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Daniel Kiss

TERRITORIAL FORMATIONS

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE LANDSCAPE URBANISM MArch Term one 2018-2019


TERRITORIAL FORMATIONS

Daniel Kiss with Yasmina Yehia (Social formations) Rafael Caldera (Landscript) Swadheet Chaturvedi (Manufactured Grounds)

DIRECTORS Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico

STUDIO MASTER Clara Oloriz Sanjuan

SEMINAL TUTOR Clara Oloriz Sanjuan

TECHNICAL TUTOR Gustavo Romanillos Claudio Campanille

ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE LANDSCAPE URBANISM MArch Term one 2018-2019

4


CONTENT

MANUFACTURED GROUNDS

01 AQUACULTURE PLATFORM: Swadheet Chaturvedi & Daniel Kiss

06 08 10 12

A PLATFORM-BASED AQUACULTURE SEA STATION SITE: MORAY FIRTH APPLICATION TO THE PLATFORM

SOCIAL FORMATIONS

02 GRIDDED POLICIES: Yasmina Yehia & Daniel Kiss

16 18 22 24 26

A POLICY-BASED AGRICULTURAL NETWORK GLOBAL & DOMESTIC RELATIONS CASE STUDIES: LAXTON & OLDHAM GREATER MANCHESTER INTERACTIVE TOOL DEVELOPMENT

LANDSCRIPT

03 TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

28 30 34 36

EXPERIMENTS ON SPEY RIVER, SCOTLAND SEDIMENTOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONS SIMULATIONS: PRINCIPLES SIMULATIONS: IN-SITU

41

REFERENCES

5


WORKSHOP: MANUFACTURED GROUNDS

AQUACULTURE PLATFORMS

FIG. 01 / SECTION OF PLATFORM BASED AQUACULTURES

6

PLATFORM-BASED OPEN OCEAN AQUACULTURE


AQUACULTURE PLATFORMS

SWADHEET CHATURVEDI & DANIEL KISS

01 MANUFACTURED GROUNDS:

Platform-based open ocean aquaculture on the North Sea Over the next years, thousands of wells will be plugged and hundreds of platforms removed, but is removing the best idea? Because marine life has grown - on these surrogate reefs with very rare aquatic species - as platform ecosystems are evolving to mimic those in the wild. Dismantling could also spill toxic wastes on the seabed. So we should really leave them be, and probably think of innovative ways of actually using them to mimic natural processes by maybe incorporating healthy aquaculture to it.

7


by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi

FIG. 02 / SEA STATION

WORKSHOP: MANUFACTURED GROUNDS

AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

THE SEA STATION

SEA STATION FIG. 02 / SEA STATION

WORK PLATFORM CHIMNEY SECTION

Sea Station fish pens designed by INNOVASEA helps farm operators reduce the total cost of grow-out on medium-to-high energy aquaculture sites. Sea Station’s security and long service life allows capital costs to be spread across many years and harvests

RIM

15

Benefits of being fully submerged pens: Producers can introduce air into central spar to raise the pen in a controlled way or remove air to lower it. It avoids strong currents and weather. Since it can come to the surface of water, it is easy to harvest fish and convenient to do maintenance job on the pens.

27.2

A prototype for aquaculture

BALLAST WEIGHT 12000 Kg

34.8

TRADE ROUTE TO USA

27

21 34.8

OPEN BLUE HATCHERIES, PANA MIRAMAR TRADE ROUTE TO USA

8 NM

27.2

27

15

OPEN SEA FARM

21

34.8

12.2

27.2

15

27

21

12.2

These pens have been deployed in various configurations, starting with the one-way mooring system, which did not really work well as it was difficult to control. Then the three-way mooring system was stable until the storm came. Finally it was tensioned from all the 4 sides, which eventually was configured in a grid.

27

PANAMA CITY

FIG. 04 / MOORING SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

8

27

21

PAN

12.2

by: Daniel Kiss

12.2

15

27.2

27

21

12.2

34.8

TRADE ROUTE TO USA

34.8

27 27.2

27 27.2 34.8 21

12.2

27 27.2

Panama Open Blue Sea Farms 15

21

6400 M3 12.2

15

34.8

21

12.2

27.2

15

3100 M3

FIG. 04 / CONFIGURATIONS

34.8

21

15

Launch date: 1999 Gulf of Mexico Ocean Spar Technologies

12.2

27.2

600 M3

15

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 03 / PEN SIZES

FIG. 03 / PEN SIZES

21

12.2

34.8

15

27.2

HARVEST RING


FIG. 08 / LOCATION The one of the largest open ocean aquaculture farms in the world is located 8 nautical miles from the Open Blue Hatcheries at Miramar, called Open Sea Farm. The farming operations are fully submerged at depths of up to 250 feet. Situated in a protected no-take zone of 2,500 acres of water.

by: Daniel Kiss

OPEN BLUE HATCHERIES, MIRAMAR

OPEN SEA FARM FIG. 08 / LOCATION

OPEN SEA FARM

8 NM

PANAMA CITY FIG. 05 / LOGISTICS

by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi

Sea Station can be raised for harvesting or cleaning by filling the spar with air.

FIG. 06 / STRUCTURE

FIG. 06 / STRUCTURE

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 05 / LOGISTICS

Fish are raised in their own controlled hatcheries. Then they are transferred into a box and transported to the vessel. Lastly, the fish are made to swim into the pens through a broad pipe which was attached to the pen by the zippers.

FIG. 07 / MOORING SYSTEM

TRADE ROUTE TO USA

AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

Air hose / feeding tube. Surface float 1000 Kg net buoyancy Sea Stations are equipped with zip entries to allow divers access to the cage Cages are attached to a grid of steel wires held in place by multiple anchors. Netting is made from DSM Dyneema - Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene (UHMwPE). It is 15 times stronger than steel on a weight-for-weight basis, 40% stronger than aramid and floats on water. Therefore it is predator proof as well.

FIG. 07 / MOORING SYSTEM

Grid corner Grid line Anchor line

Bridle lines

Anchor chain

Crown lines

9


AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

SITE: MORAY FIRTH

There were other design factors involved such as clean water, no trade routes obstructions, adequate energy supply and so on. However, solving this logistical issue was one of the main parameters for us while choosing an appropriate site in the UK. We looked into the North Sea, and we found a network of existing oil rigs - commissioned and decommissioned as well. In the British sector alone, there are almost 470 platforms, in which 200 are going to be decommissioned by 2025. Hence, our intention is to use the existing infrastructure of an abandoned rig, instead of actually dismantling it and impacting the ecosystem created by it as a surrogate reef.

10

Sea Station Aquaculture site deployment

North Sea oil fields and rigs

BEATRICE OIL FIELDS

by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi

FIG. 08 / SITE SELECTION

WORKSHOP: MANUFACTURED GROUNDS

FIG. 08 / SITE SELECTION

LEGEND WIND FARMS OIL FIELDS DECOMMISSIONED WELL PRESENT WELL FERRY ROUTES


BEATRICE ALPHA

BEATRICE BRAVO

13/30 - A

13/30 - B

LEGEND

BEATRICE CHARLIE

FIG. 09 / SITE MAP: BEATRICE OIL RIGS

13/30 - C

Beatrice Oil Rigs

OIL FIELDS WIND FARMS FERRY ROUTE

12 NM LIMIT

Our site selection criteria is overlapping in one specific location, North-East Scotland, in the Moray Firth, namely the Beatrice Oil Fields. Located perfect distance from shore and all of the platforms are decommissioned. This area is boosted by the abundance of wind energy available, in the form of existing infrastructure, planned and an under-construction wind farm of 84 turbines which is going to cater to 4,50,000 households and to our proposed Aquaculture Farm.

11

by: Daniel Kiss

SITE: MORAY FIRTH

FIG. 09 / BEATRICE OIL RIGS

AQUACULTURE PLATFORM


AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

APPLICATION: OIL RIGS + SEA STATION

FIG. 10 / ADAPTATION TO THE RIG

APPLICATION TO THE OIL RIGS

The deployment is based on the idea, where the cages are movable in a circulated way for the purpose of maintaining the whole process of fish production.

Utilization of decommissioned Beatrice Oil rigs

12

13/30 - B BEATRICE BRAVO

ACCESS TO PLATFORM

As support facilities

13/30 - A BEATRICE ALPHA

Whilst we were trying to configure the perfect grid anchored to the Platforms Alpha, the priority was to have an unobstructed access to the pens along with maintaining stability and flexibility in the grid itself.

SEA STATIONS 600

by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi

FIG. 10 / ADAPTATION TO THE RIG

WORKSHOP: MANUFACTURED GROUNDS


FIG. 11 / BEATRICE OIL RIGS

by: Daniel Kiss by: Daniel Kiss

The idea of circulation is derived from the fact that how convenient for the users to access the pens for harvesting and maintenance. On each side we created a node which is connected to all of the 5-5 Sea Stations and to the bridge.

FIG. 12 / PULLEY SYSTEM

CIRCULATION OF PRODUCTION

FIG. 11 / CIRCULATION OF PRODUCTION Fish introducing and harvesting

Maintainance on the bridge POSITION LOADING

Cages are moved by pulley system

PULLING THE CAGE

Pulling the cage

The fish are raised in cages

Cages in anchored position CAGES IN ANCHORED POSITION

AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

FIG. 12 / PULLEY SYSTEM

Fish intruducing and harvesting

Cages are moved by pulley system

The fish are raised in cages

Each Sea Station can be pulled by the existing pulley system operated on the rig and brought to the bridge in order to be processed.

13


AQUACULTURE PLATFORM

THE PLATFORM

THE PLATFORM

ACCESS OUT

HATCHERIES

ACCESS IN

LOADING PLATFORMS 14

HARVESTING

FIG. 13 / AXONOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PLATFORM

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 13 / AXONOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PLATFORM

WORKSHOP: MANUFACTURED GROUNDS


FIG. 14 / FUNCTIONING OF THE PLATFORM

15

ACCESS OUT

FEEDING STORAGE

BROODSTOCK RECIRCULATORY TANKS

LARVAE AND JUVENINE TANKS

LOADING PLATFORM

STORAGE TANKS

HATCHERIES

SAND FILTER

PUMP HOUSE

ACCESS IN

This is how the Rigs actually function as Hatchery and a Harvesting units. Alpha A is where the water is pumped and filtered into the storage tanks, followed by the actual hatcheries on the level above. Whereas Alpha B is where the Larvae and Juvenile tanks are maintained.

by: Daniel Kiss & Swadheet Chaturvedi

FIG. 14 / FUNCTIONING OF THE PLATFORM

AQUACULTURE PLATFORM


16

MANCHESTER

TRAFFORD

AGRICULTURE NETWORK IN GREATER MANCHESTER

BOLTON

GRIDDED POLICIES

WIGAN

WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS


FIG. 15 / HYDROLOGY MAP OF GREATER MANCHESTER The green belt one of the most important topics as part of Greater Manchester Spatial Planning policy. The farms which are responsible for Feeding Greater Manchester strategy are located within the green belt. In addition, flood control is a topic of concern within the Spatial Planning policy - since flooding has been inherited - due to decrease of woodlands and increase of agriculture practices.

LEGEND GREEN BELT FLOOD RISK

02 SOCIAL FORMATIONS:

GRIDDED POLICIES YASMINA YEHIA & DANIEL KISS

Policy-driven agriculture network in Greater Manchester Our goal is to understand impacts of consumption and production patterns and how they are interchanged with agricultural practices. In Greater Manchester a well-organized food network is maintained for several purposes. On of them is to provide a sustainable food network for the purpose of giving a wide range of availability of local food for the community of Greater Manchester. Our intention is to understand how this agricultural practices is maintained relating to all economic, cultural, environmental and social aspects.

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FIG. 15 / HYDROLOGY MAP OF GREATER MANCHESTER by: Daniel Kiss

GREEN BELT

TAMESIDE

GRIDDED POLICIES


WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS

GRIDDED POLICIES

18

GLOBAL RELATIONS


FIG. 16 / GLOBAL RELATIONS OF FOOD INDUSTRY

FIG. 18 / IMPORT-EXPORT RATE

19

IMPORT 46238

EXPORT 22023

* Million pounds

FIG. 18 / IMPORT-EXPORT RATE by: Yasmina Yehia

FIG. 17 / FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY BY COUNTRIES

FIG. 17 / FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY BY COUNTRIES by: Yasmina Yehia

The UK ranks low at 61% compared to Argentina ranking at 273% in its food self-sufficiency ratio. In relation to global trade it seems that the UK imports twice more than it exports.

by: Yasmina Yehia & Daniel Kiss

GLOBAL RELATIONS

FIG. 16 / GLOBAL RELATIONS OF FOOD INDUSTRY

GRIDDED POLICIES


GRIDDED POLICIES

AGRICULTURE IN UNITED KINGDOM

CROPPABLE FIG. 20 / LAND USE RATIO CROPPABLE 6131 In thousand hectares. In 2017 6131

PASTURE PASTURE 3883 3883

Agriculture in UK

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 19 / AGRICULTURE LAND USE

AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 20 / LAND USE RATIO

WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS

While looking at the agriculture and livestock areas covered throughout the UK, it turns out that UK is mostly constituted of arable crops on the east and pasture lands in the west due to its topography.

CATTLE CATTLE 901 901

PIGS PIGS 868 868

SHEEP SHEEP 301 301

CEREAL CEREAL 318 318

RAPESEED RAPESEED 59 59

POTATO POTATO 14.5 14.5

While we looking at the agricultural production we see an obvious adoption of monoculture practices.

*thousand *thousandtons tons

FIG. 19 / AGRICULTURE LAND USE

LEGEND ARABLE LAND PASTURE LAND

20

OTHER OTHER 66.1 66.1


RAPESEED RAPESEEDPOTATO POTATOOTHER OTHER 59 14.5 66.1 59 14.5 66.1

*thousand tons *thousand tons

PASTURE 3883

CROPPABLE 6131

PIGS 868

PASTURE 3883

CATTLE SHEEP PIGS 901 301 868

PIGS SHEEP SHEEP 868 301 301

CROPPABLE 6131

SHEEP CATTLE 301 901

PASTURE 3883

SHEEP FIG.PIGS 21 / LIVESTOCK 868 301 The diagram describes the livestock quantity in the UK.

CROPPABLE 6131

CATTLE CEREAL CEREAL CEREAL RAPESEEDRAPESEED CEREAL POTATO POTATOOTHER RAPESEED POTATO CEREAL RAPESEED POTATO OTHER OTHER 318 59 318 14.5 59 14.5 318 318 318 59 59 14.5 66.1 14.5 66.1 66.1 *thousand*thousand tons *thousand tons tons

PIGS 868

CATTLE SHEEP 901301

CEREAL 318

RAPESEED 59

CEREAL POTATO 31814.5 *thousand tons

PIGS 868

OTHER RAPESEED 66.1 59

0-258

*thousand tons 259-541

PASTURE 3883

SHEEP OTHER RAPESEED 66.1 59 0-1246

*thousand tons

1260-2195

937-1735

2196-3178

PIGS 868

POTATO CEREAL 14.5 318

SHEEP CATTLE 301 901

OTHER RAPESEED 66.1 59

PIGS 868

POTATO CEREAL 14.5 318

OTHER 66.1

1247-1259

542-936

SHEEP CATTLE 301 901

POTATO 14.5

SHEEP 301

OTHER FIG.RAPESEED 22 / AGRICULTURALPOTATO PRODUCTION OTHER 66.1 59 66.1 The diagram describes what14.5 amount of crops are produced

*thousand tons in the UK.

*thousand tons

WHEAT

BARLEY 0-159

1-41

160 - 219

42-64

220 - 335

65-134

336 - 468

135-179

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55+

FIG. 23 / DIET BY AGE The diagram shows the diet trends by different age groups.

LEGEND FLEXITARIAN* VEGETARIAN VEGAN

21

* Meat reduction. Usually flexitarians consume meat twice a week.

CATTLE CATTLE CATTLE PIGS 901 868 901 901

CATTLE 901

thousand tons

PASTURE 3883

FIG. 21 / LIVESTOCK by: Daniel Kiss In thousand heads, 2017.

CEREAL CEREAL 318 318

CROPPABLE 6131

FIG. 22 / AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION by: Daniel Kiss In thousand tonnes, 2017.

CATTLE CATTLE PIGS SHEEP SHEEP PIGS CROPPABLE PASTURE 868 PASTURE CROPPABLE CROPPABLE PASTURECROPPABLE PASTURE 301 901 901 868 301 6131 3883 3883 6131 6131 3883 6131 3883

FIG. 23 / DIET BY AGE by: Yasmina Yehia

CROPPABLE 6131

GRIDDED POLICIES


GRIDDED POLICIES

CASE STUDIES

FIG.24 / LAXTON, NOTTINGHAMSHIRE

12 KM

Laxton where the medieval manor still runs as it used to in the 16th century . But due to changes in consumer needs, the inhabitants of Laxton are outsourcing their food due to lack of variety of production although supply is met through their crops.

SYKES AND GRASS TRACK

12 KM

BUILDINGS OPEN FIELDS MOOR FOREST FARMS ROADS DISTANCE TO PRODUCE

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 24 / LAXTON, NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, CASE STUDY

WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS

12 KM 12 KM

DISTRIBUTION

DIET PER WEEK

12 KM

OUTSOURCING

LAXTON

MEAT

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE

EAST MIDLAND

FIG. 25 / OLDHAM, GREATER MANCHESTER RESTAURANTS

by: Yasmina Yehia

FIG. 25 / OLDHAM, GREATER MANCHESTER, CASE STUDY

300 PEOPLE

VEGETABLES

12 KM

Oldham has followed the Greater Manchester re-branding strategy highly relying on making its cities food sustainable. It functions through online platforms which feed into a network of farms, allotments, restaurants, shops and farmer markets with a goal of minimizing outsourcing and adopting a less meaty diet.

WHOLEFOODS

40 km 42.46%

ALLOTMENTS SHOPS FARMER MARKETS

40 km 42.

FARMS NETWORK OF DISTRIBUTION DISTANCE TO PRODUCE

20 km 18.24%

20 km 18.2

DISTRIBUTION

DIET PER WEEK

40 km 42.46%

OLDHAM 40 km 42.46%

20 km 18.24%

OUTSOURCING

VEGETABLES

MEAT

20 km 18.24% 2.4462% .46% 0 k4m 40 k4m

OLDHAM

OLDHAM

Restaurants Wholefoods 14244,9 HA Allotments Shops Farmer markets 233,800 PEOPLE Farms 15.8 PEOPLE PER HA Network of distribution Distance to produce

Restaurants Wholefoods Allotments Shops Farmer markets Farms Network of distribution Distance to produce

GREATER MANCHESTER

WEST MIDLAND

Restaurants Wholefoods Allotments Restaurants Shops Wholefoods Farmer markets Allotments Farms Shops

22

OLDHAM

8.2148% .24% 0 k1m 20 k2m


GRIDDED POLICIES

CASE STUDIES FIG. 26 / BRITISH MANOR by: Yasmina Yehia

Comparing two case studies: On the one hand, Laxton that accounts for the last manor in which polyculture practices are maintained. In comparison, the ideal food network in Oldham for supplying Greater Manchester.

Crop rotation / polyculture

FIG.26 / BRITISH MANOR

Historically in British medieval manors, polyculture techniques also known as the three course rotation crop system existed. Essentially 2/3 of the land was meant for autumn/spring and fallow crops, 1/5 for common pasture and 1/5 meadows.

Implications on the English Landscape Decisions related to agriculture in the UK have fragmented the English landscape through time, with an almost complete disappearance of manors from the 17th century to the 20th century. This has resulted to larger cities and larger and monoculture and animal farms.

PASTURE

GREATER MANCHESTER MANOR

MANOR

MANOR

WOODLAND

CROPS

FALLOW

MEADOW

WOODLAND

17TH CENTURY

LAXTON MANOR GREATER MANCHESTER

BARLEY (ALL YEAR)

SHEEP

CATTLE

WHEAT (ALL YEAR)

SHEEP

SHEEP

WHEAT (ALL YEAR)

20TH CENTURY

RESTAURANT FARMER SHOP MARKET ALLOTMENTS

POST 2014

FIG. 27 / TEMPORAL SECTION by: Yasmina Yehia & Daniel Kiss

FARMS

FIG. 27 / TEMPORAL SECTION: MANCHESTER - LAXTON

LEGEND Agriculture

Land Use

LIVESTOCK

NATURE

ARABLE LAND

WOODLANDS

ALLOTMENTS

WATER BODIES

Population density MANORS

23

CITIES


GRA

Greater Manchester agricultural land use profile

CIT Y

CO 42% PRIMARY PRODUCTION UN11% PROCESSING CIL 5% PACKAGING 7% RETAIL 7%TRANSPORT & DISTRIBUTION 1% DRIVING TO SHOP 11% HOME REFRIGERATION 10% HOME COOKING 4% CATERING ENERGY USE 2% WASTE DISPOSAL

SOW THE CIT Y

FIG. 27 / THE POTENTIAL OF GREATER MANCHESTER The diagram describes how Greater Manchester re-inventing its food practices.

ESTA - Causes and impacts of GHG related to food consumption and production in Greater Manchester.

DISTRIBUTION

PACKAGING

FEEDING MANCHESTER

MANC HES TER

CIT Y

SOW THE CIT Y

G NNIN PLA L A TI SPA

E PL EO

R TE ES H NC N TIO MA R CIA O E S T AS EA LS GR OI

FEEDING MANCHESTER

S

CO UN CIL

42% PRIMARY PRODUCTION 11% PROCESSING 5% PACKAGING MANC HES 7% RETAIL TER CIT 7%TRANSPORT & DISTRIBUTION YC OU 1% DRIVING TO SHOP NC IL 11% HOME REFRIGERATION 10% HOME COOKING SOW THE 4% CATERING ENERGY USE CIT Y 2% WASTE DISPOSAL ESTA - Causes and impacts of GHG related to food consumption and production in Greater Manchester.

E PL EO

VE GM AN CH ES TE R

P

LABOR

P

R TE ES H NC N TIO MA R CIA O E S T AS EA ILS GR O S

CEREAL GENERAL CROPPPING

ING ANN

PIGD POULTRY DAIRY

L PL TIA A P S

HORTICULTURE

GREATER MANCHESTER AGRICULTURAL LAND USE PROFILE *AREA (HA)

HORTICULTURE

E PL EO

FEEDING MANCHESTER

CEREAL GENERAL CROPPPING

VE FIG. 27 / THE POTENTIAL OF GREAATER MANCHESTER GM AN by: Yasmina Yehia & Daniel Kiss CH ES TE R P

S

MANC HES TER

CEREAL GENERAL CROPPPING

L TIA SPA R E ST HE C N AN TIO RM CIA O E S T AS EA LS GR OI

OTHER

ESTA - Causes and impacts of GHG related to food consumption and production in Greater Manchester

G NNIN PLA

GRAZING LIVESTOCK (LOWLANDS) MIXED

POLICIES OF GREATER MANCHESTER

PIGD POULTRY DAIRY GRAZING LIVESTOCK (LFA)

POLICIES AND PRACTICES

*AREA (HA)

HORTICULTURE

LAND USE PROFILE GRIDDED POLICIES

VE GM AN CH ES TE R

RY CHANGES

GREATER MANCHESTER AGRICULTURAL

WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS

GREATER LAND USE *AREA (H

GREATER MANCHEST LAND USE PROFILE *AREA (HA)

SOIL QUALITY

CROP ROTATION

DIETARY CHANGES

LABOR

DISTRIBUTION

42% 11% 5% 7% 7% 1% 11% 42% PRIMARY 10% 11% PROCESS 4% 5% PACKAGIN 2%

PACKAGING

7% RETAIL 7%TRANSPOR ESTA - C 1% DRIVING TO food con 11% HOME RE Manches 10% HOME CO 4% CATERING 2% WASTE DIS

ESTA - Causes and i food consumption Manchester.

SOIL QUALITY

SOIL QUALITY

CROP ROTATION

CROP ROTATION

24

DIETARY CHANGES

DIETARY CHANGES

LABOR

LABOR

DISTRIBUTION

DISTRIBUTION

PACKAGING

PACKAGING


FIG. 28 / STUDY AREAS OF GREATER MANCHESTER

FIG. 29 / SELECTED AREA BOLTON by: Daniel Kiss

Four strategic patch are located - each of them are 12*12 km within greater Manchester encompassing farms and their neighbouring cities.

FIG. 28 / STUDY AREAS OF GREATER MANCHESTER by: Daniel Kiss

GRIDDED POLICIES

FIG. 29 / SELECTED AREA: BOLTON ALLOTMENTS FARMER MARKETS SUPERMARKETS FARMS HIGH FLOOD RISK LOW FLOOD RISK

25


GRIDDED POLICIES

INTERACTIVE TOOL: GRIDDED POLICIES by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 30 / GRIDS OF STUDY AREAS

FIG. 31 / GRID OF BOLTON

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 31 / GRID OF BOLTON

FIG. 30 / GRIDS OF STUDY AREAS

WORKSHOP: SOCIAL FORMATIONS

The 50x50 grid is created in which each squares has certain data in order to utilize them for the interactive tool.

LEGEND 50*50 240*240 M NETWORKS HIGH FLOOD RISK LOW FLOOD RISK

26

INTERACTIVE TOOL DEVELOPMENT


GRIDDED POLICIES

Using Java-based Processing, the tool has been developed which allows us to understand the different networks relating to the food network in greater Manchester. With the purpose of understanding its social formation through its different policies – we’ve understood that these policies which pass through different agents have an  implication on socio economic and environmental related layers where they generate a certain outcome.

POLICIES LISTINGS RELATED TO A CERTAIN FARM

LABOURING RELATED TO THE FARM

IMPACTS ON DIETARY BY THE FARM

IMPACTS ON DIETARY ACCORDING TO THE POLICY

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

27

FIG. 32 / INTERACTIVE TOOL DEVELOPMENT by: Yasmina Yehia & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 32 / SCREENSHOTS OF THE TOOL


WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

28

EXPERIMENTS ON SPEY RIVER


TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

FIG. 33 / SPEY RIVER Sedimentation process

LEGEND STREAMS SPEY RIVER CHANNEL RIVER WATERSHED

03 LANDSCRIPT:

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS RAFAEL CALDERA & DANIEL KISS

Experiments on Spey River Our project is to understand morphodynamical aspects of a specific braided river using physical tank simulations where we are doing experimentation on river flow manipulation. The 170 km long Spey river is located in North Eat Scotland. Our main project is to study the interrelations of natural sedimentology and human interventions. We are focusing on the estuary of the river because the main issue is related to the sediment deposition which derives from the highly eroded barren lands and accumulating in lowlands, particularly into the estuary.

29

FIG. 33 / SPEY RIVER by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

BARREN UPLANDS


TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 34 / FLUVIAL DYNAMICS ON SPEY RIVER

WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

30

CATALOGUE OF FORMATIONS


TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS 452m

452m TIDAL FORCES 0m 171Km

0Km

171Km

TIDAL FORCES

0m

452m

452m TIDAL FORCES

FIG. 36 / DEPOSITION PROCESSES by: Rafael Caldera

0Km

0m 0Km

171Km

TIDAL FORCES

0m 0Km

171Km

FIG. 36 / DEPOSITION PROCESSES This diagram shows in sections the typical deposition process above, where the sediments are historycally accumulated along the river.

Deposition Process SPEY RIVER SECTION (DIAGRAM)

With regard the flooding deposition below, it shows how the sediments are pushed forward, mainly to the estuary of the river.

Deposition Process SPEY RIVER SECTION (DIAGRAM)

BRAIDED Human intervention

BRAIDED High deposition

CATALOGUE OF FORMATIONS BRAIDED

FIG. 35 / MORPHODYNAMICAL DIAGRAMS The big amount of bed material is causing channel changes and sudden avulsions. There are different types of rivers through its path. On the South, mainly meandering river is flowing, with side depositions. However, closer to the estuary to the North, there are a huge load of unstable depositions shown by yellow.

BRAIDED Side deposition

Our focusing area is the North part of the river where the sediments are deposited due to the flow speed and the type of material.

31

FIG. 33 / MORPHODYNAMICAL DIAGRAMS by: Daniel Kiss

Island formation


WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

FIG. 36 / SPEY RIVER BAY Sedimentation

LEGEND FLOOD PLAIN WOODLAND AREA URBAN SETTLEMENT GRAVEL SEDIMENT

by: Rafael Caldera

FIG. 36 / SPEY RIVER BAY

GRASS SEDIMENT

32

HISTORICAL CONDITIONS


FIG. 37 / AREIAL PHOTO https://www.speymouthangling.com/

HISTORICAL FORMATIONS The Spey Bay Study by Keith J Riddel. Fuller Historically, there is a natural tendency of the river to shift westwards towards Kingston, driven by the migration of the spit and interaction within the ocean. The constant channel migration occurs mainly by the erosion processes.

FIG. 37 / AERIAL PHOTO Since the viaduct was built the river channel has been shifted to the East. This issue raises the question whether how the human interventions affects the river.

1857 VIADUCT SPEY RIVER

1870 FIG. 38 / HISTORICAL FORMATIONS DIAGRAM COASTAL SPIT FORMATION COASTAL SPIT FORMATION

1946

1971

2002

2017

33

FIG. 38 / HISTORICAL FORMATIONS DIAGRAM by: Rafael Caldera

ER VIADUCT

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS


WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

SIMULATIONS: PRINCIPLES

SIMULATION TANK

by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 39 / SINGLE CHANNEL

SIMULATIONS: THE PRINCIPLES FIG. 39 / SINGLE CHANNEL 0° water Erosion vs Deposition Process

SIMULATION ONE

SIMULATION TWO

SIMULATION TWO

100 sec

400 sec

600 sec

3 |ANALYSIS

ISLAND

3 |ANALYSIS

3 |ANALYSIS

ISLAND

ISLAND

3 |ANALYSIS

ISLAND

SIMULATION ONE WATER SOURCE

SIMULATION SIMULATION TWO ONE WATERWATER SOURCE SOURCE

SIMULATION THR SIMULA WATER SOURCE WATER

3 |ANALYSIS

by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 40/ MEANDERING CHANNEL

SIMULATION ONE WATER SOURCE

ISLAND

SIMULATION THREE SIMULATION ONE SIMULATION TWO SIMULATION SIMULATION ONE TWO WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE WATERWATER SOURCE SOURCE WATER SOURCE

SIMULATIONTWO THREE SIMULATION WATER WATER SOURCE SOURCE

SIMULATION THREE WATER SOURCE

FIG. 40 / MEANDERING CHANNEL 45° water Erosion vs Deposition Process

SIMULATION ONE

SIMULATION TWO

SIMULATION TWO

100 sec

400 sec

600 sec

2 |ANALYSIS

MEANDERING

2 |ANALYSIS 2 |ANALYSIS MEANDERING

2 |ANALYSIS

MEANDERING

MEANDERING

SIMULATION ONE WATER SOURCE

SIMULATION TWO WATER SOURCE

MEANDERING

SIMULATION THREE WATER SOURCE

2 |ANALYSIS

2 |ANALYSIS

MEANDERING

2 |ANALYSIS

MEANDERING

by: Rafael Caldera

MEANDERING

FIG. 41/ SEQUENTIAL PROCESS ANALYSIS

2 |ANALYSIS 2 MEANDERING |ANALYSIS

2 |ANALYSIS

2 |ANALYSIS

MEANDERING

MEANDERING

SIMULATION ONE WATER SOURCE

SIMULATION ONE SIMULATION ONESIMULATION ONE WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE

34

SIMULATION TWO SIMULATION TWOSIMULATION TWO WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE

SIMULATION SIMULATIONONE TWO WATER WATERSOURCE SOURCE

SIMULATIONTHREE THREE SIMULATION SIMULATION THREE WATERSOURCE SOURCE WATER WATER SOURCE

SIMULATION SIMULATION TWO THREE WATER SOURCE WATER SOURCE


LINE 4

FIG. 42 / SINGLE CHANNEL FORMATION

LINE 3

0° water Erosion vs Deposition Process

LINE 2 LINE 1

LINE 1

FIG. 42 / SINGLE CHANNEL FORMATION by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

3.08X

2.11X

LINE 2

X

LINE 3

LINE 4 1.75X

LINE 1

2.25X

LINE 2

2.83X

LINE 3

rmation

FIG. 43/ MEANDERING CHANNEL FORMATION by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

0° | 600s TION PROCESS LINE 4

eandering Process Meandering Process

A6 A5 A4 A3 A2

A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1

A1

FIG. 44/ BANK AMPLITUDE PROCESS by: Rafael Caldera

A6 2.5x A5 2.1x A4 1.7x A3 1.5x A2 1.3x A1x

A6 2.5x A5 2.1x A4 1.7x A3 1.5x A2 1.3x A1x

MEANDER BELT AXIS

FIG. 44 / BANK AMPLITUDE PROCESS

45° water Erosion vs Deposition Process

MEANDER BELT AXIS

FIG. 43 / MEANDERING CHANNEL FORMATION

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

x 2x 3x 4x 5x 6.1x

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

x 2x 3x 4x 5x 6.1x

A5 A6

A4 A2A3 A1A5 A6

A4 A2A3 A1


TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

SIMULATIONS: IN-SITU

FIG. 45 / PATCH OF THE SITE

by: Rafael Caldera

FIG. 45/ PATCH OF THE SITE

WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

SIMULATION: IN-SITU Re-creation of the site In order to get more genuine results we literally reproduced the site conditions.

by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 46/ CATALOGUE OF IN-SITU SIMULATION

We have used multichannel water source. Â As for the accuracy we have used a tool which allows us to let three different channels flow in parallel, and interact them in a braided way.

FIG. 46 / CATALOGUE OF IN-SITU SIMULATION ONE

36

1 | 100 SECONDS

2 |600 SECONDS

3 | 1100 SECONDS

4 | 1600 SECONDS

5 | 2100 SECONDS

6 | 2600 SECONDS


TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

FIG. 47/ SIMULATION SETUP by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 49 / SIMULATION SETUP

A5

A2A3

A3A2A1

A6A5

A4

A6

A6 A5

A4

A1

A2A3

A4A5 A6

FIG. 48 / IN-SITU SIMULATION ONE

A6

1 |ANALYSIS

ON PROCESS

A6 A5

A4

A1

A2A3

A4A5 A6

A6 A5 A6 A6 A5 A5

A4 A4 A4

A1 A1 A1

A2A3 A2A3 A2A3

A4A5 A6 A4 A4A5 A5 A6 A6

A6 A6 A6

A5

A1 A4

A2A3

A3A2A1

A6A5

A4

A5 A5 A5

A1 A4 A1 A4 A1 A4

A2A3 A2A3 A2A3

A3A2A1 A3A2A1 A3A2A1

A6A5 A6A5 A6A5

A4 A4 A4

A4A1A5A2A6 A3

A4A1A2A5A3A6 A1A3 A4 A2A6

In-Situ Analysis EROSION vs DEPOSITION PROCESS In-Situ Analysis In-Situ In-Situ Analysis Analysis

EROSION vs DEPOSITION PROCESS EROSION EROSION vs vs DEPOSITION DEPOSITION PROCESS PROCESS

WO

HREE

2 |ANALYSIS

A4A1A5A2A6 A3

A4A1A2A5A3A6

A4A1A5A2A6 A4A1A5A2A6 A3 A4A1A5A2A6 A3 A3

A4A3 A1A2A5A3A6 A1 A4A6 A1A2A5 A6 A5A3 A4 A2 A4A1A2A5 A3A6

SIMULATION ONE

Single Water Source SIMULATION ONE 2600 seconds SIMULATION ONE SIMULATION Single Water Source ONE No obstacles Single Water Source Single seconds Water Source 2600 2600 seconds 2600 seconds No obstacles No No obstacles obstacles

A1A3 A1A3 A4 A2 A6 A1A6 A3 A4 A2 A4 A2A6

A1A2

A5

1 |ANALYSIS 1 |ANALYSIS 1 |ANALYSIS 1 |ANALYSIS

A4 A3

A4 A3 A1A2 A4 A4 A3 A4 A3 A1A2 A3 A1A2 A1A2

FIG. 48 / IN-SITU SIMULATION ONE by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

Single water source 2600 second No obstacles

ysis

ONE

A1 A4

A5 A5 A5

2 |ANALYSIS 2 |ANALYSIS 2 |ANALYSIS 2 |ANALYSIS

A5 A5

3 |ANALYSIS

SIMULATION TWO

Triple Water Source SIMULATION TWO No Obstacles SIMULATION TWO SIMULATION Triple Water Source TWO Triple Water Source Triple Water Source No Obstacles No No Obstacles Obstacles

3 |ANALYSIS

A6A4 A3A1A2A5

3 |ANALYSIS 3 |ANALYSIS 3 |ANALYSIS

A6A4 A6A2 A4A5 A3A1 A6A2 A4A5 A3A1 A3A1A2A5

4 |ANALYSIS 4 |ANALYSIS 4 |ANALYSIS 4 |ANALYSIS

A4 A5 A1 A6 A2 A4 A4 A5 A1 A4 A1 A5 A6 A2 A5 A2 A1 A6 A6 A2

4 |ANALYSIS

SIMULATION THREE

Triple Water Source SIMULATION THREE With Obstacles SIMULATION THREE SIMULATION Triple Water Source THREE Triple Water Source TripleObstacles Water Source With With With Obstacles Obstacles

10

20

10

20

30

10 10 10

20 20 20

30 30 30

30

40

40

A2 A1A5A3 A6A4

60

50

A2 A1A5A3 A6A4 40 40 A2 A1A5A3 40 A2 A1 A5 A3 A6 A4 A2 A1A6 A5A4 A3 A6A4

60 60 60

50 50 50

50

60

70

70

80

90

100

70 70 70

80 80 80

90 90 90

100 100 100

80

90

100

37

A3 A3 A3 A3

A5 A5 A5

A6 A2 A1A4 A3

A6 A2 A1A4 A3

A6A4 A4 A6 A2 A3A1 A2A1 A5 A6 A3 A2 A1A4

A6 A1 A4 A2 A5 A6 A1 A6 A2 A1 A4 A6 A5 A1 A2 A4 A4 A5 A2 A5

A6 A2 A1A4 A3 A3

A3 A3 A3 A3

A4 A5 A1 A6 A2 A3

A4A1 A5A2 A6A3 A4A1 A1 A4 A5A2 A4A1 A5A2 A6A3 A5A2 A6A3 A6A3

A4A1 A5A2 A6A3

A6 A1 A3 A4 A2 A5 A3A2 A1 A6A5A4 A3A2 A1 A3 A2 A1 A6A5A4 A3A2 A1 A6A5A4 A6A5A4

A3A2 A1 A6A5A4


WORKSHOP: LANDSCRIPT

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

SIMULATIONS: IN-SITU

by: Daniel Kiss

FIG. 49/ SIMULATION SETUP

FIG. 49 / SIMULATION SETUP

A3 A4 A2 A5 A1 A6 A3 A2 A1 A3 A2 A1 A3 A2 A1

A4 A5 A6 A4 A5 A6 A4 A5 A6

Triple water source 5 min 10 sec No obstacles by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 50/ IN-SITU SIMULATION TWO

FIG. 50 / IN-SITU SIMULATION TWO

A3 A1 A6 A2 A2A4

A5 A5

A6A5 1 |ANALYSIS

A1 A6 A5

A6 A3A1A2A4

A5

A3 A4 A2 A5 A1 A6

In-Situ Analysis A5

A6 A3A1A2A4

A1 A6 A5

A5

A6 A3A1A2A4

A1 A6 A5

A5

A6 A3A1A2A4

A1 A6 A5

EROSION vs DEPOSITION PROCESS A6 A5 A1 A3 A6 A2 A6 SIMULATION ONE A3 A5 A4 A2 A4

Single Water A3 Source A5 A2 A4A6 A1 A3 A6 seconds 2600 A5 A2 A4 No obstacles A3 A5

2 |ANALYSIS

2 |ANALYSIS

A6 A5

A1 A3A2 A4A6 A2 A4

A6 A5

A3 A5 A1 A3A2 A4A6 A2 A4

2 |ANALYSIS

A5 A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6 A3 A2 A6 A4 A5 A3 A5 A1 A3 A2 A6 A2 A4 A4A6

2 |ANALYSIS

A5 A1 A3 A5 A4A6 A2 A3 A2 A6 A4 A5 A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6

A3 A5 A2 A4A6

2 |ANALYSIS

3 |ANALYSIS

3 |ANALYSIS

A1 A3 A5 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6 A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6 A2 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6 A2 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A4A6

3 |ANALYSIS

SIMULATION TWO A1 A3 A5

3 |ANALYSIS

Triple Water Source No Obstacles

3 |ANALYSIS

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4A6

A5 A1A4 A1 A3 A5 A2 A2 A4A6 A1 A3 A2 A4 A5 A1 A3 A2 A4 A5

A5 A1A4 A1 A3 A5 A2 A2A6 A4A6 A6 A1A3

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4 A6 A6

A1 A3 A2 A4 A5

A5A3 A1A4 A1A6 A3 A5 A6 A1 A2 A2 A4A6

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4 A6 A6

A6 A1A3

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4 A6 A6

A1 A3 A2 A4 A5 70 A3 A4 A2 A5 A1 A6

80

90

100

70 A3 A2 A1 70 A3 A2 A1 70 A3 A2 A1

80

90

100

80

90

100

A4 A5 A6 A4 A5 A6 A4 A5 A6

80

90

100

A1 A3 A5 A2 A4 A6 A6

A5A3 A1A4 A1A6 A3 A5 A6 A1 A2 A2 A4A6

A6

4 |ANALYSIS

A1 A3 A2 A4 A5

SIMULATION A2 A6 A5 THREE A6A2 A5 A3A4 A5

A3A6

A3A6 A4

A5

A3A6 A4 A6 A5 A3A6 A4

A6A2 A5 A3A6 A4 A6A2 A5 A3A6 A4

A6 A5 A3A6 A4

A6A2 A5 A3A6 A4

A4 Triple Water Source With Obstacles A2 A6 A5 A3A4 A3A4 A5

A2

A3A4 A5

A2

10

38

20

30

A4 A5 A2A1A6A5 A3 A3 A4

40

A6 A5 A4 A3 A1 A2

50

60

70 A3 A4 A2 A5 A1 A6

80

90

100

A3A4 A5

A A


ACUPUNCTURE SYSTEM

FIG. 53 / POST-PROCESS OF FORMATIONS by: Daniel Kiss

TERRITORIAL MANIPULATIONS

As a territorial manipulation

FIG. 51 / SEQUENTIAL PROCESS ANALYSIS Erosion vs Deposition process

0° OBSTACLE

45° OBSTACLE

180° OBSTACLE

Simulation x 5 / 250 sec

Simulation x 5 / 250 sec

Simulation x 5 / 250 sec

FIG. 52 / SIMULATION: ACUPUNCTURE SYSTEM by: Rafael Caldera & Daniel Kiss

FIG. 52 / SIMULATION: ACUPUNCTURE SYSTEM

FIG. 51 / SEQUENTIAL PROCESS ANALYSIS by: Rafael Caldera

Finally, our project is to physically manipulate these formations by controlling the channel evolution. Setting obstacle acupuncture system leads us to territorial manipulation which is capable of ordering and organizing naturally the channel evolution.

Triple water source 45 min. 10 sec With obstacles

39


40


REFERENCES

MANUFACTURED GROUNDS: AQUACULTURE PLATFORMS www.openblue.com www.innovasea.com Innovasea, Leading the deep blue revolution Scott D. C. B., Muir, J. F., 2000, Offshore cage systems: A practical overview. Irish, J. D., Paul, W. Ostrom, W. M., Chambers, M., Fredriksson, D. W., Stommel, M., 2000, Deployment of the Northern Fish Cage and Mooring, University of New Hampshire, Open Ocean Aquaculture Program Fullerton, Brett, 2004, Design and analysis of an automated free-buoy for submerged cages. Fredriksson, D. W., 2004, The design and analysis of a four-cage grid mooring for open ocean aquaculture.

SOCIAL FORMATIONS: GRIDDED POLICIES https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/ agriculture-in-the-united-kingdom https://www.globalmeatnews.com/Article/2018/03/02/ Industry-welcomes-Commission-s-plans-for-EUprotein-strategy https://ec.europa.eu/eip/agriculture/sites/agri-eip/files/ fg2_protein_crops_final_report_2014_en.pdf https://www.theparliamentmagazine.eu/articles/ opinion/could-protein-crops-save-eu-agriculture Clapp, J., 2016, Food self-sufficiency: Making sense of it, and when it makes sense Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs, 2016, British food and farmint at a glance Fallows, S. J., Wheelock J. V., 1982, Improved Efficiency, A policy for food self-sufficiency in the United Kingdom

SOCIAL FORMATIONS: GRIDDED POLICIES

Czajka, A., Nรกdudvari, ร., 2016, Antropogenic influences on the morphodynamics of the upper Odra channel Redolfi, M., 2014, Sediment transport and morphology of braided rivers: steady an d unsteady regime Riddel, K. J., Fuller, T. W., 1994, The Spey Bay Geomorhppological Study Willis, B. J., 2005, Tide-influenced River Delta Deposits

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Profile for Daniel Kiss

Territorial Formations / Booklet Term 1/ 2018 / Landscape Urbanism / AA school  

The booklet of the projects done in term one at the Landscape Urbanism March course in Architectural Association School of Architecture in...

Territorial Formations / Booklet Term 1/ 2018 / Landscape Urbanism / AA school  

The booklet of the projects done in term one at the Landscape Urbanism March course in Architectural Association School of Architecture in...

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