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November  / December 2010

Vol. IV No. 6

Serving Soil, Mulch, Compost, & Biofuel Professionals


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Miracle or Too Good To Be True?


By P.J. Heller

magine a product that can, among other things, substantially improve soil quality, reduce nutrient runoff, offer huge productivity gains and provide a source of clean, renewable energy. And if that isn’t enough, how about if it could help combat climate change. That’s the promise of biochar, a soil amendment that its proponents describe as “black gold” for agriculture, a “magic bullet” for the environment and a product that “has the potential to revolutionize the concepts of soil management.” Critics, however, say there is little scientific proof of the claims, express concern that huge plantations will be needed to produce feedstocks for biochar utilizing massive amounts of land that could be better used for other purposes including food production, and that its carbon sequestration claims could be a “carbon time bomb.” “Large-scale support for biochar is premature and dangerous,” warns Almuth Ernsting, co-founder of Biofuelwatch in a statement in which 147 organizations worldwide described biochar as “a dangerous new false solution to climate change.”

Even the most ardent advocates of biochar admit that more study and research needs to be conducted on the material. Standards for biochar are still being developed. “It’s very reasonable that folks are skeptical,” says Tripp Allen, president of Energy Anew in San Rafael, Calif., which manufactures and markets biochar under its “Biocharm” label. “They should be skeptical. We should approach biochar in a very reasoned and scientific way. I think we understand many of the benefits that biochar has on the soil. Some of the other benefits are not yet fully understood. “What I hope is that people will look into it further,” Allen says. “And once they look into it further [they will see] it is completely reliable and the benefits can be demonstrated. So there isn’t a lot of smoke and mirrors.” Biochar, which is similar to charcoal, can be created from agricultural, farm or animal waste through gasification or pyrolysis, a form of incineration that chemically decomposes organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. Gases given off during the process can be a source of heat or energy. Based on the type of feedstock, as well as Continued on page 3

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Mulch Producer NEWS

Biochar Soil Amendment:

Miracle or Too Good To Be True? PUBLICATION STAFF Publisher / Editor Rick Downing Contributing Editors / Writers P.J. Heller Robert J. Rua Production & Layout Barb Fontanelle Christine Pavelka Advertising Sales Rick Downing Subscription / Circulation Donna Downing Editorial, Circulation & Advertising Office 6075 Hopkins Road Mentor, OH 44060 Ph: 440-257-6453 Fax: 440-257-6459 Email: For subscription information, please call 440-257-6453. Soil & Mulch Producer News is published quarterly by Downing & A s s o c i a t e s. Re p r o d u c t i o n s or transmission of Soil & Mulch Producer News, in whole or in part, without written permission of the publisher is prohibited. Annual subscription rate U.S. is $19.95. Outside of the U.S. add $10.00 ($29.95). ontact our main office, or mail-in the subscription form with payment. ©

Copyright 2010 by Downing & Associates

Continued from page 1 the time and temperature used to produce it, soil mixes for potting plants can have highly different types of biochar can be produced, beneficial effects. according to its supporters. Work is under way “I think incorporating small amounts of on producing “designer” biochars targeted for it into everything you do is the way to go,” he specific soil types. says. “I think it’s got so many possibilities to For soil and compost producers, biochar help improve these products. I don’t risk not could prove to be a perfect amendment for their using it. ” products, according to biochar enthusiasts. Allen, who has a degree in chemistry and “From the studies we’ve seen so far, biochar has studied soil science, also became interested performs much better as part of in biochar after reading about and a soil management strategy,” visiting the Amazonian terra says Thayer Tomlinson, preta region. a spokesperson for the Tests he conducted International Biochar growing five different Initiative, a nonprofit types of vegetables organization in rich fertile Iowa with some 3,500 soils (mollisols) with individual biochar resulted in m e m b e r s a 25 percent to 35 worldwide. “If percent increase combined with in productivity, he fertilizer, compost reports. o r m a nu re o r Allen says he whatever you put on was amazed by the soil, it can enhance results. the ability of the “It was very fertilizer or compost. difficult to believe,” he Fr It acts as an enhancer to ng says. “Iowa soil is very i e s that product.” m high quality soil. So it didn’t hB iochar Stea make sense. I didn’t get it.” Supporters of biochar point to “terra preta,” or black earth soil, in He also says tests of vitamins A, the Brazilian Amazon region, believed to have C and E in the vegetables, among them beans, been created anywhere from 500 to 2,500 years radishes, lettuce and beets, showed “remarkable ago through charred organic matter, such as findings.” animal waste and wood. Centuries later, they Other tests he conducted in the clay soil of note, this soil remains much more fertile than Marin County, Calif., also showed a “dramatic surrounding native soils. improvement” in productivity. He plans to After reading about terra preta about conduct tests on other types of soils. two years ago, Josiah Hunt became interested To create his biochar, he uses wood chips in biochar as a way to improve poor soil in a blend with a high nutrient compost. One conditions on the Big Island in Hawaii. His of the best ultimate uses for biochar or biochar company, Landscape Ecology, today is busy blend is incorporating it directly into compost delivering truckloads of biochar — which he or a soil, he says. creates from scrap wood from area mills — to “We’re very interested in pursuing that as a farms, landscapers and others on the island. He market,” Allen says. has even been asked to ship a container full of “In my experience, there are not many soils biochar to a customer in California. that Biocharm doesn’t improve,” he says of his Hunt originally planned to sell biochar in a product. “I haven’t found one yet that it doesn’t compost mix but was put off by the myriad state improve.” regulations on compost production. Instead, he Allen adds that soil blended with biochar blends about 1 to 2 percent of readily available is the ideal product for California growers who and inexpensive fish meal with the biochar. use containers to grow plants. He says some of “It really can in some cases have almost those growers can “dramatically benefit” from what appears to be a magic-bullet effect,” Hunt biochar. says. “Sometimes it is absolutely ridiculous “Biochar and Biocharm is the perfect way the response that plants have when you add to retain the high quality of the soil and, we biochar.” believe, based on the studies we’ve done, it will Hunt agrees that incorporating biochar increase vegetative growth and be able to get into everything from compost to fertilizer to Continued on page 4 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News




Mulch Producer NEWS

Biochar Soil Amendment: Miracle or Too Good To Be True?

Continued from page 3

those container-grown plants to market faster,” he says. “Not only will it get them to market faster, but for those that sit around, the soil will retain nutrients better and have a better shelf life. It’s particularly beneficial for plants that stay in the container for longer periods of time. For short periods of time, you’re basically gaining the benefits of increased vegetative growth.” Advocates also strongly tout biochar’s ability to fight global warming by sequestering carbon from the atmosphere in the ground. “The carbon in biochar resists degradation and can hold carbon in soils for hundreds to thousands of years,” according to the International Biochar Institute. Opponents say carbon sequestration in the ground could eventually be released, in effect what they describe as “a carbon time bomb.” A research paper published in August said that greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 12 percent globally if every bit of biomass that could be collected sustainably was converted to biochar. “. . . If you were implementing biochar systems to mitigate climate change, would it be worth discussing it as a global strategy? Would it potentially scale to an important approach? The answer is yes,” says Johannes Lehmann, a consultant on the study, an assistant professor of

Taro crop at 4 months planted in soil enhanced with biochar compost. biogeochemistry in the department of crop and soil sciences at Cornell University and a board member of the biochar institute. Critics say such a plan would result in land conversions on an unprecedented scale with “plantations” devoted solely to growing feedstocks for biochar. Tomlinson of the biochar institute denies that would be the case and insists that smaller scale units would be more effective. “We have never advocated that plantations be used for biochar feedstock at all,” she says.

Taro crop at 4 months planted in soil without the use of biochar compost. “The large plantations probably wouldn’t be economically feasible to produce biochar right now. Tomlinson says her organization believes the best use would be to incorporate small scale systems into a community in a closed-loop system, taking wastes such as leftover agricultural waste, biomass waste products, poultry or dairy manure and possibly municipal solid waste, and using them for biochar production. The excess heat or energy generated from pyrolysis would Continued on next page

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Soil Continued from previous page

be used to power other processes. The resulting biochar would be used on site. “There needs to be a real emphasis on the sustainability of the feedstocks and how the land is used to produce those feedstocks,” Tomlinson says. Critics contend that biochar advocates have masked their actual intent and that recent documents essentially call for “land grabs” on a massive scale. “They call for ‘sustainability standards’ but there can be nothing sustainable about converting lands on which millions of people depend and which are also important for ecosystem integrity and biodiversity protection,” says Raquel Nunez of the World Rainforest Movement. “Groups have been warning for years that the biochar techno-fix will mean land-grabbing on a vast scale,” adds Anne Maina of the African Diversity Network. “Time and time again, biochar advocates have misled the public with claims that we can produce vast amounts of charcoal from residues alone. Now they are showing their true colors: Large-scale biochar means large-scale land grabs.” Hunt in Hawaii says he hopes more producers come online and that the product becomes more available, which be believes will help quell biochar opponents. “I’m basically one of the larger producers in America and I’m one guy out of my backyard,” he says. If and when biochar becomes more mainstream, “then you can start making a dent in the big picture items, more of the planetary issues, such as climate change and sequestering large amount of carbon,” Hunt says. Allen, however, contends that the focus should not be about using biochar to fight climate change. “I have to honestly say that I understand why people emphasize the issue of climate change for biochar,” he says. “In all likelihood, there’s no question that biochar is an excellent way to sequester carbon in the soil. But if you analyze the notion of using biochar as a mechanism for sequestering carbon solely, you’re missing the boat. “The purpose of biochar is to improve plant growth,” Allen insists. “That’s the market that will drive biochar use because of improvements and reduced costs in agriculture. The notion that the market is going to drive biochar use from the standpoint of sequestering carbon I think is ridiculous. It’s never going to pay. “The great thing about biochar is it’s one of the only things you can do on a very large scale . . . that gives you an immediate payback that is also really good for the environment.”


Mulch Producer NEWS

Manure Provides Higher Returns than Chemical Fertilizers, Economist Says


ccording to Dr. Seong Park, a Texas AgriLife Research economist, animal manure generates higher ecomonic returns than anhydrous ammonia reports Park recently had his research published in the Agronomy Journal. The work was from studies he conducted in the Oklahoma Panhandle while at Oklahoma State University and finalized while in his new position at Vernon. The long-term experiment involved the use of pig and beef manure on irrigated corn fields, he said. The testing was conducted in part due to a rapid growth of animal population and density in that region, as well as the northern part of the Texas Panhandle. Park said when swine manure, which is normally stored in open-air lagoon systems, is properly applied and the economics figured, the effluent can be used as manure with minimal environmental and nuisance concerns. Animal manure, he said, benefits producers by reducing waste management costs and the need for chemical fertilizers because it contains multiple essential crop nutrients, according to previous research. Park said the key between animal manure transitioning from a cost (for disposal) to a benefit (as a fertilizer) is determined by agronomic and economic factors such as chemical fertilizer costs and equipment and labor needed to apply each.

Cover and article photos courtesy of Josiah Hunt, Owner of Landscape Ecology, Pahoa, HI., email:

Info Request #162 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News




Mulch Producer NEWS

Final BCAP Rule Gets Thumbs Up By P.J. Heller


ulch producers appear pleased with the federal government’s final rule for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program but say more assurances are still needed to close loopholes in the measure, according to an industry spokesman. “The devil is in the details,” said Bob LaGasse, executive director of the Mulch and Soil Council. “We’re not sure we’ve seen all the little devils yet.” Overall, however, LaGasse described the final BCAP rule, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Farm Service Agency as “a great improvement” over the initial proposed rule. BCAP was designed provide financial assistance to owners and operators of agricultural and non-industrial private forest land to encourage crop production for biofuels. Among the goals was to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Payments for forest products — those used primarily in the manufacture of mulch, wood composites, paper, pulp and packaging — were a key concern early on to those industries.

LaGasse and others argued that the payments — nearly $250 million has been paid out for the collection, harvest, storage and transportation of eligible material delivered to qualified biomass conversion facilities, far exceeding Congressional projections — created an uneven playing field, prompting suppliers to take higher government payments rather than selling to mulch producers and other businesses. “It would have put a lot of people out of business,” LaGasse said. “There also would have been a tremendous downstream impact as well because one soil producer may service hundreds of nurseries.” The final rule, issued Oct. 27, specifies that materials such as mulch, fiberboard, nursery media, lumber and paper, would not qualify for the matching payments if they have a “higher value” due to an existing market in a “distinct region.” LaGasse said that until there are clear definitions of what constitutes an “existing market” and a “distinct region” and there

Info Request #107 6

Soil & Mulch Producer News  November / December 2010

is clarification on who will make those determinations, a battle could rage over biofuel materials. “The argument (of forest and land owners) will be that there is no existing market,” he said. “Our argument is that there has been an existing market for 20 years. “Until that and other gray areas are resolved, we don’t believe the issue is done,” LaGasse said. “The devil is in the details that have not been specified as to how they’re going to determine all of those things and who will determine them.” To address those “gray areas,” the Mulch and Soil Council has joined with a consortium of other groups under the umbrella of a new organization, the Wood Fiber Coalition. “We’re coordinating our efforts to make sure the market does get properly recognized Continued on page 8

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Mulch Producer NEWS

Final BCAP Rule Gets Thumbs Up Continued from page 6

“valuable bio-based consumer products.” Those products include mulch and our members do have access to the marketplace and that there will and potting soils, commercial growing media, landscape materials as not be any inappropriate diversions of raw materials from existing markets well as composite wood panels, wood-based furniture and flooring and to biofuels,” he said. architectural moulding and millwork. Members of the coalition, in addition to the Mulch and Soil Council, “Without a reliable supply of these raw materials, and with no viable include the Composite Panel Association, the American Home Furnishings alternatives available, the supply chain of thousands of American businesses Alliance, the American Nursery and Landscape Association, the Business would be put at immediate risk — along with millions of domestic jobs and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer’s Association, and the Society in predominantly rural communities,” it said. “To prevent this from of American Florists. happening, federal policy must recognize In a November letter to Congress, the that forest and wood mill byproducts are coalition stressed that rather than diverting essential feedstocks supplied through an forest and wood-mill byproducts for energy established, competitive and sustainable use, officials should “focus on expanding As long as we’re talking about energy domestic free market.” the sources of renewable biomass to ensure and biomass and renewable energy, wood Corey Connors, a spokesman for the that existing industries are not deprived of fiber is always going to be front-andcoalition, said the organization would wood fiber.” center in terms of the things targeted to continue to monitor energy legislation and “The expansion of America’s energy meet those broad energy goals. push to ensure that wood fiber was not options is a laudable goal, particularly diverted from existing markets. if it leads to reduced dependence on “As long as we’re talking about energy imported fossil fuels. Therefore we support and biomass and renewable energy, wood Congressional efforts to promote the fiber is always going to be front-and-center in terms of the things targeted development of new, renewable energy sources,” the letter said. “However, to meet those broad energy goals,” said Connors, vice president of policy as the recent experience with the USDA Farm Service Administration’s and communications for the Composite Panel Association. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) has shown, industries that rely “We continue to have concerns over the diversion of these materials on existing markets for wood fiber supplies may suffer irreparable harm away from existing markets,” added Connors, who was previously with the if good judgment is not exercised in the development of comprehensive American Nursery and Landscape Association. federal energy policies.” Connors agreed with LaGasse about the need for more clarification It noted that wood mill byproducts such as bark, chips, sawdust, shavings and trim have been used for decades in the production of Continued on next page


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Soil Continued from previous page

on BCAP, including how the program was going to be administered and exactly who would determine whether a higher-value market exists. That decision could be made at the state or local level. “We believe there needs to be federal oversight over what’s being administered at local FSA offices,” Connors said. “We believe the intent is clear, but we’ll see how the execution of this intent actually plays out.” The Composite Panel Association (CPA) has said it was pleased with the final BCAP rule. “BCAP has morphed from a job killing welfare program to one that now makes economic and environmental sense,” said CPA President Tom Julia. “It is now targeted to the production of new sources of woody biomass, rather than raiding established, viable markets for the wood fiber upon which a wide range of American industries rely.” “The final BCAP rule is a good example of how America can achieve its ambitious renewable energy and biofuel goals and the extra time that the Obama administration spent in reconsidering the rules of the program has been entirely worthwhile,” he added. The American Forest & Paper Association, which had also been critical of BCAP’s matching payments, agreed that the final rule was an improvement. “We appreciate USDA’s consideration of industry concerns and the modifications made in the rule-making process that will minimize market distortions and focus on supply,” said Donna Harman, president and chief executive officer of AF&PA. “USDA’s revised approach on BCAP helps preserve existing jobs while also increasing renewable energy development particularly in rural communities.” Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said industry concerns were taken into account when crafting the final rule. More than 24,000 letters were submitted on the plan. “In crafting the final rule we paid attention to the concerns of industry and environmentalists, particularly with respect to woody biomass,” Vilsack said. “Assistance for woody biomass will only be provided for materials removed from a forest for ecosystem restoration and forest health purposes.” Under the final rule, Vilsack explained, producers will receive financial help to defray the cost of producing, storing and transporting alternative fuel stock. Assistance could be as much as 75 percent of the cost of establishing a new crop as well as annual rental payments to help cover the costs of transitioning from current cash crops. Delivery of biomass to a renewable energy or biofuel facilities will generate matching payments to help reduce the costs that come from the logistical challenges facing the new industry. Even as the government moves ahead with BCAP, some energy companies have pulled the plug on biomass plants. Among them was Xcel Energy, which announced it was canceling

plans to build what would have been the largest wood-burning power plant in the Midwest. The company cited increased costs and declining costs for other generation methods. FirstEnergy Corp. cited falling market prices for electricity for its decision not to repower to units at its plant in Shadyside, Ohio. Both of those units are expected to be shut down by the end of 2010. Plans to construct biomass plants elsewhere have been announced. Government officials say BCAP addresses the “chicken-and-egg” challenge faced by the industry. “If commercial-scale biomass facilities are to have sufficient feedstocks, then an established, large-scale energy crop source must exist,” they say. “Conversely, if profitable crop production is to occur, then a viable consumer base must exist to purchase the product. “With the enactment of the updated federal renewable fuels standard, which requires 36 billion gallons of advanced biofuels in the national fuel supply by 2022, new crops must keep pace with these revised federal targets,” they say. “Many bioenergy crops need several years to become established. Many bioenergy facilities need several years to reach commercial scale. BCAP serves as catalyst to unite these multiple dynamics by reducing the financial risk for landowners who switch from familiar, revenuegenerating crops to new, unconventional crops in preparation for these emerging markets.”


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Mulch Producer NEWS

Packing Foam Engineered from Mushrooms and Agricultural Waste


new packing material that grows itself is now appearing in shipped products across the country reports The composite of inedible agricultural waste and mushroom roots is called Mycobond™, and its manufacture requires just one eighth the energy and one tenth the carbon dioxide of traditional foam packing material. And unlike most foam substitutes, when no longer useful, it makes great compost in the garden. The technology was the brainchild of two former Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute undergraduates, Gavin McIntyre and Eben Bayer, who founded Ecovative Design of Green Island, N.Y., to bring their idea into production. “We don’t manufacture materials, we grow them,” says McIntyre. “We’re converting agricultural byproducts into a higher-value product.” Because the feedstock is based on renewable resources, he adds, the material has an economic benefit as well: it is not prone to the price fluctuations common to synthetic materials derived from such sources as petroleum. “All of our raw materials are inherently renewable and they are literally waste streams,” says McIntyre. “It’s an open system based on biological materials.” With support from NSF, McIntyre and Bayer are developing a new, less energy-intensive method to sterilize their agricultural-waste starter material--a necessary step for enabling the mushroom fibers, called mycelia, to grow. McIntyre and Bayer are replacing a steam-heat process with a treatment made from cinnamon-bark oil, thyme oil, oregano oil and lemongrass oil. The sterilization process, which kills any spores that could compete with Ecovative’s mushrooms, is almost as effective as the autoclaving process used to disinfect medical instruments and will allow the Mycobond™ products to grow in the open air, instead of their current clean-room environment. Much of the manufacturing process is nearly energy-free, with the mycelia growing around and digesting agricultural starter material--such as cotton seed or wood fiber--in an environment that is both room-temperature and dark. Because the growth occurs within a molded plastic structure (which the producers customize for each application), no energy is required for shaping the products. In addition to the packaging product, called EcoCradle™, Ecovative has developed a home insulation product dubbed greensulate™. Comparable in effectiveness to foam insulation, it has the added benefit of being flame retardant.

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he OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) Products List reached a milestone on October 7, 2010, for the first time exceeding 2000 listed products. OMRI, a global leader in materials review, performs comprehensive verification and listing of materials suitable for use in organic production. “The OMRI Products List has grown steadily over the last 13 years, and we thank OMRI’s clients and supporters for working to ensure solid and consistent standards within the organic industry, and for helping us reach this milestone,” said Peggy Miars, OMRI Executive Director. “We at OMRI are proud to support the organic label through our history of solid integrity and reliable reviews.” While OMRI staff may have paused to celebrate the landmark occasion, the organization is processing applications more quickly than ever. A new streamlined review process has completely eliminated the initial wait time for new applications while retaining the same rigorous standards that have made OMRI a cornerstone of the organic industry. “Now is a great time to submit an application, since we have made great strides in customer service,” added Miars. OMRI welcomed Miars in September, when she began her tenure as OMRI’s new Executive Director/CEO. To celebrate this new chapter in OMRI’s history, the organization is soliciting comments and stories from members of the organic community. Confidential comments are welcome, but participants who include their names may have their comments considered for publication in the next OMRI Materials Review Newsletter. Tell your OMRI story. Send an email to

Southeast Renewable Energy to Build Biomass Plants in South Carolina


Carla Castagnero, President—Ag Recycle, Pittsburgh, PA

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outheast Renewable Energy (SRE) recently signed a contract to build three renewable biomass-fuel energy plants in South Carolina, reports andalusiastarnews. com. SRE has committed to produce 45 megawatts of biomass energy in S.C. Each of the three plants it will build will generate 15 megawatts. The feedstock of wood waste and wood chips will be supplied by a South Carolina utility company.


EPA Awards $4 Million for Brownfield Cleanup Projects


he EPA recently awarded $4 million for brownfield cleanup projects in 23 economically disadvantaged communities, The funds will be used not only for the remediation of contaminated sites, but for various economic development and reuse plans. The goal, say EPA officials, is to lay the foundation for addressing community needs such as job creation, housing, recreation, and education and health facilities. Brownfields are properties where the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants or contaminants may complicate the properties’ expansion, redevelopment, or reuse. “This approach,” says EPA administrator Mathy Stanislaus, “recognizes the importance of identifying and leveraging additional local, state and federal investment to implement the plans.” In Indiana, the EPA is working with projects in 18 states and one territory to identify ways the planning effort can utilize local, state and federal resources to help implement areawide efforts for housing, transportation, economic growth and healthy communities. Recipients will be able to leverage the Partnership for Sustainable Communities, a joint effort of EPA, Department of Transportation, the Department of Housing and Urban Development and Economic Development Administration, to identify potential resources to help move the community plans forward. Each grant recipient receives $175,000 to help facilitate community involvement in developing an area-wide brownfields plan. In Goshen, Indiana, the city will target the 9th Street Industrial Corridor, which is twelve blocks long. A long history of intensive manufacturing has left a legacy of contamination and abandoned, vacant or underutilized industrial properties. There are more than 60 brownfields in the Corridor, which is surrounded by residential areas and several schools. The city’s comprehensive plan for the area will advance redevelopment and brownfield reuse efforts, identify cleanup goals and evaluate infrastructure conditions. The goal will be to redevelop the Corridor for modern manufacturing and industrial reuse, and create new jobs in the process.

Mulch Producer NEWS

New Technique Improves Efficiency of Biofuel Production


esearchers at North Carolina State University have developed a more efficient technique for producing biofuels from woody plants that significantly reduces the waste that results from conventional biofuel production techniques reports The technique is a significant step toward creating a commercially viable new source of biofuels. Traditionally, to make ethanol, butanol or other biofuels, producers have used corn, beets or other plant matter that is high in starches or simple sugars. However, since those crops are also significant staple foods, biofuels are competing with people for those crops. However, other forms of biomass -- such as switchgrass or inedible corn stalks -- can also be used to make biofuels. But these other crops pose their own problem: their energy potential is locked away inside the plant’s lignin -- the woody, protective material that provides each plant’s structural support. Breaking down that lignin to reach the plant’s component carbohydrates is an essential first step toward making biofuels. At present, researchers exploring how to create biofuels from this so-called “woody” material treat the plant matter with harsh chemicals that break it down into a carbohydrate-rich substance and a liquid waste stream. These carbohydrates are then exposed to enzymes that turn the carbohydrates into sugars that can be fermented to make ethanol or butanol. This technique often results in a significant portion of the plant’s carbohydrates being siphoned off with the liquid waste stream. Researchers must either incorporate additional processes to retrieve those carbohydrates, or lose them altogether. But now researchers from NC State have developed a new way to free the carbohydrates from the lignin. By exposing the plant matter to gaseous ozone, with very little moisture, they are able to produce a carbohydrate-rich solid with no solid or liquid waste. “This is more efficient because it degrades the lignin very effectively and there is little or no loss of the plant’s carbohydrates,” says Dr. Ratna Sharma-Shivappa, associate professor of biological and agricultural engineering at NC State. “The solid can then go directly to the enzymes to produce the sugars necessary for biofuel production.” Sharma notes that the process itself is more expensive than using a bath of harsh chemicals to free the carbohydrates, but is ultimately more cost-effective because it makes more efficient use of the plant matter.


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Info Request #152 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News 11



Mulch Producer NEWS

Penton Media’s WasteExpo Announces 2011 Conference Program


enton Media’s WasteExpo, the largest event in North America serving the solid waste and recycling industry, has announced its 2011 Conference Program. WasteExpo will be held May 9-12, 2011, in Dallas. Organized by the Environmental Industry Associations (EIA), WasteExpo’s Conference Program offers over 40 sessions and workshops designed to provide waste and recycling professionals with the critical information they need to perform their jobs more effectively and efficiently. “The WasteExpo 2011 educational program has been completely revamped to provide new topics from the attendees’ perspective,” stated Alice Jacobsohn, director, education, EIA. “Many sessions offer a how to approach to topics that attendees can take back to their facilities and implement.  Other sessions allow for attendee participation to ensure current issues are considered and discussed.” Conference Tracks for the 2011 event include: Recycling, Small Hauler Interests, Cost-Effective Solutions, Alternative Energy Systems, Workplace Health, Recycling Markets, Financial Growth, Collection Technology, Media Relations, Safety, Composting and Recycling, Business Communication, Compliance for Haulers, Municipal Collection, Fuel Management, Security, Statistics for Business, and Truck Technology. In addition, WasteExpo will offer two in-depth, day-long workshops.  Current Developments in Landfills will focus on headline issues, Clean Air Act compliance, and construction innovations.  Fleet Management will look at practical and logical solutions to the problems of fleet maintenance for the public and private sectors. For more information, visit the WasteExpo website at

Info Request #151

For Sale 1999 Wildcat RHC6230 $55,000 Great running Trommel. It’s a must see. Contact Greg or John Call for onsite demo of this machine. Ph: (816)478-9119 or (816)809-9491 Machine is located in Kansas City, Missouri. Fax: (816)413-9930

Calendar of Events Montana Green Expo January 5-6, 2011 Holiday Inn – Grand Montana Billings, MT 406-755-3079

Mid-Am Trade Show January 19-21, 2011 Navy Pier Chicago, IL 800-223-8761

Mid-Atlantic Nursery Trade Show (MANTS) January 5-7, 2011 Baltimore Convention Center Baltimore, MD 800-431-0066

Tropical Plant Industry Exhibition (TPIE) January 19-21, 2011 Greater Ft Lauderdale/ Broward County Convention Center Ft Lauderdale, FL 800-375-3642

National Green Centre January 9-10, 2011 America’s Center St Louis, MO 888-233-1876 Green & Growin’ Trade Show January 10-14, 2011 Greensboro Coliseum Greensboro, NC 919-816-9119

2001 Farwick/Komptech Hurrikan Separator $49,988 2300 Hours. Very Good Condition. Well Maintained. Must See. Machine is located in Kansas City, Missouri.

Contact Greg or John Ph: (816)478-9119 or (816)809-9491 Fax: (816)413-9930


12 Soil & Mulch Producer News  November / December 2010

Landscape Ontario’s Congress Featuring Fencecraft, the Green Forum and Explorations January 11-13, 2011 Toronto Congress Centre Toronto, ON Canada 800-265-5656 x2339

WVNLA Winter Symposium January 20-21, 2011 Charleston, WV 304-553-1234 The Gulf States Horticultural Expo January 20-21, 2011 Mobile Convention Center Mobile, AL 334-502-7777 New England Grows! February 2-4, 2011 Boston Convention and Expo Center Boston, MA 508-653-3009

USCC 19th Annual Conference & Tradeshow January 24–27, 2011 Hyatt Regency Santa Clara

Join us for the world’s largest conference & exhibition for the composting, wood waste & organics recycling industry. 11 Training Courses, more than 100 Educational & Technical Presentations, 100+ Exhibitors and Facility Tours & “Live” Equipment Demonstrations from 20+ Manufacturers PRE-CONFERENCE TRAINING COURSES & WORKSHOPS Monday, January 24 New—Protecting Workers: Conducting Job Hazard Analysis for Composting Facilities p New—Challenges & Solutions for a Successful Food Waste Recycling Program p USCC Foundations of Composting p Aerated Static Pile Composting: Applications & Advancements p Compost Business Management p Compost Benefits and Usage in Vineyards: Growing Better Grapes, Recipes, Compost Applications & Compost Production p Compost use in Agriculture, Horticulture & Landscaping p Revised for 2011—Compost Sales & Marketing Workshop p Revised for 2011—Management of Odor Issues at Compost Facilities p New—When Bad Things Happen at Your Composting Facility—Imagining What Can Go Wrong and How You Can Recover p New—Composting & Food Safety CONFERENCE SESSION TOPICS Tuesday, January 25–Wednesday, January 26 Plenary Session Envisioning the Organics Management Facility of the Future Listen to some of the top compost and anaerobic system “developers” predict where the industry is heading! Featured speaker at the Annual Awards Banquet Gene Rosow, Producer and Director of Dirt! The Movie. Session Title: “There’s no Such Thing as Waste—Until it’s Wasted: Compost, the Key to a Sustainable Future.” More than 100 presentations on virtually every facet of the organics recycling industry! Here are some highlights: Planning for Growth How to Grow the U.S. Composting Industry p An Update on the CA Composting Industry Regulations and Climate Change Model State Composting Regulations p Climate Action Reserve Protocol for Organic Waste Composting

Register Today!

Emissions Compost Emissions: Research and Regulatory Progress p Getting Odors Under Control at Biosolids Composting Facility Bioplastics Bioplastics & Managing Post Consumer Feedstock Streams p Biodegradation of Compostable Plastic Snack Bags Education Education as the Key to Social Change: Compost Systems at Schools, Retreat Centers and Jail p An Analysis of High School Students Understanding of the Concepts of Composting Anaerobic Digestion and Renewable Energy Challenges and Opportunities in Developing an Anaerobic Digestion Project p Incorporating High Solids Anaerobic Digestion into a Composting Facility Mortality and Bioremediation Assessing the Fate of Barbiturates and Drugs in Composted Livestock Mortality p Managing a Composting System to Enhance the Degradation of Petroleum Refinery Food Residuals and Increased Diversion San Francisco’s Mandatory Food Composting Collection Experience p University of Michigan Composting Feasibility Study p Diversion and Conversion—Innovative Solutions for San Jose p Seattle Mariners and Strategic Partnerships: A Success Story Compost Quality, Benefits and Use Characterizing Compost & Anaerobic Digester Products p New Compost BMP Design Manual for Sustainable Storm Water Management p Impact of Compost on Biological Control of Plant Diseases Marketing Selling Compost to Certified Organic Farms—Impact of CA AB 856 p Total Economic Value of Compost—Results of a Life-Cycle Financial Analysis on Composting and the Use of Compost p The Psychology of Compost Sales Compost Systems Living and Learning With ASP Systems p Continuous Flow Aerated Windrow Composting for Large Waste Volumes p Mechanically Enhanced Biodrying of Biosolids Using the Agitated Bay Composting System

Biosolids Potty Talk: Applying Stakeholder Engagement Lessons from Wastewater to your Technical Projects p Composting Systems Technologies: Building a World Class Composting Facility Vermicomposting Assessment of Vermi-Based Technologies in the Philippines p Large Scale Vermicomposting of Agricultural by-Products p The Status of Vermicomposting in North America International Developments Compost for Soils: a Market Development Program for Australia p Composting as a Sanitation Alternative in PostEarthquake Haiti p Comparative Evaluation of Composting in Istanbul Compostable Plastics Symposium Full Day Track on Wednesday, January 26 The types, products & uses of compostable plastics are growing, bringing great possibilities & significant challenges. The USCC is partnering with the California Organics Recycling Committee & the SPI-Bioplastics Council to foster an informed dialog on this important topic. Sessions include: Compostable Plastics 101 p Labeling and identification issues p Compostability standards p Case Studies from US and Canada p Developing a USCC working group for addressing the challenges related to product standards, identification and realistic composting parameters. NETWORKING & OTHER OPPORTUNITIES Tuesday, January 25–Thursday, January 27 Meet with Equipment Vendors and Service Providers at the Largest Industry Tradeshow in North America p Exhibitor’s Reception p Awards Luncheon p Zero Waste Banquet p Compost Showcase—Learn about Branding & Product Marketing p The “Experts Corner”: schedule one-on-one problem-solving meetings with leading experts p “Live” Equipment Demonstrations & Facility Tours p USCC/SWANA Certification Exam for Manager of Compost Programs p Raffles of $5,000 worth of USCC Publications and more . . .

Go to or call the USCC at 631.737.4931 Exhibitor information, sponsorship opportunities, conference registration forms, conference highlights & workshop agendas are available at the USCC website or call the number above.

CURRENT CONFERENCE SPONSORS City of San Jose / City of Santa Clara / Waste Handling & Equipment News (WHEN) / The Biodegradable Products Institute / MSW Management Magazine / Environmental Credit Corporation / Portable Plants and Equipment / Resource Recycling Magazine / Vermeer Corporation / Composting News / BioCycle / The Coca Cola Company / Recycling Product News / Heritage Bag / Z Best Products / BASF Corporation / Allied Waste Industries / Waste Management / Green Roofs for Healthy Cities / BIOgroupUSA (Biobag) / Gore Cover Systems / American Recycler / A-1 Organics / Natureworks, LLC / Komptech / Supreme International / Peninsula Compost / Harvest Power / Alameda County Waste Management / Ecosafe 6400 Compostable Bags / Scarab Manufacturing & Leasing / Soil & Mulch Producer News / REOTEMP Instruments / Cedar Grove Systems / Midwest Bio-Systems / Amadas Industries / WeCare Organics / Mirel Metabolix / ALLU Group / ROTO-Mix / Bradco Environmental / Kellogg’s Garden Products / Resource Recovery Systems / St. Louis Composting / California Organics Recycling Council / SPI Bioplastics Council / Kessler Consulting, Inc.

US Composting Council 1 Comac Loop, Suite 14B1 | Ronkonkoma, NY 11779 | T 631.737.4931 | F 631.737.4939 |

November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News 13



Mulch Producer NEWS

EPA Seeks to Add Nine Sites to Superfund List


he EPA recently proposed nine new sites that pose serious risks to human health and the environment to the Superfund section of the National Priorities List (NPL), reports yosemite.epa. gov. Sites that make it onto the NPL are considered the most hazardous and complex sites in the country. NPL sites contain such harmful contaminants as arsenic, asbestos, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethane (TCA) and other materials. To date, 1,627 sites have been listed on the NPL. With the proposal of nine new sites and one site being withdrawn from proposal, there are 62 proposed sites awaiting final agency action. With any site added to the NPL, the EPA attempts to identify the responsible parties. The nine sites that have been proposed for the list include: Armstrong World Industries in Macon, Georgia; Dwyer Property Ground Water Plume in Elkton, Maryland; Washington County Lead District – Furnace Creek in Caledonia, Missouri; Horton Iron and Metal in Wilmington, North Carolina; Mansfield Trail Dump in Byram Township, New Jersey; Milford Contaminated Aquifer in Milford, Ohio; Cabo Rojo Ground Water Contamination in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Hormigas Ground Water Plume in Caguas, Puerto Rico; and West County Road 112 Ground Water in Midland, Texas.

Researchers Warn that Earth’s Lakes are Warming Up


esearchers with NASA recently completed the first comprehensive global survey of temperature trends in the planet’s major lakes over the past 25 years, reports Using infrared satellite data, the NASA team measured the surface temperatures of 167 large lakes worldwide. They found that the average warming rate worldwide was 0.81 degrees Fahrenheit per decades. Some lakes warmed as much as 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit per decade. Warming trends were found across the globe, with the greatest increases recorded in the mid to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Even small changes in temperature can adversely affect lake ecosystems by causing algal blooms that can make lakes toxic or allowing non-native species to overrun native flora and fauna. The largest and most consistent warming trends were found in northern Europe. In North America, trends were slightly higher in the southwest US than in the Great Lakes region. The NASA team says these results are consistent with expected changes associated with global warming. In some regions, the Great Lakes for example, water bodies appear to be warming faster than the surrounding air.

Pacific BioEnergy to Expand Wood Pellet Plant

J reports that Pacific BioEnergy (PBE) has announced plans to expand its wood pellet plant in Prince George, British Columbia, making it the largest facility of its kind in all of Canada. The expansion, estimated to cost $24 million, will include the addition of an in-feed line to handle wood waste residual from bushes. PBE plans for the new facility to use a higher volume of mountain pine beetle ravaged wood from the forests around Prince George once the expansion is complete. Currently, the plant produces roughly 150,000 tons of pellets annually. After the expansion it will produce about 350,000 tons annually. The pellets will be used for coal replacement in power generation plants and exported through Vancouver to European markets.

Info Request #119 14 Soil & Mulch Producer News  November / December 2010



Mulch Producer NEWS

College Partners with Recycler for Food Waste to Energy Program


ennsylvania’s Elizabethtown College (EC) is reaping the benefits of an innovative project in partnership with Somat Company of Lancaster and a local farm to turn food waste from the college’s dining facilities into electricity, reports What sets the EC project apart from similar projects at other institutions of higher education is that it is the first to marry the composting of organic materials with a system that reuses water. Using a waste pulping system designed by Somat Company, EC has reduced its water consumption by nearly 80 percent and cut its waste disposal charges by $12,000 to $15,000 per year. The college’s food waste recycling program generates enough electricity to power approximately 200 homes. EC’s dining services staff begin the process by carefully sorting food waste, which is then ground up and sent to an extractor which dehydrates the organic material. The separated solids and liquids are then packaged and transported to a nearby farm where they are mixed with cow manure and transferred to a digester. Inside the digester, the material decomposes, producing methane gas which is harvested and used to power an electric generator. The residual wastes are sterilized within the digester and then used for bedding and fertilizer. This process recycles roughly 4,400 gallons of water per week.

attention readers! Would you like more information about products and equipment advertised in this issue? If so, please complete the Equipment Locator Service form located between pages 10 & 11 and fax to 440-257-6459.

Info Request #155

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ALLU Group Inc. Info Call: 1-800-939-2558 | Email: Info Request #128 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News 15



Mulch Producer NEWS

Groups Appeal North Carolina Utilities Commission Policy NETWORK


January 24-26, 2011 Greater Columbus Convention Center Managed by: The Ohio Nursery & Landscape Association 72 Dorchester Square • Westerville, OH 43081-3350 Phone: (800) 825-5062 •


he Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and the Southern Environmental Law Center (SELC) are appealing a recent decision by the North Carolina Utilities Commission that would allow Duke Energy to obtain renewable energy credits for harvesting and incinerating whole trees to produce electricity at its coal plants, reports The EDF and SELC claim the state’s renewable energy law restricts the incineration of forest materials and contend that policies need to be updated to protect natural resources and reduce air pollution. Both groups acknowledge that biomass can help the state transition to a clean energy future, but maintain that robust policies are needed to ensure the sustainability of the market. Going against the Utilities Commission’s order, Commissioner William T. Culpepper has voiced opposition to a “law that permits the clear cutting of old growth forest land for electricity generation purposes without providing concomitant requirements for best forestry practices and/or sustainability measures.” The notice of appeal filed Nov. 10 asks the N.C. Court of Appeals to reverse the Utilities Commission’s decision and limit the burning of wood to wood waste, as defined in North Carolina’s 2007 renewable energy law. Representatives of Duke Energy say a strict reading of the 2007 law would derail its renewable-power plans. The company estimates that biomass will account for more than 88 percent of its renewable capacity. Most of that would come from wood, but Duke claims that currently there is not enough waste wood available to meet that target.

Maine DEP puts the Kibosh on Composting Site


or half a decade, residents of Hallowell, Maine have taken their leaves and brush to the town’s composting site to be shredded for mulch. Not anymore. The Kennebec Journal reports that the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has shut the composting site down after a member of the town’s recycling committee invited DEP representatives to a meeting held at the facility. The DEP considers the operation unlicensed and forced the city to send its yard waste to a composter in another town. In response, some angry residents say they’ll simply throw their leaves and brush in the trash from now on.

Rice Hulls a Sustainable Drainage Option for Greenhouse Growers


ccording to a Purdue University study, greenhouse plant growers can substitute rice hulls for perlite in their media without the need for an increase in growth regulators, reports Growing media for ornamental plants often consists of a soilless mix of peat and perlite, a processed mineral used to increase drainage. Growers also regularly use plant-growth regulators to ensure consistent and desired plant characteristics such as height to meet market demands. Organic substitutes for perlite like tree bark have proven difficult because they absorb the plant-growth regulators and keep them from getting to the plants. Using bark requires a 25 percent increase in the volume of growth regulators applied. “We were not sure whether rice hulls, as an organic component, would hold up the growth regulator,” said Roberto Lopez, a Purdue assistant professor of horticulture and co-author of a HortTechnology paper that outlined the findings. “Testing showed that there were no differences in plants grown with rice hulls or perlite.” Finding a waste product to replace perlite could reduce the price of growing media since perlite must be mined and heat processed. 16 Soil & Mulch Producer News  November / December 2010



Mulch Producer NEWS

US Government Announces $7 Million Settlement for Cleanup of Chemical Site


he EPA and the US Department of Justice (DOJ) recently announced a $7 million dollar settlement to remediate Whittier, California’s Omega Chemical Corporation Superfund site, reports The settlement involves 169 different parties, 73 of them associated with the Omega Chemical Site PRP Organized Group (OPOG). The OPOG will remediate the Omega Chemical site, which was contaminated with high concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), other chlorinated hydrocarbons and Freons. From the mid 1970s to 1991, the former Omega Chemical Corporation facility handled large volumes of volatile organic compounds, such as chlorinated solvents and refrigerants. The cleanup of the site, which will cost $5.6 million, will help protect area businesses and communities from further contamination of groundwater. The OPOG will pay the EPA $1.5 million for the cost of overseeing the cleanup as well as past response costs. Counting prior settlements at the site, the cleanup has cost about $24 million, plus cash reimbursements to the EPA of over $14 million. The EPA has found that indoor air contamination near the site is the result of vapor intrusion caused by contaminated soil. Contamination levels in several buildings have been documented at levels above the acceptable range for long-term exposure to PCE and TCE. Approximately 3,000 drums of hazardous waste were removed from the site between 1995 and 1996. In 1999, the EPA added the site to its National Priorities List.

To subscribe to Soil & Mulch Producer News, call 440-257-6453 today.

Info Request #102

Technology For A Better Environment

Info Request #123 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News 17

Product/Equipment Profiles

CW Mill Equipment Co., Inc. Has a New Brand! ArmorHog® Grinder Replacement Parts


rmorHog® provides top quality, high performance screens, tips, hammers and other replacement parts for All Brands and Models of industrial grinders. ArmorHog® provides custom made hammer mill screens and grates for all brands, all configurations, and all models of grinders and is your best choice for grinder tips, bits, strikers, and replacement hammer heads.   ArmorHog® uses the highest quality parent metal in all of its forgings and has its own unique blend of carbide called NitroGrit™, a proprietary blend of carbide found to best suit grinding applications. ArmorHog® tips with NitroGrit™ carbide matrix provide top performance and long life for your investment. NitroGrit™ can be applied in any custom pattern that our customer’s request, and is available in a variety of grit levels.    For more information about HogZilla Grinders visit; about High Performance Grinder Parts visit; and about Hydraulic Mounting Kits visit

Ecolawn Introduces New Self-Propelled, Multi-Purpose Top Dresser


he Ecolawn Self-Propelled Multi-Purpose Applicator is one of the most versatile and maneuverable landscape applicator on the market and can save countless hours of labor and increase your efficiency. The Ecolawn top dresser spreads a wide variety of materials such as compost, natural fertilizers, corn gluten, pelletized products, calcite clay, crumb rubber, sand and even salt. The Ecolawn top dresser is completely self-propelled and highly maneuverable, even up steep and uneven grades. Adjustments to mechanical systems are simple and require very basic hand tools. Multiple grease fittings are easily accessible to assure long bearing life. This unit will fit through a standard 36 inch gate. Loading and unloading the Ecolawn Applicator from your truck is a simple exercise. See the Ecolawn Self-Propelled Multi-Purpose Applicator in action at or call 819-820-9300 for more information.

RAYCO Announces RC1824 Brush Chipper

Norco Equipment Has Introduced Its First-Ever Grinder, The Dynamic 5240

he RAYCO RC1824 brush chipper offers a powerful feed system to pull in brush, limbs, and logs easier, and with less trimming. Dual, horizontal feed wheels are off-set to minimize material kick-up. A 24” diameter top feed wheel is powered by a planetary drive motor and easily climbs over large logs without operator assistance. The chipper throat is 24” wide, straight through to and dead space between feed wheels and chipper drum is minimized. This 18” capacity drum chipper is compact and powerful, featuring a standard 130hp Cummins engine or an optional 160hp Cummins turbo diesel. The engine is rubber isolated for smooth operation. The chipper drum is 38” diameter by 24” wide to power through challenging material. All this performance comes in a package that’s only 187.5” long with the feed table folded.

orco Equipment has introduced its first-ever grinder, the Dynamic 5240 horizontal model. Powered by a fuel-efficient Volvo Tier III 425 HP engine, the Dynamic 5240 grinder will produce up to 200 yd3/hr from infeed materials of up to 18” diameter. The grinder operates with a 52” wide hammermill and can convert from swing to fixed hammers in as little as 45 minutes. Designed to serve a wide range of small to medium-sized grinding applications, the Dynamic 5240 is cited as an excellent primary and regrind machine. The hammermill will efficiently process material including biomass in the woods, slab wood at the sawmill, tree debris from storm clean-up and site clearing projects, and wood scrap from demolition sites. Switching to swing hammers, the 5240 quickly becomes an equally productive regrind station.

For more information contact Erika Harwood at 800-392-2686, or visit

For more information contact Chuck Dull at 803-234-5754, or visit


BASIN BLOCKER Introduces Flood Resistant Storm Drain Insert Filter


ew BASIN BLOCKER Flood Resistant Storm Drain Insert Filter is hand made in America and custom manufactured to fit storm drains of many types and sizes. The standard Basin Blocker filter will collect sediment and trash while the Heavy Duty Basin Blocker Filter will even collect oil and other harmful pollutants providing instant savings of time and labor associated with cleaning and maintaining storm water drains. Commercially designed for Municipalities, Contractors, Shopping centers, Schools districts, and Industrial applications where storm drain maintenance is a necessity. Demolition sites and Recycling facilities can also feel confident in containing harmful pollutants contained in the run-off on these sites. Dealers and distributors are encouraged to inquire so please contact Basin Blocker at 239-466-5158 for more information.

18 Soil & Mulch Producer News  November / December 2010


Bandit Industries Model 2290 Track Whole Tree Chipper Adds Mobility to Land Clearing Operations


uilding on the success of its towable Model 2290 whole tree chipper, Bandit Industries recently introduced the Model 2290 Track whole tree chipper. “The Model 2290 Track is an extremely versatile chipper that will excel in most every type of land clearing operation,” said Bandit Industries President Jerry Morey. “Its smaller size makes it particularly useful in situations with spongy ground or steep inclines, where towable chippers may not be a viable option. “ Driving the 2290 Track is a Caterpillar 315L undercarriage, featuring a track shoe width of 600 millimeters and an approximate ground pressure of 6.3 pounds per square inch. A larger Caterpillar 320L undercarriage is optional. For more information contact Bandit at 800-952-0178, or visit

Make Mountains of Mulch High volume mulch producers know that when they have taken care of the logistics of a mulching operation, they need the the power, reliability, and quality that only a Peterson horizontal grinder can provide. • Caterpillar power from 475 to 1200hp • Over 500 yards per hour output capacity • Lowest cost per ton output No matter what your grinding application, Peterson’s horizontal grinders can get you the volume and productivity that you demand. For more information about Peterson products, call Peterson at 800.269.6520 or visit us at today!








800-269-6520 • • PO BOX 40490 • Eugene, OR 97404 Info Request #127 November / December 2010   Soil & Mulch Producer News 19

6075 Hopkins Road • Mentor, OH 44060 Ph: 440-257-6453 • Fax: 440-257-6459 Email: VOL. IV NO. 6

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NOV / DEC 2010

Inside This Issue Biochar Soil Amendment: Miracle or Too Good To Be True? PAGE 1

Final BCAP Rule Gets Thumbs Up PAGE 6 EPA Awards $4 Million for Brownfield Cleanup Projects PAGE 11 Researchers Warn that Earth’s Lakes are Warming Up PAGE 14 US Government Announces $7 Million Settlement for Cleanup of Chemical Site PAGE 17

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Soil & Mulch Producer News Nov/Dec2010  

Nov/Dec 2010 edition of Soil & Mulch Producer News

Soil & Mulch Producer News Nov/Dec2010  

Nov/Dec 2010 edition of Soil & Mulch Producer News