CNS PHOTO FROM REUTERS
Faithful say goodbye to JPII A young girl blows a kiss as the body of Pope John Paul II is carried through St. Peter’s Square en route to St. Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican April 4. The body of the pope will lie in the church for public viewing until the funeral for the pontiff, to be held Friday, April 8. The Holy Father will be interred in the grotto under the basilica. page 3
THE EAST TENNESSEE
Volume 14 • Number 15 • April 10, 2005
N E W S PA P E R
of the D I O C E S E of K N O X V I L L E
Farewell, il papa PRAYERS FOR THE POPE A man prays for Pope John Paul II at Sacred Heart Cathedral on April 1, one day before the Holy Father’s death.
East Tennessee Catholics mourn loss of Holy Father BY DAN MCWILLIAMS
he church in East Tennessee joined with the more than 1 billion Catholics worldwide in mourning the death April 2 of Pope John Paul II. Special Masses and prayer services at Sacred Heart Cathedral and around the diocese honored a pontiff already being called “John Paul the Great” less than a day after his death. Soon after the pope’s passing at 2:37 p.m. Eastern Time, Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz announced that the diocese would observe a nine-day mourning period. “Both before the funeral and afterward, I’m calling upon all of the faithful to take special time for their personal prayer and also for joining with others in special Masses and events of prayer,” he said. The bishop also said the cathedral will pray the Office of the Dead at 7 p.m. Thursday, April 7, on the eve of the Holy Father’s funeral at the Vatican. Priests of the diocese have been invited to participate in the service and to extend an invitation to their parishioners to attend. Bishop Kurtz will preside at a memorial Mass at 8:05 a.m. Friday, April 8, and at a Mass for the election of a pope at
Local reaction continued on page 2
Letters to the editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Living the readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Hope in the Lord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Parish notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 On the calendar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pope John Paul II ................6-15 Deaths ......................................16 Life issues ................................16 Around the diocese.................17 GIFT campaign ........................17 Called to follow .......................18 Life in every limb .....................18 Social justice ...........................19 From the Paraclete . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 Pope John Paul II ....................20
VATICAN CITY (CNS)— Pope John Paul II died April 2 after a long struggle with illness, ending a historic papacy of more than 26 years. The Vatican announced the pope’s death at 9:54 p.m. Rome time, two days after the pontiff suffered septic shock and heart failure brought on by a urinary tract infection. The pope, 84, died at 9:37 p.m., the Vatican said. Pope John Paul’s body was brought to St. Peter’s Basilica for public viewing and prayer Monday afternoon, April 4. But Vatican officials, Italy’s president and top politicians, ambassadors to the Vatican, cardinals, bishops, and even a dozen journalists were led into the Clementine Hall of the Apostolic Palace April 3 to pay their last respects. The ceremony followed a Mass attended by some 70,000 people in St. Peter’s Square. Conscious and alert the day before his death, the pope was able to concelebrate Mass in his papal apartment, the Vatican said. He began slipping in and out of consciousness the morning of April 2 and died that night, it said. Tens of thousands of the faithful streamed to St. Peter’s Square as the pope lay dying, some staying all night in quiet and moving vigils, aware that there was little hope for his recovery. Shortly before the pontiff’s death U.S. Cardinal Edmund C. Szoka led a candlelight prayer service in the packed square. “Like children, we draw close around our beloved Holy Father, who taught us how to follow Jesus and how to love and serve the church and the people,” Cardinal Szoka said. “This is the gift we present to him as he prepares to take his last journey. May the Madonna present him to her Son and obtain for him, through her intercession, the reward promised to the faithful servants of the Gospel,” the cardinal said. The pope’s death was announced in St. Peter’s Square after the prayer service. Cardinal Bernard F. Law, archpriest of Rome’s Basilica of St. Mary Major
CNS PHOTO FROM L'OSSERVATORE ROMANO
With tens of thousands keeping vigil in St. Peter’s Square, the Holy Father’s historic reign ends with his death at age 84. By John Thavis
Pope John Paul II delivers his annual urbi et orbi (to the city of Rome and the world) message in this Dec. 25, 1996, file photo. The 84-year-old pontiff died April 2.
REQUIESCAT IN PACEM
and former archbishop of Boston, was among the prelates standing outside on the steps of St. Peter’s Basilica when the announcement was made. Many in the crowd wept, and after a long applause the square was enveloped in silent prayer. The bells of St. Peter’s Basilica tolled a steady death knell. “Dear brothers and sisters, at 9:37 this evening our most beloved Holy Father John Paul II returned to the house of the Father. Let us pray for him,” Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, a top official of the Vatican’s Secretariat of State, told the crowd.
Navarro-Valls later said, “The Holy Father’s final hours were marked by the uninterrupted prayer of all those who were assisting him in his pious death and by the choral participation in prayer of the thousands of the faithful who, for many hours, had been gathered in St.
Peter’s Square.” The spokesman said those at the pope’s bedside at the moment of his death included his personal secretaries, Archbishop Stanislaw Dziwisz and Monsignor Mieczyslaw Mokrzycki; Cardinal Marian Jaworski, the Latin-rite archbishop of Lviv, Ukraine, and a longtime personal friend;
Polish Archbishop Stanislaw Rylko, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity; and Father Tadeusz Styczen, a former student of the pope’s and director of the John Paul II Institute at Lublin University in Poland. Also present were the three sisters who cared for the pope’s apartment, the pope’s personal physician, two other doctors, and two nurses, the spokesman said. About 90 minutes before the pope died, Navarro-Valls said, the cardinals and priests at the pope’s bedside began celebrating Pope’s death continued on page 3
letters to the
New missals available for Tridentine Mass
It was gratifying to read Dan McWilliams’s excellent article (“St. Stephen’s pastor now offering Latin Mass,” March 20 ETC) about the traditional Latin Mass offered monthly at St. Stephen Church in Chattanooga. With the Latin Mass now offered with increasing frequency in more and more dioceses, it seems worth noting that this year marks the first publication of new and complete Latin–English missals for the so-called Tridentine Mass in the 40 years since Vatican II. Comparative descriptions of these new missals for the old Mass can be found at the website www.knoxlatinmass.net. In the foreword to one of these missals Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz of Lincoln, Neb., writes It is my hope that this finely produced hand missal will also serve to introduce those unfamiliar with the traditional Roman Rite to its particular beauty. May it likewise contribute to the understanding that the older rites need not be disdained in order to appreciate the new, nor must the new rites be disparaged in order to love the old. In the Diocese of Lincoln both the traditional and the new Roman rites are available to the faithful and are celebrated with dignity. Those who participate in one or both of these forms of the Roman Rite do so in a spirit of mutual appreciation and peace. It is my humble prayer that this publication will promote the same spirit of mutual respect among Catholics everywhere, regardless of the form of the Roman Rite they use to give honor and glory to God.
These words surely describe a wholesome spirit in which the old and new Masses can complement one another and enrich the worship of faithful Catholics who are devoted to both. Although we are thankful for the opportunity to attend occasionally the Latin Mass in Chattanooga, for many of us in Knoxville and Upper East Tennessee a Sunday afternoon-evening drive that far is not feasible on a regular basis. We therefore hope and pray that the traditional Latin Mass will soon be provided in Knoxville as well. —C. Henry Edwards Alcoa
Check website before visiting ‘Ink & Blood’ exhibit
As a follow-up to Pat von Clef’s letter (“Knoxville exhibit could mislead Catholic students,” March 20 ETC) concerning the Ink & Blood exhibit at the Knoxville Convention Center: Two years ago my husband, our two homeschooled daughters, and I drove to Murfreesboro to see an exhibit by the same Dr. William Noah. This exhibit was titled “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Forbidden Bible.” I was so excited to be seeing real fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but what angered me greatly (my husband said smoke was coming out of my ears) was the diatribe against the Catholic Church that Dr. Noah gave as a lecture on “the forbidden book.” His lecture consisted of attacks on the “Church of Rome,” as he constantly referred to the Roman Catholic Church, and its part in forbidding anyone from reading or publishing English versions of the Bible. He spoke at length about the torture and execution of several people by the church for daring to publish an English Bible. Nothing was said of why the church didn’t want just anyone publishing a Bible. His was a very onesided Protestant view of history. After we attended the exhibit, I noticed that the same exhibit was being shown in Texas. The bishop in the diocese there warned Catholics that the exhibit was very anti-Catholic. I hope that if anyone plans to see Ink & Blood, he or she will visit the website Pat von Clef mentioned (snipurl.com/ tyndale) and read up on Tyndale and Wyclif. ■ —Frances K. King Knoxville We welcome letters to the editor and carefully consider all submissions. Letters should be 350 words or less and will be edited for grammar, style, clarity, and length. Letters to the editor reflect the opinions of their authors and not those of the editorial staff or the publisher.
Take note of ETC deadlines e welcome submissions about parish and community events. To make sure we receive your information in time for publication, please submit it by the following deadlines: ■ Monday, April 11, for the April 24 issue ■ Monday, April 25, for the May 8 issue ■ Monday, May 9, for the May 22 issue ■ Monday, May 30, for the June 12 issue ■ Monday, June 13, for the June 26 issue ■ Monday, June 27, for the July 10 issue ■ Monday, July 11, for the July 24 issue. To request a complete deadline schedule for 2005, write, call, fax, or e-mail the ETC office at P.O. Box 11127, Knoxville, TN 37939-1127, 865-584-3307, fax 584-8124, email@example.com. ■
BY FATHER JOSEPH BRANDO
Attention to a detail The Emmaus story reveals important aspects of the Gospel message.
The extremely delicate interweaving of words, ideas, and events that is the story of the two disciples on the way to Emmaus is a masterpiece in itself. Looking at it from a distance, as one would observe a wonderful tapestry, it’s a poignant story of faith that can also describe our personal meeting with Christ. As we come closer and examine it in detail, we see each section of the work of art has its own story, revealing important aspects of the Gospel message. One aspect of that story captures the attitude of Jesus’ followers on that original Easter day. In today’s Gospel notice how Luke introduced the two disciples. His description
begins with the two arguing with one another. He describes them as downcast. They even answer the stranger with a chip-on-the-shoulder attitude, accusing him of being the only one who didn’t know what was going on. In short, they were in no way able to recognize the Lord even when he came up to them and interrupted their conversation. That description of the two disciples represents the attitude of virtually all the disciples that day. The very sentence before this passage shows the apostles ridiculing the women who reported they had seen the risen Christ. They told them they were spinning folly. This single, perhaps painful, detail from a much larger work of art spotlights the initial response of the church during the daylight hours of that first Easter. They were disbelieving, sad, and accusatory. They
Easter applications We should look at Jesus’ words as if the risen Christ uttered them.
ne profitable practice for our post-Easter meditation is to ponder the Resurrection accounts in the Gospels. The last four Sunday liturgies have already offered them to us. Another practice, which the church begins this week, is to look back at the earlier sayings of Jesus, in light of the Easter event—to look at them as if the risen Lord has appeared and uttered these sacred words to us. When we consider that the New Testament was written by the body of Christ (the church of the apostles) to communicate its relationship with Christ to us (the church in the mod-
ern world), that idea is really true. The first two readings this Sunday center on Peter. In both he presents practical applications of the Easter message. Speaking to the crowd at Pentecost, Peter warns those assembled to look at the world differently. The world looks neutral when you have no other point of reference. But when you enter the brightness of the risen Lord’s glory, the world looks pretty dark and corrupt. That’s repentance. It gives birth to the good news that we can live in the light and ourselves become lights to brighten our environ-
even ridiculed each other. Mark gives us the same view, adding that these two disciples were met with the same treatment when they returned to the Upper Room. In one sense, this scene might cause embarrassment. However, it does refute the claim of those who supposed the apostles were conspirators who stole Jesus’ body in order to proclaim him risen from the dead. Actually, Jesus’ followers were in a state of panic and reacted dysfunctionally. The detail also opens us to the ultimate meaning of the Resurrection. In John’s Easter night scene in the Upper Room, Jesus appeared to the troubled disciples. He offered them peace and ordered them to forgive. Amazement at unbelievable miracles, even the Resurrection, can provoke divergent responses. The true, unmistakable effect of Easter is forgiveness. Sin, as well as death, was destroyed. ■ April 10, third Sunday of Easter Acts 2:14, 22-33 Psalm 16:1-2, 5, 7-11 1 Peter 1:17-21 Luke 24:13-35
ments. The world can be cleansed. Thirty or so years later Peter writes to those who have spent their lives in service to Christ. Being a light to the world did not prove to be an easy task. This snag brings Peter to provide us with another application of Easter. Before he rose, Jesus suffered. We, therefore, must be patient. Peter continues writing that patience is a grace that comes to those who live in Christ and are willing to suffer with him. Notice a great insight here. Patience is not a commodity that can be asked for. It is a byproduct. It comes automatically when one lives faithfully in the life of Christ. Now we can look at the Gospel reading and hear
the risen Christ tell us he is the sheep gate. He is also our shepherd. Whatever worries we may have from living in a corrupt world filled with contrary and dangerous ideas can be put to rest. Our shepherd’s calm, reassuring voice will lighten our hearts and fill us with joy. We merely need to listen for the voice of the Lord calling to us. We can recognize it immediately. Then we can follow in peace. ■ Father Brando is pastor of St. Thérèse of Lisieux Parish in Cleveland. April 17, fourth Sunday of Easter Acts 2:14, 36-41 Psalm 23:13, 3-6 1 Peter 2:20-25 John 10:1-10
WEEKDAY READINGS Monday, April 11: Memorial, Stanislaus, bishop, martyr, Acts 6:8-15; Psalm 119:23-24, 26-27, 29-30; John 6:22-29 Tuesday, April 12: Acts 7:51–8:1; Psalm 31:3-4, 6-8, 17, 21; John 6:30-35 Wednesday, April 13: Acts 8:1-8; Psalm 66:1-7; John 6:35-40 Thursday, April 14: Acts 8:26-40; Psalm 66:8-9, 16-17, 20; John 6:44-51 Friday, April 15: Acts 9:1-20; Psalm 117:1-2; John 6:52-59 Saturday, April 16: Acts 9:31-42; Psalm 116:12-17; John 6:60-69
Monday, April 18: Acts 11:1-18; Psalms 42:2-3 and 43:3-4; John 10:11-18 Tuesday, April 19: Acts 11:19-26; Psalm 87:1-7; John 10:22-30 Wednesday, April 20: Acts 12:24–13:5; Psalm 67:2-3, 5-6, 8; John 12:44-50 Thursday, April 21: Acts 13:13-25; Psalm 89:2-3, 21-22, 25, 27; John 13:16-20 Friday, April 22: Acts 13:26-33; Psalm 2:6-11; John 14:1-6 Saturday, April 23: Acts 13:44-52; Psalm 98:1-4; John 14:7-14 ■
Local reaction continued from page 1
9 a.m. Sunday, April 17, both at the cathedral. The bishop said there was a threefold purpose in mourning. “The first, of course, is to pray for the happy repose of the soul of Pope John Paul II,” he said. “The second would be to pray in thanksgiving for the tremendous gifts the Holy Spirit enacted through the life of John Paul II. In all aspects we’ve been given a Holy Father for over a quarter of a century who has been a true renaissance person. “The third purpose is to pray for one another. We have lost a spiritual father, so we pray that the Lord will give us strength in these days ahead.” Chancellor Father Vann Johnston
said the diocesan time of mourning mirrors the nine-day period being observed by the universal church. “Over that period, priests will be encouraged to offer Mass for the Holy Father’s repose, and Masses will be offered for the College of Cardinals who will be called upon to elect the next pope,” he said. “There are also special Masses that can be said for the new pope when he’s elected.” The Office of the Dead was prayed at Sacred Heart on the evening of April 2, shortly after the Holy Father’s death. Father Johnston led the recitation of the Divine Mercy Chaplet afterward. Pope John Paul II died as vigil Masses were being celebrated for the
feast of Divine Mercy, which he established with the canonization of Sister Maria Faustina Kowalska in 2000. “The Divine Mercy devotion was fostered by now–St. Faustina, who was from Poland, so the Holy Father was very familiar with her,” said Father Johnston. “It was significant too that Sister Faustina was the first saint canonized in the Jubilee year, so this was a feast that was very near and dear to the Holy Father’s heart. “The mercy that comes through Jesus was really the bedrock upon which the pope lived and preached, and it animated all of his teaching and the way he approached everything.” Local reaction continued on page 6
THE EAST TENNESSEE
The good we do lives after us— when we remember to make a will.
Only you can divide your own property as you want it divided. A bequest to your church can be a living memorial to the nobility of your life.
APRIL 10, 2005
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hope in the
BY BISHOP JOSEPH E. KURTZ
May Pope John Paul II rest in peace
whose death and resurrection reveal the love of the Father, we believe in you, and with confidence we say again to you this today: Jesus, I trust in you, have mercy on us and the entire world.” May these words frame our mediation in these nine days of mourning. ■
Pope’s death continued from page 1
May our Holy Father Pope John Paul II rest in peace. This Thursday, April 7, at 7 p.m., on the vigil of our Holy Father’s funeral, the Office for the Dead will be recited at Sacred Heart Cathedral as a special time for the faithful of the Diocese of Knoxville to mourn his passing and pray for his repose. Then on Friday morning I will celebrate a special memorial Mass at 8:05 a.m. at the cathedral, joining our diocesan family to the prayers of the universal church. These prayers and those throughout the diocese will be our means of taking part in a nine-day period of mourning, in which we join in prayerful solidarity with the church throughout the world, and with the special intercession of Mary, the mother of the church, turn to Almighty God. As we join together in mourning the death of our Holy Father, we pray for him and for the church he served so well. The Roman Catholic Church and the entire human community mourn the death of our dear Holy Father, Pope John Paul II. Since his election as pope in October 1978, he has been the spiritual leader and vicar of Christ on earth for all Catholics. Likewise, he has been recognized as a vigorous leader by people of goodwill throughout the world. As we mourn his passing, I call
upon all the faithful of the Diocese of Knoxville to pray for the eternal repose of his soul. On the occasion of my ad limina visit this past December I was blessed to have the opportunity to tell His Holiness of the esteem in which the people of the Diocese of Knoxville hold him and of their deep gratitude to him for his great leadership over this past quarter of a century. He has shown himself to be a man so richly gifted by God. The list of his gifts is like a litany: he was heroic in his resolve to teach and adhere to the teaching of Christ, courageous in his call and challenge to all to serve others, compassionate in his consistent priority of the person over all and anything. He was so brave in proclaiming a respect for human life and so lovingly immersed in the life of the church and of our world. Our Holy Father died on the vigil of the second Sunday of Easter, Divine Mercy Sunday. It was touching to read the text of the homily he had prepared for that day. His own words, perhaps his final words, offer a great perspective not only on his life and death but our own as well. He said: “To all humanity, which at times seems so lost and dominated by the power of evil, selfishness, and fear, our resurrected Lord offers in gift his love that pardons, reconciles, and reopens the soul to hope. This love converts hearts and bestows peace. How much need the world has to understand and to receive the Divine Mercy! Lord,
April 10: 11:15 a.m., confirmation, John XXIII Catholic Center, Knoxville; 6 p.m., confirmation, All Saints Church, Knoxville April 12: 8:30 a.m. CDT, Mass, St. Mary of the Seven Sorrows Church, Nashville, followed by Catholic Day on the Hill April 13: National Conference for Catechetical Leadership, Louisville, Ky.; 4:30 p.m., Mass, Cathedral of the Assumption, Louisville April 15: 8:30 a.m., Mass, Chancery; 5:30 p.m., confirmation, St. Thérèse of Lisieux Church, Cleveland April 16: noon, Mass and lunch with Engaged Encounter couples, Best Western, Sweetwater; 6 p.m., confirmation, Immaculate Conception Church, Knoxville April 17: 9 a.m., Mass for the election of a pope, Sacred Heart Cathedral; noon, confirmation, St. Mary Church, Oak Ridge; 6 p.m., confirmation, Holy Ghost Church, Knoxville April 18: noon, golf tournament to benefit St. John Neumann School, Avalon golf community, Lenoir City April 19: 8:05 a.m., Mass, Sacred Heart Cathedral, Knoxville; 5:30 p.m., confirmation, Morgan County Regional Complex, Wartburg April 20: 4 p.m., Mass to celebrate 50th anniversary of priestly ordination of Cardinal William H. Keeler, followed by dinner, Baltimore Convention Center April 22: 11 a.m., 75th-anniversary kickoff for St. Mary’s Medical Center, Knoxville; 7 p.m., Mass to celebrate SMMC anniversary, Holy Ghost Church, Knoxville April 23: 11 a.m., confirmation, St. Dominic Church, Kingsport; 5 p.m., confirmation, St. Patrick Church, Morristown April 24: 11:30 a.m., confirmation, St. Thomas the Apostle Church, Lenoir City; 6 p.m., confirmation, St. John Neumann Church, Farragut ■
Pope’s funeral rites are celebrations of faith, hope BY CINDY WOODEN
VATICAN CITY (CNS)— The funeral rites for Pope John Paul II and for all popes are meant to be “celebrations in faith and hope,” moments not of mourning but of prayers for his eternal rest in heaven and for the church. The rites and rituals used—from the formal verification of the pope’s death to the memorial Masses held on the nine days following the funeral—are published in the Ordo Exsequiarum Romani Pontificis (“Funeral Rites of the Roman Pontiff”). The red-bound book was released April 4, although the text had been approved by Pope John Paul in 1998, said a note issued by Archbishop Piero Marini, master of papal liturgical ceremonies. The text of the rites, Masses, and prayer services are given in their original Latin or Greek, with Italian translations. In the introduction to the book Archbishop Marini said the prayers also should include expressions of concern for the deceased pope’s relatives and those who
served him closely. The prayers, he said, should express “grateful remembrance for the words with which the deceased pastor built up the people of God, the sacraments with which he nourished them, and the care with which he defended, safeguarded, and guided them.” The rites are divided into three “stations” based on where they occur: “at home, in the Vatican basilica, and at the burial place.” Even the moment of the formal verification early April 3 of the pope’s death took place in the context of a prayer service “at home” in the papal apartments. Separate services were written for the viewing of the pope’s body in the Apostolic Palace and for the formal transfer of the body to St. Peter’s Basilica for public viewing. After the public viewing the book called for the pope’s body to be placed in a casket made of cypress wood in the presence of several Vatican officials, including the camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, senior cardinals, the former secretary of state, and
the prefect of the papal household. The pope’s body is blessed with holy water— as it was at the moment of its exposition in the papal apartments and in St. Peter’s—his face is covered with a white silk cloth, and a small purse containing coins minted during his pontificate is placed in the casket with the body. The dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, presides over the funeral Mass wearing red vestments. The Gospel reading is from St. John’s account of Jesus asking Peter, “Do you love me?” and telling him, “Feed my sheep.” The funeral Mass includes special prayers recited on behalf of the people of Rome, because the pope was their bishop, and on behalf of Easternrite Catholics. After the funeral the cypress casket is placed inside a zinc casket and then inside a casket made of unspecified wood. Each casket is sealed with wax. The Vatican announced April 4 that Pope John Paul’s funeral was to be celebrated April 8 with in-
terment in the grotto under St. Peter’s Basilica. According to the book of rites, if a pope is to be interred in the grotto under St. Peter’s Basilica, the body is accompanied by the same group of people who had accompanied it from the Apostolic Palace to St. Peter’s Basilica. If the pope had left instructions that he was to be buried elsewhere, it would have been the task of the papal master of ceremonies to make the arrangements. The memorial Masses— called the “novendiali”— held over the next nine days are open to the public, but their celebration is entrusted in rotation to seven specific groups: the papal chapel, residents of Vatican City, the Diocese of Rome, the chapters of the major basilicas of Rome, the Roman Curia, the Eastern churches, and religious orders. When the nine days have ended, the church begins following another set of rites and liturgies contained in the Ordo Rituum Conclavis (“Rites of the Conclave”). ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
CNS PHOTO FROM REUTERS
BISHOP KURTZ’S SCHEDULE The diocese will join its mourning ‘in prayerful solidarity with the church’ worldwide.
TEARS FOR THE POPE A sister wipes her eyes as she holds a picture of Pope John Paul II in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican April 2, the day of his death. Catholics around the world held vigil for the pope as his pontificate neared its end.
the Mass for Divine Mercy Sunday. During the course of the Mass, he said, the pope received Communion and the anointing of the sick. Father Stanley Pondo of Indianapolis, who was in the square when the pope’s death was announced, said the pope’s death left him “sad and happy.” “John Paul II has been the pope my whole adult life. He’s been my inspiration. I didn’t enter the seminary until I was in my 30s and it was partly because of his influence. . . . I’m happy because I’m sure he’s in heaven now,” he said. Father Pablo Gadenz of Trenton, N.J., said he was sure the pope’s death would come that night or the next day, Divine Mercy Sunday, which the pope established. “We all feel like orphans now, but it’s a time of grace, a time of faith. The Holy Spirit will guide the cardinals to choose a worthy successor, so we pray for whoever that might be, he said. With the crowd estimated at 100,000 people, another prayer service began at midnight, led by Archbishop Paolo Sardi, an official in the Vatican Secretariat of State, who said, “This is a holy night of vigil and prayer in memory of our beloved Pope John Paul.” Cardinal Angelo Sodano, who had served as the pope’s secretary of state, celebrated a memorial Mass for the pope April 3 in the square. The cardinal said Pope John Paul had spent his entire papacy promoting the “civilization of love” against the forces of hatred in the world and had called the church to be a “house of mercy, to welcome all those who need help, forgiveness, and love.” At the end of the Mass, a Vatican official read the message the pope had prepared for the midday recitation of the “Regina Caeli.” “To humanity, which sometimes seems lost and dominated by the power of evil, selfishness, and fear, the risen Lord offers the gift of his love, which forgives, reconciles, and opens the spirit to hope once again,” the pope had written. When the pope died, Vatican Radio interrupted regular programming, and the radio’s program director, Jesuit Father Federico Lombardi, celebrated Mass in Latin. The home page of the Vatican website was changed, replacing the usual drawing of St. Peter’s Basilica with the emblem used when the papacy is vacant: two crossed keys under a partially closed umbracullum (umbrella, or canopy). The Italian Parliament lowered its flag to half-staff after the pope’s death was announced. In Warsaw, the capital of John Paul II’s native Poland, the pope’s death was marked by the tolling of church bells and the sounding of air-raid sirens. On Polish TV several commentators were in tears as they announced the pope’s death. The Vatican April 3 published the information contained on the official death certificate signed by Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, the pope’s personal physician and head of the Vatican health service. The cause of death was listed as “septic shock and irreversible cardiocirculatory collapse.” The Polish pontiff had been hospitalized twice in recent weeks for spasms of the larynx, and in late February he underwent a tracheotomy to make breathing less difficult. Doctors inserted a nasogastric tube to aid nutrition March 30. The evening of March 31 the pope’s infection caused a high fever and septic shock, which brought on heart failure. He was treated immediately with antibiotics and respiratory equipment that had been installed in the papal apartment, and his condition stabilized temporarily. But in his statement early April 1 Navarro-Valls made it clear the pope’s condition was deteriorating. On the evening of March 31, the pope received “holy viaticum,” a reference to the Eucharist given when a person is approaching death, the Vatican said. It was the Pope’s death continued on page 12
T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
APRIL 10, 2005
BY TIM SCRIPA
Notre Dame, Greeneville
Holy Spirit, Soddy-Daisy
■ Following the 5 p.m. celebration Mass with
■ Men of the parish prepared and served a fish fry March 18. Food was collected at the event and during the following weekend Masses, and items collected and purchased were distributed to families who needed help with their Easter meals and baskets for their children. ■ Baptisms: Alec Thomas Bouchard, son of Joel and Margaret Bouchard; William Bryant Cambron, son of Don and Cheryl Cambron; Mark Edward Abernathy, son of Kyle and Julie Abernathy ■ Newcomers: Ralph and Sue Bozich, Angela Bylicki, Peggy Farrell, Philip and Melanie Jones, James Kelly, David Kieu, Bob and Charlene Kirn, Mark and Donna Schultz, Derek and Brandy Spraker, Mary St. Claire-Warner
Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Chattanooga ■ The school book fair will be held from 7:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily from April 18 to 22 and during the Spring Festival on Saturday, April 23, in the school library. ■ Volunteers are needed to help with the parish vacation Bible school, scheduled to run from 9 a.m. to noon during the week of June 13 through 17. Call Brenda Cudd at 423629-2139 for details.
St. Jude, Chattanooga
Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz, the 50th-anniversary dinner will begin at 7 p.m. Friday, April 29, at Link Hills Country Club in Greeneville. Tickets cost $15 each and are being sold after Masses.
St. Dominic, Kingsport ■ The next Apprentices’ Workshop—food, fun, and camaraderie for elementary school students—will be held from 6 to 8 p.m. Wednesday April 13, in the parish life center. Parents must sign up children beforehand so the appropriate amount of materials, food, and supervision can be arranged. A sign-up sheet is posted outside the sacristy. The next Carpenter’s Coffee Shop for high school and middle school students will be held at the same time and place. ■ A Catholic education group for Spanish speakers has been formed. The group meets at 7 p.m. on Tuesdays in the parish life center. Call Humberto Collazo at 423-239-7812 for details. ■ The Ulster Project is looking for host families and a male counselor at least 21 years old to host and work with Irish teens staying in Kingsport from June 28 through July 23. Call Shirley Parsons at 246-3404 for more information.
Byron and Norma Erwin
St. Mary, Athens ■ The parish is offering a pictorial directory
free of charge. Families will receive a free directory and an 8-by-10 portrait of their choice. Pictures will be taken April 21 through 23. Appointments must be made. Sign-up sheets will be available in the narthex. Call Betty Gabbard at 423-746-9114 for details. ■ New Generation Car Wash in downtown Athens is donating $4 to the parish building fund for every car wash purchased. Parishioners should bring a church bulletin to show at the time of purchase.
St. Stephen, Chattanooga ■ A baby-bottle drive will be held Saturday
and Sunday, April 23 and 24. Parishioners should take home a baby bottle to fill with change, checks, or cash and return it the following weekend. All proceeds will benefit the Pregnancy Help Center.
Sts. Peter and Paul, Chattanooga ■ The parish picnic will be held Sunday, May
1, at the Knights of Columbus Council 610 Hall on Sylvan Drive off North Market Street. Five Rivers Deanery
Good Shepherd, Newport
Cumberland Mountain Deanery
St. Francis of Assisi, Fairfield Glade a day of recollection Wednesday, April 13. Father Michael Woods will conduct the day, beginning with Mass at 8 a.m. Participants should bring a bag lunch; beverages provided. ■ Anniversaries: Don and Carolyn Beck (50), John and Marilyn Flanagan (5)
St. John Neumann, Farragut ■ The home and school association will hold
a consignment sale as its spring fundraiser Friday and Saturday, April 29 and 30, at the school. The association is now registering consignors. Call the school at 865-777-0077.
St. Mary, Oak Ridge ■ Baptisms: Tristen Maria DelToro, Luke Jarod
Pappano, Toney Eugene Moore, Sascha Katherine Viktoria Mai, Tyler James Giannetti, Josh Mercado Valdez, Nayeli Deluna Ortiz, Oscar Eduardo Deluna Ortiz, Chanteal Jazmin Camarillo Ortiz, Jonathan Carl Chittenden ■ Newcomers: Tanaz Sharma, Leon and Patty Herrin, John and Patricia Fisher, Kevin and Pamela Rhea, Michael and Lisa Marie Kirrman, Mr. and Mrs. William C. Pappano Jr., Andrea Rhea, Jennifer Nelson, Kyunghoon Kim and Youme Kong, Tony and Kristen Fahhoum, Sonia Tejada, Denise and Dennis Miller, Lois E. Smith, Carolyn Krings, Michelle Scott, Teresa Ann Vance, Joseph Valentino, Michael and Candi Ritter Smoky Mountain Deanery
■ Volunteers are needed at 9 a.m. Saturday, April 16, to clean out the present church and move nonessentials to the new church. ■ The dedication of the new church will begin at 6 p.m. Wednesday, April 27. Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz will celebrate Mass and lead the dedication ceremony. A reception will follow. ■ Volunteers are needed to knit warm clothing for children in need. Call Lois Hamilton at 423-625-1231 for details.
Holy Trinity, Jefferson City ■ The welcoming committee recently held a covered-dish dinner for the parish’s newcomers. Those attending included Donald and Betty Jo Carbaugh, Roy and Carolyn Cross, Tony Matthews, Frank and Patricia Brown, Dawn Sanders, Harry and Evelyn Fitzpatrick, and Michael Colicchio. Chairperson Betty Buergler was assisted by Joe and Helen Hagan, Tom and Luella Windham, Peter and Agnes McEwen, and Ben Buergler. ■ Knights of Columbus Council 12838 named Gordy and Fran Lowery as family of the month. ■ Several parish Knights have been hard at work completing a dock with a roof at the Appalachian Outreach ministry. ■ Dr. Joseph Brombach and school nurse Kathy Marshall of Holy Trinity report that the Jefferson Rural Clinic is doing well. Dentistry appointments are now being accepted, and more volunteers are needed. Orientation classes have been scheduled. Call 865-471-5525 for details.
Immaculate Conception, Knoxville ■ Sunday With the Saints continues April 24
in the parish hall with a 4 p.m. showing of Romero, a full-length Paulist production about the archbishop of El Salvador who was martyred March 24, 1980, and became a symbol of the search for social justice in Latin America.
John XXIII, Knoxville ■ The Search 2005 Team will host a spaghetti
supper with bingo and door prizes from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. Friday, April 8. Tickets will be available at the door and are $5 for adults and $3 for children ages 10 and under. Family rates are available for groups of four or more; donations accepted. Proceeds will benefit the Search 2005 retreat in September at Mountain Lake Ranch. ■ Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz will be the special guest at the parish appreciation dinner and capital-campaign kickoff at 7 p.m. Thursday, April 14. RSVP at 865-523-7931. ■ Spring Fling, an end-of-the-school-year dance for ages 13 and up, will be held from 7:30 to 11:30 p.m. Friday, April 22. Cover charge is $5; no underage drinking will be allowed. ■ The parish is looking for a graduate student to live in the former rectory for one year beginning in August. In exchange for reduced rent, the resident would be responsible for opening and closing the building on a daily basis, assisting with light parish tasks, and participating in the life of the parish. Contact Father Eric Andrews or Father Bob Cary at 523-7931, FrEric@john23rd.org, or email@example.com. ■
Rosary Army offers instructional DVD to parishes, youth groups
APRIL 10, 2005
Sixty years of marriage Russ and Ruth Koepke celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary at the 8 a.m. Mass on March 17 at St. Francis of Assisi Church in Fairfield Glade. They received a marriage blessing from Father Greg Neuzil, shown above with Deacon Mark White (front) assisting. The choir sang for the occasion, which was attended by 168 and followed by a breakfast social.
■ The Council of Catholic Women will host
■ Baptism: Kyamei Delima Erwin, daughter of
he Rosary Army (RA), a nonprofit lay apostolate dedicated to making, praying, and distributing free all-twine knotted rosaries, is offering an instructional DVD to interested groups. Founded in 2002, the RA has sent thousands of rosaries to soldiers, patients, students, religious orders, and laypeople in all 50 states and around
COURTESY OF ROSEANN STRAZINSKY
COURTESY OF DEB PEACHEY (2)
the world. The organization’s theme is “Make them. Pray them. Give them away.” The RA will conduct free rosary-making workshops for parishes, youth groups, and other organizations but also has created an instructional DVD, Rosary Army Virtual Workshop, available for $19.95. The DVD includes video instructions on basic all-
twine rosaries; advanced instruction for doublestranded and ladder rosaries; a talk, “The Power of the Rosary,” presented by RA president Greg Willis; and an interactive “pray the rosary” feature. To order the DVD, visit www.RosaryArmy.com or call 800-853-6077 and request title number 206578. For quantity orders, call 770-388-9161. ■
Youth visit Living Waters The high school group and the confirmation class at St. Mary Parish in Gatlinburg went on a retreat at the Living Waters Catholic Reflection Center in Maggie Valley, N.C., the weekend of Feb. 18 through 20. Students from the East Tennessee State University Catholic Center facilitated the retreat. Pictured are (from left, front) Afton Peachey, Kristin Schober of ETSU, and Todd Sherman and (back) Chenoa Allen of ETSU, St. Mary pastor Father Phil Thoni, confirmation teacher Cathy Cook, Nocona Allen, Kathy Bulman, Rajkamal Harricharan-Singh of ETSU, Berton Mirakaj, Steven Bulman, Katie Tierney, Aramis Maney, Marnin Gomez, and Marisol Goolsby. Not pictured is Diana Trinkle of ETSU.
Valentine’s project The youth group at St. Mary Parish in Gatlinburg recently held a stuffed-animal drive for Valentine’s Day. On Feb. 12, some of the youth hand-delivered the toys to residents of the Sevier County Health Care Center in Sevierville. Each of the center’s 149 residents received an animal. From left are (front) Hayden Peachey, Jessica Honiker, Brittney Thurman, and Marie Thurman; (middle) Crystal Goolsby, Marisol Goolsby, Kathy Bulman, and Afton Peachey; and (back) Nacona Allen, Steven Bulman, and Todd Sherman.
Chattanooga Deanery CCW’s new 2005-07 officers installed he Chattanooga Deanery Council of Catholic Women installed new officers Feb. 12 at St. Augustine Church in Signal Mountain. Serving as officers for 2005-07 will be president Agnes Wheeler of St. Jude Parish in Chattanooga, vice president Mechtild Boles of St. Jude, recording secretary Deb-
by Williams of Sts. Peter and Paul Parish in Chattanooga, and treasurer Janice Mickel of St. Bridget Parish in Dayton. Father Bob Hofstetter, pastor of St. Jude and the Chattanooga Deanery CCW moderator, installed the new officers at the close of the council’s annual day of reflection. ■
Catholic residential camp establishes first board of trustees amp Marymount near Nashville, the state’s only Catholic residential camp, has established its first board of trustees. The board will work to promote opportunities for expansion, growth, and development. Its members include Father Chris Michelson, pastor of All Saints Parish in Knoxville. Eric B. Dahlhauser of Genetic Assays Inc. in Nashville is president of the board. The treasurer is Andrew Forsdick and the secretary Frances Fenelon. Also on the board are Chris Wilson, Ronald
Wenzler, Deacon David Lovell of Christ the King Parish in Nashville, Vic Wesley, Joe Wehby, Diocese of Nashville assistant controller Denise Cimeley, Terrence Reed, Angela Jordan-Perry, Eileen Beehan of Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Tracie Steltemeier, and Jim Brunner. “Camp Marymount has nurtured the minds and spirits of campers and community members alike for decades,” said Mr. Dahlhauser. “The new board of trustees is eager to introduce its amenities and its rare ambience to
the larger community and looks forward to helping Camp Marymount grow and thrive.” The camp, established in 1946, each summer hosts more than 600 campers from 18 states, Canada, Mexico, and France. Located on 340 wooded acres in Fairview, it is the only Catholic camp in the Southeast accredited by the American Camp Association. For more information, contact camp director Tommy Hagey at 615-7990410 or visit www.camp marymount.com. ■
Knoxville Catholic High athletes receive collegiate scholarships hree senior athletes at Knoxville Catholic High School recently received collegiate athletic scholarships. Amelia Buffaloe, daughter of Lynn Turner and Stephen Buffaloe, will play volleyball at Brevard Amelia College next year. Amelia also played for the Smoky Mountain Juniors club while at KCHS. She was selected firstteam all-state for Division II by the Tennessee Sports Writer’s Association. Nick McFadden, son of Tim and Barbara McFadden, will play football at Carson-Newman College next year. As a senior at KCHS, Nick rushed 129 times for 1,120 yards and 18 touchdowns and caught 11 passes for 303 yards and four TDs. He received the Mr. Football award as state back of the year and was named
all-state at defensive back. Elizabeth Young, daughter of Anne and Timothy Young, will play tennis next year at the University of Cincinnati. Elizabeth is in her fourth year on the KCHS tennis team, where she has excelled as the No. 1 singles and doubles player. She was named all–Knoxville Interscholastic League and team most valuable player each of her first three years at KCHS. She also ranks fourth in her class academically and maintains a 4.0 grade-point average. ■ T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
The Catholic Public Policy Commission (CPPC) will host the eighth annual Catholic Day on the Hill on Tuesday, April 12, in Nashville. The event offers the faithful an opportunity to meet with and voice their concerns to legislators, hear talks by CPPC lobbyists on the status of various pieces of legislation, and attend a Mass concelebrated by the state bishops at St. Mary of the Seven Sorrows Church near the Legislative Plaza. Students who attend should be in at least the sixth grade, and Catholic school students must wear their school uniform. Catholic Charities of East Tennessee is again coordinating registration; for more details, call CCET at 865-524-9896. The next Engaged Encounter weekend will be held April 15 through 17. Couples are encouraged to attend a weekend at least three to six months before their wedding. Call Mike or Charla Haley at 865-220-0120 or visit www.engaged encounter.org for details. The next Marriage Encounter weekend is set for April 22 through 24 at the Wingate Hotel in Cleveland. Contact Mike or Michelle Smith at 423-476-5377 or firstname.lastname@example.org for details. Father Bob Hofstetter, pastor of St. Jude Parish in Chattanooga, will present “Thomas Merton and the Contemplative Path” at the Seekers of Silence Contemplative Saturday Morning session from 8:30 a.m. to noon April 16 at John XXIII Catholic Center in Knoxville. Time will be set aside for group discussion and silent prayer. Bring a bag lunch. RSVP at 865-523-7931. The Fellowship of Christian Athletes will sponsor Bloom 2005, a celebration of Christian growth and wellness for women, at 9:30 a.m. Friday, April 22, at the Carson-Newman College Student Activities Center in Jefferson City. The keynote speaker will be Sylvia Hatchell, head coach of the University of North Carolina women’s basketball team. The celebration will also include a fashion show, music, and a catered lunch. Cost: $20. Tickets are available at Jefferson County High School, Morristown Bible Book Store, and at The Standard Banner newspaper office. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
The Chattanooga Deanery Junior High Youth Day will be held Saturday, April 16, at St. Mary Church in Athens. The day will include food, drinks, games, and a Mass celebrated by diocesan youth coordinator Father Christian Mathis. Buses will leave at 11:30 a.m. from Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church in Chattanooga and return at 8:30 p.m. Although open to all sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-graders, registration is limited to the first 100 youth whose medical-release forms are received in the deanery office by Wednesday, April 13. Call the deanery office at 423-267-9878 for details. Contact of Chattanooga needs volunteers for its new program, Reassurance Contact. The first of 10 training sessions will be held from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. Tuesday, April 19, at 6221 Vance Road. Call 423-899-5719 for details. A National Forum on the Theology of the Body will be held Friday and Saturday, April 22 and 23, at St. Veronica Church in Chantilly, Va. To register, visit www.Theology oftheBody.net or call Anastasia at 307-635-4223. The first Notre Dame High School spring golf tournament will begin at 8:30 a.m. Saturday, April 23, at Brown Acres Golf Course in Chattanooga. Cost: $80 per person or $320 per team. Call 423624-4618 for details. The Couple to Couple League’s natural-familyplanning classes for the Chattanooga area will begin Sunday, April 24. The fourpart series costs $75 and includes a manual, charts, a digital thermometer, and a one-year subscription to the Couple to Couple League’s Family Foundations newsletter. Scholarships are available. Call the Memorial Hospital Health Place at Hamilton Place Mall at 423893-9765 for details. The annual Secretary’s Reflection Day for parish and school secretaries and support personnel will be held from 9:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Wednesday, April 27, at Sacred Heart Monastery in Cullman, Ala. Alice Mingo, a longtime worker in adult education and pastoral ministry, will lead the day, which will include quiet reflection, directed meditation, fellowship, and sharing. Cost is $25 and includes a lunch prepared by Sacred Heart’s gourmet chef, Sister Kathleen Gallas, OSB. Call 256-734-8302 to register. In conjunction with the American Heart Association, Sacred Heart Parish in Knoxville is hosting Corazón a Corazón, a program to benefit the health of the Latin-American community in Knoxville. Corazón a Corazón meets after the 1:30 p.m. Mass in Spanish on the first Sunday of the month in the Shea Room. Each month will focus on a different health-related topic. The topic for May is “Stomp out Stroke,” featuring stroke-prevention education. The workshop will evaluate risk factors for stroke by conducting stroke screenings and providing educational resources. For more information, contact Kelly Barber at email@example.com. The second annual United We Stand benefit banquet will begin at 7 p.m. Friday, May 6, at the Chattanoogan hotel in Chattanooga. Sponsored by Chattanoogans for Life and the Knights of
Columbus, the banquet will feature actress-director-author-artist Jennifer O’Neill as the keynote speaker. Ms. O’Neill, who makes regular pro-life and pro-family appearances on national television, is the celebrity spokesperson for the national Silent No More abortionawareness campaign. Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz also will attend the banquet. Tickets are $40 per person or $320 for a table of eight. Proceeds will benefit Chattanoogans for Life. Reservation checks should be made payable to Chattanoogans for Life and mailed to United We Stand, 1309 Rockdale Lane, Hixson, TN 37343. Call Marv Gabalski at 423-949-4927 or ticket chair Frances King at 8421647 for details. The ninth annual St. Jude Golf Classic will take place Friday, May 13, at Valleybrook Golf & Country Club in Hixson. The $90-per-player fee includes carts, range balls, beverages, and a barbeque dinner along with door prizes and flight prizes. Hole sponsors ($150) and corporate sponsors ($500) are welcome. Registration begins at noon. Call St. Jude School at 423877-6022 for an entry form. The St. Jude School Home and School Association will host its second annual spring dance and auction, themed “Moonlight Escape,” on Saturday, May 14, at Notre Dame High School in Chattanooga. Admission includes a seat at a silent auction, live music by The Beaters, and heavy hors d’oeuvres. Wine and beer will be available for an extra charge. Proceeds will go toward construction costs of the newly finished St. Jude Family Life Center. To help sponsor the event or learn more, contact co-chairs Steve and Cindy Lamsey at 423499-9497 or stevelamsey@ bellsouth.net. The Smoky Mountain Deanery Office of Youth Ministry is sponsoring Sleepless, an overnight retreat for high school students set for 7:30 p.m. to 7 a.m. Saturday and Sunday, May 14 and 15, at the Pigeon Forge Community Center. The theme is “Blessed are the sleepless who seek the Lord in dark times.” The event includes an opening prayer and a 3 a.m. Mass as well as activities such as swimming, bowling, racquetball, basketball, and volleyball. Cost is $30 and includes a commemorative long-sleeved shirt (cost of arcade games not included). Registration deadline is Monday, May 2. To register or learn more, contact Tom Miklusicak at 865-558-8348 or tom@ sacredheartcathedral.com. The Society of St. Vincent de Paul will hold its 2005 Southeast Region meeting May 19 through 21 in Baton Rouge, La. The meeting will feature special tours, liturgical celebrations, workshops, and social activities that will provide information and entertainment along with opportunities to meet and exchange ideas with Vincentians from eight southeastern states and Puerto Rico. Registration is $95 before April 15 and $145 after. Call Dianne Muchow at 225-383-7837 for details. “Made in God’s Image: Growing in God’s Likeness,” a directed retreat for young adults, will be offered at the Jesuit House of Prayer in Hot Springs, N.C., from Friday night, May 20, to Sunday afCalendar continued on page 16
Internationally known speaker Father John Corapi, familiar to viewers of the Eternal Word Television Network, will deliver several talks Aug. 12 and 13 at the Chattanooga Trade and Convention Center. Ordained by Pope John Paul II in 1991, he is a member of the Society of Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity. The three main tenets of Father Corapi’s preaching are love for and a relationship with the Blessed Virgin Mary that leads to a vibrant and loving relationship with Jesus Christ, great love and reverence for the Eucharist, and an uncompromising love for and obedience to the Holy Father and the teachings of the church. In addition to Father Corapi’s talks, the two days in Chattanooga will include prayer, music, and a Mass celebrated each day, with Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz as the principal celebrant Aug. 12. The event is sponsored by the World of Hope Foundation. For those who register by June 1, cost to attend both days is $35 for adults, $60 for couples, and $15 for children ages 17 and under. To register or learn more, call 423-877-0434 or visit www.worldofhope.org.
BY TIM SCRIPA
Parish contributes tithe from inheritance to GIFT drive When Father Michael Woods learned that Mel Wardell had left his parish of St. Mary in Oak Ridge $549,740 in his will (Dec. 26 ETC), he announced that St. Mary would contribute a tithe from the inheritance to the diocesan Growing in Faith Together capital-stewardship campaign. On March 15 the Oak Ridge pastor made it official, presenting Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz with a check for $54,974. The bishop said the tithe will go toward the major-gift phase of the campaign. “The gift of St. Mary’s is truly the spirit of stewardship in which St. Mary Parish is constantly looking beyond the walls of the church to the greater needs of the diocese,” he said. “We’re very grateful to Father Woods and all the people of St. Mary’s.” Mr. Wardell was a longtime St. Mary parishioner who died Aug. 26 at age 91.
Art & Antique Extravaganza proceeds donated to tuition fund Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz on March 16 received a check for $25,600, the proceeds of last fall’s second annual Art & Antiques Extravaganza at Knoxville Catholic High School, held to benefit the diocesan Regional Catholic Schools Operating Fund. On hand for the check presentation at the Chancery office were (from left) Mollie Krueger, development director at St. Joseph School in Knoxville; Dr. Sherry Morgan, diocesan superintendent of Catholic Schools; Beth Schmitt, event co-chair; Carol Dawson, development director at St. John Neumann School in Farragut; and Jan Johnsson, development director at KCHS. This fall’s event will be held Nov. 18. The fund was created in 2003 in order to more equitably distribute financial responsibility for Knoxville-area Catholic schools and to provide tuition assistance to families in need.
COURTESY OF SHAWN SPAGNUOLO
Valentine’s Day event raises $1,500 for disabilities office The Catholic Charities of East Tennessee (CCET) Disability Programming Office raised $1,500 with its Valentine Luminaria event Feb. 14 at Knoxville Catholic High School. CCET executive director Father Ragan Schriver (second from left) led a prayer service at the lighting of the luminaria heart, part of which is visible in the foreground. Contributors purchased candles with a minimum donation of $5.
Chattanooga Deanery schedules annual summer youth retreats he Chattanooga Deanery in June will again host summer youth retreats at the Harrison Bay State Park group campsite. The “Dare to Dream” retreat, set for June 6 through 10, is open to all incoming high school students. This year’s theme for the retreat is “Signs of Love: Sacraments.” Cost is $70. Rising seventh- and eighth-graders may attend the “Reach” retreat June 12 through 15. Its theme is “Get an Attitude for the Beatitudes.” Cost: $60. The “Discover” retreat June 16 through
18 has a theme of “The Lord’s Prayer: Prayer” and is open to incoming fifthand sixth-grade students. Cost: $50. Fees for all retreats include a T-shirt, meals, lodging, materials, swimming, activities, and—for the older two age groups—a dance. Registration deadline for the retreats is Friday, May 27; late registration will be permitted, if space allows, through Tuesday, May 31, at the full cost plus a $10 late fee. Registration forms are available from the deanery office (call 423-267-9878) and from parish youth ministers. ■
Knoxvillian named to dean’s list at St. Mary College in Indiana ristina M. Schliesman of Knoxville was named to the fall dean’s list at St. Mary College in Notre Dame, Ind.
Students must achieve at least a 3.4 grade-point average on a 4.0 scale to earn academic honors at St. Mary. Miss Schliesman
is a graduate of West High School in Knoxville and is the daughter of Earl and Nancy Schliesman of Sacred Heart Parish. ■ APRIL 10, 2005
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 B Y C AT H O L I C N E W S S E R V I C E
WASHINGTON (CNS)—Members of the U.S. hierarchy remembered “John Paul the Great” for his accomplishments and spoke of the special meaning his pontificate had for their dioceses. Cardinal Roger M. Mahony of Los Angeles said, “The pope spoke directly to the wondrous ethnic diversity of Southern California in his homily at Dodger Stadium and called us to a deeper unity and harmony among all peoples. . . . “Some have already dubbed him John Paul the Great,” he added. “Of his innumerable achievements, many will remember his indefatigable energy in travel, his longevity, or the canonization of so many saints during his pontificate. Others will focus on his role in bringing down the Iron Curtain. Only the perspective of time, distance, and historical reflection will allow the greatness of this life and legacy to be measured.” Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick of Washington said, “Perhaps his greatest legacy will be the clear voice with which he led the church in understanding the true meaning of the Second Vatican Council.” The Washington archbishop recalled meeting the future pope nearly 30 years ago, when he was secretary to Cardinal Terence Cooke. “When next I met him he was already the Holy Father. Remarkably, he still remembered who I was and that I had served as the cardinal’s secretary in New York. Our Spanish brothers and sisters call this ‘el don de gente,’ and he had it with grace and joyfulness until the very end of his holy life.” Cardinal Edward M. Egan of New York said, “He carried the Gospel into all corners of the world, proclaiming the dignity of every human being, the rights of the poor, and the evils of war ‘in season and out of season.’ In brief, he was a most worthy successor of the humble fisherman of Galilee upon whom the Lord built his church. “John Paul II is well-known to New Yorkers. He visited us twice as pontiff and on each occasion strengthened and encouraged all who heard his words and were touched by his spirit. I have no doubt that he is now in the arms of the Redeemer whom he served with the utmost of devotion and love,” he said. Cardinal Adam J. Maida of Detroit spoke of the pope’s “ tireless energy for the Gospel of life.” He said Pope John Paul “has touched almost every person on this earth and leaves behind a legacy of hope and a path of solidarity and service for us to follow.” “Without question, our Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, has been embraced and greeted by the Lord: ‘Well done, good and faithful servant. Enter into the joy of eternal life!’” Citing Pope John Paul II’s positive experiences with youth, the Orthodox, Jews, and Muslims, Cardinal William H. Keeler of Baltimore added, “For Catholics, Pope John Paul II has been a Holy Father of exceptional gifts, the priest, poet, philosopher, bishop, prophet, survivor of Nazi and communist dictatorships, and a principal factor in the collapse of communism. A genius with languages and with the new ideas of our age—he will be remembered as a giant of our time and of every time.” Cardinal Francis E. George of Chicago said the pope’s death “saddens the church.” “His leadership of the Catholic Church for more than a quarter of a century impacted the whole world, and the world now mourns the loss of this man of God whose spirit and devotion, even in the face of frail health, exemplified Jesus Christ’s own love for the church,” he said. Cardinal Justin Rigali of Philadelphia, who worked with Pope John Paul for many years as head of the academy that trains Vatican diplomats, said the pontiff “will surely be remembered as the greatest spiritual leader of our time.” “His entire life was an example of how to live out our faith, how to give witness to the love of Our Lord Jesus Christ,” he said. “The Holy Father gave himself completely in service to Jesus and to the universal church.” Cardinal Rigali also praised the late pope as “a staunch defender of the most vulnerable” and said his leadership “led to the downfall of communism and a flowering of freedom throughout Europe.” ■
Local reaction continued from page 2
The bishop established in advance that a vespers service would be held at Sacred Heart following the pope’s death. Cathedral pastor Father Al Humbrecht said that a group of women in the parish also stood ready to prepare the cathedral for the occasion. As soon as the death was announced, the women decorated the outside of the church with black bunting and set up a shrine with the Holy Father’s photo as the centerpiece. On a table in the vestibule the women placed a guest book and a small statue of Our Lady of Fatima, whom the pope credited with saving his life after the assassination attempt upon him on the Fatima feast day in 1981. “The ladies specifically wanted Our Lady of Fatima because of the Holy Father’s devotion to her,” said Father Humbrecht. The pope’s passing made for “a very interesting” Saturday at the cathedral, said Father Humbrecht that evening. “People have been coming in and out of the church all day. It has brought people to prayer and to come to the church to visit. We had a line for confession tonight that looked like the one before Palm Sunday, the last chance before Easter. “There were more people at the 8 o’clock Mass this morning than usual. It has been something that has inspired and spurred faith in a number of people.” Father Humbrecht was a witness to a special event last spring at the Vatican, although he thought his group arrived too late for the pope’s audience in St. Peter’s Square. “We could see the Holy Father still sitting there, so we went right down to the front barrier. The next thing we knew, here were all of these young couples in wedding dress from different parts of the world, all processing out to receive a marriage blessing from the Holy Father. It was wonderful to see that and to see
him blessing all these young couples because marriage was so important to him.” Father Humbrecht led the Office of the Dead at Sacred Heart, assisted by Father Johnston and Father William Oruko, both of the cathedral, and Father Xavier Mankel of Holy Ghost Parish in Knoxville. Erika Fuhr of Sacred Heart was among those attending the service, held just over four hours after the Holy Father’s death. “I wanted to reflect on his loss,” she said. “He was a wonderful pope and a wonderful man.” Fellow parishioner Mary Ramsey said she normally doesn’t attend the vigil Mass at Sacred Heart but came to both the evening liturgy and the ensuing prayer service after learning of the pope’s death. She talked with the pope during a Sacred Heart choir pilgrimage to Italy about seven years ago. “With his entering the kingdom of God this afternoon, I felt as if I needed to come and give him this love,” she said. “He was truly a representative of God in heaven, and he walked in the shoes of the fisherman, St. Peter.” News of the pope’s rapidly worsening condition broke early Friday, April 1. Later that day the bishop presided at an eveningprayer service at the cathedral. “Many of you may recall a particular photograph or a story or an event from the life our Holy Father, and this is the evening for us to recall and give thanks,” said Bishop Kurtz. The pope’s death occurred during a weekend when Bishop Kurtz was busy with confirmations in three churches. “I was edified by the fact that in every church I was in for confirmation, there were prayers going on for our Holy Father,” the bishop said. “There were arrangements for special Masses, and in each church was a picture of the
DAN MCWILLIAMS (2)
U.S. cardinals praise ‘John Paul the Great’
Women of Sacred Heart Parish set up this shrine to Pope John Paul II for the prayer service at the cathedral April 2. Holy Father, very beautifully set aside.” The bishop met Pope John Paul II several times, including this past December when he made his first ad limina visit to the Vatican. The pope met the future bishop in 1981 when the latter visited the Vatican with George Kurtz, his older brother, who suffered from Down syndrome and died in 2002. “That was for an audience in St. Peter’s Square,” said Bishop Kurtz. “Because of Georgie’s disability we were given two tickets in a special place for people with disabilities that was very close to the chair from which our Holy Father addressed us. After the audience was complete, he came over and went personally to each of the families gathered there. It was quite an honor.” Millions of youth and young adults have never known life without Pope John Paul II, elected in October 1978. He is also the only pope in the Diocese of Knoxville’s existence, his
signature having formally created the new territory from the Diocese of Nashville in 1988. “He is the founding pope of our diocese, and of course he’s also the one who appointed me as bishop,” said Bishop Kurtz. “So there’s a deeply personal connection that our diocese and I as bishop will always have with Pope John Paul II.” The bishop said that, having been born in 1946, he can remember the service of Popes Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, and John Paul I, “but in a large measure all of my service as a priest has been under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. “Like so many others that I’m hearing on the radio or on the television these days, I believe in a personal way that my thinking on a pastoral approach has been very much formed by the leadership and the personality of Pope John Paul II. I hope they will start to find a way to call him John Paul the Great.” ■
CNS PHOTO BY CHRIS SHERIDAN
Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
Young people cheer as Pope John Paul II makes his way through Harlem, in New York, during his first visit to the United States as pope in October 1979. 6
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Maria Wilbanks and daughter Kathy DeWine were among those attending the prayer service for Pope John Paul II held April 1 at Sacred Heart Cathedral in Knoxville. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 Pope’s vocation emerged after life as actor, laborer, playwright
define the traditional role and demeanor of the papacy by traveling extensively, continuing to enjoy outdoor activities, and taking on a wide range of political and moral issues. As a high school student in his hometown of Wadowice in southern Poland, Wojtyla impressed classmates by the intense way he would pray in church, a habit of deep meditation that remained with him for life. “Even as a boy he was exceptional,” said Rafat Tatka, a neighbor who knew the young boy as Lolek, a nickname that translates as Chuck. The Nazi takeover of Poland in September 1939 meant an official end to all religious training and cultural activities, but Wojtyla attended an underground university in Krakow and helped set up a clandestine theater group that performed in stores and homes. In addition to the quarry, he worked in a chemical factory—experiences
that provided material for his poetry and papal writings on labor. He participated in daily Mass, spiritual exercises, Marian devotion, and Bible study. Friends said that when his father died in 1941, Karol knelt for 12 hours in prayer at his father’s bedside. Soon after he withdrew from the theatrical group and began studying for the priesthood, a decision that surprised many of his friends, who tried to convince him his talent lay in the theater. He studied in a clandestine seminary operated in Cardinal Adam Sapieha’s Krakow residence in defiance of Nazi orders forbidding religious education. The archbishop saw him as a future church leader. Yet the young man who wrote poems and a doctoral dissertation on the mysticism of St. John of the Cross was attracted to monastic contemplation. Twice during these years he tried to join the Discalced Carmelites
Father Karol Wojtyla is pictured reading in a kayak in 1955. During another kayaking trip three years later he was called to Warsaw for the announcement that he was to be made a bishop. In 1978 then-Cardinal Wojtyla was elected pope and took the name John Paul II. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
Contributing to this story was Patricia Zapor in Washington. Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
CNS PHOTO FROM CATHOLIC PRESS PHOTO
but was turned away with the advice “You are destined for greater things.” He was ordained Nov. 1, 1946, just as the communist regime replaced the Germans at the end of the war. Father Wojtyla was sent to study at Rome’s Angelicum University, where he earned a doctorate in ethics. Back in Poland in 1948 the young priest was assigned to the rural village of Niegowic for a year before returning to Krakow. There, at St. Florian Parish, he devoted much of his attention to young people—teaching, playing soccer, and inviting university students to his house for discussions. After earning a second doctorate in moral theology, Father Wojtyla began teaching at Lublin University in 1953, commuting by train from his Krakow parish. He published more than 100 articles and several books on ethics and other subjects and at age 36 became a full professor at the Institute of Ethics in Lublin. Father Wojtyla’s interest in outdoor activities remained strong, and younger companions called him “the eternal teenager.” Groups of students regularly joined him for hiking, skiing, bicycling, camping, and kayaking, accompanied by prayer, outdoor Masses, and theological discussions. Father Wojtyla was on a kayaking trip in 1958 when, at age 38, he was named an auxiliary bishop of Krakow—the youngest bishop in Poland’s history. He continued to live a simple life, shunning the trappings that came with his position. For instance, he only left his Krakow apartment for the more luxurious bishop’s residence after friends moved his belongings one day when he was out of town. In 1964, shortly before the end of the Second Vatican Council, he was named archbishop of Krakow. Just three years later, at the age of 47, he became a cardinal. But he continued his open approach in Krakow, seeing visitors without appointments and holding seminars at the cardinal’s residence for actors, workers, students, priests, and sisters. In 1976, after touring several U.S. cities and attending the International Eucharistic Congress in Philadelphia, Cardinal Wojtyla attended a conference of Polish-Americans at St. Mary’s College in Orchard Lake, Mich. True to form, having sat through a string of indoor meetings, one afternoon he canceled a session to go canoeing. ■
Karol Wojtyla is pictured at his first Communion May 25, 1929. The future Pope John Paul II received the sacrament at the Church of Our Lady in Wadowice, Poland, one month after the death of his mother, Emilia.
Important dates in the pope’s life B Y C AT H O L I C N E W S S E R V I C E
VATICAN CITY (CNS)—Here are some important dates in the life of Pope John Paul II: 1920: Karol Wojtyla is born May 18, baptized June 20 in Wadowice, Poland. 1929: His mother dies; he receives first Communion. 1938: Moves to Krakow with father; enters Jagellonian University, joins experimental theater group. 1939: Germany and Soviet Union invade Poland. 1940: University studies interrupted; he works as manual laborer during war. 1941: His father dies. 1942: Enters secret seminary in Krakow. 1944: Is hit by a car, hospitalized; is hidden in archbishop’s home to avoid arrest by Nazis. 1945: World War II ends; he resumes studies at Jagellonian University. 1946: Is ordained priest Nov. 1; goes to Rome for graduate studies. 1948: Earns doctorate in theology. 1949: Named assistant pastor in Krakow parish. 1953: Completes university exams; teaches ethics at Jagellonian University. 1954: State abolishes Jagellonian theology faculty; begins teaching philosophy at Catholic University of Lublin; earns doctorate in philosophy. 1958: Named auxiliary bishop of Krakow; ordained Sept. 28. 1960: His book Love and Responsibility is published. 1962: Goes to Rome for first session of Second Vatican Council. 1963: Attends Vatican II second session, is named archbishop of Krakow Dec. 30. 1964: Is installed as archbishop of Krakow; attends council’s third session. 1965: Makes three trips to Rome to help redraft Vatican II document on church in modern world; attends final council session. 1967: Is made cardinal June 28; named to first world Synod of Bishops but stays home to protest government’s denial of a passport to Poland’s primate, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski. 1969: Visits United States, beginning pastoral visits to many parts of world; attends bishops’ synod in Rome. Timeline continued on page 8
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After moving to Krakow with his father, a young Karol Wojtyla appears in a poster for the “Studio 39” theater. By 1941 his father had died. During the Nazi occupation of Poland the future Pope John Paul II studied at Jagellonian University, wrote and acted with the theater, worked at the Solvay chemical factory, and joined an underground seminary to study for the priesthood.
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VATICAN CITY (CNS)— Over the last several years of his pontificate Pope John Paul II revealed an aspect of his personal life that he did not want history to overlook. In autobiographical books and in selected talks the pontiff emphasized that what kept him going was not the power of the papacy but the spiritual strength that flowed from his priestly vocation. “With the passing of time, the most important and beautiful thing for me is that I have been a priest for more than 50 years, because every day I can celebrate Holy Mass,” he told some 300,000 young people in Italy in 1997. Although many writers have recounted the pope’s early life as a semi-political pilgrimage under Nazi occupation and communist domination in Poland, the pope himself remembered those years as a crucial time of spiritual formation. In his 1996 book, A Gift and Mystery, he recalled how the sense of being called to the priesthood filled him with joy but also cut him off from acquaintances and other interests. In one of the most moving passages he ever wrote as pope, he said he still feels a debt to friends who suffered “on the great altar of history” during World War II, while he studied in a clandestine seminary. Karol Wojtyla, the future pope, lived an unusually varied life before his priestly ordination. As a teen he split stone at a quarry, wrote poetry, and supported a network that smuggled Jews to safety during the German occupation of Poland. As a young priest he was a favorite with students at Lublin University, who flocked to his classes and joined him on camping, hiking, and canoeing trips. As the secondyoungest cardinal ever named by the Vatican he ran an informal office and celebrated holidays with Krakow actors. It should have been no surprise that he would re-
CNS PHOTO FROM CATHOLIC PRESS PHOTO
The pontiff said his multifaceted early years were crucial to his spiritual formation. By John Thavis
Archbishop Karol Wojtyla receives the cardinal’s red biretta from Pope Paul VI at the beginning of the consistory in the Sistine Chapel June 26, 1967. The future Pope John Paul II had a warm relationship with Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini), who served as a priest in Warsaw in 1923. APRIL 10, 2005
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005
Pope exercised moral leadership
Timeline continued from page 7
An enthusiastic Pope John Paul II, who came to the conclave as Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, smiles after being chosen to succeed Pope John Paul I in October 1978. The conclave elected the new pope on its second day. 1971: Attends first of several bishops’ synods in Rome; is elected to its permanent council. 1976: Visits United States, Canada. 1978: At age 58 is elected 264th pope and bishop of Rome Oct. 16, formally inaugurates his ministry Oct. 22; visit to Assisi is first of 146 trips within Italy; visit to a Rome parish marks start of visits to 317 of Rome’s 333 parishes. 1979: Visits Dominican Republic and Mexico, his first of 104 trips abroad as pope; also visits Poland, Ireland, United States and Turkey; publishes first encyclical, apostolic exhortation; convenes first plenary meeting of College of Cardinals in more than 400 years; approves Vatican declaration that Swiss-born Father Hans Kung can no longer teach as Catholic theologian. 1980: Convenes special Dutch synod to straighten out problems in Dutch church; becomes first modern pope to hear confessions in St. Peter’s Basilica. 1981: Is shot, severely wounded May 13; names Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger head of Vatican doctrinal congregation. 1982: Marks anniversary of attempt on his life with trip to Fatima, Portugal; meets with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat; makes Opus Dei the church’s first personal prelature. 1983: Promulgates new Code of Canon Law; opens Holy Year of Redemption; visits would-be assassin, Mehmet Ali Agca, in prison. 1984: Establishes diplomatic relations with United States; approves new concordat with Italy; visits World Council of Churches headquarters in Geneva. 1985: Warns that abortion in Europe is “demographic suicide”; convenes special bishops’ synod to review 20 years since Vatican II. 1986: Condemns apartheid in South Africa; makes historic visit to Rome’s synagogue; calls world religious leaders to Assisi to pray for peace; says theologians who propagate dissent violate Catholics’ right to true teaching; approves Vatican decision barring U.S. Father Charles E. Curran from teaching as a Catholic theologian. 1987: Opens Marian year and writes encyclical on Mary; approves Vatican documents on beginning-of-life issues, international debt; top-level Vatican meeting called to resolve Catholic-Jewish controversies; second visit to United States is 36th trip abroad. 1988: Approves issuance of Holy See’s first public financial report; issues encyclical “On Social Concerns”; issues letter defending women’s equality but saying they cannot be ordained priests; sets up Vatican commission to try reconciling followers of schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre.
VATICAN CITY (CNS)—Pope John Paul II spent more than 26 years as a dominant figure on the world stage, using his moral leadership to promote human rights, condemn ethical failings, and plead for peace. He had the ear of presidents, prime ministers, and kings, who came in a steady stream for private audiences at the Vatican. Although the pope’s fading health in later years made these one-on-one meetings less substantive, his encounters with U.S. and Soviet leaders in the 1980s and ’90s gave a spiritual impetus to the fall of European communism. More than any previous pontiff, he pushed religious teachings into the center of public debate, arguing that universal moral norms—such as the sanctity of life—are not optional for contemporary society. The pope’s bold words and gestures won acclaim but not from all quarters. As his pontificate continued, his message increasingly challenged unorthodox positions on issues such as abortion, gay marriage, and genetic research. When it came to war, the pope gave no comfort to those pressing for the use of military force. His outspoken opposition to the U.S.–led war on Iraq in 2003 was based on the conviction that both sides should have done more to settle the dispute peacefully. He mobilized an unprecedented, though unsuccessful, diplomatic effort to help prevent hostilities and to preserve the role of the United Nations in global peacemaking. Following the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks by extremists acting in the name of Islam, the pope led a spiritual campaign against all violence that invokes religion. He convened a meeting of Muslims, Christians, Jews, and others in Assisi in early 2002; the gathering produced a joint statement against terrorism. Pro-life issues brought out the Polish-born pontiff’s fighting spirit. In 1994, for example, he challenged U.N. population planners on abortion and birth-control policies and steered an international development conference toward a moral debate on life and family issues. The pope and his aides took some flak for that. But as he aged, he seemed more determined than ever to communicate his message, applying church teaching to technical questions such as economics, biology, and demographics and prodding individual consciences on what he has called a worldwide “moral crisis.” “The Gospel of Life,” his 1995 encyclical on pro-life issues, addressed to “all people of good will” and sent to government leaders around the globe, reflected the pope’s resolve.
CNS PHOTO BY ARTURO MARI
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Both spiritual leader and political figure, Pope John Paul II used his global pulpit to good advantage. By John Thavis
Pope John Paul II and Cuban President Fidel Castro came face to face in communist Cuba on Jan. 15, 1998.
“To speak out on an issue such as abortion confirms this pope’s leadership in a dramatic way. If a pope doesn’t try to awaken ethical responsibility, what is his value?” said Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls. The pope’s pro-life stand also virtually excluded the death penalty, and he made frequent appeals against executions in the United States. After one dramatic plea during his visit to St. Louis in 1999, the sentence of a Missouri death-row inmate was commuted. During jubilee celebrations in 2000 the pope continually prodded and pressured global financial powers to forgive at least part of the Third World debt—a request that added a moral dimension to the issue and helped bring about debt relief for some of the poorest nations. The pope conferred with presidents, stood up to tyrants, and preached to crowds of more than a million people. Almost immediately after his election in 1978 he began using the world as a pulpit: decrying hunger from Africa; denouncing the arms race from Hiroshima, Japan; and promoting human equality from caste-conscious India. As Poland’s native son, he had a special interest and a key role in the demise of European communism. For years he criticized the moral bankruptcy of the system, to applause in the West. His visits to his homeland helped light the fire of reform, which eventually led to the first noncommunist government in the Soviet bloc. In an astute political move, he cultivated an ally in Mikhail Gorbachev, whose “glasnost” policies
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CNS FILE PHOTO BY CHRIS SHERIDAN
Timeline continued on page 10
Pope John Paul II falls from gunshots fired by Mehmet Ali Agca in St. Peter’s Square May 13, 1981. The pope was riding in an open vehicle greeting pilgrims when he was shot. His recovery from severe abdominal wounds took several months. 8
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Pope John Paul II addresses a press conference with President Jimmy Carter in the Rose Garden of the White House on Oct. 6, 1979. He was the first pope to be received at the U.S. presidential residence.
set the stage for the breakup of the Soviet Union—and the return of religious freedom. But the pope was also a sometimes-unwelcome critic of capitalism, warning that the profit motive alone would never bring justice and cautioning about the effects of “globalization” in the post-communist era. Modern leadership is often a question of personal rapport, and Pope John Paul met with world figures across the spectrum. During his pontificate, every U.S. president made a pilgrimage to the Vatican, including President George W. Bush in 2001, 2002, and 2004. The pope’s door was almost always open to the world’s powerful, a policy that brought controversial figures to his private library— among them Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, Cuban President Fidel Castro, and former Austrian President Kurt Waldheim. Many observers, including former U.S. ambassadors to the Vatican, said Pope John Paul’s influence on world events was tremendous. They praised his political savvy, reflected less in the public realm than in behind-the-scenes efforts by Vatican diplomats. The pope’s tenure saw a near-doubling of the number of countries with which the Vatican holds diplomatic relations. At the same time, his flair for the dramatic gesture helped make him the most-televised pontiff in history. That was a form of global influence that this pope never underestimated. Millions watched him walk through crowds of African poor or visit a shantytown family in Latin America. As the pope once said, one reason he kept returning to these places was that he knew the cameras would follow, spotlighting human problems around the globe. The pope was a consistent critic of war and a booster of peace, and during his pontificate the Vatican issued major statements calling for disarmament. His aides successfully headed off a shooting war between Chile and Argentina in 1978. But sometimes the pope’s peace efforts went unheeded, to his bitter disappointment. That was true not only in Iraq; his warnings about conflagration in the Balkans and his horror at ethnic fighting in Africa illustrated the limits of papal influence. When Pope John Paul first addressed the United Nations in 1979, he emphasized that harmonious international relations were tied to a proper understanding of freedom and respect for moral precepts. That was a message he honed over the years, in face-to-face meetings with world leaders and in public speeches. Moral leadership continued on page 15
T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 History may see pope as architect of communism’s demise Church’s international contours changed His moral prodding helped lead to the downfall of Marxist ideology throughout the Soviet bloc. By John Thavis
under Pope John Paul II
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B Y J O H N T H AV I S
VATICAN CITY (CNS)— In the view of many political commentators, history will best remember Pope John Paul II as the spiritual godfather of communism’s demise. Although he refused to claim personal credit for the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and its decline elsewhere around the globe, the pope was keenly aware that his moral prodding— especially in his native Poland—helped redraw the ideological map in the late 20th century. “I think the crucial role was played by Christianity itself: its content, its religious and moral message, its intrinsic defense of the human person. All I did was recall this, repeat it, and insist on it,” the pontiff said in a 1993 interview. His election in 1978 as the first pope from behind the Iron Curtain immediately sparked interest in Washington and apprehension in Moscow, two poles of a renewed Cold War. For decades the Vatican had followed a policy of quiet negotiation with communist regimes, in order to win realistic concessions on religious rights. Many thought the new pope would throw out this “Ostpolitik” in favor of more aggressive approach. But in the end, Pope John Paul made “Ostpolitik” his own. He kept up the quiet negotiations, but in documents and speeches around the world he began making not-so-quiet pronouncements about communist ideology and practice. In 1984, for example, the pope publicly criticized Moscow for not letting him go to Lithuania for religious celebrations. The same year a Vatican document approved by the pope referred to communist regimes as the “shame of our time.” The real testing ground of East European freedom was Poland. When the pope visited his homeland in 1979, he helped ignite
Pope John Paul II greets Lech Walesa—Nobel Peace Prize winner and head of Solidarity—in Gdansk in June 1987. The pope’s public comments defending the labor union and his visit to the grave of Father Jerzy Popieluszko, a pro-Solidarity priest killed by Polish police, were clear signals to the communist government of his commitment to Poland’s freedom. In June 1989 communist rule came to an end. Walesa became president the following year.
a sense of spiritual purpose that nurtured the political hopes of the Solidarity labor movement. After martial law was imposed and Solidarity outlawed, the pope returned to a discouraged nation in 1983, but in talk after talk raised the country’s morale and political resolve. Back once again in 1987, he repeatedly praised the original Solidarity ideals, hammered the government’s labor record, called for religious freedom, and said Marxism had lost credibility. “Save your strength for the future,” he told a crowd of millions in Gdansk, where the prodemocracy movement had begun. Two years later a revived Solidarity swept to political power in historic free elections, and European communism began to unravel. From 1980 onward, the United States sent high-level officials from the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency to brief the pope about Soviet policies in Poland and elsewhere. The Vatican never
denied that these meetings took place but denied the claim of a U.S.–Vatican “holy alliance” to thwart communism. In fact, when the first big cracks appeared in the European communist facade, the pope turned East, not West, for help. His overtures to Soviet reformer Mikhail Gorbachev culminated in their historic meeting at the Vatican in 1989 and led to the restoration of church rights throughout the Soviet bloc. When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Vatican took further advantage of the situation by quickly establishing diplomatic relations with the newly independent countries. As the pope remarked, it was clear that Marxist ideology was “completely exhausted.” A key part of the pope’s strategy was to encourage communist countries to sign human-rights accords, then insist that they live up to them. The Vatican, for example, repeatedly invoked the Helsinki Agreement and the 1989 Vienna follow-up accords
Pope John Paul II prays at the Hill of Crosses in Siauliai, Lithuania, in September 1993. Some 200,000 crosses, statues, and rosaries were placed on the hill in defiance of former communist leaders. A year after his visit there the pope donated a large crucifix for the hill. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
when discussing the human-rights situation in Eastern Europe. Another factor working for the pope was that the Vatican’s “blessing” was important to countries seeking economic and political favor in the West. As communist ideology weakened, the regimes sometimes advertised their more liberal approach by offering concessions on religious freedom. The pope adopted the same strategy during his historic pastoral visit to Cuba in 1998, encouraging President Fidel Castro to make political and religious reforms while urging the international community to stop isolating the Caribbean nation. Although much of the world was caught off-balance by the rapid disintegration of communism, the Vatican seemed better prepared. Indeed, the cardinals who elected Pope John Paul II showed amazing foresight, said former U.S. Ambassador to the Vatican Frank Shakespeare. They chose a man from Krakow, Poland—the “geographical center of the continent”—who was a European Slav and a “bridge between the East and the West,” Shakespeare said in 1997. The pope spoke the languages of many of the region’s people, and that made a huge difference. When Solidarity took hold in Poland and prodemocracy movements began spreading to other countries, the reports that came in did not get stuck in the Vatican bureaucracy—they went to a Polish Slav pope who had shepherded his own flock for 30 years under communism, Shakespeare said. “From a management point of view, the Catholic Church was perfectly prepared for what happened,” he said. The pope realized that the moral victory over communism marked the Communism continued on page 12
VATICAN CITY (CNS)—The next pope will lead a Catholic Church whose international contours have changed dramatically under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. In simple numbers the world’s Catholic population has increased about 43 percent, from 757 million in 1978 to 1.09 billion at the end of 2003, the last year for which official church statistics have been released. More significant has been a definite Third World shift under Pope John Paul. The number of Catholics in Africa has increased more than 160 percent, from 55 million to 144 million. In Asia the increase has been about 95 percent, from 58 million to 113 million. In Latin America the church population has increased about 50 percent, somewhat less than the overall population. Still, about 43 percent of the church’s membership now lives in Latin American countries. The Catholic population of North America, which includes the United States and Canada but not Mexico or Central America in the Vatican’s reckoning, has increased 36 percent since 1978—slightly more than the general population increase. Although not in a strictly proportional sense, those population changes have been reflected in the College of Cardinals and in the Roman Curia, the network of Vatican offices. As European influence has lessened, the Third World presence has grown. In particular, Italian influence has declined. When Pope John Paul came to office in 1978, Italians controlled about half the Vatican’s top 20 departments. Today, Italians hold only four of those top spots. At present nearly 40 percent of the cardinal and archbishop members of the nine Vatican congregations are from developing countries. In the coming conclave about 44 percent of the voting cardinals will be from developing countries. When it comes to those who work in a ministerial or teaching capacity for the church, there was an increase in most categories under Pope John Paul but a decrease among members of religious orders. Overall the “workforce for the church’s apostolate” has jumped from 1.6 million to 4.2 million since 1978. The number of bishops in the world increased from 3,600 to 4,700—and about three-fourths of them were appointed by Pope John Paul. The huge increase in the number of nonordained church workers is indicative of their increasingly important role in many African and Latin American church communities. When Pope John Paul assumed the papacy, the church had 173,000 catechists; today there are about 2.8 million. The number of “lay missionaries”—not even a category when the pope was elected—has now reached 144,000, most of them in Latin America. Despite what the Vatican considers as hopeful trends in priestly vocations, there are far fewer priests per Catholic today than when the pope came to office. In 1978 the worldwide ratio was 1,800 Catholics for every priest; today it is nearly 2,700 Catholics per priest. The biggest growth in priestly vocations has occurred in Africa, where the number of diocesan clergy has more than tripled over the last 26 years. In Asia the number of diocesan priests has more than doubled. The number of religious priests worldwide has declined steadily since 1978, from about 158,000 to 137,000, and religious brothers are down from about 75,000 to 55,000. The sharpest drop has been in the number of women religious, which has gone from 985,000 to 783,000. Permanent deacons emerged as a significant pastoral force during Pope John Paul’s term: They numbered 5,500 in 1978 and are more than 29,000 today. Nearly half of them are in the United States. The church strengthened its social and educational roles under Pope John Paul. For example, there are more than 113,000 church-run health and welfare institutions today, compared to 64,000 in 1978; more than half are in the Third World. The figure includes clinics, homes for the elderly and disabled, orphanages, and marriage-counseling centers. The number of church-run schools increased, and enrollment rose more than 50 percent under Pope John Paul. At the university level the increase was more dramatic: Enrollment at Catholic institutions of higher education rose from about 2 million in 1978 to more than 4 million today. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
Tribute to the late pontiff offered by exhibit honoring his legacy CINCINNATI—The exhibition “A Blessing to One Another: Pope John Paul II and the Jewish People” will chronicle the late pope’s associations with the Jewish community from the time of his childhood and how these lifelong associations shaped his papacy, the Catholic Church, and the future of Jewish-Catholic relations. The exhibition will open at Xavier University in Cincinnati on May 18, the pope’s birthday. It will then move to the Pope John Paul II Cultural Center in Washington, D.C., for an opening in mid-September. ■ APRIL 10, 2005
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 Timeline continued from page 8
Missionary initiatives, ecumenical dreams
Pope John Paul II embraces a young woman during the 1993 World Youth Day in Denver. From the very start of his pontificate Pope John Paul took a special interest in young people, calling them the “hope of the church.” He established the international youth day gatherings, which have drawn millions and attracted worldwide attention. 1989: Is widely seen as key figure in collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. 1990: Issues first uniform law code for Eastern Catholic churches; issues global norms for Catholic higher education; approves Vatican instruction on theologians; establishes diplomatic relations with Soviet Union. 1991: Issues encyclical marking 100 years of Catholic social teaching; convenes special European synod to deal with rapid changes in wake of communism’s collapse. 1992: Has benign tumor on colon removed; issues official Catechism of the Catholic Church, first such document since 16th century; receives study acknowledging church erred in condemning Galileo. 1993: U.S. visit for World Youth Day is his 60th trip abroad; writes his first papal encyclical on nature of moral theology. 1994: Declares teaching that women cannot be priests must be held definitively; establishes diplomatic relations with Israel; publishes book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope; named Time magazine’s “Man of the Year.” 1995: Issues major encyclicals on human life, ecumenism. 1996: Urges total ban on nuclear testing, global land mine ban; marks 50 years as priest. 1997: Names St. Therese of Lisieux a doctor of the church; presides at synod for America, one of a series of regional synods. 1998: Historic Cuba visit is 81st trip abroad; starts first permanent Catholic-Muslim dialogue. 1999: Joint Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification is signed; unseals Holy Door in St. Peter’s to start jubilee year 2000. 2000: Presides at numerous jubilee year events in Rome; makes historic visit to Holy Land. 2001: Issues apostolic letter on the new millennium; in Syria, becomes first pope to enter a mosque. 2002: Convenes third interreligious day of peace in Assisi; visit to Toronto for World Youth Day is 97th trip abroad; given honorary citizenship of Rome. 2003: Marks 25th anniversary as pope; beatifies Mother Teresa of Calcutta, one of record number of beatifications and canonizations under his pontificate. 2004: Opens Year of the Eucharist; returns revered saints’ relics to Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople; publishes fourth book as pope, Rise, Let Us Be on Our Way. 2005: Publishes new book, Memory and Identity: Conversations Between Millenniums; hospitalized, undergoes tracheotomy. Dies April 2. ■
CNS PHOTO BY ARTURO MARI
Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
Pope John Paul II greets Mother Teresa of Calcutta at the Vatican in June 1997. The sister, who devoted her life to the care of Calcutta’s poor in India and founded the Missionaries of Charity, was beatified by the pope Oct. 19, 2003. The process leading up to her beatification was the shortest in modern history. 10
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VATICAN CITY (CNS)— Throughout his pontificate Pope John Paul II worked hard to advance Christian unity in the East and West, breaking down barriers with a combination of personal gestures and official dialogue. But in the end the pope found that his own missionary initiatives sometimes got in the way of his ecumenical dreams. For the Polish-born pontiff, the failure to travel to Moscow and greet Russian Orthodox Patriarch Alexy II was one of the deepest disappointments of his papacy. Ironically, it was the resurgence of small Catholic communities after the fall of Soviet communism that pushed the trip into the “impossible” category. The Russian Orthodox hierarchy resented what it called aggressive Catholic evangelization in traditionally Orthodox lands. When the pope created four new dioceses for Russia in 2002, the door to Moscow swung shut for Pope John Paul. The tensions between ecumenism and evangelization, and between dialogue and doctrine, ran through his pontificate from beginning to end. The pope called Christian unity a pastoral priority and said the church was committed “irrevocably to following the path of the ecumenical venture.” He gave the ecumenical movement a new impetus with an encyclical in which he asked other churches how the papacy could better serve a reunited Christianity. Yet other Vatican documents from the same period emphasized the limits of dialogue on ecumenical questions like papal primacy, apostolic succession, and even use of terms such as “sister churches.” Dialogue also stalled over such issues as the Anglican decision in 1994 to ordain women priests. In his final years the pope traveled to several predominantly Orthodox countries of the East, including Romania, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia. A frail figure on these last journeys, he won the hearts of many Orthodox believers through his determination to witness the faith and build ecumenical bridges. In former Soviet countries he emphasized the “ecumenism of martyrdom” and said the heroic faith of all Christians under communism was a resource for the future. His historic 24-hour pilgrimage to Greece in 2001 overcame Orthodox opposition and public protests, largely through a dramatic papal apology for the wrongs of the past—including the sack of Constantinople by Western Christians during the Crusades. But his visit to Ukraine the same year raised new
CNS FILE PHOTO BY ARTURO MARI
CNS FILE PHOTO BY JOE RIMKUS JR.
From the beginning to the end of his pontificate, the pope made Christian unity a priority. By John Thavis
During Pope John Paul II’s visit to Bucharest in May 1999 he and Romanian Orthodox Patriarch Teoctist signed a joint appeal for brotherhood and coexistence in the Balkans. The trip was a significant step toward improved relations between the Orthodox majority and the Catholic minority in Romania and paved the way for the patriarch’s visit to the Vatican in 2002.
ecumenical tensions with the Russian Orthodox Church, despite the pope’s call for mutual forgiveness and a new chapter of dialogue. The first major ecumenical act of Pope John Paul’s papacy was his November 1979 visit to Greek Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Dimitrios of Constantinople in Istanbul, Turkey. At that meeting they inaugurated an international CatholicOrthodox theological dialogue. In a joint declaration in 1987 Pope John Paul and Patriarch Dimitrios repudiated all forms of proselytism of Catholics by Orthodox or Orthodox by Catholics. At Orthodox urging, the Catholic Church rejected “uniatism”—the uniting of a segment of an Orthodox Church with Rome— as a policy for future Catholic-Orthodox union, but at the same time it affirmed the authenticity of Eastern Catholic churches formed in the past under such a model. Those questions all came to the fore after the collapse of Soviet communism in 1991, as Eastern Catholic communities regained legal status
throughout the former Soviet empire. In a 1992 document on post-communist Russia the Vatican called for ecumenism in Catholic mission activity there, asking Catholic authorities to avoid competition with the Orthodox and to assist in the development of Orthodox pastoral initiatives. But despite Vatican assurances, local Orthodox communities viewed the Catholic resurgence as an attempt to proselytize among their faithful. In 2002, when the pope created four new dioceses in Russia, the Russian Orthodox Church froze dialogue with the Vatican and accused the Vatican of expansionism into what the Orthodox regard as their “canonical territory.” In the following months the Russian government expelled several Catholic priests and one bishop, adding a diplomatic dispute to the ecumenical crisis. Whenever and wherever doctrinally possible, Pope John Paul encouraged joint Christian prayer, and starting in 1994 he invited Orthodox and Protestant clergy and theologians to write the meditations for his Good Friday Way of
the Cross service in Rome’s Colosseum. He used the dawning of the third millennium of Christianity to stoke the twin fires of spiritual renewal and ecumenism— convinced, in the words of his 1995 encyclical, that “the commitment to ecumenism must be based upon the conversion of hearts and upon prayer.” That encyclical, Ut Unum Sint (“That All May Be One”), became a topic of ecumenical dialogues around the world in the years that followed. In it the pope acknowledged that although Catholics view the bishop of Rome as “visible sign and guarantor of unity,” the notion of that papal role for the universal church “constitutes a difficulty for most other Christians.” He asked theologians and leaders of other churches to help him “find a way of exercising the primacy” that could make it a ministry of unity to all Christians. In 1993 the church’s first revised ecumenical directory in nearly a quarter-century greatly expanded the principles and applications of Catholic ecumenical relations. Ecumenism continued on page 14
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Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 Pope John Paul II looked closely at role of women in the church
CNS FILE PHOTO BY ARTURO MARI
BY CINDY WOODEN
Pope John Paul II greets Rabbi Elio Toaff at Rome’s main synagogue April 13, 1986. The meeting marked the beginning of a new era in Catholic-Jewish relations. It was the first time a pope had entered the Rome synagogue.
JPII worked for reconciliation with Jews He ‘met with more Jews and Jewish communities . . . than all the previous popes since Peter.’ By Jerry Filteau
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pentance for Christians’ failure to oppose the persecution of Jews. In 2000 the pope presided at a liturgy of repentance for the wrongs of Catholics toward Jews. Less than five months into his papacy he met with leading representatives of world Judaism. In that important first meeting he reiterated the Second Vatican Council’s condemnation of antiSemitism and pledged to foster Catholic-Jewish dialogue and “do everything in my power for the peace of that land which is holy for you as it is for us.” Meetings with representatives of the local Jewish community were a regular feature in his travels to 129 countries around the world. Eugene Fisher, associate director of the U.S. bishops’ Secretariat for Ecu-
menical and Interreligious Affairs, said, “Pope John Paul met with more Jews and Jewish communities in more places around the world than all the previous popes since Peter.” The most striking of these encounters was the pope’s one-mile trip across the Tiber River in 1986 to the Great Synagogue of Rome. It was believed to be the first time since Peter that a pope had entered the Rome synagogue, and symbolically it marked a watershed in Catholic-Jewish relations. Visiting Germany in 1980, he summarized the proper Catholic approach to Judaism with the words: “Who meets Jesus Christ meets Judaism.” He described Jews as “the people of God of the Old Covenant never retracted by God.” In his weeklong jubilee
pilgrimage to the Holy Land the pope visited Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust memorial, and met with Holocaust survivors, including about 30 from his Polish home town of Wadowice. He greeted some by name. Three days later the sight of the aging, stooped pope praying as he pressed a trembling hand against the ancient stones of the Western Wall struck a chord with Jews around the world. When Jews make their pilgrimage to Jerusalem to pray at the wall and leave prayer notes in its crevices, the notes usually blow away in a few days. The pope’s note was removed and placed on display at the Yad Vashem museum. As a boy Karol Wojtyla, the future pope, played Reconciliation continued on page 15
CNS PHOTO FROM REUTERS
WASHINGTON (CNS)— What Pope John Paul II did to advance reconciliation between Catholics and Jews will go down in history as one of the hallmarks of his papacy. Four moments particularly stand out for their symbolism: ■ 1979: Back in Poland for the first time since his election to the papacy, he prayed at the Auschwitz concentration camp. He paused at the Hebrew inscription commemorating the Jews killed there and said, “It is not permissible for anyone to pass by this inscription with indifference.” ■ 1986: He went to a Rome synagogue to pray with the city’s Jewish community. Noting Christianity’s unique bond with Judaism, he said, “You are our beloved brothers . . . you are our elder brothers” in the faith of Abraham. ■ 1994: He attended a Vatican-hosted concert commemorating the Holocaust, Hitler’s World War II effort to exterminate all Jews. “We risk making the victims of the most atrocious deaths die again if we do not have a passion for justice,” he said. ■ 2000: After meditating at Jerusalem’s Western Wall, he placed in the wall a written prayer to God expressing deep sadness for all wrongs done to Jews by Christians. It ended, “Asking your forgiveness, we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.” Under Pope John Paul the Vatican published guidelines on how Catholics should teach and preach about Jews and Judaism and issued a major document on the Holocaust that expressed re-
Pope John Paul II speaks to Edith Tzirer, a Holocaust survivor, as he meets with six survivors at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem in this March 23, 2000, file photo. As a Polish seminarian, future pope Karol Wojtyla helped a starving Tzirer after she had been liberated from a Nazi forced labor camp. She still remembers the warm look in Wojtyla’s eyes and mourns the death of the man who became pope.
VATICAN CITY (CNS)—In theological documents and in heartfelt pastoral letters, Pope John Paul II looked at the role of women in the church and in the world more closely than any other pope in modern history. On topics as diverse as the priesthood, motherhood, abortion, work, religious life, and peacemaking, women were a recurring subject for Pope John Paul. During his pontificate, as women consolidated their place in some of the highest echelons of temporal power, the pope and the Catholic Church were the objects of continual criticism about the status of women in the church. The issue of women and the priesthood generated discussion and dissent within the Catholic Church and became a major ecumenical stumbling block when some churches in the Anglican Communion began ordaining women. Nevertheless, during Pope John Paul’s pontificate, women took over pastoral and administrative duties in priestless parishes, were appointed chancellors of dioceses around the world, and began swelling the ranks of “experts” at Vatican synods and symposiums. In 2004, for the first time, the pope appointed two women theologians to the prestigious International Theological Commission and named a Harvard University law professor, Mary Ann Glendon, to be president of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. While defending women’s rights and their “equal dignity” with men, the pope also highlighted the ways women are and should be different from men. Women and men have complementary natures, he taught, and their “diversity of roles” in the church and in the family reflect that reality. The pope’s teaching on complementarity formed the basis for a 2004 document by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on male-female collaboration in the church and society. Describing discrimination against women and male-female rivalry as results of sin, the document said the differences between the sexes are part of God’s plan for creation—not social constructs—and that church and society benefit when the gifts of both are recognized. Although decrying discrimination against women and urging their promotion in all spheres of community and social life, the pope unequivocally reaffirmed the teaching that the church cannot ordain them to the priesthood. The basic elements of his teaching on women are found in his 1988 apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem (“The Dignity of Women”), his 1994 apostolic letter “On Reserving Priestly Ordination to Men Alone,” and his 1995 “Letter to Women.” But his thoughts on women also could be found in significant segments of his weekly general audience series on sexuality and on the structure of the church, his 1988 apostolic exhortation on the laity, his 1995 message for World Peace Day, and his messages to the leaders of the U.N. conferences on population and on women. Even one of his annual heart-to-heart letters to the world’s priests dwelt on the topic of women, particularly on the importance of women—mothers, sisters, and friends— in the lives of priests. The starting point of Mulieris Dignitatem was what Scripture had to say about women, especially Eve and Mary, and Christ’s attitude toward women in the New Testament. In the letter the pope argued against outdated cultural views that God meant women to be subject to men. Both were created in God’s image and likeness with equal dignity, he said. Women have been subjugated because human beings are sinful, he said, and “the situations in which the woman remains disadvantaged or discriminated against by the fact of being a woman” are the continuing consequences of sin. The fact that God chose a woman, the Virgin Mary, to play such an important role in the world’s salvation leaves no doubt about the God-given dignity of women, the pope wrote. In his 1994 apostolic letter on ordination Pope John Paul said the church’s ban on women priests is definitive and not open to debate among Catholics. The all-male priesthood, he wrote, does not represent discrimination against women but fidelity to Christ’s actions and his plan for the church. The pope’s document reaffirmed the basis for ordaining only men: Christ chose only men to be his Apostles, it has been the constant practice of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, and the magisterium’s teaching on the matter has been consistent. Pope John Paul took his teaching directly to the world’s women in a 1995 letter in which he thanked them for all they have done, apologized for the church’s failure always to recognize their contributions, and condemned the “long and degrading history” of sexual violence against women. Evaluating the women’s liberation movement as being generally positive, the pope called for changes to make women’s equality a reality in the world. He called for equal pay for equal work, protection for working mothers, and fairness in career advancement. But he also mentioned a growing concern: a belief that modern societies were denigrating motherhood and penalizing women who chose to have children. Although the pope carefully avoided discussing women exclusively in terms of their possible roles as virgins or mothers, he exalted the virtues of both. He repeatedly pointed to women’s potential as bearers of life as part of the “feminine genius” that the world so desperately needs as it struggles against the “culture of Women continued on page 12
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Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005
Contributing to this story were Cindy Wooden and Eleni E. Dimmler in Rome and Jonathan Luxmoore in Poland. Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
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start of a delicate reorganizational phase for the church and its pastoral mission. In the space of a decade he called two special synods for Europe to discuss evangelization plans in the wake of the Soviet collapse and emphasized that the demoralizing effects of a half-century of communism could not be erased overnight. He also rejected ideological triumphalism. Rather than dance on communism’s grave, he preferred to warn that unchecked capitalism held its own dangers—especially in the countries emerging from Marxist shadows. He made a point of visiting 18 former Soviet republics or satellites in the years before his death. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops 12
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pope who decided to be treated at the Vatican instead of being taken to the hospital, said Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls. Cardinal Mario Francesco Pompedda, who visited the dying pope, described the scene in the pope’s bedroom: assisted by several doctors and his personal staff, the pontiff lay serenely on a bed in the middle of his room, comforted by cushions, occasionally opening his eyes in greeting to the handful of visitors allowed inside. At his last, poignant public appearance at his apartment window March 30, the pope greeted pilgrims in St. Peter’s Square and tried in vain to speak to them. After four minutes he was wheeled from view, and the curtains of his apartment window were drawn for the last time. For more than a decade the pope suffered from a neurological disorder believed to be Parkinson’s disease. As the pope’s health failed in recent months, many of his close aides said his physical decline, never hidden from public view, offered a remarkable Christian witness of suffering. The pope’s death ends a history-making pontificate of more than 26 years, one that dramatically changed the church and left its mark on the world. Many observers consider Pope John Paul an unparalleled protagonist in the political and spiritual events that shaped the modern age, from the end of the Cold War to the start of the third millennium. For the church, the pope’s death set in motion a period of official mourning and reflection that will culminate in the election of his successor. Pope John Paul’s funeral, expected to be attended by world leaders from far and wide, was set for Friday, April 8, six days after his death. Cardinals were already making their way to Rome to participate in a papal conclave, or election, scheduled to begin 15 to 20 days after his death. The 183 members of the College of Cardinals were to participate in preliminary discussions before the election, and the 117 cardinals under the age of 80 will be eligible to vote in the closed-door conclave. A youthful 58 when elected in 1978, the pope experienced health problems early. He was shot and almost killed in 1981 and spent several months in the hospital being treated for abdominal wounds and a blood infection. In later years he suffered a dislocated shoulder, a broken thigh bone, arthritis of the knee, and an appendectomy. He stopped walking in public in 2003 and stopped celebrating public liturgies in 2004. In recent years the pope spoke with increasing frequency about his age, his failing health, and death. He was determined to stay at the helm of the church but also said he was prepared to be called to the next life. “It is wonderful to be able to give oneself to the very end for the sake of the kingdom of God. At the same time I find great peace in thinking of the time when the Lord will call me: from life to life,” he said in a 1999 letter written to the world’s elderly. The pope continued: “And so I often find myself saying, with no trace of melancholy, a prayer recited by priests after the celebration of the Eucharist: In hora mortis meae voca me, et iube me venire ad te (‘at the hour of my death, call me and bid me come to you’). This is the prayer of Christian hope,” he said. In the hours before his death, prayers went up on the pope’s behalf from all over the world, from China to the pope’s native Poland, from Christians and non-Christians. Rabbi Riccardo di Segni, the chief rabbi of Rome, came to St. Peter’s Square to pray, saying he wanted to offer “a sign of participation” with the church. As the pope lay dying, journalists who tried to enter the square were turned away unless they were coming to pray. The media arrived in force, surrounding the Vatican with broadcasting trucks and film crews. A supplementary press office was prepared for the thousands of reporters expected for the pope’s funeral and the conclave. The Vatican’s website was overloaded soon after the pope’s situation took a turn for the worse, and the Vatican switchboard was jammed. E-mail messages also poured in, offering prayers and condolences. The city of Rome announced plans to deal with the flood of visitors expected in Rome in the days after the pope’s death. A special bus line was to run directly to the Vatican from the train station, and officials said they would set up tents around the Vatican to provide assistance to pilgrims. ■
On two occasions Pope John Paul II brought clerics from various religions to Assisi, Italy, to pray for peace. At the 1986 gathering are, from left, Archbishop of Canterbury Robert Runcie, Orthodox Archbishop Methodios of Thyateira/Great Britain and representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Pope John Paul II, and the Dalai Lama.
Overtures to non-Christian faiths Convinced that prayer could unite all believers, the pope condemned violence in religion’s name. By Jerry Filteau WASHINGTON (CNS)— More than any pontiff in modern history, Pope John Paul II made important overtures to non-Christian religions, using documents, prayer meetings, and personal visits to open the doors of dialogue. Pope John Paul advanced the church’s sometimes-difficult relations with Islam by visiting a mosque, speaking to Muslim groups on his foreign trips, and insisting on full religious freedom in countries under Islamic law. His special efforts on Catholic relations with Jews and Judaism— unique among other religions as elder brother of Christianity, with its own ongoing, irrevocable covenant with God—will be remembered as a hallmark of his papacy. Pope John Paul was convinced that prayer could bring believers together, an idea that inspired the 1986 World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, Italy. That unprecedented gathering at the pope’s invitation drew leaders of Jews, Buddhists, Shintoists, Muslims, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Unitarians, traditional African and Native American religions, and many others. Together, under the roof of the Basilica of St. Francis, they all prayed, side by side, with Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant leaders for world peace. After the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States by extremists acting in the name of Islam, the pope convened another Assisi meeting in
early 2002 and told more than 200 spiritual leaders: “Terrorism never again.” The participants issued a joint condemnation of all violence in the name of religion. In scores of other encounters and speeches over more than two decades, Pope John Paul sought to draw representatives of all religions into deeper mutual understanding, respect, and dialogue about shared values and beliefs. At the same time he insisted that Catholics engaged in dialogue be true to their core beliefs and the spread of the Gospel. In 2000 he approved a controversial Vatican document emphasizing Jesus Christ’s unique place as savior of humanity, the universal and absolute value of Christianity, and the “gravely deficient situation” of those outside the church. The pope’s dialogue efforts focused especially on Islam—the other great monotheistic faith that, like Christianity and Judaism, claims Abraham as its father in faith and the God of Abraham as its God. The church’s relations with Islam under Pope John Paul were conditioned by political realities in many countries across the globe. In recent years the pope made special efforts to assure Muslims that the church did not view global terrorism and the efforts to curb it as a “religious war” between Islam and Christianity. One of his first trips
abroad was to Turkey, an overwhelmingly Muslim country, in 1979. In a talk to the tiny Catholic minority there he urged respect for the religious and moral values of Islam. In Istanbul he visited Santa Sophia—then a museum but historically one of the greatest churches in the world under the Byzantine Empire and one of the greatest mosques in the world during the Ottoman Empire. In August 1985, when he visited Morocco at the invitation of King Hassan II, he became the first pope to visit an officially Islamic country at the invitation of its religious leader. There, at a historic meeting with thousands of Muslim youths in Casablanca Stadium, he emphasized that “we believe in the same God, the one God, the living God.” In May 2001 the pope became the first pontiff in history to enter a Muslim place of worship when he visited the Umayyad mosque in Damascus, Syria. He paused to pray at a memorial to St. John the Baptist inside the mosque in an event that was televised around much of the Muslim world. Official Catholic-Muslim dialogue expanded during his papacy, including ties between the Vatican and the Islamic clerics of Cairo’s al-Azhar University, whom the pope met during a trip to Egypt in 2000. But vast gulfs remained, chief among them the persecution of Christians in parts of Africa and Asia un-
der Islamic religious law. The pope repeatedly preached respect for the rights of Muslims to practice their faith but often lamented the fact that in many countries—chief among them, Saudi Arabia—Christians had no similar rights, and even the possession of a Bible was considered a crime. Visiting Muslim-dominated places such as Sudan, the pope publicly called for mutual respect for religious freedom. The slaying of a bishop and other missionaries in Algeria, presumably by Muslim extremists, prompted the pope to denounce all those who would kill in the name of God. Pope John Paul met several times with the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, and with Buddhist, Shintoist, Zen, and other Eastern religious representatives. In Thailand in 1984 he visited the country’s 87year-old supreme Buddhist patriarch, Vasana Tara, as the patriarch meditated in front of a golden statue of Buddha. Ten years later, however, the pope’s description of Buddhism as “in large measure an ‘atheistic’ system” occasioned criticism by some Buddhist leaders. The Vatican had to reiterate the pope’s deep respect for the religion. ■ Contributing to this story was John Thavis at the Vatican. Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
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death” marked by war, abortion, and euthanasia. Perhaps the most poignant example of the pope’s trust in women’s sensitivity to life was a 1993 letter to an archbishop in war-ravaged BosniaHerzegovina. Denouncing the widespread practice of ethnically motivated rape during the war, the pope also pleaded with the victims, their families, and their com-
munities to welcome and love any babies conceived as a result of rape. “The unborn, having no responsibility for the deplorable act that occurred, is innocent and therefore cannot in any way be considered an aggressor,” the pope wrote. “The whole community must draw close to these women who have been so painfully offended and to their families, to help them transform an act of
violence into an act of love and welcome,” he said. The family, in its natural role as a “sanctuary of life and love,” is the place to start rebuilding societies torn apart by violence, Pope John Paul taught. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005
The globe-trotting pope
Pope John Paul II steps from a helicopter in Oslo, Norway, during a tour of Scandinavia in June 1989.
him to walk and speak, the pope plowed ahead with trips to out-of-theway places such as Azerbaijan and Bulgaria, where he was pushed on a wheeled platform and lowered from airplanes on a modified cargo lift. In 2004, when he no longer could walk, he visited Switzerland and Lourdes, France. From the beginning Pope John Paul made it clear he enjoyed being out of the Vatican and mingling with the faithful. He treated reporters to unprecedented flying news conferences, strolling through the press section of his plane and fielding dozens of questions. Asked about his globetrotting papacy in 1983, he replied: “Yes, I am convinced . . . that I am traveling too much, but sometimes it is necessary to do something of what is too much.” On other
occasions, he said simply, “I must visit my people.” His top aides said the pontiff aimed to strengthen the links between the church in Rome and particular church communities around the globe. From the mountains of Peru to the plains of India, he spoke the local languages, gave pep talks to local pastoral workers and canonized local saints. His speeches, sermons, and liturgies often were televised in the host countries, giving him a unique opportunity to evangelize and stand up publicly for minority Catholics. Some of his warmest receptions came in Africa, a continent where his 14 pastoral visits helped spur a period of tremendous growth for the church. He once told reporters he kept returning to Africa in order to bring the journalistic spotlight to its suffer-
ings. A crowd in Burkina Faso held up a banner in 1990 that welcomed him as “a great friend.” In a 1980 trip to Latin America he underscored the church’s commitment to the poor by walking into a shack in a Rio de Janeiro slum and chatting with the residents. Moments earlier, in a spontaneous gesture, he had taken off his gold papal ring and offered it to the poverty-stricken local parish. He visited with victims of Hansen’s disease in Guinea-Bissau and blessed young AIDS sufferers in Uganda and the United States. These stops provided rare glimpses of papal emotion, and his hugs for the sick were often front-page pictures in newspapers around the world. The pope’s seven trips to the United States featured festive celebrations and emotional highlights, like the time he embraced armless guitarist Tony Melendez—who strums with his feet—in Los Angeles in 1987 or when he met the 375,000-strong pilgrimage of young people who visited Denver in 1993 for World Youth Day. From a pastoral point of view, some of his toughest trips were in Europe, a continent the pope declared in need of re-evangelization. In places such as the Netherlands in 1985, he got an earful from Catholics unhappy with church teachings on issues such as birth control and priestly celibacy. International politics sometimes colored Pope John Paul’s travels. In Nicaragua in 1983, the pope tried to shout down Sandinista activists who began chanting political slogans during a Mass. In Travels continued on page 15
Pope John Paul II places a prayer in a crevice of the Western Wall, Judaism’s holiest site, March 26, 2000. Speaking to ecumenical leaders on the historic trip that included visits to Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories, the pontiff prayed that the Holy Land would be a homeland to all faiths and peoples. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
CNS FILE PHOTO FROM KNA
VATICAN CITY (CNS)— Although slowed by age and infirmity before he died, Pope John Paul II refused to give up one of his favorite pastoral duties: traveling the globe. Visiting 129 countries on 104 trips outside Italy, he redefined the nature of the papacy and its oncestable ministry. Earlier popes were carried on chairs at the Vatican; this one jetted around the world, taking the universal church to such out-ofthe-way places as Papua New Guinea, Madagascar, and Alaska. Averaging four major trips a year, the pope logged more than 700,000 miles and spent about 6 percent of his papacy outside the Vatican and Italy. Every year his aides told him to slow down—and every year the pontiff penciled in more trips. In 2002, despite summer heat and declining health, the pope crisscrossed North and Central America for 11 days to meet with youths in Toronto and canonize saints in Guatemala and Mexico. Perhaps the most personally satisfying trip was his Holy Year 2000 pilgrimage to biblical lands, which began in Egypt with a visit to Mount Sinai and continued with stops in Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories. The pope walked in the footsteps of Christ and the Apostles and made a historic visit in Jerusalem to the Western Wall, Judaism’s holiest place. A year later, extending his biblical pilgrimage, he made unprecedented papal stops in Greece and Syria, meeting with Orthodox in Athens and visiting a mosque in Damascus, Syria. Even when his failing health made it difficult for
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JPII traveled the world, spreading the Gospel and visiting ‘his people.’ By John Thavis
In May 1984 U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II met at the Fairbanks International Airport in Alaska when their paths crossed during the president’s return trip from Thailand and the pontiff’s trip to Seoul, South Korea. Two top foreignpolicy officials in the Reagan administration have said that the pope and Reagan shared information in the Cold War but did not engage in coordinated actions to topple the Soviet bloc.
Under JPII, U.S.–Vatican relations included confrontation, collaboration BY CINDY WOODEN
VATICAN CITY (CNS)—Often presented as a face-off between the world’s remaining superpower and the world’s premier moral authority, U.S.–Vatican relations under Pope John Paul II in reality included major moments of collaboration. In the same way, relations between the Vatican and Catholics in the United States often were painted as stormy, but U.S. Catholics’ participation in church life, their financial support of charitable projects around the world, and their admiration for Pope John Paul also won recognition. Even at the height of the crisis surrounding clerical sex abuse in the United States and threats of Catholics withholding money from their dioceses as a sign of dissatisfaction, U.S. Catholics led the world in the amount of money given to the pope’s discretionary Peter’s Pence fund. In the early 1990s and again 10 years later many U.S. Catholics were frustrated with what they felt was a lack of understanding on the Vatican’s part regarding the scandal of clerical sexual abuse and the failure of some U.S. bishops to deal with the problem quickly and decisively. Addressing U.S. cardinals, officers of the U.S. bishops’ conference and Vatican officials at a Vatican meeting in April 2002 to discuss the sex-abuse scandal, the pope said, “There is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young.” The meeting and an assembly of the U.S. bishops two months later led to a Vatican-approved process to deal with the scandal and make it easier to remove guilty priests from ministry. In 2004, as Catholics in the United States continued to deal with the crisis and as several U.S. dioceses were forced to file for bankruptcy protection in the face of lawsuits tied to the cases, Pope John Paul urged the bishops to reach out to victims, stand by the majority of faithful priests, and work to regain the confidence of their faithful. In September 2004 he told a group of bishops from New England, “The church in your country has been chastened by the events of the past two years, and much effort has rightly been expended on understanding and addressing the issues of sexual abuse which have cast a shadow on her life and ministry. “As you continue to confront the significant spiritual and material challenges which your local churches are experiencing in this regard, I ask you to encourage all the faithful—clergy, religious, and lay—to persevere in their public witness of faith and hope,” the pope said. Although the sex-abuse crisis was a major issue in Vatican–U.S. Catholic relations at the end of Pope John Paul’s papacy, the relationship between the Vatican and the U.S. government continued to reflect the powerful role both played in the world. Under Pope John Paul and President Ronald Reagan, the United States and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations in 1984, putting a formal seal on contacts that stretched back decades. The pope visited the United States seven times during his pontificate, making the country his most frequent foreign destination after his native Poland. He met with each U.S. president in office during his pontificate. In the meetings, at the Vatican and on U.S. soil, the pope consistently praised the U.S. commitment to democracy and freedom and challenged the country to use its strength to uphold human rights around the globe. Although he regularly had his ambassadors to the United States plead in his name for clemency for prisoners facing death sentences, Pope John Paul’s strongest pro-life pleas were for the unborn. His condemnations of legalized abortion in a nation generally known as a leading defender of human rights were part of each visit he made to the United States and most speeches he gave to visiting U.S. presidents. “If a person’s right to life is violated at the moment in which he is first conceived in his mother’s womb, an indirect blow is struck also at the whole of the moral order which serves to ensure the violable goods of man,” the pope said during a Mass in Washington during his first papal visit to the United States. “I do not hesitate to proclaim before you and before the U.S. relations continued on page 14
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Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005
Contributing to this story was Jerry Filteau in Washington. Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
U.S. relations continued from page 13
world that all human life—from the moment of conception through all subsequent stages—is sacred because human life is created in the image and likeness of God,” he said during the 1979 visit to Washington. As with the diplomatic rapport between two strong states, Vatican–U.S. relations were not always smooth. Pope John Paul and other top Vatican officials voiced loud opposition to the U.S.–led 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war in Iraq, and they consistently criticized long-term economic embargoes against Cuba and Iraq. In public international forums, such as major U.N. conferences in the 1990s focused on population and on women, the Vatican and United States found themselves outspokenly on opposite sides of debates about contraception and abortion. Yet cooperation and mutual praise were just as much a part of U.S.–Vatican relations during Pope John Paul’s pontificate, especially in the areas of relief and development aid, the fight for human rights, and religious freedom—particularly in China—and efforts to stem human trafficking. Within the Catholic Church, U.S.–Vatican relations had a similar pattern of areas of strong cooperation and points of tension. The Catholic Church in the United States won notice for its obvious support of the pro-life movement, its commitment to providing emergency and development aid around the globe, its financial contributions to the rebuilding of the church in Eastern Europe, its high rate of church practice, and its well-developed religious-education and sacramental-preparation programs. But there were hints that Pope John Paul thought too many U.S. Catholics believed the church’s doctrine and moral teachings, particularly regarding sexuality and reproduction, provided them options for a multiple-choice faith. Pope John Paul was especially tough on priests and theologians who encouraged that attitude among the faithful. In 1986 the Vatican told U.S. Father Charles E. Curran, a moral theologian, that he could no longer teach as a Catholic theologian. In the same year Pope John Paul limited the authority of Seattle Archbishop Raymond G. Hunthausen after a Vatican-ordered investigation raised questions about adherence to church teaching in the archdiocese. In the 1990s, though, the public profile of interaction between the Vatican and the church in the United States softened. If the Vatican had concerns about what was happening in the United States or U.S. bishops were puzzled by statements coming from the Vatican, the issues tended to be resolved through letters or meetings. The quiet communications let the public stage be cleared for signs of mutual appreciation, affection, and encouragement. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops 14
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Pope’s death initiates period of transition The church’s well-defined protocol outlines the steps for coping with the period between popes. By John Thavis VATICAN CITY (CNS)— The death of Pope John Paul II set in motion a complicated period of transition, an interval marked by mourning, a slowdown in Vatican operations, and the election of a new pope. Regulated by ancient traditions and recent rules, the period between popes—known by the Latin term interregnum— began moments after the pope’s death April 2. It ends when the College of Cardinals, meeting in a closed-door conclave, chooses a successor and announces it to the world. That could come as early as 15 days after the pope’s death or, if the conclave drags on, it could be much later. The rules governing the interregnum are matters of church law, not dogma, and were last revised by Pope John Paul in 1996 in his apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis. The document confirmed that as long as the Holy See is vacant, the universal church is governed by the College of Cardinals, which cannot, however, make decisions normally reserved to the pope. Such matters must be postponed until the new pope is elected. And until there is a pope, the Roman Curia— the Vatican’s network of administrative offices— loses most of its cardinal supervisors and cannot handle any new business. The College of Cardinals is to deal solely with “ordinary business and matters which cannot be postponed.” At present there are 183 cardinals, and all were asked to meet in Rome to help administer the transition period.
CNS FILE PHOTO BY ALESSIA GIULIANI, CATHOLIC PRESS PHOTO
Pope John Paul met with heads of the ancient churches of the East, affirming Christological agreements with all the Oriental Orthodox churches and signing landmark declarations in 1994 with Patriarch Dinkha IV, head of the Assyrian Church of the East, and in 1996 with Catholicos Karekin I of Etchmiadzin, head of the Armenian Apostolic Church. In relations with the churches of the Reformation, it was at the pope’s invitation that Catholic and Lutheran theologians developed an official joint declaration that they share the same essential belief in justification by faith—the core doctrinal dispute behind the Reformation. The declaration was signed by officials of both churches in 1999. Pope John Paul said he was particularly moved at Masses during his 1989 visit to Scandinavian countries when Lutheran bishops approached him for a blessing at Communion time, symbolizing their desire for the day when Catholics and Lutherans could share the Eucharist. But in an encyclical on the Eucharist in 2003 the pope said a shared Eucharist among Christian churches was not possible until communion in the bonds of faith, sacraments, and church governance were “fully re-established.” These and other statements disappointed those who had hoped for faster progress on sacramental unity. When the pope went to England in 1982, he and Anglican Archbishop Robert Runcie of Canterbury announced the formation of the Second Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission. The final report of the first international commission—published in 1982 and covering Catholic-Anglican agreed statements on the Eucharist, ministry, and authority—received a cool formal response from the Vatican in 1991, but clarifications won Vatican approval three years later. The pope affirmed the work of the World Council of Churches with his 1984 trip to its headquarters in Geneva. Almost every one of his 104 trips to other nations featured meetings with leaders of other Christian churches. The pope’s emphasis on ecumenism was far from accidental. In his own words, “The bishop of Rome must ensure the communion of all the churches. . . . He is the first servant of unity.” ■
Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, right, talks with bishops in St. Peter’s Basilica at the Vatican Feb. 9. The 78-year-old Spaniard holds the title of “camerlengo,” or chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church. He is responsible for organizing a papal election and overseeing the day-to-day needs of the church after the death of the pope.
The College of Cardinals does this through two structures: a general congregation, in which all the cardinals were to begin meeting daily; and a particular four-member congregation, consisting of the chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, and a rotating team of three cardinal assistants. Only those cardinals under age 80—a total of 117—will be eligible to vote in the conclave. As chamberlain, Cardinal Martinez Somalo is to administer the goods and temporal rights of the Holy See until the election of a new pope. His duties also included verifying the death of the pope, sealing the pope’s private rooms, taking possession of papal palaces at the Vatican and elsewhere, and informing leading churchmen of the pope’s death. He also was to make arrangements for Pope John Paul’s burial, unless the pope left instructions in this regard.
The chamberlain also may grant requests to photograph the deceased pope but only if the pope is wearing pontifical vestments. Meanwhile, the dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, had the duty of informing the other cardinals of the pope’s death and convoking them for the first congregations as well as informing the diplomatic corps and the heads of nations. The cardinals in charge of major Vatican departments have lost their positions with the death of the pope, although they may be brought back to their jobs by the next pontiff. During the interregnum most curial offices are to be overseen by the secretaries of each department, who are generally bishops. Thus the Roman Curia keeps functioning but at a slower pace. Pope John Paul’s apostolic constitution instructed the Curia to avoid action on “serious
CNS GRAPHIC BY ANTHONY DEFEO
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or controverted matters” so that the next pope will have a free hand in dealing with such issues. The Vatican’s tribunals continue to process marriage and other cases, and the Vatican’s diplomatic representatives remain in place. One of the first items that will face the College of Cardinals when it meets in daily congregations is arranging for the pope’s body to be taken to St. Peter’s Basilica to be exposed for homage by the faithful. It also sets the time for the funeral rites, which are celebrated for nine consecutive days, with burial to take place between the fourth and sixth day after death. Officials expect that the funeral Mass in St. Peter’s will be attended by an array of world leaders, church officials, friends of the late pope, and many thousands of the faithful. In addition, the cardinals must ■ See to it that the Sistine Chapel is prepared for the conclave and the rooms of the Domus Sanctae Marthae are readied for the cardinal-electors who will stay there once the conclave begins. The Domus, an ecclesial guest house completed in 1996 inside Vatican City, will provide spacious and comfortable housing for the cardinals for the first time in centuries. ■ Ask two churchmen to present two meditations to the cardinals on problems facing the church and the need for careful discernment in choosing the new pope. ■ Read any documents left by the dead pope for the College of Cardinals. ■ Arrange for destruction of the papal fisherman’s ring and personal seals. ■ Set the time for the start of the conclave. During this time the cardinals may discuss the coming election among themselves. However, the cardinals may not make pacts or agreements that would oblige them to vote for a particular candidate. All cardinals take an oath to maintain strict secrecy regarding everything related to the conclave, even after it is over. Transition continued on page 15
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Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 Transition continued from page 14
The cardinal electors are to begin the conclave 15 to 20 days after the pope’s death. All are expected to arrive in Rome by that time unless a serious reason is presented. The word conclave comes from Latin, meaning literally “with key,” and reflects the previous tradition of locking the cardinals in an area where they would spend day and night until the new pope’s election. This time, although the principle of a closed procedure still holds, the cardinals will be taken by bus from their residence to the Sistine Chapel for voting. They are not to communicate with the outside world, watch TV, or read newspapers. On the day set for entry into the conclave the cardinal electors assemble in St. Peter’s Basilica to attend morning Mass. In the afternoon they walk in procession to the Sistine Chapel, located just to the north of St. Peter’s. Rules specify that the chapel is to be swept for listening or recording devices beforehand. The voting may begin that afternoon with one ballot; on following days two ballots are normally held in the morning and two in the afternoon. At this stage a pope is elected when he obtains at least two-thirds of the votes. Pope John Paul abolished a prior form of election by acclamation, which had never been used in modern times. All voting is secret, in writing, on paper ballots, which are deposited in a receptacle by each elector, then counted. Ballots are taken to any cardinals residing at the Domus Sanctae Marthae but who are too sick to come to the Sistine Chapel. After each morning and afternoon round of voting, the ballots are burned. By tradition but not by rule, the successful election of a new pope is signaled to the world by white smoke coming out of the Sistine Chapel smokestack—an effect obtained by the addition of chemicals to the burning ballots, but which has led to confusion in the past. In the first phase of voting, a period of about 12 days, the rules foresee about 30 possible ballots, with occasional pauses for reflection. If, after that phase, the conclave has not elected a new pope, the cardinals discuss whether to proceed to election by simple majority vote. If they do, they can also limit the voting to the top two candidates. Once a new pope has been elected, he is asked if he accepts the office—he is encouraged but not bound to do so by the current rules—and is asked to choose a name. Since 1404 the new pope has always been a cardinal. Traditionally, the senior member of the cardinal deacons—currently Cardinal Jorge Medina Estevez, 78—announces the successful election results from the central balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica. After the new pope has donned papal robes, he proceeds to the balcony, where he greets the public and offers his first blessing. At a time designated by the pope, usually a few days later, he officially opens his ministry with an investiture Mass at St. Peter’s. The new pope is no longer crowned with a papal tiara but receives a pallium, or stole, in recognition of his authority. ■
Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
CNS FILE PHOTO BY MICHAEL OKONIEWSKI
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Haiti on the same trip he delivered a stern rebuke to dictator Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, who eventually was forced out of office. In his native Poland the pope’s early visits—which drew massive, politically energized crowds—were credited by many for reigniting the pro-democracy movement that broke the communist hold on power in 1989. During his 1998 visit to Cuba, one of the last bastions of communism, he strongly defended civil and church freedoms and said he hoped the visit would bear the same fruits as his Polish trips. Yet even after the fall of European communism, invisible walls kept Pope John Paul from visiting his flock in several places. At the top of the list was Russia, where Orthodox leaders kept saying the time was not ripe, and China, where the government refused to recognize the pope’s authoritative role. Where he did journey, there were often long-term benefits, measured in church growth and vitality. And there were short-term rewards, like the mental postcards he created: sitting in a tent with a Buddhist monk in Thailand, greeting sword-wielding former headhunters in India, or celebrating Mass in a snowstorm in war-ravaged Sarajevo, BosniaHerzegovina. Whether in Muslim Morocco, Buddhist Japan, or Catholic Spain, the pope communicated a simple message through his words and presence: that the Gospel is not out of place in any country. ■
Pope John Paul II embraces two children from Maryland upon his arrival to Baltimore Oct. 8, 1995. The visit occurred during the sixth of his seven papal trips to the United States. He had visited the States twice as a cardinal.
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with Jewish classmates in Wadowice. His papal dealings with Jews and Judaism reflected that lifelong personal relationship. In 1993, when he had a historic meeting with Israel’s Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi Israel Meir Lau, the rabbi said afterward that the pope and he and his older brother spent most of the time reminiscing about growing up in Poland. The rabbi’s older brother, Naphtali Lau-Laviv, had been born in Wadowice, and their mother’s uncle had been rabbi there before World War II. The pope remembered “names, addresses, houses, buildings, everything,” Rabbi Lau said. Rabbi Lau said at one point he asked the pope about a story of a young Polish priest after the war who had refused a Polish Catholic couple’s request to baptize a Jewish orphan they had adopted, out of respect for the wishes of the boy’s dead parents. The pope told him he was that priest and still recalled the episode with emotion, the rabbi said. In his book Crossing the Threshold of Hope Pope John Paul said of his relations with Jews, “I remember, above all, the Wadowice elementary school, where at least a fourth of the pupils in my class were Jewish.” Among them he recalled Jerzy Kluger, a boyhood friend with whom he renewed his friendship after he was elected pope. Their meetings and correspondence were the subject of a book by veteran Vatican journalist Gian Franco Svidercoschi, Letter to a Jewish Friend. Rabbi James Rudin, senior interreligious affairs adviser to the American Jewish Committee, said that during the 1994 Vatican concert commemorating the Shoah—the Hebrew word for the Holocaust— the pope “was not in Rome; he was in Poland in 1939,” hearing the voices of Jews who were murdered. “In his talk afterward, he said, ‘They are crying out to us: Do not forget us, do not forget us,’” the rabbi said. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
The church’s policy toward Jews “was not an academic exercise for him,” Rabbi Rudin added. “He understood Jews not with his head only but with his heart.” Such personal connections help explain the extraordinary depth of the pope’s commitment to building Catholic-Jewish bridges. But it takes another step to comprehend the theological insights into a positive Catholic appreciation of Judaism that developed and solidified as part of a changing Catholic cultural perspective during his papacy. Some of those insights were honed in the fires of controversy. The pope’s meeting with U.S. Jewish leaders in Miami in September 1987 exemplified the tensions that accompanied Catholic-Jewish rapprochement during his papacy. In the months before his 1987 U.S. visit many Jewish leaders—already angered by a 1982 papal meeting with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat—called for a boycott in Miami because of the pope’s audience with Austrian President Kurt Waldheim, whose World War II ties to a Nazi military unit involved in war crimes had just become public knowledge. Only an emergency summit of American Jewish leaders with the pope at his summer residence in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, arranged by Cardinal William H. Keeler of Baltimore—then bishop of Harrisburg, Pa., and episcopal moderator of U.S. Catholic-Jewish relations—saved the Miami meeting. In Miami the pope repeated the promise he made at Castel Gandolfo, that the Vatican would publish a Catholic statement on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism. Even that document, issued with a papal introduction 11 years later, drew mixed reaction. It won universal approval for its “mea culpa” about past Christian discrimination against the Jews and its strong condemnation of the practices and ideas that led to the Nazis’ “final solution.” But many Jewish leaders said they
were disappointed with the document’s distinction between Christian “anti-Judaism” and Nazi “anti-Semitism” and its defense of Pope Pius XII’s policies during World War II. Another source of serious CatholicJewish tensions in the late 1980s was the existence of a Carmelite convent at the edge of Auschwitz and the planting of memorial crosses by Polish Catholics at the former concentration camp to commemorate the 1.5 million people gassed to death there and in nearby Birkenau. Since most of those exterminated were Jewish, many Jews found the crosses, a symbol of Christianity, offensive. Pope John Paul intervened to get the crosses removed and to help the Carmelite nuns move, turning their former convent into an interreligious prayer and study center. After a five-year hiatus caused by the controversies, the International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee resumed its meetings in 1990. At the pope’s urging, the Vatican established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1994, overcoming longstanding arguments in upper church circles that the Vatican should not recognize the state of Israel until the status of Jerusalem and of sites sacred to Christianity was resolved. This offered a diplomatic channel to deal with controversies that often included interreligious elements. In 1999 the Vatican and the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultation formed a joint commission of scholars to study questions about Pope Pius and the Jews in World War II. After studying published materials for a year, the commission suspended its work amid controversy over access to still-closed Vatican archives from that period. In 2003 the pope ordered the early opening of some archival material related to Pope Pius XII and the war so scholars could better evaluate the period. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
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Returning to the United Nations in 1995, more frail but just as forceful, he again insisted that the “family of nations” must be founded on strong moral principles and warned of “unspeakable offenses against human life and freedom” in today’s world. The pope never stopped challenging the world’s conscience, nor did he shy away from appealing directly to heads of state. Visiting Cuba in 1998, he challenged Castro’s government to allow freedom of expression and a wider church role in society. In these and other interventions the pope felt certain that he acted in the name of civilians who had little or no voice in world events. ■ Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
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out the years of his pontificate, Karol Wojtyla had a profound sense of the dramatic quality of life. History, he believed, was a kind of stage in which God’s generosity and human freedom were both at work, in a cosmic drama that involved nothing less than the salvation and sanctification of the world. Our lives, he constantly taught us, are of more consequence than we often imagine. We are, he insisted, greater than we sometimes imagine ourselves to be—because we come from God and have been redeemed by God at a great price. That’s the drama of the spiritual life. That’s the drama of the lives of the saints. That’s the dramatic life that’s available to every Christian, without distinction. Saints are people who can live comfortably with God forever. Saints are what we all must become if we’re to fulfill our human and Christian destiny. In lifting up the witness of thousands of Christians, many of them our contemporaries, John Paul II, a papal witness to God’s astonishing generosity in saint-making, reminded all of us of who we are, and where our true home will be found. ■ George Weigel wrote the internationally acclaimed Witness to Hope, the official biography of Pope John Paul II. Weigel’s column is distributed by the Denver Catholic Register, the newspaper of the Archdiocese of Denver. APRIL 10, 2005
George R. Guertin, 79, a longtime Morristown resident, died Monday, March 21. Mr. Guertin was a founding member of St. Patrick Parish in Morristown. He belonged to the Knights of Columbus and the parish men’s club. After arriving in Morristown, he started two radio stations and was owner, president, and chief engineer for many years. He branched out to Clinton, Oneida, and Lancaster, Ky., opening stations there. He retired from the radio business in the early 1980s. After retirement Mr. Guertin developed new passions—“motor homing,” Model A Ford rebuilding, and community service. He was a decorated veteran of World War II. He was a member of the Morristown Lions Club, Elks, Moose Club, and Veterans of Foreign Wars. Over the years he was a band booster and served on many community projects, including the Rose Center. Mr. Guertin is survived by his wife of 55 years, Charlotte Corbett Guertin; three daughters, Mary Banning of Spring, Texas; Debbie Gunnell of Bartlett; and Georgette Kneeled of Appleton, Wis.; and six grandchildren. The funeral Mass was held Monday, March 28, at St. Patrick Church with Fa-
ther Patrick Garrity and Father William Casey officiating. Burial followed in Jernigan Cemetery, Morristown. Memorials may be made to St. Patrick Parish, 2518 W. Andrew Johnson Highway, Morristown, TN 37814. MARGARET BAUMANN
Margaret Ann Baumann, 61, of Oak Ridge died at Methodist Medical Center in Oak Ridge on Saturday, March 12. She was born Oct. 23, 1943, in Superior, Wis. A homemaker and member of St. Mary Parish in Oak Ridge, Mrs. Baumann came to the area from Monroe, Wis., 24 years ago. Her hobbies included ceramics, crafts, and sewing. Survivors include her husband, James, of Oak Ridge; son, John, of Kingston; twin daughters, Carol Carroll of Oak Ridge and Cheryl and husband Mark Bakker of Kingston; four grandchildren; four step-grandchildren; and two brothers. The funeral service was held Friday, March 13, at St. Mary Church with Father Michael Woods officiating. Memorial contributions may be made to Mrs. Baumann’s family at 114 Briar Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37830. ■
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ternoon, May 22. The retreat will offer conferences on the life of Christian faith, quiet time, and opportunity for private spiritual direction, recreation, socialization, and the sacrament of reconciliation. Retreat directors are Father Michael Cummins, Mercy Sister Yvette Gillen, and Father Bill Gahagan. Suggested donation is $60 per night for an individual room with bed linens or $40 per night for a bunk bed (participant must provide own bed linens or sleeping bag). A $20 deposit is required and is nonrefundable after May 1. To register or learn more, contact Father Cummins at 423-745-4277 or MemmetC@att.net. Space is limited to 32 participants. Mash Bash, benefiting the Interfaith Health Clinic in Knoxville, will run from 7 to 11 p.m. Saturday, May 21, at the Knoxville Convention Center. The evening will include food and live music by Chill Billies. Tickets are $75 per person. Call 865-5467330 for more information. In June St. Mary’s Health System will offer a free certified nursing-assistant course for Spanish-speaking adults. Participants must be at least 18 years old; have a Social Security card, a high school diploma or GED, and the ability to read and speak English; and be able to pass fitness and drug tests. Call Tamala Wheeler at 865-329-3176 or Sister Margaret Turk, RSM, at 545-8304 for details. St. Therese Parish in Clinton will participate in the American Cancer Society’s 20th annual Relay for Life on Friday, June 3, at Anderson County High School in Clinton. Last year’s relay raised $115,000 for cancer research, education, advocacy, and service. In order to help surpass that total—as one of 24 teams in east Anderson County and one of eight church teams—the St. Therese team hopes to raise more than $6,000. The relay will begin at dusk Friday and continue until sunrise Saturday, June 4, with team members and volunteers walking the ACHS track through the night. The track will be decorated with names and photos of those who have battled cancer. A dinner for cancer survivors will be held at 6 p.m. Tuesday, May 31, at a location to be determined. Survivors attending the dinner will receive a medallion and will be invited to make the first lap around the track Friday night. The relay will also include live music, a song contest, campsite activities, and food. To volunteer or make a pledge, contact Carmine or Sarah Sesa at 865-457-8288 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Knights of Columbus Council 8152 in Crossville needs vendors of handmade crafts for the third annual Craft Fair on the Plateau, set for Saturday and Sunday, June 4 and 5, at the Knights of Columbus activity park east of Crossville on Highway 70. The event will also feature an antique-car show and country, bluegrass, and gospel music. Call Joe Guzek at 931-707-7291 or visit www.citlink.net/~jguzek/craftfair for more information. The Ulster Project of Knoxville is seeking eight host families with a teenager 14 to 16 years old to host a Northern Ireland teen this July. Call Barbara O’Brien at 865-675-1048 or visit www.ulsterproject.com for details. Father Jim Brucz, CSP, pastor of Immaculate Conception Parish in Knoxville, will lead a tour of Poland from July 23 through Aug. 2. The tour will include stops in Krakow and Warsaw along with visits to Auschwitz, the Jasna Gora Monastery, the Shrine of the Black Madonna, Pope John Paul II’s birthplace and museum, and the birthplace of Chopin, where the travelers will have a picnic lunch and a private concert. Call Helen Short at Everettours, 865-633-9200, for more information. Calendar continued on page 18
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No ‘litmus test’ for judges Catholics can join a postcard campaign to urge senators not to disqualify nominees based on their Roe stance. or those concerned about the “pro-choice” “litmus test” that anti-life organizations insist should be applied to judicial nominees, there’s an easy way to take action: put your signature on a postcard. “The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops’ Committee for Pro-Life Activities will work with the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment to have our voices heard on the important question of the appointment of judges,” said Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz, a member of the committee. In conjunction with the USCCB committee, NCHLA is sponsoring a postcard-signing campaign focused on sending a message to the U.S. Senate. The cards state that support for the Roe v. Wade decision, which created a “right” to abortion, must not be a condition for determining a nominee’s fitness for judicial office. In the Diocese of Knoxville the campaign is being coordinated by the Office of Justice– Peace–Integrity of Creation. JPIC is making the postcards available in parishes throughout the diocese, said director Glenda Struss-Keyes. This activism doesn’t mean that USCCB will endorse judicial candidates. Instead, said Bishop Kurtz, “the issue is the abhorrent thought that some in the legislature might actually consider a litmus test to
Millie Lace of Wynne, Ark., becomes emotional Jan. 18 while listening to Norma McCorvey in front of the U.S. Supreme Court. McCorvey, the former “Jane Roe” of the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion 32 years ago, announced that she is formally asking the court to reverse Roe or at least order a trial on the merits of the case for reversal. Lace, who attends St. Peter Church in Wynne, was confirmed last Easter.
WOUNDED BY ROE
reject candidates presented by the president. “It is amazing that some have made public statements that any judge who does not support Roe v. Wade would be disqualified. Such a test would be unheard of in any other area. “It is an imposition of partisan politics that we must oppose. I pray that you will carefully read the postcard material and lend your support to the campaign.” Gail Quinn, director of the USCCB Pro-Life Secretariat,
echoed the bishop’s sentiments, saying, “We do not support or oppose nominees. That’s not our role.” The committee’s contribution to the debate on court nominees began Jan. 6 with a letter from Cardinal William H. Keeler of Baltimore, calling on the U.S. Senate to reject the view that “nominees who oppose the purposeful taking of innocent human life [are] somehow unfit for judicial office in the United States.” The Catholic Church’s right-to-
life ethic “has profound consequences not only for abortion, but for many other areas of life, including the death penalty, the application of scientific research to human subjects, the right to adequate health care, and the role of the state in promoting the common good,” added Cardinal Keeler, chairman of the Pro-Life Committee. “Our civil society will be all the poorer if senators, as a matter of practice, prevent a Senate vote on well-qualified judicial nominees
whose consciences have been formed in this ethic.” Opposition to nominees viewed as pro-life will be staunch, judging from the outcry already being generated by groups such as NARAL ProChoice America, the organization formerly known as the National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League, and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Through its website, NARAL ProChoice America is recruiting what it calls “rapid responders” to mobilize against any Supreme Court nominee that the organization finds unacceptable. “Pro-choice Americans must remain vigilant, keeping watch on the court and the Bush administration,” it says. “We must be ready to make our voices heard in defense of the freedom to choose.” An ad campaign by NARAL depicts President George W. Bush, Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, and several senators as old-time movie monsters and says a “prehistoric brotherhood” of “creatures from the far right” has brought the United States to “the dawn of a dark new era.” Showing Bush as “King Wrong” atop the Supreme Court building, the advertisement says the president plans to use “his brutish strength to pack the court with extreme judges and overturn Roe v. Wade.” In a Jan. 17 statePostcard continued on page 17
Catholic Charities’ 20th annual dinner in Knoxville raises more than $69,000 BY STEVE METZ
upporters of Catholic Charities of East Tennessee gathered for an evening of good eating, great entertainment, and an overall enjoyable time at the 20th annual Knoxville CCET dinner, held at the Foundry March 10. The dinner’s theme for the evening—“A friend loves at all times” (Proverbs 17:17)—accurately represents the spirit behind the work the agency does every day. Clocks imprinted with the Scripture quote served as table centerpieces for the 401 diners. Father Ragan Schriver, CCET’s executive director, spoke energetically about the efforts of those involved in the organization and about the impact it has in the community. “We should be proud of our presence,” he said. “We serve the truly needy, the poorest of the poor.” Explaining what makes Catholic Charities special, Father Schriver said, “We don’t ask, are you hungry and Catholic? Or do you need shelter, and are you Catholic?” he said. “We’re not there to judge, we’re there to accept with open arms.” Catholic Charities reaches out to people in need through programs such as the Pathways Community
Shelter, Samaritan Place, the Office of Disability Programming, the Pregnancy Help Center, and more. Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz spoke specifically of the impact Samaritan Place has made and how it affects not only individuals but also families. “When someone is in need of help, it’s not just that person, but the whole family,” Bishop Kurtz said. He extended special thanks to Knox County Mayor Mike Ragsdale, who attended the dinner, for his efforts in helping Samaritan Place find a new location for its services to senior citizens. In July CCET will open the new facility, located off Middlebrook Pike in Knoxville, which was purchased in part with funds provided by a county grant. “How thankful we are for the partnership that’s allowing Samaritan Place to grow,” said Bishop Kurtz. Father Schriver also took the opportunity to praise individuals by name, including Diane Desvaux, a CCET volunteer who has chaired the dinner for the past three years. Attendance was up significantly from last year’s total of 357, and the 2005 dinner grossed more than $69,000 for CCET. Before the gathering ended, sup-
CNS PHOTO BY BOB ROLLER
porters were treated to a performance by the Akima Chorus, whose members sang several songs and even brought Father Schriver onstage for an impromptu performance. The vocalists are members of the Akima Club, a local service organization. Bishop Kurtz closed the dinner by acknowledging the importance of Father Schriver’s work for Catholic Charities. “How grateful we are in the diocese for your service and also for your capacity to say thank-you,” Bishop Kurtz said. ■ T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
BY DAN MCWILLIAMS
‘United as one presbyterate’ Diocesan priests renew their ordination promises before Bishop Kurtz in the annual chrism Mass. ishop Joseph E. Kurtz said he had “the best seat in the house” for this year’s chrism Mass at Sacred Heart Cathedral. The cathedra, or bishop’s chair, gave him a vantage point from which he could see an overflow assembly, more than 40 concelebrating priests, and—along the side aisles—banners for the diocese’s parishes, schools, and college-campus centers. “It’s beautiful to see the representation of all of the 46 parishes and missions throughout our diocese,” said Bishop Kurtz in his homily at the Holy Week Mass on March 22. “As beautiful as the banners are, even more beautiful is your presence.” Principal concelebrants of the chrism Mass included Vicar General Father Xavier Mankel and the diocesan deans, Fathers Mike Creson, Mike Sweeney, Pat Garrity, and Al Humbrecht, the latter also the host pastor. Also concelebrating was Monsignor Owen Campion, a priest of the Diocese of Nashville and former associate pastor of Holy Ghost Parish in Knoxville and St. Jude Parish in Chattanooga who is now associate publisher of Our Sunday Visitor and editor of The Priest magazine. The liturgy again saw the diocesan priests renew their ordination promises before their bishop, who in turn performed his annual blessing of the holy oils used throughout the church year. The bishop also repeated his “litany of anniversaries” for the more than two dozen diocesan priests and men and women religious who are celebrating a five-year milestone in 2005. Father Joe Julius is celebrating his 60th anniversary and Father Paul Hostettler his 55th anniversary of ordination this year. Brother Paul Bray, CSC, is observing his 55th anniversary. Those with golden anniversaries are Mercy Sisters Pat Connolly,
New pastor reflects on GIFT campaign ather Peter Iorio, less than a year into his first assignment as a pastor, said he is bringing to his first experience with the Growing in Faith Together (GIFT) campaign the same enthusiasm he hopes he brings to any aspect of parish life. In July he began serving as pastor of St. Augustine Parish in Signal Mountain—the faith community where he grew up. “I don’t know what [the campaign] would be like if I were a seasoned pastor, so I don’t have anything to compare it with,” he said. “My experience as a new pastor has been wonderful because the parish is great. There is a wonderful spirit here, so I’m full of excitement and energy to do anything and everything I can.” Father Iorio, also the diocesan director of vocations and of priestly life and ministry, said he has “heard positive experiences about the GIFT campaign from other pastors and parishes. I am fully supportive of it. I’m finding so far that the community here is responding very positively.” St. Augustine is one of 22 parishes now in the early stages of wave two of the campaign. GIFT kicked off in seven pilot parishes last spring and continued in 16 waveone parishes in the fall. The Signal Mountain parish plans to use its share of GIFT funds to repair a leaky church roof, expand space for religious education, and replace an outdated air-conditioning system. The second need arose from the not unpleasant problem of having a growing parish. St. Augustine has some 400 families, including many young families with children. “We have 177 students, and our space is used to the max,” said Father Iorio. “And that’s just the children—that doesn’t include the adult-education activities that take place on Sunday mornings at the same time. “The classroom space needs to be larger because in some classes people are sitting on the floor.” The church’s air-conditioning system was installed when the current building was completed in 1970 and has been repaired several times, said Father Iorio. “The company we use has advised us that we need an updated system because otherwise we’re just going to keep pouring money into something that’s outdated.” Founding parishioner David Windle is the St. Augustine GIFT campaign director. “He’s been great, and he has the big picture in mind,” said Father Iorio. “He has seen this church grow into a thriving parish. As an altar boy he served when the Catholic community was celebrating Mass at the Alexian Brothers chapel.” Jeanne Parella is the parish’s prayer leader for the stewardship campaign. “She is taking on her responsibilities very wonderfully, very seriously,” said Father Iorio. “She has gotten together the prayer team, and just the other day she presented me with a prayer that she composed specifically for our parish. We are including it in our bulletin this weekend [April 2 and 3], and we’re going to send it out in our parish newsletter.” ■
DAN MCWILLIAMS (2)
PRIESTLY CHORUS Father P. J. McGinnity (left) and Father Bede Aboh join in a song during the chrism Mass at Sacred Heart Cathedral. Accompanying them in the background are Father Dan Clements (left) and Father Sam Sturm.
Thomasetta Mogan, and Margaret Turk; Brother Edward Walsh, CFA; and Fathers George Mathis, GHM, and Herb Prescott. Two priests from the class of 1980, Father Charlie Burton and Father Chris Michelson, will reach their 25th anniversaries of ordination in coming weeks. The assembly acknowledged all the anniversary celebrants with rousing applause. Bishop Kurtz opened his “pre-homily” by telling of a wager among the priests. “I was going to begin with a very funny joke, but then I found out that the priests have a bet on how long my homily is going to be,” he said. “Some of them want me to go longer, so I kind of know what their bet is. Isn’t that a very interesting of way of listening to the homily? It’s better than counting the candles.” The bishop referred to the evening’s first reading, in which Isaiah said that “the spirit of the Lord is upon me to bring glad tidings to the lowly” and that “you yourselves shall be named priests of the Lord.”
“Tonight’s celebration is about the Spirit of the Lord upon Jesus being extended in time and space to the year 2005, to the location of East Tennessee,” said Bishop Kurtz. “Through the renewal of the promises of our priests who are called to serve and through the blessing of the oils that are given in service to Christ, we hold up in a special way the vocation of each one of you. We hold up the great calling to renew the face of the earth and to uncover perhaps for some of you tonight that special part that you have in renewing God’s earth.” The bishop also asked for God’s blessings on all who “labor so hard as the faithful laypeople of our diocese.” He gave thanks for the growth of the local church, for the three men who will be ordained to the priesthood and the one who will be ordained to the diaconate this year, for the more than 300 diocesan adults who joined the church in ’05, and for those who have worked on the Growing in Faith Together diocesan capitalstewardship campaign.
“More than 4,700 families have made a pledge to Growing in Faith Together,” the bishop said. “What a great gift, and only half of the parishes have completed their involvement.” Of the priests, the bishop commented that they share three callings: “to contemplation, to live lives that are courageous, and to be united as one presbyterate.” “We pray tonight that the Lord will help all of us to rise up and not be afraid, to become men of courage through the grace of Jesus Christ,” he said. “It’s not a calling done once and for all. It needs to be done each day.” In the procession of oils, Brother Richard Lowe, CFA, of Alexian Village in Signal Mountain presented the oil of the sick. Jonah, Jordin, and Keith Lieberman, catechumens from Immaculate Conception Parish in Knoxville, brought forward the oil of catechumens. Father Julius, as the senior active priest of the diocese, and Father Mark Scholz, as the most recently ordained, presented the sacred chrism. ■
$14.4 million raised
$5.6 million remaining to meet $20 million goal
As of March 30 the GIFT campaign had raised more than $14.4 million, more than 72 percent of the $20 million goal. The figure represents major gifts and pledges from parishes.
Postcard continued from page 16
ment, Father Frank Pavone of Priests for Life said some senators “have made history in their obstruction of the constitutional process simply because [they] find the religious and ethical beliefs of some of the president’s nominees unacceptable.” He vowed to make judicial nominations an election issue in 2006 and called for efforts “to restore the proper traditions of the Senate so that it may carry out its constitutional duties free of ideological captivity.” Although the issue of nominees to the Supreme Court remains moot until one of the justices decides to retire, Bush signaled his commitment to his choices for various federal judgeships late last year when Scott McClellan, presidential press secretary, announced that Bush would renominate 20 men and women who did not receive an up or down vote in the Senate during his first term. Sixteen of the nominations had been submitted more than a year ago, with five dating back to 2001. When the Senate fails to act on nominations, “this only exacerbates the issue of judicial vacancies, compounds the backlog of cases, and delays timely justice for the American people,” said McClellan Dec. 23. “The Senate has a constitutional obligation to vote up or down a president’s judicial nominees, and the president looks forward to working with the new Senate to ensure a well-functioning and independent judiciary.” ■ Catechumen Keith Leiberman of Immaculate Conception Parish in Knoxville presents the oil of catechumens to Bishop Kurtz. Mr. Lieberman’s sons Jordin (left) and Jonah, also catechumens, stand behind him. Deacon Manuel Peréz, scheduled for priestly ordination May 28, can be seen to the bishop’s left. T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
Nancy Frazier O’Brien of CNS and Mary C. Weaver contributed to this story. APRIL 10, 2005
Child-protection training sessions he Diocese of Knoxville’s program for the protection of children and youth is based on training developed by Virtus and offered through the Religious Education Office. A three-hour seminar for adults, “Protecting God’s Children,” is required for parish and school employees and regular volunteers in contact with children or vulnerable adults and is recommended for parents.
As of April 1, 2,788 people in the diocese have attended Virtus sessions and registered online. The following training sessions are available: ■ St. Mary Church, Oak Ridge, 1:30 p.m. Sunday, April 10 ■ John XXIII Catholic Center, Knoxville, 1 p.m. Sunday, April 24. Interested individuals must register online at virtusonline.org. ■
‘Keeping Kids Safe’ offered for parents he Diocese of Knoxville now offers “Keeping Kids Safe” training sessions specially designed to help parents protect their children from child abuse. Sessions are led by Kim Cook, a family-services specialist with Catholic Charities of East Tennessee’s Columbus Home Assisting Parents program. (The Jan. 23 ETC included an article about Mrs. Cook’s presentations; it may be read online at etcatholic.com/jan23/ training.htm.) The following sessions are available at no charge, and registration is not necessary. Unless otherwise noted, all begin at 6 p.m. local time and end at 7:30. ■ Tuesday, April 12, St. John Neumann School gym, Farragut ■ Thursday, April 14, Sacred Heart Cathedral
School gym, Knoxville ■ Sunday, April 17, St. Joseph the Worker Church, Madisonville, 11:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. ■ Tuesday, April 19, St. Dominic parish life center, Kingsport ■ Thursday, April 21, St. Joseph School cafeteria, Knoxville, 6:30 to 8 p.m. ■ Sunday, April 24, Shepherd of the Valley Church, Dunlap, after 8 a.m. Mass ■ Sunday, April 24, Our Lady of Lourdes Church, South Pittsburg, after 10:30 a.m. Mass ■ Monday, April 25, St. Alphonsus parish life center, Crossville ■ Thursday, April 28, St. Mary Church, Oak Ridge ■ Wednesday, May 4, Holy Spirit Church, Soddy-Daisy, 7 to 8:30 p.m. For more information, call the Religious Education Office at 865-584-3307. ■
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The brothers and sisters of the St. Francis Region of the Secular Franciscan Order will host a pilgrimage to World Youth Day in Cologne, Germany, from Aug. 14 through 21. Estimated cost for registration, room, board, and transportation is $1,500. Fundraising is available. Anyone ages 16 through 30 who is interested in joining the pilgrimage should contact SFO Youth and Young Adult Commission chair Betti P. Longinotti at 336-7253751 or email@example.com. Spring retreats at the Living Waters Catholic Reflection Center in Maggie Valley, N.C., include the following: ■ “A Seven-Mile Attitude Trip,” a quiet day of prayer from 9:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Wednesday, April 13. Led by Sister Fran Grady, SCL. Cost: $15; includes lunch. ■ “Shifting Sands, Rising Tides: Recognizing God’s Presence Through the Transitions of Our Lives” will run the weekend of April 29 through May 1. Led by Donna Mahoney. Cost: $125. ■ “Living Jesus: Salesian Values for Working and Growing Together in Imitating Christ” will be held from May 16 through 20. Led by Father Michael S. Murray, OSFS. Cost: $250. ■ “Creativity: Responding to the Divine” is set for May 20 through 22. Led by Sister Fran Grady, SCL. Cost: $125. ■ “Pray Always . . .” will explore prayer as a way of life. Participants will join Sister Mary Ellen McAleese, OSF, in experiencing old and new forms of prayer. Cost: $350 for May 23 through 29 or $200 for May 23 through 26 or May 26 through 29. For more information, call the center at 828-926-3833, fax 926-1997, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit www.catholic retreat.org. Tennessee Right to Life is hosting more than 35 local oratory contests for high school students throughout the state. Students are required to research and present a five- to sevenminute speech before a panel of judges on a pro-life topic such as abortion, euthanasia, or stem-cell research. In most cases prizes are awarded at the local level, with an opportunity to compete in the state contest May 21 in Nashville. The winner of the state contest will represent Tennessee in a paid trip to the national competition June 18 in Minneapolis. To find the time, date, and location of a local contest, contact Tennessee Right to Life toll free at 877-CHOOSE-LIFE or email@example.com. The Way of St. Francis magazine has announced its seventh annual Simon Scanlon Writing Awards contest. Applicants must submit an original essay or feature-length article of 1,500 to 2,000 words with a theme of dealing with the influence and relevance of Franciscan life, spirituality, history, etc., in today’s world. Submissions should be sent as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org. Submissions must be postmarked by Oct. 4. All entries will be submitted to a jury. The decision will be announced by e-mail Dec. 15. First place will receive $1,000, second place $500, and third place $250. Winning entries may be published in The Way and posted on magazine’s website. Further guidelines and information can be found at www.sb franciscans.org. The next traditional Latin Mass, offered in the Diocese of Knoxville on the first Sunday of each month, is scheduled for 5 p.m. Sunday, May 1, at St. Stephen Church in Chattanooga. For more information, visit the websites www.uvknox.org and www.knoxlatinmass.net. These monthly Masses at St. Stephen are the only traditional Latin Masses in the diocese that Bishop Joseph E. Kurtz has authorized according to the provisions of the apostolic letter Ecclesia Dei. ■ 18
APRIL 10, 2005
BY SUZANNE ERPENBACH
A lifelong experience Shaped by others’ example, we can witness our faith daily and ‘make great things happen.’
Making new drapes for my dining room prompted me to reflect on the value of lessons learned as we witness others’ living and working. My mother sewed constantly for our family and home. She’d ask me to hold material as she ran large pieces through her machine, and I watched as she fitted pieces of clothing together. Watching her work helped me absorb and retain her skills for my own use later. I’m proud of what I learned and am able to do, and my sewing efforts continue to reflect my mother’s talents. Each of us can tell similar stories of our observations of those who have had an impact on our life. We also are able to reflect the impression of our witnessed observations of faith. Many times a day we observe the abilities, talents, attitudes, and values of others. Some strike our interest to explore and develop ourselves. Others may not make an immediate impression on us. Some may not serve our use or interests. The weeks between Easter and Pentecost are witnessing weeks of the church year, as Jesus’ disciples talk about what they have seen and learned. The Gospels tell us of the
life in every
disciples gathering behind locked doors to share their memories. Christ appears with a message of peace, giving them the Holy Spirit and a mission to witness their faith and forgive sins. Thomas needed to touch Christ’s wounds to acknowledge Christ’s presence. On another occasion we find Christ walking and talking with two of the disciples as they travel from Jerusalem to Emmaus. They do not recognize him until he takes bread at dinner and blesses, breaks, and gives it to them. Each of the Gospel accounts between Easter and Pentecost helps develop our trust and faith in Christ. The disciples, like us, were looking for greater understanding in their relationship with Christ. Witnessing is a lifelong experience for each of us. Often we don’t realize how much we learn through time spent with others as we listen, observe, reflect, and absorb. These witnessing experiences are gifts to us, helping us further develop our own interests, talents, and abilities. Stewardship makes us responsible for how we witness to others. The words, actions, and offerings we choose are observed far more than we might ever imagine. We constantly affect others’ lives as they witness our everyday living. Children learn much about family life, traditions, faith experiences, and cultural customs by witnessing
BY LESLIE SHOLLY
On living ‘like that’ Those whom society might overlook seem to enjoy the gift of life more.
“I wouldn’t want to live like that.” Have you ever said or thought those words while contemplating the plight of someone who is old, sick, or injured? Almost certainly you’ve heard someone else say them. In a society that worships youth, health, and strength and strives for perfection by any means available, it’s not surprising that the wisdom of age and the grace available through suffering are overlooked or disparaged. Yet those whose lives we say we would not wish to live seem to cling to their own lives, to enjoy the time they have in whatever way they can. I think of Christopher Reeve, paralyzed in body and yet still able to direct films, to enjoy his relationship with his wife and children, to bring attention to research on curing paralysis. Can anyone argue he would have been better off dying sooner? Didn’t a grieving public feel a real loss at his death and a sense of regret, knowing there was still more he could have done? I think of my grandmother, who had a stroke about 10 years ago that left her aphasic. A person who delighted in talking and offering her opinions on everything to anyone, she now has trouble making herself understood, especially to those who do not know her well. Trust me, this does not stop her from talking!
A little over a year ago, another stroke put her in a wheelchair. She spent months in hospitals and nursing homes but recovered well enough to move into a lovely assisted-living facility. Although she is too old for surgery, she has physical therapy each week and keeps on talking, despite having lost about 80 percent of the blood flow to her brain. She had a great time watching seven of her 10 great-grandchildren playing and hunting for eggs before Easter dinner. She continues zestfully to enjoy the gift of life. I think of an elderly lady I met a few weeks ago while supervising a group of St. Joseph School eighth graders doing a community service project. Living alone, bent nearly double with age, and barely able to hobble about with the assistance of a walker, this 84-year-old woman had arranged chairs for her visitors. She was thrilled not only to have assistance with her yard work but also to have an audience for the religious poetry she says the Lord gives her and that she loves to recite from memory. I am sure that when we left, I was not the only one who felt it was we who had been blessed by our visit with her. It’s harder to know about someone like Terri Schiavo. Her parents seemed to believe she wanted to live, that her life had meaning to her as well as to them. In the absence of solid evidence to the contrary, all moral arguments aside, it seemed wrong to force an end to her earthly existence.
as a member of a family. Repeated experiences and practiced expressions form habits for use throughout life. Perhaps you remember who took the time to teach you how to tie a shoelace, kneel for prayer, or establish personal hygiene practices. These learning experiences serve as practical lessons with lifetime benefits. Expressions of thanksgiving are first observed and practiced in the home. Prayer, church attendance, offertory giving, and other expressions of faithful service are observed from the time children are very young. The way time is prioritized and used also makes an impression. The use—or lack of use—of talents and abilities is witnessed. Observing needs, looking for solutions, and responding with a willingness to serve are all actions of stewardship. We, like the disciples, are encouraged to step out of feelings of fear or reluctance to serve as witnesses to others. God the Father’s love is rooted within and around us to encourage us. Christ offers the gift of forgiveness and an invitation for salvation to give us hope. And we have the constant presence of the Holy Spirit to guide us each day. The experiences we witness in Scripture and through others shape us. Having received these gifts, we can make great things happen for ourselves, our family, our neighborhood, our church, our community, and the world. Christ calls us to follow. We respond by witnessing our faith to others every day of our lives. ■ Mrs. Erpenbach is the director of the diocesan Office of Stewardship and Development. Which is why we are all being urged to consider drafting living wills, well in advance of growing old or sick. After all, Terri Schiavo was a young woman when she became disabled. Even better, says my husband, an attorney, is having a durable power of attorney for health care. With this document you can designate a trusted loved one to make decisions for you if you are unable to do so. A living will cannot possibly designate your wishes in every possible circumstance. For example, what if the temporary use of an extraordinary measure would be enough to get you back on your feet for many more months of life? Having someone on the spot to make these decisions allows flexibility a living will does not have. Issues surrounding the beginning of life, especially abortion, have been the focus of this column, just as they are the focus of the Respect Life Committee. But life is a continuum, sacred from conception to natural death, and an assault on one aspect of life diminishes all life. Given today’s advances in medical technology, we will be confronted more often with these hard cases. With this in mind, the Respect Life Committee plans to sponsor a life-issues symposium in March. I will write more as it draws closer, but I can tell you it will focus on beginning and ending of life concerns such as reproductive technology, extraordinary measures, and how we as Christians deal with suffering. Our committee hopes for a large turnout of people who wish to learn what the church teaches and discuss these difficult and important issues. ■ Leslie Sholly is coordinator of the diocesan Respect Life Committee. She is a member of Immaculate Conception Parish in Knoxville.
Positions available at parish, school t. Mary Parish in Johnson City is seeking a full-time youth minister. Candidates must be practicing members of the Roman Catholic Church and must have a willingness to improve youth-ministry skills through available coursework, a desire to use a comprehensive youthministry model, the capacity to engender cooperation with other parish ministries, including the Hispanic ministry, the ability to work with clergy and staff, the ability to recruit and mobilize volunteers, and
experience or previous involvement in youth ministries or equivalent leadership positions. Competitive salary and benefits offered. Qualified and interested applicants should mail or e-mail their resume to Father Gerard Finucane, St. Mary Church, 2211 Lakeview Drive, Johnson City, TN 37601, email@example.com. ST. JULIAN SCHOOL, A K THROUGH 8 parish school in Middlesboro, Ky., seeks a principal/teacher candidate who is a practicing Catholic with
dynamic teaching, development, and leadership skills. Applicants must have a master’s degree or the equivalent; at least three to five years’ teaching experience, part of which must have been with a Catholic school system; and principal certification or the requirements for such certification. Send application request by April 23 to St. Julian Parish School Search Committee, c/o Father Patrick C. Fitzsimons, Pastor, 118 E. Chester Ave., Middlesboro, KY 40965. ■ T H E E A S T T E N N E S S E E C AT H O L I C
BY PATRICIA ZAPOR
BY ROBERT CURTIS
U.S. bishops launch campaign against the death penalty Presence, sympathy, and trust
‘RENEWED CALL’ Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick of Washington speaks at a March 21 press conference in Washington, launching a new campaign of the Catholic bishops to end the use of the death penalty. John Zogby, left, is president and CEO of Zogby International, a polling firm whose recent data show that Catholic opposition to the death penalty has increased dramatically.
which is coordinating the campaign, said the simple fact that the press conference drew so many reporters that the room couldn’t hold them and press kits ran out suggests that momentum is shifting against the death penalty. Carr said one of the factors that seems to be changing people’s support for the death penalty may be that “we’ve been executing a lot of people, and we don’t feel better.” He said the shift in opinion among Catholics owes much to the work of bishops and priests who speak against it and Catholic activists such as Sister of St. Joseph Helen Prejean, author of the best-selling book Dead Man Walking; Bud Welch, the father of a young woman killed in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995;
Kirk Bloodsworth, who spent more than a decade on death row for a crime he didn’t commit, speaks against the death penalty during the bishops’ March 21 press conference to announce their new campaign against the death penalty.
issues.” A phone survey of more than 1,700 Catholics interviewed in November found 48 percent of all Catholics supported the death penalty, and 47 percent opposed it. A follow-up survey in March of about 1,000 Catholics found supporters and opponents split at 48.5 percent and 48.2 percent, respectively, Zogby said. Broader polls done by Gallup and Quinnipiac University last fall found Americans overall supported capital punishment by 66 percent and 62 percent, respectively. Both the Gallup and Quinnipiac reports said those figures represented a decrease in support of several percentage points from the most recent previous polls. Gallup’s all-time high point for support was in 1994, when 80 percent of Americans said they supported the death penalty. Until recently Catholics have tended to sup-
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port capital punishment by about the same percentage rate as the general public. Zogby said the shift in opinion among Catholics seems to be that they are hearing and taking to heart the church’s teaching that fundamental respect for human life includes even those guilty of crimes. The late Pope John Paul II and the Catechism of the Catholic Church said that although the state has the right to resort to capital punishment in order to protect society, in the modern world the death penalty is unnecessary because such circumstances are nonexistent. “For us this is not about ideology but respect for life,” said Cardinal McCarrick. “We cannot teach that killing is wrong by killing. We cannot defend life by taking life.” John Carr, director of the bishops’ Department of Social Development and World Peace,
and Kirk Bloodsworth, a former death-row inmate who was exonerated by DNA evidence. Welch and Bloodsworth both participated in the press conference. Capital punishment will eventually be gone from the United States, Carr said, but it won’t be because of a single court ruling or law passed by Congress but rather a combination of smaller events such as the recent Supreme Court rulings saying it is unconstitutional to execute people who are mentally retarded or who committed their crimes as juveniles. ■ Information on the Catholic Campaign to End the Use of the Death Penalty can be found on the Internet at www.ccedp.org. Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
esurrection. Ascension. What do these terms mean for us? Do they mean that in the past Jesus rose from the dead and ascended into heaven? Yes. Do they mean that in the future one day we will rise and ascend too? Affirmative. But do the Resurrection and Ascension play a vital function, here and now, in our spiritual lives? They do. Christ Our Passover (Liguori, 2004, $24.95) draws our attention to the fact that we as church are not simply trudging along here on earth from a redemption situated in the past toward a future return of Christ. He has never really left us. Christ is risen but not absent. We experience the Resurrection most explicitly in the Eucharist. Here we have the real presence of someone who is elsewhere, who is not of this world, except by the bread and wine that lend him visibility and transmit his resurrected life to us. This is but one function of the Resurrection explained in Christ Our Passover. There are many more.
Ascension Now (Liturgical Press, 2001, $14.95) reminds us that because Christ has ascended, we can say that God now knows from the inside, as it were, what it is to be a human being. (See Hebrews 4:15-16). By virtue of his ascended humanity, the omnipresent Christ cannot help but be sympathetic to the human condition. Pathways of Trust (Servant, 2004, $10.99) differentiates for us primary faith, that is, trust in who God is from its corollary, secondary faith, in other words, belief in the revealed truths of our religion. John Hampsch, CMF, offers his readers 101 situations in which trusting who God is makes adverse situations infinitely more bearable. Who God is, his personhood, is the reason human personhood is inherently sacred. ■ The Paraclete is a full-service Catholic book and supply store. Visit 417 Erin Drive in Knoxville, near Sacred Heart Cathedral, call 865-588-0388 or 800-3332097, or e-mail staff@ paracletebooks.com.
Adult-faith-formation classes begin he first in a series of adult-faith-formation classes was offered April 7, with additional classes scheduled throughout the year. Father Al Humbrecht, pastor of Sacred Heart Cathedral, presented “The Universal Call to Holiness” at the Chancery Office in Knoxville and will teach the same material four more times this summer (see the list of dates and topics below). The adult-faith-formation program is one of the educational initiatives funded through the Growing in Faith Together capital stewardship campaign. Classes are offered at no charge to adults in the diocese. The following classes have been scheduled. All begin at 7 p.m. unless otherwise indicated.
The Universal Call to Holiness, taught by Father Al Humbrecht ■ ■ ■ ■
May 10, St. Stephen Church, Chattanooga June 14, St. Dominic School, Kingsport July 12, St. Alphonsus Church, Crossville Aug. 27, 1 p.m., Knoxville Catholic High School
Nurturing the Body of Christ, taught by Father Michael Cummins ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
May 10, Chancery June 14, St. Augustine Church, Signal Mountain July 12, St. Mary Church, Johnson City Aug. 27, 1 p.m., Knoxville Catholic High School Sept. 13, St. Francis of Assisi Church, Fairfield Glade
Celebrating the Liturgy, taught by Father Chris Michelson ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
July 11, All Saints Church, Knoxville Aug. 27, 1 p.m., All Saints Church, Knoxville Sept. 13, Holy Spirit Church, Soddy-Daisy Oct. 4, St. Dominic Church, Kingsport Nov. 3, St. Alphonsus Church, Crossville
The Sacraments, taught by Father Christian Mathis ■
June 2005, date TBA, Chancery
Those interested are urged to register for classes online, using the Virtus database. To register ■ Log on to virtusonline.org, using your user name and password. If you don’t have a user name and password, click the yellow “registration” link at left, and follow the prompts. ■ Click the “my training” tab. ■ Click “instructor-led training” in the green column on the left side of the screen. ■ Click “Preregister for an upcoming instructor-led training session in your area.” ■ Enter your phone number, select the class you want, and click “submit registration” at the bottom of the page. For more information, contact Anne Frederick, the director of the Office of Religious Education, at afrederick@ dioceseofknoxville.org or 865-584-3307. To learn more about the adult-faith formation program, see “Adult faithformation classes soon to be offered throughout diocese” from the March 6 issue of the ETC, available online at etcatholic.com/march6/gift.htm. ■ CNS GRAPHIC BY ANTHONY DEFEO
WASHINGTON (CNS)—Bolstered by trends in public policy and new polling data showing that Catholics increasingly oppose capital punishment, the U.S. bishops March 21 kicked off Holy Week by launching a Catholic Campaign to End the Use of the Death Penalty. The U.S. bishops as a group have spoken out against the death penalty several times since the 1970s, notably with a comprehensive 1980 statement and a 1999 Good Friday appeal. Individual bishops and state or regional church organizations also have issued dozens of statements and pastoral letters on the topic. “But this campaign is new,” said Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick of Washington at the press conference where the campaign was announced. “It brings greater urgency and unity, increased energy and advocacy, and a renewed call to our people and to our leaders to end the use of the death penalty in our nation.” Cardinal McCarrick said the campaign will include educational efforts through schools, parishes, universities, and seminaries; advocacy with Congress and state legislatures and before the courts; working to change the debate about the death penalty and challenging the notion that justice allows “an eye for an eye”; and prayer and reflection. Pollster John Zogby presented data from his two recent polls showing nearly half of Catholics now oppose capital punishment, a shift of about 20 percent from polls as recent as 2001, when 68 percent of Catholics polled by CBS supported the death penalty. He said he found the Catholics most likely to oppose the death penalty are those who go to church most frequently. Fifty-six percent of those who attend Mass at least weekly oppose the death penalty, compared to 50 percent of less frequent churchgoers, he found. That finding was surprising to him, Zogby said, “because my impression and observation in the past has been that frequent Mass-goers tended to be bedrock conservatives on a range of
CNS PHOTO BY PAUL HARING (2)
Sparking the effort are new polls showing Catholics’ increasing opposition to capital punishment.
For a wide range of articles about Pope John Paul II and the conclave that will elect our next pope, visit Catholic News Service’s new website: www.catholicnews.com/jpii/.
APRIL 10, 2005
Pope John Paul II, 1920–2005 All eyes on the Sistine Chapel VATICAN CITY (CNS)—When cardinals gather to vote for a new pope, the attention of the world will once again focus on the Sistine Chapel, a setting resplendent with art and full of history. From the outside the only sign of the conclave proceedings will emerge from the smokestack on top of the chapel’s roof. Barely visible from St. Peter’s Square, it is kept in the viewfinder of telephoto lenses until a new pope is elected and white smoke pours out. Inside the cardinals will be surrounded by visual reminders of humanity’s destiny and the church’s history. The cardinals file into the Sistine Chapel, passing beneath Michelangelo’s frescoed interpretation of the beginnings of salvation history: creation, the fall of Adam and Eve, and the flood. They will be flanked by paintings of God’s attempts to win back his people and save them: on one wall the life of Moses; on another the life of Christ, including a painting of him handing over the keys of heaven and earth to St. Peter, the first pope. Past the table where the cardinals will deposit their ballots and behind the main altar rises Michelangelo’s massive reminder of how each person will end his or her days: “The Last Judgment.” In his 2003 book of poems, Roman Triptych, Pope John Paul II wrote about participating in the two 1978 conclaves in the Sistine Chapel. Aware of God’s love and human frailty, the pope wrote, the cardinals must let themselves be led by God in their deliberations for a new pope. “He [God] will point him out,” he said. Even after the Sistine Chapel was built and its decoration completed by Michelangelo in 1541, not all papal elections were held in the chapel. Pope Pius VII was elected in Venice, Italy, in 1800. The four conclaves that followed (from 1823 to 1846) were all held in Rome’s Quirinal Palace, once the summer home of the popes and now the residence of the president of Italy. Although the art and fame of the Sistine Chapel make it almost unthinkable that a conclave be held anywhere else, the chapel presents two small problems. The first is space. At the 1978 conclaves that elected Popes John Paul I and John Paul II, some of the 111 participating cardinals complained that their seats were so close together they barely had room to breathe, let alone write a secret ballot. Although the chapel has about 5,600 square feet of floor space, the room is divided by a marble and iron screen, halving the space for setting up tables and chairs in a way that allows all the electors to see each other and the altar. The smoke signal—the only form of communication between the electors and the outside world—also proved problematic in 1978. A special stove and chimney were installed in the chapel in the middle of the 18th century. The black smoke, which signals a ballot without a definitive outcome, was produced by burning the ballots with wet straw or, later, by adding chemicals. The white smoke that tells the world a new pope has been elected is produced by burning the ballots alone. But weather, atmospheric conditions, and pollution all make the signal difficult to decipher. Most people in the past have relied on confirmation by Vatican Radio before looking for a good spot in St. Peter’s Square to see the newly elected pope when he appears on the balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica. ■
CNS PHOTO FROM CATHOLIC PRESS PHOTO
Copyright 2005 Catholic News Service/U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
“The truths of our faith speak to us here from all sides,” Pope John Paul II said of the Sistine Chapel in 1994 following restoration of Michelangelo’s artworks. The chapel will be the setting for the next papal conclave, which could begin meeting as early as April 17. 20
APRIL 10, 2005
CNS FILE PHOTO BY ARTURO MARI
BY CINDY WOODEN
Pope John Paul II waves to well-wishers in St. Peter’s Square in 1978, not long after his election as the 263rd successor to Peter.
John Paul II’s saints—and us The prolific ‘saint-maker’ had reasons deeper than a desire to streamline the process. By George Weigel was Pope John W hy Paul II the greatest saint-maker in the history of the church? The question is actually a misnomer, although it’s been used regularly in retrospectives on the pontificate. The church doesn’t “make” saints, and neither does the pope. The church, through the ministry of the bishop of Rome, recognizes the saints that God has made. Which still leaves open the question: why so many canonizations and beatifications? Part of the answer involves the changes John Paul II made in the process by which the church identifies the saints God has made. For 350 years the church had weighed claims to sanctity through an adversarial legal process, in which the candidate for beatification or canonization was put on trial, as it were, posthumously. The burden of proof fell on those promoting the “cause” of a particular candidate; the “Promoter of the Faith” (popularly known as “The Devil’s Advocate”) did
everything he could to challenge the case for a candidate’s sanctity. John Paul II changed all this, dramatically, in 1983. The “trial” was replaced by an academic-historical process, in which the key document is a biography of the candidate, prepared according to contemporary scholarly standards. Theologians and historians, not lawyers, became the key actors in the process. John Paul’s reforms also took a lot of the process out of Rome and into the local diocese where a cause originated. Local bishops are now responsible for assembling the materials relevant to judging a candidate, and thus local churches are now an integral part of the process. Finding the saints that God has made is no longer just a Roman affair. John Paul’s reforms made the process faster, less costly, more collegial, and better equipped to produce results. But it would be a great mistake to conclude that “process” alone explains the new wave of beatifications and canonizations in the church.
Like everything else of consequence in the pontificate of John Paul II, his beatifications and canonizations have to be understood theologically. Karol Wojtyla had long been convinced that God is generous, even profligate, in making saints—because God is generous, even profligate, with his grace. The church’s job, Wojtyla believed, was to acknowledge and celebrate God’s remarkable generosity in “making saints.” Wojtyla took Vatican II’s teaching on the “universal call to holiness” with great seriousness. The “universal call to holiness” was not, to his mind, a nice phrase: it was a living reality within the church. Sanctity was not just for the sanctuary; sanctity is every Christian’s baptismal destiny. That’s what Wojtyla believed, and that’s why, as archbishop of Krakow, he helped promote the causes of many candidates for beatification and canonization. Karol Wojtyla’s views didn’t change when he became pope in 1978—but now he could do something to give concrete ef-
fect to the Council’s teaching on the “universal call to holiness.” He could reform the process by which the church recognizes the saints God has made so that God’s generosity in making saints became more apparent to the church. That’s why John Paul’s pilgrimages to local churches around the world—more than 100 trips outside Italy during the pontificate—frequently included beatifications and canonizations (which, previously, had only been celebrated in Rome). The Pope wanted to remind the people of the church that sanctity is, in fact, all around us. The more the people of the church believed that—the more the people of the church could see specific, local examples of lives lived in heroic virtue—the more likely we all were to live the lives of sanctity to which we were called in baptism. John Paul II’s beatifications and canonization were very much part of his “new evangelization.” From his adolescent days as an actor throughSaints continued on page 15
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