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COMPETENCY

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GRAMMAR

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DEVELOPMENT

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Year Two

Angelo GEORGAKATOS Pierre-Yves AINEY Robert THÉRIEN


TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter to Students . ...........................................................III Table of Contents ............................................................... IV

Section

Chapters Assessing My Competency Development............................... 2

CHAPTER 1 INFORMATION OVERLOAD?

3

First Stop................................................................................... 4 Reading Task 1 How Did We Get So Much Info?.............................. 6 Task 2 When Is It a Problem?.......................................... 12 Viewing Task 3 How Much Can You Process at Once?................. 18 Listening Task 4 Say That Again?.................................................... 20 Talk About It Task 5 Is This Cheating or Just Dealing?........................ 21 Write About It Task 6 How Did It Happen?.............................................. 22 Editing Tips.............................................................................. 24

CHAPTER 2 THE SECRET TO IMMORTALITY

25

First Stop................................................................................. 26 Listening Task 1 How Did He Become a Legend?........................... 28 Reading Task 2 Is Anything Possible?............................................ 30 Talk About It Task 3 How Can You Be Unforgettable?.......................... 37 Reading Task 4 How Do People Leave Their Mark on the World?............................................... 38 Viewing Task 5 Do You Have an Excuse or a Solution?................. 44 Write About It Task 6 What Have You Immortalized?............................. 46 Editing Tips.............................................................................. 48

CHAPTER 3 HOOKED

49

First Stop................................................................................. 50 Viewing Task 1 Would You Like to Play?........................................ 52 Reading Task 2 What Do You Consider Extreme?......................... 54 Task 3 Are You Hooked on the Net?................................. 60

Section

Scope and Sequence Chart................................................ vi Inside Match Point.............................................................viii

Listening Task 4 Who Saved Who?.................................................. 66 Talk About It Task 5 Isn’t That a Bit Excessive?.................................... 67 Write About It Task 6 Where Do You Stand on the Issue?...................... 68 Editing Tips.............................................................................. 70

CHAPTER 4 WHY DID I DO THAT?

71

First Stop................................................................................. 72 Listening Task 1 Why Didn’t I Do That?............................................ 74 Reading Task 2 Did You Fall for It?................................................. 75 Viewing Task 3 Was That the Right Decision?.............................. 82 Reading Task 4 Isn’t He Charming?..............................................83 Talk About It Task 5 Who Would You Follow?........................................ 89 Write About It Task 6 How Can You Deal with a Dilemma?.................... 90 Editing Tips.............................................................................. 92

CHAPTER 5 THAT’S PERFECT!

93

First Stop................................................................................. 94 Listening Task 1 Is She Just Running a Bit Late?........................... 96 Reading Task 2 Who Decides Your Perfect Life?........................... 98 Talk About It Task 3 Is it Really That Bad?.......................................... 104 Reading Task 4 Is Her Vacation Ruined?..................................... 105 Viewing Task 5 Do Your Flaws Make You Perfect?...................... 112 Write About It Task 6 What Is the Solution?......................................... 114 Editing Tips............................................................................ 116

Extra Readings CHAPTER 1 Text 1 Tuned Out............................................................ 118 Text 2 Dot-Teen: Portrait of a Facebook Generation... 123

CHAPTER 2 Text 1 Attitude Is Altitude.............................................. 128 Text 2 YouTube Revolution............................................. 134

CHAPTER 3 Text 1 How My Addiction Saved My Life........................ 138 Text 2 Losing and Regaining Control............................ 145

CHAPTER 4 Text 1 Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?......................... 149 Text 2 Mind Control for Teens....................................... 155

CHAPTER 5 Text 1 It Depends on How You Look at It...................... 160 Text 2 Letter-Perfect..................................................... 165

IV


Grammar: Point by Point CHAPTER 1 POINT 1 A B C D POINT 2 A B C D

Verbs: Present Verbs: Simple Present Study Guide......................................................... 170 Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Simple Present Study Guide......................................................... 171 Practice the Point............................................... 172 Verbs: Present Continuous Study Guide......................................................... 174 Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Present Continuous Study Guide......................................................... 175 Practice the Point............................................... 176 Verbs: Past Verbs: Simple Past Study Guide......................................................... 178 Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Simple Past Study Guide......................................................... 179 Practice the Point............................................... 180 Verbs: Past Continuous Study Guide......................................................... 182 Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Past Continuous Study Guide......................................................... 183 Practice the Point............................................... 184

Question Words Study Guide......................................................... 186 Practice the Point............................................... 187 Verbs: Future Verbs: Future Forms Study Guide......................................................... 189 Verbs: Interrogative Forms in the Future Study Guide......................................................... 190 Practice the Point............................................... 191 Pronouns and Adjectives Pronouns and Adjectives: Subject, Object and Reflexive Pronouns Study Guide......................................................... 193 Practice the Point............................................... 194 Pronouns and Adjectives: Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Study Guide......................................................... 196 Practice the Point............................................... 197

CHAPTER 3 POINT 6 A

B Modals, Part 2: Obligation/Necessity, Suggestion/. Advice, Habit Study Guide......................................................... 202 Practice the Point............................................... 203 C Modals, Part 3: Asking Questions with Modals Study Guide......................................................... 205 Practice the Point............................................... 206 POINT 7 Adjectives A Adjectives: Comparative Study Guide......................................................... 208 B Adjectives: Superlative Study Guide......................................................... 209 C Asking Questions with Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Study Guide......................................................... 209 Practice the Point............................................... 210 POINT 8 Conditions A Conditions: Real Study Guide......................................................... 212 Practice the Point............................................... 213 B Conditions: Hypothetical Study Guide......................................................... 215 Practice the Point............................................... 216

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 2 POINT 3 POINT 4 A B POINT 5 A B

Section

Modals Modals, Part 1: Ability, Possibility and Permission Study Guide......................................................... 199 Practice the Point............................................... 200

POINT 9 POINT 10 POINT 11

Coordinating Conjunctions and Compound Sentences Study Guide......................................................... 218 Practice the Point............................................... 219 Subordinating Conjunctions and Complex Sentences Study Guide......................................................... 221 Practice the Point............................................... 223 Transition Words Study Guide......................................................... 225 Practice the Point............................................... 226

CHAPTER 5 POINT 12 A B POINT 13 POINT 14

Verbs: Present Perfect Verbs: Present Perfect including “Since” and “For” Study Guide......................................................... 228 Practice the Point............................................... 229 Verbs: Present Perfect vs. Simple Past Study Guide......................................................... 231 Practice the Point............................................... 232 Adjectives Study Guide......................................................... 234 Practice the Point............................................... 235 Adverbs Study Guide......................................................... 237 Practice the Point............................................... 239

References Oral Interaction Tips........................................................ 242 Strategies......................................................................... 243 How to Debate.................................................................. 244 How to Spell Better......................................................... 245 Response Process........................................................... 246 Writing Process............................................................... 247 Production Process......................................................... 248

Common Irregular Verbs................................................ 249 Irregular Plural Nouns.................................................... 250 Prepositions of Time and Place...................................... 251 Capitalization................................................................... 252 Punctuation...................................................................... 253 Credits.............................................................................. 254 TABLE OF CONTENTS

V

Section


CHAPTER 1

HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH ALL THE INFORMATION YOU FACE EVERY DAY? THINK ABOUT IT  More and more, we are bombarded with all kinds of infor­­mation, like publicity, images, news and messages. At home, at school and on the streets, it keeps growing every year. For some people, this sea of information becomes too much to handle: information overload! Is this your situation? Is it possible to manage that much data? How can you know what to believe, to trust, to select? How does all this information affect your brain, your body and your life?

Discuss your initial thoughts about these questions as a class.

First Stop......................................... 4 Reading Task 1: How Did We Get . So Much Info?...................... 6 Task 2: When Is It a Problem?....... 12 Viewing Task 3: How Much Can You . Process at Once?.............. 18 Listening Task 4: Say That Again?................. 20 Talk About It Task 5: Is This Cheating . Or Just Dealing? .............. 21 Write About It Task 6: How Did It Happen? ......... 22 Editing Tips.................................... 24

EXTRA READINGS Tuned Out..................................... 118 Dot-Teen: Portrait of . a Facebook Generation .............. 123


name:

group:

FIRST STOP ACTIVITY 1

SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION

Never Rarely Usually Often All the time

ACTIVITY 2

STATING YOUR PREFERENCES

Write down your answers to the questions below. 1.

Which medium or resource do you use the most? Why?

2.

Do you trust all the information you get from this medium? Why?

4

Other (specify)

Teachers

Parents

Friends

Billboards

Newspapers

Magazines

Radio

Newsletters

RSS

Forums

The internet

Social media

Texting

Television

Telephone

Email

In the chart below, indicate how often you use, or come in contact with, the following media or information sources.


name:

group:

ACTIVITY 3

DEALING WITH CONFLICTING INFORMATION

 PART A 

Read the following colours out loud. Do not say the word; say the colour of the word. BLUE WHITE GREEN

RED PURPLE PINK

GREEN ORANGE BLUE

PINK GREEN BLACK

YELLOW BROWN BLUE

ORANGE YELLOW

 PART B 

Now answer these questions about your experience with the colours in Part A. 1.

What do you think happened as you tried to do it?

2.

How easy or difficult was it for you to focus on saying the colour? Explain.

3.

How easy is it for you to do two things at the same time?

4.

What activities do you like to do simultaneously?

ACTIVITY 4

EXPRESSING YOUR OPINION

Explain why you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. 1.

There is too much information in my daily life.

2.

I can trust most of the information I find on the internet.

c 1

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

Talk About It

Share your answers to Activity 1 in a group. Find the top three sources you have in common. What kind of information do you get from these sources? Which three do you use most often? Does anyone else use that source? For the latest news, I go to ... 5


READING c

name:

group:

2

Task

How Did We Get So Much Info? setting it up

For more practice on the vocabulary in this chapter, check out the digital version of this workbook.

How did we end up with so much information available to us? What inventions lead us down the Road to Information Overload? You will read about the evolution of information technologies and how they changed our lives.

A Before Reading

ACTIVITY 1

Use Parts of Speech in a Dictionary Many words have very different meanings, depending on which part of speech (POS) they represent. When you look up a word: 1. I dentify the POS it represents in the text before reading its definition in your dictionary. 2. Find the abbreviation that represents the POS you are looking for. 3. Make sure the definition or translation makes sense in the context of the sentence you read.

Read the information in the How to box on this page about parts of speech (POS) in English. Then, read the sentence below and write the part of speech each word represents. Use the following abbreviations: n (noun) adj (adjective) adv (adverb), v (verb), aux (auxiliary verb), prep (preposition), pro (pronoun), c (conjunction) art (article), int (interjection)

With modern technology like computers and smartphones, we can get information on, well, mostly anything, wherever and whenever we want.

ACTIVITY 2

USING PARTS OF SPEECH IN A DICTIONARY

Using your dictionary, list the parts of speech each of the words below can represent, and then list the parts of speech as they are used in the text. Word junk public much select can function point need order guess

6

UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH

Parts of speech in dictionary

Part of speech in text


name:

group:

ACTIVITY 3

PREPARING TO READ

Complete the sentences below with one of the choices. Then, check off whether you are totally sure of your answer (TS), fairly sure (FS) or have no clue (NC). 1.

The printing press was invented around …   a)  1140   b)  1440   c)  1840

2. In 2002, the number of personal computers sold . worldwide reached …   a)  one thousand   b)  one million   c)  one billion

TS  

FS  

NC  

TS  

FS  

NC  

3.

A byte is …   a)  a light snack   b)  a small unit of computer memory   c)  a cut made with teeth

TS  

FS  

NC  

4.

The radio was invented …   a)  before the telephone   b)  after the telephone   c)  the same year as the telephone

TS  

FS  

NC  

5.

When the personal computer first came on the market, . it was …   a)  slow and expensive   b)  slow and cheap   c)  fast and expensive

TS  

FS  

NC  

B While Reading

ACTIVITY 4

Connect the Text to Personal Experiences

READING THE TEXT

You remember a text better if you can relate to it. Connect the text to your personal experiences by answering the four questions from the How to box as you read. Write your answers in the margin beside the text. Be selective with your connections to the text. The link should be significant enough to leave an impression on you. Reflect on how this strategy helped you understand and connect with the text.

As you read a text, keep these four questions in mind: 1. Is the location significant to me? 2. Do I own a similar object? 3. Do I know someone like this? 4. Why do I strongly agree or disagree with this point?

Glossary printing press: machine that reproduces type

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

7


THE ROAD TO INFORMATION OVERLOAD BY MARCUS GIRVAN

My grandparents

For thousands of years, most people knew very little of the world beyond their immediate surroundings. Now, we often feel there is too much information in our lives. This change happened very quickly, due to a few important inventions.

didn’t have computers!

Look.at.the.verbs. and.questions.in. orange.in.the.text.. What two verb forms do they use? To.learn.more,.see. pages.170–177.

We live in interesting times, don’t we? With modern technology like computers and smartphones, we can get information on, well, pretty much anything, wherever 005 • and whenever we want. We are also getting a lot of information we don’t necessarily want: publicity, junk mail and public messages, for example. For most people, having this much available information is a good thing. But many others have difficulties dealing with so much data. They cannot select what they need, or distinguish between fact, opinion or fiction. It can 015 • be so overwhelming for these people that they become unable to function or to be efficient. In his 1970 book Future Shock, Alvin Toffler predicted many of us would experience this state, which 020 • he called “Information Overload.” Is this really a new idea? How did we get to this point? Let’s try to answer these questions. 010 •

Humans are curious and impatient. When we want to know something, we 025 • want to know it now. That is one of the reasons behind the popularity of smartphones. However, this is not a new need. In the tenth century, the Grand Vizier of Persia, a man called Abdul Kassem

8

Ismael, carried the 117,000 volumes of his personal library on 400 camels, all lined up in alphabetical order. I guess you could call this the first portable encyclopedia. But if you tell me that 035 • not too many people did that at the time, you’ve got a point. 030 •

For most of our history, having too much information was not a problem. It was easy to distinguish between a message 040 • sent by smoke signal and a forest fire, for instance. The problem began with the invention of the printing press around the mid-fifteenth century. Before the printing press, there were about 30,000 books in 045 • all of Europe, almost all of them Bibles or books about the Bible. Fifty years later, there were over 9 million books covering a wide range of subjects: 300 times more books in only half a century! Some people started to complain (another common human trait). In 1685, a man named Adrien Baillet griped that all these books would make people as barbaric as they were in the Dark Ages. 055 • In his 1755 Encyclopedie, Denis Diderot added that, if the number of books continued to grow, it would be as difficult to learn anything from books as it would 050 •


be from trying to study the whole universe. But I’ll admit that most people did not worry about having too much reading material. At that time, an average person would see less written information in a lifetime than you can find in one edition 065 • of a major newspaper today.

printing press. In 1994, there were more PCs sold for personal use than 110 • for business use.

What really triggered the problem of information overload was the coming of three other technologies: the personal 095 • computer (PC), the World Wide Web (WWW) and the smartphone. The PC came about in the mid-1970s, but it was extremely slow and expensive and could not hold that much information. In 1977, 100 • Ken Olsen, the president of a company called Digital Equipment Corporation, said that ordinary people had no reason to own a computer at home. But by the time the WWW came about in 1991, PCs 105 • were already much cheaper and faster. They started to multiply, like books did after the invention of Gutenberg’s

email. We can face more information in a single day than people did in a lifetime just a few decades ago. There were an extraordinary 494 exabytes 145 • (494 billion gigabytes) of data transferred across the world on June 15, 2009, according to the Digital Britain Report.

060 •

Just eight years later, the number of computers sold to individuals reached one billion—so much for Ken Olsen’s analysis! This multitude of people started 115 • to use computers for a multitude of Then, in a relatively short period of fifty years, three important inventions were purposes, and the Web allowed them introduced: the telephone (1876), the to connect, create and share information radio (1896) and the television (1926). more rapidly than ever before in history. 070 • At first, many thought these new media With the introduction of the smartphone 120 • in 1992, we became able to do all of that would not become popular. Alexander Graham Bell did not like his own invention, on the go. Now these phones are also a Edison thought the radio was only a fad, calendar, an address book, a camera, and in 1946, Daryl F. Zanuck, head of a voice recorder, an MP3 and video 075 • 20th Century Fox, said that we would player, a Web browser, a GPS device, soon get tired of watching a plywood box 125 • and so much more. The number of every night. What proved them all apps ­(applications) for smartwrong was that fact that, with phones was about 100,000 these media, people could at the end of 2009. It is 080 • communicate with their expected to reach 130 •10 million by 2020. friends and family, listen to music and Finally, in the first news, and see the decade of the world without leaving twenty-first 085 • the comfort of their century, the low home. And, the avail135 • cost and high popability of all this inforularity of all these mation was not a inventions combined problem, since most to help create a con090 • people did only one thing stant flow of music, news, at a time. 140 • advertisements, videos, and

So where do we focus our attention? The production of information is constantly 150 • increasing, but what about our capacity for processing it? Is that increasing too? Alvin Toffler’s Future Shock prediction has come true: it is now increasingly difficult for us to manage what we want to know, 155 • and what we need to know. In short, information overload has arrived.

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

9

Glossary junk mail: advertising circulars overwhelming: too much; a feeling of drowning griped: complained fad: latest fashion or habit; what’s . in vogue plywood: laminated, layered . wood pieces triggered: started; began


name:

group:

C After Reading

ACTIVITY 5

CHECKING FOR GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING

PART A 

word bank

twentieth

1.

Complete the following text summary with words from the Word Bank. . Then, scan the text to verify your answers.

For many people, it is more and more

Alvin Toffler smartphone information overload

to deal .

with the growing flow of information. The inability to function because of

difficult

having too much information is called

internet

invented by

not new

, a term in 1970. Although our need for

instant information is

inventions

, it is only recently that .

process

we began to have too much for our capacity to

personal computer (PC)

Of the many

it.

that got us to this point, the most

important were three technologies of the late century: the

, the

the

and

.

PART B  2.

Make a timeline illustrating the seven inventions focused on in the text.

|

|

|

|

1400

1500

1600

1700

ACTIVITY 6

| 1800

| 1900

| 1950

| 1960

|

|

|

1970

1980

1990

| 2000

CHECKING FOR GREATER UNDERSTANDING

Answer the following questions about the texts. 1. What is the earliest example of mobile information mentioned in the text?

10

2.

Before the printing press, what was the number one topic of most books?

3.

What was the impact of the printing press on the availability of books?


name:

4.

group:

What two negative effects of printing too many books does the text describe?

5.

Which inventor disliked his own creation?

6.

Why was Edison wrong about the radio?

7.

What were the initial problems with the personal computer?

8.

What two things did Daryl F. Zanuck and Ken Olsen have in common?

9.

Name two attributes of modern technologies that allow people to access . a tremendous amount of information.

c 1

Talk About It

Discuss the following questions in groups: How much do you personally depend on technology? How long can you go without your electronic devices? What would you do if you lived somewhere with no internet or television? What annoys you most about today’s technology? I could never go without ... Personally, I can’t imagine ... It would be a relief/ terrible to ...

10. In your opinion, how has increased human mobility affected the evolution .

of technology?

D Reinvesting Your Understanding 

c

1 2

In a group, rate the order of importance of the seven inventions mentioned in the text from 1 to 7, with 1 being the most important and 7 being the least important. Be prepared to justify your order with reasons, such as their popularity and impact on society.

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

11


READING c

Task

name:

group:

2

When Is It a Problem? setting it up You may have heard the expression “Too much information!” (TMI). The Downside of Technology gives TMI a new meaning. This text takes a look at the physical and psychological effects of too much information.

A Before Reading

ACTIVITY 1

word bank

FINDING THE RIGHT WORD

Complete the following sentences with words from the Word Bank.

numbness

Then write its part of speech (POS) in the parentheses next to it.

ailment

Use your dictionary to verify the definitions and POS.

unfavourably fleeting commissioned cope

(

) with technological problems.

1.

We must all learn to

2.

After many hours on the computer, I developed a mysterious

3.

The

4.

( The report was that the public was kept up-to-date.

5.

When I talk on my cellphone for too long, I often develop a sharp,

(

) by a government agency to ensure

) pain in my left shoulder for a brief time.

Too much technology affects your mind and body

ACTIVITY 2

).

) in my fingers makes it difficult to send a text message.

( 6.

(

(

).

PREPARING TO READ

Make a list of possible physical and psychological effects associated with overusing technological devices, such as cellphones, computers and other portable devices. Physical problems

Intellectual problems

B While Reading

ACTIVITY 3

READING THE TEXT

Connect the text to your personal experiences as you read by asking the four questions listed in the How to box on page 7. Write your answers in the margin beside the text. When you have finished reading, share your notes with a partner. 12


THE DOWNSIDE OF TECHNOLOGY Technology Has Become a Pain in the Neck BY MISTY HARRIS - CanWest News Service

Tech Neck, Mouse Wrist, iPod Finger … Devices like computers and BlackBerries are having an effect on our health. The old folk wisdom that an apple a day keeps the doctor away may need a c­ autionary update for the computer age. That’s because a daily dose of Apple—or any other brand of computer or high-tech device—can be a direct path 010 • to the doctor’s office. 005 •

Across the country, excessive use of laptops, cellphones, personal digital assistants and other technology has led to such modern-day maladies as “tech 015 • neck,” “mouse wrist,” “iPod finger,” “BlackBerry thumb” and “computer headache.” “There’s an emerging body of knowledge about how these (technological) devices 020 • are actually impacting our health,” said Natalie Bovair, a spokesperson for the Canadian Physiotherapy Association. Of particular concern is the growing number of children and teenage 025 • patients who are complaining of headaches and neck pain, which researchers believe are occurring because of overuse of video games, long or frequent cellphone use, excessive text messaging and poor 030 • posture at the computer.

My wrist hurts

A Boston University study found 40 per cent of sixth graders who regularly used computers had physical complaints that suggested the presence of a musculo035 • skeletal disorder. An Australian study found 60 per cent of computer users ages 10 to 17 had similar complaints.

after I surf the Web.

Peter Vass, a real estate agent, is among the roughly 13 million Canadians who 040 • believe the use of technology contributes to their physical pain. “I’m a ‘crackberry’ addict with BlackBerry thumb,” said Vass, laughing. Although this ailment originates in the fingers, 045 • symptoms can include pain or throbbing, inflammation and numbness of the entire hand or forearm. Vaas, who lives in Toronto, also developed wrist problems, including the loss of 050 • feeling and muscle control, that he says he believes were caused by holding his phone at an unnatural angle for extended periods of time in his car (when hand-held devices were permitted while driving). 055 •

His solution was to switch to a Bluetooth earpiece, which he wears about 18 hours a day.

Glossary

“While I’m driving, I do all my communication: emails, texting, internet, make 060 • my phone calls. I pretty well live on a BlackBerry, ” Vass said.

folk wisdom: traditional knowledge cautionary: warning throbbing: pulsation

“When you’re a real estate agent, technology isn’t a choice; it’s your life.”

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

13


For nearly four years, the Canadian insurance claims specialist has been 070 • seeing a chiropractor for her “perpetual muscular pain,” but finds little sympathy for her condition outside the medical community. “When you think of a manual labour type of position, you automatically think of someone who’ll have pains and strains,” Lichti said.

075 •

065 •

Colleen Lichti spends most of her 40-hour workweek on the phone or at the computer, leading to what’s known popularly as “tech neck.”

“But when you think of somebody sitting in a chair in an office all day, that [image] 080 • doesn’t necessarily come to mind.”

Txts n emails mk ppl stupid coz they lead 2 a st8 of ''infomania''*

WHY TEXTING HARMS YOUR IQ BY MICHAEL HORSNEL

GRAMMAR NOTICE Look.at.the.verbs. and.questions.in. orange.in.the.text.. What two verb forms do they use? To.learn.more,.see. pages.178–185.

* Texts and emails make people stupid because they lead to a state of “infomania.”

The regular use of text messages and emails can lower the IQ more than staying up all night. Did you know texting was harming you ? Well, that is the claim of psychologists who have found that tapping away on a mobile phone or computer keypad or checking them for electronic messages temporarily deletes as much as 10 points 090 • off the user’s IQ. 085 •

This rate of decline in intelligence is significantly more than that caused by sleep deprivation, according to British

14

095 •

researchers, who have labelled the fleeting phenomenon of enhanced stupidity as “infomania.”

Was everyone affected? No, infomania is mainly a problem for adult workers, especially men, according to the study 100 • commissioned by Hewlett Packard, the technology company. The noticeable drop in IQ is attributed to the constant distraction of “always on” technology when employees should be 105 • concentrating on what they are paid to do. Infomania means that they lose


concentration as their minds remain fixed in an almost permanent state of readiness to react to technology instead 110 • of focusing on the task at hand. Workers lose productivity by interrupting business meetings and disrupt social get-togethers when they are always ­connected, the report said. The brain also finds it hard to cope with juggling lots of tasks at once, reducing its overall effectiveness, it added. And while modern technology can have huge benefits, excessive use can be damaging 120 • not only to people’s mind, but to their social life. 115 •

Furthermore, they found that infomania was having a negative effect on work colleagues, increasing stress and creating 125 • resentment. Nine out of ten polled thought that colleagues who answered emails or messages during face-to-face meetings were extremely rude. Yet one out of three in the UK believes that it is not only accept130 • able, but actually a smart and efficient thing to do.

The effects on IQ were studied by Dr. Glenn Wilson, a University of London psychologist, as part of the research 135 • project. “This is a very real and widespread phenomenon,” he said. “We have found that infomania, if unchecked, will damage a worker’s performance by reducing their 140 • mental capacity. “Companies should encourage a more balanced and appropriate way of working.” The report suggested that firms who give employees gadgets and devices to help 145 • them keep in touch from wherever they might be should also produce guidelines on their use. These “best practice tips” include using “dead time,” such as travelling time, to 150 • read messages and check emails, and turning devices off in meetings. David Smith, commercial manager of Hewlett Packard, said: “The research suggests that we are in danger of being caught 155 • up in a 24-hour ‘always on’ society.”

Glossary

He said that although the company ­produced such technology, it was similar to a motor manufacturer making a 150 mph [240 km/h] sports car and telling 160 • drivers to stick within speed limits.

165 •

He added: “Similarly, ‘always on’ technology has proven productivity benefits, but people need to use it responsibly. We know that technology makes us more effective, but we also know that misuse of technology can be counterproductive.” CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

15

strains: injured muscles juggling: doing several things simultaneously rude: impolite devices: objects designed for specific purposes counterproductive: having the opposite effect of what is desired


name:

group:

C After Reading

ACTIVITY 4

CHECKING FOR GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING

Using your own words, write one sentence that expresses the main idea of each text. TEXT 1  Technology Has Become a Pain in the Neck

TEXT 2  Why Texting Harms Your IQ

ACTIVITY 5

CHECKING FOR GREATER UNDERSTANDING

PART A 

Answer the following questions about the two texts. TEXT 1  Technology Has Become a Pain in the Neck

16

1.

What pun (play on words) can you find in the first paragraph?

2.

According to researchers, what are the four reasons for the headaches . and neck pains reported by young people?

3.

How many Canadians think their physical pains are due to technological tools?

4.

In your own words, what does Colleen Lichti say to explain why most people have little sympathy for her physical pains?


name:

group:

TEXT 2  Why Texting Harms Your IQ

c

1.

In the first four paragraphs, what harmful activity is compared to the IQ. deterioration attributed to the overuse of texting and emails?

1

2.

What contradiction comes out of a British survey on answering emails . or messages during face-to-face meetings?

3.

What are the two pieces of advice mentioned in the “best practice tips” . suggested by the researchers?

4.

What comparison does David Smith make with warnings about the use . of information technology?

Talk About It

What problems, risks or dangers, other than the ones mentioned in the text, does technology create? Was humanity better off a hundred years ago compared to today? Why? Have you ever thought about how ... Don’t you agree/ disagree that ... Sometimes, it seems like ...

PART B 

Find at least one harmful effect associated with each of the following habits mentioned in the two texts.

Text 2

Text 1

Habit

Harmful Effect

overuse of video games holding your phone at unnatural angles regular use of text messages and emails juggling lots of tasks at once

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

17


VIEWINGc

Task

name:

group:

2

How Much Can You Process at Once? setting it up You will watch two videos on multi-tasking: the ability to perform different tasks simultaneously. The first video is a report on the hazards of managing multimedia information at the same time. The second video tests your ability to deal with immediate and excessive information.

For more practice with this video, check out the digital version of this workbook.

A Before Viewing

ACTIVITY 1

View for Key Ideas in a Video Often in a video, an important or main idea is repeated several times and supported with visual aids. Watch for these clues.

MATCHING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO DEFINITIONS

Match the following words and expressions to the correct definitions. 1.

mega multi-taskers a) mixed up; confused

2.

relevant

b) danger

3.

irrelevant

c) people who do too many things at once

4.

jumbled

d) useless

5.

sensory overload

e) pertinent

6.

hazard

f)

when your senses are bombarded

B While Viewing

ACTIVITY 2

VIEWING FOR GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING

VIDEO 1  The Hazards of Multi-Tasking

Complete the following statements with information from the video.

People who multi-task excessively have difficulty:

1.

useless information.

2.

pertinent information. VIDEO 2 The Three Boxes

Follow the instructions at the end of the video.

18


name:

group:

C After Viewing

ACTIVITY 3

CHECKING FOR GREATER UNDERSTANDING

Answer the following questions about the Hazards of Multi-Tasking video. 1.

How does Mike Cohen, the school board employee, feel about having to manage so much information and so much technology?

2.

What do Mike Cohen and Andrea DiTomaso, the receptionist, have in common?

3.

How can multi-tasking be hazardous to people?

Answer the following questions about the Three Boxes video.

c

1.

Was it easy or difficult to read only one box during the video? Explain.

2.

In this video, there were four pertinent facts about managing information and eight useless or random statements or opinions. List as many items as you remember.

3.

Why do you think you remembered what you did?

D Reinvesting Your Understanding 

c

1

Talk About It

Try to recall all 12 points from the Three Boxes video. Discuss in groups which were easier to remember, and why they stood out. Can you remember another one? Did you read more than one box? What stood out for me was ...

1 2

Explain how you filter out irrelevant information when you study for school or research something for yourself. Include an example. Discuss your answer with a partner.

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

19


LISTENINGc

Task

name:

group:

2

Say That Again? setting it up

For more practice with this listening, check out the digital version of this workbook.

Sometimes, researchers find surprising information. You will listen to Yo an interview with Clifford Nass, a professor from Stanford University who studies the effects on our brain of chronic media multi-tasking. You may be surprised by his findings.

listen to Audios More Effectively Before you listen, eliminate all distractions. Turn off all of your electronic devices so you can better focus on the audio.

A Before Listening

ACTIVITY 1

PREPARING TO LISTEN

Think of two advantages and two disadvantages of mul Compare them with a partner. Advantages

Disadva

In your own words, explain why driving and using your hands-free device—don’t mix.

c 3

Write About It

Do you think it is more productive to multi-task? Do you know anyone who is either really good or really bad at multi-tasking? What makes them this way? How good are you at multi-tasking? 20

B While Listening

ACTIVITY 2

CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING

Identify two things Clifford Nass found in his research.   Multi-tasking causes many car accidents.   The negative effects of multi-tasking last even after w   Everyone has the same capacity for multi-tasking.


name:

group:

TALK cABOUT IT 1

Is This Cheating Or Just Dealing? ACTIVITY 1

TALKING ABOUT ETHICAL DECISIONS

Task

functional language to help you

Read the two situations below. Think about each one and formulate an opinion.

His /Her behaviour is definitely (not) cheating ...

Discuss your opinions with a partner or in a group. For each situation, decide:

What she /he should have done instead is ...

if the person is doing something immoral or unethical, or just effectively dealing with information overload;

what may be the possible short-term and long-term consequences;

what alternatives that person might consider;

if you think this person will be successful in the future. Explain. SITUATION 1  Airman Joe

Joseph wants to become an officer in the military after university. He has been in the Air Cadets for two years. He is also saving his money to move to a bigger city after high school to pursue his studies. He is a slightly above-average student. Most students at school like him and often let him copy their homework. He’s absent frequently for tests because he works 25 hours a week, but his parents

When I had a similar problem, I ...

always cover for him. This usually gives him enough time to ask his classmates what was on the test and be better prepared for the make-up. When he has an important assignment to research and submit, his girlfriend will sit and work with him until he’s done. His boss at work has caught him reading his textbooks on more than one occasion. Joseph says that he is so busy that he has no choice but “to deal.” He actually enjoys it!

SITUATION 2  Sophie’s Choice

Sophie can’t stand pressure. She figured that out during her first semester in CEGEP, when she had to drop three courses or fail them. She is now in her third year, and her parents think she’ll be graduating soon. They have paid for all her studies and have no idea how far behind she is. She’ll need at least another two years to graduate, and that’s ACTIVITY 2

if she doesn’t change programs. While most students in her program took five to seven courses per session, she took only two or three. Sophie refuses to take summer courses or get a job because she finds the school year very demand­ ing and says she needs time off to rest. She plans to tell her parents about her situation after she shows them her spectacular grades.

MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS

With your partner or in a group, decide who is being more dishonest or unethical, Joseph or Sophie? Why? What was the most demanding academic or life situation you have ever experienced? How did you deal with it? Share your story with a partner.

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

Be More Courageous in Discussions Remember that mistakes are an opportunity to learn. Correct errors that might make your message unclear. Rephrase if you forget a word, or ask for help. Listen well to others to learn new ways of expressing ideas. 21


WRITEc ABOUT IT

Task

3

How Did It Happen? A Choose your topic

ICT Search engines have an “images” tab that allows you to search strictly for images. The image resolution will determine its clarity. The higher the resolution, the better quality the image.

.

.

.

. .

Write about how you or someone you know: CHOICES . .experienced.(or.may.be. experiencing).information. overload.syndrome . .deals.with.all.the.daily. information,.media.and. technology.that.surrounds.us . .can.exploit.all.of.this.readily. available.information.for. personal.gain . .had.to.do.more.than.two. or.three.things.at.once,. with.unexpected.results . .dealt.with.a.particularly. difficult.school.project . .an.idea.of.your.choice

B Choose the Type

of Text You Want to Write Choice #1

Write five entries in an event log called “A week in the life of …”

Choice #2

Brainstorm Ideas for a Writing Task When faced with a writing task, begin by rapidly writing down a variety of short notes and key words on your topic. Include everything that comes to mind; don’t edit yourself!

Write a personal story.

C Plan Your Text Get some ideas by rereading different parts of this chapter. Recall or imagine the moment or experience you will write about and all the details surrounding it. Plan the events or problems that take place and how they will be resolved. See the How to box for tips on brainstorming. Then make an outline or use a graphic organizer to organize your ideas.

D Write a Draft Go with the flow of your ideas and don’t worry about spelling or grammar for now. Study the models on the next page to help you structure your text. Provide facts, reasons and concrete examples, from personal experience if possible, or from something that appeared in the media.


GO further

E Revise Your Text

F Edit Your Text

Read your text carefully and critically. Ask yourself …

Check your punctuation, spelling and grammar. Use the strategies you’ve learned in this chapter.

Did you list at least five events in your log or give details to explain your story?

Did you include your reactions or opinions?

Did you summarize what you learned or set up your log for what might happen on the next day?

Read your text slowly, one sentence at a time, to better catch your errors. Share your text with another student and exchange feedback. Write your final version.

If you don’t have enough material, ask someone to help you.

G Go Public Share your text with your class­ mates, your teacher, your parents, etc. and ask them for feedback. Compile all the texts and event logs into a class album. Share it with another class, if possible.

Divide your log or story into at least five parts. Using the internet or other resources, find an image that best represents each part of your text. Put the images in order and present them in a slide-show format to the class, while reading your text. As a group, decide who had the best image/ text combination. For more on the production process, see page 248 in the Reference Section.

A AN EVENT LOG

B A PERSONAL STORY

An event log allows someone to keep track of important events and all the details that go with them. Entries are relatively short and direct. Typically, the following information is included:

(introduction)

(date) October xx, 20xx

(body)

Introduce yourself and any other people in your story; it sets up the events. This story happened when … My personal story is about … Explain the events.

(set-up)

Describe in one to two sentences who was involved and the location where it took place. Today, at … I saw … When I got off the bus this morning … (critical event)

Describe the event that caused you to write this entry. The manager dropped all the …

The first thing that happened … I was … (ing) and then I … After that, we … My … asked me … I couldn’t believe/understand … (conclusion)

Explain how things ended and what you learned. In the end … This is what happened after … The biggest lesson for me was … I discovered that … My advice to anyone else would be …

(your reaction or opinion)

I immediately decided to … My friends and I started … (closing)

Close your entry and set it up for the next day. I can’t wait to see … Tomorrow, I expect …

CHAPTER 1 Information Overload?

23


WRITINGc

Editing

name:..

group:

3

GENERAL TIPS Underline all the verbs in your text. Ask yourself when? and highlight the key words that answer that question. Refer to Grammar Points 1 and 2 to review the rules and usage points for that verb tense: when to use it

For more grammar practice, check out the digital version of this workbook.

subject-verb agreement word order KEY WORDS

For more on the Present tense, see Grammar Point 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D, pages 170, 171, 174 and 175. For more on the Past tense, see Grammar Point 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D, pages 178, 179, 182 and 183.

Here are some key words for the verb tenses found in this chapter: Simple present: always, every day, generally, frequently, never, normally, usually, etc. Present continuous: (in progress) at this very moment, right now, etc. Simple past: (at a specific moment in the past) in 2009, last week, yesterday, etc. Past continuous: (in progress at the same time as another past event) when you called me, etc.; in progress at a specific time in the past, at 10 last night, etc.

Try the editing tips from above in the following text. Correct the tense, if needed, and highlight any key words. Follow the example. started

wake up

This.crazy.story.start.yesterday.morning..Normally,.I.am.waking.up.by.myself.. I.need.not.an.alarm.clock..But.that.morning,.it.is.the.first.day.at.my.new.job.and. I.am.very.nervous..Why.I.was.so.nervous?.As.I.write.this.text.right.now,.I.still. ask.myself.that.question..But.whatever.the.reason,.I.don’t.sleep.very.well.that.night and.I.wake.up.late..I.run.really.fast.and.I.arriving.20.minutes.after.my.boss,. Mrs.Taylor..When.I.opened.the.door,.she.is.talking.to.a.customer..I.close.the door,.and.Mrs..Taylor.look.at.me.angrily..I.tell.myself:.“You.just.lose.your.job.”.. But.then,.the.customer.turn.around.and.say:.“Hey,.I.don’t.know.you.work.here!”. It.is.my.aunt.Nicole,.who.is.a.good.friend.of.Mrs..Taylor..I.don’t.got.fired.thanks to.my.aunt.


SECTION

Extra Readings CHAPTER 1

Text 1 Tuned Out...............................................................................................................................118 Text 2 Dot-Teen: Portrait of a Facebook Generation.......................................................................123

CHAPTER 2

Text 1 Attitude Is Altitude.................................................................................................................128 Text 2 YouTube Revolution................................................................................................................134

CHAPTER 3

Text 1 How My Addiction Saved My Life...........................................................................................138 Text 2 Losing and Regaining Control...............................................................................................145

CHAPTER 4

Text 1 Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?.............................................................................................149 Text 2 Mind Control for Teens...........................................................................................................155

CHAPTER 5

Text 1 It Depends on How You Look at It..........................................................................................160 Text 2 Letter-Perfect........................................................................................................................165


EXTRA READINGS 1

2

Tuned Out

LEVEL

text

c

Chapter 1 Information Overload?

setting it up  Many teenagers think they are very good at multi-tasking. Do you? According to experts, one thing is certain: teens do excel at blocking out “unnecessary” stimuli—like reminders from parents to walk the dog.

Dot-Teen: Portrait of a Facebook Generation

LEVEL

2

text

setting it up  The internet and today’s teenagers were conceived and matured at roughly the same time. The intimate relationship teens have developed with the internet has given them a venue for finding and expressing themselves. Contrary to popular belief, teenagers use the internet for much more than just chatting.

A Vocabulary for Text 1 and Text 2 Use strategies and resources to help you understand unfamiliar words.

Use the glossary and check for cognates as you read.

R  emember to use your dictionary and watch out for tricky Parts of Speech (POS).

B Reading Strategies for Text 1 and Text 2 Use the reading strategy you’ve learned in this chapter as you read each text.

C  onnect the text to your personal experiences as you read by answering the four key questions discussed on page 7. Write your answers in the margin beside the text. Remember you can use this and other strategies to help you.

118


TUNED OUT BY MARIAN SCOTT - The Gazette

The more, the merrier for agile [teenage] multi-taskers, who juggle cellphones, MP3 players, text-messaging and homework. But after 40, it’s one thing at a time. Like a lot of teens, Cynthia A. does her homework while text-messaging friends, chatting on her cellphone and listening to the latest music on her MP3 player. Like most parents, her folks maintain 010 • there’s no way she can accomplish all that at the same time. 005 •

“They don’t think I’m capable of doing all these things at once, but I know I can,” said Cynthia, 17, a first-year commerce 015 • student at Dawson College. Most researchers side with her parents. Numerous studies show media multitasking—using different electronic media simultaneously—is much less efficient 020 • than doing one thing at a time. But a study by Toronto’s Rotman Research Institute suggests young people are, in fact, better at multitasking than their middle-aged parents. “Teens insist they can watch TV and study at the same time,” said Cheryl Grady, senior scientist in charge of the study, published in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. “It fits in with the lab 030 • results,” she said. “(Multi-tasking) really does get harder with age.”

040 •

“It’s highly unlikely that multi-tasking improves performance,” Grady acknowledged. “But the point here is (young people) are probably better at doing that 045 • than an older person.” There’s no denying today’s kids are masters of multi-tasking.

050 •

Nearly two-thirds of youths age 8 to 18 multi-task while doing homework, according to a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation, a non-profit institute in Menlo Park, California.

That can include talking on the phone, text-messaging, watching TV, listening 055 • to music or surfing on the Web, said the report, which looked at the role of media—internet, movies, magazines, music, TV and video games—in the lives of American youngsters. 060 •

025 •

This is not to say that Grady questions the undeniable evidence that multitasking is less efficient than doing one 035 • thing at a time. From the higher accident rate for drivers who use cellphones to

lost productivity among distracted employees, there is extensive proof that dividing our attention between tasks can be inefficient and even dangerous.

065 •

070 •

Generation M (for media), as the report dubbed today’s youth, devotes the same amount of time to media as in 1999—a whopping six hours and 20 minutes a day. But when you factor in the average two hours a day kids spend media multitasking—for example, text-messaging while listening to music—they’re actually getting 8 ½ hours worth of daily media exposure. It drives parents up the wall. “My mom hates it,” says Kate B., 17, a first-year student at Dawson who text-messages

EXTRA READINGS 1 Information Overload?

119

Glossary dubbed: gave an unofficial name whopping: very large factor in: include in a calculation (phrasal verb) drives [someone] up the wall: makes (someone) feel crazy (idiom)


with up to 20 friends, talks on her cell and listens to hip-hop while writing essays. 075 •“She’s, like, ‘Get off and do your homework.’” In the Rotman study, the 40 participants were divided into three age groups—20 to 35, 40 to 60 and over 65. Researchers used functional MRI to scan brain activity while 080 • participants performed memory tasks. Middle-aged and elderly people had more trouble switching tasks than the younger participants. As we age, we gradually lose the ability to tune out 085 • ­distractions like a blaring radio or background conversations, Grady explained. “Younger adults are really good at turning down areas that aren’t relevant.” 090 •

Grady herself has observed that, since reaching her 50s, she has more trouble dividing her attention. “I find it harder to read when there’s noise going on around me.”

That comes as no surprise to the younger 095 • generation. “My mom, she can’t do a million things at once,” Kate said. “My grand­mother is even worse than my mother. As you get older, that gets harder, I guess.” But not all researchers buy Grady’s findings. “I can show you data that suggests the old are just as good as the young at multi-tasking,” said David Meyer, a cognitive scientist and director of the Brain, 105 • Cognition and Action Laboratory at the University of Michigan. 100 •

Glossary functional MRI: type of brain scan to measure blood flow in the brain blaring: extremely loud overlapping: sharing features; occurring together frenetic: frantic; always at top speed loom: are imminent

Meyer argued the reason older people didn’t perform as well in the Rotman study could be a reflection of choice, 110 • not ability. As we age, we become more cautious, he pointed out. Older people tend to drive more slowly—but that’s not necessarily because of failing abilities, said Meyer, 115 • 63. “It’s not because I can’t drive fast. It’s because I don’t want to.” The reason multi-tasking is inefficient, Meyer said, is that you waste time every time you switch from one task to another.

120

Very few tasks can actually be done simultaneously—like, say, walking and chewing gum. Ironing while listening to music is another example of what researchers call “true task overlapping.” 125 • But you can’t solve a geometry problem while making plans for Friday night because both tasks use the same ­channels in the brain, Meyer said. 120 •

130 •

Most of the time when we multi-task, we’re actually alternating between tasks—what researchers call “rapid task sequencing.”

When you stop writing an email to answer a ringing phone, it takes a few seconds to 135 • refocus your attention on the call. Then, when you go back to the email, you have to refocus once again. Those lost seconds add up to a huge loss in productivity. Meyer’s research shows it can take up to 140 • 400 per cent as long to accomplish something when you’re multi-tasking. While multi-tasking is rising every year, Meyer predicted people will tire of the frenetic pace. “It’s just not good for you,” 145 • he said. “Sooner or later, people are going to figure this out.” And when deadlines loom, even dedicated multi-taskers like Cynthia and Kate admit they sometimes have to stay on 150 • one task to get the job done. “I think I’m getting a lot done, but when it comes down to it I’m really not,” Kate said. “Sometimes I have to turn everything off and just focus.”


name:

group:

C A  fter Reading PART A 

Scan the text to fill in the chart below about the people mentioned in the text. Name

Age

Occupation

Cynthia A.

Cheryl Grady

Kate B.

David Meyer

PART B

Indicate whether each statement below is true (T) or false (F). Write the line numbers that support your choice. T or F

Statements

Lines

All experts believe that teenagers save time by multi-tasking. Researchers agree that only young people are able to multi-task. Both Cynthia and Kate do a lot of multi-tasking. All researchers agree that multi-tasking becomes harder as you age. Older people can multi-task, but they are more selective about when they do it than teenagers are.

PART C

Answer the following questions about the text. 1.

What is the definition of media multi-tasking?

2.

What multi-tasking activity leads to an increase in road accidents?

EXTRA READINGS 1 Information Overload?

121


name:

group:

3.

What proportion of young students multi-task while doing schoolwork?

4.

What name does that report give to today’s generation?

5.

What four activities can Kate do at the same time?

6.

What does Cheryl Grady have difficulty doing in a noisy environment?

7.

According to David Meyer, why is it not productive to multi-task?

8.

What is the difference between true task overlapping and rapid task sequencing?

9.

How much longer can it take to do something when you multi-task?

10. What does Kate realize at the end of the text?

D Reinvesting Your Understanding 

c

1 2

Discuss the following questions in a group. Support your ideas with information from the text.

122

1.

In the text, Meyer predicted that people would “tire of the frenetic pace.” Why do you think he was right or wrong?

2.

Is playing a drum set an example of true task overlapping or rapid-task sequencing?

3.

Do you consider yourself to be a good multi-tasker? Explain why or why not.

4.

In your experience, are people over 40 able to multi-task well? Give examples of people in your family or of famous people.

5.

What task or activity requires your absolute and undivided attention? Why?


SECTION

Grammar: Point by Point CHAPTER 1 POINT 1: Verbs: Present................................................................................................... 170 A Verbs: Simple Present B Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Simple Present C Verbs: Present Continuous D Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Present Continuous POINT 2: Verbs: Past......................................................................................................... 178 A Verbs: Simple Past B Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Simple Past C Verbs: Past Continuous D Verbs: Interrogative Forms in Past Continuous

CHAPTER 2 POINT 3: Question Words.................................................................................................. 186 POINT 4: Verbs: Future..................................................................................................... 189 A Verbs: Future Forms B Verbs: Interrogative Forms in the Future POINT 5: Pronouns and Adjectives................................................................................... 193 A Pronouns and Adjectives: Subject, Object and Reflexive Pronouns B Pronouns and Adjectives: Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns

CHAPTER 3 POINT 6: Modals.................................................................................................................. 199 A Modals, Part 1: Ability, Possibility, Permission B Modals, Part 2: Obligation / Necessity, Suggestion/Advice, Habit C Modals, Part 3: Asking Questions with Modals POINT 7: Adjectives........................................................................................................... 208 A Adjectives: Comparative B Adjectives: Superlative C Asking Questions with Comparative and Superlative Adjectives POINT 8: Conditions.......................................................................................................... 212 A Conditions: Real B Conditions: Hypothetical

CHAPTER 4 POINT 9: Coordinating Conjunctions and Compound Sentences.................................... 218 POINT 10: Subordinating Conjunctions and Complex Sentences.................................... 221 POINT 11: Transition Words.............................................................................................. 225

CHAPTER 5 POINT 12: Verbs: Present Perfect..................................................................................... 228 A Verbs: Present Perfect including “Since” and “For” B Verbs: Present Perfect vs. Simple Past POINT 13: Adjectives......................................................................................................... 234 POINT 14: Adverbs............................................................................................................ 237


Point

Study Guide

Verbs: Present

1A

Simple Present

Verbs in the present tense can take the simple present or present continuous forms. Grammar Point 1 also covers three types of sentences: the affirmative, negative and interrogative. Master this information to communicate more effectively.

Read the information in the Study Guide. Write your own examples in this column.

Function: to express repeated actions and habits, generalities and facts, and states of being Key Words: generally, frequently, always …

They always study

Affirmative

together.

Negative Use do not / (don't), does not / (doesn't)

I You We They

check for email three to four times a day.

I You We They

do not / (don't) check for email three to four times a day.

He She It

checks* for email three to four times a day.

He She It

does not / (doesn't) check for email three to four times a day.

* 3rd person singular takes an s or es

Note: He, she and it are third person singular subjects. Other third person singular subjects include: • indefinite pronouns: somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, everyone, no one, everybody, nobody … Somebody always wants me to help.

• singular nouns (count / non-count / proper): a man / money / John Smith … Juliana Chang is not getting a response.

• gerunds (ing verbs that act like nouns): running, travelling, skiing Running is a great way to reduce stress.

The verb “to be” is an exception. Affirmative I am You are She / he / it is We / you / they are

170

Negative I am not You are not She / he / it is not We / you / they are not

I'm not You aren't She / he / it isn't We / you / they aren't


Study Guide

Verbs: Present

Point

1B

Interrogative Forms in Simple Present Interrogative forms (questions) in English are essential. Practice will help you properly formulate and understand them. How you ask your question will determine the answer you will get. This is why correct question formation is so important when learning a second language.

Read the information in the Study Guide. Write your own examples in this column.

Types of Questions Yes /no questions require a yes or no response. Information questions require information as a response. Forming questions in the simple present: Information questions: Question word

Yes /no questions: Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest of question

Do

you

filter out

nonsense?

Does

your car

have

a GPS device?

Do

they

share

information?

When

does

your computer

scan

for viruses?

How

does

Miriam

study

for exams?

What

do

we

believe

today?

When do we start?

With “to be” as the main verb: Information questions: question word

Yes/no questions: auxiliary

Subject

Rest of question

Are

you

at the library?

Is

the newspaper

interesting?

Are

they

ready?

Why

am

I

here?

Where

is

Thomas

today?

Who

is

she?

When the information we are looking for is the subject of the verb, we use a slightly different word order: Information questions: Subject always includes a question word(s)

Verb

Rest of question

Who

controls

the internet?

What information

is presented

to the audience?

POINT 1 Verbs: Present

171


Practice the

name:

group:

P o int 1

The following text deals with a teenager’s relationship with her older brother. Fill in the blanks with the simple present form of the verb in parentheses.

What Are Big Brothers for? My older brother is studying to be a lawyer. He (to believe) the road to success (to lie)

that

in knowing where to find important

information—not necessarily in memorizing it. But what information and where to look? At school, they (to teach)

us lots of stuff, but I (negative /remember)

all of it. My brother also (to have) difficulty remembering specific information. But he’s a very organized person. He (to know)

exactly which website to visit and which book

to consult when he is looking for an answer. What (interrogative / I / to do) when I’m stuck? Easy: I (to go)

and

ask my brother what to do. We (to get along) he (negative/mind)

well enough, so

when I (to bother)

him with my questions. We (to make)

a great team: he (to do)

the research and I (to get)

For more practice on this and any other grammar point, check out the digital version of this workbook.

2

Rewrite each of the following sentences in either the negative (Neg) or yes /no interrogative (Y/N) form.

a)

Our school principal gives us a long speech every fall. Y/N:

b)

He talks about very interesting things. Y / N:

c)

He and the vice principal explain all the school rules clearly and systematically. Neg:

d)

Some other school employees say a few words as well. Y/N:

e)

172

the grades!

The cafeteria lady tells us to eat more vegetables. Neg:


name:

group:

f)

The librarian tells us to stop stealing books.  Y / N:

g)

I look forward to that meeting every year.  Y / N:

3 Write an information question about the underlined part of each sentence. Be sure to write complete questions. Example: Jenny uses the internet for research and homework.

Why does Jenny use the internet? a)

Tina and her sister, Louise, are identical twins.

b)

They have a great way of dealing with too many responsibilities.

c)

Louise goes to Tina’s math class every Monday.

d)

She passes all of her sister’s tests effortlessly.

e)

Tina also helps her sister.

f)

She replaces Louise at work when Louise has too much homework.

g)

Tina helps her sister a lot.

h)

They borrow each other’s things all the time.

i)

Nobody can tell Tina and Louise apart!

TIP

4 Unscramble the following words to make questions. a)

on / computer processor / the / the / fastest / what / market / is / ?

b)

process / can / how much / computers / information / ?

c)

a lot / on / does / data / the / get / of / Web / transferred / ?

d)

than / do / need / you / more / you / download / ?

POINT 1 Verbs: Present

See page 186 for a list of question words.

173

Match Point 2nd Ed  
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