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davide neroni

Sustainable Birth Village in Africa for Mother and Child


tesi | architettura design territorio


Il presente volume è la sintesi della tesi di laurea a cui è stata attribuita la dignità di pubblicazione. “Impostazione metodologica corretta e ben finalizzata alla elaborazione di una proposta originale su una tematica di rilievo. Interessanti i riferimenti all'architettura vernacolare africana negli aspetti diversi: semantici, funzionali, costruttivi”. This volume is the synthesis of the degree thesis to which the dignity of publication has been attributed. "Correct methodological setting and well aimed at the elaboration of an original proposal on a relevant topic. Interesting references to African vernacular architecture in different aspects: semantic, functional, constructive ". Commissione: Proff. G. Ridolfi, M. C. Torricelli, A. Lambertini, G. Giovannoni, N. Setola, L. Giorgi, A. Valentini

Ringraziamenti A Ludovica. Alla mia famiglia. Ai docenti Torricelli, Setola, Sosa.

in copertina Immagine esplicativa di una parte del complesso architettonico.

progetto grafico

didacommunicationlab Dipartimento di Architettura Università degli Studi di Firenze Susanna Cerri Sara Caramaschi

didapress Dipartimento di Architettura Università degli Studi di Firenze via della Mattonaia, 8 Firenze 50121 © 2018 ISBN 978-88-3338-041-4

Stampato su carta di pura cellulosa Fedrigoni Arcoset


davide neroni

Sustainable Birth Village in Africa for Mother and Child


Presentation This thesis is a proposal of a building system for the creation of birth centers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme derive from the young undergraduate's desire to put the skills acquired in the course of studies and his inventiveness as a young architect at the service of developing countries. A will that aligns with the vision of an architecture "on the front" that had been the theme of the Architecture Biennale 2016 in Venice, recently concluded when the thesis research started. A will that Davide Neroni had already expressed in his graduation thesis, with a project inspired by the architecture and traditional construction techniques for a school in Ivory Coast. But the theme of the master's degree thesis fits more precisely in the emerging issues that involve not only architecture but all: "governments, the private sector, civil society and people", to achieve a sustainable development between 2016 and 2030 on 17 objectives integrated among them. (ONU 2016-2030: 17 DSGs- Agenda for Sustainable Development). When we met Davide Neroni to fine-tune the thesis topic, we thought it was interesting to involve him on issues related to building for health and in particular on the topic of birth settings on which we are working at the TESIS Center - Department of Architecture-University of Florence, but with reference to the European context (COST Action 1405 B.I.R.T.H., Nicoletta Setola responsible). Among the 17 DSGs, one of the first, specifically the third, concerns health and well-being: the "Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all at all ages" and the issue of the reduction to 2030 of neonatal mortality, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, has received particular evidence in the clarification of the targets and actions to be performed. The interests of Davide Neroni could therefore converge on this theme with interests of ongoing research. Furthermore, the DSGs also state as the sixth objective: "Ensure access to water and sanitation for all". Water is a priority issue for many regions in developing countries and a growing problem if adequate systems and infrastructures are not provided to guarantee access to safe and non-contaminated water. A problem that mainly affects children and therefore in Africa and in relation to birth assistance becomes a central problem for every solution to propose. The social context in which to place the topic of the thesis project has thus been clarified: a birth center for the populations of the Sub-Saharan Africa accessible in particular to mothers and families who do not live in the cities, also achievable outside infrastructure for water and sanitation and therefore self-sufficient in this respect. Starting from this topic, the project intends to use an approach that is proposed as a system project that is a functional-spatial and environmental technological meta-project, versatile with respect to different specific intervention contexts because conceived integrating criteria of requirements, compared to different briefs or intervention programs. In the research that preceded the project proposal, the functions of a birth center in the rural territories of African communities were framed. Regulatory references to national programs have been found (Ethiopian Standards). However, the idea that has come forward with greater incisiveness has been that it was necessary to respect family and social habits and at the same time concentrate in a few centers the health resources, scarce and important also in view of promoting an education of mothers and relatives that would have accompanied the return after birth to their villages. The system concept that Davide Neroni's thesis project proposes has therefore moved on some key concepts: to enhance the symbolic references to the vernacular architecture of the countries of the region and to recreate a sense of community even if the birth center can be located far from the community of mother's belonging; use the reference to the modular grid to aggregate spatial nucleus or cells designed as functional units for the different activities, in order to create flexible and adaptable settlements; define constructive techniques that can be carried out by local workers and in some cases by non-specialized people and without the use of imported materials; integrate the solution for water and hygiene in the project at all levels, the symbolic one, the technological one. Developing the concept, the project proposal is divided according to the modules of a system, the spatial functional objects that are composed, in the wake of Alexander's studies, as models to easily design difficult spaces such as an operating room, a delivery room, a room for the sterilization and living spaces such as the rooms of mothers and newborns, outdoor meeting places and protected paths for family members accompanying mothers. A symbolic element of reference emerges then and was taken from a proposal of "Architecture and Vision" conceived as a large amphora to produce drinking water exploiting the phenomenon of the condensation of humid air in the night, in the nucleus of the birth center it recalls familiar images and the sense of maternal protection of what is precious: water, birth, life. Maria Chiara Torricelli Dipartimento di Architettura UniversitĂ degli Studi di Firenze

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General Overview


WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROBLEM DESCRIPTION Public health

Average life expectancy

Who is dying? More than 800 6 million children

women die every day

under 5 years die

due to complication

every year.

in pregnancy and childbirth

Child mortality rate in Africa

Maternal mortality rate in Africa

In Africa for every 1.000

In Africa 1.700 mothers

children born, 110 children

die each 100.000, in Eu-

die, in Europe just 6 chil-

rope just 11 children die each

dren die each 1.000 born.

100.000 during birth.

Causes of death

Hygiene aspects

Social and political problems Lack of political, will to prioritize child health 58% of African people have no access to hygienic services

Failure to address other social determinants of health Decisions about health exclude families in poverty

Financial gap between funding needed and aid received Lack of children and women empowerment No access of health care facilities in rural areas


Previous page Health-care problems and analysis. Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: Save the children, WHO, World Vision

Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

Every year diseases and malnutrition kill nearly 10 million children under the age of 5, and in half of the cases deaths are concentrated in the first weeks of life. In some sub-Saharan African countries, infant mortality is so high that one fifth of children die before they are five years old. Many of the children who survive the diseases grow up with physical or mental delays, without being able to fully develop their potential. For over 50%, the causes of infant mortality are due to problems related to birth, this fact may depend both on the lack of sanitary and health services in these areas, but also on the near absence of suitable staff to give birth to a child. The other causes of infant mortality are trivial diseases, such as diarrhea, or easily treatable, such as measles, malaria or respiratory infections. In half of the cases, the effects of the disease are rendered lethal by an overall state of debilitation due to malnutrition or vitamin deficiencies.

In the industrialized countries, almost no child dies more for similar reasons. It is therefore not wrong to state that behind the death of a child, there is almost always the specter of poverty (Save the children, State of the world's mothers, 2013). The same could be said for maternal mortality: in the world, every minute, a woman dies in childbirth or for complications related to pregnancy. These initial problems affect about 30% of maternal mortality. Other important causes that develop in pregnant women can be characterized by infections, excessive bleeding due to childbirth and therefore the impossibility of interrupting hemorrhages, complications due to abortion and other causes direct to childbirth. These type of healthcare problems affects much more than pre-existing conditions such as malaria or HIV. The risk of death for these reasons is on average 250 times higher for an African woman than for a European woman (WHO, 2014). The current situation of Sub-Saharan

Africa does not depend only and exclusively on problems of a health-care nature, but other types of factors have a significant influence on, such as the hygiene, political and social aspects. Regarding hygiene, about 60% of the African population does not have access to primary hygienic facilities, and this factor, together with poverty and lack of education causes health problems. The other fundamental aspect that contributes to the living conditions of these populations is, as previously mentioned, the political and social one. Infact in Sub-Saharian Africa there is a lack of political that prioritise children health and an absence of empowerment for this category. Moreover the decisions about health programs excludes families in poverty, and at the end there are not health care facilities in rural areas and this create a gap between people that lives in cities and the ones that lives outside (World Vision, 2009)

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Quality care be-

Safe blood

Health-care

fore, during and

supplies

equipment

Skilled atten-

Breast

Bed nets

dants

feeding

Vaccinations

Essential medicines such as antibiotics

after childbirth

Social space

Health-care instruction

Operating room

Delivery room

Neonatal area

Hospital stay

Staff housing

Medical examination

Waitng room

Laundry/Kitchen

Water storage

Providing electricity

Hygienic approach

Public Health approach


Previous page Health-care problems and analysis. Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: WHO, Saving mothers lives.

The health needs and strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa

In their report "Saving Mothers Lives", the World Health Organization analyzes, in addition to maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, which is referred to as the most dangerous area in which to give birth to a child, also the health and technical needs to reduce the rate of maternal and child mortality. Primary needs include vaccinations and essential medicines such as antibiotics, a supply of tools suitable for health purposes and the need for quality service. These elements combined with technical measures such as breastfeeding, bed nets and health instructions provided to patients and family members, can contribute to the reduce mortality, and each death will be recorded with the causes of death. Moreover, through their reports it was possible to identify the functions necessary for the realization of a health service with the right qualities to guarantee an efficient service. First of all the areas used for birth such as an operating room and a de-

livery room, areas suitable for the first medical visits for patients, areas for post-partum and dormitories for hospitalization. Another very important aspect is indicated by the need to provide water for sanitary use but above all drinking, with which it is possible to reduce many of the causes of diseases and mortality. There are some basic strategies and techniques to reduce the infections and mortality in healthcare. One of these is the supply of a sterilization service which, through the boiling of water and the flambation, allows the reduction of health problems. Regarding the aspect of public health, the single interventions that most impact on reducing infant mortality are: • Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of a child's life, which accounts for around 13%; • The correct use of mosquito nets treated with insecticide against malaria, which accounts for about 7%; • The correct use of complementary foods for breastfeeding after 6 months, which accounts for 6%;

• The use in advance of zinc supplements, which accounts for about 5%; • The tuberculosis vaccine and adequate childbirth assistance, both of which account for 4%; • The availability of drinking water and adequate sanitation, which accounts for 3%; • The administration of vitamins, vaccination against neonatal tetanus, appropriate neonatal care and appropriate breastfeeding substitutes for HIV-positive women, each of which affects 2%; • The measles vaccine and periodic treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy, which account for about 1%. Finally the low tech aspects like health education and hand washing together with the possibility of catching potable and rain water and a service of drainage and phytodepuration can prevent diseases and infection (WHO, Saving mothers lives, 2014).

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Previous page Global health-care situation Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: WHO, Saving mothers lives.

Poverty, education and health

Health-care around the world The World Health Organization defines health as: "State of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being and not the mere absence of illness or infirmity." The health conditions are closely related to the human development index and concern: 1. power supply 2. access to drinking water 3. infant mortality 4. health care 5. infectious diseases We can see the health picture that precisely relates the human development index with the health situation that characterizes a country. Providing adequate healthcare is a problem afflicting both industrialized and developing nations. In industrialized countries, however, health care is very developed and uses a large share of national income. In developing countries, health spending is still too low to talk about a real health policy.

Accessibility of health services Accessibility basically consists in the capacity of the healthcare system to provide assistance at the right time and in the right place to anyone who needs it, regardless of income, geographical area, cultural background and any other variable that characterizes the individual. The indicators formulated at international level for the measurement of accessibility are mainly aimed at quantifying the health supply, ie the effective availability of assistance starting from an assessment of the possible barriers that hinder the best use of the services. These barriers can be objective, such as, waiting lists or the distribution of services on the territory that can be strongly uneven, and subjective like cultural and social aspects. Around the world the amount of hospitals is quantified by World Health Organization (WHO), with the report "Clean Care is Safer Care", which registered the number of facilities in the worldwide per 10.000.000 population.

Europe has the biggest amount of services (over 6000),America follows with 5816 facilities, than there are Asia and the Western Pacific region with 3000 facilities each. An example for understand those number could be given by Italy, that has about 1600 hospitals between public and privates for an amount of 60 million inhabitants. It means that for each 10 million inhabitants there are 260 hospitals. In Africa the situation is completely different, the amount of health-care facilities is less than 2000, and if we think that 2/3 of hospitals are in South Africa (372) and Nigeria (292), 1/3 of the remaining hospitals are located in other countries, especially in large cities and not in rural areas. Consequently, they must walk for five or six hours to reach a hospital, and yet, most diseases and injuries should be checked up in the early phases. Those analyses are useful in understanding the following choices of my design.

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Project Objective and Brief

Previous page Visualization of Warka Water tree and life in the complex.

Objective • Reduce mortality and hygiene accessibility. The public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa is often given by a cause-effect relationship between poverty, malnutrition, lack of hygiene and education that together cause diseases. The affected categories are mainly mothers and children, who are subject to high mortality rate often caused by: infections, malaria, complications during childbirth, Causes of mortality can be avoided by preventing infections with simple strategies such as providing a simple sterilization service, healthcare instructions like washing hands and having good hygiene. (WHO 2017). • Feasibility design strategies. Vernacular and local construction techniques; designed and developed through a participatory methods with local communities. • Low cost technology, the aim of providing potable water. The idea is to for a simple, sustainable, affordable technology to provide clean water to local birth centers in sub-Saharan

Africa. In many of these settings, there is no water at all, or the water that is available is scarce and/or contaminated. Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity due to post-natal infection is extremely high as a consequence. Brief

• Social and health-care facilities designed as a community village: The initial strategy is to create a healthcare village for mothers and children in rural areas, a place where they can exchange their own opinion about maternity and pregnancy, a peaceful location where skilled medical staff can follow pregnant women throughout the pre and post-delivery period. • Low-cost technology, Warka Water Tree: My sustainable environment project is based on low-cost systems producing drinking water, using a simple technology called Warka Water tree, a prototype that works with condensation created by the different temperature between day and night using natural condensation.

• Flexibility: The project has been designed with a hexagonal system that has the possibility of repeating itself in space according to the needs of the reference population. The warka water tree has the role of nucleus / focus as the above typologies work as satellites. The hexagonal system is designed in such a way as to create the possibility of expansion, in fact, each cell is defined by specific elements that can be repeated at will according to actual needs. • Vernacular architecture: Around this life tree vernacular architectures realized with low-cost local materials will host the birth and support the dignity and health of people lives. • Utility: The medical attendance under examination is designed for a number of 16 expectant moms, with a couple of weeks stay, plus medical staff.

The services available are: - 1 operating room = 78 sqm - 2 delivery rooms = 157 sqm - 2 medical examination rooms = 157 sqm - 4 dormitories = 512 sqm 16 patients 7 staff - 2 sterilization rooms and technical area = 157 sqm - 2 kitchens = 70sqm - 2 laundry rooms 70 sqm - 7 warka water tree = 350L per day at 700 L per day - open and semi-open Social spaces for families.

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The vernacular architecture, the sense of community and the idea of focus The concept of the project is based on some aspects considered fundamental for the development of a birth center in a rural area of Sub-Saharan Africa: the desire to create a sense of community, even distant from the village of belonging of the mothers, the use of a modular grid to guarantee a flexible and adaptable development where necessary, to use vernacular construction techniques that recall the culture of the African people, which can be produced at a low cost by local workers without any specialized skills with cheap and local materials, provide water for both drinking and hygienic use with the possibility of creating a self-sufficient health facility in all levels from water to the technological plant design. The theme of focus has characterized the African culture since ancient times. It is based on the idea to create a common space where people could have all the social activity that they need such as meeting, learning or eating together. Most of the time (in rural areas) the focus space is under a simple tree that creates a space within its shadow, as shown in the picture below, but could be also a built place like a riad in the north of Africa, where people stay in the diwan looking at the inner garden.

Daily drinking water supply. Warka water tree The design was influenced by the aims of providing good quality public hygiene and by the daily water supply. I considered it interesting to build my

design hypothesis by integrating into the building system the warka water tree, that is an ecological structure designed by an Italian architecture office called ‘Architecture and Vision’. “Warka water is a vertical structure designed to collect drinking water from the air providing an alternative water source to rural populations facing challenges in access to drinking water. WW not only provides a vital resource for life, but also creates a social place for the community, where people can gather under the shade of their public education and public tendon. Warka water mainly uses natural and biodegradable local materials. It is a temporary structure designed to leave no trace on the environment after removal and therefore does not require excavation or soil modification work for the tuning.

The Warka does not extract water from the ground. In addition to drinking water, water generated from the tree can be used for irrigation, reforestation and regeneration of the ecosystem. It’s inspired by the warka tree a tipical tree located in ethiopia that is used as focus and social point. Daily accumulation: 50 to 100 Lpd, annual average. Water tank storage: 100 L Construction: 4 days, 6 people (by hand, no electric machines required) Installation: 3 hours, 4 people Weight: 60 kg Dimensions: Height 12 m - Footprint 2 m Surface: Mesh 80 sqm, collector 43 sqm, roof 87 sqm Cost: ~ $ 1,000 (production in Ethiopia) Maintenance: easy to maintain, clean and repair”. Source: http://www.warkawater.org/

World Health Organization minimum water consumption for 16 patients and medical staff


Focus in Africa and water consumption Realized by Davide Neroni Sources: World Health organization; www.warkawatertree.org

Feasibility strategies. Amount of daily drinking water According to what was previously calculated, using the formula of the World Health Organization, the health-care facilities hypothesized and usable by patients and medical stuff requires about 270 liters of drinking water per day. The warka water tree technology allows to have a minimum of 50 liters up to a maximum of 100 lpd, for my system I have used 7 in order to provide sufficient daily quantity of water.

Concept and cryteria analysis From bio-organic to Architecture Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world. This is achieved through design approaches that aim to be sympathetic and well-integrated with a site, so buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition. Since my design is focused on healthcare facilities, I tried to create a connection between the culture of Africa (focus) and the anatomy of humans. Those two topics looks totally different but i noticed that they’re strongly linked to the idea of Focus/nucleus itself, in fact both of them are characterized by the presence of this inner space where the other functions are located all around the middle point. The challenge is to create an architectural complex using this connection with the idea of having something more centralized that is used by everything around it.

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Elements and Proposal of the System


Introduction The first type is represented by the ogival dome, which is made of cooked earth bricks with the help of a two-burner yard compass. The second type is that of dormitories called “ubuntu house�, which takes its name from the ubuntu philosophy of Africa. The third technology used is attributed to service spaces and connection between environments, using the Nubian vault, a particular constructive historical typology that is part of African culture.

All the techniques described above have in common the fact that they are cheaply made with local materials and do not require specific capabilities. In fact, all this gives the opportunity to create a community-led project, and it is also possible to educate the people in the maintenance and development of these buildings. This first architectural typology is called "tukul", originates in east africa from the population of the Gurage living in the south of Ethiopia, mainly semi-mountainous country, with highlans forest and green valleys closer to the Gogeb river.

This technique is mostly used not only in Ethiopia but in all Sub-Sharan Africa. The houses are circular, with thatched steep roofs generally with a pot at the apex. Eache stands in its own clean compound. a dirty one is described as being "like that of a dead man, idleness is a sin, work is the key of success, failure to improve one's land is purely bad farming and can by no means be blamed on the spirits." Countries that use this technique:

The manual skills of the Gurage people, their gift for organization and their adaptability have long been recognized and are in good standing since modernization destroyed some of the traditional ways of life. Their houses are built with lathwork structure and it's covered with soil easily avaiable in the sorrounding. The result is that the interior is cooler in the day and warmer at night, compared to the exterior temperature. The thatch roof also helps with thermal control, in effect brathing, allowing warm air to escape during the day. (Wikipedia)

Materials:


Vernacular Tipology and Innovation: Tukul

Village of Gourna in Tebe, Hassan Fathy

The constructive technique of the ogival dome is based on the use of the compass: a tool recovered from the ancient Nubian constructive tradition which -the present Republic of Sudan had already begun to reuse in the 1940s for the construction of the village of Gourna in Tebe, designed by the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy. It is a technique developed and improved by Caròla, which allows to build self-supporting domes without the help of centine, a technique that the architect evolves on the plane of expressive and figurative possibilities. Hassan Fathy rediscovered the use of the Nubian compass, the use of a rope to construct semi-spherical dome structures, given a centre on the floor while, the mason is positioned on the bottom and at the top in order to position the bricks. Caròla modifies the original compass by lifting the centre dome from the ground, Y, (usually about a metre), and moving it to an X relative to the real centre of the structure; All this leads to the realization of an OGIVAL dome,

which is more airy, tall, spacious, and optionally a small upper opening can be inserted, creating pleasant summer updrafts currents. The Kaedi Hospital in Mauritania is one of Caròla's first achievements with the modified Nubian compass system. In this structure all the types of cupolas are used that can be realized with the compass and also other types of vaults. The ogival dome integrates and overlaps, together with vaulted corridors, an overall harmonic and functional structure, with spaces reserved for family members, who with their support help the patient morally, dividing the paths and spaces. The material in this case is cooked brick, because the traditional brick of raw earth is delicate, as, it flakes if it is not completely covered by a layer of clay, and periodic maintenance cannot be guaranteed in the case of a private construction, which is carried out free of charge by all the capable village members.

Workshop San Potito Sannitico, Fabrizio Caròla

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The Nubian Vault technique is an ageold method of timberless vault construction, originating in upper Egypt. It uses only earth bricks and earth mortar. Nubian vaults built over 3,000 years ago at the Ramesseum mortuary temple, Luxor, are still standing. Teams of African masons, trained in the Nubian Vault technique, build safe, sturdy, well-insulated vaulted roofs of mud bricks and train local apprentices on-site. The bricks are made from locally available earth and water that are dried in the sun and can be protected from rain erosion by traditional methods.

Houses with Nubian Vault roofs cost less to build than those with tin and timber roofs, are cool in hot weather, warm in the coldest of nights, and can last for 50 years or more if properly maintained. People in rural areas have to buy sheet metal (corrugated iron), sawn timber beams and rafters for roof-building. These imported building materials, with their deplorable thermal, acoustic, and aesthetic properties, must be paid for in cash, a problem for those living mostly outside any formal economic system. Finding the necessary funds becomes a major drain on family resources and on local economies. (The Nubian Vault Association)

Countries that use this technique:

Materials:


Vernacular Tipology and Innovation: Nubian Vault School in Coba, Mali, Caravatti Architects

Ecologically sustainable: no corrugated iron roofing sheets, nor timber beams, rafters, or supports. Carbon neutral: none of the construction materials are manufactured, or transported long distances, nor do any trees need to be cut down. Economically viable: only locally available raw materials (earth, rocks, and water) are used, favoring local economic circuits and self-sufficiency. Comfortable: due to the excellent thermal and acoustic insulation properties of earth construction.

Durable: NV buildings have a far longer lifetime than those with corrugated iron and timber roofs, and maintenance is simple.

Village of Gourna in Tebe, Hassan Fathy

Modular: applicable to a wide range of buildings (houses, schools, health centers), which are easily extendable. Vernacular: incorporating traditional practices and aesthetics of earth architecture. (The Nubian Vault Association)

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The ubuntu house is called in this way because of the meaning of the word itself that in African culture represents a true ideology of life. It is a bantu expression that indicates "goodwill toward the next". It is a rule of life based on compassion and respect for the other. Appealing to the ubuntu, it is common to say Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, “I am what I am by virtue of what we are all". Ubuntu urges to support and help each other, to realize not only their own rights, but also their own duties, as it is an ideal push towards the whole of humanity, a desire for peace. It is a building made with the “cob� technique that is a natural building material made from subsoil, water, some kind of fibrous organic material (typically straw), and sometimes lime.

The contents of subsoil naturally vary, and if it does not contain the right mixture it can be modified with sand or clay. Cob is fireproof, resistant to seismic activity and inexpensive. It can be used to create artistic, sculptural forms and its use has been revived in recent years by the natural building and sustainability movements. Cob is an English term, attested to around the year 1600, for an ancient building material that has been used for building since prehistoric times. The etymology of cob and cobbing is unclear, but in several senses it means to beat or strike, which is how cob material is applied to a wall. Some of the oldest man-made structures in Afghanistan are composed of rammed earth and cob. Cobwork (tabya) was used in Maghreb and al-Andalus in the 11th and 12th centuries. Cob material is known by many names including adobe, lump clay and chalk mud.

Countries that use this technique:

Materials:


Vernacular Tipology and Innovation: Ubuntu

Mexican Pavillion, Biennale Architettura 2016 Cob houses are made of clay-like lumps of soil, sand and straw. Unlike adobe and straw bale construction, cob building does not use bricks or blocks. Instead, wall surfaces are built up with cob mixture and sculpted into smooth, sinuous forms. Because the mud mixture is porous, cob can withstand long periods of rain without weakening. A plaster made of lime and sand may be used to windproof the exterior walls from wind damage. Cob architecture is suitable for the desert and some people claim cob is even good for very cold climates, because of the great wall thickness.

From an environmentally-friendly point of view, no tree is cut down, no rock is quarried, no metal is mined, no oil is extracted. It does not require any melting or heating at high temperatures, or the addition of any chemicals or massive quantities of water, to turn it into a building material. There is no need for transport from the forest/mine to the factory. C o b i s not toxic. It will not harm health if we live a lifetime within earthen walls. (Clifton Schooley & Associates, 2008)

Gando Primary School, Francis KĂŠrĂŠ, Ghana

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A huge variety of cultural values and symbolic functions are ascribed to the world’s tree species.Particular trees have a sacred status, are used in rituals, provide ingredients for cultural dishes or have symbolic importance for ethnicity, identity and connection to a place. Trees also play a central role in stories, myths and histories. In the Ivory Coast, village elders sit under particular “abres a palabres” trees, such as the Gold Coast Bombax (Bombax buonopozense), to make major political and judicial decisions. In Madagascar, the majestic Grandidier’s baobab (Adansonia grandidieri) plays a similar role, symbolising and providing a focal point for a number of village affairs. Losing threatened trees of cultural value would diminish important aspects of life for different communities and ethnic groups. Conversely, the future of many of the world's trees is strongly linked to how different cultures evolve and change overtime.

When cultural values ascribed to trees are enhanced or re-invigorated, the survival prospects of a host of tree species may be greatly enhanced. In African culture, the tree is not only a source of ingredients and food, but it has a much more important role, since in many countries the tree is seen as a place of social aggregation where political and administrative decisions are taken, and under which there are also school lectures and training sessions. It represents that shadowed area in arid places where people go to exchange their own ideas or just to meet. The best public place possible in rural villages. (Wikipedia)

Countries that use this technique:

Materials:


Vernacular Tipology and Innovation: Tree Warka Water Tree prototype, Architecture and Vision

Warka Water is a vertical structure designed to collect potable water from the air, giving an alternative water source to rural populations that face challenges in accessing drinkable water. WW not only provides a fundamental resource for life – water – but also creates a social place for the community, where people can gather under the shade of its canopy for education and public meetings. "The Warka’s water harvesting technique and construction system are inspired by several sources. Many plants and animals have developed unique micro- and nano-scale structural features on their surfaces that enable them to collect water from the air and survive in hostile environments."

The name of the project ‘Warka’ comes from the Warka Tree, which is a giant wild fig tree native to Ethiopia. It constitutes a very important part of the local culture and ecosystem by providing fruit and a gathering place for the community. Warka Water mainly uses local natural and biodegradable materials. It is a temporary structure designed to not leave traces on the environment after removal and therefore doesn’t require excavation or ground modification works for set-up. The Warka doesn’t extract water from the ground. In addition to drinking water, the water generated by the Warka tower can be used for irrigation, reforestation and ecosystem regeneration (www.warkawater.org)

Warka Water Tree, Ethiopia, Architecture and Vision

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The first architectural element of my project, is the ogival dome. Decisions are taken based on the previous references by Fabrizio Caròla and Hassan Fathy, with the most modern and adapting them to this new context. In fact, in this example you can notice a different opening system that is not single as in the previous examples but multiple, allowing the passage of more natural air flows and light. Each constructive system that I have chosen follows a specific function. In this case, the dome is used in the most strictly hospital spaces, as they are larger and brighter environments, which lend themselves to an excellent internal subdivision. Inside, there is an internal partition that categorizes different environments, such as in the operating room with a central core where the main functions are performed and a series of rooms and passageways that makes the dome more fluid in the paths. Or in the case of the first medical facility where the situation is inverted, the center is characterized by the expectation, while the surrounding environments represent the various outpatient clinics for visits such as vaccination, medical examination and so on.

Operating room

Delivery room

Sterilizing room

Medical examination


Previous and current page Ogival dome schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: Fabrizio Caròla opere e progetti.

Elements of Building System: Ogival Dome

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The second type considered is the Nubian vault; in this case its function is multiple. In most cases, the Nubian vault has two functions, a simple connection or a modular block in which whole dwellings or part of them may be occupied. In my case, the Nubian vault acts as both, the connection between a hospital environment and another, and also as the entrance to the various sectors; a kind of covered walkway that is protected from atmospheric agents and therefore infections. In another case this facility is used as a space for services, in fact under the tiled roof you can insert a space to cook and to eat. This type of service is more thought out for the families of patients who can stay in the more defined public areas and find refreshments in these environments during the days of hospitalization. The other specific need is to include places that are suitable for the hygienization of non-hospital garments. On the other hand, the special sterilization required for sanitary tissues is located within the safe and controlled indoor environment under the domes.

Connection

Entrance

Kitchen

Laundry


Previous and current page Nubian vault schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: The nubian vault association

Elements of Building System: Nubian Vault

31


The Ubuntu typology is intended for dormitories and all housing services. This type is characterized by an internal partition dictated by the intersection of two round arches that create three interior spaces used as bedrooms and a fourth entrance area and health services such as toilets and showers. This building is thought as a single housing module that can be mirrored, creating a three-bedroom dormitory plus a bathroom or six-room plus a bathroom to choose from according to the needs of the user. The Ubuntu House is designed in the same way for both staff and patients, with the addition that moms are together with the new-born, giving the mothers the chance to breastfeed the baby and to care for it. Many of the early infant illnesses can be avoided simply by taking care of the small things. The dormitory is designed by placing the openings on a parallel side and with the slightly raised roof to allow the natural passage of air and thus create the right climatic conditions for the place. Finally, the dormitory roof is protruding in order to cover the cob construction system which, despite being durable and not requiring much maintenance, is water sensitive.

Hospital stay

Neonatal area

Staff housing

Hygienic services


Previous and current page Ubuntu schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: Green home buildings

Elements 0f Building System: Ubuntu House

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Warka water is designed with different shapes and sizes as needed. In my case I chose the curved shapes for several reasons: firstly, for water capacity ranging from 50L to 100L per day and secondly for aesthetic reasons, as it suits the sinuosity of the rest of the project. The warka water tree has functions that go beyon d the supply of water, in fact it plays a fundamental role in the social life of those who use it. It is a social cohesion concept where people meet, exchange ideas and make decisions with the aim of collecting the vital element of life, water. In my project, this structure is not only used for the aforementioned functions but also to provide a space where to impart pre- and post-natal health education, and basic information on hygiene. Training can also be extended to family members, both children and adults. It can provide basic knowledge that can improve the quality of life of the whole family not only from a health but also formative point of view.

Social space

Health-care information

Providing water Warka Water Tree prototype, Architecture and Vision

Meeting point


Previous and current page Warka water tree schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: Architecture and Vision

Elements of Building System: Warka Water Tree

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Implantation Facilities A water-sanitary system includes: -an adduction or supply system consisting of all the networks, components and equipment that allow the distribution of hot and cold water to the various utilities of a building; - a drainage system, which allows the disposal of the quantities needed to satisfy the needs of the user. The water system of this project begins at the point of connection to the warka water and ends at the point where the water is used, that is the healthcare system, and consists of: a. Supply system; b. Hot and cold-water distribution system and network; c. Hot water production system d. Devices for dispensing and sanitary equipment.

Supply system: The distribution network consists of horizontal tubes and vertical columns. The pressure inside the grid must not exceed 3 bars to avoid noise or pipe breaks. Hot and cold-water distribution system and network: The distribution scheme is a branched type that may have a disomogeneity of flow but in terms of sustainability it is simple and inexpensive, compared to more functional but expensive ring or cage systems.

Hot water production system: Hot-water plants can be autonomous (electric hot water, gas, solar panels, boiler, etc.) or centralized (recirculating network), and generally use electricity, gaseous fuels (methane, LPG) Liquid fuels (diesel), solids (wood, coal), solar energy. In the project, autonomous electrical systems have been adopted, where electric power supplies a coil consisting of a resistor, which develops heat that is used to heat the water inside a reservoir. There is a thermostat that keeps the water temperature under control and regulates the switching on and off of the coil so that the temperature remains within a range of 35-60 °C.

Devices for dispensing and sanitary equipment: The distribution network terminal elements are the taps, which allow the water to flow out of the pipes to the appliance. For the drainage of the toilet, it is necessary to use systems that allow a large quantity of water (10-15 L) to be dispensed in a short time and with high pressure. Water-based materials are generally galvanized steel, copper and plastics (non-toxic polyethylene for drinking water and polypropylene). For example, galvanized steel is used to prevent corrosion by oxidation and because of the excellent resistance to stress caused by pressure water, the choice falls on plastics, chosen for the advantages in terms of reduced assembly times and the greater lightness and maneuverability (weighs about 10 times less than the steel) (www.homeportadvantage.us).


Current page Water distribution schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: www.homportadvantage.us

Technical System

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Phytodepuration Phytodepuration is a sewage treatment system with low energy and realization costs and easy maintenance. In rural areas, this installation is a viable alternative to connecting with public sewerage and all traditional sewage treatment plants. In the phytodepuration facility, the natural humid environments in which bacteria can develop and purify the waters, are artificially rebuilt. In this system, the wastewater flows under the ground level so as not to create bad smells. The implantation is divided into black and gray water collection, where the former comes from the toilet drainage, while the latter comes from different utilities such as sinks, showers and washing machines. Black water is reused to irrigate while the grey in addition to this, can be

used in washing machines or reintroduced into the toilet cabinets. They both undergo a purification process: the gray water, after a first filtration process, goes to a tank, while the black water needs more steps such as grilling and sedimentation, both of which are then definitively purified from the plants. The water purification process is carried out by combining a series of chemical actions that are created between the gravel, the plant varieties being implanted, and the microorganisms that are being developed within this context. The main role is played by plant organisms, whose task is to purify the waste water that is collected within this basin, absorbing the nutrients contained therein. Microorganisms develop into the roots

of these plants, which absorb oxygen to survive by triggering chemical reactions and so reducing the emission of pollutants into the environment. The plants that are found in the surface area are macrophytes, aquatic plants such as canes or cattail, which have the characteristic of favoring the growth of microorganisms through which phytodepuration occurs (www. gutterslondon.co.uk; www.fitodepurazione.it).

Photovoltai System Photovoltaic installations are generally connected to the power net (connected network) or they can be stand alone: a solution adopted to ensure electrical power in areas away from the grid. Stand alone systems: This type of installation is used only when photovoltaic becomes a requirement. Some examples may be: mountain huts, motorhomes, boats, houses isolated and not accessible from the power grid. Also included in this type of installation are all those applications such as the lighting of road signs or lighting in domestic gardens. The main components of this type of photovoltaic plant are: • Photovoltaic panels: Transform solar radiation into continuous electric current • Static converter: in this case the

converter can be DC/DC (chopper) or DC/AC (inverter) depending on the application. In some systems where power supply voltage is already in line with photovoltaic modules, the converter may not be present. • Charge Controller: this is the device that in some way protects the batteries, preventing, for example, that excessive charge or excessive emissions occur inside of them. Accumulators are a fundamental part of the island plant, in fact, they accumulate the energy they need when the modules are unable to produce them due to environmental conditions (e.g. on extremely cloudy days or at night). The main problem of these components is that they should be replaced at least three or four times during the lifetime of the plant (about 25 years) due to frequent charge/discharge cycles.

Dimensioning: area: 8m2 / 10m2 per person = 24 people x 10 = 240m2 Power of installation=30,00 kWp Estimated production of the plant = 48.121 kWh / year Annual CO2 Emissions Avoid = 25,5 t / year (www.who.com/enerpoint).


Current page Phytodepuration and energy system schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Sources: www.fitodepurazione.it www.who.com/enerpoint

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Construction process Workshop San Potito Sannitico, Fabrizio Caròla.

Materials

The ogival dome is made without the support of shades and is self-supporting. It is constructed by placing several layers of bricks in cooked earth on each other with the aid of a two-fires construction compass, which allows the realization of a Point dome. There is the possibility to make it one or two coats with an air gap, referring to the many examples in the west. The dome is covered with a layer of conglomerate on the ground. It is possible to create door and window openings with the help of simple shades. In most cases the dome is surrounded by small glass holes, which allow the passage of light and/or air.

Tools


Buildability of System

Previous and current page Ogival Dome system schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Photo source: Fabrizio Caròla opere e progetti.

An ogival dome is made with cooked earth bricks. The dome is built using a “construction compass”, by lifting the centre of dome from the ground, Y, (usually about a meter), and moving it to an X relative to the real centre

of the structure, placing layers of brick all around a central point, and compass define, in a precise way, the position of each brick. Moreover, windows are located on the top of the structure that allow natural air flows, creating a

healthy place. Due to this method, the ogival dome doesn’t require a particular skills to be built. It could be made by locals creating a participatory project with the community.

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Nubian vault system schemes Realized by Davide Neroni. Photo source: The nubian vault association

Construction process

Materials

The Nubian vault technique lends itself well to various levels of customisation: It can be adapted to suit the needs and financial resources of a wide range of clients, from the poorest rural families to wealthier urban ones. It allows for the future extension of a building, by lengthening a vault, by adding further vaults on the side of an existing one, or by adding a second storey onto an existing single storey building. It is easy to re-arrange the interiors of Nubian vaulted buildings. This modular aspect potentially increases the popularity of nubian vault architecture, as homes can be ’grown’ to match developing family needs.

Tools


It is essential to choose a site that is not in danger of seasonal flooding; dry gullies or low-lying sites near rivers should be avoided, as should sites which might lie close to rainwater run-offs.

Mixing earth mortar, making big bricks for the walls.

Depending on the properties of the ground and the site of the building, foundations can vary from 40 to 80 cm deep; they need to be 70 cm wide for load-bearing walls, and around 50 cm wide for the gable walls. They are filled with rocks, bound with an ordinary earth mortar.

Flat bricks (24cm X 12 cm X 4 cm) for the vaults are made in advance from good quality earth, such as that traditionally used for building granaries. No formwork or shuttering is used to support the vault during construction. The mason, using a mortar made from the same earth as the bricks, starts the vault by laying the first courses against one of the gable walls. A cable made of 6 steel wires coiled together is stretched between the two gable walls, at the height of the base of the vault. This defines the central axis o f the vault, and a cord fixed to a sliding ring on the cable acts as a guide to ensure that the mason maintains a constant radius for the vault. Towards the top of the vault, the mason adds a couple of fingers width to each joint to develop an ogival (catenary) shape. Finally, the roof is water-proofed, using plastic sheeting, over a smooth coat of mud mortar. The sheeting is then covered with a rendering of enriched mud mortar, which both protects the plastic from damage by the sun, and provides additional protection against heavy rains. It also acts as a warning signal to the proprietor if the black plastic sheeting is revealed after heavy rains then it’s time to repair the rendering.

Load-bearing walls which carry the vault are 60 cm thick, and are made up of rows of super-imposed mud bricks. Recesses and openings are built into the thickness of the walls. These are headed with arched lintels built with temporary support.

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Materials

Cob is earth used as a building material. Straw is mixed in with it to improve its strength. It is free; there are only labor costs involved. Cob buildings are built as monoliths with huge, thick, solid walls. Traditionally, they were built approximately 600mm and 4/6m high. They need “a good hat and good boots�, that is, a large sandstone overhang or block plinths to minimize the amount of rain reaching the cob walls. They need to be finished with compatible materials, which will protect the cob but also allow it to breathe.

Tools

Construction process


Previous and current page Ubuntu system schemes Realized by Davide Neroni.

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Construction process

Materials

Air always contains a certain amount of water, irrespective of local ambient temperature and humidity conditions. This makes it possible to produce water from air almost anywhere in the world. Locations with high rates of aerosol and humidity are best to install WW. Daily water collection: 50 to 100lpd, annual average Water tank storage: 100 L Construction: 4 days, 6 people (by hand, no electrical power machinery required) Assembly: 3 hours, 4 people Weight: 60 kg Dimensions: Height 12 m – Footprint 2 m Surface Area: Mesh 80 sq. m, Collector 43sq.m, Canopy 87sq.m Cost: ~ $1,000 (production in Ethiopia) Maintenance: easy to be maintained, cleaned and repaired.

Tools


Previous and current page Warka water system scheme Realized by Davide Neroni. Photo sources: www.warkawater.org

Warka Water is 12 m in height and 60 kg in weight, consisting of 3 modules that are very easy to assemble, from top to bottom. The outer frame structure, made with split bamboo elements, is structurally optimized for lightness and strength. The elegant design of the triangulated frame geometry offers both stability and robustness. The joints are made with

metal pins and hemp ropes. A network of ropes provides additional stability. The tension in the diagonal guy-wire, combined with the compressional strength of the bamboo structure, allows the tower to withstand strong winds. Eight fixation points are placed radially at 26 ft (8 m) distance from the WW base and are tightened with 8 polyester ropes, which are very low-

stretch and ultraviolet resistant. Inside the bamboo structure hangs the plastic Mesh that collects droplets of water from the high humidity in the air and the Collector where the dew condensation can happen at night. A textile canopy around the WW bamboo structure creates a shaded area. (Architecture and Vision, www.warkawater.org)

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Functional Proposal and Design


The project was conceived with the aim of enhancing the elements of the African vernacular architecture and the desire to recreate a sense of community, even if it is possible to position the complex far from the mother's area of belonging. The village is therefore hypothesized as a set of the previously described elements of the system, in which different combinations are made on a hexagonal base that can then be repeated accord-

ing to needs; each designed cell has its own particularity and its function. These cells are then combined and divided according to their intended use; each one is characterized by a warka water tree that provides the right amount of daily drinking water. The complex is characterized by three macro areas: firstly, a completely public area where everyone, that is, patients, doctors and family members, can access and use the services

such as laundry, kitchen, etc. secondly, there is a central semi-private area where there are first examination rooms and staff and patient dormitories where families have limited access to mothers' dorms only. Finally, there is a third area that is strictly devoted to hospital programs in which there are the necessary functions for carrying out medical activities, such as delivery room, operating room and sterilization laboratory.

Cellular Hypotesis

Zooning

Paths Scheme

Functional Proposal

Elements Combination

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Siteplan The design of the "Sustainable birth village" is presented as a set of hexagonal modules in which all the necessary services for carrying out health-related activities are included. The main axis is West-East, from the

public to the more private. The orientation was chosen in order to use daylight as much as possible. Above the dormitories there are the solar panels that are exposed to the south-east and positioned precisely on the thatched roof, even if in climatic

zones such as those in Africa it is preferable to have a horizontal positioning. Nevertheless, the choice was made with the desire to make the most out of the space, without forsaking the functionality of the roof for rainwater collection.


Floor Plan In the floor plan, it is possible to analyses the internal layout of each individual element. In the eastern part, there are the Nubian vaults that serve as shelter and provide basic services

for family members and visitors of the complex. Then we move towards two ogival domes that have the function of containing the first medical examination room, followed by dorms that have a much more geometric inter-

nal division. What differentiates the staff housing from the hospital accommodation is sharing, that is, in the first case there are closed environments that are more reserved, while in the second one there is an open and

shared central space. Finally, the hospital part is characterized by an alternation between domes and Nubian vaults that allows the passage between the rooms in total security and privacy.

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After a functional development, the project meets the most detailed and specific phases, in fact the bioclimatic and technical aspects are studied. As shown in the section below, the complex is supplied with a transverse ventilation system in the dormitories and in the Nubian vaults, through a system of parallel openings that allow the natural flow of air. These openings also have a shape that allows the passage of light but not of heat, in fact, their small size and considerable height favour this type of behaviour. As far as the ogival domes are concerned, the type of ventilation changes, from the horizontal one it is used vertically one. Specifically, the design consists of large arches at the base and several radial holes at the cusp of the dome (instead

of one as in some examples of modern architecture), in order to produce a chimney effect from which the hot and consumed air can escape naturally. Finally, as shown below, these holes are covered with small plexiglass domes that promote ventilation but protect against water infiltration. Subsequently, the four most important types of the complex have been studied in detail: theatre, the Delivery room, the medical examination room, the hospital stay and the staff housing. The entire complex in detail has been sized based on the Ethiopian standards "Health-Care requirements", prepared under the direction of the Technical Committee for Medical Care Practices (TC90) and published by the Ethiopian Standards Agency (ESA), submitted to the Secretariat by the

Ethiopian Food, Medicine & Healthcare Administration and Control Authority (FMHACA). On the next page, we can see the comparison between the abacus of the spaces (left tables) and the Ethiopian standards (right tables). Specifically, the ogival domes are designed with a central circular space that can act as a waiting room in the medical examination room and operating room in the delivery room, and are both served by the surrounding service areas. in the delivery room, there are tubes lined in aluminum that allow the passage of light directly from the holes placed at the top. Finally, the dorms are designed with a more private system in the area devoted to staff housing and a more social system in the hospital accommodation zone.


1) DeliveryRoom

2) Medical Examination Room

3) Hospital Stay

4) Staff Housing

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1) Ubuntu foundation detail

Ogival Dome detail Detail of the natural air flow system, used on top of the ogival dome. This technology is characterized by the presence of a little plexiglass dome

that is detached with distancers and this technique allows the passage of air but avoids water infiltration.

2) Ubuntu vertical closing

3) Ubuntu horizontal closing


1) Horizontal closing (exterior - interior)

2)Vertical closing (exterior - interior)

3) Horizontal closing (interior - exterior)

4) Foundation closing (interior - exterior)

• Straw roof; thick. 50 mm

• Earth and Clay plaster; thick. 40 mm

• Gravel filling

• Wood strips; 100 x 100 mm

• “COB” Structure, thick. 540 mm

• Interior finish, stone tiles; thick. 20 mm

• Secondary wood beam; 150 x150 mm

• Sand and lime plaster; thick. 20 mm

• Sandy leveling layer,thick.50 mm

• Foundation structure, 4-head brick thick. 700 mm

• Wood lintel; thick. 100 mm

• Primary wood beam; 200 x 250 mm

• Mosquito net; 90 x 150 x 5 cm

• Flow and discharge pipes; thick. 60 mm

• Concrete substructure layer; thick. 75mm

• Cement mortar; thick. 10 mm

• Wood framed window, 90 x 150 x 5cm

• “COB” Structure; thick. 300 mm

• Concrete leveling;thick. 60mm • Water proof layer, thick. 1 mm • Soil leveling layer; thick. 60 mm

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Afterword

The Davide’s thesis touches upon a very particular subject, that of health in childbirth, on which the Western world as well as developing countries are reflecting. There are many prizes and funding from foundations around the world (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Birth Prize just to name a few) that highlight the willingness to invest in developing countries on research actions and services around the birth and the early stages of life to reduce the mortality of women and children. The healthcare facilities play an important role in this program as they are a bastion to provide services where there are none, as well as social facilities such as maternity waiting homes that have the purpose of educating and supporting local communities in accessing health services. In this framework the idea of this thesis is born: a village for mothers and children that brings together in one place residential facilities housing near the pregnant woman and mothers after birth, and the facility for obstetrical care. The functional system conceived in the thesis project, built by cells and their possible aggregation around a central core is characterized by a great flexibility that therefore fits well with the possibility of adapting the base cell to different circumstances in accordance with the context, the site and the reference population. In this way, the project of the architectural system proposed by Davide aims to promote and foster the birth and its health outcomes, from the reduction of mortality and unnecessary medical interventions at birth, to the support for women and children in the pre and post stage of childbirth. There is still much to be done in the study of the relationship between birth spaces and childbirth health outcomes, even in Western countries, and the ongoing research (COST IS0907 and COST IS1405) aims to bring a contribution on this front. The present thesis has set properly the problem and is a solid basis for future studies. Studies that should be done in an interdisciplinary way, taking into account the people on the front line, the model of care, the real needs of the inhabitants due to the location of the new village, the precise climate and deepening the technical feasibility of the technological elements of the system. Nicoletta Setola Dipartimento di Architettura Università degli Studi di Firenze

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Bibliography

Alini L. 2016, Fabrizio Caròla opere e progetti 1954-2016, Clean edizioni, Napoli.

Ramazzotti M., Greco G. 2011, Argilla. Storie di terra cruda, Artemide, Roma.

www.warkawater.org

Baindridge S. 2013, Afritecture Building Social Change, Editor | the A.M., Munchen.

Achenza M., Sanna U. 2009, Il manuale tematico della terra cruda. Tipografia del genio civile, Cagliari.

www.fitodepurazione.it

2017, «The Architectural Review», n. 1441. 2013, «Boundaries Contemporary Architecture in Africa», 2013, n. 1.

Rauch M. 2014, Building with Rammed Earth -A practical experience with Martin Rauch, Lund University, Monrova.

2013, «Boundaries Do it yourself architecture», n. 9.

Dabaieh M. 2014, Building with Rammed Earth, Malmö University, Malmö.

Unesco Institute of Statistics 2001, Global education digest: Comparing education statistics across the world, Montreal.

Wade R. 2009, Child health now, together we can end preventable deaths. World Vision, CITTÀ.

Save the Children, 2017, MONDI DISPARI. Ridurre le disuguaglianze per combattere la mortalità infantile, Rome.

Save the children, 2013, Surviving the first days, state of the world's mothers, London.

Save the Children, 2013, Surviving the first day- state of the World's Mothers, Rome.

Clifton Schooley & Associates 2008, Green home buildings, Barriere.

2017, Internews in Kenya, local voices. Global changes, Dregder.

www.wikipedia.com www.gutterslondon.co.uk

The Nubian Vault Association 2012, Appropriate housing, as soon as possible, for as many as possible, Ganges.

World Health organization 2014, Saving mothers lives, Geneva. Anthony Reid J. M. 2017, Architettura senza Architetti, guida alle costruzioni spontanee di tutto il mondo, Rizzoli, Sagrate (MI).

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INSERIRE IMMAGINE A TUTTA PAGINA


Index

Presentation Maria Chiara Torricelli

5

General Overview

7

Elements and Proposal of the System

19

Functional Proposal and Design

49

Afterword Nicoletta Setola

59

Bibliography

61


Finito di stampare per conto di didapress Dipartimento di Architettura UniversitĂ degli Studi di Firenze Luglio 2018


This project is focused on the design of a sustainable birth village for mothers and child in Sub-Saharan Africa. Is a prototype of an ideological village adaptable in different areas, where everything is made for the community with the idea of a participatory project. First of all it has been made some analasys about geo-political, economic and education situation, secondly, the attention moves on the health-care situation with properly strategies for improve their condition. After that a research about vernacular and modern architecture in Africa has been made with the aim of design something contemporary but also respectful of local tradition. The final result is a mix of all these studies, totally enviromental-friendly and economic, made with local and traditional materials, a place where mothers can receive health-care services and social ones, all of that in rural areas where often there is a lack of it. Davide Neroni, San Benedetto del Tronto (AP), 1992. He studied Architecture at the University of Camerino, graduated at bachelor degree in 2014, studying a sustainable school in Ivory Coast with Professor Massimo Perriccioli. In 2017 he had the Master’s degree in the International Course of Architecture and he graduates with honors and recommendation for publication with Professor Maria Chiara Torricelli, Professor Nicoletta Setola and Professor Alvaro Valera Sosa. Passionate about rammed earth , African culture and building technology, introduced a sperimental thesis about sustainable birth village for mothers and child in Sub-Saharan Africa.

ISBN 978-88-3338-041-4

ISBN 978-88-3338-041-4

9 788833 380414

Profile for DIDA

Sustainable Birth Village in Africa for Mother and Child  

This project is focused on the design of a sustainable birth village for mothers and child in Sub-Saharan Africa. Is a prototype of an ideol...

Sustainable Birth Village in Africa for Mother and Child  

This project is focused on the design of a sustainable birth village for mothers and child in Sub-Saharan Africa. Is a prototype of an ideol...