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ISSN 1614-4600 · MAR · APR £12.50 · US$  24.50 · €18

English Edition

Review of Architecture and Construction Details · Glass Construction · Vol. 2015 · 2


∂ Review of Architecture Vol. 2, 2015 • Glass Construction Editorial office: E-mail: redaktion@detail.de Tel.: +49 (0) 89 38 16 20-57 Christian Schittich (editor-in-chief) Sabine Drey, Andreas Gabriel, Frank Kaltenbach, Julia Liese, Thomas Madlener, Emilia Margaretha, Peter Popp, Maria Remter, Edith Walter; Sophie Karst, Christa Schicker (freelance assistants) Dejanira Ornelas Bitterer, Marion Griese, Emese M. Köszegi, Simon Kramer (drawings) Product editors: Meike Regina Weber (editor-in-chief) Katja Reich, Hildegard Wänger, Tim Westphal, Jenny Clay Elise Feiersinger (pp. 112 –174); Marc Selway (pp. 176 –205) (English translations) Advertising: E-mail: anzeigen@detail.de Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-34 UK Representative Advertising: Peter L. Townsend Email: plt.detail@gmx.de Tel.: +49 (0)157-85 05 95 32 Fax: +48 (0)89-38 16 20-99 Distribution and marketing: E-mail: mail@detail.de Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Subscription contact and customer service: Vertriebsunion Meynen Grosse Hub 10 65344 Eltville, Germany E-mail: detailabo@vertriebsunion.de Tel.: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-211 Fax: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-212 Publisher and editorial office: Institut für internationale ArchitekturDokumentation GmbH & Co. KG Hackerbrücke 6 80335 Munich Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Fax: +49 (0) 89-39 86 70 www.detail.de/english

The French and Italian translations are available for every issue and can be downloaded as PDF files: www.detail.de/translation


Discussion 114 Built Transparency – Nineteenth Century Greenhouses Christian Schittich

Reports 122 University of Greenwich Mark Julius Garcia 126 Exhibitions, Books

Documentation 128 Residence in Mölle Elding Oscarson Arkitekter, Stockholm 132 City Hall Refurbishment in Heinkenszand Atelier Kempe Thill, Rotterdam 137 Administration Building in Geneva Wittfoht Architekten, Stuttgart 142 Renovation of a Baroque Ensemble in Ljubljana Ofis Arhitekti, Ljubljana 147 Archive Building in Bilbao ACXT, Bilbao 152 Museum Extension in Fort Worth Renzo Piano Building Workshop, Genua with Kendall/Heaton Associates, Houston 159 Museum in Katowice Riegler Riewe Architekten, Graz

Technology 168 Glass in Architecture – New Developments Jutta Albus, Stefan Robanus

Products 176 Property+Product 180 Cladding and surfaces 188 Windows, Doors and Entrances 196 Access, Security and Smart Controls 198 Fire Protection 200 Insulation 204 On the Spot 206 Service 212 Persons and organizations involved in the planning • Contractors and suppliers 214 Programme • Photo credits • Editorial and publishing data


Editorial

Glass Construction As one of the few transparent building materials, glass is definitely here to stay. Though in recent years much attention was directed to its sensual properties, the focus is increasingly turning to its performance. Larger formats, thinner panes, and new processes: in this issue we present the state-of-the-art developments. But that doesn’t mean that the aesthetic qualities of glass are disregarded; instead, they vary corresponding to the application. The building envelope of a World Trade Organization administration edifice in Geneva featured in this issue appears dematerialised; the colourful photovoltaic modules incorporated in the facade of the SwissTech Convention Center in Lausanne produce a kaleidoscope effect; and the generously glazed new skin added to a forty-yearold city hall in Zeeland completely transforms the building’s character.


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Built Transparency – Nineteenth Century Greenhouses Christian Schittich

www.detail.de They are among the nineteenth century’s most fascinating structures, yet tend to be overlooked by classical architectural history: the lacelike greenhouses of iron and glass whose form and articulation are derived solely from functional and technical requirements. New construction methods and formal innovations – later to become fundamentals of modern architecture – are brought to bear in these early manifestations of industrialised construction. Because their erecters – typically gardeners or engineers – were completely free of the conventions of the architecture of their time and questions of style, they were able to employ unusual material combinations as well as the nascent potential of prefabricated construction – but also experiment with hitherto unknown aesthetics. And the building codes for these purely utilitarian structures for plants – initially, stays of longer duration by people were not foreseen – allow greater leeway.

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These factors, in combination with incipient industrialised methods for the production of iron and glass, during a phase in which an increasing number of exotic plants was arriving in Europe from the colonies – aristocrats and wealthy individuals were keen to cultivate and exhibit them – led to the construction of unprecedented spaces. If it hadn’t been for the experience gained by erecting these greenhouses, pioneering buildings such as Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace (1851) would not have been possible. After all, Paxton also obtained his structural knowledge by building greenhouses – although not much remains of them today. Even before Paxton entered the scene, John Claudius Loudon – like Paxton, also trained as a gardener – established the ­fundamental principles of greenhouse ­construction. In his numerous early-nineteenth-century texts and studies he seeks to define their ideal “characteristics”. His

sole point of departure: the needs of the plants. To allow the greatest possible amount of light to enter their interiors, Loudon insists that the ratio of structure to glass be kept as low as possible, and the load-bearing members be as slender as possible. Furthermore, he develops the curvilinear forms that are to become associated with the greenhouses of his day. In his works he makes reference to the ideas of Sir George Mackenzie, who in an 1815 lecture had proposed orienting a greenhouse’s skin parallel to the celestial dome, and consequently, the path of the sun, so that the rays of both the high altitude summer sun and the low altitude winter sun would strike the panes of glass perpendicularly to their surfaces. In this manner the amount of reflected light is minimised. Claudius Loudon’s thorough, consistent principles lead to the dynamic, timeless greenhouse forms erected during the first half of the nineteenth century – the ones we most admire today. Later, when architecture increasingly gained influence on the construction of greenhouses and infused it with the stylistic notions of its time, they began to lose their clear forms. With the following images and text (an entirely subjective selection) a few of the most impressive greenhouses are presented. Bicton Gardens The small, steeply vaulted palm house is well hidden in Bicton Gardens, a vast park near the sea in southwest England. Visitors who inquire at the entrance how to find “the old glasshouse” are given directions to a glasshouse on the compound that is more recent and far less compelling. At only 21 metres long and 8 metres high, the older of the two – which is abutted on its north by a brick wall – is the only surviving example of the early “species” that, as has been documented, also utilised the

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1, 2 Bicton Gardens, Budleigh Salterton, about 1825 3 Kibble Palace, Glasgow, 1872, view into the large glass dome


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fragile material glass to stiffen the overall construction. The result is a dematerialised structure that, when seen against the sky, seems to be nothing more than a delicate mesh. This network is made up of extraordinarily thin iron mullions that support the glass dome’s pure compression loads. The transparent skin consists of small overlapping scales – their lower edge is 18 cm in width – that make it possible to achieve a regular curve employing flat components. But the hand-made glass panes are not smooth. The more important characteristic is that their thickness increases toward the edges to keep water away from the iron

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glazing bars, which are vulnerable to corrosion. There is no formal record of the date of construction, nor of the designer of the minimal structure – a structure that probably came into being without the involvement of an architect. Experts are convinced, however, that this idiosyncratic greenhouse was built shortly after 1820, and evidence points to Loudon’s involvement in the design. In light of its integrated thermal storage wall to the north and its spherical geometry to the south, the laciness and transparency, this greenhouse is clearly a prototype of the greenhouse that is perhaps the world’s most renowned: the Palm House at the

Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, a public park situated west of London near a curve in the river Thames. Kew Gardens The cast iron and wrought iron structure, completed in 1848 by the Dublin-based engineer Richard Turner and the Londonbased architect Decimus Burton (according to the research, the innovative Turner undoubtedly extended greater influence on both the load-bearing structure and the form) is 110 metres in length. Contemporaries sang its praises immediately following completion: “Its graceful lines and admirable proportions made it as pleasing to the


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University of Greenwich Mark Julius Garcia

Architects: Heneghan Peng architects, Dublin Late last year the University of Greenwich opened its new 16,000m2 Academic and Library building in Stockwell Street, Greenwich. It holds the only school of architecture on a UNESCO World Heritage site and is located just a stone’s throw from the National Maritime Museum, St Alphege’s Church and the monumental Old Royal Naval College complex by Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Consequently, the contextual and conservation issues in its design were complex. The resulting diplomatic design uses a strategic system of architectural details with which to negotiate such a constrained brief and a budget of £76 million. Maintained as a

single volume of stepped, parallel but connected masses over four storeys, the building accommodates the Department of Architecture & Landscape, as well as the university library, gallery, two lecture theatres, seminar rooms, studios, offices and fourteen landscaped roof gardens. Though distinctly twenty-first century in its use of BIM and in some of its materials, its precedents include the modernist architecture faculty buildings at Harvard by J. L. Sert and at Yale by Paul Rudolph. Aside from other architectural consequences, the townscape dimensions of the limestone-clad Stockwell Street facade match the proportions of adjacent Georgian, Victo-

rian and Edwardian buildings. This is a much deeper, more detailed and articulated facade punctuated with bands of sequenced setbacks. This narrow banding in plan generates a series of parallel strips throughout the site. Separating “serviced” and “servicing” spaces in this manner means large open-plan studios, offices and seminar rooms are visible to each other through their circulation, encouraging innovation and sharing through the ad hoc, chance and random mix of staff, students and ideas. Both the library and the academic wing have a grand, black-steel staircase that provides a long, circuitous route through the heart of both sections of the building. Like the grand staircases of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this central architectural element helps to generate the social exchange and meme transmission that are so key to organisational and educational innovation in teaching, learning and research. The academic building contains two lecture theatres and a TV studio in the basement, as well as galleries, shops, cafes and workshops on the more active, publicfocussed ground floor. This more porous segmentation of programme becomes more student-focused in the first-floor, openplan design studios, computer labs and the heart of the School of Architecture & Landscape: the so-called “crit-pit”. The crit pit (made famous by its predecessors at Harvard and Yale) is where students present and perform their work. As a two-­ storey, column-free space viewable from the second-floor galleries, it is the theatrical and functional centre of the school and is where students’ projects will reach a ­pedagogic intensity and climax during the academic year. There are also secondfloor seminar rooms used for a variety of ­historical, theoretical and speculative multimedia practices and modes of team-based learning. The largely open-floor academic offices on the third floor enhance staff research and facilitate group work, as well as a more participative and inclusive form of collegiality.


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Lobby Entrance University cafe Exhibition space Retail space Model workshop Small lecture theatre TV studio Foyer/Exhibition space Large lecture theatre Library entrance Library shelving and workspace King William Walk Stockwell Street

The first impression that most people have of the building is the striking corner where the north-facing facade (along the new ­pedestrian King William Walk that connects the building to the existing campus) meets the Stockwell Street facade. This elevation expresses the main, library block and its long section. Its geometry metamorphoses and reassembles elements of the significant proportions and divisions of the architectural compositions on the adjacent Church Street, St Alphege’s Church, Stockwell Street and a terraced residential block on King William Walk. The first two of the front six bays are clad in glass-reinforced concrete (GRC), while the next six are

­ ompletely glazed and framed in black c ­finished exposed steel at the corner. This system of differentiated detailing of the ­canting, indented top three floors clearly ­demarcates the prow-like front entrance of the building’s cantilevering atrium and main reception. The 60 % solid panel railway facade is sealed to modulate acoustics, light, temperature, visual noise and other external distractions and extremes. The serrated-fold geometry of the facade panels is directly generated to orientate the building towards the best views out to the mannerist magnificence of St Alphege’s Church. The main ­elements of this facade are the 55 bespoke

3.25-metre-high precast and very smooth, ultra-thin GRC projecting fins. Made with 1.0 –1.2 mm Dolomite aggregate, the GRC used three types of pigment to colour-match the limestone cladding of the Stockwell Street facade. The whole facade is structurally mediated through a series of round and elliptical (to maintain the consistent fin-blade geometry of the whole facade in the narrower bays) black, steel, concrete-filled columns whose most striking feature is their diamondshaped casings. On the ground floor, the ­facade is at its most open, being a continuous (nearly) double-height, floor-to-ceiling envelope, edged externally with vertical  

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University of Greenwich

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­ luminium fins capping the serrated points a of the diamond casings (open on one side of the columns running the length of the ­facade). In contrast to the ground floor’s tall, lightfilled and more social, group-oriented foyer, the upper three floors offer a spectrum of different spaces for research and teambased work in academic offices and private study rooms. In the evening, warm shades of yellow, orange and pink make the building and its activities become more transparent and visible; the building emits more light, activating and softening the mass of the form. The facade’s detailing creates a dynamic interface between town and gown, publicly exposing, blurring and visually mixing the business of both. In 2010 Charles Jencks drew a stylistic and aesthetic connection between Heneghan Peng and the New Complexity Paradigm in architecture, which is correct, though this building is mostly modernist with hints, at times of the minimal, industrial, corporate, brutalist and structural expressionist, for ­little is hidden. This restrained, modest and pragmatic approach to detailing is ­unusually abstinent, un-egotistical and unindulgent and is perhaps the building’s most intelligent and strategic operation. Moreover, the details give the design, landscape and architecture departments the chance to further self-detail their own building. The facility is popular and filled to capacity most days and has played a role in the improved ranking of the School of Architecture: in just one year it climbed 25 places in the Guardian University League Table of Top UK Schools of Architecture. Perhaps more so than any other architecture faculty in ­London, the University of Greenwich unites education and modern, top-notch design under one roof. Mark Julius Garcia is an architectural researcher, ­author and editor; he is senior lecturer in Histories/ Theories / Futures at the Department of Architecture and Landscape, University of Greenwich, London. He is the editor of The Diagrams of Architecture (2010) and guest editor of Future Details of Architecture AD (2014).


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Residence in Mölle Architects: Elding Oscarson Arkitekter, Stockholm Jonas Elding, Johan Oscarson Team: Yuko Maki, Gustaf Karlsson Structural engineer: Konkret Rådgivande Ingenjörer, Stockholm Others involved in the project: see page 212

www.detail.de Mölle, located on a peninsula about 30 km north of Helsingborg, Sweden, was the first seaside resort in this Scandinavian country to allow men and women to bathe together – and during the early twentieth century this social progress was also registered in the region’s experimental architecture. With this knowledge in the back of their minds the architects came up with an unusual residence for a young family. The lofty, free-form building on an idyllic sloping site with a view of the ocean is derived from interior functions and external points of reference. The Y-shaped floor plan divides the garden in three separate outdoor spaces: an entrance area with a parking space, a protected terrace toward the rising slope, and a lawn – which doubles as a seating area – facing the expanse of water. The wraparound glazing on the ground floor – consisting of units up to 6.70 m in length – allows the living spaces to merge with the garden. Large-format sliding components create a seamless transition between inside and outside. The upper level, which holds the three bedroom suites and a generously dimensioned hall space, is supported by slender columns. On this floor the connection to the outdoors is achieved by means of carefully placed apertures of different sizes. The glazing’s smooth surfaces contrast with the thick rough-sawn cladding on the upper level.

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Living Terrace Study Entrance Kitchen / Dining Bedroom Guest room Light well Wine cellar Laundry room Building services Ice cellar (existing)


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Residence in Mölle

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 5 mm Douglas fir boarding, 3 rough sawn 22/70 mm battens/ventilated cavity 8 mm mineral fibreboard 22/70 mm battens/ventilated cavity wind break 170 mm mineral wool thermal insulation vapour barrier 45 mm mineral wool thermal insulation 12 mm oriented strand board 12.5 mm ­plasterboard insulated glazing in sliding window: 10 mm toughened (low-iron) glass + 16 mm cavity + 12 mm laminated (low-iron) safety glass coping: titanium zinc, bent to shape planting 30 mm substrate 25 mm drainage; seal 23 mm tongue-and-groove boarding ≤150 mm supporting structure to falls/ ventilated cavity

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 .8 mm high-density fibreboard 4 mineral wool thermal insulation between 1200/315 mm glue-laminated beams vapour barrier 22/70 mm battens 12 mm oriented strand board 12.5 mm ­plasterboard 18 mm tongue-and-groove Douglas fir planks 22 mm chipboard mineral woold thermal insulation between 600/315 mm glue-laminated beams 45/70 mm battens 12 mm oriented strand board 12.5 mm plasterboard 360 mm steel channel (UPE 360) aerogel thermal insulation column: Ø 82.5 mm steel CHS foam-glass thermal insulation 80 mm heating screed (steel-trowelled) 50 mm EPS thermal insulation 200 mm reinforced concrete slab

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Renovation of a Baroque Ensemble in Ljubljana Architects: Ofis Arhitekti, Ljubljana Rok Oman, Spela Videcnik Structural engineers: Elea IC, Ljubljana Others involved in the project: see page 212

The client’s brief called for the renovation and refurbishment of this baroque ensemble located at the foot of the Castle Hill in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The ensemble consists of three buildings surrounding a courtyard. The architects have succeeded in tying the ensemble together with a new all-glass facade – with ultra-thin profiles – that sheathes three sides of the courtyard. The unusual solution ensures that the interiors receive ample daylight, but also acts as a foil that underscores the distinctive qualities of the existing structures. All three buildings belong to a publishing house that had used some of the spaces above a ground-floor bookshop as its offic-

es. Following a 1980s renovation the courtyard housed, among other things, buildingservices installations. This most recent intervention connects the interiors of the three buildings: the upper levels contain twelve apartments surrounding the courtyard. The baroque facades along the street – which are on the historic registry – were returned to their original state. The architects incorporated one of the old entrances and an existing stair in the new circulation concept. The existing roof structure has now been replaced by one that employs steel members. The project enhances the role of the central courtyard as new communication space; thanks to the internal garden it is possible to

both ventilate the apartments and maintain a pleasant temperature in them during the summer months without reliance on mechanical systems. The courtyard’s continuously glazed postand-rail facade – the profiles are positioned on the side facing the interiors – reveals the period elements within. Stone arches and columns that came to light during the refurbishment became key components of the interiors; they are reproduced in the reflections of the glazed envelope. The varying density of the silver-toned fritting on the glass allowed for a fine-tuned calibration of the relationship between transparency and reflection.


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Entrance Storage Living room Bedroom Kitchen Dressing room Study Utility room

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terrace surface: 25 mm teak 25 mm battens; two-layer seal 140 mm reinforced concrete composite floor system 260 mm thermal insulation between wide-flange Å-beam (HEB 260) vapour barrier metal supporting structure 12.5 mm plasterboard glazed railing: laminated safety glass of 2≈ 12 heat-strengthened glass (TVG), chrome-plated at intersection with floor deck 260 mm wide-flange Å-beam (HEA 260) aluminium profile, coated structural insulated glazing with partial reflective silkscreen print

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Glass in Architecture – New Developments Jutta Albus, Stefan Robanus

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Contemporary architecture – both for interiors and exteriors – is inconceivable without the use of glass. The continued development of the production and processing technologies of glass and the continual improvement of “application-ready” products play a decisive role in mastering increasing demands regarding functional requirements and the quest for new aesthetic forms of expression. A number of spectacular architecture projects and novel design concepts have triggered the developments in this field. Improvements in planning and simulation tools ease realizations, or even make them possible at all. The transferral of developments from other technical disciplines to the construction sector has also paved the way for innovative glass products. In addition, other time-honoured manufacturing and processing methods have been improved upon and refined in recent years, thereby significantly enhancing quality and availability, as well as variety and dimen-

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sions, of the glass produced. The improved availability of certain types of glass – for ­example, low-iron glass or technical glass developed for special applications – in combination with new pre-stressing, lamination and coating techniques, makes it possible to decisively improve the performance of many glass products. Last but not least, these new methods of processing glass and treating its surface open up new options for remarkable design solutions. Large-format glass In recent years the developments in glass processing have pushed back – in some cases significantly – the limits of technical viability, availability and size restrictions. So far, the dimensions of the largest available float glass panes in Europe (3.21 ≈ 6.00 metres) have been the determining factor in the maximum format in glass processing. While the 18-metre-long, triple-glazing units (utilizing float glass) that were presented at Glasstec 2010 set new standards, the cor-

responding production technique was not immediately available for application. In the meantime, however, it is possible to thermally pre-stress over-sized panel formats with a length of up to 15.00 metres (toughened glass), to laminate them (laminated glass, laminated safety glass), and to equip them with functional coatings for thermal and solar protection, or apply ceramic frit (ill. 1). Correspondingly, insulated glazing units measuring 3.21 ≈ 15.00 metres can be manufactured as 3-glass-ply or 4-glassply panels that fulfil rigorous thermal and safety standards, as well as the structural requirements. More and more, however, the weight, installation techniques and logistical requirements associated with such large formats have become problematic. Glass lamination plays a decisive role in functional and safety-related aspects of glazing and facade construction. A wide variety of interlayers are available; they are typically synthetic films such as PVB (polyvinyl butyral), TPU (thermoplastic ­polyurethane), SG (safety glass interlayer/ Ionoplast/SentryGlas) or EVA (ethylene ­vinyl acetate). The glass and the interlayers are bonded in a pressure chamber (autoclave). Particularly in comparison to conventional PVB, the safety glass interlayer (SG) has considerably higher shear strength and facilitates production of very large glass laminates. The advantage is a significantly higher load-bearing capacity and the potential to reduce – for the same load – thickness and weight. The high strength of the laminate ­also facilitates improved edge stability, as well as weather- and temperature-resistance, making it possible to employ it for large loads or for larger spans. Moreover, metallic connecting pieces can be in positioned between the sheets of glass or laminated to the surface. These metal fittings enable optically minimized force-locking connections of glass elements that can, in contrast to pure glass-adhesive connections, be taken apart again if necessary. The progress that has been made in the lamination technique for larger formats and


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minimised connection points becomes particularly clear in the redesigned entrance to the Apple Store on New York’s Fifth Avenue. The glass cube with panels 10 metres in length designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Architects and the engineering firm Eckersley O’Callaghan first opened in 2006. The glass load-bearing structure originally consisted of 24 vertical and ten horizontal glass fins of 5≈ 12 mm heatstrengthened, pre-stressed glass (German acronym: TVG), with a maximum glass panel length of 6.90 metres. Therefore it was necessary to butt-join the laminated glass to arrive at the required length of 10 metres. In the newer design (2011), 5-glassply laminated safety glass panels measuring 10.30 ≈ 3.30 metres were employed, making it ­possible to reduce the number of units from 72 (in the initial design) to 12 (in the more recent one). At the same time, the number of components in the flexurally rigid self-supporting roof structure was reduced from 36 to just three. In the realization of this project, titanium connecting pieces have been incorporated in the laminate assembly for the first time. These connectors nearly invisibly fasten the vertical seams of the outer panes to the glass fins. By employing state-of-the-art glass technology with far fewer connection points, a greater degree of transparency was attained (ills. 2– 4). Shaping glass In the meantime, curved and free-form glass surfaces have become part of the ­established architectural repertoire. In the production of such glass, one must distinguish between hot-forming and so-called lamination bending (also known as coldbending). In hot forming the pane is heated and formed with the help of a mould or gravity. When the pane cools, it retains its form. Aside from curved float glass, with this process, thermally pre-stressed glass, laminated glass and insulated glazing units can also be shaped. In the meantime, automated processes are available for single curvature 4

cylindrical panels that facilitate the production of pre-stressed glass with dimensions up to 3.21 ≈ 5.00 metres and radii of curvature of at least about 1.00 metre, depending on the thickness of the glass. Lamination bending (cold-bending), on the other hand, is based on the principle of glass lamination with synthetic interlayers. In form-supporting lamination, the glass is laminated using interlayers (PVB) that have low shear strength, and it is then given the desired geometry by applying pressure during installation. In form-giving lamination, in contrast, prior to the lamination process the stack of panes is mechanically fixed in the desired shape in the autoclave.

The use of an interlayer (SG film) with high shear strength enables the panel to retain its final form and does not require form-­ giving supporting structures. The significant advantage of lamination bending is the high optical quality of the glass, because, in contrast to hot-forming, these are processed below the softening point of glass and as a result have very smooth ­surfaces. On account of its high shear strength, the resultant structural behaviour of the laminate approaches that of its monolithic counterpart. It is possible to use standardized toughened glass as well as imprinted and coated glazing. Manufacturing panes with complex, double-


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5

curvature geometry or very tight radii, on the other hand, has thus far only been feasible by means of hot-forming. A look at a variety of current developments and architectural realizations will make clear the specific advantages of the respective processes and what these glasses are capable of. By combining maximum transparency and high functionality or complex geometries they open up new possibilities for architectural designs. The glass roof above an atrium at Aria Hotel in Budapest has the largest insulated glazing units employing lamination bent glass ever to be installed. Each of the five elements is 3.20 metres wide and spans 8.13 metres. The highly transparent roof supported by four laminated glass beams along the edge of the roof impressively demonstrates the present state of the art in the application of overhead insulated glazing units (ill. 5).

6

The design of the 15-metre-tall glass structures of the Bombay Sapphire Headquarters, which was prepared by Heatherwick Studio (2014, ills. 6, 7), is an example of the combined use of different lamination bending processes to produce complexly formed glazing. The pleated building envelopes of the central, publicly accessible greenhouses consists of curved stainless steel beams, tension cables of stainless steel and glass panels shaped in a twostage process. The vertical loads are distributed via stainless steel beams, while the glass panes are utilized for lateral bracing. By employing tension cables at the glass seams the width of the beams could be held to a minimum. Laminated safety glass units of 2≈ 6 mm low-iron, ultra-white toughened glass with an SG interlayer were employed to attain the greatest possible light permeability and transparency. The facades’ inner surfaces were given a

hydrophobic coating. In the first step, the single curvature cylindrical panels with a radius measuring less than 16.00 metres were hot-formed in the workshop. Panes with a radius greater than 16.00 metres were shaped by means of form-supporting lamination. For double-curvature glass segments the final form was attained on site by fastening the glass in the desired shape. This overall approach made it possible to produce all of the building envelope’s radii of curvature – down to the smallest radius, which measured 2.03 metres. Thus, the ­desired effect was attained in optimal process. The increased stability of slightly curved glass is advantageous to a recently presented development: large format vertical triple glazing. Generally speaking, panels in formats up to 2 metres wide and 5 to 8 metres high (lengths of up to 12 metres are in preparation) are only supported on their upper and lower edges (ill. 10). Owing to their lensshaped geometry they can be used in free spans without vertical supporting structure. By cambering the outer panes the glass thicknesses required for such spans can be reduced by 30 to 50 % and, correspondingly, the weight of the unit kept low. In such cases the outer panes – currently still of toughened glass – are “cold” preformed. A patented spacer system, optimized with respect to the arising shear forces, is employed to close the panel’s long edges. The centre pane of partially pre-stressed glass provides additional stability and residual stability in case of a total failure of the remaining system. The assembly possesses a Ug-value of about 0.7 W/m2K and is quite tolerant to imprecision in the flatness of the respective panes. Further advantages are its low weight and the high degree of transparency due to the thinness of the panes. Laminated glass employing thin glass is ­expected to facilitate further improvement of the distances that can be spanned. The geometry of this glass presents new opportunities in the design of transparent facades.


Products


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Property+Product Loft houses in Kolbenmoor

1

In Kolbenmoor, 5 km west of Rosenheim, Germany, a cotton mill closed in 1993 provided the community with opportunity for an enviable urban development. Along the canal, spaces were created for industrial, office, gastronomic and residential use with an intriguing mix of redeveloped buildings in historical brick architecture and selective new buildings in modern architectural language. These include the so-called ‘loft houses’ by Behnisch Architekten. The loft houses are twelve terrace houses whose clever terraced arrangement opened up many opportunities for an individual and flexible layout design. In terms of the urban landscape, the ensemble extends the development axis along the Mangfall Canal and merges into a nearby park. The width and height of the loft houses is based on that of the existing buildings east of the Rosengarten event site. This reference to the surrounding area represented a key as-

2

pect within the planning for the architects. Thus, the residential units were allocated a private garden to the south, a landscaped entrance area to the north, and differing roof terraces. Due to the staggered height and alternating building edges, the ensemble appears varied and enlivened. For the layout design, flexibility was the core consideration. The developer‘s aim was to be able to optimally respond to the differing wishes of buyers. Four different types of three- and four-storey buildings were designed to provide the appropriate space for individual life stages and concepts. A classic cross-wall construction ensures that the floor plan is as free as possible. Depending on requirements, space can be divided and adapted using light partition walls. In addition, non-standard elements such as an additional bathroom or a lift for senior-friendly living were included. The openness of the floor plans also continues vertically. An elegant staircase, a gallery in

the living room, and a patio that is centrally located and extends up to the first floor are the main features that characterize the brightly-lit interior. Daylight enters through a circular skylight and a glass ceiling opening above the patio, penetrating as far down as the ground floor. The 2.3 ≈ 2.9-m-large patio itself is a pleasant relaxation spot within the open floor plan. The skylight supplies it not only with light but also with fresh air. It thus acts as a buffer space that enlivens and divides the depth of the narrow floor plan. In addition, in winter it allows the use of passive solar gains, and in summer ensures good ventilation. KR 1 Layout plan Scale 1: 2000 2 The tiered structures interlock with the surroundings and ensure wide-ranging views and lighting variations. 3 Daylight enters the patio and penetrates as far as the ground floor of the individual units through the skylight and a round glazed opening in the floor. The spatial feel of a conventional apartment building is thus eradicated.


∂   2015 ¥ 2

Property+Product

177

1

2

3

3 Section  Scale 1:25 1 Skylight Velux GGU ThermoStar (U08) on an extension frame supplied on site, with an internal solar protection system. 2 Gravel Protective layer Sealing – plastic sealing membrane 2 mm Slope insulation <120 mm Insulation – EPS expanded polystyrene panels 100 mm Vapour barrier – bituminous membrane Reinforced concrete slab 200 mm 3 Twin-pane insulating glazing VSG-Silence 9.76 mm + SZR 16 mm + Float-Ultra 10 mm in spruce-wood frames 4 Wood covering – larch 30 mm 5 Sunscreen – galvanized fixed grid-lamella 6 Floor covering 10 mm Calcium sulphate screed with underfloor heating 70 mm Separating layer Impact sound insulation 20 mm Thermal insulation 50 mm Reinforced concrete slab 200 mm

4

5

4 A new district has been created on the site of the former cotton mill. Historical brick buildings and buildings with a modern design together form a variety of buildings with different uses, including as offices, shops, cafés and restaurants, and residential accommodation.

6

4


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Project participants Developer: Quest Projekt Kolbermoor GmbH & Co. KG, D–Kolbermoor Architect: Behnisch Architekten, D–Munich Responsible partner: Robert Hösle Project manager: Christian Glander Collaboration: Magdalena Czolnowska Implementation planning and site supervision: Quest Architekten, D–Rosenheim Structure: Guggenbichler & Wagenstaller, D–Rosenheim Heating, ventilation and plumbing: Saniplan, D–Bad Feilnbach /Au Energy and environmental technology: Transsolar Energietechnik GmbH, D–Stuttgart Constructional physics: Steger & Partner GmbH, D–München Flood protection: Dr.-Ing. Marinko Nujic, Rosenheim; AquaSoli Ingenieurbüro für Wasserbau und Hydrodynamik, D–Traunstein

Ground floor

1

Second floor

11

7

2

12 8 4

3 5

9

6

13

10 14

Products and manufacturers Skylights: Velux Deutschland GmbH, D–Hamburg, www.velux.de Waterproofing membrane: Sarnafil, Sika Schweiz AG, CH–Zürich, che.sarnafil.sika.com Facades: Compound heat insulation system: Alsecco GmbH, D–Wildeck, www.alsecco.de Coating of wood-frame windows: Sikkens, Akzo Nobel Deco GmbH, D–Köln, www.sikkens.de Facade drainage: Aco Hochbau Vertrieb GmbH, D–Rendsburg, www.aco-hochbau.de Sanitaryware: Duravit AG, D–Hornberg, www.duravit.de

5

First floor

13

Floor plan type 1  Scale  1: 200

Bathroom fittings: Hansgrohe Deutschland Vertriebs GmbH, D–Schiltach, www.hansgrohe.de Bathroom accessories: Keuco GmbH & Co. KG, D–Hemer, www.keuco.de

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5 The living quarters are partly two-storey with a ­gallery to create a feeling of open space. 6 The cross-wall construction allows for a flexible floor plan. On request, enclosed spaces too can be integrated. 7 The heart of the house is the glazed patio. It serves not only as a relaxation spot, but also divides the space, and ensures light and air penetrate into the depths of the building.

6

7

Entrance/carport WC Cloakroom Storage room Kitchen Dining/living room Studio

 8  9 10 11 12 13 14

Work area Patio Gallery Bedroom Bathroom Airspace Roof terrace


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Programme for 2015 • Photos ∂ 2015   1 Roofs ∂ 2015   2

Glass Construction

∂ 2015   3

Concept: Industrial Building

∂ Green 2015 1 ∂ 2015   4

Material and Finishes

∂ 2015   5

Solid Forms of Construction

∂ 2015   6

Steel Construction

∂ Green 2015 2

Photo credits: Photos for which no credit is given were either provided by the respective architects or they are product photos from the DETAIL archives. p. 112: FG + SG fotografia de arquitectura

pp. 162–166: Wojciech Kryński, PL–Warschau

pp. 113 –116, 116/117, 117 top right, 118 bottom, 118 top, 119, 120: Christian Schittich, D – Munich

p. 167: Bellapart, A–Vienna

pp. 117 top left, 118 middle: from: Georg Kohlmaier, Barna von ­Sartory: Das Glashaus. Ein Bautypus des 19. Jahrhunderts. Prestel, Munich 1988, pp. 348, 349, 404

p. 173 bottom: Jörg Pfäffinger, D–Volkertshausen p. 126 –126: Meike Hansen, Archimage p. 180 top, bottom centre, bottom right: Arup

pp. 121, 175: Frank Kaltenbach, D– Munich

p.182 top left: Fotokop / Perry Nordeng

pp. 121–124: Hufton+Crow, GB–London

p.182 top right: Skanska / Carl Jonsson

p. 126 top: Heide Wessely, D – Munich

p.182 bottom: Skanska / Carl Jonsson

p. 126 bottom: Adolf Bereuter, A – Dornbirn

p. 184: Kilian O’Sullivan / Stiff + Trevillion ­Architects

pp. 127, 147–151: Aitor Ortiz, E– Bilbao pp. 128 –131: �ke E:son Lindman, S –Stockholm pp. 132–136: Ulrich Schwarz, D– Berlin pp. 137–141: Brigida González, D–Stuttgart pp. 142–146: Tomaž Gregorič, SLO – Ljubljana pp. 152/153, 154 –158: Nic Lehoux, CDN-Vancouver p. 153 top: Aerial Photography Inc. pp. 159, 161: Paolo Roselli, I–Mailand

p. 185 top left: Hobson & Porter p. 186 top left: Ivan Brodey p. 192 top left, bottom left: Vincent Fillon p. 196 bottom left: Frank Ockert p. 202 top right: Brighton Waste House p. 204 top: Messe München GmbH – BAU 2015 p. 204 bottom, p.205 top: Julian Weninger, Munich

Black-and-white photos introducing main sections: page 113 Kibble Palace in Glasgow Architect: John Kibble page 121:

University of Greenwich Architects: heneghan peng architects, Dublin

page 127: Archive Building in Bilbao Architects: ACXT, Madrid page 167: Bombay Sapphire Head Office in Laverstoke Architects: Heatherwick Studio, London page 175: Munich RE Office Building Architects: Sauerbruch Hutton, Berlin CAD drawings All CAD drawings contained in the “Documentation” section of the journal were ­produced with VectorWorks®.

∂ Review of Architecture + Construction Detail

DETAIL English appears in 2015 on 15 January, 2 March, 4 May, 1 July, 1 September, 2 November.

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DETAIL English 2/2015 - Glass Construction  

New developments in glass and its aesthetic qualities are the focus of the next issue of DETAIL: the dematerialized appearance of the all-gl...

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