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Manure Nutrients

Small Ruminant

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

• Therewasnostatisticaldi-erenceinyieldor Standcountsweretakenapproximatelyonemonth moistureamongallthreetreatments. afterplantingandtherewerenosignificantdi-erences inemergence.Thisfieldhadnohistoryofmanure • Additionalreplicationsofthisstudyandyear sinceThis 203. farm’ssoilhasexcellentwaterand nutrient-holdingcapacityasithad4.%organicmatter.over-yeardata,especiallyinvariableweather conditions,areneededtoconfirmtheresultso Growingconditionsforcornwereexcellentatthisfield thisstudy. sitein201.

RESULTS Treatments

Avg. Emergence (plants/ac)

Moisture (%)

Yield (bu/ac)

Check

32,0

18.0

258.0a

Manure

31,90

17.90

259.0a

3,20

18.0

258.0a

Compost

LSD:9.7 TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Least SignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:2.1%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Manure Spreader

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

This New Idea box spreader and John Deere skid loader are valuable tools for applying organic nutrients in a efficient and effective manner.

Eric Richer ExtensionEducator,FultonCounty richer.5@osu.edu (419)50-62

20

eBarns Report | 75


Manure Compost OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

Evaluate the yield impact when compost or manure are used as the nutrient source in corn.

Harvest Date 1/320 Variety SeedConsultants 12AM 1 Population 34,0sds/ac Acres 3 Treatments 2 Reps 3 Treatment Width 30ft. Tillage Conventional Management Fertilizer, Herbicide PreviousCrop Soybeans Row Spacing 30in. Soil Type MermillLoam,81% NappaneeLoam,9% HaskinsLoam,7%

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

Planting Date 4/2701

FultonCounty

100

Planting Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

STUDY DESIGN

Harvest Date

0

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

STUDY INFORMATION

OSUExtension

APR

MAY

JUN

1.9

3.0

4.67

Cumulative 219 GDDs 597

128

JUL 194

7.12 2714

AUG

SEP

2.45

4.51 320

Total 23.74 320

This study was designed in a randomized completeblockdesign.Thetwotreatments wereapproximately5tons/acofcomposted cattlemanureand10tons/acpenpackcattle manure(directfromthebarn). Compostedmanurewasturnedinawindrow weeklyfor7weekspriortofieldapplication. Nutrient analyses indicated that the compost was twice the nutrient density of manure for keynutrientsP,K,S,andCa. AllorganicnutrientswereappliedinAprilprior to corn planting and lightly incorporated the nextday. Allfieldoperations,starterapplicationrates and side dress nitrogen were consistent across alltreatments. Manure (lighter) and compost (darker) treatments prior to incorporation.

76|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Manure Nutrients

Small Ruminant

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

Compostandmanurewereappliedtothisfieldon • Therewasnostatisticaldi-erenceinyield betweenthetreatments. April17,20priortoplanting.Organicnutrientswere incorporated immediately to conserve plant available nitrogen.Thisfieldexperiencedexcellentgrowing• The compost treatment resulted in a slightly highergrainmoisturepercentageatharvest. conditionsallseasonlong.Noplanthealthdi-erences wereobservedbetweenthetreatments. • Whiletherewasnostatisticalyielddi-erence the numerical yield advantage in favor of the manure treatment is likely from the more plant availablenitrogenatplanting.

Additionalreplicationsofthisstudy,especia in variable weather conditions, are needed to confirmtheresultsofthisstudy.

RESULTS Treatments

Avg. Emergence (plants/ac)

Manure

Compost

Moisture (%)

Yield (bu/ac)

3,70

17.50

25.0a

3,50

17.80

245.0a

LSD:1.5 TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Least SignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:2.0%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE DJI Mavic 2 Pro with Hasselblad Camera

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

This arieal imagery helps confirm layout and application consistency for this manure trial.

Eric Richer ExtensionEducator,FultonCounty richer.5@osu.edu (419)50-62

20

eBarns Report | 77


Meeting Tri-State Fertility Needs OBJECTIVE

eBarns Collaborating Farm

To evaluate the use of manure, compost or commercial fertilizer to meet the Tri-State fertility needs of corn.

Harvest Date 1/420 Variety Pioneer0963,Pioneer 072Q,RuppD09-42 Population 30,sds/ac Acres 16 Treatments 3 Reps 3 Treatment Width 40ft. Tillage Minimum Management Fertilizer, Herbicide PreviousCrop Corn Row Spacing 30in. Soil Type Tedrow Loamy FineSand,24% Ottokee Fine Sand,23% Gilford Fine Sandy Loam,17%

WEATHER INFORMATION MAX. AND MIN. TEMPERATURE (°F)

Planting Date 5/1920

FultonCounty

DAILY PRECIPITATION (IN)

STUDY INFORMATION

OSUExtension

100

Planting Date

Harvest Date

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3

2

1

0

Growing Season Weather Summary Precip(in.)

APR

MAY

JUN

1.9

3.0

4.67

Cumulative 219 GDDs 597

128

JUL 194

7.12 2714

AUG

SEP

2.45

4.51 320

Total 23.74 320

STUDY DESIGN This study was randomized complete block design.Thethreetreatmentsincluded manure,compostandcommercialfertilizer. Alltreatmentswereappliedatactualrates designedtomeetthetarget2-yearcrop removalrateofapproximately120lbsK20, 5lbsP2O5and12lbssulfate.Alltreatments received40lbs/acofnitrogenatplantingand 15lbs/acofnitrogenatsidedress.Allother fieldoperationswereconsistentacrossall treatments. Finished compost after 8 weekly turns.

78|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Small Ruminant

OBSERVATIONS

Manure Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

SUMMARY

• The results of this study showed that there was a Thisfieldhadnohistoryofmanureapplication.Soil analysesshowedasoiltestphosphorus(STP)inthe statisticallysignificantyieldincreasewhen manureovertheTri-State(commercial)fertilize maintenancerange,soiltestpotassium(STK)below maintenancerange,organicmatter1.7%and4.CEC. rate. AllfertilitytreatmentswereappliedonApril16and • Therewasnosignificantyielddi-erence incorporatedthesameday.Plantingconditionswere between the manure and compost treatments; optimal.Plantersetupledtoalowerthanpreferred similarly,therewasnosignificantyielddi-erenc planting rate; emergence was consistent across all between thecompostandfertilizertreatment treatments.Replicationnumberthreeshowedsigns of some water damage but damage was consistent across • Some alltreatments.Thissitereceivedexcessmoisture in of the yield increase in the manured treatment is believed to be associated with the JulyandSeptember.Ingeneral,thereappearedtobe additional nitrogen available from the spring novisualplanthealthdi-erencesamongtreatments. appliedmanure. •

If possible, data from the soybean rotation in 20willbecollectedonthistrial.

RESULTS Treatments

Avg. Emergence (plants/ac)

Tri-StateFertilizer

Yield (bu/ac)

26,0

17.60

190.b

26,70

17.0

213.0a

27,40

17.50

20.ab

Manure

Compost

Moisture (%)

LSD:14.90 TreatmentMeanswiththesameletterarenotsignificantlydi-erentaccordingtoFisher’sProtected Least SignificantDi-erences(LSD)testatalpha=0.1 CV:4.25%

PROJECT CONTACT

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Kuhn Knight ProTwin Slinger

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

This manure spreader was used in compost studies. The spreader allows for consistent, even spreading while improving material breakup.

Eric Richer ExtensionEducator,FultonCounty richer.5@osu.edu (419)50-62

20

eBarnsReport|79


Market Hog Space Requirements OBJECTIVE

OSU Don Scott Swine Unit

To determine the effects of floor space allowance on growth, efficiency, and welfare of pigs when marketed at an average pen live weight of 300 pounds.

DepartmentofAnimalScience FranklinCounty

STUDY INFORMATION Start Date 10/52 End Date 8/1206

MARKET HOG PERFORMANCE

Species Swine Start Point 50lb.(DOF,DOA,DIM) End Point 30lb(DOF,DOA,DIM) Treatments 5 Reps 4 Experimental Pen Unit Genetics Commercial Breed YorkshireCrossxDuroc Sex EqualBarrow:Gilt Health Protection Asneeded

FeedAccess Adlibitum

STUDY DESIGN Pigswereassignedtofloorspacetreatments in a randomized design and blocked by startingweightandlitternumber.Nomorethan twolittermatesofthesamesexwereineach pen.Pigswereweighedbi-weeklyuntilthey approached30lb.Feedintakewasmeasured by tracking feed that was fed and weighing backfeedersbi-weeklyaswell. Whenthepenaveragereached30lbs,the studyended.Ultrasoundwasusedattheend ofthestudytoestimatecarcasscutability. Sali varycortisolwasmeasuredat150and30lbs toevaluatestressresponsetofloorspace.

80|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram

Pigs at start of trial with 10.6 square feet.


Forages

Beef

Dairy

Small Ruminant

Manure Nutrients

Swine Tech

Poultry

SUMMARY

OBSERVATIONS

Floor space allotment did not have an impact on As expected, barrows were faster growing than the•gilts pigperformanceupto30lbs. withinthesametreatmentpens. • Currentfloorspacerecommendationsare Animal Well Being adequateformodernmarkethogsmarketedat Therewerenodi-erenceinsalivarycortisolconcentrations weightsof30lbsorless. acrosstreatments. • Carcasscharacteristicswerenotimpactedby floorspacetreatment. Of160totalhead,10pigswereremovedfromthestudy. Tail biting was minimal and only observed at two largest floorspacetreatments. Carcass Measurements There were no significant di-erence in Back Fat or Loin EyeAreaacrosstreatments.

RESULTS Treatments (ft2)

Avg. Daily Gain (lb/day)

Avg. Daily Feed Intake (lb/d)

Avg. G:F (lb:lb)

6. 2.0

6.42

0.91

7.6

2.4

6.

0.89

8.6

2.

6.2

0.89

9.6

2.

6.58

0.89

2.4

6.51

0.92

10.6

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Ultrasound

PROJECT CONTACT

Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con

Ultrasound technology can be used to measure and estimate fat and muscle of the animal throughout the different phases of production.

GarthRuBeefCattleFieldSpecialist ru-.72@osu.edu (740)-3521

20

eBarns Report | 81


Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Introduction

Avianinfluenzaisaviraldiseasethatcana-ectmultiplespeciesofbirds.Itcanexistinalowpathog causes mild symptoms of disease and can also mutate into a highly pathogenic form that can cause high mortality in multiple avian species including domestic poultry such as chickens and turkeys, shore birds, and raptors including hawks,owls,andeagles.

Highlypathogenicavianinfluenza(HPAI)isdevastatinginthatitishighlycontagiouswithnotreatme canbespreadwidelyinmigratorywaterfowlsuchaswhereitcanexistinanasymptomaticcarrierst fourmajormigratorypathwayspassthroughOhiowhichincreasesourriskofoutbreaks.

FourmajorwaterfowlmigrationroutescrosstheUnitedStatesandareasthathavehighconcentrationsofbroiler Approximate flyways are labeled Atlantic (purple), Mississippi (yellow), Central (orange), and Pacific (green) overlaid on the 201 USDAbroilercensusmap.GraphicbyTheOhioStateUniversity.Sourcecredit:HighlyPathogenicAvianInfluenza,VME-https: 1037, / ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/vme-Scott 1037 P.Kenney,PhD,AssistantProfessor,OhioAgriculturalResearchandDevelopmentCente OhioStateUniversityExtension,Wooster.

82|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Manure Small Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry Other

Prevention

The key to preventing outbreaks in both backyard poultry and the poultry industry is bio-securit thestrategyofprioritizingthehealthbypreventingdiseasefromenteringtheflockorherd.Itcome forms,directbio-security,andindirectbio-security.

Directpoultrybio-securityispreventingdiseasetransmissionfrombirdtobird.Diseasecanbesp birdsiftheycanencountertheflockorcanbespreadwithintheflockfromasickbirdtoanotherbird.Ma that your flock cannot encounter wild birds through the use of fencing, bird netting or other exclus keepingyourbirdsindoorsduringanHPAIoutbreak.

Indirect poultry bio-security involves something else transmitting disease into the flock. Mak exclude visitors to your flock whenever possible. Make sure to use proper sanitation procedure include the use of personal protective equipment, disposable boot covers and gloves, and boot wa Understand the risks of bringing disease into your flock through encounters with other domestic birdstomakesureyouarenottheindirectspreaderofdisease. Formorepoultrybio-securityinformationvisittheUSDADefendtheFlockProgram@#defendtheflock.

On Farm Bio-Security

PROJECT CONTACT

Bio-security to prevent disease introduction to flocks. A line of separation around flock Forinquiriesaboutthisproject,con house should be maintained with only select workers allowed to enter houses from a limited entry point. Entry point should allow workers to change into building-specific clothing, TimothyS.McDermott disinfect boots into and out of the house, and allow employees to keep personal belongings out of the house. Adapted from Iowa State University Center for Food SecurityExtension & Public Educator,FranklinCounty Health(IowaStateUniversity,CollegeofVeterinaryMedicine2018).

mcdermott.15@osu.edu (614)-297

20

eBarns Report | 83


Acknowledgments Research Collaborators and Supporters Nikki Berry JoelBielke JeremyBlock Ting-YuChen ChrisClark DouglasClevenger HaileyJermolowicz Dean Kreager LickingCountySheepProducers Kellie Enger Zach England OARDCFarmShopCrew Ohio Top Farmer BWB Farms Gregg Fogle Nicole Hardy Dalton Huhn Kirsten Nickles Wanderson Novais Edwin Pickenpaugh OARDCSeedsGrantProgram Merit Seed in Berlin, OH Roger Shearer Wayne Shriver OARDCSmallRuminantResearchUnitStaDerrick Snyder Kevin Stottsberry Drew Toth Rick Whiting RobinZendejas 201SmallRuminantProductionLab 84|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Farm Science Review 2022 Celebrating 60 Years of Progress 60 Years of Dairy Improvement...

60 Years of Beef Improvement...

60 Years of Sheep Improvement...

JoinusincelebratingtheadvancementsinagricultureattheFarmScience upcomingyears: September 19-21, 2023

September 17-19, 2024

September 16-18, 2025 20

eBarns Report | 85


Glossary

95% CI–ConfidenceInterval,rangeofvaluesthatcanbecertaintocontainthetruem a population Ad Libitium–Afeedingmanagementinwhichanimalsarefedwithoutanyrestrictions

ADF–AcidDetergentFiber,leastdigestibleplantcompounds,includingligninandcel ADFI–AverageDailyFeedIntake,amountoffeed(AsFed)consumedperanimal,perday ADG–AverageDailyGain,weightgainedperanimal,perday Bob Veal–Vealcalvesmarketeduptothreeweeksofage BW – Body Weight

CP–CrudeProtein,measuresnitrogencontentoffeedstu-s,includingtrueproteina protein nitrogen

DCAD–DietaryCationAnionDi-erence,measurementusedwhenformulatingdietsfordr lactating cows using positively and negatively charged minerals on animal performance

DDG–DriedDistillers’GrainwithSoluble,co-productofethanolproductionandofte a protein source in a diet DIM – Days In Milk, number of days a dairy cow has been lactating

DM–DryMatter,fiberandnutrientsremainingoncewaterisremovedfromafeedstu-ordi DMI – Dry Matter Intake, amount of dry matter consumed per animal, per day DON–Deoxynivalenol,Vomitoxin,acommonmycotoxinfoundingrain Dressing Percent–(HotCarcassWeightdividedbyLiveWeight)x10 GDD – Growing Degree Days, heat units used to estimate growth and development of crop and pests during the growing season

FAMACHA ©–Selectivetreatmentmethodforcontrollingthelevel ’sof pole parasiticbar worm in small ruminants FEC–FecalEggCount,quantitativeassessmentofhowmanyparasiteeggsananimalis shedding at a particular time Feekes Growth Stages 10.0 – Grass Forage at Boot Stage 10.5 – Grass Forage at Heading FTPI–FailedTransferofPassiveImmunity,whenacalffailstoabsorbadequate immunoglobulins via colostrum 86|OhioStateDigitalAgProgram


Forages

Dairy

Beef

Small Manure Ruminant Nutrients

Swine

Poultry

Gain : Feed–MeasureofFeedE-ciency,ratiooftotalpoundsgainedtototalpoundsoffeed fed Hot Carcass Weight–CarcassWeightpriortochilling Hypoglycemic – Low Blood Sugar K2O – Potassium fertilizer form, Potash Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination – Intrauterine method of insemination used in small ruminants Mycotoxin–Toxinproducedbycertainmoldsorfungiingrains N – Nitrogen

NDF–NeutralDetergentFiber,structuralcomponentsofplants,specificallythecell predictsvoluntaryintakebecauseitprovidesbulkorfill NEL–NetEnergyLactation,amountofenergyinafeedstu-thatisavailableformilk production and body maintenance NIR–NearInfraredReflectance,measureslightenergyreflectedbythefeedsampleto determine the chemical composition of forages OC%–PercentofOrganicCarbon OM% – Percent Organic Matter P205 – Phosphorus fertilizer form Passive Immunity–Immunityacquiredviacolostrumintakeshortlyafterbirth

PCV–PackedCellVolume,ameasurementoftheproportionofbloodthatismadeupofcel RFID–RadioFrequencyIdentification,methodusedtotracklivestock

SEM –StandardErroroftheMean,indicateshowdi-erentthepopulationmeanislikel from a sample mean

TDN–TotalDigestibleNutrients,sumofdigestibleproteins,fiber,lipids,andcarbohyd feedstuTKN–TotalKjeldahlNitrogen,totalconcentrationofnitrogenandammonia TMR–TotalMixedRation,methodoffeedingthatcombinesfeedstoaspecificnutrient content

Wet Chemistry –Chemistrybasedanalyticalmethodsusedtomeasurechemicalcompoun in plant material 20

eBarns Report | 87


eBarns

connecting science to farmers eBarns is a The Ohio State University program dedicated to advancing production agriculture through the use of field-scaleresearch.eBarnsutilizesmoderntechnologiesand informationtoconducton-farmstudieswithaneducationaland demonstration component used to help farmers and their advisorsunderstandhownewpracticesandtechniquescan improvefarme-ciencyandprofitability.Theprogramis dedicatedtodeliveringtimelyandrelevant,data-driven, actionableinformationtofarmersthroughoutOhio.

Disclaimer Notice: The information provided in this document is intended for educational purposes only. Mention or use of specific products or services, along with illustrations, does not constitute Endorsement by The Ohio State University. The Ohio State University assumes no responsibility for any damages that may occur through adoption of the programs/techniques described in this document.