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Developers and Investors today are banking vacant plots of land with high building potential, profiting from their trade at the expense of building affordable homes. This project explores the notion of adversely possessing said vacant sites, throughout London, by a group of squatters. A discrete kit of EPS moulds are used to assist a quick initial occupation of the sites; they are a set of 1/2 moulds which allows the users to attach their units onto one another, enabling the user to negotiate living space with their neighbour by rotating the combined uncast pieces. Casting the moulds adds permanence to the squatter’s dwellings, but more importantly becomes used as a negotiation tool. Negotiated Living Space. Ossama Elkholy

Negotiated Living Space Conflicting Possession & Negotiating Living Space Ossama Elkholy M.Arch Unit 19


London today is one of the number one cities where foreign investors purchase properties for the sake of reselling it for profit, after a period of time; However, aside from the properties bought by foreign investors (which are usually vacant or rented out at very high prices), there are many readily available plots of land that are being hoarded by developers with high building potential. In 2012 a study by consultants Molior found that 45% of sites in London with planning permission to build new homes were owned by non-housebuilder companies that did not build homes, simply for the sake of making profit. This project explores the notion of possession of vacant sites, throughout London, by a group of squatters, as a means of activating the site’s building potential. The group of squatters would function as a Housing Co-operative, where the site can later be claimed under the Housing Co-op’s name through adverse possession, or leveraged through negotiating a tenancy agreement with the original Land owner (as a means of refraining from legal action that may lead them in losing their property). Within the relm of conflict, this notion is pushed further by investigating the claim of living space internally within the group of squatters. The conflict exists within three scales: the scale of the part, the space and the system. The Part: Considering the use of a discrete kit of parts, the parts acts as 1/2 an EPS mould. This intentionally makes two users attach their units to each other as a means of closing the mould, so that it can be cast with concrete when needed; at this point the first conflict arises. The permanent quality of concrete is utilized here to legitimizing the dwellings within this squatting scenario. So the casting processes becomes an agreement between neighbours that solidifies the spatial configuration that can no longer be changed in the future. The Space: With the lack of legal claim and ownership of land, the project attempt to explore the internal negotiation of space between the squatters. Some parts (from the kit of parts) are used so that when a few pieces come together from 2 neighbouring living units, it forms a spatial configuration that when rotated changes the living dynamic of both units. Meaning, that a bedroom (or any other space) that was initially in one unit can be possessed by the other unit. That being said, Three negotiation/conflicting scenarios arise: the combination of both units (++), the possession of living space from one unit by the neighbouring unit(+-), and the trade of living space between both units(==). The System: As neighbouring units come together and inevitably fill the entire site, the building because an internal network of living spaces connecting and intertwining with one another. The level of conflict in the scale of the system explores how the negotiation of space between two neighbouring units can later affect the living dynamic of units that are not directly in the negotiation; leading to future negotiations of space. In addition, it also explores how casting concrete between two units may halt or motivate future negotiations between other units.


Context Research London Housing Crisis

Precedents Disruptive Architecture Simple Continuities

Material & Construction Research ICF Construction Discrete Kit of Parts

Proposal Disruptive Architecture Discrete Kit of Parts


Context Research London Housing Crisis


Average Sale Price (£) One Bedroom Flat > £550,000 £500,000 - £550,000 £450,000 - £500,000 £400,000 - £450,000 £350,000 - £400,000 £300,000 - £350,000 £250,000 - £300,000 £200,000 - £250,000 £150,000 - £200,000 < £150,000 Insufficient Data

55,000

110,000

Ten Biggest Speculative Developers

Persimmon Taylor Wimpey Barratt Group Bellway Redrow Bovis Berkeley Galliford Try Crest Nicholson Countryside Number of Homes / Number of Plots

Current Landbank 404,040 Homes Total

Strategic Landbank 481,910 Plots Total

165,000

220,000


London in Context “Developers & investors profiting from land trade at the expense of building affordable homes” Land Banking Aside from the properties bought by foreign investors (which are usually vacant or rented out at very high prices), there are many readily available plots of land that are being hoarded by developers with high building potential. In 2012 a study by consultants Molior found that 45% of sites in London with planning permission to build new homes were owned by non-housebuilder companies that did not build homes, simply for the sake of making profit. Even for housebuilders themselves, land is being held for the sake of making profit through “Current land banks“ or “Strategic land banks.“ Developers are buying large plots of land, apply for planning permission and sell the property several years later with major profit. Similarly, a lot of trading companies exist whom do as latterly mentioned with no intention to built. According to the Value office, in England, the average price agricultral land sits at £21,000 per hectare, while the average price of land with planning permission for housing is £6M per hectare. Current landbank is land with, or about be, granted planning permission supposably intended to be developed; however is sometimes kept from 4 to 10 years before breaking ground. Strategic landbanks are either owned by the housebuilder or held by ‘Option Agreements‘ between the landowner and the developer. This gives the developer a legally binding ‘option‘ to buy the property within a specific time frame, or if planning permission is granted. This gives the developer an upper hand in buying the property; However the more urgent matter is that they are not required to register these properties publicly. In 2008 according to the OFT, 82% of land held by developers was strategic land averaging 14.3 years long.


James Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Sullivan Mural

Vacant Property

Planned to be demolished Turning residential into school

Squat

on Property living in residence

Negotiate

with Original Owner establish a tenancy agreement

Buy Property

From Original Owner Become registered owner


Bonnington Square â&#x20AC;&#x153;A Housing Co-op squatted on a set of properties, transforming it to their own collectively run community, and eventually own the propertiesâ&#x20AC;? In 1870, Bonnington Square in Vauxhall, south London, was built to house railway workers. In 1980, many of the properties were compulsorily purchased by the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA), with the intension of being demolished so a school can be built in their place; however, quickly after all the previous house occupants departed the series of building, a group of squatters occupied the vacant properties. The group of squaters formed a housing-coop and negotiated with ILEA, eventually leading to the properties being leased to South London Familly Association and the managment was handed over to the Co-op. The Co-op fixed up the homes, and transformed the area, opening Bonnington Cafe, a volunteer-run cafe, and Pleasure Garden, a community garden. No single runs the cafe, it is maintained by an active collective group of of cooks also involved in the running of the establishment. The garden was funded by grants and local sponsers, enabling it to have a water wheel and subtropical plants; the garden is reported today as one of the finest community gardens in London. Several years later, plans for building the school were scrapted, saving the properties. Today there are many forms of tensure in the Square, tenants, shared owners, and owners. In 1998, the housing Co-op was permitted by the Lambeth Council to purchase the buildings.


10 years (Registered property) 12 years (Unregistered property) Time 0

2 years

28 days 65 days 1. Fill in adverse possession form 2. Complete a signed â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;statment of truthâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;, or get solicitor to prepare this 3. Send the form and statemnt to the HM Land Registry Citizen Centre

Registered owner of Property No Action Taken

Apply

for Adverse Possession

No Action Taken

Re-Apply

No Action Taken

Rejected

for Adverse Possession and become registered owner Original owner cannot take action against 2nd application for the same property by the same squatter if no action was taken for the first application

Application

Original Owner Takes Action

Squat

on Property

Removed Original Owner Takes Action

Claim for Possession

Can only use this if owed money in rent or mortgage payment for a residential property

from Property Court decision

Negotiate

with Original Owner tenancy agreement or purchase

Registered owner of Property Court decision

Interim Possession Order

from Property Court decision

Negotiate

Registered owner

with Original Owner tenancy agreement or purchase

of Property

Registered owner

Post-

of Property Court decision

Squat Vacant Property

Negotiate

with Original Owner tenancy agreement or purchase

Removed Original Owner Takes Action

Original Owner Takes Action Uses Claim for possession or Interim Possession

on Property

Negotiate

with Original Owner Could result in tenancy agreement or purchase

Post-

P r e - Possession

Possession

Possession

Removed from Property Court decision

Removed

from Property 1. Leave property within 24 hours 2. stay away from property for 12 months

No-

Possession


Adverse Possession “Taking over property and making it your own, without purchase, through squatting” Unregistered Property Almost a 1/4 of the land in England and Wales remains unregistered because registration is only compulsory under disposition. Some plots of land have not been subject to dispossession for hundreds of years, meaning that first registration has never been triggered. One of the objectives of Land Registration Act 2000 is to motivate the registration of unregistered land so that the Land Registry is a “complete and accurate reflection of the state of the title.”

Adverse Possession Adverse possession is the aquisition of legal ownership, freehold title, of land by squatting on said property for a period of 10 years (12 years for unregistered property) before applying to register it under their own domain. This does not only apply for unregistered land, but also registered land where the doctrine regards an owner of land to be under the duty of protecting his own interests. To adversly possess a property, the party must: 1. Have physically possession of the land 2. Exclusive possess the property with possible fencing as a boundary 3. Possess the property without the permission of the land owner (in the case of registered property) The registered land owner can appeal a squatter’s application for registration within 65 days. If the application is not appealled, then the land is dispositioned If the application is appealled and and the registration is rejected, then the property owner must take action to remove the squatter; if no action is taken within 2 years from when the original application was filed, then can not appeal the second application of the squatters, and the land is dispositioned.


6

30 6

8

14

25

12

6

8 10

19

5

2 11

43

26

9

19

2

15 15

17

14 7

13 16

12

1 10 11 5 5

38

1

Map of Not Started, Medium Residential (10-150 units) with approved planning permission

2

43 Not-Started, Medium Residential projects found in the Borough of Westminister

3

Search Planning Applications in the Borough of Westminster

Squat

on Property

Moxon Street Car Park

Planning permission : Applied 31 July 2015 Brief Description : 6 Storeys, up to 79 units Address : Car Park Aybrook Street, London, W1U 4AR


Potential Sites in London â&#x20AC;&#x153;Target vacant sites across London with planning permission for medium residential projects, which have not yet broke groundâ&#x20AC;? Unregistered Property / Registered Strategic Landbanks NO DATABASE There is no database for finding Unregistered property and strategic land banks; as priorly mentioned, developers are not required to register the strategic landbank properties publicly. So if a person wants to adversely possess one of these sites, it must be done through intuitively finding vacant sites. Registered Current Landbank Properties Planning Permission DATABASE As for Current landbanks, a person can easily find properties with planning permission which have not yet broke ground, and potentially take over them. Similarly to Bonnington Square, can a group of dedicated individuals taking over unused property in London to potentially developed them into a housing communities?


Precedents Disruptive Architecture Simple Continuities


Disassembly The unit is dissambled and delivered in 6 parts.

Solar Panels The solar panels are expected to produce more energy than the unit consumes. Even in winter, the saved energy from the summer can provide the unit with the needed energy. Essentially, the unit can autonomously rely on the solar panels without being connected to a electric grid.

Smart Technology The unit is connected to a grid providing it with the needed electricity and plumbing. It also includes a climate control system, regulating temperature and CO2 levels, and a digital door lock with RFID entry system allowing entry without a key.

Fenestration A quadruple glazed face, allowing the entry of a lot of natural light, while helping to minimizing noise from the exterior. Behind the glass is a curtain spanning the height of the unit, which can be closed for privacy.

No Foundation required Just a flat earth bed is sufficiant enough to maintain the Koda House.


Koda House â&#x20AC;&#x153;Koda,â&#x20AC;? in Estonia, refers to the quick-built huts used by the nomads Architects Kodasema

Assembly Time 7-10h

Price 110k-150k GBP

Demographic The Koda house can be inhabited by anyone, but the during the launch of the Koda village, Kodasema mostly targeted millennials who are not tied down. The Dwellings were mostly used as temporary rental homes for young professionals and students. Design/Manufacturing/Mobility/Assembly Diagram The only allowed variation in design is the modification of the program to which the Koda House can be used for, however it is only a minute variation of the allocated space. However a lot of time was put into the design were plumbing and electricity is resolved within the unit. The manufacturing of the unit is and centralized and linear, only produced at the Kodasema Factory. However the unit is essentially made of 6 parts which simplifies the assembly. The mobility of the disassembeled unit is done by Kodasema, as it requires skilled labour because the pieces are large and heavy. The assembly is straight forward because it is only 6 parts, however requires a crane as the pieces are heavy.


Variable/Limited Design

Hotel

Classroom / Office Space

Cafes / Retail

User Involvement Moving With the payment of a small fee, Kodasema will disassemble, transport and reassemble

Order

Manufacturing Manufactored in Kodasemaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s factory found in Harkujarve

Disassemble The unit is disassembled into 6 parts at the factory before being transported

Transport Kodasema transport the disassembled unit to the allocated site

Assemble A crane is used to disassemble and reassemble to unit

Community

Alternating Terrace Homes

Urban Villages

Stalked Gallery Access


Scope of Production

Variable/Limited Design

Assemble Manufacturing

The only available variation in design becomes avaiable when the Koda House is used for other programs. aside from dwelling, it can also be used in more commercial contexts. User Involvement As indicated on the left, the user is not involved in the manufactoring, transporting, and assembling of the home; the user is only involved during the purchase and soon after the home has been assembled and connected to the plumbing and electrical grid. Kodasema are the allocated contractors.

Assemble Assemble Assemble

Community Kodasema are currently developing Koda vilages, which can be found in: Tallinn, Estonia / Amsterdam, Netherlands / London, England / Almere, Holland. As these units do not require foundation, the idea is that they can fill vacant sites which can sometimes be left empty for years during planning phases.Renting a Koda house in the city of Tallin can cost as much as 100$/night or 825-1200$/month. Scope of Production The Project uses centralised linear production. The unit is produced at the Kodasema factory in Harkujarve, disassembled, then delivered to the allocated site to be assembled.


Wedge and Peg Connection The structure requirea no specific pieces other than those cut by the CNC mill, becasue the parts snap together using a wedge and peg connection inspired by classical Korean Architecture.

Fenestration Any standard types of fenestration can be added after the construction of the structure

Cladding Any type of Cladding can be added after the construction of the main structure

Plumbing/Electric Any Foundation Any type of foundation can be used with WikiHouse.

Step-by-step assembly

Plumbing routes and electric circuitry is added after the construction of the structure


Wikihouse Decentralized production, giving agency to the user

Architects : 00 2011 - present Time Approximately 24h From CNC milling to hammering in the last of plywood, including 2 hours for transport Assembly Time Approximately 2h with 2-3 people Price 600 GBP/m2 Open Open access to shared commons Open as in radically transparent Open participation and governance Openness from designing-down thresholds of time, cost, skill Design/Manufacturing/Mobility/Assembly Diagram The designs allows variation and modification of old published designed; however, due to the geometric logic and mereology, the units are limited to linear growth. The manufacturing of the unit uses a digital distributed smart circular model, allowing any user the manufacture the pieces themselves using a CNC mill and standard plywood. The mobility of the disassembeled unit can be done by the user; however requires them to carry many and very specific pieces. The assembly is somewhat straight forward as all the pieces are numbered and the user does not need to us any tools that require skill.


Variable / Limited Design

Variable Frames

Linear assembly

User Involvement

Design Can easily download and modify files available online or create you own. The platform uses â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sketchupâ&#x20AC;? as a design tool

Consult Professional Though not necessary, the creators of wikihouse advise that you consult a professional

Manufacture Typical CNC milling of standard sheets of plywood

Community

Transport Can be transported by any one

Assemble The assembly proccess follows a manual and does not require professionals


Scope of Production

Design

Design Manufacturing Assemble Design Manufacturing Assemble

Manufacturing Assemble

Variable/Limited Design

Design

Design

Manufacturing Assemble

Looking at it in its simplest form, Wikihouse is essentially constructed using a series of frames. As much a the system allows variation in design, it only allows variation in the frame itself. That being said, the spacial quality and assembly of a unit is a linear progression. User Involvement

Manufacturing Assemble

The user is present in every phase, where they can be involved in the design, manufacturing, transporting, and even assembly. Community Being an open source system, Wikihouse pushes for collaberation.When one person submits a particular design that is approved, the platform allows for people in other parts of the world to take the given design, adapt it and modify it to better takle a different global climate and economies. Scope of Production The project uses a digital decentralized system of production. The user can design their own home or download an approved design online, manufacture the required pieces themselves using a CNC mill, and then transport and assemble the pieces.


Structure The structure is constructed from reinforced concrete

Double Height The double height unit allows a more optimal entry of natural light

Corridor The L-shaped units wrap themselves around the corridor, placing a corridor every two stories.

Exterior Access Can easy open the living space to the exterior depending on the season

Thru-unit The unit uses a thru-unit configuration spanning from easy to west, allowing natural ventilation.


Unite d’habitation Conventional procurement, geometric logic based on an embedded relationship between 2 neighbouring apartments Architects : Le Corbusier, Shadrach Woods, George Candilis, Nadir Afonso Address : 280 Boulevard Michelet 1947 - 1952 “Vertical Garden City” 18 Storeys 23 types of apartments 4 Types of Apartments 63% Standard 7% Different type 24% Small 6% Large Time The project was expected to finish in 12 months but instead took 5 years Demographic Made to house the victims of destroyed neighbourhoods after the Second World War Design/Manufacturing/Mobility/Assembly Diagram The designs is allocated and fixed, with only a few variations available and already predetermined. The project in no way offers mobility. The manufacturing and Assembly go hand-in-hand under the construction, where traditional methods of that time were used.


KODA House

Place Anywhere Company Manufactures & Deliveries Parts Units put together to form a community

Wikihouse

Self-Built Integrated spacial quailties Pre-existing and modifiable designs online

Unite dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;habitation

Existing relationships between neighbours


Material & Construction Research ICF Construction Discrete Kit of Parts


Stipulated Charactaristics of Building Material In seaching for a building material for this project, the aim was to find something that: 1 - Is light weight an can easily be transported to the site 2 - Simple in its construction, allowing the initial assembly by the common man during the pre-possession phase to be quick and straightforward. 3 - Is durable, and can still provide adequite living conditions during the post-possession phase. ICF construction System Insulated concrete formwork (ICF) has been growing in the UK self-build sector for some time, and has expanded into the mainstream including UK housing associations and regional house builders; it most recently gained approval by the Local Athority Building Control (LABC). It is a construction system based on the used of hollow light weight EPS panels that lock together to provide what can become formwork for poured concrete. The EPS panels are tied together with either plastic or steel ties, and they act as the permanent thermal insulation after the concrete has been poured. Some systems are fabricated on site while others are delivered complete. The building sequence is quick and precise, while demanding significantly less equipment than alternative methods, and is generally done by semi-skilled labour. The insulated wall can afterwards be cladded both internally and externally with a variety of materials. ICF Association Currently in the UK there is what is known as the ICFA, which is an association comprised of a variety of companies whom specilize in ICF construction; selling a range of products that make-up this construction system. The Kit of parts in this project is envisioned to be sold by a company similar to those in the ICFA (this will be further discussed in Section 4).

Self-Build Fast Durable

ICF Construction â&#x20AC;&#x153;EPS used as a light weight and easily self-build materialâ&#x20AC;?


Old Kit of Parts â&#x20AC;&#x153;Polystyrene parts clipped together to create spaces. Also act as moulds that can later be cast with concrete to give the spaces permanenceâ&#x20AC;?


Polystyrene Infill Isolates M+E for when concrete is cast (if needed)

Cavity Cold Water Hot Water

Cavity accomodate for the housing of M+E, along side the casted concrete

Gas

Cavities housing mechanical systems â&#x20AC;&#x153;The internal cavities in the combined parts, which are cast with concrete, can also house pipe networks for mechanical and electrical systemsâ&#x20AC;?

The network of pipes mostly move through the utility core, giving access to water and gas in kitchens and the stacked washrooms. An EPS infill piece can be used to seperate the piping from the concrete cast where needed.


General existing Quad-Lock Wall tie

Here a series of wholes have been added to accomodate the placement of threaded-rods.

Furthermore, a series of extruded extensions have been added to function similarly to reinforcement bars, when connecting 2 subsequent concrete pours

Final modified version of the Wall Tie. Most importantly the material has been changed to steel, as oppose to plastic, as a means of strengthening the connection junction.

Specific Product Research & Adaptation â&#x20AC;&#x153;Modification of current ICF wall tie productâ&#x20AC;?

Generally speaking, ICF construction have various types of what essentially acts as a wall tie to hold the EPS panels together. In studying the use of a wall tie used by Quad-Lock (member of the ICFA), I have adapted the product giving it more roles in terms of what it does in construction, similarly trying to minimize any othere construction material needed (such as reinforcement bars) to make the assembly faster and less skill intensive.


Cast Concrete

Cast Concrete

Cast Concrete

Third Cast

Concrete pouring out of uncapped piece

Capping piece added

Second Cast

Interior

First Cast

Enclosed/Isolated Casting Routes â&#x20AC;&#x153;Creating Multiple cavities that can be cast at different times as oppose to being a single castâ&#x20AC;?

Exterior


Proposal Disruptive Architecture Discrete Kit of Parts


Disruption

Land Banking

Start

Housing Co-op

Formed by Future Occupants

Government

Developer/Land Owner

Sells Property

Design

Apply for Planning Permission

Series of Clusters/Dwellings Using the Online platform with the suggested spatial configurations, the user can design their home similarly to designing spaces in a gaming simulation. The will be standarded designes also provided that may be modified if needed.

(Loop)

Council

Planning Permission Approved

Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Build

Manufacturing/Delievery

Property Value increases

Occupant

Mortgage Bank

Pre-

Poorly Build Dwelling

Possession

(If Builds) Generic Design

Required parts Once the Design is complete (with no errors), the user can download a spec sheet and model of the clusters. The required pieces are manufactured in a facility under the domain of the company using large wire-cutters. Then delievered to the user upon request, at a specified address.

Possession

Post-

Architect (Company)

A free design simulator platform allowing people to design spaces using the block system. There would be preset rules that are given to the user, with Errors notification in the casting cavitiess are not completely sealed.

Design Simulator Part Detail Spec-Sheet Assembly Guide

Squat

on Property

Self-Assemble

Clusters/Dwellings With the provided spec sheet, a general set of instructions will be provided. The connection are all the same and straight forward.

Occupant in Debt

End

Online PlatForm

Contractor Consulting

Building Regulation Any elevators can be installed if the users wish to exceed 3 stories, and services can be redirected to city grid to accomodate for a larger density of people

Design Extensions

May consult Architects Any ground additions can be constructed similarly to before. However, any addition above the prior 3 storey limit may need to consult Architects or engineers

Registered owner

External Hires

of Property

Contractor/Architect/Engineer If any form of labour is hired externally, the professional will use the online platform as a guide to their design and construction.

OR

Negotiate

with Original Owner Could result in tenancy agreement or purchase

(Self-)Assemble May hire skilled labour

Disruptive End

Registered owner of Property

Post-

Squat Vacant Property

on Property

Possession

Negotiate

with Original Owner Could result in tenancy agreement or purchase

Post-

Possession

Removed

P r e - Possession

from Property Court decision

NoLand Banking in London

Possession


Design by Occupant Series of Clusters/Dwellings Using the Online platform with the suggested spatial configurations, the user can design their home similarly to designing spaces in a gaming simulation. The will be standarded designes also provided that may be modified if needed.

Manufacturing/Delivery by Company Required parts Once the Design is complete (with no errors), the user can download a spec sheet and model of the clusters. The required pieces are manufactured in a facility under the domain of the company using large wire-cutters. Then delievered to the user upon request, at a specified address.

Self-Assembly by Occupant Clusters/Dwellings With the provided spec sheet, a general set of instructions will be provided in an assembly manual. The connection are all the same and straight forward.


Sleeping

Social Reading

2.75m

min depth

8m2min area

12m2min area

2.8m min depth

2.8m min depth

Total

23m2min area

Bathrooms

Total

3.2m min depth

(social)

(social)

Eating

25m2min area

27m22min area 27m min area

Storage Space

29m22min area 29m min area

(social)

Total

31m2min area

Private Open-Space

2m min height 1.5m2min area

1 Bathroom + 1 WC min

3.2m min depth

(social)

Total Total

+

+

1 Bathroom min

3.2m min depth

(social)

Total Total

+ 2m min height

1.5m2+0.5m2min / +

1.5m min depth 5m2min area

1.5m min depth 5m2+1m2min / +

Relative Area: Privacy decreases as area increases, relative to minimum required area

Relative Depth: Privacy decreases as depth increases, relative to minimum required depth

Folded space: creating 2 distinctly seperated areas, creating more privacy Enclosure: The Periphery of the space in plan

Enclosure

Least Private

Most Private

Enclosure

Most Private

Least Private

Connectivity

No Seperation

Simple Seperation

Corridor Seperation

Degree of Division: The longer the corridor, the more private the spaces becomes from one another

Private 0.9m min depth Relative Depth: Privacy decreases as depth increases, relative to minimum required depth

Public

1.2m min depth 1.5m comfortable

Least Private

Offset

Overlap (Active)

Overlap (Passive) Most Private

Buffer Spaces

Encyclopedia of Space


Marylebone

Moxon St

High St

U1

C1

C2 U2

U3

C4 C3 U4

C5 C6

U5

Previous Site Scheme


U2

C2

C2

Level 2

U2

Level 1

C2

U2

U1

C1

U1

Level 2 C1

Level 1

C1

Cluster A & B

U1


U1

C1 Level 2

Level 1

C1

U1

U5

U5

U1 C1

U5

U3

C4

U4 Level 2

U3

Level 1

C4

C4

U4

Cluster C & D

U4

U3


S-piece

T-piece

3x1

3x1

2x1

2x1

3x3

3x3

2x3

2x3

A

O-piece

C-piece

L-piece

U-piece

offset-piece

offset ext.piece

Inversepiece

3x3

3x1

3x1

3x1

2-way corner

2-corner

corner 3x1

2x2

2x1

2x1

2x1

1-way corner

1-corner

corner 2x1

1x1

1x1

1x1

2-way wall

2-wall

wall 3x1

3x3

3x3

3x3

1-way wall

2x3

2x3

2x4

1x3

1x3

1x4

3x2

2x3

STOC - Combination

Formed by a number of parts from different families of parts

B

wall 2x1

L - Combination

Formed by a number of parts from the same family of parts

Vertical connection

Wall Tie & Threaded Rod allows for space combinations connects vertically to form a single enclosure and is where concrete pours would stop

Parallel connection

T-angle & Threaded Rod allows for space combinations to form, and connects spaces combinations side by side

Kit Of Parts


STC-configuration

STOC-configuration

offset-SLconfiguration

L-configuration

offset-offset ext.LC-configuration

Common Vertical Cross-Sections For the proper flow of concrete For the following set of space combinations, the vertical connections are dependent of the common vertical cross sections shown above. Each space combination vertically connects to the next of that basis in order to allow the proper flow of concrete. That being said, the chosen spacial quality can effect what becomes permanent at a single pour of concrete through one of the cavities.

A

Cross-section direcly connected Stacked Combinations

A

Cross-section direcly connected

Stacked Combinations Space combinations are simply stacked one above the other

B

Cross-section partially connected Overlapping Combinations Space combinations overlap creating more volumetric spaces

Sets of Space Configuration

B

Cross-section partially connected Overlapping Combinations


Cavity Network “Evaluating different casting routes through a cavity network created by overlapping space configurations. Once cast and cured, the chunck of space configurations become permanent, immovable, and “legitimized/activate”. This investigates how the casting route may inform the placement of space configurations together as a means of refraining from or allowing premanence in taller structures”

A

B

C


A

A

B

B

C

C


Space Configuration & Ownership â&#x20AC;&#x153;direct outcome of ownership when attaching two space configurationsâ&#x20AC;?

2 types of space configurations STOC-configuration L-configuration

Wall Allignment

Creating and maintaining two distinct spaces

No-Wall Allignment

Combining spaces and opening up spaces to create more connectivity


Some Design Criteria â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tactical criteria with the usage of the space configurations to not allow possession, possibly encourage combination and trade, try to avoid having too many neighbours spaces, and generally make good use of the spaceâ&#x20AC;?

offset-SL-combination 1-way corner 2 occupants

offset-SL-combination 1-way wall 1 occupants

Symmetrical Space Combination Symmetrical = Possession

Unsymmetrical Space Combination Unsymmetrical = Combination

Space Configuration Ownership The sequence of space configurations create an isolated cavity that can be cast. As the create spaces, it alway try to give a single unit half a space, where the other half is owned by a neighbour in order to allow conflict and negotiation between users.

Symmetrical Space Combination Multiple Storeys Symmetrical = Trade

Unsymmetrical Space Combination Multiple Storeys Unsymmetrical = Combination

STOC-Combination Placement 1 Top- larger area bottom- less height

STOC-Combination Placement 2 Top- smaller area bottom- more height

Vertical Stacking Less volumetic vertical casting cavity network Easy to move

Overlapping More volumetic Larger casting cavity network More difficult to move


Space Type of a Single Configuration Interior Render


No Neighbour Design â&#x20AC;&#x153;Concluding how limiting the number of usable space configurations for each unit can force occupants to attach to a neighbour, but also become an interesting challenge on how configurations can be strategically used to create good living space immune from possessionâ&#x20AC;?

Dwelling Design

No possession, No neighbours...More Parts

Using the design criterea, this dwelling was designed as a way of testing how one can design their unit to reduce the possiblity of possession, what strategically choose space relations that will have no neighbours sharing your walls. There was still one moment where a neighbour could attach. Regardless, it is obvious that more pieces would be required in this scenario, so one can possibly reduced the number of allowed space combinations per unit in order to force units the attach.

Neighbourâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Area It is difficult to create a unit without having an attached neighbouring space, using the space configurations


Two Overlapping Units Degree of Conflict


Overlapping Units Axonometric


Window Pieces Va r i a b l e Po ro s i t y


Negotiated Ownership

Va r i a b l e D e g r e e s o f N e g o t i a t i o n


Land Banking

Activating Site Potential


Site Isometric

Gradual Accumulation


et

Moxon Stre Space Combinations & Casting

Aybrook

Cramer St

Paddington Street Gardens

St

e High St Marylebon

Degree of negotiable space

Degree of negotiable space Space Combinations & Casting Gradual Accumulation on site Cluster by Cluster

Within an individual Cluster, there can be a varying number of negotiable space usually based on the chosen space combinations, or can be based on the degree of permanence, meaning that if most of the cavities have been cast, thenthe parts are no londer movable.

Gradual Accumulation on site Cluster by Cluster

The site doesnt not have to be taken over all at once or even by a single group of people. Differents groups can gradually accumulate on the site, being built cluster by cluster.

Density & Porosity

Cluster Density and Distribution Patterns The site can have varying cluster densities which may readily affect the porosity on of the city, large clusters with high degrees of negotiable space my form, or inversly small unit-like clusters with a single negotiable space.

Density & Porosity

Cluster Density and Distribution Patterns


Moxon St

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B A Possessing A

Trading B

Combining C

Negotiation Nodes Site Ground Plan


We need more dining space! Our dining room is too small for all of us.

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Okay! looks like they are travelling.

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Just make sure no one is watching us.

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WHERE DID OUR DINING ROOM GO!!

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Episode 1 : Possessing (+-) 1 Realise a need for space: The occupants of the unit realise that they need more dining room space, as the currently available space is not enough for the number of people living in the unit. Understanding how the space configurations work, they realise that the neighbouring space to their living room allows for possession. 2 Negotiate: One-Sided They know that the space is movable because it has not been cast with concrete; maybe the neighbours didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t realize their proneness to possession when they chose that space configuration and thats why the didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cast it right away. So they start to monitor the neighbours routine and learn that they are travelling for a week. 3 Take Action: One-Sided The two cpnflicting spaces are tied together back to back; so they are able to take apart that single configuration, slide it out of the units, rotate the piece 180 degrees before sliding it back in and reassembling it. They put everything back in place and prepare to cast that single configuration cavity. 4 Legitimize: One-Sided They cast concrete without the knowlege of the other unit as a means of making the set of configurations permenant and immovable. When the neighbouring unit return and realise that their space is gone, they are unable to move the configuration back to its previous placement. To be continued...

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I think we can make use of this high ceiling and trade for a mezzanine and higher storey bedroom.

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C B E Sure! I dont mind making that trade.

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We just have to rotate it and put it back in place.

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F D

Lets cast it with concrete and make it official!

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Episode 2 : Trading (==) 5 Realise a need for space: The occupants of the unit realise that they can make use of the high ceiling, and the have add a mezzanine space with an upper-story bedroom and washroom. Understanding how the space configurations work, they realise they can trade with their neighbouring space. 6 Negotiate: Two-Sided They know that the space is movable because it has not been cast with concrete; maybe them and the neighbours just favoured the spatial quality of that particular configuration. So they decide to approach the neighbours to negotiate a potential trade. 7 Take Action: Two-Sided They talk to the neighbours whoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m actually favoured the trade. The trade would giving them a lower level bedroom and washroom accessed from the kitchen, which made more sense to them as oppose to the upper level spaces accessed from the dining room. They go ahead and make the changes together. 8 Legitimize: Two-Sided One week later they decide to cast concrete the cavity of that single configuration as they favoured the new spactial arrangemnt and wanted to make it permanent so that no unnegotiated trade would occur. As they heard about the earlier possession and did not want to take the chance. To be continued...

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With the baby arriving soon, we can make use of the extra space they have.

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A Okay! so that can be the babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s room.

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We just have to rotate it and put it back in place.

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A B Lets NOT cast concrete just yet, and see how this living dynamic goes!

12 D

Episode 3 : Combining (++) 9 Realise a need for space: The occupants of the unit realise that they will need more living space, particularly a new bedroom; as they are expecting a child soon and want to have the baby room ready. Thankfully they had pre-design a potential combination, using a configuration that would allow this. 10 Negotiate: Two-Sided The configuration is not casted, thus is movable. So they prepare and discussion to convince the neighbours to combine. They offered them the earlier obtained upperstory spaces to be a private space only for them and got two bedrooms in return 11 Take Action: Two-Sided They take apart the configuration, slide it out, rotate it 180 degrees before putting it back in and reassembling it. they do this all together, it was a great bonding moment for the new flatmates. 12 Legitimize: Two-Sided They decide not to cast concrete the configuration cavity just yet, and instead wait for the baby to come so that they can try this new living dynamic before fully committing to the changes. Both units agree to this.

The End

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Overlapping Spaces Interior Render


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Negotiating Living Space by Ossama Elkholy  

Negotiating Living Space by Ossama Elkholy  

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