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‘UPGRADING the UTOPIA’ UTOPIA’ introducing mixture and flexibility of urban fabric within the scope of community-led design, in the context of mass-produced housing suburbia

P5 presentation Justina Stefanovic 2015


content: I. INTRODUCTION II. FAILURE OF THE STATE III. PROJECT SITE AND CONTEXT IV. STRATEGY V. DESIGN PROPOSAL

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

introduction


1.INtroduction problem definition


PROJECT TOPIC - problem definition

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA. introduction


‘white’ city centre

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA. introduction


‘immigrant’ suburbs

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA. introduction


‘burning suburbia’ - stockholm riots 2013

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA. introduction


II.WHY? research - failure of the state


IMMIGRATION and population growth

REFUGEES WW II

FROM NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. 1940’s

LABOR FORCE EUROPE. 1950’s and 60’s

REFUGEES

FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.1970’s - 80’s

immigration growth

+32% TOTAL POPULATION GROWTH 1940-1975

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure

ASYLUM SEEKERS EASTERN EUROPE. 1990’s

ASYLUM SEEKERS

MIDDLE EAST, ASIA AND AFRICA. FROM 2003 - now


IMMIGRATION VS. HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

REFUGEES WW II

FROM NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. 1940’s

LABOR FORCE EUROPE. 1950’s and 60’s

REFUGEES

FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.1970’s - 80’s

ASYLUM SEEKERS EASTERN EUROPE. 1990’s

ASYLUM SEEKERS

MIDDLE EAST, ASIA AND AFRICA. FROM 2003 - now

housing growth immigration growth

RECORD YEARS ‘MILLION PROGRAMME’ MILLION PROGRAMME housing development

+30% OF TOTAL HOUSING STOCK IN SWEDEN 1965 - 1974

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


‘million programme’ - mass-produced housing ‘for all’

UPGGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


MODERNIST UTOPIA - inspiration for ‘million programme’ development

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


‘MILLION PROGRAMME’ aims

BAD

GOOD

Affordable and diverse housing Spacious green outdoor environments

Cycling oriented

Public transport oriented

Ideal for social contacts

Free from cars

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


decline in new housing developments

REFUGEES WW II FROM NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. 1940’s

LABOR FORCE EUROPE. 1950’s and 60’s

REFUGEES

FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.1970’s - 80’s

housing growth immigration growth

RECORD YEARS ‘MILLION PROGRAMME’ housing development

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure

ASYLUM SEEKERS ASYLUM SEEKERS EASTERN EUROPE. 1990’s

MIDDLE EAST, ASIA AND AFRICA. FROM 2003 - now


accommodating new suburbs

ressearch - identifying the failure


reality vs. ‘utopia’

Affordable and diverse housing Spacious green outdoor environments

Cycling oriented

Public transport oriented

Ideal for social contacts

Free from cars

..? UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


people of higher income are moving to the center

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

ressearch - identifying the failure


social segregation FOREIGNERS IN STOCKHOLM 2011 50.0 - % 25.0 - 49.9 % 15.0 - 24.9 % 0.0 - 14.9 %

SOCIAL ASSISTANCE IN STOCKHOLM 2011 10.0 - % 7.0 - 9.9 % 4.0 - 6.9 % 0.0 - 3.9 %

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

ressearch - identifying the failure


fastest growing income gap and inequality, causing social unrest

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


iii. project site and context evaluating spatial aspects of modern planning:


‘MILLION PROGRAMME’ EXAMPLE

INITIAL SCENERY FOR RIOTS 2013

85,4 % RESIDENTS OF IMMIGRANT BACKGROUND

District of husby


current centre

UPGRADING THE UTOOPIA.

urban design proposal


separated transport flows

main street - bus stop

neighborhood - pedestrian path

centre - pedestrian path

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


type and quality of public space

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


DISTRICT CENTRE

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


connecting routes

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


NEIGHBOURHOOD CENTRE

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


neighborhood ground floors

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


HOUSING BLOCK AND ITS STRUCTURE

SINGLE HOUSES

0

SEMI-DETACHED

0

MULTI-FAMILY BLOCK APPARTMENTS

4896

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


conclusions

monocentric district model

SPATIAL SEGREGATION

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

separated functions - work/play and live

DORMITORY NEIGHBORHOODS

research - site location and context

separated transport flows

SOCIAL SEGREGATION

mototype housing typology and block structure

LACK OF SOCIAL INTERACTION AND COMMUNICATION

poor quality of public space

CRIME


vision 2040

‘VISION 2040 - Stockholm for all’: - integration - education - more jobs and enterprise - improved urban environment

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


JARVA REGION

Œ

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Kista high-tech park

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


CURRENT RENOVATION PROCESS

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


no relation between proposed plans and local residents

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


rebuilding the same structure as in 70’s, just with a new materials

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


displacement of current residents due to higher rent prices

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


local opinion

“Järvalyftet is a project presented as a major investment in the districts Husby, Akalla Rinkeby, Tensta and Hjulsta from the City of Stockholm. The project extends until at least 2030 and several billion in treasure chest. We megaphone has protested that it is presented as improvements in the areas rather seeks to attract residents with higher incomes and in a way, forcing us who live here to leave.”

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - site location and context


problem definition

Stockholm has became one of the highest segregated cities within the European context, due to “Million Programme” suburban mass-production housing districts, proposed by the national government in the late 60’s, that currently are being seen as socialy and spatialy deprived areas, accommodating people mostly of immigrant background, and facing such issues as crime and poor quality of urban environment, all together forming a negative identity of ‘concrete ethnic enclaves’. Such urban fabric, inspired by utopia of modernist planning, is incapable of accommodating diversity of people, because it is not able to provide variety of needs, which is contributing to such districts becoming segregated within the city scale context. The quality of such district can not be changed just by rebuilding its housing with new materials. Its spatial planning principles have to be restructured in a different way, in order to improve living conditions,create attractive and qualitative environment for local residents. These changes won’t happen without changing the planning process itself.

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

research - identifying the failure


problem m defin nition

Stockh holm has bec came one of the highest segregated cities within the Europ pean context, due to “M Million Pro ogramme” suburrban masss-pro odu uction housing districts, prroposed by th he nattional gov vernment in the latte 60’ss, that currrently arre being seen as socialy y and spatialy depriv ved areass, acco ommodating people e mo ostly y off immig grant background, and fac cing su uch issu ues as crime an nd poor quality of urba an environmen nt, all together forming g a negative id dentity y of ‘c concrete ethnic enclaves’.. Such urb ban fabric, in nspired by utopia of moderniist planning, is inc capab ble of accommodating dive erssity of people, becau use it is not able e to provide variety of needs, which is contributing to such disttrictss becomiing segregated within the citty scalle context. The quality y of such disttrict can no ot be chan nged just by re ebuilding itss hou using with ne ew materials. Its spatial planning g principles hav ve to be e restructured in a diffferen nt way, in order to improve living conditions,create attractive and qualitative environmen nt for local residents. These changes won’t happen without changing the planning process itself.

RESEARCH QUESTION:

How to increase value of modernist districts, reduce segregation and integrate people into design process, through change of the urban fabric and planning process?


iV. strategy PROJECT AIM: To create spatial conditions , that could enable local population to be directly involved into design process – planning, constructing and managing - in order to transform existing static and monotonous urban fabric into dynamic and responsive environment, able to acommodate social mixture, using a guided strategy and form of urban fabric.


theoretical framework - project guidelines PROJECT AIM: To create spatial conditions , that could enable local population to be directly involved into design process – planning, constructing and managing - in order to transform existing static and monotonous urban fabric into dynamic and responsive environment, able to acommodate social mixture, using a guided strategy and form of urban fabric.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Consider planning as a collaborative process

Use the existing improve it, upgrade it!

Planning as a changing cycle - flexible design proposal

Introduce flexible mixed-use spaces - for diverse urban quality, to encourage social mixture

Engage civic participation and provoke community-led design

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

strategy


DESIGN FRAMEWORK

monocentric district model

separated functions work/play and live

separated transport flows

Introduce flexible mixed-use spaces - for diverse urban quality, to encourage social mixture

policentric urban model

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

strategy

mixed-use urban centres

mixed transport flows

mototype housing typology and block structure

public space type and accessibility

Use the existing improve it, upgrade it!

customized and flexible housing

diverse and flexible public space


PROPOSED planninG TOOL - guideplan

CHANGING PLANNING PROCESS

GUIDEPLAN

SPATIAL GUIDELINES FOR DISTRICT RENOVATION


guideplan structure

GUIDEPLAN

DISTRICT RENOVATION STRATEGY fixed street network and policentric urban model

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

strategy

flexible infill neighbourhood level


involvement

FLEXIBLE INFILL

neighborhood level public and community spaces

block level shared residential spaces

private space appartments

BASED ON:

design

community involvement implementation

collaboration management

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

strategy


V. design proposal upgrading the modern utopia


policentric urban model

Main/district core

Monocentric urban model, concetrating most of the functions in one central area, leaving the rest of the district with no activity, unlively environment and lack of facilities.

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal

+

Secondary/neighbourhood centers

introducing secondary/neighbourhood centers to activate the whole district, create more dinamic environment and diversify spatial quality, provide activities not only in the central commercial area of Husby, but aswell within each of the neighbourhoods, with more community oriented facilities.


criteria for choosing secondary center CENTRAL LOCATION

EXISTING ACTIVITIES

UNDEFINED SPACE FOR POTENTIAL NEW ACTIVITY

POOR QUALITY/ VACANT BUILDINGS

CAR ACCESSIBILITY

GREEN SPACE

example: neighborhood 1 UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


criteria applied for each neighbourhood

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


district concept - proposed policentric structure:

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA A.

urbban design proposal


proposed street typologies car traffic/cycling

mixed-use streets - pedestrian priority

P

P

cycling/walking

main pedestrian route

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


proposed street network and main connecting routes car traffic/cycling

mixed-use streets - pedestrian priority

cycling/walking

main pedestrian route

car traffic/cycling main pedestrian route cycling/walking mixed-use streets - pedestrian priority recreational routes - cycling/walking

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


flexible infill

strategies & toolbox [mixed-use/flexible/diverse] - programme - public space - housing

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


suggested programme for a neighbourhood centre

TO INCREASE:

PROPOSED PROGRAMME:

- EDUCATION LEVEL - EMPLOYMENT - COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND LIVABILITY OF THE DISTRICT

100% COMMUNAL ACTIVITY

ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION

COMMUNITY AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urbann design proposal


common space: suggested programme ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION

TYPE OF EDUCATION:

SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE SHARING

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SKILLS

COST SAVING AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

REQUIRED FACILITIES:

- community center

- easy to assemble, prefabricated modules for urban furniture

- temporary structures

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal

- open and second-hand market, recycling facilities

- urban garden

- parks and space for outdoor activities


common space: suggested programme COMMUNITY AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES

TYPE OFF ACTIVITY:

COMMUNITY MEETINGS, DISCUSSING AND GENERATING IDEAS

COMMUNITY EVENTS

PUBLIC/COMMUNITY ART

REQUIRED FACILITIES:

- community center

- event space

- open-gallery


urban design toolbox for district/hood centres:

GROUND FLOOR PROGRAMME & ACCESS

PERSONALISATION

ground floor transparency commerce continuity in the district centre

small area units to encourage small businesses

diversity in facade extensions mixed-use

commerce at the arrival points in the neighborhood centres

personalized facades

day/night economy

shared and community spaces at the ground floors in the neighborhood centre

use of the rooftop space bike/car parking before arrival points

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


public space toolbox

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

ACCESS

FLEXIBILITY

FACILITIES

external crossings

temporary facilities

vegetation

free internal movement

day/night transformation

urban furniture

seasonal transformation

lighting

urban design proposal


RECLAIMING UNDEFINED SPACE FOR LOCAL ACT undefined space

potential

local creative act + consultation of urban professionals

financing

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design propossal


designed by common act

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


proposed public space network AND HIERARCHY


buildings to be transformed/renovated

existing housing to be renovated parking to be transformed into new typologies poor quality buildings to be transformed into mixed-use + new housing typologies

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


change of the housing block structure

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

current block structure

car access to block

proposed block structure, including shared spaces, more transparent and accessible ground floors

limited car access to semi-private courtyards

urban design proposal


customized renovation CURRENT BUILDING STRUCTURE

shared spaces

personalized facades

extensive balconies - flexible area

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


potential space for new typology

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


suggested housing typologies

modular FLEXIBLE

incremental PRICE RANGE

shared DIVERSE

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


final guideplan space for new typologies customized renovation options local centers community property sports parks car/public transport/ bicycle - artery to the city main pedestrian route secondary routes - walking/cycling multi-use streets - pedestrian priority/bike/car recreational routes

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


flexible infill

- enabled possibility to choose and have an influence on ongoing development

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


FREE/COMMON SPACE

- possibility to create

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA A.

urrban design proposa al


proposed phasing

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


example SITES

DISTRICT CENTRE

HOOD

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


phase 1. implementing new housing

NEIGHBORHOOD CENTRE

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal

DISTRICT CENTRE


UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


phase 2. neighborhood centre - programme and public space

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


phase 2. district centre - programme

PROGRAMMING AND PERSONALIZATION

ground floor transparency

commerce continuity in the district centre

mixed-use

small area units to encourage small businesses

day/night economy

diversity in facade extensions

parking facilities before the center

personalized facades

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


phase 2. district centre - public space

FLEXIBILITY

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

FACILITIES

urban design proposal


UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


local centre


impression

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA.

urban design proposal


district centre


Conclusions - everybody wins!

STOCKHOLM MUNICIPALITY: - improved most problematic districts of Stockholm - reduced issue of segregation between city districts - changed character and image of suburban areas, general quality increase - provided accommodation for HIGH-TECH employees - potential residents - attracted new investors to the area - efficient use of environment - renovated housing - enhanced livability - increased safety - local integration - inclusive design process - everybody counts - increased accessibility

RESIDENT OF HUSBY: - opportunity to choose type of environment - equal opportunity to decide - possibility for customization of personal space - sense of belonging - opportunity to create, build and manage - improved quality of environment: lively, diverse and safe


where it could be applied


thank you!

Profile for Design as Politics

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA  

Graduation Presentation Justina Stefanovic. Mentor team: Leo van den Burg, Mike Emmerik, Marta Relats. Date of graduation: 27-10-2015.

UPGRADING THE UTOPIA  

Graduation Presentation Justina Stefanovic. Mentor team: Leo van den Burg, Mike Emmerik, Marta Relats. Date of graduation: 27-10-2015.

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